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Sample records for predict icu admission

  1. qSOFA, SIRS and NEWS for predicting inhospital mortality and ICU admission in emergency admissions treated as sepsis.

    PubMed

    Goulden, Robert; Hoyle, Marie-Claire; Monis, Jessie; Railton, Darran; Riley, Victoria; Martin, Paul; Martina, Reynaldo; Nsutebu, Emmanuel

    2018-02-21

    The third international consensus definition for sepsis recommended use of a new prognostic tool, the quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA), based on its ability to predict inhospital mortality and prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay in patients with suspected infection. While several studies have compared the prognostic accuracy of qSOFA to the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) criteria in suspected sepsis, few have compared qSOFA and SIRS to the widely used National Early Warning Score (NEWS). This was a retrospective cohort study carried out in a UK tertiary centre. The study population comprised emergency admissions in whom sepsis was suspected and treated. The accuracy for predicting inhospital mortality and ICU admission was calculated and compared for qSOFA, SIRS and NEWS. Among 1818 patients, 53 were admitted to ICU (3%) and 265 died in hospital (15%). For predicting inhospital mortality, the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for NEWS (0.65, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.68) was similar to qSOFA (0.62, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.66) (test for difference, P=0.18) and superior to SIRS (P<0.001), which was not predictive. The sensitivity of NEWS≥5 (74%, 95% CI 68% to 79%) was similar to SIRS≥2 (80%, 95% CI 74% to 84%) and higher than qSOFA≥2 (37%, 95% CI 31% to 43%). The specificity of NEWS≥5 (43%, 95% CI 41% to 46%) was higher than SIRS≥2 (21%, 95% CI 19% to 23%) and lower than qSOFA≥2 (79%, 95% CI 77% to 81%). The negative predictive value was 88% (86%-90%) for qSOFA, 86% (82%-89%) for SIRS and 91% (88%-93%) for NEWS. Results were similar for the secondary outcome of ICU admission. NEWS has equivalent or superior value for most test characteristics relative to SIRS and qSOFA, calling into question the rationale of adopting qSOFA in institutions where NEWS is already in use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No

  2. A comparison of pre ICU admission SIRS, EWS and q SOFA scores for predicting mortality and length of stay in ICU.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Shahla; Chua, Maureen; Kumaresh, Venkatesan; Choo, Robin

    2017-10-01

    The 2015 sepsis definitions suggest using the quick SOFA score for risk stratification of sepsis patients among other changes in sepsis definition. Our aim was to validate the q sofa score for diagnosing sepsis and comparing it to traditional scores of pre ICU admission sepsis outcome prediction such as EWS and SIRS in our setting in order to predict mortality and length of stay. This was a retrospective cohort study. We retrospectively calculated the q sofa, SIRS and EWS scores of all ICU patients admitted with the diagnosis of sepsis at our center in 2015. This was analysed using STATA 12. Logistic regression and ROC curves were used for analysis in addition to descriptive analysis. 58 patients were included in the study. Based on our one year results we have shown that although q SOFA is more sensitive in predicting LOS in ICU of sepsis patients, the EWS score is more sensitive and specific in predicting mortality in the ICU of such patients when compared to q SOFA and SIRS scores. In conclusion, we find that in our setting, EWS is better than SIRS and q SOFA for predicting mortality and perhaps length of stay as well. The q Sofa score remains validated for diagnosis of sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) predicts acute kidney injury in septic shock at ICU admission].

    PubMed

    Camou, F; Oger, S; Paroissin, C; Guilhon, E; Guisset, O; Mourissoux, G; Pouyes, H; Lalanne, T; Gabinski, C

    2013-03-01

    To validate plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (pNGAL) as an early biomarker in intensive care unit (ICU) for acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill adult with septic shock. Fifty consecutive patients with septic shock were included in this observational cohort study. AKI was defined if patients met any RIFLE or AKIN criteria. The main objective was to evaluate diagnosis value of pNGAL measured with a point-of-care device at admission (D0), at 24hours (D1) and at 48hours (D2). Among the 50 patients enrolled, 86% had AKI, 48% had persistent renal AKI and 30% required renal replacement therapy (RRT) during their ICU stay. At D0, pNGAL concentration was significantly higher in patients with AKI compared to patients without AKI (471ng/mL versus 134ng/mL, P<0.001). This level remained significantly higher in the AKI population at D1 and D2 and pNGAL concentration at D0 among AKI patients increased with kidney failure level. At D1, pNGAL was significantly higher for persistent renal AKI rather than transient prerenal (570ng/mL versus 337ng/mL, P=0.027). pNGAL concentration below 348ng/mL at D1 was never seen in patients with RRT. Plasma NGAL is a useful, sensitive and early biomarker to predict persistent AKI in septic shock at ICU admission and help to discuss RRT. Copyright © 2012 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation or infection in intensive care units and their reliability for predicting MRSA on ICU admission.

    PubMed

    Callejo-Torre, Fernando; Eiros Bouza, Jose Maria; Olaechea Astigarraga, Pedro; Coma Del Corral, Maria Jesus; Palomar Martínez, Mercedes; Alvarez-Lerma, Francisco; López-Pueyo, Maria Jesús

    2016-09-01

    Predicting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in intensive care units (ICUs) avoids inappropriate antimicrobial empirical treatment and enhances infection control. We describe risk factors for colonisation/infection related to MRSA (MRSA-C/I) in critically ill patients once in the ICU and on ICU admission, and search for an easy-to-use predictive model for MRSA colonisation/infection on ICU admission. This multicentre cohort study included 69,894 patients admitted consecutively (stay>24h) in April-June in the five-year period 2006-2010 from 147 Spanish ICUs participating in the National Surveillance Study of Nosocomial Infections in ICUs (ENVIN-HELICS). Data from all patients included were used to identify risk factors for MRSA-C/I during ICU stays, from admission to discharge, using uni- and multivariable analysis (Poisson regression) to check that the sample to be used to develop the predictive models was representative of standard critical care population. To identify risk factors for MRSA-C/I on ICU admission and to develop prediction models, multivariable logistic regression analysis were then performed only on those admitted in 2010 (n=16950, 2/3 for analysis and 1/3 for subsequent validation). We found that, in the period 2006-2010, 1046 patients were MRSA-C/I. Independent risk factors for MRSA-C/I in ICU were: age>65, trauma or medical patient, high APACHE-II score, admitted from a long-term care facility, urinary catheter, previous antibiotic treatment and skin-soft tissue or post-surgical superficial skin infections. Colonisation with several different MDRs significantly increased the risk of MRSA-C/I. Risk factors on ICU admission were: male gender, trauma critical patient, urgent surgery, admitted from other ICUs, hospital ward or long-term facility, immunosuppression and skin-soft tissue infection. Although the best model to identify carriers of MRSA had a good discrimination (AUC-ROC, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.72-0.82), sensitivity was 67% and

  5. To develop a regional ICU mortality prediction model during the first 24 h of ICU admission utilizing MODS and NEMS with six other independent variables from the Critical Care Information System (CCIS) Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kao, Raymond; Priestap, Fran; Donner, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) scoring systems or prediction models evolved to meet the desire of clinical and administrative leaders to assess the quality of care provided by their ICUs. The Critical Care Information System (CCIS) is province-wide data information for all Ontario, Canada level 3 and level 2 ICUs collected for this purpose. With the dataset, we developed a multivariable logistic regression ICU mortality prediction model during the first 24 h of ICU admission utilizing the explanatory variables including the two validated scores, Multiple Organs Dysfunctional Score (MODS) and Nine Equivalents Nursing Manpower Use Score (NEMS) followed by the variables age, sex, readmission to the ICU during the same hospital stay, admission diagnosis, source of admission, and the modified Charlson Co-morbidity Index (CCI) collected through the hospital health records. This study is a single-center retrospective cohort review of 8822 records from the Critical Care Trauma Centre (CCTC) and Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit (MSICU) of London Health Sciences Centre (LHSC), Ontario, Canada between 1 Jan 2009 to 30 Nov 2012. Multivariable logistic regression on training dataset (n = 4321) was used to develop the model and validate by bootstrapping method on the testing dataset (n = 4501). Discrimination, calibration, and overall model performance were also assessed. The predictors significantly associated with ICU mortality included: age (p < 0.001), source of admission (p < 0.0001), ICU admitting diagnosis (p < 0.0001), MODS (p < 0.0001), and NEMS (p < 0.0001). The variables sex and modified CCI were not significantly associated with ICU mortality. The training dataset for the developed model has good discriminating ability between patients with high risk and those with low risk of mortality (c-statistic 0.787). The Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test has a strong correlation between the observed and expected ICU mortality (χ (2) = 5

  6. Measurement of Dead Space Fraction Upon ICU Admission Predicts Length of Stay and Clinical Outcomes Following Bidirectional Cavopulmonary Anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Cigarroa, Claire L; van den Bosch, Sarah J; Tang, Xiaoqi; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Baird, Christopher W; DiNardo, James A; Kheir, John Nagi

    2018-01-01

    Increased alveolar dead space fraction has been associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and increased mortality in pediatric patients with respiratory failure. The association of alveolar dead space fraction with clinical outcomes in patients undergoing bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis for single ventricle congenital heart disease has not been reported. We describe an association of alveolar dead space fraction with postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis. In a retrospective case-control study, we examined for associations between alveolar dead space fraction ([PaCO2 - end-tidal CO2]/PaCO2), arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation, and transpulmonary gradient upon postoperative ICU admission with a composite primary outcome (requirement for surgical or catheter-based intervention, death, or transplant prior to hospital discharge, defining cases) and several secondary endpoints in infants following bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis. Cardiac ICU in a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Patients undergoing bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis at our institution between 2011 and 2016. None. Of 191 patients undergoing bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis, 28 patients were cases and 163 were controls. Alveolar dead space fraction was significantly higher in the case (0.26 ± 0.09) versus control group (0.17 ± 0.09; p < 0.001); alveolar dead space fraction at admission was less than 0.12 in 0% of cases and was greater than 0.28 in 35% of cases. Admission arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation was significantly lower in the case (77% ± 12%) versus control group (83% ± 9%; p < 0.05). Sensitivity and specificity for future case versus control assignment was best when prebidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis risk factors, admission alveolar dead space fraction (AUC, 0.74), and arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (AUC, 0.65) were combined in a summarial model (AUC, 0.83). For a given arterial oxyhemoglobin

  7. Quality of life before surgical ICU admission.

    PubMed

    Abelha, Fernando J; Santos, Cristina C; Barros, Henrique

    2007-11-12

    Examining the quality of life (QOL) of patients before ICU admission will allow outcome variables to be compared and analyzed in relation to it. The objective of this study was to analyze QOL of patients before admission to a surgical ICU and to study its relationship to outcome and to the baseline characteristics of the patients. All adult patients consecutively admitted to the surgical ICU between November 2004 and April 2005, who underwent non-cardiac surgery, were enrolled in this observational and prospective study. The following patient characteristics were recorded: age, gender, body mass index, ASA physical status, type and magnitude of surgical procedure, length of stay (LOS), in ICU and in hospital, mortality, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS), history of co-morbidities and quality of life survey score (QOLSS). The relationships between QOLSS and ICU variables and outcome were evaluated. The relationship between the total QOLSS and each variable or outcome was assessed by multiple linear regression. One hundred eighty seven patients completed the study. The preadmission QOLSS of the patients studied was 4.43 +/- 4.90; 28% of patients had a normal quality of life (0 points), 38% had between 1 and 5 points (considered mild deterioration), 21% had between 6 and 10 points (moderate deterioration), 10% had between 11 and 15 points (considered major deterioration) and 3% had more than 15 points (severe limitation of quality of life). A worse preadmission QOLSS was associated with higher SAPS II scores, with older patients (age> 65 years) and with ASA physical status (ASA III/IV). Total QOLSS was significantly worse in elderly patients and in patients with co-morbidities and in patients more severely ill at ICU admission. Patients who died in the ICU and in hospital had worse QOLSS scores compared to those who survived. However, no statistical differences in QOLSS were found in relation to longer ICU stays (ICU LOS). Preadmission QOL correlates with

  8. Quality of life before surgical ICU admission

    PubMed Central

    Abelha, Fernando J; Santos, Cristina C; Barros, Henrique

    2007-01-01

    Background: Examining the quality of life (QOL) of patients before ICU admission will allow outcome variables to be compared and analyzed in relation to it. The objective of this study was to analyze QOL of patients before admission to a surgical ICU and to study its relationship to outcome and to the baseline characteristics of the patients. Methods: All adult patients consecutively admitted to the surgical ICU between November 2004 and April 2005, who underwent non-cardiac surgery, were enrolled in this observational and prospective study. The following patient characteristics were recorded: age, gender, body mass index, ASA physical status, type and magnitude of surgical procedure, length of stay (LOS), in ICU and in hospital, mortality, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS), history of co-morbidities and quality of life survey score (QOLSS). The relationships between QOLSS and ICU variables and outcome were evaluated. The relationship between the total QOLSS and each variable or outcome was assessed by multiple linear regression. Results: One hundred eighty seven patients completed the study. The preadmission QOLSS of the patients studied was 4.43 ± 4.90; 28% of patients had a normal quality of life (0 points), 38% had between 1 and 5 points (considered mild deterioration), 21% had between 6 and 10 points (moderate deterioration), 10% had between 11 and 15 points (considered major deterioration) and 3% had more than 15 points (severe limitation of quality of life). A worse preadmission QOLSS was associated with higher SAPS II scores, with older patients (age> 65 years) and with ASA physical status (ASA III/IV). Total QOLSS was significantly worse in elderly patients and in patients with co-morbidities and in patients more severely ill at ICU admission. Patients who died in the ICU and in hospital had worse QOLSS scores compared to those who survived. However, no statistical differences in QOLSS were found in relation to longer ICU stays (ICU LOS

  9. Association Between ICU Admission During Morning Rounds and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Gajic, Ognjen; Morales, Ian J.; Keegan, Mark T.; Peters, Steve G.; Hubmayr, Rolf D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: No previous study has evaluated the association between admission to ICUs during round time and patient outcome. The objective of this study was to determine the association between round-time ICU admission and patient outcome. Methods: This retrospective study included 49,844 patients admitted from October 1994 to December 2007 to four ICUs (two surgical, one medical, and one multispecialty) of an academic medical center. Of these patients, 3,580 were admitted to the ICU during round time (8:00 am to 10:59 am) and 46,264 were admitted during nonround time (from 1:00 pm to 6:00 am). The medical ICU had 24-h/7-day per week intensivist coverage during the last 2 years of the study. We compared the baseline characteristics and outcome of patients admitted to the ICU between the two groups. Data were abstracted from the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III database. Results: The round-time and non-round-groups were similar in gender, ethnicity, and age. The predicted hospital mortality rate of the round time group was higher (17.4% vs 12.3% predicted, respectively; p < 0.001). The hospital length of stay was similar between the two groups. The round-time group had a higher hospital mortality rate (16.2% vs 8.8%, respectively; p < 0.001). Most of the round-time ICU admissions and deaths occurred in the medical ICU. Round-time admission was an independent risk factor for hospital death (odds ratio, 1.321; 95% CI, 1.178 to 1.481). This independent association was present for the whole study period except for the last 2 years. Conclusions: Patients admitted to the ICU during morning rounds have higher severity of illness and mortality rates. PMID:19505985

  10. Exploring unplanned ICU admissions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vlayen, Annemie; Verelst, Sandra; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Schrooten, Ward; Hellings, Johan; Claes, Nerée

    2011-01-01

    Adverse events are unintended patient injuries or complications that arise from healthcare management resulting in death, disability or prolonged hospital stay. Adverse events that require critical care are a considerable financial burden to the healthcare system. Medical record review seems to be a reliable method for detecting adverse events. To synthesize the best available evidence regarding the estimates of the incidence and preventability of adverse events that necessitate intensive care admission; to determine the type and consequences (patient harm, mortality, length of ICU stay and direct medical costs) of these adverse events. MEDLINE (from 1966 to present), EMBASE (from 1974 to present) and CENTRAL (version 1-2010) were searched for studies reporting on unplanned admissions to intensive care units (ICUs). Databases of reports, conference proceedings, grey literature, ongoing research, relevant patient safety organizations and two journals were searched for additional studies. Reference lists of retrieved papers were searched and authors were contacted in an attempt to find any further published or unpublished work. Only quantitative studies that used chart review for the detection of adverse events requiring intensive care admission were considered for eligibility. Studies that were published in the English, Dutch, German, French or Spanish language were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. 28 studies in the English language and one study in French were included. Of these, two were considered duplicate publications and therefore 27 studies were reviewed. Meta-analysis of the data was not appropriate due to statistical heterogeneity between studies; therefore, results are presented in a descriptive way. Studies were categorized according to the population and the providers of care. 1) The majority of the included studies investigated unplanned intensive care admissions after

  11. A Nationwide Census of ICU Capacity and Admissions in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Mendsaikhan, Naranpurev; Begzjav, Tsolmon; Lundeg, Ganbold; Brunauer, Andreas; Dünser, Martin W

    2016-01-01

    In Mongolia, a Central Asian lower-middle income country, intensive care medicine is an under-resourced and-developed medical specialty. The burden of critical illness and capacity of intensive care unit (ICU) services in the country is unknown. In this nationwide census, we collected data on adult and pediatric/neonatal ICU capacities and the number of ICU admissions in 2014. All hospitals registered to run an ICU service in Mongolia were surveyed. Data on the availability of an adult and/or pediatric/neonatal ICU service, the number of available ICU beds, the number of available functional mechanical ventilators, the number of patients admitted to the ICU, and the number of patients admitted to the study hospital were collected. In total, 70 ICUs with 349 ICU beds were counted in Mongolia (11.7 ICU beds/100,000 inhabitants; 1.7 ICU beds/100 hospital beds). Of these, 241 (69%) were adult and 108 (31%) pediatric/neonatal ICU beds. Functional mechanical ventilators were available for approximately half of the ICU beds (5.1 mechanical ventilators/100,000 inhabitants). While all provincial hospitals ran a pediatric/neonatal ICU, only dedicated pediatric hospitals in Ulaanbaatar did so. The number of adult and pediatric/neonatal ICU admissions varied between provinces. The number of adult ICU beds and adult ICU admissions per 100,000 inhabitants correlated (r = 0.5; p = 0.02), while the number of pediatric/neonatal ICU beds and pediatric/neonatal ICU admissions per 100,000 inhabitants did not (r = 0.25; p = 0.26). In conclusion, with 11.7 ICU beds per 100,000 inhabitants the ICU capacity in Mongolia is higher than in other low- and lower-middle-income countries. Substantial heterogeneities in the standardized ICU capacity and ICU admissions exist between Mongolian provinces. Functional mechanical ventilators are available for only half of the ICU beds. Pediatric/neonatal ICU beds make up one third of the national ICU capacity and appear to meet or even exceed the

  12. A Nationwide Census of ICU Capacity and Admissions in Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Mendsaikhan, Naranpurev; Begzjav, Tsolmon; Lundeg, Ganbold; Brunauer, Andreas; Dünser, Martin W.

    2016-01-01

    In Mongolia, a Central Asian lower-middle income country, intensive care medicine is an under-resourced and–developed medical specialty. The burden of critical illness and capacity of intensive care unit (ICU) services in the country is unknown. In this nationwide census, we collected data on adult and pediatric/neonatal ICU capacities and the number of ICU admissions in 2014. All hospitals registered to run an ICU service in Mongolia were surveyed. Data on the availability of an adult and/or pediatric/neonatal ICU service, the number of available ICU beds, the number of available functional mechanical ventilators, the number of patients admitted to the ICU, and the number of patients admitted to the study hospital were collected. In total, 70 ICUs with 349 ICU beds were counted in Mongolia (11.7 ICU beds/100,000 inhabitants; 1.7 ICU beds/100 hospital beds). Of these, 241 (69%) were adult and 108 (31%) pediatric/neonatal ICU beds. Functional mechanical ventilators were available for approximately half of the ICU beds (5.1 mechanical ventilators/100,000 inhabitants). While all provincial hospitals ran a pediatric/neonatal ICU, only dedicated pediatric hospitals in Ulaanbaatar did so. The number of adult and pediatric/neonatal ICU admissions varied between provinces. The number of adult ICU beds and adult ICU admissions per 100,000 inhabitants correlated (r = 0.5; p = 0.02), while the number of pediatric/neonatal ICU beds and pediatric/neonatal ICU admissions per 100,000 inhabitants did not (r = 0.25; p = 0.26). In conclusion, with 11.7 ICU beds per 100,000 inhabitants the ICU capacity in Mongolia is higher than in other low- and lower-middle-income countries. Substantial heterogeneities in the standardized ICU capacity and ICU admissions exist between Mongolian provinces. Functional mechanical ventilators are available for only half of the ICU beds. Pediatric/neonatal ICU beds make up one third of the national ICU capacity and appear to meet or even exceed the

  13. Maternal Origin and Risk of Neonatal and Maternal ICU Admission.

    PubMed

    Medcalf, Karyn E; Park, Alison L; Vermeulen, Marian J; Ray, Joel G

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate maternal world region of birth, as well as maternal country of origin, and the associated risk of admission of 1) a mother to a maternal ICU, 2) her infant to a neonatal ICU, or 3) both concurrently to an ICU. Retrospective population-based cohort study. Entire province of Ontario, Canada, from 2003 to 2012. All singleton maternal-child pairs who delivered in any Ontario hospital. We explored how maternal world region of birth, and specifically, maternal country of birth for the top 25 countries, was associated with the outcome of 1) neonatal ICU, 2) maternal ICU, and 3) both mother and newborn concurrently admitted to ICU. Relative risks were adjusted for maternal age, parity, income quintile, chronic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, drug dependence or tobacco use, and renal disease. Compared with infants of Canadian-born mothers (110.7/1,000), the rate of neonatal ICU admission was higher in immigrants from South Asia (155.2/1,000), Africa (140.4/1,000), and the Caribbean (167.3/1,000; adjusted relative risk, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.36-1.46). For maternal ICU, the adjusted relative risk was 1.79 (95% CI, 1.43-2.24) for women from Africa and 2.21 (95% CI, 1.78-2.75) for women from the Caribbean. Specifically, mothers from Ghana (adjusted relative risk, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.75-4.21) and Jamaica (adjusted relative risk, 2.74; 95% CI, 2.12-3.53) were at highest risk of maternal ICU admission. The risk of both mother and newborn concurrently admitted to ICU was even more pronounced for Ghana and Jamaica. Women from Africa and the Caribbean and, in particular, Ghana and Jamaica, are at higher risk of admission to ICU around the time of delivery, as are their newborns.

  14. Children and terror casualties receive preference in ICU admissions.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Kobi; Rozenfeld, Michael; Dolev, Eran

    2012-03-01

    Trauma casualties caused by terror-related events and children injured as a result of trauma may be given preference in hospital emergency departments (EDs) due to their perceived importance. We investigated whether there are differences in the treatment and hospitalization of terror-related casualties compared to other types of injury events and between children and adults injured in terror-related events. Retrospective study of 121 608 trauma patients from the Israel Trauma Registry during the period of October 2000-December 2005. Of the 10 hospitals included in the registry, 6 were level I trauma centers and 4 were regional trauma centers. Patients who were hospitalized or died in the ED or were transferred between hospitals were included in the registry. All analyses were controlled for Injury Severity Score (ISS). All patients with ISS 1-24 terror casualties had the highest frequency of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions when compared with patients after road traffic accidents (RTA) and other trauma. Among patients with terror-related casualties, children were admitted to ICU disproportionally to the severity of their injury. Logistic regression adjusted for injury severity and trauma type showed that both terror casualties and children have a higher probability of being admitted to the ICU. Injured children are admitted to ICU more often than other age groups. Also, terror-related casualties are more frequently admitted to the ICU compared to those from other types of injury events. These differences were not directly related to a higher proportion of severe injuries among the preferred groups.

  15. Trends in Severity of Illness on ICU Admission and Mortality among the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Lior; Novack, Victor; McLennan, Stuart; Celi, Leo Anthony; Baumfeld, Yael; Park, Shinhyuk; Howell, Michael D.; Talmor, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an increase in admission rate for elderly patients to the ICU. Mortality rates are lower when more liberal ICU admission threshold are compared to more restrictive threshold. We sought to describe the temporal trends in elderly admissions and outcomes in a tertiary hospital before and after the addition of an 8-bed medical ICU. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of a comprehensive longitudinal ICU database, from a large tertiary medical center, examining trends in patients’ characteristics, severity of illness, intensity of care and mortality rates over the years 2001–2008. The study population consisted of elderly patients and the primary endpoints were 28 day and one year mortality from ICU admission. Results Between the years 2001 and 2008, 7,265 elderly patients had 8,916 admissions to ICU. The rate of admission to the ICU increased by 5.6% per year. After an eight bed MICU was added, the severity of disease on ICU admission dropped significantly and crude mortality rates decreased thereafter. Adjusting for severity of disease on presentation, there was a decreased mortality at 28- days but no improvement in one- year survival rates for elderly patient admitted to the ICU over the years of observation. Hospital mortality rates have been unchanged from 2001 through 2008. Conclusion In a high capacity ICU bed hospital, there was a temporal decrease in severity of disease on ICU admission, more so after the addition of additional medical ICU beds. While crude mortality rates decreased over the study period, adjusted one-year survival in ICU survivors did not change with the addition of ICU beds. These findings suggest that outcome in critically ill elderly patients may not be influenced by ICU admission. Adding additional ICU beds to deal with the increasing age of the population may therefore not be effective. PMID:24699251

  16. Prognostic Factors for Hospital Mortality and ICU Admission in Patients With ANCA-Related Pulmonary Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Holguin, Fernando; Ramadan, Bassel; Gal, Anthony A.; Roman, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors predictive of 28-day mortality and admission to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in patients with ANCA-related pulmonary vasculitis. Methods We reviewed the medical records and imaging studies of 65 patients diagnosed with ANCA-related vasculitis hospitalized with pulmonary complications between February 1985 and November 2002. All patients underwent open or video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy, had a positive ANCA serology, and were negative for glomerular basement membrane antibodies. Results At presentation, 72% had dyspnea, 68% fever, 47% cough, 45% elevated blood pressure, 32.3% hemoptysis, 26.1% sinus involvement, 15% renal failure, and 4.6% scleritis. Pathological findings included alveolar hemorrhage (60%), granulomatous inflammation (46%), and capillaritis (38%). A significant number required mechanical ventilation (27.7%), hemodialysis (24.6%), continuous renal replacement therapy (3.1%), and plasmapheresis (3.1%). The 28-day mortality was 16.9% (11/65). Mechanical ventilation (OR 68, P < 0.005), admission to ICU (OR 18.5, P < 0.01), and blood transfusion (OR 22.4, P < 0.004) were strong predictors of increased mortality within 28 days after admission. Respiratory failure (OR 31, P < 0.0007), hemoptysis (OR 2.9, P < 0.06), smoking (OR 5.9, P < 0.02), and acute renal failure (OR 7.8, P < 0.01) were also predictors for admission to the ICU. Conclusion In patients with ANCA-related pulmonary vasculitis several clinical factors, but not pathologic findings or ANCA titers, are associated with ICU admission and/or 28-day mortality. PMID:18854674

  17. Does space make waste? The influence of ICU bed capacity on admission decisions.

    PubMed

    Mery, Esteban; Kahn, Jeremy M

    2013-05-08

    Intensive care unit (ICU) beds are a scarce resource, and admissions may require prioritization when demand exceeds supply. However, there are few empiric data on whether the availability of ICU beds influences triage and processes of care for hospitalized patients who develop sudden clinical deterioration. The cohort consisted of 3,494 patients. Reduced ICU bed availability was associated with a decreased likelihood of ICU admission within 2 hours of MET activation (P = 0.03) and with an increased likelihood of change in patient goals of care (P <0.01). Patients with sudden clinical deterioration when zero ICU beds were available were 33.0% (95% confidence interval (CI), -5.1% to 57.3%) less likely to be admitted to the ICU and were 89.6% (95% CI, 24.9% to 188.0%) more likely to have their goals of care changed compared with when more than two ICU beds were available. However, hospital mortality did not vary significantly by ICU bed availability (P = 0.82). For hospitalized patients with sudden clinical deterioration, ICU bed scarcity decreases the probability of ICU admission and increases the probability of initiating comfort measures on the ward but does not influence hospital mortality.

  18. Validation of an Administrative Definition of ICU Admission Using Revenue Center Codes.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Gary E; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Kohn, Rachel; Anesi, George L; Manaker, Scott; Kerlin, Meeta Prasad; Halpern, Scott D

    2017-08-01

    Describe the operating characteristics of a proposed set of revenue center codes to correctly identify ICU stays among hospitalized patients. Retrospective cohort study. We report the operating characteristics of all ICU-related revenue center codes for intensive and coronary care, excluding nursery, intermediate, and incremental care, to identify ICU stays. We use a classification and regression tree model to further refine identification of ICU stays using administrative data. The gold standard for classifying ICU admission was an electronic patient location tracking system. The University of Pennsylvania Health System in Philadelphia, PA, United States. All adult inpatient hospital admissions between July 1, 2013, and June 30, 2015. None. Among 127,680 hospital admissions, the proposed combination of revenue center codes had 94.6% sensitivity (95% CI, 94.3-94.9%) and 96.1% specificity (95% CI, 96.0-96.3%) for correctly identifying hospital admissions with an ICU stay. The classification and regression tree algorithm had 92.3% sensitivity (95% CI, 91.6-93.1%) and 97.4% specificity (95% CI, 97.2-97.6%), with an overall improved accuracy (χ = 398; p < 0.001). Use of the proposed combination of revenue center codes has excellent sensitivity and specificity for identifying true ICU admission. A classification and regression tree algorithm with additional administrative variables offers further improvements to accuracy.

  19. Interpretable Deep Models for ICU Outcome Prediction.

    PubMed

    Che, Zhengping; Purushotham, Sanjay; Khemani, Robinder; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Exponential surge in health care data, such as longitudinal data from electronic health records (EHR), sensor data from intensive care unit (ICU), etc., is providing new opportunities to discover meaningful data-driven characteristics and patterns ofdiseases. Recently, deep learning models have been employedfor many computational phenotyping and healthcare prediction tasks to achieve state-of-the-art performance. However, deep models lack interpretability which is crucial for wide adoption in medical research and clinical decision-making. In this paper, we introduce a simple yet powerful knowledge-distillation approach called interpretable mimic learning, which uses gradient boosting trees to learn interpretable models and at the same time achieves strong prediction performance as deep learning models. Experiment results on Pediatric ICU dataset for acute lung injury (ALI) show that our proposed method not only outperforms state-of-the-art approaches for morality and ventilator free days prediction tasks but can also provide interpretable models to clinicians.

  20. Does admission during morning rounds increase the mortality of patients in the medical ICU?

    PubMed

    Bisbal, Magali; Pauly, Vanessa; Gainnier, Marc; Forel, Jean-Marie; Roch, Antoine; Guervilly, Christophe; Demory, Didier; Arnal, Jean-Michel; Michel, Fabrice; Papazian, Laurent

    2012-11-01

    Early optimization of treatment is crucial when admitting patients to the ICU and could depend on the organization of the medical team. The aim of this retrospective observational study was to determine whether admissions during morning rounds are independently associated with hospital mortality in a medical ICU. The 3,540 patients admitted from May 2000 to April 2010 to the medical ICU of Sainte Marguerite Hospital in Marseille, France, were divided into two groups based on the time of admission.The non-morning rounds group was admitted between 1:00 PM and 7:59 AM , and the morningrounds group was admitted between 8:00 AM and 12:59 PM . Hospital mortality (crude and adjusted)was compared between the two groups. The 583 patients (16.5%) admitted during morning rounds were older and sicker upon admission compared with those patients admitted during non-morning rounds. The crude hospital mortality was 35.2% (95% CI , 31.4-39.1) in the group of patients admitted during morning rounds and 28.0% (95% CI, 26.4-29.7) in the other group ( P < .001). An admission during morning rounds was not independently associated with hospital death (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.10; 95% CI,0.94-1.28; P 5=.24). Being admitted to the medical ICU during morning rounds is not associated with a poorer outcome than afternoon and night admissions. The conditions of the patients admitted during morning rounds were more severe, which underlines the importance of the ICU team’s availability during this time. Further studies are needed to evaluate if the presence of a specific medical team overnight in the wards would be able to improve patients’ outcome by preventing delayed ICU admission.

  1. Hospital-Level Variation in ICU Admission and Critical Care Procedures for Patients Hospitalized for Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Admon, Andrew J.; Seymour, Christopher W.; Gershengorn, Hayley B.; Wunsch, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Variation in the use of ICUs for low-risk conditions contributes to health system inefficiency. We sought to examine the relationship between ICU use for patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) and cost, mortality, readmission, and procedure use. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study including 61,249 adults with PE discharged from 263 hospitals in three states between 2007 and 2010. We generated hospital-specific ICU admission rate quartiles and used a series of multilevel models to evaluate relationships between admission rates and risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality, readmission, and costs and between ICU admission rates and several critical care procedures. RESULTS: Hospital quartiles varied in unadjusted ICU admission rates for PE (range, ≤ 15% to > 31%). Among all patients, there was a small trend toward increased use of arterial catheterization (0.6%-1.1%, P < .01) in hospital quartiles with higher levels of ICU admission. However, use of invasive mechanical ventilation (14.4%-7.9%, P < .01), noninvasive ventilation (6.6%-3.0%, P < .01), central venous catheterization (14.6%-11.3%, P < .02), and thrombolytics (11.0%-4.7%, P < .01) in patients in the ICU declined across hospital quartiles. There was no relationship between ICU admission rate and risk-adjusted hospital mortality, costs, or readmission. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitals vary widely in ICU admission rates for acute PE without a detectable impact on mortality, cost, or readmission. Patients admitted to ICUs in higher-using hospitals received many critical care procedures less often, suggesting that these patients may have had weaker indications for ICU admission. Hospitals with greater ICU admission may be appropriate targets for improving efficiency in ICU admissions. PMID:24992579

  2. The surgical Apgar score is strongly associated with ICU admission after high-risk intra-abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sobol, Julia B.; Gershengorn, ayley B.; Wunsch, Hannah; Li, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding intensive care unit (ICU) triage decisions for high-risk surgical patients may ultimately facilitate resource allocation and improve outcomes. The surgical Apgar score (SAS) is a simple score that uses intraoperative information on hemodynamics and blood loss to predict postoperative morbidity and mortality, with lower scores associated with worse outcomes. We hypothesized that the SAS would be associated with the decision to admit a patient to the ICU postoperatively. Methods Retrospective cohort study of adults undergoing major intra-abdominal surgery from 2003 to 2010 at an academic medical center. We calculated the SAS (0 – 10) for each patient based on intraoperative heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and estimated blood loss. Using logistic regression, we assessed the association of the SAS with the decision to admit a patient directly to the ICU after surgery. Results The cohort consisted of 8,501 patients, with 72.7% having a SAS of 7-10 and less than 5% a SAS of 0-4. A total of 8.7% of patients were transferred immediately to the ICU postoperatively. After multivariate adjustment, there was a strong association between the SAS and the decision to admit a patient to the ICU (adjusted odds ratio 14.41 [95% CI 6.88 – 30.19, P < 0.001] for SAS 0-2, 4.42 [95% CI 3.19 – 6.13, P <0.001] for SAS 3-4, and 2.60 [95% CI 2.08 – 3.24, P < 0.001] for SAS 5-6 compared with SAS 7-8). Conclusions The SAS is strongly associated with clinical decisions regarding immediate ICU admission after high-risk intra-abdominal surgery. These results provide an initial step towards understanding whether intraoperative hemodynamics and blood loss influence ICU triage for post-surgical patients. PMID:23744956

  3. Impact on patient outcome of emergency department length of stay prior to ICU admission.

    PubMed

    García-Gigorro, R; de la Cruz Vigo, F; Andrés-Esteban, E M; Chacón-Alves, S; Morales Varas, G; Sánchez-Izquierdo, J A; Montejo González, J C

    2017-05-01

    The favorable evolution of critically ill patients is often dependent on time-sensitive care intervention. The timing of transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU) therefore may be an important determinant of outcomes in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact upon patient outcome of the length of stay in the Emergency Care Department. A single-center ambispective cohort study was carried out. A general ICU and Emergency Care Department (ED) of a single University Hospital. We included 269 patients consecutively transferred to the ICU from the ED over an 18-month period. Patients were first grouped into different cohorts based on ED length of stay (LOS), and were then divided into two groups: (a) ED LOS ≤5h and (b) ED LOS >5h. Demographic, diagnostic, length of stay and mortality data were compared among the groups. Median ED LOS was 277min (IQR 129-622). Patients who developed ICU complications had a longer ED LOS compared to those who did not (349min vs. 209min, p<0.01). A total of 129 patients (48%) had ED LOS >5h. The odds ratio of dying for patients with ED LOS >5h was 2.5 (95% CI 1.3-4.7). Age and sepsis diagnosis were the risk factors associated to prolongation of ED length of stay. A prolonged ED stay prior to ICU admission is related to the development of time-dependent complications and increased mortality. These findings suggest possible benefit from earlier ICU transfer and the prompt initiation of organ support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  4. An Interpretable Machine Learning Model for Accurate Prediction of Sepsis in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Shamim; Holder, Andre; Razmi, Fereshteh; Stanley, Matthew D; Clifford, Gari D; Buchman, Timothy G

    2018-04-01

    Sepsis is among the leading causes of morbidity, mortality, and cost overruns in critically ill patients. Early intervention with antibiotics improves survival in septic patients. However, no clinically validated system exists for real-time prediction of sepsis onset. We aimed to develop and validate an Artificial Intelligence Sepsis Expert algorithm for early prediction of sepsis. Observational cohort study. Academic medical center from January 2013 to December 2015. Over 31,000 admissions to the ICUs at two Emory University hospitals (development cohort), in addition to over 52,000 ICU patients from the publicly available Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care-III ICU database (validation cohort). Patients who met the Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis (Sepsis-3) prior to or within 4 hours of their ICU admission were excluded, resulting in roughly 27,000 and 42,000 patients within our development and validation cohorts, respectively. None. High-resolution vital signs time series and electronic medical record data were extracted. A set of 65 features (variables) were calculated on hourly basis and passed to the Artificial Intelligence Sepsis Expert algorithm to predict onset of sepsis in the proceeding T hours (where T = 12, 8, 6, or 4). Artificial Intelligence Sepsis Expert was used to predict onset of sepsis in the proceeding T hours and to produce a list of the most significant contributing factors. For the 12-, 8-, 6-, and 4-hour ahead prediction of sepsis, Artificial Intelligence Sepsis Expert achieved area under the receiver operating characteristic in the range of 0.83-0.85. Performance of the Artificial Intelligence Sepsis Expert on the development and validation cohorts was indistinguishable. Using data available in the ICU in real-time, Artificial Intelligence Sepsis Expert can accurately predict the onset of sepsis in an ICU patient 4-12 hours prior to clinical recognition. A prospective study is necessary to determine the

  5. Benefits of ICU admission in critically ill patients: Whether instrumental variable methods or propensity scores should be used

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The assessment of the causal effect of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission generally involves usual observational designs and thus requires controlling for confounding variables. Instrumental variable analysis is an econometric technique that allows causal inferences of the effectiveness of some treatments during situations to be made when a randomized trial has not been or cannot be conducted. This technique relies on the existence of one variable or "instrument" that is supposed to achieve similar observations with a different treatment for "arbitrary" reasons, thus inducing substantial variation in the treatment decision with no direct effect on the outcome. The objective of the study was to assess the benefit in terms of hospital mortality of ICU admission in a cohort of patients proposed for ICU admission (ELDICUS cohort). Methods Using this cohort of 8,201 patients triaged for ICU (including 6,752 (82.3%) patients admitted), the benefit of ICU admission was evaluated using 3 different approaches: instrumental variables, standard regression and propensity score matched analyses. We further evaluated the results obtained using different instrumental variable methods that have been proposed for dichotomous outcomes. Results The physician's main specialization was found to be the best instrument. All instrumental variable models adequately reduced baseline imbalances, but failed to show a significant effect of ICU admission on hospital mortality, with confidence intervals far higher than those obtained in standard or propensity-based analyses. Conclusions Instrumental variable methods offer an appealing alternative to handle the selection bias related to nonrandomized designs, especially when the presence of significant unmeasured confounding is suspected. Applied to the ELDICUS database, this analysis failed to show any significant beneficial effect of ICU admission on hospital mortality. This result could be due to the lack of statistical power of

  6. Prediction of the survival and functional ability of severe stroke patients after ICU therapeutic intervention

    PubMed Central

    Riachy, Moussa; Sfeir, Frida; Sleilaty, Ghassan; Hage-Chahine, Samer; Dabar, Georges; Bazerbachi, Taha; Aoun-Bacha, Zeina; Khayat, Georges; Koussa, Salam

    2008-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the benefits and impact of ICU therapeutic interventions on the survival and functional ability of severe cerebrovascular accident (CVA) patients. Methods Sixty-two ICU patients suffering from severe ischemic/haemorrhagic stroke were evaluated for CVA severity using APACHE II and the Glasgow coma scale (GCS). Survival was determined using Kaplan-Meier survival tables and survival prediction factors were determined by Cox multivariate analysis. Functional ability was assessed using the stroke impact scale (SIS-16) and Karnofsky score. Risk factors, life support techniques and neurosurgical interventions were recorded. One year post-CVA dependency was investigated using multivariate analysis based on linear regression. Results The study cohort constituted 6% of all CVA (37.8% haemorrhagic/62.2% ischemic) admissions. Patient mean(SD) age was 65.8(12.3) years with a 1:1 male: female ratio. During the study period 16 patients had died within the ICU and seven in the year following hospital release. The mean(SD) APACHE II score at hospital admission was 14.9(6.0) and ICU mean duration of stay was 11.2(15.4) days. Mechanical ventilation was required in 37.1% of cases. Risk ratios were; GCS at admission 0.8(0.14), (p = 0.024), APACHE II 1.11(0.11), (p = 0.05) and duration of mechanical ventilation 1.07(0.07), (p = 0.046). Linear coefficients were: type of CVA – haemorrhagic versus ischemic: -18.95(4.58) (p = 0.007), GCS at hospital admission: -6.83(1.08), (p = 0.001), and duration of hospital stay -0.38(0.14), (p = 0.40). Conclusion To ensure a better prognosis CVA patients require ICU therapeutic interventions. However, as we have shown, where tests can determine the worst affected patients with a poor vital and functional outcome should treatment be withheld? PMID:18582387

  7. Clinical impact of sepsis at admission to the ICU of a private hospital in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Juncal, Verena Ribeiro; Britto Neto, Lelivaldo Antonio de; Camelier, Aquiles Assunção; Messeder, Octavio Henrique Coelho; Farias, Augusto Manoel de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics, laboratory data, and clinical outcomes of patients with and without sepsis admitted to the ICU of a private hospital in the city of Salvador, Brazil, and to identify clinical variables related to a worse prognosis in those with sepsis. This was a longitudinal study including all patients admitted to the general ICU of the Hospital Português, in the city of Salvador, Brazil, between June of 2008 and March of 2009. At ICU admission, two groups of patients were identified: with sepsis and without sepsis. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data were collected, and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score was calculated. Of the 144 patients in the study, 29 (20.1%) had sepsis. Among the patients with sepsis, males accounted for 55.2%, the mean age was 73.1 ± 14.6 years, and the mean APACHE II score was 23.8 ± 9.1, compared with 36.3%, 68.7 ± 17.7 years, and 18.4 ± 9.5, respectively, among those without sepsis. There were significant associations between a diagnosis of sepsis and the following variables: APACHE II score; in-hospital mortality; ICU mortality; HR; mean arterial pressure; hematocrit level; white blood cell count; and antibiotic use. The use of life support measures and lower hematocrit levels were associated with a worse prognosis in the patients with sepsis. The patients diagnosed with sepsis presented worse clinical outcomes, probably due to their greater severity. Hematocrit level was the only variable that was a predictor of mortality risk in the patients with sepsis.

  8. A model to create an efficient and equitable admission policy for patients arriving to the cardiothoracic ICU.

    PubMed

    Yang, Muer; Fry, Michael J; Raikhelkar, Jayashree; Chin, Cynthia; Anyanwu, Anelechi; Brand, Jordan; Scurlock, Corey

    2013-02-01

    To develop queuing and simulation-based models to understand the relationship between ICU bed availability and operating room schedule to maximize the use of critical care resources and minimize case cancellation while providing equity to patients and surgeons. Retrospective analysis of 6-month unit admission data from a cohort of cardiothoracic surgical patients, to create queuing and simulation-based models of ICU bed flow. Three different admission policies (current admission policy, shortest-processing-time policy, and a dynamic policy) were then analyzed using simulation models, representing 10 yr worth of potential admissions. Important output data consisted of the "average waiting time," a proxy for unit efficiency, and the "maximum waiting time," a surrogate for patient equity. A cardiothoracic surgical ICU in a tertiary center in New York, NY. Six hundred thirty consecutive cardiothoracic surgical patients admitted to the cardiothoracic surgical ICU. None. Although the shortest-processing-time admission policy performs best in terms of unit efficiency (0.4612 days), it did so at expense of patient equity prolonging surgical waiting time by as much as 21 days. The current policy gives the greatest equity but causes inefficiency in unit bed-flow (0.5033 days). The dynamic policy performs at a level (0.4997 days) 8.3% below that of the shortest-processing-time in average waiting time; however, it balances this with greater patient equity (maximum waiting time could be shortened by 4 days compared to the current policy). Queuing theory and computer simulation can be used to model case flow through a cardiothoracic operating room and ICU. A dynamic admission policy that looks at current waiting time and expected ICU length of stay allows for increased equity between patients with only minimum losses of efficiency. This dynamic admission policy would seem to be a superior in maximizing case-flow. These results may be generalized to other surgical ICUs.

  9. Post-ICU admission fluid balance and pediatric septic shock outcomes: a risk-stratified analysis.

    PubMed

    Abulebda, Kamal; Cvijanovich, Natalie Z; Thomas, Neal J; Allen, Geoffrey L; Anas, Nick; Bigham, Michael T; Hall, Mark; Freishtat, Robert J; Sen, Anita; Meyer, Keith; Checchia, Paul A; Shanley, Thomas P; Nowak, Jeffrey; Quasney, Michael; Weiss, Scott L; Chopra, Arun; Banschbach, Sharon; Beckman, Eileen; Lindsell, Christopher J; Wong, Hector R

    2014-02-01

    Observed associations between fluid balance and septic shock outcomes are likely confounded by initial mortality risk. We conducted a risk-stratified analysis of the association between post-ICU admission fluid balance and pediatric septic shock outcomes. Retrospective analysis of an ongoing multicenter pediatric septic shock clinical and biological database. Seventeen PICUs in the United States. Three hundred and seventeen children with septic shock. None. We stratified subjects into three mortality risk categories (low, intermediate, and high) using a validated biomarker-based stratification tool. Within each category, we assessed three fluid balance variables: total fluid intake/kg/d during the first 24 hours, percent positive fluid balance during the first 24 hours, and cumulative percent positive fluid balance up to 7 days. We used logistic regression to estimate the effect of fluid balance on the odds of 28-day mortality, and on complicated course, which we defined as either death within 28 days or persistence of two or more organ failures at 7 days. There were 40 deaths, and 91 subjects had a complicated course. Increased cumulative percent positive fluid balance was associated with mortality in the low-risk cohort (n = 204; odds ratio, 1.035; 95% CI, 1.004-1.066) but not in the intermediate- and high-risk cohorts. No other associations with mortality were observed. Fluid intake, percent positive fluid balance in the first 24 hours, and cumulative percent positive fluid balance were all associated with increased odds of a complicated course in the low-risk cohort but not in the intermediate- and high-risk cohorts. When stratified for mortality risk, increased fluid intake and positive fluid balance after ICU admission are associated with worse outcomes in pediatric septic shock patients with a low initial mortality risk but not in patients at moderate or high mortality risk.

  10. Hypocapnia and Hypercapnia Are Predictors for ICU Admission and Mortality in Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Laserna, Elena; Sibila, Oriol; Aguilar, Patrick R.; Mortensen, Eric M.; Anzueto, Antonio; Blanquer, Jose M.; Sanz, Francisco; Rello, Jordi; Marcos, Pedro J.; Velez, Maria I.; Aziz, Nivin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to examine in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) the association between abnormal Paco2 and ICU admission and 30-day mortality. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at two tertiary teaching hospitals. Eligible subjects were admitted with a diagnosis of CAP. Arterial blood gas analyses were obtained with measurement of Paco2 on admission. Multivariate analyses were performed using 30-day mortality and ICU admission as the dependent measures. Results: Data were abstracted on 453 subjects with a documented arterial blood gas analysis. One hundred eighty-nine patients (41%) had normal Paco2 (35-45 mm Hg), 194 patients (42%) had a Paco2 < 35 mm Hg (hypocapnic), and 70 patients (15%) had a Paco2 > 45 mm Hg (hypercapnic). In the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for severity of illness, hypocapnic patients had greater 30-day mortality (OR = 2.84; 95% CI, 1.28-6.30) and a higher need for ICU admission (OR = 2.88; 95% CI, 1.68-4.95) compared with patients with normal Paco2. In addition, hypercapnic patients had a greater 30-day mortality (OR = 3.38; 95% CI, 1.38-8.30) and a higher need for ICU admission (OR = 5.35; 95% CI, 2.80-10.23). When patients with COPD were excluded from the analysis, the differences persisted between groups. Conclusion: In hospitalized patients with CAP, both hypocapnia and hypercapnia were associated with an increased need for ICU admission and higher 30-day mortality. These findings persisted after excluding patients with CAP and with COPD. Therefore, Paco2 should be considered for inclusion in future severity stratification criteria to appropriate identified patients who will require a higher level of care and are at risk for increased mortality. PMID:22677348

  11. Validating the Performance of the Modified Early Obstetric Warning System Multivariable Model to Predict Maternal Intensive Care Unit Admission.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Helen M; Jones, Meghan A; Payne, Beth A; Sharma, Sumedha; Hutfield, Anna M; Lee, Tang; Ukah, U Vivian; Walley, Keith R; Magee, Laura A; von Dadelszen, Peter

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the performance of the Modified Early Obstetric Warning System (MEOWS) to predict maternal ICU admission in an obstetric population. Case-control study. Two maternity units in Vancouver, Canada, one with ICU facilities, between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2011. Pregnant or recently delivered (≤6 weeks) women admitted to the hospital for >24 hours. Three control patients were randomly selected per case and matched for year of admission. Retrospective, observational, case-control validation study investigating the physiologic predictors of admission in the 24-hour period preceding either ICU admission >24 hours (cases) or following admission (control patients). Model performance was assessed based on sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. Forty-six women were admitted to the ICU for >24 hours (0.51/1000 deliveries); the study included 138 randomly selected control patients. There were no maternal deaths in the cohort. MEOWS had high sensitivity (0.96) but low specificity (0.54) for ICU admission >24 hours, whereas ≥1 one red trigger maintained sensitivity (0.96) and improved specificity (0.73). Altering MEOWS trigger parameters may improve the accuracy of MEOWS in predicting ICU admission. Formal modelling of a MEOWS scoring system is required to support evidence-based care. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Validation of a clinical prediction model for early admission to the intensive care unit of patients with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Labarère, José; Schuetz, Philipp; Renaud, Bertrand; Claessens, Yann-Erick; Albrich, Werner; Mueller, Beat

    2012-09-01

    The Risk of Early Admission to the Intensive Care Unit (REA-ICU) index is a clinical prediction model that was derived based on 4,593 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) for predicting early admission to the intensive care unit (ICU; i.e., within 3 days following emergency department [ED] presentation). This study aimed to validate the REA-ICU index in an independent sample. The authors retrospectively stratified 850 CAP patients enrolled in a multicenter prospective randomized trial conducted in Switzerland, using the REA-ICU index, alternate clinical prediction models of severe pneumonia (SMART-COP, CURXO-80, and the 2007 IDSA/ATS minor severity criteria), and pneumonia severity assessment tools (the Pneumonia Severity Index [PSI] and CURB-65).   The rate of early ICU admission did not differ between the validation and derivation samples within each risk class of the REA-ICU index, ranging from 1.1% to 1.8% in risk class I to 27.1% to 27.6% in risk class IV. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70 to 0.83) and 0.80 (95% CI = 0.77 to 0.83) in the validation and derivation samples, respectively. In the validation sample, the REA-ICU index performed better than the pneumonia severity assessment tools, but failed to demonstrate an accuracy advantage over alternate prediction models in predicting ICU admission. The REA-ICU index reliably stratifies CAP patients into four categories of increased risk for early ICU admission within 3 days following ED presentation. Further research is warranted to determine whether inflammatory biomarkers may improve the performance of this clinical prediction model. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  13. Mortality Associated with Night and Weekend Admissions to ICU with On-Site Intensivist Coverage: Results of a Nine-Year Cohort Study (2006-2014).

    PubMed

    Brunot, Vincent; Landreau, Liliane; Corne, Philippe; Platon, Laura; Besnard, Noémie; Buzançais, Aurèle; Daubin, Delphine; Serre, Jean Emmanuel; Molinari, Nicolas; Klouche, Kada

    2016-01-01

    The association between mortality and time of admission to ICU has been extensively studied but remains controversial. We revaluate the impact of time of admission on ICU mortality by retrospectively investigating a recent (2006-2014) and large ICU cohort with on-site intensivist coverage. All adults (≥ 18 years) admitted to a tertiary care medical ICU were included in the study. Patients' characteristics, medical management, and mortality were prospectively collected. Patients were classified according to their admission time: week working days on- and off-hours, and weekends. ICU mortality was the primary outcome and adjusted Hazard-ratios (HR) of death were analysed by multivariate Cox model. 2,428 patients were included: age 62±18 years; male: 1,515 (62%); and median SAPSII score: 38 (27-52). Overall ICU mortality rate was 13.7%. Admissions to ICU occurred during open-hours in 680 cases (28%), during night-time working days in 1,099 cases (45%) and during weekends in 649 cases (27%). Baseline characteristics of patients were similar between groups except that patients admitted during the second part of night (00:00 to 07:59) have a significantly higher SAPS II score than others. ICU mortality was comparable between patients admitted during different time periods but was significantly higher for those admitted during the second part of the night. Multivariate analysis showed however that admission during weeknights and weekends was not associated with an increased ICU mortality as compared with open-hours admissions. Time of admission, especially weeknight and weekend (off-hour admissions), did not influence the prognosis of ICU patients. The higher illness severity of patients admitted during the second part of the night (00:00-07:59) may explain the observed increased mortality.

  14. Mortality Associated with Night and Weekend Admissions to ICU with On-Site Intensivist Coverage: Results of a Nine-Year Cohort Study (2006-2014)

    PubMed Central

    Brunot, Vincent; Landreau, Liliane; Corne, Philippe; Platon, Laura; Besnard, Noémie; Buzançais, Aurèle; Daubin, Delphine; Serre, Jean Emmanuel; Molinari, Nicolas; Klouche, Kada

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between mortality and time of admission to ICU has been extensively studied but remains controversial. We revaluate the impact of time of admission on ICU mortality by retrospectively investigating a recent (2006–2014) and large ICU cohort with on-site intensivist coverage. Patients and Methods All adults (≥ 18 years) admitted to a tertiary care medical ICU were included in the study. Patients' characteristics, medical management, and mortality were prospectively collected. Patients were classified according to their admission time: week working days on- and off-hours, and weekends. ICU mortality was the primary outcome and adjusted Hazard-ratios (HR) of death were analysed by multivariate Cox model. Results 2,428 patients were included: age 62±18 years; male: 1,515 (62%); and median SAPSII score: 38 (27–52). Overall ICU mortality rate was 13.7%. Admissions to ICU occurred during open-hours in 680 cases (28%), during night-time working days in 1,099 cases (45%) and during weekends in 649 cases (27%). Baseline characteristics of patients were similar between groups except that patients admitted during the second part of night (00:00 to 07:59) have a significantly higher SAPS II score than others. ICU mortality was comparable between patients admitted during different time periods but was significantly higher for those admitted during the second part of the night. Multivariate analysis showed however that admission during weeknights and weekends was not associated with an increased ICU mortality as compared with open-hours admissions. Conclusion Time of admission, especially weeknight and weekend (off-hour admissions), did not influence the prognosis of ICU patients. The higher illness severity of patients admitted during the second part of the night (00:00–07:59) may explain the observed increased mortality. PMID:28033395

  15. Differential Prediction Generalization in College Admissions Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguinis, Herman; Culpepper, Steven A.; Pierce, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the concept of "differential prediction generalization" in the context of college admissions testing. Specifically, we assess the extent to which predicted first-year college grade point average (GPA) based on high-school grade point average (HSGPA) and SAT scores depends on a student's ethnicity and gender and whether this…

  16. Inclusion of Unstructured Clinical Text Improves Early Prediction of Death or Prolonged ICU Stay.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Gary E; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Ungar, Lyle H; Harhay, Michael O; Greene, Casey S; Himes, Blanca E; Halpern, Scott D

    2018-04-06

    Early prediction of undesired outcomes among newly hospitalized patients could improve patient triage and prompt conversations about patients' goals of care. We evaluated the performance of logistic regression, gradient boosting machine, random forest, and elastic net regression models, with and without unstructured clinical text data, to predict a binary composite outcome of in-hospital death or ICU length of stay greater than or equal to 7 days using data from the first 48 hours of hospitalization. Retrospective cohort study with split sampling for model training and testing. A single urban academic hospital. All hospitalized patients who required ICU care at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, MA, from 2001 to 2012. None. Among eligible 25,947 hospital admissions, we observed 5,504 (21.2%) in which patients died or had ICU length of stay greater than or equal to 7 days. The gradient boosting machine model had the highest discrimination without (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.81-0.84) and with (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.88-0.90) text-derived variables. Both gradient boosting machines and random forests outperformed logistic regression without text data (p < 0.001), whereas all models outperformed logistic regression with text data (p < 0.02). The inclusion of text data increased the discrimination of all four model types (p < 0.001). Among those models using text data, the increasing presence of terms "intubated" and "poor prognosis" were positively associated with mortality and ICU length of stay, whereas the term "extubated" was inversely associated with them. Variables extracted from unstructured clinical text from the first 48 hours of hospital admission using natural language processing techniques significantly improved the abilities of logistic regression and other machine learning models to predict which patients died or had long ICU stays. Learning

  17. Predicting Academic Success Using Admission Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Soen, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This study, conducted at a tertiary education institution in Israel, following two previous studies, was designed to deal again with a question that is a topic of debate in Israel and worldwide: Is there justification for the approach that considers restrictive university admission policies an efficient tool for predicting students' success at the…

  18. Early Enteral Nutrition Provided Within 24 Hours of ICU Admission: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Tian, Feng; Heighes, Philippa T; Allingstrup, Matilde J; Doig, Gordon S

    2018-04-06

    To identify, appraise, and synthesize the most current evidence to determine whether early enteral nutrition alters patient outcomes from critical illness. Medline and Embase were searched. The close out date was November 20, 2017. Early enteral nutrition was defined as a standard formula commenced within 24 hours of ICU admission. Comparators included any form of nutrition support "except" early enteral nutrition. Only randomized controlled trials conducted in adult patients requiring treatment in an ICU were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcome was mortality. Secondary outcomes included pneumonia, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ICU and hospital stay. Six-hundred ninety-nine full-text articles were retrieved and screened. Sixteen randomized controlled trials enrolling 3,225 critically ill participants were included. Compared with all other types of nutrition support, commencing enteral nutrition within 24 hours of ICU admission did not result in a reduction in mortality (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.86-1.18; p = 0.91; I = 32%). However, there was a differential treatment effect between a priori identified subgroups (p = 0.032): early enteral nutrition reduced mortality compared with delayed enteral intake (odds ratio, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.21-0.95; p = 0.038; I = 0%), whereas a mortality difference was not detected between early enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.89-1.22; p = 0.58; I = 30%). Overall, patients who were randomized to receive early enteral nutrition were less likely to develop pneumonia (odds ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60-0.94; p = 0.012; I = 48%). Overall, there was no difference between early enteral nutrition and all other forms of nutrition support. A priori planned subgroup analysis revealed early enteral nutrition reduced mortality and pneumonia compared with delayed enteral intake; however, there were no clear clinical advantages of early enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition.

  19. Routine Postoperative Monitoring after Bariatric Surgery in Morbidly Obese Patients with Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea: ICU Admission is not Necessary.

    PubMed

    Goucham, Amin B; Coblijn, Usha K; Hart-Sweet, Helga B; de Vries, Nico; Lagarde, Sjoerd M; van Wagensveld, Bart A

    2016-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs in 70-80% of bariatric surgery patients. Patients with severe OSA (apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) >30/h) are postoperatively admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for continuous monitoring, to prevent complications. The aim of this study was to assess the necessity of routine postoperative monitoring at an ICU of severe OSA patients after bariatric surgery, attempting to prevent and detect cardiorespiratory complications. Patients undergoing bariatric surgery from November 2010 to July 2013 were entered into a database. Minimal follow-up was 1 month. Poly(somno)graphy (P(S)G) was routinely performed. Patients with severe OSA were admitted to the ICU for the first postoperative night. Oxygen saturation was continuously measured. The database was reviewed regarding patient characteristics, CPAP use, re-intubations, desaturations (saturation <90% and severe <85%), and complications. Severe OSA was present in 151 of the 794 patients, and all 151 were admitted to the ICU. Thirty who underwent revisional surgery were excluded. Forty-seven percent was male, median age was 51 years (27.0-68.0), and median body mass index (BMI) was 46.6 (kg/m(2)) (34.0-77.6). No deaths, re-intubations, or cardiopulmonary complications occurred. Eighty-two (67.8%) patients used continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Twenty-one (17.4%) patients experienced desaturations with a median of 2.0 (1-8). Six patients (5.0%) had one episode of severe desaturation. Patients with severe OSA and adequate CPAP use are at low risk of cardiopulmonary complications after (laparoscopic) bariatric surgery. Routine admission to an ICU might be superfluous. However, continuous digital oximetry remains essential.

  20. First influenza season after the 2009 pandemic influenza: report of the first 300 ICU admissions in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Martin-Loeches, I; Bonastre, J; Olaechea, P; Alvarez-Lerma, F; Zaragoza, R; Guerrero, J; Blanco, J; Gordo, F; Pozo, F; Lorente, J; Carratalá, J; Cordero, M; Rello, J; Esteban, A; León, C

    2011-05-01

    During the 2009 influenza pandemic, several reports were published, nevertheless, data on the clinical profiles of critically ill patients with the new virus infection during this second outbreak are still lacking. Prospective, observational, multi-center study conducted in 148 Spanish intensive care units (ICU) during epidemiological weeks 50-52 of 2010 and weeks 1 - 4 of 2011. Three hundred patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with confirmed An/H1N1 infection were analyzed. The median age was 49 years [IQR=38-58] and 62% were male. The mean APACHE II score was 16.9 ± 7.5 and the mean SOFA score was 6.3 ± 3.5 on admission. Comorbidities were present in 76% (n=228) of cases and 111 (37.4%) patients were reportedly obese and 59 (20%) were COPD. The main presentation was viral pneumonia with severe hypoxemia in 65.7% (n=197) of the patients whereas co-infection was identified in 54 (18%) patients. All patients received antiviral treatment and initiated empirically in 194 patients (65.3%), however only 53 patients (17.6%) received early antiviral treatment. Vaccination was only administered in 22 (7.3%) patients. Sixty-seven of 200 patients with ICU discharge died. Haematological disease, severity of illness, infiltrates in chest X-ray and need for mechanical ventilation were variables independently associated with ICU mortality. In patients admitted to the ICU in the post-pandemic seasonal influenza outbreak vaccination was poorly implemented and appear to have higher frequency of severe comorbidities, severity of illness, incidence of primary viral pneumonia and increased mortality when compared with those observed in the 2009 pandemic outbreak. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  1. Interpretable Topic Features for Post-ICU Mortality Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yen-Fu; Rumshisky, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Electronic health records provide valuable resources for understanding the correlation between various diseases and mortality. The analysis of post-discharge mortality is critical for healthcare professionals to follow up potential causes of death after a patient is discharged from the hospital and give prompt treatment. Moreover, it may reduce the cost derived from readmissions and improve the quality of healthcare. Our work focused on post-discharge ICU mortality prediction. In addition to features derived from physiological measurements, we incorporated ICD-9-CM hierarchy into Bayesian topic model learning and extracted topic features from medical notes. We achieved highest AUCs of 0.835 and 0.829 for 30-day and 6-month post-discharge mortality prediction using baseline and topic proportions derived from Labeled-LDA. Moreover, our work emphasized the interpretability of topic features derived from topic model which may facilitates the understanding and investigation of the complexity between mortality and diseases. PMID:28269879

  2. Interpretable Topic Features for Post-ICU Mortality Prediction.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yen-Fu; Rumshisky, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Electronic health records provide valuable resources for understanding the correlation between various diseases and mortality. The analysis of post-discharge mortality is critical for healthcare professionals to follow up potential causes of death after a patient is discharged from the hospital and give prompt treatment. Moreover, it may reduce the cost derived from readmissions and improve the quality of healthcare. Our work focused on post-discharge ICU mortality prediction. In addition to features derived from physiological measurements, we incorporated ICD-9-CM hierarchy into Bayesian topic model learning and extracted topic features from medical notes. We achieved highest AUCs of 0.835 and 0.829 for 30-day and 6-month post-discharge mortality prediction using baseline and topic proportions derived from Labeled-LDA. Moreover, our work emphasized the interpretability of topic features derived from topic model which may facilitates the understanding and investigation of the complexity between mortality and diseases.

  3. The Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Score for evaluation of physical reserve on admission to the ICU: can we query the relatives?

    PubMed

    Hofhuis, José G M; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Hovingh, Aly; Braam, Richard L; van de Braak, Lisa; Spronk, Peter E; Rommes, Johannes H

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating the pre-morbid functional status in critically ill patients is important and frequently done using the physical component score (PCS) of the Short Form 36, although this approach has its limitations. The Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Score (ALDS) is a recently developed generic item bank used to measure the disability status of patients with a broad range of diseases. We aimed to study whether proxy scoring with the ALDS could be used to assess the patients' functional status on admission for cardiac care unit (CCU) or ICU patients and how the ALDS relates to the PCS using the Short Form 12 (SF-12). Patients and proxies completed the ALDS and SF-12 score in the first 72 hours following ICU scheduled surgery (n = 14), ICU emergency admission (n = 56) and CCU emergency admission (n = 70). In all patients (n = 140) a significant intra-class correlation was found for the ALDS (0.857), the PCS (0.798) and the mental component score (0.679) between patients and their proxy. In both scheduled and emergency admissions, a significant correlation was found between patients and their proxy for the ALDS, although the lowest correlation was found for the ICU scheduled admissions (0.755) compared with the ICU emergency admissions (0.889). In CCU patients, the highest significant correlation between patients and proxies was found for the ALDS (0.855), for the PCS (0.807) and for the mental component score (0.740). Relatives in close contact with critically ill patients can adequately reflect the patient's level of disability on ICU and CCU admission when using the ALDS item bank, which performed at least as well as the PCS. The ALDS could therefore be a useful alternative for the PCS of the SF-12.

  4. Problematic Dichotomization of Risk for Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-Acquired Invasive Candidiasis: Results Using a Risk-Predictive Model to Categorize 3 Levels of Risk From a Multicenter Prospective Cohort of Australian ICU Patients.

    PubMed

    Playford, E Geoffrey; Lipman, Jeffrey; Jones, Michael; Lau, Anna F; Kabir, Masrura; Chen, Sharon C-A; Marriott, Deborah J; Seppelt, Ian; Gottlieb, Thomas; Cheung, Winston; Iredell, Jonathan R; McBryde, Emma S; Sorrell, Tania C

    2016-12-01

     Delayed antifungal therapy for invasive candidiasis (IC) contributes to poor outcomes. Predictive risk models may allow targeted antifungal prophylaxis to those at greatest risk.  A prospective cohort study of 6685 consecutive nonneutropenic patients admitted to 7 Australian intensive care units (ICUs) for ≥72 hours was performed. Clinical risk factors for IC occurring prior to and following ICU admission, colonization with Candida species on surveillance cultures from 3 sites assessed twice weekly, and the occurrence of IC ≥72 hours following ICU admission or ≤72 hours following ICU discharge were measured. From these parameters, a risk-predictive model for the development of ICU-acquired IC was then derived.  Ninety-six patients (1.43%) developed ICU-acquired IC. A simple summation risk-predictive model using the 10 independently significant variables associated with IC demonstrated overall moderate accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.82). No single threshold score could categorize patients into clinically useful high- and low-risk groups. However, using 2 threshold scores, 3 patient cohorts could be identified: those at high risk (score ≥6, 4.8% of total cohort, positive predictive value [PPV] 11.7%), those at low risk (score ≤2, 43.1% of total cohort, PPV 0.24%), and those at intermediate risk (score 3-5, 52.1% of total cohort, PPV 1.46%).  Dichotomization of ICU patients into high- and low-risk groups for IC risk is problematic. Categorizing patients into high-, intermediate-, and low-risk groups may more efficiently target early antifungal strategies and utilization of newer diagnostic tests. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Outcome prediction for patients with cirrhosis of the liver in a medical ICU: a comparison of the APACHE scores and liver-specific scoringsystems.

    PubMed

    Zauner, C A; Apsner, R C; Kranz, A; Kramer, L; Madl, C; Schneider, B; Schneeweiss, B; Ratheiser, K; Stockenhuber, F; Lenz, K

    1996-06-01

    To find the most adequate prognostic scoring system for predicting ICU-outcome in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis in a medical intensive care unit (ICU). Retrospective analysis of patients' records over a 10-year period. A medical ICU at the university medical center of Vienna. 94% (n = 198) of all patients with cirrhosis admitted to our medical ICU throughout the 10-year study period. None. From data obtained at admission and at 48 h after admission, scores were calculated using the following scoring systems: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II and III, Scale for Composite Clinical and Laboratory Index Scoring (CCLI), Mayo Risk Score, and Child's Classification. Statistical analysis for the prognostic variables was performed using the chi-square test, t-test, Youden index, and area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. APACHE III was found to be the most reliable outcome predictor at admission and after 48 h for patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis (AUC = 0.75 and 0.8, respectively). To predict the outcome for patients with decompensated cirrhosis of the liver admitted to a medical ICU liver failure alone is not decisive. Liver-specific scoring systems (Mayo Risk Score, CCLI) are adequate, but the APACHE II and III proved to be more powerful, because they include additional physiologic parameters and therefore also take into account additional complications associated with this liver disorder.

  6. Evaluation of illness severity scoring systems and risk prediction in vascular intensive care admissions.

    PubMed

    Dover, M; Tawfick, Wael; Hynes, Niamh; Sultan, Sherif

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the predictive value of intensive care unit (ICU) scoring systems in a vascular ICU population. From April 2005 to September 2011, we examined 363 consecutive ICU admissions. Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), APACHE IV, Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score (MODS), organ dysfunctions and/or infection (ODIN), mortality prediction model (MPM) and physiologic and operative severity score for the enumeration of mortality and morbidity (POSSUM) were calculated. The Glasgow Aneurysm Score (GAS) was calculated for patients with aneurysm-related admissions. Overall mortality for complex vascular intervention was 11.6%. At admission, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) was 0.884 for SAPS II, 0.894 for APACHE II, 0.895 for APACHE IV, 0.902 for MODS, 0.891 for ODIN and 0.903 for MPM. At 24 h, model discrimination was best for POSSUM (AUC = 0.906) and MPM (AUC = 0.912). The good discrimination of these scoring systems indicates their value as an adjunct to clinical assessment but should not be used on an individual basis as a clinical decision-making tool. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. icuARM-II: improving the reliability of personalized risk prediction in pediatric intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Wen; Chanani, Nikhil; Maher, Kevin; Wang

    2014-09-01

    Clinicians in intensive care units (ICUs) rely on standardized scores as risk prediction models to predict a patient's vulnerability to life-threatening events. Conventional Current scales calculate scores from a fixed set of conditions collected within a specific time window. However, modern monitoring technologies generate complex, temporal, and multimodal patient data that conventional prediction models scales cannot fully utilize. Thus, a more sophisticated model is needed to tailor individual characteristics and incorporate multiple temporal modalities for a personalized risk prediction. Furthermore, most scales models focus on adult patients. To address this needdeficiency, we propose a newly designed ICU risk prediction system, called icuARM-II, using a large-scaled pediatric ICU database from Children's Healthcare of Atlanta. This novel database contains clinical data collected in 5,739 ICU visits from 4,975 patients. We propose a temporal association rule mining framework giving clinicians a potential to perform predict risks prediction based on all available patient conditions without being restricted by a fixed observation window. We also develop a new metric that can rigidly assesses the reliability of all all generated association rules. In addition, the icuARM-II features an interactive user interface. Using the icuARM-II, our results demonstrated showed a use case of short-term mortality prediction using lab testing results, which demonstrated a potential new solution for reliable ICU risk prediction using personalized clinical data in a previously neglected population.

  8. Predicting ICU hemodynamic instability using continuous multiparameter trends.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hanqing; Eshelman, Larry; Chbat, Nicolas; Nielsen, Larry; Gross, Brian; Saeed, Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    Identifying hemodynamically unstable patients in a timely fashion in intensive care units (ICUs) is crucial because it can lead to earlier interventions and thus to potentially better patient outcomes. Current alert algorithms are typically limited to detecting dangerous conditions only after they have occurred and suffer from high false alert rates. Our objective was to predict hemodynamic instability at least two hours before a major clinical intervention (e.g., vasopressor administration), while maintaining a low false alert rate. From the MIMIC II database, containing ICU minute-by-minute heart rate (HR) and invasive arterial blood pressure (BP) monitoring trend data collected between 2001 and 2005, we identified 132 stable and 104 unstable patients that met our stability-instability criteria and had sufficient data points. We first derived additional physiological parameters of shock index, rate pressure product, heart rate variability, and two measures of trending based on HR and BP. Then we developed 220 statistical features and systematically selected a small set to use for classification. We applied multi-variable logistic regression modeling to do classification and implemented validation via bootstrapping. Area under receiver-operating curve (ROC) 0.83+/-0.03, sensitivity 0.75+/-0.06, and specificity 0.80+/-0.07; if the specificity is targeted at 0.90, then the sensitivity is 0.57+/-0.07. Based on our preliminary results, we conclude that the algorithms we developed using HR and BP trend data may provide a promising perspective toward reliable predictive alerts for hemodynamically unstable patients.

  9. Temporal Trends in Healthcare Costs and Outcome Following ICU Admission After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Raj, Rahul; Bendel, Stepani; Reinikainen, Matti; Hoppu, Sanna; Luoto, Teemu; Ala-Kokko, Tero; Tetri, Sami; Laitio, Ruut; Koivisto, Timo; Rinne, Jaakko; Kivisaari, Riku; Siironen, Jari; Higgins, Alisa; Skrifvars, Markus B

    2018-04-01

    To assess temporal trends in 1-year healthcare costs and outcome of intensive care for traumatic brain injury in Finland. Retrospective observational cohort study. Multicenter study including four tertiary ICUs. Three thousand fifty-one adult patients (≥ 18 yr) with significant traumatic brain injury treated in a tertiary ICU during 2003-2013. None. Total 1-year healthcare costs included the index hospitalization costs, rehabilitation unit costs, and social security reimbursements. All costs are reported as 2013 U.S. dollars ($). Outcomes were 1-year mortality and permanent disability. Multivariate regression models, adjusting for case-mix, were used to assess temporal trends in costs and outcome in predefined Glasgow Coma Scale (3-8, 9-12, and 13-15) and age (18-40, 41-64, and ≥ 65 yr) subgroups. Overall 1-year survival was 76% (n = 2,304), and of 1-year survivors, 37% (n = 850) were permanently disabled. Mean unadjusted 1-year healthcare cost was $39,809 (95% CI, $38,144-$41,473) per patient. Adjusted healthcare costs decreased only in the Glasgow Coma Scale 13-15 and 65 years and older subgroups, due to lower rehabilitation costs. Adjusted 1-year mortality did not change in any subgroup (p < 0.05 for all subgroups). Adjusted risk of permanent disability decreased significantly in all subgroups (p < 0.05). During the last decade, healthcare costs of ICU-admitted traumatic brain injury patients have remained largely the same in Finland. No change in mortality was noted, but the risk for permanent disability decreased significantly. Thus, our results suggest that cost-effectiveness of traumatic brain injury care has improved during the past decade in Finland.

  10. Admission Data Predict High Hospital Readmission Risk.

    PubMed

    Logue, Everett; Smucker, William; Regan, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify data available at the time of hospital admission that predict readmission risk. We performed a retrospective multiple regression analysis of 958 adult, nonpregnant patients admitted to the Family Medicine Service between June 2012 and October 2013. Data were abstracted from hospital administrative sources and electronic medical records. The outcome was 30-day hospital readmission. Candidate readmission predictors included polypharmacy (≥6 medicines), Charlson comorbidity index, age, sex, insurance status, emergency department use, smoking, nursing report of cognitive issues, patient report of social support or financial issues, and a history of heart failure, pneumonia, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Patients at the Family Medicine Service had a 14% readmission risk. Bivariate analysis showed that high Charlson scores (≥5), polypharmacy, heart failure, pneumonia, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease each increased readmission risk (P < .05). A logistic model showed an estimated odds ratio for readmission for high Charlson scores of 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.6) and of 2.1 for polypharmacy (95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.7). The model yielded a readmission risk estimate of 6% if neither a high Charlson score nor polypharmacy was present, 9% if only the Charlson score was high, 12% if only polypharmacy was present, and 19% if both were present. The receiver operating characteristics curve for the 2-factor model yielded an estimated area under the curve of 85%. Cross-validation supported this result. Polypharmacy and higher Charlson score at admission predict readmission risk as well as or better than published risk prediction models. The model could help to conserve limited resources and to target interventions for reducing readmission among the highest-risk patients. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  11. Clinical prediction rule for identifying patients with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) at the time of admission to the intensive care unit in a low VRE prevalence setting.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young Kyung; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Lee, Won Jin; Lee, Sung Eun; Yang, Kyung Sook; Park, Dae Won; Sohn, Jang Wook; Kim, Min Ja

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a clinical prediction rule to screen patients at risk of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) carriage at intensive care unit (ICU) admission in a hospital setting with low VRE prevalence. This study was retrospectively conducted in the ICUs of a university-affiliated hospital in Korea, where active surveillance cultures for VRE had been run at ICU admission and weekly thereafter. In the derivation cohort from April 2008 to September 2010, risk factors for VRE carriage at ICU admission were determined and assigned weighted point values using a multivariate logistic regression model. In the validation cohort from October 2010 to March 2011, predictability of the prediction rule was evaluated. Of a total of 4445 cultures taken from patients at ICU admission, 153 (3.4%) patients carried VRE. In the derivation cohort, independent risk factors (assigned points) for VRE carriage at ICU admission were ICU readmission during hospitalization (1 point), chronic obstructive lung disease (2 points), recent antibiotic treatment (3 points) and recent vancomycin use (2 points). In the validation cohort, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the prediction rule, on the basis of risk scores ≥3 points, were 84.2%, 82.5%, 15.2% and 99.3%, respectively. This clinical prediction rule for identifying VRE carriage at the time of ICU admission is expected to markedly reduce the screening volume (by 80.1%) in our healthcare facility. For use in clinical practice, the rule needs to be prospectively validated in other settings.

  12. Predicting Prolonged Stay in the ICU Attributable to Bleeding in Patients Offered Plasma Transfusion.

    PubMed

    Ngufor, Che; Murphree, Dennis; Upadhyaya, Sudhi; Madde, Nageswar; Pathak, Jyotishman; Carter, Rickey; Kor, Daryl

    2016-01-01

    In blood transfusion studies, plasma transfusion (PPT) and bleeding are known to be associated with risk of prolonged ICU length of stay (ICU-LOS). However, as patients can show significant heterogeneity in response to a treatment, there might exists subgroups with differential effects. The existence and characteristics of these subpopulations in blood transfusion has not been well-studied. Further, the impact of bleeding in patients offered PPT on prolonged ICU-LOS is not known. This study presents a causal and predictive framework to examine these problems. The two-step approach first estimates the effect of bleeding in PPT patients on prolonged ICU-LOS and then estimates risks of bleeding and prolonged ICU-LOS. The framework integrates a classification model for risks prediction and a regression model to predict actual LOS. Results showed that the effect of bleeding in PPT patients significantly increases risk of prolonged ICU-LOS (55%, p=0.00) while no bleeding significantly reduces ICU-LOS (4%, p=0.046).

  13. Early Risk and Resiliency Factors Predict Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Caregivers of Patients Admitted to a Neuroscience ICU.

    PubMed

    Choi, Karmel W; Shaffer, Kelly M; Zale, Emily L; Funes, Christopher J; Koenen, Karestan C; Tehan, Tara; Rosand, Jonathan; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2018-05-01

    Informal caregivers-that is, close family and friends providing unpaid emotional or instrumental care-of patients admitted to ICUs are at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder. As a first step toward developing interventions to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder in ICU caregivers, we examined the predictive validity of psychosocial risk screening during admission for caregiver posttraumatic stress disorder at 3 and 6 months post hospitalization. An observational, prospective study. Ninety-nine caregivers were recruited as part of a longitudinal research program of patient-caregiver dyads in a neuroscience ICU. None. Caregiver posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were assessed during admission (baseline), 3 months, and 6 months post hospitalization. We 1) characterized prevalence of clinically significant symptoms at each time point 2); calculated sensitivity and specificity of baseline posttraumatic stress disorder screening in predicting posttraumatic stress disorder at 3 and 6 months; and 3) used recursive partitioning to select potential baseline factors and examine the extent to which they helped predict clinically significant posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms at each time point. Rates of caregiver posttraumatic stress disorder remained relatively stable over time (16-22%). Screening for posttraumatic stress disorder at baseline predicted posttraumatic stress disorder at 3 and 6 months with moderate sensitivity (75-80%) and high specificity (92-95%). Screening for posttraumatic stress disorder at baseline was associated with caregiver anxiety, mindfulness (i.e., ability to be aware of one's thoughts and feelings in the moment), and bond with patient. Furthermore, baseline posttraumatic stress disorder screening was the single most relevant predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder at 3 and 6 months, such that other baseline factors did not significantly improve predictive ability. Screening neuroscience ICU caregivers for clinically significant

  14. Designing and conducting a cluster-randomized trial of ICU admission for the elderly patients: the ICE-CUB 2 study.

    PubMed

    Boumendil, Ariane; Woimant, Maguy; Quenot, Jean-Pierre; Rooryck, François-Xavier; Makhlouf, Foued; Yordanov, Youri; Delerme, Samuel; Takun, Khalil; Ray, Patrick; Kouka, Marie-Clément; Poly, Claire; Garrouste-Orgeas, Maité; Thomas, Caroline; Simon, Tabasome; Azerad, Sylvie; Leblanc, Guillaume; Pateron, Dominique; Guidet, Bertrand

    2016-12-01

    The benefit of ICU admission for elderly patients remains controversial. This report highlights the methodology, the feasibility of and the ethical and logistical constraints in designing and conducting a cluster-randomized trial of intensive care unit (ICU) admission for critically ill elderly patients. We designed an interventional open-label cluster-randomized controlled trial in 24 centres in France. Clusters were healthcare centres with at least one emergency department (ED) and one ICU. Healthcare centres were randomly assigned either to recommend a systematic ICU admission (intervention group) or to follow standard practices regarding ICU admission (control group). Clusters were stratified by the number of ED annual visits (<44,616 or >44,616 visits), the presence or absence of a geriatric ward and the geographical area (Paris area vs other regions in France). All elderly patients (≥75 years of age) who got to the ED were assessed for eligibility. Patients were included if they had one of the pre-established critical conditions, a preserved functional status as assessed by an ADL scale ≥4 (0 = very dependent, 6 = independent), a preserved nutritional status (subjectively assessed by physicians) and without active cancer. Exclusion criteria were an ED stay >24 h, a secondary referral to the ED and refusal to participate. The primary outcome was the mortality at 6 months calculated at the individual patient level. Secondary outcomes were ICU and hospital mortality, as well as ADL scale and quality of life (as assessed by the SF-12 Health Survey) at 6 months. Between January 2012 and April 2015, 3036 patients were included in the trial, 1518 patients in 11 clusters allocated to intervention group and 1518 patients in 13 clusters allocated to standard care. There were 51 protocol violations. The ICE-CUB 2 trial was deemed feasible and ethically acceptable. The ICE-CUB 2 trial will be the first cluster-randomized trial to assess the benefits of ICU

  15. The Predictive Validity of Using Admissions Testing and Multiple Mini-Interviews in Undergraduate University Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makransky, Guido; Havmose, Philip; Vang, Maria Louison; Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Nielsen, Tine

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of a two-step admissions procedure that included a cognitive ability test followed by multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) used to assess non-cognitive skills, compared to grade-based admissions relative to subsequent drop-out rates and academic achievement after one and two years of study.…

  16. Evaluating the Predictive Validity of Graduate Management Admission Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Talento-Miller, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    Admissions data and first-year grade point average (GPA) data from 11 graduate management schools were analyzed to evaluate the predictive validity of Graduate Management Admission Test[R] (GMAT[R]) scores and the extent to which predictive validity held across sex and race/ethnicity. The results indicated GMAT verbal and quantitative scores had…

  17. HESI Admission Assessment scores: predicting student success.

    PubMed

    Chen, Susie; Voyles, Denise

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the value of administering Elsevier's HESI Admission Assessment (A(2)) to associate degree nursing (ADN) school applicants. The relationship of A(2) scores-composite scores and 5 component scores: basic math skills, reading comprehension, grammar, vocabulary & general knowledge, and anatomy & physiology-with final course grades in 3 first-semester nursing courses was investigated. Findings indicated that composite A(2) scores and all 5 component A(2) scores that were administered to the ADN applicants were significantly related (P < .01) to final course grades in 2 of the 3 first-semester nursing courses, Nursing Process I and Nursing Process II. All A(2) scores except reading comprehension were significantly (P <.01) related to final course grades in the Pharmacology nursing course. The mean A(2) scores of students who completed all 3 of the first-semester nursing courses were compared with the mean A(2) scores of students who did not complete one or more of these courses. Findings indicated that the mean composite A(2) score and the mean score for each of the 5 component A(2) exams were significantly higher (P < .01) for those students who completed all 3 nursing courses than for students who did not complete one or more of these courses. The faculty concluded that A(2) scores were useful in predicting students' success in the first semester of the nursing program, which is when most of the attrition occurs, and that screening applicants based on A(2) scores can help promote student retention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chest computed tomography performed on admission helps predict the severity of smoke-inhalation injury.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Hitoshi; Kaga, Shinichiro; Kaneda, Kazuhisa; Mizobata, Yasumitsu

    2013-05-25

    Smoke-inhalation injury is a major cause of mortality in burn patients, and therefore, it is important to determine accurately the severity of such injuries in these patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether chest computed tomography (CT) can be used for detecting early predictors of severity and complications of smoke-inhalation injury. We evaluated 37 patients who had sustained smoke-inhalation injuries and had undergone chest CT within a few hours of admission to a hospital. Bronchoscopy was performed according to a standardized protocol within 12 hours of admission in all smoke-inhalation injury patients. Bronchial-wall thickness (BWT) was measured 2 cm distal from the tracheal bifurcation with CT images, and the following data were collected: total number of ventilator days, duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, pneumonia development, and patient outcome. The mean age of the patients was 63±18 years (range, 22 to 87 years), 31 (83.8%) of the patients were men, and the mortality rate was 10.8%. The causes of death in these patients were smoke inhalation (n=1), hemorrhage (n=1), and other factors resulting in sepsis (n=2). The initial carboxyhemoglobin level was 13%±14% (range, 1% to 50%). No significant correlation was found between bronchoscopic scoring and clinical factors. However, significant correlations were noted between admission BWT and development of pneumonia (R2=0.41; P<0.0001) and total number of ventilator days (R2=0.56; P<0.0001) and ICU-stay days (R2=0.17; P=0.01). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that an admission BWT cutoff value of >3.0 mm predicted pneumonia development with a sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 96%, positive predictive value of 91%, and negative predictive value of 88%. BWT measured by using the chest CT scans obtained within a few hours of admission was predictive of the total number of ventilator days and ICU-stay days and the development of pneumonia in patients with

  19. Simplified Mortality Score for the Intensive Care Unit (SMS-ICU): protocol for the development and validation of a bedside clinical prediction rule.

    PubMed

    Granholm, Anders; Perner, Anders; Krag, Mette; Hjortrup, Peter Buhl; Haase, Nicolai; Holst, Lars Broksø; Marker, Søren; Collet, Marie Oxenbøll; Jensen, Aksel Karl Georg; Møller, Morten Hylander

    2017-03-09

    Mortality prediction scores are widely used in intensive care units (ICUs) and in research, but their predictive value deteriorates as scores age. Existing mortality prediction scores are imprecise and complex, which increases the risk of missing data and decreases the applicability bedside in daily clinical practice. We propose the development and validation of a new, simple and updated clinical prediction rule: the Simplified Mortality Score for use in the Intensive Care Unit (SMS-ICU). During the first phase of the study, we will develop and internally validate a clinical prediction rule that predicts 90-day mortality on ICU admission. The development sample will comprise 4247 adult critically ill patients acutely admitted to the ICU, enrolled in 5 contemporary high-quality ICU studies/trials. The score will be developed using binary logistic regression analysis with backward stepwise elimination of candidate variables, and subsequently be converted into a point-based clinical prediction rule. The general performance, discrimination and calibration of the score will be evaluated, and the score will be internally validated using bootstrapping. During the second phase of the study, the score will be externally validated in a fully independent sample consisting of 3350 patients included in the ongoing Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis in the Intensive Care Unit trial. We will compare the performance of the SMS-ICU to that of existing scores. We will use data from patients enrolled in studies/trials already approved by the relevant ethical committees and this study requires no further permissions. The results will be reported in accordance with the Transparent Reporting of multivariate prediction models for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis (TRIPOD) statement, and submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Prediction of pediatric sepsis mortality within 1 h of intensive care admission.

    PubMed

    Schlapbach, Luregn J; MacLaren, Graeme; Festa, Marino; Alexander, Janet; Erickson, Simon; Beca, John; Slater, Anthony; Schibler, Andreas; Pilcher, David; Millar, Johnny; Straney, Lahn

    2017-08-01

    The definitions of sepsis and septic shock have recently been revised in adults, but contemporary data are needed to inform similar approaches in children. Multicenter cohort study including children <16 years admitted with sepsis or septic shock to ICUs in Australia and New Zealand in the period 2012-2015. We assessed septic shock criteria at ICU admission to define sepsis severity, using 30-day mortality as outcome. Through multivariable logistic regression, a pediatric sepsis score was derived using variables available within 60 min of ICU admission. Of 42,523 pediatric admissions, 4403 children were admitted with invasive infection, including 1697 diagnosed as having sepsis/septic shock on admission. Mortality was 8.5% (144/1697) and 50.7% of deaths occurred within 48 h of admission. The presence of septic shock as defined by the 2005 consensus was sensitive but not specific in predicting mortality (AUC = 0.69; 95% CI 0.65-0.72). Combinations of hypotension, vasopressor therapy, and lactate >2 mmol/l discriminated poorly (AUC <0.60). Multivariate models showed that oxygenation markers, ventilatory support, hypotension, cardiac arrest, serum lactate, pupil responsiveness, and immunosuppression were the best-performing predictors (0.843; 0.811-0.875). We derived a pediatric sepsis score (0.817; 0.779-0.855), and every one-point increase was associated with a 28.5% (23.8-33.2%) increase in the odds of death. Children with a score ≥6 had 19.8% mortality and accounted for 74.3% of deaths. The sepsis score performed comparably when applied to all children admitted with invasive infection (0.810; 0.781-0.840). We observed mortality patterns specific to pediatric sepsis that support the need for specialized definitions of sepsis severity in children. We demonstrated the importance of lactate, cardiovascular, and respiratory derangements at ICU admission for the identification of children with substantially higher risk of sepsis mortality.

  1. A physical function test for use in the intensive care unit: validity, responsiveness, and predictive utility of the physical function ICU test (scored).

    PubMed

    Denehy, Linda; de Morton, Natalie A; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Edbrooke, Lara; Haines, Kimberley; Warrillow, Stephen; Berney, Sue

    2013-12-01

    Several tests have recently been developed to measure changes in patient strength and functional outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU). The original Physical Function ICU Test (PFIT) demonstrates reliability and sensitivity. The aims of this study were to further develop the original PFIT, to derive an interval score (the PFIT-s), and to test the clinimetric properties of the PFIT-s. A nested cohort study was conducted. One hundred forty-four and 116 participants performed the PFIT at ICU admission and discharge, respectively. Original test components were modified using principal component analysis. Rasch analysis examined the unidimensionality of the PFIT, and an interval score was derived. Correlations tested validity, and multiple regression analyses investigated predictive ability. Responsiveness was assessed using the effect size index (ESI), and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was calculated. The shoulder lift component was removed. Unidimensionality of combined admission and discharge PFIT-s scores was confirmed. The PFIT-s displayed moderate convergent validity with the Timed "Up & Go" Test (r=-.60), the Six-Minute Walk Test (r=.41), and the Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score (rho=.49). The ESI of the PFIT-s was 0.82, and the MCID was 1.5 points (interval scale range=0-10). A higher admission PFIT-s score was predictive of: an MRC score of ≥48, increased likelihood of discharge home, reduced likelihood of discharge to inpatient rehabilitation, and reduced acute care hospital length of stay. Scoring of sit-to-stand assistance required is subjective, and cadence cutpoints used may not be generalizable. The PFIT-s is a safe and inexpensive test of physical function with high clinical utility. It is valid, responsive to change, and predictive of key outcomes. It is recommended that the PFIT-s be adopted to test physical function in the ICU.

  2. Utility of serum concentration of protein S100 at admission to the medical intensive care unit in prediction of permanent neurological injury.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Piotr; Knapik, Małgorzata; Partyka, Robert; Broll, Iwona; Cieśla, Daniel; Wawrzyńczyk, Maciej; Kokocińska, Danuta; Jałowiecki, Przemysław

    2016-12-01

    Admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) may be preceded by dramatic events leading to permanent neurological injury. Plasma S100 protein levels are proved to be clinically useful in predicting neurological outcome following cardiac arrest. It is unclear, however, whether this may be extrapolated to a broader population of ICU patients. To assess the utility of plasma S100 protein in predicting death, permanent neurological damage, or unfavourable outcome at admission to the intensive care unit. The concentration of plasma S100 protein was established in 102 patients on admission to the ICU, regardless of their neurological status and the reason for admission. The majority of patients were admitted with various cardiac diseases, excluding trauma patients. The patients were classified into three groups with the following binary outcomes: permanent neurological deficit or restoration of consciousness; unfavourable outcome (death or survival with permanent neurological deficit) or favourable outcome; and death or survival. Plasma S100 protein levels at admission facilitated the identification of patients who later developed a permanent neurological deficit or regained consciousness ( p < 0.0001). All patients with plasma S100 protein over 0.532 μg/l at ICU admission either developed a permanent neurological deficit or had an unfavourable outcome (death or survival with permanent neurological deficit). However, sensitivity for this cut-off value was only 48% and 40%, respectively. Plasma S100 protein levels over 0.532 μg/l are specific but not sensitive for both permanent neurological deficit and unfavourable outcome when assessed in a heterogeneous population at admission to the ICU.

  3. Predictive monitoring for early detection of sepsis in neonatal ICU patients.

    PubMed

    Fairchild, Karen D

    2013-04-01

    Predictive monitoring is an exciting new field involving analysis of physiologic data to detect abnormal patterns associated with critical illness. The first example of predictive monitoring being taken from inception (proof of concept) to reality (demonstration of improved outcomes) is the use of heart rate characteristics (HRC) monitoring to detect sepsis in infants in the neonatal ICU. The commercially available 'HeRO' monitor analyzes electrocardiogram data from existing bedside monitors for decreased HR variability and transient decelerations associated with sepsis, and converts these changes into a score (the HRC index or HeRO score). This score is the fold increase in probability that a patient will have a clinical deterioration from sepsis within 24 h. This review focuses on HRC monitoring and discusses future directions in predictive monitoring of ICU patients. In a randomized trial of 3003 very low birthweight infants, display of the HeRO score reduced mortality more than 20%. Ongoing research aims to combine respiratory and HR analysis to optimize care of ICU patients. Predictive monitoring has recently been shown to save lives. Harnessing and analyzing the vast amounts of physiologic data constantly displayed in ICU patients will lead to improved algorithms for early detection, prognosis, and therapy of critical illnesses.

  4. GRACE score predicts heart failure admission following acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    McAllister, David A; Halbesma, Nynke; Carruthers, Kathryn; Denvir, Martin; Fox, Keith A

    2015-04-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a common and preventable complication of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Nevertheless, ACS risk scores have not been shown to predict CHF risk. We investigated whether the at-discharge Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score predicts heart failure admission following ACS. Five-year mortality and hospitalization data were obtained for patients admitted with ACS from June 1999 to September 2009 to a single centre of the GRACE registry. CHF was defined as any admission assigned WHO International Classification of Diseases 10 diagnostic code I50. The hazard ratio (HR) for CHF according to GRACE score was estimated in Cox models adjusting for age, gender and the presence of CHF on index admission. Among 1,956 patients, CHF was recorded on index admission in 141 patients (7%), and 243 (12%) were admitted with CHF over 3.8 median years of follow-up. Compared to the lowest quintile, patients in the highest GRACE score quintile had more CHF admissions (116 vs 17) and a shorter time to first admission (1.2 vs 2.0 years, HR 9.87, 95% CI 5.93-16.43). Per standard deviation increment in GRACE score, the instantaneous risk was more than two-fold higher (HR 2.28; 95% CI 2.02-2.57), including after adjustment for CHF on index admission, age and gender (HR 2.49; 95% CI 2.06-3.02). The C-statistic for CHF admission at 1-year was 0.74 (95% CI 0.70-0.79). The GRACE score predicts CHF admission, and may therefore be used to target ACS patients at high risk of CHF with clinical monitoring and therapies. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  5. Predictive factors for clinically significant pharmacist interventions at hospital admission

    PubMed Central

    Mongaret, Céline; Quillet, Pauline; Vo, Thi Ha; Aubert, Léa; Fourgeaud, Mathieu; Michelet-Huot, Elise; Bonnet, Morgane; Bedouch, Pierrick; Slimano, Florian; Gangloff, Sophie C.; Drame, Moustapha; Hettler, Dominique

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Pharmaceutical care activities at hospital admission have a significant impact on patient safety. The objective of this study was to identify predictive factors for clinically significant pharmacist interventions (PIs) performed during medication reconciliation and medication review at patient hospital admission. A 4-week prospective study was conducted in 4 medicine wards. At hospital admission, medication reconciliation and medication review were conducted and PIs were performed by the pharmaceutical team. The clinical impact of PIs was determined using the clinical economic and organizational (CLEO) tool. Clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and medication data for each patient were collected and analyzed as potential predictive factors of clinically significant PIs. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression were subsequently used to identify independent predictive factors for clinically relevant PIs. Among 265 patients admitted, 150 patients were included. Among 170 PIs performed at hospital admission, 71 were related to unintentional discrepancies (41.8%) during medication reconciliation, and 99 were related to drug-related problems (DRPs) (58.8%) during medication review. Overall, 115 PIs (67.7%) were considered to have a clinical impact. By multivariate analysis, number of medications ≥5 (P = .01) based on the best possible medication history, and Charlson comorbidity index score ≥2 (P < .01) were found to be independent predictive factors of clinically significant PIs at hospital admission. Identifying predictive factors of clinically significant PIs is valuable to optimize clinical pharmacist practices at hospital admission during both medication reconciliation and medication review. These 2 steps of the pharmaceutical care process improve medication safety at hospital admission. PMID:29489684

  6. Predictive factors for clinically significant pharmacist interventions at hospital admission.

    PubMed

    Mongaret, Céline; Quillet, Pauline; Vo, Thi Ha; Aubert, Léa; Fourgeaud, Mathieu; Michelet-Huot, Elise; Bonnet, Morgane; Bedouch, Pierrick; Slimano, Florian; Gangloff, Sophie C; Drame, Moustapha; Hettler, Dominique

    2018-03-01

    Pharmaceutical care activities at hospital admission have a significant impact on patient safety. The objective of this study was to identify predictive factors for clinically significant pharmacist interventions (PIs) performed during medication reconciliation and medication review at patient hospital admission.A 4-week prospective study was conducted in 4 medicine wards. At hospital admission, medication reconciliation and medication review were conducted and PIs were performed by the pharmaceutical team. The clinical impact of PIs was determined using the clinical economic and organizational (CLEO) tool. Clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and medication data for each patient were collected and analyzed as potential predictive factors of clinically significant PIs. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression were subsequently used to identify independent predictive factors for clinically relevant PIs.Among 265 patients admitted, 150 patients were included. Among 170 PIs performed at hospital admission, 71 were related to unintentional discrepancies (41.8%) during medication reconciliation, and 99 were related to drug-related problems (DRPs) (58.8%) during medication review. Overall, 115 PIs (67.7%) were considered to have a clinical impact. By multivariate analysis, number of medications ≥5 (P = .01) based on the best possible medication history, and Charlson comorbidity index score ≥2 (P < .01) were found to be independent predictive factors of clinically significant PIs at hospital admission.Identifying predictive factors of clinically significant PIs is valuable to optimize clinical pharmacist practices at hospital admission during both medication reconciliation and medication review. These 2 steps of the pharmaceutical care process improve medication safety at hospital admission.

  7. [Study on predicting model for acute hypotensive episodes in ICU based on support vector machine].

    PubMed

    Lai, Lijuan; Wang, Zhigang; Wu, Xiaoming; Xiong, Dongsheng

    2011-06-01

    The occurrence of acute hypotensive episodes (AHE) in intensive care units (ICU) seriously endangers the lives of patients, and the treatment is mainly depended on the expert experience of doctors. In this paper, a model for predicting the occurrence of AHE in ICU has been developed using the theory of medical Informatics. We analyzed the trend and characteristics of the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) between the patients who were suffering AHE and those who were not, and extracted the median, mean and other statistical parameters for learning and training based on support vector machine (SVM), then developed a predicting model. On this basis, we also compared different models consisted of different kernel functions. Experiments demonstrated that this approach performed well on classification and prediction, which would contribute to forecast the occurrence of AHE.

  8. The Course of Skin and Serum Biomarkers of Advanced Glycation Endproducts and Its Association with Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, Disease Severity, and Mortality during ICU Admission in Critically Ill Patients: Results from a Prospective Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Meertens, John H.; Nienhuis, Hans L.; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Nyyssönen, Kristiina; Ligtenberg, Jack J. M.; Smit, Andries J.; Zijlstra, Jan G.; Mulder, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been implicated in multiple organ failure, predominantly via their cellular receptor (RAGE) in preclinical studies. Little is known about the time course and prognostic relevance of AGEs in critically ill human patients, including those with severe sepsis. Objective 1) To explore the reliability of Skin Autofluorescence (AF) as an index of tissue AGEs in ICU patients, 2) to compare its levels to healthy controls, 3) to describe the time course of AGEs and influencing factors during ICU admission, and 4) to explore their association with disease severity, outcome, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Methods Skin AF, serum N"-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), N"-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), and soluble RAGE (sRAGE) were serially measured for a maximum of 7 days in critically ill ICU patients with multiple organ failure and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Correlations with (changes in) clinical parameters of disease severity, LDL dienes, and CRP were studied and survival analysis for in-hospital mortality was performed. Results Forty-five ICU patients (age: 59±15 years; 60% male), and 37 healthy controls (59±14; 68%) were included. Skin AF measurements in ICU patients were reproducible (CV right-left arm: 13%, day-to-day: 10%), with confounding effects of skin reflectance and plasma bilirubin levels. Skin AF was higher in ICU patients vs healthy controls (2.7±0.7 vs 1.8±0.3 au; p<0.001). Serum CEL (23±10 vs, 16±3 nmol/gr protein; p<0.001), LDL dienes (19 (15–23) vs. 9 (8–11) μmol/mmol cholesterol; <0.001), and sRAGE (1547 (998–2496) vs. 1042 (824–1388) pg/ml; p = 0.003) were significantly higher in ICU patients compared to healthy controls, while CML was not different (27 (20–39) vs 29 (25–33) nmol/gr protein). While CRP and LDL dienes decreased significantly, Skin AF and serum AGEs and sRAGE did not change significantly during the first 7 days of ICU admission. CML and CEL

  9. The Course of Skin and Serum Biomarkers of Advanced Glycation Endproducts and Its Association with Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, Disease Severity, and Mortality during ICU Admission in Critically Ill Patients: Results from a Prospective Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Meertens, John H; Nienhuis, Hans L; Lefrandt, Joop D; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Nyyssönen, Kristiina; Ligtenberg, Jack J M; Smit, Andries J; Zijlstra, Jan G; Mulder, D J

    2016-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been implicated in multiple organ failure, predominantly via their cellular receptor (RAGE) in preclinical studies. Little is known about the time course and prognostic relevance of AGEs in critically ill human patients, including those with severe sepsis. 1) To explore the reliability of Skin Autofluorescence (AF) as an index of tissue AGEs in ICU patients, 2) to compare its levels to healthy controls, 3) to describe the time course of AGEs and influencing factors during ICU admission, and 4) to explore their association with disease severity, outcome, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Skin AF, serum N"-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), N"-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), and soluble RAGE (sRAGE) were serially measured for a maximum of 7 days in critically ill ICU patients with multiple organ failure and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Correlations with (changes in) clinical parameters of disease severity, LDL dienes, and CRP were studied and survival analysis for in-hospital mortality was performed. Forty-five ICU patients (age: 59±15 years; 60% male), and 37 healthy controls (59±14; 68%) were included. Skin AF measurements in ICU patients were reproducible (CV right-left arm: 13%, day-to-day: 10%), with confounding effects of skin reflectance and plasma bilirubin levels. Skin AF was higher in ICU patients vs healthy controls (2.7±0.7 vs 1.8±0.3 au; p<0.001). Serum CEL (23±10 vs, 16±3 nmol/gr protein; p<0.001), LDL dienes (19 (15-23) vs. 9 (8-11) μmol/mmol cholesterol; <0.001), and sRAGE (1547 (998-2496) vs. 1042 (824-1388) pg/ml; p = 0.003) were significantly higher in ICU patients compared to healthy controls, while CML was not different (27 (20-39) vs 29 (25-33) nmol/gr protein). While CRP and LDL dienes decreased significantly, Skin AF and serum AGEs and sRAGE did not change significantly during the first 7 days of ICU admission. CML and CEL were strongly correlated with SOFA scores and CML

  10. Survival and outcome prediction using the Apache III and the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) score in patients treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) following out-of-hospital, in-hospital or ICU cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Skrifvars, M B; Varghese, B; Parr, M J

    2012-06-01

    There are few data comparing outcome and the utility of severity of illness scoring systems following intensive care after out-of-hospital (OHCA), in-hospital (IHCA) and intensive care unit (ICUCA) cardiac arrest. We investigated survival, factors associated with survival and the correlation and accuracy of general and specific scoring systems, including the Apache III score and the OHCA score in OHCA, IHCA and ICUCA patients. Prospective analysis of data on all cardiac arrest patients treated in a tertiary hospital between August 1st 2008 and July 30th 2010. Collected data included resuscitation and post-resuscitation care data as defined by the Utstein Guidelines, Apache III on admission and the OHCA score on admission in OHCA and IHCA patients and after the arrest in ICUCA patients. Statistical methods were used to identify factors associated with outcome and the predictive ability and correlation of the aforementioned scores. Of a total of 3931 patients treated in the ICU, 51 were admitted following OHCA, 50 following IHCA and 22 suffered an ICUCA and had sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Survival at 30 days was highest among ICUCAs (67%) followed by IHCAs (38%) and OHCAs (29%). Using multivariate analysis delay ROSC was the only independent predictor of survival. The OHCA score performed with moderate accuracy for predicting 30-day mortality (area under the curve 0.77 [0.69-0.86] and was slightly better than the Apache III score 0.71 (0.61-0.80). Using multiple logistic regression the Apache III and the OHCA score were both independent predictors of hospital survival and correlation between these two scores was weak (correlation coefficient of 0.244). Latency to ROSC seems to be the most important determinant of survival in patients following ICU care after a cardiac arrest in this single center trial. The OHCA score and the Apache III score offer moderate predictive accuracy in ICU cardiac arrest patients but correlated weakly with each

  11. Limitation of life-sustaining treatment in patients with prolonged admission to the ICU. Current situation in Spain as seen from the EPIPUSE Study.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Tejedor, A; Martín Delgado, M C; Cabré Pericas, L; Algora Weber, A

    2015-10-01

    Limitation of life-sustaining treatment (LLST) is a recommended practice in certain circumstances. Limitation practices are varied, and their application differs from one center to another. The present study evaluates the current situation of LLST practices in patients with prolonged admission to the ICU who suffer worsening of their condition. A prospective, observational cohort study was carried out. Seventy-five Spanish ICUs. A total of 589 patients suffering 777 complications or adverse events with organ function impairment after day 7 of admission, during a three-month recruitment period. The timing of limitation, the subject proposing LLST, the degree of agreement within the team, the influence of LLST upon the doctor-patient-family relationship, and the way in which LLST is implemented. LLST was proposed in 34.3% of the patients presenting prolonged admission to the ICU with severe complications. The incidence was higher in patients with moderate to severe lung disease, cancer, immunosuppressive treatment or dependence for basic activities of daily living. LLST was finally implemented in 97% of the cases in which it was proposed. The decision within the medical team was unanimous in 87.9% of the cases. The doctor-patient-family relationship usually does not change or even improves in this situation. LLST in ICUs is usually carried out under unanimous decision of the medical team, is performed more frequently in patients with severe comorbidity, and usually does not have a negative impact upon the relationship with the patients and their families. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  12. Tricuspid regurgitation in acute phase of Kawasaki disease associated with intensive care unit admission.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Jui; Lin, I-Chun; Yu, Hong-Ren; Kuo, Hsuan-Chang; Yang, Kuender D; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Liang, Chi-Di; Liu, Shih-Feng; Kuo, Ho-Chang

    2013-02-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis and primarily affects children <5 years of age. Intensive care unit (ICU) admission is unusual, but there can be associated severe complications in KD patients. This study was conducted to identify risk factors for ICU admission. Retrospectively, we reviewed charts of all children who had a discharge diagnosis of KD from 2001 through 2009. Clinical presentation, laboratory data, and outcome were collected for analysis of the association with ICU admission in KD patients. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) was used to identify factor interactions. There were 334 KD patients, including 24 patients in ICU admission, included in the analysis. Coronary artery lesions (CALs) and failure of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment were more frequently found in the ICU group (P < 0.0001). Total counts of white blood cells, hemoglobin levels, C-reactive protein, and albumin levels showed significant association with ICU admission (P < 0.05). Moderate tricuspid regurgitation (TR) was found only in the ICU admission group. MDR analyses of factor interactions identified that TR interacted with CAL with a prediction accuracy of 77.78 %. (P = 0.001). Patients with KD who are IVIG resistant and/or who are found to have CALs are at increased risk for ICU admission. Most importantly, moderate TR was significantly found in KD patients only in the ICU group. This may highlight the great value of moderate TR in predicting ICU admission for patients with KD.

  13. Performance of International Classification of Diseases-based injury severity measures used to predict in-hospital mortality and intensive care admission among traumatic brain-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Mathieu; Moore, Lynne; Sirois, Marie-Josée; Simard, Marc; Beaudoin, Claudia; Kuimi, Brice Lionel Batomen

    2017-02-01

    The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the main classification system used for population-based traumatic brain injury (TBI) surveillance activities but does not contain direct information on injury severity. International Classification of Diseases-based injury severity measures can be empirically derived or mapped to the Abbreviated Injury Scale, but no single approach has been formally recommended for TBI. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of different ICD-based injury severity measures for predicting in-hospital mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission in TBI patients. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study. We identified all patients 16 years or older with a TBI diagnosis who received acute care between April 1, 2006, and March 31, 2013, from the Quebec Hospital Discharge Database. The accuracy of five ICD-based injury severity measures for predicting mortality and ICU admission was compared using measures of discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC]) and calibration (calibration plot and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic). Of 31,087 traumatic brain-injured patients in the study population, 9.0% died in hospital, and 34.4% were admitted to the ICU. Among ICD-based severity measures that were assessed, the multiplied derivative of ICD-based Injury Severity Score (ICISS-Multiplicative) demonstrated the best discriminative ability for predicting in-hospital mortality (AUC, 0.858; 95% confidence interval, 0.852-0.864) and ICU admissions (AUC, 0.813; 95% confidence interval, 0.808-0.818). Calibration assessments showed good agreement between observed and predicted in-hospital mortality for ICISS measures. All severity measures presented high agreement between observed and expected probabilities of ICU admission for all deciles of risk. The ICD-based injury severity measures can be used to accurately predict in-hospital mortality and ICU admission in TBI

  14. Patterns of intensive care unit admissions in patients hospitalized for heart failure: insights from the RO-AHFS registry.

    PubMed

    Chioncel, Ovidiu; Ambrosy, Andrew P; Filipescu, Daniela; Bubenek, Serban; Vinereanu, Dragos; Petris, Antoniu; Collins, Sean P; Macarie, Cezar; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2015-05-01

    The present study aims to describe the epidemiology, baseline clinical characteristics, in-hospital management, and outcome of patients hospitalized for heart failure admitted directly or transferred to the ICU. The Romanian Acute Heart Failure Syndromes (RO-AHFS) registry prospectively enrolled 3224 consecutive patients between January 2008 and May 2009 admitted with a primary diagnosis of heart failure. Participants were classified by ICU admission status (i.e. ICU+/ICU-). Independent clinical predictors of ICU admission and in-hospital mortality were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Overall, 10.7% of patients required ICU level care, 32% as a direct ICU admission, with 68% as an ICU transfer during hospitalization. Patients admitted to the ICU had a mean age of 68.1 ± 11.3 years, 61% were men, 67% had an ischemic cause, and 44% presented with de-novo heart failure. ICU+ patients more frequently presented with low SBP and pulse pressure and abnormal renal function. Mechanical ventilation was required in 32.7% and intravenous inotropes were administered to 56.7% of ICU+ patients. ICU+ patients had higher in-hospital mortality compared to ICU- patients (17.3 vs. 6.5%). Patients admitted directly to the ICU had a 15.3% mortality rate compared to 18.4% in those transferred after admission. Age, serum sodium, SBP below 110 mmHg, and left-ventricular ejection fraction less than 45% were predictive of ICU admission, whereas for ICU+ patients, age, vasopressor, and mechanical ventilation utilization were predictive of mortality. Patients admitted directly or transferred to the ICU are at a high risk of in-hospital mortality. Clinical variables commonly measured at the time of admission may facilitate disposition decision-making including early triage to the ICU.

  15. Low C-reactive protein values at admission predict mortality in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae that require intensive care management.

    PubMed

    Que, Yok-Ai; Virgini, Virginie; Lozeron, Elise Dupuis; Paratte, Géraldine; Prod'hom, Guy; Revelly, Jean-Pierre; Pagani, Jean-Luc; Charbonney, Emmanuel; Eggimann, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    To identify risk factors associated with mortality in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by S. pneumoniae who require intensive care unit (ICU) management, and to assess the prognostic values of these risk factors at the time of admission. Retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients with CAP caused by S. pneumoniae who were admitted to the 32-bed medico-surgical ICU of a community and referral university hospital between 2002 and 2011. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on variables available at admission. Among the 77 adult patients with severe CAP caused by S. pneumoniae who required ICU management, 12 patients died (observed mortality rate 15.6%). Univariate analysis indicated that septic shock and low C-reactive protein (CRP) values at admission were associated with an increased risk of death. In a multivariate model, after adjustment for age and gender, septic shock [odds ratio (OR), confidence interval 95%; 4.96, 1.11-22.25; p = 0.036], and CRP (OR 0.99, 0.98-0.99 p = 0.034) remained significantly associated with death. Finally, we assessed the discriminative ability of CRP to predict mortality by computing its receiver operating characteristic curve. The CRP value cut-off for the best sensitivity and specificity was 169.5 mg/L to predict hospital mortality with an area under the curve of 0.72 (0.55-0.89). The mortality of patients with S. pneumoniae CAP requiring ICU management was much lower than predicted by severity scores. The presence of septic shock and a CRP value at admission <169.5 mg/L predicted a fatal outcome.

  16. explICU: A web-based visualization and predictive modeling toolkit for mortality in intensive care patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Robert; Kumar, Vikas; Fitch, Natalie; Jagadish, Jitesh; Lifan Zhang; Dunn, William; Duen Horng Chau

    2015-01-01

    Preventing mortality in intensive care units (ICUs) has been a top priority in American hospitals. Predictive modeling has been shown to be effective in prediction of mortality based upon data from patients' past medical histories from electronic health records (EHRs). Furthermore, visualization of timeline events is imperative in the ICU setting in order to quickly identify trends in patient histories that may lead to mortality. With the increasing adoption of EHRs, a wealth of medical data is becoming increasingly available for secondary uses such as data exploration and predictive modeling. While data exploration and predictive modeling are useful for finding risk factors in ICU patients, the process is time consuming and requires a high level of computer programming ability. We propose explICU, a web service that hosts EHR data, displays timelines of patient events based upon user-specified preferences, performs predictive modeling in the back end, and displays results to the user via intuitive, interactive visualizations.

  17. Statewide validation of a patient admissions prediction tool.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Justin; Le Padellec, Remy; Ireland, Derek

    2010-01-01

    We validate a proprietary system to predict hospital emergency department presentations. A key advantage in planning health service delivery requirements and catering for the large numbers of people presenting to hospitals is the ability to predict their numbers. Year-ahead forecasts of daily hospital presentations were generated for 27 public hospitals in Queensland, Australia from five years of historic data. Forecast accuracy was assessed by calculating the Mean Absolute Percentage Error and Root Mean Squared Error between predictions and observed admissions. Emergency Department presentations were found to be not random and can be predicted with an accuracy of around 90%. Highest accuracy was over weekends and summer months, and Public Holidays had the greatest variance in forecast accuracy. Forecasts for urban facilities were generally more accurate than regional (accuracy is related to sample size).

  18. Biorhythm theory does not predict admission for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Joncas, Sébastien X; Carrier, Nathalie; Nguyen, Michel; Farand, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Temporal variations in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have been described. However, AMI occurrence and biorhythm theory, which proposes the existence of three endogenous independent infradian cycles and AMI occurrence, has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to determine whether specific days in the biorhythm cycles are related to AMI incidence. Patients (40-85 years old) admitted for AMI at the Sherbrooke University Hospital Center, 1993-2008 were subjects of this study. Potential vulnerable days and performance days of the biorhythm cycles were calculated using birth and admission dates from the warehouse database. Observed AMI frequencies were compared to those expected using χ² tests. There were 11,395 admissions for AMI. No relation was noted between single, double, or triple critical or noncritical days and AMI (χ² = 3.78; p > 0.05). Observed and expected AMI frequencies for maximal and minimal performance days were similar (χ² = 15.06; p > 0.05). We found no evidence for a possible relationship between the date of AMI and critical maximum and minimum performance days of an individual's physical, emotional, or intellectual biorhythm cycles. We conclude that biorhythm theory does not predict admission for AMI.

  19. Does SOFA predict outcomes better than SIRS in Brazilian ICU patients with suspected infection? A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Regis Goulart; Moraes, Rafael Barberena; Lisboa, Thiago Costa; Schunemann, Daniel Pretto; Teixeira, Cassiano

    We compared the discriminatory capacity of the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) versus the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) score for predicting ICU mortality, need for and length of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay, and hospitalization in patients with suspected infection admitted to a mixed Brazilian ICU. We performed a retrospective analysis of a longitudinal ICU database from a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil. Patients were categorized according to whether they met the criteria for sepsis according to SOFA (variation ≥2 points over the baseline clinical condition) and SIRS (SIRS score ≥2 points). From January 2008 to December 2014, 1487 patients were admitted to the ICU due to suspected infection. SOFA ≥2 identified more septic patients than SIRS ≥2 (79.0% [n=1175] vs. 68.5% [n=1020], p<0.001). There was no difference between the two scores in predicting ICU mortality (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC)=0.64 vs. 0.64, p=0.99). SOFA ≥2 was marginally better than SIRS ≥2 in predicting need for mechanical ventilation (AUROC=0.64 vs. 0.62, p=0.001), ICU stay>7 days (AUROC=0.65 vs. 0.63, p=0.004), and length of hospitalization >10 days (AUROC=0.61 vs. 0.59, p<0.001). There was no difference between the two scores in predicting mechanical ventilation >7 days. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Predicting intervention onset in the ICU with switching state space models

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemi, Marzyeh; Wu, Mike; Hughes, Michael C.; Szolovits, Peter; Doshi-Velez, Finale

    2017-01-01

    The impact of many intensive care unit interventions has not been fully quantified, especially in heterogeneous patient populations. We train unsupervised switching state autoregressive models on vital signs from the public MIMIC-III database to capture patient movement between physiological states. We compare our learned states to static demographics and raw vital signs in the prediction of five ICU treatments: ventilation, vasopressor administra tion, and three transfusions. We show that our learned states, when combined with demographics and raw vital signs, improve prediction for most interventions even 4 or 8 hours ahead of onset. Our results are competitive with existing work while using a substantially larger and more diverse cohort of 36,050 patients. While custom classifiers can only target a specific clinical event, our model learns physiological states which can help with many interventions. Our robust patient state representations provide a path towards evidence-driven administration of clinical interventions. PMID:28815112

  1. Neural Network Prediction of ICU Length of Stay Following Cardiac Surgery Based on Pre-Incision Variables

    PubMed Central

    Pothula, Venu M.; Yuan, Stanley C.; Maerz, David A.; Montes, Lucresia; Oleszkiewicz, Stephen M.; Yusupov, Albert; Perline, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background Advanced predictive analytical techniques are being increasingly applied to clinical risk assessment. This study compared a neural network model to several other models in predicting the length of stay (LOS) in the cardiac surgical intensive care unit (ICU) based on pre-incision patient characteristics. Methods Thirty six variables collected from 185 cardiac surgical patients were analyzed for contribution to ICU LOS. The Automatic Linear Modeling (ALM) module of IBM-SPSS software identified 8 factors with statistically significant associations with ICU LOS; these factors were also analyzed with the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) module of the same software. The weighted contributions of each factor (“trained” data) were then applied to data for a “new” patient to predict ICU LOS for that individual. Results Factors identified in the ALM model were: use of an intra-aortic balloon pump; O2 delivery index; age; use of positive cardiac inotropic agents; hematocrit; serum creatinine ≥ 1.3 mg/deciliter; gender; arterial pCO2. The r2 value for ALM prediction of ICU LOS in the initial (training) model was 0.356, p <0.0001. Cross validation in prediction of a “new” patient yielded r2 = 0.200, p <0.0001. The same 8 factors analyzed with ANN yielded a training prediction r2 of 0.535 (p <0.0001) and a cross validation prediction r2 of 0.410, p <0.0001. Two additional predictive algorithms were studied, but they had lower prediction accuracies. Our validated neural network model identified the upper quartile of ICU LOS with an odds ratio of 9.8(p <0.0001). Conclusions ANN demonstrated a 2-fold greater accuracy than ALM in prediction of observed ICU LOS. This greater accuracy would be presumed to result from the capacity of ANN to capture nonlinear effects and higher order interactions. Predictive modeling may be of value in early anticipation of risks of post-operative morbidity and utilization of ICU facilities. PMID:26710254

  2. Admission Cell Free DNA Levels Predict 28-Day Mortality in Patients with Severe Sepsis in Intensive Care

    PubMed Central

    Almog, Yaniv; Perl, Yael; Novack, Victor; Galante, Ori; Klein, Moti; Pencina, Michael J.; Douvdevani, Amos

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of the current study is to assess the mortality prediction accuracy of circulating cell-free DNA (CFD) level at admission measured by a new simplified method. Materials and Methods CFD levels were measured by a direct fluorescence assay in severe sepsis patients on intensive care unit (ICU) admission. In-hospital and/or twenty eight day all-cause mortality was the primary outcome. Results Out of 108 patients with median APACHE II of 20, 32.4% have died in hospital/or at 28-day. CFD levels were higher in decedents: median 3469.0 vs. 1659 ng/ml, p<0.001. In multivariable model APACHE II score and CFD (quartiles) were significantly associated with the mortality: odds ratio of 1.05, p = 0.049 and 2.57, p<0.001 per quartile respectively. C-statistics for the models was 0.79 for CFD and 0.68 for APACHE II. Integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) analyses showed that CFD and CFD+APACHE II score models had better discriminatory ability than APACHE II score alone. Conclusions CFD level assessed by a new, simple fluorometric-assay is an accurate predictor of acute mortality among ICU patients with severe sepsis. Comparison of CFD to APACHE II score and Procalcitonin (PCT), suggests that CFD has the potential to improve clinical decision making. PMID:24955978

  3. Superiority of Serum Cystatin C Over Creatinine in Prediction of Long-Term Prognosis at Discharge From ICU.

    PubMed

    Ravn, Bo; Prowle, John R; Mårtensson, Johan; Martling, Claes-Roland; Bell, Max

    2017-09-01

    Renal outcomes after critical illness are seldom assessed despite strong correlation between chronic kidney disease and survival. Outside hospital, renal dysfunction is more strongly associated with mortality when assessed by serum cystatin C than by creatinine. The relationship between creatinine and longer term mortality might be particularly weak in survivors of critical illness. Retrospective observational cohort study. In 3,077 adult ICU survivors, we compared ICU discharge cystatin C and creatinine and their association with 1-year mortality. Exclusions were death within 72 hours of ICU discharge, ICU stay less than 24 hours, and end-stage renal disease. None. During ICU admission, serum cystatin C and creatinine diverged, so that by ICU discharge, almost twice as many patients had glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m when estimated from cystatin C compared with glomerular filtration rate estimated from creatinine, 44% versus 26%. In 743 patients without acute kidney injury, where ICU discharge renal function should reflect ongoing baseline, discharge glomerular filtration rate estimated from creatinine consistently overestimated follow-up glomerular filtration rate estimated from creatinine, whereas ICU discharge glomerular filtration rate estimated from cystatin C well matched follow-up chronic kidney disease status. By 1 year, 535 (17.4%) had died. In survival analysis adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidity, cystatin C was near-linearly associated with increased mortality, hazard ratio equals to 1.78 (95% CI, 1.46-2.18), 75th versus 25th centile. Conversely, creatinine demonstrated a J-shaped relationship with mortality, so that in the majority of patients, there was no significant association with survival, hazard ratio equals to 1.03 (0.87-1.2), 75th versus 25th centile. After adjustment for both creatinine and cystatin C levels, higher discharge creatinine was then associated with lower long-term mortality. In contrast to creatinine

  4. Outcome of patients with cirrhosis requiring mechanical ventilation in ICU.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Eric; Saliba, Faouzi; Ichaï, Philippe; Samuel, Didier

    2014-03-01

    Mortality rate of patients with cirrhosis admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and requiring mechanical ventilation varies between 60 and 91%. The aim of our study is to assess the prognosis of these patients, their 1-year outcome and to analyze predictive factors of long-term mortality. From May 2005 to May 2011, we studied 246 consecutive patients with cirrhosis requiring mechanical ventilation either at admission or during their ICU stay. Alcohol was the most common etiology of the cirrhosis (69%). Bleeding related to portal hypertension (30%) and severe sepsis (33%) were the most common reasons for admission. ICU and hospital mortality were respectively 65.9% and 70.3%. Prognostic severity scores, the need for other organ support therapy, infection, and total bilirubin value at ICU admission were significantly associated with ICU mortality. Eighty-four patients (34.1%) were discharged from the ICU. Among these patients, the one-year survival was only of 32%. Logistic regression analysis, using survival at one year as the endpoint, identified two independent risk factors: the length of ventilation (odds ratio [OR] = 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.2; p = 0.02) and total bilirubin at ICU discharge (OR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5; p = 0.006). Patients with cirrhosis admitted to the liver ICU and who required mechanical ventilation have a poor prognosis with a 1-year mortality of 89%. At ICU discharge, a total bilirubin level higher than 64.5 μmol/L and length of ventilation higher than 9 days could help the hepatologists to identify patients at risk of death in the year following the ICU discharge. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The high cost of low-acuity ICU outliers.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Deborah; Wojtal, Greg G; Breslow, Michael J; Holl, Randy; Huguez, Debra; Stone, David; Korpi, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Direct variable costs were determined on each hospital day for all patients with an intensive care unit (ICU) stay in four Phoenix-area hospital ICUs. Average daily direct variable cost in the four ICUs ranged from $1,436 to $1,759 and represented 69.4 percent and 45.7 percent of total hospital stay cost for medical and surgical patients, respectively. Daily ICU cost and length of stay (LOS) were higher in patients with higher ICU admission acuity of illness as measured by the APACHE risk prediction methodology; 16.2 percent of patients had an ICU stay in excess of six days, and these LOS outliers accounted for 56.7 percent of total ICU cost. While higher-acuity patients were more likely to be ICU LOS outliers, 11.1 percent of low-risk patients were outliers. The low-risk group included 69.4 percent of the ICU population and accounted for 47 percent of all LOS outliers. Low-risk LOS outliers accounted for 25.3 percent of ICU cost and incurred fivefold higher hospital stay costs and mortality rates. These data suggest that severity of illness is an important determinant of daily resource consumption and LOS, regardless of whether the patient arrives in the ICU with high acuity or develops complications that increase acuity. The finding that a substantial number of long-stay patients come into the ICU with low acuity and deteriorate after ICU admission is not widely recognized and represents an important opportunity to improve patient outcomes and lower costs. ICUs should consider adding low-risk LOS data to their quality and financial performance reports.

  6. Mortality prediction using TRISS methodology in the Spanish ICU Trauma Registry (RETRAUCI).

    PubMed

    Chico-Fernández, M; Llompart-Pou, J A; Sánchez-Casado, M; Alberdi-Odriozola, F; Guerrero-López, F; Mayor-García, M D; Egea-Guerrero, J J; Fernández-Ortega, J F; Bueno-González, A; González-Robledo, J; Servià-Goixart, L; Roldán-Ramírez, J; Ballesteros-Sanz, M Á; Tejerina-Alvarez, E; Pino-Sánchez, F I; Homar-Ramírez, J

    2016-10-01

    To validate Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) methodology as an auditing tool in the Spanish ICU Trauma Registry (RETRAUCI). A prospective, multicenter registry evaluation was carried out. Thirteen Spanish Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Individuals with traumatic disease and available data admitted to the participating ICUs. Predicted mortality using TRISS methodology was compared with that observed in the pilot phase of the RETRAUCI from November 2012 to January 2015. Discrimination was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the corresponding areas under the curves (AUCs) (95% CI), with calibration using the Hosmer-Lemeshow (HL) goodness-of-fit test. A value of p<0.05 was considered significant. Predicted and observed mortality. A total of 1405 patients were analyzed. The observed mortality rate was 18% (253 patients), while the predicted mortality rate was 16.9%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.889 (95% CI: 0.867-0.911). Patients with blunt trauma (n=1305) had an area under the ROC curve of 0.887 (95% CI: 0.864-0.910), and those with penetrating trauma (n=100) presented an area under the curve of 0.919 (95% CI: 0.859-0.979). In the global sample, the HL test yielded a value of 25.38 (p=0.001): 27.35 (p<0.0001) in blunt trauma and 5.91 (p=0.658) in penetrating trauma. TRISS methodology underestimated mortality in patients with low predicted mortality and overestimated mortality in patients with high predicted mortality. TRISS methodology in the evaluation of severe trauma in Spanish ICUs showed good discrimination, with inadequate calibration - particularly in blunt trauma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  7. Predicting and preventing avoidable hospital admissions: a review.

    PubMed

    Purdey, S; Huntley, A

    2013-01-01

    The strongest risk factors for avoidable hospital admission are age and deprivation but ethnicity, distance to hospital, rurality, lifestyle and meteorological factors are also important, as well as access to primary care. There is still considerable uncertainty around which admissions are avoidable. In terms of services to reduce admissions there is evidence of effectiveness for education, self-management, exercise and rehabilitation, and telemedicine in certain patient populations, mainly respiratory and cardiovascular. Specialist heart failure services and end-of-life care also reduce these admissions. However, case management, specialist clinics, care pathways and guidelines, medication reviews, vaccine programmes and hospital at home do not appear to reduce avoidable admissions. There is insufficient evidence on the role of combinations or coordinated system-wide care services, emergency department interventions, continuity of care, home visits or pay-by-performance schemes. This highlights the importance of robust evaluation of services as they are introduced into health and social care systems.

  8. Medical and Social Determinants of Health Associated with Intensive Care Admission for Asthma in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kercsmar, Carolyn M.; Huang, Bin; Guilbert, Theresa W.; Kahn, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Risk factors for severe asthma exacerbations in children requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) may occur in variety of medical, environmental, economic, and socioeconomic domains. Objectives: We sought to characterize medical and sociodemographic risk factors among children who required admission to the intensive care unit for asthma. Methods: Data were obtained from the Greater Cincinnati Asthma Risk Study, a population-based, prospective, observational cohort of children admitted for treatment of acute asthma or bronchodilator-responsive wheezing. Data collected on 774 children included race, socioeconomic status, allergen sensitization, environmental exposures, psychosocial strain, and financial hardship. Analyses compared children admitted to the ICU to those admitted to a medical inpatient unit. Measurements and Main Results: One hundred sixty-one (20.9%) children required admission to intensive care. There was no difference in sex, race, insurance status, caregiver educational level, income, financial strain, psychological distress, or marital status between the ICU and non-ICU cohorts. Risk for medication nonadherence assessed by parent report was not different between groups. Although previous hospital admission or emergency department visit history did not differ between the groups, prior ICU admission was more common among those admitted to the ICU at the index admission (27 vs. 16%, P = 0.002). Children requiring intensive care admission were more likely to be sensitized to multiple aeroallergens. Exposure to cigarette smoke (measured as salivary cotinine), although a risk factor for hospital admission, was negatively associated with risk of ICU admission. Conclusions: Social and economic risk factors typically predictive of increased asthma morbidity, including exposure to tobacco smoke, were not associated with ICU admission among a population of children admitted to the hospital for treatment of acute asthma. Intrinsic

  9. The impact of open versus closed format ICU admission practices on the outcome of high risk surgical patients: a cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, Frederik J; Slagt, Cornelis; Liebman, Barbara; Beute, Jan; Mulder, Jan W R; Engel, Alexander F

    2011-08-23

    In the year 2000, the organizational structure of the ICU in the Zaandam Medical Centre (ZMC) changed from an open to a closed format ICU. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of this organizational change on outcome in high risk surgical patients. The medical records of all consecutive high risk surgical patients admitted to the ICU from 1996 to 1998 (open format) and from 2003 to 2005 (closed format), were reviewed. High-risk patients were defined according to the Identification of Risk in Surgical patients (IRIS) score. Parameters studied were: mortality, morbidity, ICU length of stay (LOS) and hospital LOS. Mortality of ICU patients was 25.7% in the open format group and 15.8% in the closed format group (p = 0.01). Morbidity decreased from 48.6% to 46.1% (p = 0.6). The average length of hospital stay was 17 days in the open format group, and 21 days in the closed format group (p = 0.03). High risk surgical patients in the ICU are patients that have undergone complex and often extensive surgery. These patients are in need of specialized treatment and careful monitoring for maximum safety and optimal care. Our results suggest that closed format is a more favourable setting than open format to minimize the effects of high risk surgery, and to warrant safe outcome in this patient group.

  10. Daily urinary creatinine predicts the weaning of renal replacement therapy in ICU acute kidney injury patients.

    PubMed

    Viallet, Nicolas; Brunot, Vincent; Kuster, Nils; Daubin, Delphine; Besnard, Noémie; Platon, Laura; Buzançais, Aurèle; Larcher, Romaric; Jonquet, Olivier; Klouche, Kada

    2016-12-01

    In acute kidney injury (AKI), useless continuation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) may delay renal recovery and impair patient's outcome. In this study, we aimed to identify predictive parameters that may help to a successful RRT weaning for AKI patients. We studied 54 surviving AKI patients in which a weaning of RRT was attempted. On the day of weaning (D0) and the following 2 days (D1 and D2), SAPS II and SOFA scores, 24-h diuresis, 24-h urinary creatinine and urea (UCr and UUr), creatinine and urea generation rates (CrGR and UrGR) and clearances (CrCl and UrCl) were collected. Patients who remained free of RRT 15 days after its discontinuation were considered as successfully weaned. Twenty-six RRT weaning attempts succeeded (S+) and 28 failed (S-). Age, previous renal function, SAPS II and SOFA scores were comparable between groups. At D0, 24-h diuresis was 2300 versus 1950 ml in S+ and S-, respectively, p = 0.05. At D0, D1 and D2, 24-h UUr and UCr levels, UrCl and CrCl, and UUr/UrGR and UCr/CrGR ratios were significantly higher in S+ group. By multivariate analysis, D1 24-h UCr was the most powerful parameter that was associated with RRT weaning success with an area under the ROC curve of 0.86 [0.75-0.97] and an odds ratio of 2.01 [1.27-3.18], p = 0.003. In ICU AKI, 24-h UCr appeared as an efficient and independent marker of a successful weaning of RRT. A 24-h UCr ≥5.2 mmol was associated with a successful weaning in 84 % of patients.

  11. Septic shock prediction for ICU patients via coupled HMM walking on sequential contrast patterns.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shameek; Li, Jinyan; Cao, Longbing; Ramamohanarao, Kotagiri

    2017-02-01

    Critical care patient events like sepsis or septic shock in intensive care units (ICUs) are dangerous complications which can cause multiple organ failures and eventual death. Preventive prediction of such events will allow clinicians to stage effective interventions for averting these critical complications. It is widely understood that physiological conditions of patients on variables such as blood pressure and heart rate are suggestive to gradual changes over a certain period of time, prior to the occurrence of a septic shock. This work investigates the performance of a novel machine learning approach for the early prediction of septic shock. The approach combines highly informative sequential patterns extracted from multiple physiological variables and captures the interactions among these patterns via coupled hidden Markov models (CHMM). In particular, the patterns are extracted from three non-invasive waveform measurements: the mean arterial pressure levels, the heart rates and respiratory rates of septic shock patients from a large clinical ICU dataset called MIMIC-II. For baseline estimations, SVM and HMM models on the continuous time series data for the given patients, using MAP (mean arterial pressure), HR (heart rate), and RR (respiratory rate) are employed. Single channel patterns based HMM (SCP-HMM) and multi-channel patterns based coupled HMM (MCP-HMM) are compared against baseline models using 5-fold cross validation accuracies over multiple rounds. Particularly, the results of MCP-HMM are statistically significant having a p-value of 0.0014, in comparison to baseline models. Our experiments demonstrate a strong competitive accuracy in the prediction of septic shock, especially when the interactions between the multiple variables are coupled by the learning model. It can be concluded that the novelty of the approach, stems from the integration of sequence-based physiological pattern markers with the sequential CHMM model to learn dynamic

  12. Predicting MBA Student Success and Streamlining the Admissions Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Within this study the author examines factors commonly employed as master of business administration applicant evaluation criteria to see if these criteria are important in determining an applicant's potential for success. The findings indicate that the Graduate Management Admissions Test (GMAT) is not a significant predictor of student success…

  13. Coupling Admissions and Curricular Data to Predict Medical Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesate, Diana B.; Milem, Jeffrey F.; McIntosh, Kadian L.; Bryan, W. Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The relative impact of admissions factors and curricular measures on the first medical licensing exam (United States Medical Licensing Exam [USMLE] Step 1) scores is examined. The inclusion of first-year and second-year curricular measures nearly doubled the variance explained in Step 1 scores from the amount explained by the combination of…

  14. Validity of the Medical College Admission Test for Predicting MD-PhD Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bills, James L.; VanHouten, Jacob; Grundy, Michelle M.; Chalkley, Roger; Dermody, Terence S.

    2016-01-01

    The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) is a quantitative metric used by MD and MD-PhD programs to evaluate applicants for admission. This study assessed the validity of the MCAT in predicting training performance measures and career outcomes for MD-PhD students at a single institution. The study population consisted of 153 graduates of the…

  15. Validity of the Optometry Admission Test in Predicting Performance in Schools and Colleges of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Gene A.; Johnston, JoElle

    1997-01-01

    A study examined the relationship between Optometry Admission Test scores and pre-optometry or undergraduate grade point average (GPA) with first and second year performance in optometry schools. The test's predictive validity was limited but significant, and comparable to those reported for other admission tests. In addition, the scores…

  16. Unplanned intensive care unit admission following trauma.

    PubMed

    Rubano, Jerry A; Vosswinkel, James A; McCormack, Jane E; Huang, Emily C; Shapiro, Marc J; Jawa, Randeep S

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence and outcomes of trauma patients requiring an unplanned return to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those initially admitted to a step-down unit or floor and subsequently upgraded to the ICU, collectively termed unplanned ICU (UP-ICU) admission, are largely unknown. A retrospective review of the trauma registry of a suburban regional trauma center was conducted for adult patients who were admitted between 2007 and 2013, focusing on patients requiring ICU admission. Prehospital or emergency department intubations and patients undergoing surgery immediately after emergency room evaluation were excluded. Of 5411 admissions, there were 212 UP-ICU admissions, 541 planned ICU (PL-ICU) admissions, and 4658 that were never admitted to the ICU (NO-ICU). Of the 212 UP-ICU admits, 19.8% were unplanned readmissions to the ICU. Injury Severity Score was significantly different between PL-ICU (16), UP-ICU (13), and NO-ICU (9) admits. UP-ICU patients had significantly more often major (Abbreviated Injury Score ≥ 3) head/neck injury (46.7%) and abdominal injury (9.0%) than the NO-ICU group (22.5%, 3.4%), but significantly less often head/neck (59.5%) and abdominal injuries (17.9%) than PL-ICU patients. Major chest injury in the UP-ICU group (27.8%) occurred at a statistically comparable rate to PL-ICU group (31.6%) but more often than the NO-ICU group (14.7%). UP-ICU patients also significantly more often underwent major neurosurgical (10.4% vs 0.7%), thoracic (0.9% vs 0.1%), and abdominal surgery (8.5% vs 0.4%) than NO-ICU patients. Meanwhile, the PL-ICU group had statistically comparable rates of neurosurgical (6.8%) and thoracic surgical (0.9%) procedures but lower major abdominal surgery rate (2.0%) than the UP-ICU group. UP-ICU admission occurred at a median of 2 days following admission. UP-ICU median hospital LOS (15 days), need for mechanical ventilation (50.9%), and in-hospital mortality (18.4%) were significantly higher than those in the PL-ICU (9 days

  17. Can we predict podiatric medical school grade point average using an admission screen?

    PubMed

    Shaw, Graham P; Velis, Evelio; Molnar, David

    2012-01-01

    Most medical school admission committees use cognitive and noncognitive measures to inform their final admission decisions. We evaluated using admission data to predict academic success for podiatric medical students using first-semester grade point average (GPA) and cumulative GPA at graduation as outcome measures. In this study, we used linear multiple regression to examine the predictive power of an admission screen. A cross-validation technique was used to assess how the results of the regression model would generalize to an independent data set. Undergraduate GPA and Medical College Admission Test score accounted for only 22% of the variance in cumulative GPA at graduation. Undergraduate GPA, Medical College Admission Test score, and a time trend variable accounted for only 24% of the variance in first-semester GPA. Seventy-five percent of the individual variation in cumulative GPA at graduation and first-semester GPA remains unaccounted for by admission screens that rely on only cognitive measures, such as undergraduate GPA and Medical College Admission Test score. A reevaluation of admission screens is warranted, and medical educators should consider broadening the criteria used to select the podiatric physicians of the future.

  18. Sleep in family caregivers of ICU survivors for two months post-ICU discharge.

    PubMed

    Choi, JiYeon; Tate, Judith A; Donahoe, Michael P; Ren, Dianxu; Hoffman, Leslie A; Chasens, Eileen R

    2016-12-01

    To describe changes in sleep quality in family caregivers of ICU survivors from the patients' ICU admission until two months post-ICU discharge. Descriptive repeated measure design. Academic hospital medical ICU. Subjective sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) and objective sleep/wake variables (SenseWear Armband™) were measured in family caregivers at patients' ICU admission, within two weeks post-ICU discharge and two months post-ICU discharge. In 28 family caregivers of ICU survivors, most caregivers reported poor sleep quality (i.e. PSQI >5) across the three time points (64.3% during patients' ICU admission, 53.6% at each post-ICU time point). Worse trends in sleep quality and objective sleep/wake pattern were observed in caregivers who were employed, and a non-spouse. There were trends of worsening sleep quality in caregivers of patients unable to return home within two months post-ICU discharge compared to patients able to return home. Poor sleep quality was highly prevalent and persisted in family caregivers of ICU survivors for two months post-ICU discharge. Our data support the need for a larger longitudinal study to examine risk factors associated with sleep quality in family caregivers of ICU survivors to develop targeted interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Readmission of ICU patients: A quality indicator?

    PubMed

    Woldhek, Annemarie L; Rijkenberg, Saskia; Bosman, Rob J; van der Voort, Peter H J

    2017-04-01

    Readmission rate is frequently proposed as a quality indicator because it is related to both patient outcome and organizational efficiency. Currently available studies are not clear about modifiable factors as tools to reduce readmission rate. In a 14year retrospective cohort study of 19,750 ICU admissions we identified 1378 readmissions (7%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis for determinants of readmission within 24h, 48h, 72h and any time during hospital admission was performed with adjustment for patients' characteristics and initial admission severity scores. In all models with different time points, patients with older age, a medical and emergency surgery initial admission and patients with higher SOFA score have a higher risk of readmission. Immunodeficiency was a predictor only in the at any time model. Confirmed infection was predicted in all models except the 24h model. Last day noradrenaline treatment was predicted in the 24 and 48h model. Mechanical ventilation on admission independently protected for readmission, which can be explained by the large number of cardiac surgery patients. All multivariate models had a moderate performance with the highest AUC of 0.70. Readmission can be predicted with moderate precision and independent variables associated with readmission are age, severity of disease, type of admission, infection, immunodeficiency and last day noradrenaline use. The latter factor is the only one that can be modified and therefore readmission rate does not meet the criteria to be used as a useful quality indicator. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Predicting Appropriate Admission of Bronchiolitis Patients in the Emergency Department: Rationale and Methods.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang; Stone, Bryan L; Johnson, Michael D; Nkoy, Flory L

    2016-03-07

    In young children, bronchiolitis is the most common illness resulting in hospitalization. For children less than age 2, bronchiolitis incurs an annual total inpatient cost of $1.73 billion. Each year in the United States, 287,000 emergency department (ED) visits occur because of bronchiolitis, with a hospital admission rate of 32%-40%. Due to a lack of evidence and objective criteria for managing bronchiolitis, ED disposition decisions (hospital admission or discharge to home) are often made subjectively, resulting in significant practice variation. Studies reviewing admission need suggest that up to 29% of admissions from the ED are unnecessary. About 6% of ED discharges for bronchiolitis result in ED returns with admission. These inappropriate dispositions waste limited health care resources, increase patient and parental distress, expose patients to iatrogenic risks, and worsen outcomes. Existing clinical guidelines for bronchiolitis offer limited improvement in patient outcomes. Methodological shortcomings include that the guidelines provide no specific thresholds for ED decisions to admit or to discharge, have an insufficient level of detail, and do not account for differences in patient and illness characteristics including co-morbidities. Predictive models are frequently used to complement clinical guidelines, reduce practice variation, and improve clinicians' decision making. Used in real time, predictive models can present objective criteria supported by historical data for an individualized disease management plan and guide admission decisions. However, existing predictive models for ED patients with bronchiolitis have limitations, including low accuracy and the assumption that the actual ED disposition decision was appropriate. To date, no operational definition of appropriate admission exists. No model has been built based on appropriate admissions, which include both actual admissions that were necessary and actual ED discharges that were unsafe. The

  1. Prediction of length of ICU stay using data-mining techniques: an example of old critically Ill postoperative gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Chun; Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Huang, De-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    With the background of aging population in China and advances in clinical medicine, the amount of operations on old patients increases correspondingly, which imposes increasing challenges to critical care medicine and geriatrics. The study was designed to describe information on the length of ICU stay from a single institution experience of old critically ill gastric cancer patients after surgery and the framework of incorporating data-mining techniques into the prediction. A retrospective design was adopted to collect the consecutive data about patients aged 60 or over with a gastric cancer diagnosis after surgery in an adult intensive care unit in a medical university hospital in Shenyang, China, from January 2010 to March 2011. Characteristics of patients and the length their ICU stay were gathered for analysis by univariate and multivariate Cox regression to examine the relationship with potential candidate factors. A regression tree was constructed to predict the length of ICU stay and explore the important indicators. Multivariate Cox analysis found that shock and nutrition support need were statistically significant risk factors for prolonged length of ICU stay. Altogether, seven variables entered the regression model, including age, APACHE II score, SOFA score, shock, respiratory system dysfunction, circulation system dysfunction, diabetes and nutrition support need. The regression tree indicated comorbidity of two or more kinds of shock as the most important factor for prolonged length of ICU stay in the studied sample. Comorbidity of two or more kinds of shock is the most important factor of length of ICU stay in the studied sample. Since there are differences of ICU patient characteristics between wards and hospitals, consideration of the data-mining technique should be given by the intensivists as a length of ICU stay prediction tool.

  2. Can we safely decrease intensive care unit admissions for children with high grade isolated solid organ injuries? Using the shock index, pediatric age-adjusted and hematocrit to modify APSA admission guidelines.

    PubMed

    Arbuthnot, Mary; Armstrong, Lindsey Bendure; Mooney, David P

    2017-06-01

    In 2000, the American Pediatric Surgical Association (APSA) disseminated consensus practice guidelines for the management of blunt liver and splenic injury which included intensive care unit (ICU) admission for children with grade IV injuries. We sought to determine if we could better predict which children with isolated solid organ injuries (SOI) underwent an ICU-level intervention, thus necessitating ICU admission. Children with isolated liver, spleen, or kidney injuries admitted to the ICU from November 2003 to August 2015 were identified in our trauma registry, and data were extracted from the medical record. ICU-level interventions were defined as transfusion, vasopressor use, intubation, and operative/procedural intervention. Shock index and pediatric age-adjusted (SIPA) was calculated for all patients. The sensitivity and negative predictive values (NPV) were determined. 133 children met inclusion criteria. 19 (14.3%) required ICU-level intervention, and 114 (85.1%) did not. 95% (n=18) of the intervention group had either an elevated SIPA or a hematocrit <30% on admission compared to 22% (n=25) of patients in the no intervention group. Sensitivity was 95%, and NPV was 99%. Limiting ICU admission in children with isolated SOI to those with an elevated SIPA or hematocrit <30% would reduce the ICU admission rate by two-thirds while maintaining patient safety. Diagnostic study. III. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Predicting In-Hospital Mortality of ICU Patients: The PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2012

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ikaro; Moody, George; Scott, Daniel J; Celi, Leo A; Mark, Roger G

    2013-01-01

    Acuity scores, such as APACHE, SAPS, MPM, and SOFA, are widely used to account for population differences in studies aiming to compare how medications, care guidelines, surgery, and other interventions impact mortality in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. By contrast, the focus of the PhysioNet/CinC Challenge 2012 is to develop methods for patient-specific prediction of in-hospital mortality. The data used for the challenge consisted of 5 general descriptors and 36 time series (measurements of vital signs and laboratory results) from the first 48 hours of the first available ICU stay of 12,000 adult patients from the MIMIC II database. The challenge was organized as two events: event 1 measured performance of a binary classifier, and event 2 measured performance of a risk estimator. The score of event 1 was the lower of sensitivity and positive predictive value. The score for event 2 was a range-normalized Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic. A baseline algorithm (using SAPS-1) obtained event 1 and 2 scores of 0.3125 and 68.58 respectively. Most participants submitted entries that outperformed the baseline algorithm. The top final scores for events 1 and 2 were 0.5353 and 17.88 respectively. PMID:24678516

  4. Predicting In-Hospital Mortality of ICU Patients: The PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2012.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ikaro; Moody, George; Scott, Daniel J; Celi, Leo A; Mark, Roger G

    2012-01-01

    Acuity scores, such as APACHE, SAPS, MPM, and SOFA, are widely used to account for population differences in studies aiming to compare how medications, care guidelines, surgery, and other interventions impact mortality in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. By contrast, the focus of the PhysioNet/CinC Challenge 2012 is to develop methods for patient-specific prediction of in-hospital mortality. The data used for the challenge consisted of 5 general descriptors and 36 time series (measurements of vital signs and laboratory results) from the first 48 hours of the first available ICU stay of 12,000 adult patients from the MIMIC II database. The challenge was organized as two events: event 1 measured performance of a binary classifier, and event 2 measured performance of a risk estimator. The score of event 1 was the lower of sensitivity and positive predictive value. The score for event 2 was a range-normalized Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic. A baseline algorithm (using SAPS-1) obtained event 1 and 2 scores of 0.3125 and 68.58 respectively. Most participants submitted entries that outperformed the baseline algorithm. The top final scores for events 1 and 2 were 0.5353 and 17.88 respectively.

  5. Inflammatory biomarkers and prediction for intensive care unit admission in severe community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Paula; Ferrer, Miquel; Martí, Verónica; Reyes, Soledad; Martínez, Raquel; Menéndez, Rosario; Ewig, Santiago; Torres, Antoni

    2011-10-01

    Increased inflammatory response is related to severity and outcome in community-acquired pneumonia, but the role of inflammatory biomarkers in deciding intensive care unit admission is unknown. We assessed the relationship between inflammatory response, prediction for intensive care unit admission, delayed intensive care unit admission, and outcome in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Prospective clinical study. Intensive care units of two university hospitals. We included 627 ward and 58 intensive care unit patients with community-acquired pneumonia, 36 with direct and 22 with delayed intensive care unit admission. Serum levels of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and interleukin-10 at admission. We assessed the prediction for intensive care unit admission of biomarkers and the Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines minor criteria for severe community-acquired pneumonia. Procalcitonin (p=.001), C-reactive protein (p=.005), tumor necrosis factor-α (p=.042), and interleukin-6 (p=.003) levels were higher in intensive care unit-admitted patients; however, the Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines minor severity criteria predicted better intensive care unit admission (odds ratio, 12.03; 95% confidence interval, 5.13-28.20; p<.001). No patient with severe community-acquired pneumonia by three or more minor severity criteria and procalcitonin levels below the optimal cutoff (0.35 ng/mL) needed intensive care unit admission compared with 14 (23%) with levels above the cutoff (p=.032). In patients initially admitted to wards, procalcitonin (p=.012) and C-reactive protein (p=.039) were higher in those 22 patients subsequently transferred to the intensive care unit after adjusting for age, comorbidities, and Pneumonia Severity Index risk class. Despite initially admitted to wards, 14 (64%) patients with delayed

  6. Predicting Outcome on Admission and Post-Admission for Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Failure Using Classification and Regression Tree Models

    PubMed Central

    Speiser, Jaime Lynn; Lee, William M.; Karvellas, Constantine J.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim Assessing prognosis for acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure (APAP-ALF) patients often presents significant challenges. King’s College (KCC) has been validated on hospital admission, but little has been published on later phases of illness. We aimed to improve determinations of prognosis both at the time of and following admission for APAP-ALF using Classification and Regression Tree (CART) models. Methods CART models were applied to US ALFSG registry data to predict 21-day death or liver transplant early (on admission) and post-admission (days 3-7) for 803 APAP-ALF patients enrolled 01/1998–09/2013. Accuracy in prediction of outcome (AC), sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), and area under receiver-operating curve (AUROC) were compared between 3 models: KCC (INR, creatinine, coma grade, pH), CART analysis using only KCC variables (KCC-CART) and a CART model using new variables (NEW-CART). Results Traditional KCC yielded 69% AC, 90% SP, 27% SN, and 0.58 AUROC on admission, with similar performance post-admission. KCC-CART at admission offered predictive 66% AC, 65% SP, 67% SN, and 0.74 AUROC. Post-admission, KCC-CART had predictive 82% AC, 86% SP, 46% SN and 0.81 AUROC. NEW-CART models using MELD (Model for end stage liver disease), lactate and mechanical ventilation on admission yielded predictive 72% AC, 71% SP, 77% SN and AUROC 0.79. For later stages, NEW-CART (MELD, lactate, coma grade) offered predictive AC 86%, SP 91%, SN 46%, AUROC 0.73. Conclusion CARTs offer simple prognostic models for APAP-ALF patients, which have higher AUROC and SN than KCC, with similar AC and negligibly worse SP. Admission and post-admission predictions were developed. Key Points • Prognostication in acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure (APAP-ALF) is challenging beyond admission • Little has been published regarding the use of King’s College Criteria (KCC) beyond admission and KCC has shown limited sensitivity in subsequent studies • Classification

  7. Admission hematocrit predicts the need for transfusion secondary to hemorrhage in pediatric blunt trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Golden, Jamie; Dossa, Avafia; Goodhue, Catherine J; Upperman, Jeffrey S; Gayer, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Pediatric trauma uses a substantial amount of resources. Quick and cost-effective measures that can be used to identify children with clinically relevant injuries are essential to resource allocation and optimization of patient care. Admission hematocrit is rapid and inexpensive, causes minimal harm, and can potentially aid in critical decision making. We hypothesize that admission hematocrit predicts the need for transfusion in pediatric blunt trauma patients. Records of trauma patients age 0 year to 17 years (2005-2013) who presented to a pediatric Level 1 trauma center were retrospectively reviewed. Data collected include demographics, computed tomographic scan findings, need for an intervention secondary to bleeding (blood transfusion, angioembolization, or operation), and admission hematocrit. We found a significant decrease in admission hematocrit between patients requiring a transfusion and patients who did not (27% vs. 36%, p < 0.01). We evaluated a subset of patients who had an abdominal computed tomographic scan and found a significant decrease in admission hemocrit between those who required a transfusion for an intra-abdominal injury and those who did not (29% vs 37%, p < 0.01). In this subset, serial hematocrit values remained significantly lower in the patients requiring a transfusion up to 67 hours after admission (p = 0.04). A cutoff admission hematocrit of 35% or less has a sensitivity of 94% and a negative predictive value of 99.9% in identifying children who need a transfusion after blunt trauma. An admission hematocrit of 35% or less provides a reliable screening test because of its low false negative rate and high specificity for identifying patients at an increased risk of bleeding after injury. Admission hematocrit could be widely implemented to identify patients who may need a transfusion with low expense and minimal harm for our pediatric patients and may be able to alter the entire course of their trauma resuscitation. Epidemiologic

  8. Predicting Persistence and Withdrawal of Open Admissions Students at Virginia State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tambe, Joseph T.

    1984-01-01

    A study of persistence/dropout among open admissions college students found: (1) accurate predictions cannot be made for individual students at the time of matriculation; and (2) it is possible to predict that about 80 percent of future groups will fall in the persist category after two semesters, 51 percent after four semesters. (CMG)

  9. Overview: What's Worked and What Hasn't as a Guide towards Predictive Admissions Tool Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Eric; Reiter, Harold I.

    2009-01-01

    Admissions committees and researchers around the globe have used diligence and imagination to develop and implement various screening measures with the ultimate goal of predicting future clinical and professional performance. What works for predicting future job performance in the human resources world and in most of the academic world may not,…

  10. Using Admission Assessments to Predict Final Grades in a College Music Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Andreas C.

    2014-01-01

    Entrance examinations and auditions are common admission procedures for college music programs, yet few researchers have attempted to look at the long-term predictive validity of such selection processes. In this study, archival data from 93 student records of a German music academy were used to predict development of musicianship skills over the…

  11. Amphetamine availability predicts amphetamine-related mental health admissions: A time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Sara, Grant; Baxter, Clifford; Menendez, Patricia; Lappin, Julia

    2018-03-01

    Amphetamine use and availability have increased in Australia and there are concerns that this has led to more frequent hospital admissions with amphetamine-related psychosis. This study examines whether amphetamine-related admissions to mental health units are more common at times of greater amphetamine availability. We conducted an ecological study using aggregate crime and health service data for NSW, Australia, from January 2000 to March 2015. Amphetamine-related criminal incidents (arrests or cautions for possession or use) were used as an indirect measure of amphetamine availability. Semiparametric time series analysis was used to compare monthly arrest rates to monthly hospitalisation rates for (1) amphetamine abuse or dependence, (2) amphetamine-related psychosis and (3) any psychosis. Amphetamine-related admissions to NSW mental health units have increased four- to fivefold since 2009 and comprised approximately 10% of all admissions to these units in early 2015. There was a significant association between arrests and amphetamine-related admissions. After adjustment for seasonal variation, this effect demonstrated a time lag of 1-2 months. There was no relationship between amphetamine arrests and overall admissions for psychosis. Greater amphetamine availability significantly predicts admissions for amphetamine use disorders and amphetamine-related psychosis. Better treatment strategies are needed to break the nexus between drug availability and drug-related harm.

  12. A reappraisal of ICU and long-term outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients and reassessment of prognosis factors: results of a 5-year cohort study (2009-2013).

    PubMed

    Platon, L; Amigues, L; Ceballos, P; Fegueux, N; Daubin, D; Besnard, N; Larcher, R; Landreau, L; Agostini, C; Machado, S; Jonquet, O; Klouche, K

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiology and prognosis of complications related to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients requiring admission to intensive care unit (ICU) have not been reassessed precisely in the past few years. We performed a retrospective single-center study on 318 consecutive HSCT patients (2009-2013), analyzing outcome and factors prognostic of ICU admission. Among these patients, 73 were admitted to the ICU. In all, 32 patients (40.3%) died in ICU, 46 at hospital discharge (63%) and 61 (83.6%) 1 year later. Survivors had a significantly lower sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, serum lactate and bilirubin upon ICU admission. Catecholamine support, mechanical ventilation (MV) and/or renal replacement therapy during ICU stay, a delayed organ support and an active graft versus host disease (GvHD) significantly worsen the outcome. By multivariate analysis, the worsening of SOFA score from days 1 to 3, the need for MV and the occurrence of an active GvHD were predictive of mortality. In conclusion, the incidence of HSCT-related complications requiring an admission to an ICU was at 22%, with an ICU mortality rate of 44%, and 84% 1 year later. A degradation of SOFA score at day 3 of ICU, need of MV and occurrence of an active GvHD are main predictive factors of mortality.

  13. Fat-free mass at admission predicts 28-day mortality in intensive care unit patients: the international prospective observational study Phase Angle Project.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Ronan; Makhlouf, Anne-Marie; Mulliez, Aurélien; Cristina Gonzalez, M; Kekstas, Gintautas; Kozjek, Nada Rotovnik; Preiser, Jean-Charles; Rozalen, Isabel Ceniceros; Dadet, Sylvain; Krznaric, Zeljko; Kupczyk, Kinga; Tamion, Fabienne; Cano, Noël; Pichard, Claude

    2016-09-01

    Phase angle as measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis reflects fat-free mass. Fat-free mass loss relates to worse prognosis in chronic diseases. Primary aim of this study was: to determine the association between fat-free mass at intensive care unit admission and 28-day mortality. Ten centres in nine countries participated in this multicentre prospective observational study. The inclusion criteria were age >18 years; expected length of stay >48 h; absence of pacemaker, heart defibrillator implant, pregnancy and lactation. Fat-free mass was assessed by measurement of the 50-kHz phase angle at admission. The primary endpoint was 28-day mortality. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to assess prediction of 28-day mortality by fat-free mass at ICU admission. The variables associated with 28-day mortality were analysed by means of multivariable logistic regression. Of the 3605 patients screened, 931 were analysed: age 61 ± 16 years, male 60 %, APACHE II 19 ± 9, body mass index 26 ± 6, day 1 phase angle 4.5° ± 1.9°. Day 1 phase angle was lower in patients who eventually died than in survivors (4.1° ± 2.0° vs. 4.6° ± 1.8°, P = 0.001). The day 1 phase angle AUC for 28-day mortality was 0.63 [0.58-0.67]. In multivariable analysis, the following were independently associated with 28-day mortality: age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.014 [95 % confidence interval 1.002-1.027], P = 0.03), day 1 phase angle (aOR 0.86 [0.78-0.96], P = 0.008), APACHE II (aOR 1.08 [1.06-1.11], P < 0.001), surgical patient (aOR 0.51 [0.33-0.79], P = 0.002), and admission for other diagnosis (aOR 0.39 [0.21-0.72], P = 0.003). A multivariable combined score improved the predictability of 28-day mortality: AUC = 0.79 [0.75-0.82]. Low fat-free mass at ICU admission is associated with 28-day mortality. A combined score improves mortality predictability. NCT01907347 ( http://www.clinicaltrials.gov ).

  14. Predictive validity of pre-admission assessments on medical student performance.

    PubMed

    Dabaliz, Al-Awwab; Kaadan, Samy; Dabbagh, M Marwan; Barakat, Abdulaziz; Shareef, Mohammad Abrar; Al-Tannir, Mohamad; Obeidat, Akef; Mohamed, Ayman

    2017-11-24

    To examine the predictive validity of pre-admission variables on students' performance in a medical school in Saudi Arabia. In this retrospective study, we collected admission and college performance data for 737 students in preclinical and clinical years. Data included high school scores and other standardized test scores, such as those of the National Achievement Test and the General Aptitude Test. Additionally, we included the scores of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) exams. Those datasets were then compared with college performance indicators, namely the cumulative Grade Point Average (cGPA) and progress test, using multivariate linear regression analysis. In preclinical years, both the National Achievement Test (p=0.04, B=0.08) and TOEFL (p=0.017, B=0.01) scores were positive predictors of cGPA, whereas the General Aptitude Test (p=0.048, B=-0.05) negatively predicted cGPA. Moreover, none of the pre-admission variables were predictive of progress test performance in the same group. On the other hand, none of the pre-admission variables were predictive of cGPA in clinical years. Overall, cGPA strongly predict-ed students' progress test performance (p<0.001 and B=19.02). Only the National Achievement Test and TOEFL significantly predicted performance in preclinical years. However, these variables do not predict progress test performance, meaning that they do not predict the functional knowledge reflected in the progress test. We report various strengths and deficiencies in the current medical college admission criteria, and call for employing more sensitive and valid ones that predict student performance and functional knowledge, especially in the clinical years.

  15. Predictive validity of pre-admission assessments on medical student performance

    PubMed Central

    Dabaliz, Al-Awwab; Kaadan, Samy; Dabbagh, M. Marwan; Barakat, Abdulaziz; Shareef, Mohammad Abrar; Al-Tannir, Mohamad; Obeidat, Akef

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine the predictive validity of pre-admission variables on students’ performance in a medical school in Saudi Arabia.  Methods In this retrospective study, we collected admission and college performance data for 737 students in preclinical and clinical years. Data included high school scores and other standardized test scores, such as those of the National Achievement Test and the General Aptitude Test. Additionally, we included the scores of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) exams. Those datasets were then compared with college performance indicators, namely the cumulative Grade Point Average (cGPA) and progress test, using multivariate linear regression analysis. Results In preclinical years, both the National Achievement Test (p=0.04, B=0.08) and TOEFL (p=0.017, B=0.01) scores were positive predictors of cGPA, whereas the General Aptitude Test (p=0.048, B=-0.05) negatively predicted cGPA. Moreover, none of the pre-admission variables were predictive of progress test performance in the same group. On the other hand, none of the pre-admission variables were predictive of cGPA in clinical years. Overall, cGPA strongly predict-ed students’ progress test performance (p<0.001 and B=19.02). Conclusions Only the National Achievement Test and TOEFL significantly predicted performance in preclinical years. However, these variables do not predict progress test performance, meaning that they do not predict the functional knowledge reflected in the progress test. We report various strengths and deficiencies in the current medical college admission criteria, and call for employing more sensitive and valid ones that predict student performance and functional knowledge, especially in the clinical years. PMID:29176032

  16. Does emotional intelligence at medical school admission predict future academic performance?

    PubMed

    Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Leddy, John J; Wood, Timothy J; Puddester, Derek; Moineau, Geneviève

    2014-04-01

    Medical school admissions committees are increasingly considering noncognitive measures like emotional intelligence (EI) in evaluating potential applicants. This study explored whether scores on an EI abilities test at admissions predicted future academic performance in medical school to determine whether EI could be used in making admissions decisions. The authors invited all University of Ottawa medical school applicants offered an interview in 2006 and 2007 to complete the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso EI Test (MSCEIT) at the time of their interview (105 and 101, respectively), then again at matriculation (120 and 106, respectively). To determine predictive validity, they correlated MSCEIT scores to scores on written examinations and objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) administered during the four-year program. They also correlated MSCEIT scores to the number of nominations for excellence in clinical performance and failures recorded over the four years. The authors found no significant correlations between MSCEIT scores and written examination scores or number of failures. The correlations between MSCEIT scores and total OSCE scores ranged from 0.01 to 0.35; only MSCEIT scores at matriculation and OSCE year 4 scores for the 2007 cohort were significantly correlated. Correlations between MSCEIT scores and clinical nominations were low (range 0.12-0.28); only the correlation between MSCEIT scores at matriculation and number of clinical nominations for the 2007 cohort were statistically significant. EI, as measured by an abilities test at admissions, does not appear to reliably predict future academic performance. Future studies should define the role of EI in admissions decisions.

  17. Subarachnoid hemorrhage admissions retrospectively identified using a prediction model

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Lauralyn; Fergusson, Dean; Turgeon, Alexis; dos Santos, Marlise P.; Lum, Cheemun; Chassé, Michaël; Sinclair, John; Forster, Alan; van Walraven, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To create an accurate prediction model using variables collected in widely available health administrative data records to identify hospitalizations for primary subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods: A previously established complete cohort of consecutive primary SAH patients was combined with a random sample of control hospitalizations. Chi-square recursive partitioning was used to derive and internally validate a model to predict the probability that a patient had primary SAH (due to aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation) using health administrative data. Results: A total of 10,322 hospitalizations with 631 having primary SAH (6.1%) were included in the study (5,122 derivation, 5,200 validation). In the validation patients, our recursive partitioning algorithm had a sensitivity of 96.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 93.9–98.0), a specificity of 99.8% (95% CI 99.6–99.9), and a positive likelihood ratio of 483 (95% CI 254–879). In this population, patients meeting criteria for the algorithm had a probability of 45% of truly having primary SAH. Conclusions: Routinely collected health administrative data can be used to accurately identify hospitalized patients with a high probability of having a primary SAH. This algorithm may allow, upon validation, an easy and accurate method to create validated cohorts of primary SAH from either ruptured aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation. PMID:27629096

  18. Re-Examination of Traditional Admissions Criteria in Predicting Academic Success in a Counselor Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatchett, Gregory T.; Lawrence, Christopher; Coaston, Susannah C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to re-evaluate the validity of traditional admissions criteria--UGPA and GRE scores--in predicting academic success for students admitted to a counselor education program in the United States. In contrast to prior research, we also included the newer GRE-Analytical Writing scores in our analyses. In general, we found…

  19. Traditional and Personal Admissions Criteria: Predicting Candidate Performance in US Educational Leadership Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountford, Meredith; Ehlert, Mark; Machell, Jim; Cockrell, Dan

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the predictive validity of traditional academic and personal screening criteria used for admitting students into a Statewide Cooperative Doctoral Programme in Educational Leadership on student performance in the programme. This research examined the relationships among traditional admission criteria which included GRE scores…

  20. Fibrinogen on Admission in Trauma score: Early prediction of low plasma fibrinogen concentrations in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Gauss, Tobias; Campion, Sébastien; Kerever, Sébastien; Eurin, Mathilde; Raux, Mathieu; Harrois, Anatole; Paugam-Burtz, Catherine; Hamada, Sophie

    2018-01-01

    Early recognition of low fibrinogen concentrations in trauma patients is crucial for timely haemostatic treatment and laboratory testing is too slow to inform decision-making. To develop a simple clinical tool to predict low fibrinogen concentrations in trauma patients on arrival. Retrospective cohort study. Three designated level 1 trauma centres in the Paris Region, from January 2011 to December 2013. Patients admitted in accordance with national triage guidelines for major trauma and plasma fibrinogen concentration testing on admission. Construction of a clinical score [Fibrinogen on Admission in Trauma (FibAT) score] in a derivation cohort to predict fibrinogen plasma concentration 1.5 g l or less after multiple regressions. One point was given for each predictive factor. The score was the sum of all. Validation was performed in a separate validation cohort. Predictive accuracy of FibAT score. In total, 2936 patients were included, 2124 in the derivation cohort and 812 in the validation cohort. In the derivation cohort, a multivariate logistic model identified the following predictive factors for plasma fibrinogen concentrations 1.5 g l or less: age less than 33 years, prehospital heart rate more than 100 beats per minute, prehospital SBP less than 100 mmHg, blood lactate concentration on admission more than 2.5 mmol l, free intraabdominal fluid on sonography, decrease in haemoglobin concentration from prehospital to admission of more than 2 g dl, capillary haemoglobin concentration on admission less than 12 g dl and temperature on admission less than 36°C. The FibAT score had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.87 [95% confidence interval (0.86 to 0.91)] in the derivation cohort and of 0.82 (95% confidence interval (0.86 to 0.91)] in the validation cohort to predict a low plasma fibrinogen. The FibAT score accurately predicts plasma fibrinogen levels 1.5 g l or less on admission in trauma patients. This easy-to-use score

  1. Same admissions tools, different outcomes: a critical perspective on predictive validity in three undergraduate medical schools.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Daniel; Friedman, Tim; Pearce, Jacob

    2013-12-27

    Admission to medical school is one of the most highly competitive entry points in higher education. Considerable investment is made by universities to develop selection processes that aim to identify the most appropriate candidates for their medical programs. This paper explores data from three undergraduate medical schools to offer a critical perspective of predictive validity in medical admissions. This study examined 650 undergraduate medical students from three Australian universities as they progressed through the initial years of medical school (accounting for approximately 25 per cent of all commencing undergraduate medical students in Australia in 2006 and 2007). Admissions criteria (aptitude test score based on UMAT, school result and interview score) were correlated with GPA over four years of study. Standard regression of each of the three admissions variables on GPA, for each institution at each year level was also conducted. Overall, the data found positive correlations between performance in medical school, school achievement and UMAT, but not interview. However, there were substantial differences between schools, across year levels, and within sections of UMAT exposed. Despite this, each admission variable was shown to add towards explaining course performance, net of other variables. The findings suggest the strength of multiple admissions tools in predicting outcomes of medical students. However, they also highlight the large differences in outcomes achieved by different schools, thus emphasising the pitfalls of generalising results from predictive validity studies without recognising the diverse ways in which they are designed and the variation in the institutional contexts in which they are administered. The assumption that high-positive correlations are desirable (or even expected) in these studies is also problematised.

  2. Computer-Assisted Decision Support for Student Admissions Based on Their Predicted Academic Performance.

    PubMed

    Muratov, Eugene; Lewis, Margaret; Fourches, Denis; Tropsha, Alexander; Cox, Wendy C

    2017-04-01

    Objective. To develop predictive computational models forecasting the academic performance of students in the didactic-rich portion of a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum as admission-assisting tools. Methods. All PharmD candidates over three admission cycles were divided into two groups: those who completed the PharmD program with a GPA ≥ 3; and the remaining candidates. Random Forest machine learning technique was used to develop a binary classification model based on 11 pre-admission parameters. Results. Robust and externally predictive models were developed that had particularly high overall accuracy of 77% for candidates with high or low academic performance. These multivariate models were highly accurate in predicting these groups to those obtained using undergraduate GPA and composite PCAT scores only. Conclusion. The models developed in this study can be used to improve the admission process as preliminary filters and thus quickly identify candidates who are likely to be successful in the PharmD curriculum.

  3. Assessment and prediction of short term hospital admissions: the case of Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassomenos, P.; Papaloukas, C.; Petrakis, M.; Karakitsios, S.

    The contribution of air pollution on hospital admissions due to respiratory and heart diseases is a major issue in the health-environmental perspective. In the present study, an attempt was made to run down the relationships between air pollution levels and meteorological indexes, and corresponding hospital admissions in Athens, Greece. The available data referred to a period of eight years (1992-2000) including the daily number of hospital admissions due to respiratory and heart diseases, hourly mean concentrations of CO, NO 2, SO 2, O 3 and particulates in several monitoring stations, as well as, meteorological data (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed/direction). The relations among the above data were studied through widely used statistical techniques (multivariate stepwise analyses) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). Both techniques revealed that elevated particulate concentrations are the dominant parameter related to hospital admissions (an increase of 10 μg m -3 leads to an increase of 10.2% in the number of admissions), followed by O 3 and the rest of the pollutants (CO, NO 2 and SO 2). Meteorological parameters also play a decisive role in the formation of air pollutant levels affecting public health. Consequently, increased/decreased daily hospital admissions are related to specific types of meteorological conditions that favor/do not favor the accumulation of pollutants in an urban complex. In general, the role of meteorological factors seems to be underestimated by stepwise analyses, while ANNs attribute to them a more important role. Comparison of the two models revealed that ANN adaptation in complicate environmental issues presents improved modeling results compared to a regression technique. Furthermore, the ANN technique provides a reliable model for the prediction of the daily hospital admissions based on air quality data and meteorological indices, undoubtedly useful for regulatory purposes.

  4. Routine Admission to Intensive Care Unit After Cytoreductive Surgery and Heated Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy: Not Always a Requirement.

    PubMed

    Mogal, Harveshp D; Levine, Edward A; Fino, Nora F; Obiora, Chukwuemeka; Shen, Perry; Stewart, John H; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I

    2016-05-01

    Routine postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) observation of patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is driven by historically reported morbidity and mortality data. The validity of this practice and the criteria for ICU admission have not been elucidated. A prospectively maintained database of 1146 CRS/HIPEC procedures performed from December 1991 to 2014 was retrospectively analyzed. Patients with routine postoperative ICU admission were compared with patients sent directly to the surgical floor. To test the safety of non-ICU care practice, patients with less than 48 h ICU admission were compared with patients directly admitted to the floor. Demographics, primary tumor site, comorbidities, estimated blood loss (EBL), extent of CRS, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status, and overall survival were analyzed. Complete data were available for 1064 CRS/HIPEC procedures, of which 244 cases (22.93 %) did not require ICU admission. Multivariate logistic regression identified age [odds ratio (OR) 1.024; p = 0.02], EBL (OR 1.002; p < 0.0001), number of resected organs (OR 1.308; p = 0.01) and ECOG > 2 (OR 6.387; p = 0.003) as predictive variables of postoperative ICU admission. The cohort directly admitted to the floor demonstrated less minor grade I/II morbidity (29 vs. 47 %; p < 0.0001) and similar grade III/IV major morbidity (16.5 vs. 13.4 %; p = 0.3) than the patients admitted to the ICU for less than 48 h. ICU observation is not routinely required for all patients treated with CRS/HIPEC. Selective ICU admission based on ECOG status, nutritional status, age, EBL, and CRS extent is safe, with potential implications for hospitalization cost for these complex cases.

  5. MHA admission criteria and program performance: do they predict career performance?

    PubMed

    Porter, J; Galfano, V J

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent admission criteria predict graduate school and career performance. The study also analyzed which objective and subjective criteria served as the best predictors. MHA graduates of the University of Minnesota from 1974 to 1977 were surveyed to assess career performance. Student files served as the data base on admission criteria and program performance. Career performance was measured by four variables: total compensation, satisfaction, fiscal responsibility, and level of authority. High levels of MHA program performance were associated with women who had high undergraduate GPAs from highly selective undergraduate colleges, were undergraduate business majors, and participated in extracurricular activities. High levels of compensation were associated with relatively low undergraduate GPAs, high levels of participation in undergraduate extracurricular activities, and being single at admission to graduate school. Admission to MHA programs should be based upon both objective and subjective criteria. Emphasis should be placed upon the selection process for MHA students since admission criteria are shown to explain 30 percent of the variability in graduate program performance, and as much as 65 percent of the variance in level of position authority.

  6. Socio-economic factors that predict psychiatric admissions at a local level.

    PubMed

    Koppel, S; McGuffin, P

    1999-09-01

    The aim of the study was to confirm the predictive relationship between socio-economic factors and psychiatric admissions at a fine grain geographical level. The strength of association was compared with those of other studies that have looked at separate diagnostic groups. Psychiatric admissions were from electoral wards of the County of South Glamorgan, which encompasses the capital city of Wales, Cardiff. Standardized psychiatric admission ratios (SAR) for different diagnostic groups were calculated for a 5-year period. The ecological association with deprivation indices and with single variables at the level of electoral ward was examined. Of a total of 15266 psychiatric admissions, 11296 were analysed. Psychiatric morbidity, reflected in SAR was inversely related to socio-economic deprivation for both sexes. This applied to all diagnostic groups except organic disorders. The relationship was most marked for schizophrenia, delusional disorders and substance abuse, closely followed by personality disorders, and less for affective and neurotic disorders. Little difference existed between three composite indices of deprivation (Carstairs, Jarman, Townsend), but the marginally best predictor was that designed by Jarman. However, low rates of car ownership and high unemployment were as good at predicting SAR as any of the compound indices. Socio-economic factors account for almost 50 % of the variance in psychiatric admission rates between electoral wards. The degree of association between psychiatric morbidity and deprivation varies between diagnostic groups, arguing against a common factor linking deprivation and psychiatric admissions generally. Frequently updated unemployment figures provide nearly as useful and more immediate information than 10-yearly Census data used to calculate the deprivation indices. These figures may be used for needs assessment and targeting resources at a local level.

  7. Intensive care unit admission after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair is primarily determined by hospital factors, adds significant cost, and is often unnecessary.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Caitlin W; Alshaikh, Husain N; Zarkowsky, Devin; Bostock, Ian C; Nejim, Besma; Malas, Mahmoud B

    2018-04-01

    A large proportion of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) patients are routinely admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for postoperative observation. In this study, we aimed to describe the factors associated with ICU admission after EVAR and to compare the outcomes and costs associated with ICU vs non-ICU observation. All patients undergoing elective infrarenal EVAR in the Premier database (2009-2015) were included. Patients were stratified as ICU vs non-ICU admission according to location on postoperative day 0. Both patient-level (sociodemographics, comorbidities) and hospital-level (teaching status, hospital size, geographic location) factors were analyzed using univariate and multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with ICU vs non-ICU admission. Overall outcomes and hospital costs were compared between groups. Overall, 8359 patients underwent elective EVAR during the study period, including 4791 (57.3%) ICU and 3568 (42.7%) non-ICU admissions. Patients admitted to ICU were more frequently nonwhite and had more comorbidities, including congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and hypertension, than non-ICU patients (all, P < .03). ICU admissions were more common in small (<300 beds), urban, and nonteaching hospitals and varied greatly depending on surgeon specialty and geographic region (P < .001). A pattern emerged when admission location was clustered by hospital; ICU patients were treated at hospitals where 96.7% (interquartile range, 84.5%-98.9%) of patients were admitted to ICU after EVAR, whereas non-ICU patients were treated at hospitals where only 7.5% (interquartile range, 4.9%-25.8%) were admitted to ICU after EVAR. A multivariable logistic regression model accounting for patient-, operative-, and hospital-level differences had a significantly lower area under the curve for predicting ICU admission after EVAR than a model

  8. Boarding ICU patients: Are our rounding practices subpar?

    PubMed

    Nunn, Andrew M; Hatchimonji, Justin S; Holena, Daniel N; Seamon, Mark J; Smith, Brian P; Kaplan, Lewis J; Martin, Niels D; Reilly, Patrick M; Schwab, C William; Pascual, Jose L

    2018-04-01

    Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU) patients "boarding" in ICUs other than the designated home unit have been shown to suffer increased rates of complications. We hypothesized that ICU rounding practices are different when SICU patients are housed in home vs. boarding ICUs. SICU rounds were observed at an academic quaternary medical center. Individual patient rounding time and order seen on rounds along with patient data and demographics were recorded. Multivariable regression analysis was used for comparison between patients. Non-boarders were older, observed on a later post ICU admission day and were more likely to be mechanically ventilated. Boarded patients were often seen at the end of rounds and for less time. Not being a boarder, age, APACHE II score on admission, vasopressor use, and positive pressure ventilation all predicted increased rounding time. Surgical ICU patients boarding in non-preferred units are often seen at the end of rounds, result in a greater reliance upon telephone communication, and receive less bedside attention from ICU provider teams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prediction and Observation of Post-Admission Hematoma Expansion in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ovesen, Christian; Havsteen, Inger; Rosenbaum, Sverre; Christensen, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Post-admission hematoma expansion in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) comprises a simultaneous major clinical problem and a possible target for medical intervention. In any case, the ability to predict and observe hematoma expansion is of great clinical importance. We review radiological concepts in predicting and observing post-admission hematoma expansion. Hematoma expansion can be observed within the first 24 h after symptom onset, but predominantly occurs in the early hours. Thus capturing markers of on-going bleeding on imaging techniques could predict hematoma expansion. The spot sign observed on computed tomography angiography is believed to represent on-going bleeding and is to date the most well investigated and reliable radiological predictor of hematoma expansion as well as functional outcome and mortality. On non-contrast CT, the presence of foci of hypoattenuation within the hematoma along with the hematoma-size is reported to be predictive of hematoma expansion and outcome. Because patients tend to arrive earlier to the hospital, a larger fraction of acute ICH-patients must be expected to undergo hematoma expansion. This renders observation and radiological follow-up investigations increasingly relevant. Transcranial duplex sonography has in recent years proven to be able to estimate hematoma volume with good precision and could be a valuable tool in bedside serial observation of acute ICH-patients. Future studies will elucidate, if better prediction and observation of post-admission hematoma expansion can help select patients, who will benefit from hemostatic treatment. PMID:25324825

  10. Does Emotional Intelligence at Medical School Admission Predict Future Academic Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Leddy, John J.; Wood, Timothy J.; Puddester, Derek; Moineau, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Medical school admissions committees are increasingly considering noncognitive measures like emotional intelligence (EI) in evaluating potential applicants. This study explored whether scores on an EI abilities test at admissions predicted future academic performance in medical school to determine whether EI could be used in making admissions decisions. Method The authors invited all University of Ottawa medical school applicants offered an interview in 2006 and 2007 to complete the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso EI Test (MSCEIT) at the time of their interview (105 and 101, respectively), then again at matriculation (120 and 106, respectively). To determine predictive validity, they correlated MSCEIT scores to scores on written examinations and objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) administered during the four-year program. They also correlated MSCEIT scores to the number of nominations for excellence in clinical performance and failures recorded over the four years. Results The authors found no significant correlations between MSCEIT scores and written examination scores or number of failures. The correlations between MSCEIT scores and total OSCE scores ranged from 0.01 to 0.35; only MSCEIT scores at matriculation and OSCE year 4 scores for the 2007 cohort were significantly correlated. Correlations between MSCEIT scores and clinical nominations were low (range 0.12–0.28); only the correlation between MSCEIT scores at matriculation and number of clinical nominations for the 2007 cohort were statistically significant. Conclusions EI, as measured by an abilities test at admissions, does not appear to reliably predict future academic performance. Future studies should define the role of EI in admissions decisions. PMID:24556771

  11. Hypotension Risk Prediction via Sequential Contrast Patterns of ICU Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shameek; Feng, Mengling; Nguyen, Hung; Li, Jinyan

    2016-09-01

    Acute hypotension is a significant risk factor for in-hospital mortality at intensive care units. Prolonged hypotension can cause tissue hypoperfusion, leading to cellular dysfunction and severe injuries to multiple organs. Prompt medical interventions are thus extremely important for dealing with acute hypotensive episodes (AHE). Population level prognostic scoring systems for risk stratification of patients are suboptimal in such scenarios. However, the design of an efficient risk prediction system can significantly help in the identification of critical care patients, who are at risk of developing an AHE within a future time span. Toward this objective, a pattern mining algorithm is employed to extract informative sequential contrast patterns from hemodynamic data, for the prediction of hypotensive episodes. The hypotensive and normotensive patient groups are extracted from the MIMIC-II critical care research database, following an appropriate clinical inclusion criteria. The proposed method consists of a data preprocessing step to convert the blood pressure time series into symbolic sequences, using a symbolic aggregate approximation algorithm. Then, distinguishing subsequences are identified using the sequential contrast mining algorithm. These subsequences are used to predict the occurrence of an AHE in a future time window separated by a user-defined gap interval. Results indicate that the method performs well in terms of the prediction performance as well as in the generation of sequential patterns of clinical significance. Hence, the novelty of sequential patterns is in their usefulness as potential physiological biomarkers for building optimal patient risk stratification systems and for further clinical investigation of interesting patterns in critical care patients.

  12. Prognosis of patients presenting extreme acidosis (pH <7) on admission to intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Allyn, Jérôme; Vandroux, David; Jabot, Julien; Brulliard, Caroline; Galliot, Richard; Tabatchnik, Xavier; Combe, Patrice; Martinet, Olivier; Allou, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    The purpose was to determine prognosis of patients presenting extreme acidosis (pH <7) on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and to identify mortality risk factors. We retrospectively analyzed all patients who presented with extreme acidosis within 24 hours of admission to a polyvalent ICU in a university hospital between January 2011 and July 2013. Multivariate analysis and survival analysis were used. Among the 2156 patients admitted, 77 patients (3.6%) presented extreme acidosis. Thirty (39%) patients suffered cardiac arrest before admission. Although the mortality rate predicted by severity score was 93.6%, death occurred in 52 cases (67.5%) in a median delay of 13 (5-27) hours. Mortality rate depended on reason for admission, varying between 22% for cases linked to diabetes mellitus and 100% for cases of mesenteric infarction (P = .002), cardiac arrest before admission (P < .001), type of lactic acidosis (P = .007), high Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (P = .008), and low serum creatinine (P = .012). Patients with extreme acidosis on admission to ICU have a less severe than expected prognosis. Whereas mortality is almost 100% in cases of cardiac arrest before admission, mortality is much lower in the absence of cardiac arrest before admission, which justifies aggressive ICU therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Natural Language Processing for Cohort Discovery in a Discharge Prediction Model for the Neonatal ICU.

    PubMed

    Temple, Michael W; Lehmann, Christoph U; Fabbri, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Discharging patients from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) can be delayed for non-medical reasons including the procurement of home medical equipment, parental education, and the need for children's services. We previously created a model to identify patients that will be medically ready for discharge in the subsequent 2-10 days. In this study we use Natural Language Processing to improve upon that model and discern why the model performed poorly on certain patients. We retrospectively examined the text of the Assessment and Plan section from daily progress notes of 4,693 patients (103,206 patient-days) from the NICU of a large, academic children's hospital. A matrix was constructed using words from NICU notes (single words and bigrams) to train a supervised machine learning algorithm to determine the most important words differentiating poorly performing patients compared to well performing patients in our original discharge prediction model. NLP using a bag of words (BOW) analysis revealed several cohorts that performed poorly in our original model. These included patients with surgical diagnoses, pulmonary hypertension, retinopathy of prematurity, and psychosocial issues. The BOW approach aided in cohort discovery and will allow further refinement of our original discharge model prediction. Adequately identifying patients discharged home on g-tube feeds alone could improve the AUC of our original model by 0.02. Additionally, this approach identified social issues as a major cause for delayed discharge. A BOW analysis provides a method to improve and refine our NICU discharge prediction model and could potentially avoid over 900 (0.9%) hospital days.

  14. For patients with terminal chronic illness, does more face-to-face time with a healthcare provider decrease aggressive end-of-life (EOL) care such as ICU admission, feeding tube placement, CPR, or intubation?

    PubMed Central

    Seaberg, Preston; Hamm, Robert M.; McCarthy, Laine H.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical Question For patients with terminal chronic illness, does more face-to-face time with a healthcare provider decrease aggressive end-of-life (EOL) care such as ICU admission, feeding tube placement, CPR, or intubation? Answer Inconclusive. Existing evidence does not provide a conclusive answer to this particular question. While multiple prospective, randomized, controlled trials demonstrate an association between increased patient-provider contact time and decreased aggressive EOL care, interventions in those studies contain multiple confounding elements that preclude isolation of the time factor from the other elements in the interventions. There is a need for research focusing on physician-patient communication time and EOL care. Level of Evidence for the Answer A Search Terms Terminal care, palliative care, terminal illness, communication, patient-provider relations, time factors, life support care, resuscitation orders, enteral nutrition Inclusion Criteria Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and comparative studies published between 2008 and the current date comparing EOL care or EOL care preferences of patients who spend more face-to-face time with a healthcare provider to those of patients who spend less face-to-face time with a healthcare provider. Exclusion Criteria Studies that do not report the primary outcome of interest (EOL care or EOL care preferences) or that do not measure discussion time or provide interventions that include face-to-face discussion. PMID:25796765

  15. The predictive value of hospital admission serum alanine transaminase activity in patients treated for paracetamol overdose.

    PubMed

    Al-Hourani, K; Mansi, R; Pettie, J; Dow, M; Bateman, D N; Dear, J W

    2013-06-01

    Paracetamol is a major cause of poisoning. Treatment decisions are predominately based on the dose ingested and a timed blood paracetamol concentration because most patients present to hospital soon after overdose, before hepatotoxicity can be confirmed/excluded using serum alanine transaminase (ALT). Nonetheless, ALT is measured at hospital presentation; we investigated its value in predicting hepatotoxicity. From March 2011 to May 2012, patients admitted to the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh for paracetamol overdose treatment were identified. We determined the value of admission ALT (below or above our upper limit of normal-50 IU/l) at predicting three endpoints: 1-doubling of ALT; 2-peak ALT >1000 IU/l; 3-peak international normalized ratio (INR) >2. From 500 patients, 410 met the entry criteria; 264 presented within 8 h of overdose, 54 between 8 and 24 h, 53 after 24 h and 39 were staggered ingestions. Admission ALT was increased in 71. For endpoint 1 (ALT doubling), the positive predictive value (PPV) of admission ALT was 19% [95% confidence interval (CI) 12-30] with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 98% (95% CI 96-99); endpoint 2 (ALT >1000 IU/l: PPV 23% (95% CI 14-34) and NPV 100% (95% CI 99-100) and for endpoint 3 (INR >2): PPV 14% (95% CI 7-25) and NPV of 100% (95% CI 99-100). The NPV remained high when only late presenters were included. Admission ALT within the normal range has a high NPV and could be used, alone or in combination with newer biomarkers, to identify lower risk patients at hospital presentation.

  16. Using an Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) Model for Prediction of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Outcome and Length of Stay at Hospital in Traumatic Patients.

    PubMed

    Gholipour, Changiz; Rahim, Fakher; Fakhree, Abolghasem; Ziapour, Behrad

    2015-04-01

    Currently applications of artificial neural network (ANN) models in outcome predicting of patients have made considerable strides in clinical medicine. This project aims to use a neural network for predicting survival and length of stay of patients in the ward and the intensive care unit (ICU) of trauma patients and to obtain predictive power of the current method. We used Neuro-Solution software (NS), a leading-edge neural network software for data mining to create highly accurate and predictive models using advanced preprocessing techniques, intelligent automated neural network topology through cutting-edge distributed computing. This ANN model was used based on back-propagation, feed forward, and fed by Trauma and injury severity score (TRISS) components, biochemical findings, risk factors and outcome of 95 patients. In the next step a trained ANN was used to predict outcome, ICU and ward length of stay for 30 test group patients by processing primary data. The sensitivity and specificity of an ANN for predicting the outcome of traumatic patients in this study calculated 75% and 96.26%, respectively. 93.33% of outcome predictions obtained by ANN were correct. In 3.33% of predictions, results of ANN were optimistic and 3.33% of cases predicted ANN results were worse than the actual outcome of patients. Neither difference in average length of stay in the ward and ICU with predicted ANN results, were statistically significant. Correlation coefficient of two variables of ANN prediction and actual length of stay in hospital was equal to 0.643. Using ANN model based on clinical and biochemical variables in patients with moderate to severe traumatic injury, resulted in satisfactory outcome prediction when applied to a test set.

  17. Predicting admission at triage: are nurses better than a simple objective score?

    PubMed

    Cameron, Allan; Ireland, Alastair J; McKay, Gerard A; Stark, Adam; Lowe, David J

    2017-01-01

    We compared two methods of predicting hospital admission from ED triage: probabilities estimated by triage nurses and probabilities calculated by the Glasgow Admission Prediction Score (GAPS). In this single-centre prospective study, triage nurses estimated the probability of admission using a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS), and GAPS was generated automatically from triage data. We compared calibration using rank sum tests, discrimination using area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) and accuracy with McNemar's test. Of 1829 attendances, 745 (40.7%) were admitted, not significantly different from GAPS' prediction of 750 (41.0%, p=0.678). In contrast, the nurses' mean VAS predicted 865 admissions (47.3%), overestimating by 6.6% (p<0.0001). GAPS discriminated between admission and discharge as well as nurses, its AUC 0.876 compared with 0.875 for VAS (p=0.93). As a binary predictor, its accuracy was 80.6%, again comparable with VAS (79.0%), p=0.18. In the minority of attendances, when nurses felt at least 95% certain of the outcome, VAS' accuracy was excellent, at 92.4%. However, in the remaining majority, GAPS significantly outperformed VAS on calibration (+1.2% vs +9.2%, p<0.0001), discrimination (AUC 0.810 vs 0.759, p=0.001) and accuracy (75.1% vs 68.9%, p=0.0009). When we used GAPS, but 'over-ruled' it when clinical certainty was ≥95%, this significantly outperformed either method, with AUC 0.891 (0.877-0.907) and accuracy 82.5% (80.7%-84.2%). GAPS, a simple clinical score, is a better predictor of admission than triage nurses, unless the nurse is sure about the outcome, in which case their clinical judgement should be respected. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Development and validation of PRE-DELIRIC (PREdiction of DELIRium in ICu patients) delirium prediction model for intensive care patients: observational multicentre study.

    PubMed

    van den Boogaard, M; Pickkers, P; Slooter, A J C; Kuiper, M A; Spronk, P E; van der Voort, P H J; van der Hoeven, J G; Donders, R; van Achterberg, T; Schoonhoven, L

    2012-02-09

    To develop and validate a delirium prediction model for adult intensive care patients and determine its additional value compared with prediction by caregivers. Observational multicentre study. Five intensive care units in the Netherlands (two university hospitals and three university affiliated teaching hospitals). 3056 intensive care patients aged 18 years or over. Development of delirium (defined as at least one positive delirium screening) during patients' stay in intensive care. The model was developed using 1613 consecutive intensive care patients in one hospital and temporally validated using 549 patients from the same hospital. For external validation, data were collected from 894 patients in four other hospitals. The prediction (PRE-DELIRIC) model contains 10 risk factors-age, APACHE-II score, admission group, coma, infection, metabolic acidosis, use of sedatives and morphine, urea concentration, and urgent admission. The model had an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.85 to 0.89) and 0.86 after bootstrapping. Temporal validation and external validation resulted in areas under the curve of 0.89 (0.86 to 0.92) and 0.84 (0.82 to 0.87). The pooled area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (n=3056) was 0.85 (0.84 to 0.87). The area under the curve for nurses' and physicians' predictions (n=124) was significantly lower at 0.59 (0.49 to 0.70) for both. The PRE-DELIRIC model for intensive care patients consists of 10 risk factors that are readily available within 24 hours after intensive care admission and has a high predictive value. Clinical prediction by nurses and physicians performed significantly worse. The model allows for early prediction of delirium and initiation of preventive measures. Trial registration Clinical trials NCT00604773 (development study) and NCT00961389 (validation study).

  19. A model-based analysis of the predictive performance of different renal function markers for cefepime clearance in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Jonckheere, Stijn; De Neve, Nikolaas; De Beenhouwer, Hans; Berth, Mario; Vermeulen, An; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; Colin, Pieter

    2016-09-01

    Several population pharmacokinetic models for cefepime in critically ill patients have been described, which all indicate that variability in renal clearance is the main determinant of the observed variability in exposure. The main objective of this study was to determine which renal marker best predicts cefepime clearance. A pharmacokinetic model was developed using NONMEM based on 208 plasma and 51 urine samples from 20 ICU patients during a median follow-up of 3 days. Four serum-based kidney markers (creatinine, cystatin C, urea and uromodulin) and two urinary markers [measured creatinine clearance (CLCR) and kidney injury molecule-1] were evaluated as covariates in the model. A two-compartment model incorporating a renal and non-renal clearance component along with an additional term describing haemodialysis clearance provided an adequate description of the data. The Cockcroft-Gault formula was the best predictor for renal cefepime clearance. Compared with the base model without covariates, the objective function value decreased from 1971.7 to 1948.1, the median absolute prediction error from 42.4% to 29.9% and the between-subject variability in renal cefepime clearance from 135% to 50%. Other creatinine- and cystatin C-based formulae and measured CLCR performed similarly. Monte Carlo simulations using the Sanford guide dose recommendations indicated an insufficient dose reduction in patients with a decreased kidney function, leading to potentially toxic levels. The Cockcroft-Gault formula was the best predictor for cefepime clearance in critically ill patients, although other creatinine- and cystatin C-based formulae and measured CLCR performed similarly. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia Admitted to Intensive Care Units: Outcome Analysis and Risk Prediction.

    PubMed

    Pohlen, Michele; Thoennissen, Nils H; Braess, Jan; Thudium, Johannes; Schmid, Christoph; Kochanek, Matthias; Kreuzer, Karl-Anton; Lebiedz, Pia; Görlich, Dennis; Gerth, Hans U; Rohde, Christian; Kessler, Torsten; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Stelljes, Matthias; Hullermann, Carsten; Büchner, Thomas; Schlimok, Günter; Hallek, Michael; Waltenberger, Johannes; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Heilmeier, Bernhard; Krug, Utz

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective, multicenter study aimed to reveal risk predictors for mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) as well as survival after ICU discharge in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) requiring treatment in the ICU. Multivariate analysis of data for 187 adults with AML treated in the ICU in one institution revealed the following as independent prognostic factors for death in the ICU: arterial oxygen partial pressure below 72 mmHg, active AML and systemic inflammatory response syndrome upon ICU admission, and need for hemodialysis and mechanical ventilation in the ICU. Based on these variables, we developed an ICU mortality score and validated the score in an independent cohort of 264 patients treated in the ICU in three additional tertiary hospitals. Compared with the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II, the Logistic Organ Dysfunction (LOD) score, and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, our score yielded a better prediction of ICU mortality in the receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis (AUC = 0.913 vs. AUC = 0.710 [SAPS II], AUC = 0.708 [LOD], and 0.770 [SOFA] in the training cohort; AUC = 0.841 for the developed score vs. AUC = 0.730 [SAPSII], AUC = 0.773 [LOD], and 0.783 [SOFA] in the validation cohort). Factors predicting decreased survival after ICU discharge were as follows: relapse or refractory disease, previous allogeneic stem cell transplantation, time between hospital admission and ICU admission, time spent in ICU, impaired diuresis, Glasgow Coma Scale <8 and hematocrit of ≥25% at ICU admission. Based on these factors, an ICU survival score was created and used for risk stratification into three risk groups. This stratification discriminated distinct survival rates after ICU discharge. Our data emphasize that although individual risks differ widely depending on the patient and disease status, a substantial portion of critically ill patients with AML benefit from intensive care.

  1. The Effectiveness of Traditional Admissions Criteria in Predicting College and Graduate Success for American and International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Yanfei

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of traditional admissions criteria, including prior GPA, SAT, GRE, and TOEFL in predicting undergraduate and graduate academic success for American and international students at a large public university in the southwestern United States. Included are the admissions and enrollment data for 25,017 undergraduate…

  2. Development and internal validation of the Simplified Mortality Score for the Intensive Care Unit (SMS-ICU).

    PubMed

    Granholm, A; Perner, A; Krag, M; Hjortrup, P B; Haase, N; Holst, L B; Marker, S; Collet, M O; Jensen, A K G; Møller, M H

    2018-03-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) mortality prediction scores deteriorate over time, and their complexity decreases clinical applicability and commonly causes problems with missing data. We aimed to develop and internally validate a new and simple score that predicts 90-day mortality in adults upon acute admission to the ICU: the Simplified Mortality Score for the Intensive Care Unit (SMS-ICU). We used data from an international cohort of 2139 patients acutely admitted to the ICU and 1947 ICU patients with severe sepsis/septic shock from 2009 to 2016. We performed multiple imputations for missing data and used binary logistic regression analysis with variable selection by backward elimination, followed by conversion to a simple point-based score. We assessed the apparent performance and validated the score internally using bootstrapping to present optimism-corrected performance estimates. The SMS-ICU comprises seven variables available in 99.5% of the patients: two numeric variables: age and lowest systolic blood pressure, and five dichotomous variables: haematologic malignancy/metastatic cancer, acute surgical admission and use of vasopressors/inotropes, respiratory support and renal replacement therapy. Discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.71-0.74), overall performance (Nagelkerke's R 2 ) was 0.19 and calibration (intercept and slope) was 0.00 and 0.99, respectively. Optimism-corrected performance was similar to apparent performance. The SMS-ICU predicted 90-day mortality with reasonable and stable performance. If performance remains adequate after external validation, the SMS-ICU could prove a valuable tool for ICU clinicians and researchers because of its simplicity and expected very low number of missing values. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The prognostic significance of the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) with systemic vasculitis patients transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU).

    PubMed

    Biscetti, Federico; Carbonella, Angela; Parisi, Federico; Bosello, Silvia Laura; Schiavon, Franco; Padoan, Roberto; Gremese, Elisa; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco

    2016-11-01

    Systemic vasculitides represent a heterogeneous group of diseases that share clinical features including respiratory distress, renal dysfunction, and neurologic disorders. These diseases may often cause life-threatening complications requiring admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of the study was to evaluate the validity and responsiveness of Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) score to predict survival in patients with systemic vasculitides admitted to ICU.A retrospective study was carried out from 2004 to 2014 in 18 patients with systemic vasculitis admitted to 2 different Rheumatology divisions and transferred to ICU due to clinical worsening, with a length of stay beyond 24 hours. We found that ICU mortality was significantly associated with higher BVAS scores performed in the ward (P = 0.01) and at the admission in ICU (P = 0.01), regardless of the value of Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) scores (P = 0.50). We used receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to evaluate the possible cutoff value for the BVAS in the ward and in ICU and we found that a BVAS > 8 in the ward and that a BVAS > 10 in ICU might be a useful tool to predict in-ICU mortality.BVAS appears to be an excellent tool for assessing ICU mortality risk of systemic vasculitides patients admitted to specialty departments. Our experience has shown that performing the assessment at admission to the ward is more important than determining the evaluation before the clinical aggravation causing the transfer to ICU.

  4. Consciousness levels one week after admission to a palliative care unit improve survival prediction in advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jaw-Shiun; Chen, Chao-Hsien; Wu, Chih-Hsun; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Morita, Tatsuya; Chang, Chin-Hao; Hung, Shou-Hung; Lee, Ya-Ping; Chen, Ching-Yu

    2015-02-01

    Consciousness is an important factor of survival prediction in advanced cancer patients. However, effects on survival of changes over time in consciousness in advanced cancer patients have not been fully explored. This study evaluated changes in consciousness after admission to a palliative care unit and their correlation with prognosis in terminal cancer patients. This is a prospective observational study. From a palliative care unit in Taiwan, 531 cancer patients (51.8% male) were recruited. Consciousness status was assessed at admission and one week afterwards and recorded as normal or impaired. The mean age was 65.28±13.59 years, and the average survival time was 23.41±37.69 days. Patients with normal consciousness at admission (n=317) had better survival than those with impaired consciousness at admission (n=214): (17.0 days versus 6.0 days, p<0.001). In the analysis on survival within one week after admission, those with normal consciousness at admission had a higher percentage of survival than the impaired (78.9% versus 44.3%, p<0.001). Patients were further classified into four groups according to consciousness levels: (1) normal at admission and one week afterwards, (2) impaired at admission but normal one week afterwards, (3) normal at admission but impaired one week afterwards, and (4) impaired both at admission and one week afterwards. The former two groups had significantly better survival than the latter two groups: (median survival counted from day 7 after admission), 25.5, 27.0, 7.0, and 7.0 days, respectively. Consciousness levels one week after admission should be integrated into survival prediction in advanced cancer patients.

  5. The use of selective admissions tools to predict students' success in an advanced standing baccalaureate nursing program.

    PubMed

    Timer, Jennifer E; Clauson, Marion I

    2011-08-01

    The judicious selection of nursing school applicants is important, and universities are increasingly incorporating non-academic criteria into their admission processes. We undertook a retrospective, correlational study of the predictive utility of an admissions process for nursing students' "in-program" success. The sample consisted of all 249 students admitted to a Canadian accelerated baccalaureate nursing program over a four-year study period. The students' arithmetic mean grade for six nursing courses (both theoretical and clinical) and their final grade point average (GPA) at graduation were the outcome measures of student success. The predictor variables included the applicants' demographic characteristics (e.g., age, gender, ethnic minority status, and previous educational attainment), their supplemental application materials and interview scores (assessing non-academic criteria), and their admission GPA. Linear regression was conducted on the outcome measures to determine whether the selection tools added information over that obtained through the use of admission GPA in predicting success. Although their admission GPAs were consistently predictive of the students' success, neither the supplemental application nor the interview scores had predictive utility. The variables consistently predictive of student success were age, ethnic minority status, and admission GPA, accounting for 26% of the variance in the selected nursing grades and 36% of the variance in GPA at graduation. The results provided little evidence to justify using the selective admissions tools. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Overview: what's worked and what hasn't as a guide towards predictive admissions tool development.

    PubMed

    Siu, Eric; Reiter, Harold I

    2009-12-01

    Admissions committees and researchers around the globe have used diligence and imagination to develop and implement various screening measures with the ultimate goal of predicting future clinical and professional performance. What works for predicting future job performance in the human resources world and in most of the academic world may not, however, work for the highly competitive world of medical school applicants. For the job of differentiating within the highly range-restricted pool of medical school aspirants, only the most reliable assessment tools need apply. The tools that have generally shown predictive validity in future performance include academic scores like grade point average, aptitude tests like the Medical College Admissions Test, and non-cognitive testing like the multiple mini-interview. The list of assessment tools that have not robustly met that mark is longer, including personal interview, personal statement, letters of reference, personality testing, emotional intelligence and (so far) situational judgment tests. When seen purely from the standpoint of predictive validity, the trends over time towards success or failure of these measures provide insight into future tool development.

  7. Mortality prediction in intensive care units with the Super ICU Learner Algorithm (SICULA): a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Pirracchio, Romain; Petersen, Maya L; Carone, Marco; Rigon, Matthieu Resche; Chevret, Sylvie; van der Laan, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Improved mortality prediction for patients in intensive care units is a big challenge. Many severity scores have been proposed, but findings of validation studies have shown that they are not adequately calibrated. The Super ICU Learner Algorithm (SICULA), an ensemble machine learning technique that uses multiple learning algorithms to obtain better prediction performance, does at least as well as the best member of its library. We aimed to assess whether the Super Learner could provide a new mortality prediction algorithm for patients in intensive care units, and to assess its performance compared with other scoring systems. From January, 2001, to December, 2008, we used the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II) database (version 26) including all patients admitted to an intensive care unit at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Centre, Boston, MA, USA. We assessed the calibration, discrimination, and risk classification of predicted hospital mortality based on Super Learner compared with SAPS-II, APACHE-II, and SOFA. We calculated performance measures with cross-validation to avoid making biased assessments. Our proposed score was then externally validated on a dataset of 200 randomly selected patients admitted at the intensive care unit of Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou, Paris, France, between Sept 1, 2013, and June, 30, 2014. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. The explanatory variables were the same as those included in the SAPS II score. 24,508 patients were included, with median SAPS-II of 38 (IQR 27-51) and median SOFA of 5 (IQR 2-8). 3002 of 24,508 (12%) patients died in the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Centre. We produced two sets of predictions based on the Super Learner; the first based on the 17 variables as they appear in the SAPS-II score (SL1), and the second, on the original, untransformed variables (SL2). The two versions yielded average predicted probabilities of death of 0·12 (IQR 0·02-0·16) and 0

  8. Examining the Importance of Admissions Criteria in Predicting Nursing Program Success.

    PubMed

    Wambuguh, Oscar; Eckfield, Monika; Van Hofwegen, Lynn

    2016-09-20

    Baccalaureate nursing programs select students likely to graduate, become licensed, and contribute to a diverse workforce, and admissions criteria need to support those goals. This study assessed five criteria: pre-admit science GPA; TEAS score; healthcare experience; previous baccalaureate degree; and pre-admission university enrollment vs. college transfer as predictors of three desired outcomes: graduation; nursing program GPA; and passing NCLEX-RN. Results found TEAS and pre-admit science GPA predicted nursing program outcomes. Students with TEAS≥82 had 8 % greater probability of graduating, 13 % greater probability of a GPA≥3.25, and 9 % greater probability of passing NCLEX-RN, compared to students with TEAS < 82. Students with pre-admit science GPAs≥3.8 had 11 % greater probability of passing NCLEX-RN and 14 % greater probability of a GPA≥3.25 compared to students with pre-admit science GPAs < 3.8. Further discussions regarding factors important for training a diverse nursing workforce and effective ways to implement non-academic admission criteria are warranted.

  9. The Preschool Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (psCAM-ICU): Valid and Reliable Delirium Monitoring for Critically Ill Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Heidi A.B.; Gangopadhyay, Maalobeeka; Goben, Christina M.; Jacobowski, Natalie L.; Chestnut, Mary Hamilton; Savage, Shane; Rutherford, Michael T.; Denton, Danica; Thompson, Jennifer L.; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Acton, Michelle; Newman, Jessica; Noori, Hannah P.; Terrell, Michelle K.; Williams, Stacey R.; Griffith, Katherine; Cooper, Timothy J.; Ely, E. Wesley; Fuchs, D. Catherine; Pandharipande, Pratik P.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE and OBJECTIVE Delirium assessments in critically ill infants and young children pose unique challenges due to evolution of cognitive and language skills. The objectives of this study were to determine the validity and reliability of a fundamentally objective and developmentally appropriate delirium assessment tool for critically ill infants and preschool-aged children, and to determine delirium prevalence. DESIGN and SETTING Prospective, observational cohort validation study of the PreSchool Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (psCAM-ICU) in a tertiary medical center pediatric ICU. PATIENTS Participants aged 6 months to 5 years and admitted to the pediatric ICU regardless of admission diagnosis were enrolled. INTERVENTIONS, MEASUREMENTS and MAIN RESULTS An interdisciplinary team created the psCAM-ICU for pediatric delirium monitoring. To assess validity, patients were independently assessed for delirium daily by the research team using the psCAM-ICU and by a child psychiatrist using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. Reliability was assessed using blinded, concurrent psCAM-ICU evaluations by research staff. A total of 530-paired delirium assessments were completed among 300 patients, with a median age of 20 months (IQR 11, 37) and 43% requiring mechanical ventilation. The psCAM-ICU demonstrated a specificity of 91% (95%CI 90, 93), sensitivity of 75% (72, 78), negative predictive value of 86% (84, 88), positive predictive value of 84% (81, 87), and a reliability kappa statistic of 0.79 (0.76, 0.83). Delirium prevalence was 44% using the psCAM-ICU and 47% by the reference-rater. The rates of delirium were 53% vs. 56% in patients < 2 years of age and 33% vs. 35% in patients ≥ 2 - 5 years of age using the psCAM-ICU and reference-rater respectively. The short-form psCAM-ICU maintained a high specificity (87%) and sensitivity (78%) in post-hoc analysis. CONCLUSIONS The psCAM-ICU is a highly valid and reliable delirium

  10. Low plasma leptin level at admission predicts delirium in critically ill patients: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Li, Guicheng; Lei, Xiaobao; Ai, Chenmu; Li, Tao; Chen, Zhongqing

    2017-07-01

    The pathophysiology of delirium remains poorly understood. Low leptin level has been associated with features leading to delirium such as dysregulated immune functions and loss of neuroprotective effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between plasma leptin level at intensive care unit (ICU) entry and subsequent occurrence of delirium in critically ill patients. This single-center prospective cohort study in China allocated 336 critically ill patients admitted to ICU between 05/2015 and 05/2016 into a delirium group (n=102) and non-delirium group (n=234) based on whether delirium occurred during their stay at the ICU. Patients were examined at least twice daily and delirium was diagnosed using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU). Blood samples were obtained after ICU entry. Plasma leptin concentrations were measured by ELISA. Delirium occurred in 30.4% (102/336) of patients. Patients who developed delirium showed significantly lower leptin level at ICU entry than those who did not (6.1±3.2 vs. 9.2±5.9ng/mL; P<0.001). Low plasma leptin level at ICU entry was independently associated with subsequent occurrence of delirium (OR, 0.865; 95%CI, 0.802-0.934; P<0.001). Other independent risk factors for delirium included increasing age (OR, 1.050; 95%CI, 1.020-1.080; P=0.001) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II (APACHE-II) score (OR, 1.148; 95%CI, 1.092-1.208; P<0.001). Patients who developed delirium had a prolonged duration of ICU stay and higher mortality. Low plasma leptin level at ICU entry was associated with the occurrence of delirium in critically ill patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Simple, Validated Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery Prediction Model for Use at the Time of Admission

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Torri D.; Stoddard, Gregory J.; Henry, Erick; Jackson, Marc; Holmgren, Calla; Esplin, Sean

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To create a simple tool for predicting the likelihood of successful trial of labor after cesarean delivery (TOLAC) during the pregnancy after a primary cesarean delivery using variables available at the time of admission. METHODS Data for all deliveries at 14 regional hospitals over an 8-year period were reviewed. Women with one cesarean delivery and one subsequent delivery were included. Variables associated with successful VBAC were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Points were assigned to these characteristics, with weighting based on the coefficients in the regression model to calculate an integer VBAC score. The VBAC score was correlated with TOLAC success rate and was externally validated in an independent cohort using a logistic regression model. RESULTS A total of 5,445 women met inclusion criteria. Of those women, 1,170 (21.5%) underwent TOLAC. Of the women who underwent trial of labor, 938 (80%) had a successful VBAC. AVBAC score was generated based on the Bishop score (cervical examination) at the time of admission, with points added for history of vaginal birth, age younger than 35 years, absence of recurrent indication, and body mass index less than 30. Women with a VBAC score less than 10 had a likelihood of TOLAC success less than 50%. Women with a VBAC score more than 16 had a TOLAC success rate more than 85%. The model performed well in an independent cohort with an area under the curve of 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.76–0.84). CONCLUSIONS Prediction of TOLAC success at the time of admission is highly dependent on the initial cervical examination. This simple VBAC score can be utilized when counseling women considering TOLAC. PMID:23921867

  12. Managing ICU throughput and understanding ICU census.

    PubMed

    Howell, Michael D

    2011-12-01

    Traditionally, hospitals have coped with chronically high ICU census by building more ICU beds, but this strategy is unlikely to be tenable under future financial models. Therefore, ICUs need additional tools to manage census, inflow, and throughput. Higher ICU census, without compensatory surges in nursing capacity, is associated with several adverse effects on patients and providers, but its relationship to mortality is uncertain. Providers also discharge patients more aggressively during times of high census. Little's Law (L = λ W), a cornerstone of queuing theory, provides an eminently practical basis for managing ICU census and throughput. One target for improving throughput is minimizing process steps that are without value to the patient, e.g., waiting for a bed at ICU discharge. Larger gains in ICU throughput can be found in ICU quality improvement. For example, spontaneous breathing trials, daily wake-ups, and early physical/occupational therapy programmes are all likely to improve throughput by reducing ICU length of stay. The magnitude of these interventions' effects on ICU census can be startling. ICUs should actively manage throughput and census. Operations management tools such as Little's Law can provide practical guidance about the relationship between census, throughput, and patient demand. Standard ICU quality improvement techniques can meaningfully affect both ICU census and throughput.

  13. Muscle mass and physical recovery in ICU: innovations for targeting of nutrition and exercise.

    PubMed

    Wischmeyer, Paul E; Puthucheary, Zudin; San Millán, Iñigo; Butz, Daniel; Grocott, Michael P W

    2017-08-01

    We have significantly improved hospital mortality from sepsis and critical illness in last 10 years; however, over this same period we have tripled the number of 'ICU survivors' going to rehabilitation. Furthermore, as up to half the deaths in the first year following ICU admission occur post-ICU discharge, it is unclear how many of these patients ever returned home or a meaningful quality of life. For those who do survive, recent data reveals many 'ICU survivors' will suffer significant functional impairment or post-ICU syndrome (PICS). Thus, new innovative metabolic and exercise interventions to address PICS are urgently needed. These should focus on optimal nutrition and lean body mass (LBM) assessment, targeted nutrition delivery, anabolic/anticatabolic strategies, and utilization of personalized exercise intervention techniques, such as utilized by elite athletes to optimize preparation and recovery from critical care. New data for novel LBM analysis technique such as computerized tomography scan and ultrasound analysis of LBM are available showing objective measures of LBM now becoming more practical for predicting metabolic reserve and effectiveness of nutrition/exercise interventions. 13C-Breath testing is a novel technique under study to predict infection earlier and predict over-feeding and under-feeding to target nutrition delivery. New technologies utilized routinely by athletes such as muscle glycogen ultrasound also show promise. Finally, the role of personalized cardiopulmonary exercise testing to target preoperative exercise optimization and post-ICU recovery are becoming reality. New innovative techniques are demonstrating promise to target recovery from PICS utilizing a combination of objective LBM and metabolic assessment, targeted nutrition interventions, personalized exercise interventions for prehabilitation and post-ICU recovery. These interventions should provide hope that we will soon begin to create more 'survivors' and fewer victim's post-ICU

  14. The role of ascitic fluid viscosity in differentiating the nature of ascites and in the prediction of renal impairment and duration of ICU stay.

    PubMed

    Hanafy, Amr S

    2016-09-01

    Serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) has been used in the classification of ascites for the last 20 years but it has some drawbacks. This study searches for possible correlations between ascitic fluid viscosity and the etiology of ascites, renal impairment, and length of ICU stay. The study was conducted in Zagazig University Hospital, Egypt. It included 240 patients with ascites due to various causes. The patients were divided into two groups: the cirrhotic ascites group, which included 120 patients, and the noncirrhotic ascites group, which included 120 patients. Ascitic patients on medical management with diuretics, antibiotics, paracentesis, and infusion of plasma or albumin were excluded.The laboratory analysis included routine investigations to detect the cause of ascites as well as specific investigations such as ascitic fluid viscosity using a falling ball viscosimeter (microviscosimeter) at 37°C. The mean ascitic viscosity of patients with SAAG at least 1.1 was 1.16±0.56, which was associated with serum creatinine 1.35±0.52 mg/dl and ICU stay of 3.3±1.2 days. In patients with SAAG less than 1.1 g/dl, the mean ascitic viscosity was 2.98±0.87, with serum creatinine 2.1±0.56 mg/dl and ICU stay of 7.1±1.3 days. Ascitic viscosity can discriminate ascites due to portal hypertension from those associated with nonportal hypertension at a cut-off value of 1.65; it can predict renal impairment in hepatic patients at a cut-off of 1.35 and long ICU stay at a cut-off of 1.995 using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Ascitic viscosity measurement is rapid, inexpensive, and requires small sample volumes. Ascitic viscosity can discriminate ascites due to portal hypertension from those associated with nonportal hypertension at a cut-off value of 1.65. It can predict renal impairment in hepatic patients at a cut-off of 1.35 and long ICU stay at a cut-off of 1.995.

  15. Predictive value of admission hyperglycaemia on mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Schiele, F; Descotes-Genon, V; Seronde, M F; Blonde, M C; Legalery, P; Meneveau, N; Ecarnot, F; Mercier, M; Penfornis, A; Thebault, L; Boumal, D; Bassand, J-P

    2006-12-01

    In patients with an acute myocardial infarction, admission hyperglycaemia (AH) is a major risk factor for mortality. However, the predictive value of AH, when the risk score and use of guidelines-recommended treatments are considered, is poorly documented. The first fasting plasma glucose levels after admission, risk level, guidelines-recommended treatment use and 1-year mortality were recorded. Patients with first fasting glucose level after admission > 7.7 mmo/l were considered to have AH. Three hundred and twenty patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 404 with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) were included. One hundred and seventy-five (24%) patients had pre-existing diabetes (diabetes group), 154 (21%) had AH (AH+ group) and the remainding 395 (55%) had neither diabetes nor AH (AH- group). The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score was lower in the AH- group, but the use of guidelines-recommended treatment was comparable in all groups. At 1 year, the mortality rate was higher in the AH+ group compared with the AH- group (18.8 vs. 6.1%, P < 0.01) and similar to that in the diabetes group (18.8 vs. 16.6%, P = NS). The relation between glycaemic status and mortality remained strong [AH+ vs. AH-, OR = 3.0 (1.5, 6.0) and diabetes vs. AH-, OR = 3.6 (1.7, 6.6)] after adjustment for the GRACE risk score [OR = 2.4 (1.8, 3.1) per 10% increase] and for treatment score [OR = 0.7 (0.6, 0.8) per 10% increase]. In patients without a history of diabetes, the presence of AH indicates an increased risk of 1-year mortality, similar to that of patients with diabetes, even when the risk score and use of guidelines-recommended treatment are controlled for.

  16. Prediction of Clinical Outcome in Acute Hemorrhagic Stroke from a Single CT Scan on Admission.

    PubMed

    Nag, Chiranjib; Das, Kamalesh; Ghosh, Mrinalkanti; Khandakar, M R

    2012-10-01

    From a single CT scan in primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), clinical outcome can be assessed on admission by using the CT scan parameters. The study aims to find out how hematoma volume, location of stroke, midline shift, intraventricular extension of bleed and ventricle compression influence the clinical outcome in patients with acute ICH. Non-contrast CT scan was done on admission in hospital for every patient with acute hemorrhagic stroke and was analyzed accordingly. Clinical assessments were done in National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Mean hematoma volume associated with death before 30 days is 33.16 cm(3) (P < 0.0001), with survived after 30 days is 15.45 cm(3) (P < 0.0001), with NIHSS score ≥16 is 29.03 cm(3) (P < 0.0001) and with NIHSS score <16 is 13.69 cm(3) (P < 0.0001). Independent poor prognostic factors were hematoma volume > 30 cm(3) (OR = 27.857), brain stem hemorrhage (OR = 6.000), intraventricular extension of bleed from other location (OR = 7.846), presence of ventricular compression alone (OR = 2.700) and in combination with midline shift of ≥ 5 mm (OR = 2.124). From a single CT scan during hospital admission, mortality and morbidity in next 30 days can be predicted. A hematoma volume >30 cm(3), brain stem hematoma, intraventricular extension of bleed and ventricular compression along and with midline shift are associated with early mortality in ICH.

  17. Predictive value of the present-on-admission indicator for hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Raman R; Kim, Sharon B; Jenkins, Ian; El-Kareh, Robert; Afsarmanesh, Nasim; Amin, Alpesh; Sand, Heather; Auerbach, Andrew; Chia, Catherine Y; Maynard, Gregory; Romano, Patrick S; White, Richard H

    2015-04-01

    Hospital-acquired venous thromboembolic (HA-VTE) events are an important, preventable cause of morbidity and death, but accurately identifying HA-VTE events requires labor-intensive chart review. Administrative diagnosis codes and their associated "present-on-admission" (POA) indicator might allow automated identification of HA-VTE events, but only if VTE codes are accurately flagged "not present-on-admission" (POA=N). New codes were introduced in 2009 to improve accuracy. We identified all medical patients with at least 1 VTE "other" discharge diagnosis code from 5 academic medical centers over a 24-month period. We then sampled, within each center, patients with VTE codes flagged POA=N or POA=U (insufficient documentation) and POA=Y or POA=W (timing clinically uncertain) and abstracted each chart to clarify VTE timing. All events that were not clearly POA were classified as HA-VTE. We then calculated predictive values of the POA=N/U flags for HA-VTE and the POA=Y/W flags for non-HA-VTE. Among 2070 cases with at least 1 "other" VTE code, we found 339 codes flagged POA=N/U and 1941 flagged POA=Y/W. Among 275 POA=N/U abstracted codes, 75.6% (95% CI, 70.1%-80.6%) were HA-VTE; among 291 POA=Y/W abstracted events, 73.5% (95% CI, 68.0%-78.5%) were non-HA-VTE. Extrapolating from this sample, we estimated that 59% of actual HA-VTE codes were incorrectly flagged POA=Y/W. POA indicator predictive values did not improve after new codes were introduced in 2009. The predictive value of VTE events flagged POA=N/U for HA-VTE was 75%. However, sole reliance on this flag may substantially underestimate the incidence of HA-VTE.

  18. Peak Exercise Oxygen Uptake Predicts Recurrent Admissions in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Palau, Patricia; Domínguez, Eloy; Núñez, Eduardo; Ramón, José María; López, Laura; Melero, Joana; Sanchis, Juan; Bellver, Alejandro; Santas, Enrique; Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Chorro, Francisco J; Núñez, Julio

    2018-04-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a highly prevalent syndrome with an elevated risk of morbidity and mortality. To date, there is scarce evidence on the role of peak exercise oxygen uptake (peak VO 2 ) for predicting the morbidity burden in HFpEF. We sought to evaluate the association between peak VO 2 and the risk of recurrent hospitalizations in patients with HFpEF. A total of 74 stable symptomatic patients with HFpEF underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test between June 2012 and May 2016. A negative binomial regression method was used to determine the association between the percentage of predicted peak VO 2 (pp-peak VO 2 ) and recurrent hospitalizations. Risk estimates are reported as incidence rate ratios. The mean age was 72.5 ± 9.1 years, 53% were women, and all patients were in New York Heart Association functional class II to III. Mean peak VO 2 and median pp-peak VO 2 were 10 ± 2.8mL/min/kg and 60% (range, 47-67), respectively. During a median follow-up of 276 days [interquartile range, 153-1231], 84 all-cause hospitalizations in 31 patients (41.9%) were registered. A total of 15 (20.3%) deaths were also recorded. On multivariate analysis, accounting for mortality as a terminal event, pp-peak VO 2 was independently and linearly associated with the risk of recurrent admission. Thus, and modeled as continuous, a 10% decrease of pp-peak VO 2 increased the risk of recurrent hospitalizations by 32% (IRR, 1.32; 95%CI, 1.03-1.68; P = .028). In symptomatic elderly patients with HFpEF, pp-peak VO 2 predicts all-cause recurrent admission. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Does the medical college admission test predict global academic performance in osteopathic medical school?

    PubMed

    Evans, Paul; Wen, Frances K

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the extent to which Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) subscores predict the overall academic performance of osteopathic medical students. We examined the value of MCAT subscores in predicting students' global academic performance in osteopathic medical school, as defined by grade point average in basic science (basic GPA), clinical instruction (clinical GPA), cumulative grade point average (total GPA), and national licensing examination scores on the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA (COMLEX-USA) Level 1 and Level 2. Subjects were 434 osteopathic medical students of the Oklahoma State University College of Osteopathic Medicine in Tulsa who either graduated or were expected to graduate between the years 1999 and 2003. Standard, multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted for each of the five performance variables to assess the relative importance of MCAT subtest scores and cumulative undergraduate GPA (total UGPA) in predicting academic performance. Total UGPA was the most important, significant predictor (beta=.13-.33) in overall student academic performance for all five analyzed variables. Less predictive of overall academic performance (beta=-.01-.21) were MCAT subcores. However, the MCAT biological sciences subscore was a significant predictor of basic GPA (beta=.14), the MCAT physical sciences subscore significantly predicted COMLEX-USA Level 1 scores (beta=.15), and the MCAT verbal reasoning subscore significantly predicted COMLEX-USA Level 2 scores (beta=.21). The subscore for the MCAT writing sample was not a significant predictor of overall academic performance. Total undergraduate GPA had the highest predictive value for academic performance as measured by basic GPA, clinical GPA, total GPA, and COMLEX-USA Level 1 and Level 2 scores. The present study found MCAT subscores to be of limited predictive value in determining global academic performance.

  20. Association between Modified Body Mass Index and 30-Day and 1-Year Mortality after Intensive Care Unit Admission: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Tak Kyu; Lee, Jaebong; Lee, Yeon Joo; Hwang, Jung-Won; Do, Sang-Hwan; Jeon, Young-Tae; Song, In-Ae

    2018-04-13

    Because conventional body mass index (cBMI) does not reflect fluid accumulation, modified BMI (mBMI, serum albumin multiplied by cBMI) is a more accurate measure of malnutrition status. This study aimed to determine whether mortality after intensive care unit (ICU) admission was associated with cBMI, mBMI, and/or serum albumin levels. The medical records of patients who were admitted to a tertiary hospital ICU between 1 January 2012 and 31 July 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. In total, 6169 ICU-admitted patients were included in the analyses. Multivariate Cox regression analyses revealed that low cBMI, mBMI and albumin level were significantly associated with 30-day and 1-year mortality after ICU admission (hazard ratio < 1.0, p < 0.05). The adjusted area under the curve (AUC) of mBMI for 1-year mortality was significantly higher than that of cBMI ( p < 0.001), but not significantly different from that of albumin level ( p = 0.098). Low values of mBMI, cBMI and albumin were independently associated with 30-day and 1-year mortality after ICU admission. Combining cBMI and albumin (mBMI) did not increase the validity of the AUC of albumin for 1-year mortality after ICU admission. Our study showed that serum albumin alone, rather than mBMI (combining cBMI), is recommended in predicting mortality among ICU patients.

  1. Predicting AKI in emergency admissions: an external validation study of the acute kidney injury prediction score (APS).

    PubMed

    Hodgson, L E; Dimitrov, B D; Roderick, P J; Venn, R; Forni, L G

    2017-03-08

    Hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (HA-AKI) is associated with a high risk of mortality. Prediction models or rules may identify those most at risk of HA-AKI. This study externally validated one of the few clinical prediction rules (CPRs) derived in a general medicine cohort using clinical information and data from an acute hospitals electronic system on admission: the acute kidney injury prediction score (APS). External validation in a single UK non-specialist acute hospital (2013-2015, 12 554 episodes); four cohorts: adult medical and general surgical populations, with and without a known preadmission baseline serum creatinine (SCr). Performance assessed by discrimination using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCROC) and calibration. HA-AKI incidence within 7 days (kidney disease: improving global outcomes (KDIGO) change in SCr) was 8.1% (n=409) of medical patients with known baseline SCr, 6.6% (n=141) in those without a baseline, 4.9% (n=204) in surgical patients with baseline and 4% (n=49) in those without. Across the four cohorts AUCROC were: medical with known baseline 0.65 (95% CIs 0.62 to 0.67) and no baseline 0.71 (0.67 to 0.75), surgical with baseline 0.66 (0.62 to 0.70) and no baseline 0.68 (0.58 to 0.75). For calibration, in medicine and surgical cohorts with baseline SCr, Hosmer-Lemeshow p values were non-significant, suggesting acceptable calibration. In the medical cohort, at a cut-off of five points on the APS to predict HA-AKI, positive predictive value was 16% (13-18%) and negative predictive value 94% (93-94%). Of medical patients with HA-AKI, those with an APS ≥5 had a significantly increased risk of death (28% vs 18%, OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.9), p=0.015). On external validation the APS on admission shows moderate discrimination and acceptable calibration to predict HA-AKI and may be useful as a severity marker when HA-AKI occurs. Harnessing linked data from primary care may be one way to achieve more accurate

  2. Predicting the need for institutional care shortly after admission to rehabilitation: Rasch analysis and predictive validity of the BRASS Index.

    PubMed

    Panella, L; La Porta, F; Caselli, S; Marchisio, S; Tennant, A

    2012-09-01

    Effective discharge planning is increasingly recognised as a critical component of hospital-based Rehabilitation. The BRASS index is a risk screening tool for identification, shortly after hospital admission, of patients who are at risk of post-discharge problems. To evaluate the internal construct validity and reliability of the Blaylock Risk Assessment Screening Score (BRASS) within the rehabilitation setting. Observational prospective study. Rehabilitation ward of an Italian district hospital. One hundred and four consecutively admitted patients. Using classical psychometric methods and Rasch analysis (RA), the internal construct validity and reliability of the BRASS were examined. Also, external and predictive validity of the Rasch-modified BRASS (RMB) score were determined. Reliability of the original BRASS was low (Cronbach's alpha=0.595) and factor analyses showed that it was clearly multidimensional. A RA, based on a reduced 7-BRASS item set (RMB), satisfied model's expectations. Reliability was 0.777. The RMB scores strongly correlated with the original BRASS (rho=0.952; P<0.000) and with FIM™ admission scores (rho=-0.853; P<0.000). A RMB score of 12 was associated with an increased risk of nursing home admission (RR=2.1, 95%CI=1.7-2.5), whereas a score of 17 was associated to a higher risk of length of stay >28 days (RR=7.6, 95%CI=1.8-31.9). This study demonstrated that the original BRASS was multidimensional and unreliable. However, the RMB holds adequate internal construct validity and is sufficiently reliable as a predictor of discharge problems for group, but not individual use. The application of tools and methods (such as the BRASS Index) developed under the biomedical paradigm in a Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine setting may have limitations. Further research is needed to develop, within the rehabilitation setting, a valid measuring tool of risk of post-discharge problems at the individual level.

  3. Admission Risk Score to Predict Inpatient Pediatric Mortality at Four Public Hospitals in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mpimbaza, Arthur; Sears, David; Sserwanga, Asadu; Kigozi, Ruth; Rubahika, Denis; Nadler, Adam; Yeka, Adoke; Dorsey, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Mortality rates among hospitalized children in many government hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa are high. Pediatric emergency services in these hospitals are often sub-optimal. Timely recognition of critically ill children on arrival is key to improving service delivery. We present a simple risk score to predict inpatient mortality among hospitalized children. Between April 2010 and June 2011, the Uganda Malaria Surveillance Project (UMSP), in collaboration with the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP), set up an enhanced sentinel site malaria surveillance program for children hospitalized at four public hospitals in different districts: Tororo, Apac, Jinja and Mubende. Clinical data collected through March 2013, representing 50249 admissions were used to develop a mortality risk score (derivation data set). One year of data collected subsequently from the same hospitals, representing 20406 admissions, were used to prospectively validate the performance of the risk score (validation data set). Using a backward selection approach, 13 out of 25 clinical parameters recognizable on initial presentation, were selected for inclusion in a final logistic regression prediction model. The presence of individual parameters was awarded a score of either 1 or 2 based on regression coefficients. For each individual patient, a composite risk score was generated. The risk score was further categorized into three categories; low, medium, and high. Patient characteristics were comparable in both data sets. Measures of performance for the risk score included the receiver operating characteristics curves and the area under the curve (AUC), both demonstrating good and comparable ability to predict deathusing both the derivation (AUC =0.76) and validation dataset (AUC =0.74). Using the derivation and validation datasets, the mortality rates in each risk category were as follows: low risk (0.8% vs. 0.7%), moderate risk (3.5% vs. 3.2%), and high risk (16.5% vs. 12.6%), respectively. Our

  4. Emergency Department Crowding Predicts Admission Length-of-Stay But Not Mortality in a Large Health System

    PubMed Central

    Derose, Stephen F.; Gabayan, Gelareh Z.; Chiu, Vicki Y.; Yiu, Sau C.; Sun, Benjamin C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Emergency department (ED) crowding has been identified as a major threat to public health. Objectives We assessed patient transit times and ED system crowding measures based on their associations with outcomes. Research Design Retrospective cohort study. Subjects We accessed electronic health record data on 136,740 adults with a visit to any of 13 health system EDs from January 2008 to December 2010. Measures Patient transit times (waiting, evaluation and treatment, boarding) and ED system crowding [nonindex patient length-of-stay (LOS) and boarding, bed occupancy] were determined. Outcomes included individual inpatient mortality and admission LOS. Covariates included demographic characteristics, past comorbidities, severity of illness, arrival time, and admission diagnoses. Results No patient transit time or ED system crowding measure predicted increased mortality after control for patient characteristics. Index patient boarding time and lower bed occupancy were associated with admission LOS (based on nonoverlapping 95% CI vs. the median value). As boarding time increased from none to 14 hours, admission LOS increased an additional 6 hours. As mean occupancy decreased below the median (80% occupancy), admission LOS decreased as much as 9 hours. Conclusions Measures indicating crowded ED conditions were not predictive of mortality after case-mix adjustment. The first half-day of boarding added to admission LOS rather than substituted for it. Our findings support the use of boarding time as a measure of ED crowding based on robust prediction of admission LOS. Interpretation of measures based on other patient ED transit times may be limited to the timeliness of care. PMID:24926707

  5. How Useful Are Traditional Admission Measures in Predicting Graduation within Four Years? Research Report 2013-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Patterson, Brian F.; Wyatt, Jeffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that traditional admission measures--SAT® scores and high school grade point average (HSGPA)--are valid predictors of early college performance such as first-year grades; however, their usefulness to predict later college outcomes has been questioned, especially for the SAT. This study builds on previous research…

  6. Association of Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin With Long-Term Renal Outcomes in ICU Survivors: A Retrospective Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Isshiki, Rei; Asada, Toshifumi; Sato, Dai; Sumida, Maki; Hamasaki, Yoshifumi; Inokuchi, Ryota; Matsubara, Takehiro; Ishii, Takeshi; Yahagi, Naoki; Nangaku, Masaomi; Noiri, Eisei; Doi, Kent

    2016-07-01

    Epidemiological studies recently suggested that acute kidney injury (AKI) in intensive care units (ICUs) increases the risk of chronic kidney disease development and progression. However, whether any AKI biomarker can predict long-term renal outcomes in ICU survivors remains unclear. This study was undertaken to elucidate the role of urinary biomarkers for long-term renal outcome prediction after ICU discharge. This retrospective observational study examined 495 adult patients who had been admitted to the ICU of the University of Tokyo Hospital. Major adverse kidney events (MAKE): death, incident end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and halving of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), at hospital discharge and long-term renal outcomes of 30% reduction of eGFR or incident ESRD were evaluated. Among all the enrolled 495 patients, 393 patients were discharged from the hospital without MAKE. Data of eGFR up to two years after ICU discharge were available for 173 patients; 63 patients (36.4%) were positive for long-term renal outcomes. Step-wise logistic regression analysis demonstrated that male sex and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) measured at ICU admission showed significant associations with long-term renal outcomes. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed the area under the curve of 0.66 (95% confidence interval 0.57-0.74) for prediction of long-term renal outcome by urinary NGAL. Urinary NGAL measured at ICU admission was significantly associated with long-term renal outcomes after hospital discharge in MAKE-free ICU survivors. Urinary NGAL measurements at ICU might be useful to identify a high risk population of kidney disease progression after intensive care.

  7. Comparison of the Mortality Probability Admission Model III, National Quality Forum, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV hospital mortality models: implications for national benchmarking*.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Andrew A; Higgins, Thomas L; Zimmerman, Jack E

    2014-03-01

    To examine the accuracy of the original Mortality Probability Admission Model III, ICU Outcomes Model/National Quality Forum modification of Mortality Probability Admission Model III, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IVa models for comparing observed and risk-adjusted hospital mortality predictions. Retrospective paired analyses of day 1 hospital mortality predictions using three prognostic models. Fifty-five ICUs at 38 U.S. hospitals from January 2008 to December 2012. Among 174,001 intensive care admissions, 109,926 met model inclusion criteria and 55,304 had data for mortality prediction using all three models. None. We compared patient exclusions and the discrimination, calibration, and accuracy for each model. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IVa excluded 10.7% of all patients, ICU Outcomes Model/National Quality Forum 20.1%, and Mortality Probability Admission Model III 24.1%. Discrimination of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IVa was superior with area under receiver operating curve (0.88) compared with Mortality Probability Admission Model III (0.81) and ICU Outcomes Model/National Quality Forum (0.80). Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IVa was better calibrated (lowest Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic). The accuracy of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IVa was superior (adjusted Brier score = 31.0%) to that for Mortality Probability Admission Model III (16.1%) and ICU Outcomes Model/National Quality Forum (17.8%). Compared with observed mortality, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IVa overpredicted mortality by 1.5% and Mortality Probability Admission Model III by 3.1%; ICU Outcomes Model/National Quality Forum underpredicted mortality by 1.2%. Calibration curves showed that Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation performed well over the entire risk range, unlike the Mortality Probability Admission Model and ICU Outcomes Model/National Quality Forum models. Acute

  8. Out-of-Hospital ICU Transfers to an Oncological Referral Center.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Cristina; Cárdenas, Yenny R; Bratcher, Kristie; Melancon, Judd; Myers, Jason; Campbell, Jeannee Y; Feng, Lei; Price, Kristen J; Nates, Joseph L

    2016-01-01

    To determine resource utilization and outcomes of out-of-hospital transfer patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a cancer referral center. Single-center cohort. A tertiary oncological center. Patients older than 18 years transferred to our ICU from an outside hospital between January 2013 and December 2015. A total of 2127 (90.3%) were emergency department (ED) ICU admissions and 228 (9.7%) out-of-hospital transfers. The ICU length of stay (LOS) was longer in the out-of-hospital transfers when compared to all other ED ICU admissions ( P = .001); however, ICU and hospital mortality were similar between both groups. The majority of patients were transferred for a higher level of care (77.2%); there was no difference in the amount of interventions performed, ICU LOS, and ICU mortality between nonhigher level-of-care and higher level-of-care patients. Factors associated with an ICU LOS ≥10days were a higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, weekend admissions, presence of shock, need for mechanical ventilation, and acute kidney injury on admission or during ICU stay ( P < .008). The ICU mortality of transferred patients was 17.5% and associated risk factors were older age, higher SOFA score on admission, use of mechanical ventilation and vasopressors during ICU stay, and renal failure on admission ( P < .0001). Data related to the transfer such as LOS at the outside facility, time of transfer, delay in transfer, and longer distance traveled were not associated with increased LOS or mortality in our study. Organ failure severity on admission, and not transfer-related factors, continues to be the best predictor of outcomes of critically ill patients with cancer when transferred from other facilities to the ICU. Our data suggest that transferring critically ill patients with cancer to a specialized center does not lead to worse outcomes or increased resource utilization when compared to patients admitted from the ED.

  9. Comparison of intensive care outcome prediction models based on admission scores with those based on 24-hour data.

    PubMed

    Duke, G J; Piercy, M; DiGiantomasso, D; Green, J V

    2008-11-01

    We compared the performance of six outcome prediction models--three based on 24-hour data and three based on admission-only data--in a metropolitan university-affiliated teaching hospital with a 10-bed intensive care unit. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation models, version II (APACHE II) and version III-J, and the Simplified Acute Physiology Score version II (SAPS II) are based on 24-hour data and were compared with the Mortality Prediction Model version II and the SAPS version III using international and Australian coefficients (SAPS IIIA). Data were collected prospectively according to the standard methodologies for each model. Calibration and discrimination for each model were assessed by the standardised mortality ratio, area under the receiver operating characteristic plot and Hosmer-Lemeshow contingency tables and chi-squared statistics (C10 and H10). Predetermined criteria were area under the receiver operating characteristic plot > 0.8, standardised mortality ratio 95% confidence interval includes 1.0, and C10 and H10 P values >0.05. Between October 1, 2005 and December 31, 2007, 1843 consecutive admissions were screened and after the standard exclusions, 1741 were included in the analysis. The SAPS II and SAPS IIIA models fulfilled and the APACHE II model failed all criteria. The other models satisfied the discrimination criterion but significantly over-predicted mortality risk and require recalibration. Outcome prediction models based on admission-only data compared favourably to those based on 24-hour data.

  10. Admission Glucose Level Predicts In-hospital Mortality in Patients with Acute Pulmonary Embolism Who Were Treated with Thrombolytic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Bozbay, Mehmet; Uyarel, Huseyin; Avsar, Sahin; Oz, Ahmet; Keskin, Muhammed; Murat, Ahmet; Kaya, Adnan; Atas, Halil; Cincin, Ahmet Altug; Ugur, Murat; Eren, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    Elevated admission serum glucose level is associated with unfavourable clinical outcomes in various clinical conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between admission glucose levels and in-hospital and long-term adverse clinical outcomes in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) treated with thrombolytic therapy. A total of 183 consecutive confirmed acute PE patients (98 female and 85 male; mean age 61.9 ± 15.7 years) who were treated with thrombolytic therapy enrolled in this study. The study population was categorised into four quartiles according to admission serum glucose levels (group I: glucose ≤115 mg/dl; group II: glucose >115-141 mg/dl; group III: glucose >141-195 mg/dl; and group IV: glucose ≥196 mg/dl). In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in group IV (28.8 %) compared to group III (15.2 %), group II (6.6 %), and group I (2.1 %) (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, admission glucose level (OR 1.013, 95 % CI 1.004-1.021, p = 0.004) and admission anaemia (OR 0.602, 95 % CI 0.380-0.955, p = 0.03) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. The mean follow-up period was 34 months. During long-term follow-up, all-cause mortality, recurrent PE, major and minor bleeding were similar among the four groups. Admission glucose level is a simple, inexpensive, easily available, and effective laboratory parameter for predicting in-hospital mortality in patients with PE.

  11. Admission Systolic Blood Pressure Predicts the Number of Blood Pressure Medications at Discharge in Patients With Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Ayaz M; Shiue, Harn; Boehme, Amelia K; Albright, Karen C; Venkatraman, Anand; Kumar, Gyanendra; Lyerly, Michael J; Hays-Shapshak, Angela; Mirza, Maira; Gropen, Toby I; Harrigan, Mark R

    2018-03-01

    Control of systolic blood pressure (SBP) after primary intracerebral hemorrhage improves outcomes. Factors determining the number of blood pressure medications (BPM) required for goal SBP<160 mm Hg at discharge are unknown. We hypothesized that higher admission-SBPs require a greater number of BPM for goal discharge-SBP<160 mm Hg, and investigated factors influencing this goal. We conducted a retrospective review of 288 patients who presented with primary intracerebral hemorrhage. Admission-SBP was obtained. Primary outcome was the number of BPM at discharge. Comparison was made between patients presenting with and without a history of hypertension, and patients discharged on <3 and ≥3 BPM. Patients with hypertension history had a higher median admission-SBP compared with those without (180 vs. 157 mm Hg, P=0.0001). In total, 133 of 288 (46.2%) patients were discharged on <3 BPM; 155/288 (53.8%) were discharged on ≥3 BPM. Hypertension history (P<0.0001) and admission-SBP (P<0.0001) predicted the number of BPM at discharge. In patients without hypertension history, every 10 mm Hg increase in SBP resulted in an absolute increase of 0.5 BPM at discharge (P=0.0011), whereas in those with hypertension, the absolute increase was 1.3 BPM (P=0.0012). In comparison with patients discharged on <3 BPM, patients discharged on ≥3 BPM were more likely to have a higher median admission-SBP, be younger in age, belong to the African-American race, have a history of diabetes, have higher median admission-National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin Scale of 4 to 5 at discharge. An understanding of the factors influencing BPM at discharge may help clinicians better optimize blood pressure control both before and after discharge.

  12. Depression predicts future emergency hospital admissions in primary care patients with chronic physical illness.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Elspeth A; Dickens, Chris; Blakemore, Amy; Watson, Jennifer; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Lovell, Karina; Afzal, Cara; Kapur, Navneet; Tomenson, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    More than 15 million people currently suffer from a chronic physical illness in England. The objective of this study was to determine whether depression is independently associated with prospective emergency hospital admission in patients with chronic physical illness. 1860 primary care patients in socially deprived areas of Manchester with at least one of four exemplar chronic physical conditions completed a questionnaire about physical and mental health, including a measure of depression. Emergency hospital admissions were recorded using GP records for the year before and the year following completion of the questionnaire. The numbers of patients who had at least one emergency admission in the year before and the year after completion of the questionnaire were 221/1411 (15.7%) and 234/1398 (16.7%) respectively. The following factors were independently associated with an increased risk of prospective emergency admission to hospital: having no partner (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.15); having ischaemic heart disease (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.46); having a threatening experience (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.29); depression (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.40); and emergency hospital admission in the year prior to questionnaire completion (OR 3.41, 95% CI 1.98 to 5.86). To prevent potentially avoidable emergency hospital admissions, greater efforts should be made to detect and treat co-morbid depression in people with chronic physical illness in primary care, with a particular focus on patients who have no partner, have experienced threatening life events, and have had a recent emergency hospital admission. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Depression predicts future emergency hospital admissions in primary care patients with chronic physical illness

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Elspeth A.; Dickens, Chris; Blakemore, Amy; Watson, Jennifer; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Lovell, Karina; Afzal, Cara; Kapur, Navneet; Tomenson, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Objective More than 15 million people currently suffer from a chronic physical illness in England. The objective of this study was to determine whether depression is independently associated with prospective emergency hospital admission in patients with chronic physical illness. Method 1860 primary care patients in socially deprived areas of Manchester with at least one of four exemplar chronic physical conditions completed a questionnaire about physical and mental health, including a measure of depression. Emergency hospital admissions were recorded using GP records for the year before and the year following completion of the questionnaire. Results The numbers of patients who had at least one emergency admission in the year before and the year after completion of the questionnaire were 221/1411 (15.7%) and 234/1398 (16.7%) respectively. The following factors were independently associated with an increased risk of prospective emergency admission to hospital: having no partner (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.15); having ischaemic heart disease (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.46); having a threatening experience (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.29); depression (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.40); and emergency hospital admission in the year prior to questionnaire completion (OR 3.41, 95% CI 1.98 to 5.86). Conclusion To prevent potentially avoidable emergency hospital admissions, greater efforts should be made to detect and treat co-morbid depression in people with chronic physical illness in primary care, with a particular focus on patients who have no partner, have experienced threatening life events, and have had a recent emergency hospital admission. PMID:26919799

  14. Prognosis-related factors in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with hematological malignancies: A retrospective cohort analysis in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Cheng, Qian; Yang, Qing; Li, Xin; Shen, Xiaohui; Zhang, Lina; Liu, Zuoliang; Khoshnood, Kaveh

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the link between patient characteristics and mortality in patients with hematological malignancies (HM) in three university-affiliated hospitals in Hunan, China. We conducted a detailed retrospective chart review of 121 sequential intensive care unit (ICU) admissions with HM over a 5-year period. Outcome measures were short- and long-term mortality rates and were correlated with physiologic and therapeutic factors. We also evaluate the performance of two severity-of-illness scoring systems in this population, particularly the value and trend of the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA). The rates for ICU, 1-month and 6-month mortalities were 60.3, 85.9, and 90.9%, respectively. Invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) was associated with worse outcomes at all time points. Both acute physiology and chronic health evaluation and SOFA scores had positive correlation with ICU mortality. An increase or no change in SOFA over the course of the admission or during the first 48 hours after admission was the most powerful adverse predictor. IMV use and renal dysfunction had a negative effect on the 1-month survival. Patients with HM have less access to intensive care resources in Hunan, China. The use of IMV, APACHII at admission, and SOFA trend have a strong predictive value in this population. Based on our results, we propose a panel of parameters for use when considering ICU transfer to guide patient management.

  15. Can Serum Glucose Level in Early Admission Predict Outcome in Patients with Severe Head Trauma?

    PubMed

    Salehpour, Firooz; Bazzazi, Amir Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Javad; Abbasivash, Rahman; Forouhideh, Yalda; Mirzaei, Farhad; Naseri Alavi, Seyed Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a major general health concern. This study aims to evaluate a possible relationship between the serum level of glucose during admission and the outcome of patients with severe traumatic brain injury. In this prospective study, 80 patients with severe traumatic brain injury were recruited from the emergency department of Urmia Imam Khomeini Hospital. Serum level of glucose was measured at the time of admission and its correlation was investigated with the Glasgow Coma Scale score (on admission, 24 hours, 48 hours, and 1 week later, and at discharge) and Glasgow Outcome Score. In addition, the value of admission serum glucose was compared between deceased and discharged patients. Eighty patients with severe head trauma, 71 men (88%) and 9 women (11.2%) with a mean age of 31.71 ± 15.66 years, were enrolled into the study. The in-hospital mortality rate was 25% (n = 20). There was no significant correlation between serum glucose level and Glasgow Coma Scale score (at different intervals) or Glasgow Outcome Score. The mean serum level of glucose was comparable between deceased and discharged patients (186.10 ± 51.36 vs. 187.98 ± 76.03 mg/dL, respectively; P = 0.91). Admission serum glucose is not a significant indicator of outcome in patients with severe head trauma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A model to predict short-term death or readmission after intensive care unit discharge.

    PubMed

    Ouanes, Islem; Schwebel, Carole; Français, Adrien; Bruel, Cédric; Philippart, François; Vesin, Aurélien; Soufir, Lilia; Adrie, Christophe; Garrouste-Orgeas, Maïté; Timsit, Jean-François; Misset, Benoît

    2012-08-01

    Early unplanned readmission to the intensive care unit (ICU) carries a poor prognosis, and post-ICU mortality may be related, in part, to premature ICU discharge. Our objectives were to identify independent risk factors for early post-ICU readmission or death and to construct a prediction model. Retrospective analysis of a prospective database was done. Four ICUs of the French Outcomerea network participated. Patients were consecutive adults with ICU stay longer than 24 hours who were discharged alive to same-hospital wards without treatment-limitation decisions. Of 5014 admitted patients, 3462 met our inclusion criteria. Age was 60.6 ± 17.6 years, and admission Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) was 35.1 ± 15.1. The rate of death or ICU readmission within 7 days after ICU discharge was 3.0%. Independent risk factors for this outcome were age, SAPS II at ICU admission, use of a central venous catheter in the ICU, Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment and Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome scores before ICU discharge, and discharge at night. The predictive model based on these variables showed good calibration. Compared with SAPS II at admission or Stability and Workload Index for Transfer at discharge, discrimination was better with our model (area under receiver operating characteristics curve, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.79). Among patients without treatment-limitation decisions and discharged alive from the ICU, 3.0% died or were readmitted within 7 days. Independent risk factors were indicators of patients' severity and discharge at night. Our prediction model should be evaluated in other ICU populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Predictive Model for Cesarean Among Low-Risk Nulliparous Women in Spontaneous Labor at Hospital Admission.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Patricia A; Stienen, Jozette J C; Brant, Rollin; Hanley, Gillian E

    2017-03-01

    To determine if maternal characteristics measurable upon admission to hospital predict cesarean among low-risk spontaneously laboring nulliparous women. We undertook a secondary analysis of data from a clinical trial of early labor support for nulliparous women carrying a singleton fetus in cephalic presentation at 37-41 weeks of gestation in British Columbia, Canada. Study participants did not have any discernible risk factors for cesarean at the onset of labor. We developed a prediction model using logistic regression from a sample of 1,302 participants. Internal validation of the model was accomplished by 10-fold cross validation, after which probability scores were calculated based on the mean logistic regression model. To determine the accuracy of our predictive model, we calculated the specificity and sensitivity and the area under the receiver operating curve. Advanced maternal age, shorter maternal height, greater gestational age, perception of labor lasting more than 24 hours, and mild or moderate contractions, less cervical dilation, and higher fetal station at time of hospital admission independently predicted cesarean. The C-statistic for the predictive model was 0.71 (0.64-0.75) and the sensitivity and specificity of the model were 0.80 (95% CI 0.76-0.84) and 0.48 (95% CI 0.44-0.52), respectively. Among nulliparous women without apparent risk for cesarean at the time of hospital admission, cesarean delivery can be predicted with 70 percent accuracy using routinely collected information. Tailoring intrapartum care to promote vaginal birth according to a prediction model for cesarean risk deserves further study among apparently low risk women. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Errors in medication history at hospital admission: prevalence and predicting factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An accurate medication list at hospital admission is essential for the evaluation and further treatment of patients. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency, type and predictors of errors in medication history, and to evaluate the extent to which standard care corrects these errors. Methods A descriptive study was carried out in two medical wards in a Swedish hospital using Lund Integrated Medicines Management (LIMM)-based medication reconciliation. A clinical pharmacist identified each patient's most accurate pre-admission medication list by conducting a medication reconciliation process shortly after admission. This list was then compared with the patient's medication list in the hospital medical records. Addition or withdrawal of a drug or changes to the dose or dosage form in the hospital medication list were considered medication discrepancies. Medication discrepancies for which no clinical reason could be identified (unintentional changes) were considered medication history errors. Results The final study population comprised 670 of 818 eligible patients. At least one medication history error was identified by pharmacists conducting medication reconciliations for 313 of these patients (47%; 95% CI 43-51%). The most common medication error was an omitted drug, followed by a wrong dose. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a higher number of drugs at admission (odds ratio [OR] per 1 drug increase = 1.10; 95% CI 1.06-1.14; p < 0.0001) and the patient living in their own home without any care services (OR = 1.58; 95% CI 1.02-2.45; p = 0.042) were predictors for medication history errors at admission. The results further indicated that standard care by non-pharmacist ward staff had partly corrected the errors in affected patients by four days after admission, but a considerable proportion of the errors made in the initial medication history at admission remained undetected by standard care (OR for medication errors

  19. Computed tomography severity index and C-reactive protein values predicting mortality in emergency and intensive care units for patients with severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Jyrki T; Eila, Heinonen; Kiviniemi, Heikki; Laurila, Jouko; Laitinen, Seppo

    2007-07-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis is a multisystem disease in which various local and systemic complications lead to high mortality. We retrospectively examined the clinical and biochemical factors that may influence the risk of mortality on admission to emergency and intensive care units (ICUs). Sixty-eight patients were admitted into our hospital for acute pancreatitis and treated in our ICU for computed tomography-proven severe acute pancreatitis during the years 1997 to 2004. The clinical, biochemical, and radiologic data were reviewed from the computerized database, radiologic films, and patient records. The mortality rate during the ICU stay was 18% (12/68) and that during the whole period of hospitalization 26% (18/68). A C-reactive protein (CRP) value over 150 was the only independent predictor of mortality on admission into the emergency unit, whereas the computed tomography severity index and the elevated CRP value over 150 predicted significantly and independently mortality on admission into the ICU. Linear backward regression analysis showed that high CRP values and respiratory failure on ICU admission correlate with longer ICU stay. Men's ICU stays were longer than those of women. A high computed tomography severity index and CRP values over 150 on admission into the ICU are valuable predictors of the mortality risk. High CRP, renal and respiratory failure, and male gender are associated with longer ICU stay.

  20. Implications of ICU triage decisions on patient mortality: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Intensive care is generally regarded as expensive, and as a result beds are limited. This has raised serious questions about rationing when there are insufficient beds for all those referred. However, the evidence for the cost effectiveness of intensive care is weak and the work that does exist usually assumes that those who are not admitted do not survive, which is not always the case. Randomised studies of the effectiveness of intensive care are difficult to justify on ethical grounds; therefore, this observational study examined the cost effectiveness of ICU admission by comparing patients who were accepted into ICU after ICU triage to those who were not accepted, while attempting to adjust such comparison for confounding factors. Methods This multi-centre observational cohort study involved 11 hospitals in 7 EU countries and was designed to assess the cost effectiveness of admission to intensive care after ICU triage. A total of 7,659 consecutive patients referred to the intensive care unit (ICU) were divided into those accepted for admission and those not accepted. The two groups were compared in terms of cost and mortality using multilevel regression models to account for differences across centres, and after adjusting for age, Karnofsky score and indication for ICU admission. The analyses were also stratified by categories of Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II predicted mortality (< 5%, 5% to 40% and >40%). Cost effectiveness was evaluated as cost per life saved and cost per life-year saved. Results Admission to ICU produced a relative reduction in mortality risk, expressed as odds ratio, of 0.70 (0.52 to 0.94) at 28 days. When stratified by predicted mortality, the odds ratio was 1.49 (0.79 to 2.81), 0.7 (0.51 to 0.97) and 0.55 (0.37 to 0.83) for <5%, 5% to 40% and >40% predicted mortality, respectively. Average cost per life saved for all patients was $103,771 (€82,358) and cost per life-year saved was $7,065 (€5,607). These

  1. Outcome Prediction of Eating Disorders: Can Admission Data Forecast Outcome Needs at Discharge.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-18

    trend. Although limited by available data, several significant findings were noted. Women diagnosed with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) had significantly higher...admission Global Assessment of Functioning versus women with Anorexia Nervosa (AN); those with AN were positively linked to a family history of mood

  2. Predicting Nursing Home Admissions among Incontinent Older Adults: A Comparison of Residential Differences across Six Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coward, Raymond T.

    1995-01-01

    Uses data from the Longitudinal Studies on Aging (1984-90) to examine a sample who at baseline lived in community settings and reported problems with urinary incontinence (n=719). Analyses indicate that residents of less urbanized and more thinly populated nonmetropolitan counties were more likely to have a nursing home admission than others. (JPS)

  3. Use of Admissions Data to Predict Student Success in Postsecondary Freshman Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Amie K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if significant relationships exist for any of the variables, age, gender, previous GPA, test scores (ACT, Compass), number of accumulated credits, and student success in Biology. This study strived to determine what academic/admissions data can be used to determine the likelihood of student success in…

  4. Characteristics Predicting Nursing Home Admission in the Program of All-Inclusive Care for Elderly People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Susan M.; Steinwachs, Donald M.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Burton, Lynda C.; Mukamel, Dana B.

    2005-01-01

    Long term care in a nursing home prior to enrollment in PACE remain at high risk of readmission, despite the availability of comprehensive services. This study determined overall risk and predictors of long-term nursing home admission within the Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). Design and Methods: Data PACE records for 4,646…

  5. Epidemiology of Pregnancy-Associated ICU Utilization in Texas: 2001 - 2010

    PubMed Central

    Oud, Lavi

    2017-01-01

    Background ICU admission is uncommon among obstetric patients. Nevertheless, the epidemiology of ICU utilization is considered to be a useful proxy for study of severe maternal morbidity and near-miss events. However, there is paucity of population-level studies in obstetric patients in the United States. Methods The Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File and state-based reports were used to identify pregnancy-associated hospitalizations and those involving admission to ICU (n = 158,410) for the years 2001 - 2010. The clinical characteristics, outcomes, and the overall incidence and temporal trends of ICU admission were examined and stratified analyses of pregnancy outcomes were performed in specific categories of pregnancy-associated hospitalizations. In addition, ICU utilization among hospitalizations with maternal complications and organ dysfunction was evaluated. Results Chronic comorbidities (9.7%) and presence of organ dysfunction (6.2%) were uncommon among ICU admissions, with 26.5% having high severity of illness. The incidence of ICU admission was 39.0 per 1,000 pregnancy-associated hospitalizations-years. Marked variability was found in ICU admission both across pregnancy outcomes (ranging from 0.6 per 1,000 abortions-years to 85.9 per 1,000 stillbirths-years) and categories of pregnancy-associated hospitalizations (ranging from 32.1 per 1,000 delivery hospitalizations-years to 144.8 per 1,000 postpartum hospitalizations-years). The incidence of ICU admission rose 68% among pregnancy-associated hospitalizations and for all examined subgroups, except abortion. Preeclampsia/eclampsia (23.3%) and obstetric hemorrhage (6.9%) were the most common maternal complications among ICU admissions. Four hundred fourteen women (0.3%) died, while 97.6% were discharged home. Conclusions This study documents the highest incidence of ICU utilization in obstetric patients in the US to date. The findings suggest low threshold for obstetric ICU admissions in the state and do

  6. Epidemiology of Pregnancy-Associated ICU Utilization in Texas: 2001 - 2010.

    PubMed

    Oud, Lavi

    2017-02-01

    ICU admission is uncommon among obstetric patients. Nevertheless, the epidemiology of ICU utilization is considered to be a useful proxy for study of severe maternal morbidity and near-miss events. However, there is paucity of population-level studies in obstetric patients in the United States. The Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File and state-based reports were used to identify pregnancy-associated hospitalizations and those involving admission to ICU (n = 158,410) for the years 2001 - 2010. The clinical characteristics, outcomes, and the overall incidence and temporal trends of ICU admission were examined and stratified analyses of pregnancy outcomes were performed in specific categories of pregnancy-associated hospitalizations. In addition, ICU utilization among hospitalizations with maternal complications and organ dysfunction was evaluated. Chronic comorbidities (9.7%) and presence of organ dysfunction (6.2%) were uncommon among ICU admissions, with 26.5% having high severity of illness. The incidence of ICU admission was 39.0 per 1,000 pregnancy-associated hospitalizations-years. Marked variability was found in ICU admission both across pregnancy outcomes (ranging from 0.6 per 1,000 abortions-years to 85.9 per 1,000 stillbirths-years) and categories of pregnancy-associated hospitalizations (ranging from 32.1 per 1,000 delivery hospitalizations-years to 144.8 per 1,000 postpartum hospitalizations-years). The incidence of ICU admission rose 68% among pregnancy-associated hospitalizations and for all examined subgroups, except abortion. Preeclampsia/eclampsia (23.3%) and obstetric hemorrhage (6.9%) were the most common maternal complications among ICU admissions. Four hundred fourteen women (0.3%) died, while 97.6% were discharged home. This study documents the highest incidence of ICU utilization in obstetric patients in the US to date. The findings suggest low threshold for obstetric ICU admissions in the state and do not support comparative use of ICU

  7. Severe vitamin D deficiency upon admission in critically ill patients is related to acute kidney injury and a poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Zapatero, A; Dot, I; Diaz, Y; Gracia, M P; Pérez-Terán, P; Climent, C; Masclans, J R; Nolla, J

    2017-08-25

    To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in critically ill patients upon admission to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and its prognostic implications. A single-center, prospective observational study was carried out from January to November 2015. Patients were followed-up on until death or hospital discharge. The department of Critical Care Medicine of a university hospital. All adults admitted to the ICU during the study period, without known factors capable of altering serum 25(OH)D concentration. Determination of serum 25(OH)D levels within the first 24h following admission to the ICU. Prevalence and mortality at 28 days. The study included 135 patients, of which 74% presented deficient serum 25(OH)D levels upon admission to the ICU. Non-survivors showed significantly lower levels than survivors (8.14ng/ml [6.17-11.53] vs. 12ng/ml [7.1-20.30]; P=.04], and the serum 25(OH)D levels were independently associated to mortality (OR 2.86; 95% CI 1.05-7.86; P=.04]. The area under the ROC curve was 0.61 (95% CI 0.51-0.75), and the best cut-off point for predicting mortality was 10.9ng/ml. Patients with serum 25(OH)D<10.9ng/ml also showed higher acute kidney injury rates (13 vs. 29%; P=.02). Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent upon admission to the ICU. Severe Vitamin D deficiency (25[OH]D<10.9ng/ml) upon admission to the ICU is associated to acute kidney injury and mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  8. Predicting discharge to a long-term acute care hospital after admission to an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Szubski, Caleb R; Tellez, Alejandra; Klika, Alison K; Xu, Meng; Kattan, Michael W; Guzman, Jorge A; Barsoum, Wael K

    2014-07-01

    Long-term acute care hospitals are an option for patients in intensive care units who require prolonged care after an acute illness. Predicting use of these facilities may help hospitals improve resource management, expenditures, and quality of care delivered in intensive care. To develop a predictive tool for early identification of intensive care patients with increased probability of transfer to such a hospital. Data on 1967 adults admitted to intensive care at a tertiary care hospital between January 2009 and June 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. The prediction model was developed by using multiple ordinal logistic regression. The model was internally validated via the bootstrapping technique and externally validated with a control cohort of 950 intensive care patients. Among the study group, 146 patients (7.4%) were discharged to long-term acute care hospitals and 1582 (80.4%) to home or other care facilities; 239 (12.2%) died in the intensive care unit. The final prediction algorithm showed good accuracy (bias-corrected concordance index, 0.825; 95% CI, 0.803-0.845), excellent calibration, and external validation (concordance index, 0.789; 95% CI, 0.754-0.824). Hypoalbuminemia was the greatest potential driver of increased likelihood of discharge to a long-term acute care hospital. Other important predictors were intensive care unit category, older age, extended hospital stay before admission to intensive care, severe pressure ulcers, admission source, and dependency on mechanical ventilation. This new predictive tool can help estimate on the first day of admission to intensive care the likelihood of a patient's discharge to a long-term acute care hospital. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  9. Multicentre validation of a sepsis prediction algorithm using only vital sign data in the emergency department, general ward and ICU.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qingqing; Jay, Melissa; Hoffman, Jana L; Calvert, Jacob; Barton, Christopher; Shimabukuro, David; Shieh, Lisa; Chettipally, Uli; Fletcher, Grant; Kerem, Yaniv; Zhou, Yifan; Das, Ritankar

    2018-01-26

    We validate a machine learning-based sepsis-prediction algorithm ( InSight ) for the detection and prediction of three sepsis-related gold standards, using only six vital signs. We evaluate robustness to missing data, customisation to site-specific data using transfer learning and generalisability to new settings. A machine-learning algorithm with gradient tree boosting. Features for prediction were created from combinations of six vital sign measurements and their changes over time. A mixed-ward retrospective dataset from the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Medical Center (San Francisco, California, USA) as the primary source, an intensive care unit dataset from the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (Boston, Massachusetts, USA) as a transfer-learning source and four additional institutions' datasets to evaluate generalisability. 684 443 total encounters, with 90 353 encounters from June 2011 to March 2016 at UCSF. None. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve for detection and prediction of sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock. For detection of sepsis and severe sepsis, InSight achieves an AUROC curve of 0.92 (95% CI 0.90 to 0.93) and 0.87 (95% CI 0.86 to 0.88), respectively. Four hours before onset, InSight predicts septic shock with an AUROC of 0.96 (95% CI 0.94 to 0.98) and severe sepsis with an AUROC of 0.85 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.91). InSight outperforms existing sepsis scoring systems in identifying and predicting sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock. This is the first sepsis screening system to exceed an AUROC of 0.90 using only vital sign inputs. InSight is robust to missing data, can be customised to novel hospital data using a small fraction of site data and retains strong discrimination across all institutions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Prediction of the severity of acute pancreatitis on admission by urinary trypsinogen activation peptide: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Altaf, Kiran; Jin, Tao; Xiong, Jun-Jie; Wen, Li; Javed, Muhammad A; Johnstone, Marianne; Xue, Ping; Halloran, Christopher M; Xia, Qing

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To undertake a meta-analysis on the value of urinary trypsinogen activation peptide (uTAP) in predicting severity of acute pancreatitis on admission. METHODS: Major databases including Medline, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in the Cochrane Library were searched to identify all relevant studies from January 1990 to January 2013. Pooled sensitivity, specificity and the diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) with 95%CI were calculated for each study and were compared to other systems/biomarkers if mentioned within the same study. Summary receiver-operating curves were conducted and the area under the curve (AUC) was evaluated. RESULTS: In total, six studies of uTAP with a cut-off value of 35 nmol/L were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of uTAP for predicting severity of acute pancreatitis, at time of admission, was 71% and 75%, respectively (AUC = 0.83, DOR = 8.67, 95%CI: 3.70-20.33). When uTAP was compared with plasma C-reactive protein, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, AUC and DOR were 0.64 vs 0.67, 0.77 vs 0.75, 0.82 vs 0.79 and 6.27 vs 6.32, respectively. Similarly, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, AUC and DOR of uTAP vs Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II within the first 48 h of admission were found to be 0.64 vs 0.69, 0.77 vs 0.61, 0.82 vs 0.73 and 6.27 vs 4.61, respectively. CONCLUSION: uTAP has the potential to act as a stratification marker on admission for differentiating disease severity of acute pancreatitis. PMID:23901239

  11. Evacuation of the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Niven, Alexander S.; Beninati, William; Fang, Ray; Einav, Sharon; Rubinson, Lewis; Kissoon, Niranjan; Devereaux, Asha V.; Christian, Michael D.; Grissom, Colin K.; Christian, Michael D.; Devereaux, Asha V.; Dichter, Jeffrey R.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Rubinson, Lewis; Amundson, Dennis; Anderson, Michael R.; Balk, Robert; Barfield, Wanda D.; Bartz, Martha; Benditt, Josh; Beninati, William; Berkowitz, Kenneth A.; Daugherty Biddison, Lee; Braner, Dana; Branson, Richard D; Burkle, Frederick M.; Cairns, Bruce A.; Carr, Brendan G.; Courtney, Brooke; DeDecker, Lisa D.; De Jong, Marla J.; Dominguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Dries, David; Einav, Sharon; Erstad, Brian L.; Etienne, Mill; Fagbuyi, Daniel B.; Fang, Ray; Feldman, Henry; Garzon, Hernando; Geiling, James; Gomersall, Charles D.; Grissom, Colin K.; Hanfling, Dan; Hick, John L.; Hodge, James G.; Hupert, Nathaniel; Ingbar, David; Kanter, Robert K.; King, Mary A.; Kuhnley, Robert N.; Lawler, James; Leung, Sharon; Levy, Deborah A.; Lim, Matthew L.; Livinski, Alicia; Luyckx, Valerie; Marcozzi, David; Medina, Justine; Miramontes, David A.; Mutter, Ryan; Niven, Alexander S.; Penn, Matthew S.; Pepe, Paul E.; Powell, Tia; Prezant, David; Reed, Mary Jane; Rich, Preston; Rodriquez, Dario; Roxland, Beth E.; Sarani, Babak; Shah, Umair A.; Skippen, Peter; Sprung, Charles L.; Subbarao, Italo; Talmor, Daniel; Toner, Eric S.; Tosh, Pritish K.; Upperman, Jeffrey S.; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Weireter, Leonard J.; West, T. Eoin; Wilgis, John; Ornelas, Joe; McBride, Deborah; Reid, David; Baez, Amado; Baldisseri, Marie; Blumenstock, James S.; Cooper, Art; Ellender, Tim; Helminiak, Clare; Jimenez, Edgar; Krug, Steve; Lamana, Joe; Masur, Henry; Mathivha, L. Rudo; Osterholm, Michael T.; Reynolds, H. Neal; Sandrock, Christian; Sprecher, Armand; Tillyard, Andrew; White, Douglas; Wise, Robert; Yeskey, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the high risk for patient harm during unanticipated ICU evacuations, critical care providers receive little to no training on how to perform safe and effective ICU evacuations. We reviewed the pertinent published literature and offer suggestions for the critical care provider regarding ICU evacuation. The suggestions in this article are important for all who are involved in pandemics or disasters with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. METHODS: The Evacuation and Mobilization topic panel used the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) Guidelines Oversight Committee’s methodology to develop seven key questions for which specific literature searches were conducted to identify studies upon which evidence-based recommendations could be made. No studies of sufficient quality were identified. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process. RESULTS: Based on current best evidence, we provide 13 suggestions outlining a systematic approach to prepare for and execute an effective ICU evacuation during a disaster. Interhospital and intrahospital collaboration and functional ICU communication are critical for success. Pre-event planning and preparation are required for a no-notice evacuation. A Critical Care Team Leader must be designated within the Hospital Incident Command System. A three-stage ICU Evacuation Timeline, including (1) no immediate threat, (2) evacuation threat, and (3) evacuation implementation, should be used. Detailed suggestions on ICU evacuation, including regional planning, evacuation drills, patient transport preparation and equipment, patient prioritization and distribution for evacuation, patient information and tracking, and federal and international evacuation assistance systems, are also provided. CONCLUSIONS: Successful ICU evacuation during a disaster requires

  12. ICU early physical rehabilitation programs: financial modeling of cost savings.

    PubMed

    Lord, Robert K; Mayhew, Christopher R; Korupolu, Radha; Mantheiy, Earl C; Friedman, Michael A; Palmer, Jeffrey B; Needham, Dale M

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the potential annual net cost savings of implementing an ICU early rehabilitation program. Using data from existing publications and actual experience with an early rehabilitation program in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Medical ICU, we developed a model of net financial savings/costs and presented results for ICUs with 200, 600, 900, and 2,000 annual admissions, accounting for both conservative- and best-case scenarios. Our example scenario provided a projected financial analysis of the Johns Hopkins Medical ICU early rehabilitation program, with 900 admissions per year, using actual reductions in length of stay achieved by this program. U.S.-based adult ICUs. Financial modeling of the introduction of an ICU early rehabilitation program. Net cost savings generated in our example scenario, with 900 annual admissions and actual length of stay reductions of 22% and 19% for the ICU and floor, respectively, were $817,836. Sensitivity analyses, which used conservative- and best-case scenarios for length of stay reductions and varied the per-day ICU and floor costs, across ICUs with 200-2,000 annual admissions, yielded financial projections ranging from -$87,611 (net cost) to $3,763,149 (net savings). Of the 24 scenarios included in these sensitivity analyses, 20 (83%) demonstrated net savings, with a relatively small net cost occurring in the remaining four scenarios, mostly when simultaneously combining the most conservative assumptions. A financial model, based on actual experience and published data, projects that investment in an ICU early rehabilitation program can generate net financial savings for U.S. hospitals. Even under the most conservative assumptions, the projected net cost of implementing such a program is modest relative to the substantial improvements in patient outcomes demonstrated by ICU early rehabilitation programs.

  13. Muscle Measures and Nutritional Status at Hospital Admission Predict Survival and Independent Living of Older Patients - the EMPOWER Study.

    PubMed

    Verlaan, S; Van Ancum, J M; Pierik, V D; Van Wijngaarden, J P; Scheerman, K; Meskers, C G M; Maier, A B

    2017-01-01

    Older adults with sarcopenia and malnutrition are at risk for co-morbidities, hospitalization, institutionalization, and mortality. In case of hospitalization, risks may be further increased, especially in case of suboptimal dietary intake. The aim of our study was to assess whether muscle mass, muscle strength, functional performance, and nutritional status at hospital admission were associated with survival and independent living among older patients three months after discharge. The EMPOWER study was an observational, prospective and longitudinal inception cohort of patients older than 70 years admitted to the VU University Medical Centre in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Patients were assessed for demographic and clinical characteristics, measurements of muscle mass (by bioelectrical impedance analysis), handgrip strength (by dynamometry), functional performance (self-reported ability to walk), and screened for risk of malnutrition (by SNAQ). Three months after hospital discharge, survival and living situation were assessed by a follow-up telephone interview. The majority of the 378 patients enrolled were living independently at the time of hospitalization (90%) and three months post-discharge (83%). Fifty-two patients died in the period from hospital admission to three months after discharge (survival rate 86%). Higher absolute muscle mass measures and not being malnourished at admission were significantly associated with the likelihood of survival. Handgrip strength and self-reported ability to walk were positively associated with a higher chance of living independently three months after discharge, but not with survival. Older patients with greater muscle mass and without malnutrition at hospital admission had a higher survival rate, while measures of muscle strength and functional performance were predictive for living independently three months after hospital discharge. Different components of muscle health relate to different relevant outcomes and therefore

  14. Factors and values at admission that predict a fulminant course of acute myocarditis: data from Tokyo CCU network database.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Osamu; Satoh, Yasuhiro; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Nagao, Ken; Takayama, Morimasa

    2017-08-01

    Prognosis of acute myocarditis is generally benign, but fulminant cases exist which require advanced life support devices, such as percutaneous cardio-pulmonary support (PCPS) and ventricular assist devices (VAD), and lead to fatal outcomes. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors and their values at admission which might foreshadow a fulminant course of myocarditis. Data from 138 patients (mean age 42.0 years, 79 males) with a diagnosis of acute myocarditis in the Tokyo CCU Network database from 2007 to 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into fulminant (in-hospital death, or PCPS or VAD requirement, N = 42) and non-fulminant groups (N = 96). Clinical data at admission were compared between them. Overall in-hospital mortality was 14.5%. On multivariate analysis, low systolic blood pressure (BPsys, odds ratio (OR)/mmHg 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-1.00, p = 0.032) and electrocardiographic QRS complex prolongation (OR/10 ms 1.28; 95% CI 1.10-1.59, p = 0.0034) at admission were independent factors associated with a fulminant course. By receiver operator characteristic curve analysis, the area under the curve predicting a fulminant course was 0.769 for low BPsys and 0.821 for prolongation of QRS duration. The optimal cut-off value was 101 mmHg for BPsys (sensitivity 79.5%, specificity 68.0%), and 120 ms for QRS duration (sensitivity 72.2%, specificity 88.0%). Systolic hypotension and prolonged QRS on admission are predictors of a fulminant course of myocarditis.

  15. ICU Director Data

    PubMed Central

    Ogbu, Ogbonna C.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2015-01-01

    Improving value within critical care remains a priority because it represents a significant portion of health-care spending, faces high rates of adverse events, and inconsistently delivers evidence-based practices. ICU directors are increasingly required to understand all aspects of the value provided by their units to inform local improvement efforts and relate effectively to external parties. A clear understanding of the overall process of measuring quality and value as well as the strengths, limitations, and potential application of individual metrics is critical to supporting this charge. In this review, we provide a conceptual framework for understanding value metrics, describe an approach to developing a value measurement program, and summarize common metrics to characterize ICU value. We first summarize how ICU value can be represented as a function of outcomes and costs. We expand this equation and relate it to both the classic structure-process-outcome framework for quality assessment and the Institute of Medicine’s six aims of health care. We then describe how ICU leaders can develop their own value measurement process by identifying target areas, selecting appropriate measures, acquiring the necessary data, analyzing the data, and disseminating the findings. Within this measurement process, we summarize common metrics that can be used to characterize ICU value. As health care, in general, and critical care, in particular, changes and data become more available, it is increasingly important for ICU leaders to understand how to effectively acquire, evaluate, and apply data to improve the value of care provided to patients. PMID:25846533

  16. Predictive Value of the School-leaving Grade and Prognosis of Different Admission Groups for Academic Performance and Continuity in the Medical Course – a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Kadmon, Guni; Resch, Franz; Duelli, Roman; Kadmon, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Background: The school-leaving GPA and the time since completion of secondary education are the major criteria for admission to German medical schools. However, the predictive value of the school-leaving grade and the admission delay have not been thoroughly examined since the amendment of the Medical Licensing Regulations and the introduction of reformed curricula in 2002. Detailed information on the prognosis of the different admission groups is also missing. Aim: To examine the predictive values of the school-leaving grade and the age at enrolment for academic performance and continuity throughout the reformed medical course. Methods: The study includes the central admission groups “GPA-best” and “delayed admission” as well as the primary and secondary local admission groups of three consecutive cohorts. The relationship between the criteria academic performance and continuity and the predictors school-leaving GPA, enrolment age, and admission group affiliation were examined up to the beginning of the final clerkship year. Results: The academic performance and the prolongation of the pre-clinical part of undergraduate training were significantly related to the school-leaving GPA. Conversely, the dropout rate was related to age at enrolment. The students of the GPA-best group and the primary local admission group performed best and had the lowest dropout rates. The students of the delayed admission group and secondary local admission group performed significantly worse. More than 20% of these students dropped out within the pre-clinical course, half of them due to poor academic performance. However, the academic performance of all of the admission groups was highly variable and only about 35% of the students of each group reached the final clerkship year within the regular time. Discussion: The school-leaving grade and age appear to have different prognostic implications for academic performance and continuity. Both factors have consequences for the

  17. Comparison of physician prediction with 2 prognostic scoring systems in predicting 2-year mortality after intensive care admission: a linked-data cohort study.

    PubMed

    Litton, Edward; Ho, Kwok M; Webb, Steven A R

    2012-08-01

    Patients who survive an episode of critical illness continue to experience significant mortality after hospital discharge. This study assessed the accuracy of physician prediction of 2-year mortality and compared it with 2 objective prognostic models. Sensitivity (probability of a prediction of death in patients who died within 2 years) and specificity (probability of a prediction of survival in patients who survived at least 2 years) of physicians' 2-year prediction were compared with those from 2 objective prognostic models, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II and Predicted Risk Existing Disease Intensive Care Therapy (PREDICT). Physician prediction of 2-year mortality was available for 2497 (94.8%) intensive care unit admissions. Specificity was high (85.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 83.7-86.4), but sensitivity (65.0%; 95% CI, 61.1-68.8) and positive predictive value (57.4%; 95% CI, 53.6-61.2) were relatively low, suggesting overpessimistic prediction of 2-year mortality. Age, Charlson comorbidity index, and APACHE score were independent risk factors for an inaccurate physician prediction. The diagnostic odds ratio for the physician predictions was at least comparable with the APACHE and PREDICT models, which both had very good discrimination of mortality at 2-year follow-up. Physicians tended to overpredict the risk of 2-year mortality of critically ill patients, but accuracy was comparable with 2 objective prognostic models. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Visual Fixation in the ICU: A Strong Predictor of Long-Term Recovery After Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Arbour, Caroline; Baril, Andrée-Ann; Westwick, Harrison J; Potvin, Marie-Julie; Gilbert, Danielle; Giguère, Jean-François; Lavigne, Gilles J; Desautels, Alex; Bernard, Francis; Laureys, Steven; Gosselin, Nadia

    2016-12-01

    Posttraumatic amnesia is superior to the initial Glasgow Coma Scale score for predicting traumatic brain injury recovery, but it takes days/weeks to assess. Here, we examined whether return of visual fixation-a potential marker of higher cognitive function-within 24 hours of ICU admission could be used as an early predictor of traumatic brain injury recovery. Two-phase cohort study. Level-I trauma ICU. Moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury discharged alive between 2010 and 2013. None. Return of visual fixation was assessed through standard behavioral assessments in 181 traumatic brain injury patients who had lost the ability to fixate at ICU admission (phase 1) and compared with posttraumatic amnesia duration and the initial Glasgow Coma Scale score to predict performance on the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended 10-40 months after injury (n = 144; phase 2a). A subgroup also completed a visual attention task (n = 35; phase 2b) and a brain MRI after traumatic brain injury (n = 23; phase 2c). With an area under the curve equal to 0.85, presence/absence of visual fixation at 24 hours of ICU admission was found as performant as posttraumatic amnesia (area under the curve, 0.81; difference between area under the curve, 0.04; p = 0.28) for predicting patients' Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended score. Conversely, the initial Glasgow Coma Scale score was not (area under the curve, 0.63). Even when controlling for age/medication/CT scan findings, fixation remained a significant predictor of Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended scores (β, -0.29; p < 0.05). Poorer attention performances and greater regional brain volume deficits were also observed in patients who could not fixate at 24 hours of ICU admission versus those who could. Visual fixation within 24 hours of ICU admission could be as performant as posttraumatic amnesia for predicting traumatic brain injury recovery, introducing a new variable of interest in traumatic brain injury outcome research.

  19. Does psychopathology at admission predict the length of inpatient stay in psychiatry? Implications for financing psychiatric services

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The debate on appropriate financing systems in inpatient psychiatry is ongoing. In this context, it is important to control resource use in terms of length of stay (LOS), which is the most costly factor in inpatient care and the one that can be influenced most easily. Previous studies have shown that psychiatric diagnoses provide only limited justification for explaining variation in LOS, and it has been suggested that measures such as psychopathology might be more appropriate to predict resource use. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between LOS and psychopathological syndromes or symptoms at admission as well as other characteristics such as sociodemographic and clinical variables. Methods We considered routine medical data of patients admitted to the Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich in the years 2008 and 2009. Complete data on psychopathology at hospital admission were available in 3,220 inpatient episodes. A subsample of 2,939 inpatient episodes was considered in final statistical models, including psychopathology as well as complete datasets of further measures (e.g. sociodemographic, clinical, treatment-related and psychosocial variables). We used multivariate linear as well as logistic regression analysis with forward selection procedure to determine the predictors of LOS. Results All but two syndrome scores (mania, hostility) were positively related to the length of stay. Final statistical models showed that syndromes or symptoms explained about 5% of the variation in length of stay. The inclusion of syndromes or symptoms as well as basic treatment variables and other factors led to an explained variation of up to 25%. Conclusions Psychopathological syndromes and symptoms at admission and further characteristics only explained a small proportion of the length of inpatient stay. Thus, according to our sample, psychopathology might not be suitable as a primary indicator for estimating LOS and contingent costs. This might be

  20. ABCDEs of ICU: Awakening.

    PubMed

    Concepcion, Shane C

    2013-01-01

    Critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) who require mechanical ventilation often require continuous sedation infusions. These 2 interventions are associated with adverse outcomes such as increased duration of mechanical ventilation, increased length of stay in both the ICU and the hospital, and significant physiological and psychological complications. Daily sedation interruption (DSI) can reduce these adverse effects thereby improving long-term outcomes after critical illness. DSI is safe, practical, cost-effective, and results in positive outcomes for patients; however, there are barriers to implementing and incorporating DSI into daily practice. Further research is required to provide additional evidence and promote more widespread utilization.

  1. Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation (PMV): When is it Justified in ICU?

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Trupti H

    2015-10-01

    Over years, the number of patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) in ICU has increased. Trends in the numbers of patients requiring PMV are of interest to health service planners because they consume a disproportionate amount of healthcare resources, and have high illness costs.1 PMV is defined as need of invasive mechanical ventilation for consecutive 21 days for at least 6 hours per day. With improvement in ICU care more patients survive acute respiratory failure and with that number of patients requiring PMV is likely to increase further. In a large multi centric study in United Kingdom the incidence PMV was 4.4 per 100 ICU admissions, and 6.3 per 100 ventilated ICU admissions. Also these patients used 29.1% of all general ICU bed days, had longer hospital stay after ICU discharge than non-PMV patients and had higher hospital mortality (40.3% vs 33.8%, P = 0.02).2. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  2. Intrahospital teleradiology: ER to the ICU connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattner, Stefanie; Herron, John M.; Fuhrman, Carl R.; Towers, Jeffrey D.; Thaete, F. Leland; Gur, David

    1994-05-01

    Availability of initial radiographic images acquired in the Emergency Department (ED) for patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) has been a problem in our operations. It is not uncommon that images from the ED are delivered to the appropriate ICU several hours after admission, and this problem is typically magnified `off hours'. We installed a film digitizer in the ED and required technologists to digitize all chest radiographs as they came out of the film processor. These images are archived and transmitted to a workstation located near one of our busier medical ICUs. The system has been operational for eight months, and it provides reliable timely access to such images. Careful review of a large number of cases clearly demonstrated that such a system is not only feasible, but extremely effective in improving both perceptions and actual quality of radiology services in this difficult environment. Image quality was found to be acceptable for this purpose.

  3. [Pain and fear in the ICU].

    PubMed

    Chamorro, C; Romera, M A

    2015-10-01

    Pain and fear are still the most common memories that refer patients after ICU admission. Recently an important politician named the UCI as the branch of the hell. It is necessary to carry out profound changes in terms of direct relationships with patients and their relatives, as well as changes in environmental design and work and visit organization, to banish the vision that our society about the UCI. In a step which advocates for early mobilization of critical patients is necessary to improve analgesia and sedation strategies. The ICU is the best place for administering and monitoring analgesic drugs. The correct analgesia should not be a pending matter of the intensivist but a mandatory course. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  4. Immature platelet fraction in predicting sepsis in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    De Blasi, Roberto Alberto; Cardelli, Patrizia; Costante, Alessandro; Sandri, Micol; Mercieri, Marco; Arcioni, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    To establish whether in critically ill patients without sepsis at intensive care unit (ICU) admission the percentage immature platelet fraction (IPF%) is a cellular marker predicting sepsis to verify a possible correlation between IPF% changes and manifest sepsis and describe the IPF% time course after ICU admission. Prospective, observational 7-day study of 64 adult patients admitted to a general ICU at a University Hospital with no sepsis criteria. We measured daily IPF%, procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein, platelets, white blood cell count and coagulation variables. Thirty-one patients with sepsis at ICU admission were studied as controls. The only variable we tested at ICU admission that predicted sepsis was plasma IPF% (p < 0.001; >4.7 %: sensitivity 56.2 % IC 37.7-73.6; specificity 90.0 % IC 73.4-97.8). IPF% and PCT values were higher for the patients who had sepsis at admission and during the study than in patients in whom sepsis never developed (IPF%: p = 0.017; PCT: p = 0.030). Among the outcome variables, logistic regression was identified as the only variable related to the development of sepsis, IPF% (r = 0.51; p = 0.004). In patients who developed sepsis IPF% was inversely correlated with platelet count (r = -0.60; p < 0.001) and had high values before sepsis became manifest, decreasing significantly on the 2nd day thereafter. In patients without sepsis at ICU admission IPF% increases before sepsis becomes manifest. Measuring IPF% through an easily available technology can therefore provide an early cellular marker predicting the development of sepsis.

  5. Poor nutritional status on admission predicts poor outcomes after stroke: observational data from the FOOD trial.

    PubMed

    2003-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that undernourished patients with acute stroke do badly. The data, however, are not robust. We aimed to reliably assess the importance of baseline nutritional status as an independent predictor of long-term outcome after stroke in a large prospective cohort enrolled in the Feed Or Ordinary Diet (FOOD) trial, a multicenter randomized trial evaluating various feeding policies. Patients admitted to hospital with a recent stroke were enrolled in the FOOD trial. Data on nutritional status and other clinical predictors of outcome were collected at trial entry. At 6 months, the coordinating center collected data on survival and functional status (modified Rankin Scale). Outcome assessment was done by researchers blinded to baseline assessments and treatment allocation. Between November 1996 and November 2001, 3012 patients were enrolled, and 2955 (98%) were followed up. Of the 275 undernourished patients, 102 (37%) were dead by final follow-up compared with only 445 (20%) of 2194 patients of normal nutritional status (odds ratio [OR], 2.32; 95% CI, 1.78 to 3.02). After adjustment for age, prestroke functional state, and stroke severity, this relationship, although weakened, still held (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.34 to 2.47). Undernourished patients were more likely to develop pneumonia, other infections, and gastrointestinal bleeding during their hospital admission than other patients. These data provide reliable evidence that nutritional status early after stroke is independently associated with long-term outcome. It supports the rationale for the FOOD trial, which continues to recruit and aims to estimate the effect of different feeding regimes on outcome after stroke and thus determine whether the association observed in this study is likely to be causal.

  6. Identifying Distinct Subgroups of ICU Patients: A Machine Learning Approach.

    PubMed

    Vranas, Kelly C; Jopling, Jeffrey K; Sweeney, Timothy E; Ramsey, Meghan C; Milstein, Arnold S; Slatore, Christopher G; Escobar, Gabriel J; Liu, Vincent X

    2017-10-01

    Identifying subgroups of ICU patients with similar clinical needs and trajectories may provide a framework for more efficient ICU care through the design of care platforms tailored around patients' shared needs. However, objective methods for identifying these ICU patient subgroups are lacking. We used a machine learning approach to empirically identify ICU patient subgroups through clustering analysis and evaluate whether these groups might represent appropriate targets for care redesign efforts. We performed clustering analysis using data from patients' hospital stays to retrospectively identify patient subgroups from a large, heterogeneous ICU population. Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a healthcare delivery system serving 3.9 million members. ICU patients 18 years old or older with an ICU admission between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2012, at one of 21 Kaiser Permanente Northern California hospitals. None. We used clustering analysis to identify putative clusters among 5,000 patients randomly selected from 24,884 ICU patients. To assess cluster validity, we evaluated the distribution and frequency of patient characteristics and the need for invasive therapies. We then applied a classifier built from the sample cohort to the remaining 19,884 patients to compare the derivation and validation clusters. Clustering analysis successfully identified six clinically recognizable subgroups that differed significantly in all baseline characteristics and clinical trajectories, despite sharing common diagnoses. In the validation cohort, the proportion of patients assigned to each cluster was similar and demonstrated significant differences across clusters for all variables. A machine learning approach revealed important differences between empirically derived subgroups of ICU patients that are not typically revealed by admitting diagnosis or severity of illness alone. Similar data-driven approaches may provide a framework for future organizational innovations

  7. Functional outcomes in high risk ICU patients in Central Australia: a prospective case series.

    PubMed

    Secombe, Paul J; Stewart, Penelope C; Brown, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This case series reports the functional outcomes of a prospective group of patients, thought to be at high risk for future morbidity, admitted to a rural intensive care unit (ICU) for a life-threatening illness. This prospective longitudinal observational study conducted between February and August 2009 in the Alice Springs Hospital ICU included patients considered 'high risk', as evidenced by profound physiological derangement. The participants were prospectively recruited when pre-defined criteria were met. Functional outcomes were measured by performance in the six-minute walk test, and the ability to undertake activities of daily living. Persisting morbidity was crudely measured by hospital re-admission rate. Mortality was measured at 6 months. Eighteen patients consented to take part in the study. Fourteen were Indigenous, and 14 were medical patients. Six-minute walk distance did not improve between ICU discharge and 6 months, and was significantly below that predicted. Almost all patients achieved scores consistent with full independence in basic activities of daily living. Five achieved scores consistent with independence in domestic activities of daily living. Twelve required at least one re-admission, with half the Indigenous subgroup requiring three or more re-admissions. There were four deaths, all Indigenous patients, and three were homeless.< This study demonstrates that follow up in this group at 6 months is both feasible and valuable. There is evidence of persisting morbidity, and increased mortality, particularly among Indigenous patients. Further avenues of research are suggested, including the need for a large multi-centre prospective study.

  8. Maternal super obesity and risk for intensive care unit admission in the MFMU Cesarean Registry.

    PubMed

    Smid, Marcela C; Dotters-Katz, Sarah K; Vaught, Arthur J; Vladutiu, Catherine J; Boggess, Kim A; Stamilio, David M

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for intensive care unit (ICU) admission in nonpregnant populations. Less is known about maternal obesity and ICU admission risk. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between maternal obesity and ICU admission among women who delivered via cesarean section or vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC). This is a retrospective cohort analysis of women who delivered via VBAC or cesarean section in the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit (MFMU) Cesarean Registry. We defined exposure as body mass index (BMI) at delivery stratified as non-obese (BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m 2 ), class I or II obese (BMI 30-39.9 kg/m 2 ), morbidly obese (BMI 40-49.9 kg/m 2 ), and super obese (BMI ≥ 50 kg/m 2 ). The primary outcome was ICU admission. Modified Poisson regression models estimated relative risk (RR) of ICU admission by obesity strata, after adjusting for confounders. Mediation analysis was used to estimate the proportion of ICU admission risk attributable specifically to obesity. We included 68 455 women; 40% non-obese, 46% class I or II obese, 12% morbidly obese, and 2% super obese. Super obese women were at higher risk for ICU admission compared with non-obese women (0.7 vs. 1.3%, adjusted RR 1.61; 95% CI 1.01-2.65), after adjusting for confounders. Among super obese women, medical comorbidities mediated 58% of ICU admission risk, suggesting that a significant proportion of ICU admission is driven by maternal obesity. Super obese women who deliver by cesarean section or VBAC are at increased risk of peripartum ICU admission. Obstetricians and critical care specialists should consider possible ICU admission during delivery planning. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Early prediction of intensive care unit-acquired weakness using easily available parameters: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Wieske, Luuk; Witteveen, Esther; Verhamme, Camiel; Dettling-Ihnenfeldt, Daniela S; van der Schaaf, Marike; Schultz, Marcus J; van Schaik, Ivo N; Horn, Janneke

    2014-01-01

    An early diagnosis of Intensive Care Unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW) using muscle strength assessment is not possible in most critically ill patients. We hypothesized that development of ICU-AW can be predicted reliably two days after ICU admission, using patient characteristics, early available clinical parameters, laboratory results and use of medication as parameters. Newly admitted ICU patients mechanically ventilated ≥2 days were included in this prospective observational cohort study. Manual muscle strength was measured according to the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale, when patients were awake and attentive. ICU-AW was defined as an average MRC score <4. A prediction model was developed by selecting predictors from an a-priori defined set of candidate predictors, based on known risk factors. Discriminative performance of the prediction model was evaluated, validated internally and compared to the APACHE IV and SOFA score. Of 212 included patients, 103 developed ICU-AW. Highest lactate levels, treatment with any aminoglycoside in the first two days after admission and age were selected as predictors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the prediction model was 0.71 after internal validation. The new prediction model improved discrimination compared to the APACHE IV and the SOFA score. The new early prediction model for ICU-AW using a set of 3 easily available parameters has fair discriminative performance. This model needs external validation.

  10. Hypomagnesemia in the ICU - Does Correction Matter?

    PubMed

    Charles, B Sheba; Menon, Indira; Girish, T S; Cherian, A M

    2016-11-01

    Magnesium is a cation that is constantly being rediscovered. A number of studies have linked low magnesium levels to poor outcome of critically ill patients. Despite this hypomagnesemia continues to be under-recognized and uncorrected. There are no studies, in our knowledge, that have assessed the impact of correction of hypomagnesaemia on the outcome of the ICU patient. To determine the standard Mg levels in a healthy population sample and to correlate it with western data. To estimate the admission Mg levels in critically ill patients admitted to the ICU and to determine if routine correction of hypomagnesaemia altered their outcomes as compared with the retrospectively collected data of a similar group of patients admitted to the same ICU prior to the routine testing of Mg levels. This was an observational study carried out in the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital in south India. The mean serum magnesium in a sample of healthy Indian population was noted to be 2.112 mg/dl, which is consistent with that of the western data. Among the critically ill admitted to the medical ICU, the incidence of Hypomagnesemia (defined as serum Mg+2 of ≤1.7mg/dl on admission), was 23.96%. The study group in whom serum Magnesium was routinely corrected, showed a decrease in the mean total duration of icu stay (94.265 vs. 99.443 hours with p=0.78); the need for mechanical ventilation (52.08% vs. 65.625%) and the duration of Mechanical Ventilation (36.64 vs. 58.75 hours with p=0.04). Mortality was significantly higher in the comparison group (p=0.01) (39.6% vs. 22.9%). The range of Magnesium levels in a healthy Indian population matches that of the west despite variations in diet and lifestyle. Routine screening and replacement of magnesium in critically ill patients with hypomagnesaemia resulted in reduction of morbidity and statistically significant reduction in overall ICU mortality.

  11. The Assessment of Risk in Cardiothoracic Intensive Care (ARCtIC): prediction of hospital mortality after admission to cardiothoracic critical care.

    PubMed

    Shahin, J; Ferrando-Vivas, P; Power, G S; Biswas, S; Webb, S T; Rowan, K M; Harrison, D A

    2016-12-01

    The models used to predict outcome after adult general critical care may not be applicable to cardiothoracic critical care. Therefore, we analysed data from the Case Mix Programme to identify variables associated with hospital mortality after admission to cardiothoracic critical care units and to develop a risk-prediction model. We derived predictive models for hospital mortality from variables measured in 17,002 patients within 24 h of admission to five cardiothoracic critical care units. The final model included 10 variables: creatinine; white blood count; mean arterial blood pressure; functional dependency; platelet count; arterial pH; age; Glasgow Coma Score; arterial lactate; and route of admission. We included additional interaction terms between creatinine, lactate, platelet count and cardiac surgery as the admitting diagnosis. We validated this model against 10,238 other admissions, for which the c index (95% CI) was 0.904 (0.89-0.92) and the Brier score was 0.055, while the slope and intercept of the calibration plot were 0.961 and -0.183, respectively. The discrimination and calibration of our model suggest that it might be used to predict hospital mortality after admission to cardiothoracic critical care units. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  12. Impact of nonphysician staffing on outcomes in a medical ICU.

    PubMed

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Wunsch, Hannah; Wahab, Romina; Leaf, David; Brodie, Daniel; Li, Guohua; Factor, Phillip

    2011-06-01

    As the number of ICU beds and demand for intensivists increase, alternative solutions are needed to provide coverage for critically ill patients. The impact of different staffing models on the outcomes of patients in the medical ICU (MICU) remains unknown. In our study, we compare outcomes of nonphysician provider-based teams to those of medical house staff-based teams in the MICU. We conducted a retrospective review of 590 daytime (7:00 am-7:00 pm) admissions to two MICUs at one hospital. In one MICU staffed by nurse practitioners and physician assistants (MICU-NP/PA) there were nonphysicians (nurse practitioners and physicians assistants) during the day (7:00 am-7:00 pm) with attending physician coverage overnight. In the other MICU, there were medicine residents (MICU-RES) (24 h/d). The outcomes investigated were hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS) (ICU, hospital), and posthospital discharge destination. Three hundred two patients were admitted to the MICU-NP/PA and 288 to the MICU-RES. Mortality probability model III (MPM(0)-III) predicted mortality was similar (P = .14). There was no significant difference in hospital mortality (32.1% for MICU-NP/PA vs 32.3% for MICU-RES, P = .96), MICU LOS (4.22 ± 2.51 days for MICU-NP/PA vs 4.44 ± 3.10 days for MICU-RES, P = .59), or hospital LOS (14.01 ± 2.92 days for MICU-NP/PA vs 13.74 ± 2.94 days for MICU-RES, P = .86). Discharge to a skilled care facility (vs home) was similar (37.1% for MICU-NP/PA vs 32.5% for MICU-RES, P = .34). After multivariate adjustment, MICU staffing type was not associated with hospital mortality (P = .26), MICU LOS (P = .29), hospital LOS (P = .19), or posthospital discharge destination (P = .90). Staffing models including daytime use of nonphysician providers appear to be a safe and effective alternative to the traditional house staff-based team in a high-acuity, adult ICU.

  13. Using an admissions exam to predict student success in an ADN program.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, P A; Bomba, C; Crane, L R

    2001-01-01

    Nursing faculty strive to admit students who are likely to successfully complete the nursing curriculum and pass NCLEX-RN. The high cost of academic preparation and the nursing shortage make this selection process even more critical. The authors discuss how one community college nursing program examined academic achievement measures to determine how well they predicted student success. Results provided faculty with useful data to improve the success and retention of nursing.

  14. Mortality Associated With Emergency Department Boarding Exposure: Are There Differences Between Patients Admitted to ICU and Non-ICU Settings?

    PubMed

    Reznek, Martin A; Upatising, Benjavan; Kennedy, Samantha J; Durham, Natassia T; Forster, Richard M; Michael, Sean S

    2018-05-01

    Emergency Department (ED) boarding threatens patient safety. It is unclear whether boarding differentially affects patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) versus non-ICU settings. We performed a 2-hospital, 18-month, cross-sectional, observational, descriptive study of adult patients admitted from the ED. We used Kaplan-Meier estimation and Cox Proportional Hazards regression to describe differences in boarding time among patients who died during hospitalization versus those who survived, controlling for covariates that could affect mortality risk or boarding exposure, and separately evaluating patients admitted to ICUs versus non-ICU settings. We extracted age, race, sex, time variables, admission unit, hospital disposition, and Elixhauser comorbidity measures and calculated boarding time for each admitted patient. Among 39,781 admissions from the EDs (21.3% to ICUs), non-ICU patients who died in-hospital had a 1.2-fold risk (95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.36; P=0.016) of having experienced longer boarding times than survivors, accounting for covariates. We did not observe a difference among patients admitted to ICUs. Among non-ICU patients, those who died during hospitalization were more likely to have had incrementally longer boarding exposure than those who survived. This difference was not observed for ICU patients. Boarding risk mitigation strategies focused on ICU patients may have accounted for this difference, but we caution against interpreting that boarding can be safe. Segmentation by patients admitted to ICU versus non-ICU settings in boarding research may be valuable in ensuring that the safety of both groups is considered in hospital flow and boarding care improvements.

  15. Predicting institutional long-term care admission in dementia: a mixed-methods study of informal caregivers' reports.

    PubMed

    Afram, Basema; Verbeek, Hilde; Bleijlevens, Michel H C; Challis, David; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Karlsson, Staffan; Soto, Maria E; Renom-Guiteras, Anna; Saks, Kai; Zabalegui, Adelaida; Hamers, Jan P H

    2015-06-01

    To investigate agreement between: (1) expected reasons and actual reasons for admission of people with dementia according to informal caregivers; (2) scores on measurement instruments prior to admission and the actual reasons for admission according to informal caregivers. Timely admission of people with dementia is a crucial issue. Information is highly warranted on whether informal caregivers are capable of prior identification of causes of admission and, can thus be considered a reliable prospective source on causes of admission. A cohort study among informal caregivers of people with dementia who made a transition to institutional long-term care. Qualitative data on the expected and actual reasons for admission were collected via open-ended questions at baseline and follow-up. Furthermore, at baseline, data were collected using measurement instruments to measure pre-admission characteristics. Interviews took place between November 2010-April 2012. After categorizing the answers, the agreement between the expected and actual reasons was calculated. Furthermore, bivariate associations were calculated between the actual reasons for admission and scores on corresponding measurement instruments. For most informal caregivers, there was agreement between their statements on the expected reason and the actual reason for admission. A third of the caregivers showed no conformity. Bivariate associations showed that there is also agreement between the actual reasons for admission and scores on corresponding measurement instruments. Informal caregivers can be considered reliable sources of information regarding what causes the admission of a person with dementia. Professional care should anticipate informal caregivers' statements and collaborate with them to strive for timely and appropriate admission. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Assessing contemporary intensive care unit outcome: development and validation of the Australian and New Zealand Risk of Death admission model.

    PubMed

    Paul, E; Bailey, M; Kasza, J; Pilcher, D V

    2017-05-01

    The Australian and New Zealand Risk of Death (ANZROD) model currently used for benchmarking intensive care units (ICUs) in Australia and New Zealand utilises physiological data collected up to 24 hours after ICU admission to estimate the risk of hospital mortality. This study aimed to develop the Australian and New Zealand Risk of Death admission (ANZROD 0 ) model to predict hospital mortality using data available at presentation to ICU and compare its performance with the ANZROD in Australian and New Zealand hospitals. Data pertaining to all ICU admissions between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2015 were extracted from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database. Hospital mortality was modelled using logistic regression with development (two-thirds) and validation (one-third) datasets. All predictor variables available at ICU admission were considered for inclusion in the ANZROD 0 model. Model performance was assessed using Brier score, standardised mortality ratio and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The relationship between ANZROD 0 and ANZROD predicted risk of death was assessed using linear regression. After standard exclusions, 1,097,416 patients were available for model development and validation. Observed mortality was 9.5%. Model performance measures (Brier score, standardised mortality ratio and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) for the ANZROD 0 and ANZROD in the validation dataset were 0.069, 1.0 and 0.853; 0.057, 1.0 and 0.909, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between the mortality predictions with an overall R 2 of 0.73. We found that the ANZROD 0 model had acceptable calibration and discrimination. Predictions from the models had high correlations in all major diagnostic groups, with the exception of cardiac surgery and possibly trauma and sepsis.

  17. Reasons for refusal of admission to intensive care and impact on mortality.

    PubMed

    Iapichino, Gaetano; Corbella, Davide; Minelli, Cosetta; Mills, Gary H; Artigas, Antonio; Edbooke, David L; Pezzi, Angelo; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Patroniti, Nicolò; Baras, Mario; Sprung, Charles L

    2010-10-01

    To identify factors influencing triage decisions and investigate whether admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) could reduce mortality compared with treatment on the ward. A multicentre cohort study in 11 university hospitals from seven countries, evaluating triage decisions and outcomes of patients referred for admission to ICU who were either accepted, or refused and treated on the ward. Confounding in the estimation of the effect of ICU admission on mortality was controlled by use of a propensity score approach, which adjusted for the probability of being admitted. Variability across centres was accounted for in both analyses of factors influencing ICU admission and effect of ICU admission on mortality. Eligible were 8,616 triages in 7,877 patients referred for ICU admission. Variables positively associated with probability of being admitted to ICU included: ventilators in ward; bed availability; Karnofsky score; absence of comorbidity; presence of haematological malignancy; emergency surgery and elective surgery (versus medical treatment); trauma, vascular involvement, liver involvement; acute physiologic score II; ICU treatment (versus ICU observation). Multiple triages during patient's hospital stay and age were negatively associated with ICU admission. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the model was 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81-0.84], with Hosmer-Lemeshow test P = 0.300. ICU admission was associated with a statistically significant reduction of both 28-day mortality [odds ratio (OR): 0.73; 95% CI: 0.62-0.87] and 90-day mortality (0.79; 0.66-0.93). The benefit of ICU admission increased substantially in patients with greater severity of illness. We suggest that intensivists take great care to avoid ICU admission of patients judged not severe enough for ICU or with low performance status, and they tend to admit surgical patients more readily than medical patients. Interestingly, they do not judge age per se as

  18. Early prediction of new-onset physical disability after intensive care unit stay: a preliminary instrument.

    PubMed

    Schandl, Anna; Bottai, Matteo; Holdar, Ulrika; Hellgren, Elisabeth; Sackey, Peter

    2014-07-31

    Many intensive care unit (ICU) survivors suffer from physical disability for months after ICU stay. There is no structured method to identify patients at risk for such problems. The purpose of the study was to develop a method for early in-ICU prediction of the patient's individual risk for new-onset physical disability two months after ICU stay. In total, 23 potential predictors for physical disability were assessed before individual ICU discharge. Two months after ICU discharge, out of 232 eligible patients, 148 ICU survivors (64%) completed the activity of daily living (ADL) staircase questionnaire to determine new-onset physical disability. A total of 95% percent of patients had no ADL reduction prior to ICU admission. 47% (n = 69) of questionnaire responders suffered from worsened ADL. We identified four independent predictors for new-onset physical disability: Low educational level (odds ratio (OR) =6.8), impaired core stability (OR = 4.6), fractures (OR = 4.5) and ICU length of stay longer than 2 days (OR = 2.6). The predictors were included in a screening instrument. The regression coefficient of each predictor was transformed into a risk score. The sum of risk scores was related to a predicted probability for physical disability in the individual patient. The cross-validated area under receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) for the screening instrument was 0.80. Educational level is the single most important predictor for new-onset physical disability 2 months after ICU stay, followed by impaired core stability at ICU discharge, the presence of fractures and ICU stay longer than 2 days. A simple screening instrument based on these predictors can be used at ICU discharge to determine the risk for new-onset physical disability. This preliminary instrument may help clinicians to identify patients in need of support, but needs external validation prior to wider clinical use.

  19. Readmission to medical intensive care units: risk factors and prediction.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yong Suk; Lee, Yeon Joo; Park, Jong Sun; Yoon, Ho Il; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek; Cho, Young-Jae

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to find factors related to medical intensive care unit (ICU) readmission and to develop a prediction index for determining patients who are likely to be readmitted to medical ICUs. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 343 consecutive patients who were admitted to the medical ICU of a single medical center from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012. We analyzed a broad range of patients' characteristics on the day of admission, extubation, and discharge from the ICU. Of the 343 patients discharged from the ICU alive, 33 (9.6%) were readmitted to the ICU unexpectedly. Using logistic regression analysis, the verified factors associated with increased risk of ICU readmission were male sex [odds ratio (OR) 3.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-8.48], history of diabetes mellitus (OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.29-7.09), application of continuous renal replacement therapy during ICU stay (OR 2.78, 95% CI 0.85-9.09), white blood cell count on the day of extubation (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.21), and heart rate just before ICU discharge (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06). We established a prediction index for ICU readmission using the five verified risk factors (area under the curve, 0.76, 95% CI 0.66-0.86). By using specific risk factors associated with increased readmission to the ICU, a numerical index could be established as an estimation tool to predict the risk of ICU readmission.

  20. [Job satisfaction, job burnout and their relationships with work'and patients' characteristics: a comparison between intensive care units (ICU) and not-intensive care units (not-ICU)].

    PubMed

    Viotti, Sara; Converso, Daniela; Loera, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Health worker's population is espoused to high level of stress, and several studies highlight differences between intensive care units (ICU) and non-intensive care unit (non-ICU). Particular features of the job in ICU concern responsibilities for critically patients, highly advanced technology and need for quick decision. Aims of this study are: (1) to examine differences between ICU's and not-ICU's workers on several dimensions describing work environment and workers' health; (2) investigate which specific work conditions have a role in determining psychological work reactions in ICU's and not-ICU's workers. 144 ICUs' and not-ICU's 114 workers employed in an Italian Hospital filled out a questionnaire concerning decision authority, autonomy, colleagues' and supervisors' support, physical and cognitive demands as antecedents; job satisfaction and job burnout (EE, DP) as consequences. 1) MANOVA highlighted how ICU workers reported significantly higher scores on depersonalization, job satisfaction, aggressive customers, while physical demands and proportionate customer expectations were significantly higher for not-ICU workers; (2) Six Multiple Linear Regressions were carried out. Those indicated decision authority, autonomy and supervisors' support as predictors of emotional exhaustions in ICU. In not-ICU only cognitive demands and colleagues' support are significant predictors. Depersonalization is predicted in ICU by colleagues' support. Predictors of job satisfaction both in ICU and not-ICU are: decision authority and colleagues support. Current study highlighted several differences among ICU and non-ICU workers' referred to work environment and psychological reactions.

  1. BISAP, RANSON, lactate and others biomarkers in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis in a European cohort.

    PubMed

    Valverde-López, Francisco; Matas-Cobos, Ana M; Alegría-Motte, Carlos; Jiménez-Rosales, Rita; Úbeda-Muñoz, Margarita; Redondo-Cerezo, Eduardo

    2017-09-01

    The study aims to assess and compare the predicting ability of some scores and biomarkers in acute pancreatitis. We prospectively collected data from 269 patients diagnosed of acute pancreatitis, admitted to Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital between June 2010 and June 2012. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), C-reactive protein, and creatinine were measured on admission and after 48 h, lactate and bedside index for severity acute pancreatitis (BISAP) only on admission and RANSON within the first 48 h. Definitions from 2012 Atlanta Classification were used. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for each scoring system for predicting severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), mortality, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission, obtaining optimal cut-off values from the receiver operating characteristic curves. Eight (3%) patients died, 17 (6.3%) were classified as SAP, and 10 (3.7%) were admitted in ICU. BISAP was the best predictor on admission for SAP, mortality, and ICU admission with an AUC of 0.9 (95% CI 0.83-0.97); 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.99); and 0.89 (95% CI 0.79-0.99), respectively. After 48 h, BUN 48 h was the best predictor of SAP (AUC = 0.96 CI: 0.92-0.99); BUN 48 h and BISAP were the best predictors for mortality (AUC = 0.97 CI: 0.95-0.99) and creatinine 48 h for ICU admission (AUC = 0.96 CI: 0.92-0.99). Lactate showed an AUC of 0.79 (CI: 0.71-0.88), 0.87 (CI: 0.78-0.96), and 0.77 (CI: 0.67-0.87) for SAP, mortality, and ICU admission, respectively. All parameters were predictors for SAP, mortality, and ICU admission, but C-reactive protein on admission was only a significant predictor of SAP. Bedside index for severity acute pancreatitis is a good predictive system for SAP, mortality, and ICU admission, being useful for triaging patients for ICU management. Lactate could be useful for developing new scores. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Sustaining critical care: using evidence-based simulation to evaluate ICU management policies.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudian-Dehkordi, Amin; Sadat, Somayeh

    2017-12-01

    Intensive Care Units (ICU) are costly yet critical hospital departments that should be available to care for patients needing highly specialized critical care. Shortage of ICU beds in many regions of the world and the constant fire-fighting to make these beds available through various ICU management policies motivated this study. The paper discusses the application of a generic system dynamics model of emergency patient flow in a typical hospital, populated with empirical evidence found in the medical and hospital administration literature, to explore the dynamics of intended and unintended consequences of such ICU management policies under a natural disaster crisis scenario. ICU management policies that can be implemented by a single hospital on short notice, namely premature transfer from ICU, boarding in ward, and general ward admission control, along with their possible combinations, are modeled and their impact on managerial and health outcome measures are investigated. The main insight out of the study is that the general ward admission control policy outperforms the rest of ICU management policies under such crisis scenarios with regards to reducing total mortality, which is counter intuitive for hospital administrators as this policy is not very effective at alleviating the symptoms of the problem, namely high ED and ICU occupancy rates that are closely monitored by hospital management particularly in times of crisis. A multivariate sensitivity analysis on parameters with diverse range of values in the literature found the superiority of the general ward admission control to hold true in every scenario.

  3. A new approach to scoring systems to improve identification of acute medical admissions that will require critical care.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, H A; Robertson, E; Austin, J; McCruden, D; Messow, C M; Belcher, P R

    2011-11-01

    Removal of the intensive care unit (ICU) at the Vale of Leven Hospital mandated the identification and transfer out of those acute medical admissions with a high risk of requiring ICU. The aim of the study was to develop triaging tools that identified such patients and compare them with other scoring systems. The methodology included a retrospective analysis of physiological and arterial gas measurements from 1976 acute medical admissions produced PREEMPT-1 (PRE-critical Emergency Medical Patient Triage). A simpler one for ambulance use (PREAMBLE-1 [PRE-Admission Medical Blue-Light Emergency]) was produced by the addition of peripheral oxygen saturation to a modification of MEWS (Modified Early Warning Score). Prospective application of these tools produced a larger database of 4447 acute admissions from which logistic regression models produced PREEMPT-2 and PREAMBLE-2, which were then compared with the original systems and seven other early warning scoring systems. Results showed that in patients with arterial gases, the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was significantly higher in PREEMPT-2 (89·1%) and PREAMBLE-2 (84.4%) than all other scoring systems. Similarly, in all patients, it was higher in PREAMBLE-2 (92·4%) than PREAMBLE-1 (88·1%) and the other scoring systems. In conclusion, risk of requiring ICU can be more accurately predicted using PREEMPT-2 and PREAMBLE-2, as described here, than by other early warning scoring systems developed over recent years.

  4. Identifying Life-Threatening Admissions for Drug Dependence or Abuse (ILIADDA): Derivation and Validation of a Model.

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tri-Long; Boudemaghe, Thierry; Leguelinel-Blache, Géraldine; Eiden, Céline; Kinowski, Jean-Marie; Le Manach, Yannick; Peyrière, Hélène; Landais, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Given that drug abuse and dependence are common reasons for hospitalization, we aimed to derive and validate a model allowing early identification of life-threatening hospital admissions for drug dependence or abuse. Using the French National Hospital Discharge Data Base, we extracted 66,101 acute inpatient stays for substance abuse, dependence, mental disorders or poisoning associated with medicines or illicit drugs intake, recorded between January 1st, 2009 and December 31st, 2014. We split our study cohort at the center level to create a derivation cohort and a validation cohort. We developed a multivariate logistic model including patient’s age, sex, entrance mode and diagnosis as predictors of a composite primary outcome of in-hospital death or ICU admission. A total of 2,747 (4.2%) patients died or were admitted to ICU. The risk of death or ICU admission was mainly associated with the consumption of opioids, followed by cocaine and other narcotics. Particularly, methadone poisoning was associated with a substantial risk (OR: 35.70, 95% CI [26.94–47.32], P < 0.001). In the validation cohort, our model achieved good predictive properties in terms of calibration and discrimination (c-statistic: 0.847). This allows an accurate identification of life-threatening admissions in drug users to support an early and appropriate management. PMID:28290530

  5. External validation of the Probability of repeated admission (Pra) risk prediction tool in older community-dwelling people attending general practice: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Emma; McDowell, Ronald; Bennett, Kathleen; Fahey, Tom; Smith, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Emergency admission is associated with the potential for adverse events in older people and risk prediction models are available to identify those at highest risk of admission. The aim of this study was to externally validate and compare the performance of the Probability of repeated admission (Pra) risk model and a modified version (incorporating a multimorbidity measure) in predicting emergency admission in older community-dwelling people. Setting 15 general practices (GPs) in the Republic of Ireland. Participants n=862, ≥70 years, community-dwelling people prospectively followed up for 2 years (2010–2012). Exposure: Pra risk model (original and modified) calculated for baseline year where ≥0.5 denoted high risk (patient questionnaire, GP medical record review) of future emergency admission. Primary outcome Emergency admission over 1 year (GP medical record review). Statistical analysis: descriptive statistics, model discrimination (c-statistic) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic). Results Of 862 patients, a total of 154 (18%) had ≥1 emergency admission(s) in the follow-up year. 63 patients (7%) were classified as high risk by the original Pra and of these 26 (41%) were admitted. The modified Pra classified 391 (45%) patients as high risk and 103 (26%) were subsequently admitted. Both models demonstrated only poor discrimination (original Pra: c-statistic 0.65 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.70); modified Pra: c-statistic 0.67 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.72)). When categorised according to risk-category model, specificity was highest for the original Pra at cut-point of ≥0.5 denoting high risk (95%), and for the modified Pra at cut-point of ≥0.7 (95%). Both models overestimated the number of admissions across all risk strata. Conclusions While the original Pra model demonstrated poor discrimination, model specificity was high and a small number of patients identified as high risk. Future validation studies should examine higher cut-points denoting

  6. External validation of the Probability of repeated admission (Pra) risk prediction tool in older community-dwelling people attending general practice: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Emma; McDowell, Ronald; Bennett, Kathleen; Fahey, Tom; Smith, Susan M

    2016-11-14

    Emergency admission is associated with the potential for adverse events in older people and risk prediction models are available to identify those at highest risk of admission. The aim of this study was to externally validate and compare the performance of the Probability of repeated admission (Pra) risk model and a modified version (incorporating a multimorbidity measure) in predicting emergency admission in older community-dwelling people. 15 general practices (GPs) in the Republic of Ireland. n=862, ≥70 years, community-dwelling people prospectively followed up for 2 years (2010-2012). Pra risk model (original and modified) calculated for baseline year where ≥0.5 denoted high risk (patient questionnaire, GP medical record review) of future emergency admission. Emergency admission over 1 year (GP medical record review). descriptive statistics, model discrimination (c-statistic) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic). Of 862 patients, a total of 154 (18%) had ≥1 emergency admission(s) in the follow-up year. 63 patients (7%) were classified as high risk by the original Pra and of these 26 (41%) were admitted. The modified Pra classified 391 (45%) patients as high risk and 103 (26%) were subsequently admitted. Both models demonstrated only poor discrimination (original Pra: c-statistic 0.65 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.70); modified Pra: c-statistic 0.67 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.72)). When categorised according to risk-category model, specificity was highest for the original Pra at cut-point of ≥0.5 denoting high risk (95%), and for the modified Pra at cut-point of ≥0.7 (95%). Both models overestimated the number of admissions across all risk strata. While the original Pra model demonstrated poor discrimination, model specificity was high and a small number of patients identified as high risk. Future validation studies should examine higher cut-points denoting high risk for the modified Pra, which has practical advantages in terms of application in GP. The

  7. Admission factors predicting family medicine specialty choice: a literature review and exploratory study among students in the Rural Medical Scholars Program.

    PubMed

    Avery, Daniel M; Wheat, John R; Leeper, James D; McKnight, Jerry T; Ballard, Brent G; Chen, Jia

    2012-01-01

    The Rural Medical Scholars Program (RMSP) was created to increase production of rural family physicians in Alabama. Literature review reveals reasons medical students choose careers in family medicine, and these reasons can be categorized into domains that medical schools can address through admission, curriculum, and structural interventions. We examine whether admission factors can predict family medicine specialty choice among students recruited from rural Alabama. We developed a questionnaire to study the ability of admission factors to predict family medicine specialty choice among Rural Medical Scholars (RMS). Eighty RMS graduates were surveyed by mail and 64 (80%) responded. Student characteristics of humanitarian outlook with commitment to rural or underserved populations, family medicine decision or intention made before or at medical school admission, and community influence were positive associations with RMS choosing family medicine residencies; shadowing in an urban hospital was a negative association. Statements of interest, intentions, plans, and decisions regarding family medicine should be elicited at the time of RMSP admission interview. Strong attachment to home community and commitment to serving and living in a rural area are also important. Students whose introduction to medicine was informed through shadowing or observing in urban hospitals should be considered less likely to become family physicians. Larger sample size studies are needed to assess the role of gender, race, marital status, size of rural town, and MCAT score of candidates in affecting residency choices of students selected for this rural medical education track. © 2011 National Rural Health Association.

  8. Observation vs admission in syncope: can we predict short length of stays?

    PubMed

    Lin, Margaret; Wolfe, Richard E; Shapiro, Nathan I; Novack, Victor; Lior, Yotam; Grossman, Shamai A

    2015-11-01

    Rising health care costs demands justifying prolonged hospitalization for syncope, yet predictors of shorter length of stay (LOS) have not been identified. The objective of this study is to identify independent predictors of LOS for syncope patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). We performed an analysis of a prospectively collected cohort of ED syncope patients. We examined risk factors from the patient's ED presentation and workup and used Spearman rank correlation to evaluate the relationship between these risk factors and LOS in a logistic regression model for prediction of hospitalization less than 1 day. Of 568 total syncope patients, 350 (61.6%) were admitted and comprise the study cohort. Mean age was 57 years (SD, ±25 years); 39.6% were male. Length of hospitalization was less than or equal to 1 in 179 patients (51.1%). The number of risk factors was associated with LOS (P < .001). Most hospitalized patients with less than 1 predictor were hospitalized for less than 1 day (152/272; 55.9%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, clear vasovagal etiology was positively correlated with LOS less than 1 day (odds ratio [OR], 1.92), whereas dysrhythmia (OR, 0.3), coronary artery disease (OR, 0.33), abnormal vital signs (OR, 0.35), implantable defibrillator/pacemaker (OR, 0.29), anemia/gastrointestinal bleeding (OR, 0.34), and central nervous system abnormalities (OR, 0.09; P < .05 for all) were negatively correlated with LOS less than 1 day. Area under the curve for model accuracy was moderate: 0.70 (95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.76). Patients with less than 1 predictor of prolonged stay, who present to the ED with syncope, are unlikely to require hospitalization of more than 1 day. A set of predictors may help define which patients are appropriate for 24-hour observation rather than full hospitalization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Admission Serum Calcium Levels Improve the GRACE Risk Score Prediction of Hospital Mortality in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shao-di; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Peng, Yong; Xia, Tian-Li; Liu, Wei; Tsauo, Jiay-Yu; Xu, Yuan-Ning; Chai, Hua; Huang, Fang-Yang; Chen, Mao; Huang, De-Jia

    2016-09-01

    The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score has been extensively validated to predict risk during hospitalization in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Recently, serum calcium has been suggested as an independent predictor for in-hospital mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; however, the relationship between the 2 has not been evaluated. The combination of GRACE risk score and serum calcium could provide better performance in risk prediction. The study enrolled 2229 consecutive patients with ACS. Independent predictors were identified by a multivariate logistic regression model. The incremental prognostic value added by serum calcium to the GRACE score was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic, net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). Patients in the upper quartiles of serum calcium presented with lower in-hospital mortality (odds ratios for 3 upper quartiles vs lowest quartile, respectively: 0.443, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.206-0.953; 0.243, 95% CI: 0.090-0.654; and 0.210, 95% CI: 0.082-0.538). Area under the curve increased significantly after adding serum calcium to the GRACE score (0.685 vs 0.746; Z = 2.617, P = 0.009). Furthermore, inclusion of serum calcium in the GRACE score enhanced NRI (0.524; P = 0.009) and IDI (0.011; P = 0.003). Lower serum calcium level on admission is a possible indicator of increased risk of in-hospital mortality in ACS patients. Inclusion of serum calcium in the GRACE score may lead to a more accurate prediction of this risk. Large prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Escalation of Commitment in the Surgical ICU.

    PubMed

    Braxton, Carla C; Robinson, Celia N; Awad, Samir S

    2017-04-01

    Escalation of commitment is a business term that describes the continued investment of resources into a project even after there is objective evidence of the project's impending failure. Escalation of commitment may be a contributor to high healthcare costs associated with critically ill patients as it has been shown that, despite almost certain futility, most ICU costs are incurred in the last week of life. Our objective was to determine if escalation of commitment occurs in healthcare settings, specifically in the surgical ICU. We hypothesize that factors previously identified in business and organizational psychology literature including self-justification, accountability, sunk costs, and cognitive dissonance result in escalation of commitment behavior in the surgical ICU setting resulting in increased utilization of resources and cost. A descriptive case study that illustrates common ICU narratives in which escalation of commitment can occur. In addition, we describe factors that are thought to contribute to escalation of commitment behaviors. Escalation of commitment behavior was observed with self-justification, accountability, and cognitive dissonance accounting for the majority of the behavior. Unlike in business decisions, sunk costs was not as evident. In addition, modulating factors such as personality, individual experience, culture, and gender were identified as contributors to escalation of commitment. Escalation of commitment occurs in the surgical ICU, resulting in significant expenditure of resources despite a predicted and often known poor outcome. Recognition of this phenomenon may lead to actions aimed at more rational decision making and may contribute to lowering healthcare costs. Investigation of objective measures that can help aid decision making in the surgical ICU is warranted.

  11. ICU Telemedicine Program Financial Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lilly, Craig M; Motzkus, Christine; Rincon, Teresa; Cody, Shawn E; Landry, Karen; Irwin, Richard S

    2017-02-01

    ICU telemedicine improves access to high-quality critical care, has substantial costs, and can change financial outcomes. Detailed information about financial outcomes and their trends over time following ICU telemedicine implementation and after the addition of logistic center function has not been published to our knowledge. Primary data were collected for consecutive adult patients of a single academic medical center. We compared clinical and financial outcomes across three groups that differed regarding telemedicine support: a group without ICU telemedicine support (pre-ICU intervention group), a group with ICU telemedicine support (ICU telemedicine group), and an ICU telemedicine group with added logistic center functions and support for quality-care standardization (logistic center group). The primary outcome was annual direct contribution margin defined as aggregated annual case revenue minus annual case direct costs (including operating costs of ICU telemedicine and its related programs). All monetary values were adjusted to 2015 US dollars using Producer Price Index for Health-Care Facilities. Annual case volume increased from 4,752 (pre-ICU telemedicine) to 5,735 (ICU telemedicine) and 6,581 (logistic center). The annual direct contribution margin improved from $7,921,584 (pre-ICU telemedicine) to $37,668,512 (ICU telemedicine) to $60,586,397 (logistic center) due to increased case volume, higher case revenue relative to direct costs, and shorter length of stay. The ability of properly modified ICU telemedicine programs to increase case volume and access to high-quality critical care with improved annual direct contribution margins suggests that there is a financial argument to encourage the wider adoption of ICU telemedicine. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Early hospital mortality prediction of intensive care unit patients using an ensemble learning approach.

    PubMed

    Awad, Aya; Bader-El-Den, Mohamed; McNicholas, James; Briggs, Jim

    2017-12-01

    Mortality prediction of hospitalized patients is an important problem. Over the past few decades, several severity scoring systems and machine learning mortality prediction models have been developed for predicting hospital mortality. By contrast, early mortality prediction for intensive care unit patients remains an open challenge. Most research has focused on severity of illness scoring systems or data mining (DM) models designed for risk estimation at least 24 or 48h after ICU admission. This study highlights the main data challenges in early mortality prediction in ICU patients and introduces a new machine learning based framework for Early Mortality Prediction for Intensive Care Unit patients (EMPICU). The proposed method is evaluated on the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II) database. Mortality prediction models are developed for patients at the age of 16 or above in Medical ICU (MICU), Surgical ICU (SICU) or Cardiac Surgery Recovery Unit (CSRU). We employ the ensemble learning Random Forest (RF), the predictive Decision Trees (DT), the probabilistic Naive Bayes (NB) and the rule-based Projective Adaptive Resonance Theory (PART) models. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. The explanatory variables included demographic, physiological, vital signs and laboratory test variables. Performance measures were calculated using cross-validated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) to minimize bias. 11,722 patients with single ICU stays are considered. Only patients at the age of 16 years old and above in Medical ICU (MICU), Surgical ICU (SICU) or Cardiac Surgery Recovery Unit (CSRU) are considered in this study. The proposed EMPICU framework outperformed standard scoring systems (SOFA, SAPS-I, APACHE-II, NEWS and qSOFA) in terms of AUROC and time (i.e. at 6h compared to 48h or more after admission). The results show that although there are many values missing in the first few hour of ICU admission

  13. Building a Decision Support System for Inpatient Admission Prediction With the Manchester Triage System and Administrative Check-in Variables.

    PubMed

    Zlotnik, Alexander; Alfaro, Miguel Cuchí; Pérez, María Carmen Pérez; Gallardo-Antolín, Ascensión; Martínez, Juan Manuel Montero

    2016-05-01

    The usage of decision support tools in emergency departments, based on predictive models, capable of estimating the probability of admission for patients in the emergency department may give nursing staff the possibility of allocating resources in advance. We present a methodology for developing and building one such system for a large specialized care hospital using a logistic regression and an artificial neural network model using nine routinely collected variables available right at the end of the triage process.A database of 255.668 triaged nonobstetric emergency department presentations from the Ramon y Cajal University Hospital of Madrid, from January 2011 to December 2012, was used to develop and test the models, with 66% of the data used for derivation and 34% for validation, with an ordered nonrandom partition. On the validation dataset areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.8568 (95% confidence interval, 0.8508-0.8583) for the logistic regression model and 0.8575 (95% confidence interval, 0.8540-0. 8610) for the artificial neural network model. χ Values for Hosmer-Lemeshow fixed "deciles of risk" were 65.32 for the logistic regression model and 17.28 for the artificial neural network model. A nomogram was generated upon the logistic regression model and an automated software decision support system with a Web interface was built based on the artificial neural network model.

  14. Bradykinin-mediated angioedema: factors associated with admission to an intensive care unit, a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Javaud, Nicolas; Floccard, Bernard; Gontier, Florian; Lapostolle, Frédéric; Boccon-Gibod, Isabelle; Martin, Ludovic; Amarger, Stéphanie; Boumedienne, Abdalia; Boubaya, Marouane; Asfar, Pierre; Coppere, Brigitte; Ollivier, Yann; Bouillet, Laurence; Adnet, Frédéric; Fain, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    Bradykinin-mediated angioedema is characterized by transient attacks of localized edema of subcutaneous or submucosal tissues and can be life-threatening when involving the upper airways. The aim of this study was to determine the features of acute attacks that might be associated with admission to an ICU. We carried out a retrospective, multicenter, observational study in consecutive patients attending one of six reference centers in France for acute bradykinin-mediated angioedema attacks. Patients had been hospitalized for an acute episode at least once previously. Acute attacks requiring ICU admission were compared with acute attacks that had not required ICU admission. Overall, 118 acute attacks in 31 patients were analyzed (10 patients with hereditary angioedema, 19 patients with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema, and two patients with acquired C1-inhibitor deficiency angioedema). In multivariate analysis, upper airway involvement, corticosteroid, and C1-inhibitor concentrate administration were associated with ICU admission. Seven episodes (18%) needed airway protection. The evolution was favorable in 38 of 39 attacks warranting ICU admission: patients were able to get out of the service (mean ICU stay 4±5 days). One death was observed by asphyxiation because of laryngeal swelling. Upper airway involvement is an independent risk factor for ICU admission. Corticosteroid use, which is an ineffective treatment, and C1-inhibitor concentrate use are factors for ICU admission. The presence of upper airway involvement should be a warning signal that the attack may be severe.

  15. Maternal and neonatal separation and mortality associated with concurrent admissions to intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Ray, Joel G; Urquia, Marcelo L; Berger, Howard; Vermeulen, Marian J

    2012-12-11

    Concurrent admission of a mother and her newborn to separate intensive care units (herein referred to as co-ICU admission), possibly in different centres, can magnify family discord and stress. We examined the prevalence and predictors of mother-infant separation and mortality associated with co-ICU admissions. We completed a population-based study of all 1 023 978 singleton live births in Ontario between Apr. 1, 2002, and Mar. 31, 2010. We included data for maternal-infant pairs that had co-ICU admission (n = 1216), maternal ICU admission only (n = 897), neonatal ICU (NICU) admission only (n = 123 236) or no ICU admission (n = 898 629). The primary outcome measure was mother-infant separation because of interfacility transfer. The prevalence of co-ICU admissions was 1.2 per 1000 live births and was higher than maternal ICU admissions (0.9 per 1000). Maternal-newborn separation due to interfacility transfer was 30.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 26.9-35.3) times more common in the co-ICU group than in the no-ICU group and exceeded the prevalence in the maternal ICU group and NICU group. Short-term infant mortality (< 28 days after birth) was higher in the co-ICU group (18.1 per 1000 live births; maternal age-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 27.8, 95% CI 18.2-42.6) than in the NICU group (7.6 per 1000; age-adjusted HR 11.5, 95% CI 10.4-12.7), relative to 0.7 per 1000 in the no-ICU group. Short-term maternal mortality (< 42 days after delivery) was also higher in the co-ICU group (15.6 per 1000; age-adjusted HR 328.7, 95% CI 191.2-565.2) than in the maternal ICU group (6.7 per 1000; age-adjusted HR 140.0, 95% CI 59.5-329.2) or the NICU group (0.2 per 1000; age-adjusted HR 4.6, 95% CI 2.8-7.4). Mother-infant pairs in the co-ICU group had the highest prevalence of separation due to interfacility transfer and the highest mortality compared with those in the maternal ICU and NICU groups.

  16. Predictive validity of the Medical College Admissions Test Writing Sample for the United States medical licensing examination steps 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Gregory E; Basco, William T; Blue, Amy V; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2002-01-01

    Despite the amount of published research on the predictive validity of the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) taken as a whole, few published reports separate the individual predictive validity of the Writing Sample. The purpose of this study is to provide data on the predictive validity of the Writing Sample for the national licensing exam used in the United States. Subjects consisted of 1992-1995 matriculants from a publicly owned medical school in the Southeastern United States. Independent variables were undergraduate grade point average, and four section scores on a required admissions test (Biological Sciences, Physical Sciences, Verbal Reasoning, and Writing Sample). The dependent variables were Steps 1 and 2 on the three step licensing examination. Steps 1 and 2 of the examination are taken during medical school. Multiple regression models calculated additional variance accounted for by the addition of the Writing Sample to a model containing grade point average and the other admissions test section scores. In multivariate analyses, when grade point average and all admissions test scores were considered as predictors of licensing exam scores, the Writing Sample variable did not add to the ability to predicting the Step 1 or Step 2 scores. The results of this study suggest that the Writing Sample has limited predictive validity for assessing success on a national licensing exam. However, as others suggest, the value of the Writing Sample and other surrogates of communication probably lie in predicting performance in the clinical years of medical school and beyond. Additional work should include evaluating the predictive validity of the Writing Sample and other pre-medical school measures of communication with widely acceptable measures of performance in clinical settings, including physician-patient communication.

  17. Variable cost of ICU care, a micro-costing analysis.

    PubMed

    Karabatsou, Dimitra; Tsironi, Maria; Tsigou, Evdoxia; Boutzouka, Eleni; Katsoulas, Theodoros; Baltopoulos, George

    2016-08-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) costs account for a great part of a hospital's expenses. The objective of the present study was to measure the patient-specific cost of ICU treatment, to identify the most important cost drivers in ICU and to examine the role of various contributing factors in cost configuration. A retrospective cost analysis of all ICU patients who were admitted during 2011 in a Greek General, seven-bed ICU and stayed for at least 24hours was performed, by applying bottom-up analysis. Data collected included demographics and the exact cost of every single material used for patients' care. Prices were yielded from the hospital's purchasing costs and from the national price list of the imaging and laboratory tests, which was provided by the Ministry of Health. A total of 138 patients were included. Variable cost per ICU day was €573.18. A substantial cost variation was found in the total costs obtained for individual patients (median: €3443, range: €243.70-€116,355). Medicines were responsible for more than half of the cost and antibiotics accounted for the largest part of it, followed by blood products and cardiovascular drugs. Medical cause of admission, severe illness and increased length of stay, mechanical ventilation and dialysis were the factors associated with cost escalation. ICU variable cost is patient-specific, varies according to each patient's needs and is influenced by several factors. The exact estimation of variable cost is a pre-requisite in order to control ICU expenses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Innovative designs for the smart ICU: Part 2: The ICU.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Neil A

    2014-03-01

    Successfully designing a new ICU requires clarity of vision and purpose and the recognition that the patient room is the core of the ICU experience for patients, staff, and visitors. The ICU can be conceptualized into three components: the patient room, central areas, and universal support services. Each patient room should be designed for single patient use and be similarly configured and equipped. The design of the room should focus upon functionality, ease of use, healing, safety, infection control, communications, and connectivity. All aspects of the room, including its infrastructure; zones for work, care, and visiting; environment, medical devices, and approaches to privacy; logistics; and waste management, are important elements in the design process. Since most medical devices used at the ICU bedside are really sophisticated computers, the ICU needs to be capable of supporting the full scope of medical informatics. The patient rooms, the central ICU areas (central stations, corridors, supply rooms, pharmacy, laboratory, staff lounge, visitor waiting room, on-call suite, conference rooms, and offices), and the universal support services (infection prevention, finishings and flooring, staff communications, signage and wayfinding, security, and fire and safety) work best when fully interwoven. This coordination helps establish efficient and safe patient throughput and care and fosters physical and social cohesiveness within the ICU. A balanced approach to centralized and decentralized monitoring and logistics also offers great flexibility. Synchronization of the universal support services in the ICU with the hospital's existing systems maintains unity of purpose and continuity across the enterprise and avoids unnecessary duplication of efforts.

  19. MONITOR-IC study, a mixed methods prospective multicentre controlled cohort study assessing 5-year outcomes of ICU survivors and related healthcare costs: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Geense, Wytske; Zegers, Marieke; Vermeulen, Hester; van den Boogaard, Mark; van der Hoeven, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Due to advances in critical care medicine, more patients survive their critical illness. However, intensive care unit (ICU) survivors often experience long-term physical, cognitive and mental problems, summarised as post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), impacting their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In what frequency PICS occurs, and to what extent this influences ICU survivors’ HRQoL, is mostly unknown. The aims of this study are therefore to study the: (1) 5-year patient outcomes, (2) predictors for PICS, (3) ratio between HRQoL of ICU survivors and healthcare-related costs, and (4) care and support needs. Methods The MONITOR-IC study is a multicentre prospective controlled cohort study, carried out in ICUs in four Dutch hospitals. Patients will be included between July 2016 and July 2021 and followed for 5 years. We estimated to include 12000 ICU patients. Outcomes are the HRQoL, physical, cognitive and mental symptoms, ICU survivors’ care and support needs, healthcare use and related costs. A control cohort of otherwise seriously ill patients will be assembled to compare long-term patient-reported outcomes. We will use a mixed methods design, including questionnaires, medical data from patient records, cost data from health insurance companies and interviews with patients and family members. Ethics and dissemination Insights from this study will be used to inform ICU patients and their family members about long-term consequences of ICU care, and to develop prediction and screening instruments to detect patients at risk for PICS. Subsequently, tailored interventions can be developed and implemented to prevent and mitigate long-term consequences. Additionally, insights into the ratio between HRQoL of ICU patients and related healthcare costs during 5 years after ICU admission can be used to discuss the added value of ICU care from a community perspective. The study has been approved by the research ethics committee of the Radboud

  20. MONITOR-IC study, a mixed methods prospective multicentre controlled cohort study assessing 5-year outcomes of ICU survivors and related healthcare costs: a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Geense, Wytske; Zegers, Marieke; Vermeulen, Hester; van den Boogaard, Mark; van der Hoeven, Johannes

    2017-11-14

    Due to advances in critical care medicine, more patients survive their critical illness. However, intensive care unit (ICU) survivors often experience long-term physical, cognitive and mental problems, summarised as post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), impacting their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In what frequency PICS occurs, and to what extent this influences ICU survivors' HRQoL, is mostly unknown. The aims of this study are therefore to study the: (1) 5-year patient outcomes, (2) predictors for PICS, (3) ratio between HRQoL of ICU survivors and healthcare-related costs, and (4) care and support needs. The MONITOR-IC study is a multicentre prospective controlled cohort study, carried out in ICUs in four Dutch hospitals. Patients will be included between July 2016 and July 2021 and followed for 5 years. We estimated to include 12000 ICU patients. Outcomes are the HRQoL, physical, cognitive and mental symptoms, ICU survivors' care and support needs, healthcare use and related costs. A control cohort of otherwise seriously ill patients will be assembled to compare long-term patient-reported outcomes. We will use a mixed methods design, including questionnaires, medical data from patient records, cost data from health insurance companies and interviews with patients and family members. Insights from this study will be used to inform ICU patients and their family members about long-term consequences of ICU care, and to develop prediction and screening instruments to detect patients at risk for PICS. Subsequently, tailored interventions can be developed and implemented to prevent and mitigate long-term consequences. Additionally, insights into the ratio between HRQoL of ICU patients and related healthcare costs during 5 years after ICU admission can be used to discuss the added value of ICU care from a community perspective. The study has been approved by the research ethics committee of the Radboud University Medical Center (2016-2724). NCT03246334.

  1. Incidence, characteristics and outcome of ICU-acquired candidemia in India.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Sood, Prashant; Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M; Chen, Sharon; Kaur, Harsimran; Capoor, Malini; Chhina, Deepinder; Rao, Ratna; Eshwara, Vandana Kalwaje; Xess, Immaculata; Kindo, Anupama J; Umabala, P; Savio, Jayanthi; Patel, Atul; Ray, Ujjwayini; Mohan, Sangeetha; Iyer, Ranganathan; Chander, Jagdish; Arora, Anita; Sardana, Raman; Roy, Indranil; Appalaraju, B; Sharma, Ajanta; Shetty, Anjali; Khanna, Neelam; Marak, Rungmei; Biswas, Sanjay; Das, Shukla; Harish, B N; Joshi, Sangeeta; Mendiratta, Deepak

    2015-02-01

    A systematic epidemiological study on intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired candidemia across India. A prospective, nationwide, multicentric, observational study was conducted at 27 Indian ICUs. Consecutive patients who acquired candidemia after ICU admission were enrolled during April 2011 through September 2012. Clinical and laboratory variables of these patients were recorded. The present study is an analysis of data specific for adult patients. Among 1,400 ICU-acquired candidemia cases (overall incidence of 6.51 cases/1,000 ICU admission), 65.2 % were adult. Though the study confirmed the already known risk factors for candidemia, the acquisition occurred early after admission to ICU (median 8 days; interquartile range 4-15 days), even infecting patients with lower APACHE II score at admission (median 17.0; mean ± SD 17.2 ± 5.9; interquartile range 14-20). The important finding of the study was the vast spectrum of agents (31 Candida species) causing candidemia and a high rate of isolation of Candida tropicalis (41.6 %). Azole and multidrug resistance were seen in 11.8 and 1.9 % of isolates. Public sector hospitals reported a significantly higher presence of the relatively resistant C. auris (8.2 vs. 3.9 %; p = 0.008) and C. rugosa (5.6 vs. 1.5 %; p = 0.001). The 30-day crude and attributable mortality rates of candidemia patients were 44.7 and 19.6 %, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed significant independent predictors of mortality including admission to public sector hospital, APACHE II score at admission, underlying renal failure, central venous catheterization and steroid therapy. The study highlighted a high burden of candidemia in Indian ICUs, early onset after ICU admission, higher risk despite less severe physiology score at admission and a vast spectrum of agents causing the disease with predominance of C. tropicalis.

  2. Ability of admissions criteria to predict early academic performance among students of health science colleges at King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alhadlaq, Adel M; Alshammari, Osama F; Alsager, Saleh M; Neel, Khalid A Fouda; Mohamed, Ashry G

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of admissions criteria at King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, to predict students' early academic performance at three health science colleges (medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy). A retrospective cohort study was conducted with data from the records of students enrolled in the three colleges from the 2008-09 to 2010-11 academic years. The admissions criteria-high school grade average (HSGA), aptitude test (APT) score, and achievement test (ACT) score-were the independent variables. The dependent variable was the average of students' first- and second-year grade point average (GPA). The results showed that the ACT was a better predictor of the students' early academic performance than the HSGA (β=0.368, β=0.254, respectively). No significant relationship was found between the APT and students' early academic performance (β=-0.019, p>0.01). The ACT was most predictive for pharmacy students (β=0.405), followed by dental students (β =0.392) and medical students (β=0.195). Overall, the current admissions criteria explained only 25.5% of the variance in the students' early academic performance. While the ACT and HSGA were found to be predictive of students' early academic performance in health colleges at KSU, the APT was not a strong predictor. Since the combined current admissions criteria for the health science colleges at KSU were weak predictors of the variance in early academic performance, it may be necessary to consider noncognitive evaluation methods during the admission process.

  3. Serum anion gap at admission as a predictor of mortality in the pediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Yoon Hee; Sol, In Suk; Kim, Soo Yeon; Kim, Jong Deok; Kim, Ha Yan; Kim, Kyung Won; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2017-05-03

    An accurate method to predict the mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) patients has been required, especially in children. The aim of this study is to evaluate the value of serum anion gap (AG) for predicting mortality in pediatric ICU (PICU). We reviewed a data of 461 pediatric patients were collected on PICU admission. Corrected anion gap (cAG), the AG compensated for abnormal albumin levels, was significantly lower in survivors compared with nonsurvivors (p < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified the following variables as independent predictors of mortality; cAG (OR 1.110, 95% CI 1.06-1.17; p < 0.001), PIM3 [OR 7.583, 95% CI 1.81-31.78; p = 0.006], and PRISM III [OR 1.076, 95% CI 1.02-1.14; p = 0.008]. Comparing AUCs for mortality prediction, there were no statistically significant differences between cAG and other mortality prediction models; cAG 0.728, PIM2 0.779, PIM3 0.822, and PRISM III 0.808. The corporation of cAG to pre-existing mortality prediction models was significantly more accurate at predicting mortality than using any of these models alone. We concluded that cAG at ICU admission may be used to predict mortality in children, regardless of underlying etiology. And the incorporation of cAG to pre-existing mortality prediction models might improve predictability.

  4. Admissions Testing & Institutional Admissions Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Don; Kalsbeek, David

    2009-01-01

    The array of admissions models and the underlying, and sometimes conflicting goals people have for college admissions, create the dynamics and the tensions that define the contemporary context for enrollment management. The senior enrollment officer must ask, for example, how does an institution try to assure transparency, equality of access,…

  5. Acute Physiologic Stress and Subsequent Anxiety Among Family Members of ICU Patients.

    PubMed

    Beesley, Sarah J; Hopkins, Ramona O; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Wilson, Emily L; Butler, Jorie; Kuttler, Kathryn G; Orme, James; Brown, Samuel M; Hirshberg, Eliotte L

    2018-02-01

    The ICU is a complex and stressful environment and is associated with significant psychologic morbidity for patients and their families. We sought to determine whether salivary cortisol, a physiologic measure of acute stress, was associated with subsequent psychologic distress among family members of ICU patients. This is a prospective, observational study of family members of adult ICU patients. Adult medical and surgical ICU in a tertiary care center. Family members of ICU patients. Participants provided five salivary cortisol samples over 24 hours at the time of the patient ICU admission. The primary measure of cortisol was the area under the curve from ground; the secondary measure was the cortisol awakening response. Outcomes were obtained during a 3-month follow-up telephone call. The primary outcome was anxiety, measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety. Secondary outcomes included depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Among 100 participants, 92 completed follow-up. Twenty-nine participants (32%) reported symptoms of anxiety at 3 months, 15 participants (16%) reported depression symptoms, and 14 participants (15%) reported posttraumatic stress symptoms. In our primary analysis, cortisol level as measured by area under the curve from ground was not significantly associated with anxiety (odds ratio, 0.94; p = 0.70). In our secondary analysis, however, cortisol awakening response was significantly associated with anxiety (odds ratio, 1.08; p = 0.02). Roughly one third of family members experience anxiety after an ICU admission for their loved one, and many family members also experience depression and posttraumatic stress. Cortisol awakening response is associated with anxiety in family members of ICU patients 3 months following the ICU admission. Physiologic measurements of stress among ICU family members may help identify individuals at particular risk of adverse psychologic outcomes.

  6. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Complicated Grief are Common in Caregivers of Neuro-ICU Patients.

    PubMed

    Trevick, Stephen A; Lord, Aaron S

    2017-06-01

    To explore the effect of end of life and other palliative decision making scenarios on the mental health of family members of patients in the neuro-intensive care unit. Decision makers of patients in the neuro-ICU at a large, urban, academic medical center meeting palliative care triggers were identified from November 10, 2014, to August 27, 2015. Interviews were conducted at 1 and 6 months post-enrollment. At 1 month, the Inventory of Complicated Grief-Revised (ICG-R), Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), and the Family Satisfaction-ICU (FS-ICU) were performed along with basic demographic questionnaires. At 6 months, only the ICG-R and IES-R were repeated. At 1 month, 9 (35%) subjects had significant symptoms in at least one of the three domains of traumatic response. Two (7.7%) subjects met full criteria for PTSD (IES-R ≥ 1.5). At 6 months, 5 (22%) subjects met criteria for PTSD and 5 (22%) for Complicated Grief (ICG-R ≥ 36). Fifteen (50%) had at least one domain of PTSD symptoms identified in follow-up. Time spent at bedside and lower household income were associated with PTSD at 1 and 6 months, respectively. In all, clinically significant psychological outcomes were identified in 9 (30%) of subjects. Clinically significant grief and stress reactions were identified in 30% of decision makers for severely ill neuro-ICU patients. Though factors including time at bedside during hospitalization and total household income may have some predictive value for these disorders, further evaluation is required to help identify family members at risk of psychopathology following neuro-ICU admissions.

  7. Cirrhotic patients admitted to the ICU for medical reasons: Analysis of 5506 patients admitted to 286 ICUs in 8years.

    PubMed

    Skurzak, Stefano; Carrara, Greta; Rossi, Carlotta; Nattino, Giovanni; Crespi, Daniele; Giardino, Michele; Bertolini, Guido

    2018-03-16

    To describe characteristics and prognostic factors of cirrhotic patients admitted to a representative sample of Italian intensive care units (ICUs). All patients admitted to 286 ICUs for medical reasons between 2002 and 2010 (excluding 2007) were considered. A logistic regression model was developed on cirrhotics to predict hospital mortality. The prediction was applied to different subgroups defined by both the level of unit expertise with cirrhotics and the overall unit performance, and compared to the actual mortality. 5506 cirrhotic patients (32.1% admitted to the ICU for non-cirrhotic-related reasons) were compared to 130,477 controls. Hospital mortality was higher in cirrhotics (57.2% vs. 35.0%, p<0.001). ICU volume of cirrhotic patients did not influence mortality, while the overall performance of the unit did. The standardized mortality ratio for overall lower-performing units was 1.09 (95%CI: 1.05-1.14), for the average-performing units it was 1.01 (95%CI: 0.98-1.04), for the higher-performing units it was 0.92 (95%CI: 0.89-0.96). The outcome of critically ill cirrhotic patients is quite poor, but not to limit their admission to the ICU. When cirrhosis accompanies other acute conditions, the general level of intensive care medicine is more important than the specific liver-oriented expertise in treating these patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Deliberate drug poisonings admitted to an emergency department in Paris area - a descriptive study and assessment of risk factors for intensive care admission.

    PubMed

    Beaune, S; Juvin, P; Beauchet, A; Casalino, E; Megarbane, B

    2016-01-01

    Each year, approximately 165,000 poisonings are managed in the emergency departments (ED) in France. We performed a descriptive analysis of self-poisoned patients admitted to a university hospital ED in the Paris metropolitan area (France) aimed at investigating their outcome and the risk factors for transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU). We retrospectively reviewed patients' records and performed multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors for ICU admission. During 4 years, 882 self-poisoned patients (median age, 38 years [IQR, 26-47]; sex-ratio, 1M/3F) were admitted to the ED, representing 0.7% of all referred patients. Poisonings mainly resulted from multidrug exposures (53%), including benzodiazepines (78%), serotonin reuptake inhibitors (17%), acetaminophen (13%), antipsychotics (9.5%), imidazopyridines (9.5%), antihypertensive drugs (3%), and polycyclic antidepressants (1.3%). Ethanol was involved in 20% of the exposures. Patients were briefly (<24h) monitored in the ED (55%), transferred to the psychiatric department (30%), medical ward (2%) or ICU (6%), and took an irregular discharge (7%). Among the patients transferred to the ICU, 25% were mechanically ventilated and only one died. Risk factors for ICU admission included antihypertensive (Odds ratio (OR), 40.6; 95%-confidence interval (CI), 7.5-221.9) or antipsychotic drug ingestion (OR, 5.3; CI, 2.0-14.4), male gender (OR, 3.3; CI, 1.30-8.8), and consciousness impairment (OR, 2.1; CI, 1.8-2.5 per point lost in Glasgow coma score). Deliberate drug exposure represents a frequent cause of ED admission. Psychotropic drugs are most commonly involved. Transfer to the ICU is rare and predicted by male gender, drug class, and coma depth.

  9. Prediction of bleeding and thrombosis by standard biochemical coagulation variables in haematological intensive care patients.

    PubMed

    Russell, L; Madsen, M B; Dahl, M; Kampmann, P; Perner, A

    2018-02-01

    We assessed the value of standard biochemical coagulation parameters in predicting bleeding, thrombosis and mortality in adult Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients with haematological malignancies. We screened all patients with acute leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome admitted to a university hospital ICU during 2008-2012. Data were obtained from the clinical chemistry laboratory database and patient files. We graded bleeding according to the World Health Organisation (WHO)-system within 24-h, within 5-days and during the whole ICU stay. We analysed the predictive values of laboratory parameters using multiple logistic regression and receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curves. As we previously have established that platelet count at admission was associated with bleeding, we focused on International Normalised Ratio (INR), activated pro-thrombin time (APTT), anti-thrombin, D-dimer and fibrinogen, and markers of infection (C-reactive protein, pro-calcitonin), kidney function (creatinine) and tissue damage (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)). We included 116 patients; 66 (57%) had at least one bleeding episode and 11 (9%) patients had at least one thrombotic event. The differences in coagulation values when bleeding compared to baseline values were minor. INR was the only variable we found associated with subsequent bleeding within 24 h from admission to ICU (odds ratio 2.91, 95% CI: 1.01-8.43, P = 0.048). ROC analyses did not show predictive value of any of the other variables with regards to bleeding and none of the variables were associated with thrombosis in adjusted analyses. Increased levels of LDH at admission were associated with increased 7-day and 30-day mortality. Increased INR at admission was associated with a higher rate of bleeding in ICU patients with haematological malignancies. No other biochemical coagulation or other parameter had any association with bleeding, thrombosis or mortality except increased LDH, which at ICU admission was associated

  10. Intensive care unit admission in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Charles N.; Peschken, Christine A.; Hitchon, Carol A.; Chen, Hui; Fransoo, Randy; Garland, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the incidence of, and mortality after, intensive care unit (ICU) admission as well as the characteristics of critical illness in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population vs the general population. Methods: We used population-based administrative data from the Canadian province of Manitoba for the period 1984 to 2010 and clinical data from 93% of admissions to provincial high-intensity adult ICUs. We identified 5,035 prevalent cases of MS and a cohort from the general population matched 5:1 on age, sex, and region of residence. We compared these populations using incidence rates and multivariable regression models adjusting for age, sex, comorbidity, and socioeconomic status. Results: From January 2000 to October 2009, the age- and sex-standardized annual incidence of ICU admission among prevalent cohorts was 0.51% to 1.07% in the MS population and 0.34% to 0.51% in matched controls. The adjusted risk of ICU admission was higher for the MS population (hazard ratio 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19–1.75) than for matched controls. The MS population was more likely to be admitted for infection than the matched controls (odds ratio 1.82; 95% CI 1.10–1.32). Compared with the matched controls admitted to ICUs, 1-year mortality was higher in the MS population (relative risk 2.06; 95% CI 1.32–3.07) and was particularly elevated in patients with MS who were younger than 40 years (relative risk 3.77; 95% CI 1.45–8.11). Causes of death were MS (9.3%), infections (37.0%), and other causes (52.9%). Conclusions: Compared with the general population, the risk of ICU admission is higher in MS, and 1-year mortality after admission is higher. Greater attention to preventing infection and managing comorbidity is needed in the MS population. PMID:24808019

  11. The Use of Pre-Admission Data to Predict Levels of Success in Selected Allied Health Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalz, Gretchen M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A study of 82 occupational therapy, 84 physicians' assistant, and 117 physical therapy students found that scores on the Otis Quick-Scoring Mental Abilities Tests, admissions essays, number of credits earned at a previous institution, and cumulative grade point average were significant predictors of students' academic success. (SK)

  12. Predicting Different Grades in Different Ways for Selective Admission: Disentangling the First-Year Grade Point Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenman, Sebastiaan C.; Bakker, Wieger E.; van Tartwijk, Jan W. F.

    2016-01-01

    The first-year grade point average (FYGPA) is the predominant measure of student success in most studies on university admission. Previous cognitive achievements measured with high school grades or standardized tests have been found to be the strongest predictors of FYGPA. For this reason, standardized tests measuring cognitive achievement are…

  13. Prevalence and Impact of Unknown Diabetes in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, David L; Gregg, Sara R; Xu, Kejun; Buchman, Timothy G; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2015-12-01

    Many patients with diabetes and their care providers are unaware of the presence of the disease. Dysglycemia encompassing hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glucose variability is common in the ICU in patients with and without diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of unknown diabetes on glycemic control in the ICU. Prospective observational study. Nine ICUs in an academic, tertiary hospital and a hybrid academic/community hospital. Hemoglobin A1c levels were ordered at all ICU admissions from March 1, 2011 to September 30, 2013. Electronic medical records were examined for a history of antihyperglycemic medications or International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition diagnosis of diabetes. Patients were categorized as having unknown diabetes (hemoglobin A1c > 6.5%, without history of diabetes), no diabetes (hemoglobin A1c < 6.5%, without history of diabetes), controlled known diabetes (hemoglobin A1c < 6.5%, with documented history of diabetes), and uncontrolled known diabetes (hemoglobin A1c > 6.5%, with documented history of diabetes). None. A total of 15,737 patients had an hemoglobin A1c and medical record evaluable for the history of diabetes, and 5,635 patients had diabetes diagnosed by either medical history or an elevated hemoglobin A1c in the ICU. Of these, 1,460 patients had unknown diabetes, accounting for 26.0% of all patients with diabetes. This represented 41.0% of patients with an hemoglobin A1c > 6.5% and 9.3% of all ICU patients. Compared with patients without diabetes, patients with unknown diabetes had a higher likelihood of requiring an insulin infusion (44.3% vs 29.3%; p < 0.0001), a higher average blood glucose (172 vs 126 mg/dL; p < 0.0001), an increased percentage of hyperglycemia (19.7% vs 7.0%; blood glucose > 180 mg/dL; p < 0.0001) and hypoglycemia (8.9% vs 2.5%; blood glucose < 70 mg/dL; p < 0.0001), higher glycemic variability (55.6 vs 28.8, average of patient SD of glucose; p < 0.0001), and increased

  14. The Utility of Routine Intensive Care Admission for Patients Undergoing Intracranial Neurosurgical Procedures: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Cesar Cimonari; Boone, M Dustin; Laviv, Yosef; Kasper, Burkhard S; Chen, Clark C; Kasper, Ekkehard M

    2018-02-01

    Patients who have undergone intracranial neurosurgical procedures have traditionally been admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for close postoperative neurological observation. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the evidence for routine ICU admission in patients undergoing intracranial neurosurgical procedures and to evaluate the safety of alternative postoperative pathways. We were interested in identifying studies that examined selected patients who presented for elective, non-emergent intracranial surgery whose postoperative outcomes were compared as a function of ICU versus non-ICU admission. A systematic review was performed in July 2016 using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist of the Medline database. The search strategy was created based on the following key words: "craniotomy," "neurosurgical procedure," and "intensive care unit." The nine articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria yielded a total of 2227 patients. Of these patients, 879 were observed in a non-ICU setting. The most frequent diagnoses were supratentorial brain tumors, followed by patients with cerebrovascular diseases and infratentorial brain tumors. Three percent (30/879) of the patients originally assigned to floor or intermediate care status were transferred to the ICU. The most frequently observed neurological complications leading to ICU transfer were delayed postoperative neurological recovery, seizures, worsening of neurological deficits, hemiparesis, and cranial nerves deficits. Our systematic review demonstrates that routine postoperative ICU admission may not benefit carefully selected patients who have undergone elective intracranial neurosurgical procedures. In addition, limiting routine ICU admission may result in significant cost savings.

  15. Predicting mortality and length-of-stay for neonatal admissions to private hospital neonatal intensive care units: a Southern African retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Pepler, P T; Uys, D W; Nel, D G

    2012-06-01

    To predict neonatal mortality and length of stay (LOS) from readily available perinatal data for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions in Southern African private hospitals. Retrospective observational study using perinatal data from a large multicentre sample. Fifteen participating NICU centres in the Medi-Clinic private hospital group in Southern Africa. We used 2376 infants born between 1 January - 31 December 2008 to build the regression models, and a further 1 578 infants born between 1 January - 31 December 2007 to test the models. Outcome measures were mortality and length of hospital stay for NICU admissions. Of the infants included in the 2008 dataset, ninety-one (3.8%) died after being admitted to NICU centres. The median LOS for non-transferred survivors was 11 days. An analysis of the structural peculiarities of the data showed high correlations between groups of the perinatal variables pertaining to the size and Apgar scores of the newborn infants, respectively. The logistic regression model to predict neonatal mortality had a good fit (AUC: 0.8507, misclassification rate: 13.6%), but the low positive predictive value of this model reduces its usefulness. The poisson log-linear model to predict LOS had a good fit (predicted R(2): 0.7027). Apgar score at one minute, birth weight, and delivery mode significantly influence the odds of neonatal death and are associated with significant effects on LOS.

  16. Comparison of the effectiveness of a PAMG-1 test and standard clinical assessment in the prediction of preterm birth and reduction of unnecessary hospital admissions.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Ghassan; Faraz, Saima; Nasir, Razan; Somini, Sreenisha; Abdeldayem, Rasha M; Koratkar, Raghunandini; Alsawalhi, Nadia; Ammar, Abeer

    2017-10-26

    The purpose of this study is to first compare the performance of the PAMG-1 biomarker test to that of standard clinical assessment (SCA) for the risk assessment of spontaneous preterm delivery (sPTD) among women with symptoms of preterm labor (PTL) and then calculate the potential impact on unnecessary admission reduction. Patients of gestational age 24 0/7 -36 6/7 with PTL symptoms, cervical dilatation ≤3 cm, no intercourse within 24 h, and clinically intact membranes were recruited consecutively into this prospective observational study. Specificity (SP), sensitivity (SN), positive-predictive value (PPV), and negative-predictive value (NPV) for the PAMG-1 test and SCA, for which a positive result was defined as patient admission, for predicting spontaneous delivery ≤7 and ≤14 d of presentation were calculated. One hundred and forty-eight patients were included in the analysis, 132 of which had both SCA and PAMG-1 results available. For the prediction of sPTD ≤7 d for SCA and PAMG-1, the PPV and NPV were 10% and 100%, and 71% and 98%, respectively. For prediction of sPTD ≤14 d for SCA and PAMG-1, the PPV and NPV were 14% and 100%, and 86% and 96%, respectively. Sixty-one per cent (81/132) of patients were admitted for treatment and/or observation. Our study reinforces the critical role of the PAMG-1 biomarker test to aid in risk assessment of imminent spontaneous preterm delivery in patients with symptoms of PTL. The PAMG-1 test was found to be statistically superior to standard clinical assessment alone, with respect to specificity. Based on our data, the introduction of a PAMG-1 test result into clinical decision making could reduce up to 91% of unnecessary admissions for women presenting with threatened preterm labor.

  17. Intensive care unit admission of decompensated cirrhotic patients: prognostic scoring systems.

    PubMed

    Feltracco, P; Brezzi, M; Barbieri, S; Milevoj, M; Galligioni, H; Cillo, U; Zanus, G; Vitale, A; Ori, C

    2011-05-01

    Cirrhotic patients who need critical care support show high morbidity and mortality rates compared with other critically ill patients. Their prognosis is, in fact, influenced by both the severity of the underlying hepatic disease and the worsening of extrahepatic organ function. Clinicians and investigators have been persistently looking for objective scoring systems capable of providing accurate information on disease severity and short-term prognosis. Risk stratification helps differentiate patients who would not benefit from admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) from those who could achieve better outcomes once aggressively treated. The most common scores, ie, multiple organ dysfunction score, sequential organ failure assessment, and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, developed in general ICUs to evaluate illness severity, have also been validated to predict the prognosis of cirrhotic patients admitted to the ICU. However, their absolute predictive value has been questioned. A weakness of common prediction models consists in not recognizing the continuum of physiological changes in critically ill decompensated cirrhotic patients. In addition, the predictive power to stratify individual risk is relatively low due to the great variability of liver dysfunction stages, the severity of related manifestations, and the number of nonfunctioning organs on admission. Probability models are not capable of predicting whether a patient will live or die with 100% accuracy, nor can they deny or confirm the indications for mechanical ventilation, vasopressor support or renal replacement therapy, or help to decide when to withhold or withdraw support. Because there are no absolute criteria to predict which cirrhotic decompensated patients will improve with normalization of organ function or deteriorate progressively, a scoring system should be regarded as an adjunct rather than a substitute for clinical judgment in the decision process concerning whether a

  18. Vitamin D deficiency at admission is not associated with 90-day mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock: Observational FINNAKI cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ala-Kokko, Tero I; Mutt, Shivaprakash J; Nisula, Sara; Koskenkari, Juha; Liisanantti, Janne; Ohtonen, Pasi; Poukkanen, Meri; Laurila, Jouko J; Pettilä, Ville; Herzig, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with increased mortality in patients that are critically ill. This study explored whether vitamin D levels were associated with 90-day mortality in severe sepsis or septic shock. Methods Plasma vitamin D levels were measured on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) in a prospective multicentre observational study. Results 610 patients with severe sepsis were included; of these, 178 (29%) had septic shock. Vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L) was present in 333 (55%) patients. The 90-day mortality did not differ among patients with or without vitamin D deficiency (28.3% vs. 28.5%, p = 0.789). Diabetes was more common among patients deficient compared to those not deficient in vitamin D (30% vs. 18%, p < 0.001). Hospital-acquired infections at admission were more prevalent in patients with a vitamin D deficiency (31% vs. 16%, p < 0.001). A multivariable adjusted Cox regression model showed that low vitamin D levels could not predict 90-day mortality (<50 nmol/L: hazard ratio (HR) 0.99 (95% CI: 0.72-1.36), p > 0.9; and <25 nmol/L: HR 0.44 (95% CI: 0.22-0.87), p = 0.018). Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency detected upon ICU admission was not associated with 90-day mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Key messages In severe sepsis and septic shock, a vitamin D deficiency upon ICU admission was not associated with increased mortality. Compared to patients with sufficient vitamin D, patients with deficient vitamin D more frequently exhibited diabetes, elevated C-reactive protein levels, and hospital-acquired infections upon ICU admission, and they more frequently developed acute kidney injury.

  19. Procalcitonin (PCT) levels for ruling-out bacterial coinfection in ICU patients with influenza: A CHAID decision-tree analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alejandro H; Avilés-Jurado, Francesc X; Díaz, Emili; Schuetz, Philipp; Trefler, Sandra I; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Cordero, Lourdes; Vidaur, Loreto; Estella, Ángel; Pozo Laderas, Juan C; Socias, Lorenzo; Vergara, Juan C; Zaragoza, Rafael; Bonastre, Juan; Guerrero, José E; Suberviola, Borja; Cilloniz, Catia; Restrepo, Marcos I; Martín-Loeches, Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    To define which variables upon ICU admission could be related to the presence of coinfection using CHAID (Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection) analysis. A secondary analysis from a prospective, multicentre, observational study (2009-2014) in ICU patients with confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. We assessed the potential of biomarkers and clinical variables upon admission to the ICU for coinfection diagnosis using CHAID analysis. Performance of cut-off points obtained was determined on the basis of the binominal distributions of the true (+) and true (-) results. Of the 972 patients included, 196 (20.3%) had coinfection. Procalcitonin (PCT; ng/mL 2.4 vs. 0.5, p < 0.001), but not C-reactive protein (CRP; mg/dL 25 vs. 38.5; p = 0.62) was higher in patients with coinfection. In CHAID analyses, PCT was the most important variable for coinfection. PCT <0.29 ng/mL showed high sensitivity (Se = 88.2%), low Sp (33.2%) and high negative predictive value (NPV = 91.9%). The absence of shock improved classification capacity. Thus, for PCT <0.29 ng/mL, the Se was 84%, the Sp 43% and an NPV of 94% with a post-test probability of coinfection of only 6%. PCT has a high negative predictive value (94%) and lower PCT levels seems to be a good tool for excluding coinfection, particularly for patients without shock. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Patient opinion as a cornerstone.

    PubMed

    Holanda Peña, M S; Talledo, N Marina; Ots Ruiz, E; Lanza Gómez, J M; Ruiz Ruiz, A; García Miguelez, A; Gómez Marcos, V; Domínguez Artiga, M J; Hernández Hernández, M Á; Wallmann, R; Llorca Díaz, J

    2017-03-01

    To study the agreement between the level of satisfaction of patients and their families referred to the care and attention received during admission to the ICU. A prospective, 5-month observational and descriptive study was carried out. ICU of Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital, Santander (Spain). Adult patients with an ICU stay longer than 24h, who were discharged to the ward during the period of the study, and their relatives. Instrument: FS-ICU 34 for assessing family satisfaction, and an adaptation of the FS-ICU 34 for patients. The Cohen kappa index was calculated to assess agreement between answers. An analysis was made of the questionnaires from one same family unit, obtaining 148 pairs of surveys (296 questionnaires). The kappa index ranged between 0.278-0.558, which is indicative of mild to moderate agreement. The families of patients admitted to the ICU cannot be regarded as good proxies, at least for competent patients. In such cases, we must refer to these patients in order to obtain first hand information on their feelings, perceptions and experiences during admission to the ICU. Only when patients are unable to actively participate in the care process should their relatives be consulted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  1. Patient-related factors and circumstances surrounding decisions to forego life-sustaining treatment, including intensive care unit admission refusal.

    PubMed

    Reignier, Jean; Dumont, Romain; Katsahian, Sandrine; Martin-Lefevre, Laurent; Renard, Benoit; Fiancette, Maud; Lebert, Christine; Clementi, Eva; Bontemps, Frederic

    2008-07-01

    To assess decisions to forego life-sustaining treatment (LST) in patients too sick for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, comparatively to patients admitted to the ICU. Prospective observational cohort study. A medical-surgical ICU. Consecutive patients referred to the ICU during a one-yr period. None. Of 898 triaged patients, 147 were deemed too well to benefit from ICU admission. Decisions to forego LST were made in 148 of 666 (22.2%) admitted patients and in all 85 patients deemed too sick for ICU admission. Independent predictors of decisions to forego LST at ICU refusal rather than after ICU admission were: age; underlying disease; living in an institution; preexisting cognitive impairment; admission for medical reasons; and acute cardiac failure, acute central neurologic illness, or sepsis. Hospital mortality after decisions to forego LST was not significantly different in refused and admitted patients (77.5% vs. 86.5%; p = .1). Decisions to forego LST were made via telephone in 58.8% of refused patients and none of the admitted patients. Nurses caring for the patient had no direct contact with the ICU physicians for 62.3% of the decisions in refused patients, whereas meetings between nurses and physicians occurred in 70.3% of decisions to forego LST in the ICU. Patients or relatives were involved in 28.2% of decisions to forego LST at ICU refusal compared with 78.4% of decisions to forego LST in ICU patients (p < .001). All patients deemed too sick for ICU admission had decisions to forego LST. These decisions were made without direct patient examination in two-thirds of refused patients (vs. none of admitted patients) and were associated with less involvement of nurses and relatives compared with decisions in admitted patients. Further work is needed to improve decisions to forego LST made under the distinctive circumstances of triage.

  2. The Changing Role of Palliative Care in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Aslakson, Rebecca A.; Curtis, J. Randall; Nelson, Judith E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Palliative care is an interprofessional specialty as well as an approach to care by all clinicians caring for patients with serious and complex illness. Unlike hospice, palliative care is based not on prognosis but on need and is an essential component of comprehensive care for critically ill patients from the time of ICU admission. In this clinically focused article, we review evidence of opportunities to improve palliative care for critically ill adults, summarize strategies for ICU palliative care improvement, and identify resources to support implementation. Data Sources We searched the MEDLINE database from inception through January 2014. We also searched the Reference Library of The Improving Palliative Care in the ICU Project website sponsored by the National Institutes of Health and the Center to Advance Palliative Care, which is updated monthly. We hand-searched reference lists and author files. Study Selection Selected studies included all English-language articles concerning adult patients using the search terms "intensive care" or "critical care" with "palliative care," "supportive care," "end-of-life care," or "ethics." Data Extraction After examination of peer-reviewed original scientific articles, consensus statements, guidelines, and reviews resulting from our literature search, we made final selections based on author consensus. Data Synthesis Existing evidence is organized to address: 1) opportunities to alleviate physical and emotional symptoms, improve communication, and provide support for patients and families; 2) models and specific interventions for improving ICU palliative care; 3) available resources for ICU palliative care improvement; and 4) ongoing challenges and targets for future research. Key domains of ICU palliative care have been defined and operationalized as measures of quality. There is increasing recognition that effective integration of palliative care during acute and chronic critical illness may help patients and

  3. Post-ICU discharge and outcome: rationale and methods of the The French and euRopean Outcome reGistry in Intensive Care Units (FROG-ICU) observational study.

    PubMed

    Mebazaa, Alexandre; Casadio, Maria Chiara; Azoulay, Elie; Guidet, Bertrand; Jaber, Samir; Levy, Bruno; Payen, Didier; Vicaut, Eric; Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; Gayat, Etienne

    2015-10-12

    Previous studies have demonstrated that ICU (intensive care unit) survivors have decreased long-term survival rates compared to the general population. However, knowledge about how to identify ICU survivors with higher risk of death and the adjustable factors associated with mortality is still lacking. The FROG-ICU (the French and European Outcome Registry in Intensive Care Units) study is a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort study where ICU survivors are followed up to one year after ICU discharge. Beside one year survival, the study is designed to assess incidence and identifying risk factors for mortality over the year following discharge from the ICU. All consecutive patients admitted in ICU to the 28 participating centers during the study period will be included. Every subject will undergo an evaluation at admission, throughout the ICU stay and at ICU discharge. The global, especially cardiovascular, assessment of each subject will be performed through a complete clinical exam, instrumental tests (electrocardiogram, echocardiogram) and biological parameters. Blood and urine samples will be collected at admission and at discharge with the primary goal to assess effectiveness of routine and novel cardiovascular, inflammatory and renal biomarkers, with potential interest in risk stratification for patients who survive an ICU stay. The follow up will include a careful tracking of patients through telephone calls and questionnaires at 3, 6 and 12 months after ICU discharge. FROG-ICU aims to identify the clinical and biological phenotype of patients with different levels of probability of death in the year after ICU discharge. FROG-ICU has been designed to better understand long term outcome after ICU discharge as well as risk factors for all-cause and cardiovascular morbidity and associated mortality. It is a large prospective multicenter cohort with a biological (on plasma and urine) collection and one-year follow-up of ICU patients. FROG ICU will

  4. Admission Heart Rate Predicts Poor Outcomes in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial Studies.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Miaoyan; Sato, Shoichiro; Zheng, Danni; Wang, Xia; Carcel, Cheryl; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Sandset, Else C; Delcourt, Candice; Arima, Hisatomi; Wang, Jiguang; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S

    2016-06-01

    Faster heart rate predicts higher mortality in coronary heart disease and acute ischemic stroke, but its prognostic significance in intracerebral hemorrhage remains uncertain. We aimed to determine the effect of admission heart rate on clinical and imaging outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. A post hoc pooled analysis of the pilot and main phases of the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT 1 and 2). Clinical outcomes were mortality and modified Rankin Scale score at 90 days; and imaging outcome was absolute growth in hematoma volume during the initial 24 hours. Patients were divided into 4 categories according to baseline heart rate (<65, 65-74, 75-84, and ≥85 bpm) and analyzed using multivariable adjusted models with the lowest heart rate group as the reference. Of 3185 patients with available data, higher admission heart rate was associated with both mortality and worse modified Rankin Scale score: adjusted hazard ratio for heart rate (≥85 versus <65 bpm) 1.50 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.11) and adjusted odds ratio 1.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.63), respectively (both P-trend <0.05). There was no significant relationship between heart rate and absolute growth in hematoma volume (P-trend, 0.196). Higher admission heart rate is independently associated with death and poor functional outcome after acute intracerebral hemorrhage. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00226096 and NCT00716079. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Cytomegalovirus reactivation in ICU patients.

    PubMed

    Papazian, Laurent; Hraiech, Sami; Lehingue, Samuel; Roch, Antoine; Chiche, Laurent; Wiramus, Sandrine; Forel, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 20 years have passed since we reported our results of histologically proven cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia in non-immunocompromised ICU patients. Even if there are more recent reports suggesting that CMV may worsen the outcomes for ICU patients, there is no definite answer to this question: is CMV a potential pathogen for ICU patients or is it simply a bystander? We will describe the pathophysiology of active CMV infection and the most recent insights concerning the epidemiological aspects of these reactivations. Cytomegalovirus can be pathogenic by a direct organ insult (such as for the lung), by decreasing host defences against other microorganisms and/or by enhancing the body's inflammatory response (as in acute respiratory distress syndrome). The incidence of active CMV infection is dependent on the diagnostic method used. Using the most sophisticated available biological tools, the incidence can reach 15-20% of ICU patients (20-40% in ICU patients with positive CMV serology). In adequately powered cohorts of patients, active CMV infection appears to be associated with worse outcomes for mechanically ventilated ICU patients. There is no absolute direct proof of a negative impact of active CMV infection on the health outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients. Prospective randomized trials are lacking. Future trials should examine the potential benefits for health outcomes of using antiviral treatments. Such treatments could be prophylactic, pre-emptive or used only when there is an end-organ disease. Cytomegalovirus infection may affect health outcomes for ICU patients. Additional prospective trials are necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

  6. Filtering authentic sepsis arising in the ICU using administrative codes coupled to a SIRS screening protocol.

    PubMed

    Sudduth, Christopher L; Overton, Elizabeth C; Lyu, Peter F; Rimawi, Ramzy H; Buchman, Timothy G

    2017-06-01

    Using administrative codes and minimal physiologic and laboratory data, we sought a high-specificity identification strategy for patients whose sepsis initially appeared during their ICU stay. We studied all patients discharged from an academic hospital between September 1, 2013 and October 31, 2014. Administrative codes and minimal physiologic and laboratory criteria were used to identify patients at high risk of developing the onset of sepsis in the ICU. Two clinicians then independently reviewed the patient record to verify that the screened-in patients appeared to become septic during their ICU admission. Clinical chart review verified sepsis in 437/466 ICU stays (93.8%). Of these 437 encounters, only 151 (34.6%) were admitted to the ICU with neither SIRS nor evidence of infection and therefore appeared to become septic during their ICU stay. Selected administrative codes coupled to SIRS criteria and applied to patients admitted to ICU can yield up to 94% authentic sepsis patients. However, only 1/3 of patients thus identified appeared to become septic during their ICU stay. Studies that depend on high-intensity monitoring for description of the time course of sepsis require clinician review and verification that sepsis initially appeared during the monitoring period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Benzodiazepine and opioid use and the duration of ICU delirium in an older population

    PubMed Central

    Pisani, Margaret A.; Murphy, Terrence E.; Araujo, Katy L.B.; Slattum, Patricia; Van Ness, Peter H.; Inouye, Sharon K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective There is a high prevalence of delirium in older medical intensive care unit (ICU) patients and delirium is associated with adverse outcomes. We need to identify modifiable risk factors for delirium in the ICU, such as medication use. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of benzodiazepine or opioid use on the duration of ICU delirium in an older medical population. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Fourteen-bed medical intensive care unit in an urban university teaching hospital. Patients 304 consecutive admissions age 60 and older. Interventions None Main Outcome Measurements The main outcome measure was duration of ICU delirium, specifically the first episode of ICU delirium. Patients were assessed daily for delirium with the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) and a validated chart review method. Our main predictor was the receipt of benzodiazepines or opioids during ICU stay. A multivariable model was developed using Poisson rate regression. Results Delirium occurred in 239 of 304 patients (79%). The median duration of ICU delirium was 3 days with a range of 1-33 days. In a multivariable regression model receipt of a benzodiazepine or opioid (RR, 1.64, 95% CI, 1.27-2.10) was associated with increased delirium duration. Other variables associated with delirium duration in this analysis include preexisting dementia (RR, 1.19, 95% CI 1.07-1.33), receipt of haloperidol (RR, 1.35, 95% CI, 1.21-1.50), and severity of illness (RR, 1.01, 95% CI, 1.00-1.02). Conclusions The use of benzodiazepines or opioids in the ICU is associated with longer duration of a first episode of delirium. Receipt of these medications may represent modifiable risk factors for delirium. Clinicians caring for ICU patients should carefully evaluate the need for benzodiazepines, opioids and haloperidol. PMID:19050611

  8. Prevalence, prediction, and clonality of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage at admission to medical units in Hong Kong, China.

    PubMed

    Luk, Shik; Ho, Alex Yat Man; Ng, Tak Keung; Tsang, Iris Hoi Ling; Chan, Eliza Hoi Ying; Choi, Kin Wing; Tsang, Ngai Chong; Lee, Rodney Allan; Cheng, Vincent Chi Chung; Fung, Sau Chun; Lai, Wai Man; Que, Tak Lun; Wong, Andrew Tin Yau

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence, risk factors, and molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization at the time of admission to acute medical units and to develop a cost-effective screening strategy. Nasal and groin screening cultures were performed for patients at admission to 15 acute medical units in all 7 catchment regions in Hong Kong. All MRSA isolates were subjected to spa typing. The overall carriage rate of MRSA was 14.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.5-15.1). MRSA history within the past 12 months (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.60 [95% CI, 3.28-6.44]), old age home residence (adjusted OR, 3.32 [95% CI, 2.78-3.98]), and bed-bound state (adjusted OR, 2.19 [95% CI, 1.75-2.74]) were risk factors selected as MRSA screening criteria that provided reasonable sensitivity (67.4%) and specificity (81.8%), with an affordable burden (25.2%). spa typing showed that 89.5% (848/948) of the isolates were clustered into the 4 spa clonal complexes (CCs): spa CC1081, spa CC032, spa CC002, and spa CC4677. Patients colonized with MRSA spa types t1081 (OR, 1.77 [95% CI, 1.49-2.09]) and t4677 (OR, 3.09 [95% CI, 1.54-6.02]) were more likely to be old age home residents. MRSA carriage at admission to acute medical units was prevalent in Hong Kong. Our results suggest that targeted screening is a pragmatic approach to increase the detection of the MRSA reservoir. Molecular typing suggests that old age homes are epicenters in amplifying the MRSA burden in acute hospitals. Enhancement of infection control measures in old age homes is important for the control of MRSA in hospitals.

  9. ICU telemedicine and critical care mortality: a national effectiveness study

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Jeremy M; Le, Tri Q.; Barnato, Amber E.; Hravnak, Marilyn; Kuza, Courtney C.; Pike, Francis; Angus, Derek C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Intensive care unit (ICU) telemedicine is an increasingly common strategy for improving the outcome of critical care, but its overall impact is uncertain. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of ICU telemedicine in a national sample of hospitals and quantify variation in effectiveness across hospitals. Research design We performed a multi-center retrospective case-control study using 2001–2010 Medicare claims data linked to a national survey identifying United States hospitals adopting ICU telemedicine. We matched each adopting hospital (cases) to up to 3 non-adopting hospitals (controls) based on size, case-mix and geographic proximity during the year of adoption. Using ICU admissions from 2 years before and after the adoption date, we compared outcomes between case and control hospitals using a difference-in-differences approach. Results 132 adopting case hospitals were matched to 389 similar non-adopting control hospitals. The pre- and post-adoption unadjusted 90-day mortality was similar in both case hospitals (24.0% vs. 24.3%, p=0.07) and control hospitals (23.5% vs. 23.7%, p<0.01). In the difference-in-differences analysis, ICU telemedicine adoption was associated with a small relative reduction in 90-day mortality (ratio of odds ratios: 0.96, 95% CI = 0.95–0.98, p<0.001). However, there was wide variation in the ICU telemedicine effect across individual hospitals (median ratio of odds ratios: 1.01; interquartile range 0.85–1.12; range 0.45–2.54). Only 16 case hospitals (12.2%) experienced statistically significant mortality reductions post-adoption. Hospitals with a significant mortality reduction were more likely to have large annual admission volumes (p<0.001) and be located in urban areas (p=0.04) compared to other hospitals. Conclusions Although ICU telemedicine adoption resulted in a small relative overall mortality reduction, there was heterogeneity in effect across adopting hospitals, with large-volume urban hospitals

  10. Early function decline after ischemic stroke can be predicted by a nomogram based on age, use of thrombolysis, RDW and NIHSS score at admission.

    PubMed

    Turcato, Gianni; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Cappellari, Manuel; Bonora, Antonio; Zannoni, Massimo; Bovi, Paolo; Ricci, Giorgio; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    The availability of prediction tools for risk stratification after acute stroke is seen as a valuable perspective for tailored clinical management. This retrospective study was aimed to identify significant predictors of poor outcome in patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke, which could then be used for constructing a prediction model. The study population consisted of 837 patients admitted to the Stoke Unit of University Hospital of Verona (Italy) for acute ischemic stroke within 12 h of symptoms onset. In multivariate analysis, age, use of thrombolysis, red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and NIHSS score at admission were found to be significant predictors of 3-month functional decline. A nomogram constructed by integrating these four variables exhibited an area under the curve of 0.832 for predicting functional impairment. The >80% risk cut-off derived from the nomogram was associated with 0.91 positive predictive value, whereas a risk probability <10% displayed 0.93 negative predictive value for predicting functional impairment. These results demonstrate that a prediction tool integrating some important clinical, laboratory and demographic variables may enable an efficient risk stratification of poor outcome after acute stroke.

  11. Stressors in ICU: patients' evaluation.

    PubMed

    Novaes, M A; Aronovich, A; Ferraz, M B; Knobel, E

    1997-12-01

    To study the physical and psychological stressors in the intensive care unit (ICU) and to correlate stressors with different demographic variables. Cross-sectional analytical survey. Intensive care unit of a private hospital. 50 randomly selected ICU patients during the first week of their ICU stay. The Intensive Care Unit Environmental Stressor Scale was administered to 50 patients. Pain and the impossibility of sleeping due to noise and having tubes in the nose and mouth were considered the most important physical stressors. Loss of self control and lack of understanding about the attitudes and procedures were the main psychological stressors. Interventions should be aimed at relieving the patient's pain and at controlling the level of noise to make sleep possible. From the psychological standpoint, the independence of the patient should be encouraged, thus stimulating the recovery of self-control. The team should also inform the patient about the procedures which will be carried out.

  12. Validation of the MARS (Medical Admission Risk System): A combined physiological and laboratory risk prediction tool for 5- to 7-day in-hospital mortality.

    PubMed

    Ohman, Malin Charlotta; Atkins, Tara E Holm; Cooksley, Tim; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2018-03-10

    The MARS (Medical Admission Risk System) uses 11 physiological and laboratory data and had promising results in its derivation study for predicting 5 and 7 day mortality. To perform an external independent validation of the MARS score. An unplanned secondary cohort study. Patients admitted to the medical admission unit (MAU) at The Hospital of South West Jutland were included from 2 October 2008 until 19 February 2009 and 23 February 2010 until 26 May 2010 were analysed. Validation of the MARS score using 5 and 7 day mortality was the primary endpoint. 5858 patients were included in the study. 2923 (49.9%) patients were women with a median age of 65 years (15-107). The MARS score had an AUROC of 0.858 (95% CI: 0.831-0.884) for 5-day mortality and 0.844 (0.818-0.870) for 7 day mortality with poor calibration for both outcomes. The MARS score had excellent discriminatory power but poor calibration in predicting both 5 and 7-day mortality. The development of accurate combination physiological/laboratory data risk scores has the potential to improve the recognition of at risk patients.

  13. Does ICU Severity of Illness Influence Recall of Baseline Physical Function?

    PubMed Central

    Dinglas, Victor D.; Gellar, Jonathan; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Stan, Vanessa A.; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate if severity of illness in the intensive care unit influences patients' retrospective recall of their baseline physical function from prior to hospital admission. Materials and Methods A prospective cohort study of 193 acute lung injury (ALI) survivors who, prior to hospital discharge, retrospectively reported their pre-hospitalization physical function using the SF-36 quality of life survey. Results Four measures were used to evaluate ICU severity of illness: (1) Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II Acute Physiologic Score at ICU admission, (2) Lung Injury Score at ALI diagnosis, (3) Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at study enrollment, and (4) maximum daily SOFA score during the entire ICU stay. In multivariable linear regression analysis, no measure of severity of illness was associated with prehospitalization Physical Function. Education level significantly modified the relationship between ICU severity of illness and baseline Physical Function with lower educational attainment having a stronger association with baseline physical function. Conclusion ICU severity of illness was not associated with patients' retrospectively recalled baseline physical function. Patients with a lower level of education maybe more influenced by ICU severity of illness, but the magnitude of this effect may not be clinically meaningful. PMID:21737233

  14. Colonization of toxigenic Clostridium difficile among ICU patients: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Xiaohui; Yang, Jingyu; Liu, Xiaohua; Cai, Lin; Zong, Zhiyong

    2016-08-09

    A prospective study was performed to investigate the prevalence of colonization among ICU patients and to examine whether asymptomatic carriers were the source of subsequent C. difficile infection (CDI) and acquisition of toxigenic C. difficile. Rectal swabs were collected from adult patients on admission to and at discharge from a 50-bed medical ICU of a major referral hospital in western China, from August to November 2014. Stools were collected from patients who developed ICU-onset diarrhea. Both swabs and stools were screened for tcdB (toxin B gene) by PCR. Samples positive to tcdB were cultured for C. difficile and isolates recovered were screened for tcdB and the binary toxin genes by PCR. Strain typing was performed using multilocus sequence typing and isolates belonging to the same sequence type (ST) were further typed using multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). During the 4-month period, rectal swabs were collected from 360 (90.9 %) out of 396 patients who were admitted to the ICU. Among the 360 patients, 314 had stayed in the ICU more than 3 days, of which 213 (73.6 %) had a rectal swab collected within the 3 days prior to discharge from ICU. The prevalence of toxigenic C. difficile colonization was 1.7 % (6 cases) and 4.3 % (10 cases) on admission and discharge, respectively. Only four (1.1 %) out of 360 patients had CDI, corresponding to 10.7 cases per 10,000 ICU days. None of the four cases had toxigenic C. difficile either on admission or at discharge. Toxigenic C. difficile isolates were recovered from all swabs and stool samples positive for tcdB by PCR and belonged to 7 STs (ST2, 3, 6, 37, 54, 103 and 129). None of the isolates belonging to the same ST had identical MLVA patterns. Binary toxin genes were detected in one ST103 isolate that caused colonization. The prevalence of colonization with toxigenic C. difficile among patients on admission to ICU was low in our setting. ICU-acquired toxigenic C. difficile were

  15. Predictive Factors of Long-Term Stay in the ICU after Cardiac Surgery: Logistic CASUS Score, Serum Bilirubin Dosage and Extracorporeal Circulation Time.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Marcio Fernandes; Soares, Marcelo José Ferreira; Murad, Jamil Alli; Oliveira, Marcos Aurelio Barboza de; Faria, Fernanda Luiza; Faveri, Vinicius Zani; Iano, Yuzo; Guido, Rodrigo Capobianco

    2017-01-01

    To test the capacity of the Logistic CASUS Score on the second postoperative day, the total serum bilirubin dosage on the second postoperative day and the extracorporeal circulation time, as possible predictive factors of long-term stay in Intensive Care Unit after cardiac surgery. Eight-two patients submitted to cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation were selected. The Logistic CASUS Score on the second postoperative day was calculated and bilirubin dosage on the second postoperative day was measured. The extracorporeal circulation time was also registered. Patients were divided into two groups: Group A, those who were discharged up to the second day of postoperative care; Group B, those who were discharged after the second day of postoperative care. In this study, 40 cases were listed in Group A and 42 cases in Group B. The mean extracorporeal circulation time was 83.9±29.4 min in Group A and 95.8±29.31 min in Group B. Extracorporeal circulation time was not significant in this study (P=0.0735). The level of P significance of bilirubin dosage on the second postoperative day was 0.0003 and an area under the ROC curve of 0.708 with a cut-off point at 0.51 mg/dl was registered. The level of P significance of Logistic CASUS Score on the second postoperative day was 0.0001 and an area under the ROC curve of 0.723 with a cut-off point at 0.40% was registered. The Logistic CASUS Score on the second postoperative day has shown to be better than the bilirubin dosage on the second postoperative day as a predictive tool for calculating the length of stay in intensive care unit during the postoperative care period of patients. Notwithstanding, extracorporeal circulation time has failed to prove itself as an efficient tool to predict an extended length of stay in intensive care unit.

  16. Efficient and sparse feature selection for biomedical text classification via the elastic net: Application to ICU risk stratification from nursing notes.

    PubMed

    Marafino, Ben J; Boscardin, W John; Dudley, R Adams

    2015-04-01

    Sparsity is often a desirable property of statistical models, and various feature selection methods exist so as to yield sparser and interpretable models. However, their application to biomedical text classification, particularly to mortality risk stratification among intensive care unit (ICU) patients, has not been thoroughly studied. To develop and characterize sparse classifiers based on the free text of nursing notes in order to predict ICU mortality risk and to discover text features most strongly associated with mortality. We selected nursing notes from the first 24h of ICU admission for 25,826 adult ICU patients from the MIMIC-II database. We then developed a pair of stochastic gradient descent-based classifiers with elastic-net regularization. We also studied the performance-sparsity tradeoffs of both classifiers as their regularization parameters were varied. The best-performing classifier achieved a 10-fold cross-validated AUC of 0.897 under the log loss function and full L2 regularization, while full L1 regularization used just 0.00025% of candidate input features and resulted in an AUC of 0.889. Using the log loss (range of AUCs 0.889-0.897) yielded better performance compared to the hinge loss (0.850-0.876), but the latter yielded even sparser models. Most features selected by both classifiers appear clinically relevant and correspond to predictors already present in existing ICU mortality models. The sparser classifiers were also able to discover a number of informative - albeit nonclinical - features. The elastic-net-regularized classifiers perform reasonably well and are capable of reducing the number of features required by over a thousandfold, with only a modest impact on performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Usual Care Physiotherapy During Acute Hospitalization in Subjects Admitted to the ICU: An Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Elizabeth H; Haines, Kimberley J; Berney, Sue; Warrillow, Stephen; Harrold, Meg; Denehy, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Physiotherapists play an important role in the provision of multidisciplinary team-based care in the ICU. No studies have reported usual care respiratory management or usual care on the wards following ICU discharge by these providers. This study aimed to investigate usual care physiotherapy for ICU subjects during acute hospitalization. One hundred subjects were recruited for an observational study from a tertiary Australian ICU. The frequency and type of documented physiotherapist assessment and treatment were extracted retrospectively from medical records. The sample had median (interquartile range) APACHE II score of 17 (13-21) and was mostly male with a median (interquartile range) age of 61 (49-73) y. Physiotherapists reviewed 94% of subjects in the ICU (median of 5 [3-9] occasions, median stay of 4.3 [3-7] d) and 89% of subjects in acute wards (median of 6 [2-12] occasions, median stay of 13.3 [6-28] d). Positioning, ventilator lung hyperinflation, and suctioning were the most frequently performed respiratory care activities in the ICU. The time from ICU admission until ambulation from the bed with a physiotherapist had a median of 5 (3-8) d. The average ambulation distance per treatment had a median of 0 (0-60) m in the ICU and 44 (8-78) m in the acute wards. Adverse event rates were 3.5% in the ICU and 1.8% on the wards. Subjects received a higher frequency of physiotherapy in the ICU than on acute wards. Consensus is required to ensure consistency in data collection internationally to facilitate comparison of outcomes. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  18. To what extent does the Health Professions Admission Test-Ireland predict performance in early undergraduate tests of communication and clinical skills? – An observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Internationally, tests of general mental ability are used in the selection of medical students. Examples include the Medical College Admission Test, Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test and the UK Clinical Aptitude Test. The most widely used measure of their efficacy is predictive validity. A new tool, the Health Professions Admission Test- Ireland (HPAT-Ireland), was introduced in 2009. Traditionally, selection to Irish undergraduate medical schools relied on academic achievement. Since 2009, Irish and EU applicants are selected on a combination of their secondary school academic record (measured predominately by the Leaving Certificate Examination) and HPAT-Ireland score. This is the first study to report on the predictive validity of the HPAT-Ireland for early undergraduate assessments of communication and clinical skills. Method Students enrolled at two Irish medical schools in 2009 were followed up for two years. Data collected were gender, HPAT-Ireland total and subsection scores; Leaving Certificate Examination plus HPAT-Ireland combined score, Year 1 Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) scores (Total score, communication and clinical subtest scores), Year 1 Multiple Choice Questions and Year 2 OSCE and subset scores. We report descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients and Multiple linear regression models. Results Data were available for 312 students. In Year 1 none of the selection criteria were significantly related to student OSCE performance. The Leaving Certificate Examination and Leaving Certificate plus HPAT-Ireland combined scores correlated with MCQ marks. In Year 2 a series of significant correlations emerged between the HPAT-Ireland and subsections thereof with OSCE Communication Z-scores; OSCE Clinical Z-scores; and Total OSCE Z-scores. However on multiple regression only the relationship between Total OSCE Score and the Total HPAT-Ireland score remained significant; albeit the

  19. To what extent does the Health Professions Admission Test-Ireland predict performance in early undergraduate tests of communication and clinical skills? An observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Maureen E; Regan, Daniel; Dunne, Fidelma; Henn, Patrick; Newell, John; O'Flynn, Siun

    2013-05-10

    Internationally, tests of general mental ability are used in the selection of medical students. Examples include the Medical College Admission Test, Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test and the UK Clinical Aptitude Test. The most widely used measure of their efficacy is predictive validity.A new tool, the Health Professions Admission Test- Ireland (HPAT-Ireland), was introduced in 2009. Traditionally, selection to Irish undergraduate medical schools relied on academic achievement. Since 2009, Irish and EU applicants are selected on a combination of their secondary school academic record (measured predominately by the Leaving Certificate Examination) and HPAT-Ireland score. This is the first study to report on the predictive validity of the HPAT-Ireland for early undergraduate assessments of communication and clinical skills. Students enrolled at two Irish medical schools in 2009 were followed up for two years. Data collected were gender, HPAT-Ireland total and subsection scores; Leaving Certificate Examination plus HPAT-Ireland combined score, Year 1 Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) scores (Total score, communication and clinical subtest scores), Year 1 Multiple Choice Questions and Year 2 OSCE and subset scores. We report descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients and Multiple linear regression models. Data were available for 312 students. In Year 1 none of the selection criteria were significantly related to student OSCE performance. The Leaving Certificate Examination and Leaving Certificate plus HPAT-Ireland combined scores correlated with MCQ marks.In Year 2 a series of significant correlations emerged between the HPAT-Ireland and subsections thereof with OSCE Communication Z-scores; OSCE Clinical Z-scores; and Total OSCE Z-scores. However on multiple regression only the relationship between Total OSCE Score and the Total HPAT-Ireland score remained significant; albeit the predictive power was modest. We found

  20. Predictive Factors of Long-Term Stay in the ICU after Cardiac Surgery: Logistic CASUS Score, Serum Bilirubin Dosage and Extracorporeal Circulation Time

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Marcio Fernandes; Soares, Marcelo José Ferreira; Murad Junior, Jamil Alli; de Oliveira, Marcos Aurelio Barboza; Faria, Fernanda Luiza; Faveri, Vinicius Zani; Iano, Yuzo; Guido, Rodrigo Capobianco

    2017-01-01

    Objective To test the capacity of the Logistic CASUS Score on the second postoperative day, the total serum bilirubin dosage on the second postoperative day and the extracorporeal circulation time, as possible predictive factors of long-term stay in Intensive Care Unit after cardiac surgery. Methods Eight-two patients submitted to cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation were selected. The Logistic CASUS Score on the second postoperative day was calculated and bilirubin dosage on the second postoperative day was measured. The extracorporeal circulation time was also registered. Patients were divided into two groups: Group A, those who were discharged up to the second day of postoperative care; Group B, those who were discharged after the second day of postoperative care. Results In this study, 40 cases were listed in Group A and 42 cases in Group B. The mean extracorporeal circulation time was 83.9±29.4 min in Group A and 95.8±29.31 min in Group B. Extracorporeal circulation time was not significant in this study (P=0.0735). The level of P significance of bilirubin dosage on the second postoperative day was 0.0003 and an area under the ROC curve of 0.708 with a cut-off point at 0.51 mg/dl was registered. The level of P significance of Logistic CASUS Score on the second postoperative day was 0.0001 and an area under the ROC curve of 0.723 with a cut-off point at 0.40% was registered. Conclusion The Logistic CASUS Score on the second postoperative day has shown to be better than the bilirubin dosage on the second postoperative day as a predictive tool for calculating the length of stay in intensive care unit during the postoperative care period of patients. Notwithstanding, extracorporeal circulation time has failed to prove itself as an efficient tool to predict an extended length of stay in intensive care unit. PMID:29211215

  1. Computerized prediction of intensive care unit discharge after cardiac surgery: development and validation of a Gaussian processes model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) of patients undergoing cardiac surgery may vary considerably, and is often difficult to predict within the first hours after admission. The early clinical evolution of a cardiac surgery patient might be predictive for his LOS. The purpose of the present study was to develop a predictive model for ICU discharge after non-emergency cardiac surgery, by analyzing the first 4 hours of data in the computerized medical record of these patients with Gaussian processes (GP), a machine learning technique. Methods Non-interventional study. Predictive modeling, separate development (n = 461) and validation (n = 499) cohort. GP models were developed to predict the probability of ICU discharge the day after surgery (classification task), and to predict the day of ICU discharge as a discrete variable (regression task). GP predictions were compared with predictions by EuroSCORE, nurses and physicians. The classification task was evaluated using aROC for discrimination, and Brier Score, Brier Score Scaled, and Hosmer-Lemeshow test for calibration. The regression task was evaluated by comparing median actual and predicted discharge, loss penalty function (LPF) ((actual-predicted)/actual) and calculating root mean squared relative errors (RMSRE). Results Median (P25-P75) ICU length of stay was 3 (2-5) days. For classification, the GP model showed an aROC of 0.758 which was significantly higher than the predictions by nurses, but not better than EuroSCORE and physicians. The GP had the best calibration, with a Brier Score of 0.179 and Hosmer-Lemeshow p-value of 0.382. For regression, GP had the highest proportion of patients with a correctly predicted day of discharge (40%), which was significantly better than the EuroSCORE (p < 0.001) and nurses (p = 0.044) but equivalent to physicians. GP had the lowest RMSRE (0.408) of all predictive models. Conclusions A GP model that uses PDMS data of the first 4 hours after admission

  2. Computerized prediction of intensive care unit discharge after cardiac surgery: development and validation of a Gaussian processes model.

    PubMed

    Meyfroidt, Geert; Güiza, Fabian; Cottem, Dominiek; De Becker, Wilfried; Van Loon, Kristien; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Berckmans, Daniël; Ramon, Jan; Bruynooghe, Maurice; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2011-10-25

    The intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) of patients undergoing cardiac surgery may vary considerably, and is often difficult to predict within the first hours after admission. The early clinical evolution of a cardiac surgery patient might be predictive for his LOS. The purpose of the present study was to develop a predictive model for ICU discharge after non-emergency cardiac surgery, by analyzing the first 4 hours of data in the computerized medical record of these patients with Gaussian processes (GP), a machine learning technique. Non-interventional study. Predictive modeling, separate development (n = 461) and validation (n = 499) cohort. GP models were developed to predict the probability of ICU discharge the day after surgery (classification task), and to predict the day of ICU discharge as a discrete variable (regression task). GP predictions were compared with predictions by EuroSCORE, nurses and physicians. The classification task was evaluated using aROC for discrimination, and Brier Score, Brier Score Scaled, and Hosmer-Lemeshow test for calibration. The regression task was evaluated by comparing median actual and predicted discharge, loss penalty function (LPF) ((actual-predicted)/actual) and calculating root mean squared relative errors (RMSRE). Median (P25-P75) ICU length of stay was 3 (2-5) days. For classification, the GP model showed an aROC of 0.758 which was significantly higher than the predictions by nurses, but not better than EuroSCORE and physicians. The GP had the best calibration, with a Brier Score of 0.179 and Hosmer-Lemeshow p-value of 0.382. For regression, GP had the highest proportion of patients with a correctly predicted day of discharge (40%), which was significantly better than the EuroSCORE (p < 0.001) and nurses (p = 0.044) but equivalent to physicians. GP had the lowest RMSRE (0.408) of all predictive models. A GP model that uses PDMS data of the first 4 hours after admission in the ICU of scheduled adult cardiac

  3. Clinical characteristics of nosocomial infections of patients with acute central nervous system infections treated in ICU.

    PubMed

    Gajović, Olgica; Tomović, Miroslav; Stanarcić, Jelena; Canović, Predrag; Todorović, Zoran; Lazić, Zorica

    2011-08-01

    A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of nosocomial infections in patients with acute infection of central nervous system (ACNS infections). The study included 1,686 patients admitted to the ICU. Of 1,686 patients, 936 (55.5%) had ACNS infection. Nosocomial infections was confirmed in 221 (23.6%) patients with ACNS infection. The most common risk factors for ICU-acquired nosocomial infections were consciousness disorder, mechanical ventilation and nasogastric tube. The coagulase - negative Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent isolated pathogen (285 isolates, 56.5%). Results suggest that a persistently high level of therapeutic activity and persistently depressed consciousness after the ICU admission are associated with the occurrence of hospital-acquired infection in critically ill patients hospitalized at a medical ICU.

  4. [Glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus outbreak in an ICU with simultaneous circulation of two different clones].

    PubMed

    Delamare, C; Lameloise, V; Lozniewski, A; Perrin, M; Baudin, C; Sellies, J; Dumay, M; Bemer, M

    2008-01-01

    To describe specific difficulties to control a glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus (GRE) outbreak occurring in an intensive care unit (ICU) during a regional epidemy. Following identification of a GRE clinical isolate in ICU, systematic screening was performed on admission and then weekly, by anal swabs. GRE carriers were isolated according to two processes: first (week [W] 2-W8), cohorting of carriers in a dedicated sector of the ICU, with dedicated HCW; this required closing four of the 16 ICU beds. Second (W8-W29), a specific unit was created outside the ICU. VanA-genotypes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles were analyzed. During the first outbreak period (102 rectal swabs), two patients were found colonized at admission: the index case transferred from Nancy hospital, carrier of the Nancy epidemy PFGE profile strain, and one patient from the haemodialysis unit, carrier of a GRE strain presenting a different PFGE profile called the Thionville strain. Seven patients were newly identified as GRE colonized (2 by the Nancy strain and 5 by the Thionville strain). Defective running of the ICU was noted. During the second period (442 samples), six ICU patients were found colonized, including four at admission. No other case was identified in 16 weeks. Outbreak extension to other hospital units was checked at W19. The Thionville strain was not found in other regional hospitals. ICUs concentrate GRE colonization risk. This study demonstrates interest of PFGE. These low virulence bacteria have few direct pathological consequences, but they cause organizational problems in ICUs.

  5. The difference between critical care initiation anion gap and prehospital admission anion gap is predictive of mortality in critical illness.

    PubMed

    Lipnick, Michael S; Braun, Andrea B; Cheung, Joyce Ting-Wai; Gibbons, Fiona K; Christopher, Kenneth B

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that the delta anion gap defined as difference between critical care initiation standard anion gap and prehospital admission standard anion gap is associated with all cause mortality in the critically ill. Observational cohort study. Two hundred nine medical and surgical intensive care beds in two hospitals in Boston, MA. Eighteen thousand nine hundred eighty-five patients, age ≥18 yrs, who received critical care between 1997 and 2007. The exposure of interest was delta anion gap and categorized a priori as <0, 0-5, 5-10, and >10 mEq/L. Logistic regression examined death by days 30, 90, and 365 postcritical care initiation and in-hospital mortality. Adjusted odds ratios were estimated by multivariable logistic regression models. The discrimination of delta anion gap for 30-day mortality was evaluated using receiver operator characteristic curves performed for a subset of patients with all laboratory data required to analyze the data via physical chemical principles (n = 664). None. Delta anion gap was a particularly strong predictor of 30-day mortality with a significant risk gradient across delta anion gap quartiles following multivariable adjustment: delta anion gap <0 mEq/L odds ratio 0.75 (95% confidence interval 0.67-0.81; p < 0.0001); delta anion gap 5-10 mEq/L odds ratio 1.56 (95% confidence interval 1.35-1.81; p < 0.0001); delta anion gap >10 mEq/L odds ratio 2.18 (95% confidence interval 1.76-2.71; p < 0.0001); and all relative to patients with delta anion gap 0-5 mEq/L. Similar significant robust associations post multivariable adjustments are seen with death by days 90 and 365 as well as in-hospital mortality. Correcting for albumin or limiting the cohort to patients with standard anion gap at critical care initiation of 10-18 mEq/L did not materially change the delta anion gap-mortality association. Delta anion gap has similarly moderate discriminative ability for 30-day mortality in comparison to standard base excess and strong ion

  6. Pneumothorax in the ICU: patient outcomes and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Yu; Jerng, Jih-Shuin; Liao, Wei-Yu; Ding, Liang-Wen; Kuo, Lu-Cheng; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2002-08-01

    To identify the prognostic factors for pneumothorax in patients in the ICU. Retrospective cohort study. ICU at a university-based teaching hospital. Sixty patients developed pneumothoraces in the ICU during a period of 36 months. Medical records relating to patients' age, sex, underlying diseases, associated medical conditions, reasons for admission, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scores, procedures performed before the development of pneumothorax, occurrences of tension pneumothorax, duration of chest tube placement, chest tube removal, duration of ICU stay, and patient outcomes all were analyzed. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied with variables that were significantly associated with survival in the univariate analysis. The probabilities of chest tube removal were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Thirty-five patients (58%) had procedure-related pneumothoraces. The procedure that most commonly caused pneumothoraces was thoracentesis (n = 19; 54%), followed by central vein/pulmonary artery catheterization (n = 14; 40%) and bronchoscopy/transbronchial lung biopsy (n = 8; 23%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis also showed that pneumothorax due to barotrauma (p = 0.001), tension pneumothorax (p = 0.0023), and concurrent septic shock (p = 0.0476) were significantly and independently associated with death. The log-rank test revealed that the success rate of chest tube removal was higher in patients with procedure-related pneumothoraces (p = 0.0055). Patients with procedure-related pneumothoraces had better outcomes. Patients with pneumothoraces occurring in the ICU due to barotrauma, or a complicating tension pneumothoraces, carry a higher risk of mortality.

  7. "One-way-street" streamlined admission of critically ill trauma patients reduces emergency department length of stay.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eva; Shields, Jean-Francois; Chirumamilla, Nandan; Martinez, Myriam; Kaafarani, Haytham; Yeh, Daniel Dante; White, Benjamin; Filbin, Michael; DePesa, Christopher; Velmahos, George; Lee, Jarone

    2017-10-01

    Emergency department (ED) overcrowding remains a significant problem in many hospitals, and results in multiple negative effects on patient care outcomes and operational metrics. We sought to test whether implementing a quality improvement project could decrease ED LOS for trauma patients requiring an ICU admission from the ED, specifically by directly admitting critically ill trauma patients from the ED CT scanner to an ICU bed. This was a retrospective study comparing patients during the intervention period (2013-2014) to historical controls (2011-2013). Critically ill trauma patients requiring a CT scan, but not the operating room (OR) or Interventional Radiology (IR), were directly admitted from the CT scanner to the ICU, termed the "One-way street (OWS)". Controls from the 2011-2013 Trauma Registry were matched 1:1 based on the following criteria: Injury Severity Score; mechanism of injury; and age. Only patients who required emergent trauma consult were included. Our primary outcome was ED LOS, defined in minutes. Our secondary outcomes were ICU LOS, hospital LOS and mortality. Paired t test or Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for continuous univariate analysis and Chi square for categorical variables. Logistic regression and linear regressions were used for categorical and continuous multivariable analysis, respectively. 110 patients were enrolled in this study, with 55 in the OWS group and 55 matched controls. Matched controls had lower APACHE II score (12 vs. 15, p = 0.03) and a higher GCS (14 vs. 6, p = 0.04). ED LOS was 229 min shorter in the OWS group (82 vs. 311 min, p < 0.0001). The time between CT performed and ICU disposition decreased by 230 min in the OWS arm (30 vs. 300 min, p < 0.001). There was no difference in ED arrival to CT time between groups. Following multivariable analysis, mortality was primarily predicted by the APACHE II score (OR 1.29, p < 0.001), and not ISS, mechanism of injury, or age. After controlling for APACHE

  8. Factors predicting perioperative delirium and acute exacerbation of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia based on admission data in elderly patients with proximal femoral fracture: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tomohiro

    2016-07-01

    To examine factors predicting the onset of perioperative delirium and acute exacerbation of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), based on patient background, operative background and laboratory data obtained on admission, in elderly patients with proximal femoral fracture. The participants were 152 patients (aged >70 years) who underwent surgery between 1 November 2012 and 31 March 2014. The participants were classified into group B (with onset of perioperative delirium or acute exacerbation of BPSD, n = 52), or group N, (without onset, n = 100), and risk factors were retrospectively examined. Onset was judged based on the presence or absence of common items; that is, "hallucination and delusion," "disturbing speech," "excitatory behavior" and "altered sleep-wake cycle." The participants were observed for 1 week after admission. The incidence of perioperative delirium or acute exacerbation of BPSD was 34.2% in total. In univariate analysis, the incidence was significantly higher (P < 0.005) in group B for the age, history of dementia and serum albumin level items. In multivariate analysis, history of dementia, serum albumin level and peripheral lymphocyte count (odds ratio 3.55, 0.17, 1.00, respectively) were identified as independent predictive factors. In the subanalysis, the incidence was 91.3% in the group with a history of dementia, serum albumin level <3.7 g/dL and peripheral lymphocyte count < 1200/μL. History of dementia, a low serum albumin level and low peripheral lymphocyte count were found to be useful factors for predicting the onset of perioperative delirium and acute exacerbation of BPSD. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 821-828. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. A Comparison of Bariatric Surgery in Hospitals With and Without ICU: a Linked Data Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, David J R; Ho, Kwok M

    2016-02-01

    It is uncertain whether bariatric surgery can be safely performed in secondary hospitals without on-site intensive care unit (ICU) support. This study describes the outcomes of elective bariatric surgery patients who required inter-hospital transfers for unplanned ICU management, extrapolating this as a parameter for secondary hospital safety after bariatric surgery. This was a retrospective, statewide, population-based, linked data cohort study capturing all adult bariatric surgery patients for an entire Australian state between 2007 and 2011 (n = 12,062) with minimum 12-month follow-up. In secondary hospitals, 2663 (22.1%) bariatric patients were operated on, with the majority (n = 2553) undergoing sleeve gastrectomies (SG) or adjustable gastric bands (LAGB). Forty-two patients (including 19 LAGB and 20 SG) required inter-hospital transfer to a tertiary hospital for unplanned ICU care (1.6%, 95% confidence interval 1.2-2.1), mainly due to surgical complications. Inter-hospital transfers incurred two deaths, both following sleeve gastrectomies. When compared to patients requiring unplanned ICU admissions after bariatric surgery in tertiary hospitals with an on-site ICU (n = 155), there was no difference in their demographic parameters, comorbid illnesses, or mortality (4.8 vs 3.9%, p = 0.68). The mortality following bariatric procedures both statewide (0.2%) and in secondary hospitals (0.2%) was both uncommon and comparable. Statewide inter-hospital transfers for unplanned ICU care from secondary hospitals were low. Inter-hospital transfer mortality was comparable to a similar bariatric cohort requiring unplanned ICU care after surgery in a tertiary hospital. This suggests that certain bariatric procedures can be safely done in most secondary hospitals where elective ICU admission is deemed unnecessary.

  10. Serial lactate and admission SOFA scores in trauma: an analysis of predictive value in 724 patients with and without traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Dübendorfer, C; Billeter, A T; Seifert, B; Keel, M; Turina, M

    2013-02-01

    Arterial lactate, base excess (BE), lactate clearance, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score have been shown to correlate with outcome in severely injured patients. The goal of the present study was to separately assess their predictive value in patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) as opposed to patients suffering from injuries not related to the brain. A total of 724 adult trauma patients with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥ 16 were grouped into patients without TBI (non-TBI), patients with isolated TBI (isolated TBI), and patients with a combination of TBI and non-TBI injuries (combined injuries). The predictive value of the above parameters was then analyzed using both uni- and multivariate analyses. The mean age of the patients was 39 years (77 % males), with a mean ISS of 32 (range 16-75). Mortality ranged from 14 % (non-TBI) to 24 % (combined injuries). Admission and serial lactate/BE values were higher in non-survivors of all groups (all p < 0.01), but not in patients with isolated TBI. Admission SOFA scores were highest in non-survivors of all groups (p = 0.023); subsequently septic patients also showed elevated SOFA scores (p < 0.01), except those with isolated TBI. In this group, SOFA score was the only parameter which showed significant differences between survivors and non-survivors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed lactate to be the best overall predictor for increased mortality and further septic complications, irrespective of the leading injury. Lactate showed the best performance in predicting sepsis or death in all trauma patients except those with isolated TBI, and the differences were greatest in patients with substantial bleeding. Following isolated TBI, SOFA score was the only parameter which could differentiate survivors from non-survivors on admission, although the SOFA score, too, was not an independent predictor of death following multivariate analysis.

  11. In-hospital mortality and morbidity of elderly medical patients can be predicted at admission by the Modified Early Warning Score: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Cei, M; Bartolomei, C; Mumoli, N

    2009-04-01

    Although early warning scores were originally derived as bedside tools for alerting the medical staff, they may serve as decision rules for the admission of medical patients. We conducted this study to investigate the ability of the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) to identify a subset of patients at risk of deterioration, who might benefit from an increased level of attention. Prospective, single centre, cohort study. A 64-bedded medical ward in a public, non-teaching Hospital in Italy. All patients consecutively admitted from 15th November 2005 to 9th June 2006. On admission, the attending physician measured five physiological parameters (systolic blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, body temperature and level of consciousness) and calculated the MEWS. The main outcome measures were in-hospital mortality and a composite of mortality and transfer to a higher level of care. A secondary end-point was the length of stay for discharged patients. In all, 1107 patients were admitted; 621 (56.1%) were women and 486 were men. Patients of female gender were also older (mean age 80.6 years) than men (mean age 77.1; p < 0.05). Of 1107, 995 patients (89.9%) were older than 64 years. A total of 966 patients were discharged, 102 deceased and 39 were transferred. In comparison with the lowest score, the risk of death was incremental among all the MEWS categories, as well as the risk of the combined outcome of death and transfer, and highly significant (risk of death, chi(2) for trend 136.307; risk of death or transfer, chi(2) for trend 105.762; p < 0.00001 for both). Patients with MEWS < or = 4 were discharged after a mean stay of 8.3 days, and alive patients with MEWS of five or more were discharged after a mean stay of 9.4 days (p = ns). A patient with a MEWS of zero at admission has a very low probability to die or to be transferred because of clinical instability (OR 0.14, 95% CI: 0.08-0.24). We have confirmed that the MEWS, even when calculated once on admission

  12. Dynamic prediction of the need for renal replacement therapy in intensive care unit patients using a simple and robust model.

    PubMed

    Erdfelder, Felix; Grigutsch, Daniel; Hoeft, Andreas; Reider, Evgeny; Matot, Idit; Zenker, Sven

    2017-02-01

    We aimed at identifying a model that dynamically predicts future need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and can easily be implemented for online monitoring at the bedside. 7290 interdisciplinary ICU admissions were investigated. Patients with <3 days of stay or RRT in the first 2 days were excluded. 1624 of the remaining 2625 patients had a normal serum creatinine at admission. Every second of these 1624 patients was used for model calibration whereas the other half and, in addition, the 1001 patients with elevated serum creatinine were exclusively used for validation. Discriminant analysis was used to determine and validate a combination of clinical parameters that predicts the need for RRT 72 h ahead. Based on the calibration sample, stepwise discriminant analysis selected the serum values of (1) current urea, (2) current lactate, (3) the ratio of current and admission serum creatinine, and (4) the mean urine output of the previous 24 h. In the validation datasets, the model reached areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.866 and 0.833 in patients with normal and elevated serum creatinine at admission, respectively. Moreover, the model's predictive value extended to at least 5 days prior to initiation of RRT and exceeded that of the RIFLE classification at all investigated prediction intervals. We identified a robust model that dynamically predicts the future need for RRT successfully. This tool may help improve timing of therapy and prognosis in ICU patients.

  13. Homeless Patients in the ICU: An Observational Propensity-Matched Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Bigé, Naïke; Hejblum, Gilles; Baudel, Jean-Luc; Carron, Annie; Chevalier, Sophie; Pichereau, Claire; Maury, Eric; Guidet, Bertrand

    2015-06-01

    To describe epidemiology and outcome of critically ill homeless patients, as compared with those of nonhomeless patients. Homeless and nonhomeless admissions were matched on the basis of a 1:4 ratio, using a propensity score-based procedure involving age, sex, date, and main diagnosis at ICU admission. A 18-bed closed medical ICU of a French tertiary care university hospital. All consecutive admissions from July 2000 to December 2012. None. There were 421 homeless and 9,353 nonhomeless admissions. Considering homeless admissions, 50% patients had no health insurance, 56% had no financial resource, 91% were socially isolated, and 69% lived in street. In a multivariable analysis of homeless admissions including age, sex, and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, living in street was significantly associated with hospital mortality (odds ratio=2.94; 95% CI, 1.30-7.10; p=0.012). As compared with nonhomeless, homeless admissions more frequently concerned men (89% vs 57%; p<0.0001) and younger patients (49 yr [43-57] vs 62 yr [46-76]; p<0.0001), whereas Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (37 [24-50] vs 37 [25-52]; p=0.99) and distribution of the number of organ supports (p=0.49) were similar. ICU mortality concerned 19.1% and 18% of matched homeless and nonhomeless admissions, respectively. The corresponding figures for hospital mortality were 20.8% and 20.6%. In multivariable analysis, homeless status was associated with neither ICU (odds ratio=1.27 [0.92-1.73]; p=0.14) nor hospital mortality (odds ratio=1.07 [0.77-1.49]; p=0.68), while it was independently associated with longer ICU (means ratio=1.16 [1.01-1.34]; p=0.035) and hospital (means ratio=1.30 [1.12-1.49]; p=0.0002) stay of survivors. Critically ill homeless patients benefit from the same level of care and have globally the same prognosis than housed patients but experience longer lengths of stay. Most precarious patients living in street have a higher mortality rate. The study perspective is not ICU

  14. External validation of the simple clinical score and the HOTEL score, two scores for predicting short-term mortality after admission to an acute medical unit.

    PubMed

    Stræde, Mia; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Clinical scores can be of aid to predict early mortality after admission to a medical admission unit. A developed scoring system needs to be externally validated to minimise the risk of the discriminatory power and calibration to be falsely elevated. We performed the present study with the objective of validating the Simple Clinical Score (SCS) and the HOTEL score, two existing risk stratification systems that predict mortality for medical patients based solely on clinical information, but not only vital signs. Pre-planned prospective observational cohort study. Danish 460-bed regional teaching hospital. We included 3046 consecutive patients from 2 October 2008 until 19 February 2009. 26 (0.9%) died within one calendar day and 196 (6.4%) died within 30 days. We calculated SCS for 1080 patients. We found an AUROC of 0.960 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.932 to 0.988) for 24-hours mortality and 0.826 (95% CI, 0.774-0.879) for 30-day mortality, and goodness-of-fit test, χ(2) = 2.68 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.998 and χ(2) = 4.00, P = 0.947, respectively. We included 1470 patients when calculating the HOTEL score. Discriminatory power (AUROC) was 0.931 (95% CI, 0.901-0.962) for 24-hours mortality and goodness-of-fit test, χ(2) = 5.56 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.234. We find that both the SCS and HOTEL scores showed an excellent to outstanding ability in identifying patients at high risk of dying with good or acceptable precision.

  15. External Validation of the Simple Clinical Score and the HOTEL Score, Two Scores for Predicting Short-Term Mortality after Admission to an Acute Medical Unit

    PubMed Central

    Stræde, Mia; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical scores can be of aid to predict early mortality after admission to a medical admission unit. A developed scoring system needs to be externally validated to minimise the risk of the discriminatory power and calibration to be falsely elevated. We performed the present study with the objective of validating the Simple Clinical Score (SCS) and the HOTEL score, two existing risk stratification systems that predict mortality for medical patients based solely on clinical information, but not only vital signs. Methods Pre-planned prospective observational cohort study. Setting Danish 460-bed regional teaching hospital. Findings We included 3046 consecutive patients from 2 October 2008 until 19 February 2009. 26 (0.9%) died within one calendar day and 196 (6.4%) died within 30 days. We calculated SCS for 1080 patients. We found an AUROC of 0.960 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.932 to 0.988) for 24-hours mortality and 0.826 (95% CI, 0.774–0.879) for 30-day mortality, and goodness-of-fit test, χ2 = 2.68 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.998 and χ2 = 4.00, P = 0.947, respectively. We included 1470 patients when calculating the HOTEL score. Discriminatory power (AUROC) was 0.931 (95% CI, 0.901–0.962) for 24-hours mortality and goodness-of-fit test, χ2 = 5.56 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.234. Conclusion We find that both the SCS and HOTEL scores showed an excellent to outstanding ability in identifying patients at high risk of dying with good or acceptable precision. PMID:25144186

  16. A novel mortality prediction model for the current population in an adult intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Fika, Sofia; Nanas, Serafeim; Baltopoulos, Georgios; Charitidou, Efstratia; Myrianthefs, Pavlos

    The accurate and reliable mortality prediction is very useful, in critical care medicine. There are various new variables proposed in the literature that could potentially increase the predictive ability for death in ICU of the new predictive scoring model. To develop and validate a new intensive care unit (ICU) mortality prediction model, using data that are routinely collected during the first 24 h of ICU admission, and compare its performance to the most widely used conventional scoring systems. Prospective observational study in a medical/surgical, multidisciplinary ICU, using multivariate logistic regression modeling. The new model was developed using data from a medical record review of 400 adult intensive care unit patients and was validated on a separate sample of 36 patients, to accurately predict mortality in ICU. The new model is simple, flexible and shows improved performance (ROC AUC = 0.85, SMR = 1.25), compared to the conventional scoring models (APACHE II: AUC = 0.76, SMR = 2.50, SAPS III: AUC = 0.76, SMR = 1.50), as well as higher predictive capability regarding ICU mortality (predicted mortality: 41.63 ± 31.61, observed mortality: 41.67%). The newly developed model is a quite simple risk-adjusted outcome prediction tool based on 12 routinely collected demographic and clinical variables obtained from the medical record data. It appears to be a reliable predictor of ICU mortality and is proposed for further investigation aiming at its evaluation, validation and applicability to other ICUs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Warning! fire in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Rispoli, Fabio; Iannuzzi, Michele; De Robertis, Edoardo; Piazza, Ornella; Servillo, Giuseppe; Tufano, Rosalba

    2014-06-01

    At 5:30 pm on December 17, 2010, shortly after a power failure, smoke filled the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Federico II University Hospital in Naples, Italy, triggering the hospital emergency alarm system. Immediately, staff began emergency procedures and alerted rescue teams. All patients were transferred without harm. The smoke caused pharyngeal and conjunctival irritation in some staff members. After a brief investigation, firefighters discovered the cause of the fire was a failure of the Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS).

  18. Prediction of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome complicating acute myocardial infarction on the basis of comorbidities on admission.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Gu, Xudong; Huang, Fang; Fang, Fang; Zhao, Yusheng; Qian, Xiaoming; Wan, Wenhui

    2016-08-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) can be complicated by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), but the exact influence of MODS on AMI remains unclear. This was a retrospective study of 6674 Chinese patients with AMI. The impact of MODS was assessed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Using the occurrence of MODS as the outcome, a prediction model was developed using the factors identified by logistic regression analysis and analyzed using receiving operator characteristic curves. Of 6674 patients with AMI, 83 (1.2%) progressed to MODS. MODS independently predicted the risk of 30-day in-hospital mortality [hazard ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.7-3.2; P<0.001]. Advanced age [odds ratio (OR), 2.76; 95% CI, 1.26-6.03; P=0.011 for age 65-74 years; OR, 4.85; 95% CI, 2.96-7.93; P<0.001 for age ≥75 years), pneumonia (OR, 4.27; 95% CI, 2.68-6.81; P<0.001), and chronic renal failure (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.09-4.01; P=0.027) were associated independently with MODS. The area under the receiving operator characteristic curve for the predictive model was 0.802, indicating a good predictive value. MODS can predict the worst severity of AMI. Using common clinical variables, it is possible to identify patients with AMI who are at high risk of MODS. Additional studies are necessary to confirm this model.

  19. Development and evaluation of an interprofessional communication intervention to improve family outcomes in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Curtis, J Randall; Ciechanowski, Paul S; Downey, Lois; Gold, Julia; Nielsen, Elizabeth L; Shannon, Sarah E; Treece, Patsy D; Young, Jessica P; Engelberg, Ruth A

    2012-11-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU), where death is common and even survivors of an ICU stay face the risk of long-term morbidity and re-admissions to the ICU, represents an important setting for improving communication about palliative and end-of-life care. Communication about the goals of care in this setting should be a high priority since studies suggest that the current quality of ICU communication is often poor and is associated with psychological distress among family members of critically ill patients. This paper describes the development and evaluation of an intervention designed to improve the quality of care in the ICU by improving communication among the ICU team and with family members of critically ill patients. We developed a multi-faceted, interprofessional intervention based on self-efficacy theory. The intervention involves a "communication facilitator" - a nurse or social worker - trained to facilitate communication among the interprofessional ICU team and with the critically ill patient's family. The facilitators are trained using three specific content areas: a) evidence-based approaches to improving clinician-family communication in the ICU, b) attachment theory allowing clinicians to adapt communication to meet individual family member's communication needs, and c) mediation to facilitate identification and resolution of conflict including clinician-family, clinician-clinician, and intra-family conflict. The outcomes assessed in this randomized trial focus on psychological distress among family members including anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder at 3 and 6 months after the ICU stay. This manuscript also reports some of the lessons that we have learned early in this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A multicenter study of ICU telemedicine reengineering of adult critical care.

    PubMed

    Lilly, Craig M; McLaughlin, John M; Zhao, Huifang; Baker, Stephen P; Cody, Shawn; Irwin, Richard S

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have evaluated both the overall effect of ICU telemedicine programs and the effect of individual components of the intervention on clinical outcomes. The effects of nonrandomized ICU telemedicine interventions on crude and adjusted mortality and length of stay (LOS) were measured. Additionally, individual intervention components related to process and setting of care were evaluated for their association with mortality and LOS. Overall, 118,990 adult patients (11,558 control subjects, 107,432 intervention group patients) from 56 ICUs in 32 hospitals from 19 US health-care systems were included. After statistical adjustment, hospital (hazard ratio [HR]=0.84; 95% CI, 0.78-0.89; P<.001) and ICU (HR=0.74; 95% CI, 0.68-0.79; P<.001) mortality in the ICU telemedicine intervention group was significantly better than that of control subjects. Moreover, adjusted hospital LOS was reduced, on average, by 0.5 (95% CI, 0.4-0.5), 1.0 (95% CI, 0.7-1.3), and 3.6 (95% CI, 2.3-4.8) days, and adjusted ICU LOS was reduced by 1.1 (95% CI, 0.8-1.4), 2.5 (95% CI, 1.6-3.4), and 4.5 (95% CI, 1.5-7.2) days among those who stayed in the ICU for ≥7, ≥14, and ≥30 days, respectively. Individual components of the interventions that were associated with lower mortality, reduced LOS, or both included (1) intensivist case review within 1 h of admission, (2) timely use of performance data, (3) adherence to ICU best practices, and (4) quicker alert response times. ICU telemedicine interventions, specifically interventions that increase early intensivist case involvement, improve adherence to ICU best practices, reduce response times to alarms, and encourage the use of performance data, were associated with lower mortality and LOS.

  1. Signatures of Subacute Potentially Catastrophic Illness in the ICU: Model Development and Validation.

    PubMed

    Moss, Travis J; Lake, Douglas E; Calland, J Forrest; Enfield, Kyle B; Delos, John B; Fairchild, Karen D; Moorman, J Randall

    2016-09-01

    Patients in ICUs are susceptible to subacute potentially catastrophic illnesses such as respiratory failure, sepsis, and hemorrhage that present as severe derangements of vital signs. More subtle physiologic signatures may be present before clinical deterioration, when treatment might be more effective. We performed multivariate statistical analyses of bedside physiologic monitoring data to identify such early subclinical signatures of incipient life-threatening illness. We report a study of model development and validation of a retrospective observational cohort using resampling (Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis type 1b internal validation) and a study of model validation using separate data (type 2b internal/external validation). University of Virginia Health System (Charlottesville), a tertiary-care, academic medical center. Critically ill patients consecutively admitted between January 2009 and June 2015 to either the neonatal, surgical/trauma/burn, or medical ICUs with available physiologic monitoring data. None. We analyzed 146 patient-years of vital sign and electrocardiography waveform time series from the bedside monitors of 9,232 ICU admissions. Calculations from 30-minute windows of the physiologic monitoring data were made every 15 minutes. Clinicians identified 1,206 episodes of respiratory failure leading to urgent unplanned intubation, sepsis, or hemorrhage leading to multi-unit transfusions from systematic individual chart reviews. Multivariate models to predict events up to 24 hours prior had internally validated C-statistics of 0.61-0.88. In adults, physiologic signatures of respiratory failure and hemorrhage were distinct from each other but externally consistent across ICUs. Sepsis, on the other hand, demonstrated less distinct and inconsistent signatures. Physiologic signatures of all neonatal illnesses were similar. Subacute potentially catastrophic illnesses in three diverse ICU

  2. Comparison of qSOFA and SIRS for predicting adverse outcomes of patients with suspicion of sepsis outside the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Finkelsztein, Eli J; Jones, Daniel S; Ma, Kevin C; Pabón, Maria A; Delgado, Tatiana; Nakahira, Kiichi; Arbo, John E; Berlin, David A; Schenck, Edward J; Choi, Augustine M K; Siempos, Ilias I

    2017-03-26

    The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3) Task Force recently introduced a new clinical score termed quick Sequential (Sepsis-related) Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) for identification of patients at risk of sepsis outside the intensive care unit (ICU). We attempted to compare the discriminatory capacity of the qSOFA versus the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) score for predicting mortality, ICU-free days, and organ dysfunction-free days in patients with suspicion of infection outside the ICU. The Weill Cornell Medicine Registry and Biobank of Critically Ill Patients is an ongoing cohort of critically ill patients, for whom biological samples and clinical information (including vital signs before and during ICU hospitalization) are prospectively collected. Using such information, qSOFA and SIRS scores outside the ICU (specifically, within 8 hours before ICU admission) were calculated. This study population was therefore comprised of patients in the emergency department or the hospital wards who had suspected infection, were subsequently admitted to the medical ICU and were included in the Registry and Biobank. One hundred fifty-two patients (67% from the emergency department) were included in this study. Sixty-seven percent had positive cultures and 19% died in the hospital. Discrimination of in-hospital mortality using qSOFA [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), 0.74; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.66-0.81] was significantly greater compared with SIRS criteria (AUC, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.51-0.67; p = 0.03). The qSOFA performed better than SIRS regarding discrimination for ICU-free days (p = 0.04), but not for ventilator-free days (p = 0.19), any organ dysfunction-free days (p = 0.13), or renal dysfunction-free days (p = 0.17). In patients with suspected infection who eventually required admission to the ICU, qSOFA calculated before their ICU admission had greater

  3. Dimensionality and predictive validity of the HAM-Nat, a test of natural sciences for medical school admission.

    PubMed

    Hissbach, Johanna C; Klusmann, Dietrich; Hampe, Wolfgang

    2011-10-14

    Knowledge in natural sciences generally predicts study performance in the first two years of the medical curriculum. In order to reduce delay and dropout in the preclinical years, Hamburg Medical School decided to develop a natural science test (HAM-Nat) for student selection. In the present study, two different approaches to scale construction are presented: a unidimensional scale and a scale composed of three subject specific dimensions. Their psychometric properties and relations to academic success are compared. 334 first year medical students of the 2006 cohort responded to 52 multiple choice items from biology, physics, and chemistry. For the construction of scales we generated two random subsamples, one for development and one for validation. In the development sample, unidimensional item sets were extracted from the item pool by means of weighted least squares (WLS) factor analysis, and subsequently fitted to the Rasch model. In the validation sample, the scales were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis and, again, Rasch modelling. The outcome measure was academic success after two years. Although the correlational structure within the item set is weak, a unidimensional scale could be fitted to the Rasch model. However, psychometric properties of this scale deteriorated in the validation sample. A model with three highly correlated subject specific factors performed better. All summary scales predicted academic success with an odds ratio of about 2.0. Prediction was independent of high school grades and there was a slight tendency for prediction to be better in females than in males. A model separating biology, physics, and chemistry into different Rasch scales seems to be more suitable for item bank development than a unidimensional model, even when these scales are highly correlated and enter into a global score. When such a combination scale is used to select the upper quartile of applicants, the proportion of successful completion of the curriculum

  4. Do personality traits assessed on medical school admission predict exit performance? A UK-wide longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, R K; Dowell, J; Ayansina, D; Cleland, J A

    2017-05-01

    Traditional methods of assessing personality traits in medical school selection have been heavily criticised. To address this at the point of selection, "non-cognitive" tests were included in the UK Clinical Aptitude Test, the most widely-used aptitude test in UK medical education (UKCAT: http://www.ukcat.ac.uk/ ). We examined the predictive validity of these non-cognitive traits with performance during and on exit from medical school. We sampled all students graduating in 2013 from the 30 UKCAT consortium medical schools. Analysis included: candidate demographics, UKCAT non-cognitive scores, medical school performance data-the Educational Performance Measure (EPM) and national exit situational judgement test (SJT) outcomes. We examined the relationships between these variables and SJT and EPM scores. Multilevel modelling was used to assess the relationships adjusting for confounders. The 3343 students who had taken the UKCAT non-cognitive tests and had both EPM and SJT data were entered into the analysis. There were four types of non-cognitive test: (1) libertariancommunitarian, (2) NACE-narcissism, aloofness, confidence and empathy, (3) MEARS-self-esteem, optimism, control, self-discipline, emotional-nondefensiveness (END) and faking, (4) an abridged version of 1 and 2 combined. Multilevel regression showed that, after correcting for demographic factors, END predicted SJT and EPM decile. Aloofness and empathy in NACE were predictive of SJT score. This is the first large-scale study examining the relationship between performance on non-cognitive selection tests and medical school exit assessments. The predictive validity of these tests was limited, and the relationships revealed do not fit neatly with theoretical expectations. This study does not support their use in selection.

  5. ICU nurses' acceptance of electronic health records

    PubMed Central

    Cartmill, Randi; Blosky, Mary Ann; Brown, Roger; Hackenberg, Matthew; Hoonakker, Peter; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Norfolk, Evan; Wetterneck, Tosha B; Walker, James M

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess intensive care unit (ICU) nurses' acceptance of electronic health records (EHR) technology and examine the relationship between EHR design, implementation factors, and nurse acceptance. Design The authors analyzed data from two cross-sectional survey questionnaires distributed to nurses working in four ICUs at a northeastern US regional medical center, 3 months and 12 months after EHR implementation. Measurements Survey items were drawn from established instruments used to measure EHR acceptance and usability, and the usefulness of three EHR functionalities, specifically computerized provider order entry (CPOE), the electronic medication administration record (eMAR), and a nursing documentation flowsheet. Results On average, ICU nurses were more accepting of the EHR at 12 months as compared to 3 months. They also perceived the EHR as being more usable and both CPOE and eMAR as being more useful. Multivariate hierarchical modeling indicated that EHR usability and CPOE usefulness predicted EHR acceptance at both 3 and 12 months. At 3 months postimplementation, eMAR usefulness predicted EHR acceptance, but its effect disappeared at 12 months. Nursing flowsheet usefulness predicted EHR acceptance but only at 12 months. Conclusion As the push toward implementation of EHR technology continues, more hospitals will face issues related to acceptance of EHR technology by staff caring for critically ill patients. This research suggests that factors related to technology design have strong effects on acceptance, even 1 year following the EHR implementation. PMID:21697291

  6. Cardiac Uncoupling and Heart Rate Variability Stratify ICU Patients by Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Patrick R.; Ozdas, Asli; Cao, Hanqing; Williams, Anna E.; Harrell, Frank E.; Jenkins, Judith M.; Morris, John A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: We have previously shown that cardiac uncoupling (reduced heart rate variability) in the first 24 hours of trauma ICU stay is a robust predictor of mortality. We hypothesize that cardiac uncoupling over the entire ICU stay independently predicts mortality, reveals patterns of injury, and heralds complications. Methods: A total of 2088 trauma ICU patients satisfied the inclusion criteria for this study. Cardiac uncoupling by outcome was compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Risk of death from cardiac uncoupling and covariates (age, ISS, AIS Head Score, total transfusion requirements) was assessed using multivariate logistic regression models at each ICU day. Univariate logistic regression was used to assess risk of death from uncoupling irrespective of covariates at each ICU day. Results: A total of 1325 (63.5%) patients displayed some degree of uncoupling over their ICU stay. The difference in uncoupling between survivors and nonsurvivors is both dramatic and consistent across the entire ICU stay, indicating that the presence of uncoupling is unrelated to the cause of death. However, the magnitude of uncoupling varies by day when data is stratified by cause of death. Conclusions: Cardiac uncoupling: 1) is an independent predictor of death throughout the ICU stay, 2) has a predictive window of 2 to 4 days, and 3) appears to increase in response to inflammation, infection, and multiple organ failure. PMID:16772784

  7. Can We Identify Futility in Kids? An Evaluation of Admission Parameters Predicting 100% Mortality in 1,292 Severely Injured Children.

    PubMed

    Kalkwarf, Kyle J; Jensen, Shane D; Allukian, Myron; Harting, Matthew T; Cox, Charles S; Fox, Erin E; Wade, Charles E; Cotton, Bryan A

    2018-04-01

    Objective parameters predicting futility of care in severely injured pediatric patients are lacking. Although futility of care has been investigated in a limited number of studies in trauma patients, none of these studies achieves a 100% success rate in a large cohort of pediatric patients. The purpose of the current study was to identify extreme laboratory values that could be used to predict 100% mortality in severely injured children. We evaluated a registry-based, historical cohort of all severely injured children (Level I trauma, younger than 16 years old) who were not dead on arrival between January 2010 and December 2016 from a single Level I trauma center. Extreme arrival laboratory data were evaluated both alone and in conjunction with traumatic brain injury. There were 1,292 patients who met inclusion criteria, of which 1,169 (90.5%) survived and 123 (9.5%) died. Those who died were significantly younger, with higher head Abbreviated Injury Scale scores and overall Injury Severity Scores. Single extreme laboratory values were identified that predicted mortality perfectly (100% positive predictive value): international normalized ratio ≥3.0, pH ≤6.95, base excess ≤ -22, platelet count ≤30,000, hemoglobin ≤5.0 g/dL, rapid thromboelastography ≤30 mm, and rapid thromboelastography lysis at 30 minutes ≥50%. When 2 laboratory values or the presence of traumatic brain injury were added, lower thresholds for futility were noted. Extreme admission laboratory values are capable of predicting 100% mortality and futility of additional care in severely injured children with a high level of accuracy. Validation of these single-center findings is warranted and, if supported, should initiate a discussion within the pediatric trauma community about application and cessation of resuscitation efforts to optimize resource use. Copyright © 2018 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Urinary biomarker incorporation into the renal angina index early in intensive care unit admission optimizes acute kidney injury prediction in critically ill children: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Menon, Shina; Goldstein, Stuart L; Mottes, Theresa; Fei, Lin; Kaddourah, Ahmad; Terrell, Tara; Arnold, Patricia; Bennett, Michael R; Basu, Rajit K

    2016-04-01

    The inconsistent ability of novel biomarkers to predict acute kidney injury (AKI) across heterogeneous patients and illnesses limits integration into routine practice. We previously retrospectively validated the ability of the renal angina index (RAI) to risk-stratify patients and provide context for confirmatory serum biomarker testing for the prediction of severe AKI. We conducted this first prospective study of renal angina to determine whether the RAI on the day of admission (Day0) risk-stratified critically ill children for 'persistent, severe AKI' on Day 3 (Day3-AKI: KDIGO Stage 2-3) and whether incorporation of urinary biomarkers in the RAI model optimized AKI prediction. A total of 184 consecutive patients (52.7% male) were included. Day0 renal angina was present (RAI ≥8) in 60 (32.6%) patients and was associated with longer duration of mechanical ventilation (P = 0.04), higher number of organ failure days (P = 0.003) and increased mortality (P < 0.001) than in patients with absence of renal angina. Day3-AKI was present in 15/156 (9.6%) patients; 12/15 (80%) fulfilled Day0 renal angina. Incorporation of urinary biomarkers into the RAI model increased the specificity and positive likelihood, and demonstrated net reclassification improvement (P < 0.001) for the prediction of Day3-AKI. Inclusion of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin increased the area under the curve receiver-operating characteristic of RAI for Day3-AKI from 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58, 1.00] to 0.97 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.00). We have now prospectively validated the RAI as a functional risk stratification methodology in a heterogeneous group of critically ill patients, providing context to direct measurement of novel urinary biomarkers and improving the prediction of severe persistent AKI. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute kidney injury in bariatric surgery patients requiring intensive care admission: a state-wide, multicenter, cohort study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, David J R; Ho, Kwok M

    2015-01-01

    A multidisciplinary bariatric surgical approach is currently the most effective treatment for obesity. However, little is known about how the physiologic impact of weight reduction surgery superimposed on premorbid obesity-related co-morbidities may adversely influence perioperative renal function. This observational, multicenter study investigated all bariatric surgery patients (n = 590) admitted to any intensive care unit (ICU) in Western Australia between 2007 and 2011. Using Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria, we ascertained the incidence and contributing risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI). Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurred in 103 patients, accounting for 17.5% of all ICU admissions after bariatric surgery with 76.8% of the AKI episodes limited to AKIN stage 1. In a multivariate analysis, male gender, premorbid hypertension, higher admission APACHE II scores, and blood transfusions were all associated with AKI, while preexisting chronic kidney disease and body mass index (BMI) appeared not to influence renal decline. Both ICU (6.7 versus 2.5 d, P<.001) and hospital (18.6 versus 6.8 d, P<.001) length of stays were significantly increased after AKI. Six patients required hemodialysis while both ICU mortality (2.9 versus 0%, P = .005) and long-term mortality (18.2 versus 4.7 deaths per 1000 bariatric patient-yr, P = .01) were greater in patients experiencing AKI. AKI is common in bariatric patients requiring critical care support leading to increased healthcare utilization, prolonged hospitalization, and is associated with a higher mortality. BMI, a previously described risk factor, was not predictive of AKI in this cohort. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. icuARM-An ICU Clinical Decision Support System Using Association Rule Mining.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Wen; Chanani, Nikhil; Venugopalan, Janani; Maher, Kevin; Wang, May Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development of biomedical monitoring technologies has enabled modern intensive care units (ICUs) to gather vast amounts of multimodal measurement data about their patients. However, processing large volumes of complex data in real-time has become a big challenge. Together with ICU physicians, we have designed and developed an ICU clinical decision support system icuARM based on associate rule mining (ARM), and a publicly available research database MIMIC-II (Multi-parameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II) that contains more than 40,000 ICU records for 30,000+patients. icuARM is constructed with multiple association rules and an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI) for care providers to perform real-time data and information mining in the ICU setting. To validate icuARM, we have investigated the associations between patients' conditions such as comorbidities, demographics, and medications and their ICU outcomes such as ICU length of stay. Coagulopathy surfaced as the most dangerous co-morbidity that leads to the highest possibility (54.1%) of prolonged ICU stay. In addition, women who are older than 50 years have the highest possibility (38.8%) of prolonged ICU stay. For clinical conditions treatable with multiple drugs, icuARM suggests that medication choice can be optimized based on patient-specific characteristics. Overall, icuARM can provide valuable insights for ICU physicians to tailor a patient's treatment based on his or her clinical status in real time.

  11. Admission to dedicated pediatric cardiac intensive care units is associated with decreased resource use in neonatal cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joyce T; Wilkes, Jacob F; Menon, Shaji C; Tani, Lloyd Y; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Marino, Bradley S; Pinto, Nelangi M

    2018-02-21

    Neonates undergoing congenital heart surgery require highly specialized, resource-intensive care. Location of care and degree of specialization can vary between and within institutions. Using a multi-institutional cohort, we sought to determine whether location of admission is associated with an increase in health care costs, resource use and mortality. We retrospectively analyzed admission for neonates (<30 days) undergoing congenital heart surgery between 2004-2013 using the Pediatric Health Information Systems database (44 children's hospitals). Multivariate generalized estimating equations adjusted for center- and patient-specific risk factors and stratified by age at admission were performed to examine the association of admission intensive care unit (ICU) with total hospital costs, mortality, and length of stay. Of 19,984 neonates (60% male) identified, 39% were initially admitted to a cardiac ICU (CICU), 48% to a neonatal ICU (NICU), and 13% to a pediatric ICU. In adjusted models, admission to a CICU versus NICU was associated with a $20,440 reduction in total hospital cost for infants aged 2 to 7 days at admission (P = .007) and a $23,700 reduction in total cost for infants aged 8 to 14 days at admission (P = .01). Initial admission to a CICU or pediatric ICU versus NICU at <15 days of age was associated with shorter hospital and ICU length of stay and fewer days of mechanical ventilation. There was no difference in adjusted mortality by admission location. Admission to an ICU specializing in cardiac care is associated with significantly decreased hospital costs and more efficient resource use for neonates requiring cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2018 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Refusal of intensive care unit admission due to a full unit: impact on mortality.

    PubMed

    Robert, René; Reignier, Jean; Tournoux-Facon, Caroline; Boulain, Thierry; Lesieur, Olivier; Gissot, Valérie; Souday, Vincent; Hamrouni, Mouldi; Chapon, Cécile; Gouello, Jean-Paul

    2012-05-15

    Intensive care unit (ICU) beds are a scarce resource, and patients denied intensive care only because the unit is full may be at increased risk of death. To compare mortality after first ICU referral in admitted patients and in patients denied admission because the unit was full. Prospective observational multicenter cohort study of consecutive patients referred for ICU admission during two 45-day periods, conducted in 10 ICUs. Of 1,762 patients, 430 were excluded from the study, 116 with previously denied admission to another ICU and 270 because they were deemed too sick or too well to benefit from ICU admission. Of the remaining 1,332 patients, 1,139 were admitted, and 193 were denied admission because the unit was full (65 were never admitted, 39 were admitted after bumping of another patient, and 89 were admitted on subsequent referral). Crude Day 28 and Day 60 mortality rates in the nonadmitted and admitted groups were 30.1 versus 24.3% (P = 0.07) and 33.3 versus 27.2% (P = 0.06), respectively. Day 28 mortality adjusted on age, previous disease, Glasgow scale score less than or equal to 8, shock, creatinine level greater than or equal to 250 μmol/L, and prothrombin time greater than or equal to 30 seconds was nonsignificantly higher in patients refused ICU admission only because of a full unit compared with patients admitted immediately. Patients admitted after subsequent referral had higher mortality rates on Day 28 (P = 0.05) and Day 60 (P = 0.04) compared with directly admitted patients. Delayed ICU admission due to a full unit at first referral is associated with increased mortality.

  13. Value of American Thoracic Society guidelines in predicting infection or colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jianfeng; Ma, Xudong; Huang, Yingzi; Mo, Min; Guo, Fengmei; Yang, Yi; Qiu, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    The incidence rate of infection by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) can affect the accuracy of etiological diagnosis when using American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines. We determined the accuracy of the ATS guidelines in predicting infection or colonization by MDROs over 18 months at a single ICU in eastern China. This prospective observational study examined consecutive patients who were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) in Nanjing, China. MDROs were defined as bacteria that were resistant to at least three antimicrobial classes, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii. Screening for MDROs was performed at ICU admission and discharge. Risk factors for infection or colonization with MDROs were recorded, and the accuracy of the ATS guidelines in predicting infection or colonization with MDROs was documented. There were 610 patients, 225 (37%) of whom were colonized or infected with MDROs at ICU admission, and this increased to 311 (51%) at discharge. At admission, the sensitivity (70.0%), specificity (31.6%), positive predictive value (38.2%), and negative predictive value (63.5%), all based on ATS guidelines for infection or colonization with MDROs were low. The negative predictive value was greater in patients from departments with MDRO infection rates of 31-40% than in patients from departments with MDRO infection rates of 30% or less and from departments with MDRO infection rates more than 40%. ATS criteria were not reliable in predicting infection or colonization with MDROs in our ICU. The negative predictive value was greater in patients from departments with intermediate rates of MDRO infection than in patients from departments with low or high rates of MDRO infection. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01667991.

  14. Long-term neurological outcomes in adults with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage admitted to ICU versus floor.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Daniel K; Melnikow, Joy; Tancredi, Daniel J; Shahlaie, Kiarash; Utter, Garth H; Galante, Joseph M; Rudisill, Nancy; Holmes, James F

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare long-term neurological outcomes in low-risk patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (tICH) admitted to the ICU (intensive care unit) versus patients admitted to the floor. This retrospective study was conducted at a Level 1 trauma center from October 1, 2008, to February 1, 2013. We defined low-risk patients as age less than 65 years, isolated head injury, normal admission mental status, and no shift or swelling on initial head CT (computed tomography). Clinical data were abstracted from a trauma registry and linked to a brain injury database. We compared the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) score at six months between patients admitted to the ICU and patients admitted to the floor. We did a risk-adjusted analysis of the influence of floor admission on a normal GOS-E. We identified 151 patients; 45 (30%) were admitted to the floor and 106 (70%) to the ICU. Twenty-three (51%; 95% CI [36-66%]) patients admitted to the floor and 55 (52%; 95% CI [42-62%]) patients admitted to the ICU had a normal GOS-E. On adjusted analysis; the odds ratio for floor admission was 0.77 (95% CI [0.36-1.64]) for a normal GOS-E at six months. Long-term neurological outcomes in low-risk patients with tICH were not markedly different between patients admitted to the ICU and those admitted to the floor. However, we were unable to demonstrate non-inferiority on adjusted analysis. Future work aimed at a larger, prospective cohort may better evaluate the relative impacts of admission type on outcomes.

  15. Diagnostic yield and safety of CT scans in ICU.

    PubMed

    Aliaga, Marine; Forel, Jean-Marie; De Bourmont, Sophie; Jung, Boris; Thomas, Guillemette; Mahul, Martin; Bisbal, Magali; Nougaret, Stephanie; Hraiech, Sami; Roch, Antoine; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Jaber, Samir; Gainnier, Marc; Papazian, Laurent

    2015-03-01

    Critically ill patients often require CT scans. Adverse events (AE) can occur during intra-hospital transport (IHT). The aim of this prospective study was to determine the diagnostic and therapeutic yield and the safety of CT scans in ICU patients. All ICU patients having a CT scan for diagnostic purposes were eligible. Diagnostic yield was evaluated by the agreement (full, partial or disagreement) between the physician main diagnostic hypothesis before the CT scan and the diagnosis established after the CT scan. Therapeutic yield was assessed by therapeutic changes after the CT scan. The safety was determined by the AE rate during IHT. A total of 533 CT scans were performed on 359 patients in three teaching hospital ICUs. The diagnostic yield of CT scan showed 40.7 % of full agreement, 5.6 % of partial agreement and 53.7 % of disagreement with the main diagnostic hypothesis formulated before the CT scan. The CT-scan brought new elements to the diagnosis in 22.9 % of the cases. There was 54.4 % of therapeutic change after CT scan, while 22.3 % of AE occurred during IHT, including 6.7 % of life-threatening events. AE occurred more frequently in the first 48 h after ICU admission, in the most severely ill patients (higher SAPS II at admission), and when there was a large amount of equipment required for transport. The CT scan as a diagnostic procedure invalidated a diagnostic hypothesis and led to a therapeutic change in more than half of the cases.

  16. A score to estimate 30-day mortality after intensive care admission after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Lamarche, Yoan; Elmi-Sarabi, Mahsa; Ding, Lillian; Abel, James G; Sirounis, Demetrios; Denault, André Y

    2017-05-01

    Several risk-scoring systems have been developed to predict surgical mortality and complications in cardiac surgical patients, but none of the current systems include factors related to the intraoperative period. The purpose of this study was to develop a score that incorporates both preoperative and intraoperative factors so that it could be used for patients admitted to a cardiac surgical intensive care unit (ICU) immediately after surgery. Preoperative and intraoperative data from 30,350 patients in four hospitals were used to build a multiple logistic regression model estimating 30-day mortality after cardiac surgery. Sixty percent of the patients were used as a derivation group and forty percent as a validation group. Mortality occurred in 2.6% of patients (n = 790). Preoperative factors identified in the model were age, female sex, emergency status, pulmonary hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, renal dysfunction, diabetes, peptic ulcer disease, history of alcohol abuse, and refusal of blood products. Intraoperative risk factors included the need for an intra-aortic balloon pump, ventricular assist device or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation leaving the operating room, presence of any intraoperative complication reported by the surgeon, the use of inotropes, high-dose vasopressors, red blood cell transfusion, and cardiopulmonary bypass time. When used after surgery at ICU admission, the model had C-statistics of 0.86 in both derivation and validation sets to estimate the 30-day mortality. Preoperative and intraoperative variables can be used on admission to a cardiac surgical ICU to estimate 30-day mortality. The score could be used for risk stratification after cardiac surgery and evaluation of performance of cardiac surgical ICUs. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effectiveness of pre-admission data and letters of recommendation to predict students who will need professional behavior intervention during clinical rotations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Engelhard, Chalee; Leugers, Rebecca; Stephan, Jenna

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at finding the value of letters of recommendation in predicting professional behavior problems in the clinical portion of a Doctor of Physical Therapy program learning cohorts from 2009-2014 in the United States. De-identified records of 137 Doctor of Physical Therapy graduates were examined by the descriptive statistics and comparison analysis. Thirty letters of recommendation were investigated based on grounded theory from 10 student applications with 5 randomly selected students of interest and 5 non-students of interest. Critical thinking, organizational skills, and judgement were statistically significant and quantitative differentiating characteristics. Qualitatively, significant characteristics of the student of interest included effective communication and cultural competency. Meanwhile, those of nonstudents of interest included conflicting personality descriptor, commitment to learning, balance, teamwork skills, potential future success, compatible learning skills, effective leadership skills, and emotional intelligence. Emerged significant characteristics did not consistently match common non-professional behavior issues encountered in clinic. Pre-admission data and letters of recommendation appear of limited value in predicting professional behavior performance in clinic.

  18. Diarrhoea in the ICU: respective contribution of feeding and antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Diarrhoea is frequently reported in the ICU. Little is known about diarrhoea incidence and the role of the different risk factors alone or in combination. This prospective observational study aims at determining diarrhoea incidence and risk factors in the first 2 weeks of ICU stay, focusing on the respective contribution of feeding, antibiotics, and antifungal drugs. Methods Out of 422 patients consecutively admitted into a mixed medical–surgical ICU during a 2-month period, 278 patients were included according to the following criteria: ICU stay >24 hours, no admission diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding, and absence of enterostomy or colostomy. Diarrhoea was defined as at least three liquid stools per day. Diarrhoea episodes occurring during the first day in the ICU, related to the use of laxative drugs or Clostridium difficile infection, were not analysed. Multivariate and stratified analyses were performed to determine diarrhoea risk factors, and the impact of the combination of enteral nutrition (EN) with antibiotics or antifungal drugs. Results A total of 1,595 patient-days were analysed. Diarrhoea was observed in 38 patients (14%) and on 83 patient-days (incidence rate: 5.2 per 100 patient-days). The median day of diarrhoea onset was the sixth day, and 89% of patients had ≤4 diarrhoea days. The incidence of C. difficile infection was 0.7%. Diarrhoea risk factors were EN covering >60% of energy target (relative risk = 1.75 (1.02 to 3.01)), antibiotics (relative risk = 3.64 (1.26 to 10.51)) and antifungal drugs (relative risk = 2.79 (1.16 to 6.70)). EN delivery per se was not a diarrhoea risk factor. In patients receiving >60% of energy target by EN, diarrhoea risk was increased by the presence of antibiotics (relative risk = 4.8 (2.1 to 13.7)) or antifungal drugs (relative risk = 5.0 (2.8 to 8.7)). Conclusion Diarrhoea incidence during the first 2 weeks in a mixed population of patients in a tertiary ICU is 14%. Diarrhoea risk factors are

  19. Predictors of major postoperative cardiac complications in a surgical ICU.

    PubMed

    Maia, Paula C; Abelha, Fernando J

    2008-03-01

    Cardiovascular complications are associated with increased mortality and morbidity during the postoperative period, resulting in longer hospital stay and higher treatment costs. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of major postoperative cardiac complications. 187 patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, admitted to a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) between November 2004 and April 2005. Variables recorded were age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status, type and magnitude of surgery, mortality, ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS), Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II), cardiac troponin I (cTnI) at postoperative day 0, 1, 2 and 3, history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) score, major cardiac events (MCE): acute myocardial infarction (AMI), pulmonary edema (PE), ventricular fibrillation (VF) or primary cardiac arrest (PCA). Correlations between variables and MCE were made by univariate analysis by simple logistic regression with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Total of 14 MCE: 9 AMI, 1 VF, 4 PE. Significant risk factors for MCE were high-risk surgery (OR 8.26, 95% CI 1.76-38.85, p = 0.008), RCRI > or = 2 (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.22-13.16, p = 0.022), admission cTnI (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07-1.99, p = 0.018); day 1 cTnI (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.27-2.41, p = 0.001); day 2 cTnI (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.24-3.98, p = 0.007), SAPS II (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.12, p < 0.001). Patients with MCE had longer ICU LOS (19.1 +/- 19.3 days against 3.4 +/- 4.9) (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.22, p < 0.001) and higher ICU mortality (21.4% versus 4.6%) (OR 5.63, 95% CI 1.31-24.23, p = 0.02) in the ICU. High-risk surgery, RCRI > or = 2, cTnI levels and SAPS II were predictors of postoperative MCE. Patients with MCE had longer ICU stay and higher mortality rate.

  20. Incidence and risk factors for delirium development in ICU patients - a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Kanova, Marcela; Sklienka, Peter; Roman, Kula; Burda, Michal; Janoutova, Jana

    2017-06-01

    Delirium is an acute brain dysfunction and a frequent complication in critically ill patients. When present it significantly worsens the prognosis of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of delirium and risk factors for delirium in a mixed group of trauma, medical and surgical ICU patients. A prospective observational study was conducted in one of the six-bed Intensive Care Units of the University Hospital Ostrava in the Czech Republic during a 12-month period. We evaluated the incidence of delirium and its predisposing and precipitating risk factors. All patients were assessed daily using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU). Of the total of 332 patients with a median APACHE II (the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) score of 12, who were evaluated for delirium, 48 could not be assessed using CAM-ICU (47 due to prolonged coma, 1 due to language barriers). The incidence of delirium was 26.1%, with trauma and medical patients being more likely to develop delirium than surgical patients. Risk of delirium was significantly associated with age ≥ 65 years, and alcohol abuse in their anamnesis, with APACHE II score on admission, and with the use of sedatives and/or vasopressors. Delirious patients who remained in the ICU for a prolonged period showed a greater need for ventilator support and had a greater ICU-mortality.

  1. Characterisation of Candida within the Mycobiome/Microbiome of the Lower Respiratory Tract of ICU Patients

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Robert; Halwachs, Bettina; Thallinger, Gerhard G.; Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Hoenigl, Martin; Prattes, Jürgen; Valentin, Thomas; Heidrich, Katharina; Buzina, Walter; Salzer, Helmut J. F.; Rabensteiner, Jasmin; Prüller, Florian; Raggam, Reinhard B.; Meinitzer, Andreas; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Högenauer, Christoph; Quehenberger, Franz; Kashofer, Karl; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Whether the presence of Candida spp. in lower respiratory tract (LRT) secretions is a marker of underlying disease, intensive care unit (ICU) treatment and antibiotic therapy or contributes to poor clinical outcome is unclear. We investigated healthy controls, patients with proposed risk factors for Candida growth in LRT (antibiotic therapy, ICU treatment with and without antibiotic therapy), ICU patients with pneumonia and antibiotic therapy and candidemic patients (for comparison of truly invasive and colonizing Candida spp.). Fungal patterns were determined by conventional culture based microbiology combined with molecular approaches (next generation sequencing, multilocus sequence typing) for description of fungal and concommitant bacterial microbiota in LRT, and host and fungal biomarkes were investigated. Admission to and treatment on ICUs shifted LRT fungal microbiota to Candida spp. dominated fungal profiles but antibiotic therapy did not. Compared to controls, Candida was part of fungal microbiota in LRT of ICU patients without pneumonia with and without antibiotic therapy (63% and 50% of total fungal genera) and of ICU patients with pneumonia with antibiotic therapy (73%) (p<0.05). No case of invasive candidiasis originating from Candida in the LRT was detected. There was no common bacterial microbiota profile associated or dissociated with Candida spp. in LRT. Colonizing and invasive Candida strains (from candidemic patients) did not match to certain clades withdrawing the presence of a particular pathogenic and invasive clade. The presence of Candida spp. in the LRT rather reflected rapidly occurring LRT dysbiosis driven by ICU related factors than was associated with invasive candidiasis. PMID:27206014

  2. Mortality and functional status at one-year of follow-up in elderly patients with prolonged ICU stay.

    PubMed

    Pintado, M C; Villa, P; Luján, J; Trascasa, M; Molina, R; González-García, N; de Pablo, R

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate mortality and functional status at one year of follow-up in patients>75 years of age who survive Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission of over 14 days. A prospective observational study was carried out. A Spanish medical-surgical ICU. Patients over 75 years of age admitted to the ICU. ICU admission: demographic data, baseline functional status (Barthel index), baseline mental status (Red Cross scale of mental incapacity), severity of illness (APACHE II and SOFA), stay and mortality. One-year follow-up: hospital stay and mortality, functional and mental status, and one-year follow-up mortality. A total of 176 patients were included, of which 22 had a stay of over 14 days. Patients with prolonged stay did not show more ICU mortality than those with a shorter stay in the ICU (40.9% vs 25.3% respectively, P=.12), although their hospital (63.6% vs 33.8%, P<.01) and one-year follow-up mortality were higher (68.2% vs 41.2%, P=.02). Among the survivors, one-year mortality proved similar (87.5% vs 90.6%, P=.57). These patients presented significantly greater impairment of functional status at hospital discharge than the patients with a shorter ICU stay, and this difference persisted after three months. The levels of independence at one-year follow-up were never similar to baseline. No such findings were observed in relation to mental status. Patients over 75 years of age with a ICU stay of more than 14 days have high hospital and one-year follow-up mortality. Patients who survive to hospital admission did not show greater mortality, though their functional dependency was greater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional Status Score for the ICU: An International Clinimetric Analysis of Validity, Responsiveness, and Minimal Important Difference.

    PubMed

    Huang, Minxuan; Chan, Kitty S; Zanni, Jennifer M; Parry, Selina M; Neto, Saint-Clair G B; Neto, Jose A A; da Silva, Vinicius Z M; Kho, Michelle E; Needham, Dale M

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the internal consistency, validity, responsiveness, and minimal important difference of the Functional Status Score for the ICU, a physical function measure designed for the ICU. Clinimetric analysis. Five international datasets from the United States, Australia, and Brazil. Eight hundred nineteen ICU patients. None. Clinimetric analyses were initially conducted separately for each data source and time point to examine generalizability of findings, with pooled analyses performed thereafter to increase power of analyses. The Functional Status Score for the ICU demonstrated good to excellent internal consistency. There was good convergent and discriminant validity, with significant and positive correlations (r = 0.30-0.95) between Functional Status Score for the ICU and other physical function measures, and generally weaker correlations with nonphysical measures (|r| = 0.01-0.70). Known group validity was demonstrated by significantly higher Functional Status Score for the ICU scores among patients without ICU-acquired weakness (Medical Research Council sum score, ≥ 48 vs < 48) and with hospital discharge to home (vs healthcare facility). Functional Status Score for the ICU at ICU discharge predicted post-ICU hospital length of stay and discharge location. Responsiveness was supported via increased Functional Status Score for the ICU scores with improvements in muscle strength. Distribution-based methods indicated a minimal important difference of 2.0-5.0. The Functional Status Score for the ICU has good internal consistency and is a valid and responsive measure of physical function for ICU patients. The estimated minimal important difference can be used in sample size calculations and in interpreting studies comparing the physical function of groups of ICU patients.

  4. Prospective multicenter study on epidemiology of acute kidney injury in the ICU: a critical care nephrology Italian collaborative effort (NEFROINT).

    PubMed

    Piccinni, P; Cruz, D N; Gramaticopolo, S; Garzotto, F; Dal Santo, M; Aneloni, G; Rocco, M; Alessandri, E; Giunta, F; Michetti, V; Iannuzzi, M; Belluomo Anello, C; Brienza, N; Carlini, M; Pelaia, P; Gabbanelli, V; Ronco, C

    2011-11-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an independent risk factor for mortality in critically ill patients whose epidemiology has been made unclear in the past by the use of different definitions across various studies. The RIFLE consensus definition has provided a unifying definition for AKI leading to large retrospective studies in different countries. The present study is a prospective observational multicenter study designed to prospectively evaluate all incident admissions in 10 Intensive Care Units (ICUs) in Italy and the relevant epidemiology of AKI. A simple user-friendly web-based data collection tool was created with the scope to serve for this study and to facilitate future multicenter collaborative efforts. We enrolled 601 consecutive patients into the study; 25 patients with End-Stage Renal Disease were excluded leaving 576 patients for analysis. The median age was 66 (IQR 53-76) years, 59.4% were male, while median SAPS II and APACHE II scores were 43 (IQR 35-54) and 18 (IQR 13-24), respectively. The most common diagnostic categories for ICU admission were: respiratory (27.4%), followed by neurologic (17%), trauma (14.4%), and cardiovascular (12.1%). Crude ICU and hospital mortality were 21.7% and median ICU length of stay was 5 days (IQR 3, 14). Of 576 patients, 246 patients (42.7%) had AKI within 24 hours of ICU admission while 133 developed new AKI later during their ICU stay. RIFLE-initial class was Risk in 205 patients (54.1%), Injury in 99 (26.1%) and Failure in 75 (19.8%). Progression of AKI to a worse RIFLE class was seen in 114 patients (30.8% of AKI patients). AKI patients were older, with higher frequency of common risk factors. 116 AKI patients (30.6%) fulfilled criteria for sepsis during their ICU stay, compared to 33 (16.7%) of non-AKI patients (P<0.001). 48 patients (8.3%) were treated with renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the ICU. Patients were started on RRT a median of 2 (IQR 0-6) days after ICU admission. Among AKI patients, they were

  5. Trauma admissions to the Intensive care unit at a reference hospital in Northwestern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Major trauma has been reported to be a major cause of hospitalization and intensive care utilization worldwide and consumes a significant amount of the health care budget. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and treatment outcome of major trauma patients admitted into our ICU and to identify predictors of outcome. Methods Between January 2008 and December 2010, a descriptive prospective study of all trauma admissions to a multidisciplinary intensive care unit (ICU) of Bugando Medical Centre in Northwestern Tanzania was conducted. Results A total of 312 cases of major trauma were admitted in the ICU, representing 37.1% of the total ICU admissions. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 5.5:1. Their median age was 27 years. Trauma admissions were almost exclusively emergencies (95.2%) and came mainly from the Accident and Emergency (60.6%) and Operating room (23.4%). Road traffic crash (RTC) was the most common cause of injuries affecting 70.8% of patients. Two hundred fourteen patients (68.6%) required surgical intervention. The overall ICU length of stay (LOS) for all trauma patients ranged from 1 to 59 days (median = 8 days). The median ICU length of hospital stay (LOS) for survivors and non-survivors were 8 and 5 days respectively. (P = 0.002). Mortality rate was 32.7%. Mortality rate of trauma patients was significantly higher than that of all ICU admissions (32.7% vs. 18.8%, P = 0.0012). According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, multiple injuries, severe head injuries and burns were responsible for a longer mean ICU stay (P < 0.001) whereas admission Glasgow Coma Score < 9, systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg, injury severity core >16, prolonged duration of loss of consciousness, delayed ICU admission (0.028), the need for ventilatory support and finding of space occupying lesion on computed tomography scan significantly influenced mortality (P < 0.001). Conclusion Trauma resulting from road traffic crashes is a

  6. Critical illness among adults with cystic fibrosis in Texas, 2004-2013: Patterns of ICU utilization, characteristics, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Oud, Lavi

    2017-01-01

    Available reports on critically ill adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) suggest improving short-term outcomes. However, there is marked heterogeneity in reported findings, with studies mostly based on single-centered data, limiting generalizability. We sought to examine population-level patterns of demand for critical care resources, and the characteristics, resource utilization, and outcomes of ICU-managed adults with CF. We used the Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File to identify ICU admissions with CF aged ≥18 years in Texas between 2004-2013. We examined ICU utilization at population level (using CF Foundation annual reports) and, among ICU admissions, socio-demographic characteristics, burden of comorbidities, organ failure, life-support utilization and hospital disposition. Linear regression and multilevel logistic regression were used to examine temporal trends and predictors of short-term mortality (hospital death and discharge to hospice), respectively. Of 9,579 hospitalizations of adults with CF, 1,249 (13%) were admitted to ICU. The incidence of ICU admission among adults with CF in Texas increased between 2004-2005 and 2012-2013 from 16.7 to 19.2 per 100 person-years (p = 0.0181), with ICU admissions aged ≥30 years accounting for 80.3% of the change. Among ICU admissions the following changes were noted between 2004-2005 and 2012-2013: any organ failure 30.2% vs. 56.3% (p = 0.0004), mechanical ventilation 11.5% vs. 19.2% (p = 0.0216), and hemodialysis 1.0% vs. 8.1% (p = 0.0007). Short-term mortality for the whole cohort and for those with mechanical ventilation was 11.4% and 41.8%, respectively, with corresponding home discharge among survivors 84% and 62.1%, respectively. Key predictors (adjusted odds ratios [aOR (95% CI)]) of short-term mortality included age ≥45 years (2.051 [1.231-3.415]), female gender (1.907 [1.237-2.941]), and mechanical ventilation (7.982 [5.001-12.739]). Adults with CF had high and rising population-level burden of critical

  7. Critical illness among adults with cystic fibrosis in Texas, 2004–2013: Patterns of ICU utilization, characteristics, and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective Available reports on critically ill adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) suggest improving short-term outcomes. However, there is marked heterogeneity in reported findings, with studies mostly based on single-centered data, limiting generalizability. We sought to examine population-level patterns of demand for critical care resources, and the characteristics, resource utilization, and outcomes of ICU-managed adults with CF. Methods We used the Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File to identify ICU admissions with CF aged ≥18 years in Texas between 2004–2013. We examined ICU utilization at population level (using CF Foundation annual reports) and, among ICU admissions, socio-demographic characteristics, burden of comorbidities, organ failure, life-support utilization and hospital disposition. Linear regression and multilevel logistic regression were used to examine temporal trends and predictors of short-term mortality (hospital death and discharge to hospice), respectively. Results Of 9,579 hospitalizations of adults with CF, 1,249 (13%) were admitted to ICU. The incidence of ICU admission among adults with CF in Texas increased between 2004–2005 and 2012–2013 from 16.7 to 19.2 per 100 person-years (p = 0.0181), with ICU admissions aged ≥30 years accounting for 80.3% of the change. Among ICU admissions the following changes were noted between 2004–2005 and 2012–2013: any organ failure 30.2% vs. 56.3% (p = 0.0004), mechanical ventilation 11.5% vs. 19.2% (p = 0.0216), and hemodialysis 1.0% vs. 8.1% (p = 0.0007). Short-term mortality for the whole cohort and for those with mechanical ventilation was 11.4% and 41.8%, respectively, with corresponding home discharge among survivors 84% and 62.1%, respectively. Key predictors (adjusted odds ratios [aOR (95% CI)]) of short-term mortality included age ≥45 years (2.051 [1.231–3.415]), female gender (1.907 [1.237–2.941]), and mechanical ventilation (7.982 [5.001–12.739]). Conclusions Adults with CF

  8. Med-Score 24: A multivariable prediction model for poststernotomy mediastinitis 24 hours after admission to the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Cabrera, Mercedes; Fernández-Pérez, Cristina; García-González, Inés; Martin-Benítez, Juan Carlos; Ferrero, Justo; Bringas, María; Carnero, Manuel; Maroto, Luis; Sánchez-García, Miguel

    2018-03-01

    Mediastinitis is a serious complication of heart surgery. In this study, we developed a bedside risk score for poststernotomy mediastinitis. Data were prospectively collected from 4625 patients admitted to our intensive care unit after heart surgery (January 2005-June 2011). Mediastinitis was defined according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. A logistic model was constructed in a randomly selected subgroup of 2618 patients and validated in a second cohort of 1352, as well as in a prospective cohort of 2615 (June 2011-December 2015). Model discriminatory power was assessed according to the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). The β coefficients of the model were used to define 3 levels of mediastinitis risk as a score designated Med-Score 24. Its performance to predict mediastinitis was compared with that of the logistic EuroSCORE and Society of Thoracic Surgeons score. Ninety-four (2.36%) patients developed mediastinitis. The risk factors identified as predictive of mediastinitis (AUROC 0.80) were 4 preoperative variables (age >70 years, chronic obstructive lung disease, obesity, and antiplatelet therapy) and 3 perioperative variables (prolonged ischemia, emergency reoperation, and prolonged intubation). AUROCs for the Society of Thoracic Surgeons score and logistic EuroSCORE were 0.63 and 0.55, respectively, both differing significantly from the area calculated for Med-Score 24 (P < .001). The score developed showed excellent predictive power 24 hours after admission to the intensive care unit for mediastinitis risk. This simple tool helps stratify patients according to this risk, thus identifying high-risk patients for preventive measures. In our patient cohort, Med-Score 24 performed better than other scores used for this purpose. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasma suPAR as a prognostic biological marker for ICU mortality in ARDS patients.

    PubMed

    Geboers, Diederik G P J; de Beer, Friso M; Tuip-de Boer, Anita M; van der Poll, Tom; Horn, Janneke; Cremer, Olaf L; Bonten, Marc J M; Ong, David S Y; Schultz, Marcus J; Bos, Lieuwe D J

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the prognostic value of plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) on day 1 in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) for intensive care unit (ICU) mortality and compared it with established disease severity scores on day 1. suPAR was determined batchwise in plasma obtained within 24 h after admission. 632 ARDS patients were included. Significantly (P = 0.02) higher median levels of suPAR were found with increasing severity of ARDS: 5.9 ng/ml [IQR 3.1-12.8] in mild ARDS (n = 82), 8.4 ng/ml [IQR 4.1-15.0] in moderate ARDS (n = 333), and 9.0 ng/ml [IQR 4.5-16.0] in severe ARDS (n = 217). Non-survivors had higher median levels of suPAR [12.5 ng/ml (IQR 5.1-19.5) vs. 7.4 ng/ml (3.9-13.6), P < 0.001]. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) for mortality of suPAR (0.62) was lower than the ROC-AUC of the APACHE IV score (0.72, P = 0.007), higher than that of the ARDS definition classification (0.53, P = 0.005), and did not differ from that of the SOFA score (0.68, P = 0.07) and the oxygenation index (OI) (0.58, P = 0.29). Plasma suPAR did not improve the discrimination of the established disease severity scores, but did improve net reclassification of the APACHE score (29%), SOFA score (23%), OI (38%), and Berlin definition classification (39%). As a single biological marker, the prognostic value for death of plasma suPAR in ARDS patients is low. Plasma suPAR, however, improves the net reclassification, suggesting a potential role for suPAR in ICU mortality prediction models.

  10. Economics of ICU organization and management.

    PubMed

    Wunsch, Hannah; Gershengorn, Hayley; Scales, Damon C

    2012-01-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) is a complex system and the economic implications of altering care patterns in the ICU can be difficult to unravel. Few studies have specifically examined the economics of implementing organizational and management changes or acknowledged the many competing economic interests of patient, hospital,payer, and society. With continuously increasing healthcare costs,there is a great need for more studies focused on the optimal organization of the ICU. These studies should not focus solely on reductions in ICU length of stay but should strive to measure the true costs of care within a given healthcare system.

  11. The Research Agenda in ICU Telemedicine

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Nicholas S.; Lilly, Craig M.; Angus, Derek C.; Jacobi, Judith; Rubenfeld, Gordon D.; Rothschild, Jeffrey M.; Sales, Anne E.; Scales, Damon C.; Mathers, James A. L.

    2011-01-01

    ICU telemedicine uses audiovisual conferencing technology to provide critical care from a remote location. Research is needed to best define the optimal use of ICU telemedicine, but efforts are hindered by methodological challenges and the lack of an organized delivery approach. We convened an interdisciplinary working group to develop a research agenda in ICU telemedicine, addressing both methodological and knowledge gaps in the field. To best inform clinical decision-making and health policy, future research should be organized around a conceptual framework that enables consistent descriptions of both the study setting and the telemedicine intervention. The framework should include standardized methods for assessing the preimplementation ICU environment and describing the telemedicine program. This framework will facilitate comparisons across studies and improve generalizability by permitting context-specific interpretation. Research based on this framework should consider the multidisciplinary nature of ICU care and describe the specific program goals. Key topic areas to be addressed include the effect of ICU telemedicine on the structure, process, and outcome of critical care delivery. Ideally, future research should attempt to address causation instead of simply associations and elucidate the mechanism of action in order to determine exactly how ICU telemedicine achieves its effects. ICU telemedicine has significant potential to improve critical care delivery, but high-quality research is needed to best inform its use. We propose an agenda to advance the science of ICU telemedicine and generate research with the greatest potential to improve patient care. PMID:21729894

  12. Using Old and New SAT® Scores for Admission: A Closer Look at Concordant Scores in Predictive Models. Research Report 2016-17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Jessica P.; Shaw, Emily J.; Young, Linda

    2016-01-01

    During the transition period between the use of exclusively old SAT® scores and the use of exclusively new SAT scores, college admission offices will be receiving both types of scores from students. Making an admission decision based on new SAT scores can be challenging at first because institutions have methods, procedures, and models based on…

  13. Admission to Intensive Care for Palliative Care or Potential Organ Donation: Demographics, Circumstances, Outcomes, and Resource Use.

    PubMed

    Melville, Andrew; Kolt, Gali; Anderson, David; Mitropoulos, Joanna; Pilcher, David

    2017-10-01

    To describe the characteristics, circumstances, change over time, resource use, and outcomes of patients admitted to ICUs in Australia and New Zealand for the purposes of "palliative care of a dying patient" or "potential organ donation," and compare with actively managed ICU patients. A retrospective study of data from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database and a nested cohort analysis of a single center. One hundred seventy-seven ICUs in Australia and New Zealand and a nested analysis of one university-affiliated hospital ICU in Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Three thousand seven hundred "palliative care of a dying patient" and 1,115 "potential organ donation" patients from 2007 to 2016. The nested cohort included 192 patients. No interventions. Data extracted included patient demographics, diagnoses, length of stay, circumstances, and outcome of admission. ICU admissions for "palliative care of a dying patient" and "potential organ donation" increased from 179 in 2007 to 551 in 2016 and from 44 in 2007 to 174 in 2016 in each respective group, though only the "potential organ donation" cohort showed an increase in proportion of total ICU admissions. Lengths of stay in ICU were a mean of 33.8 hours (median, 17.5; interquartile range, 6.4-38.8) and 44.7 hours (26.6; 16.0-44.6), respectively, compared with 74.2 hours (41.5; 21.7-77.0) in actively managed patients. Hospital mortality was 86.6% and 95.9%, respectively. In the nested cohort of 192 patients, facilitating family discussions about goals of treatment and organ donation represented the most common reason for ICU admission. Patients admitted to ICU to manage end-of-life care represent a small proportion of overall ICU admissions, with an increasing proportion of "potential organ donation" admissions. They have shorter ICU lengths of stay than actively managed patients, suggesting resource use for these patients is not disproportionate.

  14. Admission Hematocrit and Rise in Blood Urea Nitrogen at 24 h Outperform other Laboratory Markers in Predicting Persistent Organ Failure and Pancreatic Necrosis in Acute Pancreatitis: A Post Hoc Analysis of Three Large Prospective Databases.

    PubMed

    Koutroumpakis, Efstratios; Wu, Bechien U; Bakker, Olaf J; Dudekula, Anwar; Singh, Vikesh K; Besselink, Marc G; Yadav, Dhiraj; Mounzer, Rawad; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Whitcomb, David C; Gooszen, Hein G; Banks, Peter A; Papachristou, Georgios I

    2015-12-01

    Predicting severe acute pancreatitis (AP) remains a challenge. The present study compares admission blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hematocrit, and creatinine, as well as changes in their levels over 24 h, aiming to determine the most accurate laboratory test for predicting persistent organ failure and pancreatic necrosis. Clinical data of 1,612 AP patients, enrolled prospectively in three independent cohorts (University of Pittsburgh, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group), were abstracted. The predictive accuracy of the studied laboratories was measured using area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis. A pooled analysis was conducted to determine their impact on the risk for persistent organ failure and pancreatic necrosis. Finally, a classification tree was developed on the basis of the most accurate laboratory parameters. Admission hematocrit ≥44% and rise in BUN at 24 h were the most accurate in predicting persistent organ failure (AUC: 0.67 and 0.71, respectively) and pancreatic necrosis (0.66 and 0.67, respectively), outperforming the other laboratory parameters and the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation-II score. In a pooled analysis, admission hematocrit ≥44% and rise in BUN at 24 h were associated with an odds ratio of 3.54 and 5.84 for persistent organ failure, and 3.11 and 4.07, respectively, for pancreatic necrosis. In addition, the classification tree illustrated that when both admission hematocrit was ≥44% and BUN levels increased at 24 h, the rates of persistent organ failure and pancreatic necrosis reached 53.6% and 60.3%, respectively. Admission hematocrit ≥44% and rise in BUN at 24 h may be the optimal predictive tools in clinical practice among existing laboratory parameters and scoring systems.

  15. Perceptions of ICU Diary Utility and Feasibility in a Combat ICU.

    PubMed

    Hester, Marisa; Ingalls, Nichole K; Hatzfeld, Jennifer J

    2016-08-01

    Severely injured patients have difficulty recalling their intensive care unit (ICU) experience which may contribute to emotional trauma. An ICU patient journal contains a short summary of key events during the ICU stay, and has been shown to improve emotional well-being. This project evaluated the feasibility and perceptions of ICU journals in a combat ICU. A one-page survey was distributed to ICU nursing staff at Craig Joint Theater Hospital before and after the use of ICU journals as a process improvement initiative. 16 preimplementation and 10 postimplementation surveys were collected to determine the perception of the utility and feasibility of ICU journals, as well as changes to nursing job satisfaction. Overall, nurses had positive perceptions of ICU journaling; after implementation they felt it could also benefit nurses (31% vs. 80%, p = 0.002). ICU nurses that used journals were also more likely to feel their work makes a difference (90%, p = 0.012) and they could connect with their patient on a personal level (50%, p = 0.037). Primary barriers were time to journal and legal concerns. This study demonstrates with the right guidance, ICU journals can be incorporated into an ICU in a deployed environment and nursing staff feel they benefit the patient, family, unit, and staff. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  16. Statistical Analysis Aiming at Predicting Respiratory Tract Disease Hospital Admissions from Environmental Variables in the City of São Paulo

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coêlho, Micheline; Luiz Teixeira Gonçalves, Fabio; do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This study is aimed at creating a stochastic model, named Brazilian Climate and Health Model (BCHM), through Poisson regression, in order to predict the occurrence of hospital respiratory admissions (for children under thirteen years of age) as a function of air pollutants, meteorological variables, and thermal comfort indices (effective temperatures, ET). The data used in this study were obtained from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, between 1997 and 2000. The respiratory tract diseases were divided into three categories: URI (Upper Respiratory tract diseases), LRI (Lower Respiratory tract diseases), and IP (Influenza and Pneumonia). The overall results of URI, LRI, and IP show clear correlation with SO2 and CO, PM10 and O3, and PM10, respectively, and the ETw4 (Effective Temperature) for all the three disease groups. It is extremely important to warn the government of the most populated city in Brazil about the outcome of this study, providing it with valuable information in order to help it better manage its resources on behalf of the whole population of the city of Sao Paulo, especially those with low incomes. PMID:20706674

  17. Clinical parameters that predict the need for medium or intensive care admission in intentional drug overdose patients: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    van den Oever, Huub L A; van Dam, Mirja; van 't Riet, Esther; Jansman, Frank G A

    2017-02-01

    Many patients with intentional drug overdose (IDO) are admitted to a medium (MC) or intensive care unit (IC) without ever requiring MC/IC related interventions. The objective of this study was to develop a decision tool, using parameters readily available in the emergency room (ER) for patients with an IDO, to identify patients requiring admission to a monitoring unit. Retrospective cohort study among cases of IDO with drugs having potentially acute effects on neurological, circulatory or ventilatory function, admitted to the MC/IC unit between 2007 and 2013. A decision tool was developed, using 6 criteria, representing intubation, breathing, oxygenation, cardiac conduction, blood pressure, and consciousness. Cases were labeled as 'high acuity' if one or more criteria were present. Among 255 cases of IDO that met the inclusion criteria, 197 were identified as "high acuity". Only 70 of 255 cases underwent one or more MC/IC related interventions, of which 67 were identified as 'high acuity by the decision tool (sensitivity 95.7%). In a population of patients with intentional drug overdose with agents having potentially acute effect on vital functions, 95.7% of MC/IC interventions could be predicted by clinical assessment, supplemented with electrocardiogram and blood gas analysis, in the ER. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Statistical analysis aiming at predicting respiratory tract disease hospital admissions from environmental variables in the city of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coêlho, Micheline; Luiz Teixeira Gonçalves, Fabio; do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This study is aimed at creating a stochastic model, named Brazilian Climate and Health Model (BCHM), through Poisson regression, in order to predict the occurrence of hospital respiratory admissions (for children under thirteen years of age) as a function of air pollutants, meteorological variables, and thermal comfort indices (effective temperatures, ET). The data used in this study were obtained from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, between 1997 and 2000. The respiratory tract diseases were divided into three categories: URI (Upper Respiratory tract diseases), LRI (Lower Respiratory tract diseases), and IP (Influenza and Pneumonia). The overall results of URI, LRI, and IP show clear correlation with SO₂ and CO, PM₁₀ and O₃, and PM₁₀, respectively, and the ETw4 (Effective Temperature) for all the three disease groups. It is extremely important to warn the government of the most populated city in Brazil about the outcome of this study, providing it with valuable information in order to help it better manage its resources on behalf of the whole population of the city of Sao Paulo, especially those with low incomes.

  19. On-admission serum uric acid predicts outcomes after acute myocardial infarction: systematic review and meta-analysis of prognostic studies

    PubMed Central

    Trkulja, Vladimir; Car, Siniša

    2012-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the prognostic value of serum uric acid (SUA) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Methods Systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis of prognostic studies assessing AMI outcomes (death, major adverse cardiac events, MACE) in relation to on-admission SUA. Results Nine studies (7655 patients) were identified, 6 in the ST-segment elevation AMI patients treated with invasive revascularization and three in mixed AMI type cohorts with variable reperfusion strategies. “High” SUA (vs “low,” different cut-offs) was univariately associated with higher short-term mortality (8 studies/6805 patients; odds ratio [OR], 3.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.47-4.27) and incidence of MACE (7/6467; OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.84-3.27, moderate heterogeneity, mild bias), and with higher medium-term mortality (5/5194; OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 2.00-3.62, moderate heterogeneity, mild bias) and MACE (4/4299; OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.36-2.74, high heterogeneity, mild bias). It was independently associated with a higher short-term (4/3625; OR, 2.26, 95% CI, 1.85-2.77) and medium/long-term (3/2683; hazard ratio [HR], 1.30; 95% CI 1.01-1.68, moderate heterogeneity, mild bias) occurrence of poor outcomes (death/MACE). As a continuous variable (by 50 μmol/L), higher SUA was also independently associated with poorer medium/long-term outcomes (4/3533; HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.03-1.37, high heterogeneity, mild bias). All individual study effects (unadjusted or adjusted) were in the same direction, but differed in size. Heterogeneity was mainly due to the included AMI type and/or definition of MACE. All bias-corrected pooled effects remained significant. Conclusion Based on the available data, high(er) on-admission SUA independently predicts worse short-term and medium/long-term outcomes after AMI. However, the number of data are modest and additional prospective studies are warranted. PMID:22522995

  20. Vascular surgery, ICU and HDU: a 14-year observational study.

    PubMed

    Teli, Mary; Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Rees, John R; Woodsford, Paul V; Lewis, Michael H

    2008-05-01

    Over the course of the past decade, numerous changes have occurred in the management of patients undergoing vascular surgical operations. The introduction of high dependency units (HDUs) has meant that many patients previously requiring observation in intensive care units (ICUs) are now managed in this new environment. In addition, many vascular patients may now be suitable for management on a vascular ward immediately following their surgery. This study reports the chronological changes in resource utilisation of patients undergoing major vascular surgery in a district general hospital over a 14-year period. Details of all patients admitted to either the ICU or HDU under the care of a single vascular surgeon during the period 1991-2004 were extracted from a prospectively maintained anaesthetic department database. Details of the age and gender of the patients were obtained together with source of admission, place of discharge and need for re-admission. Operative details for each patient were extracted from a prospectively maintained vascular surgery database including type of procedure undertaken and degree of urgency. During the 14-year period under study, there was a dramatic decrease in the use of ICU facilities for the management of vascular patients from 100% in 1991 to 36% in 2004. There was a corresponding increase in the use of HDU for major vascular cases during the same period from 0% to 66%. However, despite a significant increase in the total number of major vascular operations performed, from 67 in 1991 to 185 in 2004 as a result of sub-specialisation, overall use of all high-care facilities fell as the number of patients returned directly to the vascular ward increased from 34% in 1991 to 64% in 2004. The efficacy of the choice of management venue was confirmed by the observation that only 7.7% of those managed on ICU had been initially managed at a lower level of care. In addition, only 1.8% of patients managed on HDU had been admitted after

  1. Predictive modelling of survival and length of stay in critically ill patients using sequential organ failure scores.

    PubMed

    Houthooft, Rein; Ruyssinck, Joeri; van der Herten, Joachim; Stijven, Sean; Couckuyt, Ivo; Gadeyne, Bram; Ongenae, Femke; Colpaert, Kirsten; Decruyenaere, Johan; Dhaene, Tom; De Turck, Filip

    2015-03-01

    The length of stay of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) is an indication of patient ICU resource usage and varies considerably. Planning of postoperative ICU admissions is important as ICUs often have no nonoccupied beds available. Estimation of the ICU bed availability for the next coming days is entirely based on clinical judgement by intensivists and therefore too inaccurate. For this reason, predictive models have much potential for improving planning for ICU patient admission. Our goal is to develop and optimize models for patient survival and ICU length of stay (LOS) based on monitored ICU patient data. Furthermore, these models are compared on their use of sequential organ failure (SOFA) scores as well as underlying raw data as input features. Different machine learning techniques are trained, using a 14,480 patient dataset, both on SOFA scores as well as their underlying raw data values from the first five days after admission, in order to predict (i) the patient LOS, and (ii) the patient mortality. Furthermore, to help physicians in assessing the prediction credibility, a probabilistic model is tailored to the output of our best-performing model, assigning a belief to each patient status prediction. A two-by-two grid is built, using the classification outputs of the mortality and prolonged stay predictors to improve the patient LOS regression models. For predicting patient mortality and a prolonged stay, the best performing model is a support vector machine (SVM) with GA,D=65.9% (area under the curve (AUC) of 0.77) and GS,L=73.2% (AUC of 0.82). In terms of LOS regression, the best performing model is support vector regression, achieving a mean absolute error of 1.79 days and a median absolute error of 1.22 days for those patients surviving a nonprolonged stay. Using a classification grid based on the predicted patient mortality and prolonged stay, allows more accurate modeling of the patient LOS. The detailed models allow to support

  2. Protracted immune disorders at one year after ICU discharge in patients with septic shock.

    PubMed

    Riché, Florence; Chousterman, Benjamin G; Valleur, Patrice; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Launay, Jean-Marie; Gayat, Etienne

    2018-02-21

    Sepsis is a leading cause of mortality and critical illness worldwide and is associated with an increased mortality rate in the months following hospital discharge. The occurrence of persistent or new organ dysfunction(s) after septic shock raises questions about the mechanisms involved in the post-sepsis status. The present study aimed to explore the immune profiles of patients one year after being discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU) following treatment for abdominal septic shock. We conducted a prospective, single-center, observational study in the surgical ICU of a university hospital. Eighty-six consecutive patients admitted for septic shock of abdominal origin were included in this study. Fifteen different plasma biomarkers were measured at ICU admission, at ICU discharge and at one year after ICU discharge. Three different clusters of biomarkers were distinguished according to their functions, namely: (1) inflammatory response, (2) cell damage and apoptosis, (3) immunosuppression and resolution of inflammation. The primary objective was to characterize variations in the immune status of septic shock patients admitted to ICU up to one year after ICU discharge. The secondary objective was to evaluate the relationship between these biomarker variations and patient outcomes. At the onset of septic shock, we observed a cohesive pro-inflammatory profile and low levels of inflammation resolution markers. At ICU discharge, the immune status demonstrated decreased but persistent inflammation and increased immunosuppression, with elevated programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) levels, and a counterbalanced resolution process, with elevated levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), resolvin D5 (RvD5), and IL-7. One year after hospital discharge, homeostasis was not completely restored with several markers of inflammation remaining elevated. Remarkably, IL-7 was persistently elevated, with levels comparable to those observed after ICU discharge, and PD-1, while lower

  3. Glucose Control in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Preiser, Jean-Charles; Chase, J. Geoffrey; Hovorka, Roman; Joseph, Jeffrey I.; Krinsley, James S.; De Block, Christophe; Desaive, Thomas; Foubert, Luc; Kalfon, Pierre; Pielmeier, Ulrike; Van Herpe, Tom; Wernerman, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In the present era of near-continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and automated therapeutic closed-loop systems, measures of accuracy and of quality of glucose control need to be standardized for licensing authorities and to enable comparisons across studies and devices. Adequately powered, good quality, randomized, controlled studies are needed to assess the impact of different CGM devices on the quality of glucose control, workload, and costs. The additional effects of continuing glucose control on the general floor after the ICU stay also need to be investigated. Current algorithms need to be adapted and validated for CGM, including effects on glucose variability and workload. Improved collaboration within the industry needs to be encouraged because no single company produces all the necessary components for an automated closed-loop system. Combining glucose measurement with measurement of other variables in 1 sensor may help make this approach more financially viable. PMID:27170632

  4. Describing ICU data with tables.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Corinne; Boulkedid, Rym

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of a scientific paper is to communicate results and within the paper this applies especially to the presentation of data. It is the universal practice in medical journals to present statistical results using tables. Good tables are an integral part of the manuscript. To help researchers communicate their results, we present practical guidance for reporting statistical results using tables. Five key points are presented for reporting statistical results using tables: (1) early reflection and choice about the results to present, (2) presentation of tables and definition of rows and columns, (3) filling the cells, (4) title, caption, footnotes, and quality, (5) final checklist. This guidance is a practical tool to improve the reporting of statistical results using tables when presenting ICU data in future research.

  5. Epidemiology of severe trauma in Spain. Registry of trauma in the ICU (RETRAUCI). Pilot phase.

    PubMed

    Chico-Fernández, M; Llompart-Pou, J A; Guerrero-López, F; Sánchez-Casado, M; García-Sáez, I; Mayor-García, M D; Egea-Guerrero, J; Fernández-Ortega, J F; Bueno-González, A; González-Robledo, J; Servià-Goixart, L; Roldán-Ramírez, J; Ballesteros-Sanz, M Á; Tejerina-Alvarez, E; García-Fuentes, C; Alberdi-Odriozola, F

    2016-01-01

    To describe the characteristics and management of severe trauma disease in Spanish Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Registry of trauma in the ICU (RETRAUCI). Pilot phase. A prospective, multicenter registry. Thirteen Spanish ICUs. Patients with trauma disease admitted to the ICU. None. Epidemiology, out-of-hospital attention, registry of injuries, resources utilization, complications and outcome were evaluated. Patients, n=2242. Mean age 47.1±19.02 years. Males 79%. Blunt trauma 93.9%. Injury Severity Score 22.2±12.1, Revised Trauma Score 6.7±1.6. Non-intentional in 84.4% of the cases. The most common causes of trauma were traffic accidents followed by pedestrian and high-energy falls. Up to 12.4% were taking antiplatelet medication or anticoagulants. Almost 28% had a suspected or confirmed toxic influence in trauma. Up to 31.5% required an out-of-hospital artificial airway. The time from trauma to ICU admission was 4.7±5.3hours. At ICU admission, 68.5% were hemodynamically stable. Brain and chest injuries predominated. A large number of complications were documented. Mechanical ventilation was used in 69.5% of the patients (mean 8.2±9.9 days), of which 24.9% finally required a tracheostomy. The median duration of stay in the ICU and in hospital was 5 (range 3-13) and 9 (5-19) days, respectively. The ICU mortality rate was 12.3%, while the in-hospital mortality rate was 16.0%. The pilot phase of the RETRAUCI offers a first impression of the epidemiology and management of trauma disease in Spanish ICUs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  6. ICU Pathogens: A Continuous Challenge.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Amira; Munir, Tehmina; Najeeb, Sara; Rehman, Sabahat; Gilani, Mehreen; Ansari, Maliha; Saad, Nadia

    2016-07-01

    To determine the frequency and antibiogram of pathogens in an intensive care unit (ICU). Cross-sectional, observational study. Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, from January 2013 to January 2014. Clinical samples, received from patients admitted in ICU, were inoculated on various medias like blood agar, chocolate agar, MacConkey agar and urine samples on CLED. These were then incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Isolates were identified by colony morphology, Gram reaction, catalase test, oxidase test. Species identification in case of Gram Negative Rods was done by using API 20E (BioMérieux). Antibiotic susceptibility was done by using modified KirbyBauer disc diffusion technique. Bacterial isolates were prepared and inoculated on Mueller-Hinton agar plates followed by application of various antibiotic disc (Oxoid, UK) as per manufacturer's instructions. The plates were then incubated at 37°C aerobically for 18 - 24 hours. Zone diameters were measured and interpreted as sensitive and resistant, according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Out of the 367 positive cultures, 116 (31.08%) were Acinetobacter baumanniisusceptible to minocycline and tigecycline followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=71, 16%) susceptible to tigecycline and meropenem. Others were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli,Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Klebsiella oxytoca, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia,and Candida spp. Acinetobacter baumanniiwas the most frequently isolated pathogen. Most of the cultures yielding pathogens were from respiratory tract samples. Gram negative isolates were multidrug resistant but most were tigecycline and susceptible to meropenem.

  7. Severe cytomegalovirus infections in immunocompetent patients at admission as dengue mimic: successful treatment with intravenous ganciclovir.

    PubMed

    Tirumala, Suhasini; Behera, Bijayini; Lingala, Shilpa; Kumar, B Vijay; Mishra, Pradeep Kumar; Gurunath, J M; HariCharan; Kartik; Naresh

    2012-11-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with adverse clinical outcomes in immunosuppressed persons. The incidence and association of CMV reactivation with adverse clinical outcomes in critically ill persons lacking evidence of immunosuppression at ICU admission has received great attention in the practice of critical care medicine. Critically ill patients in ICU who had associated risk factors such as mechanical ventilation, severe sepsis, or blood transfusion are more prone to CMV activation, which in turn led to increased mortality and morbidity in terms of increased ICU stay, longer duration of mechanical ventilation, and higher rates of nosocomial infections. However, severe CMV as initial presentation mimicking dengue infection is rare. We recently came across seven cases with positive CMV serology at ICU admission, which we discuss in the light of current literature. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. ICU Occupancy and mechanical ventilator use in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wunsch, Hannah; Wagner, Jason; Herlim, Maximilian; Chong, David; Kramer, Andrew; Halpern, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Detailed data on occupancy and use of mechanical ventilators in United States intensive care units (ICU) over time and across unit types, are lacking. We sought to describe the hourly bed occupancy and use of ventilators in US ICUs to improve future planning of both the routine and disaster provision of intensive care. Design Retrospective cohort study. We calculated mean hourly bed occupancy in each ICU and hourly bed occupancy for patients on mechanical ventilators. We assessed trends in overall occupancy over the three years. We also assessed occupancy and mechanical ventilation rates across different types and sizes of ICUs. Setting 97 US ICUs participating in Project IMPACT from 2005–07. Patients 226,942 consecutive admissions to ICUs. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Over the three years studied, total ICU occupancy ranged from 57.4% to 82.1% and the number of beds filled with mechanically ventilated patients ranged from 20.7% to 38.9%. There was no change in occupancy across years and no increase in occupancy during influenza seasons. Mean hourly occupancy across ICUs was 68.2% SD ± 21.3, and was substantially higher in ICUs with fewer beds (mean 75.8% (± 16.5) for 5–14 beds versus 60.9% (± 22.1) for 20+ beds, P = 0.001), and in academic hospitals (78.7% (± 15.9) versus 65.3% (± 21.3) for community not-for profit hospitals, P < 0.001). More than half (53.6%) of ICUs had 4+ beds available more than half the time. The mean percentage of ICU patients receiving mechanical ventilation in any given hour was 39.5% (± 15.2), and a mean of 29.0% (± 15.9) of ICU beds were filled with a patient on a ventilator. Conclusions Occupancy of US ICUs was stable over time, but there is uneven distribution across different types and sizes of units. Only three out of ten beds were filled at any time with mechanically ventilated patients, suggesting substantial surge capacity throughout the system to care for acutely critically ill patients

  9. Admission, management and outcomes of acute pancreatitis in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Russell, Peter S; Mittal, Anhubav; Brown, Lisa; McArthur, Colin; Phillips, Anthony J R; Petrov, Max; Windsor, John A

    2017-12-01

    A review of the management of acute pancreatitis (AP) at a tertiary intensive care unit (ICU) in Auckland, New Zealand, was published in 2004. This paper aims to update this series and identify changes in admission criteria, management and outcomes. A retrospective review of patients admitted to the Department of Critical Care Medicine, Auckland City Hospital, with AP from 2003 to 2014 was undertaken and data compared with the previous study (1988-2001). Eighty-four patients (male 53, mean ± SD age = 56.9 ± 15 years) with 85 admissions to ICU from 2003 to 2014 were compared with 112 patients in the previous study. Maori were over-represented. Median duration of symptoms prior to admission to ICU decreased from 7 to 3 days. The proportion of total AP patients admitted to ICU halved and the mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score on admission decreased from mean 19.9 ± 8.2 SD to 15.4 ± 7.3 (P < 0.001). Two thirds of patients had persistent organ failure. The use of enteral feeding doubled from 46/112 (41%) to 71/85 (84%) (P < 0.001). The use of primary percutaneous drainage increased from 14/112 (13%) to 24/85 (28%) (P = 0.007). Rate of necrosectomy was similar (36/112 (32%) versus 20/85 (24%), P = 0.205), although minimally invasive necrosectomy was introduced. Overall hospital mortality decreased by 29% (P = 0.198). There have been changes to the admission criteria and management in line with evolving guidelines and, overall, outcomes have improved. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  10. A Comparison of Intensive Care Unit Mortality Prediction Models through the Use of Data Mining Techniques.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sujin; Kim, Woojae; Park, Rae Woong

    2011-12-01

    The intensive care environment generates a wealth of critical care data suited to developing a well-calibrated prediction tool. This study was done to develop an intensive care unit (ICU) mortality prediction model built on University of Kentucky Hospital (UKH)'s data and to assess whether the performance of various data mining techniques, such as the artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM) and decision trees (DT), outperform the conventional logistic regression (LR) statistical model. The models were built on ICU data collected regarding 38,474 admissions to the UKH between January 1998 and September 2007. The first 24 hours of the ICU admission data were used, including patient demographics, admission information, physiology data, chronic health items, and outcome information. Only 15 study variables were identified as significant for inclusion in the model development. The DT algorithm slightly outperformed (AUC, 0.892) the other data mining techniques, followed by the ANN (AUC, 0.874), and SVM (AUC, 0.876), compared to that of the APACHE III performance (AUC, 0.871). With fewer variables needed, the machine learning algorithms that we developed were proven to be as good as the conventional APACHE III prediction.

  11. [Epidemiology of acute kidney failure in Spanish ICU. Multicenter prospective study FRAMI].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Gutiérrez, M E; Seller-Pérez, G; Maynar-Moliner, J; Sánchez-Izquierdo-Riera, J A

    2006-01-01

    Multicenter study oriented at establishing the incidence and prognosis of acute kidney failure (AKF) in the ICU of our country. Prospective study of adult patients admitted over 8 months in 43 Spanish ICUs to detect AKF defined as creatinine>or=2 mg/dl or diuresis<400 ml/24 hours (in chronic patients 100% increase of creatinine, excluding those with baseline creatinine>or=4 mg/dl). 901 episodes of AKF (AKF episodes (incidence 5.7%), 55% of which occurred on admission. A total of 38.4% of the episodes were due to acute tubular necrosis (ATN), 36.6% to prerenal, and 21.2% to mixed. Renal depuration (RC) was required in 38%. Mortality was 42.3% during the AKF episode (34.1% in those who were admitted with AKF versus 50.9% in those who developed it after admission), 80% in patients with Hepatorenal Syndrome, 51.6% in ATN and 29.9% in prerenal. We detect an independent relationship with mortality for age (OR 1.03), background of diabetes (OR 2.06), development of AKF in the ICU (OR 2.51), oliguria (OR 5.76) and RC (OR 2.32). Recovery of the kidney function occurred in 85.6% of the survivors and RC was maintained in only 1.1% on discharge from the ICU. We calculated the area under the curve of APACHE II on admission (0.62), SOFA on onset of AKF (0.68), Liaño index (0.7) and maximum SOFA (0.79). AKF in ICU patients does not show an elevated incidence but does have high mortality, presenting greater seriousness when it appears after admission. However, recovery is elevated in patients who survive. The usual prognostic indexes are not exact in this patient group, the ISA and maximum SOFA being those which shows a closer relationship with mortality.

  12. Epidemiological profile of ICU patients at Faculdade de Medicina de Marília.

    PubMed

    El-Fakhouri, Silene; Carrasco, Hugo Victor Cocca Gimenez; Araújo, Guilherme Campos; Frini, Inara Cristina Marciano

    2016-01-01

    To characterize the epidemiological profile of the hospitalized population in the ICU of Hospital das Clínicas de Marília (Famema). A retrospective, descriptive and quantitative study. Data regarding patients admitted to the ICU Famema was obtained from the Technical Information Center (Núcleo Técnico de Informações, NTI, Famema). For data analysis, we used the distribution of absolute and relative frequencies with simple statistical treatment. 2,022 ICU admissions were recorded from June 2010 to July 2012 with 1,936 being coded according to the ICD-10. The epidemiological profile comprised mostly males (57.91%), predominantly seniors ≥ 60 years (48.89%), at an average age of 56.64 years (±19.18), with limited formal education (63.3% complete primary school), mostly white (77.10%), Catholic (75.12%), from the city of Marília, state of São Paulo, Brazil (53.81%). The average occupancy rate was 94.42%. The predominant cause of morbidity was diseases of the circulatory system with 494 admissions (25.5%), followed by traumas and external causes with 446 admissions (23.03%) and neoplasms with 213 admissions (11.00%). The average stay was 8.09 days (±10.73). The longest average stay was due to skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases, with average stay of 12.77 days (±17.07). There were 471 deaths (24.32%), mainly caused by diseases of the circulatory system (30.99%). The age group with the highest mortality was the range from 70 to 79 years with 102 deaths (21.65%). The ICU Famema presents an epidemiological profile similar to other intensive care units in Brazil and worldwide, despite the few studies available in the literature. Thus, we feel in tune with the treatment of critical care patients.

  13. EEG epileptiform abnormalities at admission to a rehabilitation department predict the risk of seizures in disorders of consciousness following a coma.

    PubMed

    Bagnato, Sergio; Boccagni, Cristina; Sant'Angelo, Antonino; Prestandrea, Caterina; Virgilio, Vittorio; Galardi, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Seizures affect about a quarter of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) after a coma. We investigated whether the presence of epileptiform abnormalities (EAs) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of patients with DOC may predict the occurrence of seizures. Moreover, we evaluated whether EAs have a prognostic role in these patients. This was a retrospective single-center cohort study of patients hospitalized between January 2005 and December 2014 in a rehabilitation department (mean time from acute brain injury: 46.1 days). We analyzed 30-minute EEGs at admittance for 112 patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) or in a minimally conscious state (MCS), then compared occurrence of seizures over the following three months across patients with absent, unilateral, and bilateral EAs (generalized or bilateral independent). Outcomes at three months were assessed in the same groups using the Coma Recovery Scale Revised. Epileptiform abnormalities were observed in 38 patients (33.9%). Of these, 25 were unilateral, and 13 were bilateral. Seizures occurred in 84.6% of patients with bilateral EAs, which was significantly higher than in patients without EAs (10.8%, p<0.001) or with unilateral EAs (24%, p=0.001). The presence of EAs was not related to etiology or different DOC and did not significantly affect outcomes at three months. Patients with EAs at admission to a rehabilitation department have an increased risk of seizures. Specifically, most patients with bilateral EAs had seizures within the following 3 months. Evaluation of EAs in EEGs of patients with DOC may give valuable information in the management of antiepileptic drug treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Intensive care admission and hospital mortality in the elderly after non-cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    de Nadal, M; Pérez-Hoyos, S; Montejo-González, J C; Pearse, R; Aldecoa, C

    2018-03-01

    To assess whether patient age is independently associated to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission after non-cardiac surgery. An observational cohort study of the Spanish subset of the European Surgical Outcome Study (EuSOS) was carried out. Hospitals of the public National Health Care System and private hospitals in Spain. None. All patients over 16 years of age undergoing inpatient non-cardiac surgery in the participating hospitals during a 7-day period in the month of April 2011 were consecutively included. ICU admission rate, factors associated with ICU admission and hospital mortality were assessed using logistic regression analysis and fractional polynomial regression. Out of 5412 patients, 677 (12.5%) were admitted to the ICU after surgery. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) for ICU admission was 1.1 (0.8-1.4) for patients aged 65-74 years, 0.7 (0.5-1) for patients aged 75-85 years, and 0.4 (0.2-0.8) for patients over 85 years, respectively. Age, ASA score, grade of surgery (minor, intermediate, major), urgent surgery, surgical specialty, laparoscopic surgery and metastatic disease were independent factors for ICU admission. Global risk-adjusted mortality was 1.4 (95% CI 0.9-2.2). The ASA score, urgent surgery, surgical specialty and diabetes were predictors of hospital mortality. Elderly patients (over 80 years) appear less likely to be admitted to ICU after non-cardiac surgery in Spanish hospitals. There was no significant association between age and postoperative mortality in this cohort. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance Evaluation of Five Different Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) Diagnostic Criteria for Predicting Mortality in Patients with Complicated Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a major complication in sepsis patients. We compared the performance of five DIC diagnostic criteria, focusing on the prediction of mortality. One hundred patients with severe sepsis or septic shock admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) were enrolled. Routine DIC laboratory tests were performed over the first 4 days after admission. The overall ICU and 28-day mortality in DIC patients diagnosed from five criteria (International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis [ISTH], the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine [JAAM], the revised JAAM [R-JAAM], the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare [JMHW] and the Korean Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis [KSTH]) were compared. Both KSTH and JMHW criteria showed superior performance than ISTH, JAAM and R-JAAM criteria in the prediction of overall ICU mortality in DIC patients (odds ratio 3.828 and 5.181, P = 0.018 and 0.006, 95% confidence interval 1.256–11.667 and 1.622–16.554, respectively) when applied at day 1 after admission, and survival analysis demonstrated significant prognostic impact of KSTH and JMHW criteria on the prediction of 28-day mortality (P = 0.007 and 0.049, respectively) when applied at day 1 after admission. In conclusion, both KSTH and JMHW criteria would be more useful than other three criteria in predicting prognosis in DIC patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. PMID:27709865

  16. A simplified acute physiology score in the prediction of acute organophosphate poisoning outcome in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Shadnia, S; Darabi, D; Pajoumand, A; Salimi, A; Abdollahi, M

    2007-08-01

    Organophosphate poisoning (OPP) occurs frequently and accounts for a large number of intoxication cases treated in intensive care units (ICU). Poisoning by these agents is a serious public health problem. Among pesticides, OPs are the main cause of poisoning and death in Loghman-Hakim Poison Center of Tehran, Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) in the prediction of mortality in patients with acute OPP requiring admission to the ICU of Loghman-Hakim Hospital Poison Center over a period of 12 months. This study was a prospective, case-control of records of patients with acute OPP admitted to the ICU between January 2006 and December 2006. The Demographic data were collected and SAPS II score was recorded. During the study period, 24 subjects were admitted to the ICU with acute OPP. All 24 patients (15 male) required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation in addition to gastric decontamination and standard therapy with atropine and oximes and adequate hydration. Of these, 24 patients, eight (five male) died. SAPS II score was significantly higher in the non-survival group than the survival group. Mortality following acute OPP remains high despite adequate intensive care and specific therapy with atropine and oximes. One-third of the subjects needing intensive care die within the hospitalization period. SAPS II scores calculated within the first 24 hours were recognized as good prognostic indicator among patients with acute OPP that required ICU admission. It is concluded that SAPS II score above 11 within the first 24 hours is a predictor of poor outcome in patients with acute OPP requiring ICU admission.

  17. Winning the war against ICU-acquired weakness: new innovations in nutrition and exercise physiology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10 years we have significantly reduced hospital mortality from sepsis and critical illness. However, the evidence reveals that over the same period we have tripled the number of patients being sent to rehabilitation settings. Further, given that as many as half of the deaths in the first year following ICU admission occur post ICU discharge, it is unclear how many of these patients ever returned home. For those who do survive, the latest data indicate that 50-70% of ICU "survivors" will suffer cognitive impairment and 60-80% of "survivors" will suffer functional impairment or ICU-acquired weakness (ICU-AW). These observations demand that we as intensive care providers ask the following questions: "Are we creating survivors ... or are we creating victims?" and "Do we accomplish 'Pyrrhic Victories' in the ICU?" Interventions to address ICU-AW must have a renewed focus on optimal nutrition, anabolic/anticatabolic strategies, and in the future employ the personalized muscle and exercise evaluation techniques utilized by elite athletes to optimize performance. Specifically, strategies must include optimal protein delivery (1.2-2.0 g/kg/day), as an athlete would routinely employ. However, as is clear in elite sports performance, optimal nutrition is fundamental but alone is often not enough. We know burn patients can remain catabolic for 2 years post burn; thus, anticatabolic agents (i.e., beta-blockers) and anabolic agents (i.e., oxandrolone) will probably also be essential. In the near future, evaluation techniques such as assessing lean body mass at the bedside using ultrasound to determine nutritional status and ultrasound-measured muscle glycogen as a marker of muscle injury and recovery could be utilized to help find the transition from the acute phase of critical illness to the recovery phase. Finally, exercise physiology testing that evaluates muscle substrate utilization during exercise can be used to diagnose muscle mitochondrial dysfunction and

  18. Default options in the ICU: widely used but insufficiently understood

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Joanna; Halpern, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Default options dramatically influence the behavior of decision makers and may serve as effective decision support tools in the ICU. Their use in medicine has increased in an effort to improve efficiency, reduce errors, and harness the potential of healthcare technology. Recent findings Defaults often fall short of their predicted influence when employed in critical care settings as quality improvement interventions. Investigations reporting the use of defaults are often limited by variations in the relative effect across sites. Preimplementation experiments and long-term monitoring studies are lacking. Summary Defaults in the ICU may help or harm patients and clinical efficiency depending on their format and use. When constructing and encountering defaults, providers should be aware of their powerful and complex influences on decision making. Additional evaluations of the appropriate creation of healthcare defaults and their resulting intended and unintended consequences are needed. PMID:25203352

  19. Critical care transition programs and the risk of readmission or death after discharge from an ICU: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Niven, Daniel J; Bastos, Jaime F; Stelfox, Henry T

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether critical care transition programs reduce the risk of ICU readmission or death, when compared with standard care among adults who survived their incident ICU admission. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and two clinical trial registries were searched from inception to October 2012. Studies that examined the effects of critical care transition programs on the risk of ICU readmission or death among patients discharged from ICU were selected for review. A critical care transition program included any rapid response team, medical emergency team, critical care outreach team, or ICU nurse liaison program that provided follow-up for patients discharged from ICU. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study characteristics, transition program characteristics, and outcomes (number of ICU readmissions and in-hospital deaths following discharge from ICU). From 3,120 citations, nine before-and-after studies were included. The studies examined medical-surgical populations and described transition programs that were a component of a hospital's outreach team (n = 6) or nurse liaison program (n = 3). Meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model demonstrated a reduced risk of ICU readmission (risk ratio, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.76-0.99]; p = 0.03; I2 = 0%) but no significant reduction in hospital mortality (risk ratio, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.66-1.05]; p = 0.1; I2 = 16%) associated with a critical care transition program. The risk of ICU readmission was similar whether the transition program was included within an outreach team or a nurse liaison program and did not depend on the presence of an intensivist. Critical care transition programs appear to reduce the risk of ICU readmission in patients discharged from ICU to a general hospital ward. Given methodological limitations of the included before-and-after studies, additional research should confirm these observations and explore the ideal model for these programs before recommending implementation.

  20. Mapping physicians' admission diagnoses to structured concepts towards fully automatic calculation of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation score

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Subhash; Kashyap, Rahul; Trillo-Alvarez, Cesar A; Tsapenko, Mykola; Yilmaz, Murat; Hanson, Andrew C; Pickering, Brian W; Gajic, Ognjen

    2011-01-01

    Objective Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) is most widely used as a mortality prediction score in US intensive care units (ICUs), but its calculation is onerous. The authors aimed to develop and validate automatic mapping of physicians' admission diagnoses to structured concepts for automated APACHE IV calculation. Methods This retrospective study was conducted in medical ICUs of a tertiary healthcare and academic centre. Boolean-logic text searches were used to map admission diagnoses, and these were compared with conventional APACHE database entry by bedside nurses and a gold-standard physician chart review. The primary outcome was APACHE IV predicted hospital mortality. The tool was developed in a larger cohort of ICU patients. Results In a derivation cohort of 192 consecutive critically ill patients, the diagnosis coefficient coded by three different methods had a positive correlation, highest between manual and gold standard (r2=0.95; mean square error (MSE)=0.040) and least between manual and automatic tool (r2=0.88; MSE=0.066). The automatic tool had an area under the curve (95% CI) value of 0.82 (0.74 to 0.90) which was similar to the physician gold standard, 0.83 (0.75 to 0.91) and standard manual entry, 0.81 (0.73 to 0.89). The Hosmer–Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test demonstrated good calibration of automatically calculated APACHE IV score (χ2=6.46; p=0.6). The automatic tool demonstrated excellent discrimination with an area under the curve value of 0.87 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.92) and good calibration (p=0.58) in the validation cohort of 593 patients. Conclusion A Boolean-logic text search is an efficient alternative to manual database entry for mapping of ICU admission diagnosis to structured APACHE IV concepts. PMID:22102639

  1. Innovative Designs for the Smart ICU.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Neil A

    2014-03-01

    Successfully designing a new ICU requires clarity of vision and purpose and the recognition that the patient room is the core of the ICU experience for patients, staff, and visitors. The ICU can be conceptualized into three components: the patient room, central areas, and universal support services. Each patient room should be designed for single patient use and be similarly configured and equipped. The design of the room should focus upon functionality, ease of use, healing, safety, infection control, communications, and connectivity. All aspects of the room, including its infrastructure; zones for work, care, and visiting; environment, medical devices, and approaches to privacy; logistics; and waste management, are important elements in the design process. Since most medical devices used at the ICU bedside are really sophisticated computers, the ICU needs to be capable of supporting the full scope of medical informatics. The patient rooms, the central ICU areas (central stations, corridors, supply rooms, pharmacy, laboratory, staff lounge, visitor waiting room, on-call suite, conference rooms, and offices), and the universal support services (infection prevention, finishings and flooring, staff communications, signage and wayfinding, security, and fire and safety) work best when fully interwoven. This coordination helps establish efficient and safe patient throughput and care and fosters physical and social cohesiveness within the ICU. A balanced approach to centralized and decentralized monitoring and logistics also offers great flexibility. Synchronization of the universal support services in the ICU with the hospital's existing systems maintains unity of purpose and continuity across the enterprise and avoids unnecessary duplication of efforts. Copyright © 2014 The American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Coping Strategies and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Post-ICU Family Decision Makers

    PubMed Central

    Petrinec, Amy B.; Mazanec, Polly M.; Burant, Christopher J.; Hoffer, Alan; Daly, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the coping strategies used by family decision makers of adult critical care patients during and after the critical care experience and the relationship of coping strategies to posttraumatic stress symptoms experienced 60 days after hospitalization. Design A single-group descriptive longitudinal correlational study. Setting Medical, surgical, and neurological ICUs in a large tertiary care university hospital. Patients Consecutive family decision makers of adult critical care patients from August 2012 to November 2013. Study inclusion occurred after the patient's fifth day in the ICU. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Family decision makers of incapacitated adult ICU patients completed the Brief COPE instrument assessing coping strategy use 5 days after ICU admission and 30 days after hospital discharge or death of the patient and completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised assessing post-traumatic stress symptoms 60 days after hospital discharge. Seventy-seven family decision makers of the eligible 176 completed all data collection time points of this study. The use of problem-focused (p = 0.01) and emotion-focused (p < 0.01) coping decreased over time while avoidant coping (p = 0.20) use remained stable. Coping strategies 30 days after hospitalization (R2 = 0.50, p < 0.001) were better predictors of later posttraumatic stress symptoms than coping strategies 5 days after ICU admission (R2 = 0.30, p = 0.001) controlling for patient and decision-maker characteristics. The role of decision maker for a parent and patient death were the only noncoping predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Avoidant coping use 30 days after hospitalization mediated the relationship between patient death and later posttraumatic stress symptom severity. Conclusions Coping strategy use is a significant predictor of posttraumatic stress symptom severity 60 days after hospitalization in family decision makers of ICU patients. PMID:25785520

  3. Coping Strategies and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Post-ICU Family Decision Makers.

    PubMed

    Petrinec, Amy B; Mazanec, Polly M; Burant, Christopher J; Hoffer, Alan; Daly, Barbara J

    2015-06-01

    To assess the coping strategies used by family decision makers of adult critical care patients during and after the critical care experience and the relationship of coping strategies to posttraumatic stress symptoms experienced 60 days after hospitalization. A single-group descriptive longitudinal correlational study. Medical, surgical, and neurological ICUs in a large tertiary care university hospital. Consecutive family decision makers of adult critical care patients from August 2012 to November 2013. Study inclusion occurred after the patient's fifth day in the ICU. None. Family decision makers of incapacitated adult ICU patients completed the Brief COPE instrument assessing coping strategy use 5 days after ICU admission and 30 days after hospital discharge or death of the patient and completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised assessing posttraumatic stress symptoms 60 days after hospital discharge. Seventy-seven family decision makers of the eligible 176 completed all data collection time points of this study. The use of problem-focused (p=0.01) and emotion-focused (p<0.01) coping decreased over time while avoidant coping (p=0.20) use remained stable. Coping strategies 30 days after hospitalization (R2=0.50, p<0.001) were better predictors of later posttraumatic stress symptoms than coping strategies 5 days after ICU admission (R2=0.30, p=0.001) controlling for patient and decision-maker characteristics. The role of decision maker for a parent and patient death were the only noncoping predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Avoidant coping use 30 days after hospitalization mediated the relationship between patient death and later posttraumatic stress symptom severity. Coping strategy use is a significant predictor of posttraumatic stress symptom severity 60 days after hospitalization in family decision makers of ICU patients.

  4. A novel time series analysis approach for prediction of dialysis in critically ill patients using echo-state networks.

    PubMed

    Verplancke, T; Van Looy, S; Steurbaut, K; Benoit, D; De Turck, F; De Moor, G; Decruyenaere, J

    2010-01-21

    Echo-state networks (ESN) are part of a group of reservoir computing methods and are basically a form of recurrent artificial neural networks (ANN). These methods can perform classification tasks on time series data. The recurrent ANN of an echo-state network has an 'echo-state' characteristic. This 'echo-state' functions as a fading memory: samples that have been introduced into the network in a further past, are faded away. The echo-state approach for the training of recurrent neural networks was first described by Jaeger H. et al. In clinical medicine, until this moment, no original research articles have been published to examine the use of echo-state networks. This study examines the possibility of using an echo-state network for prediction of dialysis in the ICU. Therefore, diuresis values and creatinine levels of the first three days after ICU admission were collected from 830 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between May 31 th 2003 and November 17th 2007. The outcome parameter was the performance by the echo-state network in predicting the need for dialysis between day 5 and day 10 of ICU admission. Patients with an ICU length of stay <10 days or patients that received dialysis in the first five days of ICU admission were excluded. Performance by the echo-state network was then compared by means of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) with results obtained by two other time series analysis methods by means of a support vector machine (SVM) and a naive Bayes algorithm (NB). The AUC's in the three developed echo-state networks were 0.822, 0.818, and 0.817. These results were comparable to the results obtained by the SVM and the NB algorithm. This proof of concept study is the first to evaluate the performance of echo-state networks in an ICU environment. This echo-state network predicted the need for dialysis in ICU patients. The AUC's of the echo-state networks were good and comparable to the performance of other

  5. Liver transplantation in patients with end-stage liver disease requiring intensive care unit admission and intubation.

    PubMed

    Knaak, Jan; McVey, Mark; Bazerbachi, Fateh; Goldaracena, Nicolás; Spetzler, Vinzent; Selzner, Nazia; Cattral, Mark; Greig, Paul; Lilly, Les; McGilvray, Ian; Levy, Gary; Ghanekar, Anand; Renner, Eberhard; Grant, David; Hawryluck, Laura; Selzner, Markus

    2015-06-01

    Data regarding transplantation outcomes in ventilated intensive care unit (ICU)-dependent patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) are conflicting. This single-center cohort study investigated the outcomes of patients with ESLD who were intubated with mechanical support before liver transplantation (LT). The ICU plus intubation group consisted of 42 patients with decompensated cirrhosis and mechanical ventilation before transplantation. LT was considered for intubated ICU patients if the fraction of inspired oxygen was ≤40% with a positive end-expiratory pressure ≤ 10, low pressor requirements, and the absence of an active infection. Intubated ICU patients were compared to 80 patients requiring ICU admission before transplantation without intubation and to 126 matched non-ICU-bound patients. Patients requiring ICU care with intubation and ICU care alone had more severe postoperative complications than non-ICU-bound patients. Intubation before transplantation was associated with more postoperative pneumonias (15% in intubated ICU transplant candidates, 5% in ICU-bound but not intubated patients, and 3% in control group patients; P = 0.02). Parameters of reperfusion injury and renal function on postoperative day (POD) 2 and POD 7 were similar in all groups. Bilirubin levels were higher in the ICU plus intubation group at POD 2 and POD 7 after transplantation but were normalized in all groups within 3 months. The ICU plus intubation group versus the ICU-only group and the non-ICU group had decreased 1-, 3-, and 5-year graft survival (81% versus 84% versus 92%, 76% versus 78% versus 87%, and 71% versus 77% versus 84%, respectively; P = 0.19), but statistical significance was not reached. A Glasgow coma scale score of <7 versus >7 before transplantation was associated with high postoperative mortality in ICU-bound patients requiring intubation (38% versus 23%; P = 0.01). In conclusion, ICU admission and mechanical ventilation should not be

  6. Predicting Graduate Business Grades with the Admission Test for Graduate Study in Business. Abstracts and Reviews of Research in Higher Education No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnick, Murray

    Little information is available concerning the validity of the Admission Test for Graduate Study in Business as a predictor of grades in graduate business programs, despite its use for 15 years. The overall pattern of data suggests that the ATGSB is not a strong predictor of graduate business GPA. Four of the 8 studies reviewed showed low…

  7. Admission Factors Predicting Family Medicine Specialty Choice: A Literature Review and Exploratory Study among Students in the Rural Medical Scholars Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Daniel M., Jr.; Wheat, John R.; Leeper, James D.; McKnight, Jerry T.; Ballard, Brent G.; Chen, Jia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The Rural Medical Scholars Program (RMSP) was created to increase production of rural family physicians in Alabama. Literature review reveals reasons medical students choose careers in family medicine, and these reasons can be categorized into domains that medical schools can address through admission, curriculum, and structural…

  8. Propranolol, post-traumatic stress disorder, and intensive care: incorporating new advances in psychiatry into the ICU.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew John; Griffiths, John

    2014-12-19

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common complication of an ICU admission. Rarely is there a continuation of care, which is aimed at screening for and treating this debilitating disease. Current treatment options for PTSD are held back by inconsistent efficacy, poor evidence, and a lack of understanding of its psychopathology. Without 'gold standard' assessment techniques to diagnose PTSD after an ICU admission, the development of care pathways is hindered. This paper advocates for two interwoven advances in psychiatric care (specifically for PTSD) after ICU: (1) incorporate the monitoring and treating of psychiatric co-morbidities during extended patient follow-up, and (2) rapidly adopting the latest research to maximize its benefit. The discovery that memories were not fixed, but malleable to change, set off a sequence of experiments that have revolutionized the approach to treating PTSD. It is hoped that the phenomenon of reconsolidation can be exploited therapeutically. In the act of remembering and re-storing traumatic memories, propranolol can act to dissociate the state of sympathetic arousal from their recollection. Often, ICU patients have multiple physical co-morbidities that may be exacerbated, or their treatment disrupted, by such a pervasive psychological condition. The rapid uptake of new techniques, aimed at reducing PTSD after ICU admission, is necessary to maximize the quality of care given to patients. Increasingly, the realization that the role of intensive care specialists may extend beyond the ICU is changing clinical practice. As this field advances, intensivists and psychiatrists alike must collaborate by using the latest psychopharmacology to treat their patients and combat the psychological consequences of experiencing the extremes of physiological existence.

  9. Intensive Care Unit Admission for Patients in the INTERACT2 ICH Blood Pressure Treatment Trial: Characteristics, Predictors, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wartenberg, Katja E; Wang, Xia; Muñoz-Venturelli, Paula; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Lavados, Pablo M; Anderson, Craig S; Robinson, Thompson

    2017-06-01

    Wide variation exists in criteria for accessing intensive care unit (ICU) facilities for managing patients with critical illnesses such as acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We aimed to determine the predictors of admission, length of stay, and outcome for ICU among participants of the main Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT2). INTERACT2 was an international, open, blinded endpoint, randomized controlled trial of 2839 ICH patients (<6 h) and elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) allocated to receive intensive (target SBP <140 mmHg within 1 h) or guideline-recommended (target SBP <180 mmHg) BP-lowering treatment. The primary outcome was death or major disability, defined by modified Rankin scale scores 3-6 at 90 days. Logistic regression and propensity score analyses were used to determine independent associations. Predictors of ICU admission included younger age, recruitment in China, prior ischemic/undetermined stroke, high SBP, severe stroke [National Institute of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) score ≥15], large ICH volume (≥15 mL), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) extension, early neurological deterioration, intubation and surgery. Determinants of prolonged ICU stay (≥5 days) were prior antihypertensive use, NIHSS ≥15, large ICH volume, lobar ICH location, IVH, early neurological deterioration, intubation and surgery. ICU admission was associated with higher-risk major disability at 90-day assessment compared to those without ICU admission. This study presents prognostic variables for ICU management and outcome of ICH patients included in a large international cohort. These data may assist in the selection and counseling of patients and families concerning ICU admission.

  10. [Analysis of death risk factors for nosocomial infection patients in an ICU: a retrospective review of 864 patients from 2009 to 2015].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinrong; Gao, Pan; Guo, Shufen; Liu, Yajing; Shao, Liye; Kang, Hongshan; Zhang, Jinchao; Liu, Shuhong; Gao, Xiuling; Cui, Zhaobo

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the mortality risk factors of nosocomial infection patients in intensive care unit (ICU), and to guide clinicians to take effective control measures. A retrospectively cohort study was conducted. The relevant information of patients with nosocomial infection treated in ICU of Hengshui Harrison International Peace Hospital Affiliated to Hebei Medical University from June 2009 to December 2015 was analyzed. The patients who admitted to ICU again, with length of ICU stay less than 48 hours, without first etiology of screening within 48 hours of ICU admission, or without complete pathogenic information were excluded. The gender, age, diagnosis, length of ICU stay, invasive operation, nutritional status, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHEII) score, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, distribution and drug resistance of the pathogens, and procalcitonin (PCT) levels at 7 days after nosocomial infection were recorded. The risk factors leading to death in patients with nosocomial infection were analyzed by logistic regression, and the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was drawn to evaluate the predictive value of all risk factors on the outcome of patients with nosocomial infection. In 864 enrolled patients with male of 54.75% and mean age of (63.50±15.80) years, 732 (84.72%) patients survived and 132 (15.28%) died. Compared with survivors, the non-survivors had higher age (years: 65.47±15.32 vs. 58.15±13.27), incidence of urgent trachea intubation (32.58% vs. 22.81%), deep venous catheterization (83.33% vs. 63.25%), and multiple drug-resistant infection (65.91% vs. 33.20%), longer length of ICU stay (days: 13.56±4.29 vs. 10.29±4.32) and duration of coma (days: 7.36±2.46 vs. 5.48±2.14), lower albumin (g/L: 23.64±8.47 vs. 26.36±12.84), higher APACHEII score (19.28±5.16 vs. 17.56±5.62), SOFA score (8.55±1.34 vs. 6.43±2.65), and PCT (μg/L: 3.06±1.36 vs. 2.53±0.87, all P < 0.05). There was no

  11. Predictive value of C-reactive protein in critically ill patients after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Sapin, Frédéric; Biston, Patrick; Piagnerelli, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The development of sepsis after abdominal surgery is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Due to inflammation, it may be difficult to diagnose infection when it occurs, but measurement of C-reactive protein could facilitate this diagnosis. In the present study, we evaluated the predictive value and time course of C-reactive protein in relation to outcome in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after abdominal surgery. We included patients admitted to the ICU after abdominal surgery over a period of two years. The patients were divided into two groups according to their outcome: favorable (F; left the ICU alive, without modification of the antibiotic regimen) and unfavorable (D; death in the ICU, surgical revision with or without modification of the antibiotic regimen or just modification of the regimen). We then compared the highest C-reactive protein level on the first day of admission between the two groups. A total of 308 patients were included: 86 patients had an unfavorable outcome (group D) and 222 had a favorable outcome (group F). The groups were similar in terms of leukocytosis, neutrophilia, and platelet count. C-reactive protein was significantly higher at admission in group D and was the best predictor of an unfavorable outcome, with a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 72% for a threshold of 41 mg/L. No changes in C-reactive protein, as assessed based on the delta C-reactive protein, especially at days 4 and 5, were associated with a poor prognosis. A C-reactive protein cut-off of 41 mg/L during the first day of ICU admission after abdominal surgery was a predictor of an adverse outcome. However, no changes in the C-reactive protein concentration, especially by day 4 or 5, could identify patients at risk of death.

  12. Out-of-hours intensive care unit admission and 90-day mortality: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Buck, D L; Christiansen, C F; Christensen, S; Møller, M H

    2018-03-30

    Mortality rates in critically ill adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) remains high, and numerous patient- and disease-related adverse prognostic factors have been identified. In recent years, studies in a variety of emergency conditions suggested that outcome is dependent on the time of hospital admission. The importance of out-of-hours admission to the ICU has been sparsely evaluated and with ambiguous findings. We assessed the association between out-of-hours (16:00 to 07:00) and weekend admission to the ICU, respectively, and 90-day mortality in a nationwide cohort. We included all Danish adult patients admitted to the ICU between 1 January 2011 and 30 June 2014, with an ICU stay > 24 h. The crude and adjusted association between out-of-hours and weekend admission and 90-day mortality was assessed (odds ratio (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI)). A total of 44,797 patients were included, 53.3% were admitted out-of-hours, and 22.6% during weekends. Median age was 67 years (interquartile range (IQR) 55-76), and median SAPS II was 42 (IQR 30-54). Patients admitted in-hours vs. out-of-hours displayed a 90-day mortality rate of 41.0% vs. 44.2%. The adjusted association (OR with 95% CI) between out-of-hours admission and 90-day mortality was 1.07 (1.02-1.11), and the adjusted association (OR with 95% CI) between weekend admission and 90-day mortality was 1.10 (1.05-1.15). This nationwide study suggests that critically ill adult patients admitted to the ICU during weekends and out-of-hours, and with an ICU stay > 24 h are at slightly increased risk of mortality. © 2018 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Outcomes and Costs of Patients Admitted to the ICU Due to Spontaneous Intracranial Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Shannon M; Reardon, Peter M; Dowlatshahi, Dar; English, Shane W; Thavorn, Kednapa; Tanuseputro, Peter; Perry, Jeffrey J; Rosenberg, Erin; Wijdicks, Eelco F; Heyland, Daren K; Kyeremanteng, Kwadwo

    2018-05-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage, including subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although many of these patients will require ICU admission, little is known regarding their outcomes and the costs incurred. We evaluated this population in order to identify outcomes and cost patterns. Retrospective cohort analysis of a health administrative database. Two ICUs within a single hospital system. Eight-thousand four-hundred forty-seven patients admitted to ICU from 2011 to 2014, of whom 332 had a diagnosis of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage. Control patients were defined as randomly selected age, sex, and comorbidity index-matched nonintracranial hemorrhage ICU patients (1:4 matching ratio). None. Mean age of ICU intracranial hemorrhage patients was 60.1 years, and 120 (36.1%) died prior to discharge. Intracranial hemorrhage was associated with a mean total cost of $75,869, compared with $52,471 in control patients (p < 0.01). Mean cost per survivor of intracranial hemorrhage patients was $118,813. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was associated with significantly higher mean total costs than intracerebral hemorrhage ($92,794 vs $53,491; p < 0.01) and higher mean cost per day ($4,377 vs $3,604; p < 0.01). Patients with intracranial hemorrhage who survived to hospital discharge were significantly costlier than decedents ($100,979 vs $30,872; p < 0.01). Intracranial hemorrhage associated with oral anticoagulant use had a mean total cost of $152,373, compared with $66,548 in nonoral anticoagulant intracranial hemorrhage (p < 0.01). Patients admitted to ICU with intracranial hemorrhage have high costs and high mortality, leading to elevated cost per survivor. Subarachnoid hemorrhage patients incur greater costs than intracerebral hemorrhage patients, and oral anticoagulant-associated intracerebral hemorrhage is particularly costly. Our findings provide novel information regarding financial impact of this

  14. Questioning the need for ICU level of care in pediatric patients following elective uncomplicated craniotomy for brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Brandon C; Martin, Joel; Crawford, John R; Levy, Michael

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The object of this study is to address what factors may necessitate the need for intensive care monitoring after elective uncomplicated craniotomy in pediatric patients who are initially managed in a non-intensive care unit setting postoperatively. METHODS A retrospective chart review was undertaken for all patients who underwent elective craniotomy for brain tumor between April of 2007 and April of 2012 and who were directly admitted to the floor postoperatively. Factors such as age, tumor type, craniotomy location, neurological comorbidities, reason for transfer to intensive care unit (ICU) level of care (if applicable), time between admittance to floor and transfer to ICU level of care, and reason for transfer to ICU level of care were assessed. RESULTS Adjusted logistic regression found 2 significant positive predictors of postoperative transfer to the ICU after initial admission to the floor: primitive neuroectodermal tumor pathology (OR 44.10, 95% CI 1.24-1572.16, p = 0.04), and repeat craniotomy during the same hospitalization (OR 13.97, 95% CI 1.21-160.66, p = 0.03). Conversely, 1 negative factor was found: low-grade glioma pathology (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.00-0.87, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS Select pediatric patients may not require ICU level of care after elective uncomplicated pediatric craniotomy. Additional studies are needed to adequately address which patients would benefit from initial ICU admittance following elective craniotomies for brain tumors.

  15. The Challenge of Predicting Pressure Ulcers in Critically Ill Patients. A Multicenter Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Ranzani, Otavio T; Simpson, Evelyn Senna; Japiassú, André M; Noritomi, Danilo Teixeira

    2016-10-01

    Pressure ulcers are preventable events. Critically ill patients are particularly vulnerable. The Braden scale has been used to identify hospitalized patients at high risk for the development of pressure ulcers; however, this predictive tool has not been adequately validated for critically ill patients. We aimed to validate and improve the Braden scale for critically ill patients by adding clinical variables to the original scale. We conducted a cohort study in 12 intensive care units (ICUs) within a network of hospitals in Brazil during 2013. We excluded patients who stayed less than 48 hours, patients with one or more pressure ulcers at admission, and those who developed a pressure ulcer within the first 48 hours. We evaluated the Braden scale and clinical variables through a competing risk analysis. Discrimination and calibration were evaluated using the Concordance index (C-index) and a calibration plot, respectively. We used bootstrapping to assess internal validation. Our primary outcome was incident pressure ulcer within 30 days of ICU admission. We analyzed 9,605 patients and observed 157 pressure ulcers (rate of 3.33 pressure ulcers/1,000 patient-days). The majority of pressure ulcers were detected at stage I or II (28.7 and 66.2%, respectively). The Braden scale had good discrimination (C-index, 0.753; 95% confidence interval, 0.712-0.795), although its performance decreased for the most severely ill patients. We derived a modified predictive tool by adding eight clinical variables to the Braden scale: age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hematological malignancy, peripheral artery disease, hypotension at ICU admission, and need for mechanical ventilation or renal replacement therapy in the first 24 hours after ICU admission. The derived score had better discrimination and calibration than the original Braden scale. The best score cutoff was at least 6 points, with a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 71%. The original Braden scale measured at ICU admission

  16. Early goal-directed nutrition in ICU patients (EAT-ICU): protocol for a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Kondrup, Jens; Wiis, Jørgen; Claudius, Casper; Pedersen, Ulf Gøttrup; Hein-Rasmussen, Rikke; Jensen, Tom Hartvig; Lange, Theis; Perner, Anders

    2016-09-01

    Extensive weight loss has been docu-mented in intensive care unit (ICU) survivors, primarily as the result of muscle loss, leading to impaired physical function and reduced quality of life. The aim of the EAT-ICU trial is to test the effect of early goal-directed protein-energy nutrition based on measured requirements on short-term clinical outcomes and long-term physical quality of life in ICU patients. The EAT-ICU trial is a single-centre, randomised, parallel-group trial with concealed allocation and blinded outcome assessment. A total of 200 consecutive, acutely admitted, mechanically ventilated intensive care patients will be randomised 1:1 to early goal-directed nutrition versus standard of care to show a potential 15% relative risk reduction in the primary outcome measure (physical function) at six months (two-sided significance level α = 0.05; power β = 80%). Secondary outcomes include energy- and protein balances, metabolic control, new organ failure, use of life support, nosocomial infections, ICU- and hospital length of stay, mortality and cost analyses. The optimal nutrition strategy for ICU patients remains unsettled. The EAT-ICU trial will provide important data on the effects of early goal-directed protein-energy nutrition based on measured requirements in these patients. The EAT-ICU trial is funded by Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet and Fresenius Kabi A/S and supported by The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN). Clinicaltrials.gov identifier no. NCT01372176.

  17. Spiritual Care in the ICU: Perspectives of Dutch Intensivists, ICU Nurses, and Spiritual Caregivers.

    PubMed

    Willemse, Suzan; Smeets, Wim; van Leeuwen, Evert; Janssen, Loes; Foudraine, Norbert

    2018-04-01

    Since there are no scientific data available about the role of spiritual care (SC) in Dutch ICUs, the goal of this quantitative study was twofold: first, to map the role of SC as a part of daily adult ICU care in The Netherlands from the perspective of intensivists, ICU nurses, and spiritual caregivers and second, to identify similarities and differences among these three perspectives. This study is the quantitative part of a mixed methods approach. To conduct empirical quantitative cohort research, separate digital questionnaires were sent to three different participant groups in Dutch ICUs, namely intensivists, ICU nurses, and spiritual caregivers working in academic and general hospitals and one specialist oncology hospital. Overall, 487 participants of 85 hospitals (99 intensivists, 290 ICU nurses, and 98 spiritual caregivers) responded. The majority of all respondents (>70%) considered the positive effects of SC provision to patients and relatives: contribution to mental well-being, processing and channeling of emotions, and increased patient and family satisfaction. The three disciplines diverged in their perceptions of how SC is currently evolving in terms of information, assessment, and provision. Nationwide, SC is not implemented in daily ICU care. The majority of respondents, however, attached great importance to interdisciplinary collaboration. In their view SC contributes positively to the well-being of patients and relatives in the ICU. Further qualitative research into how patients and relatives experience SC in the ICU is required in order to implement and standardize SC as a scientifically based integral part of daily ICU care.

  18. Functional Status Score for the Intensive Care Unit (FSS-ICU): An International Clinimetric Analysis of Validity, Responsiveness, and Minimal Important Difference

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Minxuan; Chan, Kitty S.; Zanni, Jennifer M.; Parry, Selina M.; Neto, Saint-Clair G. B.; Neto, Jose A. A.; da Silva, Vinicius Z. M.; Kho, Michelle E.; Needham, Dale M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the internal consistency, validity, responsiveness, and minimal important difference of the Functional Status Score for the Intensive Care Unit (FSS-ICU), a physical function measure designed for the intensive care unit (ICU). Design Clinimetric analysis. Settings Five international data sets from the United States, Australia, and Brazil. Patients 819 ICU patients. Intervention None. Measurements and Main Results Clinimetric analyses were initially conducted separately for each data source and time point to examine generalizability of findings, with pooled analyses performed thereafter to increase power of analyses. The FSS-ICU demonstrated good to excellent internal consistency. There was good convergent and discriminant validity, with significant and positive correlations (r = 0.30 to 0.95) between FSS-ICU and other physical function measures, and generally weaker correlations with non-physical measures (|r| = 0.01 to 0.70). Known group validity was demonstrated by significantly higher FSS-ICU scores among patients without ICU-acquired weakness (Medical Research Council sumscore ≥48 versus <48) and with hospital discharge to home (versus healthcare facility). FSS-ICU at ICU discharge predicted post-ICU hospital length of stay and discharge location. Responsiveness was supported via increased FSS-ICU scores with improvements in muscle strength. Distribution-based methods indicated a minimal important difference of 2.0 to 5.0. Conclusions The FSS-ICU has good internal consistency and is a valid and responsive measure of physical function for ICU patients. The estimated minimal important difference can be used in sample size calculations and in interpreting studies comparing the physical function of groups of ICU patients. PMID:27488220

  19. The Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)--number and type of positive criteria predict interventions and outcomes in acute surgical admissions.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, James A; Gravante, Gianpiero; Butler, Nicholas A; Sorge, Roberto; Sayers, Rob D; Bown, Matt J

    2010-11-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a syndrome that reflects the widespread activation of inflammatory pathways. The goal of this study was to find whether the presence or absence of SIRS on emergency surgical admissions is related to the subsequent clinical outcome in terms of in-hospital interventions, length of stay, and mortality. The presence of SIRS at admission, final diagnosis of the underlying disease, treatments, and clinical outcomes were prospectively recorded for 1 month. Comparisons of interventions and outcomes were performed between SIRS+ vs. SIRS- patients. In patients with SIRS, the contribution of each positive criterion was evaluated with regards to mortality. A total of 179 patients were recruited. The prevalence of SIRS at admission was 35.2%. SIRS+ patients required less diagnostic procedures compared with SIRS- (28.6% vs. 34.5%) but had more therapeutic interventions (39.7% vs. 16.4%), surgical interventions (33.3% vs. 3.4%), intensive treatments (11.1% vs. 0.9%; p < 0.05), longer hospital stay (median 6 days vs. 2 days), and more frequent deaths (11.1% vs. 2.6%). SIRS+ patients with four positive criteria had more surgical interventions, intensive treatments, and fatal outcomes compared with the others. Of importance the most influent factor was the respiratory rate followed by the white cell count and the heart rate/temperature. Patients with SIRS at admission apparently receive more interventions, have longer length of stay, and increased mortality than those patients without SIRS. These findings require separate validation in a larger cohort study.

  20. Predictive value of admission N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and renal function in older people hospitalized for dyspnoea.

    PubMed

    Fabbian, Fabio; De Giorgi, Alfredo; Pala, Marco; Volpato, Stefano; Portaluppi, Francesco; Zuliani, Giovanni; Manfredini, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between NT-pro-BNP, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and all-cause mortality rates in a cohort of older people discharged from an internal medicine unit after admission for dyspnoea. NT-pro-BNP was evaluated in serum samples of 134 patients aged 80 ± 6 years who presented to a single academic centre with worsening dyspnoea. History data and anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical parameters including GFR were collected at the time of admission. 119 out of 134 were discharged alive from hospital and were included in the follow-up of 779 ± 370 days. 35 out of 119 subjects died after a follow-up of 266 ± 251 days. Cox proportional hazards model showed that GFR and Ln (NT-pro-BNP) were predictors for all-cause mortality with estimated hazard ratios of 0.969 (95% confidence interval: 0.950-0.988; P = 0.001) and 2.360 (95% confidence interval: 1.208-4.610; P = 0.012), respectively. Patients characterized by high NT-pro-BNP levels and GFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) showed a dramatic reduction in survival duration compared with the groups with different combinations of the two variables (P = 0.008). In the elderly, NT-pro-BNP and GFR are predictors of all-cause mortality after admission because of dyspnoea. Since the fact that subjects with high NT-pro-BNP and GFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) exhibited a reduced survival, high admission NT-pro-BNP suggests future negative outcome.

  1. Effect upon mortality of the extension to holidays and weekends of the "ICU without walls" project. A before-after study.

    PubMed

    Abella, A; Enciso, V; Torrejón, I; Hermosa, C; Mozo, T; Molina, R; Janeiro, D; Díaz, M; Homez, M; Gordo, F; Salinas, I

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether extension to holidays and weekends of the protocol for the early proactive detection of severity in hospital ("ICU without walls" project) results in decreased mortality among patients admitted to the ICU during those days. A quasi-experimental before-after study was carried out. A level 2 hospital with 210 beds and a polyvalent ICU with 8 beds. The control group involved no "ICU without walls" activity on holidays or weekends and included those patients admitted to the ICU on those days between 1 January 2010 and 30 April 2013. The intervention group in turn extended the "ICU without walls" activity to holidays and weekends, and included those patients admitted on those days between 1 May 2013 and 31 October 2014. Patients arriving from the operating room after scheduled surgery were excluded. An analysis was made of the demographic variables (age, gender), origin (emergency room, hospital ward, operating room), type of patient (medical, surgical), reason for admission, comorbidities and SAPS 3 score as a measure of severity upon admission, stay in the ICU and in hospital, and mortality in the ICU and in hospital. A total of 389 and 161 patients were included in the control group and intervention group, respectively. There were no differences between the 2 groups except as regards cardiovascular comorbidity (49% in the control group versus 33% in the intervention group; P<.001), severity upon admission (median SAPS 3 score 52 [percentiles 25-75: 42-63) in the control group versus 48 [percentiles 25-75: 40-56] in the intervention group; P=.008) and mortality in the ICU (11% in the control group [95% CI 8-14] versus 3% [95% CI 1-7] in the intervention group; P=.003). In the multivariate analysis, the only 2 factors associated to mortality in the ICU were the SAPS 3 score (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.06-1.11) and inclusion in the intervention group (OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.12-0.89). Extension of the "ICU without walls" activity to holidays and weekends results

  2. End-tidal CO2 on admission is associated with hemorrhagic shock and predicts the need for massive transfusion as defined by the critical administration threshold: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Stone, Melvin E; Kalata, Stanley; Liveris, Anna; Adorno, Zachary; Yellin, Shira; Chao, Edward; Reddy, Srinivas H; Jones, Michael; Vargas, Carlos; Teperman, Sheldon

    2017-01-01

    Critical administration threshold (≥3 units of packed red blood cells/h or CAT+) has been proposed as a new definition for massive transfusion (MT) that includes volume and rate of blood transfusion. CAT+ has been shown to eliminate survivor bias and be a better predictor of mortality than the traditional MT (>10 units/24h). End-tidal CO 2 (ET CO 2 ) negatively correlates with lactate and is an early predictor of shock in trauma patients. We conducted a pilot study to test the hypothesis that low ET CO 2 on admission predicts CAT+. ET CO 2 via capnography and serum lactate were prospectively collected on admission for 131 patients requiring trauma team activation. Demographic data were obtained from patient charts. Excluded were patients with isolated head injuries, traumatic arrests, or pre-hospital intubations. CAT± status was determined for each hour up to 6h from admission as described; likewise, MT± status was determined up to 24h from admission. After exclusion criteria, 67 patients were analyzed. Mean age was 41.2 (SD 18.5). Thirty-three patients had a blunt mechanism of injury (49%), median ISS was 9 (interquartile range 4-19), and there were 6 deaths (9%). ET CO 2 and lactate were negatively correlated by Spearman rank-based correlation (rho=-0.41, p=0.0006). Twenty-one (31%) and 8 (12%) patients were CAT+ and traditional MT+, respectively. There were a significantly greater proportion of patients with ISS>15, ET CO 2 <35, or who died found to be CAT+. A binomial logistic regression model adjusting for age, SBP <90, HR, and ISS >15 revealed ET CO 2 < 35 to be independently predictive of CAT+ (OR 9.24, 95% CI 1.51-56.57, p=0.016). This pilot study demonstrated that low ET CO 2 had strong association with standard indicators for shock and was predictive of patients meeting CAT+ criteria in the first 6h after admission. Further study to verify these results and to elucidate CAT criteria's association with mortality will require a larger sample size

  3. [ICU performance: results of a French study involving 80,000 ICU stays].

    PubMed

    Villers, D; Fulgencio, J P; Gouzes, C; Hémery, F; Blériot, J P; Garrigues, B; Le Gall, J R; Lepage, E; Moine, P; Teboul, V

    2006-01-01

    The Standard Mortality Ratio (SMR), comparing the observed in-hospital mortality to the predicted, may measure the intensive care units (ICU) performance. Multicentric retrospective national study. A probability model using a severity score such SAPS II calculated the predicted mortality rate. A national French study has been undertaken to compare the SMR of ICUs and looked for explanation. One hundred six units, 34 were medical (32%), 18 surgical (17%) and 57 medical/surgical (51%) participated to the study. Forty-six ICUs (43%) were located in teaching hospitals. The SMR of the 87,099 stays was 0.84 (0.82-0.85). The SMR of ICUs varied from 0.41 to 1.55. Ten units had a SMR>0.85, which suggested a low performance. They had more stays for cardiovascular failures, as compared with others. The best units (SMR<0.82) had more stays for drug overdose. The SMR increased with the number of organ failures, from 0.47 with zero failure to 1.11 with 4 or more organ failures. The stays with cardiovascular failure, either unique or associated, had a higher SMR. The 7935 stays with a drug overdose had a SMR of 0.12 (0.10-0.14), which suggested a bad calibration of the model in theses cases. The case mix must be taken in account when comparing the ICUs performance by the mean of SMR, particularly when the units admitted a lot of drug overdoses.

  4. Enabling ICU patients to die at home.

    PubMed

    Battle, Emma; Bates, Lucy; Liderth, Emma; Jones, Samantha; Sheen, Sheryl; Ginty, Andrew; Northmore, Melanie

    2014-10-07

    There is often an overlap between intensive care medicine and palliative medicine. When all curative treatment options have been explored, keeping the patient comfortable and free from pain is the main concern for healthcare practitioners. Patient autonomy in end of life decisions has not been encouraged in the intensive care unit (ICU), until now, because of its specialised and technical nature. Staff at the Royal Bolton Hospital have broken down the barriers to enabling ICU patients to die in their own homes, and have developed a system of collaborative working that can help to fulfil a patient's final wish to go home. This article describes how ICU staff developed a process that enabled two ventilated patients to be transferred home for end of life care.

  5. Technology in International Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In a relatively short time, technology applications have become an essential feature of the admissions business. They make the jobs of international admissions professionals easier in many ways, allowing for more robust communication with applicants and counselors, a streamlined application process, and quicker access to information about…

  6. Incidence and preventability of adverse events requiring intensive care admission: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vlayen, Annemie; Verelst, Sandra; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Schrooten, Ward; Hellings, Johan; Claes, Neree

    2012-04-01

    Adverse events are unintended patient injuries or complications that arise from health care management resulting in death, disability or prolonged hospital stay. Adverse events that require critical care are a considerable financial burden to the health care system, but also their global impact on patients and society is probably underestimated. The objectives of this systematic review were to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the estimates of the incidence and preventability of adverse events that necessitate intensive care admission, to determine the type and consequences [mortality, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and costs] of these adverse events. MEDLINE (from 1966 to present), EMBASE (from 1974 to present) and CENTRAL (version 1-2010) were searched for studies reporting on unplanned admissions on ICUs. Several other sources were searched for additional studies. Only quantitative studies that used chart review for the detection of adverse events requiring intensive care admission were considered for eligibility. For the purposes of this systematic review, ICUs were defined as specialized hospital facilities which provide continuous monitoring and intensive care for acutely ill patients. Studies that were published in the English, Dutch, German, French or Spanish language were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. A total of 27 studies were reviewed. Meta-analysis of the data was not appropriate because of methodological and statistical heterogeneity between studies; therefore, results are presented in a descriptive way. The percentage of surgical and medical adverse events that required ICU admission ranged from 1.1% to 37.2%. ICU readmissions varied from 0% to 18.3%. Preventability of the adverse events varied from 17% to 76.5%. Preventable adverse events are further synthesized by type of event. Consequences of the adverse events included a

  7. Long-Term Mental Health Problems After Delirium in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Annemiek E; Peelen, Linda M; Welling, Maartje C; Kok, Lotte; de Lange, Dylan W; Cremer, Olaf L; van Dijk, Diederik; Slooter, Arjen J C; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S

    2016-10-01

    To determine whether delirium during ICU stay is associated with long-term mental health problems defined as symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Prospective cohort study. Survey study, 1 year after discharge from a medical-surgical ICU in the Netherlands. One-year ICU survivors of an ICU admission lasting more than 48 hours, without a neurologic disorder or other condition that would impede delirium assessment during ICU stay. None. One year after discharge, ICU survivors received a survey containing the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale with a subscale for symptoms of depression and a subscale for symptoms of anxiety, and the Impact of Event Scale 15 item measuring symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Participants were classified as having experienced no delirium (n = 270; 48%), a single day of delirium (n = 86; 15%), or multiple days of delirium (n = 211; 37%) during ICU stay. Log-binomial regression was used to assess the association between delirium and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The study population consisted of 567 subjects; of whom 246 subjects (43%) reported symptoms of anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale with a subscale for anxiety, ≥ 8), and 254 (45%) symptoms of depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale with a subscale for depression, ≥ 8). In 220 patients (39%), the Impact of Event Scale 15 item was greater than or equal to 35, indicating a high probability of posttraumatic stress disorder. There was substantial overlap between these mental health problems-63% of the subjects who scored positive for the presence of any three of the mental health problems, scored positive for all three. No association was observed between either a single day or multiple days of delirium and symptoms of anxiety, depression, or posttraumatic stress disorder. Although symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder were found to be common 1 year after

  8. Disability in activities of daily living, depression, and quality of life among older medical ICU survivors: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Vest, Michael T; Murphy, Terrence E; Araujo, Katy L B; Pisani, Margaret A

    2011-02-05

    Accurate measurement of quality of life in older ICU survivors is difficult but critical for understanding the long-term impact of our treatments. Activities of daily living (ADLs) are important components of functional status and more easily measured than quality of life (QOL). We sought to determine the cross-sectional associations between disability in ADLs and QOL as measured by version one of the Short Form 12-item Health Survey (SF-12) at both one month and one year post-ICU discharge. Data was prospectively collected on 309 patients over age 60 admitted to the Yale-New Haven Hospital Medical ICU between 2002 and 2004. Among survivors an assessment of ADL's and QOL was performed at one month and one-year post-ICU discharge. The SF-12 was scored using the version one norm based scoring with 1990 population norms. Multivariable regression was used to adjust the association between ADLs and QOL for important covariates. Our analysis of SF-12 data from 110 patients at one month post-ICU discharge showed that depression and ADL disability were associated with decreased QOL. Our model accounted for 17% of variability in SF12 physical scores (PCS) and 20% of variability in SF12 mental scores (MCS). The mean PCS of 37 was significantly lower than the population mean whereas the mean MCS score of 51 was similar to the population mean. At one year mean PCS scores improved and ADL disability was no longer significantly associated with QOL. Mortality was 17% (53 patients) at ICU discharge, 26% (79 patients) at hospital discharge, 33% (105 patients) at one month post ICU admission, and was 45% (138 patients) at one year post ICU discharge. In our population of older ICU survivors, disability in ADLs was associated with reduced QOL as measured by the SF-12 at one month but not at one year. Although be