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Sample records for predict icu admission

  1. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin at ICU admission predicts for acute kidney injury in adult patients.

    PubMed

    de Geus, Hilde R H; Bakker, Jan; Lesaffre, Emmanuel M E H; le Noble, Jos L M L

    2011-04-01

    Measured at intensive care unit admission (ICU), the predictive value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) for severe acute kidney injury (AKI) is unclear. To assess the ability of plasma and urine NGAL to predict severe AKI in adult critically ill patients. Prospective-cohort study consisting of 632 consecutive patients. Samples were analyzed by Triage immunoassay for NGAL expression. The primary outcome measure was occurrence of AKI based on Risk-Injury-Failure (RIFLE) classification during the first week of ICU stay. A total of 171 (27%) patients developed AKI. Of these 67, 48, and 56 were classified as RIFLE R, I, and F, respectively. Plasma and urine NGAL values at ICU admission were significantly related to AKI severity. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for plasma and urine NGAL were for RIFLE R (0.77 ± 0.05 and 0.80 ± 0.04, respectively), RIFLE I (0.80 ± 0.06 and 0.85 ± 0.04, respectively), and RIFLE F (0.86 ± 0.06 and 0.88 ± 0.04, respectively) and comparable with those of admission estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (0.84 ± 0.04, 0.87 ± 0.04, and 0.92 ± 0.04, respectively). Plasma and urine NGAL significantly contributed to the accuracy of the "most efficient clinical model" with the best four variables including eGFR, improving the area under the curve for RIFLE F prediction to 0.96 ± 0.02 and 0.95 ± 0.01. Serial NGAL measurements did not provide additional information for the prediction of RIFLE F. NGAL measured at ICU admission predicts the development of severe AKI similarly to serum creatinine-derived eGFR. However, NGAL adds significant accuracy to this prediction in combination with eGFR alone or with other clinical parameters and has an interesting predictive value in patients with normal serum creatinine.

  2. A comparison of pre ICU admission SIRS, EWS and q SOFA scores for predicting mortality and length of stay in ICU.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Shahla; Chua, Maureen; Kumaresh, Venkatesan; Choo, Robin

    2017-05-25

    The 2015 sepsis definitions suggest using the quick SOFA score for risk stratification of sepsis patients among other changes in sepsis definition. Our aim was to validate the q sofa score for diagnosing sepsis and comparing it to traditional scores of pre ICU admission sepsis outcome prediction such as EWS and SIRS in our setting in order to predict mortality and length of stay. This was a retrospective cohort study. We retrospectively calculated the q sofa, SIRS and EWS scores of all ICU patients admitted with the diagnosis of sepsis at our center in 2015. This was analysed using STATA 12. Logistic regression and ROC curves were used for analysis in addition to descriptive analysis. 58 patients were included in the study. Based on our one year results we have shown that although q SOFA is more sensitive in predicting LOS in ICU of sepsis patients, the EWS score is more sensitive and specific in predicting mortality in the ICU of such patients when compared to q SOFA and SIRS scores. In conclusion, we find that in our setting, EWS is better than SIRS and q SOFA for predicting mortality and perhaps length of stay as well. The q Sofa score remains validated for diagnosis of sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Embedding measurement within existing computerized data systems: scaling clinical laboratory and medical records heart failure data to predict ICU admission.

    PubMed

    Fisher, William P; Burton, Elizabeth C

    2010-01-01

    This study employs existing data sources to develop a new measure of intensive care unit (ICU) admission risk for heart failure patients. Outcome measures were constructed from laboratory, accounting, and medical record data for 973 adult inpatients with primary or secondary heart failure. Several scoring interpretations of the laboratory indicators were evaluated relative to their measurement and predictive properties. Cases were restricted to tests within first lab draw that included at least 15 indicators. After optimizing the original clinical observations, a satisfactory heart failure severity scale was calibrated on a 0-1000 continuum. Patients with unadjusted CHF severity measures of 550 or less were 2.7 times more likely to be admitted to the ICU than those with higher measures. Patients with low HF severity measures (550 or less) adjusted for demographic and diagnostic risk factors are about six times more likely to be admitted to the ICU than those with higher adjusted measures. A nomogram facilitates routine clinical application. Existing computerized data systems could be programmed to automatically structure clinical laboratory reports using the results of studies like this one to reduce data volume with no loss of information, make laboratory results more meaningful to clinical end users, improve the quality of care, reduce errors and unneeded tests, prevent unnecessary ICU admissions, lower costs, and improve patient satisfaction. Existing data typically examined piecemeal form a coherent scale measuring heart failure severity sensitive to increased likelihood of ICU admission. Marked improvements in ROC curves were found for the aggregate measures relative to individual clinical indicators.

  4. Risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation or infection in intensive care units and their reliability for predicting MRSA on ICU admission.

    PubMed

    Callejo-Torre, Fernando; Eiros Bouza, Jose Maria; Olaechea Astigarraga, Pedro; Coma Del Corral, Maria Jesus; Palomar Martínez, Mercedes; Alvarez-Lerma, Francisco; López-Pueyo, Maria Jesús

    2016-09-01

    Predicting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in intensive care units (ICUs) avoids inappropriate antimicrobial empirical treatment and enhances infection control. We describe risk factors for colonisation/infection related to MRSA (MRSA-C/I) in critically ill patients once in the ICU and on ICU admission, and search for an easy-to-use predictive model for MRSA colonisation/infection on ICU admission. This multicentre cohort study included 69,894 patients admitted consecutively (stay>24h) in April-June in the five-year period 2006-2010 from 147 Spanish ICUs participating in the National Surveillance Study of Nosocomial Infections in ICUs (ENVIN-HELICS). Data from all patients included were used to identify risk factors for MRSA-C/I during ICU stays, from admission to discharge, using uni- and multivariable analysis (Poisson regression) to check that the sample to be used to develop the predictive models was representative of standard critical care population. To identify risk factors for MRSA-C/I on ICU admission and to develop prediction models, multivariable logistic regression analysis were then performed only on those admitted in 2010 (n=16950, 2/3 for analysis and 1/3 for subsequent validation). We found that, in the period 2006-2010, 1046 patients were MRSA-C/I. Independent risk factors for MRSA-C/I in ICU were: age>65, trauma or medical patient, high APACHE-II score, admitted from a long-term care facility, urinary catheter, previous antibiotic treatment and skin-soft tissue or post-surgical superficial skin infections. Colonisation with several different MDRs significantly increased the risk of MRSA-C/I. Risk factors on ICU admission were: male gender, trauma critical patient, urgent surgery, admitted from other ICUs, hospital ward or long-term facility, immunosuppression and skin-soft tissue infection. Although the best model to identify carriers of MRSA had a good discrimination (AUC-ROC, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.72-0.82), sensitivity was 67% and

  5. Influence of ICU-bed availability on ICU admission decisions.

    PubMed

    Robert, René; Coudroy, Rémi; Ragot, Stéphanie; Lesieur, Olivier; Runge, Isabelle; Souday, Vincent; Desachy, Arnaud; Gouello, Jean-Paul; Hira, Michel; Hamrouni, Mouldi; Reignier, Jean

    2015-12-01

    The potential influence of bed availability on triage to intensive care unit (ICU) admission is among the factors that may influence the ideal ratio of ICU beds to population: thus, high bed availability (HBA) may result in the admission of patients too well or too sick to benefit, whereas bed scarcity may result in refusal of patients likely to benefit from ICU admission. Characteristics and outcomes of patient admitted in four ICUs with usual HBA, defined by admission refusal rate less than 11 % because of bed unavailability, were compared to patients admitted in six ICUs with usual low bed availability (LBA), i.e., an admission refusal rate higher than 10 % during a 90-day period. Over the 90 days, the mean number of days with no bed available was 30 ± 16 in HBA units versus 48 ± 21 in LBA units (p < 0.01). The proportion of admitted patients was significantly higher in the HBA (80.1 %; n = 659/823) than in the LBA units [61.6 %: n = 480/779; (p < 0.0001)]. The proportion of patients deemed too sick to benefit from admission was higher in LBA (9.0 %; n = 70) than in the HBA (6.3 %; n = 52) units (p < 0.05). The HBA group had a significantly greater proportion of patients younger than 40 years of age (22.5 %; n = 148 versus 14 %; n = 67 in LBA group; p < 0.001) and higher proportions of patients with either high or low simplified acute physiologic score II values. Bed availability affected triage decisions. Units with HBA trend to admit patients too sick or too well to benefit.

  6. Discriminative Accuracy of Physician and Nurse Predictions for Survival and Functional Outcomes 6 Months After an ICU Admission.

    PubMed

    Detsky, Michael E; Harhay, Michael O; Bayard, Dominique F; Delman, Aaron M; Buehler, Anna E; Kent, Saida A; Ciuffetelli, Isabella V; Cooney, Elizabeth; Gabler, Nicole B; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Mikkelsen, Mark E; Halpern, Scott D

    2017-06-06

    Predictions of long-term survival and functional outcomes influence decision making for critically ill patients, yet little is known regarding their accuracy. To determine the discriminative accuracy of intensive care unit (ICU) physicians and nurses in predicting 6-month patient mortality and morbidity, including ambulation, toileting, and cognition. Prospective cohort study conducted in 5 ICUs in 3 hospitals in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and enrolling patients who spent at least 3 days in the ICU from October 2013 until May 2014 and required mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, or both. These patients' attending physicians and bedside nurses were also enrolled. Follow-up was completed in December 2014. ICU physicians' and nurses' binary predictions of in-hospital mortality and 6-month outcomes, including mortality, return to original residence, ability to toilet independently, ability to ambulate up 10 stairs independently, and ability to remember most things, think clearly, and solve day-to-day problems (ie, normal cognition). For each outcome, physicians and nurses provided a dichotomous prediction and rated their confidence in that prediction on a 5-point Likert scale. Outcomes were assessed via interviews with surviving patients or their surrogates at 6 months. Discriminative accuracy was measured using positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs), C statistics, and other operating characteristics. Among 340 patients approached, 303 (89%) consented (median age, 62 years [interquartile range, 53-71]; 57% men; 32% African American); 6-month follow-up was completed for 299 (99%), of whom 169 (57%) were alive. Predictions were made by 47 physicians and 128 nurses. Physicians most accurately predicted 6-month mortality (positive LR, 5.91 [95% CI, 3.74-9.32]; negative LR, 0.41 [95% CI, 0.33-0.52]; C statistic, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.72-0.81]) and least accurately predicted cognition (positive LR, 2.36 [95% CI, 1.36-4.12]; negative LR, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.61-0.92]; C

  7. Utility of the Surgical Apgar Score in Kidney Transplantation: Is it Feasible to Predict ICU Admission, Hospital Readmission, Length of Stay, and Cost in This Patient Population?

    PubMed

    Stoll, William D; Taber, David J; Palesch, Seth J; Hebbar, Latha

    2016-06-01

    This study analyzed the utility of the Surgical Apgar Scoring (SAS) system in predicting morbidity in kidney transplantation. Recipient comorbidities were evaluated for any effect on the SAS and then globally assessed for any relationship with intensive care unit (ICU) admission, need for dialysis, creatinine at discharge, length of stay, incremental, and total cost of transplantation. The hypothesis for this study is that a low SAS will be a statistically significant predictor of postoperative morbidity and associated costs. This was an institutional review board (IRB)-approved retrospective longitudinal cohort study on 204 solitary kidney transplant recipients (2009-2011). Patients were divided into 2 groups: low to moderate = SAS ≤ 7 and high = SAS ≥ 8. These groups were then analyzed against a host of variables. Sixty-five percent of patients had an SAS of 7 or lower, while 35% had an SAS of 8 and higher. Recipients with a history of stroke were 88% more likely to be in the low-moderate SAS group (P = .017). Patients with lower SASs trended toward having less extended criteria donors (0.097) but were more likely to be admitted to the ICU (P = .043), leading to significantly higher transplant event hospitalization costs. Higher SASs were more likely to be readmitted to the hospital within 30 days of discharge (P = .027), leading to higher 30-day postdischarge costs (P = .014). Readmission rates, however, and 30-day follow-up costs were similar between SAS groups after controlling for donor characteristics, specifically donor marginality and recipient estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The findings of this study suggest that a history of stroke in the recipient may lend to a lower SAS and that a low SAS is associated with ICU admission following transplant, leading to higher hospital costs. © 2016, NATCO.

  8. Variables associated with unplanned general adult ICU admission in hospitalised patients: protocol for a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Malycha, James; Bonnici, Tim; Sebekova, Katarina; Petrinic, Tatjana; Young, Duncan; Watkinson, Peter

    2017-03-28

    Failure to promptly identify deterioration in hospitalised patients is associated with delayed admission to intensive care units (ICUs) and poor outcomes. Existing vital sign-based Early Warning Score (EWS) algorithms do not have a sufficiently high positive predictive value to be used for automated activation of an ICU outreach team. Incorporating additional patient data might improve the predictive power of EWS algorithms; however, it is currently not known which patient data (or variables) are most predictive of ICU admission. We describe the protocol for a systematic review of variables associated with ICU admission. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library, including Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) will be searched for studies that assess the association of routinely recorded variables associated with subsequent unplanned ICU admission. Only studies involving adult patients admitted to general ICUs will be included. We will extract data relating to the statistical association between ICU admission and predictor variables, the quality of the studies and the generalisability of the findings. The results of this review will aid the development of future models which predict the risk of unplanned ICU admission. PROSPERO: CRD42015029617.

  9. Poisoning necessitating pediatric ICU admissions: size of pupils does matter.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam-Lun Ellis; Ho, Jasperine Ka-Yee; Hung, Emily Chi-Wan; Cheung, Kam-Lau; Ng, Pak-Cheung

    2008-08-01

    Childhood poisonings are common, but usually trivial, and infrequently necessitate intensive care unit (ICU) admissions. A retrospective record review was conducted to analyze the pattern of severe poisoning-associated ICU admissions at a teaching hospital between May 2002 and December 2007. Six cases (4 boys and 2 girls, aged 2 months to 11 years) of drug poisoning-associated ICU admissions were identified. Methadone was the culprit in 3 boys and 1 girl, resulting in respiratory failure, depressed conscious state and pinpoint pupils. As relevant exposure history was not immediately apparent, diagnosis at the emergency department was only made correctly in 2 patients. Phenobarbitone overdose occurred in 1 girl with past history of phenobarbitone overdose as a clue. She was also considered to have pinpoint pupils that were unresponsive to naloxone. Features consistent with cholinergic toxidrome, including small pupils, and increased secretion occurred in an infant fed with milk prepared with an herbal broth suspected to have been adulterated with a pesticide. Atropine as an antidote was used when the child was in the pediatric ICU. All children made an uneventful recovery following their short ICU stay. Life-threatening poisonings requiring ICU support can pose diagnostic difficulties and challenges to frontline medical officers at the emergency department. Children from all age groups can be affected. Prompt diagnosis is based on relevant history, careful clinical examination and a high index of suspicion in patients known to be at risk. The pupillary size and its reaction following treatment serves as an important diagnostic clue.

  10. Predictors of ICU Admission and Outcomes 1 Year Post-Admission in Persons with IBD: A Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Allan; Peschken, Christine A.; Hitchon, Carol A.; Chen, Hui; Fransoo, Randy; Marrie, Ruth Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background: To determine predictors of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and to assess health care utilization (HCU) post-ICU admission among persons with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: We matched a population-based database of Manitobans with IBD to a general population cohort on age, sex, and region of residence and linked these cohorts to a population-based ICU database. We compared the incidence rates of ICU admission among prevalent IBD cases according to HCU in the year before admission using generalized linear models adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, region, and comorbidity. Among incident cases of IBD who survived their first ICU admission, we compared HCU with matched controls who survived ICU admission. Results: Risk factors for ICU admission from the year before admission included cumulative corticosteroid use (incidence rate ratio, 1.006 per 100 mg of prednisone; 95% confidence interval, 1.004–1.008) and IBD-related surgery (incidence rate ratio, 2.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.99–3.92). Use of immunomodulatory therapies within 1 year, or surgery for IBD beyond 1 year prior, were not associated with ICU admission. In those who used corticosteroids and immunomodulatory medications in the year before ICU admission, the use of immunomodulatory medications conferred a 30% risk reduction in ICU admission (incidence rate ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.50–0.97). Persons with IBD who survived ICU admission had higher HCU in the year following ICU discharge than controls. Conclusions: Corticosteroid use and surgery within the year are associated with ICU admission in IBD while immunomodulatory therapy is not. Surviving ICU admission is associated with high HCU in the year post-ICU discharge. PMID:25989339

  11. Factors Associated with ICU Admission following Blunt Chest Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Etteri, Massimiliano; Cantaluppi, Francesca; Pina, Paolo; Guanziroli, Massimo; Bianchi, AnnaMaria; Casazza, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background. Blunt chest wall trauma accounts for over 10% of all trauma patients presenting to emergency departments worldwide. When the injury is not as severe, deciding which blunt chest wall trauma patients require a higher level of clinical input can be difficult. We hypothesized that patient factors, injury patterns, analgesia, postural condition, and positive airway pressure influence outcomes. Methods. The study population consisted of patients hospitalized with at least 3 rib fractures (RF) and at least one pulmonary contusion and/or at least one pneumothorax lower than 2 cm. Results. A total of 140 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Ten patients (7.1%) were admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) within the first 72 hours, because of deterioration of the clinical conditions and gas exchange with worsening of chest X-ray/thoracic ultrasound/chest computed tomography. On univariable analysis and multivariable analysis, obliged orthopnea (p = 0.0018) and the severity of trauma score (p < 0.0002) were associated with admission to ICU. Conclusions. Obliged orthopnea was an independent predictor of ICU admission among patients incurring non-life-threatening blunt chest wall trauma. The main therapeutic approach associated with improved outcome is the prevention of pulmonary infections due to reduced tidal volume, namely, upright postural condition and positive airway pressure. PMID:28044070

  12. The characteristics of very short stay ICU admissions and implications for optimizing ICU resource utilization: the Saudi experience.

    PubMed

    Arabi, Yaseen; Venkatesh, S; Haddad, Samir; Al Malik, Salim; Al Shimemeri, Abdullah

    2004-04-01

    Patients with very short stays (<24 hours) in intensive care units (ICUs) constitute a distinct group with a high turnover rate and a unique patient mix. Our aim was to study their characteristics with the aim of developing strategic approaches for better and more appropriate utilization of ICU resources. Prospective cohort study. Adult medical/surgical ICU in a tertiary care teaching hospital. All admissions in an adult ICU from March 1999 to February 2001 and staying <24 hours were enrolled. Relevant data were collected on these patients, their course and outcome, and analyzed after categorizing patients according to: (i) the nature of admission; and (ii) risk of death (ROD) estimated by Mortality Probability Model II(0). Patients staying <24 hours (n = 304) formed 27.8% of all ICU admissions, with an ICU mortality rate of 26.3%. Only 45.4% of them utilized ICU-specific procedures. Around one-third (32.6%) were elective admissions comprising younger patients, with a significantly lower prevalence of chronic illness, a lower ROD, and utilization of less ICU-specific procedures, with very few mortalities. When stratified using RODs into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, significant differences were found with respect to age, nature of ICU admission, presence of chronic illness, utilization of ICU-specific procedures, having do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders, length of ICU stay, and ICU and hospital outcomes. Our study has provided crucial input for the study of strategic change towards more optimal utilization of scarce ICU resources. Implementing protocols to target ICU care to patients most likely to benefit, making DNR decisions early in the hospital stay, and operating an Intermediate Care Unit have been proposed as strategic approaches.

  13. Trends in Severity of Illness on ICU Admission and Mortality among the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Lior; Novack, Victor; McLennan, Stuart; Celi, Leo Anthony; Baumfeld, Yael; Park, Shinhyuk; Howell, Michael D.; Talmor, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an increase in admission rate for elderly patients to the ICU. Mortality rates are lower when more liberal ICU admission threshold are compared to more restrictive threshold. We sought to describe the temporal trends in elderly admissions and outcomes in a tertiary hospital before and after the addition of an 8-bed medical ICU. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of a comprehensive longitudinal ICU database, from a large tertiary medical center, examining trends in patients’ characteristics, severity of illness, intensity of care and mortality rates over the years 2001–2008. The study population consisted of elderly patients and the primary endpoints were 28 day and one year mortality from ICU admission. Results Between the years 2001 and 2008, 7,265 elderly patients had 8,916 admissions to ICU. The rate of admission to the ICU increased by 5.6% per year. After an eight bed MICU was added, the severity of disease on ICU admission dropped significantly and crude mortality rates decreased thereafter. Adjusting for severity of disease on presentation, there was a decreased mortality at 28- days but no improvement in one- year survival rates for elderly patient admitted to the ICU over the years of observation. Hospital mortality rates have been unchanged from 2001 through 2008. Conclusion In a high capacity ICU bed hospital, there was a temporal decrease in severity of disease on ICU admission, more so after the addition of additional medical ICU beds. While crude mortality rates decreased over the study period, adjusted one-year survival in ICU survivors did not change with the addition of ICU beds. These findings suggest that outcome in critically ill elderly patients may not be influenced by ICU admission. Adding additional ICU beds to deal with the increasing age of the population may therefore not be effective. PMID:24699251

  14. Children and terror casualties receive preference in ICU admissions.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Kobi; Rozenfeld, Michael; Dolev, Eran

    2012-03-01

    Trauma casualties caused by terror-related events and children injured as a result of trauma may be given preference in hospital emergency departments (EDs) due to their perceived importance. We investigated whether there are differences in the treatment and hospitalization of terror-related casualties compared to other types of injury events and between children and adults injured in terror-related events. Retrospective study of 121 608 trauma patients from the Israel Trauma Registry during the period of October 2000-December 2005. Of the 10 hospitals included in the registry, 6 were level I trauma centers and 4 were regional trauma centers. Patients who were hospitalized or died in the ED or were transferred between hospitals were included in the registry. All analyses were controlled for Injury Severity Score (ISS). All patients with ISS 1-24 terror casualties had the highest frequency of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions when compared with patients after road traffic accidents (RTA) and other trauma. Among patients with terror-related casualties, children were admitted to ICU disproportionally to the severity of their injury. Logistic regression adjusted for injury severity and trauma type showed that both terror casualties and children have a higher probability of being admitted to the ICU. Injured children are admitted to ICU more often than other age groups. Also, terror-related casualties are more frequently admitted to the ICU compared to those from other types of injury events. These differences were not directly related to a higher proportion of severe injuries among the preferred groups.

  15. Ingestion--associated adverse events necessitating pediatric ICU admissions.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam-Lun Ellis; Leung, Ting-Fan; Hung, Chi-Wan Emily; Cheung, Kam-Lau; Leung, Alexander K C

    2009-03-01

    To review the pattern of food-associated pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admissions. A retrospective chart review was conducted to analyse the pattern of food-associated PICU admissions at a teaching hospital between January 2004 and May 2007. Ten cases (7 boys and 3 girls, aged 9 month to 11.7 year) were identified. One girl developed progressive generalized urticarial rash and anaphylactic shock following consumption of bird nest drink. A boy presented with the classic triads of acute onset altered mental state, respiratory depression and small pupils following consumption of a bottle of presumed "green tea", which was subsequently found to contain methadone. In the remaining 8 cases, dried mango, peanut, peanut-shell, fishmeat ball, pork chop, bread and bone were the culprits, impacting in the airway or oesophagus. All but one patient had short ICU stay (admissions. All age groups can be affected. Solids are usually associated with symptoms from local obstruction or suffocation, while fluids may be associated with systemic manifestations. Presentations were generally acute, dramatic and unmistaken. The majority of patients made prompt and uneventful recovery and had short PICU stay.

  16. Indicators of the need for ICU admission following suicide bombing attacks.

    PubMed

    Bala, Miklosh; Willner, Dafna; Keidar, Asaf; Rivkind, Avraham I; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Almogy, Gidon

    2012-03-09

    Critical hospital resources, especially the demand for ICU beds, are usually limited following mass casualty incidents such as suicide bombing attacks (SBA). Our primary objective was to identify easily diagnosed external signs of injury that will serve as indicators of the need for ICU admission. Our secondary objective was to analyze under- and over-triage following suicidal bombing attacks. A database was collected prospectively from patients who were admitted to Hadassah University Hospital Level I Trauma Centre, Jerusalem, Israel from August 2001-August 2005 following a SBA. One hundred and sixty four victims of 17 suicide bombing attacks were divided into two groups according to ICU and non-ICU admission. There were 86 patients in the ICU group (52.4%) and 78 patients in the non-ICU group (47.6%). Patients in the ICU group required significantly more operating room time compared with patients in the non-ICU group (59.3% vs. 25.6%, respectively, p=0.0003). For the ICU group, median ICU stay was 4 days (IQR 2 to 8.25 days). On multivariable analysis only the presence of facial fractures (p=0.014), peripheral vascular injury (p=0.015), injury≥4 body areas (p=0.002) and skull fractures (p=0.017) were found to be independent predictors of the need for ICU admission. Sixteen survivors (19.5%) in the ICU group were admitted to the ICU for one day only (ICU-LOS=1) and were defined as over-triaged. Median ISS for this group was significantly lower compared with patients who were admitted to the ICU for >1 day (ICU-LOS>1). This group of over-triaged patients could not be distinguished from the other ICU patients based on external signs of trauma. None of the patients in the non-ICU group were subsequently transferred to the ICU. Our results show that following SBA, injury to ≥4 areas, and certain types of injuries such as facial and skull fractures, and peripheral vascular injury, can serve as surrogates of severe trauma and the need for ICU admission. Over

  17. Serial Daily Organ Failure Assessment Beyond ICU Day 5 Does Not Independently Add Precision to ICU Risk-of-Death Prediction.

    PubMed

    Holder, Andre L; Overton, Elizabeth; Lyu, Peter; Kempker, Jordan A; Nemati, Shamim; Razmi, Fereshteh; Martin, Greg S; Buchman, Timothy G; Murphy, David J

    2017-09-12

    To identify circumstances in which repeated measures of organ failure would improve mortality prediction in ICU patients. Retrospective cohort study, with external validation in a deidentified ICU database. Eleven ICUs in three university hospitals within an academic healthcare system in 2014. Adults (18 yr old or older) who satisfied the following criteria: 1) two of four systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria plus an ordered blood culture, all within 24 hours of hospital admission; and 2) ICU admission for at least 2 calendar days, within 72 hours of emergency department presentation. None MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Data were collected until death, ICU discharge, or the seventh ICU day, whichever came first. The highest Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score from the ICU admission day (ICU day 1) was included in a multivariable model controlling for other covariates. The worst Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores from the first 7 days after ICU admission were incrementally added and retained if they obtained statistical significance (p < 0.05). The cohort was divided into seven subcohorts to facilitate statistical comparison using the integrated discriminatory index. Of the 1,290 derivation cohort patients, 83 patients (6.4%) died in the ICU, compared with 949 of the 8,441 patients (11.2%) in the validation cohort. Incremental addition of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment data up to ICU day 5 improved the integrated discriminatory index in the validation cohort. Adding ICU day 6 or 7 Sequential Organ Failure Assessment data did not further improve model performance. Serial organ failure data improve prediction of ICU mortality, but a point exists after which further data no longer improve ICU mortality prediction of early sepsis.

  18. Validation of an Administrative Definition of ICU Admission Using Revenue Center Codes.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Gary E; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Kohn, Rachel; Anesi, George L; Manaker, Scott; Kerlin, Meeta Prasad; Halpern, Scott D

    2017-08-01

    Describe the operating characteristics of a proposed set of revenue center codes to correctly identify ICU stays among hospitalized patients. Retrospective cohort study. We report the operating characteristics of all ICU-related revenue center codes for intensive and coronary care, excluding nursery, intermediate, and incremental care, to identify ICU stays. We use a classification and regression tree model to further refine identification of ICU stays using administrative data. The gold standard for classifying ICU admission was an electronic patient location tracking system. The University of Pennsylvania Health System in Philadelphia, PA, United States. All adult inpatient hospital admissions between July 1, 2013, and June 30, 2015. None. Among 127,680 hospital admissions, the proposed combination of revenue center codes had 94.6% sensitivity (95% CI, 94.3-94.9%) and 96.1% specificity (95% CI, 96.0-96.3%) for correctly identifying hospital admissions with an ICU stay. The classification and regression tree algorithm had 92.3% sensitivity (95% CI, 91.6-93.1%) and 97.4% specificity (95% CI, 97.2-97.6%), with an overall improved accuracy (χ = 398; p < 0.001). Use of the proposed combination of revenue center codes has excellent sensitivity and specificity for identifying true ICU admission. A classification and regression tree algorithm with additional administrative variables offers further improvements to accuracy.

  19. ICU Admission Source as a Predictor of Mortality for Patients With Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Motzkus, Christine A; Chrysanthopoulou, Stavroula A; Luckmann, Roger; Rincon, Teresa A; Lapane, Kate L; Lilly, Craig M

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is the leading noncardiac cause of intensive care unit (ICU) death. Pre-ICU admission site may be associated with mortality of ICU patients with sepsis. This study quantifies mortality differences among patients with sepsis admitted to an ICU from a hospital ward, emergency department (ED), or an operating room (OR). We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 1762 adults with sepsis using ICU record data obtained from a clinical database of an academic medical center. Survival analysis provided crude and adjusted hazard rate ratio (HRR) estimates comparing hospital mortality among patients from hospital wards, EDs, and ORs, adjusted for age, sex, and severity of illness. Mortality of patients with sepsis differed based on the pre-ICU admission site. Compared to patients admitted from an ED, patients admitted from hospital wards had higher mortality (HRR: 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.68) and those admitted from an OR had lower mortality (HRR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.23-0.58). Patients with sepsis admitted to an ICU from a hospital ward experienced greater mortality than patients with sepsis admitted to an ICU from an ED. These findings indicate that there may be systematic differences in the selection of patient care locations, recognition, and management of patients with sepsis that warrant further investigation.

  20. Preoperative predictive factors for intensive care unit admission after pulmonary resection*

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Liana; Santoro, Ilka Lopes; Perfeito, João Aléssio Juliano; Izbicki, Meyer; Ramos, Roberta Pulcheri; Faresin, Sonia Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the use of a set of preoperative variables can predict the need for postoperative ICU admission. Methods: This was a prospective observational cohort study of 120 patients undergoing elective pulmonary resection between July of 2009 and April of 2012. Prediction of ICU admission was based on the presence of one or more of the following preoperative characteristics: predicted pneumonectomy; severe/very severe COPD; severe restrictive lung disease; FEV1 or DLCO predicted to be < 40% postoperatively; SpO2 on room air at rest < 90%; need for cardiac monitoring as a precautionary measure; or American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status ≥ 3. The gold standard for mandatory admission to the ICU was based on the presence of one or more of the following postoperative characteristics: maintenance of mechanical ventilation or reintubation; acute respiratory failure or need for noninvasive ventilation; hemodynamic instability or shock; intraoperative or immediate postoperative complications (clinical or surgical); or a recommendation by the anesthesiologist or surgeon to continue treatment in the ICU. Results: Among the 120 patients evaluated, 24 (20.0%) were predicted to require ICU admission, and ICU admission was considered mandatory in 16 (66.6%) of those 24. In contrast, among the 96 patients for whom ICU admission was not predicted, it was required in 14 (14.5%). The use of the criteria for predicting ICU admission showed good accuracy (81.6%), sensitivity of 53.3%, specificity of 91%, positive predictive value of 66.6%, and negative predictive value of 85.4%. Conclusions: The use of preoperative criteria for predicting the need for ICU admission after elective pulmonary resection is feasible and can reduce the number of patients staying in the ICU only for monitoring. PMID:25750672

  1. Interpretable Deep Models for ICU Outcome Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Che, Zhengping; Purushotham, Sanjay; Khemani, Robinder; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Exponential surge in health care data, such as longitudinal data from electronic health records (EHR), sensor data from intensive care unit (ICU), etc., is providing new opportunities to discover meaningful data-driven characteristics and patterns ofdiseases. Recently, deep learning models have been employedfor many computational phenotyping and healthcare prediction tasks to achieve state-of-the-art performance. However, deep models lack interpretability which is crucial for wide adoption in medical research and clinical decision-making. In this paper, we introduce a simple yet powerful knowledge-distillation approach called interpretable mimic learning, which uses gradient boosting trees to learn interpretable models and at the same time achieves strong prediction performance as deep learning models. Experiment results on Pediatric ICU dataset for acute lung injury (ALI) show that our proposed method not only outperforms state-of-the-art approaches for morality and ventilator free days prediction tasks but can also provide interpretable models to clinicians. PMID:28269832

  2. Malnutrition in Joint Arthroplasty: Prospective Study Indicates Risk of Unplanned ICU Admission

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Atul F.; McAuliffe, Caitlin L.; Kosseim, Laura M.; Pio, Finnah; Hume, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition has been linked to poor outcomes after elective joint arthroplasty, but the risk of unplanned postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) admission in malnourished arthroplasty patients is unknown. Methods: 1098 patients were followed as part of a prospective risk stratification program at a tertiary, high-volume arthroplasty center. Chronic malnutrition was defined as preoperative albumin <3.5 g/dL. Results: The overall incidence of malnutrition was 16.9% (primary and revision arthroplasty patients). Average BMI was highest for patients in albumin category 3.0-3.5 (BMI 35.7). Preoperative albumin <3.0 and <3.5 g/dL translated to 15.4% and 3.8% rates of unplanned ICU admission, respectively, indicating nutritional status to be a factor in postoperative ICU admission. Conclusion: Patients with poor nutritional status must be counseled on the risks of adverse medical complications. PMID:27200389

  3. Patients' dreams in ICU: recall at two years post discharge and comparison to delirium status during ICU admission. A multicentre cohort study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Brigit L; Rickard, Claire M; Rajbhandari, Dorrilyn; Reynolds, Pamela

    2006-10-01

    Discharged intensive care unit (ICU) patients often recall experience vivid dreams, hallucinations or delusions. These may be persecutory in nature and are sometimes very frightening. It is possible that these memories stem from times when the patient was experiencing delirium, a common syndrome in the critically ill. Routine screening for delirium in ICU is becoming more prevalent, however, little has been published comparing the objective development of delirium (patient observations using screening tools) and patients' subjective recollection of dreams and unreal experiences in the ICU. This study describes the relationship between observed behaviour during ICU admission and the subjective memories of ICU experiences amongst 41 participants in three ICUs up to 24 months post discharge. Overall, 44% of patients (n=18) recalled dreams during their ICU admission. There was a trend to increased prevalence of dreaming (50% versus 39%) amongst the 18 patients who were delirious during their ICU admission than in the 23 non-delirious patients. Dreaming was significantly associated on logistic regression with increased length of stay (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.08-1.79, p=0.01), but not delirium status (OR 1.56, 95% CI 0.45-5.41, p=0.49). A longer ICU stay was significantly associated with the experience of ICU dreaming. As many dreams are disturbing, we suggest providing information and counselling about delirium to patients who remain in ICU for longer periods.

  4. Multinational development and validation of an early prediction model for delirium in ICU patients.

    PubMed

    Wassenaar, A; van den Boogaard, M; van Achterberg, T; Slooter, A J C; Kuiper, M A; Hoogendoorn, M E; Simons, K S; Maseda, E; Pinto, N; Jones, C; Luetz, A; Schandl, A; Verbrugghe, W; Aitken, L M; van Haren, F M P; Donders, A R T; Schoonhoven, L; Pickkers, P

    2015-06-01

    Delirium incidence in intensive care unit (ICU) patients is high and associated with poor outcome. Identification of high-risk patients may facilitate its prevention. To develop and validate a model based on data available at ICU admission to predict delirium development during a patient's complete ICU stay and to determine the predictive value of this model in relation to the time of delirium development. Prospective cohort study in 13 ICUs from seven countries. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to develop the early prediction (E-PRE-DELIRIC) model on data of the first two-thirds and validated on data of the last one-third of the patients from every participating ICU. In total, 2914 patients were included. Delirium incidence was 23.6%. The E-PRE-DELIRIC model consists of nine predictors assessed at ICU admission: age, history of cognitive impairment, history of alcohol abuse, blood urea nitrogen, admission category, urgent admission, mean arterial blood pressure, use of corticosteroids, and respiratory failure. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was 0.76 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73-0.77] in the development dataset and 0.75 (95% CI 0.71-0.79) in the validation dataset. The model was well calibrated. AUROC increased from 0.70 (95% CI 0.67-0.74), for delirium that developed <2 days, to 0.81 (95% CI 0.78-0.84), for delirium that developed >6 days. Patients' delirium risk for the complete ICU length of stay can be predicted at admission using the E-PRE-DELIRIC model, allowing early preventive interventions aimed to reduce incidence and severity of ICU delirium.

  5. Plasma glutamine levels in patients after non-elective or elective ICU admission: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Buter, Hanneke; Bakker, Andries J; Kingma, W Peter; Koopmans, Matty; Boerma, E Christiaan

    2016-03-10

    A low plasma glutamine level at the time of acute admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) is an independent predictor of an unfavourable outcome in critically ill patients. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether there are differences in plasma glutamine levels upon non-elective or elective ICU admission. The secondary objective was to compare glutamine levels over time, and to determine correlations between glutamine levels and the severity of illness and presence of infection in ICU patients. We performed a single-centre observational study in a closed-format, 22-bed, mixed ICU. Plasma glutamine levels were measured at admission and every morning at 6.00 a.m. during the ICU stay. We aimed to include at least 80 patients per group. The study was approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee. In 88 patients after elective surgery, the median plasma glutamine level at admission was significantly higher compared with that in 90 non-elective patients (0.43 mmol/l [0.33-0.55 mmol/l] versus 0.25 mmol/l [0.09-0.37 mmol/l], P = 0.001). During the ICU stay, plasma glutamine levels remained significantly higher in elective patients than in non-elective patients. There was a significant correlation between the APACHE IV score and glutamine levels (R = 0.52, P < 0.001). Moreover, backward linear regression analysis showed that this correlation was independently associated with the APACHE IV score and the presence of infection, but not with the type of admission. Plasma glutamine levels are significantly lower after non-elective admission compared with elective admission to the ICU. A considerable amount of elective and non-elective patients have decreased plasma glutamine levels, but this is not independently associated with the type of admission. In contrast to previous studies, we found that plasma glutamine levels were determined by the severity of illness and the presence of an infection. ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02310035.

  6. A decrease in serum creatinine after ICU admission is associated with increased mortality.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hye Ran; Lee, Si Nae; Cho, Yun Ju; Jeon, Jin Seok; Noh, Hyunjin; Han, Dong Cheol; Park, Suyeon; Kwon, Soon Hyo

    2017-01-01

    The elevation of serum creatinine (SCr), acute kidney injury (AKI), is associated with an increase of mortality in critically ill patients. However, it is uncertain whether a decrease in SCr in the intensive care unit (ICU) has an effect on outcomes. In a retrospective study, we enrolled 486 patients who had been admitted to an urban tertiary center ICU between Jan 2014 and Dec 2014. The effect of changes in SCr after ICU admission on 90 day mortality was analyzed. Patients were classified into 3 groups based on change in SCr after ICU admission: a stable SCr group (Δ SCr < 0.3mg/dL during ICU stay), a decreased SCr group (Δ SCr ≥ -0.3 mg/dL during ICU stay) and an increased SCr group with criteria based on the KDIGO AKI criteria. In total, 486 patients were identified. SCr decreased in 123 (25.3%) patients after ICU admission. AKI developed in 125 (24.4%) patients. The overall 90-day mortality rate was 29.0%. In a Kaplan-Meyer analysis, the mortality of the AKI group was higher than that of other groups (p<0.0001). Patients with a decrease in SCr had a higher mortality rate than those with stable SCr (p<0.0001). A Cox analysis showed that both a decrease in SCR (HR, 3.56; 95% CI, 1.59-7.97; p = 0.002) and an increase in SCr (AKI stage 1, HR, 9.35; 95% CI, 4.18-20.9; p<0.0001; AKI stage 2, HR, 11.82; 95% CI, 3.85-36.28; p<0.0001; AKI stage 3, HR, 17.41; 95% CI, 5.50-55.04; p<0.0001) were independent risk factors for death compared to stable SCr. Not only an increase in SCr, but also a decrease in SCr was associated with mortality in critically ill patients.

  7. Characteristics and outcome of patients with the ICU Admission diagnosis of status epilepticus in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hay, Alison; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Pilcher, David; Jackson, Graeme; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Majia; Bailey, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a neurological emergency and may lead to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. However, little is known about the characteristics and outcome of patients with the ICU admission diagnosis of SE. We performed a retrospective study of patients admitted to ICU with the primary admission diagnosis of SE as recorded in the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) Adult Patient Database over more than a decade. We examined the ICU and population incidence, physiological and demographic features of such SE patients; compared ventilated and non-ventilated SE patients and assessed their mortality. From 2000-2013, 12,926 patients (1.2% of all ICU admissions) were admitted to ANZ ICUs with SE as the main admission diagnosis. Over the study period, the ICU prevalence (0.93 vs 1.13%), population incidence (30 vs 61 per million population), ICU length of stay (1.45 vs 1.77 days) and the rate of discharge to a rehabilitation facility (2.3 vs 7.1%) of SE increased (P < .0001). In contrast, the use of mechanical ventilation (56.6 vs 47.2%), hospital length of stay (6.64 vs 5.81 days), ICU (2.6 vs 0.75%) and hospital (8.2 vs 4%) mortality decreased (P < .0001). Overall hospital mortality was 613 (4.7%) with 219 (1.7%) patients dying in ICU. Mortality was associated with advancing age, multiple co-morbidities, lower GCS on admission and higher APACHE III scores. From 2000 to 2013 ICU mortality decreased from 2.6% to 0.75%. Over a 14-year period in ANZ, there have been major changes in the features, management and outcome of patients admitted to ICU with the primary admission diagnosis of SE such that their ICU mortality is now <1%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nocturnal attacks, emergency room visits and ICU admission of pediatric asthma: frequency and associated factors.

    PubMed

    El-Saify, Magda Y; Shaheen, Malak A; Sabbour, Sahar M; Basal, Ahmed A

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is the most frequent cause of chronic illness in childhood and emergency department visits. This study aims to determine the frequency of emergency room (ER) visits, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and nocturnal attacks among asthmatic children and to identify associated factors. Records of asthmatic children in the pediatric chest clinic, Ain Shams University during 1995-2004 were reviewed. Asthmatic children with documents of ER visits, ICU admission, or nocturnal attacks were compared with asthmatic children without previously mentioned events. Out of 691 asthmatic patients, 302 (43.7%) had nocturnal attacks, 258 (37.3%) had emergency room visits, 39 (5.6%) were admitted to ICU, and 249 (36%) had no reports of previous events. ER visits and nocturnal attacks were more in children above 4 years. ER visits and ICU admission were higher among those with positive family history of asthma (p< 0.01), those exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) (p< 0.01), and those who had previous respiratory infections (p< 0.05). Attacks of nocturnal asthma were associated with the previous factors in addition to animal contact (p<0. 01) and living in bad housing conditions (p<0.05). Logistic regression showed that family history (OR= 2.87, CI= 1.9-4.1) and bad housing conditions (OR= 2.65, CI= 1.3-5.3) were the significant factors for ER visits, while respiratory infections (OR= 5.24, CI= 2.1-12.0) and family history (OR= 3.48 CI, 1.3-9.2) were the significant factors for ICU admission. For nocturnal attacks, all factors were significant. Control of respiratory infections, limitation of ETS exposure and good housing conditions are needed to limit severe asthmatic attacks.

  9. Adequate antibiotic therapy prior to ICU admission in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock reduces hospital mortality.

    PubMed

    Garnacho-Montero, José; Gutiérrez-Pizarraya, Antonio; Escoresca-Ortega, Ana; Fernández-Delgado, Esperanza; López-Sánchez, José María

    2015-08-27

    In patients with severe sepsis and septic shock as cause of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission, we analyze the impact on mortality of adequate antimicrobial therapy initiated before ICU admission. We conducted a prospective observational study enrolling patients admitted to the ICU with severe sepsis or septic shock from January 2008 to September 2013. The primary end-point was in-hospital mortality. We considered two groups for comparisons: patients who received adequate antibiotic treatment before or after the admission to the ICU. A total of 926 septic patients were admitted to ICU, and 638 (68.8%) had available microbiological isolation: 444 (69.6%) received adequate empirical antimicrobial treatment prior to ICU and 194 (30.4%) after admission. Global hospital mortality in patients that received treatment before ICU admission, between 0-6h ICU, 6-12h ICU, 12-24h ICU and after 24 hours since ICU admission were 31.3, 53.2, 57.1, 50 and 50.8% (p<0.001). The multivariate analysis showed that urinary focus (odds ratio (OR) 0.20; 0.09-0.42; p<0.001) and adequate treatment prior to ICU admission (OR 0.37; 0.24-0.56; p<0.001) were protective factors whereas APACHE II score (OR 1.10; 1.07-1.14; p<0.001), septic shock (OR 2.47; 1.57-3.87; p<0.001), respiratory source (OR 1.91; 1.12-3.21; p=0.016), cirrhosis (OR 3.74; 1.60-8.76; p=0.002) and malignancy (OR 1.65; 1.02-2.70; p=0.042) were variables independently associated with in-hospital mortality. Adequate treatment prior to ICU was a protective factor for mortality in patients with severe sepsis (n=236) or in septic shock (n=402). The administration of adequate antimicrobial therapy before ICU admission is decisive for the survival of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Our efforts should be directed to assure the correct administration antibiotics before ICU admission in patients with sepsis.

  10. National Early Warning Score (NEWS) at ICU discharge can predict early clinical deterioration after ICU transfer.

    PubMed

    Uppanisakorn, Supattra; Bhurayanontachai, Rungsun; Boonyarat, Jaruwan; Kaewpradit, Julawan

    2017-09-13

    This study aims to determine the ability of the National Early Warning Score at ICU discharge (NEWSdc) to predict the development of clinical deterioration within 24h. A prospective observational study was conducted. The NEWS was immediately recorded before discharge (NEWSdc). The development of early clinical deterioration was defined as acute respiratory failure or circulatory shock within 24h of ICU discharge. The discrimination of NEWSdc and the best cut off value of NEWSdc to predict the early clinical deterioration was determined. Data were collected from 440 patients. The incidence of early clinical deterioration after ICU discharge was 14.8%. NEWSdc was an independent predictor for early clinical deterioration after ICU discharge (OR 2.54; 95% CI 1.98-3.26; P<0.001). The AUROC of NEWSdc was 0.92±0.01 (95% CI 0.89-0.94, P<0.001). A NEWSdc>7 showed a sensitivity of 93.6% and a specificity of 82.2% to detect an early clinical deterioration after ICU discharge. Among critically ill patients who were discharged from ICU, a NEWSdc>7 showed the best sensitivity and specificity to detect early clinical deterioration 24h after ICU discharge. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact on patient outcome of emergency department length of stay prior to ICU admission.

    PubMed

    García-Gigorro, R; de la Cruz Vigo, F; Andrés-Esteban, E M; Chacón-Alves, S; Morales Varas, G; Sánchez-Izquierdo, J A; Montejo González, J C

    2017-05-01

    The favorable evolution of critically ill patients is often dependent on time-sensitive care intervention. The timing of transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU) therefore may be an important determinant of outcomes in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact upon patient outcome of the length of stay in the Emergency Care Department. A single-center ambispective cohort study was carried out. A general ICU and Emergency Care Department (ED) of a single University Hospital. We included 269 patients consecutively transferred to the ICU from the ED over an 18-month period. Patients were first grouped into different cohorts based on ED length of stay (LOS), and were then divided into two groups: (a) ED LOS ≤5h and (b) ED LOS >5h. Demographic, diagnostic, length of stay and mortality data were compared among the groups. Median ED LOS was 277min (IQR 129-622). Patients who developed ICU complications had a longer ED LOS compared to those who did not (349min vs. 209min, p<0.01). A total of 129 patients (48%) had ED LOS >5h. The odds ratio of dying for patients with ED LOS >5h was 2.5 (95% CI 1.3-4.7). Age and sepsis diagnosis were the risk factors associated to prolongation of ED length of stay. A prolonged ED stay prior to ICU admission is related to the development of time-dependent complications and increased mortality. These findings suggest possible benefit from earlier ICU transfer and the prompt initiation of organ support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk stratification of early admission to the intensive care unit of patients with no major criteria of severe community-acquired pneumonia: development of an international prediction rule.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Bertrand; Labarère, José; Coma, Eva; Santin, Aline; Hayon, Jan; Gurgui, Mercé; Camus, Nicolas; Roupie, Eric; Hémery, François; Hervé, Jérôme; Salloum, Mirna; Fine, Michael J; Brun-Buisson, Christian

    2009-01-01

    To identify risk factors for early (< three days) intensive care unit (ICU) admission of patients hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and not requiring immediate ICU admission, and to stratify the risk of ICU admission on days 1 to 3. Using the original data from four North American and European prospective multicentre cohort studies of patients with CAP, we derived and validated a prediction rule for ICU admission on days 1 to 3 of emergency department (ED) presentation, for patients presenting with no obvious reason for immediate ICU admission (not requiring immediate respiratory or circulatory support). A total of 6560 patients were included (4593 and 1967 in the derivation and validation cohort, respectively), 303 (4.6%) of whom were admitted to an ICU on days 1 to 3. The Risk of Early Admission to ICU index (REA-ICU index) comprised 11 criteria independently associated with ICU admission: male gender, age younger than 80 years, comorbid conditions, respiratory rate of 30 breaths/minute or higher, heart rate of 125 beats/minute or higher, multilobar infiltrate or pleural effusion, white blood cell count less than 3 or 20 G/L or above, hypoxaemia (oxygen saturation < 90% or arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) < 60 mmHg), blood urea nitrogen of 11 mmol/L or higher, pH less than 7.35 and sodium less than 130 mEq/L. The REA-ICU index stratified patients into four risk classes with a risk of ICU admission on days 1 to 3 ranging from 0.7 to 31%. The area under the curve was 0.81 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.78 to 0.83) in the overall population. The REA-ICU index accurately stratifies the risk of ICU admission on days 1 to 3 for patients presenting to the ED with CAP and no obvious indication for immediate ICU admission and therefore may assist orientation decisions.

  13. Prediction of the survival and functional ability of severe stroke patients after ICU therapeutic intervention

    PubMed Central

    Riachy, Moussa; Sfeir, Frida; Sleilaty, Ghassan; Hage-Chahine, Samer; Dabar, Georges; Bazerbachi, Taha; Aoun-Bacha, Zeina; Khayat, Georges; Koussa, Salam

    2008-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the benefits and impact of ICU therapeutic interventions on the survival and functional ability of severe cerebrovascular accident (CVA) patients. Methods Sixty-two ICU patients suffering from severe ischemic/haemorrhagic stroke were evaluated for CVA severity using APACHE II and the Glasgow coma scale (GCS). Survival was determined using Kaplan-Meier survival tables and survival prediction factors were determined by Cox multivariate analysis. Functional ability was assessed using the stroke impact scale (SIS-16) and Karnofsky score. Risk factors, life support techniques and neurosurgical interventions were recorded. One year post-CVA dependency was investigated using multivariate analysis based on linear regression. Results The study cohort constituted 6% of all CVA (37.8% haemorrhagic/62.2% ischemic) admissions. Patient mean(SD) age was 65.8(12.3) years with a 1:1 male: female ratio. During the study period 16 patients had died within the ICU and seven in the year following hospital release. The mean(SD) APACHE II score at hospital admission was 14.9(6.0) and ICU mean duration of stay was 11.2(15.4) days. Mechanical ventilation was required in 37.1% of cases. Risk ratios were; GCS at admission 0.8(0.14), (p = 0.024), APACHE II 1.11(0.11), (p = 0.05) and duration of mechanical ventilation 1.07(0.07), (p = 0.046). Linear coefficients were: type of CVA – haemorrhagic versus ischemic: -18.95(4.58) (p = 0.007), GCS at hospital admission: -6.83(1.08), (p = 0.001), and duration of hospital stay -0.38(0.14), (p = 0.40). Conclusion To ensure a better prognosis CVA patients require ICU therapeutic interventions. However, as we have shown, where tests can determine the worst affected patients with a poor vital and functional outcome should treatment be withheld? PMID:18582387

  14. A model to create an efficient and equitable admission policy for patients arriving to the cardiothoracic ICU.

    PubMed

    Yang, Muer; Fry, Michael J; Raikhelkar, Jayashree; Chin, Cynthia; Anyanwu, Anelechi; Brand, Jordan; Scurlock, Corey

    2013-02-01

    To develop queuing and simulation-based models to understand the relationship between ICU bed availability and operating room schedule to maximize the use of critical care resources and minimize case cancellation while providing equity to patients and surgeons. Retrospective analysis of 6-month unit admission data from a cohort of cardiothoracic surgical patients, to create queuing and simulation-based models of ICU bed flow. Three different admission policies (current admission policy, shortest-processing-time policy, and a dynamic policy) were then analyzed using simulation models, representing 10 yr worth of potential admissions. Important output data consisted of the "average waiting time," a proxy for unit efficiency, and the "maximum waiting time," a surrogate for patient equity. A cardiothoracic surgical ICU in a tertiary center in New York, NY. Six hundred thirty consecutive cardiothoracic surgical patients admitted to the cardiothoracic surgical ICU. None. Although the shortest-processing-time admission policy performs best in terms of unit efficiency (0.4612 days), it did so at expense of patient equity prolonging surgical waiting time by as much as 21 days. The current policy gives the greatest equity but causes inefficiency in unit bed-flow (0.5033 days). The dynamic policy performs at a level (0.4997 days) 8.3% below that of the shortest-processing-time in average waiting time; however, it balances this with greater patient equity (maximum waiting time could be shortened by 4 days compared to the current policy). Queuing theory and computer simulation can be used to model case flow through a cardiothoracic operating room and ICU. A dynamic admission policy that looks at current waiting time and expected ICU length of stay allows for increased equity between patients with only minimum losses of efficiency. This dynamic admission policy would seem to be a superior in maximizing case-flow. These results may be generalized to other surgical ICUs.

  15. Validating the Performance of the Modified Early Obstetric Warning System Multivariable Model to Predict Maternal Intensive Care Unit Admission.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Helen M; Jones, Meghan A; Payne, Beth A; Sharma, Sumedha; Hutfield, Anna M; Lee, Tang; Ukah, U Vivian; Walley, Keith R; Magee, Laura A; von Dadelszen, Peter

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the performance of the Modified Early Obstetric Warning System (MEOWS) to predict maternal ICU admission in an obstetric population. Case-control study. Two maternity units in Vancouver, Canada, one with ICU facilities, between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2011. Pregnant or recently delivered (≤6 weeks) women admitted to the hospital for >24 hours. Three control patients were randomly selected per case and matched for year of admission. Retrospective, observational, case-control validation study investigating the physiologic predictors of admission in the 24-hour period preceding either ICU admission >24 hours (cases) or following admission (control patients). Model performance was assessed based on sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. Forty-six women were admitted to the ICU for >24 hours (0.51/1000 deliveries); the study included 138 randomly selected control patients. There were no maternal deaths in the cohort. MEOWS had high sensitivity (0.96) but low specificity (0.54) for ICU admission >24 hours, whereas ≥1 one red trigger maintained sensitivity (0.96) and improved specificity (0.73). Altering MEOWS trigger parameters may improve the accuracy of MEOWS in predicting ICU admission. Formal modelling of a MEOWS scoring system is required to support evidence-based care. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adaptive behavior, functional outcomes, and quality of life outcomes of children requiring urgent ICU admission.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Shanil; Singh, Simran; Hutchison, Jamie S; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Sananes, Renee; Bowman, Kerry W; Parshuram, Christopher S

    2013-01-01

    To describe the adaptive behavior and functional outcomes, and health-related quality of life of children who were urgently admitted to the ICU. Prospective observational study. Critical Care Medicine program at a University-affiliated pediatric institution. Urgently admitted patients, aged 1 month to 18 yrs. None. We evaluated children's adaptive behavior functioning with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-2, functional outcomes with the pediatric cerebral performance category and pediatric overall performance category, and health-related quality of life with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4 and Visual Analogue Scale. We enrolled 91 children and 65 (71%) completed the 1-month assessment. Patients had a mean (SD) Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-2 rating of 83.2 (± 24.8), considered to be moderate-low adaptive behavior functioning. From baseline to 1 month, pediatric cerebral performance category ratings did not significantly change (p = 0.59) and pediatric overall performance category ratings significantly improved (p = 0.03). Visual Analogue Scale ratings significantly worsened from baseline to 1 wk (p < 0.0001) and significantly improved from 1 wk to 1 month (p=0.002). At 1 month, patients had a mean (SD) Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4 rating of 52.8 (± 27.9) of 100, a poor quality of life rating. Circulatory admissions, worse pediatric cerebral performance category score at baseline, worse transcutaneous oxygen saturation, and longer cardiac compression duration were independently associated with worse adaptive behavior functioning. Neurological admissions, worse pediatric cerebral performance category score at baseline, longer ICU stay, and longer duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were independently associated with worse functional outcome. Worse pediatric cerebral performance category score at baseline, longer ICU stay, and longer duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were independently associated with worse health

  17. Do patients undergoing MitraClip implantation require routine ICU admission?

    PubMed

    Di Prima, Ambra L; Covello, Daniel R; Franco, Annalisa; Gerli, Chiara; Lembo, Rosalba; Denti, Paolo; Godino, Cosmo; Taramasso, Maurizio; Maisano, Francesco; Pappalardo, Federico

    2014-12-01

    Because of its reduced invasiveness, MitraClip (Abbott Vascular, Menlo Park, CA) therapy usually is reserved for patients with extreme left ventricular dysfunction or severe comorbidity contraindicating surgery. The appropriate post-procedural care in this high-risk population is yet to be defined. In this study, the postoperative course of such patients is reported, focusing on early complications and need for intensive care unit (ICU) management. A retrospective analysis of patients with severe mitral regurgitation undergoing transcatheter mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system in the authors institution was performed. One hundred thirty patients underwent MitraClip implantation between 2008 and 2012. At the end of the procedure, all patients were admitted to the ICU. Median ICU stay was 0.98 (0.82-1.87) days. Median mechanical ventilation time was 9.5 (6.8-14.1) hours. One hundred one patients (78%) required inotropic support and 13 patients (10%) suffered cardiogenic shock and required intra-aortic balloon pump support. No patient died during the procedure, but 3 patients died in the ICU. Three postoperative course profiles were identified: Fast-track, overnight stay, and critical illness. Twenty-four patients (18.5%) had an uneventful postoperative course, 89 patients (68.5%) suffered minor complications, and 17 patients (13.1%) required intensive care management and organ support. Preoperative serum creatinine (odds ratio [OR] 1.8; p = 0.014), cardiogenic shock (OR 34,8; p = 0.002), ventricular tachycardia (OR 2.8; p = 0.03), and intra procedural inotropes (OR 4; p = 0.001) were correlated with a complicated postoperative course. A large number of patients undergoing MitraClip could be managed with a fast-track ICU course; however, it still is difficult to predict the postoperative course based on preoperative characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of time and day of admission on the outcome of critically ill patients admitted to ICU

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Jose; Rajayer, Salil; Ahmad, Noeen; Din, Nanda; Morante, Joaquin; Malik, Ryan; Shim, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that patients admitted to hospitals on weekends and after-hours experience worse outcome than those admitted on weekdays and daytime hours. Although admissions of patients to intensive care units (ICUs) occur 24 hours a day, not all critical care units maintain the same level of staffing during nighttime, weekends, and holidays. This raises concerns in view of evidence showing that the organizational structure of an ICU influences the outcome of critically ill patients. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of day and time of admission to ICU on patients’ outcome. Methods A single-center, prospective, observational study was conducted among all consecutive admissions to ICU in a community teaching hospital during a 4-month period. Results A total of 282 patients were admitted during the study period. Their mean age was 59.5 years (median 59, range 17–96), and the majority were male (157, 55.7%). Mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE)-II score was 18.9 (median 33, range 1–45), and mean ICU length of stay was 3.1 days (median 2, range 1–19). Of the patients, 104 patients (36.9%) were admitted during weekends and 178 (63.1%) during weekdays. A total of 122 patients (43.3%) were admitted after-hours, constituting 68.5% of all admissions during weekdays. Fifty-six patients (19.9%) were admitted during daytime hours, representing 31.5% of all weekday admissions. Forty-five patients (15.9%) died in ICU. Compared to patients admitted on weekends, those admitted on weekdays had increased ICU mortality (operating room (OR)=0.437; 95% confidence interval=0.2054–0.9196; p=0.0293). Conclusion Admissions to ICU during weekends were not independently associated with increased mortality. A linear relationship between weekdays and after-hours admissions to ICU with mortality was observed at our institution. PMID:27987290

  19. Hypocapnia and Hypercapnia Are Predictors for ICU Admission and Mortality in Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Laserna, Elena; Sibila, Oriol; Aguilar, Patrick R.; Mortensen, Eric M.; Anzueto, Antonio; Blanquer, Jose M.; Sanz, Francisco; Rello, Jordi; Marcos, Pedro J.; Velez, Maria I.; Aziz, Nivin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to examine in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) the association between abnormal Paco2 and ICU admission and 30-day mortality. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at two tertiary teaching hospitals. Eligible subjects were admitted with a diagnosis of CAP. Arterial blood gas analyses were obtained with measurement of Paco2 on admission. Multivariate analyses were performed using 30-day mortality and ICU admission as the dependent measures. Results: Data were abstracted on 453 subjects with a documented arterial blood gas analysis. One hundred eighty-nine patients (41%) had normal Paco2 (35-45 mm Hg), 194 patients (42%) had a Paco2 < 35 mm Hg (hypocapnic), and 70 patients (15%) had a Paco2 > 45 mm Hg (hypercapnic). In the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for severity of illness, hypocapnic patients had greater 30-day mortality (OR = 2.84; 95% CI, 1.28-6.30) and a higher need for ICU admission (OR = 2.88; 95% CI, 1.68-4.95) compared with patients with normal Paco2. In addition, hypercapnic patients had a greater 30-day mortality (OR = 3.38; 95% CI, 1.38-8.30) and a higher need for ICU admission (OR = 5.35; 95% CI, 2.80-10.23). When patients with COPD were excluded from the analysis, the differences persisted between groups. Conclusion: In hospitalized patients with CAP, both hypocapnia and hypercapnia were associated with an increased need for ICU admission and higher 30-day mortality. These findings persisted after excluding patients with CAP and with COPD. Therefore, Paco2 should be considered for inclusion in future severity stratification criteria to appropriate identified patients who will require a higher level of care and are at risk for increased mortality. PMID:22677348

  20. Serial evaluation of the MODS, SOFA and LOD scores to predict ICU mortality in mixed critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Khwannimit, Bodin

    2008-09-01

    To perform a serial assessment and compare ability in predicting the intensive care unit (ICU) mortality of the multiple organ dysfunction score (MODS), sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) and logistic organ dysfunction (LOD) score. The data were collected prospectively on consecutive ICU admissions over a 24-month period at a tertiary referral university hospital. The MODS, SOFA, and LOD scores were calculated on initial and repeated every 24 hrs. Two thousand fifty four patients were enrolled in the present study. The maximum and delta-scores of all the organ dysfunction scores correlated with ICU mortality. The maximum score of all models had better ability for predicting ICU mortality than initial or delta score. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for maximum scores was 0.892 for the MODS, 0.907 for the SOFA, and 0.92for the LOD. No statistical difference existed between all maximum scores and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score. Serial assessment of organ dysfunction during the ICU stay is reliable with ICU mortality. The maximum scores is the best discrimination comparable with APACHE II score in predicting ICU mortality.

  1. Mortality Associated with Night and Weekend Admissions to ICU with On-Site Intensivist Coverage: Results of a Nine-Year Cohort Study (2006-2014)

    PubMed Central

    Brunot, Vincent; Landreau, Liliane; Corne, Philippe; Platon, Laura; Besnard, Noémie; Buzançais, Aurèle; Daubin, Delphine; Serre, Jean Emmanuel; Molinari, Nicolas; Klouche, Kada

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between mortality and time of admission to ICU has been extensively studied but remains controversial. We revaluate the impact of time of admission on ICU mortality by retrospectively investigating a recent (2006–2014) and large ICU cohort with on-site intensivist coverage. Patients and Methods All adults (≥ 18 years) admitted to a tertiary care medical ICU were included in the study. Patients' characteristics, medical management, and mortality were prospectively collected. Patients were classified according to their admission time: week working days on- and off-hours, and weekends. ICU mortality was the primary outcome and adjusted Hazard-ratios (HR) of death were analysed by multivariate Cox model. Results 2,428 patients were included: age 62±18 years; male: 1,515 (62%); and median SAPSII score: 38 (27–52). Overall ICU mortality rate was 13.7%. Admissions to ICU occurred during open-hours in 680 cases (28%), during night-time working days in 1,099 cases (45%) and during weekends in 649 cases (27%). Baseline characteristics of patients were similar between groups except that patients admitted during the second part of night (00:00 to 07:59) have a significantly higher SAPS II score than others. ICU mortality was comparable between patients admitted during different time periods but was significantly higher for those admitted during the second part of the night. Multivariate analysis showed however that admission during weeknights and weekends was not associated with an increased ICU mortality as compared with open-hours admissions. Conclusion Time of admission, especially weeknight and weekend (off-hour admissions), did not influence the prognosis of ICU patients. The higher illness severity of patients admitted during the second part of the night (00:00–07:59) may explain the observed increased mortality. PMID:28033395

  2. Mortality Associated with Night and Weekend Admissions to ICU with On-Site Intensivist Coverage: Results of a Nine-Year Cohort Study (2006-2014).

    PubMed

    Brunot, Vincent; Landreau, Liliane; Corne, Philippe; Platon, Laura; Besnard, Noémie; Buzançais, Aurèle; Daubin, Delphine; Serre, Jean Emmanuel; Molinari, Nicolas; Klouche, Kada

    2016-01-01

    The association between mortality and time of admission to ICU has been extensively studied but remains controversial. We revaluate the impact of time of admission on ICU mortality by retrospectively investigating a recent (2006-2014) and large ICU cohort with on-site intensivist coverage. All adults (≥ 18 years) admitted to a tertiary care medical ICU were included in the study. Patients' characteristics, medical management, and mortality were prospectively collected. Patients were classified according to their admission time: week working days on- and off-hours, and weekends. ICU mortality was the primary outcome and adjusted Hazard-ratios (HR) of death were analysed by multivariate Cox model. 2,428 patients were included: age 62±18 years; male: 1,515 (62%); and median SAPSII score: 38 (27-52). Overall ICU mortality rate was 13.7%. Admissions to ICU occurred during open-hours in 680 cases (28%), during night-time working days in 1,099 cases (45%) and during weekends in 649 cases (27%). Baseline characteristics of patients were similar between groups except that patients admitted during the second part of night (00:00 to 07:59) have a significantly higher SAPS II score than others. ICU mortality was comparable between patients admitted during different time periods but was significantly higher for those admitted during the second part of the night. Multivariate analysis showed however that admission during weeknights and weekends was not associated with an increased ICU mortality as compared with open-hours admissions. Time of admission, especially weeknight and weekend (off-hour admissions), did not influence the prognosis of ICU patients. The higher illness severity of patients admitted during the second part of the night (00:00-07:59) may explain the observed increased mortality.

  3. Prognostic value of cell-free DNA in plasma of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors at ICU admission and 24h post-admission.

    PubMed

    Gornik, Ivan; Wagner, Jasenka; Gašparović, Vladimir; Miličić, Davor; Degoricija, Vesna; Skorić, Boško; Gornik, Olga; Lauc, Gordan

    2014-02-01

    Cell-free DNA has been associated with outcome in several acute conditions including two reports concerning the outcomes after cardiac arrest that found association of circulating DNA quantities at admission with mortality. The origins of cell-free DNA are primarily necrosis and apoptosis, which in cardiac arrest occur during ischaemia ("no-flow" and "low-flow" period), during reperfusion injury and as a consequence of post-arrest inflammatory response. Respecting the facts that significant cellular damage may occur during the post-arrest period, and that damage might be reduced by mild therapeutic hypothermia, we investigated the prognostic value of cell free DNA at ICU admission and 24h after admission. A prospective study was conducted in three university associated intensive care units and included patients resuscitated from non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Patient data were collected in accordance with the Utstein protocol. Therapeutic hypothermia was performed according to ICU policies. Blood for cell-free DNA quantification was sampled at admission and at 24±1h after admission. Outcome measures were hospital morality and cerebral performance expressed with CPC scale at discharge. Inclusion criteria were met in 67 patients; 24-h mortality was 37.3% and hospital mortality was 71.6%. The following variables were associated with 24-h mortality in univariate analysis: asystole as the presenting rhythm, "no-flow" time, "low-flow" time and cell-free DNA at admission (median 0.081 in survivors vs. 0.160ng/μl in non-survivors; P=0.038). Multivariate analysis that included the above variables showed that no-flow time and low-flow time were independently associated with 24-h mortality. Hospital mortality was associated with the following factors: "low flow" time, coronary intervention, cell-free DNA at ICU admission and at 24h after admission (0.042 vs. 0.188ng/μl; P=0.048). ROC curve for cell-free DNA 24h post-admission showed sensitivity of 81.0% and

  4. A critical analysis of unplanned ICU transfer within 48 hours from ED admission as a quality measure.

    PubMed

    Dahn, Cassidy M; Manasco, A Travis; Breaud, Alan H; Kim, Samuel; Rumas, Natalia; Moin, Omer; Mitchell, Patricia M; Nelson, Kerrie P; Baker, William; Feldman, James A

    2016-08-01

    Unplanned intensive care unit (ICU) transfer (UIT) within 48 hours of emergency department (ED) admission increases morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that a majority of UITs do not have critical interventions (CrIs) and that CrI is associated with worse outcomes. The objective of the study is to characterize all UITs (including patients who died before ICU transfer), the proportion with CrI, and the effect of having CrI on mortality. This is a single-center, retrospective cohort study of UITs within 48 hours from 2008 to 2013 at an urban academic medical center and included patients 18 years or older without advanced directives (ADs). Critical intervention was defined by modified Delphi process. Data included demographics, comorbidities, reasons for UIT, length of stay, CrIs, and mortality. We calculated descriptive statistics with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 837 (0.76%) of 108 732 floor admissions from the ED had a UIT within 48 hours; 86 admitted patients died before ICU. We excluded 23 ADs, 117 postoperative transfers, 177 planned ICU transfers, and 4 with missing data. Of the 516 remaining, 65% (95% CI, 61%-69%) received a CrI. Unplanned ICU transfer reasons are as follows: 33 medical errors, 90 disease processes not present on arrival, and 393 clinical deteriorations. Mortality was 10.5% (95% CI, 8%-14%), and mean length of stay was 258 hours (95% CI, 233-283) for those with CrI, whereas the mortality was 2.8% (95% CI, 1%-6%) and mean length of stay was 177 hours (95% CI, 157-197) for those without CrI. Unplanned ICU transfer is rare, and only 65% had a CrI. Those with CrI had increased morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ICU Admission, Discharge, and Triage Guidelines: A Framework to Enhance Clinical Operations, Development of Institutional Policies, and Further Research.

    PubMed

    Nates, Joseph L; Nunnally, Mark; Kleinpell, Ruth; Blosser, Sandralee; Goldner, Jonathan; Birriel, Barbara; Fowler, Clara S; Byrum, Diane; Miles, William Scherer; Bailey, Heatherlee; Sprung, Charles L

    2016-08-01

    To update the Society of Critical Care Medicine's guidelines for ICU admission, discharge, and triage, providing a framework for clinical practice, the development of institutional policies, and further research. An appointed Task Force followed a standard, systematic, and evidence-based approach in reviewing the literature to develop these guidelines. The assessment of the evidence and recommendations was based on the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. The general subject was addressed in sections: admission criteria and benefits of different levels of care, triage, discharge timing and strategies, use of outreach programs to supplement ICU care, quality assurance/improvement and metrics, nonbeneficial treatment in the ICU, and rationing considerations. The literature searches yielded 2,404 articles published from January 1998 to October 2013 for review. Following the appraisal of the literature, discussion, and consensus, recommendations were written. Although these are administrative guidelines, the subjects addressed encompass complex ethical and medico-legal aspects of patient care that affect daily clinical practice. A limited amount of high-quality evidence made it difficult to answer all the questions asked related to ICU admission, discharge, and triage. Despite these limitations, the members of the Task Force believe that these recommendations provide a comprehensive framework to guide practitioners in making informed decisions during the admission, discharge, and triage process as well as in resolving issues of nonbeneficial treatment and rationing. We need to further develop preventive strategies to reduce the burden of critical illness, educate our noncritical care colleagues about these interventions, and improve our outreach, developing early identification and intervention systems.

  6. Differential Prediction Generalization in College Admissions Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguinis, Herman; Culpepper, Steven A.; Pierce, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the concept of "differential prediction generalization" in the context of college admissions testing. Specifically, we assess the extent to which predicted first-year college grade point average (GPA) based on high-school grade point average (HSGPA) and SAT scores depends on a student's ethnicity and gender and whether this…

  7. Differential Prediction Generalization in College Admissions Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguinis, Herman; Culpepper, Steven A.; Pierce, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the concept of "differential prediction generalization" in the context of college admissions testing. Specifically, we assess the extent to which predicted first-year college grade point average (GPA) based on high-school grade point average (HSGPA) and SAT scores depends on a student's ethnicity and gender and whether this…

  8. Predicting Academic Success Using Admission Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Soen, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This study, conducted at a tertiary education institution in Israel, following two previous studies, was designed to deal again with a question that is a topic of debate in Israel and worldwide: Is there justification for the approach that considers restrictive university admission policies an efficient tool for predicting students' success at the…

  9. Delayed Recognition of Deterioration of Patients in General Wards Is Mostly Caused by Human Related Monitoring Failures: A Root Cause Analysis of Unplanned ICU Admissions

    PubMed Central

    Driesen, Babiche E. J. M.; Merten, Hanneke; Ludikhuize, Jeroen; van der Spoel, Johannes I.; Kramer, Mark H. H.; Nanayakkara, Prabath W. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background An unplanned ICU admission of an inpatient is a serious adverse event (SAE). So far, no in depth-study has been performed to systematically analyse the root causes of unplanned ICU-admissions. The primary aim of this study was to identify the healthcare worker-, organisational-, technical,- disease- and patient- related causes that contribute to acute unplanned ICU admissions from general wards using a Root-Cause Analysis Tool called PRISMA-medical. Although a Track and Trigger System (MEWS) was introduced in our hospital a few years ago, it was implemented without a clear protocol. Therefore, the secondary aim was to assess the adherence to a Track and Trigger system to identify deterioration on general hospital wards in patients eventually transferred to the ICU. Methods Retrospective observational study in 49 consecutive adult patients acutely admitted to the Intensive Care Unit from a general nursing ward. 1. PRISMA-analysis on root causes of unplanned ICU admissions 2. Assessment of protocol adherence to the early warning score system. Results Out of 49 cases, 156 root causes were identified. The most frequent root causes were healthcare worker related (46%), which were mainly failures in monitoring the patient. They were followed by disease-related (45%), patient-related causes (7, 5%), and organisational root causes (3%). In only 40% of the patients vital parameters were monitored as was instructed by the doctor. 477 vital parameter sets were found in the 48 hours before ICU admission, in only 1% a correct MEWS was explicitly documented in the record. Conclusions This in-depth analysis demonstrates that almost half of the unplanned ICU admissions from the general ward had healthcare worker related root causes, mostly due to monitoring failures in clinically deteriorating patients. In order to reduce unplanned ICU admissions, improving the monitoring of patients is therefore warranted. PMID:27537689

  10. Delayed Recognition of Deterioration of Patients in General Wards Is Mostly Caused by Human Related Monitoring Failures: A Root Cause Analysis of Unplanned ICU Admissions.

    PubMed

    van Galen, Louise S; Struik, Patricia W; Driesen, Babiche E J M; Merten, Hanneke; Ludikhuize, Jeroen; van der Spoel, Johannes I; Kramer, Mark H H; Nanayakkara, Prabath W B

    2016-01-01

    An unplanned ICU admission of an inpatient is a serious adverse event (SAE). So far, no in depth-study has been performed to systematically analyse the root causes of unplanned ICU-admissions. The primary aim of this study was to identify the healthcare worker-, organisational-, technical,- disease- and patient- related causes that contribute to acute unplanned ICU admissions from general wards using a Root-Cause Analysis Tool called PRISMA-medical. Although a Track and Trigger System (MEWS) was introduced in our hospital a few years ago, it was implemented without a clear protocol. Therefore, the secondary aim was to assess the adherence to a Track and Trigger system to identify deterioration on general hospital wards in patients eventually transferred to the ICU. Retrospective observational study in 49 consecutive adult patients acutely admitted to the Intensive Care Unit from a general nursing ward. 1. PRISMA-analysis on root causes of unplanned ICU admissions 2. Assessment of protocol adherence to the early warning score system. Out of 49 cases, 156 root causes were identified. The most frequent root causes were healthcare worker related (46%), which were mainly failures in monitoring the patient. They were followed by disease-related (45%), patient-related causes (7, 5%), and organisational root causes (3%). In only 40% of the patients vital parameters were monitored as was instructed by the doctor. 477 vital parameter sets were found in the 48 hours before ICU admission, in only 1% a correct MEWS was explicitly documented in the record. This in-depth analysis demonstrates that almost half of the unplanned ICU admissions from the general ward had healthcare worker related root causes, mostly due to monitoring failures in clinically deteriorating patients. In order to reduce unplanned ICU admissions, improving the monitoring of patients is therefore warranted.

  11. Surgical intensive care unit admission variables predict subsequent readmission.

    PubMed

    Lissauer, Matthew E; Diaz, Jose J; Narayan, Mayur; Shah, Paulesh K; Hanna, Nader N

    2013-06-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) readmissions are associated with increased resource use. Defining predictors may improve resource use. Surgical ICU patients requiring readmission will have different characteristics than those who do not. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of a prospectively maintained database. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV quality database identified patients admitted January 1 through December 31, 2011. Patients were divided into groups: NREA = patients admitted to the ICU, discharged, and not readmitted versus REA = patients admitted to the ICU, discharged, and readmitted. Comparisons were made at index admission, not readmission. Categorical variables were compared by Fisher's exact testing and continuous variables by t test. Multivariate logistic regression identified independent predictors of readmission. There were 765 admissions. Seventy-seven patients required readmission 94 times (12.8% rate). Sixty-two patients died on initial ICU admission. Admission severity of illness was significantly higher (APACHE III score: 69.54 ± 21.11 vs 54.88 ± 23.48) in the REA group. Discharge acute physiology scores were equal between groups (47.0 ± 39.2 vs 44.2 ± 34.0, P = nonsignificant). In multivariate analysis, REA patients were more likely admitted to emergency surgery (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 ± 3.5) more likely to have a history of immunosuppression (2.7, 1.4 ± 5.3) or higher Acute Physiology Score (1.02; 1.0 ± 1.03) than NREA. Patients who require ICU readmission have a different admission profile than those who do not "bounce back." Understanding these differences may allow for quality improvement projects such as instituting different discharge criteria for different patient populations.

  12. Risk stratification of early admission to the intensive care unit of patients with no major criteria of severe community-acquired pneumonia: development of an international prediction rule

    PubMed Central

    Renaud, Bertrand; Labarère, José; Coma, Eva; Santin, Aline; Hayon, Jan; Gurgui, Mercé; Camus, Nicolas; Roupie, Eric; Hémery, François; Hervé, Jérôme; Salloum, Mirna; Fine, Michael J; Brun-Buisson, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Introduction To identify risk factors for early (< three days) intensive care unit (ICU) admission of patients hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and not requiring immediate ICU admission, and to stratify the risk of ICU admission on days 1 to 3. Methods Using the original data from four North American and European prospective multicentre cohort studies of patients with CAP, we derived and validated a prediction rule for ICU admission on days 1 to 3 of emergency department (ED) presentation, for patients presenting with no obvious reason for immediate ICU admission (not requiring immediate respiratory or circulatory support). Results A total of 6560 patients were included (4593 and 1967 in the derivation and validation cohort, respectively), 303 (4.6%) of whom were admitted to an ICU on days 1 to 3. The Risk of Early Admission to ICU index (REA-ICU index) comprised 11 criteria independently associated with ICU admission: male gender, age younger than 80 years, comorbid conditions, respiratory rate of 30 breaths/minute or higher, heart rate of 125 beats/minute or higher, multilobar infiltrate or pleural effusion, white blood cell count less than 3 or 20 G/L or above, hypoxaemia (oxygen saturation < 90% or arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) < 60 mmHg), blood urea nitrogen of 11 mmol/L or higher, pH less than 7.35 and sodium less than 130 mEq/L. The REA-ICU index stratified patients into four risk classes with a risk of ICU admission on days 1 to 3 ranging from 0.7 to 31%. The area under the curve was 0.81 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.78 to 0.83) in the overall population. Conclusions The REA-ICU index accurately stratifies the risk of ICU admission on days 1 to 3 for patients presenting to the ED with CAP and no obvious indication for immediate ICU admission and therefore may assist orientation decisions. PMID:19358736

  13. First influenza season after the 2009 pandemic influenza: report of the first 300 ICU admissions in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Martin-Loeches, I; Bonastre, J; Olaechea, P; Alvarez-Lerma, F; Zaragoza, R; Guerrero, J; Blanco, J; Gordo, F; Pozo, F; Lorente, J; Carratalá, J; Cordero, M; Rello, J; Esteban, A; León, C

    2011-05-01

    During the 2009 influenza pandemic, several reports were published, nevertheless, data on the clinical profiles of critically ill patients with the new virus infection during this second outbreak are still lacking. Prospective, observational, multi-center study conducted in 148 Spanish intensive care units (ICU) during epidemiological weeks 50-52 of 2010 and weeks 1 - 4 of 2011. Three hundred patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with confirmed An/H1N1 infection were analyzed. The median age was 49 years [IQR=38-58] and 62% were male. The mean APACHE II score was 16.9 ± 7.5 and the mean SOFA score was 6.3 ± 3.5 on admission. Comorbidities were present in 76% (n=228) of cases and 111 (37.4%) patients were reportedly obese and 59 (20%) were COPD. The main presentation was viral pneumonia with severe hypoxemia in 65.7% (n=197) of the patients whereas co-infection was identified in 54 (18%) patients. All patients received antiviral treatment and initiated empirically in 194 patients (65.3%), however only 53 patients (17.6%) received early antiviral treatment. Vaccination was only administered in 22 (7.3%) patients. Sixty-seven of 200 patients with ICU discharge died. Haematological disease, severity of illness, infiltrates in chest X-ray and need for mechanical ventilation were variables independently associated with ICU mortality. In patients admitted to the ICU in the post-pandemic seasonal influenza outbreak vaccination was poorly implemented and appear to have higher frequency of severe comorbidities, severity of illness, incidence of primary viral pneumonia and increased mortality when compared with those observed in the 2009 pandemic outbreak. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  14. Multi-task transfer learning for in-hospital-death prediction of ICU patients.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Chandan; Saha, Budhaditya; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Venkatesh, Svetha

    2016-08-01

    Multi-Task Transfer Learning (MTTL) is an efficient approach for learning from inter-related tasks with small sample size and imbalanced class distribution. Since the intensive care unit (ICU) data set (publicly available in Physionet) has subjects from four different ICU types, we hypothesize that there is an underlying relatedness amongst various ICU types. Therefore, this study aims to explore MTTL model for in-hospital mortality prediction of ICU patients. We used single-task learning (STL) approach on the augmented data as well as individual ICU data and compared the performance with the proposed MTTL model. As a performance measurement metrics, we used sensitivity (Sens), positive predictivity (+Pred), and Score. MTTL with class balancing showed the best performance with score of 0.78, 0.73, o.52 and 0.63 for ICU type 1 (Coronary care unit), 2 (Cardiac surgery unit), 3 (Medical ICU) and 4 (Surgical ICU) respectively. In contrast the maximum score obtained using STL approach was 0.40 for ICU type 1 & 2. These results indicates that the performance of in-hospital mortality can be improved using ICU type information and by balancing the `non-survivor' class. The findings of the study may be useful for quantifying the quality of ICU care, managing ICU resources and selecting appropriate interventions.

  15. Triage decisions for ICU admission: Report from the Task Force of the World Federation of Societies of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine.

    PubMed

    Blanch, Lluís; Abillama, Fayez François; Amin, Pravin; Christian, Michael; Joynt, Gavin M; Myburgh, John; Nates, Joseph L; Pelosi, Paolo; Sprung, Charles; Topeli, Arzu; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Yeager, Susan; Zimmerman, Janice

    2016-12-01

    Demand for intensive care unit (ICU) resources often exceeds supply, and shortages of ICU beds and staff are likely to persist. Triage requires careful weighing of the benefits and risks involved in ICU admission while striving to guarantee fair distribution of available resources. We must ensure that the patients who occupy ICU beds are those most likely to benefit from the ICU's specialized technology and professionals. Although prognosticating is not an exact science, preference should be given to patients who are more likely to survive if admitted to the ICU but unlikely to survive or likely to have more significant morbidity if not admitted. To provide general guidance for intensivists in ICU triage decisions, a task force of the World Federation of Societies of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine addressed 4 basic questions regarding this process. The team made recommendations and concluded that triage should be led by intensivists considering input from nurses, emergency medicine professionals, hospitalists, surgeons, and allied professionals. Triage algorithms and protocols can be useful but can never supplant the role of skilled intensivists basing their decisions on input from multidisciplinary teams. Infrastructures need to be organized efficiently both within individual hospitals and at the regional level. When resources are critically limited, patients may be refused ICU admission if others may benefit more on the basis of the principle of distributive justice.

  16. Interpretable Topic Features for Post-ICU Mortality Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yen-Fu; Rumshisky, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Electronic health records provide valuable resources for understanding the correlation between various diseases and mortality. The analysis of post-discharge mortality is critical for healthcare professionals to follow up potential causes of death after a patient is discharged from the hospital and give prompt treatment. Moreover, it may reduce the cost derived from readmissions and improve the quality of healthcare. Our work focused on post-discharge ICU mortality prediction. In addition to features derived from physiological measurements, we incorporated ICD-9-CM hierarchy into Bayesian topic model learning and extracted topic features from medical notes. We achieved highest AUCs of 0.835 and 0.829 for 30-day and 6-month post-discharge mortality prediction using baseline and topic proportions derived from Labeled-LDA. Moreover, our work emphasized the interpretability of topic features derived from topic model which may facilitates the understanding and investigation of the complexity between mortality and diseases. PMID:28269879

  17. Pediatric liver lacerations and intensive care: evaluation of ICU triage strategies.

    PubMed

    Fremgen, Heather E; Bratton, Susan L; Metzger, Ryan R; Barnhart, Douglas C

    2014-05-01

    To compare PICU admission criteria following blunt traumatic liver laceration based on CT grade and/or physiologic instability with actual practice to improve efficiency of ICU admission. Retrospective cohort study. Patients with grade 3-6 liver lacerations, 2002-2010. Hundred seventy-one infants and children, ages 1 month to 17 years. None. Preadmission signs of physiologic instability (i.e., coma and cardiac arrest), liver CT grading, and outcomes including length of stay and packed RBC transfusion after admission to ICU were collected. Multiple body region severe trauma was defined as more than or equal to 1 extra-abdominal body area abbreviated injury score more than or equal to 4. Actual ICU admissions were compared with predicted. Two patients died before ICU admission and five (3%) died afterward. Of 169 patients, 52 (31%) were initially admitted to the inpatient ward. Five percent received surgical care for liver injury. Twenty percent received packed RBCs emergently for shock, whereas 5% received their first packed RBCs after admission. Compared with ICU admissions, ward patients were significantly older, had lower Injury Severity Scores, and less operative care. Among ICU patients, transfusion for hemorrhagic shock was significantly associated with more severe injury scores. Sixty percent of ICU patients were not transfused. ICU triage determined by signs of physiologic instability predicted 53 admissions (31%) including seven of nine patients (78%) treated with transfusions after admission. Predicted ICU admission for nontransfused patients was lower-9%. Adding CT laceration grade more than or equal to 4 increased ICU admissions to 129 (76%). Among surviving ICU patients, 37 of 62 patients (60%) with isolated severe abdominal trauma and no systemic instability had ICU length of stay less than 1 day. Children with isolated abdominal injury and no physiologic instability can generally be treated without ICU admission. Adding grade more than or equal to 4

  18. The Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Score for evaluation of physical reserve on admission to the ICU: can we query the relatives?

    PubMed

    Hofhuis, José G M; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Hovingh, Aly; Braam, Richard L; van de Braak, Lisa; Spronk, Peter E; Rommes, Johannes H

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating the pre-morbid functional status in critically ill patients is important and frequently done using the physical component score (PCS) of the Short Form 36, although this approach has its limitations. The Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Score (ALDS) is a recently developed generic item bank used to measure the disability status of patients with a broad range of diseases. We aimed to study whether proxy scoring with the ALDS could be used to assess the patients' functional status on admission for cardiac care unit (CCU) or ICU patients and how the ALDS relates to the PCS using the Short Form 12 (SF-12). Patients and proxies completed the ALDS and SF-12 score in the first 72 hours following ICU scheduled surgery (n = 14), ICU emergency admission (n = 56) and CCU emergency admission (n = 70). In all patients (n = 140) a significant intra-class correlation was found for the ALDS (0.857), the PCS (0.798) and the mental component score (0.679) between patients and their proxy. In both scheduled and emergency admissions, a significant correlation was found between patients and their proxy for the ALDS, although the lowest correlation was found for the ICU scheduled admissions (0.755) compared with the ICU emergency admissions (0.889). In CCU patients, the highest significant correlation between patients and proxies was found for the ALDS (0.855), for the PCS (0.807) and for the mental component score (0.740). Relatives in close contact with critically ill patients can adequately reflect the patient's level of disability on ICU and CCU admission when using the ALDS item bank, which performed at least as well as the PCS. The ALDS could therefore be a useful alternative for the PCS of the SF-12.

  19. Clinical prediction rule for identifying patients with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) at the time of admission to the intensive care unit in a low VRE prevalence setting.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young Kyung; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Lee, Won Jin; Lee, Sung Eun; Yang, Kyung Sook; Park, Dae Won; Sohn, Jang Wook; Kim, Min Ja

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a clinical prediction rule to screen patients at risk of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) carriage at intensive care unit (ICU) admission in a hospital setting with low VRE prevalence. This study was retrospectively conducted in the ICUs of a university-affiliated hospital in Korea, where active surveillance cultures for VRE had been run at ICU admission and weekly thereafter. In the derivation cohort from April 2008 to September 2010, risk factors for VRE carriage at ICU admission were determined and assigned weighted point values using a multivariate logistic regression model. In the validation cohort from October 2010 to March 2011, predictability of the prediction rule was evaluated. Of a total of 4445 cultures taken from patients at ICU admission, 153 (3.4%) patients carried VRE. In the derivation cohort, independent risk factors (assigned points) for VRE carriage at ICU admission were ICU readmission during hospitalization (1 point), chronic obstructive lung disease (2 points), recent antibiotic treatment (3 points) and recent vancomycin use (2 points). In the validation cohort, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the prediction rule, on the basis of risk scores ≥3 points, were 84.2%, 82.5%, 15.2% and 99.3%, respectively. This clinical prediction rule for identifying VRE carriage at the time of ICU admission is expected to markedly reduce the screening volume (by 80.1%) in our healthcare facility. For use in clinical practice, the rule needs to be prospectively validated in other settings.

  20. Changes in tissue perfusion parameters in dogs with severe sepsis/septic shock in response to goal-directed hemodynamic optimization at admission to ICU and the relation to outcome.

    PubMed

    Conti-Patara, Andreza; de Araújo Caldeira, Juliana; de Mattos-Junior, Ewaldo; de Carvalho, Haley da Silva; Reinoldes, Adriane; Pedron, Bruno Gregnanin; Patara, Marcelo; Francisco Talib, Mariana Semião; Faustino, Marcelo; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Cortopassi, Silvia Renata Gaido

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the changes in tissue perfusion parameters in dogs with severe sepsis/septic shock in response to goal-directed hemodynamic optimization in the ICU and their relation to outcome. Prospective observational study. ICU of a veterinary university medical center. Thirty dogs with severe sepsis or septic shock caused by pyometra who underwent surgery and were admitted to the ICU. Severe sepsis was defined as the presence of sepsis and sepsis-induced dysfunction of one or more organs. Septic shock was defined as the presence of severe sepsis plus hypotension not reversed with fluid resuscitation. After the presumptive diagnosis of sepsis secondary to pyometra, blood samples were collected and clinical findings were recorded. Volume resuscitation with 0.9% saline solution and antimicrobial therapy were initiated. Following abdominal ultrasonography and confirmation of increased uterine volume, dogs underwent corrective surgery. After surgery, the animals were admitted to the ICU, where resuscitation was guided by the clinical parameters, central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO(2)), lactate, and base deficit. Between survivors and nonsurvivors it was observed that the ScvO(2), lactate, and base deficit on ICU admission were each related independently to death (P = 0.001, P = 0.030, and P < 0.001, respectively). ScvO(2) and base deficit were found to be the best discriminators between survivors and nonsurvivors as assessed via receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. Our study suggests that ScvO(2) and base deficit are useful in predicting the prognosis of dogs with severe sepsis and septic shock; animals with a higher ScvO(2) and lower base deficit at admission to the ICU have a lower probability of death. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  1. icuARM-II: improving the reliability of personalized risk prediction in pediatric intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chih-Wen; Chanani, Nikhil; Maher, Kevin; Wang

    2016-01-01

    Clinicians in intensive care units (ICUs) rely on standardized scores as risk prediction models to predict a patient’s vulnerability to life-threatening events. Conventional Current scales calculate scores from a fixed set of conditions collected within a specific time window. However, modern monitoring technologies generate complex, temporal, and multimodal patient data that conventional prediction models scales cannot fully utilize. Thus, a more sophisticated model is needed to tailor individual characteristics and incorporate multiple temporal modalities for a personalized risk prediction. Furthermore, most scales models focus on adult patients. To address this needdeficiency, we propose a newly designed ICU risk prediction system, called icuARM-II, using a large-scaled pediatric ICU database from Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta. This novel database contains clinical data collected in 5,739 ICU visits from 4,975 patients. We propose a temporal association rule mining framework giving clinicians a potential to perform predict risks prediction based on all available patient conditions without being restricted by a fixed observation window. We also develop a new metric that can rigidly assesses the reliability of all all generated association rules. In addition, the icuARM-II features an interactive user interface. Using the icuARM-II, our results demonstrated showed a use case of short-term mortality prediction using lab testing results, which demonstrated a potential new solution for reliable ICU risk prediction using personalized clinical data in a previously neglected population. PMID:27532061

  2. Cystatin C at Admission in the Intensive Care Unit Predicts Mortality among Elderly Patients.

    PubMed

    Dalboni, Maria Aparecida; Beraldo, Daniel de Oliveira; Quinto, Beata Marie Redublo; Blaya, Rosângela; Narciso, Roberto; Oliveira, Moacir; Monte, Júlio César Martins; Durão, Marcelino de Souza; Cendoroglo, Miguel; Pavão, Oscar Fernando; Batista, Marcelo Costa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Cystatin C has been used in the critical care setting to evaluate renal function. Nevertheless, it has also been found to correlate with mortality, but it is not clear whether this association is due to acute kidney injury (AKI) or to other mechanism. Objective. To evaluate whether serum cystatin C at intensive care unit (ICU) entry predicts AKI and mortality in elderly patients. Materials and Methods. It was a prospective study of ICU elderly patients without AKI at admission. We evaluated 400 patients based on normality for serum cystatin C at ICU entry, of whom 234 (58%) were selected and 45 (19%) developed AKI. Results. We observed that higher serum levels of cystatin C did not predict AKI (1.05 ± 0.48 versus 0.94 ± 0.36 mg/L; P = 0.1). However, it was an independent predictor of mortality, H.R. = 6.16 (95% CI 1.46-26.00; P = 0.01), in contrast with AKI, which was not associated with death. In the ROC curves, cystatin C also provided a moderate and significant area (0.67; P = 0.03) compared to AKI (0.47; P = 0.6) to detect death. Conclusion. We demonstrated that higher cystatin C levels are an independent predictor of mortality in ICU elderly patients and may be used as a marker of poor prognosis.

  3. Cystatin C at Admission in the Intensive Care Unit Predicts Mortality among Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dalboni, Maria Aparecida; Beraldo, Daniel de Oliveira; Quinto, Beata Marie Redublo; Blaya, Rosângela; Narciso, Roberto; Oliveira, Moacir; Monte, Júlio César Martins; Durão, Marcelino de Souza; Cendoroglo, Miguel; Pavão, Oscar Fernando; Batista, Marcelo Costa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Cystatin C has been used in the critical care setting to evaluate renal function. Nevertheless, it has also been found to correlate with mortality, but it is not clear whether this association is due to acute kidney injury (AKI) or to other mechanism. Objective. To evaluate whether serum cystatin C at intensive care unit (ICU) entry predicts AKI and mortality in elderly patients. Materials and Methods. It was a prospective study of ICU elderly patients without AKI at admission. We evaluated 400 patients based on normality for serum cystatin C at ICU entry, of whom 234 (58%) were selected and 45 (19%) developed AKI. Results. We observed that higher serum levels of cystatin C did not predict AKI (1.05 ± 0.48 versus 0.94 ± 0.36 mg/L; P = 0.1). However, it was an independent predictor of mortality, H.R. = 6.16 (95% CI 1.46–26.00; P = 0.01), in contrast with AKI, which was not associated with death. In the ROC curves, cystatin C also provided a moderate and significant area (0.67; P = 0.03) compared to AKI (0.47; P = 0.6) to detect death. Conclusion. We demonstrated that higher cystatin C levels are an independent predictor of mortality in ICU elderly patients and may be used as a marker of poor prognosis. PMID:24967238

  4. Orthognathic Surgery Patients (Maxillary Impaction and Setback plus Mandibular Advancement plus Genioplasty) Need More Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Admission after Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Eftekharian, Hamidreza; Zamiri, Barbad; Ahzan, Shamseddin; Talebi, Mohamad; Zarei, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Due to shortage of ICU beds in hospitals, knowing what kind of orthognathic surgery patients more need ICU care after surgery would be important for surgeons and hospitals to prevent unnecessary ICU bed reservation. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine what kinds of orthognathic surgery patients would benefit more from ICU care after surgery. Materials and Method: 210 patients who were admitted to Chamran Hospital, Shiraz, for bimaxillary orthognathic surgery (2008-2013) were reviewed based on whether they had been admitted to ICU or maxillofacial surgery ward. Operation time, sex, intraoperative Estimated Blood Loss (EBL), postoperative complications, ICU admission, and unwanted complications resulting from staying in ICU were assessed. Results: Of 210 patients undergoing bimaxillary orthognathic surgery, 59 patients (28.1%) were postoperatively admitted to the ICU and 151 in the maxillofacial ward (71.9%). There was not statistically significant difference in age and sex between the two groups (p> 0.05). The groups were significantly different in terms of operation time (p< 0.001). Blood loss For ICU admitted patients was 600.00±293.621mL and for those who were hospitalized in the ward was 350.00±298.397 mL. Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups (p< 0.001). Moreover, there was a direct linear correlation between operation time and intraoperative estimated blood loss and this relationship was statistically significant (r=0.42, p< 0.001). Patients with maxillary impaction and setback plus mandibular advancement plus genioplasty were among the most ICU admitted patients (44%), while these patients were only 20% of all patients who were admitted to the ward. As a final point, the result illustrated that patients who were admitted to the ICU experienced more complication such as bleeding, postoperative nausea, and pain (p< 0.001). Conclusion: Orthognathic surgery patients (maxillary

  5. Using Simulation to Isolate Physician Variation in ICU Admission Decision Making for Critically Ill Elders with End-Stage Cancer: A Pilot Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Barnato, Amber E.; Hsu, Heather E.; Bryce, Cindy L.; Lave, Judith R.; Emlet, Lillian L.; Angus, Derek C.; Arnold, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the feasibility of high-fidelity simulation for studying variation in ICU admission decision making for critically ill elders with end-stage cancer. Design Mixed qualitative and quantitative analysis of physician subjects participating in a simulation scenario using a hospital set, actors, medical chart, and vital signs tracings. The simulation depicted a 78 year-old man with metastatic gastric cancer, life-threatening hypoxia most likely attributable to cancer progression, and stable preferences to avoid ICU admission and intubation. Two independent raters assesed the simulations and subjects completed a post-simulation web-based survey and debriefing interview. Setting Peter M. Winter Institute for Simulation Education and Research at the University of Pittsburgh. Subjects 27 hospital-based attending physicians, including 6 emergency physicians, 13 hospitalists, and 8 intensivists. Measurements and Main Results Outcomes included qualitative report of clinical verisimilitude during the debriefing interview, survey-reported diagnosis and prognosis, and observed treatment decisions. Independent variables included physician demographics, risk attitude, and reactions to uncertainty. All (100%) reported that the case and simulation were highly realistic, and their diagnostic and prognostic assessments were consistent with our intent. Eight (29.6%) physicians admitted the patient to the ICU. Among the 8 physicians who admitted the patient to the ICU, 3 (37%) initiated palliation, 2 (25%) documented the patient’s code status (DNI/DNR), and 1 intubated the patient. Among the 19 physicians not admitting to the ICU, 13 (68%) initiated palliation and 5 (42%) documented code status. Intensivists and emergency physicians (P=0.048) were more likely to admit the patient to the ICU. Years since medical school graduation were inversely associated with the initiation of palliative care (P=0.043). Conclusions Simulation can reproduce the decision context of

  6. Prediction of blunt traumatic injuries and hospital admission based on history and physical exam.

    PubMed

    Beal, Alan L; Ahrendt, Mark N; Irwin, Eric D; Lyng, John W; Turner, Steven V; Beal, Christopher A; Byrnes, Matthew T; Beilman, Greg A

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of experienced trauma surgeons to accurately predict specific blunt injuries, as well as patient disposition from the emergency department (ED), based only on the initial clinical evaluation and prior to any imaging studies. It would be hypothesized that experienced trauma surgeons' initial clinical evaluation is accurate for excluding life-threatening blunt injuries and for appropriate admission triage decisions. Using only their history and physical exam, and prior to any imaging studies, three (3) experienced trauma surgeons, with a combined Level 1 trauma experience of over 50 years, predicted injuries in patients with an initial GCS (Glasgow Coma Score) of 14-15. Additionally, ED disposition (ICU, floor, discharge to home) was also predicted. These predictions were compared to actual patient dispositions and to blunt injuries documented at discharge. A total of 101 patients with 92 blunt injuries were studied. 43/92 (46.7 %) injuries would have been missed by only performing an initial history and physical exam ("Missed injury"). A change in treatment, though often minor, was required in 19/43 (44.2 %) of the missed injuries. Only 1/43 (2.3 %) of these "missed injuries" (blunt aortic injury) required surgery. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for injury prediction were 53.2, 95.9, and 92.3 % respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 53.8 and 95.8 % respectively. Prediction of disposition from the ED was 77.8 % accurate. In 7/34 (20.6 %) patients, missed injuries led to changes in disposition. "Undertriage" occurred in 9/99 (9.1 %) patients (Predicted for floor but admitted to ICU). Additionally, 8/84 (9.5 %) patients predicted for floor admission were sent home from the ED; and 5/13 (38.5 %) patients predicted for ICU admission were actually sent to the floor after complete evaluations, giving an "overtriage" rate of 13/99 (13.1 %) patients. In a neurologically-intact group of trauma patients

  7. Evaluating the Predictive Validity of Graduate Management Admission Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Talento-Miller, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    Admissions data and first-year grade point average (GPA) data from 11 graduate management schools were analyzed to evaluate the predictive validity of Graduate Management Admission Test[R] (GMAT[R]) scores and the extent to which predictive validity held across sex and race/ethnicity. The results indicated GMAT verbal and quantitative scores had…

  8. Evaluating the Predictive Validity of Graduate Management Admission Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Talento-Miller, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    Admissions data and first-year grade point average (GPA) data from 11 graduate management schools were analyzed to evaluate the predictive validity of Graduate Management Admission Test[R] (GMAT[R]) scores and the extent to which predictive validity held across sex and race/ethnicity. The results indicated GMAT verbal and quantitative scores had…

  9. Predicting Prolonged Stay in the ICU Attributable to Bleeding in Patients Offered Plasma Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ngufor, Che; Murphree, Dennis; Upadhyaya, Sudhi; Madde, Nageswar; Pathak, Jyotishman; Carter, Rickey; Kor, Daryl

    2016-01-01

    In blood transfusion studies, plasma transfusion (PPT) and bleeding are known to be associated with risk of prolonged ICU length of stay (ICU-LOS). However, as patients can show significant heterogeneity in response to a treatment, there might exists subgroups with differential effects. The existence and characteristics of these subpopulations in blood transfusion has not been well-studied. Further, the impact of bleeding in patients offered PPT on prolonged ICU-LOS is not known. This study presents a causal and predictive framework to examine these problems. The two-step approach first estimates the effect of bleeding in PPT patients on prolonged ICU-LOS and then estimates risks of bleeding and prolonged ICU-LOS. The framework integrates a classification model for risks prediction and a regression model to predict actual LOS. Results showed that the effect of bleeding in PPT patients significantly increases risk of prolonged ICU-LOS (55%, p=0.00) while no bleeding significantly reduces ICU-LOS (4%, p=0.046). PMID:28269892

  10. A Freshman Admissions Prediction Equation: An Evaluation and Recommendation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Tungshan; Huberty, Carl J.

    The effectiveness of the freshman admissions prediction equation (FAPE) at the University of Georgia (Athens) was studied, using data for 3,378 freshman (1,490 males and 1,888 females) in 1987-88. For the 1987-88 data, a previous (1982) prediction equation functioned poorly in terms of predictive accuracy. New prediction models were constructed…

  11. Utility of serum concentration of protein S100 at admission to the medical intensive care unit in prediction of permanent neurological injury

    PubMed Central

    Knapik, Małgorzata; Partyka, Robert; Broll, Iwona; Cieśla, Daniel; Wawrzyńczyk, Maciej; Kokocińska, Danuta; Jałowiecki, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) may be preceded by dramatic events leading to permanent neurological injury. Plasma S100 protein levels are proved to be clinically useful in predicting neurological outcome following cardiac arrest. It is unclear, however, whether this may be extrapolated to a broader population of ICU patients. Aim To assess the utility of plasma S100 protein in predicting death, permanent neurological damage, or unfavourable outcome at admission to the intensive care unit. Material and methods The concentration of plasma S100 protein was established in 102 patients on admission to the ICU, regardless of their neurological status and the reason for admission. The majority of patients were admitted with various cardiac diseases, excluding trauma patients. The patients were classified into three groups with the following binary outcomes: permanent neurological deficit or restoration of consciousness; unfavourable outcome (death or survival with permanent neurological deficit) or favourable outcome; and death or survival. Results Plasma S100 protein levels at admission facilitated the identification of patients who later developed a permanent neurological deficit or regained consciousness (p < 0.0001). All patients with plasma S100 protein over 0.532 μg/l at ICU admission either developed a permanent neurological deficit or had an unfavourable outcome (death or survival with permanent neurological deficit). However, sensitivity for this cut-off value was only 48% and 40%, respectively. Conclusions Plasma S100 protein levels over 0.532 μg/l are specific but not sensitive for both permanent neurological deficit and unfavourable outcome when assessed in a heterogeneous population at admission to the ICU. PMID:28096833

  12. Are third-generation cephalosporins unavoidable for empirical therapy of community-acquired pneumonia in adult patients who require ICU admission? A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Hariri, Geoffroy; Tankovic, Jacques; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Dubée, Vincent; Leblanc, Guillaume; Pichereau, Claire; Bourcier, Simon; Bigé, Naike; Baudel, Jean-Luc; Galbois, Arnaud; Ait-Oufella, Hafid; Maury, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) are recommended for empirical antibiotic therapy of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in patients requiring ICU admission. However, their extensive use could promote the emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Our aim was to assess whether the use of 3GCs in patients with CAP requiring ICU admission was justified. We assessed all patients with CAP who required ICU admission during a 7-year period. We recorded empirical and definitive antibiotic therapies and susceptibility of causative pathogens. Amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate (A/C) susceptibilities as well as amikacin susceptibility of A/C-resistant strains were recorded. From January 2007 to March 2014, 391 patients were included in the study. Empirical 3GCs were used in 215 patients (55%). Among 267 patients with microbiologically documented CAP (68%), 241 received a beta-lactam as definitive therapy, and of those, 3CGs were chosen for 43 patients (18%). Amoxicillin or A/C was active against isolated pathogens in 159 patients (66%), while 39 patients (16%) required a beta-lactam with a broader spectrum than 3GCs. Ninety-four per cent of A/C-resistant strains were amikacin susceptible. In ICU patients with CAP, 3GCs given on an empirical basis are changed, according to microbiological documentation, for another beta-lactam in 82% of cases especially to A/C in the absence of resistance risk factor. In patients evidencing risk factors for A/C-resistant strains infection, 3GCs or antipseudomonal beta-lactams including carbapenem associated with amikacin in the most severe patients seem a relevant empirical antibiotic therapy. This strategy could decrease 3GCs' use.

  13. Simplified Mortality Score for the Intensive Care Unit (SMS-ICU): protocol for the development and validation of a bedside clinical prediction rule.

    PubMed

    Granholm, Anders; Perner, Anders; Krag, Mette; Hjortrup, Peter Buhl; Haase, Nicolai; Holst, Lars Broksø; Marker, Søren; Collet, Marie Oxenbøll; Jensen, Aksel Karl Georg; Møller, Morten Hylander

    2017-03-09

    Mortality prediction scores are widely used in intensive care units (ICUs) and in research, but their predictive value deteriorates as scores age. Existing mortality prediction scores are imprecise and complex, which increases the risk of missing data and decreases the applicability bedside in daily clinical practice. We propose the development and validation of a new, simple and updated clinical prediction rule: the Simplified Mortality Score for use in the Intensive Care Unit (SMS-ICU). During the first phase of the study, we will develop and internally validate a clinical prediction rule that predicts 90-day mortality on ICU admission. The development sample will comprise 4247 adult critically ill patients acutely admitted to the ICU, enrolled in 5 contemporary high-quality ICU studies/trials. The score will be developed using binary logistic regression analysis with backward stepwise elimination of candidate variables, and subsequently be converted into a point-based clinical prediction rule. The general performance, discrimination and calibration of the score will be evaluated, and the score will be internally validated using bootstrapping. During the second phase of the study, the score will be externally validated in a fully independent sample consisting of 3350 patients included in the ongoing Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis in the Intensive Care Unit trial. We will compare the performance of the SMS-ICU to that of existing scores. We will use data from patients enrolled in studies/trials already approved by the relevant ethical committees and this study requires no further permissions. The results will be reported in accordance with the Transparent Reporting of multivariate prediction models for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis (TRIPOD) statement, and submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Simplified Mortality Score for the Intensive Care Unit (SMS-ICU): protocol for the development and validation of a bedside clinical prediction rule

    PubMed Central

    Perner, Anders; Krag, Mette; Hjortrup, Peter Buhl; Haase, Nicolai; Holst, Lars Broksø; Marker, Søren; Collet, Marie Oxenbøll; Jensen, Aksel Karl Georg; Møller, Morten Hylander

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mortality prediction scores are widely used in intensive care units (ICUs) and in research, but their predictive value deteriorates as scores age. Existing mortality prediction scores are imprecise and complex, which increases the risk of missing data and decreases the applicability bedside in daily clinical practice. We propose the development and validation of a new, simple and updated clinical prediction rule: the Simplified Mortality Score for use in the Intensive Care Unit (SMS-ICU). Methods and analysis During the first phase of the study, we will develop and internally validate a clinical prediction rule that predicts 90-day mortality on ICU admission. The development sample will comprise 4247 adult critically ill patients acutely admitted to the ICU, enrolled in 5 contemporary high-quality ICU studies/trials. The score will be developed using binary logistic regression analysis with backward stepwise elimination of candidate variables, and subsequently be converted into a point-based clinical prediction rule. The general performance, discrimination and calibration of the score will be evaluated, and the score will be internally validated using bootstrapping. During the second phase of the study, the score will be externally validated in a fully independent sample consisting of 3350 patients included in the ongoing Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis in the Intensive Care Unit trial. We will compare the performance of the SMS-ICU to that of existing scores. Ethics and dissemination We will use data from patients enrolled in studies/trials already approved by the relevant ethical committees and this study requires no further permissions. The results will be reported in accordance with the Transparent Reporting of multivariate prediction models for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis (TRIPOD) statement, and submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. PMID:28279999

  15. A physical function test for use in the intensive care unit: validity, responsiveness, and predictive utility of the physical function ICU test (scored).

    PubMed

    Denehy, Linda; de Morton, Natalie A; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Edbrooke, Lara; Haines, Kimberley; Warrillow, Stephen; Berney, Sue

    2013-12-01

    Several tests have recently been developed to measure changes in patient strength and functional outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU). The original Physical Function ICU Test (PFIT) demonstrates reliability and sensitivity. The aims of this study were to further develop the original PFIT, to derive an interval score (the PFIT-s), and to test the clinimetric properties of the PFIT-s. A nested cohort study was conducted. One hundred forty-four and 116 participants performed the PFIT at ICU admission and discharge, respectively. Original test components were modified using principal component analysis. Rasch analysis examined the unidimensionality of the PFIT, and an interval score was derived. Correlations tested validity, and multiple regression analyses investigated predictive ability. Responsiveness was assessed using the effect size index (ESI), and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was calculated. The shoulder lift component was removed. Unidimensionality of combined admission and discharge PFIT-s scores was confirmed. The PFIT-s displayed moderate convergent validity with the Timed "Up & Go" Test (r=-.60), the Six-Minute Walk Test (r=.41), and the Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score (rho=.49). The ESI of the PFIT-s was 0.82, and the MCID was 1.5 points (interval scale range=0-10). A higher admission PFIT-s score was predictive of: an MRC score of ≥48, increased likelihood of discharge home, reduced likelihood of discharge to inpatient rehabilitation, and reduced acute care hospital length of stay. Scoring of sit-to-stand assistance required is subjective, and cadence cutpoints used may not be generalizable. The PFIT-s is a safe and inexpensive test of physical function with high clinical utility. It is valid, responsive to change, and predictive of key outcomes. It is recommended that the PFIT-s be adopted to test physical function in the ICU.

  16. The combination of MELD score and ICG liver testing predicts length of stay in the ICU and hospital mortality in liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Klinzing, Stephanie; Brandi, Giovanna; Stehberger, Paul A; Raptis, Dimitri A; Béchir, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Early prediction of outcome would be useful for an optimal intensive care management of liver transplant recipients. Indocyanine green clearance can be measured non-invasively by pulse spectrophometry and is closely related to liver function. This study was undertaken to assess the predictive value of a combination of the model of end stage liver disease (MELD) score and early indocyanine plasma disappearance rates (ICG-PDR) for length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), length of stay in the hospital and hospital mortality in liver transplant recipients. Fifty consecutive liver transplant recipients were included in this post Hoc single-center study. ICG-PDR was determined within 6 hours after ICU admission. Endpoints were length of stay in the ICU, length of hospital stay and hospital mortality. The combination of a high MELD score (MELD >25) and a low ICG-PDR clearance (ICG-PDR < 20%/minute) predicts a significant longer stay in the ICU (p = 0.004), a significant longer stay in the hospital (p < 0.001) and a hospital mortality of 40% vs. 0% (p = 0.003). The combination of MELD scores and a singular ICG-PDR measurement in the early postoperative phase is an accurate predictor for outcome in liver transplant recipients. This easy-to-assess tool might be valuable for an optimal intensive care management of those patients.

  17. Application of Predictive Nursing Reduces Psychiatric Complications in ICU Patients after Neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Qiong; ZHU, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our aim was to investigate the effects of clinical application of perioperative predictive nursing on reducing psychiatric complications in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients after neurosurgery. Methods: A total of 129 patients who underwent neurosurgery and received intensive care were enrolled in our study from February 2013 to February 2014. These patients were divided into two groups: the experimental group (n=68) receiving predictive nursing before and after operation, and the control group (n=61) with general nursing. Clinical data including length of ICU stay, duration of the patients’ psychiatric symptoms, form and incidence of adverse events, and patient satisfaction ratings were recorded, and their differences between the two groups were analyzed. Results: The duration of psychiatric symptoms and the length of ICU stay for patients in the experimental group were significantly shorter than those in the control group (P<0.05). The incidence of adverse events and psychiatric symptoms, such as sensory and intuition disturbance, thought disturbance, emotional disorder, and consciousness disorder, in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). Patient satisfaction ratings were significantly higher in the experimental group than those in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Application of predictive nursing on ICU patients who undergo neurosurgery could effectively reduce the incidence of psychiatric symptoms as well as other adverse events. Our study provided clinical evidences to encourage predictive nursing in routine settings for patients in critical conditions. PMID:27252916

  18. Predictive monitoring for early detection of sepsis in neonatal ICU patients.

    PubMed

    Fairchild, Karen D

    2013-04-01

    Predictive monitoring is an exciting new field involving analysis of physiologic data to detect abnormal patterns associated with critical illness. The first example of predictive monitoring being taken from inception (proof of concept) to reality (demonstration of improved outcomes) is the use of heart rate characteristics (HRC) monitoring to detect sepsis in infants in the neonatal ICU. The commercially available 'HeRO' monitor analyzes electrocardiogram data from existing bedside monitors for decreased HR variability and transient decelerations associated with sepsis, and converts these changes into a score (the HRC index or HeRO score). This score is the fold increase in probability that a patient will have a clinical deterioration from sepsis within 24 h. This review focuses on HRC monitoring and discusses future directions in predictive monitoring of ICU patients. In a randomized trial of 3003 very low birthweight infants, display of the HeRO score reduced mortality more than 20%. Ongoing research aims to combine respiratory and HR analysis to optimize care of ICU patients. Predictive monitoring has recently been shown to save lives. Harnessing and analyzing the vast amounts of physiologic data constantly displayed in ICU patients will lead to improved algorithms for early detection, prognosis, and therapy of critical illnesses.

  19. A history of outcome prediction in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Jack E; Kramer, Andrew A

    2014-10-01

    There are few first-hand accounts that describe the history of outcome prediction in critical care. This review summarizes the authors' personal perspectives about the development and evolution of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation over the past 35 years. We emphasize what we have learned in the past and more recently our perspectives about the current status of outcome prediction, and speculate about the future of outcome prediction. There is increasing evidence that superior accuracy in outcome prediction requires complex modeling with detailed adjustment for diagnosis and physiologic abnormalities. Thus, an automated electronic system is recommended for gathering data and generating predictions. Support, either public or private, is required to assist users and to update and improve models. Current outcome prediction models have increasingly focused on benchmarks for resource use, a trend that seems likely to increase in the future.

  20. The Course of Skin and Serum Biomarkers of Advanced Glycation Endproducts and Its Association with Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, Disease Severity, and Mortality during ICU Admission in Critically Ill Patients: Results from a Prospective Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Meertens, John H; Nienhuis, Hans L; Lefrandt, Joop D; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Nyyssönen, Kristiina; Ligtenberg, Jack J M; Smit, Andries J; Zijlstra, Jan G; Mulder, D J

    2016-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been implicated in multiple organ failure, predominantly via their cellular receptor (RAGE) in preclinical studies. Little is known about the time course and prognostic relevance of AGEs in critically ill human patients, including those with severe sepsis. 1) To explore the reliability of Skin Autofluorescence (AF) as an index of tissue AGEs in ICU patients, 2) to compare its levels to healthy controls, 3) to describe the time course of AGEs and influencing factors during ICU admission, and 4) to explore their association with disease severity, outcome, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Skin AF, serum N"-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), N"-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), and soluble RAGE (sRAGE) were serially measured for a maximum of 7 days in critically ill ICU patients with multiple organ failure and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Correlations with (changes in) clinical parameters of disease severity, LDL dienes, and CRP were studied and survival analysis for in-hospital mortality was performed. Forty-five ICU patients (age: 59±15 years; 60% male), and 37 healthy controls (59±14; 68%) were included. Skin AF measurements in ICU patients were reproducible (CV right-left arm: 13%, day-to-day: 10%), with confounding effects of skin reflectance and plasma bilirubin levels. Skin AF was higher in ICU patients vs healthy controls (2.7±0.7 vs 1.8±0.3 au; p<0.001). Serum CEL (23±10 vs, 16±3 nmol/gr protein; p<0.001), LDL dienes (19 (15-23) vs. 9 (8-11) μmol/mmol cholesterol; <0.001), and sRAGE (1547 (998-2496) vs. 1042 (824-1388) pg/ml; p = 0.003) were significantly higher in ICU patients compared to healthy controls, while CML was not different (27 (20-39) vs 29 (25-33) nmol/gr protein). While CRP and LDL dienes decreased significantly, Skin AF and serum AGEs and sRAGE did not change significantly during the first 7 days of ICU admission. CML and CEL were strongly correlated with SOFA scores and CML

  1. The Course of Skin and Serum Biomarkers of Advanced Glycation Endproducts and Its Association with Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, Disease Severity, and Mortality during ICU Admission in Critically Ill Patients: Results from a Prospective Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Meertens, John H.; Nienhuis, Hans L.; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Nyyssönen, Kristiina; Ligtenberg, Jack J. M.; Smit, Andries J.; Zijlstra, Jan G.; Mulder, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been implicated in multiple organ failure, predominantly via their cellular receptor (RAGE) in preclinical studies. Little is known about the time course and prognostic relevance of AGEs in critically ill human patients, including those with severe sepsis. Objective 1) To explore the reliability of Skin Autofluorescence (AF) as an index of tissue AGEs in ICU patients, 2) to compare its levels to healthy controls, 3) to describe the time course of AGEs and influencing factors during ICU admission, and 4) to explore their association with disease severity, outcome, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Methods Skin AF, serum N"-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), N"-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), and soluble RAGE (sRAGE) were serially measured for a maximum of 7 days in critically ill ICU patients with multiple organ failure and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Correlations with (changes in) clinical parameters of disease severity, LDL dienes, and CRP were studied and survival analysis for in-hospital mortality was performed. Results Forty-five ICU patients (age: 59±15 years; 60% male), and 37 healthy controls (59±14; 68%) were included. Skin AF measurements in ICU patients were reproducible (CV right-left arm: 13%, day-to-day: 10%), with confounding effects of skin reflectance and plasma bilirubin levels. Skin AF was higher in ICU patients vs healthy controls (2.7±0.7 vs 1.8±0.3 au; p<0.001). Serum CEL (23±10 vs, 16±3 nmol/gr protein; p<0.001), LDL dienes (19 (15–23) vs. 9 (8–11) μmol/mmol cholesterol; <0.001), and sRAGE (1547 (998–2496) vs. 1042 (824–1388) pg/ml; p = 0.003) were significantly higher in ICU patients compared to healthy controls, while CML was not different (27 (20–39) vs 29 (25–33) nmol/gr protein). While CRP and LDL dienes decreased significantly, Skin AF and serum AGEs and sRAGE did not change significantly during the first 7 days of ICU admission. CML and CEL

  2. Use of early corticosteroid therapy on ICU admission in patients affected by severe pandemic (H1N1)v influenza A infection.

    PubMed

    Martin-Loeches, I; Lisboa, T; Rhodes, A; Moreno, R P; Silva, E; Sprung, C; Chiche, J D; Barahona, D; Villabon, M; Balasini, C; Pearse, R M; Matos, R; Rello, J

    2011-02-01

    Early use of corticosteroids in patients affected by pandemic (H1N1)v influenza A infection, although relatively common, remains controversial. Prospective, observational, multicenter study from 23 June 2009 through 11 February 2010, reported in the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) H1N1 registry. Two hundred twenty patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with completed outcome data were analyzed. Invasive mechanical ventilation was used in 155 (70.5%). Sixty-seven (30.5%) of the patients died in ICU and 75 (34.1%) whilst in hospital. One hundred twenty-six (57.3%) patients received corticosteroid therapy on admission to ICU. Patients who received corticosteroids were significantly older and were more likely to have coexisting asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and chronic steroid use. These patients receiving corticosteroids had increased likelihood of developing hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) [26.2% versus 13.8%, p < 0.05; odds ratio (OR) 2.2, confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.5]. Patients who received corticosteroids had significantly higher ICU mortality than patients who did not (46.0% versus 18.1%, p < 0.01; OR 3.8, CI 2.1-7.2). Cox regression analysis adjusted for severity and potential confounding factors identified that early use of corticosteroids was not significantly associated with mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 1.3, 95% CI 0.7-2.4, p = 0.4] but was still associated with an increased rate of HAP (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-4.8, p < 0.05). When only patients developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were analyzed, similar results were observed. Early use of corticosteroids in patients affected by pandemic (H1N1)v influenza A infection did not result in better outcomes and was associated with increased risk of superinfections.

  3. The FOUR score predicts mortality, endotracheal intubation and ICU length of stay after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Ahmed Said; Fayed, Akram Muhammad; Saleh, Ahmad Sabry

    2014-12-01

    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the most widely accepted scale for assessing levels of consciousness, clinical status, as well as prognosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. The Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) score is a new coma scale developed addressing the limitations of the GCS. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to compare the performance of the FOUR score vs. the GCS in predicting TBI outcomes. From April to July 2011, 60 consecutive adult patients with TBI admitted to the Alexandria Main University Hospital intensive care units (ICU) were enrolled in the study. GCS and FOUR score were documented on arrival to emergency room. Outcomes were in-hospital mortality, unfavorable outcome [Glasgow outcome scale extended (GOSE) 1-4], endotracheal intubation, and ICU length of stay (LOS). Fifteen (25 %) patients died and 35 (58 %) had unfavorable outcome. When predicting mortality, the FOUR score showed significantly higher area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) than the GCS score (0.850 vs. 0.796, p = 0.025). The FOUR score and the GCS score were not different in predicting unfavorable outcome (AUC 0.813 vs. 0.779, p = 0.136) and endotracheal intubation (AUC 0.961 vs. 0.982, p = 0.06). Both scores were good predictors of ICU LOS (r (2) = 0.40 [FOUR score] vs. 0.41 [GCS score]). The FOUR score was superior to the GCS in predicting in-hospital mortality in TBI patients. There was no difference between both scores in predicting unfavorable outcome, endotracheal intubation, and ICU LOS.

  4. Individual Organ Failure and Concomitant Risk of Mortality Differs According to the Type of Admission to ICU – A Retrospective Study of SOFA Score of 23,795 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bingold, Tobias M.; Lefering, Rolf; Zacharowski, Kai; Meybohm, Patrick; Waydhas, Christian; Rosenberger, Peter; Scheller, Bertram

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Organ dysfunction or failure after the first days of ICU treatment and subsequent mortality with respect to the type of intensive care unit (ICU) admission is poorly elucidated. Therefore we analyzed the association of ICU mortality and admission for medical (M), scheduled surgery (ScS) or unscheduled surgery (US) patients mirrored by the occurrence of organ dysfunction/failure (OD/OF) after the first 72h of ICU stay. Methods For this retrospective cohort study (23,795 patients; DIVI registry; German Interdisciplinary Association for Intensive Care Medicine (DIVI)) organ dysfunction or failure were derived from the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (excluding the Glasgow Coma Scale). SOFA scores were collected on admission to ICU and 72h later. For patients with a length of stay of at least five days, a multivariate analysis was performed for individual OD/OF on day three. Results M patients had the lowest prevalence of cardiovascular failure (M 31%; ScS 35%; US 38%), and the highest prevalence of respiratory (M 24%; ScS 13%; US 17%) and renal failure (M 10%; ScS 6%; US 7%). Risk of death was highest for M- and ScS-patients in those with respiratory failure (OR; M 2.4; ScS 2.4; US 1.4) and for surgical patients with renal failure (OR; M 1.7; ScS 2.7; US 2.4). Conclusion The dynamic evolution of OD/OF within 72h after ICU admission and mortality differed between patients depending on their types of admission. This has to be considered to exclude a systematic bias during multi-center trials. PMID:26241475

  5. Low C-reactive protein values at admission predict mortality in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae that require intensive care management.

    PubMed

    Que, Yok-Ai; Virgini, Virginie; Lozeron, Elise Dupuis; Paratte, Géraldine; Prod'hom, Guy; Revelly, Jean-Pierre; Pagani, Jean-Luc; Charbonney, Emmanuel; Eggimann, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    To identify risk factors associated with mortality in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by S. pneumoniae who require intensive care unit (ICU) management, and to assess the prognostic values of these risk factors at the time of admission. Retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients with CAP caused by S. pneumoniae who were admitted to the 32-bed medico-surgical ICU of a community and referral university hospital between 2002 and 2011. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on variables available at admission. Among the 77 adult patients with severe CAP caused by S. pneumoniae who required ICU management, 12 patients died (observed mortality rate 15.6%). Univariate analysis indicated that septic shock and low C-reactive protein (CRP) values at admission were associated with an increased risk of death. In a multivariate model, after adjustment for age and gender, septic shock [odds ratio (OR), confidence interval 95%; 4.96, 1.11-22.25; p = 0.036], and CRP (OR 0.99, 0.98-0.99 p = 0.034) remained significantly associated with death. Finally, we assessed the discriminative ability of CRP to predict mortality by computing its receiver operating characteristic curve. The CRP value cut-off for the best sensitivity and specificity was 169.5 mg/L to predict hospital mortality with an area under the curve of 0.72 (0.55-0.89). The mortality of patients with S. pneumoniae CAP requiring ICU management was much lower than predicted by severity scores. The presence of septic shock and a CRP value at admission <169.5 mg/L predicted a fatal outcome.

  6. The Feasibility of Measuring Frailty to Predict Disability and Mortality in Older Medical-ICU Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Matthew R.; Reid, M. Cary; Westlake, Amanda A.; Rowe, John W.; Granieri, Evelyn C.; Wunsch, Hannah; Dam, Tien; Rabinowitz, Daniel; Goldstein, Nathan E.; Maurer, Mathew S.; Lederer, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether frailty can be measured within 4 days prior to hospital discharge in older ICU survivors of respiratory failure, and whether it is associated with post-discharge disability and mortality. Materials and Methods We performed a single center prospective cohort study of 22 medical-ICU survivors age ≥ 65 years old who had received non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours. Frailty was defined as a score of ≥ 3 using Fried’s 5-point scale. We measured disability with the Katz Activities of Daily Living. We estimated unadjusted associations between Fried’s frailty score and incident disability at 1-month and 6-month mortality using Cox proportional hazard models. Results The mean (standard deviation) age was 77 (9) years, mean APACHE II score was 27 (9.7), mean frailty score was 3.4 (1.3), and 18 (82%) were frail. Nine subjects (41%) died within 6 months, and all were frail. Each 1-point increase in frailty score was associated with a 90% increased rate of incident disability at 1-month (rate ratio: 1.9, 95% CI 0.7-4.9) and a threefold increase in 6-month mortality (rate ratio: 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.3). Conclusions:Frailty can be measured in older ICU survivors near hospital discharge and is associated with 6-month mortality in unadjusted analysis. Larger studies to determine if frailty independently predicts outcomes are warranted. PMID:24559575

  7. Who Dies after ICU Discharge? Retrospective Analysis of Prognostic Factors for In-Hospital Mortality of ICU Survivors

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the causes of inpatient death after intensive care unit (ICU) discharge and determined predictors of in-hospital mortality in Korea. Using medical ICU registry data of Seoul National University Hospital, we performed a retrospective cohort study involving patients who were discharged alive from their first ICU admission with at least 24 hours of ICU length of stay (LOS). From January 2011 to August 2013, 723 patients were admitted to ICU and 383 patients were included. The estimated in-hospital mortality rate was 11.7% (45/383). The most common cause of death was respiratory failure (n = 25, 56%) followed by sepsis and cancer progression; the causes of hospital death and ICU admission were the same in 64% of all deaths; sudden unexpected deaths comprised about one-fifth of all deaths. In order to predict in-hospital mortality among ICU survivors, multivariate analysis identified presence of solid tumor (odds ratio [OR], 4.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.01–8.2; P < 0.001), hematologic disease (OR, 4.75; 95% CI, 1.51–14.96; P = 0.013), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score upon ICU admission (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.99–1.17; P = 0.075), and hemoglobin (Hb) level (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.52–0.86; P = 0.001) and platelet count (Plt) (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.99–1.00; P = 0.033) upon ICU discharge as significant factors. In conclusion, a significant proportion of in-hospital mortality is predictable and those who die in hospital after ICU discharge tend to be severely-ill, with comorbidities of hematologic disease and solid tumor, and anemic and thrombocytopenic upon ICU discharge. PMID:28145659

  8. A protocol for postoperative admission of elective craniotomy patients to a non-ICU or step-down setting.

    PubMed

    Florman, Jeffrey E; Cushing, Deborah; Keller, Lynne A; Rughani, Anand I

    2017-03-03

    OBJECTIVE Selecting the appropriate patients undergoing craniotomy who can safely forgo postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) monitoring remains a source of debate. Through a multidisciplinary work group, the authors redefined their institutional care process for postoperative monitoring of patients undergoing elective craniotomy to include transfer from the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) to the neurosurgical floor. The hypothesis was that an appropriately selected group of patients undergoing craniotomy could be safely managed outside the ICU in the postoperative period. METHODS The work group developed and implemented a protocol for transfer of patients to the neurosurgical floor after 4-hour recovery in the PACU following elective craniotomy for supratentorial tumor. Criteria included hemodynamically stable adults without significant new postoperative neurological impairment. Data were prospectively collected including patient demographics, clinical characteristics, surgical details, postoperative complications, and events surrounding transfer to a higher level of care. RESULTS Of the first 200 consecutive patients admitted to the floor, 5 underwent escalation of care in the first 48 hours. Three of these escalations were for agitation, 1 for seizure, and 1 for neurological change. Ninety-eight percent of patients meeting criteria for transfer to the floor were managed without incident. No patient experienced a major complication or any permanent morbidity or mortality following this care pathway. CONCLUSIONS Care of patients undergoing uneventful elective supratentorial craniotomy for tumor on a neurosurgical floor after 4 hours of PACU monitoring appears to be a safe practice in this patient population. This tailored practice safely optimized hospital resources, is financially responsible, and is a strong tool for improving health care value.

  9. A comparison of three organ dysfunction scores: MODS, SOFA and LOD for predicting ICU mortality in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Khwannimit, Bodin

    2007-06-01

    To compare the validity of the Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score (MODS), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), and Logistic Organ Dysfunction Score (LOD) for predicting ICU mortality of Thai critically ill patients. A retrospective study was made of prospective data collected between the 1st July 2004 and 31st March 2006 at Songklanagarind Hospital. One thousand seven hundred and eighty two patients were enrolled in the present study. Two hundred and ninety three (16.4%) deaths were recorded in the ICU. The areas under the Receiver Operating Curves (A UC) for the prediction of ICU mortality the results were 0.861 for MODS, 0.879 for SOFA and 0.880 for LOD. The AUC of SOFA and LOD showed a statistical significance higher than the MODS score (p = 0.014 and p = 0.042, respectively). Of all the models, the neurological failure score showed the best correlation with ICU mortality. All three organ dysfunction scores satisfactorily predicted ICU mortality. The LOD and neurological failure had the best correlation with ICU outcome.

  10. Admission Cell Free DNA Levels Predict 28-Day Mortality in Patients with Severe Sepsis in Intensive Care

    PubMed Central

    Almog, Yaniv; Perl, Yael; Novack, Victor; Galante, Ori; Klein, Moti; Pencina, Michael J.; Douvdevani, Amos

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of the current study is to assess the mortality prediction accuracy of circulating cell-free DNA (CFD) level at admission measured by a new simplified method. Materials and Methods CFD levels were measured by a direct fluorescence assay in severe sepsis patients on intensive care unit (ICU) admission. In-hospital and/or twenty eight day all-cause mortality was the primary outcome. Results Out of 108 patients with median APACHE II of 20, 32.4% have died in hospital/or at 28-day. CFD levels were higher in decedents: median 3469.0 vs. 1659 ng/ml, p<0.001. In multivariable model APACHE II score and CFD (quartiles) were significantly associated with the mortality: odds ratio of 1.05, p = 0.049 and 2.57, p<0.001 per quartile respectively. C-statistics for the models was 0.79 for CFD and 0.68 for APACHE II. Integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) analyses showed that CFD and CFD+APACHE II score models had better discriminatory ability than APACHE II score alone. Conclusions CFD level assessed by a new, simple fluorometric-assay is an accurate predictor of acute mortality among ICU patients with severe sepsis. Comparison of CFD to APACHE II score and Procalcitonin (PCT), suggests that CFD has the potential to improve clinical decision making. PMID:24955978

  11. ICU Blood Pressure Variability May Predict Nadir of Respiratory Depression After Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Anne S. M.; Costa, Paulo H. M.; de Lima, Carlos E. B.; Pádua, Luiz E. M.; Campos, Luciana A.; Baltatu, Ovidiu C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Surgical stress induces alterations on sympathovagal balance that can be determined through assessment of blood pressure variability. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) is associated with postoperative respiratory depression. In this study we aimed at investigating ICU blood pressure variability and other perioperative parameters that could predict the nadir of postoperative respiratory function impairment. Methods: This prospective observational study evaluated 44 coronary artery disease patients subjected to coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). At the ICU, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was monitored every 30 min for 3 days. MAP variability was evaluated through: standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), variation independent of mean (VIM), and average successive variability (ASV). Respiratory function was assessed through maximal inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) pressures and peak expiratory flow (PEF) determined 1 day before surgery and on the postoperative days 3rd to 7th. Intraoperative parameters (volume of cardioplegia, CPB duration, aortic cross-clamp time, number of grafts) were also monitored. Results: Since, we aimed at studying patients without confounding effects of postoperative complications on respiratory function, we had enrolled a cohort of low risk EuroSCORE (European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation) with < 2. Respiratory parameters MIP, MEP, and PEF were significantly depressed for 4–5 days postoperatively. Of all MAP variability parameters, the ASV had a significant good positive Spearman correlation (rho coefficients ranging from 0.45 to 0.65, p < 0.01) with the 3-day nadir of PEF after cardiac surgery. Also, CV and VIM of MAP were significantly associated with nadir days of MEP and PEF. None of the intraoperative parameters had any correlation with the postoperative respiratory depression. Conclusions: Variability parameters ASV, CV, and VIM of the MAP

  12. Neural Network Prediction of ICU Length of Stay Following Cardiac Surgery Based on Pre-Incision Variables

    PubMed Central

    Pothula, Venu M.; Yuan, Stanley C.; Maerz, David A.; Montes, Lucresia; Oleszkiewicz, Stephen M.; Yusupov, Albert; Perline, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background Advanced predictive analytical techniques are being increasingly applied to clinical risk assessment. This study compared a neural network model to several other models in predicting the length of stay (LOS) in the cardiac surgical intensive care unit (ICU) based on pre-incision patient characteristics. Methods Thirty six variables collected from 185 cardiac surgical patients were analyzed for contribution to ICU LOS. The Automatic Linear Modeling (ALM) module of IBM-SPSS software identified 8 factors with statistically significant associations with ICU LOS; these factors were also analyzed with the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) module of the same software. The weighted contributions of each factor (“trained” data) were then applied to data for a “new” patient to predict ICU LOS for that individual. Results Factors identified in the ALM model were: use of an intra-aortic balloon pump; O2 delivery index; age; use of positive cardiac inotropic agents; hematocrit; serum creatinine ≥ 1.3 mg/deciliter; gender; arterial pCO2. The r2 value for ALM prediction of ICU LOS in the initial (training) model was 0.356, p <0.0001. Cross validation in prediction of a “new” patient yielded r2 = 0.200, p <0.0001. The same 8 factors analyzed with ANN yielded a training prediction r2 of 0.535 (p <0.0001) and a cross validation prediction r2 of 0.410, p <0.0001. Two additional predictive algorithms were studied, but they had lower prediction accuracies. Our validated neural network model identified the upper quartile of ICU LOS with an odds ratio of 9.8(p <0.0001). Conclusions ANN demonstrated a 2-fold greater accuracy than ALM in prediction of observed ICU LOS. This greater accuracy would be presumed to result from the capacity of ANN to capture nonlinear effects and higher order interactions. Predictive modeling may be of value in early anticipation of risks of post-operative morbidity and utilization of ICU facilities. PMID:26710254

  13. Predicting intervention onset in the ICU with switching state space models.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, Marzyeh; Wu, Mike; Hughes, Michael C; Szolovits, Peter; Doshi-Velez, Finale

    2017-01-01

    The impact of many intensive care unit interventions has not been fully quantified, especially in heterogeneous patient populations. We train unsupervised switching state autoregressive models on vital signs from the public MIMIC-III database to capture patient movement between physiological states. We compare our learned states to static demographics and raw vital signs in the prediction of five ICU treatments: ventilation, vasopressor administra tion, and three transfusions. We show that our learned states, when combined with demographics and raw vital signs, improve prediction for most interventions even 4 or 8 hours ahead of onset. Our results are competitive with existing work while using a substantially larger and more diverse cohort of 36,050 patients. While custom classifiers can only target a specific clinical event, our model learns physiological states which can help with many interventions. Our robust patient state representations provide a path towards evidence-driven administration of clinical interventions.

  14. Mortality prediction in the ICU: can we do better? Results from the Super ICU Learner Algorithm (SICULA) project, a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Pirracchio, Romain; Petersen, Maya L.; Carone, Marco; Rigon, Matthieu Resche; Chevret, Sylvie; van der LAAN, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Improved mortality prediction for patients in intensive care units (ICU) remains an important challenge. Many severity scores have been proposed but validation studies have concluded that they are not adequately calibrated. Many flexible algorithms are available, yet none of these individually outperform all others regardless of context. In contrast, the Super Learner (SL), an ensemble machine learning technique that leverages on multiple learning algorithms to obtain better prediction performance, has been shown to perform at least as well as the optimal member of its library. It might provide an ideal opportunity to construct a novel severity score with an improved performance profile. The aim of the present study was to provide a new mortality prediction algorithm for ICU patients using an implementation of the Super Learner, and to assess its performance relative to prediction based on the SAPS II, APACHE II and SOFA scores. Methods We used the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II) database (v26) including all patients admitted to an ICU at Boston’s Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from 2001 to 2008. The calibration, discrimination and risk classification of predicted hospital mortality based on SAPS II, on APACHE II, on SOFA and on our Super Learned-based proposal were evaluated. Performance measures were calculated using cross-validation to avoid making biased assessments. Our proposed score was then externally validated on a dataset of 200 randomly selected patients admitted at the ICU of Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou in Paris, France between September 2013 and June 2014. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. The explanatory variables were the same as those included in the SAPS II score. Results 24,508 patients were included, with median SAPS II 38 (IQR: 27–51), median SOFA 5 (IQR: 2–8). A total of 3,002/24,508(12.2%) patients died in the hospital. The two versions of our Super Learner

  15. Admission serum lactate predicts mortality in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Aisiku, Imo P; Chen, Peng Roc; Truong, Hanh; Monsivais, Daniel R; Edlow, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is the most devastating form of hemorrhagic stroke. Primary predictors of mortality are based on initial clinical presentation. Initial serum lactic acid levels have been shown to predict mortality and disease severity. Initial serum lactate may be an objective predictor or mortality. Retrospective review of aneurysmal SAH in a large academic center over a 42-month period. Data collected included demographics, clinical data, serum, and clinical outcomes data. Epidemiologic data were collected at baseline, and patients were followed up through their inpatient stay. We compared data in the group of patients who were deceased (group A) vs survivors (group B). There were a total of 249 patients. Mortality was 21.5%. Mean age was the same for both groups: 57 years (group A) and 55 years (group B). Mean admission serum lactate level was 3.5 ± 2.5 (group A) and 2.2 ± 1.6 (group B; P <. 0001). The range was 0.01 to 14.7. Multivariable analysis controlling for Hunt and Hess grades showed lactic acid levels to be an independent predictor of mortality with a P value of .0018. In aneurysmal SAH, elevated serum lactate levels on admission may have a predictive role for mortality and represent a marker of disease severity. Currently, lactic acid levels are not ordered on all patients with SAH but perhaps should be part of the routine initial blood work and may serve as an additional prognostic marker. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Superiority of Serum Cystatin C Over Creatinine in Prediction of Long-Term Prognosis at Discharge From ICU.

    PubMed

    Ravn, Bo; Prowle, John R; Mårtensson, Johan; Martling, Claes-Roland; Bell, Max

    2017-09-01

    Renal outcomes after critical illness are seldom assessed despite strong correlation between chronic kidney disease and survival. Outside hospital, renal dysfunction is more strongly associated with mortality when assessed by serum cystatin C than by creatinine. The relationship between creatinine and longer term mortality might be particularly weak in survivors of critical illness. Retrospective observational cohort study. In 3,077 adult ICU survivors, we compared ICU discharge cystatin C and creatinine and their association with 1-year mortality. Exclusions were death within 72 hours of ICU discharge, ICU stay less than 24 hours, and end-stage renal disease. None. During ICU admission, serum cystatin C and creatinine diverged, so that by ICU discharge, almost twice as many patients had glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m when estimated from cystatin C compared with glomerular filtration rate estimated from creatinine, 44% versus 26%. In 743 patients without acute kidney injury, where ICU discharge renal function should reflect ongoing baseline, discharge glomerular filtration rate estimated from creatinine consistently overestimated follow-up glomerular filtration rate estimated from creatinine, whereas ICU discharge glomerular filtration rate estimated from cystatin C well matched follow-up chronic kidney disease status. By 1 year, 535 (17.4%) had died. In survival analysis adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidity, cystatin C was near-linearly associated with increased mortality, hazard ratio equals to 1.78 (95% CI, 1.46-2.18), 75th versus 25th centile. Conversely, creatinine demonstrated a J-shaped relationship with mortality, so that in the majority of patients, there was no significant association with survival, hazard ratio equals to 1.03 (0.87-1.2), 75th versus 25th centile. After adjustment for both creatinine and cystatin C levels, higher discharge creatinine was then associated with lower long-term mortality. In contrast to creatinine

  17. Investigating Postgraduate College Admission Interviews: Generalizability Theory Reliability and Incremental Predictive Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce-Ferrer, Alvaro J.; Castillo, Irene Borges

    2007-01-01

    The use of face-to-face interviews is controversial for college admissions decisions in light of the lack of availability of validity and reliability evidence for most college admission processes. This study investigated reliability and incremental predictive validity of a face-to-face postgraduate college admission interview with a sample of…

  18. Investigating Postgraduate College Admission Interviews: Generalizability Theory Reliability and Incremental Predictive Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce-Ferrer, Alvaro J.; Castillo, Irene Borges

    2007-01-01

    The use of face-to-face interviews is controversial for college admissions decisions in light of the lack of availability of validity and reliability evidence for most college admission processes. This study investigated reliability and incremental predictive validity of a face-to-face postgraduate college admission interview with a sample of…

  19. Fluid balance and chloride load in the first 24h of ICU admission and its relation with renal replacement therapies through a multicentre, retrospective, case-control study paired by APACHE-II.

    PubMed

    González-Castro, A; Ortiz-Lasa, M; Leizaola, O; Salgado, E; Irriguible, T; Sánchez-Satorra, M; Lomas-Fernández, C; Barral-Segade, P; Cordero-Vallejo, M; Rodrigo-Calabia, E; Dierssen-Sotos, T

    2017-05-01

    To analyse the association between water balance during the first 24h of admission to ICU and the variables related to chloride levels (chloride loading, type of fluid administered, hyperchloraemia), with the development of acute kidney injury renal replacement therapy (AKI-RRT) during patients' admission to ICU. Multicentre case-control study. Hospital-based, national, carried out in 6 ICUs. Cases were patients older than 18 years who developed an AKI-RRT. Controls were patients older than 18 years admitted to the same institutions during the study period, who did not develop AKI-RRT during ICU admission. Pairing was done by APACHE-II. An analysis of unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, APACHE-II and water balance (in evaluating the type of fluid). We analysed the variables of 430 patients: 215 cases and 215 controls. An increase of 10% of the possibility of developing AKI-RRT per 500ml of positive water balance was evident (OR: 1.09 [95% CI: 1.05 to 1.14]; P<.001). The study of mean values of chloride load administered did not show differences between the group of cases and controls (299.35±254.91 vs. 301.67±234.63; P=.92). The water balance in the first 24h of ICU admission relates to the development of IRA-TRR, regardless of chloraemia. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Prediction of outcome in intensive care unit trauma patients: a multicenter study of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE), Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS), and a 24-hour intensive care unit (ICU) point system.

    PubMed

    Vassar, M J; Lewis, F R; Chambers, J A; Mullins, R J; O'Brien, P E; Weigelt, J A; Hoang, M T; Holcroft, J W

    1999-08-01

    To conduct a multicenter study to validate the accuracy of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II system, APACHE III system, Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) methodology, and a 24-hour intensive care unit (ICU) point system for prediction of mortality in ICU trauma patient admissions. The study population consisted of retrospectively identified, consecutive ICU trauma admissions (n = 2,414) from six Level I trauma centers. Probabilities of death were calculated by using logistic regression analysis. The predictive power of each system was evaluated by using decision matrix analysis to compare observed and predicted outcomes with a decision criterion of 0.50 for risk of hospital death. The Youden Index (YI) was used to compare the proportion of patients correctly classified by each system. Measures of model calibration were based on goodness-of-fit testing (Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic less than 15.5) and model discrimination were based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Overall, APACHE II (sensitivity, 38%; specificity, 99%; YI, 37%; H-L statistic, 92.6; AUC, 0.87) and TRISS (sensitivity, 52%; specificity, 94%; YI, 46%; H-L statistic, 228.1; AUC, 0.82) were poor predictors of aggregate mortality, because they did not meet the acceptable thresholds for both model calibration and discrimination. APACHE III (sensitivity, 60%; specificity, 98%; YI, 58%; H-L statistic, 7.0; AUC, 0.89) was comparable to the 24-hour ICU point system (sensitivity, 51%; specificity, 98%; YI, 50%; H-L statistic, 14.7; AUC, 0.89) with both systems showing strong agreement between the observed and predicted outcomes based on acceptable thresholds for both model calibration and discrimination. The APACHE III system significantly improved upon APACHE II for estimating risk of death in ICU trauma patients (p < 0.001). Compared with the overall performance, for the subset of patients with nonoperative head trauma, the percentage

  1. Psychiatric Inpatient Admissions of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Predictive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Amy; Newton, Jonathan; Sturmey, Peter; Bouras, Nick; Holt, Geraldine

    2005-01-01

    Information on admission to psychiatric inpatient units is lacking from the literature on contemporary services for people with intellectual disability and mental health needs. Here we report on predictors of admission for a cohort of 752 adults from this population living in community settings; 83 were admitted. We also report on two subsamples…

  2. Psychiatric Inpatient Admissions of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Predictive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Amy; Newton, Jonathan; Sturmey, Peter; Bouras, Nick; Holt, Geraldine

    2005-01-01

    Information on admission to psychiatric inpatient units is lacking from the literature on contemporary services for people with intellectual disability and mental health needs. Here we report on predictors of admission for a cohort of 752 adults from this population living in community settings; 83 were admitted. We also report on two subsamples…

  3. Attributable mortality of ventilator-associated pneumonia: respective impact of main characteristics at ICU admission and VAP onset using conditional logistic regression and multi-state models.

    PubMed

    Nguile-Makao, Molière; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Français, Adrien; Tabah, Alexis; Garrouste-Orgeas, Maité; Allaouchiche, Bernard; Goldgran-Toledano, Dany; Azoulay, Elie; Adrie, Christophe; Jamali, Samir; Clec'h, Christophe; Souweine, Bertrand; Timsit, Jean-Francois

    2010-05-01

    Methods for estimating the excess mortality attributable to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) should handle VAP as a time-dependent covariate, since the probability of experiencing VAP increases with the time on mechanical ventilation. VAP-attributable mortality (VAP-AM) varies with definitions, case-mix, causative microorganisms, and treatment adequacy. Our objectives here were to compare VAP-AM estimates obtained using a traditional cohort analysis, a multistate progressive disability model, and a matched-cohort analysis; and to compare VAP-AM estimates according to VAP characteristics. We used data from 2,873 mechanically ventilated patients in the Outcomerea database. Among these patients from 12 intensive care units, 434 (15.1%) experienced VAP; of the remaining patients, 1,969 (68.5%) were discharged alive and 470 (16.4%) died. With the multistate model, VAP-AM was 8.1% (95% confidence interval [95%CI], 3.1-13.1%) for 120 days' complete observation, compared to 10.4% (5.6-24.5%) using a matched-cohort approach (2,769 patients) with matching on mechanical ventilation duration followed by conditional logistic regression. VAP-AM was higher in surgical patients and patients with intermediate (but not high) Simplified Acute Physiologic Score II values at ICU admission. VAP-AM was significantly influenced by time to VAP but not by resistance of causative microorganisms. Higher Logistic Organ Dysfunction score at VAP onset dramatically increased VAP-AM (to 31.9% in patients with scores above 7). A multistate model that appropriately handled VAP as a time-dependent event produced lower VAP-AM values than conditional logistic regression. VAP-AM varied widely with case-mix. Disease severity at VAP onset markedly influenced VAP-AM; this may contribute to the variability of previous estimates.

  4. How do COPD comorbidities affect ICU outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Ongel, Esra Akkutuk; Karakurt, Zuhal; Salturk, Cuneyt; Takir, Huriye Berk; Burunsuzoglu, Bunyamin; Kargin, Feyza; Ekinci, Gulbanu H; Mocin, Ozlem; Gungor, Gokay; Adiguzel, Nalan; Yilmaz, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) frequently require admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) for application of mechanical ventilation (MV). We aimed to determine whether comorbidities and clinical variables present at ICU admission are predictive of ICU mortality. Methods A retrospective, observational cohort study was performed in a tertiary teaching hospital’s respiratory ICU using data collected between January 2008 and December 2012. Previously diagnosed COPD patients who were admitted to the ICU with ARF were included. Patients’ demographics, comorbidities, body mass index (BMI), ICU admission data, application of noninvasive and invasive MV (NIV and IMV, respectively), cause of ARF, length of ICU and hospital stay, and mortality were recorded from their files. Patients were grouped according to mortality (survival versus non-survival), and all the variables were compared between the two groups. Results During the study period, a total of 1,013 COPD patients (749 male) with a mean age (standard deviation) of 70±10 years met the inclusion criteria. Comorbidities of the non-survival group (female/male, 40/131) were significantly higher compared with the survival group (female/male, 224/618): arrhythmia (24% vs 11%), hypertension (42% vs 34%), coronary artery disease (28% vs 11%), and depression (7% vs 3%) (P<0.001, P<0.035, P<0.001, and P<0.007, respectively). Logistic regression revealed the following mortality risk factors: need of IMV, BMI <20 kg/m2, pneumonia, coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, hypertension, chronic hypoxia, and higher acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) scores. The respective odds ratios, confidence intervals, and P-values for each of these were as follows: 27.7, 15.7–49.0, P<0.001; 6.6, 3.5–412.7, P<0.001; 5.1, 2.9–8.8, P<0.001; 2.9, 1.5–5.6, P<0.001; 2.7, 1.4–5.2, P<0.003; 2.6, 1.5–4.4, P<0.001; 2.2, 1.2–3.9, P<0

  5. Mortality prediction using TRISS methodology in the Spanish ICU Trauma Registry (RETRAUCI).

    PubMed

    Chico-Fernández, M; Llompart-Pou, J A; Sánchez-Casado, M; Alberdi-Odriozola, F; Guerrero-López, F; Mayor-García, M D; Egea-Guerrero, J J; Fernández-Ortega, J F; Bueno-González, A; González-Robledo, J; Servià-Goixart, L; Roldán-Ramírez, J; Ballesteros-Sanz, M Á; Tejerina-Alvarez, E; Pino-Sánchez, F I; Homar-Ramírez, J

    2016-10-01

    To validate Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) methodology as an auditing tool in the Spanish ICU Trauma Registry (RETRAUCI). A prospective, multicenter registry evaluation was carried out. Thirteen Spanish Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Individuals with traumatic disease and available data admitted to the participating ICUs. Predicted mortality using TRISS methodology was compared with that observed in the pilot phase of the RETRAUCI from November 2012 to January 2015. Discrimination was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the corresponding areas under the curves (AUCs) (95% CI), with calibration using the Hosmer-Lemeshow (HL) goodness-of-fit test. A value of p<0.05 was considered significant. Predicted and observed mortality. A total of 1405 patients were analyzed. The observed mortality rate was 18% (253 patients), while the predicted mortality rate was 16.9%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.889 (95% CI: 0.867-0.911). Patients with blunt trauma (n=1305) had an area under the ROC curve of 0.887 (95% CI: 0.864-0.910), and those with penetrating trauma (n=100) presented an area under the curve of 0.919 (95% CI: 0.859-0.979). In the global sample, the HL test yielded a value of 25.38 (p=0.001): 27.35 (p<0.0001) in blunt trauma and 5.91 (p=0.658) in penetrating trauma. TRISS methodology underestimated mortality in patients with low predicted mortality and overestimated mortality in patients with high predicted mortality. TRISS methodology in the evaluation of severe trauma in Spanish ICUs showed good discrimination, with inadequate calibration - particularly in blunt trauma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  6. Changes in nutritional status in ICU patients receiving enteral tube feeding: a prospective descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunjung; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the changes in nutritional status in Korean ICU patients receiving enteral feeding, and to understand the contribution of baseline nutritional status and energy intake to nutritional changes during the ICU stay. This was a prospective study of nutritional changes in 48 ICU patients receiving enteral feeding for 7 days. The Subjective Global Assessment scale was used upon admission. In addition, anthropometric measures (triceps skinfold thickness, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, body mass index and percent ideal body weight) and biochemical measures (albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, haemoglobin and total lymphocyte count) were evaluated twice, upon admission and 7 days after admission. Seventy-five percent of ICU patients were severely malnourished at admission. Although the nutritional status worsened in both the patients with suspected malnourishment and the patients with severe malnutrition at admission, the nutritional status worsened significantly more in the patients with severe malnutrition than in the patients with suspected malnourishment. Moreover, a number of nutritional measures significantly decreased more in underfed patients than in adequately fed patients. The most significant predicting factor for underfeeding was under-prescription. The ICU patients in our study were severely malnourished at admission, and their nutritional status worsened during their ICU stay even though enteral nutritional support was provided. The changes in nutritional status during the ICU stay were related to the patients' baseline nutritional status and underfeeding during their ICU stay. This study highlights an urgent need to provide adequate nutritional support for ICU patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Glycated hemoglobin at admission in the intensive care unit: clinical implications and prognostic relevance.

    PubMed

    Kompoti, Maria; Michalia, Martha; Salma, Vaia; Diogou, Evangelia; Lakoumenta, Anthi; Clouva-Molyvdas, Phyllis-Maria

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the clinical significance of HbA1c levels on admission in the intensive care unit (ICU) as a prognostic marker for morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. This prospective observational study included consecutive patients admitted in an 8-bed multidisciplinary ICU. Patients were prospectively followed from ICU admission until ICU outcome (death/discharge). All patients had an HbA1c measurement upon admission in the ICU. Five hundred fifty-five consecutive patients (376 males, 179 females) were included in the study. In patients without prior diabetes mellitus (DM) diagnosis, a cutoff of 6.5% for HbA1c (diagnostic cutoff for DM) predicted more severe disease (as described by Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores at admission) and higher ICU mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 2.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-5.25). In the subgroup of patients with a history of DM, a cutoff of 7% for HbA1c (glycemic target) had no predicting ability for ICU mortality. HbA1c is a useful tool for the diagnosis of a previously undiagnosed DM. This study showed that in critically ill patients with previously undiagnosed DM, HbA1c at admission is significantly associated with ICU mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The very elderly in intensive care: admission characteristics and mortality.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Donal; Conlon, Niamh; Phelan, Dermot; Marsh, Brian

    2008-06-01

    It is often assumed that critical care outcomes in the elderly are uniformly poorer than those in younger populations. We examined the pattern of admissions to our intensive care unit in Dublin, Ireland, between 2002 and 2005 to determine the admission characteristics and mortality in those aged 80 years and older. Data were collected retrospectively from a local audit database and patient charts. The very elderly represented 5.1% of ICU admissions over the period with an ICU mortality of 15.4%. Age-adjusted APACHE II scores were similar to those in the younger group (median, 7 for both groups). The average length of ICU stay (+/-SD) was similar in the very elderly and younger groups (4.03+/-0.51 v 4.86+/-0.31 days; P=0.52), as were readmission rates (5.7% v 5.2%). Age was not predictive of ICU mortality. The most important determinants of ICU mortality were emergency (versus elective) admission, non-operative (versus postoperative) source of admission and higher age-adjusted APACHE II score. The nature of the admission and severity of illness, but not age, are determinants of ICU survival. Evidence-based criteria are needed to assess the appropriateness of ICU admission in the very elderly. Clear criteria would help to prevent initiation of futile therapies and also to ensure that the very elderly are not denied potentially beneficial ICU care. We need to study triage patterns and outcome data further to ensure that the very elderly have the same opportunities to access appropriate intensive care treatment as the rest of the population.

  9. Validity of the Medical College Admission Test for Predicting MD-PhD Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bills, James L.; VanHouten, Jacob; Grundy, Michelle M.; Chalkley, Roger; Dermody, Terence S.

    2016-01-01

    The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) is a quantitative metric used by MD and MD-PhD programs to evaluate applicants for admission. This study assessed the validity of the MCAT in predicting training performance measures and career outcomes for MD-PhD students at a single institution. The study population consisted of 153 graduates of the…

  10. Validity of the Medical College Admission Test for Predicting MD-PhD Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bills, James L.; VanHouten, Jacob; Grundy, Michelle M.; Chalkley, Roger; Dermody, Terence S.

    2016-01-01

    The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) is a quantitative metric used by MD and MD-PhD programs to evaluate applicants for admission. This study assessed the validity of the MCAT in predicting training performance measures and career outcomes for MD-PhD students at a single institution. The study population consisted of 153 graduates of the…

  11. Validity of the Optometry Admission Test in Predicting Performance in Schools and Colleges of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Gene A.; Johnston, JoElle

    1997-01-01

    A study examined the relationship between Optometry Admission Test scores and pre-optometry or undergraduate grade point average (GPA) with first and second year performance in optometry schools. The test's predictive validity was limited but significant, and comparable to those reported for other admission tests. In addition, the scores…

  12. Predicting MBA Student Success and Streamlining the Admissions Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Within this study the author examines factors commonly employed as master of business administration applicant evaluation criteria to see if these criteria are important in determining an applicant's potential for success. The findings indicate that the Graduate Management Admissions Test (GMAT) is not a significant predictor of student success…

  13. Predicting MBA Student Success and Streamlining the Admissions Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Within this study the author examines factors commonly employed as master of business administration applicant evaluation criteria to see if these criteria are important in determining an applicant's potential for success. The findings indicate that the Graduate Management Admissions Test (GMAT) is not a significant predictor of student success…

  14. Coupling Admissions and Curricular Data to Predict Medical Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesate, Diana B.; Milem, Jeffrey F.; McIntosh, Kadian L.; Bryan, W. Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The relative impact of admissions factors and curricular measures on the first medical licensing exam (United States Medical Licensing Exam [USMLE] Step 1) scores is examined. The inclusion of first-year and second-year curricular measures nearly doubled the variance explained in Step 1 scores from the amount explained by the combination of…

  15. The technology acceptance model: predicting nurses' intention to use telemedicine technology (eICU).

    PubMed

    Kowitlawakul, Yanika

    2011-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine factors and predictors that influence nurses' intention to use the eICU technology, to examine the applicability of the Technology Acceptance Model in explaining nurses' intention to use the eICU technology in healthcare settings, and to provide psychometric evidence of the measurement scales used in the study. The study involved 117 participants from two healthcare systems. The Telemedicine Technology Acceptance Model was developed based on the original Technology Acceptance Model that was initially developed by Fred Davis in 1986. The eICU Acceptance Survey was used as an instrument for the study. Content validity was examined, and the reliability of the instrument was tested. The results show that perceived usefulness is the most influential factor that influences nurses' intention to use the eICU technology. The principal factors that influence perceived usefulness are perceived ease of use, support from physicians, and years working in the hospital. The model fit was reasonably adequate and able to explain 58% of the variance (R = 0.58) in intention to use the eICU technology with the nursing sample.

  16. Daily urinary creatinine predicts the weaning of renal replacement therapy in ICU acute kidney injury patients.

    PubMed

    Viallet, Nicolas; Brunot, Vincent; Kuster, Nils; Daubin, Delphine; Besnard, Noémie; Platon, Laura; Buzançais, Aurèle; Larcher, Romaric; Jonquet, Olivier; Klouche, Kada

    2016-12-01

    In acute kidney injury (AKI), useless continuation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) may delay renal recovery and impair patient's outcome. In this study, we aimed to identify predictive parameters that may help to a successful RRT weaning for AKI patients. We studied 54 surviving AKI patients in which a weaning of RRT was attempted. On the day of weaning (D0) and the following 2 days (D1 and D2), SAPS II and SOFA scores, 24-h diuresis, 24-h urinary creatinine and urea (UCr and UUr), creatinine and urea generation rates (CrGR and UrGR) and clearances (CrCl and UrCl) were collected. Patients who remained free of RRT 15 days after its discontinuation were considered as successfully weaned. Twenty-six RRT weaning attempts succeeded (S+) and 28 failed (S-). Age, previous renal function, SAPS II and SOFA scores were comparable between groups. At D0, 24-h diuresis was 2300 versus 1950 ml in S+ and S-, respectively, p = 0.05. At D0, D1 and D2, 24-h UUr and UCr levels, UrCl and CrCl, and UUr/UrGR and UCr/CrGR ratios were significantly higher in S+ group. By multivariate analysis, D1 24-h UCr was the most powerful parameter that was associated with RRT weaning success with an area under the ROC curve of 0.86 [0.75-0.97] and an odds ratio of 2.01 [1.27-3.18], p = 0.003. In ICU AKI, 24-h UCr appeared as an efficient and independent marker of a successful weaning of RRT. A 24-h UCr ≥5.2 mmol was associated with a successful weaning in 84 % of patients.

  17. Readmission of ICU patients: A quality indicator?

    PubMed

    Woldhek, Annemarie L; Rijkenberg, Saskia; Bosman, Rob J; van der Voort, Peter H J

    2017-04-01

    Readmission rate is frequently proposed as a quality indicator because it is related to both patient outcome and organizational efficiency. Currently available studies are not clear about modifiable factors as tools to reduce readmission rate. In a 14year retrospective cohort study of 19,750 ICU admissions we identified 1378 readmissions (7%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis for determinants of readmission within 24h, 48h, 72h and any time during hospital admission was performed with adjustment for patients' characteristics and initial admission severity scores. In all models with different time points, patients with older age, a medical and emergency surgery initial admission and patients with higher SOFA score have a higher risk of readmission. Immunodeficiency was a predictor only in the at any time model. Confirmed infection was predicted in all models except the 24h model. Last day noradrenaline treatment was predicted in the 24 and 48h model. Mechanical ventilation on admission independently protected for readmission, which can be explained by the large number of cardiac surgery patients. All multivariate models had a moderate performance with the highest AUC of 0.70. Readmission can be predicted with moderate precision and independent variables associated with readmission are age, severity of disease, type of admission, infection, immunodeficiency and last day noradrenaline use. The latter factor is the only one that can be modified and therefore readmission rate does not meet the criteria to be used as a useful quality indicator. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Predicting Appropriate Admission of Bronchiolitis Patients in the Emergency Department: Rationale and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Bryan L; Johnson, Michael D; Nkoy, Flory L

    2016-01-01

    Background In young children, bronchiolitis is the most common illness resulting in hospitalization. For children less than age 2, bronchiolitis incurs an annual total inpatient cost of $1.73 billion. Each year in the United States, 287,000 emergency department (ED) visits occur because of bronchiolitis, with a hospital admission rate of 32%-40%. Due to a lack of evidence and objective criteria for managing bronchiolitis, ED disposition decisions (hospital admission or discharge to home) are often made subjectively, resulting in significant practice variation. Studies reviewing admission need suggest that up to 29% of admissions from the ED are unnecessary. About 6% of ED discharges for bronchiolitis result in ED returns with admission. These inappropriate dispositions waste limited health care resources, increase patient and parental distress, expose patients to iatrogenic risks, and worsen outcomes. Existing clinical guidelines for bronchiolitis offer limited improvement in patient outcomes. Methodological shortcomings include that the guidelines provide no specific thresholds for ED decisions to admit or to discharge, have an insufficient level of detail, and do not account for differences in patient and illness characteristics including co-morbidities. Predictive models are frequently used to complement clinical guidelines, reduce practice variation, and improve clinicians’ decision making. Used in real time, predictive models can present objective criteria supported by historical data for an individualized disease management plan and guide admission decisions. However, existing predictive models for ED patients with bronchiolitis have limitations, including low accuracy and the assumption that the actual ED disposition decision was appropriate. To date, no operational definition of appropriate admission exists. No model has been built based on appropriate admissions, which include both actual admissions that were necessary and actual ED discharges that were

  19. Predicting Appropriate Admission of Bronchiolitis Patients in the Emergency Department: Rationale and Methods.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang; Stone, Bryan L; Johnson, Michael D; Nkoy, Flory L

    2016-03-07

    In young children, bronchiolitis is the most common illness resulting in hospitalization. For children less than age 2, bronchiolitis incurs an annual total inpatient cost of $1.73 billion. Each year in the United States, 287,000 emergency department (ED) visits occur because of bronchiolitis, with a hospital admission rate of 32%-40%. Due to a lack of evidence and objective criteria for managing bronchiolitis, ED disposition decisions (hospital admission or discharge to home) are often made subjectively, resulting in significant practice variation. Studies reviewing admission need suggest that up to 29% of admissions from the ED are unnecessary. About 6% of ED discharges for bronchiolitis result in ED returns with admission. These inappropriate dispositions waste limited health care resources, increase patient and parental distress, expose patients to iatrogenic risks, and worsen outcomes. Existing clinical guidelines for bronchiolitis offer limited improvement in patient outcomes. Methodological shortcomings include that the guidelines provide no specific thresholds for ED decisions to admit or to discharge, have an insufficient level of detail, and do not account for differences in patient and illness characteristics including co-morbidities. Predictive models are frequently used to complement clinical guidelines, reduce practice variation, and improve clinicians' decision making. Used in real time, predictive models can present objective criteria supported by historical data for an individualized disease management plan and guide admission decisions. However, existing predictive models for ED patients with bronchiolitis have limitations, including low accuracy and the assumption that the actual ED disposition decision was appropriate. To date, no operational definition of appropriate admission exists. No model has been built based on appropriate admissions, which include both actual admissions that were necessary and actual ED discharges that were unsafe. The

  20. Incidence and risk factors for intensive care unit admission after bariatric surgery: a multicentre population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D J R; Ho, K M; Armstrong, J; Baker, S

    2015-12-01

    With increasing rates of bariatric surgery and the consequential involvement of increasingly complex patients, uncertainty remains regarding the use of intensive care unit (ICU) services after bariatric surgery. Our objective was to define the incidence, indications, and outcomes of patients requiring ICU admission after bariatric surgery and assess whether unplanned ICU admission could be predicted using preoperative factors. All adult bariatric surgery patients between 2007 and 2011 in Western Australia were identified from the Department of Health Data Linkage Unit database and merged with a separate database encompassing all subsequent ICU admissions pertaining to bariatric surgery. The minimal and mean follow-up periods were 12 months and 3.4 yr, respectively. Of the 12 062 patients who underwent bariatric surgery during the study period, 590 patients (4.9%; 650 ICU admissions) were admitted to an ICU after their bariatric surgery. Patients admitted to the ICU were older (48 vs 43 yr, P<0.001), more likely to be male (49.7 vs 20.2%, P<0.001), and more likely to require revisional bariatric surgery (14.4 vs 7.1%, P<0.001). One hundred and seventy-six patients required an emergent unplanned ICU admission, with 51 requiring multiple ICU admissions. Revisional or open surgery, diabetes mellitus, chronic respiratory disease, and obstructive apnoea were the strongest preoperative factors associated with unplanned ICU admission. Intensive care unit admission after bariatric surgery was uncommon (4.9% of all patients), with 30.9% of all referrals being unplanned. A nomogram and smartphone application based on five important preoperative factors may assist anaesthetists to conduct preoperative planning for high-risk bariatric surgical patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Predictive model of length of stay and discharge destination in neuroscience admissions

    PubMed Central

    Stecker, M. M.; Stecker, M.; Falotico, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to try and determine the best predictors of hospital length of stay and discharge destination in patients admitted to a neuroscience service. Methods: Valid data was collected for 170 patients. Variables included age, gender, location prior to admission, principle diagnosis, various physiological measurements upon admission, comorbidity, independence in various activities of daily living prior to admission, length of stay, and disposition upon discharge. Study design was a correlational descriptive study performed through the analysis of data and the development and validation of statistically significant factors in determining the length of stay. Results: All factors with a strong (P < 0.05) relationship with the length of stay were entered into a forward stepwise linear regression with length of stay as the dependent variable. The three most significant variables in predicting length of stay in this study were admission from an outpatient setting, modified Rankin score on admission, and systolic blood pressure on admission. Conclusions: Functional status at admission, specifically, a higher modified Rankin score and a lower systolic blood pressure along with the acquisition of deep vein thrombosis, catheter associated urinary tract infections, intubation, and admission to an intensive care unit all have a statistically significant effect on the hospital length of stay. PMID:28217396

  2. Diagnosis of invasive candidiasis in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis ranges from 5 to 10 cases per 1,000 ICU admissions and represents 5% to 10% of all ICU-acquired infections, with an overall mortality comparable to that of severe sepsis/septic shock. A large majority of them are due to Candida albicans, but the proportion of strains with decreased sensitivity or resistance to fluconazole is increasingly reported. A high proportion of ICU patients become colonized, but only 5% to 30% of them develop an invasive infection. Progressive colonization and major abdominal surgery are common risk factors, but invasive candidiasis is difficult to predict and early diagnosis remains a major challenge. Indeed, blood cultures are positive in a minority of cases and often late in the course of infection. New nonculture-based laboratory techniques may contribute to early diagnosis and management of invasive candidiasis. Both serologic (mannan, antimannan, and betaglucan) and molecular (Candida-specific PCR in blood and serum) have been applied as serial screening procedures in high-risk patients. However, although reasonably sensitive and specific, these techniques are largely investigational and their clinical usefulness remains to be established. Identification of patients susceptible to benefit from empirical antifungal treatment remains challenging, but it is mandatory to avoid antifungal overuse in critically ill patients. Growing evidence suggests that monitoring the dynamic of Candida colonization in surgical patients and prediction rules based on combined risk factors may be used to identify ICU patients at high risk of invasive candidiasis susceptible to benefit from prophylaxis or preemptive antifungal treatment. PMID:21906271

  3. Predicting Outcome on Admission and Post-Admission for Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Failure Using Classification and Regression Tree Models

    PubMed Central

    Speiser, Jaime Lynn; Lee, William M.; Karvellas, Constantine J.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim Assessing prognosis for acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure (APAP-ALF) patients often presents significant challenges. King’s College (KCC) has been validated on hospital admission, but little has been published on later phases of illness. We aimed to improve determinations of prognosis both at the time of and following admission for APAP-ALF using Classification and Regression Tree (CART) models. Methods CART models were applied to US ALFSG registry data to predict 21-day death or liver transplant early (on admission) and post-admission (days 3-7) for 803 APAP-ALF patients enrolled 01/1998–09/2013. Accuracy in prediction of outcome (AC), sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), and area under receiver-operating curve (AUROC) were compared between 3 models: KCC (INR, creatinine, coma grade, pH), CART analysis using only KCC variables (KCC-CART) and a CART model using new variables (NEW-CART). Results Traditional KCC yielded 69% AC, 90% SP, 27% SN, and 0.58 AUROC on admission, with similar performance post-admission. KCC-CART at admission offered predictive 66% AC, 65% SP, 67% SN, and 0.74 AUROC. Post-admission, KCC-CART had predictive 82% AC, 86% SP, 46% SN and 0.81 AUROC. NEW-CART models using MELD (Model for end stage liver disease), lactate and mechanical ventilation on admission yielded predictive 72% AC, 71% SP, 77% SN and AUROC 0.79. For later stages, NEW-CART (MELD, lactate, coma grade) offered predictive AC 86%, SP 91%, SN 46%, AUROC 0.73. Conclusion CARTs offer simple prognostic models for APAP-ALF patients, which have higher AUROC and SN than KCC, with similar AC and negligibly worse SP. Admission and post-admission predictions were developed. Key Points • Prognostication in acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure (APAP-ALF) is challenging beyond admission • Little has been published regarding the use of King’s College Criteria (KCC) beyond admission and KCC has shown limited sensitivity in subsequent studies • Classification

  4. Vital Signs Predict Rapid-Response Team Activation Within Twelve Hours of Emergency Department Admission

    PubMed Central

    Walston, James M.; Cabrera, Daniel; Bellew, Shawna D.; Olive, Marc N.; Lohse, Christine M.; Bellolio, M. Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rapid-response teams (RRTs) are interdisciplinary groups created to rapidly assess and treat patients with unexpected clinical deterioration marked by decline in vital signs. Traditionally emergency department (ED) disposition is partially based on the patients’ vital signs (VS) at the time of hospital admission. We aimed to identify which patients will have RRT activation within 12 hours of admission based on their ED VS, and if their outcomes differed. Methods We conducted a case-control study of patients presenting from January 2009 to December 2012 to a tertiary ED who subsequently had RRT activations within 12 hours of admission (early RRT activations). The medical records of patients 18 years and older admitted to a non-intensive care unit (ICU) setting were reviewed to obtain VS at the time of ED arrival and departure, age, gender and diagnoses. Controls were matched 1:1 on age, gender, and diagnosis. We evaluated VS using cut points (lowest 10%, middle 80% and highest 10%) based on the distribution of VS for all patients. Our study adheres to the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) guidelines for reporting observational studies. Results A total of 948 patients were included (474 cases and 474 controls). Patients who had RRT activations were more likely to be tachycardic (odds ratio [OR] 2.02, 95% CI [1.25–3.27]), tachypneic (OR 2.92, 95% CI [1.73–4.92]), and had lower oxygen saturations (OR 2.25, 95% CI [1.42–3.56]) upon arrival to the ED. Patients who had RRT activations were more likely to be tachycardic at the time of disposition from the ED (OR 2.76, 95% CI [1.65–4.60]), more likely to have extremes of systolic blood pressure (BP) (OR 1.72, 95% CI [1.08–2.72] for low BP and OR 1.82, 95% CI [1.19–2.80] for high BP), higher respiratory rate (OR 4.15, 95% CI [2.44–7.07]) and lower oxygen saturation (OR 2.29, 95% CI [1.43–3.67]). Early RRT activation was associated with increased

  5. Predicting trauma admissions: the effect of weather, weekday, and other variables.

    PubMed

    Friede, Kevin A; Osborne, Marc C; Erickson, Darin J; Roesler, Jon S; Azam, Arsalan; Croston, J Kevin; McGonigal, Michael D; Ney, Arthur L

    2009-11-01

    One of the challenges all hospitals, especially designated trauma centers, face is how to make sure they have adequate staffing on various days of the week and at various times of the year. A number of studies have explored whether factors such as weather, temporal variation, holidays, and events that draw mass gatherings may be useful for predicting patient volume. This article looks at the effects of weather, mass gatherings, and calendar variables on daily trauma admissions at the three Level I trauma hospitals in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area. Using ARIMA statistical modeling, we found that weekends, summer, lack of rain, and snowfall were all predictive of daily trauma admissions; holidays and mass gatherings such as sporting events were not. The forecasting model was successful in reflecting the pattern of trauma admissions; however, it's usefulness was limited in that the predicted range of daily trauma admissions was much narrower than the observed number of admissions. Nonetheless, the observed pattern of increased admission in the summer months and year-round on Saturdays should be helpful in resource planning.

  6. Prediction of length of ICU stay using data-mining techniques: an example of old critically Ill postoperative gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Chun; Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Huang, De-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    With the background of aging population in China and advances in clinical medicine, the amount of operations on old patients increases correspondingly, which imposes increasing challenges to critical care medicine and geriatrics. The study was designed to describe information on the length of ICU stay from a single institution experience of old critically ill gastric cancer patients after surgery and the framework of incorporating data-mining techniques into the prediction. A retrospective design was adopted to collect the consecutive data about patients aged 60 or over with a gastric cancer diagnosis after surgery in an adult intensive care unit in a medical university hospital in Shenyang, China, from January 2010 to March 2011. Characteristics of patients and the length their ICU stay were gathered for analysis by univariate and multivariate Cox regression to examine the relationship with potential candidate factors. A regression tree was constructed to predict the length of ICU stay and explore the important indicators. Multivariate Cox analysis found that shock and nutrition support need were statistically significant risk factors for prolonged length of ICU stay. Altogether, seven variables entered the regression model, including age, APACHE II score, SOFA score, shock, respiratory system dysfunction, circulation system dysfunction, diabetes and nutrition support need. The regression tree indicated comorbidity of two or more kinds of shock as the most important factor for prolonged length of ICU stay in the studied sample. Comorbidity of two or more kinds of shock is the most important factor of length of ICU stay in the studied sample. Since there are differences of ICU patient characteristics between wards and hospitals, consideration of the data-mining technique should be given by the intensivists as a length of ICU stay prediction tool.

  7. Overview: What's Worked and What Hasn't as a Guide towards Predictive Admissions Tool Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Eric; Reiter, Harold I.

    2009-01-01

    Admissions committees and researchers around the globe have used diligence and imagination to develop and implement various screening measures with the ultimate goal of predicting future clinical and professional performance. What works for predicting future job performance in the human resources world and in most of the academic world may not,…

  8. Using Admission Assessments to Predict Final Grades in a College Music Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Andreas C.

    2014-01-01

    Entrance examinations and auditions are common admission procedures for college music programs, yet few researchers have attempted to look at the long-term predictive validity of such selection processes. In this study, archival data from 93 student records of a German music academy were used to predict development of musicianship skills over the…

  9. Using Admission Assessments to Predict Final Grades in a College Music Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Andreas C.

    2014-01-01

    Entrance examinations and auditions are common admission procedures for college music programs, yet few researchers have attempted to look at the long-term predictive validity of such selection processes. In this study, archival data from 93 student records of a German music academy were used to predict development of musicianship skills over the…

  10. Comparative Predictive Validity of the New MCAT Using Different Admissions Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golmon, Melton E.; Berry, Charles A.

    1981-01-01

    New Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores and undergraduate academic achievement were examined for their validity in predicting the performance of two select student populations at Northwestern University Medical School. The data support the hypothesis that New MCAT scores possess substantial predictive validity. (Author/MLW)

  11. Overview: What's Worked and What Hasn't as a Guide towards Predictive Admissions Tool Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Eric; Reiter, Harold I.

    2009-01-01

    Admissions committees and researchers around the globe have used diligence and imagination to develop and implement various screening measures with the ultimate goal of predicting future clinical and professional performance. What works for predicting future job performance in the human resources world and in most of the academic world may not,…

  12. A reappraisal of ICU and long-term outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients and reassessment of prognosis factors: results of a 5-year cohort study (2009-2013).

    PubMed

    Platon, L; Amigues, L; Ceballos, P; Fegueux, N; Daubin, D; Besnard, N; Larcher, R; Landreau, L; Agostini, C; Machado, S; Jonquet, O; Klouche, K

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiology and prognosis of complications related to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients requiring admission to intensive care unit (ICU) have not been reassessed precisely in the past few years. We performed a retrospective single-center study on 318 consecutive HSCT patients (2009-2013), analyzing outcome and factors prognostic of ICU admission. Among these patients, 73 were admitted to the ICU. In all, 32 patients (40.3%) died in ICU, 46 at hospital discharge (63%) and 61 (83.6%) 1 year later. Survivors had a significantly lower sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, serum lactate and bilirubin upon ICU admission. Catecholamine support, mechanical ventilation (MV) and/or renal replacement therapy during ICU stay, a delayed organ support and an active graft versus host disease (GvHD) significantly worsen the outcome. By multivariate analysis, the worsening of SOFA score from days 1 to 3, the need for MV and the occurrence of an active GvHD were predictive of mortality. In conclusion, the incidence of HSCT-related complications requiring an admission to an ICU was at 22%, with an ICU mortality rate of 44%, and 84% 1 year later. A degradation of SOFA score at day 3 of ICU, need of MV and occurrence of an active GvHD are main predictive factors of mortality.

  13. Power and limitations of daily prognostications of death in the medical ICU for outcomes in the following 6 months.

    PubMed

    Meadow, William; Pohlman, Anne; Reynolds, Dan; Rand, Leah; Correia, Camil; Christoph, Ella; Hall, Jesse

    2014-11-01

    We tested the power of clinicians' predictions that a medical ICU patient would "die before hospital discharge" for both survival to discharge and for outcomes at 6 months. We restricted our analyses to patients who had been in the medical ICU at least 72 hours and for whom we had follow-up at 6 months after medical ICU admission. For 350 medical ICU patients, on each medical ICU day, we asked their attending physician, fellow, resident, and primary nurse one question-"do you think this patient will die in hospital or survive to be discharged"? We correlated these responses with 6-month outcomes (death and/or Barthel score for survivors). We obtained over 6,000 predictions on 2,271 medical ICU patient-days. Of 350 medical ICU patients who stayed more than 72 hours, 143 patients (41%) had discordant predictions-that is, on the same medical ICU day, at least one provider predicted survival, whereas another predicted death before discharge. As we have shown previously, predictions of "death before discharge" were imperfect-only 104 of 187 of patients with a prediction of death (56%) actually died in hospital. However, this is the central finding of our study, and predictions of death before discharge were much more accurate for 6-month outcomes. Of 120 patients with a corroborated prediction of death before discharge (93%), 112 patients had died within 6 months of medical ICU discharge, and only 4% were functioning with a Barthel score more than 70. In contrast, 67 of 163 patients who did not have any prediction of death before discharge (41%) were alive with Barthel score more than 70 at 6 months. Fewer than 4% of medical ICU patients who required 72 hours of medical ICU care and had a corroborated prediction of death before discharge were alive at 6 months and functioning with a Barthel score more than 70.

  14. From hospital admission to independent living: is prediction possible?

    PubMed

    Lipskaya-Velikovsky, Lena; Kotler, Moshe; Easterbrook, Adam; Jarus, Tal

    2015-04-30

    An integral component of recovery from mental illness is being able to engage in everyday activities. This ability is often restricted among people with schizophrenia. Although functional deficits are addressed during hospitalization, the ability to predict daily functioning based on information gathered during hospitalization has not been well established. This study examines whether measurements completed during hospitalization can be useful for predicting independent living within the community. Inpatients with schizophrenia (N=104) were enrolled in the study and assessed for cognitive functioning, functional capacity and symptoms. They were approached again 6 months after discharge to evaluate their functioning with respect to everyday life Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Functional capacity during hospitalization predicted 26.8% of ADL functioning and 38.8% of IADL functioning. ADL was best predicted by the severity of negative symptoms, cognitive functioning, and the number of hospitalizations (51.2%), while IADL was best predicted by functional capacity, cognition, and number of hospitalizations (60.1%). This study provides evidence that evaluations during hospitalization can be effective, and demonstrates the advantage of a holistic approach in predicting daily functioning. When a holistic approach is not practical, a functional capacity measurement may serve as an effective predictor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Validation of a modified early warning score to predict ICU transfer for patients with severe sepsis or septic shock on general wards].

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Ry; Choi, Hye Ran

    2014-04-01

    To assess whether the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) predicts the need for intensive care unit (ICU) transfer for patients with severe sepsis or septic shock admitted to general wards. A retrospective chart review of 100 general ward patients with severe sepsis or septic shock was implemented. Clinical information and MEWS according to point of time between ICU group and general ward group were reviewed. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves with SPSS/WIN 18.0 program. Thirty-eight ICU patients and sixty-two general ward patients were included. In multivariate logistic regression, MEWS (odds ratio [OR] 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-2.85), lactic acid (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.22-2.73) and diastolic blood pressure (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80-1.00) were predictive of ICU transfer. The sensitivity and the specificity of MEWS used with cut-off value of six were 89.5% and 67.7% for ICU transfer. MEWS is an effective predictor of ICU transfer. A clinical algorithm could be created to respond to high MEWS and intervene with appropriate changes in clinical management.

  16. Admission Laboratory Results to Enhance Prediction Models of Postdischarge Outcomes in Cardiac Care.

    PubMed

    Pine, Michael; Fry, Donald E; Hannan, Edward L; Naessens, James M; Whitman, Kay; Reband, Agnes; Qian, Feng; Schindler, Joseph; Sonneborn, Mark; Roland, Jaclyn; Hyde, Linda; Dennison, Barbara A

    Predictive modeling for postdischarge outcomes of inpatient care has been suboptimal. This study evaluated whether admission numerical laboratory data added to administrative models from New York and Minnesota hospitals would enhance the prediction accuracy for 90-day postdischarge deaths without readmission (PD-90) and 90-day readmissions (RA-90) following inpatient care for cardiac patients. Risk-adjustment models for the prediction of PD-90 and RA-90 were designed for acute myocardial infarction, percutaneous cardiac intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, and congestive heart failure. Models were derived from hospital claims data and were then enhanced with admission laboratory predictive results. Case-level discrimination, goodness of fit, and calibration were used to compare administrative models (ADM) and laboratory predictive models (LAB). LAB models for the prediction of PD-90 were modestly enhanced over ADM, but negligible benefit was seen for RA-90. A consistent predictor of PD-90 and RA-90 was prolonged length of stay outliers from the index hospitalization.

  17. Does emotional intelligence at medical school admission predict future academic performance?

    PubMed

    Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Leddy, John J; Wood, Timothy J; Puddester, Derek; Moineau, Geneviève

    2014-04-01

    Medical school admissions committees are increasingly considering noncognitive measures like emotional intelligence (EI) in evaluating potential applicants. This study explored whether scores on an EI abilities test at admissions predicted future academic performance in medical school to determine whether EI could be used in making admissions decisions. The authors invited all University of Ottawa medical school applicants offered an interview in 2006 and 2007 to complete the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso EI Test (MSCEIT) at the time of their interview (105 and 101, respectively), then again at matriculation (120 and 106, respectively). To determine predictive validity, they correlated MSCEIT scores to scores on written examinations and objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) administered during the four-year program. They also correlated MSCEIT scores to the number of nominations for excellence in clinical performance and failures recorded over the four years. The authors found no significant correlations between MSCEIT scores and written examination scores or number of failures. The correlations between MSCEIT scores and total OSCE scores ranged from 0.01 to 0.35; only MSCEIT scores at matriculation and OSCE year 4 scores for the 2007 cohort were significantly correlated. Correlations between MSCEIT scores and clinical nominations were low (range 0.12-0.28); only the correlation between MSCEIT scores at matriculation and number of clinical nominations for the 2007 cohort were statistically significant. EI, as measured by an abilities test at admissions, does not appear to reliably predict future academic performance. Future studies should define the role of EI in admissions decisions.

  18. Subarachnoid hemorrhage admissions retrospectively identified using a prediction model

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Lauralyn; Fergusson, Dean; Turgeon, Alexis; dos Santos, Marlise P.; Lum, Cheemun; Chassé, Michaël; Sinclair, John; Forster, Alan; van Walraven, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To create an accurate prediction model using variables collected in widely available health administrative data records to identify hospitalizations for primary subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods: A previously established complete cohort of consecutive primary SAH patients was combined with a random sample of control hospitalizations. Chi-square recursive partitioning was used to derive and internally validate a model to predict the probability that a patient had primary SAH (due to aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation) using health administrative data. Results: A total of 10,322 hospitalizations with 631 having primary SAH (6.1%) were included in the study (5,122 derivation, 5,200 validation). In the validation patients, our recursive partitioning algorithm had a sensitivity of 96.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 93.9–98.0), a specificity of 99.8% (95% CI 99.6–99.9), and a positive likelihood ratio of 483 (95% CI 254–879). In this population, patients meeting criteria for the algorithm had a probability of 45% of truly having primary SAH. Conclusions: Routinely collected health administrative data can be used to accurately identify hospitalized patients with a high probability of having a primary SAH. This algorithm may allow, upon validation, an easy and accurate method to create validated cohorts of primary SAH from either ruptured aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation. PMID:27629096

  19. Risk of Death Influences Regional Variation in Intensive Care Unit Admission Rates among the Elderly in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Rationale The extent to which geographic variability in ICU admission across the United States is driven by patients with lower risk of death is unknown. Objectives To determine whether patients at low to moderate risk of death contribute to geographic variation in ICU admission. Methods Retrospective cohort of hospitalizations among Medicare beneficiaries (age > 64 years) admitted for ten common medical and surgical diagnoses (2004 to 2009). We examined population-adjusted rates of ICU admission per 100 hospitalizations in 304 health referral regions (HRR), and estimated the relative risk of ICU admission across strata of regional ICU and risk of death, adjusted for patient and regional characteristics. Measurement and Main Results ICU admission rates varied nearly two-fold across HRR quartiles (quartile 1 to 4: 13.6, 17.3, 20.0, and 25.2 per 100 hospitalizations, respectively). Observed mortality for patients in regions (quartile 4) with the greatest ICU use was 17% compared to 21% in regions with lowest ICU use (quartile 1) (p<0.001). After adjusting for patient and regional characteristics, including regional differences in ICU, skilled nursing, and long-term acute care bed capacity, individuals’ risk of death modified the relationship between regional ICU use and an individual’s risk of ICU admission (p for interaction<0.001). Region was least important in predicting ICU admission among patients with high (quartile 4) risk of death (RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.22–1.31, for high versus low ICU use regions), and most important for patients with moderate (quartile 2; RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.53–1.72, quartile 3; RR 1.56 95% CI 1.47–1.65) and low (quartile 1) risk of death (RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.41–1.59). Conclusions There is wide variation in in ICU use by geography, independent of ICU beds and physician supply, for patients with low and moderate risks of death. PMID:27898697

  20. Predicting First-Quarter Test Scores from the New Medical College Admission Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Thomas J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The predictive validity of the new Medical College Admission Test as it relates to end-of-quarter examinations in anatomy, histology, physiology, biochemistry, and "ages of man" is presented. Results indicate that the Science Knowledge assessment areas of chemistry and physics and the Science Problems subtest were most useful in…

  1. Predicting Performance during Clinical Years from the New Medical College Admission Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caroline, Jan D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The results of a predictive validity study of the new Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) using criteria from the clinical years of undergraduate medical education are discussed. The criteria included course grades and faculty ratings of clerks in internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, and psychiatry. (Author/MLW)

  2. Re-Examination of Traditional Admissions Criteria in Predicting Academic Success in a Counselor Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatchett, Gregory T.; Lawrence, Christopher; Coaston, Susannah C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to re-evaluate the validity of traditional admissions criteria--UGPA and GRE scores--in predicting academic success for students admitted to a counselor education program in the United States. In contrast to prior research, we also included the newer GRE-Analytical Writing scores in our analyses. In general, we found…

  3. Re-Examination of Traditional Admissions Criteria in Predicting Academic Success in a Counselor Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatchett, Gregory T.; Lawrence, Christopher; Coaston, Susannah C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to re-evaluate the validity of traditional admissions criteria--UGPA and GRE scores--in predicting academic success for students admitted to a counselor education program in the United States. In contrast to prior research, we also included the newer GRE-Analytical Writing scores in our analyses. In general, we found…

  4. Predicting First-Quarter Test Scores from the New Medical College Admission Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Thomas J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The predictive validity of the new Medical College Admission Test as it relates to end-of-quarter examinations in anatomy, histology, physiology, biochemistry, and "ages of man" is presented. Results indicate that the Science Knowledge assessment areas of chemistry and physics and the Science Problems subtest were most useful in…

  5. Sex-Specific Differential Prediction of College Admission Tests: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Franziska T.; Schult, Johannes; Hell, Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    This is the first meta-analysis that investigates the differential prediction of undergraduate and graduate college admission tests for women and men. Findings on 130 independent samples representing 493,048 students are summarized. The underprediction of women's academic performance (d = 0.14) and the overprediction of men's academic performance…

  6. Predicting Performance during Clinical Years from the New Medical College Admission Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caroline, Jan D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The results of a predictive validity study of the new Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) using criteria from the clinical years of undergraduate medical education are discussed. The criteria included course grades and faculty ratings of clerks in internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, and psychiatry. (Author/MLW)

  7. Sex-Specific Differential Prediction of College Admission Tests: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Franziska T.; Schult, Johannes; Hell, Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    This is the first meta-analysis that investigates the differential prediction of undergraduate and graduate college admission tests for women and men. Findings on 130 independent samples representing 493,048 students are summarized. The underprediction of women's academic performance (d = 0.14) and the overprediction of men's academic performance…

  8. On-Admission Pressure Ulcer Prediction Using the Nursing Needs Score

    PubMed Central

    Setoguchi, Yoko; Mitani, Kazue; Abe, Yoshiro; Hashimoto, Ichiro; Moriguchi, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    Background Pressure ulcers (PUs) are considered a serious problem in nursing care and require preventive measures. Many risk assessment methods are currently being used, but most require the collection of data not available on admission. Although nurses assess the Nursing Needs Score (NNS) on a daily basis in Japanese acute care hospitals, these data are primarily used to standardize the cost of nursing care in the public insurance system for appropriate nurse staffing, and have never been used for PU risk assessment. Objective The objective of this study was to predict the risk of PU development using only data available on admission, including the on-admission NNS score. Methods Logistic regression was used to generate a prediction model for the risk of developing PUs after admission. A random undersampling procedure was used to overcome the problem of imbalanced data. Results A combination of gender, age, surgical duration, and on-admission total NNS score (NNS group B; NNS-B) was the best predictor with an average sensitivity, specificity, and area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 69.2% (6920/100), 82.8% (8280/100), and 84.0% (8400/100), respectively. The model with the median AUC achieved 80% (4/5) sensitivity, 81.3% (669/823) specificity, and 84.3% AUC. Conclusions We developed a model for predicting PU development using gender, age, surgical duration, and on-admission total NNS-B score. These results can be used to improve the efficiency of nurses and reduce the number of PU cases by identifying patients who require further examination. PMID:25673118

  9. Case mix, outcome and activity for patients with severe acute kidney injury during the first 24 hours after admission to an adult, general critical care unit: application of predictive models from a secondary analysis of the ICNARC Case Mix Programme database.

    PubMed

    Kolhe, Nitin V; Stevens, Paul E; Crowe, Alex V; Lipkin, Graham W; Harrison, David A

    2008-01-01

    This study pools data from the UK Intensive Care National Audit and Research Center (ICNARC) Case Mix Programme (CMP) to evaluate the case mix, outcome and activity for 17,326 patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) occurring during the first 24 hours of admission to intensive care units (ICU). Severe AKI admissions (defined as serum creatinine >/=300 mumol/l and/or urea >/=40 mmol/l during the first 24 hours) were extracted from the ICNARC CMP database of 276,326 admissions to UK ICUs from 1995 to 2004. Subgroups of oliguric and nonoliguric AKI were identified by daily urine output. Data on surgical status, survival and length of stay were also collected. Severity of illness scores and mortality prediction models were compared (UK Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II, Stuivenberg Hospital Acute Renal Failure [SHARF] T0, SHARF II0 and the Mehta model). Severe AKI occurred in 17,326 out of 276,731 admissions (6.3%). The source of admission was nonsurgical in 83.7%. Sepsis was present in 47.3% and AKI was nonoliguric in 63.9% of cases. Admission to ICU with severe AKI accounted for 9.3% of all ICU bed-days. Oliguric AKI was associated with longer length of stay for survivors and shorter length of stay for nonsurvivors compared with nonoliguric AKI. Oliguric AKI was associated with significantly greater ICU and hospital mortality (55.8% and 77.3%, respectively) compared with nonoliguric AKI (33.4% and 49.3%, respectively). Surgery during the 1 week before admission or during the first week in the CMP unit was associated with decreased odds of mortality. UK APACHE II and the Mehta scores under-predicted the number of deaths, whereas SHARF T0 and SHARF II0 over-predicted the number of deaths. Severe AKI accounts for over 9% of all bed-days in adult, general ICUs, representing a considerable drain on resources. Although nonoliguric AKI continues to confer a survival benefit, overall survival from AKI in the ICU and survival to leave hospital

  10. Case mix, outcome and activity for patients with severe acute kidney injury during the first 24 hours after admission to an adult, general critical care unit: application of predictive models from a secondary analysis of the ICNARC Case Mix Programme Database

    PubMed Central

    Kolhe, Nitin V; Stevens, Paul E; Crowe, Alex V; Lipkin, Graham W; Harrison, David A

    2008-01-01

    Introduction This study pools data from the UK Intensive Care National Audit and Research Center (ICNARC) Case Mix Programme (CMP) to evaluate the case mix, outcome and activity for 17,326 patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) occurring during the first 24 hours of admission to intensive care units (ICU). Methods Severe AKI admissions (defined as serum creatinine ≥300 μmol/l and/or urea ≥40 mmol/l during the first 24 hours) were extracted from the ICNARC CMP database of 276,326 admissions to UK ICUs from 1995 to 2004. Subgroups of oliguric and nonoliguric AKI were identified by daily urine output. Data on surgical status, survival and length of stay were also collected. Severity of illness scores and mortality prediction models were compared (UK Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II, Stuivenberg Hospital Acute Renal Failure [SHARF] T0, SHARF II0 and the Mehta model). Results Severe AKI occurred in 17,326 out of 276,731 admissions (6.3%). The source of admission was nonsurgical in 83.7%. Sepsis was present in 47.3% and AKI was nonoliguric in 63.9% of cases. Admission to ICU with severe AKI accounted for 9.3% of all ICU bed-days. Oliguric AKI was associated with longer length of stay for survivors and shorter length of stay for nonsurvivors compared with nonoliguric AKI. Oliguric AKI was associated with significantly greater ICU and hospital mortality (55.8% and 77.3%, respectively) compared with nonoliguric AKI (33.4% and 49.3%, respectively). Surgery during the 1 week before admission or during the first week in the CMP unit was associated with decreased odds of mortality. UK APACHE II and the Mehta scores under-predicted the number of deaths, whereas SHARF T0 and SHARF II0 over-predicted the number of deaths. Conclusions Severe AKI accounts for over 9% of all bed-days in adult, general ICUs, representing a considerable drain on resources. Although nonoliguric AKI continues to confer a survival benefit, overall survival from AKI

  11. Utilizing Chinese Admission Records for MACE Prediction of Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Danqing; Huang, Zhengxing; Chan, Tak-Ming; Dong, Wei; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clinical major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) prediction of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is important for a number of applications including physician decision support, quality of care assessment, and efficient healthcare service delivery on ACS patients. Admission records, as typical media to contain clinical information of patients at the early stage of their hospitalizations, provide significant potential to be explored for MACE prediction in a proactive manner. Methods: We propose a hybrid approach for MACE prediction by utilizing a large volume of admission records. Firstly, both a rule-based medical language processing method and a machine learning method (i.e., Conditional Random Fields (CRFs)) are developed to extract essential patient features from unstructured admission records. After that, state-of-the-art supervised machine learning algorithms are applied to construct MACE prediction models from data. Results: We comparatively evaluate the performance of the proposed approach on a real clinical dataset consisting of 2930 ACS patient samples collected from a Chinese hospital. Our best model achieved 72% AUC in MACE prediction. In comparison of the performance between our models and two well-known ACS risk score tools, i.e., GRACE and TIMI, our learned models obtain better performances with a significant margin. Conclusions: Experimental results reveal that our approach can obtain competitive performance in MACE prediction. The comparison of classifiers indicates the proposed approach has a competitive generality with datasets extracted by different feature extraction methods. Furthermore, our MACE prediction model obtained a significant improvement by comparison with both GRACE and TIMI. It indicates that using admission records can effectively provide MACE prediction service for ACS patients at the early stage of their hospitalizations. PMID:27649220

  12. Prognosis of patients presenting extreme acidosis (pH <7) on admission to intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Allyn, Jérôme; Vandroux, David; Jabot, Julien; Brulliard, Caroline; Galliot, Richard; Tabatchnik, Xavier; Combe, Patrice; Martinet, Olivier; Allou, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    The purpose was to determine prognosis of patients presenting extreme acidosis (pH <7) on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and to identify mortality risk factors. We retrospectively analyzed all patients who presented with extreme acidosis within 24 hours of admission to a polyvalent ICU in a university hospital between January 2011 and July 2013. Multivariate analysis and survival analysis were used. Among the 2156 patients admitted, 77 patients (3.6%) presented extreme acidosis. Thirty (39%) patients suffered cardiac arrest before admission. Although the mortality rate predicted by severity score was 93.6%, death occurred in 52 cases (67.5%) in a median delay of 13 (5-27) hours. Mortality rate depended on reason for admission, varying between 22% for cases linked to diabetes mellitus and 100% for cases of mesenteric infarction (P = .002), cardiac arrest before admission (P < .001), type of lactic acidosis (P = .007), high Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (P = .008), and low serum creatinine (P = .012). Patients with extreme acidosis on admission to ICU have a less severe than expected prognosis. Whereas mortality is almost 100% in cases of cardiac arrest before admission, mortality is much lower in the absence of cardiac arrest before admission, which justifies aggressive ICU therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intensive insulin therapy in the medical ICU.

    PubMed

    Van den Berghe, Greet; Wilmer, Alexander; Hermans, Greet; Meersseman, Wouter; Wouters, Pieter J; Milants, Ilse; Van Wijngaerden, Eric; Bobbaers, Herman; Bouillon, Roger

    2006-02-02

    Intensive insulin therapy reduces morbidity and mortality in patients in surgical intensive care units (ICUs), but its role in patients in medical ICUs is unknown. In a prospective, randomized, controlled study of adult patients admitted to our medical ICU, we studied patients who were considered to need intensive care for at least three days. On admission, patients were randomly assigned to strict normalization of blood glucose levels (80 to 110 mg per deciliter [4.4 to 6.1 mmol per liter]) with the use of insulin infusion or to conventional therapy (insulin administered when the blood glucose level exceeded 215 mg per deciliter [12 mmol per liter], with the infusion tapered when the level fell below 180 mg per deciliter [10 mmol per liter]). There was a history of diabetes in 16.9 percent of the patients. In the intention-to-treat analysis of 1200 patients, intensive insulin therapy reduced blood glucose levels but did not significantly reduce in-hospital mortality (40.0 percent in the conventional-treatment group vs. 37.3 percent in the intensive-treatment group, P=0.33). However, morbidity was significantly reduced by the prevention of newly acquired kidney injury, accelerated weaning from mechanical ventilation, and accelerated discharge from the ICU and the hospital. Although length of stay in the ICU could not be predicted on admission, among 433 patients who stayed in the ICU for less than three days, mortality was greater among those receiving intensive insulin therapy. In contrast, among 767 patients who stayed in the ICU for three or more days, in-hospital mortality in the 386 who received intensive insulin therapy was reduced from 52.5 to 43.0 percent (P=0.009) and morbidity was also reduced. Intensive insulin therapy significantly reduced morbidity but not mortality among all patients in the medical ICU. Although the risk of subsequent death and disease was reduced in patients treated for three or more days, these patients could not be identified

  14. Predictive validity of the Biomedical Admissions Test: an evaluation and case study.

    PubMed

    McManus, I C; Ferguson, Eamonn; Wakeford, Richard; Powis, David; James, David

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increase in the use of pre-admission selection tests for medicine. Such tests need to show good psychometric properties. Here, we use a paper by Emery and Bell [2009. The predictive validity of the Biomedical Admissions Test for pre-clinical examination performance. Med Educ 43:557-564] as a case study to evaluate and comment on the reporting of psychometric data in the field of medical student selection (and the comments apply to many papers in the field). We highlight pitfalls when reliability data are not presented, how simple zero-order associations can lead to inaccurate conclusions about the predictive validity of a test, and how biases need to be explored and reported. We show with BMAT that it is the knowledge part of the test which does all the predictive work. We show that without evidence of incremental validity it is difficult to assess the value of any selection tests for medicine.

  15. Prediction and Observation of Post-Admission Hematoma Expansion in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ovesen, Christian; Havsteen, Inger; Rosenbaum, Sverre; Christensen, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Post-admission hematoma expansion in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) comprises a simultaneous major clinical problem and a possible target for medical intervention. In any case, the ability to predict and observe hematoma expansion is of great clinical importance. We review radiological concepts in predicting and observing post-admission hematoma expansion. Hematoma expansion can be observed within the first 24 h after symptom onset, but predominantly occurs in the early hours. Thus capturing markers of on-going bleeding on imaging techniques could predict hematoma expansion. The spot sign observed on computed tomography angiography is believed to represent on-going bleeding and is to date the most well investigated and reliable radiological predictor of hematoma expansion as well as functional outcome and mortality. On non-contrast CT, the presence of foci of hypoattenuation within the hematoma along with the hematoma-size is reported to be predictive of hematoma expansion and outcome. Because patients tend to arrive earlier to the hospital, a larger fraction of acute ICH-patients must be expected to undergo hematoma expansion. This renders observation and radiological follow-up investigations increasingly relevant. Transcranial duplex sonography has in recent years proven to be able to estimate hematoma volume with good precision and could be a valuable tool in bedside serial observation of acute ICH-patients. Future studies will elucidate, if better prediction and observation of post-admission hematoma expansion can help select patients, who will benefit from hemostatic treatment. PMID:25324825

  16. Does Emotional Intelligence at Medical School Admission Predict Future Academic Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Leddy, John J.; Wood, Timothy J.; Puddester, Derek; Moineau, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Medical school admissions committees are increasingly considering noncognitive measures like emotional intelligence (EI) in evaluating potential applicants. This study explored whether scores on an EI abilities test at admissions predicted future academic performance in medical school to determine whether EI could be used in making admissions decisions. Method The authors invited all University of Ottawa medical school applicants offered an interview in 2006 and 2007 to complete the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso EI Test (MSCEIT) at the time of their interview (105 and 101, respectively), then again at matriculation (120 and 106, respectively). To determine predictive validity, they correlated MSCEIT scores to scores on written examinations and objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) administered during the four-year program. They also correlated MSCEIT scores to the number of nominations for excellence in clinical performance and failures recorded over the four years. Results The authors found no significant correlations between MSCEIT scores and written examination scores or number of failures. The correlations between MSCEIT scores and total OSCE scores ranged from 0.01 to 0.35; only MSCEIT scores at matriculation and OSCE year 4 scores for the 2007 cohort were significantly correlated. Correlations between MSCEIT scores and clinical nominations were low (range 0.12–0.28); only the correlation between MSCEIT scores at matriculation and number of clinical nominations for the 2007 cohort were statistically significant. Conclusions EI, as measured by an abilities test at admissions, does not appear to reliably predict future academic performance. Future studies should define the role of EI in admissions decisions. PMID:24556771

  17. Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia Admitted to Intensive Care Units: Outcome Analysis and Risk Prediction.

    PubMed

    Pohlen, Michele; Thoennissen, Nils H; Braess, Jan; Thudium, Johannes; Schmid, Christoph; Kochanek, Matthias; Kreuzer, Karl-Anton; Lebiedz, Pia; Görlich, Dennis; Gerth, Hans U; Rohde, Christian; Kessler, Torsten; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Stelljes, Matthias; Büchner, Thomas; Schlimok, Günter; Hallek, Michael; Waltenberger, Johannes; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Heilmeier, Bernhard; Krug, Utz

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective, multicenter study aimed to reveal risk predictors for mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) as well as survival after ICU discharge in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) requiring treatment in the ICU. Multivariate analysis of data for 187 adults with AML treated in the ICU in one institution revealed the following as independent prognostic factors for death in the ICU: arterial oxygen partial pressure below 72 mmHg, active AML and systemic inflammatory response syndrome upon ICU admission, and need for hemodialysis and mechanical ventilation in the ICU. Based on these variables, we developed an ICU mortality score and validated the score in an independent cohort of 264 patients treated in the ICU in three additional tertiary hospitals. Compared with the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II, the Logistic Organ Dysfunction (LOD) score, and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, our score yielded a better prediction of ICU mortality in the receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis (AUC = 0.913 vs. AUC = 0.710 [SAPS II], AUC = 0.708 [LOD], and 0.770 [SOFA] in the training cohort; AUC = 0.841 for the developed score vs. AUC = 0.730 [SAPSII], AUC = 0.773 [LOD], and 0.783 [SOFA] in the validation cohort). Factors predicting decreased survival after ICU discharge were as follows: relapse or refractory disease, previous allogeneic stem cell transplantation, time between hospital admission and ICU admission, time spent in ICU, impaired diuresis, Glasgow Coma Scale <8 and hematocrit of ≥25% at ICU admission. Based on these factors, an ICU survival score was created and used for risk stratification into three risk groups. This stratification discriminated distinct survival rates after ICU discharge. Our data emphasize that although individual risks differ widely depending on the patient and disease status, a substantial portion of critically ill patients with AML benefit from intensive care.

  18. [The value of the excursion of diaphragm tested by ultrosonography to predict weaning from mechanical ventilation in ICU patients].

    PubMed

    Liu, L X; Su, D; Hu, Z J

    2017-07-01

    Objective: To evaluate the excursion of the diaphragm and analyze the value in predicting weaning from mechanical ventilation in intensive care unit patients. Methods: The patients with mechanical ventilation (>48 hours) in ICU at Hebei Forth Medical University Hospital from June 2014 to December were classified into a success group or a failure group according to the weaning outcome. T-piece spontaneous breathing (SBT), airway occlusion pressure at 0.1 sec (P(0.1)) and maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) and P(0.1)/MIP were measured or calculated. During the period of the 1st hour SBT, the excursion of diaphragm was measured with ultrasonography. The predictive value of each parameter to weaning was evaluated with ROC curve. Results: A total of 98 patients were enrolled in this study, including 74 successfully weaning and 24 failed. There were significant differences between two groups(success group and failure group) in P(0.1)[(2.00±2.00)cmH(2)O (1 cmH(2)O=0.098 kPa) vs (3.00±2.75)cmH(2)O, P<0.05], RSBI (39.14±16.81 vs 52.00±19.18, P<0.05), left diaphragmatic excursion [(1.12±0.97)cm vs (0.69±1.00)cm, P<0.001], right diaphragmatic excursion(1.87±0.75)cm vs (1.17±0.76)cm, P<0.001] and mean value of left and right diaphragmatic excursion [(1.57±0.52)cm vs (0.83±0.53)cm, and P<0.001]. The ventilation time [2.00(2.00-4.00)d vs 4.00(2.00-5.00)d], ICU hospital lengths of stay [4.50(3.00-7.25)d vs 8.50(6.25-15.25)d] and total hospital lengths of stay[20.00(15.00-25.25)d vs 25.00(20.25-37.25)d] were also statistically significant in success group and failure group respectively (all P<0.05). The cutoff value of diaphragmatic excursion for predicting successful extubation was determined to be 1.14 cm by ROC curve analysis. The sensitivity of diaphragmatic excursion to predict successful weaning was 89.2% and the specificity was 75.0%, the AUC(ROC) was 0.849. Conclusion: As an early predictor of diaphragmatic dysfunction

  19. High MELD score and extended operating time predict prolonged initial ICU stay after liver transplantation and influence the outcome

    PubMed Central

    Stratigopoulou, Panagiota; Paul, Andreas; Hoyer, Dieter P.; Kykalos, Stylianos; Saner, Fuat H.; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C.

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study is to determine the incidence of a prolonged (>3 days) initial ICU-stay after liver transplantation (LT) and to identify risk factors for it. Patients and methods We retrospectively analyzed data of adult recipients who underwent deceased donor first-LT at the University Hospital Essen between 11/2003 and 07/2012 and showed a primary graft function. Results Of the 374 recipients, 225 (60.16%) had prolonged ICU-stay. On univariate analysis, donor INR, high doses of vasopressors, “rescue-offer” grafts, being hospitalized at transplant, high urgency cases, labMELD, alcoholic cirrhosis, being on renal dialysis and length of surgery were associated with prolonged ICU-stay. After multivariate analysis, only the labMELD and the operation’s length were independently correlated with prolonged ICU-stay. Cut-off values for these variables were 19 and 293.5 min, respectively. Hospital stay was longer for patients with a prolonged initial ICU-stay (p<0.001). Survival rates differed significantly between the two groups at 3 months, 1-year and 5-years after LT (p<0.001). Conclusions LabMELD and duration of LT were identified as independent predictors for prolonged ICU-stay after LT. Identification of recipients in need of longer ICU-stay could contribute to a more evidenced-based and cost-effective use of ICU facilities in transplant centers. PMID:28319169

  20. Predicting admission at triage: are nurses better than a simple objective score?

    PubMed

    Cameron, Allan; Ireland, Alastair J; McKay, Gerard A; Stark, Adam; Lowe, David J

    2017-01-01

    We compared two methods of predicting hospital admission from ED triage: probabilities estimated by triage nurses and probabilities calculated by the Glasgow Admission Prediction Score (GAPS). In this single-centre prospective study, triage nurses estimated the probability of admission using a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS), and GAPS was generated automatically from triage data. We compared calibration using rank sum tests, discrimination using area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) and accuracy with McNemar's test. Of 1829 attendances, 745 (40.7%) were admitted, not significantly different from GAPS' prediction of 750 (41.0%, p=0.678). In contrast, the nurses' mean VAS predicted 865 admissions (47.3%), overestimating by 6.6% (p<0.0001). GAPS discriminated between admission and discharge as well as nurses, its AUC 0.876 compared with 0.875 for VAS (p=0.93). As a binary predictor, its accuracy was 80.6%, again comparable with VAS (79.0%), p=0.18. In the minority of attendances, when nurses felt at least 95% certain of the outcome, VAS' accuracy was excellent, at 92.4%. However, in the remaining majority, GAPS significantly outperformed VAS on calibration (+1.2% vs +9.2%, p<0.0001), discrimination (AUC 0.810 vs 0.759, p=0.001) and accuracy (75.1% vs 68.9%, p=0.0009). When we used GAPS, but 'over-ruled' it when clinical certainty was ≥95%, this significantly outperformed either method, with AUC 0.891 (0.877-0.907) and accuracy 82.5% (80.7%-84.2%). GAPS, a simple clinical score, is a better predictor of admission than triage nurses, unless the nurse is sure about the outcome, in which case their clinical judgement should be respected. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Intensive Care Unit Admission Parameters Improve the Accuracy of Operative Mortality Predictive Models in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ranucci, Marco; Ballotta, Andrea; Castelvecchio, Serenella; Baryshnikova, Ekaterina; Brozzi, Simonetta; Boncilli, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Background Operative mortality risk in cardiac surgery is usually assessed using preoperative risk models. However, intraoperative factors may change the risk profile of the patients, and parameters at the admission in the intensive care unit may be relevant in determining the operative mortality. This study investigates the association between a number of parameters at the admission in the intensive care unit and the operative mortality, and verifies the hypothesis that including these parameters into the preoperative risk models may increase the accuracy of prediction of the operative mortality. Methodology 929 adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery were admitted to the study. The preoperative risk profile was assessed using the logistic EuroSCORE and the ACEF score. A number of parameters recorded at the admission in the intensive care unit were explored for univariate and multivariable association with the operative mortality. Principal Findings A heart rate higher than 120 beats per minute and a blood lactate value higher than 4 mmol/L at the admission in the intensive care unit were independent predictors of operative mortality, with odds ratio of 6.7 and 13.4 respectively. Including these parameters into the logistic EuroSCORE and the ACEF score increased their accuracy (area under the curve 0.85 to 0.88 for the logistic EuroSCORE and 0.81 to 0.86 for the ACEF score). Conclusions A double-stage assessment of operative mortality risk provides a higher accuracy of the prediction. Elevated blood lactates and tachycardia reflect a condition of inadequate cardiac output. Their inclusion in the assessment of the severity of the clinical conditions after cardiac surgery may offer a useful tool to introduce more sophisticated hemodynamic monitoring techniques. Comparison between the predicted operative mortality risk before and after the operation may offer an assessment of the operative performance. PMID:21042411

  2. The Effectiveness of Traditional Admissions Criteria in Predicting College and Graduate Success for American and International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Yanfei

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of traditional admissions criteria, including prior GPA, SAT, GRE, and TOEFL in predicting undergraduate and graduate academic success for American and international students at a large public university in the southwestern United States. Included are the admissions and enrollment data for 25,017 undergraduate…

  3. The Effectiveness of Traditional Admissions Criteria in Predicting College and Graduate Success for American and International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Yanfei

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of traditional admissions criteria, including prior GPA, SAT, GRE, and TOEFL in predicting undergraduate and graduate academic success for American and international students at a large public university in the southwestern United States. Included are the admissions and enrollment data for 25,017 undergraduate…

  4. Prediction of Emergency Department Hospital Admission Based on Natural Language Processing and Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingyu; Kim, Joyce; Patzer, Rachel E; Pitts, Stephen R; Patzer, Aaron; Schrager, Justin D

    2017-08-16

    To describe and compare logistic regression and neural network modeling strategies to predict hospital admission or transfer following initial presentation to Emergency Department (ED) triage with and without the addition of natural language processing elements. Using data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS), a cross-sectional probability sample of United States EDs from 2012 and 2013 survey years, we developed several predictive models with the outcome being admission to the hospital or transfer vs. discharge home. We included patient characteristics immediately available after the patient has presented to the ED and undergone a triage process. We used this information to construct logistic regression (LR) and multilayer neural network models (MLNN) which included natural language processing (NLP) and principal component analysis from the patient's reason for visit. Ten-fold cross validation was used to test the predictive capacity of each model and receiver operating curves (AUC) were then calculated for each model. Of the 47,200 ED visits from 642 hospitals, 6,335 (13.42%) resulted in hospital admission (or transfer). A total of 48 principal components were extracted by NLP from the reason for visit fields, which explained 75% of the overall variance for hospitalization. In the model including only structured variables, the AUC was 0.824 (95% CI 0.818-0.830) for logistic regression and 0.823 (95% CI 0.817-0.829) for MLNN. Models including only free-text information generated AUC of 0.742 (95% CI 0.731- 0.753) for logistic regression and 0.753 (95% CI 0.742-0.764) for MLNN. When both structured variables and free text variables were included, the AUC reached 0.846 (95% CI 0.839-0.853) for logistic regression and 0.844 (95% CI 0.836-0.852) for MLNN. The predictive accuracy of hospital admission or transfer for patients who presented to ED triage overall was good, and was improved with the inclusion of free text data from a patient

  5. Time series analysis as input for clinical predictive modeling: modeling cardiac arrest in a pediatric ICU.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Curtis E; Turley, James P

    2011-10-24

    Thousands of children experience cardiac arrest events every year in pediatric intensive care units. Most of these children die. Cardiac arrest prediction tools are used as part of medical emergency team evaluations to identify patients in standard hospital beds that are at high risk for cardiac arrest. There are no models to predict cardiac arrest in pediatric intensive care units though, where the risk of an arrest is 10 times higher than for standard hospital beds. Current tools are based on a multivariable approach that does not characterize deterioration, which often precedes cardiac arrests. Characterizing deterioration requires a time series approach. The purpose of this study is to propose a method that will allow for time series data to be used in clinical prediction models. Successful implementation of these methods has the potential to bring arrest prediction to the pediatric intensive care environment, possibly allowing for interventions that can save lives and prevent disabilities. We reviewed prediction models from nonclinical domains that employ time series data, and identified the steps that are necessary for building predictive models using time series clinical data. We illustrate the method by applying it to the specific case of building a predictive model for cardiac arrest in a pediatric intensive care unit. Time course analysis studies from genomic analysis provided a modeling template that was compatible with the steps required to develop a model from clinical time series data. The steps include: 1) selecting candidate variables; 2) specifying measurement parameters; 3) defining data format; 4) defining time window duration and resolution; 5) calculating latent variables for candidate variables not directly measured; 6) calculating time series features as latent variables; 7) creating data subsets to measure model performance effects attributable to various classes of candidate variables; 8) reducing the number of candidate features; 9

  6. Time series analysis as input for clinical predictive modeling: Modeling cardiac arrest in a pediatric ICU

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Thousands of children experience cardiac arrest events every year in pediatric intensive care units. Most of these children die. Cardiac arrest prediction tools are used as part of medical emergency team evaluations to identify patients in standard hospital beds that are at high risk for cardiac arrest. There are no models to predict cardiac arrest in pediatric intensive care units though, where the risk of an arrest is 10 times higher than for standard hospital beds. Current tools are based on a multivariable approach that does not characterize deterioration, which often precedes cardiac arrests. Characterizing deterioration requires a time series approach. The purpose of this study is to propose a method that will allow for time series data to be used in clinical prediction models. Successful implementation of these methods has the potential to bring arrest prediction to the pediatric intensive care environment, possibly allowing for interventions that can save lives and prevent disabilities. Methods We reviewed prediction models from nonclinical domains that employ time series data, and identified the steps that are necessary for building predictive models using time series clinical data. We illustrate the method by applying it to the specific case of building a predictive model for cardiac arrest in a pediatric intensive care unit. Results Time course analysis studies from genomic analysis provided a modeling template that was compatible with the steps required to develop a model from clinical time series data. The steps include: 1) selecting candidate variables; 2) specifying measurement parameters; 3) defining data format; 4) defining time window duration and resolution; 5) calculating latent variables for candidate variables not directly measured; 6) calculating time series features as latent variables; 7) creating data subsets to measure model performance effects attributable to various classes of candidate variables; 8) reducing the number of

  7. An Integrative Review on Standardized Exams as a Predictive Admission Criterion for RN Programs.

    PubMed

    Twidwell, Julie E; Records, Kathie

    2017-04-01

    Nursing programs reject qualified applicants due to limited clinical placements and faculty. By admitting the strongest candidates, schools of nursing will reduce attrition rates, increase NCLEX-RN pass rates, and speed the entry into practice of well-prepared nurses to help stem the nursing shortage. This integrative review identified the standardized admission exams most predictive of student success. Included were articles published between 2005 and 2016 that focused on admission criteria, RN programs, specific exams (e. g., HESI-A2, TEAS, SAT, CAAP, or ACT), NCLEX-RN performance, or program success. Standardized exams are effective predictors of success in programs of nursing and first-attempt NCLEX-RN. While predictive accuracy differs between exams, findings suggest that the HESI-A2 is currently the best predictor of success. By optimizing the use of standardized exams as admission criteria, nursing programs can reduce attrition rates and improve NCLEX-RN pass rates. This will maximize program capacity and contribute to a greater number of practicing nurses.

  8. The prognostic significance of the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) with systemic vasculitis patients transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU)

    PubMed Central

    Biscetti, Federico; Carbonella, Angela; Parisi, Federico; Bosello, Silvia Laura; Schiavon, Franco; Padoan, Roberto; Gremese, Elisa; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Systemic vasculitides represent a heterogeneous group of diseases that share clinical features including respiratory distress, renal dysfunction, and neurologic disorders. These diseases may often cause life-threatening complications requiring admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of the study was to evaluate the validity and responsiveness of Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) score to predict survival in patients with systemic vasculitides admitted to ICU. A retrospective study was carried out from 2004 to 2014 in 18 patients with systemic vasculitis admitted to 2 different Rheumatology divisions and transferred to ICU due to clinical worsening, with a length of stay beyond 24 hours. We found that ICU mortality was significantly associated with higher BVAS scores performed in the ward (P = 0.01) and at the admission in ICU (P = 0.01), regardless of the value of Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) scores (P = 0.50). We used receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to evaluate the possible cutoff value for the BVAS in the ward and in ICU and we found that a BVAS > 8 in the ward and that a BVAS > 10 in ICU might be a useful tool to predict in-ICU mortality. BVAS appears to be an excellent tool for assessing ICU mortality risk of systemic vasculitides patients admitted to specialty departments. Our experience has shown that performing the assessment at admission to the ward is more important than determining the evaluation before the clinical aggravation causing the transfer to ICU. PMID:27902615

  9. Consciousness levels one week after admission to a palliative care unit improve survival prediction in advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jaw-Shiun; Chen, Chao-Hsien; Wu, Chih-Hsun; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Morita, Tatsuya; Chang, Chin-Hao; Hung, Shou-Hung; Lee, Ya-Ping; Chen, Ching-Yu

    2015-02-01

    Consciousness is an important factor of survival prediction in advanced cancer patients. However, effects on survival of changes over time in consciousness in advanced cancer patients have not been fully explored. This study evaluated changes in consciousness after admission to a palliative care unit and their correlation with prognosis in terminal cancer patients. This is a prospective observational study. From a palliative care unit in Taiwan, 531 cancer patients (51.8% male) were recruited. Consciousness status was assessed at admission and one week afterwards and recorded as normal or impaired. The mean age was 65.28±13.59 years, and the average survival time was 23.41±37.69 days. Patients with normal consciousness at admission (n=317) had better survival than those with impaired consciousness at admission (n=214): (17.0 days versus 6.0 days, p<0.001). In the analysis on survival within one week after admission, those with normal consciousness at admission had a higher percentage of survival than the impaired (78.9% versus 44.3%, p<0.001). Patients were further classified into four groups according to consciousness levels: (1) normal at admission and one week afterwards, (2) impaired at admission but normal one week afterwards, (3) normal at admission but impaired one week afterwards, and (4) impaired both at admission and one week afterwards. The former two groups had significantly better survival than the latter two groups: (median survival counted from day 7 after admission), 25.5, 27.0, 7.0, and 7.0 days, respectively. Consciousness levels one week after admission should be integrated into survival prediction in advanced cancer patients.

  10. The use of selective admissions tools to predict students' success in an advanced standing baccalaureate nursing program.

    PubMed

    Timer, Jennifer E; Clauson, Marion I

    2011-08-01

    The judicious selection of nursing school applicants is important, and universities are increasingly incorporating non-academic criteria into their admission processes. We undertook a retrospective, correlational study of the predictive utility of an admissions process for nursing students' "in-program" success. The sample consisted of all 249 students admitted to a Canadian accelerated baccalaureate nursing program over a four-year study period. The students' arithmetic mean grade for six nursing courses (both theoretical and clinical) and their final grade point average (GPA) at graduation were the outcome measures of student success. The predictor variables included the applicants' demographic characteristics (e.g., age, gender, ethnic minority status, and previous educational attainment), their supplemental application materials and interview scores (assessing non-academic criteria), and their admission GPA. Linear regression was conducted on the outcome measures to determine whether the selection tools added information over that obtained through the use of admission GPA in predicting success. Although their admission GPAs were consistently predictive of the students' success, neither the supplemental application nor the interview scores had predictive utility. The variables consistently predictive of student success were age, ethnic minority status, and admission GPA, accounting for 26% of the variance in the selected nursing grades and 36% of the variance in GPA at graduation. The results provided little evidence to justify using the selective admissions tools. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Using an Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) Model for Prediction of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Outcome and Length of Stay at Hospital in Traumatic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gholipour, Changiz; Rahim, Fakher; Fakhree, Abolghasem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Currently applications of artificial neural network (ANN) models in outcome predicting of patients have made considerable strides in clinical medicine. This project aims to use a neural network for predicting survival and length of stay of patients in the ward and the intensive care unit (ICU) of trauma patients and to obtain predictive power of the current method. Materials and Methods We used Neuro-Solution software (NS), a leading-edge neural network software for data mining to create highly accurate and predictive models using advanced preprocessing techniques, intelligent automated neural network topology through cutting-edge distributed computing. This ANN model was used based on back-propagation, feed forward, and fed by Trauma and injury severity score (TRISS) components, biochemical findings, risk factors and outcome of 95 patients. In the next step a trained ANN was used to predict outcome, ICU and ward length of stay for 30 test group patients by processing primary data. Results The sensitivity and specificity of an ANN for predicting the outcome of traumatic patients in this study calculated 75% and 96.26%, respectively. 93.33% of outcome predictions obtained by ANN were correct. In 3.33% of predictions, results of ANN were optimistic and 3.33% of cases predicted ANN results were worse than the actual outcome of patients. Neither difference in average length of stay in the ward and ICU with predicted ANN results, were statistically significant. Correlation coefficient of two variables of ANN prediction and actual length of stay in hospital was equal to 0.643. Conclusion Using ANN model based on clinical and biochemical variables in patients with moderate to severe traumatic injury, resulted in satisfactory outcome prediction when applied to a test set. PMID:26023581

  12. Does information available at admission for delivery improve prediction of vaginal birth after cesarean?

    PubMed Central

    Grobman, William A.; Lai, Yinglei; Landon, Mark B.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Varner, Michael W.; Moawad, Atef H.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Harper, Margaret; Wapner, Ronald J.; Sorokin, Yoram; Miodovnik, Menachem; Carpenter, Marshall; O'sullivan, Mary J.; Sibai, Baha M.; Langer, Oded; Thorp, John M.; Ramin, Susan M.; Mercer, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To construct a predictive model for vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) that combines factors that can be ascertained only as the pregnancy progresses with those known at initiation of prenatal care. Study design Using multivariable modeling, we constructed a predictive model for VBAC that included patient factors known at the initial prenatal visit as well as those that only became evident as the pregancy progressed to the admission for delivery. Results 9616 women were analyzed. The regression equation for VBAC success included multiple factors that could not be known at the first prenatal visit. The area under the curve for this model was significantly greater (P < .001) than that of a model that included only factors available at the first prenatal visit. Conclusion A prediction model for VBAC success that incorporates factors that can be ascertained only as the pregnancy progresses adds to the predictive accuracy of a model that uses only factors available at a first prenatal visit. PMID:19813165

  13. Does information available at admission for delivery improve prediction of vaginal birth after cesarean?

    PubMed

    Grobman, William A; Lai, Yinglei; Landon, Mark B; Spong, Catherine Y; Leveno, Kenneth J; Rouse, Dwight J; Varner, Michael W; Moawad, Atef H; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Harper, Margaret; Wapner, Ronald J; Sorokin, Yoram; Miodovnik, Menachem; Carpenter, Marshall; O'Sullivan, Mary J; Sibai, Baha M; Langer, Oded; Thorp, John M; Ramin, Susan M; Mercer, Brian M

    2009-11-01

    We sought to construct a predictive model for vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) that combines factors that can be ascertained only as the pregnancy progresses with those known at initiation of prenatal care. Using multivariable modeling, we constructed a predictive model for VBAC that included patient factors known at the initial prenatal visit as well as those that only become evident as the pregnancy progresses to the admission for delivery. We analyzed 9616 women. The regression equation for VBAC success included multiple factors that could not be known at the first prenatal visit. The area under the curve for this model was significantly greater ( P < 0.001) than that of a model that included only factors available at the first prenatal visit. A prediction model for VBAC success, which incorporates factors that can be ascertained only as the pregnancy progresses, adds to the predictive accuracy of a model that uses only factors available at a first prenatal visit.

  14. Natural Language Processing for Cohort Discovery in a Discharge Prediction Model for the Neonatal ICU

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Christoph U.; Fabbri, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives Discharging patients from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) can be delayed for non-medical reasons including the procurement of home medical equipment, parental education, and the need for children’s services. We previously created a model to identify patients that will be medically ready for discharge in the subsequent 2–10 days. In this study we use Natural Language Processing to improve upon that model and discern why the model performed poorly on certain patients. Methods We retrospectively examined the text of the Assessment and Plan section from daily progress notes of 4,693 patients (103,206 patient-days) from the NICU of a large, academic children’s hospital. A matrix was constructed using words from NICU notes (single words and bigrams) to train a supervised machine learning algorithm to determine the most important words differentiating poorly performing patients compared to well performing patients in our original discharge prediction model. Results NLP using a bag of words (BOW) analysis revealed several cohorts that performed poorly in our original model. These included patients with surgical diagnoses, pulmonary hypertension, retinopathy of prematurity, and psychosocial issues. Discussion The BOW approach aided in cohort discovery and will allow further refinement of our original discharge model prediction. Adequately identifying patients discharged home on g-tube feeds alone could improve the AUC of our original model by 0.02. Additionally, this approach identified social issues as a major cause for delayed discharge. Conclusion A BOW analysis provides a method to improve and refine our NICU discharge prediction model and could potentially avoid over 900 (0.9%) hospital days. PMID:27081410

  15. Natural Language Processing for Cohort Discovery in a Discharge Prediction Model for the Neonatal ICU.

    PubMed

    Temple, Michael W; Lehmann, Christoph U; Fabbri, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Discharging patients from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) can be delayed for non-medical reasons including the procurement of home medical equipment, parental education, and the need for children's services. We previously created a model to identify patients that will be medically ready for discharge in the subsequent 2-10 days. In this study we use Natural Language Processing to improve upon that model and discern why the model performed poorly on certain patients. We retrospectively examined the text of the Assessment and Plan section from daily progress notes of 4,693 patients (103,206 patient-days) from the NICU of a large, academic children's hospital. A matrix was constructed using words from NICU notes (single words and bigrams) to train a supervised machine learning algorithm to determine the most important words differentiating poorly performing patients compared to well performing patients in our original discharge prediction model. NLP using a bag of words (BOW) analysis revealed several cohorts that performed poorly in our original model. These included patients with surgical diagnoses, pulmonary hypertension, retinopathy of prematurity, and psychosocial issues. The BOW approach aided in cohort discovery and will allow further refinement of our original discharge model prediction. Adequately identifying patients discharged home on g-tube feeds alone could improve the AUC of our original model by 0.02. Additionally, this approach identified social issues as a major cause for delayed discharge. A BOW analysis provides a method to improve and refine our NICU discharge prediction model and could potentially avoid over 900 (0.9%) hospital days.

  16. Elevated admission international normalized ratio strongly predicts mortality in victims of abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Leeper, Christine M; Nasr, Isam; McKenna, Christine; Berger, Rachel P; Gaines, Barbara A

    2016-05-01

    controlling for head AIS score and admission GCS score, the AOR was 5.27 (p = 0.007). Admission INR of 1.3 or greater strongly predicts mortality in abusive head trauma. These patients should be targeted for early aggressive interventions and monitoring with the goal of improving patient outcomes. Further study is warranted to investigate potential therapeutic targets in trauma-induced coagulation dysregulation. Prognostic and epidemiologic study, level III.

  17. [Evaluation of the efficiency of care in the ICU].

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, X; Guardiola, J J; Roca, J; Soler, M; Toboso, J M; Klamburg, J; Artigas, A

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of care in the ICU using a predictive model. A prospective, observational cohort study Seventeen Spanish polyvalent ICUs. A total of 1956 patients were initially considered (cohort A). Posteriorly, and at 6-year intervals, we documented cohorts B (n=453), C (n=2567) and D (n=711) in one of the studied ICUs. Five standard severity indices were calculated for all cohorts, and with these the standardized mortality ratios (observed/calculated) for each cohort were compared. Multiple regression analysis was used to develop a predictive model of length of stay in the ICU (ICU-LOS). This model was used for calculation of the standardized LOS ratios for each cohort. We analyzed the organizational changes in the studied ICU during these periods in relation to the results obtained. The calculated probability of in-hospital death was 15.4%, versus 14.7% as calculated 24 hours after admission. Actual in-hospital mortality was 20.3%. A final multiple regression model was constructed. Standardized LOS and mortality ratios were 1.8 and 1.2 (cohort B), 0.97 and 1.07 (cohort C), and 0.63 and 1.07 (cohort D), respectively. The progressive improvement in the results observed was related to the introduced organizational and structural changes. The model developed in this study was a good predictor of actual ICU-LOS, and both LOS and mortality analysis could be a good tool for ICU care evaluation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  18. Disaggregating Activities of Daily Living Limitations for Predicting Nursing Home Admission

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Joelle H; Mitchell, Olivia S; Koh, Benedict S K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether disaggregated activities of daily living (ADL) limitations better predict the risk of nursing home admission compared to conventionally used ADL disability counts. Data Sources We used panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) for years 1998–2010. The HRS is a nationally representative survey of adults older than 50 years (n = 18,801). Study Design We fitted Cox regressions in a continuous time survival model with age at first nursing home admission as the outcome. Time-varying ADL disability types were the key explanatory variables. Principal Findings Of the six ADL limitations, bathing difficulty emerged as the strongest predictor of subsequent nursing home placement across cohorts. Eating and dressing limitations were also influential in driving admissions among more recent cohorts. Using simple ADL counts for analysis yielded similar adjusted R2s; however, the amount of explained variance doubled when we allowed the ADL disability measures to time-vary rather than remain static. Conclusions Looking beyond simple ADL counts can provide health professionals insights into which specific disability types trigger long-term nursing home use. Functional disabilities measured closer in time carry more prognostic power than static measures. PMID:25256014

  19. A model-based analysis of the predictive performance of different renal function markers for cefepime clearance in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Jonckheere, Stijn; De Neve, Nikolaas; De Beenhouwer, Hans; Berth, Mario; Vermeulen, An; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; Colin, Pieter

    2016-09-01

    Several population pharmacokinetic models for cefepime in critically ill patients have been described, which all indicate that variability in renal clearance is the main determinant of the observed variability in exposure. The main objective of this study was to determine which renal marker best predicts cefepime clearance. A pharmacokinetic model was developed using NONMEM based on 208 plasma and 51 urine samples from 20 ICU patients during a median follow-up of 3 days. Four serum-based kidney markers (creatinine, cystatin C, urea and uromodulin) and two urinary markers [measured creatinine clearance (CLCR) and kidney injury molecule-1] were evaluated as covariates in the model. A two-compartment model incorporating a renal and non-renal clearance component along with an additional term describing haemodialysis clearance provided an adequate description of the data. The Cockcroft-Gault formula was the best predictor for renal cefepime clearance. Compared with the base model without covariates, the objective function value decreased from 1971.7 to 1948.1, the median absolute prediction error from 42.4% to 29.9% and the between-subject variability in renal cefepime clearance from 135% to 50%. Other creatinine- and cystatin C-based formulae and measured CLCR performed similarly. Monte Carlo simulations using the Sanford guide dose recommendations indicated an insufficient dose reduction in patients with a decreased kidney function, leading to potentially toxic levels. The Cockcroft-Gault formula was the best predictor for cefepime clearance in critically ill patients, although other creatinine- and cystatin C-based formulae and measured CLCR performed similarly. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Admission physiology criteria after injury on the battlefield predict medical resource utilization and patient mortality.

    PubMed

    Eastridge, Brian J; Owsley, Jimmie; Sebesta, James; Beekley, Alec; Wade, Charles; Wildzunas, Robert; Rhee, Peter; Holcomb, John

    2006-10-01

    Medical resources and resource allocation including operating room and blood utilization are of prime importance in the modern combat environment. We hypothesized that easily measurable admission physiologic criteria and injury site as well as injury severity calculated after diagnostic evaluation or surgical intervention, would be strongly correlated with resource utilization and in theater mortality outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed the Joint Theater Trauma Registry for all battlefield casualties presenting to surgical component facilities during Operation Iraqi Freedom from January to July 2004. Data were collected from the composite population of 1,127 battlefield casualty patients with respect to demographics, mechanism, presentation physiology (blood pressure, heart rate, temperature), base deficit, admission hematocrit, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), operating room utilization, blood transfusion, and mortality. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine the degree to which admission physiology and injury severity correlated with blood utilization, necessity for operation, and acute mortality. Univariate analysis demonstrated a significant (p < 0.05) association between hypothermia (T < 34 degrees C) and the subsequent requirement for operation and mortality. In addition, the outcome variable total blood product utilization was significantly correlated with base deficit (r = 0.61), admission hematocrit (r = 0.51), temperature (r = 0.47), and ISS (r = 0.54). Using multiple logistic regression techniques, blood pressure, GCS, and ISS together demonstrated a significant association (p < 0.05) with mortality (area under ROC curve = 95%). Multiple linear regression established that blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, hematocrit, and ISS had a collective significant effect (p < 0.05) on total blood product utilization explaining 67% of the variance in this outcome variable. Admission physiology and injury

  1. Plagues in the ICU: a brief history of community-acquired epidemic and endemic transmissible infections leading to intensive care admission.

    PubMed

    Light, R Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The ability to diagnose and treat infectious diseases and handle infectious disease outbreaks continues to improve. For the most part, the major plagues of antiquity remain historical footnotes, yet, despite many advances, there is clear evidence that major pandemic illness is always just one outbreak away. In addition to the HIV pandemic, the smaller epidemic outbreaks of Legionnaire's disease, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, and severe acute respiratory syndrome, among many others, points out the potential risk associated with a lack of preplanning and preparedness. Although pandemic influenza is at the top of the list when discussing possible future major infectious disease outbreaks, the truth is that the identity of the next major pandemic pathogen cannot be predicted with any accuracy. We can only hope that general preparedness and the lessons learned from previous outbreaks suffice.

  2. The Preschool Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (psCAM-ICU): Valid and Reliable Delirium Monitoring for Critically Ill Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Heidi A.B.; Gangopadhyay, Maalobeeka; Goben, Christina M.; Jacobowski, Natalie L.; Chestnut, Mary Hamilton; Savage, Shane; Rutherford, Michael T.; Denton, Danica; Thompson, Jennifer L.; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Acton, Michelle; Newman, Jessica; Noori, Hannah P.; Terrell, Michelle K.; Williams, Stacey R.; Griffith, Katherine; Cooper, Timothy J.; Ely, E. Wesley; Fuchs, D. Catherine; Pandharipande, Pratik P.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE and OBJECTIVE Delirium assessments in critically ill infants and young children pose unique challenges due to evolution of cognitive and language skills. The objectives of this study were to determine the validity and reliability of a fundamentally objective and developmentally appropriate delirium assessment tool for critically ill infants and preschool-aged children, and to determine delirium prevalence. DESIGN and SETTING Prospective, observational cohort validation study of the PreSchool Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (psCAM-ICU) in a tertiary medical center pediatric ICU. PATIENTS Participants aged 6 months to 5 years and admitted to the pediatric ICU regardless of admission diagnosis were enrolled. INTERVENTIONS, MEASUREMENTS and MAIN RESULTS An interdisciplinary team created the psCAM-ICU for pediatric delirium monitoring. To assess validity, patients were independently assessed for delirium daily by the research team using the psCAM-ICU and by a child psychiatrist using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. Reliability was assessed using blinded, concurrent psCAM-ICU evaluations by research staff. A total of 530-paired delirium assessments were completed among 300 patients, with a median age of 20 months (IQR 11, 37) and 43% requiring mechanical ventilation. The psCAM-ICU demonstrated a specificity of 91% (95%CI 90, 93), sensitivity of 75% (72, 78), negative predictive value of 86% (84, 88), positive predictive value of 84% (81, 87), and a reliability kappa statistic of 0.79 (0.76, 0.83). Delirium prevalence was 44% using the psCAM-ICU and 47% by the reference-rater. The rates of delirium were 53% vs. 56% in patients < 2 years of age and 33% vs. 35% in patients ≥ 2 - 5 years of age using the psCAM-ICU and reference-rater respectively. The short-form psCAM-ICU maintained a high specificity (87%) and sensitivity (78%) in post-hoc analysis. CONCLUSIONS The psCAM-ICU is a highly valid and reliable delirium

  3. Simple, Validated Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery Prediction Model for Use at the Time of Admission

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Torri D.; Stoddard, Gregory J.; Henry, Erick; Jackson, Marc; Holmgren, Calla; Esplin, Sean

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To create a simple tool for predicting the likelihood of successful trial of labor after cesarean delivery (TOLAC) during the pregnancy after a primary cesarean delivery using variables available at the time of admission. METHODS Data for all deliveries at 14 regional hospitals over an 8-year period were reviewed. Women with one cesarean delivery and one subsequent delivery were included. Variables associated with successful VBAC were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Points were assigned to these characteristics, with weighting based on the coefficients in the regression model to calculate an integer VBAC score. The VBAC score was correlated with TOLAC success rate and was externally validated in an independent cohort using a logistic regression model. RESULTS A total of 5,445 women met inclusion criteria. Of those women, 1,170 (21.5%) underwent TOLAC. Of the women who underwent trial of labor, 938 (80%) had a successful VBAC. AVBAC score was generated based on the Bishop score (cervical examination) at the time of admission, with points added for history of vaginal birth, age younger than 35 years, absence of recurrent indication, and body mass index less than 30. Women with a VBAC score less than 10 had a likelihood of TOLAC success less than 50%. Women with a VBAC score more than 16 had a TOLAC success rate more than 85%. The model performed well in an independent cohort with an area under the curve of 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.76–0.84). CONCLUSIONS Prediction of TOLAC success at the time of admission is highly dependent on the initial cervical examination. This simple VBAC score can be utilized when counseling women considering TOLAC. PMID:23921867

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at admission to the intensive care unit: results of a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Lucet, Jean-Christophe; Chevret, Sylvie; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Chastang, Claude; Régnier, Bernard

    2003-01-27

    Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) is an important component of strategies for controlling the spread of MRSA. A prospective multicenter study was conducted in 14 French ICUs for 6 months. All patients were screened within 24 hours after admission, using nasal and cutaneous swabs In addition, clinical samples were obtained. Patient data collected on ICU admission included presence of immunosuppression; history of hospital stay, surgery, antimicrobial treatments, or previous colonization with MRSA; chronic health evaluation and McCabe scores; reason for admission; whether the patient was transferred from another ward; severity of illness; presence of skin lesions; and invasive procedures. Risk factors for MRSA carriage at ICU admission were estimated, and significantly associated variables were used to develop a predictive score for MRSA carriage. A cost-benefit analysis was then performed. Of the 2347 admissions with MRSA screening, 162 (6.9%; range, 3.7%-20.0% among ICUs) were positive for MRSA, of whom 54.3% were detected through screening specimens only. Of the 2310 first admissions (vs repeat admissions) to the ICU, 96 were newly identified MRSA carriers. Factors associated with MRSA carriage in the multivariate analysis were age older than 60 years, prolonged hospital stay in transferred patients, history of hospitalization or surgery, and presence of open skin lesions in directly admitted patients. Only universal screening detected MRSA carriage with acceptable sensitivity. A cost-benefit analysis confirmed that universal screening and preventive isolation were beneficial. The prevalence of MRSA carriage on admission to the ICU is high in this endemic setting. Screening for MRSA on admission is useful to identify the imported cases and should be performed in all ICU-admitted patients.

  5. The status of intensive care medicine research and a future agenda for very old patients in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Flaatten, H; de Lange, D W; Artigas, A; Bin, D; Moreno, R; Christensen, S; Joynt, G M; Bagshaw, Sean M; Sprung, C L; Benoit, D; Soares, M; Guidet, B

    2017-02-25

    The "very old intensive care patients" (abbreviated to VOPs; greater than 80 years old) are probably the fastest expanding subgroup of all intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Up until recently most ICU physicians have been reluctant to admit these VOPs. The general consensus was that there was little survival to gain and the incremental life expectancy of ICU admission was considered too small. Several publications have questioned this belief, but others have confirmed the poor long-term mortality rates in VOPs. More appropriate triage (resource limitation enforced decisions), admission decisions based on shared decision-making and improved prediction models are also needed for this particular patient group. Here, an expert panel proposes a research agenda for VOPs for the coming years.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus carriage at admission predicts early-onset pneumonia after burn trauma.

    PubMed

    Fournier, A; Voirol, P; Krähenbühl, M; Bonnemain, C-L; Fournier, C; Dupuis-Lozeron, E; Pantet, O; Pagani, J-L; Revelly, J-P; Sadeghipour, F; Eggimann, P; Que, Y-A

    2017-03-01

    Early-onset pneumonia (EOP) is frequent after burn trauma, increasing morbidity in the critical resuscitation phase, which may preclude early aggressive management of burn wounds. Currently, however, preemptive treatment is not recommended. The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors for EOP that may justify early empirical antibiotic treatment. Data for all burn patients requiring ≥4 h mechanical ventilation (MV) who were admitted between January 2001 and October 2012 were extracted from the hospital's computerized information system. We reviewed EOP episodes (≤7 days) among patients who underwent endotracheal aspiration (ETA) within 5 days after admission. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify independent factors associated with EOP. Logistic regression was used to identify factors predicting EOP development. During the study period, 396 burn patients were admitted. ETA was performed within 5 days in 204/290 patients receiving ≥4 h MV. One hundred and eight patients developed EOP; 47 cases were caused by Staphylococcus aureus, 37 by Haemophilus influenzae, and 23 by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Among the 33 patients showing S. aureus positivity on ETA samples, 16 (48.5 %) developed S. aureus EOP. Among the 156 S. aureus non-carriers, 16 (10.2 %) developed EOP. Staphylococcus aureus carriage independently predicted EOP (p < 0.0001). We identified S. aureus carriage as an independent and strong predictor of EOP. As rapid point-of-care testing for S. aureus is readily available, we recommend testing of all patients at admission for burn trauma and the consideration of early preemptive treatment in all positive patients. Further studies are needed to evaluate this new strategy.

  7. Peak Exercise Oxygen Uptake Predicts Recurrent Admissions in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Palau, Patricia; Domínguez, Eloy; Núñez, Eduardo; Ramón, José María; López, Laura; Melero, Joana; Sanchis, Juan; Bellver, Alejandro; Santas, Enrique; Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Chorro, Francisco J; Núñez, Julio

    2017-06-27

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a highly prevalent syndrome with an elevated risk of morbidity and mortality. To date, there is scarce evidence on the role of peak exercise oxygen uptake (peak VO2) for predicting the morbidity burden in HFpEF. We sought to evaluate the association between peak VO2 and the risk of recurrent hospitalizations in patients with HFpEF. A total of 74 stable symptomatic patients with HFpEF underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test between June 2012 and May 2016. A negative binomial regression method was used to determine the association between the percentage of predicted peak VO2 (pp-peak VO2) and recurrent hospitalizations. Risk estimates are reported as incidence rate ratios. The mean age was 72.5 ± 9.1 years, 53% were women, and all patients were in New York Heart Association functional class II to III. Mean peak VO2 and median pp-peak VO2 were 10 ± 2.8mL/min/kg and 60% (range, 47-67), respectively. During a median follow-up of 276 days [interquartile range, 153-1231], 84 all-cause hospitalizations in 31 patients (41.9%) were registered. A total of 15 (20.3%) deaths were also recorded. On multivariate analysis, accounting for mortality as a terminal event, pp-peak VO2 was independently and linearly associated with the risk of recurrent admission. Thus, and modeled as continuous, a 10% decrease of pp-peak VO2 increased the risk of recurrent hospitalizations by 32% (IRR, 1.32; 95%CI, 1.03-1.68; P = .028). In symptomatic elderly patients with HFpEF, pp-peak VO2 predicts all-cause recurrent admission. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Does the medical college admission test predict global academic performance in osteopathic medical school?

    PubMed

    Evans, Paul; Wen, Frances K

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the extent to which Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) subscores predict the overall academic performance of osteopathic medical students. We examined the value of MCAT subscores in predicting students' global academic performance in osteopathic medical school, as defined by grade point average in basic science (basic GPA), clinical instruction (clinical GPA), cumulative grade point average (total GPA), and national licensing examination scores on the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA (COMLEX-USA) Level 1 and Level 2. Subjects were 434 osteopathic medical students of the Oklahoma State University College of Osteopathic Medicine in Tulsa who either graduated or were expected to graduate between the years 1999 and 2003. Standard, multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted for each of the five performance variables to assess the relative importance of MCAT subtest scores and cumulative undergraduate GPA (total UGPA) in predicting academic performance. Total UGPA was the most important, significant predictor (beta=.13-.33) in overall student academic performance for all five analyzed variables. Less predictive of overall academic performance (beta=-.01-.21) were MCAT subcores. However, the MCAT biological sciences subscore was a significant predictor of basic GPA (beta=.14), the MCAT physical sciences subscore significantly predicted COMLEX-USA Level 1 scores (beta=.15), and the MCAT verbal reasoning subscore significantly predicted COMLEX-USA Level 2 scores (beta=.21). The subscore for the MCAT writing sample was not a significant predictor of overall academic performance. Total undergraduate GPA had the highest predictive value for academic performance as measured by basic GPA, clinical GPA, total GPA, and COMLEX-USA Level 1 and Level 2 scores. The present study found MCAT subscores to be of limited predictive value in determining global academic performance.

  9. Managing ICU throughput and understanding ICU census.

    PubMed

    Howell, Michael D

    2011-12-01

    Traditionally, hospitals have coped with chronically high ICU census by building more ICU beds, but this strategy is unlikely to be tenable under future financial models. Therefore, ICUs need additional tools to manage census, inflow, and throughput. Higher ICU census, without compensatory surges in nursing capacity, is associated with several adverse effects on patients and providers, but its relationship to mortality is uncertain. Providers also discharge patients more aggressively during times of high census. Little's Law (L = λ W), a cornerstone of queuing theory, provides an eminently practical basis for managing ICU census and throughput. One target for improving throughput is minimizing process steps that are without value to the patient, e.g., waiting for a bed at ICU discharge. Larger gains in ICU throughput can be found in ICU quality improvement. For example, spontaneous breathing trials, daily wake-ups, and early physical/occupational therapy programmes are all likely to improve throughput by reducing ICU length of stay. The magnitude of these interventions' effects on ICU census can be startling. ICUs should actively manage throughput and census. Operations management tools such as Little's Law can provide practical guidance about the relationship between census, throughput, and patient demand. Standard ICU quality improvement techniques can meaningfully affect both ICU census and throughput.

  10. The role of ascitic fluid viscosity in differentiating the nature of ascites and in the prediction of renal impairment and duration of ICU stay.

    PubMed

    Hanafy, Amr S

    2016-09-01

    Serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) has been used in the classification of ascites for the last 20 years but it has some drawbacks. This study searches for possible correlations between ascitic fluid viscosity and the etiology of ascites, renal impairment, and length of ICU stay. The study was conducted in Zagazig University Hospital, Egypt. It included 240 patients with ascites due to various causes. The patients were divided into two groups: the cirrhotic ascites group, which included 120 patients, and the noncirrhotic ascites group, which included 120 patients. Ascitic patients on medical management with diuretics, antibiotics, paracentesis, and infusion of plasma or albumin were excluded.The laboratory analysis included routine investigations to detect the cause of ascites as well as specific investigations such as ascitic fluid viscosity using a falling ball viscosimeter (microviscosimeter) at 37°C. The mean ascitic viscosity of patients with SAAG at least 1.1 was 1.16±0.56, which was associated with serum creatinine 1.35±0.52 mg/dl and ICU stay of 3.3±1.2 days. In patients with SAAG less than 1.1 g/dl, the mean ascitic viscosity was 2.98±0.87, with serum creatinine 2.1±0.56 mg/dl and ICU stay of 7.1±1.3 days. Ascitic viscosity can discriminate ascites due to portal hypertension from those associated with nonportal hypertension at a cut-off value of 1.65; it can predict renal impairment in hepatic patients at a cut-off of 1.35 and long ICU stay at a cut-off of 1.995 using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Ascitic viscosity measurement is rapid, inexpensive, and requires small sample volumes. Ascitic viscosity can discriminate ascites due to portal hypertension from those associated with nonportal hypertension at a cut-off value of 1.65. It can predict renal impairment in hepatic patients at a cut-off of 1.35 and long ICU stay at a cut-off of 1.995.

  11. Predicting AKI in emergency admissions: an external validation study of the acute kidney injury prediction score (APS)

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, L E; Dimitrov, B D; Roderick, P J; Venn, R; Forni, L G

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (HA-AKI) is associated with a high risk of mortality. Prediction models or rules may identify those most at risk of HA-AKI. This study externally validated one of the few clinical prediction rules (CPRs) derived in a general medicine cohort using clinical information and data from an acute hospitals electronic system on admission: the acute kidney injury prediction score (APS). Design, setting and participants External validation in a single UK non-specialist acute hospital (2013–2015, 12 554 episodes); four cohorts: adult medical and general surgical populations, with and without a known preadmission baseline serum creatinine (SCr). Methods Performance assessed by discrimination using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCROC) and calibration. Results HA-AKI incidence within 7 days (kidney disease: improving global outcomes (KDIGO) change in SCr) was 8.1% (n=409) of medical patients with known baseline SCr, 6.6% (n=141) in those without a baseline, 4.9% (n=204) in surgical patients with baseline and 4% (n=49) in those without. Across the four cohorts AUCROC were: medical with known baseline 0.65 (95% CIs 0.62 to 0.67) and no baseline 0.71 (0.67 to 0.75), surgical with baseline 0.66 (0.62 to 0.70) and no baseline 0.68 (0.58 to 0.75). For calibration, in medicine and surgical cohorts with baseline SCr, Hosmer-Lemeshow p values were non-significant, suggesting acceptable calibration. In the medical cohort, at a cut-off of five points on the APS to predict HA-AKI, positive predictive value was 16% (13–18%) and negative predictive value 94% (93–94%). Of medical patients with HA-AKI, those with an APS ≥5 had a significantly increased risk of death (28% vs 18%, OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.9), p=0.015). Conclusions On external validation the APS on admission shows moderate discrimination and acceptable calibration to predict HA-AKI and may be useful as a severity marker when HA-AKI occurs

  12. Predicting AKI in emergency admissions: an external validation study of the acute kidney injury prediction score (APS).

    PubMed

    Hodgson, L E; Dimitrov, B D; Roderick, P J; Venn, R; Forni, L G

    2017-03-08

    Hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (HA-AKI) is associated with a high risk of mortality. Prediction models or rules may identify those most at risk of HA-AKI. This study externally validated one of the few clinical prediction rules (CPRs) derived in a general medicine cohort using clinical information and data from an acute hospitals electronic system on admission: the acute kidney injury prediction score (APS). External validation in a single UK non-specialist acute hospital (2013-2015, 12 554 episodes); four cohorts: adult medical and general surgical populations, with and without a known preadmission baseline serum creatinine (SCr). Performance assessed by discrimination using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCROC) and calibration. HA-AKI incidence within 7 days (kidney disease: improving global outcomes (KDIGO) change in SCr) was 8.1% (n=409) of medical patients with known baseline SCr, 6.6% (n=141) in those without a baseline, 4.9% (n=204) in surgical patients with baseline and 4% (n=49) in those without. Across the four cohorts AUCROC were: medical with known baseline 0.65 (95% CIs 0.62 to 0.67) and no baseline 0.71 (0.67 to 0.75), surgical with baseline 0.66 (0.62 to 0.70) and no baseline 0.68 (0.58 to 0.75). For calibration, in medicine and surgical cohorts with baseline SCr, Hosmer-Lemeshow p values were non-significant, suggesting acceptable calibration. In the medical cohort, at a cut-off of five points on the APS to predict HA-AKI, positive predictive value was 16% (13-18%) and negative predictive value 94% (93-94%). Of medical patients with HA-AKI, those with an APS ≥5 had a significantly increased risk of death (28% vs 18%, OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.9), p=0.015). On external validation the APS on admission shows moderate discrimination and acceptable calibration to predict HA-AKI and may be useful as a severity marker when HA-AKI occurs. Harnessing linked data from primary care may be one way to achieve more accurate

  13. Development and validation of classifiers and variable subsets for predicting nursing home admission.

    PubMed

    Nuutinen, Mikko; Leskelä, Riikka-Leena; Suojalehto, Ella; Tirronen, Anniina; Komssi, Vesa

    2017-04-13

    In previous years a substantial number of studies have identified statistically important predictors of nursing home admission (NHA). However, as far as we know, the analyses have been done at the population-level. No prior research has analysed the prediction accuracy of a NHA model for individuals. This study is an analysis of 3056 longer-term home care customers in the city of Tampere, Finland. Data were collected from the records of social and health service usage and RAI-HC (Resident Assessment Instrument - Home Care) assessment system during January 2011 and September 2015. The aim was to find out the most efficient variable subsets to predict NHA for individuals and validate the accuracy. The variable subsets of predicting NHA were searched by sequential forward selection (SFS) method, a variable ranking metric and the classifiers of logistic regression (LR), support vector machine (SVM) and Gaussian naive Bayes (GNB). The validation of the results was guaranteed using randomly balanced data sets and cross-validation. The primary performance metrics for the classifiers were the prediction accuracy and AUC (average area under the curve). The LR and GNB classifiers achieved 78% accuracy for predicting NHA. The most important variables were RAI MAPLE (Method for Assigning Priority Levels), functional impairment (RAI IADL, Activities of Daily Living), cognitive impairment (RAI CPS, Cognitive Performance Scale), memory disorders (diagnoses G30-G32 and F00-F03) and the use of community-based health-service and prior hospital use (emergency visits and periods of care). The accuracy of the classifier for individuals was high enough to convince the officials of the city of Tampere to integrate the predictive model based on the findings of this study as a part of home care information system. Further work need to be done to evaluate variables that are modifiable and responsive to interventions.

  14. Length of Hospital Stay Prediction at the Admission Stage for Cardiology Patients Using Artificial Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Pei-Fang (Jennifer); Chen, Po-Chia; Chen, Yen-You; Song, Hao-Yuan; Lin, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Fu-Man; Huang, Qiou-Pieng

    2016-01-01

    For hospitals' admission management, the ability to predict length of stay (LOS) as early as in the preadmission stage might be helpful to monitor the quality of inpatient care. This study is to develop artificial neural network (ANN) models to predict LOS for inpatients with one of the three primary diagnoses: coronary atherosclerosis (CAS), heart failure (HF), and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a cardiovascular unit in a Christian hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. A total of 2,377 cardiology patients discharged between October 1, 2010, and December 31, 2011, were analyzed. Using ANN or linear regression model was able to predict correctly for 88.07% to 89.95% CAS patients at the predischarge stage and for 88.31% to 91.53% at the preadmission stage. For AMI or HF patients, the accuracy ranged from 64.12% to 66.78% at the predischarge stage and 63.69% to 67.47% at the preadmission stage when a tolerance of 2 days was allowed. PMID:27195660

  15. Admission Risk Score to Predict Inpatient Pediatric Mortality at Four Public Hospitals in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mpimbaza, Arthur; Sears, David; Sserwanga, Asadu; Kigozi, Ruth; Rubahika, Denis; Nadler, Adam; Yeka, Adoke; Dorsey, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Mortality rates among hospitalized children in many government hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa are high. Pediatric emergency services in these hospitals are often sub-optimal. Timely recognition of critically ill children on arrival is key to improving service delivery. We present a simple risk score to predict inpatient mortality among hospitalized children. Between April 2010 and June 2011, the Uganda Malaria Surveillance Project (UMSP), in collaboration with the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP), set up an enhanced sentinel site malaria surveillance program for children hospitalized at four public hospitals in different districts: Tororo, Apac, Jinja and Mubende. Clinical data collected through March 2013, representing 50249 admissions were used to develop a mortality risk score (derivation data set). One year of data collected subsequently from the same hospitals, representing 20406 admissions, were used to prospectively validate the performance of the risk score (validation data set). Using a backward selection approach, 13 out of 25 clinical parameters recognizable on initial presentation, were selected for inclusion in a final logistic regression prediction model. The presence of individual parameters was awarded a score of either 1 or 2 based on regression coefficients. For each individual patient, a composite risk score was generated. The risk score was further categorized into three categories; low, medium, and high. Patient characteristics were comparable in both data sets. Measures of performance for the risk score included the receiver operating characteristics curves and the area under the curve (AUC), both demonstrating good and comparable ability to predict deathusing both the derivation (AUC =0.76) and validation dataset (AUC =0.74). Using the derivation and validation datasets, the mortality rates in each risk category were as follows: low risk (0.8% vs. 0.7%), moderate risk (3.5% vs. 3.2%), and high risk (16.5% vs. 12.6%), respectively. Our

  16. Admission Risk Score to Predict Inpatient Pediatric Mortality at Four Public Hospitals in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mpimbaza, Arthur; Sears, David; Sserwanga, Asadu; Kigozi, Ruth; Rubahika, Denis; Nadler, Adam; Yeka, Adoke; Dorsey, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Mortality rates among hospitalized children in many government hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa are high. Pediatric emergency services in these hospitals are often sub-optimal. Timely recognition of critically ill children on arrival is key to improving service delivery. We present a simple risk score to predict inpatient mortality among hospitalized children. Between April 2010 and June 2011, the Uganda Malaria Surveillance Project (UMSP), in collaboration with the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP), set up an enhanced sentinel site malaria surveillance program for children hospitalized at four public hospitals in different districts: Tororo, Apac, Jinja and Mubende. Clinical data collected through March 2013, representing 50249 admissions were used to develop a mortality risk score (derivation data set). One year of data collected subsequently from the same hospitals, representing 20406 admissions, were used to prospectively validate the performance of the risk score (validation data set). Using a backward selection approach, 13 out of 25 clinical parameters recognizable on initial presentation, were selected for inclusion in a final logistic regression prediction model. The presence of individual parameters was awarded a score of either 1 or 2 based on regression coefficients. For each individual patient, a composite risk score was generated. The risk score was further categorized into three categories; low, medium, and high. Patient characteristics were comparable in both data sets. Measures of performance for the risk score included the receiver operating characteristics curves and the area under the curve (AUC), both demonstrating good and comparable ability to predict deathusing both the derivation (AUC =0.76) and validation dataset (AUC =0.74). Using the derivation and validation datasets, the mortality rates in each risk category were as follows: low risk (0.8% vs. 0.7%), moderate risk (3.5% vs. 3.2%), and high risk (16.5% vs. 12.6%), respectively. Our

  17. The pharmacokinetics of propofol in ICU patients undergoing long-term sedation.

    PubMed

    Smuszkiewicz, Piotr; Wiczling, Paweł; Przybyłowski, Krzysztof; Borsuk, Agnieszka; Trojanowska, Iwona; Paterska, Marta; Matysiak, Jan; Kokot, Zenon; Grześkowiak, Edmund; Bienert, Agnieszka

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of propofol in ICU patients undergoing long-term sedation and to assess the influence of routinely collected covariates on the PK parameters. Propofol concentration-time profiles were collected from 29 patients. Non-linear mixed-effects modelling in NONMEM 7.2 was used to analyse the observed data. The propofol pharmacokinetics was best described with a three-compartment disposition model. Non-parametric bootstrap and a visual predictive check were used to evaluate the adequacy of the developed model to describe the observations. The typical value of the propofol clearance (1.46 l/min) approximated the hepatic blood flow. The volume of distribution at steady state was high and was equal to 955.1 l, which is consistent with other studies involving propofol in ICU patients. There was no statistically significant covariate relationship between PK parameters and opioid type, SOFA score on the day of admission, APACHE II, predicted death rate, reason for ICU admission (sepsis, trauma or surgery), gender, body weight, age, infusion duration and C-reactive protein concentration. The population PK model was developed successfully to describe the time-course of propofol concentration in ICU patients undergoing prolonged sedation. Despite a very heterogeneous group of patients, consistent PK profiles were observed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Predicting the Risk of Clostridium difficile Infection upon Admission: A Score to Identify Patients for Antimicrobial Stewardship Efforts.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Jennifer L; Smith, David H; Petrik, Amanda F; Yang, Xiuhai; Thorp, Micah L; Barton, Tracy; Barton, Karen; Labreche, Matthew; Spindel, Steven J; Johnson, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    Increasing morbidity and health care costs related to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have heightened interest in methods to identify patients who would most benefit from interventions to mitigate the likelihood of CDI. To develop a risk score that can be calculated upon hospital admission and used by antimicrobial stewards, including pharmacists and clinicians, to identify patients at risk for CDI who would benefit from enhanced antibiotic review and patient education. We assembled a cohort of Kaiser Permanente Northwest patients with a hospital admission from July 1, 2005, through December 30, 2012, and identified CDI in the six months following hospital admission. Using Cox regression, we constructed a score to identify patients at high risk for CDI on the basis of preadmission characteristics. We calculated and plotted the observed six-month CDI risk for each decile of predicted risk. We identified 721 CDIs following 54,186 hospital admissions-a 6-month incidence of 13.3 CDIs/1000 patient admissions. Patients with the highest predicted risk of CDI had an observed incidence of 53 CDIs/1000 patient admissions. The score differentiated between patients who do and do not develop CDI, with values for the extended C-statistic of 0.75. Predicted risk for CDI agreed closely with observed risk. Our risk score accurately predicted six-month risk for CDI using preadmission characteristics. Accurate predictions among the highest-risk patient subgroups allow for the identification of patients who could be targeted for and who would likely benefit from review of inpatient antibiotic use or enhanced educational efforts at the time of discharge planning.

  19. Life-threatening onset of systemic vasculitis requiring intensive care unit admission: a case series.

    PubMed

    Monti, S; Montecucco, C; Pieropan, S; Mojoli, F; Braschi, A; Caporali, R

    2015-01-01

    Onset of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) can be abrupt with life-threatening manifestations requiring Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. A high level of suspicion leading to prompt diagnosis is essential. Our objective was to investigate the epidemiologic characteristics and the type of life-threatening manifestations. Medical records of AAV patients were analysed, selecting those with an ICU onset to identify predictive signs or symptoms and past medical history warnings useful for diagnosis. Out of 90 patients with AAV, 10 (11.1%) showed an ICU onset. The most frequent AAV diagnosed in the ICU was eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) (60%), followed by granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (20%) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) (20%). Cardio-pulmonary involvement was the main cause for ICU admission (70%) and significantly distinguished the ICU onset group from other AAV. The most frequent anamnestic warnings were history of asthma (50%), nasal polyps (30%), eosinophilia (30%). Symptoms shortly preceding ICU admission were arthralgia, fever (30%) and purpuric lesions (20%). ANCA were positive in 60% of patients. Mean Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) at diagnosis was 16±8.43 and 0.88±1.45 at the end of follow up. All patients survived with a 10% rate of chronic kidney disease and a mean Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) of 2±1.15. Keeping a high level of suspicion for AAV is mandatory, particularly when treating life-threatening onset manifestations in the ICU. A history of asthma, nasal polyps, eosinophilia and arthralgia should always be investigated. ANCA are negative in about half of cases, therefore clinical expertise and strict collaboration with the rheumatologist are still pivotal.

  20. Characteristics and Outcomes of Elderly Patients Refused to ICU

    PubMed Central

    Pintado, María-Consuelo; Villa, Patricia; González-García, Natalia; Luján, Jimena; Molina, Rocío; Trascasa, María; López-Ramos, Esther; Martínez, Cristina; Cambronero, José-Andrés; de Pablo, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    Background. There are few data regarding the process of deciding which elderly patients are refused to ICU admission, their characteristics, and outcome. Methods. Prospective longitudinal observational cohort study. We included all consecutive patients older than 75 years, who were evaluated for admission to but were refused to treatment in ICU, during 18 months, with 12-month followup. We collected demographic data, ICU admission/refusal reasons, previous functional and cognitive status, comorbidity, severity of illness, and hospital and 12-month mortality. Results. 338 elderly patients were evaluated for ICU admission and 88 were refused to ICU (26%). Patients refused because they were “too ill to benefit” had more comorbidity and worse functional and mental situation than those admitted to ICU; there were no differences in illness severity. Hospital mortality rate of the whole study cohort was 36.3%, higher in patients “too ill to benefit” (55.6% versus 35.8%, P < 0.01), which also have higher 1-year mortality (73.7% versus 42.5%, P < 0.01). High comorbidity, low functional status, unavailable ICU beds, and age were associated with refusal decision on multivariate analysis. Conclusions. Prior functional status and comorbidity, not only the age or severity of illness, can help us more to make the right decision of admitting or refusing to ICU patients older than 75 years. PMID:24453879

  1. Validity of the Medical College Admission Test for predicting MD-PhD student outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bills, James L; VanHouten, Jacob; Grundy, Michelle M; Chalkley, Roger; Dermody, Terence S

    2016-03-01

    The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) is a quantitative metric used by MD and MD-PhD programs to evaluate applicants for admission. This study assessed the validity of the MCAT in predicting training performance measures and career outcomes for MD-PhD students at a single institution. The study population consisted of 153 graduates of the Vanderbilt Medical Scientist Training Program (combined MD-PhD program) who matriculated between 1963 and 2003 and completed dual-degree training. This population was divided into three cohorts corresponding to the version of the MCAT taken at the time of application. Multivariable regression (logistic for binary outcomes and linear for continuous outcomes) was used to analyze factors associated with outcome measures. The MCAT score and undergraduate GPA (uGPA) were treated as independent variables; medical and graduate school grades, time-to-PhD defense, USMLE scores, publication number, and career outcome were dependent variables. For cohort 1 (1963-1977), MCAT score was not associated with any assessed outcome, although uGPA was associated with medical school preclinical GPA and graduate school GPA (gsGPA). For cohort 2 (1978-1991), MCAT score was associated with USMLE Step II score and inversely correlated with publication number, and uGPA was associated with preclinical GPA (mspGPA) and clinical GPA (mscGPA). For cohort 3 (1992-2003), the MCAT score was associated with mscGPA, and uGPA was associated with gsGPA. Overall, MCAT score and uGPA were inconsistent or weak predictors of training metrics and career outcomes for this population of MD-PhD students.

  2. Accuracy of a composite score using daily SAPS II and LOD scores for predicting hospital mortality in ICU patients hospitalized for more than 72 h.

    PubMed

    Timsit, J F; Fosse, J P; Troché, G; De Lassence, A; Alberti, C; Garrouste-Orgeas, M; Azoulay, E; Chevret, S; Moine, P; Cohen, Y

    2001-06-01

    In most databases used to build general severity scores the median duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay is less than 3 days. Consequently, these scores are not the most appropriate tools for measuring prognosis in studies dealing with ICU patients hospitalized for more than 72 h. To develop a new prognostic model based on a general severity score (SAPS II), an organ dysfunction score (LOD) and evolution of both scores during the first 3 days of ICU stay. Prospective multicenter study. Twenty-eight intensive care units (ICUs) in France. A training data-set was created with four ICUs during an 18-month period (893 patients). Seventy percent of the patients were medical (628) aged 66 years. The median SAPS II was 38. The ICU and hospital mortality rates were 22.7% and 30%, respectively. Forty-seven percent (420 patients) were transferred from hospital wards. In this population, the calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square: 37.4, P = 0.001) and the discrimination [area under the ROC curves: 0.744 (95 % CI: 0.714-0.773)] of the original SAPS II were relatively poor. A validation data set was created with a random panel of 24 French ICUs during March 1999 (312 patients). The LOD and SAPS II scores were calculated during the first (SAPS1, LOD1), second (SAPS2, LOD2), and third (SAPS3, LOD3) calendar days. The LOD and SAPS scores alterations were assigned the value "1" when scores increased with time and "0" otherwise. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to select variables measured during the first three calendar days, and independently associated with death. Selected variables were: SAPS II at admission [OR: 1.04 (95 % CI: 1.027-1.053) per point], LOD [OR: 1.16 (95 % CI: 1.085-1.253) per point], transfer from ward [OR: 1.74 (95 % CI: 1.25-2.42)], as well as SAPS3-SAPS2 alterations [OR: 1.516 (95 % CI: 1.04-2.22)], and LOD3-LOD2 alterations [OR: 2.00 (95 % CI: 1.29-3.11)]. The final model has good calibration and discrimination properties in the

  3. Health-care-related adverse events leading to admission in older individuals: incidence, predictive factors and consequences.

    PubMed

    Magdelijns, Fabienne J H; van Avesaath, R E M; Pijpers, E; Stehouwer, C D A; Stassen, P M

    2016-10-01

    Older individuals are particularly prone to suffer health-care-related adverse events (AEs); they often have more comorbidity and, thus, require more health-care. Since our society is ageing, insight into AEs leading to hospital admissions is necessary. We aimed to assess the incidence, predictive factors and consequences of AEs leading to admission in older individuals. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all older patients (≥65 years) who were admitted through the emergency department (ED) to the department of internal medicine in the last week of every month in 2011. We retrieved the incidence and possible predictive factors for AEs leading to admission and mortality (both in-hospital and within 28 days after discharge). The control group consisted of older patients admitted because of other reasons. In the study period, there were 262 admissions, of which 106 (40.5%) were because of an AE. The most common AE was medication-related (55.7%). Predictive factors of admission because of an AE were the number of medications used [odds ratio (OR) 1.16 per medication, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.08-1.25] and dependency in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.14-0.91). Both in-hospital mortality and mortality within 28 days after discharge were lower in the AE group (5.7% vs. 16.0%, P = 0.01, and 0 vs. 6.9%, P < 0.05, respectively). Admissions through the ED to the department of internal medicine of older patients are often because of AEs (40.5%), with medication use being the greatest culprit. Surprisingly, mortality was lower in the AE group. The number of medications used (positive) and IADL dependency (negative) were predictive factors for being admitted because of an AE. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Can the US minimum data set be used for predicting admissions to acute care facilities?

    PubMed

    Abbott, P A; Quirolgico, S; Candidate, D; Manchand, R; Canfield, K; Adya, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper is intended to give an overview of Knowledge Discovery in Large Datasets (KDD) and data mining applications in healthcare particularly as related to the Minimum Data Set, a resident assessment tool which is used in US long-term care facilities. The US Health Care Finance Administration, which mandates the use of this tool, has accumulated massive warehouses of MDS data. The pressure in healthcare to increase efficiency and effectiveness while improving patient outcomes requires that we find new ways to harness these vast resources. The intent of this preliminary study design paper is to discuss the development of an approach which utilizes the MDS, in conjunction with KDD and classification algorithms, in an attempt to predict admission from a long-term care facility to an acute care facility. The use of acute care services by long term care residents is a negative outcome, potentially avoidable, and expensive. The value of the MDS warehouse can be realized by the use of the stored data in ways that can improve patient outcomes and avoid the use of expensive acute care services. This study, when completed, will test whether the MDS warehouse can be used to describe patient outcomes and possibly be of predictive value.

  5. The Relative Predictive Validity of ACT Scores and High School Grades in Making College Admission Decisions. Issues in College Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2008

    2008-01-01

    Postsecondary institutions often consider students' high school grades and ACT scores when making admission decisions. This issue brief summarizes ACT research on the relative weights of ACT scores and high school grades for predicting college persistence as well as selected indicators of academic success in college. (Contains 1 table and 3…

  6. How Useful Are Traditional Admission Measures in Predicting Graduation within Four Years? Research Report 2013-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Patterson, Brian F.; Wyatt, Jeffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that traditional admission measures--SAT® scores and high school grade point average (HSGPA)--are valid predictors of early college performance such as first-year grades; however, their usefulness to predict later college outcomes has been questioned, especially for the SAT. This study builds on previous research…

  7. The Predictive Value of Admissions Materials on Objective and Subjective Measures of Graduate School Performance in Speech-Language Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halberstam, Benjamin; Redstone, Fran

    2005-01-01

    A correlational study was conducted to determine which of a number of variables derived from the admissions material were predictive of student success in the graduate program at Lehman College of the City University of New York. An objective measure of student success, graduate grade point average (GPA) was significantly correlated with GPA for…

  8. The Predictive Validity of Selected Admissions Variables Relative to Grade Point Average Earned in a Master of Business Administration Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paolillo, Joseph G. P.

    1982-01-01

    Stepwise linear regression analysis determined the relative importance of the selection variables used in predicting graduate grade point average in a Masters of Business Administration program. Nonquantitative admissions measures which might be used for the same purpose are briefly discussed. (Author/PN)

  9. Comparison of the Mortality Probability Admission Model III, National Quality Forum, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV hospital mortality models: implications for national benchmarking*.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Andrew A; Higgins, Thomas L; Zimmerman, Jack E

    2014-03-01

    To examine the accuracy of the original Mortality Probability Admission Model III, ICU Outcomes Model/National Quality Forum modification of Mortality Probability Admission Model III, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IVa models for comparing observed and risk-adjusted hospital mortality predictions. Retrospective paired analyses of day 1 hospital mortality predictions using three prognostic models. Fifty-five ICUs at 38 U.S. hospitals from January 2008 to December 2012. Among 174,001 intensive care admissions, 109,926 met model inclusion criteria and 55,304 had data for mortality prediction using all three models. None. We compared patient exclusions and the discrimination, calibration, and accuracy for each model. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IVa excluded 10.7% of all patients, ICU Outcomes Model/National Quality Forum 20.1%, and Mortality Probability Admission Model III 24.1%. Discrimination of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IVa was superior with area under receiver operating curve (0.88) compared with Mortality Probability Admission Model III (0.81) and ICU Outcomes Model/National Quality Forum (0.80). Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IVa was better calibrated (lowest Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic). The accuracy of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IVa was superior (adjusted Brier score = 31.0%) to that for Mortality Probability Admission Model III (16.1%) and ICU Outcomes Model/National Quality Forum (17.8%). Compared with observed mortality, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IVa overpredicted mortality by 1.5% and Mortality Probability Admission Model III by 3.1%; ICU Outcomes Model/National Quality Forum underpredicted mortality by 1.2%. Calibration curves showed that Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation performed well over the entire risk range, unlike the Mortality Probability Admission Model and ICU Outcomes Model/National Quality Forum models. Acute

  10. Cumulative lactate and hospital mortality in ICU patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both hyperlactatemia and persistence of hyperlactatemia have been associated with bad outcome. We compared lactate and lactate-derived variables in outcome prediction. Methods Retrospective observational study. Case records from 2,251 consecutive intensive care unit (ICU) patients admitted between 2001 and 2007 were analyzed. Baseline characteristics, all lactate measurements, and in-hospital mortality were recorded. The time integral of arterial blood lactate levels above the upper normal threshold of 2.2 mmol/L (lactate-time-integral), maximum lactate (max-lactate), and time-to-first-normalization were calculated. Survivors and nonsurvivors were compared and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were applied. Results A total of 20,755 lactate measurements were analyzed. Data are srpehown as median [interquartile range]. In nonsurvivors (n = 405) lactate-time-integral (192 [0–1881] min·mmol/L) and time-to-first normalization (44.0 [0–427] min) were higher than in hospital survivors (n = 1846; 0 [0–134] min·mmol/L and 0 [0–75] min, respectively; all p < 0.001). Normalization of lactate <6 hours after ICU admission revealed better survival compared with normalization of lactate >6 hours (mortality 16.6% vs. 24.4%; p < 0.001). AUC of ROC curves to predict in-hospital mortality was the largest for max-lactate, whereas it was not different among all other lactate derived variables (all p > 0.05). The area under the ROC curves for admission lactate and lactate-time-integral was not different (p = 0.36). Conclusions Hyperlactatemia is associated with in-hospital mortality in a heterogeneous ICU population. In our patients, lactate peak values predicted in-hospital mortality equally well as lactate-time-integral of arterial blood lactate levels above the upper normal threshold. PMID:23446002

  11. Use of admissions data to predict student success in postsecondary freshman science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Amie K.

    The purpose of this study was to determine if significant relationships exist for any of the variables, age, gender, previous GPA, test scores (ACT, Compass), number of accumulated credits, and student success in Biology. This study strived to determine what academic/admissions data can be used to determine the likelihood of student success in Biology. A quantitative correlational study using stepwise multiple regression analysis was used for this study. The study was a retrospective study. Data was composed of a convenience archival sample from the institutional database. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine the effect each independent variable has on the dependent variable of student success. For the data set ACT, the variables math score, prealg score, writing score, reading score, and previous GPA were all significant. For data set CMP the variable of student's age was not significant, but the other variables were significant. For the Blanks data set, the only variable of significance was gender. Using stepwise multiple regression analysis the data sets produced regression models showing predictability based on stepwise significance. For Blanks data set, the variables previous hours earned, gender, age, and previous GPA were used. For the ACT data set, math score and reading score were used. For the CMP data set the variables included math score, writing score, previous GPA, gender, reading score, and previous hours earned. The level of predictability of the regression equation for the ACT data set and Blank data set was low. However, the predictability for the CMP data set was moderate. The highest percent of variance explained by the regression models was 11.6% of the CMP data set.

  12. Life-space mobility predicts nursing home admission over 6 years.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Kendra D; Sawyer, Patricia; Ritchie, Christine S; Allman, Richard M; Brown, Cynthia J

    2013-09-01

    To explore the association between baseline life-space mobility and nursing home (NH) admission among community-dwelling older adults over 6 years. Using data from a prospective, observational cohort study consisting of a random sample of 1,000 Medicare beneficiaries ≥ 65 years of age stratified by race (African American and non-Hispanic White), sex, and rural/urban residence. Baseline life-space mobility was assessed during in-home interviews. Participants were contacted by telephone every 6 months to ascertain NH admissions, Life-Space Assessment (LSA) scores, and vital status (living or deceased). Using multivariate logistic regression, the significance and independence of the relationship of life-space mobility with NH admission were examined. Over 6 years, the odds of NH admission increased 2% for every one point lower baseline life-space score independent of previously recognized risk factors. The LSA may be a useful tool to identify older adults at risk of NH admission.

  13. Severity assessment tools in ICU patients with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Pereira, J M; Moreno, R P; Matos, R; Rhodes, A; Martin-Loeches, I; Cecconi, M; Lisboa, T; Rello, J

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if severity assessment tools (general severity of illness and community-acquired pneumonia specific scores) can be used to guide decisions for patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) due to pandemic influenza A pneumonia. A prospective, observational, multicentre study included 265 patients with a mean age of 42 (±16.1) years and an ICU mortality of 31.7%. On admission to the ICU, the mean pneumonia severity index (PSI) score was 103.2 ± 43.2 points, the CURB-65 score was 1.7 ± 1.1 points and the PIRO-CAP score was 3.2 ± 1.5 points. None of the scores had a good predictive ability: area under the ROC for PSI, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.65-0.78); CURB-65, 0.67 (95% CI, 0.59-0.74); and PIRO-CAP, 0.64 (95% CI, 0.56-0.71). The PSI score (OR, 1.022 (1.009-1.034), p 0.001) was independently associated with ICU mortality; however, none of the three scores, when used at ICU admission, were able to reliably detect a low-risk group of patients. Low risk for mortality was identified in 27.5% of patients using PIRO-CAP, but above 40% when using PSI (I-III) or CURB65 (<2). Observed mortality was 13.7%, 13.5% and 19.4%, respectively. Pneumonia-specific scores undervalued severity and should not be used as instruments to guide decisions in the ICU. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  14. Out-of-Hospital ICU Transfers to an Oncological Referral Center.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Cristina; Cárdenas, Yenny R; Bratcher, Kristie; Melancon, Judd; Myers, Jason; Campbell, Jeannee Y; Feng, Lei; Price, Kristen J; Nates, Joseph L

    2016-01-01

    To determine resource utilization and outcomes of out-of-hospital transfer patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a cancer referral center. Single-center cohort. A tertiary oncological center. Patients older than 18 years transferred to our ICU from an outside hospital between January 2013 and December 2015. A total of 2127 (90.3%) were emergency department (ED) ICU admissions and 228 (9.7%) out-of-hospital transfers. The ICU length of stay (LOS) was longer in the out-of-hospital transfers when compared to all other ED ICU admissions ( P = .001); however, ICU and hospital mortality were similar between both groups. The majority of patients were transferred for a higher level of care (77.2%); there was no difference in the amount of interventions performed, ICU LOS, and ICU mortality between nonhigher level-of-care and higher level-of-care patients. Factors associated with an ICU LOS ≥10days were a higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, weekend admissions, presence of shock, need for mechanical ventilation, and acute kidney injury on admission or during ICU stay ( P < .008). The ICU mortality of transferred patients was 17.5% and associated risk factors were older age, higher SOFA score on admission, use of mechanical ventilation and vasopressors during ICU stay, and renal failure on admission ( P < .0001). Data related to the transfer such as LOS at the outside facility, time of transfer, delay in transfer, and longer distance traveled were not associated with increased LOS or mortality in our study. Organ failure severity on admission, and not transfer-related factors, continues to be the best predictor of outcomes of critically ill patients with cancer when transferred from other facilities to the ICU. Our data suggest that transferring critically ill patients with cancer to a specialized center does not lead to worse outcomes or increased resource utilization when compared to patients admitted from the ED.

  15. Assessment of Admission Criteria for Predicting Students' Academic Performance in Graduate Business Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoefer, Peter; Gould, James

    2000-01-01

    Business students' academic records were analyzed using traditional (linear and nonlinear regression) and nontraditional (neural network) methods. Results demonstrated the value of using qualitative performance predictors such as neural networks in the graduate admissions process. (SK)

  16. Intra-hospital transfers to a higher level of care: contribution to total hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality and length of stay (LOS).

    PubMed

    Escobar, Gabriel J; Greene, John D; Gardner, Marla N; Marelich, Gregory P; Quick, Bryon; Kipnis, Patricia

    2011-02-01

    Patients who experience intra-hospital transfers to a higher level of care (eg, ward to intensive care unit [ICU]) are known to have high mortality. However, these findings have been based on single-center studies or studies that employ ICU admissions as the denominator. To employ automated bed history data to examine outcomes of intra-hospital transfers using all hospital admissions as the denominator. Retrospective cohort study. A total of 19 acute care hospitals. A total of 150,495 patients, who experienced 210,470 hospitalizations, admitted to these hospitals between November 1st, 2006 and January 31st, 2008. Predictors were age, sex, admission type, admission diagnosis, physiologic derangement on admission, and pre-existing illness burden; outcomes were: 1) occurrence of intra-hospital transfer, 2) death following admission to the hospital, 3) death following transfer, and 4) total hospital length of stay (LOS). A total of 7,868 hospitalizations that began with admission to either a general medical surgical ward or to a transitional care unit (TCU) had at least one transfer to a higher level of care. These hospitalizations constituted only 3.7% of all admissions, but accounted for 24.2% of all ICU admissions, 21.7% of all hospital deaths, and 13.2% of all hospital days. Models based on age, sex, preadmission laboratory test results, and comorbidities did not predict the occurrence of these transfers. Patients transferred to higher level of care following admission to the hospital have excess mortality and LOS. Copyright © 2010 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  17. Depression predicts future emergency hospital admissions in primary care patients with chronic physical illness.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Elspeth A; Dickens, Chris; Blakemore, Amy; Watson, Jennifer; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Lovell, Karina; Afzal, Cara; Kapur, Navneet; Tomenson, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    More than 15 million people currently suffer from a chronic physical illness in England. The objective of this study was to determine whether depression is independently associated with prospective emergency hospital admission in patients with chronic physical illness. 1860 primary care patients in socially deprived areas of Manchester with at least one of four exemplar chronic physical conditions completed a questionnaire about physical and mental health, including a measure of depression. Emergency hospital admissions were recorded using GP records for the year before and the year following completion of the questionnaire. The numbers of patients who had at least one emergency admission in the year before and the year after completion of the questionnaire were 221/1411 (15.7%) and 234/1398 (16.7%) respectively. The following factors were independently associated with an increased risk of prospective emergency admission to hospital: having no partner (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.15); having ischaemic heart disease (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.46); having a threatening experience (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.29); depression (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.40); and emergency hospital admission in the year prior to questionnaire completion (OR 3.41, 95% CI 1.98 to 5.86). To prevent potentially avoidable emergency hospital admissions, greater efforts should be made to detect and treat co-morbid depression in people with chronic physical illness in primary care, with a particular focus on patients who have no partner, have experienced threatening life events, and have had a recent emergency hospital admission. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Depression predicts future emergency hospital admissions in primary care patients with chronic physical illness

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Elspeth A.; Dickens, Chris; Blakemore, Amy; Watson, Jennifer; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Lovell, Karina; Afzal, Cara; Kapur, Navneet; Tomenson, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Objective More than 15 million people currently suffer from a chronic physical illness in England. The objective of this study was to determine whether depression is independently associated with prospective emergency hospital admission in patients with chronic physical illness. Method 1860 primary care patients in socially deprived areas of Manchester with at least one of four exemplar chronic physical conditions completed a questionnaire about physical and mental health, including a measure of depression. Emergency hospital admissions were recorded using GP records for the year before and the year following completion of the questionnaire. Results The numbers of patients who had at least one emergency admission in the year before and the year after completion of the questionnaire were 221/1411 (15.7%) and 234/1398 (16.7%) respectively. The following factors were independently associated with an increased risk of prospective emergency admission to hospital: having no partner (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.15); having ischaemic heart disease (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.46); having a threatening experience (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.29); depression (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.40); and emergency hospital admission in the year prior to questionnaire completion (OR 3.41, 95% CI 1.98 to 5.86). Conclusion To prevent potentially avoidable emergency hospital admissions, greater efforts should be made to detect and treat co-morbid depression in people with chronic physical illness in primary care, with a particular focus on patients who have no partner, have experienced threatening life events, and have had a recent emergency hospital admission. PMID:26919799

  19. Previous hospital admissions and disease severity predict the use of antipsychotic combination treatment in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although not recommended in treatment guidelines, previous studies have shown a frequent use of more than one antipsychotic agent among patients with schizophrenia. The main aims of the present study were to explore the antipsychotic treatment regimen among patients with schizophrenia in a catchment area-based sample and to investigate clinical characteristics associated with antipsychotic combination treatment. Methods The study included 329 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia using antipsychotic medication. Patients were recruited from all psychiatric hospitals in Oslo. Diagnoses were obtained by use of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I). Additionally, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and number of hospitalisations and pharmacological treatment were assessed. Results Multiple hospital admissions, low GAF scores and high PANSS scores, were significantly associated with the prescription of combination treatment with two or more antipsychotics. The use of combination treatment increased significantly from the second hospital admission. Combination therapy was not significantly associated with age or gender. Regression models confirmed that an increasing number of hospital admission was the strongest predictor of the use of two or more antipsychotics. Conclusions Previous hospital admissions and disease severity measured by high PANSS scores and low GAF scores, predict the use of antipsychotic combination treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Future studies should further explore the use of antipsychotic drug treatment in clinical practice and partly based on such data establish more robust treatment guidelines for patients with persistently high symptom load. PMID:21812996

  20. Analysis of Unplanned Postoperative Admissions to the Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Timothy D; Gabriel, Rodney A; Dutton, Richard P; Urman, Richard D

    2017-08-01

    To investigate factors associated with unplanned postoperative admissions to the intensive care unit (ICU). Data from the National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry (NACOR) were analyzed. We performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression to identify patient- and surgery-specific characteristics associated with unplanned postoperative ICU admission. We also recorded the prevalence of Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision ( ICD-9) billing codes and outcomes for unplanned postoperative ICU admissions. Of 23 341 130 records in the database, 2 910 738 records met our inclusion criteria. A higher American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA PS) class, case duration greater than 4 hours, and advanced age were associated with a greater likelihood of unplanned ICU admission. Vascular and thoracic surgery patients were more likely to have an unplanned ICU admission. The most common CPT and ICD-9 codes involved repair of femur/hip fracture, bowel resection, and acute postoperative pain. Large community hospitals were more likely than university hospitals to have unplanned postoperative ICU admissions. Patients in the unplanned postoperative ICU admission group were more likely to have experienced intraoperative cardiac arrest, hemodynamic instability, or respiratory failure and were more likely to die in the immediate perioperative period. Our study is the first diverse analysis of unplanned postoperative ICU admissions in the literature across multiple specialties and practice models. We found an association of advanced age, higher ASA PS class, and duration of procedure with unplanned ICU admission after surgery. Surgical specialties and procedures with the most unplanned ICU admissions could be areas for quality improvement and clinical pathways in the future.

  1. Severe vitamin D deficiency upon admission in critically ill patients is related to acute kidney injury and a poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Zapatero, A; Dot, I; Diaz, Y; Gracia, M P; Pérez-Terán, P; Climent, C; Masclans, J R; Nolla, J

    2017-08-25

    To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in critically ill patients upon admission to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and its prognostic implications. A single-center, prospective observational study was carried out from January to November 2015. Patients were followed-up on until death or hospital discharge. The department of Critical Care Medicine of a university hospital. All adults admitted to the ICU during the study period, without known factors capable of altering serum 25(OH)D concentration. Determination of serum 25(OH)D levels within the first 24h following admission to the ICU. Prevalence and mortality at 28 days. The study included 135 patients, of which 74% presented deficient serum 25(OH)D levels upon admission to the ICU. Non-survivors showed significantly lower levels than survivors (8.14ng/ml [6.17-11.53] vs. 12ng/ml [7.1-20.30]; P=.04], and the serum 25(OH)D levels were independently associated to mortality (OR 2.86; 95% CI 1.05-7.86; P=.04]. The area under the ROC curve was 0.61 (95% CI 0.51-0.75), and the best cut-off point for predicting mortality was 10.9ng/ml. Patients with serum 25(OH)D<10.9ng/ml also showed higher acute kidney injury rates (13 vs. 29%; P=.02). Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent upon admission to the ICU. Severe Vitamin D deficiency (25[OH]D<10.9ng/ml) upon admission to the ICU is associated to acute kidney injury and mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  2. Achieving energy goals at day 4 after admission in critically ill children; predictive for outcome?

    PubMed

    de Betue, C T I; van Steenselen, W N; Hulst, J M; Olieman, J F; Augustus, M; Mohd Din, S H; Verbruggen, S C A T; Tibboel, D; Joosten, K F M

    2015-02-01

    Adequate nutritional intake is essential during pediatric intensive care admission. We investigated whether achievement of energy intake goals at day 4 after admission and route of nutrition were associated with improved outcome. Observational study using prospectively acquired data. Patients receiving enteral and/or parenteral nutrition were included. The energy intake target range at day 4 after admission was 90-110% of resting energy expenditure +10%. Acute malnutrition was defined as weight-for-age <-2 SD. Clinical outcome measures were length of stay, days on ventilator, duration of antibiotics and number of new infections. Data as median (min-max). Of 325 subjects (age 0.14 (0.0-18.0) year), 19% were acutely malnourished upon admission. Median 86% of energy goals were administered via the enteral route. With enteral energy intake, 7% of patients were fed within the target range, 50% were fed below and 43% were fed above the target range. In a subgroup (n = 223) the acutely malnourished proportion at discharge (26%) was not significantly different from that upon admission (22%). Whether the energy intake was below, within or above the target range did not affect changes in clinical outcome, nor did the route of nutrition. Acute malnutrition was highly prevalent upon admission and at discharge. With our nutritional protocol we achieved high rates of (enteral) energy intake. A high percentage of our population received enteral energy above the target energy range. However, there was no association between the amount of energy intake or route of nutrition and clinical outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Errors in medication history at hospital admission: prevalence and predicting factors.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Lina M; Bondesson, Åsa; Höglund, Peter; Eriksson, Tommy

    2012-04-03

    An accurate medication list at hospital admission is essential for the evaluation and further treatment of patients. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency, type and predictors of errors in medication history, and to evaluate the extent to which standard care corrects these errors. A descriptive study was carried out in two medical wards in a Swedish hospital using Lund Integrated Medicines Management (LIMM)-based medication reconciliation. A clinical pharmacist identified each patient's most accurate pre-admission medication list by conducting a medication reconciliation process shortly after admission. This list was then compared with the patient's medication list in the hospital medical records. Addition or withdrawal of a drug or changes to the dose or dosage form in the hospital medication list were considered medication discrepancies. Medication discrepancies for which no clinical reason could be identified (unintentional changes) were considered medication history errors. The final study population comprised 670 of 818 eligible patients. At least one medication history error was identified by pharmacists conducting medication reconciliations for 313 of these patients (47%; 95% CI 43-51%). The most common medication error was an omitted drug, followed by a wrong dose. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a higher number of drugs at admission (odds ratio [OR] per 1 drug increase = 1.10; 95% CI 1.06-1.14; p < 0.0001) and the patient living in their own home without any care services (OR = 1.58; 95% CI 1.02-2.45; p = 0.042) were predictors for medication history errors at admission. The results further indicated that standard care by non-pharmacist ward staff had partly corrected the errors in affected patients by four days after admission, but a considerable proportion of the errors made in the initial medication history at admission remained undetected by standard care (OR for medication errors detected by pharmacists

  4. Errors in medication history at hospital admission: prevalence and predicting factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An accurate medication list at hospital admission is essential for the evaluation and further treatment of patients. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency, type and predictors of errors in medication history, and to evaluate the extent to which standard care corrects these errors. Methods A descriptive study was carried out in two medical wards in a Swedish hospital using Lund Integrated Medicines Management (LIMM)-based medication reconciliation. A clinical pharmacist identified each patient's most accurate pre-admission medication list by conducting a medication reconciliation process shortly after admission. This list was then compared with the patient's medication list in the hospital medical records. Addition or withdrawal of a drug or changes to the dose or dosage form in the hospital medication list were considered medication discrepancies. Medication discrepancies for which no clinical reason could be identified (unintentional changes) were considered medication history errors. Results The final study population comprised 670 of 818 eligible patients. At least one medication history error was identified by pharmacists conducting medication reconciliations for 313 of these patients (47%; 95% CI 43-51%). The most common medication error was an omitted drug, followed by a wrong dose. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a higher number of drugs at admission (odds ratio [OR] per 1 drug increase = 1.10; 95% CI 1.06-1.14; p < 0.0001) and the patient living in their own home without any care services (OR = 1.58; 95% CI 1.02-2.45; p = 0.042) were predictors for medication history errors at admission. The results further indicated that standard care by non-pharmacist ward staff had partly corrected the errors in affected patients by four days after admission, but a considerable proportion of the errors made in the initial medication history at admission remained undetected by standard care (OR for medication errors

  5. ICU service in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Lu, Chin-Li; Chung, Yueh-Chih; Huang, Mei-Chen; Shen, Hsiu-Nien; Chen, Hsing-Min; Zhang, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the current status of intensive care unit (ICU) in order to optimize the resources achieving the best possible care. The study analyzed the status of ICU settings based on the Taiwan National Health Insurance database between March 2004 and February 2009. A total of 1,028,364 ICU patients were identified. The age was 65 ± 18 years, and 61% of the patients were male. The total ICU bed occupancy rate was 83.8% which went up to 87.3% during winter. The ICU bed occupancy was 94.4% in major medical centers. The ICU stay was 6.5 ± 0.5 days, and the overall ICU mortality rate was 20.2%. The hospital stay was 16.4 ± 16.8 days, and the average cost of total hospital stay was approximately US$5,186 per patient. The rate of ICU bed occupancy was dependent on seasonal changes, and it reached near full capacity in major medical centers in Taiwan. The ICU beds were distributed based on the categories of hospitals in order to achieve a reasonable cost efficiency. ICU faces many challenges to maintain and improve quality care because of the increasing cost of state-of-the-art technologies and dealing with aging population.

  6. The Gender Difference: Validity of Standardized Admission Tests in Predicting MBA Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Terence

    1999-01-01

    Of 120 female and 149 male master of business administration (MBA) students, women performed significantly less well on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT). There were no differences in overall MBA grade point average, indicating no strong correlation between the GMAT and MBA performance. (SK)

  7. Characteristics Predicting Nursing Home Admission in the Program of All-Inclusive Care for Elderly People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Susan M.; Steinwachs, Donald M.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Burton, Lynda C.; Mukamel, Dana B.

    2005-01-01

    Long term care in a nursing home prior to enrollment in PACE remain at high risk of readmission, despite the availability of comprehensive services. This study determined overall risk and predictors of long-term nursing home admission within the Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). Design and Methods: Data PACE records for 4,646…

  8. Use of Admissions Data to Predict Student Success in Postsecondary Freshman Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Amie K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if significant relationships exist for any of the variables, age, gender, previous GPA, test scores (ACT, Compass), number of accumulated credits, and student success in Biology. This study strived to determine what academic/admissions data can be used to determine the likelihood of student success in…

  9. Outcome Prediction of Eating Disorders: Can Admission Data Forecast Outcome Needs at Discharge.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-18

    admission Global Assessment of Functioning versus women with Anorexia Nervosa (AN); those with AN were positively linked to a family history of mood...trend. Although limited by available data, several significant findings were noted. Women diagnosed with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) had significantly higher

  10. The Gender Difference: Validity of Standardized Admission Tests in Predicting MBA Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Terence

    1999-01-01

    Of 120 female and 149 male master of business administration (MBA) students, women performed significantly less well on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT). There were no differences in overall MBA grade point average, indicating no strong correlation between the GMAT and MBA performance. (SK)

  11. The Predictive Power of Personal Statements in Admissions: A Meta-Analysis and Cautionary Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sara C.; Klieger, David M.; Borneman, Matthew J.; Kuncel, Nathan R.

    2009-01-01

    Personal statements are a widely used and popular predictor in academic admissions; however, relatively little is known about their effectiveness as a predictor of student performance. This study involved a meta-analysis of the relationships of personal statements to measures of student performance (e.g., GPA) and other predictors. An initial…

  12. The Predictive Power of Personal Statements in Admissions: A Meta-Analysis and Cautionary Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sara C.; Klieger, David M.; Borneman, Matthew J.; Kuncel, Nathan R.

    2009-01-01

    Personal statements are a widely used and popular predictor in academic admissions; however, relatively little is known about their effectiveness as a predictor of student performance. This study involved a meta-analysis of the relationships of personal statements to measures of student performance (e.g., GPA) and other predictors. An initial…

  13. Implications of ICU triage decisions on patient mortality: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Intensive care is generally regarded as expensive, and as a result beds are limited. This has raised serious questions about rationing when there are insufficient beds for all those referred. However, the evidence for the cost effectiveness of intensive care is weak and the work that does exist usually assumes that those who are not admitted do not survive, which is not always the case. Randomised studies of the effectiveness of intensive care are difficult to justify on ethical grounds; therefore, this observational study examined the cost effectiveness of ICU admission by comparing patients who were accepted into ICU after ICU triage to those who were not accepted, while attempting to adjust such comparison for confounding factors. Methods This multi-centre observational cohort study involved 11 hospitals in 7 EU countries and was designed to assess the cost effectiveness of admission to intensive care after ICU triage. A total of 7,659 consecutive patients referred to the intensive care unit (ICU) were divided into those accepted for admission and those not accepted. The two groups were compared in terms of cost and mortality using multilevel regression models to account for differences across centres, and after adjusting for age, Karnofsky score and indication for ICU admission. The analyses were also stratified by categories of Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II predicted mortality (< 5%, 5% to 40% and >40%). Cost effectiveness was evaluated as cost per life saved and cost per life-year saved. Results Admission to ICU produced a relative reduction in mortality risk, expressed as odds ratio, of 0.70 (0.52 to 0.94) at 28 days. When stratified by predicted mortality, the odds ratio was 1.49 (0.79 to 2.81), 0.7 (0.51 to 0.97) and 0.55 (0.37 to 0.83) for <5%, 5% to 40% and >40% predicted mortality, respectively. Average cost per life saved for all patients was $103,771 (€82,358) and cost per life-year saved was $7,065 (€5,607). These

  14. Epidemiology of Pregnancy-Associated ICU Utilization in Texas: 2001 - 2010

    PubMed Central

    Oud, Lavi

    2017-01-01

    Background ICU admission is uncommon among obstetric patients. Nevertheless, the epidemiology of ICU utilization is considered to be a useful proxy for study of severe maternal morbidity and near-miss events. However, there is paucity of population-level studies in obstetric patients in the United States. Methods The Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File and state-based reports were used to identify pregnancy-associated hospitalizations and those involving admission to ICU (n = 158,410) for the years 2001 - 2010. The clinical characteristics, outcomes, and the overall incidence and temporal trends of ICU admission were examined and stratified analyses of pregnancy outcomes were performed in specific categories of pregnancy-associated hospitalizations. In addition, ICU utilization among hospitalizations with maternal complications and organ dysfunction was evaluated. Results Chronic comorbidities (9.7%) and presence of organ dysfunction (6.2%) were uncommon among ICU admissions, with 26.5% having high severity of illness. The incidence of ICU admission was 39.0 per 1,000 pregnancy-associated hospitalizations-years. Marked variability was found in ICU admission both across pregnancy outcomes (ranging from 0.6 per 1,000 abortions-years to 85.9 per 1,000 stillbirths-years) and categories of pregnancy-associated hospitalizations (ranging from 32.1 per 1,000 delivery hospitalizations-years to 144.8 per 1,000 postpartum hospitalizations-years). The incidence of ICU admission rose 68% among pregnancy-associated hospitalizations and for all examined subgroups, except abortion. Preeclampsia/eclampsia (23.3%) and obstetric hemorrhage (6.9%) were the most common maternal complications among ICU admissions. Four hundred fourteen women (0.3%) died, while 97.6% were discharged home. Conclusions This study documents the highest incidence of ICU utilization in obstetric patients in the US to date. The findings suggest low threshold for obstetric ICU admissions in the state and do

  15. Does admission anaemia still predict mortality six years after myocardial infarction?

    PubMed

    Tomaszuk-Kazberuk, Anna; Bolińska, Swietłana; Młodawska, Elżbieta; Łopatowska, Paulina; Sobkowicz, Bożena; Musiał, Włodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    Anaemia is present in 12-30% of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Many studies have shown that admission anaemia is an independent predictor of in-hospital or short-term mortality in patients with ACS. However, there is limited data on the long-term prognostic importance of anaemia in this group of patients. To establish the relation between haemoglobin concentration on admission and six-year all-cause mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated invasively. We retrospectively studied 551 patients with the diagnosis of STEMI referred to the catheterisation laboratory of our hospital and treated with successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients were divided into two groups according to admission haemoglobin concentration (< 13 g/dL in males and < 12 g/dL in females). A total of 551 patients with STEMI (164 female, 30%) were included in the analysis, mean age was 63 ± 12 years. Anaemia on admission was present in 11% (n = 61) of the patients. Of the entire cohort, renal failure was present in 25% (n = 138), and diabetes in 16% (n = 88). Admission haemoglobin concentration was significantly associated with age (r = -0.2663, p < 0.05), blood pressure (systolic blood pressure [SBP]: r = 0.1940, diastolic blood pressure [DBP]: r = 0.2023, p < 0.05), glucose concentration (r = -0.1218, p < 0.05), white blood cells count (r = 0.1230, p < 0.05), cholesterol concentration (r = 0.1253,p < 0.05), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; r = 0.1819, p < 0.05), Killip-Kimball class (r = -0.1387, p < 0.05) and TIMI risk score for STEMI (r = -0.2647, p < 0.05). During follow-up, 27% (n = 130) of the patients died. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the patients with admission anaemia (47% vs. 24%, p = 0.0002). The patients with anaemia were older (p = 0.0007), had lower blood pressure (SBP: p = 0.007; DBP: p = 0.01), higher heart rate (p = 0.03), higher glycaemia concentration (p = 0

  16. Predicting the risk for hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (HO-CDI) at the time of inpatient admission: HO-CDI risk score.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Ying P; Johannes, Richard S; Sun, Xiaowu; Nunez, Carlos M; McDonald, L Clifford

    2015-06-01

    To predict the likelihood of hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (HO-CDI) based on patient clinical presentations at admission Retrospective data analysis Six US acute care hospitals Adult inpatients We used clinical data collected at the time of admission in electronic health record (EHR) systems to develop and validate a HO-CDI predictive model. The outcome measure was HO-CDI cases identified by a nonduplicate positive C. difficile toxin assay result with stool specimens collected >48 hours after inpatient admission. We fit a logistic regression model to predict the risk of HO-CDI. We validated the model using 1,000 bootstrap simulations. Among 78,080 adult admissions, 323 HO-CDI cases were identified (ie, a rate of 4.1 per 1,000 admissions). The logistic regression model yielded 14 independent predictors, including hospital community onset CDI pressure, patient age ≥65, previous healthcare exposures, CDI in previous admission, admission to the intensive care unit, albumin ≤3 g/dL, creatinine >2.0 mg/dL, bands >32%, platelets ≤150 or >420 109/L, and white blood cell count >11,000 mm3. The model had a c-statistic of 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.81) with good calibration. Among 79% of patients with risk scores of 0-7, 19 HO-CDIs occurred per 10,000 admissions; for patients with risk scores >20, 623 HO-CDIs occurred per 10,000 admissions (P<.0001). Using clinical parameters available at the time of admission, this HO-CDI model demonstrated good predictive ability, and it may have utility as an early risk identification tool for HO-CDI preventive interventions and outcome comparisons.

  17. Does pelvic hematoma on admission computed tomography predict active bleeding at angiography for pelvic fracture?

    PubMed

    Brown, Carlos V R; Kasotakis, George; Wilcox, Alison; Rhee, Peter; Salim, Ali; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2005-09-01

    Pelvic angiography plays an increasing role in the management of pelvic fractures (PFs). Little has been written regarding the size of pelvic hematoma on admission computed tomography (CT) and how it relates to angiography results after PF. This is a retrospective review of trauma patients with PF who underwent an admission abdominal/pelvic CT scan and pelvic angiography from 2001 to 2003. CT pelvic hematoma was measured and classified as minimal or significant based on hematoma dimensions. Presence of a contrast blush on CT scan was also documented. Thirty-seven patients underwent an admission CT scan and went on to pelvic angiography. Of the 22 patients with significant pelvic hematoma, 73 per cent (n = 16) had bleeding at angiography. Fifteen patients had minimal pelvic hematoma, with 67 per cent (n = 10) showing active bleeding at angiography. In addition, five of six patients (83%) with no pelvic hematoma had active bleeding at angiography. Six patients had a blush on CT scan, with five of these (83%) having a positive angiogram. But, 22 of 31 (71%) patients with no blush on CT scan had bleeding at angiography. The absence of a pelvic hematoma or contrast blush should not alter indications for pelvic angiography, as they do not reliably exclude active pelvic bleeding.

  18. Acute Kidney Injury Enhances Outcome Prediction Ability of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Fan, Pei-Chun; Chang, Ming-Yang; Tian, Ya-Chung; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Yang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Yung-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and also often part of a multiple organ failure syndrome. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score is an excellent tool for assessing the extent of organ dysfunction in critically ill patients. This study aimed to evaluate the outcome prediction ability of SOFA and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III score in ICU patients with AKI. Methods A total of 543 critically ill patients were admitted to the medical ICU of a tertiary-care hospital from July 2007 to June 2008. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were prospectively recorded for post hoc analysis as predictors of survival on the first day of ICU admission. Results One hundred and eighty-seven (34.4%) patients presented with AKI on the first day of ICU admission based on the risk of renal failure, injury to kidney, failure of kidney function, loss of kidney function, and end-stage renal failure (RIFLE) classification. Major causes of the ICU admissions involved respiratory failure (58%). Overall in-ICU mortality was 37.9% and the hospital mortality was 44.7%. The predictive accuracy for ICU mortality of SOFA (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves: 0.815±0.032) was as good as APACHE III in the AKI group. However, cumulative survival rates at 6-month follow-up following hospital discharge differed significantly (p<0.001) for SOFA score ≤10 vs. ≥11 in these ICU patients with AKI. Conclusions For patients coexisting with AKI admitted to ICU, this work recommends application of SOFA by physicians to assess ICU mortality because of its practicality and low cost. A SOFA score of ≥ “11” on ICU day 1 should be considered an indicator of negative short-term outcome. PMID:25279844

  19. Borderline Personality Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder at Psychiatric Discharge Predict General Hospital Admission for Self-Harm.

    PubMed

    Mellesdal, Liv; Gjestad, Rolf; Johnsen, Erik; Jørgensen, Hugo A; Oedegaard, Ketil J; Kroken, Rune A; Mehlum, Lars

    2015-12-01

    We investigated whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was predictor of suicidal behavior even when adjusting for comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) and other salient risk factors. To study this, we randomly selected 308 patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital because of suicide risk. Baseline interviews were performed within the first days of the stay. Information concerning the number of self-harm admissions to general hospitals over the subsequent 6 months was retrieved through linkage with the regional hospital registers. A censored regression analysis of hospital admissions for self-harm indicated significant associations with both PTSD (β = .21, p < .001) and BPD (β = .27, p < .001). A structural model comprising two latent BPD factors, dysregulation and relationship problems, as well as PTSD and several other variables, demonstrated that PTSD was an important predictor of the number of self-harm admissions to general hospitals(B = 1.52, p < .01). Dysregulation predicted self-harm directly (B = 0.28, p < .05), and also through PTSD [corrected]. These results suggested that PTSD and related dysregulation problems could be important treatment targets for a reduction in the risk of severe self-harm in high-risk psychiatric patients.

  20. Admission ASIA motor score predicting the need for tracheostomy after cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Menaker, Jay; Kufera, Joseph A; Glaser, Jeffrey; Stein, Deborah M; Scalea, Thomas M

    2013-10-01

    Respiratory compromise and the need for tracheostomy are common after cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI). The purpose of the study was to evaluate if admission American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) motor score is associated with the need for tracheostomy following cSCI. The trauma registry identified patients with isolated cSCI during a 3-year period. Patients with an Abbreviated Injury Scale score greater than 3 in other body regions were excluded. Medical records were reviewed for demographics, admission ASIA motor score, ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS), anatomic level of injury, need for a tracheostomy, and length of stay (LOS). Logistic regression models were constructed to examine the effect of admission ASIA motor scores on the outcome of tracheostomy. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to determine risk factors for time to tracheostomy. A total of 128 patients were identified. Seventy-four patients had a tracheostomy performed on mean (SD) hospital Day 9 (4). Median admission ASIA motor score was 22.0 (interquartile range [IQR], 8-54). Median anatomic level of injury was 5 (IQR, 4-6). Patients requiring tracheostomy had significantly lower median admission ASIA motor score (9 [IQR, 3-17] vs. 57 [IQR, 30-77], p < 0.001) and were more likely to be an AIS A. There was no difference in median anatomic level of injury (5 [IQR, 4-5.8] vs. 5 [IQR, 4-6], p = nonsignificant). ASIA motor scores less than 10 had an unadjusted odds ratio for requiring tracheostomy of 56 (95 confidence interval, 7-426). Following adjustment for independent risk factors, the odds ratio for ASIA motor score less than 10 remained statistically significant at 22 (confidence interval, 3-180). Among patients with incomplete cSCI, ASIA motor scores increased significantly from AIS B to AIS D, while Injury Severity Score (ISS), LOS and intensive care unit LOS declined significantly. Of those patients without a tracheostomy, 100% had an ASIA motor score greater than 10, 98% had an ASIA

  1. [Prediction of further hospital treatment for emergency patients by emergency medical service physicians].

    PubMed

    Bernhard, M; Trautwein, S; Stepan, R; Zahn, P; Greim, C-A; Gries, A

    2014-05-01

    Prehospital assessment of illness and injury severity with the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) score and hospital pre-arrival notification of a patient who is likely to need intensive care unit (ICU) or intermediate care unit (IMC) admission are both common in Germany's physician-staffed emergency medical services (EMS) system. This study aimed at comparing the prehospital evaluation of severity of disease or injuries by EMS physicians and the subsequent clinical treatment in unselected emergency department (ED) patients. This study involved a prospective observational analysis of patients transported to the ED of an academic level I hospital escorted by an EMS physician over a period of 6 months (February-July 2011). The physician's qualification and the patient's NACA score were documented and the EMS physician was asked to predict whether the patient would need hospital admission and, if so, to the general ward, IMC or ICU. After the ED treatment, discharge or admission, outcome and length of hospital and ICU or IMC stay were documented. A total of 378 mostly non-trauma patients (88 %) treated by experienced EMS physicians could be enrolled. The number of patients discharged from the ED decreased, while the number of patients admitted to the ICU increased with higher NACA scores. Prehospital prediction of discharge or admission, IMC or ICU treatment by EMS physicians was accurate in 47 % of the patients. In 40 % of patients a lower level of care was sufficient while 12 % needed treatment on a higher level of care than that predicted by EMS physicians. Of the patients 39 % who were predicted to be discharged after ED treatment, were admitted to hospital and 48 % of patients predicted to be admitted to the IMC were admitted to the general ward. Patients predicted to be admitted to the ICU were admitted to the ICU in 75 %. Higher NACA scores were associated with increased mortality and a longer hospital IMC or ICU length of stay

  2. ICU early physical rehabilitation programs: financial modeling of cost savings.

    PubMed

    Lord, Robert K; Mayhew, Christopher R; Korupolu, Radha; Mantheiy, Earl C; Friedman, Michael A; Palmer, Jeffrey B; Needham, Dale M

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the potential annual net cost savings of implementing an ICU early rehabilitation program. Using data from existing publications and actual experience with an early rehabilitation program in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Medical ICU, we developed a model of net financial savings/costs and presented results for ICUs with 200, 600, 900, and 2,000 annual admissions, accounting for both conservative- and best-case scenarios. Our example scenario provided a projected financial analysis of the Johns Hopkins Medical ICU early rehabilitation program, with 900 admissions per year, using actual reductions in length of stay achieved by this program. U.S.-based adult ICUs. Financial modeling of the introduction of an ICU early rehabilitation program. Net cost savings generated in our example scenario, with 900 annual admissions and actual length of stay reductions of 22% and 19% for the ICU and floor, respectively, were $817,836. Sensitivity analyses, which used conservative- and best-case scenarios for length of stay reductions and varied the per-day ICU and floor costs, across ICUs with 200-2,000 annual admissions, yielded financial projections ranging from -$87,611 (net cost) to $3,763,149 (net savings). Of the 24 scenarios included in these sensitivity analyses, 20 (83%) demonstrated net savings, with a relatively small net cost occurring in the remaining four scenarios, mostly when simultaneously combining the most conservative assumptions. A financial model, based on actual experience and published data, projects that investment in an ICU early rehabilitation program can generate net financial savings for U.S. hospitals. Even under the most conservative assumptions, the projected net cost of implementing such a program is modest relative to the substantial improvements in patient outcomes demonstrated by ICU early rehabilitation programs.

  3. Mortality Related Risk Factors in High-Risk Pulmonary Embolism in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Ergün, Recai; Çalışkan, Taner; Aydın, Kutlay; Tokur, Murat Emre; Cömert, Bilgin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We sought to identify possible risk factors associated with mortality in patients with high-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) after intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Patients and Methods. PE patients, diagnosed with computer tomography pulmonary angiography, were included from two ICUs and were categorized into groups: group 1 high-risk patients and group 2 intermediate/low-risk patients. Results. Fifty-six patients were included. Of them, 41 (73.2%) were group 1 and 15 (26.7%) were group 2. When compared to group 2, need for vasopressor therapy (0 vs 68.3%; p < 0.001) and need for invasive mechanical ventilation (6.7 vs 36.6%; p = 0.043) were more frequent in group 1. The treatment of choice for group 1 was thrombolytic therapy in 29 (70.7%) and anticoagulation in 12 (29.3%) patients. ICU mortality for group 1 was 31.7% (n = 13). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, APACHE II score >18 (OR 42.47 95% CI 1.50–1201.1), invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 30.10 95% CI 1.96–463.31), and thrombolytic therapy (OR 0.03 95% CI 0.01–0.98) were found as independent predictors of mortality. Conclusion. In high-risk PE, admission APACHE II score and need for invasive mechanical ventilation may predict death in ICU. Thrombolytic therapy seems to be beneficial in these patients. PMID:28025592

  4. Predictive Value of the School-leaving Grade and Prognosis of Different Admission Groups for Academic Performance and Continuity in the Medical Course – a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Kadmon, Guni; Resch, Franz; Duelli, Roman; Kadmon, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Background: The school-leaving GPA and the time since completion of secondary education are the major criteria for admission to German medical schools. However, the predictive value of the school-leaving grade and the admission delay have not been thoroughly examined since the amendment of the Medical Licensing Regulations and the introduction of reformed curricula in 2002. Detailed information on the prognosis of the different admission groups is also missing. Aim: To examine the predictive values of the school-leaving grade and the age at enrolment for academic performance and continuity throughout the reformed medical course. Methods: The study includes the central admission groups “GPA-best” and “delayed admission” as well as the primary and secondary local admission groups of three consecutive cohorts. The relationship between the criteria academic performance and continuity and the predictors school-leaving GPA, enrolment age, and admission group affiliation were examined up to the beginning of the final clerkship year. Results: The academic performance and the prolongation of the pre-clinical part of undergraduate training were significantly related to the school-leaving GPA. Conversely, the dropout rate was related to age at enrolment. The students of the GPA-best group and the primary local admission group performed best and had the lowest dropout rates. The students of the delayed admission group and secondary local admission group performed significantly worse. More than 20% of these students dropped out within the pre-clinical course, half of them due to poor academic performance. However, the academic performance of all of the admission groups was highly variable and only about 35% of the students of each group reached the final clerkship year within the regular time. Discussion: The school-leaving grade and age appear to have different prognostic implications for academic performance and continuity. Both factors have consequences for the

  5. The admissions process in a graduate-entry dental school: can we predict academic performance?

    PubMed

    Foley, J I; Hijazi, K

    2013-01-01

    To assess the association between the admissions performance and subsequent academic achievement within a graduate-entry dental school. The study was conducted at the University of Aberdeen Dental School. UCAS forms for course applicants were reviewed and assigned a pre-admission score (PAS) and a tariff given for the UCAS personal statement (UCAS). Individuals ranked highest were invited to attend multiple mini-interviews (MMI), which were scored. Data was correlated with academic performance reported as the University Common Assessment Scale (0-20). Comparisons were also made between the first degree and subsequent educational achievement. Data were analysed by multiple linear regression, Pearson correlation and unstacked ANOVA (IBM SPSS Statistics 19). Data were obtained for 75 students (F: 50; M: 25). A correlation between performance at MMI and CAS scores was identified (r = 0.180, p = 0.001, df = 538). A correlation was also noted between each student's first degree and the CAS scores (F = 4.08, p = 0.001, df = 9). This study suggests that candidate performance at MMI might be a stronger predictor of academic and clinical performance of graduate-entry dental students compared to other pre-interview selection criteria. The first degree for such a programme also appears to be significant.

  6. Predicting frequent hospital admission risk in Singapore: a retrospective cohort study to investigate the impact of comorbidities, acute illness burden and social determinants of health

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nan; Wang, Sijia; Thumboo, Julian; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Lee, Kheng Hock

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of comorbidities, acute illness burden and social determinants of health on predicting the risk of frequent hospital admissions. Design Multivariable logistic regression was used to associate the predictive variables extracted from electronic health records and frequent hospital admission risk. The model's performance of our predictive model was evaluated using a 10-fold cross-validation. Setting A single tertiary hospital in Singapore. Participants All adult patients admitted to the hospital between 1 January 2013 and 31 May 2014 (n=25 244). Main outcome measure Frequent hospital admissions, defined as 3 or more inpatient admissions within 12 months of discharge. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the predictive model, and the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values for various cut-offs. Results 4322 patients (17.1%) met the primary outcome. 11 variables were observed as significant predictors and included in the final regression model. The strongest independent predictor was treatment with antidepressants in the past 1 year (adjusted OR 2.51, 95% CI 2.26 to 2.78). Other notable predictors include requiring dialysis and treatment with intravenous furosemide during the index admission. The predictive model achieved an AUC of 0.84 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.85) for predicting frequent hospital admission risk, with a sensitivity of 73.9% (95% CI 72.6% to 75.2%), specificity of 79.1% (78.5% to 79.6%) and positive predictive value of 42.2% (95% CI 41.1% to 43.3%) at the cut-off of 0.235. Conclusions We have identified several predictors for assessing the risk of frequent hospital admissions that achieved high discriminative model performance. Further research is necessary using an external validation cohort. PMID:27742630

  7. Evacuation of the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Niven, Alexander S.; Beninati, William; Fang, Ray; Einav, Sharon; Rubinson, Lewis; Kissoon, Niranjan; Devereaux, Asha V.; Christian, Michael D.; Grissom, Colin K.; Christian, Michael D.; Devereaux, Asha V.; Dichter, Jeffrey R.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Rubinson, Lewis; Amundson, Dennis; Anderson, Michael R.; Balk, Robert; Barfield, Wanda D.; Bartz, Martha; Benditt, Josh; Beninati, William; Berkowitz, Kenneth A.; Daugherty Biddison, Lee; Braner, Dana; Branson, Richard D; Burkle, Frederick M.; Cairns, Bruce A.; Carr, Brendan G.; Courtney, Brooke; DeDecker, Lisa D.; De Jong, Marla J.; Dominguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Dries, David; Einav, Sharon; Erstad, Brian L.; Etienne, Mill; Fagbuyi, Daniel B.; Fang, Ray; Feldman, Henry; Garzon, Hernando; Geiling, James; Gomersall, Charles D.; Grissom, Colin K.; Hanfling, Dan; Hick, John L.; Hodge, James G.; Hupert, Nathaniel; Ingbar, David; Kanter, Robert K.; King, Mary A.; Kuhnley, Robert N.; Lawler, James; Leung, Sharon; Levy, Deborah A.; Lim, Matthew L.; Livinski, Alicia; Luyckx, Valerie; Marcozzi, David; Medina, Justine; Miramontes, David A.; Mutter, Ryan; Niven, Alexander S.; Penn, Matthew S.; Pepe, Paul E.; Powell, Tia; Prezant, David; Reed, Mary Jane; Rich, Preston; Rodriquez, Dario; Roxland, Beth E.; Sarani, Babak; Shah, Umair A.; Skippen, Peter; Sprung, Charles L.; Subbarao, Italo; Talmor, Daniel; Toner, Eric S.; Tosh, Pritish K.; Upperman, Jeffrey S.; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Weireter, Leonard J.; West, T. Eoin; Wilgis, John; Ornelas, Joe; McBride, Deborah; Reid, David; Baez, Amado; Baldisseri, Marie; Blumenstock, James S.; Cooper, Art; Ellender, Tim; Helminiak, Clare; Jimenez, Edgar; Krug, Steve; Lamana, Joe; Masur, Henry; Mathivha, L. Rudo; Osterholm, Michael T.; Reynolds, H. Neal; Sandrock, Christian; Sprecher, Armand; Tillyard, Andrew; White, Douglas; Wise, Robert; Yeskey, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the high risk for patient harm during unanticipated ICU evacuations, critical care providers receive little to no training on how to perform safe and effective ICU evacuations. We reviewed the pertinent published literature and offer suggestions for the critical care provider regarding ICU evacuation. The suggestions in this article are important for all who are involved in pandemics or disasters with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. METHODS: The Evacuation and Mobilization topic panel used the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) Guidelines Oversight Committee’s methodology to develop seven key questions for which specific literature searches were conducted to identify studies upon which evidence-based recommendations could be made. No studies of sufficient quality were identified. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process. RESULTS: Based on current best evidence, we provide 13 suggestions outlining a systematic approach to prepare for and execute an effective ICU evacuation during a disaster. Interhospital and intrahospital collaboration and functional ICU communication are critical for success. Pre-event planning and preparation are required for a no-notice evacuation. A Critical Care Team Leader must be designated within the Hospital Incident Command System. A three-stage ICU Evacuation Timeline, including (1) no immediate threat, (2) evacuation threat, and (3) evacuation implementation, should be used. Detailed suggestions on ICU evacuation, including regional planning, evacuation drills, patient transport preparation and equipment, patient prioritization and distribution for evacuation, patient information and tracking, and federal and international evacuation assistance systems, are also provided. CONCLUSIONS: Successful ICU evacuation during a disaster requires

  8. Improvement in the Prediction of Ventilator Weaning Outcomes by an Artificial Neural Network in a Medical ICU.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hung-Ju; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Lee, Chun-Nin; Chen, Tzu-Tao; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Bien, Mauo-Ying

    2015-11-01

    Twenty-five to 40% of patients pass a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) but fail to wean from mechanical ventilation. There is no single appropriate and convenient predictor or method that can help clinicians to accurately predict weaning outcomes. This study designed an artificial neural network (ANN) model for predicting successful extubation in mechanically ventilated patients. Ready-to-wean subjects (N = 121) hospitalized in medical ICUs were recruited and randomly divided into training (n = 76) and test (n = 45) sets. Eight variables consisting of age, reasons for intubation, duration of mechanical ventilation, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, mean inspiratory and expiratory times, mean breathing frequency, and mean expiratory tidal volume in a 30-min SBT (pressure support ventilation of 5 cm H2O and PEEP of 5 cm H2O) were selected as the ANN input variables. The prediction performance of the ANN model was compared with the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI), maximum inspiratory pressure, RSBI at 1 min (RSBI1) and 30 min (RSBI30) in an SBT, and absolute percentage change in RSBI from 1 to 30 min in an SBT (ΔRSBI30) using a confusion matrix and receiver operating characteristic curves. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves in the test set of the ANN model was 0.83 (95% CI 0.69-0.92, P < .001), which is better than any one of the following predictors: 0.66 (95% CI 0.50-0.80, P = .04) for RSBI, 0.52 (95% CI 0.37-0.67, P = .86) for maximum inspiratory pressure, 0.53 (95% CI 0.37-0.68, P = .79) for RSBI1, 0.60 (95% CI 0.44-0.74, P = .34) for RSBI30, and 0.51 (95% CI 0.36-0.66, P = .91) for ΔRSBI30. Predicting successful extubation based on the ANN model of the test set had a sensitivity of 82%, a specificity of 73%, and an accuracy rate of 80%, with an optimal threshold of ≥ 0.5 selected from the training set. The ANN model improved the accuracy of predicting successful extubation. By applying it clinically

  9. Factors that predict preexisting colonization with antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacilli in patients admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Toltzis, P; Hoyen, C; Spinner-Block, S; Salvator, A E; Rice, L B

    1999-04-01

    To predict which patients hospitalized in a pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) are colonized with antibiotic-resistant gram-negative rods on admission. Consecutive children admitted to a pediatric ICU over a 6-month period were entered into the study. A questionnaire soliciting information regarding the child's medical history and home environment was completed by the parent or guardian. Nasopharyngeal and rectal cultures were obtained on each of the first 3 days of ICU admission, and organisms resistant to ceftazidime or tobramycin were identified. Only clonally distinct organisms, as confirmed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, were analyzed. The association between identification of colonization with an antibiotic-resistant gram-negative rod within 3 days of ICU admission and factors included in the questionnaire was tested by chi2 or t test. RESULTS. In 64 (8.8%) of 727 admissions, an antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacillus was isolated within the first 3 ICU days. More than half were identified on the day of admission. Colonization was associated with two factors related to the patient's medical history, namely, number of past ICU admissions (1.98 vs.87) and administration of intravenous antibiotics within the past 12 months (67.9% vs 28.2%). No association was found between colonization and exposure to oral antibiotics. In addition, factors related to the child's environment were also associated with presumed importation of an antibiotic-resistant gram-negative rod into the ICU. Specifically, residence in a chronic care facility was strongly associated with colonization (28.3% vs 2.6%); exposure to a household contact who had been hospitalized in the past 12 months also predicted colonization (41.7% vs 18.5%). These data suggest that a profile can be established characterizing children colonized with resistant gram-negative bacilli before admission to a pediatric ICU. Infection control measures may help to contain these potentially dangerous bacteria

  10. Visual Fixation in the ICU: A Strong Predictor of Long-Term Recovery After Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Arbour, Caroline; Baril, Andrée-Ann; Westwick, Harrison J; Potvin, Marie-Julie; Gilbert, Danielle; Giguère, Jean-François; Lavigne, Gilles J; Desautels, Alex; Bernard, Francis; Laureys, Steven; Gosselin, Nadia

    2016-12-01

    Posttraumatic amnesia is superior to the initial Glasgow Coma Scale score for predicting traumatic brain injury recovery, but it takes days/weeks to assess. Here, we examined whether return of visual fixation-a potential marker of higher cognitive function-within 24 hours of ICU admission could be used as an early predictor of traumatic brain injury recovery. Two-phase cohort study. Level-I trauma ICU. Moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury discharged alive between 2010 and 2013. None. Return of visual fixation was assessed through standard behavioral assessments in 181 traumatic brain injury patients who had lost the ability to fixate at ICU admission (phase 1) and compared with posttraumatic amnesia duration and the initial Glasgow Coma Scale score to predict performance on the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended 10-40 months after injury (n = 144; phase 2a). A subgroup also completed a visual attention task (n = 35; phase 2b) and a brain MRI after traumatic brain injury (n = 23; phase 2c). With an area under the curve equal to 0.85, presence/absence of visual fixation at 24 hours of ICU admission was found as performant as posttraumatic amnesia (area under the curve, 0.81; difference between area under the curve, 0.04; p = 0.28) for predicting patients' Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended score. Conversely, the initial Glasgow Coma Scale score was not (area under the curve, 0.63). Even when controlling for age/medication/CT scan findings, fixation remained a significant predictor of Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended scores (β, -0.29; p < 0.05). Poorer attention performances and greater regional brain volume deficits were also observed in patients who could not fixate at 24 hours of ICU admission versus those who could. Visual fixation within 24 hours of ICU admission could be as performant as posttraumatic amnesia for predicting traumatic brain injury recovery, introducing a new variable of interest in traumatic brain injury outcome research.

  11. ICU Director Data

    PubMed Central

    Ogbu, Ogbonna C.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2015-01-01

    Improving value within critical care remains a priority because it represents a significant portion of health-care spending, faces high rates of adverse events, and inconsistently delivers evidence-based practices. ICU directors are increasingly required to understand all aspects of the value provided by their units to inform local improvement efforts and relate effectively to external parties. A clear understanding of the overall process of measuring quality and value as well as the strengths, limitations, and potential application of individual metrics is critical to supporting this charge. In this review, we provide a conceptual framework for understanding value metrics, describe an approach to developing a value measurement program, and summarize common metrics to characterize ICU value. We first summarize how ICU value can be represented as a function of outcomes and costs. We expand this equation and relate it to both the classic structure-process-outcome framework for quality assessment and the Institute of Medicine’s six aims of health care. We then describe how ICU leaders can develop their own value measurement process by identifying target areas, selecting appropriate measures, acquiring the necessary data, analyzing the data, and disseminating the findings. Within this measurement process, we summarize common metrics that can be used to characterize ICU value. As health care, in general, and critical care, in particular, changes and data become more available, it is increasingly important for ICU leaders to understand how to effectively acquire, evaluate, and apply data to improve the value of care provided to patients. PMID:25846533

  12. Pre-admission criteria and pre-clinical achievement: Can they predict medical students performance in the clinical phase?

    PubMed

    Salem, Raneem O; Al-Mously, Najwa; AlFadil, Sara; Baalash, Amal

    2016-01-01

    Various factors affect medical students' performance during clinical phase. Identifying these factors would help in mentoring weak students and help in selection process for residency programmes. Our study objective is to evaluate the impact of pre-admission criteria, and pre-clinical grade point average (GPA) on undergraduate medical students' performance during clinical phase. This study has a cross-sectional design that includes fifth- and sixth-year female medical students (71). Data of clinical and pre-clinical GPA in medical school and pre-admission to medical school tests scores were collected. A significant correlation between clinical GPA with the pre-clinical GPA was observed (p < 0.05). Such significant correlation was not seen with other variables under study. A regression analysis was performed, and the only significant predictor of students clinical performance was the pre-clinical GPA (p < 0.001). However, no significant difference between students' clinical and pre-clinical GPA for both cohorts was observed (p > 0.05). Pre-clinical GPA is strongly correlated with and can predict medical students' performance during clinical years. Our study highlighted the importance of evaluating the academic performances of students in pre-clinical years before they move into clinical years in order to identify weak students to mentor them and monitor their progress.

  13. Process modeling of ICU patient flow: effect of daily load leveling of elective surgeries on ICU diversion.

    PubMed

    Kolker, Alexander

    2009-02-01

    Despite the considerable number of publications on ICU patient flow and analysis of its variability, a basic and practically important question remained unanswered: what maximum number of elective surgeries per day should be scheduled (along with the competing demand from emergency surgeries) in order to reduce diversion in an ICU with fixed bed capacity to an acceptable low level, or prevent it at all? The goal of this work was to develop a methodology to answer this question. An ICU patient flow simulation model was developed to establish a quantitative link between the daily load leveling of elective surgeries (elective schedule smoothing) and ICU diversion. It was demonstrated that by scheduling not more than four elective surgeries per day ICU diversion due to 'no ICU beds' would be practically eliminated. However this would require bumping 'extra' daily surgeries to the block time day of another week which could be up to 2 months apart. Because not all patients could wait that long for their elective surgery, another more practical scenario was tested that would also result in a very low ICU diversion: bumping 'extra' daily elective surgeries within less than 2 weeks apart, scheduling not more than five elective surgeries per day, and strict adherence to the ICU admission/ discharge criteria.

  14. Higher on-admission serum triglycerides predict less severe disability and lower all-cause mortality after acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Pikija, Slaven; Trkulja, Vladimir; Juvan, Lucija; Ivanec, Marija; Dukši, Dunja

    2013-10-01

    High(er) on-admission triglyceride (TG) levels have been suggested as an independent predictor of better outcomes of the acute ischemic stroke. Data regarding poststroke physical disabilities have been contradictory. We aimed to investigate the relationship between fasting on-admission TG and development of disability and all-cause mortality over a 2.5-year period. This prospective observational study included 83 acute ischemic stroke patients (29 cardioembolic; 41% men; median age 76 years) followed-up for 28 to 30 months and assessed for physical disability using the Modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 1 week and 3, 12, and 24 months poststroke. TGs were considered as a continuous and a binary variable (≤ 1.27 [n = 43] and >1.27 mmol/L [n = 43]). Higher TGs (continuous or binary) were independently (default adjustments: stroke type, severity at presentation, age, atrial fibrillation, preindex event antiplatelet use, infarct volume, postindex event antiplatelet, statin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use, on-admission fasting cholesterol, mean platelet volume, and glomerular filtration rate) were associated with: (1) higher odds of mRS 0 to 2 (none/mild disability) across the assessments (overall odds ratio [OR] 2.73 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.15-6.38] and OR 3.57 [95% CI 1.04-12.3], respectively); (2) lower odds of mRS worsening between any 2 consecutive assessments (overall OR 0.44 [95% CI 0.20-0.96] and OR 0.35 [95% CI 0.16-0.77], respectively); (3) lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.47 [95% CI 0.23-0.96] and hazard ratio 0.45 [95% CI 0.21-0.98], respectively). These data suggest that higher fasting TGs on-admission predict less severe disability, reduced disability progression, and all-cause mortality in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting Mortality and Independence at Discharge in the Aging Traumatic Brain Injury Population Using Data Available at Admission.

    PubMed

    Miller, Preston R; Chang, Michael C; Hoth, J Jason; Hildreth, Amy N; Wolfe, Stacey Q; Gross, Jessica L; Martin, R Shayn; Carter, Jeffrey E; Meredith, J Wayne; D'Agostino, Ralph

    2017-04-01

    Aging worsens outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI), but available studies may not provide accurate outcomes predictions due to confounding associated injuries. Our goal was to develop a predictive tool using variables available at admission to predict outcomes related to severity of brain injury in aging patients. Characteristics and outcomes of blunt trauma patients, aged 50 or older, with isolated TBI, in the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), were evaluated. Equations predicting survival and independence at discharge (IDC) were developed and validated using patients from our trauma registry, comparing predicted with actual outcomes. Logistic regression for survival and IDC was performed in 57,588 patients using age, sex, Glasgow Coma Scale score (GCS), and Revised Trauma Score (RTS). All variables were independent predictors of outcome. Two models were developed using these data. The first included age, sex, and GCS. The second substituted RTS for GCS. C statistics from the models for survival and IDC were 0.90 and 0.82 in the GCS model. In the RTS model, C statistics were 0.80 and 0.67. The use of GCS provided better discrimination and was chosen for further examination. Using a predictive equation derived from the logistic regression model, outcome probabilities were calculated for 894 similar patients from our trauma registry (January 2012 to March 2016). The survival and IDC models both showed excellent discrimination (p < 0.0001). Survival and IDC generally decreased by decade: age 50 to 59 (80% IDC, 6.5% mortality), 60 to 69 (82% IDC, 7.0% mortality), 70 to 79 (76% IDC, 8.9% mortality), and 80 to 89 (67% IDC, 13.4% mortality). These models can assist in predicting the probability of survival and IDC for aging patients with TBI. This provides important data for loved ones of these patients when addressing goals of care. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Poor nutritional status on admission predicts poor outcomes after stroke: observational data from the FOOD trial.

    PubMed

    2003-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that undernourished patients with acute stroke do badly. The data, however, are not robust. We aimed to reliably assess the importance of baseline nutritional status as an independent predictor of long-term outcome after stroke in a large prospective cohort enrolled in the Feed Or Ordinary Diet (FOOD) trial, a multicenter randomized trial evaluating various feeding policies. Patients admitted to hospital with a recent stroke were enrolled in the FOOD trial. Data on nutritional status and other clinical predictors of outcome were collected at trial entry. At 6 months, the coordinating center collected data on survival and functional status (modified Rankin Scale). Outcome assessment was done by researchers blinded to baseline assessments and treatment allocation. Between November 1996 and November 2001, 3012 patients were enrolled, and 2955 (98%) were followed up. Of the 275 undernourished patients, 102 (37%) were dead by final follow-up compared with only 445 (20%) of 2194 patients of normal nutritional status (odds ratio [OR], 2.32; 95% CI, 1.78 to 3.02). After adjustment for age, prestroke functional state, and stroke severity, this relationship, although weakened, still held (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.34 to 2.47). Undernourished patients were more likely to develop pneumonia, other infections, and gastrointestinal bleeding during their hospital admission than other patients. These data provide reliable evidence that nutritional status early after stroke is independently associated with long-term outcome. It supports the rationale for the FOOD trial, which continues to recruit and aims to estimate the effect of different feeding regimes on outcome after stroke and thus determine whether the association observed in this study is likely to be causal.

  17. The Assessment of Risk in Cardiothoracic Intensive Care (ARCtIC): prediction of hospital mortality after admission to cardiothoracic critical care.

    PubMed

    Shahin, J; Ferrando-Vivas, P; Power, G S; Biswas, S; Webb, S T; Rowan, K M; Harrison, D A

    2016-12-01

    The models used to predict outcome after adult general critical care may not be applicable to cardiothoracic critical care. Therefore, we analysed data from the Case Mix Programme to identify variables associated with hospital mortality after admission to cardiothoracic critical care units and to develop a risk-prediction model. We derived predictive models for hospital mortality from variables measured in 17,002 patients within 24 h of admission to five cardiothoracic critical care units. The final model included 10 variables: creatinine; white blood count; mean arterial blood pressure; functional dependency; platelet count; arterial pH; age; Glasgow Coma Score; arterial lactate; and route of admission. We included additional interaction terms between creatinine, lactate, platelet count and cardiac surgery as the admitting diagnosis. We validated this model against 10,238 other admissions, for which the c index (95% CI) was 0.904 (0.89-0.92) and the Brier score was 0.055, while the slope and intercept of the calibration plot were 0.961 and -0.183, respectively. The discrimination and calibration of our model suggest that it might be used to predict hospital mortality after admission to cardiothoracic critical care units. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Predicting economic and medical outcomes based on risk adjustment for congenital heart surgery classification of pediatric cardiovascular surgical admissions.

    PubMed

    Raucci, Frank J; Hoke, Tracey R; Gutgesell, Howard P

    2014-12-01

    The Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) classification is an established method for predicting mortality for congenital heart disease surgery. It is unknown if this extends to the cost of hospitalization or if differences in economic and medical outcomes exist in certain subpopulations. Using data obtained from the University HealthSystem Consortium, we examined inpatient resource use by patients with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, procedure codes representative of RACHS-1 classifications 1 through 5 and 6 from 2006 to 2012. A total of 15,453 pediatric congenital heart disease surgical admissions were analyzed, with overall mortality of 4.5% (n = 689). As RACHS-1 classification increased, the total cost of hospitalization, hospital charges, total length of stay, length of intensive care unit stay, and mortality increased. Even when controlled for RACHS-1 classification, black patients (n = 2034) had higher total costs ($96,884 ± $3,392, p = 0.003), higher charges ($318,313 ± $12,018, p <0.001), and longer length of stay (20.4 ± 0.7 days, p <0.001) compared with white patients ($85,396 ± $1,382, $285,622 ± $5,090, and 18.0 ± 0.3 days, respectively). Hispanic patients had similarly disparate outcomes ($104,292 ± $2,759, $351,371 ± $10,627, and 23.0 ± 0.6 days, respectively) and also spent longer in the intensive care unit (14.9 ± 0.5 days, p <0.001). In conclusion, medical and economic measures increased predictably with increased procedure risk, and admissions for black and Hispanic patients were longer and more expensive than those of their white counterparts but without increased mortality.

  19. Clinical prediction rules in community-acquired pneumonia: lies, damn lies and statistics.

    PubMed

    Abers, M S; Musher, D M

    2014-07-01

    A variety of prediction scores have been developed to identify at the time of presentation patients with community-acquired pneumonia at risk for intensive care unit (ICU) admission or death within 30 days. The effectiveness of each scoring score is typically assessed by calculation of the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUROC). Although this statistical parameter is helpful in determining the discriminatory value of a score, it assumes equal importance of false negatives and false positives in the tradeoff between sensitivity and specificity. Because patient safety takes precedence over cost, the balance between limiting false negatives (unnecessarily strict ICU admission policy) and false positives (unnecessarily liberal ICU admission policy) should favor the reduction of false negatives. Instead of using AUROC as the primary measure to evaluate prediction rules, we propose the use of sensitivity as a more appropriate alternative.

  20. The Preschool Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU: Valid and Reliable Delirium Monitoring for Critically Ill Infants and Children.

    PubMed

    Smith, Heidi A B; Gangopadhyay, Maalobeeka; Goben, Christina M; Jacobowski, Natalie L; Chestnut, Mary Hamilton; Savage, Shane; Rutherford, Michael T; Denton, Danica; Thompson, Jennifer L; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Acton, Michelle; Newman, Jessica; Noori, Hannah P; Terrell, Michelle K; Williams, Stacey R; Griffith, Katherine; Cooper, Timothy J; Ely, E Wesley; Fuchs, D Catherine; Pandharipande, Pratik P

    2016-03-01

    Delirium assessments in critically ill infants and young children pose unique challenges due to evolution of cognitive and language skills. The objectives of this study were to determine the validity and reliability of a fundamentally objective and developmentally appropriate delirium assessment tool for critically ill infants and preschool-aged children and to determine delirium prevalence. Prospective, observational cohort validation study of the PreSchool Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU in a tertiary medical center PICU. Participants aged 6 months to 5 years and admitted to the PICU regardless of admission diagnosis were enrolled. An interdisciplinary team created the PreSchool Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU for pediatric delirium monitoring. To assess validity, patients were independently assessed for delirium daily by the research team using the PreSchool Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU and by a child psychiatrist using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. Reliability was assessed using blinded, concurrent PreSchool Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU evaluations by research staff. A total of 530-paired delirium assessments were completed among 300 patients, with a median age of 20 months (interquartile range, 11-37) and 43% requiring mechanical ventilation. The PreSchool Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU demonstrated a specificity of 91% (95% CI, 90-93), sensitivity of 75% (95% CI, 72-78), negative predictive value of 86% (95% CI, 84-88), positive predictive value of 84% (95% CI, 81-87), and a reliability κ-statistic of 0.79 (0.76-0.83). Delirium prevalence was 44% using the PreSchool Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU and 47% by the reference rater. The rates of delirium were 53% versus 56% in patients younger than 2 years old and 33% versus 35% in patients 2-5 years old using the PreSchool Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU and reference rater, respectively. The short-form Pre

  1. ICU-Acquired Weakness.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Sarah E; Bunnell, Aaron E; Hough, Catherine L

    2016-11-01

    Survivorship after critical illness is an increasingly important health-care concern as ICU use continues to increase while ICU mortality is decreasing. Survivors of critical illness experience marked disability and impairments in physical and cognitive function that persist for years after their initial ICU stay. Newfound impairment is associated with increased health-care costs and use, reductions in health-related quality of life, and prolonged unemployment. Weakness, critical illness neuropathy and/or myopathy, and muscle atrophy are common in patients who are critically ill, with up to 80% of patients admitted to the ICU developing some form of neuromuscular dysfunction. ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW) is associated with longer durations of mechanical ventilation and hospitalization, along with greater functional impairment for survivors. Although there is increasing recognition of ICUAW as a clinical entity, significant knowledge gaps exist concerning identifying patients at high risk for its development and understanding its role in long-term outcomes after critical illness. This review addresses the epidemiologic and pathophysiologic aspects of ICUAW; highlights the diagnostic challenges associated with its diagnosis in patients who are critically ill; and proposes, to our knowledge, a novel strategy for identifying ICUAW. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Pain and fear in the ICU].

    PubMed

    Chamorro, C; Romera, M A

    2015-10-01

    Pain and fear are still the most common memories that refer patients after ICU admission. Recently an important politician named the UCI as the branch of the hell. It is necessary to carry out profound changes in terms of direct relationships with patients and their relatives, as well as changes in environmental design and work and visit organization, to banish the vision that our society about the UCI. In a step which advocates for early mobilization of critical patients is necessary to improve analgesia and sedation strategies. The ICU is the best place for administering and monitoring analgesic drugs. The correct analgesia should not be a pending matter of the intensivist but a mandatory course.

  3. Intrahospital teleradiology: ER to the ICU connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattner, Stefanie; Herron, John M.; Fuhrman, Carl R.; Towers, Jeffrey D.; Thaete, F. Leland; Gur, David

    1994-05-01

    Availability of initial radiographic images acquired in the Emergency Department (ED) for patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) has been a problem in our operations. It is not uncommon that images from the ED are delivered to the appropriate ICU several hours after admission, and this problem is typically magnified `off hours'. We installed a film digitizer in the ED and required technologists to digitize all chest radiographs as they came out of the film processor. These images are archived and transmitted to a workstation located near one of our busier medical ICUs. The system has been operational for eight months, and it provides reliable timely access to such images. Careful review of a large number of cases clearly demonstrated that such a system is not only feasible, but extremely effective in improving both perceptions and actual quality of radiology services in this difficult environment. Image quality was found to be acceptable for this purpose.

  4. Health care utilization before and after intensive care unit admission in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Bernstein, Charles N; Peschken, Christine A; Hitchon, Carol A; Chen, Hui; Fransoo, Randall; Garland, Allan

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of intensive care unit (ICU) admission is elevated in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population but the reasons for this are incompletely understood, as are outcomes post-ICU admission. Among MS patients we examined the association between ICU admission and health care utilization in the year preceding admission, and compared health care utilization following ICU admission among persons with MS and persons from the general population. We used population-based administrative data from Manitoba, Canada to identify 4237 MS cases of which 2547 were incident. We compared the incidence rates of ICU admission in the prevalent MS population according to health care utilization in the year before admission, adjusting for age, sex, comorbidity and socioeconomic status. Among incident cases of MS we compared rates of health care utilization after ICU admission to those in a matched general population cohort. We used generalized linear models adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, region, comorbidity and utilization before admission. Of 4219 prevalent MS cases, 222 (5.3%) were admitted to the ICU. After adjustment, any hospitalization in the prior year conferred an 80% increased incidence, and physician visits in the highest tertile and prescription costs in the highest quartile in the prior year each conferred a more than two-fold increased incidence of admission. Among 2547 incident cases of MS, 109 (4.3%) were admitted to the ICU and 93 survived their admission. Thirty-eight percent of the MS population were re-hospitalized in the year following admission, similar to the matched population (33.8%). Seven percent of both populations were readmitted to the ICU. The MS population had more hospital days after ICU admission than the matched population (adjusted RR 3.11; 95% CI: 1.34-5.90). After adjustment the number of physician visits did not differ between populations. The incidence of ICU admission is higher among persons with MS who have higher prior

  5. Association of Intensive Care Unit Admission With Mortality Among Older Patients With Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Valley, Thomas S.; Sjoding, Michael W.; Ryan, Andrew M.; Iwashyna, Theodore J.; Cooke, Colin R.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Among patients whose need for intensive care is uncertain, the relationship of intensive care unit (ICU) admission with mortality and costs is unknown. OBJECTIVE To estimate the relationship between ICU admission and outcomes for elderly patients with pneumonia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS Retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries (aged >64 years) admitted to 2988 acute care hospitals in the United States with pneumonia from 2010 to 2012. EXPOSURES ICU admission vs general ward admission. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included Medicare spending and hospital costs. Patient and hospital characteristics were adjusted to account for differences between patients with and without ICU admission. To account for unmeasured confounding, an instrumental variable was used—the differential distance to a hospital with high ICU admission (defined as any hospital in the upper 2 quintiles of ICU use). RESULTS Among 1 112 394 Medicare beneficiaries with pneumonia, 328 404 (30%) were admitted to the ICU. In unadjusted analyses, patients admitted to the ICU had significantly higher 30-day mortality, Medicare spending, and hospital costs than patients admitted to a general hospital ward. Patients (n = 553 597) living closer than the median differential distance (<3.3 miles) to a hospital with high ICU admission were significantly more likely to be admitted to the ICU than patients living farther away (n = 558 797) (36%for patients living closer vs 23%for patients living farther, P < .001). In adjusted analyses, for the 13%of patients whose ICU admission decision appeared to be discretionary (dependent only on distance), ICU admission was associated with a significantly lower adjusted 30-day mortality (14.8%for ICU admission vs 20.5%for general ward admission, P = .02; absolute decrease, −5.7%[95%CI, −10.6%, −0.9%]), yet there were no significant differences in Medicare spending or hospital

  6. Text mining approach to predict hospital admissions using early medical records from the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Lucini, Filipe R; S Fogliatto, Flavio; C da Silveira, Giovani J; L Neyeloff, Jeruza; Anzanello, Michel J; de S Kuchenbecker, Ricardo; D Schaan, Beatriz

    2017-04-01

    Emergency department (ED) overcrowding is a serious issue for hospitals. Early information on short-term inward bed demand from patients receiving care at the ED may reduce the overcrowding problem, and optimize the use of hospital resources. In this study, we use text mining methods to process data from early ED patient records using the SOAP framework, and predict future hospitalizations and discharges. We try different approaches for pre-processing of text records and to predict hospitalization. Sets-of-words are obtained via binary representation, term frequency, and term frequency-inverse document frequency. Unigrams, bigrams and trigrams are tested for feature formation. Feature selection is based on χ(2) and F-score metrics. In the prediction module, eight text mining methods are tested: Decision Tree, Random Forest, Extremely Randomized Tree, AdaBoost, Logistic Regression, Multinomial Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (Kernel linear) and Nu-Support Vector Machine (Kernel linear). Prediction performance is evaluated by F1-scores. Precision and Recall values are also informed for all text mining methods tested. Nu-Support Vector Machine was the text mining method with the best overall performance. Its average F1-score in predicting hospitalization was 77.70%, with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.66%. The method could be used to manage daily routines in EDs such as capacity planning and resource allocation. Text mining could provide valuable information and facilitate decision-making by inward bed management teams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Readmission to medical intensive care units: risk factors and prediction.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yong Suk; Lee, Yeon Joo; Park, Jong Sun; Yoon, Ho Il; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek; Cho, Young-Jae

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to find factors related to medical intensive care unit (ICU) readmission and to develop a prediction index for determining patients who are likely to be readmitted to medical ICUs. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 343 consecutive patients who were admitted to the medical ICU of a single medical center from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012. We analyzed a broad range of patients' characteristics on the day of admission, extubation, and discharge from the ICU. Of the 343 patients discharged from the ICU alive, 33 (9.6%) were readmitted to the ICU unexpectedly. Using logistic regression analysis, the verified factors associated with increased risk of ICU readmission were male sex [odds ratio (OR) 3.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-8.48], history of diabetes mellitus (OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.29-7.09), application of continuous renal replacement therapy during ICU stay (OR 2.78, 95% CI 0.85-9.09), white blood cell count on the day of extubation (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.21), and heart rate just before ICU discharge (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06). We established a prediction index for ICU readmission using the five verified risk factors (area under the curve, 0.76, 95% CI 0.66-0.86). By using specific risk factors associated with increased readmission to the ICU, a numerical index could be established as an estimation tool to predict the risk of ICU readmission.

  8. Trends and significance of VRE colonization in the ICU: a meta-analysis of published studies.

    PubMed

    Ziakas, Panayiotis D; Thapa, Rachana; Rice, Louis B; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2013-01-01

    The burden and significance of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) colonization in the ICU is not clearly understood. We searched PubMed and EMBASE up to May 2013 for studies reporting the prevalence of VRE upon admission to the ICU and performed a meta-analysis to assess rates and trends of VRE colonization. We calculated the prevalence of VRE on admission and the acquisition (colonization and/or infection) rates to estimate time trends and the impact of colonization on ensuing VRE infections. Across 37 studies (62,959 patients at risk), the estimated prevalence of VRE on admission to the ICU was 8.8% (7.1-10.6). Estimates were more consistent when cultures were obtained within 24 hours from admission. The VRE acquisition rate was 8.8% (95% CI 6.9-11.0) across 26 evaluable studies (35,364 patients at risk). Across US studies, VRE acquisition rate was 10.2% (95% CI 7.7-13.0) and demonstrated significant decline in annual trends. We used the US estimate of colonization on admission [12.3% (10.5-14.3)] to evaluate the impact of VRE colonization on admission in overall VRE prevalence. We demonstrated that VRE colonization on admission is a major determinant of the overall VRE burden in the ICU. Importantly, among colonized patients (including admitted and/or acquired cases) the VRE infection rates vary widely from 0-45% (with the risk of VRE bacteremia being reported from 0-16%) and <2% among those without a proven colonization. In summary, up to 10.6% of patients admitted in the ICU are colonized with VRE on admission and a similar percentage will acquire VRE during their ICU stay. Importantly, colonization on admission is a major determinant of VRE dynamics in the ICU and the risk of VRE-related infections is close related to colonization.

  9. Trends and Significance of VRE Colonization in the ICU: A Meta-Analysis of Published Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ziakas, Panayiotis D.; Thapa, Rachana; Rice, Louis B.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2013-01-01

    Background The burden and significance of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) colonization in the ICU is not clearly understood. Methods We searched PubMed and EMBASE up to May 2013 for studies reporting the prevalence of VRE upon admission to the ICU and performed a meta-analysis to assess rates and trends of VRE colonization. We calculated the prevalence of VRE on admission and the acquisition (colonization and/or infection) rates to estimate time trends and the impact of colonization on ensuing VRE infections. Findings Across 37 studies (62,959 patients at risk), the estimated prevalence of VRE on admission to the ICU was 8.8% (7.1-10.6). Estimates were more consistent when cultures were obtained within 24 hours from admission. The VRE acquisition rate was 8.8% (95% CI 6.9-11.0) across 26 evaluable studies (35,364 patients at risk). Across US studies, VRE acquisition rate was 10.2% (95% CI 7.7-13.0) and demonstrated significant decline in annual trends. We used the US estimate of colonization on admission [12.3% (10.5-14.3)] to evaluate the impact of VRE colonization on admission in overall VRE prevalence. We demonstrated that VRE colonization on admission is a major determinant of the overall VRE burden in the ICU. Importantly, among colonized patients (including admitted and/or acquired cases) the VRE infection rates vary widely from 0-45% (with the risk of VRE bacteremia being reported from 0-16%) and <2% among those without a proven colonization. Conclusion In summary, up to 10.6% of patients admitted in the ICU are colonized with VRE on admission and a similar percentage will acquire VRE during their ICU stay. Importantly, colonization on admission is a major determinant of VRE dynamics in the ICU and the risk of VRE-related infections is close related to colonization. PMID:24086603

  10. Maternal plasma procalcitonin concentrations in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes--prediction of preterm delivery and admission-to-delivery interval.

    PubMed

    Torbé, Andrzej; Czajka, Ryszard

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate procalcitonin (PCT) plasma levels in pregnancy complicated by preterm labor and to determine their value in the prediction of preterm delivery and the length of the admission-to-delivery interval. The study population consisted of 53 patients with preterm labor and 31 healthy pregnants. The study patients were divided according to the delivery time and to the admission-to-delivery interval. Plasma PCT concentrations were higher in preterm labor than in healthy pregnants. Although at the onset of preterm labor plasma PCT concentrations in patients who delivered prematurely were higher than in patients who, after tocolytic treatment, delivered at term, the difference was not significant. Also in cases of preterm labor delivered within and after three and seven days of admission no differences were observed. The highest values in the prediction of preterm delivery and the length of admission-to-delivery interval corresponded to a PCT concentration of 1.7 ng/ml. These findings suggest that although preterm labor is associated with increased PCT concentrations in maternal plasma, there is no significant association either between plasma concentration of PCT at the moment of threat and preterm delivery, or the admission-to-delivery interval. The predictive value of plasma PCT determinations is unsatisfactory.

  11. Predicting institutional long-term care admission in dementia: a mixed-methods study of informal caregivers' reports.

    PubMed

    Afram, Basema; Verbeek, Hilde; Bleijlevens, Michel H C; Challis, David; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Karlsson, Staffan; Soto, Maria E; Renom-Guiteras, Anna; Saks, Kai; Zabalegui, Adelaida; Hamers, Jan P H

    2015-06-01

    To investigate agreement between: (1) expected reasons and actual reasons for admission of people with dementia according to informal caregivers; (2) scores on measurement instruments prior to admission and the actual reasons for admission according to informal caregivers. Timely admission of people with dementia is a crucial issue. Information is highly warranted on whether informal caregivers are capable of prior identification of causes of admission and, can thus be considered a reliable prospective source on causes of admission. A cohort study among informal caregivers of people with dementia who made a transition to institutional long-term care. Qualitative data on the expected and actual reasons for admission were collected via open-ended questions at baseline and follow-up. Furthermore, at baseline, data were collected using measurement instruments to measure pre-admission characteristics. Interviews took place between November 2010-April 2012. After categorizing the answers, the agreement between the expected and actual reasons was calculated. Furthermore, bivariate associations were calculated between the actual reasons for admission and scores on corresponding measurement instruments. For most informal caregivers, there was agreement between their statements on the expected reason and the actual reason for admission. A third of the caregivers showed no conformity. Bivariate associations showed that there is also agreement between the actual reasons for admission and scores on corresponding measurement instruments. Informal caregivers can be considered reliable sources of information regarding what causes the admission of a person with dementia. Professional care should anticipate informal caregivers' statements and collaborate with them to strive for timely and appropriate admission. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Using an admissions exam to predict student success in an ADN program.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, P A; Bomba, C; Crane, L R

    2001-01-01

    Nursing faculty strive to admit students who are likely to successfully complete the nursing curriculum and pass NCLEX-RN. The high cost of academic preparation and the nursing shortage make this selection process even more critical. The authors discuss how one community college nursing program examined academic achievement measures to determine how well they predicted student success. Results provided faculty with useful data to improve the success and retention of nursing.

  13. Identifying Life-Threatening Admissions for Drug Dependence or Abuse (ILIADDA): Derivation and Validation of a Model.

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tri-Long; Boudemaghe, Thierry; Leguelinel-Blache, Géraldine; Eiden, Céline; Kinowski, Jean-Marie; Le Manach, Yannick; Peyrière, Hélène; Landais, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Given that drug abuse and dependence are common reasons for hospitalization, we aimed to derive and validate a model allowing early identification of life-threatening hospital admissions for drug dependence or abuse. Using the French National Hospital Discharge Data Base, we extracted 66,101 acute inpatient stays for substance abuse, dependence, mental disorders or poisoning associated with medicines or illicit drugs intake, recorded between January 1st, 2009 and December 31st, 2014. We split our study cohort at the center level to create a derivation cohort and a validation cohort. We developed a multivariate logistic model including patient’s age, sex, entrance mode and diagnosis as predictors of a composite primary outcome of in-hospital death or ICU admission. A total of 2,747 (4.2%) patients died or were admitted to ICU. The risk of death or ICU admission was mainly associated with the consumption of opioids, followed by cocaine and other narcotics. Particularly, methadone poisoning was associated with a substantial risk (OR: 35.70, 95% CI [26.94–47.32], P < 0.001). In the validation cohort, our model achieved good predictive properties in terms of calibration and discrimination (c-statistic: 0.847). This allows an accurate identification of life-threatening admissions in drug users to support an early and appropriate management. PMID:28290530

  14. Semistructured black-box prediction: proposed approach for asthma admissions in London.

    PubMed

    Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a global public health problem and the most common chronic disease among children. The factors associated with the condition are diverse, and environmental factors appear to be the leading cause of asthma exacerbation and its worsening disease burden. However, it remains unknown how changes in the environment affect asthma over time, and how temporal or environmental factors predict asthma events. The methodologies for forecasting asthma and other similar chronic conditions are not comprehensively documented anywhere to account for semistructured noncausal forecasting approaches. This paper highlights and discusses practical issues associated with asthma and the environment, and suggests possible approaches for developing decision-making tools in the form of semistructured black-box models, which is relatively new for asthma. Two statistical methods which can potentially be used in predictive modeling and health forecasting for both anticipated and peak events are suggested. Importantly, this paper attempts to bridge the areas of epidemiology, environmental medicine and exposure risks, and health services provision. The ideas discussed herein will support the development and implementation of early warning systems for chronic respiratory conditions in large populations, and ultimately lead to better decision-making tools for improving health service delivery.

  15. Comparison of count-based multimorbidity measures in predicting emergency admission and functional decline in older community-dwelling adults: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Emma; McDowell, Ronald; Bennett, Kathleen; Fahey, Tom; Smith, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Multimorbidity, defined as the presence of 2 or more chronic medical conditions in an individual, is associated with poorer health outcomes. Several multimorbidity measures exist, and the challenge is to decide which to use preferentially in predicting health outcomes. The study objective was to compare the performance of 5 count-based multimorbidity measures in predicting emergency hospital admission and functional decline in older community-dwelling adults attending primary care. Setting 15 general practices (GPs) in Ireland. Participants n=862, ≥70 years, community-dwellers followed-up for 2 years (2010–2012). Exposure at baseline: Five multimorbidity measures (disease counts, selected conditions counts, Charlson comorbidity index, RxRisk-V, medication counts) calculated using GP medical record and linked national pharmacy claims data. Primary outcomes (1) Emergency admission and ambulatory care sensitive (ACS) admission (GP medical record) and (2) functional decline (postal questionnaire). Statistical analysis Descriptive statistics and measure discrimination (c-statistic, 95% CIs), adjusted for confounders. Results Median age was 77 years and 53% were women. Prevalent rates ranged from 37% to 91% depending on which measure was used to define multimorbidity. All measures demonstrated poor discrimination for the outcome of emergency admission (c-statistic range: 0.62, 0.65), ACS admission (c-statistic range: 0.63, 0.68) and functional decline (c-statistic range: 0.55, 0.61). Medication-based measures were equivalent to diagnosis-based measures. Conclusions The choice of measure may have a significant impact on prevalent rates. Five multimorbidity measures demonstrated poor discrimination in predicting emergency admission and functional decline, with medication-based measures equivalent to diagnosis-based measures. Consideration of multimorbidity in isolation is insufficient for predicting these outcomes in community settings. PMID:27650770

  16. The Surgical Optimal Mobility Score predicts mortality and length of stay in an Italian population of medical, surgical, and neurologic intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Piva, Simone; Dora, Giancarlo; Minelli, Cosetta; Michelini, Mariachiara; Turla, Fabio; Mazza, Stefania; D'Ottavi, Patrizia; Moreno-Duarte, Ingrid; Sottini, Caterina; Eikermann, Matthias; Latronico, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    We validated the Italian version of Surgical Optimal Mobility Score (SOMS) and evaluated its ability to predict intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay (LOS), and hospital mortality in a mixed population of ICU patients. We applied the Italian version of SOMS in a consecutive series of prospectively enrolled, adult ICU patients. Surgical Optimal Mobility Score level was assessed twice a day by ICU nurses and twice a week by an expert mobility team. Zero-truncated Poisson regression was used to identify predictors for ICU and hospital LOS, and logistic regression for hospital mortality. All models were adjusted for potential confounders. Of 98 patients recruited, 19 (19.4%) died in hospital, of whom 17 without and 2 with improved mobility level achieved during the ICU stay. SOMS improvement was independently associated with lower hospital mortality (odds ratio, 0.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.42) but increased hospital LOS (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% CI: 1.10-1.33). A higher first-morning SOMS on ICU admission, indicating better mobility, was associated with lower ICU and hospital LOS (rate ratios, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.80-0.99] and 0.84 [95% CI, 0.79-0.89], respectively). The first-morning SOMS on ICU admission predicted ICU and hospital LOS in a mixed population of ICU patients. SOMS improvement was associated with reduced hospital mortality but increased hospital LOS, suggesting the need of optimizing hospital trajectories after ICU discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. External validation of the Probability of repeated admission (Pra) risk prediction tool in older community-dwelling people attending general practice: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Emma; McDowell, Ronald; Bennett, Kathleen; Fahey, Tom; Smith, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Emergency admission is associated with the potential for adverse events in older people and risk prediction models are available to identify those at highest risk of admission. The aim of this study was to externally validate and compare the performance of the Probability of repeated admission (Pra) risk model and a modified version (incorporating a multimorbidity measure) in predicting emergency admission in older community-dwelling people. Setting 15 general practices (GPs) in the Republic of Ireland. Participants n=862, ≥70 years, community-dwelling people prospectively followed up for 2 years (2010–2012). Exposure: Pra risk model (original and modified) calculated for baseline year where ≥0.5 denoted high risk (patient questionnaire, GP medical record review) of future emergency admission. Primary outcome Emergency admission over 1 year (GP medical record review). Statistical analysis: descriptive statistics, model discrimination (c-statistic) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic). Results Of 862 patients, a total of 154 (18%) had ≥1 emergency admission(s) in the follow-up year. 63 patients (7%) were classified as high risk by the original Pra and of these 26 (41%) were admitted. The modified Pra classified 391 (45%) patients as high risk and 103 (26%) were subsequently admitted. Both models demonstrated only poor discrimination (original Pra: c-statistic 0.65 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.70); modified Pra: c-statistic 0.67 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.72)). When categorised according to risk-category model, specificity was highest for the original Pra at cut-point of ≥0.5 denoting high risk (95%), and for the modified Pra at cut-point of ≥0.7 (95%). Both models overestimated the number of admissions across all risk strata. Conclusions While the original Pra model demonstrated poor discrimination, model specificity was high and a small number of patients identified as high risk. Future validation studies should examine higher cut-points denoting

  18. Assessing the predictive validity of the admission process in a master's level speech language pathology program.

    PubMed

    Kjelgaard, Margaret M; Guarino, A J

    2012-10-01

    Astin's Input-Environment-Outcome (I-E-O) model served as the theoretical foundation to assess (a) undergraduate GPA, (b) undergraduate Speech Language Pathology majors, and (c, d) GRE-Q and GRE-V scores (Input) as predictors of students' graduate GPA (Environment), and graduate GPA as a predictor of PRAXIS scores (Outcome). The sample for this study was 122 students who completed the Speech-Language Pathology Program in recent academic cycles at a graduate school in the northeastern United States. The sample was representative of other programs in the country in terms of gender, undergraduate GPA, and GRE scores. Results appear to support the predictive validity of the linear combination of the input predictors of the environment variable (GPA) and of the environment variable on the outcome, i.e., PRAXIS scores.

  19. Costs, effects and implementation of routine data emergency admission risk prediction models in primary care for patients with, or at risk of, chronic conditions: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Mark Rhys; Evans, Bridie Angela; Nelson, Kayleigh; Hutchings, Hayley; Russell, Ian; Snooks, Helen

    2016-03-01

    Emergency admission risk prediction models are increasingly used to identify patients, typically with one or more chronic conditions, for proactive management in primary care to avoid admissions, save costs and improve patient experience. To identify and review the published evidence on the costs, effects and implementation of emergency admission risk prediction models in primary care for patients with, or at risk of, chronic conditions. We shall search for studies of healthcare interventions using routine data-generated emergency admission risk models. We shall report: the effects on emergency admissions and health costs; clinician and patient views; and implementation findings. We shall search ASSIA, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, HMIC, ISI Web of Science, MEDLINE and Scopus from 2005, review references in and citations of included articles, search key journals and contact experts. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment will be performed by two independent reviewers. No ethical permissions are required for this study using published data. Findings will be disseminated widely, including publication in a peer-reviewed journal and through conferences in primary and emergency care and chronic conditions. We judge our results will help a wide audience including primary care practitioners and commissioners, and policymakers. CRD42015016874; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. [Job satisfaction, job burnout and their relationships with work'and patients' characteristics: a comparison between intensive care units (ICU) and not-intensive care units (not-ICU)].

    PubMed

    Viotti, Sara; Converso, Daniela; Loera, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Health worker's population is espoused to high level of stress, and several studies highlight differences between intensive care units (ICU) and non-intensive care unit (non-ICU). Particular features of the job in ICU concern responsibilities for critically patients, highly advanced technology and need for quick decision. Aims of this study are: (1) to examine differences between ICU's and not-ICU's workers on several dimensions describing work environment and workers' health; (2) investigate which specific work conditions have a role in determining psychological work reactions in ICU's and not-ICU's workers. 144 ICUs' and not-ICU's 114 workers employed in an Italian Hospital filled out a questionnaire concerning decision authority, autonomy, colleagues' and supervisors' support, physical and cognitive demands as antecedents; job satisfaction and job burnout (EE, DP) as consequences. 1) MANOVA highlighted how ICU workers reported significantly higher scores on depersonalization, job satisfaction, aggressive customers, while physical demands and proportionate customer expectations were significantly higher for not-ICU workers; (2) Six Multiple Linear Regressions were carried out. Those indicated decision authority, autonomy and supervisors' support as predictors of emotional exhaustions in ICU. In not-ICU only cognitive demands and colleagues' support are significant predictors. Depersonalization is predicted in ICU by colleagues' support. Predictors of job satisfaction both in ICU and not-ICU are: decision authority and colleagues support. Current study highlighted several differences among ICU and non-ICU workers' referred to work environment and psychological reactions.

  1. Maternal and neonatal separation and mortality associated with concurrent admissions to intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Joel G.; Urquia, Marcelo L.; Berger, Howard; Vermeulen, Marian J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Concurrent admission of a mother and her newborn to separate intensive care units (herein referred to as co-ICU admission), possibly in different centres, can magnify family discord and stress. We examined the prevalence and predictors of mother–infant separation and mortality associated with co-ICU admissions. Methods: We completed a population-based study of all 1 023 978 singleton live births in Ontario between Apr. 1, 2002, and Mar. 31, 2010. We included data for maternal–infant pairs that had co-ICU admission (n = 1216), maternal ICU admission only (n = 897), neonatal ICU (NICU) admission only (n = 123 236) or no ICU admission (n = 898 629). The primary outcome measure was mother–infant separation because of interfacility transfer. Results: The prevalence of co-ICU admissions was 1.2 per 1000 live births and was higher than maternal ICU admissions (0.9 per 1000). Maternal–newborn separation due to interfacility transfer was 30.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 26.9–35.3) times more common in the co-ICU group than in the no-ICU group and exceeded the prevalence in the maternal ICU group and NICU group. Short-term infant mortality (< 28 days after birth) was higher in the co-ICU group (18.1 per 1000 live births; maternal age–adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 27.8, 95% CI 18.2–42.6) than in the NICU group (7.6 per 1000; age-adjusted HR 11.5, 95% CI 10.4–12.7), relative to 0.7 per 1000 in the no-ICU group. Short-term maternal mortality (< 42 days after delivery) was also higher in the co-ICU group (15.6 per 1000; age-adjusted HR 328.7, 95% CI 191.2–565.2) than in the maternal ICU group (6.7 per 1000; age-adjusted HR 140.0, 95% CI 59.5–329.2) or the NICU group (0.2 per 1000; age-adjusted HR 4.6, 95% CI 2.8–7.4). Interpretation: Mother–infant pairs in the co-ICU group had the highest prevalence of separation due to interfacility transfer and the highest mortality compared with those in the maternal ICU and NICU groups. PMID:23091180

  2. Risk Assessment of Patients Undergoing Transfemoral Aortic Valve Implantation upon Admission for Post-Interventional Intensive Care and Surveillance: Implications on Short- and Midterm Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rashid, Fadi; Kahlert, Philipp; Selge, Friederike; Hildebrandt, Heike; Patsalis, Polycarpos-Christos; Totzeck, Matthias; Mummel, Petra; Rassaf, Tienush; Jánosi, Rolf Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have found that standard risk scores inaccurately reflect risk in TAVI cohorts. The assessment of mortality risk upon post-interventional ICU admission is important to optimizing clinical management. This study sought to determine outcomes and factors affecting mortality in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), and to analyze and compare the predictive values of SAPS II and EuroSCORE. Methods and Findings 214 consecutive patients treated with transfemoral TAVI (2006–2012) admitted to the ICU in an academic tertiary-care university hospital, were included in this retrospective data analysis. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 7%. Non-survivors at 30-days and survivors showed differences in the rates of catecholamine therapy upon ICU admission (93 vs. 29%; p<0.001), stroke (20 vs. 1%;p<0.001), sepsis (27 vs. 2%;p<0.001), kidney injury (83 vs. 56%; log-rank p<0.001), catecholamine therapy (88 vs. 61%;log-rank p<0.001) and vascular complications (60 vs. 17%; p<0.001). Mean SAPS II score and predicted mortality were higher in non-survivors (38.1±7.0 vs. 29.9±6.2;p<0.001 and 23.1±11.7 vs. 10.5±8.2;p<0.001, retrospectively), whereas the logistic EuroSCORE could not discriminate between the groups (p = 0.555). Among the biochemical parameters, the maximum values of creatinine, procalcitonin, and troponin I during the first 48 h after ICU admission were significantly higher in non-survivors. Multivariate analysis of baseline characteristics and complications associated with two-year mortality showed no significant results. Conclusions The SAPS II is a good tool for estimating ICU mortality immediately after performing the TAVI procedure and provides valuable information for other known predictors of mortality. PMID:27880819

  3. Association between hypernatraemia acquired in the ICU and mortality: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Darmon, Michael; Timsit, Jean-François; Francais, Adrien; Nguile-Makao, Molière; Adrie, Christophe; Cohen, Yves; Garrouste-Orgeas, Maïté; Goldgran-Toledano, Dany; Dumenil, Anne-Sylvie; Jamali, Samir; Cheval, Christine; Allaouchiche, Bernard; Souweine, Bertrand; Azoulay, Elie

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence and outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired hypernatraemia (IAH). A retrospective analysis was performed on a prospectively collected database fed by 12 ICUs. Subjects are unselected patients with ICU stay >48 h. Mild and moderate to severe hypernatraemia were defined as serum sodium >145 and >150 mmol/L, respectively. IAH was hypernatraemia occurring >or=24 h after ICU admission in patients with normal serum sodium at ICU admission. Of the 8441 patients, 301 were excluded because they had hypernatraemia at ICU admission. Of the remaining 8140 patients, 901 (11.1%) experienced mild hypernatraemia, and 344 (4.2%) experienced moderate to severe hypernatraemia. Factors independently associated with IAH were male gender, severity at admission as assessed by the Simplified Acute Physiology Score version II (SAPS II), and organ failure or life-supporting treatment at ICU admission. Unadjusted hospital mortality was 15.2% in patients without hypernatraemia compared to 29.5% in patients with mild IAH and 46.2% in those with moderate to severe IAH (P < 0.0001). When any degree of IAH was handled as a time-dependent variable in a subdistribution hazard model, the subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) for ICU mortality was 4.26 [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.74-4.84]. After stratification by centre and adjustment for confounders, both mild IAH and moderate to severe IAH were independently associated with mortality [SHR 2.03 (95% CI 1.73-2.39) and 2.67 (95% CI 2.19-3.26), respectively]. IAH is frequent and associated with mortality after adjustment on severity at ICU admission.

  4. In ICU state anxiety is not associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms over six months after ICU discharge: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Maria I; Cooke, Marie L; Macfarlane, Bonnie; Aitken, Leanne M

    2016-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress symptoms are common after intensive care treatment. The influence of anxiety during critical illness on the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms needs to be investigated. To determine the association between anxiety during critical illness (state and trait components) and posttraumatic stress symptoms over six months after ICU discharge. Prospective study including 141 patients admitted ≥24h to a closed mixed adult ICU in a tertiary hospital. State anxiety was assessed with the Faces Anxiety Scale during ICU stay. Trait anxiety was measured with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y-2. Posttraumatic stress symptoms were measured at three and six months after ICU discharge using the Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms 10-Question Inventory. Clinical and demographical data were also collected. Mixed effect regression models were used to determine if state and trait anxiety were factors significantly associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms over time. Moderate to severe levels of state anxiety in ICU were reported by 81 (57%) participants. Levels of trait anxiety (median 36 IQR: 29-47) were similar to the Australian population. High levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms occurred at three (n=19, 19%) and six months (n=15, 17%). Factors independently associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms were trait anxiety (2.2; 95% CI, 0.3-4.1; p=0.02), symptoms of anxiety after ICU discharge (0.6; 95% CI, 0.2-1.1; p=0.005), younger age (-1.4; 95% CI, -2.6 to -0.2; p=0.02) and evidence of mental health treatment prior to the ICU admission (5.2; 95% CI, 1.5-8.9; p=0.006). Posttraumatic stress symptoms occurred in a significant proportion of ICU survivors and were significantly associated with higher levels of trait anxiety, younger age, mental health treatment prior to the ICU admission and more symptoms of anxiety after ICU discharge. Early assessment and interventions directed to reduce state and trait anxiety in ICU survivors may be of

  5. Comparison of admission random glucose, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin in predicting the neurological outcome of acute ischemic stroke: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jia-Ying; Chen, Chin-I; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Chen, Yih-Ru; Wu, Hsin-Chiao; Chan, Lung; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Hu, Han-Hwa; Chiou, Hung-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Background Hyperglycemia is a known predictor of negative outcomes in stroke. Several glycemic measures, including admission random glucose, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), have been associated with bad neurological outcomes in acute ischemic stroke, particularly in nondiabetic patients. However, the predictive power of these glycemic measures is yet to be investigated. Methods This retrospective study enrolled 484 patients with acute ischemic stroke from January 2009 to March 2013, and complete records of initial stroke severity, neurological outcomes at three months, and glycemic measures were evaluated. We examined the predictive power of admission random glucose, fasting glucose, and HbA1c for neurological outcomes in acute ischemic stroke. Furthermore, subgroup analyses of nondiabetic patients and patients with diabetes were performed separately. Results Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that admission random glucose and fasting glucose were significant predictors of poor neurological outcomes, whereas HbA1c was not (areas under the ROC curve (AUCs): admission random glucose = 0.564, p = 0.026; fasting glucose = 0.598, p = 0.001; HbA1c = 0.510, p = 0.742). Subgroup analyses of nondiabetic patients and those with diabetes revealed that only fasting glucose predicts neurological outcomes in patients with diabetes, and the AUCs of these three glycemic measures did not differ between the two groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis of the study patients indicated that only age, initial stroke severity, and fasting glucose were independent predictors of poor neurological outcomes, whereas admission random glucose and HbA1c were not (adjusted odds ratio: admission random glucose = 1.002, p = 0.228; fasting glucose = 1.005, p = 0.039; HbA1c = 1.160, p = 0.076). Furthermore, subgroup multivariate logistic regression analyses of nondiabetic patients and those with diabetes indicated that none of the three glycemic

  6. Shocking Admission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric; Millman, Sierra

    2007-01-01

    Marilee Jones's career had been a remarkable success. She joined Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT's) admissions office in 1979, landing a job in Cambridge at a time when boys ruled the sandbox of the admissions profession. Her job was to help MIT recruit more women, who then made up less than one-fifth of the institute's students. She…

  7. Shocking Admission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric; Millman, Sierra

    2007-01-01

    Marilee Jones's career had been a remarkable success. She joined Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT's) admissions office in 1979, landing a job in Cambridge at a time when boys ruled the sandbox of the admissions profession. Her job was to help MIT recruit more women, who then made up less than one-fifth of the institute's students. She…

  8. Obstetric critical care: A prospective analysis of clinical characteristics, predictability, and fetomaternal outcome in a new dedicated obstetric intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sunanda; Naithani, Udita; Doshi, Vimla; Bhargava, Vaibhav; Vijay, Bhavani S

    2011-03-01

    A 1 year prospective analysis of all critically ill obstetric patients admitted to a newly developed dedicated obstetric intensive care unit (ICU) was done in order to characterize causes of admissions, interventions required, course and foetal maternal outcome. Utilization of mortality probability model II (MPM II) at admission for predicting maternal mortality was also assessed. During this period there were 16,756 deliveries with 79 maternal deaths (maternal mortality rate 4.7/1000 deliveries). There were 24 ICU admissions (ICU utilization ratio 0.14%) with mean age of 25.21±4.075 years and mean gestational age of 36.04±3.862 weeks. Postpartum admissions were significantly higher (83.33% n=20, P<0.05) with more patients presenting with obstetric complications (91.66%, n=22, P<0.01) as compared to medical complications (8.32% n=2). Obstetric haemorrhage (n=15, 62.5%) and haemodynamic instability (n=20, 83.33%) were considered to be significant risk factors for ICU admission (P=0.000). Inotropic support was required in 22 patients (91.66%) while 17 patients (70.83%) required ventilatory support but they did not contribute to risk factors for poor outcome. The mean duration of ventilation (30.17±21.65 h) and ICU stay (39.42±33.70 h) were of significantly longer duration in survivors (P=0.01, P=0.00 respectively) versus non-survivors. The observed mortality (n=10, 41.67%) was significantly higher than MPM II predicted death rate (26.43%, P=0.002). We conclude that obstetric haemorrhage leading to haemodynamic instability remains the leading cause of ICU admission and MPM II scores at admission under predict the maternal mortality.

  9. ICU Telemedicine and Critical Care Mortality: A National Effectiveness Study.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Jeremy M; Le, Tri Q; Barnato, Amber E; Hravnak, Marilyn; Kuza, Courtney C; Pike, Francis; Angus, Derek C

    2016-03-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) telemedicine is an increasingly common strategy for improving the outcome of critical care, but its overall impact is uncertain. To determine the effectiveness of ICU telemedicine in a national sample of hospitals and quantify variation in effectiveness across hospitals. We performed a multicenter retrospective case-control study using 2001-2010 Medicare claims data linked to a national survey identifying US hospitals adopting ICU telemedicine. We matched each adopting hospital (cases) to up to 3 nonadopting hospitals (controls) based on size, case-mix, and geographic proximity during the year of adoption. Using ICU admissions from 2 years before and after the adoption date, we compared outcomes between case and control hospitals using a difference-in-differences approach. A total of 132 adopting case hospitals were matched to 389 similar nonadopting control hospitals. The preadoption and postadoption unadjusted 90-day mortality was similar in both case hospitals (24.0% vs. 24.3%, P=0.07) and control hospitals (23.5% vs. 23.7%, P<0.01). In the difference-in-differences analysis, ICU telemedicine adoption was associated with a small relative reduction in 90-day mortality (ratio of odds ratios=0.96; 95% CI, 0.95-0.98; P<0.001). However, there was wide variation in the ICU telemedicine effect across individual hospitals (median ratio of odds ratios=1.01; interquartile range, 0.85-1.12; range, 0.45-2.54). Only 16 case hospitals (12.2%) experienced statistically significant mortality reductions postadoption. Hospitals with a significant mortality reduction were more likely to have large annual admission volumes (P<0.001) and be located in urban areas (P=0.04) compared with other hospitals. Although ICU telemedicine adoption resulted in a small relative overall mortality reduction, there was heterogeneity in effect across adopting hospitals, with large-volume urban hospitals experiencing the greatest mortality reductions.

  10. Predictors and outcome of obstetric admissions to intensive care unit: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shruti; Guleria, Kiran; Vaid, Neelam B; Suneja, Amita; Ahuja, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive observational study was carried out in Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital to identify predictors and outcome of obstetric admission to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Ninety consecutive pregnant patients or those up to 42 days of termination of pregnancy admitted to ICU from October 2010 to December 2011 were enrolled as study subjects with selection of a suitable comparison group. Qualitative statistics of both groups were compared using Pearson's Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Odds ratio was calculated for significant factors. Low socioeconomic status, duration of complaints more than 12 h, delay at intermediary facility, and peripartum hysterectomy increased probability of admission to ICU. High incidence of obstetric admissions to ICU as compared to other countries stresses on need for separate obstetric ICU. Availability of high dependency unit can decrease preload to ICU by 5%. Patients with hemorrhagic disorders and those undergoing peripartum hysterectomy need more intensive care.

  11. Variation exists in rates of admission to intensive care units for heart failure patients across hospitals in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Kyan C.; Dharmarajan, Kumar; Kim, Nancy; Strait, Kelly M.; Li, Shu-Xia; Chen, Serene I.; Lagu, Tara; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite increasing attention on reducing relatively costly hospital practices while maintaining the quality of care, few studies have examined how hospitals use the intensive care unit (ICU), a high-cost setting, for patients admitted with heart failure (HF). We characterized hospital patterns of ICU admission for patients with HF and determined their association with the use of ICU-level therapies and patient outcomes. Methods and Results We identified 166,224 HF discharges from 341 hospitals in the 2009–10 Premier Perspective® database. We excluded hospitals with <25 HF admissions, patients <18 years old, and transfers. We defined ICU as including medical ICU, coronary ICU, and surgical ICU. We calculated the percent of patients admitted directly to an ICU. We compared hospitals in the top-quartile (high ICU admission) with the remaining quartiles. The median percentage of ICU admission was 10% (Interquartile Range 6% to 16%; range 0% to 88%). In top-quartile hospitals, treatments requiring an ICU were used less often: percentage of ICU days receiving mechanical ventilation (6% top quartile versus 15% others), non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (8% versus 19%), vasopressors and/or inotropes (9% versus 16%), vasodilators (6% versus 12%), and any of these interventions (26% versus 51%). Overall HF in-hospital risk standardized mortality was similar (3.4% versus 3.5%; P = 0.2). Conclusions ICU admission rates for HF varied markedly across hospitals and lacked association with in-hospital risk-standardized mortality. Greater ICU use correlated with fewer patients receiving ICU interventions. Judicious ICU use could reduce resource consumption without diminishing patient outcomes. PMID:23355624

  12. Recovery post ICU.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christina

    2014-10-01

    Many ICU patients struggle to recovery following critical illness and may be left with physical, cognitive and psychological problems, which have a negative impact on their quality of life. Gross muscle mass loss and weakness can take some months to recover after the patients' Intensive Care Unit (ICU) discharge, in addition critical illness polyneuropathies can further complicate physical recovery. Psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common and have an negative impact on the patients' ability to engage in rehabilitation after ICU discharge. Finally cognitive deficit affecting memory can be a significant problem. The first step in helping patients to recover from such a devastating illness is to recognise those who have the greatest need and target interventions. Research now suggests that there are interventions that can accelerate physical recovery and reduce the incidence of psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and PTSD. Cognitive rehabilitation, however, is still in its infancy. This review will look at the research into patients' recovery and what can be done to improve this where needed.

  13. Predictive power of UKCAT and other pre-admission measures for performance in a medical school in Glasgow: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) and its four subtests are currently used by 24 Medical and Dental Schools in the UK for admissions. This longitudinal study examines the predictive validity of UKCAT for final performance in the undergraduate medical degree programme at one Medical School and compares this with the predictive validity of the selection measures available pre-UKCAT. Methods This was a retrospective observational study of one cohort of students, admitted to Glasgow Medical School in 2007. We examined the associations which UKCAT scores, school science grades and pre-admissions interview scores had with performance indicators, particularly final composite scores that determine students’ postgraduate training opportunities and overall ranking (Educational Performance Measure - EPM, and Honours and Commendation – H&C). Analyses were conducted both with and without adjustment for potential socio-demographic confounders (gender, age, ethnicity and area deprivation). Results Despite its predictive value declining as students progress through the course, UKCAT was associated with the final composite scores. In mutually adjusted analyses (also adjusted for socio-demographic confounders), only UKCAT total showed independent relationships with both EPM (p = 0.005) and H&C (p = 0.004), school science achievements predicted EPM (p = 0.009), and pre-admissions interview score predicted neither. UKCAT showed less socio-demographic variation than did TSS. Conclusion UKCAT has a modest predictive power for overall course performance at the University of Glasgow Medical School over and above that of school science achievements or pre-admission interview score and we conclude that UKCAT is the most useful predictor of final ranking. PMID:24919950

  14. Predictive power of UKCAT and other pre-admission measures for performance in a medical school in Glasgow: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sartania, Nana; McClure, John D; Sweeting, Helen; Browitt, Allison

    2014-06-11

    The UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) and its four subtests are currently used by 24 Medical and Dental Schools in the UK for admissions. This longitudinal study examines the predictive validity of UKCAT for final performance in the undergraduate medical degree programme at one Medical School and compares this with the predictive validity of the selection measures available pre-UKCAT. This was a retrospective observational study of one cohort of students, admitted to Glasgow Medical School in 2007. We examined the associations which UKCAT scores, school science grades and pre-admissions interview scores had with performance indicators, particularly final composite scores that determine students' postgraduate training opportunities and overall ranking (Educational Performance Measure - EPM, and Honours and Commendation - H&C). Analyses were conducted both with and without adjustment for potential socio-demographic confounders (gender, age, ethnicity and area deprivation). Despite its predictive value declining as students progress through the course, UKCAT was associated with the final composite scores. In mutually adjusted analyses (also adjusted for socio-demographic confounders), only UKCAT total showed independent relationships with both EPM (p = 0.005) and H&C (p = 0.004), school science achievements predicted EPM (p = 0.009), and pre-admissions interview score predicted neither. UKCAT showed less socio-demographic variation than did TSS. UKCAT has a modest predictive power for overall course performance at the University of Glasgow Medical School over and above that of school science achievements or pre-admission interview score and we conclude that UKCAT is the most useful predictor of final ranking.

  15. Real-time prognosis of ICU physiological data streams.

    PubMed

    Sow, Daby; Biem, Alain; Sun, Jimeng; Hu, Jianying; Ebadollahi, Shahram

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a system capable of predicting in real-time the evolution of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) physiological patient data streams. It leverages a state of the art stream computing platform to host analytics capable of making such prognosis in real time. The focus is on online algorithms that do not require a training phase. We use Fading-Memory Polynomial filters [8] on the frequency domain to predict windows of ICU data streams. We report on both the system and the performance of this approach when applied to traces of more than 1500 ICU patients obtained from the MIMIC-II database [1].

  16. Escalation of Commitment in the Surgical ICU.

    PubMed

    Braxton, Carla C; Robinson, Celia N; Awad, Samir S

    2017-04-01

    Escalation of commitment is a business term that describes the continued investment of resources into a project even after there is objective evidence of the project's impending failure. Escalation of commitment may be a contributor to high healthcare costs associated with critically ill patients as it has been shown that, despite almost certain futility, most ICU costs are incurred in the last week of life. Our objective was to determine if escalation of commitment occurs in healthcare settings, specifically in the surgical ICU. We hypothesize that factors previously identified in business and organizational psychology literature including self-justification, accountability, sunk costs, and cognitive dissonance result in escalation of commitment behavior in the surgical ICU setting resulting in increased utilization of resources and cost. A descriptive case study that illustrates common ICU narratives in which escalation of commitment can occur. In addition, we describe factors that are thought to contribute to escalation of commitment behaviors. Escalation of commitment behavior was observed with self-justification, accountability, and cognitive dissonance accounting for the majority of the behavior. Unlike in business decisions, sunk costs was not as evident. In addition, modulating factors such as personality, individual experience, culture, and gender were identified as contributors to escalation of commitment. Escalation of commitment occurs in the surgical ICU, resulting in significant expenditure of resources despite a predicted and often known poor outcome. Recognition of this phenomenon may lead to actions aimed at more rational decision making and may contribute to lowering healthcare costs. Investigation of objective measures that can help aid decision making in the surgical ICU is warranted.

  17. Deliberate drug poisonings admitted to an emergency department in Paris area - a descriptive study and assessment of risk factors for intensive care admission.

    PubMed

    Beaune, S; Juvin, P; Beauchet, A; Casalino, E; Megarbane, B

    2016-01-01

    Each year, approximately 165,000 poisonings are managed in the emergency departments (ED) in France. We performed a descriptive analysis of self-poisoned patients admitted to a university hospital ED in the Paris metropolitan area (France) aimed at investigating their outcome and the risk factors for transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU). We retrospectively reviewed patients' records and performed multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors for ICU admission. During 4 years, 882 self-poisoned patients (median age, 38 years [IQR, 26-47]; sex-ratio, 1M/3F) were admitted to the ED, representing 0.7% of all referred patients. Poisonings mainly resulted from multidrug exposures (53%), including benzodiazepines (78%), serotonin reuptake inhibitors (17%), acetaminophen (13%), antipsychotics (9.5%), imidazopyridines (9.5%), antihypertensive drugs (3%), and polycyclic antidepressants (1.3%). Ethanol was involved in 20% of the exposures. Patients were briefly (<24h) monitored in the ED (55%), transferred to the psychiatric department (30%), medical ward (2%) or ICU (6%), and took an irregular discharge (7%). Among the patients transferred to the ICU, 25% were mechanically ventilated and only one died. Risk factors for ICU admission included antihypertensive (Odds ratio (OR), 40.6; 95%-confidence interval (CI), 7.5-221.9) or antipsychotic drug ingestion (OR, 5.3; CI, 2.0-14.4), male gender (OR, 3.3; CI, 1.30-8.8), and consciousness impairment (OR, 2.1; CI, 1.8-2.5 per point lost in Glasgow coma score). Deliberate drug exposure represents a frequent cause of ED admission. Psychotropic drugs are most commonly involved. Transfer to the ICU is rare and predicted by male gender, drug class, and coma depth.

  18. Ability of admissions criteria to predict early academic performance among students of health science colleges at King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alhadlaq, Adel M; Alshammari, Osama F; Alsager, Saleh M; Neel, Khalid A Fouda; Mohamed, Ashry G

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of admissions criteria at King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, to predict students' early academic performance at three health science colleges (medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy). A retrospective cohort study was conducted with data from the records of students enrolled in the three colleges from the 2008-09 to 2010-11 academic years. The admissions criteria-high school grade average (HSGA), aptitude test (APT) score, and achievement test (ACT) score-were the independent variables. The dependent variable was the average of students' first- and second-year grade point average (GPA). The results showed that the ACT was a better predictor of the students' early academic performance than the HSGA (β=0.368, β=0.254, respectively). No significant relationship was found between the APT and students' early academic performance (β=-0.019, p>0.01). The ACT was most predictive for pharmacy students (β=0.405), followed by dental students (β =0.392) and medical students (β=0.195). Overall, the current admissions criteria explained only 25.5% of the variance in the students' early academic performance. While the ACT and HSGA were found to be predictive of students' early academic performance in health colleges at KSU, the APT was not a strong predictor. Since the combined current admissions criteria for the health science colleges at KSU were weak predictors of the variance in early academic performance, it may be necessary to consider noncognitive evaluation methods during the admission process.

  19. Admissions Testing & Institutional Admissions Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Don; Kalsbeek, David

    2009-01-01

    The array of admissions models and the underlying, and sometimes conflicting goals people have for college admissions, create the dynamics and the tensions that define the contemporary context for enrollment management. The senior enrollment officer must ask, for example, how does an institution try to assure transparency, equality of access,…

  20. Reduced Responsiveness of Blood Leukocytes to Lipopolysaccharide Does not Predict Nosocomial Infections in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    van Vught, Lonneke A; Wiewel, Maryse A; Hoogendijk, Arie J; Scicluna, Brendon P; Belkasim-Bohoudi, Hakima; Horn, Janneke; Schultz, Marcus J; van der Poll, Tom

    2015-08-01

    Critically ill patients show signs of immune suppression, which is considered to increase vulnerability to nosocomial infections. Whole-blood stimulation is frequently used to test the function of the innate immune system. We here assessed the association between whole-blood leukocyte responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and subsequent occurrence of nosocomial infections in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). All consecutive critically ill patients admitted to the ICU between April 2012 and June 2013 with two or more systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria and an expected length of ICU stay of more than 24 h were enrolled. Age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were included as controls. Blood was drawn the first morning after ICU admission and stimulated ex vivo with 100 ng/mL ultrapure LPS for 3 h. Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 were measured in supernatants. Seventy-three critically ill patients were included, of whom 10 developed an ICU-acquired infection. Compared with healthy subjects, whole-blood leukocytes of patients were less responsive to ex vivo stimulation with LPS, as reflected by strongly reduced tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels in culture supernatants. Results were not different between patients who did and those who did not develop an ICU-acquired infection. The extent of reduced LPS responsiveness of blood leukocytes in critically ill patients on the first day after ICU admission does not relate to the subsequent development of ICU-acquired infections. These results argue against the use of whole-blood stimulation as a functional test applied early after ICU admission to predict nosocomial infection.

  1. Hypotension in ICU Patients Receiving Vasopressor Therapy.

    PubMed

    Yapps, Bryce; Shin, Sungtae; Bighamian, Ramin; Thorsen, Jill; Arsenault, Colleen; Quraishi, Sadeq A; Hahn, Jin-Oh; Reisner, Andrew T

    2017-08-17

    Vasopressor infusion (VPI) is used to treat hypotension in an ICU. We studied compliance with blood pressure (BP) goals during VPI and whether a statistical model might be efficacious for advance warning of impending hypotension, compared with a basic hypotension threshold alert. Retrospective data were obtained from a public database. Studying adult ICU patients receiving VPI at submaximal dosages, we analyzed characteristics of sustained hypotension episodes (>15 min) and then developed a logistic regression model to predict hypotension episodes using input features related to BP trends. The model was then validated with prospective data. In the retrospective dataset, 102-of-215 ICU stays experienced >1 hypotension episode (median of 2.5 episodes per day in this subgroup). When trained with 75% of retrospective dataset, testing with the remaining 25% of the dataset showed that the model and the threshold alert detected 99.6% and 100% of the episodes, respectively, with median advance forecast times (AFT) of 12 and 0 min. In a second, prospective dataset, the model detected 100% of 26 episodes with a median AFT of 22 min. In conclusion, episodes of hypotension were common during VPI in the ICU. A logistic regression model using BP temporal trend features predicted the episodes before their onset.

  2. Reasons for ICU demand and long-term follow-up of a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cohort.

    PubMed

    Takir, Huriye Berk; Karakurt, Zuhal; Salturk, Cuneyt; Kargin, Feyza; Balci, Merih; Yalcinsoy, Murat; Ozmen, Ipek; Yazicioglu, Ozlem Mocin; Gungor, Gokay; Burunsuzoğlu, Bünyamin; Adiguzel, Nalan

    2014-12-01

    Acute respiratory failure (ARF) can necessitate mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit (ICU) admission in patients with COPD. We evaluated the reasons COPD patients are admitted to the ICU and assessed long-term outcomes in a retrospective cohort study in a respiratory level-III ICU of a teaching government hospital between November 2007 and April 2012. All COPD patients admitted to ICU for the first time were enrolled and followed for 12 months. Patient characteristics, body mass index (BMI), long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT), non-invasive ventilation (LT-NIV) at home, COPD co-morbidities, reasons for ICU admission, ICU data, length of stay, prescription of new LTOT and LT-NIV, and ICU mortality were recorded. Patient survival after ICU discharge was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. A total of 962 (710 male) patients were included. The mean age was 70 (SD 10). The major reasons for ICU admission were COPD exacerbation (66.7%) and pneumonia (19.7%). ICU and hospital mortality were 11.4%, 12.5% respectively, and 842 patients were followed-up. The new LT-NIV prescription rate was 15.8%. The 6-month 1, 2, 3, and 5-year mortality rates were 24.5%, 33.7%, 46.9%, 58.9% and 72.5%, respectively. Long-term survival was negatively affected by arrhythmia (p < 0.013) and pneumonia (p < 0.025). LT-NIV use (p < 0.016) with LTOT (p < 0.038) increase survival. Pulmonary infection can be a major reason for ICU admission and determining outcome after ICU discharge. Unlike arrhythmia and pneumonia, LT-NIV can improve long-term survival in eligible COPD patients.

  3. Telemedicine Intervention Improves ICU Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sadaka, Farid; Palagiri, Ashok; Trottier, Steven; Deibert, Wendy; Gudmestad, Donna; Sommer, Steven E.; Veremakis, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Telemedicine for the intensive care unit (Tele-ICU) was founded as a means of delivering the clinical expertise of intensivists located remotely to hospitals with inadequate access to intensive care specialists. This was a retrospective pre- and postintervention study of adult patients admitted to a community hospital ICU. The patients in the preintervention period (n = 630) and during the Tele-ICU period (n = 2193) were controlled for baseline characteristics, acute physiologic scores (APS), and acute physiologic and health evaluation (APACHE IV) scores. Mean APS scores were 37.1 (SD, 22.8) and 37.7 (SD, 19.4) (P = 0.56), and mean APACHE IV scores were 49.7 (SD, 24.8) and 50.4 (SD, 21.0) (P = 0.53), respectively. ICU mortality was 7.9% during the preintervention period compared with 3.8% during the Tele-ICU period (odds ratio (OR) = 0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.32–0.66, P < 0.0001). ICU LOS in days was 2.7 (SD, 4.1) compared with 2.2 (SD, 3.4), respectively (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.16, 95% CI, 1.00–1.40, P = 0.01). Implementation of Tele-ICU intervention was associated with reduced ICU mortality and ICU LOS. This suggests that there are benefits of a closed Tele-ICU intervention beyond what is provided by daytime bedside physicians. PMID:23365729

  4. ICU Telemedicine Program Financial Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lilly, Craig M; Motzkus, Christine; Rincon, Teresa; Cody, Shawn E; Landry, Karen; Irwin, Richard S

    2017-02-01

    ICU telemedicine improves access to high-quality critical care, has substantial costs, and can change financial outcomes. Detailed information about financial outcomes and their trends over time following ICU telemedicine implementation and after the addition of logistic center function has not been published to our knowledge. Primary data were collected for consecutive adult patients of a single academic medical center. We compared clinical and financial outcomes across three groups that differed regarding telemedicine support: a group without ICU telemedicine support (pre-ICU intervention group), a group with ICU telemedicine support (ICU telemedicine group), and an ICU telemedicine group with added logistic center functions and support for quality-care standardization (logistic center group). The primary outcome was annual direct contribution margin defined as aggregated annual case revenue minus annual case direct costs (including operating costs of ICU telemedicine and its related programs). All monetary values were adjusted to 2015 US dollars using Producer Price Index for Health-Care Facilities. Annual case volume increased from 4,752 (pre-ICU telemedicine) to 5,735 (ICU telemedicine) and 6,581 (logistic center). The annual direct contribution margin improved from $7,921,584 (pre-ICU telemedicine) to $37,668,512 (ICU telemedicine) to $60,586,397 (logistic center) due to increased case volume, higher case revenue relative to direct costs, and shorter length of stay. The ability of properly modified ICU telemedicine programs to increase case volume and access to high-quality critical care with improved annual direct contribution margins suggests that there is a financial argument to encourage the wider adoption of ICU telemedicine. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Admission white blood cell count predicts short-term clinical outcomes in patients with uncomplicated Stanford type B acute aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhao-Ran; Huang, Bi; Lu, Hai-Song; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Hui, Ru-Tai; Yang, Yan-Min; Fan, Xiao-Han

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Inflammation has been shown to be related with acute aortic dissection (AAD). The present study aimed to evaluate the association of white blood cell counts (WBCc) on admission with both in-hospital and long-term all-cause mortality in patients with uncomplicated Stanford type B AAD. Methods From 2008 to 2010, a total of 377 consecutive patients with uncomplicated type B AAD were enrolled and then followed up. Clinical data and WBCc on admission were collected. The primary end points were in-hospital death and long-term all-cause death. Results The in-hospital death rate was 4.2%, and the long-term all-cause mortality rate was 6.9% during a median follow-up of 18.9 months. WBCc on admission was identified as a risk factor for in-hospital death by univariate Cox regression analysis as both a continuous variable and a categorical variable using a cut off of 11.0 × 109 cell/L (all P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and other risk factors, elevated admission WBCc was still a significant predictor for in-hospital death as both a continuous variable [hazard ratio (HR): 1.052, 95% CI: 1.024–1.336, P = 0.002] and a categorical variable using a cut off of 11.0 × 109 cell/L (HR: 2.056, 95% CI: 1.673–5.253, P = 0.034). No relationship was observed between WBCc on admission and long-term all-cause death. Conclusions Our results indicate that elevated WBCc upon admission might be used as a predictor for increased risk of in-hospital death in uncomplicated type B AAD. There might be no predictive value of WBCc for the long-term survival of type B AAD. PMID:28270842

  6. Variable cost of ICU care, a micro-costing analysis.

    PubMed

    Karabatsou, Dimitra; Tsironi, Maria; Tsigou, Evdoxia; Boutzouka, Eleni; Katsoulas, Theodoros; Baltopoulos, George

    2016-08-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) costs account for a great part of a hospital's expenses. The objective of the present study was to measure the patient-specific cost of ICU treatment, to identify the most important cost drivers in ICU and to examine the role of various contributing factors in cost configuration. A retrospective cost analysis of all ICU patients who were admitted during 2011 in a Greek General, seven-bed ICU and stayed for at least 24hours was performed, by applying bottom-up analysis. Data collected included demographics and the exact cost of every single material used for patients' care. Prices were yielded from the hospital's purchasing costs and from the national price list of the imaging and laboratory tests, which was provided by the Ministry of Health. A total of 138 patients were included. Variable cost per ICU day was €573.18. A substantial cost variation was found in the total costs obtained for individual patients (median: €3443, range: €243.70-€116,355). Medicines were responsible for more than half of the cost and antibiotics accounted for the largest part of it, followed by blood products and cardiovascular drugs. Medical cause of admission, severe illness and increased length of stay, mechanical ventilation and dialysis were the factors associated with cost escalation. ICU variable cost is patient-specific, varies according to each patient's needs and is influenced by several factors. The exact estimation of variable cost is a pre-requisite in order to control ICU expenses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Predicting Major Adverse Kidney Events among Critically Ill Adults Using the Electronic Health Record.

    PubMed

    McKown, Andrew C; Wang, Li; Wanderer, Jonathan P; Ehrenfeld, Jesse; Rice, Todd W; Bernard, Gordon R; Semler, Matthew W

    2017-08-31

    Prediction of major adverse kidney events in critically ill patients may help target therapy, allow risk adjustment, and facilitate the conduct of clinical trials. In a cohort comprised of all critically ill adults admitted to five intensive care units at a single tertiary care center over one year, we developed a logistic regression model for the outcome of Major Adverse Kidney Events within 30 days (MAKE30), the composite of persistent renal dysfunction, new renal replacement therapy (RRT), and in-hospital mortality. Proposed risk factors for the MAKE30 outcome were selected a priori and included age, race, gender, University Health System Consortium (UHC) expected mortality, baseline creatinine, volume of isotonic crystalloid fluid received in the prior 24 h, admission service, intensive care unit (ICU), source of admission, mechanical ventilation or receipt of vasopressors within 24 h of ICU admission, renal replacement therapy prior to ICU admission, acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease as defined by baseline creatinine value, and renal failure as defined by the Elixhauser index. Among 10,983 patients in the study population, 1489 patients (13.6%) met the MAKE30 endpoint. The strongest independent predictors of MAKE30 were UHC expected mortality (OR 2.32 [95%CI 2.06-2.61]) and presence of acute kidney injury at ICU admission (OR 4.98 [95%CI 4.12-6.03]). The model had strong predictive properties including excellent discrimination with a bootstrap-corrected area-under-the-curve (AUC) of 0.903, and high precision of calibration with a mean absolute error prediction of 1.7%. The MAKE30 composite outcome can be reliably predicted from factors present within 24 h of ICU admission using data derived from the electronic health record.

  8. Development and validation of predictive MoSaiCo (Modello Statistico Combinato) on emergency admissions: can it also identify patients at high risk of frailty?

    PubMed

    Falasca, Pasquale; Berardo, Arianna; Di Tommaso, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    The prospective historical cohort study develops and validates a method of identifying patients at high risk of emergency admission to hospital in the population of the Province of Ravenna (no. = 296 641). The main outcome measure is: emergency hospital admission analyzed using multivariate logistic regression (MoSaiCo - Modello Statistico Combinato). To validate the findings, the coefficients for 30 most powerful variables found on half of the population (derivation data set) were then applied to the rest of the population (validation data set). The key predicting factors included some demographic variables, social variables, clinical variables and use of health/social services. Discriminatory power and validation both reached good results. Risk score increases when variables indicating the individual vulnerability raise. The predictive frailty risk resulting from MoSaiCo allows to stratify the population, to organize care services, to provide a practical planning tool in the field of case management and management of frail patients.

  9. Incidence and predisposing factors for the development of disturbed glucose metabolism and DIabetes mellitus AFter Intensive Care admission: the DIAFIC study.

    PubMed

    Van Ackerbroeck, Sofie; Schepens, Tom; Janssens, Karolien; Jorens, Philippe G; Verbrugghe, Walter; Collet, Sandra; Van Hoof, Viviane; Van Gaal, Luc; De Block, Christophe

    2015-10-02

    Elevated blood glucose levels during intensive care unit (ICU) stay, so-called stress hyperglycaemia (SH), is a common finding. Its relation with a future diabetes risk is unclear. Our objective was to determine the incidence of disturbed glucose metabolism (DGM) post ICU admission and to identify predictors for future diabetes risk with a focus on stress hyperglycaemia. This single center prospective cohort trial (DIAFIC trial) had a study period between September 2011 and March 2013, with follow-up until December 2013. The setting was a mixed medical/surgical ICU in a tertiary teaching hospital in Belgium. 338 patients without known diabetes mellitus were included for analysis. We assessed the level of glucose metabolism disturbance (as diagnosed with a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and/or HbA1c level) eight months after ICU admission, and investigated possible predictors including stress hyperglycaemia. In total 246 patients (73 %) experienced stress hyperglycaemia during the ICU stay. Eight months post-ICU admission, 119 (35 %) subjects had a disturbed glucose metabolism, including 24 (7 %) patients who were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. A disturbed glucose metabolism tended to be more prevalent in subjects who experienced stress hyperglycaemia during ICU stay as compared to those without stress hyperglycaemia (38 % vs. 28 %, P = 0.065). HbA1c on admission correlated with the degree of stress hyperglycaemia. A diabetes risk score (FINDRISC) (11.0 versus 9.5, P = 0.001), the SAPS3 score (median of 42 in both groups, P = 0.003) and daily caloric intake during ICU stay (197 vs. 222, P = 0.011) were independently associated with a disturbed glucose metabolism. Stress hyperglycaemia is frequent in non-diabetic patients and predicts a tendency towards disturbances in glucose metabolism and diabetes mellitus. Clinically relevant predictors of elevated risk included a high FINDRISC score and a high SAPS3 score. These predictors can provide an efficient

  10. The Utility of Routine Intensive Care Admission for Patients Undergoing Intracranial Neurosurgical Procedures: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Cesar Cimonari; Boone, M Dustin; Laviv, Yosef; Kasper, Burkhard S; Chen, Clark C; Kasper, Ekkehard M

    2017-08-14

    Patients who have undergone intracranial neurosurgical procedures have traditionally been admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for close postoperative neurological observation. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the evidence for routine ICU admission in patients undergoing intracranial neurosurgical procedures and to evaluate the safety of alternative postoperative pathways. We were interested in identifying studies that examined selected patients who presented for elective, non-emergent intracranial surgery whose postoperative outcomes were compared as a function of ICU versus non-ICU admission. A systematic review was performed in July 2016 using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist of the Medline database. The search strategy was created based on the following key words: "craniotomy," "neurosurgical procedure," and "intensive care unit." The nine articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria yielded a total of 2227 patients. Of these patients, 879 were observed in a non-ICU setting. The most frequent diagnoses were supratentorial brain tumors, followed by patients with cerebrovascular diseases and infratentorial brain tumors. Three percent (30/879) of the patients originally assigned to floor or intermediate care status were transferred to the ICU. The most frequently observed neurological complications leading to ICU transfer were delayed postoperative neurological recovery, seizures, worsening of neurological deficits, hemiparesis, and cranial nerves deficits. Our systematic review demonstrates that routine postoperative ICU admission may not benefit carefully selected patients who have undergone elective intracranial neurosurgical procedures. In addition, limiting routine ICU admission may result in significant cost savings.

  11. Innovative designs for the smart ICU: Part 2: The ICU.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Neil A

    2014-03-01

    Successfully designing a new ICU requires clarity of vision and purpose and the recognition that the patient room is the core of the ICU experience for patients, staff, and visitors. The ICU can be conceptualized into three components: the patient room, central areas, and universal support services. Each patient room should be designed for single patient use and be similarly configured and equipped. The design of the room should focus upon functionality, ease of use, healing, safety, infection control, communications, and connectivity. All aspects of the room, including its infrastructure; zones for work, care, and visiting; environment, medical devices, and approaches to privacy; logistics; and waste management, are important elements in the design process. Since most medical devices used at the ICU bedside are really sophisticated computers, the ICU needs to be capable of supporting the full scope of medical informatics. The patient rooms, the central ICU areas (central stations, corridors, supply rooms, pharmacy, laboratory, staff lounge, visitor waiting room, on-call suite, conference rooms, and offices), and the universal support services (infection prevention, finishings and flooring, staff communications, signage and wayfinding, security, and fire and safety) work best when fully interwoven. This coordination helps establish efficient and safe patient throughput and care and fosters physical and social cohesiveness within the ICU. A balanced approach to centralized and decentralized monitoring and logistics also offers great flexibility. Synchronization of the universal support services in the ICU with the hospital's existing systems maintains unity of purpose and continuity across the enterprise and avoids unnecessary duplication of efforts.

  12. Vitamin D deficiency at admission is not associated with 90-day mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock: Observational FINNAKI cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ala-Kokko, Tero I; Mutt, Shivaprakash J; Nisula, Sara; Koskenkari, Juha; Liisanantti, Janne; Ohtonen, Pasi; Poukkanen, Meri; Laurila, Jouko J; Pettilä, Ville; Herzig, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with increased mortality in patients that are critically ill. This study explored whether vitamin D levels were associated with 90-day mortality in severe sepsis or septic shock. Methods Plasma vitamin D levels were measured on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) in a prospective multicentre observational study. Results 610 patients with severe sepsis were included; of these, 178 (29%) had septic shock. Vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L) was present in 333 (55%) patients. The 90-day mortality did not differ among patients with or without vitamin D deficiency (28.3% vs. 28.5%, p = 0.789). Diabetes was more common among patients deficient compared to those not deficient in vitamin D (30% vs. 18%, p < 0.001). Hospital-acquired infections at admission were more prevalent in patients with a vitamin D deficiency (31% vs. 16%, p < 0.001). A multivariable adjusted Cox regression model showed that low vitamin D levels could not predict 90-day mortality (<50 nmol/L: hazard ratio (HR) 0.99 (95% CI: 0.72-1.36), p > 0.9; and <25 nmol/L: HR 0.44 (95% CI: 0.22-0.87), p = 0.018). Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency detected upon ICU admission was not associated with 90-day mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Key messages In severe sepsis and septic shock, a vitamin D deficiency upon ICU admission was not associated with increased mortality. Compared to patients with sufficient vitamin D, patients with deficient vitamin D more frequently exhibited diabetes, elevated C-reactive protein levels, and hospital-acquired infections upon ICU admission, and they more frequently developed acute kidney injury.

  13. Predicting Mortality in Low-Income Country ICUs: The Rwanda Mortality Probability Model (R-MPM)

    PubMed Central

    Kiviri, Willy; Fowler, Robert A.; Mueller, Ariel; Novack, Victor; Banner-Goodspeed, Valerie M.; Weinkauf, Julia L.; Talmor, Daniel S.; Twagirumugabe, Theogene

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intensive Care Unit (ICU) risk prediction models are used to compare outcomes for quality improvement initiatives, benchmarking, and research. While such models provide robust tools in high-income countries, an ICU risk prediction model has not been validated in a low-income country where ICU population characteristics are different from those in high-income countries, and where laboratory-based patient data are often unavailable. We sought to validate the Mortality Probability Admission Model, version III (MPM0-III) in two public ICUs in Rwanda and to develop a new Rwanda Mortality Probability Model (R-MPM) for use in low-income countries. Methods We prospectively collected data on all adult patients admitted to Rwanda’s two public ICUs between August 19, 2013 and October 6, 2014. We described demographic and presenting characteristics and outcomes. We assessed the discrimination and calibration of the MPM0-III model. Using stepwise selection, we developed a new logistic model for risk prediction, the R-MPM, and used bootstrapping techniques to test for optimism in the model. Results Among 427 consecutive adults, the median age was 34 (IQR 25–47) years and mortality was 48.7%. Mechanical ventilation was initiated for 85.3%, and 41.9% received vasopressors. The MPM0-III predicted mortality with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.72 and Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square statistic p = 0.024. We developed a new model using five variables: age, suspected or confirmed infection within 24 hours of ICU admission, hypotension or shock as a reason for ICU admission, Glasgow Coma Scale score at ICU admission, and heart rate at ICU admission. Using these five variables, the R-MPM predicted outcomes with area under the ROC curve of 0.81 with 95% confidence interval of (0.77, 0.86), and Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square statistic p = 0.154. Conclusions The MPM0-III has modest ability to predict mortality in a population of Rwandan ICU patients. The R

  14. The National Early Warning Score: Translation, testing and prediction in a Swedish setting.

    PubMed

    Spångfors, Martin; Arvidsson, Lisa; Karlsson, Victoria; Samuelson, Karin

    2016-12-01

    The National Early Warning Score - NEWS is a "track and trigger" scale designed to assess in-hospital patients' vital signs and detect clinical deterioration. In this study the NEWS was translated into Swedish and its association with the need of intensive care was investigated. A total of 868 patient charts, recorded by the medical emergency team at a university hospital, containing the parameters needed to calculate the NEWS were audited. The NEWS was translated into Swedish and tested for inter-rater reliability with a perfect agreement (weighted κ=1.0) among the raters. The median score for patients admitted to the ICU were higher than for those who were not (10 vs. 8, p<0.0001). AUROC for discriminating admittance to the ICU was 0.68 (95% CI: 0.622-0.739, p<0.0001). A regression analysis showed that lower oxygen saturation and a lower level of consciousness were significantly associated with ICU admission (OR 1.27 [1.06-1.52], p=0.01 and OR 1.77 [1.12-2.82], p=0.02) and may predict admission to the ICU better than the other parameters. The Swedish translated NEWS seems to have excellent inter-rater reliability and can be used without risk of linguistic misinterpretation. High scores for the parameters oxygen saturation and level of consciousness in the NEWS may predict admission to the ICU. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intensive care unit admission in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: patient information and the physician's decision-making process.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Matthieu; Demoule, Alexandre; Deslandes-Boutmy, Emmanuelle; Chaize, Marine; de Miranda, Sandra; Bèle, Nicolas; Roche, Nicolas; Azoulay, Elie; Similowski, Thomas

    2014-06-04

    ICU admission is required in more than 25% of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at some time during the course of the disease. However, only limited information is available on how physicians communicate with COPD patients about ICU admission. COPD patients and relatives from 19 French ICUs were interviewed at ICU discharge about their knowledge of COPD. French pulmonologists self-reported their practices for informing and discussing intensive care treatment preferences with COPD patients. Finally, pulmonologists and ICU physicians reported barriers and facilitators for transfer of COPD patients to the ICU and to propose invasive mechanical ventilation. Self-report questionnaires were filled in by 126 COPD patients and 102 relatives, and 173 pulmonologists and 135 ICU physicians were interviewed. For 41% (n = 39) of patients and 54% (n = 51) of relatives, ICU admission had never been expected prior to admission. One half of patients were not routinely informed by their pulmonologist about possible ICU admission at some time during the course of COPD. Moreover, treatment options (that is, non-invasive ventilation, intubation and mechanical ventilation or tracheotomy) were not explained to COPD patients during regular pulmonologist visits. Pulmonologists and ICU physician have different perceptions of the decision-making process pertaining to ICU admission and intubation. The information provided by pulmonologists to patients and families concerning the prognosis of COPD, the risks of ICU admission and specific care could be improved in order to deliver ICU care in accordance with the patient's personal values and preferences. Given the discrepancies in the decision-making process between pulmonologists and intensivists, a more collaborative approach should probably be discussed.

  16. Endotracheal intubation in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Lapinsky, Stephen E

    2015-06-17

    Endotracheal intubation in the ICU is a high-risk procedure, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Up to 40% of cases are associated with marked hypoxemia or hypotension. The ICU patient is physiologically very different from the usual patient who undergoes intubation in the operating room, and different intubation techniques should be considered. The common operating room practice of sedation and neuromuscular blockade to facilitate intubation may carry significant risk in the ICU patient with a marked oxygenation abnormality, particularly when performed by the non-expert. Preoxygenation is largely ineffective in these patients and oxygen desaturation occurs rapidly on induction of anesthesia, limiting the time available to secure the airway. The ICU environment is less favorable for complex airway management than the operating room, given the frequent lack of availability of additional equipment or additional expert staff. ICU intubations are frequently carried out by trainees, with a lesser degree of airway experience. Even in the presence of a non-concerning airway assessment, these patients are optimally managed as a difficult airway, utilizing an awake approach. Endotracheal intubation may be achieved by awake direct laryngoscopy in the sick ICU patient whose level of consciousness may be reduced by sepsis, hypercapnia or hypoxemia. As the patient's spontaneous respiratory efforts are not depressed by the administration of drugs, additional time is available to obtain equipment and expertise in the event of failure to secure the airway. ICU intubation complications should be tracked as part of the ICU quality improvement process.

  17. Utilization of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in a medical-surgical ICU.

    PubMed

    Ryskamp, R P; Trottier, S J

    1998-01-01

    To assess the utilization of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in a medical-surgical ICU. Prospective cohort study. A closed (mandatory critical care consult) medical-surgical ICU of a large community teaching hospital. The medical records of consecutive medical-surgical ICU admissions were evaluated by a single investigator during a 3-month period. Risk factors for VTE and the type and timing of VTE prophylaxis were recorded. Of 308 admissions evaluated, 209 were included in the study. VTE prophylaxis was administered within the first 24 h of ICU admission to 179 of the 209 study patients or 86%. Fifty-three percent (n=111) were surgical patients and 47% (n=98) were medical patients. The study patients had an average of 4.4 risk factors for VTE. Thirty study patients (14%) did not receive VTE prophylaxis. Eighty-six percent of the medical-surgical patients included in this study received VTE prophylaxis. The utilization of VTE prophylaxis described in this study is higher compared to previously published data. The nature of physician coverage in our medical-surgical ICU (closed unit), consistent practice patterns of a designated ICU staff, and a continuing medical education program involving VTE prophylaxis are the factors believed to be responsible for these results.

  18. A multifaceted intervention to improve compliance with process measures for ICU clinician communication with ICU patients and families.

    PubMed

    Black, Martin D; Vigorito, Margaret C; Curtis, J Randall; Phillips, Gary S; Martin, Edward W; McNicoll, Lynn; Rochon, Therese; Ross, Susan; Levy, Mitchell M

    2013-10-01

    Despite recommendations supporting the importance of clinician-family communication in the ICU, this communication is often rated as suboptimal in frequency and quality. We employed a multifaceted behavioral-change intervention to improve communication between families and clinicians in a statewide collaboration of ICUs. Our primary objective was to examine whether the intervention resulted in increased compliance with process measures that targeted clinician-family communication. As secondary objectives, we examined the ICU-level characteristics that might be associated with increased compliance (open vs closed, teaching vs nonteaching, and medical vs medical-surgical vs surgical) and patient-specific outcomes (mortality, length of stay). The intervention was a multifaceted quality improvement approach targeting process measures adapted from the Institute of Health Improvement and combined into two "bundles" to be completed either 24 or 72 hours after ICU admission. Significant increases were seen in full compliance for both day 1 and day 3 process measures. Day 1 compliance improved from 10.7% to 83.8% after 21 months of intervention (p<0.001). Day 3 compliance improved from 1.6% to 28.8% (p<0.001). Improvements in compliance varied across ICU type with less improvement in open, nonteaching, and mixed medical-surgical ICUs. Patient-specific outcome measures were unchanged, although there was a small increase in patients discharged from ICU to inpatient hospice (p=0.002). We found that a multifaceted intervention in a statewide ICU collaborative improved compliance with specific process measures targeting communication with family members. The effect of the intervention varied by ICU type.

  19. Prevalence and Impact of Unknown Diabetes in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, David L; Gregg, Sara R; Xu, Kejun; Buchman, Timothy G; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2015-12-01

    Many patients with diabetes and their care providers are unaware of the presence of the disease. Dysglycemia encompassing hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glucose variability is common in the ICU in patients with and without diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of unknown diabetes on glycemic control in the ICU. Prospective observational study. Nine ICUs in an academic, tertiary hospital and a hybrid academic/community hospital. Hemoglobin A1c levels were ordered at all ICU admissions from March 1, 2011 to September 30, 2013. Electronic medical records were examined for a history of antihyperglycemic medications or International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition diagnosis of diabetes. Patients were categorized as having unknown diabetes (hemoglobin A1c > 6.5%, without history of diabetes), no diabetes (hemoglobin A1c < 6.5%, without history of diabetes), controlled known diabetes (hemoglobin A1c < 6.5%, with documented history of diabetes), and uncontrolled known diabetes (hemoglobin A1c > 6.5%, with documented history of diabetes). None. A total of 15,737 patients had an hemoglobin A1c and medical record evaluable for the history of diabetes, and 5,635 patients had diabetes diagnosed by either medical history or an elevated hemoglobin A1c in the ICU. Of these, 1,460 patients had unknown diabetes, accounting for 26.0% of all patients with diabetes. This represented 41.0% of patients with an hemoglobin A1c > 6.5% and 9.3% of all ICU patients. Compared with patients without diabetes, patients with unknown diabetes had a higher likelihood of requiring an insulin infusion (44.3% vs 29.3%; p < 0.0001), a higher average blood glucose (172 vs 126 mg/dL; p < 0.0001), an increased percentage of hyperglycemia (19.7% vs 7.0%; blood glucose > 180 mg/dL; p < 0.0001) and hypoglycemia (8.9% vs 2.5%; blood glucose < 70 mg/dL; p < 0.0001), higher glycemic variability (55.6 vs 28.8, average of patient SD of glucose; p < 0.0001), and increased

  20. The biomarkers neuron-specific enolase and S100b measured the day following admission for severe accidental hypothermia have high predictive values for poor outcome.

    PubMed

    Wiberg, Sebastian; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Kjærgaard, Benedict; Møller, Bjarne; Nørnberg, Bo; Sørensen, Anne Marie; Hassager, Christian; Wanscher, Michael

    2017-10-07

    The aim of the present study was to assess the ability of the biomarkers neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100 calcium-binding protein b (S100b) to predict mortality and poor neurologic outcome after 30days in patients admitted with severe accidental hypothermia. Consecutive patients with severe accidental hypothermia, defined as a core temperature <32°C, were included. Patients were treated with active rewarming and/or extracorporeal life support (ECLS) using extra corporeal circulation (ECC) and/or extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The day following admission blood was analyzed for NSE and S100b. Follow-up was conducted after 30days and poor neurologic outcome was defined as a Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) score of 3-5. The predictive value of NSE and S100b was assessed as the area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC). A total of 34 patients were admitted with a diagnosis of severe accidental hypothermia and 29 (85%) were resuscitated from cardiac arrest. ECLS was initiated in 27 (79%) of patients. The day following admission three (9%) patients had died and one (3%) patient was awake, and accordingly, NSE and S100b were analyzed in 30 unconscious and/or sedated patients. NSE and S100b achieved AUCs of 0.93 and 0.88, respectively, for prediction of 30day mortality and AUCs of 0.88 and 0.87, respectively, for prediction of poor neurologic outcome. In patients remaining unconscious the day following admission for severe accidental hypothermia, the biomarkers NSE and S100b appear to be solid predictors of mortality and poor neurologic outcome after 30 days. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Procalcitonin (PCT) levels for ruling-out bacterial coinfection in ICU patients with influenza: A CHAID decision-tree analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alejandro H; Avilés-Jurado, Francesc X; Díaz, Emili; Schuetz, Philipp; Trefler, Sandra I; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Cordero, Lourdes; Vidaur, Loreto; Estella, Ángel; Pozo Laderas, Juan C; Socias, Lorenzo; Vergara, Juan C; Zaragoza, Rafael; Bonastre, Juan; Guerrero, José E; Suberviola, Borja; Cilloniz, Catia; Restrepo, Marcos I; Martín-Loeches, Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    To define which variables upon ICU admission could be related to the presence of coinfection using CHAID (Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection) analysis. A secondary analysis from a prospective, multicentre, observational study (2009-2014) in ICU patients with confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. We assessed the potential of biomarkers and clinical variables upon admission to the ICU for coinfection diagnosis using CHAID analysis. Performance of cut-off points obtained was determined on the basis of the binominal distributions of the true (+) and true (-) results. Of the 972 patients included, 196 (20.3%) had coinfection. Procalcitonin (PCT; ng/mL 2.4 vs. 0.5, p < 0.001), but not C-reactive protein (CRP; mg/dL 25 vs. 38.5; p = 0.62) was higher in patients with coinfection. In CHAID analyses, PCT was the most important variable for coinfection. PCT <0.29 ng/mL showed high sensitivity (Se = 88.2%), low Sp (33.2%) and high negative predictive value (NPV = 91.9%). The absence of shock improved classification capacity. Thus, for PCT <0.29 ng/mL, the Se was 84%, the Sp 43% and an NPV of 94% with a post-test probability of coinfection of only 6%. PCT has a high negative predictive value (94%) and lower PCT levels seems to be a good tool for excluding coinfection, particularly for patients without shock. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Patient opinion as a cornerstone.

    PubMed

    Holanda Peña, M S; Talledo, N Marina; Ots Ruiz, E; Lanza Gómez, J M; Ruiz Ruiz, A; García Miguelez, A; Gómez Marcos, V; Domínguez Artiga, M J; Hernández Hernández, M Á; Wallmann, R; Llorca Díaz, J

    2017-03-01

    To study the agreement between the level of satisfaction of patients and their families referred to the care and attention received during admission to the ICU. A prospective, 5-month observational and descriptive study was carried out. ICU of Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital, Santander (Spain). Adult patients with an ICU stay longer than 24h, who were discharged to the ward during the period of the study, and their relatives. Instrument: FS-ICU 34 for assessing family satisfaction, and an adaptation of the FS-ICU 34 for patients. The Cohen kappa index was calculated to assess agreement between answers. An analysis was made of the questionnaires from one same family unit, obtaining 148 pairs of surveys (296 questionnaires). The kappa index ranged between 0.278-0.558, which is indicative of mild to moderate agreement. The families of patients admitted to the ICU cannot be regarded as good proxies, at least for competent patients. In such cases, we must refer to these patients in order to obtain first hand information on their feelings, perceptions and experiences during admission to the ICU. Only when patients are unable to actively participate in the care process should their relatives be consulted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  3. Cognitive impairment after intensive care unit admission: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Annemiek E; Slooter, Arjen J C; van der Kooi, Arendina W; van Dijk, Diederik

    2013-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that critical illness and treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU) may result in significant long-term morbidity. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize the current literature on long-term cognitive impairment in ICU survivors. PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO and Embase were searched from January 1980 until July 2012 for relevant articles evaluating cognitive functioning after ICU admission. Publications with an adult population and a follow-up duration of at least 2 months were eligible for inclusion in the review. Studies in cardiac surgery patients or subjects with brain injury or cardiac arrest prior to ICU admission were excluded. The main outcome measure was cognitive functioning. The search strategy identified 1,128 unique studies, of which 19 met the selection criteria and were included. Only one article compared neuropsychological test performance before and after ICU admission. The 19 studies that were selected reported a wide range of cognitive impairment in 4-62 % of the patients after a follow-up of 2-156 months. The results of most studies of the studies reviewed suggest that critical illness and ICU treatment are associated with long-term cognitive impairment. Due to the complexity of defining cognitive impairment, it is difficult to standardize definitions and to reach consensus on how to categorize neurocognitive dysfunction. Therefore, the magnitude of the problem is uncertain.

  4. Admission Heart Rate Predicts Poor Outcomes in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial Studies.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Miaoyan; Sato, Shoichiro; Zheng, Danni; Wang, Xia; Carcel, Cheryl; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Sandset, Else C; Delcourt, Candice; Arima, Hisatomi; Wang, Jiguang; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S

    2016-06-01

    Faster heart rate predicts higher mortality in coronary heart disease and acute ischemic stroke, but its prognostic significance in intracerebral hemorrhage remains uncertain. We aimed to determine the effect of admission heart rate on clinical and imaging outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. A post hoc pooled analysis of the pilot and main phases of the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT 1 and 2). Clinical outcomes were mortality and modified Rankin Scale score at 90 days; and imaging outcome was absolute growth in hematoma volume during the initial 24 hours. Patients were divided into 4 categories according to baseline heart rate (<65, 65-74, 75-84, and ≥85 bpm) and analyzed using multivariable adjusted models with the lowest heart rate group as the reference. Of 3185 patients with available data, higher admission heart rate was associated with both mortality and worse modified Rankin Scale score: adjusted hazard ratio for heart rate (≥85 versus <65 bpm) 1.50 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.11) and adjusted odds ratio 1.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.63), respectively (both P-trend <0.05). There was no significant relationship between heart rate and absolute growth in hematoma volume (P-trend, 0.196). Higher admission heart rate is independently associated with death and poor functional outcome after acute intracerebral hemorrhage. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00226096 and NCT00716079. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Impact of delayed admission to intensive care units on mortality of critically ill patients: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction When the number of patients who require intensive care is greater than the number of beds available, intensive care unit (ICU) entry flow is obstructed. This phenomenon has been associated with higher mortality rates in patients that are not admitted despite their need, and in patients that are admitted but are waiting for a bed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate if a delay in ICU admission affects mortality for critically ill patients. Methods A prospective cohort of adult patients admitted to the ICU of our institution between January and December 2005 were analyzed. Patients for whom a bed was available were immediately admitted; when no bed was available, patients waited for ICU admission. ICU admission was classified as either delayed or immediate. Confounding variables examined were: age, sex, originating hospital ward, ICU diagnosis, co-morbidity, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, therapeutic intervention, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. All patients were followed until hospital discharge. Results A total of 401 patients were evaluated; 125 (31.2%) patients were immediately admitted and 276 (68.8%) patients had delayed admission. There was a significant increase in ICU mortality rates with a delay in ICU admission (P = 0.002). The fraction of mortality risk attributable to ICU delay was 30% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.2% to 44.8%). Each hour of waiting was independently associated with a 1.5% increased risk of ICU death (hazard ratio (HR): 1.015; 95% CI 1.006 to 1.023; P = 0.001). Conclusions There is a significant association between time to admission and survival rates. Early admission to the ICU is more likely to produce positive outcomes. PMID:21244671

  6. Hospital Admissions, Transfers and Costs of Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Nikki; Lingsma, Hester F.; Vanrolleghem, Ann M.; Sturkenboom, Miriam C. J. M.; van Doorn, Pieter A.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Jacobs, Bart C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has a highly variable clinical course, leading to frequent transfers within and between hospitals and high associated costs. We defined the current admissions, transfers and costs in relation to disease severity of GBS. Methods Dutch neurologists were requested to report patients diagnosed with GBS between November 2009 and November 2010. Information regarding clinical course and transfers was obtained via neurologists and general practitioners. Results 87 GBS patients were included with maximal GBS disability score of 1 or 2 (28%), 3 or 4 (53%), 5 (18%) and 6 (1%). Four mildly affected GBS patients were not hospital admitted. Of the 83 hospitalized patients 68 (82%) were initially admitted at a neurology department, 4 (5%) at an ICU, 4 (5%) at pediatrics, 4 (5%) at pediatrics neurology and 3 (4%) at internal medicine. Median hospital stay was 17 days (IQR 11–26 days, absolute range 1–133 days). Transfers between departments or hospitals occurred in 33 (40%) patients and 25 (30%) were transferred 2 times or more. From a cost-effectiveness perspective 21 (25%) of the admissions was suboptimal. Median costs for hospital admission of GBS patients were 15,060 Euro (IQR 11,226–23,683). Maximal GBS disability score was significantly correlated with total length of stay, number of transfers, ICU admission and costs. Conclusions Hospital admissions for GBS patients are highly heterogeneous, with frequent transfers and higher costs for those with more severe disease. Future research should aim to develop prediction models to early identify the most cost-effective allocation in individual patients. PMID:26859880

  7. Hospital Admissions, Transfers and Costs of Guillain-Barré Syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Nikki; Lingsma, Hester F; Vanrolleghem, Ann M; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M; van Doorn, Pieter A; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Jacobs, Bart C

    2016-01-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has a highly variable clinical course, leading to frequent transfers within and between hospitals and high associated costs. We defined the current admissions, transfers and costs in relation to disease severity of GBS. Dutch neurologists were requested to report patients diagnosed with GBS between November 2009 and November 2010. Information regarding clinical course and transfers was obtained via neurologists and general practitioners. 87 GBS patients were included with maximal GBS disability score of 1 or 2 (28%), 3 or 4 (53%), 5 (18%) and 6 (1%). Four mildly affected GBS patients were not hospital admitted. Of the 83 hospitalized patients 68 (82%) were initially admitted at a neurology department, 4 (5%) at an ICU, 4 (5%) at pediatrics, 4 (5%) at pediatrics neurology and 3 (4%) at internal medicine. Median hospital stay was 17 days (IQR 11-26 days, absolute range 1-133 days). Transfers between departments or hospitals occurred in 33 (40%) patients and 25 (30%) were transferred 2 times or more. From a cost-effectiveness perspective 21 (25%) of the admissions was suboptimal. Median costs for hospital admission of GBS patients were 15,060 Euro (IQR 11,226-23,683). Maximal GBS disability score was significantly correlated with total length of stay, number of transfers, ICU admission and costs. Hospital admissions for GBS patients are highly heterogeneous, with frequent transfers and higher costs for those with more severe disease. Future research should aim to develop prediction models to early identify the most cost-effective allocation in individual patients.

  8. The Changing Role of Palliative Care in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Aslakson, Rebecca A.; Curtis, J. Randall; Nelson, Judith E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Palliative care is an interprofessional specialty as well as an approach to care by all clinicians caring for patients with serious and complex illness. Unlike hospice, palliative care is based not on prognosis but on need and is an essential component of comprehensive care for critically ill patients from the time of ICU admission. In this clinically focused article, we review evidence of opportunities to improve palliative care for critically ill adults, summarize strategies for ICU palliative care improvement, and identify resources to support implementation. Data Sources We searched the MEDLINE database from inception through January 2014. We also searched the Reference Library of The Improving Palliative Care in the ICU Project website sponsored by the National Institutes of Health and the Center to Advance Palliative Care, which is updated monthly. We hand-searched reference lists and author files. Study Selection Selected studies included all English-language articles concerning adult patients using the search terms "intensive care" or "critical care" with "palliative care," "supportive care," "end-of-life care," or "ethics." Data Extraction After examination of peer-reviewed original scientific articles, consensus statements, guidelines, and reviews resulting from our literature search, we made final selections based on author consensus. Data Synthesis Existing evidence is organized to address: 1) opportunities to alleviate physical and emotional symptoms, improve communication, and provide support for patients and families; 2) models and specific interventions for improving ICU palliative care; 3) available resources for ICU palliative care improvement; and 4) ongoing challenges and targets for future research. Key domains of ICU palliative care have been defined and operationalized as measures of quality. There is increasing recognition that effective integration of palliative care during acute and chronic critical illness may help patients and

  9. Filtering authentic sepsis arising in the ICU using administrative codes coupled to a SIRS screening protocol.

    PubMed

    Sudduth, Christopher L; Overton, Elizabeth C; Lyu, Peter F; Rimawi, Ramzy H; Buchman, Timothy G

    2017-06-01

    Using administrative codes and minimal physiologic and laboratory data, we sought a high-specificity identification strategy for patients whose sepsis initially appeared during their ICU stay. We studied all patients discharged from an academic hospital between September 1, 2013 and October 31, 2014. Administrative codes and minimal physiologic and laboratory criteria were used to identify patients at high risk of developing the onset of sepsis in the ICU. Two clinicians then independently reviewed the patient record to verify that the screened-in patients appeared to become septic during their ICU admission. Clinical chart review verified sepsis in 437/466 ICU stays (93.8%). Of these 437 encounters, only 151 (34.6%) were admitted to the ICU with neither SIRS nor evidence of infection and therefore appeared to become septic during their ICU stay. Selected administrative codes coupled to SIRS criteria and applied to patients admitted to ICU can yield up to 94% authentic sepsis patients. However, only 1/3 of patients thus identified appeared to become septic during their ICU stay. Studies that depend on high-intensity monitoring for description of the time course of sepsis require clinician review and verification that sepsis initially appeared during the monitoring period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Copeptin Predicts Mortality in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Krychtiuk, Konstantin A.; Honeder, Maria C.; Lenz, Max; Maurer, Gerald; Wojta, Johann; Heinz, Gottfried; Huber, Kurt; Speidl, Walter S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Critically ill patients admitted to a medical intensive care unit exhibit a high mortality rate irrespective of the cause of admission. Besides its role in fluid and electrolyte balance, vasopressin has been described as a stress hormone. Copeptin, the C-terminal portion of provasopressin mirrors vasopressin levels and has been described as a reliable biomarker for the individual’s stress level and was associated with outcome in various disease entities. The aim of this study was to analyze whether circulating levels of copeptin at ICU admission are associated with 30-day mortality. Methods In this single-center prospective observational study including 225 consecutive patients admitted to a tertiary medical ICU at a university hospital, blood was taken at ICU admission and copeptin levels were measured using a commercially available automated sandwich immunofluorescent assay. Results Median acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score was 20 and 30-day mortality was 25%. Median copeptin admission levels were significantly higher in non-survivors as compared with survivors (77.6 IQR 30.7–179.3 pmol/L versus 45.6 IQR 19.6–109.6 pmol/L; p = 0.025). Patients with serum levels of copeptin in the third tertile at admission had a 2.4-fold (95% CI 1.2–4.6; p = 0.01) increased mortality risk as compared to patients in the first tertile. When analyzing patients according to cause of admission, copeptin was only predictive of 30-day mortality in patients admitted due to medical causes as opposed to those admitted after cardiac surgery, as medical patients with levels of copeptin in the highest tertile had a 3.3-fold (95% CI 1.66.8, p = 0.002) risk of dying independent from APACHE II score, primary diagnosis, vasopressor use and need for mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Circulating levels of copeptin at ICU admission independently predict 30-day mortality in patients admitted to a medical ICU. PMID:28118414

  11. Impact of a Respiratory Therapy Assess-and-Treat Protocol on Adult Cardiothoracic ICU Readmissions.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Robert T; Malinowski, Thomas; Baugher, Mitchel; Rowley, Daniel D

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this retrospective medical record review was to report on recidivism to the ICU among adult postoperative cardiac and thoracic patients managed with a respiratory therapy assess-and-treat (RTAT) protocol. Our primary null hypothesis was that there would be no difference in all-cause unexpected readmissions and escalations between the RTAT group and the physician-ordered respiratory care group. Our secondary null hypothesis was that there would be no difference in primary respiratory-related readmissions, ICU length of stay, or hospital length of stay. We reviewed 1,400 medical records of cardiac and thoracic postoperative subjects between January 2015 and October 2016. The RTAT is driven by a standardized patient assessment tool, which is completed by a registered respiratory therapist. The tool develops a respiratory severity score for each patient and directs interventions for bronchial hygiene, aerosol therapy, and lung inflation therapy based on an algorithm. The protocol period commenced on December 1, 2015, and continued through October 2016. Data relative to unplanned admissions to the ICU for all causes as well as respiratory-related causes were evaluated. There was a statistically significant difference in the all-cause unplanned ICU admission rate between the RTAT (5.8% [95% CI 4.3-7.9]) and the physician-ordered respiratory care (8.8% [95% CI 6.9-11.1]) groups (P = .034). There was no statistically significant difference in respiratory-related unplanned ICU admissions with RTAT (36% [95% CI 22.7-51.6]) compared with the physician-ordered respiratory care (53% [95% CI 41.1-64.8]) group (P = .09). The RTAT protocol group spent 1 d less in the ICU (P < .001) and in the hospital (P < .001). RTAT protocol implementation demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in all-cause ICU readmissions. The reduction in respiratory-related ICU readmissions did not reach statistical significance. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  12. Blood Leukocyte Count on Admission Predicts Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Dharma, Surya; Hapsari, Rosmarini; Siswanto, Bambang B; van der Laarse, Arnoud; Jukema, J Wouter

    2015-06-01

    We aim to test the hypothesis that blood leukocyte count adds prognostic information in patients with acute non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI). A total of 585 patients with acute non-STEMI (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score ≥ 3) were enrolled in this cohort retrospective study. Blood leukocyte count was measured immediately after admission in the emergency department. The composite of death, reinfarction, urgent revascularization, and stroke during hospitalization were defined as the primary end point of the study. The mean age of the patients was 61 ± 9.6 years and most of them were male (79%). Using multivariate Cox regression analysis involving seven variables (history of smoking, hypertension, heart rate > 100 beats/minute, serum creatinine level > 1.5 mg/dL, blood leukocyte count > 11,000/µL, use of β-blocker, and use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor), leukocyte count > 11,000/µL demonstrated to be a strong predictor of the primary end point (hazard ratio = 3.028; 95% confidence interval = 1.69-5.40, p < 0.001). The high blood leukocyte count on admission is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with acute non-STEMI.

  13. High Nutritional-Related Risk on Admission Predicts Less Improvement of Functional Independence Measure in Geriatric Stroke Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kokura, Yoji; Maeda, Keisuke; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Nishioka, Shinta; Higashi, Sotaro

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish whether high nutritional-related risk on admission predicts less improvement of Functional Independence Measure (FIM) in geriatric stroke patients. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted for stroke at 5 major hospitals in the Noto district of Japan from July 2009 to June 2013. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) at admission. Patient characteristics were compared between the low GNRI (<92) and high GNRI (≥92) groups. We assessed nutritional status using GNRI and activities of daily living using the FIM. A total of 540 participants (mean age, 80 years; interquartile range, 75-85 years) were included in the present study. Patients were admitted because of cerebral infarction (394 patients), intracerebral hemorrhage (123 patients), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (23 patients). Univariate analysis of FIM gain demonstrated significant differences between groups. Multivariate analysis of FIM gain adjusting for confounding factors demonstrated age (β = -.139; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -.629 to -.140), cerebral infarction (β = -.264; 95% CI = -12.956 to -6.729), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (β = -.180; 95% CI = -.688 to -.248), and GNRI score (β = .089; 95% CI = .010-.347) as independent factors associated with FIM gain (P < .05 for all). GNRI at admission may independently predict FIM gain. Poor nutritional status is a predictor of lower FIM improvement in geriatric stroke patients. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Readmissions and deaths following ICU discharge - a challenge for intensive care

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Tatiane Gomes; Rieder, Marcelo de Mello; Kutchak, Fernanda Machado; Franco Filho, João Wilney

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Identify patients at risk for intensive care unit readmission, the reasons for and rates of readmission, and mortality after their stay in the intensive care unit; describe the sensitivity and specificity of the Stability and Workload Index for Transfer scale as a criterion for discharge from the intensive care unit. Methods Adult, critical patients from intensive care units from two public hospitals in Porto Alegre, Brazil, comprised the sample. The patients' clinical and demographic characteristics were collected within 24 hours of admission. They were monitored until their final outcome on the intensive care unit (death or discharge) to apply the Stability and Workload Index for Transfer. The deaths during the first intensive care unit admission were disregarded, and we continued monitoring the other patients using the hospitals' electronic systems to identify the discharges, deaths, and readmissions. Results Readmission rates were 13.7% in intensive care unit 1 (medical-surgical, ICU1) and 9.3% in intensive care unit 2 (trauma and neurosurgery, ICU2). The death rate following discharge was 12.5% from ICU1 and 4.2% from ICU2. There was a statistically significant difference in Stability and Workload Index for Transfer (p<0.05) regarding the ICU1 patients' outcome, which was not found in the ICU2 patients. In ICU1, 46.5% (N=20) of patients were readmitted very early (within 48 hours of discharge). Mortality was high among those readmitted: 69.7% in ICU1 and 48.5% in ICU2. Conclusions The Stability and Workload Index for Transfer scale showed greater efficacy in identifying patients more prone to readmission and death following discharge from a medical-surgical intensive care unit. The patients' intensive care unit readmission during the same hospitalization resulted in increased morbidity, mortality, length of stay, and total costs. PMID:23887757

  15. Why women perform better in college than admission scores would predict: Exploring the roles of conscientiousness and course-taking patterns.

    PubMed

    Keiser, Heidi N; Sackett, Paul R; Kuncel, Nathan R; Brothen, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Women typically obtain higher subsequent college GPAs than men with the same admissions test score. A common reaction is to attribute this to a flaw in the admissions test. We explore the possibility that this underprediction of women's performance reflects gender differences in conscientiousness and college course-taking patterns. In Study 1, we focus on using the ACT to predict performance in a single, large course where performance is decomposed into cognitive (exam and quiz scores) and less cognitive, discretionary components (discussion and extra credit points). The ACT does not underpredict female's cognitive performance, but it does underpredict female performance on the less cognitive, discretionary components of academic performance, because it fails to measure and account for the personality trait of conscientiousness. In Study 2, we create 2 course-difficulty indices (Course Challenge and Mean Aptitude in Course) and add them to an HLM regression model to see if they reduce the degree to which SAT scores underpredict female performance. Including Course Challenge does result in a modest reduction of the gender coefficient; however, including Mean Aptitude in Course does not. Thus, differences in course-taking patterns is a partial (albeit small) explanation for the common finding of differential prediction by gender.

  16. Significant but reasonable radiation exposure from computed tomography-related medical imaging in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Slovis, Benjamin H; Shah, Kaushal H; Yeh, D Dante; Seethala, Raghu; Kaafarani, Haytham M A; Eikermann, Matthias; Raja, Ali S; Lee, Jarone

    2016-04-01

    Admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with increased medical imaging and radiation exposure, yet few studies have estimated the risk of cancer associated with these examinations. The purpose of this study was to review computed tomography (CT) scans performed on patients admitted to two urban academic ICUs, predict their radiation exposure, and calculate their estimated lifetime attributable risk of cancer (LAR). An electronic chart review was performed on all CT scans performed between January 2007 and December 2011. The estimated effective dose of radiation was calculated for each CT, and the LAR for each patient was predicted. Mean radiation exposure was 22.2 ± 25.0 mSv with a mean LAR of 0.1 ± 0.2 % and a median of 0.6 % with a range of <0.001 to 3.4 %. Our cohort received radiation doses higher than recommended by guidelines; however, the critical nature of their admission may have warranted these imaging studies. Estimated risk of cancer in this population was overall low.

  17. ICU telemedicine and critical care mortality: a national effectiveness study

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Jeremy M; Le, Tri Q.; Barnato, Amber E.; Hravnak, Marilyn; Kuza, Courtney C.; Pike, Francis; Angus, Derek C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Intensive care unit (ICU) telemedicine is an increasingly common strategy for improving the outcome of critical care, but its overall impact is uncertain. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of ICU telemedicine in a national sample of hospitals and quantify variation in effectiveness across hospitals. Research design We performed a multi-center retrospective case-control study using 2001–2010 Medicare claims data linked to a national survey identifying United States hospitals adopting ICU telemedicine. We matched each adopting hospital (cases) to up to 3 non-adopting hospitals (controls) based on size, case-mix and geographic proximity during the year of adoption. Using ICU admissions from 2 years before and after the adoption date, we compared outcomes between case and control hospitals using a difference-in-differences approach. Results 132 adopting case hospitals were matched to 389 similar non-adopting control hospitals. The pre- and post-adoption unadjusted 90-day mortality was similar in both case hospitals (24.0% vs. 24.3%, p=0.07) and control hospitals (23.5% vs. 23.7%, p<0.01). In the difference-in-differences analysis, ICU telemedicine adoption was associated with a small relative reduction in 90-day mortality (ratio of odds ratios: 0.96, 95% CI = 0.95–0.98, p<0.001). However, there was wide variation in the ICU telemedicine effect across individual hospitals (median ratio of odds ratios: 1.01; interquartile range 0.85–1.12; range 0.45–2.54). Only 16 case hospitals (12.2%) experienced statistically significant mortality reductions post-adoption. Hospitals with a significant mortality reduction were more likely to have large annual admission volumes (p<0.001) and be located in urban areas (p=0.04) compared to other hospitals. Conclusions Although ICU telemedicine adoption resulted in a small relative overall mortality reduction, there was heterogeneity in effect across adopting hospitals, with large-volume urban hospitals

  18. Predicting the admission into medical school of African American college students who have participated in summer academic enrichment programs.

    PubMed

    Hesser, A; Cregler, L L; Lewis, L

    1998-02-01

    To identify cognitive and noncognitive variables as predictors of the admission into medical school of African American college students who have participated in summer academic enrichment programs (SAEPs). The study sample comprised 309 African American college students who participated in SAEPs at the Medical College of Georgia School of Medicine from 1980 to 1989 and whose educational and occupational statuses were determined by follow-up tracking. A three-step logistic regression was used to analyze the data (with alpha = .05); the criterion variable was admission to medical school. The 17 predictor variables studied were one of two types, cognitive and noncognitive. The cognitive variables were (1) Scholastic Aptitude Test mathematics (SAT-M) score, (2) SAT verbal score, (3) college grade-point average (GPA), (4) college science GPA, (5) SAEP GPA, and (6) SAEP basic science GPA (BSGPA). The noncognitive variables were (1) gender, (2) highest college level at the time of the last SAEP application, (3) type of college attended (historically African American or predominately white), (4) number of SAEPs attended, (5) career aspiration (physician or another health science option) (6) parents who were professionals, (7) parents who were health care role models, (8) evidence of leadership, (9) evidence of community service, (10) evidence of special motivation, and (11) strength of letter of recommendation in the SAEP application. For each student the rating scores for the last four noncognitive variables were determined by averaging the ratings of two judges who reviewed relevant information in each student's file. In step 1, which explained 20% of the admission decision variance, SAT-M score, SAEP BSGPA, and college GPA were the three significant cognitive predictors identified. In step 2, which explained 31% of the variance, the three cognitive predictors identified in step 1 were joined by three noncognitive predictors: career aspiration, type of college, and

  19. Is Admission Serum Sodium Concentration a Clinical Predictor for the Outcome of Therapy in Critically Ill Poisoned Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Hosseini, Hossein; Soltaninejad, Forough; Massoumi, Gholamreza; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Yaraghi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disorders of serum sodium concentration are some of the most electrolyte abnormalities in the intensive care unit (ICU) patients. These disorders adversely affect the function of vital organs and are associated with increased hospital mortality. Purpose: In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effects of serum sodium concentration abnormalities at the time of hospital admission on the clinical outcome of therapy in a cohort of critically ill poisoned patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 184 critically ill poisoned patients aged >18 years and in the first 8 hours of their poisoning, hospitalized in the ICU of a tertiary care university hospital (Isfahan, Iran) between 2010-2012, were evaluated at the admission time and 24 hours later for serum sodium concentration abnormalities and its relationship with age, gender, consciousness status, ingested drugs and clinical outcome of therapy. The clinical outcome was considered as recovery and mortality. Logistic Regression analysis was performed for predictive variables including serum sodium concentration abnormalities in patients’ clinical outcome. Findings: On admission, 152 patients (82.6%) were eunatremic, 21 patients (11.4%) were hyponatremic and 11 patients (6%) were hypernatremic. In the second day eunatremia, hyponatremia and hypernatremia was observed in 84.4%, 13% and 2.2% respectively. Age (OR=1.92; CI=1.18-3.12) and severity of toxicity (OR=1.32; CI=1.12-2.41) were predicting factors of mortality in ICU poisoning patients. Conclusions: Serum sodium concentration abnormalities are prevalent in critically ill poisoned patient but do not seem to have a predictive value for the clinical outcome of therapy. PMID:26543310

  20. Computerized prediction of intensive care unit discharge after cardiac surgery: development and validation of a Gaussian processes model.

    PubMed

    Meyfroidt, Geert; Güiza, Fabian; Cottem, Dominiek; De Becker, Wilfried; Van Loon, Kristien; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Berckmans, Daniël; Ramon, Jan; Bruynooghe, Maurice; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2011-10-25

    The intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) of patients undergoing cardiac surgery may vary considerably, and is often difficult to predict within the first hours after admission. The early clinical evolution of a cardiac surgery patient might be predictive for his LOS. The purpose of the present study was to develop a predictive model for ICU discharge after non-emergency cardiac surgery, by analyzing the first 4 hours of data in the computerized medical record of these patients with Gaussian processes (GP), a machine learning technique. Non-interventional study. Predictive modeling, separate development (n = 461) and validation (n = 499) cohort. GP models were developed to predict the probability of ICU discharge the day after surgery (classification task), and to predict the day of ICU discharge as a discrete variable (regression task). GP predictions were compared with predictions by EuroSCORE, nurses and physicians. The classification task was evaluated using aROC for discrimination, and Brier Score, Brier Score Scaled, and Hosmer-Lemeshow test for calibration. The regression task was evaluated by comparing median actual and predicted discharge, loss penalty function (LPF) ((actual-predicted)/actual) and calculating root mean squared relative errors (RMSRE). Median (P25-P75) ICU length of stay was 3 (2-5) days. For classification, the GP model showed an aROC of 0.758 which was significantly higher than the predictions by nurses, but not better than EuroSCORE and physicians. The GP had the best calibration, with a Brier Score of 0.179 and Hosmer-Lemeshow p-value of 0.382. For regression, GP had the highest proportion of patients with a correctly predicted day of discharge (40%), which was significantly better than the EuroSCORE (p < 0.001) and nurses (p = 0.044) but equivalent to physicians. GP had the lowest RMSRE (0.408) of all predictive models. A GP model that uses PDMS data of the first 4 hours after admission in the ICU of scheduled adult cardiac

  1. The Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU-7 Delirium Severity Scale: A Novel Delirium Severity Instrument for Use in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Khan, Babar A; Perkins, Anthony J; Gao, Sujuan; Hui, Siu L; Campbell, Noll L; Farber, Mark O; Chlan, Linda L; Boustani, Malaz A

    2017-05-01

    Delirium severity is independently associated with longer hospital stays, nursing home placement, and death in patients outside the ICU. Delirium severity in the ICU is not routinely measured because the available instruments are difficult to complete in critically ill patients. We designed our study to assess the reliability and validity of a new ICU delirium severity tool, the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU-7 delirium severity scale. Observational cohort study. Medical, surgical, and progressive ICUs of three academic hospitals. Five hundred eighteen adult (≥ 18 yr) patients. None. Patients received the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU, Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale, and Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 assessments. A 7-point scale (0-7) was derived from responses to the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU and Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale items. Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU-7 showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.85) and good correlation with Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 scores (correlation coefficient = 0.64). Known-groups validity was supported by the separation of mechanically ventilated and nonventilated assessments. Median Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU-7 scores demonstrated good predictive validity with higher odds (odds ratio = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.30-1.66) of in-hospital mortality and lower odds (odds ratio = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.72-0.9) of being discharged home after adjusting for age, race, gender, severity of illness, and chronic comorbidities. Higher Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU-7 scores were also associated with increased length of ICU stay (p = 0.001). Our results suggest that Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU-7 is a valid and reliable delirium severity measure among ICU patients. Further research comparing it to other delirium severity measures, its use in delirium efficacy trials, and real-life implementation is needed to determine its role in research and clinical

  2. Does ICU Severity of Illness Influence Recall of Baseline Physical Function?

    PubMed Central

    Dinglas, Victor D.; Gellar, Jonathan; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Stan, Vanessa A.; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate if severity of illness in the intensive care unit influences patients' retrospective recall of their baseline physical function from prior to hospital admission. Materials and Methods A prospective cohort study of 193 acute lung injury (ALI) survivors who, prior to hospital discharge, retrospectively reported their pre-hospitalization physical function using the SF-36 quality of life survey. Results Four measures were used to evaluate ICU severity of illness: (1) Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II Acute Physiologic Score at ICU admission, (2) Lung Injury Score at ALI diagnosis, (3) Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at study enrollment, and (4) maximum daily SOFA score during the entire ICU stay. In multivariable linear regression analysis, no measure of severity of illness was associated with prehospitalization Physical Function. Education level significantly modified the relationship between ICU severity of illness and baseline Physical Function with lower educational attainment having a stronger association with baseline physical function. Conclusion ICU severity of illness was not associated with patients' retrospectively recalled baseline physical function. Patients with a lower level of education maybe more influenced by ICU severity of illness, but the magnitude of this effect may not be clinically meaningful. PMID:21737233

  3. The implementation of an Intensive Care Information System allows shortening the ICU length of stay.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Eric; Hoti, Emir; Azoulay, Daniel; Ichai, Philippe; Samuel, Didier; Saliba, Faouzi

    2015-04-01

    Intensive care information systems (ICIS) implemented in intensive care unit (ICU) were shown to improve patient safety, reduce medical errors and increase the time devolved by medical/nursing staff to patients care. Data on the real impact of ICIS on patient outcome are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ICIS on the outcome of critically-ill patients. From January 2004 to August 2006, 1,397 patients admitted to our ICU were enrolled in this observational study. This period was divided in two phases: before the implementation of ICIS (BEFORE) and after implementation of ICIS (AFTER). We compared standard ICU patient's outcomes: mortality, length of stay in ICU, hospital stay, and the re-admission rate depending upon BEFORE and AFTER. Although patients admitted AFTER were more severely ill than those of BEFORE (SAPS II: 32.1±17.5 vs. 30.5±18.5, p=0.014, respectively), their ICU length of stay was significantly shorter (8.4±15.2 vs. 6.8±12.9 days; p=0.048) while the re-admission rate and mortality rate were similar (4.4 vs. 4.2%; p=0.86, and 9.6 vs 11.2% p=0.35, respectively) in patients admitted AFTER. We observed that the implementation of ICIS allowed shortening of ICU length of stay without altering other patient outcomes.

  4. To what extent does the Health Professions Admission Test-Ireland predict performance in early undergraduate tests of communication and clinical skills? – An observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Internationally, tests of general mental ability are used in the selection of medical students. Examples include the Medical College Admission Test, Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test and the UK Clinical Aptitude Test. The most widely used measure of their efficacy is predictive validity. A new tool, the Health Professions Admission Test- Ireland (HPAT-Ireland), was introduced in 2009. Traditionally, selection to Irish undergraduate medical schools relied on academic achievement. Since 2009, Irish and EU applicants are selected on a combination of their secondary school academic record (measured predominately by the Leaving Certificate Examination) and HPAT-Ireland score. This is the first study to report on the predictive validity of the HPAT-Ireland for early undergraduate assessments of communication and clinical skills. Method Students enrolled at two Irish medical schools in 2009 were followed up for two years. Data collected were gender, HPAT-Ireland total and subsection scores; Leaving Certificate Examination plus HPAT-Ireland combined score, Year 1 Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) scores (Total score, communication and clinical subtest scores), Year 1 Multiple Choice Questions and Year 2 OSCE and subset scores. We report descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients and Multiple linear regression models. Results Data were available for 312 students. In Year 1 none of the selection criteria were significantly related to student OSCE performance. The Leaving Certificate Examination and Leaving Certificate plus HPAT-Ireland combined scores correlated with MCQ marks. In Year 2 a series of significant correlations emerged between the HPAT-Ireland and subsections thereof with OSCE Communication Z-scores; OSCE Clinical Z-scores; and Total OSCE Z-scores. However on multiple regression only the relationship between Total OSCE Score and the Total HPAT-Ireland score remained significant; albeit the

  5. To what extent does the Health Professions Admission Test-Ireland predict performance in early undergraduate tests of communication and clinical skills? An observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Maureen E; Regan, Daniel; Dunne, Fidelma; Henn, Patrick; Newell, John; O'Flynn, Siun

    2013-05-10

    Internationally, tests of general mental ability are used in the selection of medical students. Examples include the Medical College Admission Test, Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test and the UK Clinical Aptitude Test. The most widely used measure of their efficacy is predictive validity.A new tool, the Health Professions Admission Test- Ireland (HPAT-Ireland), was introduced in 2009. Traditionally, selection to Irish undergraduate medical schools relied on academic achievement. Since 2009, Irish and EU applicants are selected on a combination of their secondary school academic record (measured predominately by the Leaving Certificate Examination) and HPAT-Ireland score. This is the first study to report on the predictive validity of the HPAT-Ireland for early undergraduate assessments of communication and clinical skills. Students enrolled at two Irish medical schools in 2009 were followed up for two years. Data collected were gender, HPAT-Ireland total and subsection scores; Leaving Certificate Examination plus HPAT-Ireland combined score, Year 1 Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) scores (Total score, communication and clinical subtest scores), Year 1 Multiple Choice Questions and Year 2 OSCE and subset scores. We report descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients and Multiple linear regression models. Data were available for 312 students. In Year 1 none of the selection criteria were significantly related to student OSCE performance. The Leaving Certificate Examination and Leaving Certificate plus HPAT-Ireland combined scores correlated with MCQ marks.In Year 2 a series of significant correlations emerged between the HPAT-Ireland and subsections thereof with OSCE Communication Z-scores; OSCE Clinical Z-scores; and Total OSCE Z-scores. However on multiple regression only the relationship between Total OSCE Score and the Total HPAT-Ireland score remained significant; albeit the predictive power was modest. We found

  6. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Due To Tuberculosis in a Respiratory ICU Over a 16-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Muthu, Valliappan; Dhooria, Sahajal; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Behera, Digambar; Sehgal, Inderpaul Singh; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2017-10-01

    Whether tuberculosis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with worse outcomes when compared with acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to other causes remains unknown. Herein, we compare the outcomes between the two groups. Retrospective analysis of all subjects admitted with acute respiratory distress syndrome over the last 16 years. Respiratory ICU of a tertiary care hospital in North India. Consecutive subjects with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Subjects were categorized as tuberculosis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute respiratory distress syndrome-others and were managed with mechanical ventilation using the low tidal volume strategy as per the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrom Network protocol. The baseline clinical and demographic characteristics, lung mechanics, and mortality were compared between the two groups. Factors predicting ICU survival were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. During the study period, 469 patients (18 tuberculosis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome and 451 acute respiratory distress syndrome-others) with acute respiratory distress syndrome were admitted. The mean (SD) age of the study population (52.9% women) was 33.6 years (14.8 yr). The baseline parameters and the lung mechanics were similar between the two groups. There were 132 deaths (28.1%) with no difference between the two groups (tuberculosis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome vs acute respiratory distress syndrome-others; 27.7% vs 28.2%; p = 0.71). There was also no significant difference in the ventilator-free days, ICU, and the hospital length of stay. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the factors predicting survival were the admission Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and baseline driving pressure after adjusting for PaO2:FIO2 ratio, gender, and the etiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Tuberculosis is an uncommon cause of acute

  7. Efficient and sparse feature selection for biomedical text classification via the elastic net: Application to ICU risk stratification from nursing notes.

    PubMed

    Marafino, Ben J; Boscardin, W John; Dudley, R Adams

    2015-04-01

    Sparsity is often a desirable property of statistical models, and various feature selection methods exist so as to yield sparser and interpretable models. However, their application to biomedical text classification, particularly to mortality risk stratification among intensive care unit (ICU) patients, has not been thoroughly studied. To develop and characterize sparse classifiers based on the free text of nursing notes in order to predict ICU mortality risk and to discover text features most strongly associated with mortality. We selected nursing notes from the first 24h of ICU admission for 25,826 adult ICU patients from the MIMIC-II database. We then developed a pair of stochastic gradient descent-based classifiers with elastic-net regularization. We also studied the performance-sparsity tradeoffs of both classifiers as their regularization parameters were varied. The best-performing classifier achieved a 10-fold cross-validated AUC of 0.897 under the log loss function and full L2 regularization, while full L1 regularization used just 0.00025% of candidate input features and resulted in an AUC of 0.889. Using the log loss (range of AUCs 0.889-0.897) yielded better performance compared to the hinge loss (0.850-0.876), but the latter yielded even sparser models. Most features selected by both classifiers appear clinically relevant and correspond to predictors already present in existing ICU mortality models. The sparser classifiers were also able to discover a number of informative - albeit nonclinical - features. The elastic-net-regularized classifiers perform reasonably well and are capable of reducing the number of features required by over a thousandfold, with only a modest impact on performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk factors for intensive care unit admission in patients with severe leptospirosis: a comparative study according to patients' severity.

    PubMed

    Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco; Soares, Douglas Sousa; de Menezes Fernandes, Anna Tereza Bezerra; Girão, Marília Maria Vasconcelos; Sidrim, Pedro Randal; Pereira, Eanes Delgado Barros; Rocha, Natalia Albuquerque; da Silva, Geraldo Bezerra

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate predictive factors for intensive care unit (ICU) admission among patients with severe leptospirosis. This is a retrospective study with all patients with severe leptospirosis admitted to a tertiary hospital. Patients were divided in ICU and ward groups. Demographical, clinical and laboratory data of the groups were compared as well as acute kidney injury (AKI) severity, according to the RIFLE criteria (R = Risk, I = Injury, F = Failure, L = Loss, E = End-stage kidney disease). A total of 206 patients were included, 83 admitted to ICU and 123 to ward. Mean age was 36 ± 15.8 years, with 85.9% males. Patients in ICU group were older (38.8 ± 15.7 vs. 34.16 ± 15.9 years, p = 0.037), had a shorter hospital stay (4.13 ± 3.1 vs. 9.5 ± 5.2 days, p = 0.0001), lower levels of hematocrit (29.6 ± 6.4 vs. 33.1 ± 8.6%, p = 0.003), hemoglobin (10.2 ± 2.4 vs. 11.6 ± 1.9 g/dL, p < 0.0001), and platelets (94,427 ± 86,743 vs. 128,896 ± 137,017/mm(3), p = 0.035), as well as higher levels of bilirubin (15.0 ± 12.2 vs. 8.6 ± 9.5 mg/dL, p = 0.001). ICU group also had a higher frequency of severe AKI (RIFLE-"Failure": 73.2% vs. 54.2%, p < 0.0001) and a higher prevalence of dialysis requirement (57.3% vs. 27.6%, p < 0.0001). Mortality was higher among ICU patients (23.5% vs. 5.7%, p < 0.0001). Independent predictors for ICU admission were tachypnea (p = 0.027, OR = 13, CI = 1.3-132), hypotension (p = 0.009, OR = 5.27, CI = 1.5-18) and AKI (p = 0.029, OR = 14, CI = 1.3-150). Ceftriaxone use was a protective factor (p = 0.001, OR = 0.13, CI = 0.04-0.4). Independent risk factors for ICU admission in leptospirosis include tachypnea, hypotension and AKI. Ceftriaxone was a protective factor for ICU admission, suggesting that its use may prevent severe forms of the disease.

  9. Usual Care Physiotherapy During Acute Hospitalization in Subjects Admitted to the ICU: An Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Elizabeth H; Haines, Kimberley J; Berney, Sue; Warrillow, Stephen; Harrold, Meg; Denehy, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Physiotherapists play an important role in the provision of multidisciplinary team-based care in the ICU. No studies have reported usual care respiratory management or usual care on the wards following ICU discharge by these providers. This study aimed to investigate usual care physiotherapy for ICU subjects during acute hospitalization. One hundred subjects were recruited for an observational study from a tertiary Australian ICU. The frequency and type of documented physiotherapist assessment and treatment were extracted retrospectively from medical records. The sample had median (interquartile range) APACHE II score of 17 (13-21) and was mostly male with a median (interquartile range) age of 61 (49-73) y. Physiotherapists reviewed 94% of subjects in the ICU (median of 5 [3-9] occasions, median stay of 4.3 [3-7] d) and 89% of subjects in acute wards (median of 6 [2-12] occasions, median stay of 13.3 [6-28] d). Positioning, ventilator lung hyperinflation, and suctioning were the most frequently performed respiratory care activities in the ICU. The time from ICU admission until ambulation from the bed with a physiotherapist had a median of 5 (3-8) d. The average ambulation distance per treatment had a median of 0 (0-60) m in the ICU and 44 (8-78) m in the acute wards. Adverse event rates were 3.5% in the ICU and 1.8% on the wards. Subjects received a higher frequency of physiotherapy in the ICU than on acute wards. Consensus is required to ensure consistency in data collection internationally to facilitate comparison of outcomes. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  10. Preoperative and surgical factors associated with postoperative intensive care unit admission following operative treatment for degenerative lumbar spine disease.

    PubMed

    Kay, Harrison F; Chotai, Silky; Wick, Joseph B; Stonko, David P; McGirt, Matthew J; Devin, Clinton J

    2016-03-01

    Evaluate the factors associated with postoperative ICU admission in patients undergoing surgical management of degenerative lumbar spine disease. Patients undergoing surgery for degenerative lumbar spine disease were enrolled into a prospective registry over a 2-year period. Preoperative variables (age, gender, ASA grade, ODI%, CAD, HTN, MI, CHF, DM, BMI, depression, anxiety) and surgical variables (instrumentation, arthrodesis, estimated blood loss, length of surgery) were collected prospectively. Postoperative ICU admission details were retrospectively determined from the electronic medical record. Student's t test (continuous variables) and Chi-square test (categorical variables) were used to determine the association of each preoperative and surgical variable with ICU admission. 808 Patients (273 laminectomy, 535 laminectomy and fusion) were evaluated. Forty-one (5.1%) patients were found to have postoperative ICU admissions. Reasons for admission included blood loss (12.2%), cardiac (29.3%), respiratory (19.5%), neurologic (31.7%), and other (7.3%). For preoperative variables, female gender (P < 0.001), history of CAD (P = 0.003), history of MI (P = 0.008), history of CHF (P = 0.001), age (P = 0.025), and ASA grade (P = 0.008) were significantly associated with ICU admission. For surgical variables, estimated blood loss (P < 0.001) and length of surgery (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with ICU admission. Age, female gender, ASA grade, cardiac comorbidities, intraoperative blood loss, and length of surgery were associated with increased risk of postoperative ICU admission. Knowledge of these factors can aid surgeons in patient selection and preoperative discussion with patients about potential need for unexpected admission to the ICU.

  11. A Comparison of Bariatric Surgery in Hospitals With and Without ICU: a Linked Data Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, David J R; Ho, Kwok M

    2016-02-01

    It is uncertain whether bariatric surgery can be safely performed in secondary hospitals without on-site intensive care unit (ICU) support. This study describes the outcomes of elective bariatric surgery patients who required inter-hospital transfers for unplanned ICU management, extrapolating this as a parameter for secondary hospital safety after bariatric surgery. This was a retrospective, statewide, population-based, linked data cohort study capturing all adult bariatric surgery patients for an entire Australian state between 2007 and 2011 (n = 12,062) with minimum 12-month follow-up. In secondary hospitals, 2663 (22.1%) bariatric patients were operated on, with the majority (n = 2553) undergoing sleeve gastrectomies (SG) or adjustable gastric bands (LAGB). Forty-two patients (including 19 LAGB and 20 SG) required inter-hospital transfer to a tertiary hospital for unplanned ICU care (1.6%, 95% confidence interval 1.2-2.1), mainly due to surgical complications. Inter-hospital transfers incurred two deaths, both following sleeve gastrectomies. When compared to patients requiring unplanned ICU admissions after bariatric surgery in tertiary hospitals with an on-site ICU (n = 155), there was no difference in their demographic parameters, comorbid illnesses, or mortality (4.8 vs 3.9%, p = 0.68). The mortality following bariatric procedures both statewide (0.2%) and in secondary hospitals (0.2%) was both uncommon and comparable. Statewide inter-hospital transfers for unplanned ICU care from secondary hospitals were low. Inter-hospital transfer mortality was comparable to a similar bariatric cohort requiring unplanned ICU care after surgery in a tertiary hospital. This suggests that certain bariatric procedures can be safely done in most secondary hospitals where elective ICU admission is deemed unnecessary.

  12. Prediction of exact delivery time in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes at admission by amniotic fluid interleukin-8 level and preterm labor index.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Satoshi; Shiozaki, Arihiro; Yoneda, Noriko; Shima, Tomoko; Ito, Mika; Yamanaka, Mikiko; Hidaka, Takao; Sumi, Shigeki; Saito, Shigeru

    2011-07-01

    To examine whether delivery time for preterm labor can be predicted by clinical and biochemical markers at admission. It has previously been reported that interleukin (IL)-8 and glucose in the amniotic fluid, fetal fibronectin (fFN) in vaginal secretions and the preterm labor index (PLI) are independent risk factors for delivery before 34 weeks' gestation. Using these four markers, we developed an equation model to predict the remaining gestation period after amniocentesis by step-wise multiple regression analysis in 126 preterm delivery cases (retrospective section of the study). We also evaluated whether this equation model could predict delivery time in 65 new preterm labor patients (prospective section of the study). Finally, we investigated the risk factors for delivery within three days after amniocentesis. The period from amniocentesis until delivery was calculated using the following equation by step-wise multiple regression analysis: predicted period until delivery (days) = 77.1 - 15.8 × log (amniotic IL-8 level [ng/mL]) - 9.2 × PLI (points). The calculated period until delivery correlated significantly with the actual period until delivery in the prospective study. When a high score of PLI (≥5 points) and a high level of vaginal fFN (≥90 ng/mL) or a high level of amniotic IL-8 (≥25.5 ng/mL) were present, the positive predictive values were 88.2% and 80.9% in predicting delivery within three days, respectively. Using markers reflecting inflammation in the uterus (amniotic IL-8 or vaginal fFN) and clinical symptoms (PLI), we may be able to predict the exact delivery time in preterm labor patients with intact membranes. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. External validation of the simple clinical score and the HOTEL score, two scores for predicting short-term mortality after admission to an acute medical unit.

    PubMed

    Stræde, Mia; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Clinical scores can be of aid to predict early mortality after admission to a medical admission unit. A developed scoring system needs to be externally validated to minimise the risk of the discriminatory power and calibration to be falsely elevated. We performed the present study with the objective of validating the Simple Clinical Score (SCS) and the HOTEL score, two existing risk stratification systems that predict mortality for medical patients based solely on clinical information, but not only vital signs. Pre-planned prospective observational cohort study. Danish 460-bed regional teaching hospital. We included 3046 consecutive patients from 2 October 2008 until 19 February 2009. 26 (0.9%) died within one calendar day and 196 (6.4%) died within 30 days. We calculated SCS for 1080 patients. We found an AUROC of 0.960 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.932 to 0.988) for 24-hours mortality and 0.826 (95% CI, 0.774-0.879) for 30-day mortality, and goodness-of-fit test, χ(2) = 2.68 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.998 and χ(2) = 4.00, P = 0.947, respectively. We included 1470 patients when calculating the HOTEL score. Discriminatory power (AUROC) was 0.931 (95% CI, 0.901-0.962) for 24-hours mortality and goodness-of-fit test, χ(2) = 5.56 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.234. We find that both the SCS and HOTEL scores showed an excellent to outstanding ability in identifying patients at high risk of dying with good or acceptable precision.

  14. External Validation of the Simple Clinical Score and the HOTEL Score, Two Scores for Predicting Short-Term Mortality after Admission to an Acute Medical Unit

    PubMed Central

    Stræde, Mia; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical scores can be of aid to predict early mortality after admission to a medical admission unit. A developed scoring system needs to be externally validated to minimise the risk of the discriminatory power and calibration to be falsely elevated. We performed the present study with the objective of validating the Simple Clinical Score (SCS) and the HOTEL score, two existing risk stratification systems that predict mortality for medical patients based solely on clinical information, but not only vital signs. Methods Pre-planned prospective observational cohort study. Setting Danish 460-bed regional teaching hospital. Findings We included 3046 consecutive patients from 2 October 2008 until 19 February 2009. 26 (0.9%) died within one calendar day and 196 (6.4%) died within 30 days. We calculated SCS for 1080 patients. We found an AUROC of 0.960 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.932 to 0.988) for 24-hours mortality and 0.826 (95% CI, 0.774–0.879) for 30-day mortality, and goodness-of-fit test, χ2 = 2.68 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.998 and χ2 = 4.00, P = 0.947, respectively. We included 1470 patients when calculating the HOTEL score. Discriminatory power (AUROC) was 0.931 (95% CI, 0.901–0.962) for 24-hours mortality and goodness-of-fit test, χ2 = 5.56 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.234. Conclusion We find that both the SCS and HOTEL scores showed an excellent to outstanding ability in identifying patients at high risk of dying with good or acceptable precision. PMID:25144186

  15. Index Blood Tests and National Early Warning Scores within 24 Hours of Emergency Admission Can Predict the Risk of In-Hospital Mortality: A Model Development and Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Mohammed A.; Rudge, Gavin; Watson, Duncan; Wood, Gordon; Smith, Gary B.; Prytherch, David R.; Girling, Alan; Stevens, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background We explored the use of routine blood tests and national early warning scores (NEWS) reported within ±24 hours of admission to predict in-hospital mortality in emergency admissions, using empirical decision Tree models because they are intuitive and may ultimately be used to support clinical decision making. Methodology A retrospective analysis of adult emergency admissions to a large acute hospital during April 2009 to March 2010 in the West Midlands, England, with a full set of index blood tests results (albumin, creatinine, haemoglobin, potassium, sodium, urea, white cell count and an index NEWS undertaken within ±24 hours of admission). We developed a Tree model by randomly splitting the admissions into a training (50%) and validation dataset (50%) and assessed its accuracy using the concordance (c-) statistic. Emergency admissions (about 30%) did not have a full set of index blood tests and/or NEWS and so were not included in our analysis. Results There were 23248 emergency admissions with a full set of blood tests and NEWS with an in-hospital mortality of 5.69%. The Tree model identified age, NEWS, albumin, sodium, white cell count and urea as significant (p<0.001) predictors of death, which described 17 homogeneous subgroups of admissions with mortality ranging from 0.2% to 60%. The c-statistic for the training model was 0.864 (95%CI 0.852 to 0.87) and when applied to the testing data set this was 0.853 (95%CI 0.840 to 0.866). Conclusions An easy to interpret validated risk adjustment Tree model using blood test and NEWS taken within ±24 hours of admission provides good discrimination and offers a novel approach to risk adjustment which may potentially support clinical decision making. Given the nature of the clinical data, the results are likely to be generalisable but further research is required to investigate this promising approach. PMID:23734195

  16. Index blood tests and national early warning scores within 24 hours of emergency admission can predict the risk of in-hospital mortality: a model development and validation study.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Mohammed A; Rudge, Gavin; Watson, Duncan; Wood, Gordon; Smith, Gary B; Prytherch, David R; Girling, Alan; Stevens, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We explored the use of routine blood tests and national early warning scores (NEWS) reported within ±24 hours of admission to predict in-hospital mortality in emergency admissions, using empirical decision Tree models because they are intuitive and may ultimately be used to support clinical decision making. A retrospective analysis of adult emergency admissions to a large acute hospital during April 2009 to March 2010 in the West Midlands, England, with a full set of index blood tests results (albumin, creatinine, haemoglobin, potassium, sodium, urea, white cell count and an index NEWS undertaken within ±24 hours of admission). We developed a Tree model by randomly splitting the admissions into a training (50%) and validation dataset (50%) and assessed its accuracy using the concordance (c-) statistic. Emergency admissions (about 30%) did not have a full set of index blood tests and/or NEWS and so were not included in our analysis. There were 23248 emergency admissions with a full set of blood tests and NEWS with an in-hospital mortality of 5.69%. The Tree model identified age, NEWS, albumin, sodium, white cell count and urea as significant (p<0.001) predictors of death, which described 17 homogeneous subgroups of admissions with mortality ranging from 0.2% to 60%. The c-statistic for the training model was 0.864 (95%CI 0.852 to 0.87) and when applied to the testing data set this was 0.853 (95%CI 0.840 to 0.866). An easy to interpret validated risk adjustment Tree model using blood test and NEWS taken within ±24 hours of admission provides good discrimination and offers a novel approach to risk adjustment which may potentially support clinical decision making. Given the nature of the clinical data, the results are likely to be generalisable but further research is required to investigate this promising approach.

  17. Maternal mortality and morbidity: epidemiology of intensive care admissions in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, H; Dias, T; Jayawardena, A

    2013-12-01

    Maternal mortality reviews are used globally to assess the quality of health-care services. With the decline in the number of maternal deaths, it has become difficult to derive meaningful conclusions that could have an impact on quality of care using maternal mortality data. The emphasis has recently shifted to severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM), as an adjunct to maternal mortality reviews. Due to its heterogeneity, there are difficulties in recognising SAMM. The problem of identifying SAMM accurately is the main issue in investigating them. However, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) provides an unambiguous, management-based inclusion criterion for a SAMM. ICU data are available across health-care settings prospectively and retrospectively, making them a tool that could be studied readily. However, admission to the ICU depends on many factors, such as accessibility and the availability of high-dependency units, which will reduce the need for ICU admission. Thresholds for admission vary widely and are generally higher in facilities that handle a heavier workload. In addition, not all women with SAMM receive intensive care. However, women at the severe end of the spectrum of severe morbidity will almost invariably receive intensive care. Notwithstanding these limitations, the epidemiology of intensive care admissions in pregnancy will provide valuable data about women with severe morbidity. The overall rate of obstetric ICU admission varies from 0.04% to 4.54%.

  18. Admission serum albumin is predicitve of outcome in critically ill trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jin; Bochicchio, Grant V; Joshi, Manjari; Bochicchio, Kelly; Costas, Ainhoa; Tracy, Kate; Scalea, Thomas M

    2004-12-01

    There is a paucity of data evaluating serum albumin on admission as a predictor of outcome in adult trauma patients. Our objectives were to evaluate whether or not hypoalbuminemia on admission is a predictor of adverse outcome in trauma patients. Prospective data was collected daily on 1023 patients over a 2-year period. Patients were stratified by serum albumin level on admission, age, gender, injury severity, and comorbid conditions. Outcome was measured by ICU and hospital length of stay, ventilator days, incidence of infection, and mortality. Student t test, chi2, and multilinear regression analysis were used to determine level of significance. Blunt injuries accounted for the majority (78%) of the admissions. The mean age of the study population was 43+/-21 years with a mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 21.4+/-12. The majority of patients were male (74.5%). The mean albumin level on admission was 2.9+/-1.8. Five hundred ninety-three (58%) patients were admitted with a serum albumin level of > or =2.6 as compared to 430 patients (42%) with an admission albumin level of <2.6. Patients with a lower serum albumin level were found to have a significantly greater ICU (17.1 vs 14.2 days) and hospital length of stay (17.3 vs 20.1 days, P'< 0.05), ventilator days (11.1 vs 13.5 days, P < 0.05), and mortality (P = 0.008) when matched for age and injury severity. The relative risk of infection and mortality increased greater than 2.5-fold in patients with increased age and low serum albumin when analyzed by multilinear regression analysis, P < 0.001. An admission serum albumin level of <2.6 g/dL is a significant independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. The combination of increased age and low albumin level was most predictive of infection and mortality. Early nutrition should be considered in these high-risk patients.

  19. Refusal of intensive care unit admission due to a full unit: impact on mortality.

    PubMed

    Robert, René; Reignier, Jean; Tournoux-Facon, Caroline; Boulain, Thierry; Lesieur, Olivier; Gissot, Valérie; Souday, Vincent; Hamrouni, Mouldi; Chapon, Cécile; Gouello, Jean-Paul

    2012-05-15

    Intensive care unit (ICU) beds are a scarce resource, and patients denied intensive care only because the unit is full may be at increased risk of death. To compare mortality after first ICU referral in admitted patients and in patients denied admission because the unit was full. Prospective observational multicenter cohort study of consecutive patients referred for ICU admission during two 45-day periods, conducted in 10 ICUs. Of 1,762 patients, 430 were excluded from the study, 116 with previously denied admission to another ICU and 270 because they were deemed too sick or too well to benefit from ICU admission. Of the remaining 1,332 patients, 1,139 were admitted, and 193 were denied admission because the unit was full (65 were never admitted, 39 were admitted after bumping of another patient, and 89 were admitted on subsequent referral). Crude Day 28 and Day 60 mortality rates in the nonadmitted and admitted groups were 30.1 versus 24.3% (P = 0.07) and 33.3 versus 27.2% (P = 0.06), respectively. Day 28 mortality adjusted on age, previous disease, Glasgow scale score less than or equal to 8, shock, creatinine level greater than or equal to 250 μmol/L, and prothrombin time greater than or equal to 30 seconds was nonsignificantly higher in patients refused ICU admission only because of a full unit compared with patients admitted immediately. Patients admitted after subsequent referral had higher mortality rates on Day 28 (P = 0.05) and Day 60 (P = 0.04) compared with directly admitted patients. Delayed ICU admission due to a full unit at first referral is associated with increased mortality.

  20. The Use of Learning Styles and Admission Criteria in Predicting Academic Performance and Retention of College Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garton, Bryan L.; Dyer, James E.; King, Brad O.

    2000-01-01

    College freshmen (n=326) who preferred field-independent and field-neutral learning styles had higher grade point averages. High school grade point average and ACT scores were the best predictors of freshman academic performance. Learning style and ACT scores best predicted student retention. (SK)

  1. Elevated Omentin Serum Levels Predict Long-Term Survival in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Luedde, Mark; Benz, Fabian; Niedeggen, Jennifer; Vucur, Mihael; Hippe, Hans-Joerg; Spehlmann, Martina E.; Schueller, Florian; Loosen, Sven; Frey, Norbert; Trautwein, Christian; Koch, Alexander; Luedde, Tom; Tacke, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Omentin, a recently described adipokine, was shown to be involved in the pathophysiology of inflammatory and infectious diseases. However, its role in critical illness and sepsis is currently unknown. Materials and Methods. Omentin serum concentrations were measured in 117 ICU-patients (84 with septic and 33 with nonseptic disease etiology) admitted to the medical ICU. Results were compared with 50 healthy controls. Results. Omentin serum levels of critically ill patients at admission to the ICU or after 72 hours of ICU treatment were similar compared to healthy controls. Moreover, circulating omentin levels were independent of sepsis and etiology of critical illness. Notably, serum concentrations of omentin could not be linked to concentrations of inflammatory cytokines or routinely used sepsis markers. While serum levels of omentin were not predictive for short term survival during ICU treatment, low omentin concentrations were an independent predictor of patients' overall survival. Omentin levels strongly correlated with that of other adipokines (e.g., leptin receptor or adiponectin), which have also been identified as prognostic markers in critical illness. Conclusions. Although circulating omentin levels did not differ between ICU-patients and controls, elevated omentin levels were predictive for an impaired patients' long term survival. PMID:27867249

  2. Delirium and sedation in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Frontera, Jennifer A

    2011-06-01

    Delirium is defined by a fluctuating level of attentiveness and has been associated with increased ICU mortality and poor cognitive outcomes in both general ICU and neurocritical care populations. Sedation use in the ICU can contribute to delirium. Limiting ICU sedation allows for the diagnosis of underlying acute neurological insults associated with delirium and leads to shorter mechanical ventilation time, shorter length of stay, and improved 1 year mortality rates. Identifying the underlying etiology of delirium is critical to developing treatment paradigms.

  3. Prediction of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome complicating acute myocardial infarction on the basis of comorbidities on admission.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Gu, Xudong; Huang, Fang; Fang, Fang; Zhao, Yusheng; Qian, Xiaoming; Wan, Wenhui

    2016-08-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) can be complicated by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), but the exact influence of MODS on AMI remains unclear. This was a retrospective study of 6674 Chinese patients with AMI. The impact of MODS was assessed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Using the occurrence of MODS as the outcome, a prediction model was developed using the factors identified by logistic regression analysis and analyzed using receiving operator characteristic curves. Of 6674 patients with AMI, 83 (1.2%) progressed to MODS. MODS independently predicted the risk of 30-day in-hospital mortality [hazard ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.7-3.2; P<0.001]. Advanced age [odds ratio (OR), 2.76; 95% CI, 1.26-6.03; P=0.011 for age 65-74 years; OR, 4.85; 95% CI, 2.96-7.93; P<0.001 for age ≥75 years), pneumonia (OR, 4.27; 95% CI, 2.68-6.81; P<0.001), and chronic renal failure (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.09-4.01; P=0.027) were associated independently with MODS. The area under the receiving operator characteristic curve for the predictive model was 0.802, indicating a good predictive value. MODS can predict the worst severity of AMI. Using common clinical variables, it is possible to identify patients with AMI who are at high risk of MODS. Additional studies are necessary to confirm this model.

  4. Value of American Thoracic Society guidelines in predicting infection or colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jianfeng; Ma, Xudong; Huang, Yingzi; Mo, Min; Guo, Fengmei; Yang, Yi; Qiu, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    The incidence rate of infection by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) can affect the accuracy of etiological diagnosis when using American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines. We determined the accuracy of the ATS guidelines in predicting infection or colonization by MDROs over 18 months at a single ICU in eastern China. This prospective observational study examined consecutive patients who were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) in Nanjing, China. MDROs were defined as bacteria that were resistant to at least three antimicrobial classes, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii. Screening for MDROs was performed at ICU admission and discharge. Risk factors for infection or colonization with MDROs were recorded, and the accuracy of the ATS guidelines in predicting infection or colonization with MDROs was documented. There were 610 patients, 225 (37%) of whom were colonized or infected with MDROs at ICU admission, and this increased to 311 (51%) at discharge. At admission, the sensitivity (70.0%), specificity (31.6%), positive predictive value (38.2%), and negative predictive value (63.5%), all based on ATS guidelines for infection or colonization with MDROs were low. The negative predictive value was greater in patients from departments with MDRO infection rates of 31-40% than in patients from departments with MDRO infection rates of 30% or less and from departments with MDRO infection rates more than 40%. ATS criteria were not reliable in predicting infection or colonization with MDROs in our ICU. The negative predictive value was greater in patients from departments with intermediate rates of MDRO infection than in patients from departments with low or high rates of MDRO infection. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01667991.

  5. Predictive Performance of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and the Initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score in Acutely Ill Intensive Care Patients: Post-Hoc Analyses of the SUP-ICU Inception Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Morten Hylander; Krag, Mette; Perner, Anders; Hjortrup, Peter Buhl

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Severity scores including the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score are used in intensive care units (ICUs) to assess disease severity, predict mortality and in research. We aimed to assess the predictive performance of SAPS II and the initial SOFA score for in-hospital and 90-day mortality in a contemporary international cohort. Methods This was a post-hoc study of the Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis in the Intensive Care Unit (SUP-ICU) inception cohort study, which included acutely ill adults from ICUs across 11 countries (n = 1034). We compared the discrimination of SAPS II and initial SOFA scores, compared the discrimination of SAPS II in our cohort with the original cohort, assessed the calibration of SAPS II customised to our cohort, and compared the discrimination for 90-day mortality vs. in-hospital mortality for both scores. Discrimination was evaluated using areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUROC). Calibration was evaluated using Hosmer-Lemeshow’s goodness-of-fit Ĉ-statistic. Results AUROC for in-hospital mortality was 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77–0.83) for SAPS II and 0.73 (95% CI 0.69–0.76) for initial SOFA score (P<0.001 for the comparison). Calibration of the customised SAPS II for predicting in-hospital mortality was adequate (P = 0.60). Discrimination of SAPS II was reduced compared with the original SAPS II validation sample (AUROC 0.80 vs. 0.86; P = 0.001). AUROC for 90-day mortality was 0.79 (95% CI 0.76–0.82; P = 0.74 for comparison with in-hospital mortality) for SAPS II and 0.71 (95% CI 0.68–0.75; P = 0.66 for comparison with in-hospital mortality) for the initial SOFA score. Conclusions The predictive performance of SAPS II was similar for in-hospital and 90-day mortality and superior to that of the initial SOFA score, but SAPS II’s performance has decreased over time. Use of a contemporary severity score with improved predictive

  6. Do personality traits assessed on medical school admission predict exit performance? A UK-wide longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, R K; Dowell, J; Ayansina, D; Cleland, J A

    2016-10-04

    Traditional methods of assessing personality traits in medical school selection have been heavily criticised. To address this at the point of selection, "non-cognitive" tests were included in the UK Clinical Aptitude Test, the most widely-used aptitude test in UK medical education (UKCAT: http://www.ukcat.ac.uk/ ). We examined the predictive validity of these non-cognitive traits with performance during and on exit from medical school. We sampled all students graduating in 2013 from the 30 UKCAT consortium medical schools. Analysis included: candidate demographics, UKCAT non-cognitive scores, medical school performance data-the Educational Performance Measure (EPM) and national exit situational judgement test (SJT) outcomes. We examined the relationships between these variables and SJT and EPM scores. Multilevel modelling was used to assess the relationships adjusting for confounders. The 3343 students who had taken the UKCAT non-cognitive tests and had both EPM and SJT data were entered into the analysis. There were four types of non-cognitive test: (1) libertariancommunitarian, (2) NACE-narcissism, aloofness, confidence and empathy, (3) MEARS-self-esteem, optimism, control, self-discipline, emotional-nondefensiveness (END) and faking, (4) an abridged version of 1 and 2 combined. Multilevel regression showed that, after correcting for demographic factors, END predicted SJT and EPM decile. Aloofness and empathy in NACE were predictive of SJT score. This is the first large-scale study examining the relationship between performance on non-cognitive selection tests and medical school exit assessments. The predictive validity of these tests was limited, and the relationships revealed do not fit neatly with theoretical expectations. This study does not support their use in selection.

  7. Retrospective study on prognostic importance of serum procalcitonin and amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels as compared to Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV Score on Intensive Care Unit admission, in a mixed Intensive Care Unit population

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Chitra; Dara, Babita; Mehta, Yatin; Tariq, Ali M.; Joby, George V.; Singh, Manish K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Timely decision making in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is very essential to improve the outcome of critically sick patients. Conventional scores like Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE IV) are quite cumbersome with calculations and take minimum 24 hours. Procalcitonin has shown to have prognostic value in ICU/Emergency department (ED) in disease states like pneumonia, sepsis etc. NTproBNP has demonstrated excellent diagnostic and prognostic importance in cardiac diseases. It has also been found elevated in non-cardiac diseases. We chose to study the prognostic utility of these markers on ICU admission. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: A Retrospective analysis of 100 eligible patients was done who had undergone PCT and NTproBNP measurements on ICU admission. Their correlations with all cause mortality, length of hospital stay, need for ventilator support, need for vasopressors were performed. Results: Among 100 randomly selected ICU patients, 28 were non-survivors. NTproBNP values on admission significantly correlated with all cause mortality (P = 0.036, AUC = 0.643) and morbidity (P = 0.000, AUC = 0.763), comparable to that of APACHE-IV score. PCT values on admission did not show significant association with mortality, but correlated well with morbidity and prolonged hospital length of stay (AUC = 0.616, P = 0.045). Conclusion: The current study demonstrated a good predictive value of NTproBNP, in terms of mortality and morbidity comparable to that of APACHE-IV score. Procalcitonin, however, was found to have doubtful prognostic importance. These findings need to be confirmed in a prospective larger study. PMID:27052066

  8. Traumatic optic neuropathy prediction after blunt facial trauma: derivation of a risk score based on facial CT findings at admission.

    PubMed

    Bodanapally, Uttam K; Van der Byl, Giulia; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Katzman, Lee; Geraymovych, Elena; Saksobhavivat, Nitima; Mirvis, Stuart E; Sudini, Kuladeep R; Krejza, Jaroslaw; Shin, Robert Kang

    2014-09-01

    To determine the specific facial computed tomographic (CT) findings that can be used to predict traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) in patients with blunt craniofacial trauma and propose a scoring system to identify patients at highest risk of TON. This study was compliant with HIPAA, and permission was obtained from the institutional review board. Facial CT examination findings in 637 consecutive patients with a history of blunt facial trauma were evaluated retrospectively. The following CT variables were evaluated: midfacial fractures, extraconal hematoma, intraconal hematoma, hematoma along the optic nerve, hematoma along the posterior globe, optic canal fracture, nerve impingement by optic canal fracture fragment, extraconal emphysema, and intraconal emphysema. A prediction model was derived by using regression analysis, followed by receiver operating characteristic analysis to assess the diagnostic performance. To examine the degree of overfitting of the prediction model, a k-fold cross-validation procedure (k = 5) was performed. The ability of the cross-validated model to allow prediction of TON was examined by comparing the mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) from cross-validations with that obtained from the observations used to create the model. The five CT variables with significance as predictors were intraconal hematoma (odds ratio, 12.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.16, 31.42; P < .001), intraconal emphysema (odds ratio, 5.21; 95% CI: 2.03, 13.36; P = .001), optic canal fracture (odds ratio, 4.45; 95% CI: 1.91, 10.35; P = .001), hematoma along the posterior globe (odds ratio, 0.326; 95% CI: 0.111, 0.958; P = .041), and extraconal hematoma (odds ratio, 2.36; 95% CI: 1.03, 5.41; P = .042). The AUC was 0.818 (95% CI: 0.734, 0.902) for the proposed model based on the observations used to create the model and 0.812 (95% CI: 0.723, 0.9) after cross-validation, excluding substantial overfitting of the model. The risk model

  9. Delirium transitions in the medical ICU: exploring the role of sleep quality and other factors

    PubMed Central

    Colantuoni, Elizabeth; King, Lauren M.; Neufeld, Karin J.; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Rowden, Annette M.; Collop, Nancy A.; Needham, Dale M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Disrupted sleep is a common and potentially modifiable risk factor for delirium in the intensive care unit (ICU). As part of a quality improvement (QI) project to promote sleep in the ICU, we examined the association of perceived sleep quality ratings and other patient and ICU risk factors with daily transition to delirium. Design Secondary analysis of prospective observational study. Setting Medical ICU (MICU) over a 201-day period. Patients 223 patients with ≥1 night in the MICU in between two consecutive days of delirium assessment. Interventions None Measurements Daily perceived sleep quality ratings were measured using the Richards Campbell Sleep Questionnaire (RCSQ). Delirium was measured twice-daily using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU). Other covariates evaluated included: age, sex, race, ICU admission diagnosis, nighttime mechanical ventilation status, prior day’s delirium status, and daily sedation using benzodiazepines and opioids, via both bolus and continuous infusion. Main Results Perceived sleep quality was similar in patients who were ever versus never delirious in the ICU (median [IQR] ratings 58 [35-76] vs. 57 [33-78], respectively p=0.71), and perceived sleep quality was unrelated to delirium transition (adjusted OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.99-1.00). In mechanically ventilated patients, receipt of a continuous benzodiazepine and/or opioid infusion was associated with delirium transition (adjusted OR 4.02, 95% CI 2.19-7.38, p<0.001) and patients reporting use of pharmacological sleep aids at home were less likely to transition to delirium (adjusted OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.20-0.80, p=0.01). Conclusions We found no association between daily perceived sleep quality ratings and transition to delirium. Infusion of benzodiazepine and/or opioid medications was strongly associated with transition to delirium in the ICU in mechanically ventilated patients and is an important, modifiable risk factor for delirium in critically ill

  10. Development and evaluation of an interprofessional communication intervention to improve family outcomes in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Curtis, J Randall; Ciechanowski, Paul S; Downey, Lois; Gold, Julia; Nielsen, Elizabeth L; Shannon, Sarah E; Treece, Patsy D; Young, Jessica P; Engelberg, Ruth A

    2012-11-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU), where death is common and even survivors of an ICU stay face the risk of long-term morbidity and re-admissions to the ICU, represents an important setting for improving communication about palliative and end-of-life care. Communication about the goals of care in this setting should be a high priority since studies suggest that the current quality of ICU communication is often poor and is associated with psychological distress among family members of critically ill patients. This paper describes the development and evaluation of an intervention designed to improve the quality of care in the ICU by improving communication among the ICU team and with family members of critically ill patients. We developed a multi-faceted, interprofessional intervention based on self-efficacy theory. The intervention involves a "communication facilitator" - a nurse or social worker - trained to facilitate communication among the interprofessional ICU team and with the critically ill patient's family. The facilitators are trained using three specific content areas: a) evidence-based approaches to improving clinician-family communication in the ICU, b) attachment theory allowing clinicians to adapt communication to meet individual family member's communication needs, and c) mediation to facilitate identification and resolution of conflict including clinician-family, clinician-clinician, and intra-family conflict. The outcomes assessed in this randomized trial focus on psychological distress among family members including anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder at 3 and 6 months after the ICU stay. This manuscript also reports some of the lessons that we have learned early in this study.

  11. A multicenter study of ICU telemedicine reengineering of adult critical care.

    PubMed

    Lilly, Craig M; McLaughlin, John M; Zhao, Huifang; Baker, Stephen P; Cody, Shawn; Irwin, Richard S

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have evaluated both the overall effect of ICU telemedicine programs and the effect of individual components of the intervention on clinical outcomes. The effects of nonrandomized ICU telemedicine interventions on crude and adjusted mortality and length of stay (LOS) were measured. Additionally, individual intervention components related to process and setting of care were evaluated for their association with mortality and LOS. Overall, 118,990 adult patients (11,558 control subjects, 107,432 intervention group patients) from 56 ICUs in 32 hospitals from 19 US health-care systems were included. After statistical adjustment, hospital (hazard ratio [HR]=0.84; 95% CI, 0.78-0.89; P<.001) and ICU (HR=0.74; 95% CI, 0.68-0.79; P<.001) mortality in the ICU telemedicine intervention group was significantly better than that of control subjects. Moreover, adjusted hospital LOS was reduced, on average, by 0.5 (95% CI, 0.4-0.5), 1.0 (95% CI, 0.7-1.3), and 3.6 (95% CI, 2.3-4.8) days, and adjusted ICU LOS was reduced by 1.1 (95% CI, 0.8-1.4), 2.5 (95% CI, 1.6-3.4), and 4.5 (95% CI, 1.5-7.2) days among those who stayed in the ICU for ≥7, ≥14, and ≥30 days, respectively. Individual components of the interventions that were associated with lower mortality, reduced LOS, or both included (1) intensivist case review within 1 h of admission, (2) timely use of performance data, (3) adherence to ICU best practices, and (4) quicker alert response times. ICU telemedicine interventions, specifically interventions that increase early intensivist case involvement, improve adherence to ICU best practices, reduce response times to alarms, and encourage the use of performance data, were associated with lower mortality and LOS.

  12. Trauma admissions to the intensive care unit at a reference hospital in Northwestern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Chalya, Phillipo L; Gilyoma, Japhet M; Dass, Ramesh M; Mchembe, Mabula D; Matasha, Michael; Mabula, Joseph B; Mbelenge, Nkinda; Mahalu, William

    2011-10-24

    Major trauma has been reported to be a major cause of hospitalization and intensive care utilization worldwide and consumes a significant amount of the health care budget. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and treatment outcome of major trauma patients admitted into our ICU and to identify predictors of outcome. Between January 2008 and December 2010, a descriptive prospective study of all trauma admissions to a multidisciplinary intensive care unit (ICU) of Bugando Medical Centre in Northwestern Tanzania was conducted. A total of 312 cases of major trauma were admitted in the ICU, representing 37.1% of the total ICU admissions. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 5.5:1. Their median age was 27 years. Trauma admissions were almost exclusively emergencies (95.2%) and came mainly from the Accident and Emergency (60.6%) and Operating room (23.4%). Road traffic crash (RTC) was the most common cause of injuries affecting 70.8% of patients. Two hundred fourteen patients (68.6%) required surgical intervention. The overall ICU length of stay (LOS) for all trauma patients ranged from 1 to 59 days (median = 8 days). The median ICU length of hospital stay (LOS) for survivors and non-survivors were 8 and 5 days respectively. (P = 0.002). Mortality rate was 32.7%. Mortality rate of trauma patients was significantly higher than that of all ICU admissions (32.7% vs. 18.8%, P = 0.0012). According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, multiple injuries, severe head injuries and burns were responsible for a longer mean ICU stay (P < 0.001) whereas admission Glasgow Coma Score < 9, systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg, injury severity core >16, prolonged duration of loss of consciousness, delayed ICU admission (0.028), the need for ventilatory support and finding of space occupying lesion on computed tomography scan significantly influenced mortality (P < 0.001). Trauma resulting from road traffic crashes is a leading cause of intensive care

  13. Trauma admissions to the Intensive care unit at a reference hospital in Northwestern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Major trauma has been reported to be a major cause of hospitalization and intensive care utilization worldwide and consumes a significant amount of the health care budget. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and treatment outcome of major trauma patients admitted into our ICU and to identify predictors of outcome. Methods Between January 2008 and December 2010, a descriptive prospective study of all trauma admissions to a multidisciplinary intensive care unit (ICU) of Bugando Medical Centre in Northwestern Tanzania was conducted. Results A total of 312 cases of major trauma were admitted in the ICU, representing 37.1% of the total ICU admissions. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 5.5:1. Their median age was 27 years. Trauma admissions were almost exclusively emergencies (95.2%) and came mainly from the Accident and Emergency (60.6%) and Operating room (23.4%). Road traffic crash (RTC) was the most common cause of injuries affecting 70.8% of patients. Two hundred fourteen patients (68.6%) required surgical intervention. The overall ICU length of stay (LOS) for all trauma patients ranged from 1 to 59 days (median = 8 days). The median ICU length of hospital stay (LOS) for survivors and non-survivors were 8 and 5 days respectively. (P = 0.002). Mortality rate was 32.7%. Mortality rate of trauma patients was significantly higher than that of all ICU admissions (32.7% vs. 18.8%, P = 0.0012). According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, multiple injuries, severe head injuries and burns were responsible for a longer mean ICU stay (P < 0.001) whereas admission Glasgow Coma Score < 9, systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg, injury severity core >16, prolonged duration of loss of consciousness, delayed ICU admission (0.028), the need for ventilatory support and finding of space occupying lesion on computed tomography scan significantly influenced mortality (P < 0.001). Conclusion Trauma resulting from road traffic crashes is a

  14. The Predictive Validity of a Text-Based Situational Judgment Test in Undergraduate Medical and Dental School Admissions.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Fiona; Cousans, Fran; Edwards, Helena; Rosselli, Anna; Nicholson, Sandra; Wright, Barry

    2017-09-01

    Situational judgment tests (SJTs) can be used to assess the nonacademic attributes necessary for medical and dental trainees to become successful practitioners. Evidence for SJTs' predictive validity, however, relates predominantly to selection in postgraduate settings or using video-based SJTs at the undergraduate level; it may not be directly transferable to text-based SJTs in undergraduate medical and dental school selection. This preliminary study aimed to address these gaps by assessing the validity of the UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) text-based SJT. Study participants were 218 first-year medical and dental students from four UK undergraduate schools who completed the first UKCAT text-based SJT in 2013. Outcome measures were educational supervisor ratings of in-role performance in problem-based learning tutorial sessions-mean rating across the three domains measured by the SJT (integrity, perspective taking, and team involvement) and an overall judgment of performance-collected in 2015. There were significant correlations between SJT scores and both mean supervisor ratings (uncorrected r = 0.24, P < .001; corrected r = 0.34) and overall judgments (uncorrected rs = 0.16, P < .05; corrected rs = 0.20). SJT scores predicted 6% of variance in mean supervisor ratings across the three nonacademic domains. The results provide evidence that a well-designed text-based SJT can be appropriately integrated, and add value to, the selection process for undergraduate medical and dental school. More evidence is needed regarding the longitudinal predictive validity of SJTs throughout medical and dental training pathways, with appropriate outcome criteria.

  15. Can paediatric early warning scores (PEWS) be used to guide the need for hospital admission and predict significant illness in children presenting to the emergency department? An assessment of PEWS diagnostic accuracy using sensitivity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Lillitos, Peter J; Hadley, Graeme; Maconochie, Ian

    2016-05-01

    Designed to detect early deterioration of the hospitalised child, paediatric early warning scores (PEWS) validity in the emergency department (ED) is less validated. We aimed to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of two commonly used PEWS (Brighton and COAST) in predicting hospital admission and, for the first time, significant illness. Retrospective analysis of PEWS data for paediatric ED attendances at St Mary's Hospital, London, UK, in November 2012. Patients with missing data were excluded. Diagnoses were grouped: medical and surgical. To classify diagnoses as significant, established guidelines were used and, where not available, common agreement between three acute paediatricians. 1921 patients were analysed. There were 211 admissions (11%). 1630 attendances were medical (86%) and 273 (14%) surgical. Brighton and COAST PEWS performed similarly. hospital admission: PEWS of ≥3 was specific (93%) but poorly sensitive (32%). The area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) was low at 0.690. Significant illness: for medical illness, PEWS ≥3 was highly specific (96%) but poorly sensitive (44%). The AUC was 0.754 and 0.755 for Brighton and COAST PEWS, respectively. Both scores performed poorly for predicting significant surgical illness (AUC 0.642). PEWS ≥3 performed well in predicting significant respiratory illness: sensitivity 75%, specificity 91%. Both Brighton and COAST PEWS scores performed similarly. A score of ≥3 has good specificity but poor sensitivity for predicting hospital admission and significant illness. Therefore, a high PEWS should be taken seriously but a low score is poor at ruling out the requirement for admission or serious underlying illness. PEWS was better at detecting significant medical illness compared with detecting the need for admission. PEWS performed poorly in detecting significant surgical illness. PEWS may be particularly useful in evaluating respiratory illness in a paediatric ED. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  16. Effectiveness of pre-admission data and letters of recommendation to predict students who will need professional behavior intervention during clinical rotations in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at finding the value of letters of recommendation in predicting professional behavior problems in the clinical portion of a Doctor of Physical Therapy program learning cohorts from 2009-2014 in the United States. De-identified records of 137 Doctor of Physical Therapy graduates were examined by the descriptive statistics and comparison analysis. Thirty letters of recommendation were investigated based on grounded theory from 10 student applications with 5 randomly selected students of interest and 5 non-students of interest. Critical thinking, organizational skills, and judgement were statistically significant and quantitative differentiating characteristics. Qualitatively, significant characteristics of the student of interest included effective communication and cultural competency. Meanwhile, those of nonstudents of interest included conflicting personality descriptor, commitment to learning, balance, teamwork skills, potential future success, compatible learning skills, effective leadership skills, and emotional intelligence. Emerged significant characteristics did not consistently match common non-professional behavior issues encountered in clinic. Pre-admission data and letters of recommendation appear of limited value in predicting professional behavior performance in clinic. PMID:27378011

  17. Effectiveness of pre-admission data and letters of recommendation to predict students who will need professional behavior intervention during clinical rotations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Engelhard, Chalee; Leugers, Rebecca; Stephan, Jenna

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at finding the value of letters of recommendation in predicting professional behavior problems in the clinical portion of a Doctor of Physical Therapy program learning cohorts from 2009-2014 in the United States. De-identified records of 137 Doctor of Physical Therapy graduates were examined by the descriptive statistics and comparison analysis. Thirty letters of recommendation were investigated based on grounded theory from 10 student applications with 5 randomly selected students of interest and 5 non-students of interest. Critical thinking, organizational skills, and judgement were statistically significant and quantitative differentiating characteristics. Qualitatively, significant characteristics of the student of interest included effective communication and cultural competency. Meanwhile, those of nonstudents of interest included conflicting personality descriptor, commitment to learning, balance, teamwork skills, potential future success, compatible learning skills, effective leadership skills, and emotional intelligence. Emerged significant characteristics did not consistently match common non-professional behavior issues encountered in clinic. Pre-admission data and letters of recommendation appear of limited value in predicting professional behavior performance in clinic.

  18. Admission to Intensive Care for Palliative Care or Potential Organ Donation: Demographics, Circumstances, Outcomes, and Resource Use.

    PubMed

    Melville, Andrew; Kolt, Gali; Anderson, David; Mitropoulos, Joanna; Pilcher, David

    2017-10-01

    To describe the characteristics, circumstances, change over time, resource use, and outcomes of patients admitted to ICUs in Australia and New Zealand for the purposes of "palliative care of a dying patient" or "potential organ donation," and compare with actively managed ICU patients. A retrospective study of data from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database and a nested cohort analysis of a single center. One hundred seventy-seven ICUs in Australia and New Zealand and a nested analysis of one university-affiliated hospital ICU in Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Three thousand seven hundred "palliative care of a dying patient" and 1,115 "potential organ donation" patients from 2007 to 2016. The nested cohort included 192 patients. No interventions. Data extracted included patient demographics, diagnoses, length of stay, circumstances, and outcome of admission. ICU admissions for "palliative care of a dying patient" and "potential organ donation" increased from 179 in 2007 to 551 in 2016 and from 44 in 2007 to 174 in 2016 in each respective group, though only the "potential organ donation" cohort showed an increase in proportion of total ICU admissions. Lengths of stay in ICU were a mean of 33.8 hours (median, 17.5; interquartile range, 6.4-38.8) and 44.7 hours (26.6; 16.0-44.6), respectively, compared with 74.2 hours (41.5; 21.7-77.0) in actively managed patients. Hospital mortality was 86.6% and 95.9%, respectively. In the nested cohort of 192 patients, facilitating family discussions about goals of treatment and organ donation represented the most common reason for ICU admission. Patients admitted to ICU to manage end-of-life care represent a small proportion of overall ICU admissions, with an increasing proportion of "potential organ donation" admissions. They have shorter ICU lengths of stay than actively managed patients, suggesting resource use for these patients is not disproportionate.

  19. Warning! fire in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Rispoli, Fabio; Iannuzzi, Michele; De Robertis, Edoardo; Piazza, Ornella; Servillo, Giuseppe; Tufano, Rosalba

    2014-06-01

    At 5:30 pm on December 17, 2010, shortly after a power failure, smoke filled the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Federico II University Hospital in Naples, Italy, triggering the hospital emergency alarm system. Immediately, staff began emergency procedures and alerted rescue teams. All patients were transferred without harm. The smoke caused pharyngeal and conjunctival irritation in some staff members. After a brief investigation, firefighters discovered the cause of the fire was a failure of the Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS).

  20. Mortality and functional status at one-year of follow-up in elderly patients with prolonged ICU stay.

    PubMed

    Pintado, M C; Villa, P; Luján, J; Trascasa, M; Molina, R; González-García, N; de Pablo, R

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate mortality and functional status at one year of follow-up in patients>75 years of age who survive Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission of over 14 days. A prospective observational study was carried out. A Spanish medical-surgical ICU. Patients over 75 years of age admitted to the ICU. ICU admission: demographic data, baseline functional status (Barthel index), baseline mental status (Red Cross scale of mental incapacity), severity of illness (APACHE II and SOFA), stay and mortality. One-year follow-up: hospital stay and mortality, functional and mental status, and one-year follow-up mortality. A total of 176 patients were included, of which 22 had a stay of over 14 days. Patients with prolonged stay did not show more ICU mortality than those with a shorter stay in the ICU (40.9% vs 25.3% respectively, P=.12), although their hospital (63.6% vs 33.8%, P<.01) and one-year follow-up mortality were higher (68.2% vs 41.2%, P=.02). Among the survivors, one-year mortality proved similar (87.5% vs 90.6%, P=.57). These patients presented significantly greater impairment of functional status at hospital discharge than the patients with a shorter ICU stay, and this difference persisted after three months. The levels of independence at one-year follow-up were never similar to baseline. No such findings were observed in relation to mental status. Patients over 75 years of age with a ICU stay of more than 14 days have high hospital and one-year follow-up mortality. Patients who survive to hospital admission did not show greater mortality, though their functional dependency was greater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterisation of Candida within the Mycobiome/Microbiome of the Lower Respiratory Tract of ICU Patients.

    PubMed

    Krause, Robert; Halwachs, Bettina; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Hoenigl, Martin; Prattes, Jürgen; Valentin, Thomas; Heidrich, Katharina; Buzina, Walter; Salzer, Helmut J F; Rabensteiner, Jasmin; Prüller, Florian; Raggam, Reinhard B; Meinitzer, Andreas; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Högenauer, Christoph; Quehenberger, Franz; Kashofer, Karl; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Whether the presence of Candida spp. in lower respiratory tract (LRT) secretions is a marker of underlying disease, intensive care unit (ICU) treatment and antibiotic therapy or contributes to poor clinical outcome is unclear. We investigated healthy controls, patients with proposed risk factors for Candida growth in LRT (antibiotic therapy, ICU treatment with and without antibiotic therapy), ICU patients with pneumonia and antibiotic therapy and candidemic patients (for comparison of truly invasive and colonizing Candida spp.). Fungal patterns were determined by conventional culture based microbiology combined with molecular approaches (next generation sequencing, multilocus sequence typing) for description of fungal and concommitant bacterial microbiota in LRT, and host and fungal biomarkes were investigated. Admission to and treatment on ICUs shifted LRT fungal microbiota to Candida spp. dominated fungal profiles but antibiotic therapy did not. Compared to controls, Candida was part of fungal microbiota in LRT of ICU patients without pneumonia with and without antibiotic therapy (63% and 50% of total fungal genera) and of ICU patients with pneumonia with antibiotic therapy (73%) (p<0.05). No case of invasive candidiasis originating from Candida in the LRT was detected. There was no common bacterial microbiota profile associated or dissociated with Candida spp. in LRT. Colonizing and invasive Candida strains (from candidemic patients) did not match to certain clades withdrawing the presence of a particular pathogenic and invasive clade. The presence of Candida spp. in the LRT rather reflected rapidly occurring LRT dysbiosis driven by ICU related factors than was associated with invasive candidiasis.

  2. Maintaining quality of care while reducing charges in the ICU. Ten ways.

    PubMed Central

    Civetta, J M; Hudson-Civetta, J A

    1985-01-01

    We believed that the dilemma of controlling costs yet maintaining quality of care might be approached in 10 ways designed to improve efficiency of care: principles of management, elimination of standing orders, classification of patients, written guidelines, mandatory communication, no repetitive orders, single order for single test, removal of monitoring catheters, constant administrative attention, and feedback. We monitored quality of care using the therapeutic intervention scoring system (TISS), mortality, utilization of bed days in the ICU, and the total hospitalization of 50 patients treated in April 1983 and, 8 months after the interventions, 50 patients treated in February 1984. There were no differences in the patient population, severity, outcome, or days. The total lab bills were $10,000 in 1983 and $6300 in 1984 (p less than 0.01). The total number of tests decreased by 2803 (42%) from 6685 to 3882, or 56 per patient per admission. Calculated ICU laboratory charges per patient decreased $3226 (53%) from $6210 to $2894. In 1983, while patients spent 15% of their hospital days in the ICU, they accumulated 61% of their total laboratory charges. In 1984, ICU days were 19% and ICU laboratory charges were 46% of the total. If the decrease of $3226 per patient is extrapolated to a year's population, this would decrease charges by over $2,000,000 in one 12-bed surgical ICU. PMID:4051601

  3. Characterisation of Candida within the Mycobiome/Microbiome of the Lower Respiratory Tract of ICU Patients

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Robert; Halwachs, Bettina; Thallinger, Gerhard G.; Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Hoenigl, Martin; Prattes, Jürgen; Valentin, Thomas; Heidrich, Katharina; Buzina, Walter; Salzer, Helmut J. F.; Rabensteiner, Jasmin; Prüller, Florian; Raggam, Reinhard B.; Meinitzer, Andreas; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Högenauer, Christoph; Quehenberger, Franz; Kashofer, Karl; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Whether the presence of Candida spp. in lower respiratory tract (LRT) secretions is a marker of underlying disease, intensive care unit (ICU) treatment and antibiotic therapy or contributes to poor clinical outcome is unclear. We investigated healthy controls, patients with proposed risk factors for Candida growth in LRT (antibiotic therapy, ICU treatment with and without antibiotic therapy), ICU patients with pneumonia and antibiotic therapy and candidemic patients (for comparison of truly invasive and colonizing Candida spp.). Fungal patterns were determined by conventional culture based microbiology combined with molecular approaches (next generation sequencing, multilocus sequence typing) for description of fungal and concommitant bacterial microbiota in LRT, and host and fungal biomarkes were investigated. Admission to and treatment on ICUs shifted LRT fungal microbiota to Candida spp. dominated fungal profiles but antibiotic therapy did not. Compared to controls, Candida was part of fungal microbiota in LRT of ICU patients without pneumonia with and without antibiotic therapy (63% and 50% of total fungal genera) and of ICU patients with pneumonia with antibiotic therapy (73%) (p<0.05). No case of invasive candidiasis originating from Candida in the LRT was detected. There was no common bacterial microbiota profile associated or dissociated with Candida spp. in LRT. Colonizing and invasive Candida strains (from candidemic patients) did not match to certain clades withdrawing the presence of a particular pathogenic and invasive clade. The presence of Candida spp. in the LRT rather reflected rapidly occurring LRT dysbiosis driven by ICU related factors than was associated with invasive candidiasis. PMID:27206014

  4. Using Old and New SAT® Scores for Admission: A Closer Look at Concordant Scores in Predictive Models. Research Report 2016-17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Jessica P.; Shaw, Emily J.; Young, Linda

    2016-01-01

    During the transition period between the use of exclusively old SAT® scores and the use of exclusively new SAT scores, college admission offices will be receiving both types of scores from students. Making an admission decision based on new SAT scores can be challenging at first because institutions have methods, procedures, and models based on…

  5. icuARM-An ICU Clinical Decision Support System Using Association Rule Mining

    PubMed Central

    Chanani, Nikhil; Venugopalan, Janani; Maher, Kevin; Wang, May Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development of biomedical monitoring technologies has enabled modern intensive care units (ICUs) to gather vast amounts of multimodal measurement data about their patients. However, processing large volumes of complex data in real-time has become a big challenge. Together with ICU physicians, we have designed and developed an ICU clinical decision support system icuARM based on associate rule mining (ARM), and a publicly available research database MIMIC-II (Multi-parameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II) that contains more than 40,000 ICU records for 30,000+patients. icuARM is constructed with multiple association rules and an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI) for care providers to perform real-time data and information mining in the ICU setting. To validate icuARM, we have investigated the associations between patients' conditions such as comorbidities, demographics, and medications and their ICU outcomes such as ICU length of stay. Coagulopathy surfaced as the most dangerous co-morbidity that leads to the highest possibility (54.1%) of prolonged ICU stay. In addition, women who are older than 50 years have the highest possibility (38.8%) of prolonged ICU stay. For clinical conditions treatable with multiple drugs, icuARM suggests that medication choice can be optimized based on patient-specific characteristics. Overall, icuARM can provide valuable insights for ICU physicians to tailor a patient's treatment based on his or her clinical status in real time. PMID:27170860

  6. The admission index in the dental school admissions process.

    PubMed

    Staat, R H; Yancey, J M

    1982-08-01

    Preprofessional students' grade point averages (GPAs) and aptitude test scores have been moderately successful in predicting student performance in dental school. The authors attempted to improve the predictability of the school's admission process by combining several preprofessional academic averages and selected nongraded personal attributes into a single Admission Index (AI) score. A Pearson r of 0.67 was found for the relationship between the AI and first-year dental school GPA for University of Louisville dental students accepted into the class of 1984. The correlation coefficient generated from the AI and first-year dental school GPA was markedly superior to those generated by any single predictor. The authors propose that the AI is of value not only for its use in the admission process, but also in the development of an interceptive student monitoring program for the less-qualified student.

  7. ICU nurses' acceptance of electronic health records

    PubMed Central

    Cartmill, Randi; Blosky, Mary Ann; Brown, Roger; Hackenberg, Matthew; Hoonakker, Peter; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Norfolk, Evan; Wetterneck, Tosha B; Walker, James M

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess intensive care unit (ICU) nurses' acceptance of electronic health records (EHR) technology and examine the relationship between EHR design, implementation factors, and nurse acceptance. Design The authors analyzed data from two cross-sectional survey questionnaires distributed to nurses working in four ICUs at a northeastern US regional medical center, 3 months and 12 months after EHR implementation. Measurements Survey items were drawn from established instruments used to measure EHR acceptance and usability, and the usefulness of three EHR functionalities, specifically computerized provider order entry (CPOE), the electronic medication administration record (eMAR), and a nursing documentation flowsheet. Results On average, ICU nurses were more accepting of the EHR at 12 months as compared to 3 months. They also perceived the EHR as being more usable and both CPOE and eMAR as being more useful. Multivariate hierarchical modeling indicated that EHR usability and CPOE usefulness predicted EHR acceptance at both 3 and 12 months. At 3 months postimplementation, eMAR usefulness predicted EHR acceptance, but its effect disappeared at 12 months. Nursing flowsheet usefulness predicted EHR acceptance but only at 12 months. Conclusion As the push toward implementation of EHR technology continues, more hospitals will face issues related to acceptance of EHR technology by staff caring for critically ill patients. This research suggests that factors related to technology design have strong effects on acceptance, even 1 year following the EHR implementation. PMID:21697291

  8. Functional Status Score for the ICU: An International Clinimetric Analysis of Validity, Responsiveness, and Minimal Important Difference.

    PubMed

    Huang, Minxuan; Chan, Kitty S; Zanni, Jennifer M; Parry, Selina M; Neto, Saint-Clair G B; Neto, Jose A A; da Silva, Vinicius Z M; Kho, Michelle E; Needham, Dale M

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the internal consistency, validity, responsiveness, and minimal important difference of the Functional Status Score for the ICU, a physical function measure designed for the ICU. Clinimetric analysis. Five international datasets from the United States, Australia, and Brazil. Eight hundred nineteen ICU patients. None. Clinimetric analyses were initially conducted separately for each data source and time point to examine generalizability of findings, with pooled analyses performed thereafter to increase power of analyses. The Functional Status Score for the ICU demonstrated good to excellent internal consistency. There was good convergent and discriminant validity, with significant and positive correlations (r = 0.30-0.95) between Functional Status Score for the ICU and other physical function measures, and generally weaker correlations with nonphysical measures (|r| = 0.01-0.70). Known group validity was demonstrated by significantly higher Functional Status Score for the ICU scores among patients without ICU-acquired weakness (Medical Research Council sum score, ≥ 48 vs < 48) and with hospital discharge to home (vs healthcare facility). Functional Status Score for the ICU at ICU discharge predicted post-ICU hospital length of stay and discharge location. Responsiveness was supported via increased Functional Status Score for the ICU scores with improvements in muscle strength. Distribution-based methods indicated a minimal important difference of 2.0-5.0. The Functional Status Score for the ICU has good internal consistency and is a valid and responsive measure of physical function for ICU patients. The estimated minimal important difference can be used in sample size calculations and in interpreting studies comparing the physical function of groups of ICU patients.

  9. Diarrhoea in the ICU: respective contribution of feeding and antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Diarrhoea is frequently reported in the ICU. Little is known about diarrhoea incidence and the role of the different risk factors alone or in combination. This prospective observational study aims at determining diarrhoea incidence and risk factors in the first 2 weeks of ICU stay, focusing on the respective contribution of feeding, antibiotics, and antifungal drugs. Methods Out of 422 patients consecutively admitted into a mixed medical–surgical ICU during a 2-month period, 278 patients were included according to the following criteria: ICU stay >24 hours, no admission diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding, and absence of enterostomy or colostomy. Diarrhoea was defined as at least three liquid stools per day. Diarrhoea episodes occurring during the first day in the ICU, related to the use of laxative drugs or Clostridium difficile infection, were not analysed. Multivariate and stratified analyses were performed to determine diarrhoea risk factors, and the impact of the combination of enteral nutrition (EN) with antibiotics or antifungal drugs. Results A total of 1,595 patient-days were analysed. Diarrhoea was observed in 38 patients (14%) and on 83 patient-days (incidence rate: 5.2 per 100 patient-days). The median day of diarrhoea onset was the sixth day, and 89% of patients had ≤4 diarrhoea days. The incidence of C. difficile infection was 0.7%. Diarrhoea risk factors were EN covering >60% of energy target (relative risk = 1.75 (1.02 to 3.01)), antibiotics (relative risk = 3.64 (1.26 to 10.51)) and antifungal drugs (relative risk = 2.79 (1.16 to 6.70)). EN delivery per se was not a diarrhoea risk factor. In patients receiving >60% of energy target by EN, diarrhoea risk was increased by the presence of antibiotics (relative risk = 4.8 (2.1 to 13.7)) or antifungal drugs (relative risk = 5.0 (2.8 to 8.7)). Conclusion Diarrhoea incidence during the first 2 weeks in a mixed population of patients in a tertiary ICU is 14%. Diarrhoea risk factors are

  10. Diarrhoea in the ICU: respective contribution of feeding and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Ronan; Graf, Séverine; Clerc, Aurélie; Delieuvin, Nathalie; Heidegger, Claudia Paula; Pichard, Claude

    2013-07-24

    Diarrhoea is frequently reported in the ICU. Little is known about diarrhoea incidence and the role of the different risk factors alone or in combination. This prospective observational study aims at determining diarrhoea incidence and risk factors in the first 2 weeks of ICU stay, focusing on the respective contribution of feeding, antibiotics, and antifungal drugs. Out of 422 patients consecutively admitted into a mixed medical-surgical ICU during a 2-month period, 278 patients were included according to the following criteria: ICU stay >24 hours, no admission diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding, and absence of enterostomy or colostomy. Diarrhoea was defined as at least three liquid stools per day. Diarrhoea episodes occurring during the first day in the ICU, related to the use of laxative drugs or Clostridium difficile infection, were not analysed. Multivariate and stratified analyses were performed to determine diarrhoea risk factors, and the impact of the combination of enteral nutrition (EN) with antibiotics or antifungal drugs. A total of 1,595 patient-days were analysed. Diarrhoea was observed in 38 patients (14%) and on 83 patient-days (incidence rate: 5.2 per 100 patient-days). The median day of diarrhoea onset was the sixth day, and 89% of patients had ≤4 diarrhoea days. The incidence of C. difficile infection was 0.7%. Diarrhoea risk factors were EN covering >60% of energy target (relative risk = 1.75 (1.02 to 3.01)), antibiotics (relative risk = 3.64 (1.26 to 10.51)) and antifungal drugs (relative risk = 2.79 (1.16 to 6.70)). EN delivery per se was not a diarrhoea risk factor. In patients receiving >60% of energy target by EN, diarrhoea risk was increased by the presence of antibiotics (relative risk = 4.8 (2.1 to 13.7)) or antifungal drugs (relative risk = 5.0 (2.8 to 8.7)). Diarrhoea incidence during the first 2 weeks in a mixed population of patients in a tertiary ICU is 14%. Diarrhoea risk factors are EN covering >60% of energy target, use of

  11. Hospital-wide infection control practice and Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the intensive care unit (ICU): an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Workman, Rella

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To estimate trends in infection/colonisation with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in an intensive care unit (ICU). Design Observational study of results of ICU admission and weekly screens for MRSA. Setting and Participants All ICU admissions in 2001–2012. Interventions ICU admissions were screened for MRSA throughout. In late 2006, screening was extended to the whole hospital and extra measures taken in ICU. Main outcome measures Prevalence of MRSA in ICU admissions and number acquiring MRSA therein. Results In all, 366 of 6565 admissions to ICU were MRSA positive, including 270 of 4466 coming from within the hospital in which prevalence increased with time prior to transfer to ICU. Prevalence in this group was 9.4% (8.2–10.6) in 2001–2006, decreasing to 3.4% (2.3–4.5) in 2007–2009 and 1.3% (0.6–2.0) in 2010–2012, p < 0.001, due to decreased prevalence in those spending >5 days on wards before ICU admission: 18.9% (15.6–22.2) in 2001–2006, 7.1% (4.0–10.2) in 2007–2009 and 1.6% (0.1–3.1) in 2010–2012, p < 0.001. In addition, 201 patients acquired MRSA within ICU, the relative risk being greater when known positives present: 4.34 (3.98–4.70), p < 0.001. Acquisition rate/1000 bed days decreased from 13.3 (11.2–15.4) in 2001–2006 to 3.6 (2.6–4.6) in 2007–2012, p < 0.0001. Of 41 ICU-acquired MRSA bacteraemias, 38 were in 2001–2006. The risk of bacteraemia in those acquiring MRSA decreased from 25% (18.1–31.9) in 2001–2006 to 6.1% (0–12.8) thereafter, p = 0.022. Conclusions Following better hospital-wide infection control, fewer MRSA-positive patients were admitted to ICU with a parallel decrease in acquisition therein. Better practice there reduced the risk of bacteraemia. PMID:25383196

  12. Preoperative information for ICU patients to reduce anxiety during and after the ICU-stay: protocol of a randomized controlled trial [NCT00151554

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Almuth; Fleischer, Steffen; Koller, Michael; Neubert, Thomas R

    2006-01-01

    Background According to current evidence and psychological theorizing proper information giving seems to be a promising way to reduce patient anxiety. In the case of surgical patients, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) is strongly associated with uncertainty, unpredictability and anxiety for the patient. Thus, ICU specific information could have a high clinical impact. This study investigates the potential benefits of a specifically designed ICU-related information program for patients who undergo elective cardiac, abdominal or thoracic surgery and are scheduled for ICU stay. Methods/Design The trial is designed as a prospective randomized controlled trial including an intervention and a control group. The control group receives the standard preparation currently conducted by surgeons and anesthetists. The intervention group additionally receives a standardized information program with specific procedural, sensory and coping information about the ICU. A measurable clinical relevant difference regarding anxiety will be expected after discharge from ICU. Power calculation (α = 0.05; β = 0.20; Δ = 8.50 score points) resulted in a required sample size of N = 120 cardiac surgical patients (n = 60 vs. n = 60). Furthermore, N = 20 abdominal or thoracic surgical patients will be recruited (n = 10 vs. n = 10) to gain insight to a possible generalization to other patient groups. Additionally the moderating effect of specific patient attributes (need for cognition, high trait anxiety) will be investigated to identify certain patient groups which benefit most. Discussion The proposed study promises to strengthen evidence on effects of a specific, concise information program that addresses the information needs of patients scheduled for ICU stay. PMID:16524468

  13. The Implementation and Evaluation of the Patient Admission Prediction Tool: Assessing Its Impact on Decision-Making Strategies and Patient Flow Outcomes in 2 Australian Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Crilly, Julia L; Boyle, Justin; Jessup, Melanie; Wallis, Marianne; Lind, James; Green, David; FitzGerald, Gerry

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the implementation of a Patient Admission Prediction Tool (PAPT) in terms of patient flow outcomes and decision-making strategies. The PAPT was implemented in 2 Australian public teaching hospitals during October-December 2010 (hospital A) and October-December 2011 (hospital B). A multisite prospective, comparative (before and after) design was used. Patient flow outcomes measured included access block and hospital occupancy. Daily and weekly data were collected from patient flow reports and routinely collected emergency department information by the site champion and researchers. Daily decision-making strategies ranged from business as usual to use of overcensus beds. Weekly strategies included advanced approval to use of overcensus beds and prebooking nursing staff. These strategies resulted in improved weekend discharges to manage incoming demand for the following week. Following the introduction of the PAPT and workflow guidelines, patient access and hospital occupancy levels could be maintained despite increases in patient presentations (hospital A). The use of a PAPT, embedded in patient flow management processes and championed by a manager, can benefit bed and staff management. Further research that incorporates wider evaluation of the use of the tool at other sites is warranted.

  14. Statistical Analysis Aiming at Predicting Respiratory Tract Disease Hospital Admissions from Environmental Variables in the City of São Paulo

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coêlho, Micheline; Luiz Teixeira Gonçalves, Fabio; do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This study is aimed at creating a stochastic model, named Brazilian Climate and Health Model (BCHM), through Poisson regression, in order to predict the occurrence of hospital respiratory admissions (for children under thirteen years of age) as a function of air pollutants, meteorological variables, and thermal comfort indices (effective temperatures, ET). The data used in this study were obtained from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, between 1997 and 2000. The respiratory tract diseases were divided into three categories: URI (Upper Respiratory tract diseases), LRI (Lower Respiratory tract diseases), and IP (Influenza and Pneumonia). The overall results of URI, LRI, and IP show clear correlation with SO2 and CO, PM10 and O3, and PM10, respectively, and the ETw4 (Effective Temperature) for all the three disease groups. It is extremely important to warn the government of the most populated city in Brazil about the outcome of this study, providing it with valuable information in order to help it better manage its resources on behalf of the whole population of the city of Sao Paulo, especially those with low incomes. PMID:20706674

  15. Can the early condition at admission of a high-risk infant aid in the prediction of mortality and poor neurodevelopmental outcome? A population study in Australia.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Sarah; Abdel-Latif, Mohamed E; Bajuk, Barbara; Lui, Kei

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this article was to evaluate the Revised Clinical Risk Index for Babies' (CRIB-II) severity of illness score as a predictor of moderate to severe functional disability (FD) in very premature infants. Population study of infants born <29 weeks' gestation cared for in all Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory between 1998 and 2003. FD at 2-3 years corrected age was defined as developmental delay (quotient < 2 standard deviation), non-ambulatory cerebral palsy (needing aids to walk), blindness (acuity <6/60 in better eye) or deafness (hearing aids). Sensitivity and specificity of CRIB-II scores to predict FD were performed by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Of study population of 2210, 480 (21.7%) died before hospital discharge. Among 1328 infants assessed, 217 (16.3%) had FD, 109 (8.2%) developmental delay, 75 (5.6%) cerebral palsy and 54 (4.1%) blindness or deafness. CRIB-II performed significantly better than gestation or birthweight (BW) alone in predicting mortality (area under the curve (AUC) ± standard error 0.83 ± 0.01, vs. 0.78 ± 0.01 and 0.76 ± 0.01, respectively). CRIB-II scores were significantly higher in FD than non-FD children (11.9 ± 2.9 vs. 10.1 ± 2.6), but the AUC for CRIB-II (0.68 ± 0.02) did not significantly differ from that of gestation (0.65 ± 0.02) and BW (0.65 ± 0.02). CRIB-II improved prediction of mortality but did not perform better than gestational age or BW in predicting FD. We would caution clinicians against using the infant's condition at admission to predict long-term outcome. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  16. Rational fluid management in today's ICU practice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous fluid therapy has evolved significantly over time. From the initial report of the first intravenous administration of sodium-chloride-based solution to the development of goal-directed fluid therapy using novel dynamic indices, efforts have focused on improving patient outcomes. The goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of current concepts for intravenous fluid administration in the ICU. Results of recently published clinical trials suggesting harmful effects of starch-based solutions on critically ill patients are discussed. Concepts for goal-directed fluid therapy and new modalities for the assessment of fluid status as well as for the prediction of responsiveness to different interventions will continue to emerge. Advances in technology will have to be critically evaluated for their ability to improve outcomes in different clinical scenarios. PMID:23514431

  17. Derivation of a cardiac arrest prediction model using ward vital signs

    PubMed Central

    Churpek, Matthew M.; Yuen, Trevor C.; Park, Seo Young; Meltzer, David O.; Hall, Jesse B.; Edelson, Dana P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Rapid response team (RRT) activation criteria were created using expert opinion and have demonstrated variable accuracy in previous studies. We developed a cardiac arrest risk triage (CART) score to predict cardiac arrest (CA) and compared it to the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS), a commonly cited RRT activation criterion. Design A retrospective cohort study. Setting An academic medical center in the United States. Patients All patients hospitalized from November 2008 to January 2011 who had documented ward vital signs were included in the study. These patients were divided into three cohorts: patients who suffered a CA on the wards, patients who had a ward to intensive care unit (ICU) transfer, and patients who had neither of these outcomes (controls). Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Ward vital signs from admission until discharge, ICU transfer, or ward CA were extracted from the medical record. Multivariate logistic regression was used to predict CA, and the CART score was calculated using the regression coefficients. The model was validated by comparing its accuracy for detecting ICU transfer to the MEWS. Each patient’s maximum score prior to CA, ICU transfer, or discharge was used to compare the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) between the two models. Eighty-eight CA patients, 2820 ICU transfers, and 44519 controls were included in the study. The CART score more accurately predicted CA than the MEWS (AUC 0.84 vs. 0.76;P=0.001). At a specificity of 89.9%, the CART score had a sensitivity of 53.4% compared to 47.7% for the MEWS. The CART score also predicted ICU transfer better than the MEWS (AUC 0.71 vs. 0.67;P<0.001). Conclusions The CART score is simpler and more accurately detected CA and ICU transfer than the MEWS. Implementation of this tool may decrease RRT resource utilization and provide a better opportunity to improve patient outcomes than the MEWS. PMID:22584764

  18. A Comparison of Intensive Care Unit Mortality Prediction Models through the Use of Data Mining Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woojae; Park, Rae Woong

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The intensive care environment generates a wealth of critical care data suited to developing a well-calibrated prediction tool. This study was done to develop an intensive care unit (ICU) mortality prediction model built on University of Kentucky Hospital (UKH)'s data and to assess whether the performance of various data mining techniques, such as the artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM) and decision trees (DT), outperform the conventional logistic regression (LR) statistical model. Methods The models were built on ICU data collected regarding 38,474 admissions to the UKH between January 1998 and September 2007. The first 24 hours of the ICU admission data were used, including patient demographics, admission information, physiology data, chronic health items, and outcome information. Results Only 15 study variables were identified as significant for inclusion in the model development. The DT algorithm slightly outperformed (AUC, 0.892) the other data mining techniques, followed by the ANN (AUC, 0.874), and SVM (AUC, 0.876), compared to that of the APACHE III performance (AUC, 0.871). Conclusions With fewer variables needed, the machine learning algorithms that we developed were proven to be as good as the conventional APACHE III prediction. PMID:22259725

  19. Serum creatinine level, a surrogate of muscle mass, predicts mortality in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Thongprayoon, Charat; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Kashani, Kianoush

    2016-05-01

    Serum creatinine (SCr) has been widely used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Creatinine generation could be reduced in the setting of low skeletal muscle mass. Thus, SCr has also been used as a surrogate of muscle mass. Low muscle mass is associated with reduced survival in hospitalized patients, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU) settings. Recently, studies have demonstrated high mortality in ICU patients with low admission SCr levels, reflecting that low muscle mass or malnutrition, are associated with increased mortality. However, SCr levels can also be influenced by multiple GFR- and non-GFR-related factors including age, diet, exercise, stress, pregnancy, and kidney disease. Imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound, have recently been studied for muscle mass assessment and demonstrated promising data. This article aims to present the perspectives of the uses of SCr and other methods for prediction of muscle mass and outcomes of ICU patients.

  20. A combination of early warning score and lactate to predict intensive care unit transfer of inpatients with severe sepsis/septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jung-Wan; Lee, Ju Ry; Jung, Youn Kyung; Choi, Sun Hui; Son, Jeong Suk; Kang, Byung Ju; Park, Tai Sun; Huh, Jin-Won; Lim, Chae-Man; Koh, Younsuck

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The modified early warning score (MEWS) is used to predict patient intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality. Lactate (LA) in the blood lactate (BLA) is measured to evaluate disease severity and treatment efficacy in patients with severe sepsis/septic shock. The usefulness of a combination of MEWS and BLA to predict ICU transfer in severe sepsis/septic shock patients is unclear. We evaluated whether use of a combination of MEWS and BLA enhances prediction of ICU transfer and mortality in hospitalized patients with severe sepsis/septic shock. Methods Patients with severe sepsis/septic shock who were screened or contacted by a medical emergency team between January 2012 and August 2012 were enrolled at a university-affiliated hospital with ~2,700 beds, including 28 medical ICU beds. Results One hundred patients were enrolled and the rate of ICU admittance was 38%. MEWS (7.37 vs. 4.85) and BLA concentration (5 mmol/L vs. 2.19 mmol/L) were significantly higher in patients transferred to ICU than those in patients treated in general wards. The combination of MEWS and BLA was more accurate than MEWS alone in terms of ICU transfer (C-statistics: 0.898 vs. 0.816, p = 0.019). The 28-day mortality rate was 19%. MEWS was the only factor significantly associated with 28-day mortality rate (odds ratio, 1.462; 95% confidence interval, 1.122 to 1.905; p = 0.005). Conclusions The combination of MEWS and BLA may enhance prediction of ICU transfer in patients with severe sepsis/septic shock. PMID:26161013

  1. A combination of early warning score and lactate to predict intensive care unit transfer of inpatients with severe sepsis/septic shock.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jung-Wan; Lee, Ju Ry; Jung, Youn Kyung; Choi, Sun Hui; Son, Jeong Suk; Kang, Byung Ju; Park, Tai Sun; Huh, Jin-Won; Lim, Chae-Man; Koh, Younsuck; Hong, Sang Bum

    2015-07-01

    The modified early warning score (MEWS) is used to predict patient intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality. Lactate (LA) in the blood lactate (BLA) is measured to evaluate disease severity and treatment efficacy in patients with severe sepsis/septic shock. The usefulness of a combination of MEWS and BLA to predict ICU transfer in severe sepsis/septic shock patients is unclear. We evaluated whether use of a combination of MEWS and BLA enhances prediction of ICU transfer and mortality in hospitalized patients with severe sepsis/septic shock. Patients with severe sepsis/septic shock who were screened or contacted by a medical emergency team between January 2012 and August 2012 were enrolled at a university-affiliated hospital with ~2,700 beds, including 28 medical ICU beds. One hundred patients were enrolled and the rate of ICU admittance was 38%. MEWS (7.37 vs. 4.85) and BLA concentration (5 mmol/L vs. 2.19 mmol/L) were significantly higher in patients transferred to ICU than those in patients treated in general wards. The combination of MEWS and BLA was more accurate than MEWS alone in terms of ICU transfer (C-statistics: 0.898 vs. 0.816, p = 0.019). The 28-day mortality rate was 19%. MEWS was the only factor significantly associated with 28-day mortality rate (odds ratio, 1.462; 95% confidence interval, 1.122 to 1.905; p = 0.005). The combination of MEWS and BLA may enhance prediction of ICU transfer in patients with severe sepsis/septic shock.

  2. Economics of ICU organization and management.

    PubMed

    Wunsch, Hannah; Gershengorn, Hayley; Scales, Damon C

    2012-01-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) is a complex system and the economic implications of altering care patterns in the ICU can be difficult to unravel. Few studies have specifically examined the economics of implementing organizational and management changes or acknowledged the many competing economic interests of patient, hospital,payer, and society. With continuously increasing healthcare costs,there is a great need for more studies focused on the optimal organization of the ICU. These studies should not focus solely on reductions in ICU length of stay but should strive to measure the true costs of care within a given healthcare system.

  3. The Research Agenda in ICU Telemedicine

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Nicholas S.; Lilly, Craig M.; Angus, Derek C.; Jacobi, Judith; Rubenfeld, Gordon D.; Rothschild, Jeffrey M.; Sales, Anne E.; Scales, Damon C.; Mathers, James A. L.

    2011-01-01

    ICU telemedicine uses audiovisual conferencing technology to provide critical care from a remote location. Research is needed to best define the optimal use of ICU telemedicine, but efforts are hindered by methodological challenges and the lack of an organized delivery approach. We con