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Sample records for predict magnetic properties

  1. Effects Of Hydrothermal Alteration On Magnetic Properties And Magnetic Signatures - Implications For Predictive Magnetic Exploration Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetics is the most widely used geophysical method in hard rock exploration and magnetic surveys are an integral part of exploration programs for many types of mineral deposit, including porphyry Cu, intrusive-related gold, volcanic-hosted epithermal Au, IOCG, VMS, and Ni sulfide deposits. However, the magnetic signatures of ore deposits and their associated mineralized systems are extremely variable and exploration that is based simply on searching for signatures that resemble those of known deposits and systems is rarely successful. Predictive magnetic exploration models are based upon well-established geological models, combined with magnetic property measurements and geological information from well-studied deposits, and guided by magnetic petrological understanding of the processes that create, destroy and modify magnetic minerals in rocks. These models are designed to guide exploration by predicting magnetic signatures that are appropriate to specific geological settings, taking into account factors such as tectonic province; protolith composition; post-formation tilting/faulting/ burial/ exhumation and partial erosion; and metamorphism. Patterns of zoned hydrothermal alteration are important indicators of potentially mineralized systems and, if properly interpreted, can provided vectors to ore. Magnetic signatures associated with these patterns at a range of scales can provide valuable information on prospectivity and can guide drilling, provided they are correctly interpreted in geological terms. This presentation reviews effects of the important types of hydrothermal alteration on magnetic properties within mineralized systems, with particular reference to porphyry copper and IOCG deposits. For example, an unmodified gold-rich porphyry copper system, emplaced into mafic-intermediate volcanic host rocks (such as Bajo de la Alumbrera, Argentina) exhibits an inner potassic zone that is strongly mineralized and magnetite-rich, which is surrounded by an outer

  2. Chondrule magnetic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P. J.; Obryan, M. V.

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: chondrule magnetic properties; chondrules from the same meteorite; and REM values (the ratio for remanence initially measured to saturation remanence in 1 Tesla field). The preliminary field estimates for chondrules magnetizing environments range from minimal to a least several mT. These estimates are based on REM values and the characteristics of the remanence initially measured (natural remanence) thermal demagnetization compared to the saturation remanence in 1 Tesla field demagnetization.

  3. Predictability of magnetic hysteresis and thermoremanent magnetization using Preisach theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, A. J.; Niemerg, M.; Bates, D.

    2014-12-01

    Preisach theory is a phenomenological model of hysteresis that is the basis for FORC analysis in rock magnetism. In FORC analysis, a system is characterized using first-order reversal curves (FORCs), each of which is a magnetization curve after a reversal in the direction of change of the magnetic field. Preisach theory uses the same curves to predict the magnetic response to changes in the magnetic field. In rock magnetism, the Preisach model has been adapted to predict general properties of thermoremanent magnetization (TRM), and even to inferpaleointensity from room-temperature FORCs. Preisach theory represents hysteresis by a collection of hysteresis units called hysterons; the distribution of hysterons is inferred from FORC measurements. Each hysteron represents a two-state system. This is similar to a single-domain (SD) magnet, but the first-order theory cannot represent the magnetism of a simple system of randomly oriented SD magnets. Such a system can be represented by a second-order Preisach theory, which requires the measurement of magnetization curves after two reversals of the direction of change. One can generalize this process to higher order reversal curves, although each increase in the number of reversals greatly increases the number of measurements that are needed. The magnetic hysteresis of systems of interacting SD magnets is calculated using numerical homotopy, a method that can find all the solutions of the equilibrium equations for such a system. The hysteresis frequently has features that cannot be represented by any order of Preisach theory. Furthermore, there are stable magnetic states that are not reachable during isothermal hysteresis unless thermal fluctuations are large enough. Such states would not be visible at room temperature but would contribute to TRM.

  4. Magnetic properties of ground-state mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimonis, V.

    2016-04-01

    Starting with the bag model a method for the study of the magnetic properties (magnetic moments, magnetic dipole transition widths) of ground-state mesons is developed. We calculate the M1 transition moments and use them subsequently to estimate the corresponding decay widths. These are compared with experimental data, where available, and with the results obtained in other approaches. Finally, we give the predictions for the static magnetic moments of all ground-state vector mesons including those containing heavy quarks. We have a good agreement with experimental data for the M1 decay rates of light as well as heavy mesons. Therefore, we expect our predictions for the static magnetic properties ( i.e., usual magnetic moments) to be of sufficiently high quality, too.

  5. Magnetically Responsive Nanostructures with Tunable Optical Properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingsheng; Yin, Yadong

    2016-05-25

    Stimuli-responsive materials can sense specific environmental changes and adjust their physical properties in a predictable manner, making them highly desired components for designing novel sensors, intelligent systems, and adaptive structures. Magnetically responsive structures have unique advantages in applications, as external magnetic stimuli can be applied in a contactless manner and cause rapid and reversible responses. In this Perspective, we discuss our recent progress in the design and fabrication of nanostructured materials with various optical responses to externally applied magnetic fields. We demonstrate tuning of the optical properties by taking advantage of the magnetic fields' abilities to induce magnetic dipole-dipole interactions or control the orientation of the colloidal magnetic nanostructures. The design strategies are expected to be extendable to the fabrication of novel responsive materials with new optical effects and many other physical properties. PMID:27115174

  6. Magnetic Properties of Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciraldo, John

    2007-10-01

    The recent development of the superlattice nanowire pattern transfer (SNAP) technique has enabled the fabrication of complex molecular-electronic circuits at unprecedented densities. In this project, we explore the possibility of extending this technique to generate comparably dense arrays of nanoscale giant magnetoresistive (GMR) and tunneling magnetoresistive (TMR) devices. My primary contribution to this project has focused on using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), as well as a superconducting interference device (SQUID) magnetometer to monitor the magnetic properties of the devices as they are processed from thin 2D films into nanostructure arrays. This investigation allows us to investigate both fundamental and technological aspects of the nanopatterning process. For example, the effects of changing surface to volume ratios on the ferromagnetic exchange interaction and the role of various patterning techniques in determining surface chemistry and oxidation of the final nanostructures, respectively. Additionally I have worked on simulations of the materials using NIST's OOMF program, allowing me to compare actual results with theoretical expectations. I am also designing a magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) detector, which will allow faster approximations of magnetic behavior.

  7. Modeling Magnetic Properties in EZTB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon; vonAllmen, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A software module that calculates magnetic properties of a semiconducting material has been written for incorporation into, and execution within, the Easy (Modular) Tight-Binding (EZTB) software infrastructure. [EZTB is designed to model the electronic structures of semiconductor devices ranging from bulk semiconductors, to quantum wells, quantum wires, and quantum dots. EZTB implements an empirical tight-binding mathematical model of the underlying physics.] This module can model the effect of a magnetic field applied along any direction and does not require any adjustment of model parameters. The module has thus far been applied to study the performances of silicon-based quantum computers in the presence of magnetic fields and of miscut angles in quantum wells. The module is expected to assist experimentalists in fabricating a spin qubit in a Si/SiGe quantum dot. This software can be executed in almost any Unix operating system, utilizes parallel computing, can be run as a Web-portal application program. The module has been validated by comparison of its predictions with experimental data available in the literature.

  8. Emergent properties of magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratcliff, William Davis, II

    In Tolstoy's War and Peace, history is presented as a tapestry spun from the daily interactions of large numbers of individuals. Even if one understands individuals, it is very difficult to predict history. Similarly, the interactions of large numbers of electrons give rise to properties that one would not initially guess from their microscopic interactions. During the course of my dissertation, I have explored emergent phenomena in a number of contexts. In ZnCr2O4, geometric frustration gives rise to a plethora of equivalent ground states. From these, a lower dimensional set of collinear spins on hexagons are selected to form the building blocks of the lattice. In MgTi2O4, quantum spins dimerize and form a unique chiral ordering pattern on the spinel lattice. Descending into two dimensions, differences in size and charge give rise to an ordering between triangular layers of magnetic and nonmagnetic ions. This triangular lattice allows for the possibility of observing the RVB spin liquid state, or perhaps a valence bond crystal and initial measurements are promising. Also, on the spinel lattice, ionic ordering gives rise to one dimensional chains with their own interesting physics. Finally, in the SrCoxTi1-x O3, system we find that upon reduction, tiny clusters of Co metal precipitate out and chemical inhomogeneity on the microscale may determine much of the physics. This has relevance to a number of recent claims of room temperature ferromagnism in dilute magnetic systems. In all of these systems, complex behavior emerges from well understood microscopic behavior. For me, this is the fascination of strongly correlated electronic systems.

  9. Hysteresis prediction inside magnetic shields and application.

    PubMed

    Morić, Igor; De Graeve, Charles-Marie; Grosjean, Olivier; Laurent, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    We have developed a simple model that is able to describe and predict hysteresis behavior inside Mumetal magnetic shields, when the shields are submitted to ultra-low frequency (<0.01 Hz) magnetic perturbations with amplitudes lower than 60 μT. This predictive model has been implemented in a software to perform an active compensation system. With this compensation the attenuation of longitudinal magnetic fields is increased by two orders of magnitude. The system is now integrated in the cold atom space clock called PHARAO. The clock will fly onboard the International Space Station in the frame of the ACES space mission. PMID:25085183

  10. Hysteresis prediction inside magnetic shields and application

    SciTech Connect

    Morić, Igor; De Graeve, Charles-Marie; Grosjean, Olivier; Laurent, Philippe

    2014-07-15

    We have developed a simple model that is able to describe and predict hysteresis behavior inside Mumetal magnetic shields, when the shields are submitted to ultra-low frequency (<0.01 Hz) magnetic perturbations with amplitudes lower than 60 μT. This predictive model has been implemented in a software to perform an active compensation system. With this compensation the attenuation of longitudinal magnetic fields is increased by two orders of magnitude. The system is now integrated in the cold atom space clock called PHARAO. The clock will fly onboard the International Space Station in the frame of the ACES space mission.

  11. Hysteresis prediction inside magnetic shields and application.

    PubMed

    Morić, Igor; De Graeve, Charles-Marie; Grosjean, Olivier; Laurent, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    We have developed a simple model that is able to describe and predict hysteresis behavior inside Mumetal magnetic shields, when the shields are submitted to ultra-low frequency (<0.01 Hz) magnetic perturbations with amplitudes lower than 60 μT. This predictive model has been implemented in a software to perform an active compensation system. With this compensation the attenuation of longitudinal magnetic fields is increased by two orders of magnitude. The system is now integrated in the cold atom space clock called PHARAO. The clock will fly onboard the International Space Station in the frame of the ACES space mission.

  12. Magnetic properties of electrodeposited nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydon, G. P.; Hoon, S. R.; Farley, A. N.; Tomlinson, S. L.; Valera, M. S.; Attenborough, K.; Schwarzacher, W.

    1997-04-01

    Electrodeposited multilayered nanowires grown within a polycarbonate membrane constitute a new medium in which giant magnetoresistance (GMR) perpendicular to the plane of the multilayers can be measured. These structures can exhibit a perpendicular GMR of at least 22% at ambient temperature. We performed detailed studies both of reversible magnetization and of irreversible remanent magnetization curves for CoNiCu/Cu/CoNiCu multilayered and CoNiCu pulse-deposited nanowire systems with Co:Ni ratios of 6:4 and 7:3 respectively in the range 10 - 290 K, allowing the magnetic phases of these structures to be identified. Shape anisotropy in the pulse-deposited nanowire and inter-layer coupling in the multilayered nanowire are shown to make important contributions to the magnetic properties. Dipolar-like interactions are found to predominate in both nanowire systems. Magnetic force microscope (MFM) images of individual multilayered nanowires exhibit a contrast consistent with there being a soft magnetization parallel to the layers. Switching of the magnetic layers in the multilayered structure into the direction of the MFM tip's stray field is observed.

  13. First principles prediction of the magnetic properties of Fe-X₆ (X = S, C, N, O, F) doped monolayer MoS₂.

    PubMed

    Feng, Nan; Mi, Wenbo; Cheng, Yingchun; Guo, Zaibing; Schwingenschlögl, Udo; Bai, Haili

    2014-02-05

    Using first-principles calculations, we have investigated the electronic structure and magnetic properties of Fe-X6 clusters (X = S, C, N, O, and F) incorporated in 4 × 4 monolayer MoS2, where a Mo atom is substituted by Fe and its nearest S atoms are substituted by C, N, O, and F. Single Fe and Fe-F6 substituions make the system display half-metallic properties, Fe-C6 and Fe-N6 substitutions lead to a spin gapless semiconducting behavior, and Fe-O6 doped monolayer MoS2 is semiconducting. Magnetic moments of 1.93, 1.45, 3.18, 2.08, and 2.21 μB are obtained for X = S, C, N, O, and F, respectively. The different electronic and magnetic characters originate from hybridization between the X and Fe/Mo atoms. Our results suggest that cluster doping can be an efficient strategy for exploring two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  14. The magnetic properties of the hollow cylindrical ideal remanence magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjørk, R.

    2016-10-01

    We consider the magnetic properties of the hollow cylindrical ideal remanence magnet. This magnet is the cylindrical permanent magnet that generates a uniform field in the cylinder bore, using the least amount of magnetic energy to do so. The remanence distribution of this magnet is derived and the generated field is compared to that of a Halbach cylinder of equal dimensions. The ideal remanence magnet is shown in most cases to generate a significantly lower field than the equivalent Halbach cylinder, although the field is generated with higher efficiency. The most efficient Halbach cylinder is shown to generate a field exactly twice as large as the equivalent ideal remanence magnet.

  15. First principle investigations of the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of predicted new zirconium based full-Heusler compounds, Zr2MnZ (Z=Al, Ga and In)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birsan, A.; Kuncser, V.

    2016-05-01

    The crystal structure, electronic and magnetic properties of predicted new full-Heusler compounds Zr2MnZ (Z=Al, Ga, In) were studied within the density functional theory (DFT) framework. These materials exhibit unique properties that connect the spin gapless semiconducting character with the completely compensated ferrimagnetism. Magnetically ordered Zr2MnZ (Z=Al, Ga, In) compounds crystallize in inverse Heusler structure are stable against decomposition and have zero magnetic moment per formula unit, in agreement with Slater-Pauling rule. The Zr2MnAl compound presents semiconducting properties with an energy band gap of 0.41 eV in the majority spin channel and a zero band gap in the minority spin channel. By substituting completely the Al in Zr2MnAl via Ga and In elements, semiconducting pseudo band gaps are formed in the majority spin channels due to different neighborhoods around the manganese atoms, which decreases the energy of Mn triple degenerated anti-bonding states.

  16. Robust Magnetic Properties of a Sublimable Single-Molecule Magnet.

    PubMed

    Kiefl, Evan; Mannini, Matteo; Bernot, Kevin; Yi, Xiaohui; Amato, Alex; Leviant, Tom; Magnani, Agnese; Prokscha, Thomas; Suter, Andreas; Sessoli, Roberta; Salman, Zaher

    2016-06-28

    The organization of single-molecule magnets (SMMs) on surfaces via thermal sublimation is a prerequisite for the development of future devices for spintronics exploiting the richness of properties offered by these magnetic molecules. However, a change in the SMM properties due to the interaction with specific surfaces is usually observed. Here we present a rare example of an SMM system that can be thermally sublimated on gold surfaces while maintaining its intact chemical structure and magnetic properties. Muon spin relaxation and ac susceptibility measurements are used to demonstrate that, unlike other SMMs, the magnetic properties of this system in thin films are very similar to those in the bulk, throughout the full volume of the film, including regions near the metal and vacuum interfaces. These results exhibit the robustness of chemical and magnetic properties of this complex and provide important clues for the development of nanostructures based on SMMs. PMID:27139335

  17. Interplay between magnetism and energetics in Fe-Cr alloys from a predictive noncollinear magnetic tight-binding model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulairol, R.; Barreteau, C.; Fu, Chu-Chun

    2016-07-01

    Magnetism is a key driving force controlling several thermodynamic and kinetic properties of Fe-Cr systems. We present a tight-binding model for Fe-Cr, where magnetism is treated beyond the usual collinear approximation. A major advantage of this model consists in a rather simple fitting procedure. In particular, no specific property of the binary system is explicitly required in the fitting database. The present model is proved to be accurate and highly transferable for electronic, magnetic, and energetic properties of a large variety of structural and chemical environments: surfaces, interfaces, embedded clusters, and the whole compositional range of the binary alloy. The occurrence of noncollinear magnetic configurations caused by magnetic frustrations is successfully predicted. The present tight-binding approach can apply to other binary magnetic transition-metal alloys. It is expected to be particularly promising if the size difference between the alloying elements is rather small and the electronic properties prevail.

  18. Magnetic and electrical properties of Martian particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olhoeft, G. R.

    1991-01-01

    The only determinations of the magnetic properties of Martian materials come from experiments on the two Viking Landers. The results suggest Martian soil containing 1 to 10 percent of a highly magnetic phase. Though the magnetic phase mineral was not conclusively identified, the predominate interpretation is that the magnetic phase is probably maghemite. The electrical properties of the surface of Mars were only measured remotely by observations with Earth based radar, microwave radiometry, and inference from radio-occultation of Mars orbiting spacecraft. No direct measurements of electrical properties on Martian materials have been performed.

  19. Quasi-static magnetic measurements to predict specific absorption rates in magnetic fluid hyperthermia experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coral, D. F.; Mendoza Zélis, P.; de Sousa, M. E.; Muraca, D.; Lassalle, V.; Nicolás, P.; Ferreira, M. L.; Fernández van Raap, M. B.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the issue on whether dynamic magnetic properties of polydispersed magnetic colloids modeled using physical magnitudes derived from quasi-static magnetic measurement can be extrapolated to analyze specific absorption rate data acquired at high amplitudes and frequencies of excitation fields is addressed. To this end, we have analyzed two colloids of magnetite nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and chitosan in water displaying, under a radiofrequency field, high and low specific heat power release. Both colloids are alike in terms of liquid carrier, surfactant and magnetic phase composition but differ on the nanoparticle structuring. The colloid displaying low specific dissipation consists of spaced magnetic nanoparticles of mean size around 4.8 nm inside a large chitosan particle of 52.5 nm. The one displaying high specific dissipation consists of clusters of magnetic nanoparticles of mean size around 9.7 nm inside a chitosan particle of 48.6 nm. The experimental evaluation of Néel and Brown relaxation times (˜10-10 s and 10-4 s, respectively) indicate that the nanoparticles in both colloids magnetically relax by Néel mechanism. The isothermal magnetization curves analysis for this mechanism show that the magnetic nanoparticles behave in the interacting superparamagnetic regime. The specific absorption rates were determined calorimetrically at 260 kHz and up to 52 kA/m and were well modeled within linear response theory using the anisotropy density energy retrieved from quasi-static magnetic measurement, validating their use to predict heating ability of a given polydispersed particle suspension. Our findings provide new insight in the validity of quasi-static magnetic characterization to analyze the high frequency behavior of polydispersed colloids within the framework of the linear response and Wohlfarth theories and indicate that dipolar interactions play a key role being their strength larger for the colloid displaying higher dissipation, i

  20. Predicting various biodiesel fuel properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several essential fuel properties of biodiesel are largely determined by the properties of the fatty esters which are its main components. These include cetane number, kinematic viscosity, oxidative stability, and cold flow which are contained in almost all biodiesel standards but also other propert...

  1. Magnetic Properties of Antiferromagnetic Iron Oxyhydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyodo, Y. J.; Till, J. L.; Lagroix, F.; Bonville, P.; Penn, R. L.; Sainctavit, P.; Carvallo, C.; ona-Nguema, G.; Morin, G.

    2013-12-01

    Weakly magnetic iron oxyhydroxides such as ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite or goethite are commonly found in diverse geological and environmental setting, including ground waters and streams, sediments, soils, or acid mine drainage. These minerals take part in multiple biological and abiological processes, and can evolve to more magnetic phases such as hematite, maghemite, or magnetite. Therefore, they represent key minerals with regard to paleoclimate, paleoenvironmental, and paleomagnetic studies. At this meeting, we will present low temperature magnetic properties acquired on fully characterized synthetic samples. The complex nature of the magnetism of these minerals is revealed by comparing magnetic data with other types of characterizations such as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy or synchrotron X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), or by studying the early-stages of solid-state alteration (under oxidizing or reducing atmosphere). In particular, we will present recent results about the presence of ferri-magnetic nano-clusters in lepidocrocite, and about uncompensated magnetic moments in goethite nanoparticles.

  2. Non-empirical Prediction of the Photophysical and Magnetic Properties of Systems with Open d- and f-Shells Based on Combined Ligand Field and Density Functional Theory (LFDFT).

    PubMed

    Daul, Claude

    2014-09-01

    Despite the important growth of ab initio and computational techniques, ligand field theory in molecular science or crystal field theory in condensed matter offers the most intuitive way to calculate multiplet energy levels arising from systems with open shells d and/or f electrons. Over the past decade we have developed a ligand field treatment of inorganic molecular modelling taking advantage of the dominant localization of the frontier orbitals within the metal-sphere. This feature, which is observed in any inorganic coordination compound, especially if treated by Density Functional Theory calculation, allows the determination of the electronic structure and properties with a surprising good accuracy. In ligand field theory, the theoretical concepts consider only a single atom center; and treat its interaction with the chemical environment essentially as a perturbation. Therefore success in the simple ligand field theory is no longer questionable, while the more accurate molecular orbital theory does in general over-estimate the metal-ligand covalence, thus yields wave functions that are too delocalized. Although LF theory has always been popular as a semi-empirical method when dealing with molecules of high symmetry e.g. cubic symmetry where the number of parameters needed is reasonably small (3 or 5), this is no more the case for molecules without symmetry and involving both an open d- and f-shell (# parameters ∼90). However, the combination of LF theory and Density Functional (DF) theory that we introduced twenty years ago can easily deal with complex molecules of any symmetry with two and more open shells. The accuracy of these predictions from 1(st) principles achieves quite a high accuracy (<5%) in terms of states energies. Hence, this approach is well suited to predict the magnetic and photo-physical properties arbitrary molecules and materials prior to their synthesis, which is the ultimate goal of each computational chemist. We will illustrate the

  3. Non-empirical Prediction of the Photophysical and Magnetic Properties of Systems with Open d- and f-Shells Based on Combined Ligand Field and Density Functional Theory (LFDFT).

    PubMed

    Daul, Claude

    2014-09-01

    Despite the important growth of ab initio and computational techniques, ligand field theory in molecular science or crystal field theory in condensed matter offers the most intuitive way to calculate multiplet energy levels arising from systems with open shells d and/or f electrons. Over the past decade we have developed a ligand field treatment of inorganic molecular modelling taking advantage of the dominant localization of the frontier orbitals within the metal-sphere. This feature, which is observed in any inorganic coordination compound, especially if treated by Density Functional Theory calculation, allows the determination of the electronic structure and properties with a surprising good accuracy. In ligand field theory, the theoretical concepts consider only a single atom center; and treat its interaction with the chemical environment essentially as a perturbation. Therefore success in the simple ligand field theory is no longer questionable, while the more accurate molecular orbital theory does in general over-estimate the metal-ligand covalence, thus yields wave functions that are too delocalized. Although LF theory has always been popular as a semi-empirical method when dealing with molecules of high symmetry e.g. cubic symmetry where the number of parameters needed is reasonably small (3 or 5), this is no more the case for molecules without symmetry and involving both an open d- and f-shell (# parameters ∼90). However, the combination of LF theory and Density Functional (DF) theory that we introduced twenty years ago can easily deal with complex molecules of any symmetry with two and more open shells. The accuracy of these predictions from 1(st) principles achieves quite a high accuracy (<5%) in terms of states energies. Hence, this approach is well suited to predict the magnetic and photo-physical properties arbitrary molecules and materials prior to their synthesis, which is the ultimate goal of each computational chemist. We will illustrate the

  4. Rational Design of Lanthanoid Single-Ion Magnets: Predictive Power of the Theoretical Models.

    PubMed

    Baldoví, José J; Duan, Yan; Morales, Roser; Gaita-Ariño, Alejandro; Ruiz, Eliseo; Coronado, Eugenio

    2016-09-12

    We report two new single-ion magnets (SIMs) of a family of oxydiacetate lanthanide complexes with D3 symmetry to test the predictive capabilities of complete active space ab initio methods (CASSCF and CASPT2) and the semiempirical radial effective charge (REC) model. Comparison of the theoretical predictions of the energy levels, wave functions and magnetic properties with detailed spectroscopic and magnetic characterisation is used to critically discuss the limitations of these theoretical approaches. The need for spectroscopic information for a reliable description of the properties of lanthanide SIMs is emphasised. PMID:27465352

  5. Rational Design of Lanthanoid Single-Ion Magnets: Predictive Power of the Theoretical Models.

    PubMed

    Baldoví, José J; Duan, Yan; Morales, Roser; Gaita-Ariño, Alejandro; Ruiz, Eliseo; Coronado, Eugenio

    2016-09-12

    We report two new single-ion magnets (SIMs) of a family of oxydiacetate lanthanide complexes with D3 symmetry to test the predictive capabilities of complete active space ab initio methods (CASSCF and CASPT2) and the semiempirical radial effective charge (REC) model. Comparison of the theoretical predictions of the energy levels, wave functions and magnetic properties with detailed spectroscopic and magnetic characterisation is used to critically discuss the limitations of these theoretical approaches. The need for spectroscopic information for a reliable description of the properties of lanthanide SIMs is emphasised.

  6. Probing magnetic properties of ferrofluids using temperature dependent magnetic hyperthermia studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemala, Humeshkar; Thakur, Jagdish; Naik, Vaman; Naik, Ratna

    2014-03-01

    Tuning the properties of magnetic nanoparticles is essential for biomedical and technological applications. An important phenomenon displayed by these nanoparticles is the generation of heat in the presence of an external oscillating magnetic field and is known as magnetic hyperthermia (MHT). The heat dissipation by the magnetic nanoparticles occurs via Neel relaxation (the flip of the internal magnetic moment of the nanoparticles) and Brownian relaxation (the physical rotation of the nanoparticles in the suspended media). Dextran coated iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were synthesized using the co-precipitation method and characterized using XRD, TEM and DC magnetometry measurements. Roughly spherical in shape the particles have an average size of 13nm and a saturation magnetization of 65 emu/g. The MHT properties of these nanoparticles suspended in a weakly basic solution (ferrofluid) have been investigated as a function of the frequency and amplitude of magnetic field by incorporating a complete thermodynamical analysis of the experimental set-up. The heat generation is quantified using the specific power loss (SPL) and compared with the predictions of linear response theory. This analysis sheds light on important physical and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles.

  7. Predictive properties of visual adaptation.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Adrien; Mamassian, Pascal

    2012-04-10

    What humans perceive depends in part on what they have previously experienced. After repeated exposure to one stimulus, adaptation takes place in the form of a negative correlation between the current percept and the last displayed stimuli. Previous work has shown that this negative dependence can extend to a few minutes in the past, but the precise extent and nature of the dependence in vision is still unknown. In two experiments based on orientation judgments, we reveal a positive dependence of a visual percept with stimuli presented remotely in the past, unexpectedly and in contrast to what is known for the recent past. Previous theories of adaptation have postulated that the visual system attempts to calibrate itself relative to an ideal norm or to the recent past. We propose instead that the remote past is used to estimate the world's statistics and that this estimate becomes the reference. According to this new framework, adaptation is predictive: the most likely forthcoming percept is the one that helps the statistics of the most recent percepts match that of the remote past.

  8. Composite Nanomechanics: A Mechanistic Properties Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Handler, Louis M.; Manderscheid, Jane M.

    2007-01-01

    A unique mechanistic theory is described to predict the properties of nanocomposites. The theory is based on composite micromechanics with progressive substructuring down to a nanoscale slice of a nanofiber where all the governing equations are formulated. These equations hav e been programmed in a computer code. That computer code is used to predict 25 properties of a mononanofiber laminate. The results are pr esented graphically and discussed with respect to their practical sig nificance. Most of the results show smooth distributions. Results for matrix-dependent properties show bimodal through-the-thickness distr ibution with discontinuous changes from mode to mode.

  9. Composite Nanomechanics: A Mechanistic Properties Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Handler, Louis M.; Manderscheid, Jane M.

    2007-01-01

    A unique mechanistic theory is described to predict the properties of nanocomposites. The theory is based on composite micromechanics with progressive substructuring down to a nanoscale slice of a nanofiber where all the governing equations are formulated. These equations have been programmed in a computer code. That computer code is used to predict 25 properties of a mononanofiber laminate. The results are presented graphically and discussed with respect to their practical significance. Most of the results show smooth distributions. Results for matrix-dependent properties show bimodal through-the-thickness distribution with discontinuous changes from mode to mode.

  10. Crystal field and magnetic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made in the temperature range 1.3 to 4.2 K on powdered samples of ErH3. The susceptibility exhibits Curie-Weiss behavior from 4.2 to 2 K, and intercepts the negative temperature axis at theta = 1.05 + or - 0.05 K, indicating that the material is antiferromagnetic. The low field effective moment is 6.77 + or - 0.27 Bohr magnetons per ion. The magnetization exhibits a temperature independent contribution, the slope of which is (5 + or - 1.2) x 10 to the -6th Weber m/kg Tesla. The saturation moment is 3.84 + or - 1 - 0.15 Bohr magnetons per ion. The results can be qualitatively explained by the effects of crystal fields on the magnetic ions. No definitive assignment of a crystal field ground state can be given, nor can a clear choice between cubically or hexagonally symmetric crystal fields be made. For hexagonal symmetry, the first excited state is estimated to be 86 to 100 K above the ground state. For cubic symmetry, the splitting is on the order of 160 to 180 K.

  11. Magnetic structure and magnetic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons with sawtooth zigzag edges.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Zhang, Z; Zhu, Z; Liang, B

    2014-12-23

    The magnetic structure and magnetic transport properties of hydrogen-passivated sawtooth zigzag-edge graphene nanoribbons (STGNRs) are investigated theoretically. It is found that all-sized ground-state STGNRs are ferromagnetic and always feature magnetic semiconductor properties, whose spin splitting energy gap E(g) changes periodically with the width of STGNRs. More importantly, for the STGNR based device, the dual spin-filtering effect with the perfect (100%) spin polarization and high-performance dual spin diode effect with a rectification ratio about 10(10) can be predicted. Particularly, a highly effective spin-valve device is likely to be realized, which displays a giant magnetoresistace (MR) approaching 10(10)%, which is three orders magnitude higher than the value predicted based on the zigzag graphene nanoribbons and six orders magnitude higher than previously reported experimental values for the MgO tunnel junction. Our findings suggest that STGNRs might hold a significant promise for developing spintronic devices.

  12. Tailoring Magnetic Properties in Bulk Nanostructured Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jason Rolando

    Important magnetic properties and behaviors such as coercivity, remanence, susceptibility, energy product, and exchange coupling can be tailored by controlling the grain size, composition, and density of bulk magnetic materials. At nanometric length scales the grain size plays an increasingly important role since magnetic domain behavior and grain boundary concentration determine bulk magnetic behavior. This has spurred a significant amount of work devoted to developing magnetic materials with nanometric features (thickness, grain/crystallite size, inclusions or shells) in 0D (powder), 1D (wires), and 2D (thin films) materials. Large 3D nanocrystalline materials are more suitable for many applications such as permanent magnets, magneto-optical Faraday isolators etc. Yet there are relatively few successful demonstrations of 3D magnetic materials with nanoscale influenced properties available in the literature. Making dense 3D bulk materials with magnetic nanocrystalline microstructures is a challenge because many traditional densification techniques (HIP, pressureless sintering, etc.) move the microstructure out of the "nano" regime during densification. This dissertation shows that the Current Activated Pressure Assisted Densification (CAPAD) method, also known as spark plasma sintering, can be used to create dense, bulk, magnetic, nanocrystalline solids with varied compositions suited to fit many applications. The results of my research will first show important implications for the use of CAPAD for the production of exchange-coupled nanocomposite magnets. Decreases in grain size were shown to have a significant role in increasing the magnitude of exchange bias. Second, preferentially ordered bulk magnetic materials were produced with highly anisotropic material properties. The ordered microstructure resulted in changing magnetic property magnitudes (ex. change in coercivity by almost 10x) depending on the relative orientation (0° vs. 90°) of an externally

  13. Magnetic properties of the Esquel Pallasite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, A. M.; Tarduno, J. A.; Cottrell, R. D.

    2009-12-01

    Pallasites are stony-iron meteorites consisting mainly of olivine crystals suspended in an iron-nickel matrix. One hypothesis holds that pallasites are formed from the intrusion of a liquid iron-nickel core into the solid silicate mantle of a parent body. The magnetic properties of the olivine crystals could help provide insight into the veracity of this explanation. The olivine crystals may contain magnetic inclusions that record useful information regarding magnetic fields present in the parent body. The best recorders of magnetic information are single domain in nature; domain structure of magnetic inclusions can be examined by recording their hysteresis properties. Olivine crystals were separated from a sample of the Esquel pallasite. Crystal fragments were often stained or coated with non-olivine minerals, which required cleaning to remove. An Alternating Gradient Force Magnetometer (AGFM) was used to measure magnetic hysteresis properties, and a Superconducting Quantum Interface Device Cryogenic Rock Magnetometer was used to measure the natural remanent magnetization of the samples. Preliminary data indicate single domain carriers in select olivine crystals that carry records of strong ancient fields. This is a presentation of preliminary results collected during a summer REU at the University of Rochester.

  14. Tuning the Magnetic Properties of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kolhatkar, Arati G.; Jamison, Andrew C.; Litvinov, Dmitri; Willson, Richard C.; Lee, T. Randall

    2013-01-01

    The tremendous interest in magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is reflected in published research that ranges from novel methods of synthesis of unique nanoparticle shapes and composite structures to a large number of MNP characterization techniques, and finally to their use in many biomedical and nanotechnology-based applications. The knowledge gained from this vast body of research can be made more useful if we organize the associated results to correlate key magnetic properties with the parameters that influence them. Tuning these properties of MNPs will allow us to tailor nanoparticles for specific applications, thus increasing their effectiveness. The complex magnetic behavior exhibited by MNPs is governed by many factors; these factors can either improve or adversely affect the desired magnetic properties. In this report, we have outlined a matrix of parameters that can be varied to tune the magnetic properties of nanoparticles. For practical utility, this review focuses on the effect of size, shape, composition, and shell-core structure on saturation magnetization, coercivity, blocking temperature, and relaxation time. PMID:23912237

  15. Exotic Magnetic Properties in {sup 17}C

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Toshio; Otsuka, Takaharu

    2008-12-15

    Magnetic dipole transitions in {sup 17}C are investigated by shell model calculations. The important role of the tensor interaction for magnetic dipole transitions in this exotic neutron-rich nucleus is pointed out. The recently observed anomalous quenching of the magnetic dipole transition in 1/2{sub 1}{sup +} {yields}3/2{sub g.s.}{sup +} is shown to be well explained by using a modified shell model Hamiltonian that takes full account of the tensor force and monopole corrections in the isospin T=1 channel. The predicted quadrupole moment of {sup 17}C is smaller than the value obtained by conventional shell model Hamiltonians.

  16. Magnetic properties of magnetoactive spin clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Khamzin, A. M.; Nigmatullin, R. R.

    2010-01-15

    A simple model is proposed for describing magnetic properties of magnetoactive nanoclusters, which permits exact analytic solution. Exact expressions are obtained for thermodynamic characteristics of the model, which hold in the entire range of temperatures, magnetic fields, and interaction parameters. It is found that in the case of easy-axis anisotropy, the field dependence of magnetization of a nanocluster consisting of N particles with a spin of 1/2 has [N/2] fractional plateaus ([ Horizontal-Ellipsis ] is the integer part) corresponding to polarized phases with ruptures singlet pairs. A nonmonotonic behavior observed for the magnetic susceptibility of an easy-plane cluster is typical of gap magnets. The spin gap between the ground state and excited states is proportional to the anisotropy parameter.

  17. Novel microwave properties and "memory effect" in magnetic nanowire array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Xiaoming

    2011-12-01

    Ferromagnetic nanowire arrays embedded in insulating matrices have attracted great attention in recent years for their rich physics and potential as sensor and microwave applications. Magnetic nanowires made of 3d transitional metals or their alloys have the advantages of high saturation magnetizations, limited eddy current loss, and guaranteed microwave penetration due to nanometer size. The nanowire arrays can also have high ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequencies due to shape anisotropy. In this work, the following new phenomena of magnetic nanowire arrays are demonstrated and explained with a theoretical model. (1) A simple theoretical analysis indicates that high permeability is possible in nanowire arrays with the magnetocrystalline anisotropy comparable to the demagnetization energy and its easy axis perpendicular to the nanowire. With proper conditions, we have fabricated Co nanowire arrays with a crystalline easy axis perpendicular to the nanowire. For Co nanowire arrays with certain geometries, high permeability and low losses have been achieved. (2) Magnetic materials with tunable FMR are highly desirable in microwave devices. We demonstrate that the natural FMR of Ni90Fe10 nanowire array can be tuned continuously from 8.2 to 11.7 GHz by choosing different remanent state. Theoretical model based on dipolar interaction among nanowires has been developed to explain the observed phenomena. A double FMR feature caused by dipolar interaction in magnetic nanowire array was predicted and verified in Co nanowires. (3) A memory effect has also been demonstrated in magnetic nanowire arrays. The magnetic nanowire array has the ability to record the maximum magnetic field that the array has been exposed to after the field has been turned off. The origin of the memory effect is the strong magnetic dipole interaction among the nanowires. Based on the memory effect, a novel and extremely low cost EMP detection scheme is proposed. It has the potential to measure

  18. Thermodynamic properties of the magnetized Coulomb crystal lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhberov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    It is thought that Coulomb crystals of ions with hexagonal close-packed lattice may form in the crust of strongly-magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). In this work we are trying to verify this prediction assuming that the direction of the magnetic field corresponds to the minimum of the zero-point energy. We also continue a detailed study of vibration modes and thermodynamic properties of magnetized Coulomb crystals in a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields. It is demonstrated that the total Helmholtz free energy of the body-centered cubic Coulomb crystal is always lower than that of the Coulomb crystal with hexagonal close-packed or face-centered cubic lattice, which casts doubt on the hypothesis above.

  19. Linear and nonlinear magnetic properties of ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalai, I.; Nagy, S.; Dietrich, S.

    2015-10-01

    Within a high-magnetic-field approximation, employing Ruelle's algebraic perturbation theory, a field-dependent free-energy expression is proposed which allows one to determine the magnetic properties of ferrofluids modeled as dipolar hard-sphere systems. We compare the ensuing magnetization curves, following from this free energy, with those obtained by Ivanov and Kuznetsova [Phys. Rev. E 64, 041405 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevE.64.041405] as well as with new corresponding Monte Carlo simulation data. Based on the power-series expansion of the magnetization, a closed expression for the magnetization is also proposed, which is a high-density extension of the corresponding equation of Ivanov and Kuznetsova. From both magnetization equations the zero-field susceptibility expression due to Tani et al. [Mol. Phys. 48, 863 (1983), 10.1080/00268978300100621] can be obtained, which is in good agreement with our MC simulation results. From the closed expression for the magnetization the second-order nonlinear magnetic susceptibility is also derived, which shows fair agreement with the corresponding MC simulation data.

  20. Linear and nonlinear magnetic properties of ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Szalai, I; Nagy, S; Dietrich, S

    2015-10-01

    Within a high-magnetic-field approximation, employing Ruelle's algebraic perturbation theory, a field-dependent free-energy expression is proposed which allows one to determine the magnetic properties of ferrofluids modeled as dipolar hard-sphere systems. We compare the ensuing magnetization curves, following from this free energy, with those obtained by Ivanov and Kuznetsova [Phys. Rev. E 64, 041405 (2001)] as well as with new corresponding Monte Carlo simulation data. Based on the power-series expansion of the magnetization, a closed expression for the magnetization is also proposed, which is a high-density extension of the corresponding equation of Ivanov and Kuznetsova. From both magnetization equations the zero-field susceptibility expression due to Tani et al. [Mol. Phys. 48, 863 (1983)] can be obtained, which is in good agreement with our MC simulation results. From the closed expression for the magnetization the second-order nonlinear magnetic susceptibility is also derived, which shows fair agreement with the corresponding MC simulation data. PMID:26565247

  1. Magnetic properties and energy-mapping analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Hongjun; Lee, Changhoon; Koo, Hyun-Joo; Gong, Xingao; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2013-01-28

    The magnetic energy levels of a given magnetic solid are closely packed in energy because the interactions between magnetic ions are weak. Thus, in describing its magnetic properties, one needs to generate its magnetic energy spectrum by employing an appropriate spin Hamiltonian. In this review article we discuss how to determine and specify a necessary spin Hamiltonian in terms of first principles electronic structure calculations on the basis of energy-mapping analysis and briefly survey important concepts and phenomena that one encounters in reading the current literature on magnetic solids. Our discussion is given on a qualitative level from the perspective of magnetic energy levels and electronic structures. The spin Hamiltonian appropriate for a magnetic system should be based on its spin lattice, i.e., the repeat pattern of its strong magnetic bonds (strong spin exchange paths), which requires one to evaluate its Heisenberg spin exchanges on the basis of energy-mapping analysis. Other weaker energy terms such as Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin exchange and magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies, which a spin Hamiltonian must include in certain cases, can also be evaluated by performing energy-mapping analysis. We show that the spin orientation of a transition-metal magnetic ion can be easily explained by considering its split d-block levels as unperturbed states with the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) as perturbation, that the DM exchange between adjacent spin sites can become comparable in strength to the Heisenberg spin exchange when the two spin sites are not chemically equivalent, and that the DM interaction between rare-earth and transition-metal cations is governed largely by the magnetic orbitals of the rare-earth cation. PMID:23128376

  2. Properties and biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regmi, Rajesh Kumar

    Magnetic nanoparticles have a number of unique properties, making them promising agents for applications in medicine including magnetically targeted drug delivery, magnetic hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging, and radiation therapy. They are biocompatible and can also be coated with biocompatible surfactants, which may be further functionalized with optically and therapeutically active molecules. These nanoparticles can be manipulated with non-invasive external magnetic field to produce heat, target specific site, and monitor their distribution in vivo. Within this framework, we have investigated a number of biomedical applications of these nanoparticles. We synthesized a thermosensitive microgel with iron oxide adsorbed on its surface. An alternating magnetic field applied to these nanocomposites heated the system and triggered the release of an anticancer drug mitoxantrone. We also parameterized the chain length dependence of drug release from dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles, finding that both the release rate and equilibrium release fraction depend on the molecular mass of the surfactant. Finally, we also localized dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles labeled with tat peptide to the cell nucleus, which permits this system to be used for a variety of biomedical applications. Beyond investigating magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications, we also studied their magnetohydrodynamic and dielectric properties in solution. Magnetohydrodynamic properties of ferrofluid can be controlled by appropriate selection of surfactant and deielctric measurement showed magnetodielectric coupling in this system. We also established that some complex low temperature spin structures are suppressed in Mn3O4 nanoparticles, which has important implications for nanomagnetic devices. Furthermore, we explored exchange bias effects in Ni-NiO core-shell nanoparticles. Finally, we also performed extensive magnetic studies in nickel metalhydride (NiMH) batteries to

  3. Burnt clay magnetic properties and palaeointensity determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramova, Mariya; Lesigyarski, Deyan

    2014-05-01

    Burnt clay structures found in situ are the most valuable materials for archaeomagnetic studies. From these materials the full geomagnetic field vector described by inclination, declination and intensity can be retrieved. The reliability of the obtained directional results is related to the precision of samples orientation and the accuracy of characteristic remanence determination. Palaeointensity evaluations depend on much more complex factors - stability of carried remanent magnetization, grain-size distribution of magnetic particles and mineralogical transformations during heating. In the last decades many efforts have been made to shed light over the reasons for the bad success rate of palaeointensity experiments. Nevertheless, sometimes the explanation of the bad archaeointensity results with the magnetic properties of the studied materials is quite unsatisfactory. In order to show how difficult is to apply a priory strict criteria for the suitability of a given collection of archaeomagnetic materials, artificial samples formed from four different baked clays are examined. Two of the examined clay types were taken from clay deposits from different parts of Bulgaria and two clays were taken from ancient archaeological baked clay structures from the Central part of Bulgaria and the Black sea coast, respectively. The samples formed from these clays were repeatedly heated in known magnetic field to 700oC. Different analyses were performed to obtain information about the mineralogical content and magnetic properties of the samples. The obtained results point that all clays reached stable magnetic mineralogy after the repeated heating to 700oC, the main magnetic mineral is of titano/magnetite type and the magnetic particles are predominantly with pseudo single domain grain sizes. In spite that, the magnetic properies of the studied clays seem to be very similar, reliable palaeointensity results were obtained only from the clays coming from clay deposits. The

  4. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  5. Refocusing properties of periodic magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stankiewicz, N.

    1976-01-01

    The use of depressed collectors for the efficient collection of spent beams from linear-beam microwave tubes depends on a refocusing procedure in which the space charge forces and transverse velocity components are reduced. The refocusing properties are evaluated of permanent magnet configurations whose axial fields are approximated by constant plateaus or linearly varying fields. The results provide design criteria and show that the refocusing properties can be determined from the plateau fields alone.

  6. Magnetic properties of the Imilac Pallasite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, J.; Tarduno, J. A.; Cottrell, R. D.

    2009-12-01

    Pallasites are a type of stony-iron meteorite containing olivine crystals within an iron-nickel alloy. Magnetic inclusions, which can be found in the olivine crystals, may contain a memory of exposure to ancient magnetic fields. By studying the properties of the magnetic inclusions, we can learn more about the fields present during formation and how this relates to the evolution of the parent bodies. An important step in this research is to find appropriate samples to measure. The best magnetic recorders are single domain (SD) magnetic grains; to search for potential carriers of SD grains we separated gem-like olivine crystals from a sample of the Imilac pallasite. Crystal fragments were cleaned to remove iron staining; the fragments were further scanned with a visible light microscope to exclude samples with large (potentially multidomain) magnetic inclusions. Measurements of these select samples with an Alternating Gradient Force Magnetometer (AGFM) suggest the presence of single domain magnetic inclusions suitable for the preservation of paleofields. We will present preliminary paleointensity analyses of these samples. This is a presentation of results collected during a REU summer program at the University of Rochester.

  7. Magnetic dipole discharges. I. Basic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.; Teodorescu-Soare, C. T.; Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2013-08-15

    A simple discharge is described which uses a permanent magnet as a cold cathode and the metallic chamber wall as an anode. The magnet's equator is biased strongly negative, which produces secondary electrons due to the impact of energetic ions. The emitted electrons are highly confined by the strong dipolar magnetic field and the negative potential in the equatorial plane of the magnet. The emitted electrons ionize near the sheath and produce further electrons, which drift across field lines to the anode while the nearly unmagnetized ions are accelerated back to the magnet. A steady state discharge is maintained at neutral pressures above 10{sup −3} mbar. This is the principle of magnetron discharges, which commonly use cylindrical and planar cathodes rather than magnetic dipoles as cathodes. The discharge properties have been investigated in steady state and pulsed mode. Different magnets and geometries have been employed. The role of a background plasma has been investigated. Various types of instabilities have been observed such as sheath oscillations, current-driven turbulence, relaxation instabilities due to ionization, and high frequency oscillations created by sputtering impulses, which are described in more detail in companion papers. The discharge has also been operated in reactive gases and shown to be useful for sputtering applications.

  8. Magnetic properties of metal-substituted haematite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, M. A.; Fitzpatrick, R. W.; Gilkes, R. J.; Dobson, J.

    1999-08-01

    Mineral and isothermal magnetic properties of Al-, Mn- and Ni-substituted haematites were characterized and their relationships evaluated in order to interpret better the results of magnetic analyses of soils and recent sediments. Aluminium, manganese and nickel haematites generally behaved as single-domain (SD) particles. The influence of incorporated Al on the magnetic behaviour of haematite was consistent with Al acting as a paramagnetic dilutent. Mass magnetic susceptibility (chi) and SIRM_800 decreased as the level of Al substitution increased. Incorporation of Mn and Ni increased chi, which could be associated with enhancement of the spin canting effect of haematite. The stability of SIRM_800 to demagnetization for Al-haematite appears to be related to a defect mechanism associated with the development of smaller crystallites arising from Al substitution. Magnetic domain rotation or flipping was probably inhibited, being blocked by structural defects during magnetization and demagnetization, and resulted in a low but stable partial SIRM (SIRM_800). %IRM/SIRM_800 demagnetization curves and estimated (B_o)_CR values of <=100 mT for Mn-haematite indicate pseudo-single-domain/multidomain-like behaviour despite Mn-haematite having particle and crystallite dimensions similar to Ni-haematite, which did not show this behaviour. Data indicate that parameters involving unsaturated, partial SIRM should be used with caution in magnetic studies of soils and sediments.

  9. Theoretical predictions for spatially-focused heating of magnetic nanoparticles guided by magnetic particle imaging field gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhavalikar, Rohan; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles in alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) transfer some of the field's energy to their surroundings in the form of heat, a property that has attracted significant attention for use in cancer treatment through hyperthermia and in developing magnetic drug carriers that can be actuated to release their cargo externally using magnetic fields. To date, most work in this field has focused on the use of AMFs that actuate heat release by nanoparticles over large regions, without the ability to select specific nanoparticle-loaded regions for heating while leaving other nanoparticle-loaded regions unaffected. In parallel, magnetic particle imaging (MPI) has emerged as a promising approach to image the distribution of magnetic nanoparticle tracers in vivo, with sub-millimeter spatial resolution. The underlying principle in MPI is the application of a selection magnetic field gradient, which defines a small region of low bias field, superimposed with an AMF (of lower frequency and amplitude than those normally used to actuate heating by the nanoparticles) to obtain a signal which is proportional to the concentration of particles in the region of low bias field. Here we extend previous models for estimating the energy dissipation rates of magnetic nanoparticles in uniform AMFs to provide theoretical predictions of how the selection magnetic field gradient used in MPI can be used to selectively actuate heating by magnetic nanoparticles in the low bias field region of the selection magnetic field gradient. Theoretical predictions are given for the spatial decay in energy dissipation rate under magnetic field gradients representative of those that can be achieved with current MPI technology. These results underscore the potential of combining MPI and higher amplitude/frequency actuation AMFs to achieve selective magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) guided by MPI.

  10. DFT investigation on structure, electronic and magnetic properties of Crn (n=2-8) clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Esha V.; Kumar, Vipin; Roy, Debesh R.

    2016-05-01

    A density functional investigation on the series of chromium clusters, i.e., Crn (n=2-8) is performed for finding their lowest energy structures and various electronic and magnetic properties. For electronic properties, we have predicted binding energy, HOMO-LUMO (HLG), chemical hardness (η) etc., and also for magnetic behavior, we have predicted the magnetic moments of the lowest energy cluster isomers. A systematic search imposing all possible initial magnetic configurations of the clusters is considered for finding lowest energy structures. All the calculations is carried out using a very popular GGA functional Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof (PBE), as implemented in the VASP code.

  11. Predicting Soil Biological and Physical Properties Using Hydrological Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, L.; Hofmockel, K.; Kaleita, A.; Hargreaves, S.

    2012-12-01

    Soil biological and chemical properties vary at different spatial scales, which make predicting processes associated with these properties difficult. However, soil biological and chemical properties are important to fertility and ecosystem functioning. In this study, we used a Self Organizing Map (SOM) to determine whether soil hydrological characteristics can be used to characterize the distribution of a suite of soil biological and chemical properties. From a row crop field in south-central Iowa, we generated 36 sampling locations via a SOM, which were grouped into three categories according to hydrological properties by the SOM. Soil samples were then analyzed for microbial biomass, carbon and nitrogen mineralization potential, and organic and inorganic pools of carbon and nitrogen. We found that sampling locations in category 1 (potholes and toe slopes) had greater microbial biomass, total carbon, total nitrogen, and extractable organic carbon than compared locations in the two well-drained categories. Nitrogen and carbon mineralization and inorganic nitrogen pools did not differ significantly among the categories. These results demonstrate that hydrological characteristics can be used to predict relatively stable biological and chemical soil properties. However, prediction of nitrogen and carbon fluxes remains a challenge.

  12. From Microstructures to Predict Properties of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke-Gang

    2010-03-01

    Understanding the precise and fundamental manner in which materials structures (nanostructures or microstructures) and their evolution influences properties and service lifetimes of advanced materials profoundly impacts material design and today materials design plays an increasingly important rôle in many engineering applications. Linking structures to properties and predicting properties of materials is fundamental step for materials design. First, a framework of applications of multiscale modeling to property prediction of advanced materials will be briefly presented. As an example, a methodology will be shown to link micro-scale to the continuum scale, integrating microstructure modeling with the large Thermo-Calc^ database. This paradigm was successfully applied to the case of Fe-12Ni-6Mn maraging steel. Next, methodology for integrating first-principle calculation into simulations of microstructure evolution will be reviewed. Our methods are sufficiently reliable to permit control and fabrication of quantum-dots structures, nanocrystals, and particle-reinforced nanocomposites, as well as assist in the predictive behavior of macro-scale colloids, aerosols, and other soft matter systems.

  13. In Silico Approaches for Predicting Adme Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Judith C.

    A drug requires a suitable pharmacokinetic profile to be efficacious in vivo in humans. The relevant pharmacokinetic properties include the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) profile of the drug. This chapter provides an overview of the definition and meaning of key ADME properties, recent models developed to predict these properties, and a guide as to how to select the most appropriate model(s) for a given query. Many tools using the state-of-the-art in silico methodology are now available to users, and it is anticipated that the continual evolution of these tools will provide greater ability to predict ADME properties in the future. However, caution must be exercised in applying these tools as data are generally available only for "successful" drugs, i.e., those that reach the marketplace, and little supplementary information, such as that for drugs that have a poor pharmacokinetic profile, is available. The possibilities of using these methods and possible integration into toxicity prediction are explored.

  14. Numerical Prediction of Signal for Magnetic Flux Leakage Benchmark Task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunin, V.; Alexeevsky, D.

    2003-03-01

    Numerical results predicted by the finite element method based code are presented. The nonlinear magnetic time-dependent benchmark problem proposed by the World Federation of Nondestructive Evaluation Centers, involves numerical prediction of normal (radial) component of the leaked field in the vicinity of two practically rectangular notches machined on a rotating steel pipe (with known nonlinear magnetic characteristic). One notch is located on external surface of pipe and other is on internal one, and both are oriented axially.

  15. Magnetic properties of ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M A; Merino, J M; Fernández Pinel, E; Quesada, A; de la Venta, J; Ruíz González, M L; Castro, G R; Crespo, P; Llopis, J; González-Calbet, J M; Hernando, A

    2007-06-01

    We experimentally show that it is possible to induce room-temperature ferromagnetic-like behavior in ZnO nanoparticles without doping with magnetic impurities but simply inducing an alteration of their electronic configuration. Capping ZnO nanoparticles ( approximately 10 nm size) with different organic molecules produces an alteration of their electronic configuration that depends on the particular molecule, as evidenced by photoluminescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopies and altering their magnetic properties that varies from diamagnetic to ferromagnetic-like behavior.

  16. Prediction of particle orientation in simple upsetting process of NdFeB magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chao-Cheng; Hsiao, Po-Jen; You, Jr-Shiang; Chen, Yen-Ju; Chang, Can-Xun

    2013-12-16

    The magnetic properties of NdFeB magnets are strongly affected by crystallographic texture which is highly associated with particle orientation. This study proposed a method for predicting the particle orientation in the simple upsetting process of NdFeB magnets. The method is based on finite element simulation with flow net analysis. The magnets in a cylindrical form were compressed by two flat dies in a chamber filled with argon at 750°C. Three forming speeds were taken into account in order to obtain flow stress curves used in simulations. The micrographs of the cross sections of the deformed magnets show that the particle deformation significantly increases with the compression. The phenomenon was also predicted by the proposed method. Both simulated and experimental results show that the inhomogeneity of the texture of the NdFeB magnets can be increased by the simple upsetting process. The predicted particle orientations were in a good agreement with those examined in the deformed magnets. The proposed method for predicting particle orientations can also be used in other forming processes of NdFeB magnets.

  17. Damping properties for vibration suppression in electrohydraulic servo-valve torque motor using magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jinghui; Li, Songjing; Han, Hasiaoqier

    2014-04-01

    Aiming to suppress high frequency vibrations of a torque motor in electrohydraulic servo-valves, damping properties of an ester-based Fe3O4 magnetic fluid operating in the squeeze mode are studied in this Letter. The expression of damping forces due to the magnetic fluid on the torque motor is derived and simplified based on the measured magneto-viscosity property. Dynamic characteristics of the torque motor with and without the magnetic fluid are simulated and tested. Damping properties of magnetic fluid for the vibration suppression of a torque motor are verified by the good agreement between the predicted and tested results.

  18. Magnetic properties of artificially synthesized ferritins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B. J.; Lee, H. I.; Cho, S.-B.; Yoon, S.; Suh, B. J.; Jang, Z. H.; St. Pierre, T. G.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, K.-S.

    2005-05-01

    Human ferritin homopolymers with H or L subunits (rHF and rLF) were genetically engineered in E coli. Apoferritins were then reconstituted with 2000 Fe atoms. A big difference was observed in the rates of iron uptake, whereas the mean core size was similar in rHF and rLF. Magnetization of the recombinant human ferritins were measured as functions of temperature and field. The blocking temperature TB(H) at low fields is considerably higher in rLF than in rHF. From the fit of M(H ) data to a modified Langevin function: M(H )=M0L(μpH/kBT)+χaH, the effective magnetic moment μp is found to be much larger in rLF than in rHF. Experimental data demonstrate that the magnetic properties, in particular, the uncompensated spins of ferritin core are related to the biomineralization process in ferritins.

  19. Predicting Properties of Unidirectional-Nanofiber Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Handler, Louis M.; Manderscheid, Jane

    2008-01-01

    A theory for predicting mechanical, thermal, electrical, and other properties of unidirectional-nanofiber/matrix composite materials is based on the prior theory of micromechanics of composite materials. In the development of the present theory, the prior theory of micromechanics was extended, through progressive substructuring, to the level of detail of a nanoscale slice of a nanofiber. All the governing equations were then formulated at this level. The substructuring and the equations have been programmed in the ICAN/JAVA computer code, which was reported in "ICAN/JAVA: Integrated Composite Analyzer Recoded in Java" (LEW-17247), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 12 (December 2002), page 36. In a demonstration, the theory as embodied in the computer code was applied to a graphite-nanofiber/epoxy laminate and used to predict 25 properties. Most of the properties were found to be distributed along the through-the-thickness direction. Matrix-dependent properties were found to have bimodal through-the-thickness distributions with discontinuous changes from mode to mode.

  20. Magnetic Properties of Friction Stir Processed Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Shamiparna; Martinez, Nelson Y.; Das, Santanu; Mishra, Rajiv S.; Grant, Glenn J.; Jana, Saumyadeep; Polikarpov, Evgueni

    2016-07-01

    Of the many existing inspection or monitoring systems, each has its own advantages and drawbacks. These systems are usually comprised of semi-remote sensors that frequently cause difficulty in reaching complex areas of a component. This study proposes to overcome that difficulty by developing embedded functional composites, so that embedding can be achieved in virtually any component part and periodically can be interrogated by a reading device. The "reinforcement rich" processed areas can then be used to record properties such as strain, temperature, and stress state, to name a few, depending on the reinforcement material. Friction stir processing was used to fabricate a magnetostrictive composite by embedding galfenol particles into a nonmagnetic aluminum matrix. The aim was to develop a composite that produces strain in response to a varying magnetic field. Reinforcements were distributed uniformly in the matrix. Magnetization curves were studied using a vibrating sample magnetometer. A simple and cost-effective setup was developed to measure the magnetostrictive strain of the composites. Important factors affecting the magnetic properties were identified and the processing route was modified to improve the magnetic response.

  1. Magnetic and dielectric properties of lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangway, D. W.; Pearce, G. W.; Olhoeft, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    Dielectric properties of lunar soil and rock samples showed a systematic character when careful precautions were taken to ensure there was no moisture present during measurement. The dielectric constant (K) above 100,000 Hz was directly dependent on density according to the formula K = (1.93 + or - 0.17) to the rho power where rho is the density in g/cc. The dielectric loss tangent was only slightly dependent on density and had values less than 0.005 for typical soils and 0.005 to 0.03 for typical rocks. The loss tangent appeared to be directly related to the metallic ilmenite content. It was shown that magnetic properties of lunar samples can be used to study the distribution of metallic and ferrous iron which shows systematic variations from soil type to soil type. Other magnetic characteristics can be used to determine the distribution of grain sizes.

  2. Magnetic properties of ordered NiPt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brommer, P. E.; Franse, J. J. M.

    1988-04-01

    Thermal expansion, forced volume magnetostriction and high magnetic field data are presented on the ordered equiatomic NiPt compound. Values are derived for the magnetovolume parameter κC (≃3 × 10 -6kg2A-2m-4), and for the electronic and lattice Grüneisen parameters (Γ e ≊ 5.6; Γ latt ≊ 2.5) . Ordering effects on the magnetoelastic properties are studied for alloys containing 40-60 at % Ni.

  3. Prediction of thermodynamic properties of coal derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Donohue, M.D.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this research program is to understand the relationship between macroscopic thermodynamic properties and the various types of intermolecular forces. Since coal-derived liquids contain a wide variety of compounds, a theory capable of successfully predicting the thermophysical properties for coal processes must take into account the molecular shapes and all significant intermolecular forces: dispersion forces, anisotropic forces due to dipoles and quadrupoles, as well as Lewis acid-base interactions. We have developed the Acid-Base-Perturbed-Anisotropic-Chain Theory (ABPACT), a comprehensive theory that is capable of predicting the thermophysical properties for many systems where these different intermolecular forces are present. The ABPACT can treat non-polar compounds, polar compounds and compounds that associate through Lewis acid-base interactions. In addition to our theoretical work, we have used computer simulations to evaluate (and in some cases correct) the assumptions made in this theory. We also have conducted experiments to help us better understand the interplay of different kinds of interactions in multicomponent mixtures.

  4. Predicted magnetoelectric effect in Fe/BaTiO3 multilayers: ferroelectric control of magnetism.

    PubMed

    Duan, Chun-Gang; Jaswal, S S; Tsymbal, E Y

    2006-07-28

    An unexplored physical mechanism which produces a magnetoelectric effect in ferroelectric-ferromagnetic multilayers is studied based on first-principles calculations. Its origin is a change in bonding at the ferroelectric-ferromagnet interface that alters the interface magnetization when the electric polarization reverses. Using Fe/BaTiO3 multilayers as a representative model, we show a sizable difference in magnetic moments of Fe and Ti atoms at the two interfaces dissimilar by the orientation of the local electric dipole moments. The predicted magnetoelectric effect opens a new direction to control magnetic properties of thin-film layered structures by electric fields. PMID:16907608

  5. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of zigzag blue phosphorene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Tao; Hong, Jisang

    2015-08-07

    We investigated the electronic structure and magnetism of zigzag blue phosphorene nanoribbons (ZBPNRs) using first principles density functional theory calculations by changing the widths of ZBPNRs from 1.5 to 5 nm. In addition, the effect of H and O passivation was explored as well. The ZBPNRs displayed intra-edge antiferromagnetic ground state with a semiconducting band gap of ∼0.35 eV; and this was insensitive to the edge structure relaxation effect. However, the edge magnetism of ZBPNRs disappeared with H-passivation. Moreover, the band gap of H-passivated ZBPNRs was greatly enhanced because the calculated band gap was ∼1.77 eV, and this was almost the same as that of two-dimensional blue phosphorene layer. For O-passivated ZBPNRs, we also found an intra-edge antiferromagnetic state. Besides, both unpassivated and O-passivated ZBPNRs preserved almost the same band gap. We predict that the electronic band structure and magnetic properties can be controlled by means of passivation. Moreover, the edge magnetism can be also modulated by the strain. Nonetheless, the intrinsic physical properties are size independent. This feature can be an advantage for device applications because it may not be necessary to precisely control the width of the nanoribbon.

  6. Magnetic Properties of Sputtered Iron Zirconate Amorphous Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassim, Suad H.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. A previous project in the department investigated and attempted to explain the anomalous low temperature magnetic hardness of amorphous iron-rich FeZr alloys prepared by melt-spinning. The exponential variation of coercivity (Hc) with composition and temperature was explained in terms of domain wall pinning by iron-rich speromagnetic regions distributed in the ferromagnetic matrix (Read et al, 1984, 1986). Their theory predicted that the observed properties would depend on the magnetic inhomogeneity of the sample and therefore on the method of preparation. In the present work systematic measurements have been made to investigate the magnetic properties of this system prepared by sputtering over the composition range (83 <=q Fe <=q 91). Measurements of low temperature magnetic hysteresis, magnetic hardness and Curie temperatures as a function of composition are obtained. Considerable differences in all magnetic properties have been found between the present results and those of liquid-quench samples indicating a greater degree of magnetic inhomogeneity in the sputtered samples. Sputtered materials are found to have higher coercivity and lower Curie temperature. The hyperfine field distributions have been obtained for both melt spun and sputtered alloys as a function of composition. The distributions indicate that iron atoms exist in both high and low-spin states, in agreement with the two state model of Weiss, (1963). The low-spin fraction increases monotonically with increasing Fe content for both types of sample, and is greater for sputtered material at all compositions. The sign of the exchange interaction is critically dependent on the Fe-Fe separation. The effect of using different substrates on Curie temperature and coercivity was also investigated. The substrate plays an important role in sample preparation. The density of the sample has a crucial importance, and this will be

  7. A measurement setup for acquiring the local magnetic properties of plastically deformed soft magnetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bi Shasha; Sutor, Alexander; Lerch, Reinhard; Xiao Yunshi

    2011-04-01

    This paper introduces a new measurement setup for extraction of the local magnetic properties. With the help of finite element method simulations, modifications are made on the previous double-C-yoke method. Small dimension measuring coils are applied in the stray field produced by the magnetic circuit to evaluate the local magnetic properties of the specified part of the specimen. Through the measurements with the plastically deformed materials at different temperatures, it indicates that the magnetic properties of soft magnetic materials are quite sensitive to plastic straining. After high-temperature thermal treatment on the plastically deformed specimen, the local magnetic properties exhibit an obvious recovery.

  8. Simplified solutions to predicting the magnetic vectors within CMEs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savani, N.

    2015-12-01

    The direction of magnetic vectors within coronal mass ejections, CMEs, has significant importance for forecasting terrestrial behavior. However forecasting these vectors remains largely elusive and lies predominately with the difficulty in disassociating the predictive skill of the magnetic configuration during the initiation process with the skill of understanding the evolutionary effects of the topology during propagation. Here, we discuss a simplified system for predicting the magnetic vector within CMEs, driven by observations and empirical relationships. We suggest a modification to a CME helicity rule by Bothmer & Schwenn (1998) can improve the skills with the initiation problem near the solar surface, and accurate triangulation methods of the CME with recent observational studies can improve the predictions of the evolutionary effects. Both tools in conjunction can provide the first steps to providing operationally reliable estimates of the magnetic vectors for all possible CMEs and include scope to improve individual modules within the forecasting scheme. By focusing on Earth-directed CMEs, we can develop forecasting skill scores for multiple CMEs using NOAA definitions for geomagnetic storms. We will present the skill scores of predicted CMEs in relation to their associated Kp values at Earth for CMEs that were predicted in a real-time setting at NASA Space Weather Research Center.

  9. Propagation properties of magnetic holes - MMS and Cluster observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamrin, Maria; Yao, Shutao; Shi, Quanqi; De Spiegeleer, Alexandre; Pitkänen, Timo; Li, Zeyu; Wang, Xiaogang; Tian, Anmin; Sun, Weijie; Wang, Mengmeng; Burch, Jim

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic holes (MHs) are structures showing a significant decrease in the magnetic field magnitude. Previous investigations suggest that MHs can be excited by the mirror instability, hence implying that they are "frozen" into the plasma flow. Another possible candidate for explaining the observations of LMDs is the soliton wave, which can propagate with respect to the plasma flow. In this study we use multi-spacecraft MMS and Cluster data to investigate MHs in the solar wind, magnetosheath and magnetospheric plasma. Various methods are used to obtain propagation properties of the MHs. Our results are compared with predictions from mirror mode and soliton wave theories. We find that 8 of 10 MH events detected by Cluster in the plasma sheet are propagating in the plasma flow, and they are considered to be generated by soliton waves.

  10. Magnetic structure and magnetic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons with sawtooth zigzag edges.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Zhang, Z; Zhu, Z; Liang, B

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic structure and magnetic transport properties of hydrogen-passivated sawtooth zigzag-edge graphene nanoribbons (STGNRs) are investigated theoretically. It is found that all-sized ground-state STGNRs are ferromagnetic and always feature magnetic semiconductor properties, whose spin splitting energy gap E(g) changes periodically with the width of STGNRs. More importantly, for the STGNR based device, the dual spin-filtering effect with the perfect (100%) spin polarization and high-performance dual spin diode effect with a rectification ratio about 10(10) can be predicted. Particularly, a highly effective spin-valve device is likely to be realized, which displays a giant magnetoresistace (MR) approaching 10(10)%, which is three orders magnitude higher than the value predicted based on the zigzag graphene nanoribbons and six orders magnitude higher than previously reported experimental values for the MgO tunnel junction. Our findings suggest that STGNRs might hold a significant promise for developing spintronic devices. PMID:25533701

  11. The symmetry properties of planetary magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Raedler, K.H. ); Ness, N.F. )

    1990-03-01

    This paper provides a comparative study of the geometrical structures of the magnetic fields of Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, starting from the traditional multipolar representations of these fields. For Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn the centered dipole, quadrupole, and octupole contributions are included, while at Uranus, only the dipole and quadrupole contributoins are considered. The magnetic fields are analyzed by decomposing them into those parts which have simple symmetry properties with respect to the rotation axis and the equatorial plane. It is found that there are a number of common features of the magnetic fields of Earth and Jupiter. Compared to Earth and Jupiter, the Saturnian field exhibits not only a high degree of symmetry about the rotation axis, by now rather well known, but also a high degree of antisymmetry about the equatorial plane. The Uranian field shows strong deviations from both such symmetries. Nevertheless, there remain features common to all four planets. The implications of these results for dynamo models are discussed. With a vgiew to Cowling's theorem the symmetry of the fields is investigated with respect to not only the rotation axis but also to other axes intersecting the plaentary center. Surprisingly, the high degree of asymmetry of the Uranian field that is observed with respect to the rotation axis reduces considerably to being compare to that for Earth or Jupiter when the appropriate axis is employed.

  12. First principles calculation of the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of Au-Pd atomic chains

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, Mudra R.; Sharma, A. C.

    2015-06-24

    The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of free standing Au-Pd bimetallic atomic chain is studied using ab-initio method. It is found that electronic and magnetic properties of chains depend on position of atoms and number of atoms. Spin polarization factor for different atomic configuration of atomic chain is calculated predicting a half metallic behavior. It suggests a total spin polarised transport in these chains.

  13. Systems and methods for predicting materials properties

    DOEpatents

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Fischer, Chris; Tibbetts, Kevin; Morgan, Dane; Curtarolo, Stefano

    2007-11-06

    Systems and methods for predicting features of materials of interest. Reference data are analyzed to deduce relationships between the input data sets and output data sets. Reference data includes measured values and/or computed values. The deduced relationships can be specified as equations, correspondences, and/or algorithmic processes that produce appropriate output data when suitable input data is used. In some instances, the output data set is a subset of the input data set, and computational results may be refined by optionally iterating the computational procedure. To deduce features of a new material of interest, a computed or measured input property of the material is provided to an equation, correspondence, or algorithmic procedure previously deduced, and an output is obtained. In some instances, the output is iteratively refined. In some instances, new features deduced for the material of interest are added to a database of input and output data for known materials.

  14. Magnetic colloid by PLA: Optical, magnetic and thermal transport properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, B. K.; Shahi, A. K.; Gopal, Ram

    2015-08-01

    Ferrofluids of cobalt and cobalt oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully synthesized using liquid phase-pulse laser ablation (LP-PLA) in ethanol and double distilled water, respectively. The mechanism of laser ablation in liquid media and formation process for Co target in double distilled water (DDW) and ethanol are speculated based on the reactions between laser generated highly nascent cobalt species and vaporized solvent media in a confined high temperature and pressure at the plume-surrounding liquid interface region. Optical absorption, emission, vibrational and rotational properties have been investigated using UV-vis absorption, photoluminescence (PL) and Fourier transform-infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, respectively. In this study optical band gap of cobalt oxide ferrofluids has been engineered using different pulse energy of Nd:YAG laser in the range of (2.80-3.60 eV). Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) is employed to determine the magnetic properties of ferrofluids of cobalt and cobalt oxide NPs while their thermal conductivities are examined using rotating disc method. Ferrofluids have gained enormous curiosity due to many technological applications, i.e. drug delivery, coolant and heating purposes.

  15. Configurations and magnetic properties of Mn-B binary clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui-Ju, FENG; Bin-Zhou, MI

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the structures and magnetic properties of boron-doped manganese clusters using first-principle density functional theory. We arrive at the lowest energy structures for clusters by simultaneously optimizing the cluster geometries, total spins, and relative orientations of individual atomic moments. For MnnB (n=2-12) clusters, the theoretical results indicate that the B atom prefers the surface site for all the lowest-energy structures except Mn10B cluster. The doped B atom enhances the stability of pure Mnn cluster. We also have studied the magnetic behavior of Mn-B clusters in the size range. Based on the analysis of the different magnetic behavior of boron-doped manganese clusters, we have further studied Mn9B2 and Mn8B3 clusters and it indicates that the doping of non-magnetism B element can induce all the Mn atoms align ferromagnetic coupling. Furthermore, a stable pearl necklace nanowire ([Mn8B3]n→∞) which retains the ferromagnetic ordering of all the manganese atoms has been predicted.

  16. Long term property prediction of polyethylene nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaito, Ali Al-Abed

    properties of the nanocomposites was analyzed by examining tensile and creep-recovery behavior of the films at temperatures in the range of 25 to -100°C. Within the measured temperature range, the materials showed a nonlinear temperature dependent response. The time-temperature superposition principle was successfully used to predict the long term behavior of LLDPE nanocomposites.

  17. Obtaining Magnetic Properties of Meteorites Using Magnetic Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kletetschka, G.; Nabelek, L.; Mazanec, M.; Simon, K.; Hruba, J.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic images of Murchison meteorite's and Chelyabinsk meteorite's thin section have been obtained from magnetic scanning system from Youngwood Science and Engineering (YSE) capable of resolving magnetic anomalies down to 10-3 mT range from about 0.3 mm distance between the probe and meteorite surface (resolution about 0.15 mm). Anomalies were produced repeatedly, each time after application of magnetic field pulse of varying amplitude and constant, normal or reversed, direction. This process resulted in both magnetizing and demagnetizing of the meteorite thin section, while keeping the magnetization vector in the plane of the thin section. Analysis of the magnetic data allows determination of coercivity of remanence (Bcr) for the magnetic sources in situ. Value of Bcr is critical for calculating magnetic forces applicable during missions to asteroids where gravity is compromised. Bcr was estimated by two methods. First method measured varying dipole magnetic field strength produced by each anomaly in the direction of magnetic pulses. Second method measured deflections of the dipole direction from the direction of magnetic pulses (Nabelek et al., 2015). Nabelek, L., Mazanec, M., Kdyr, S., and Kletetschka, G., 2015, Magnetic, in situ, mineral characterization of Chelyabinsk meteorite thin section: Meteoritics & Planetary Science.

  18. Kagome network compounds and their novel magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Pati, Swapan K; Rao, C N R

    2008-10-21

    Compounds possessing the Kagome network are truly interesting because of their unusual low-energy properties. They exhibit magnetic frustration because of the triangular lattice inherent to the hexagonal bronze structure they possess, as indeed demonstrated by some of the Fe(3+) jarosites, but this is not the general case. Kagome compounds formed by transition metal ions with varying spins exhibit novel magnetic properties, some even showing evidence for magnetic order and absence of frustration. We describe the structure and magnetic properties of this interesting class of materials and attempt to provide an explanation for the variety of properties on the basis of theoretical considerations.

  19. Numerical Prediction of Magnetic Cryogenic Propellant Storage in Reduced Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetta, J. G.; Hochstein, J. I.

    2002-01-01

    Numerical Prediction of Magnetic Cryogenic Propellant Storage in Reduced strong evidence that a magnetic positioning system may be a feasible alternative technology for use in the management of cryogenic propellants onboard spacecraft. The results of these preliminary studies have indicated that further investigation of the physical processes and potential reliability of such a system is required. The utility of magnetic fields as an alternative method in cryogenic propellant management is dependent on its reliability and flexibility. Simulations and experiments have previously yielded evidence in support of the magnetic positive positioning (MPP) process to predictably reorient LOX for a variety of initial conditions. Presently, though, insufficient evidence has been established to support the use of magnetic fields with respect to the long-term storage of cryogenic propellants. Current modes of propellant storage have met with a moderate level of success and are well suited for short duration missions using monopropellants. However, the storage of cryogenic propellants warrants additional consideration for long-term missions. For example, propellant loss during storage is due to vaporization by incident solar radiation and the vaporized ullage must be vented to prevent excessive pressurization of the tank. Ideally, positioning the fluid in the center of the tank away from the tank wall will reduce vaporization by minimizing heat transfer through the tank wall to the liquid. A second issue involves the capability of sustaining a stable fluid configuration at tank center under varying g-levels or perturbations propellant storage. Results presented herein include comparisons illustrating the influence of gravity, fluid volume, and the magnetic field on a paramagnetic fluid, LOX. The magnetic Bond number is utilized as predictive correlating parameter for investigating these processes. A dimensionless relationship between the Bom and Bo was sought with the goal of

  20. Synthesis and Properties of Magnetic Fine Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhongxun

    Magnetic fine particles with a variety of compositions and sizes have been prepared by aerosol and coprecipitation technique. Their magnetic properties are shown to be either similar to or quite different from those of their bulk counterparts. Iron oxide, barium iron oxide and neodynium iron based fine particles have been synthesized by an aerosol technique which produced particles with average size of about 100 nm. It was found that the as-received samples were usually in thermally unstable states because of their short residence time (seconds) at the high temperature when they were created. Heat treatment turned these as -received particles into more stable phases. The final product depended on temperature, environment and composition of the initial solution. Cation and anion effects and solvent effects on the formation and morphology of the final particle have been also observed. Manganese ferrite fine particles have been made by hydroxide induced coprecipitation of mixed iron and manganese salt solutions. The particle size appeared to be an unique function of the ratio of the metallic ion concentration to the hydroxide ion concentration when the digestion conditions were fixed. The system which used ferric salt created small MnFe_2 O_4 particles with size controllable between 5 and 25 nm. The digestion process could be described by an Ostwald ripening in which OH^- acts as a catalyst. Variation of cations showed that their oxidation states had a strong influence on the particle size. The system which used ferrous salt, however, produced larger ferrite particles (above 50 nm) with single ferrite phase (Mn_ xFe_{3-x}O_4 with x <= 0.7). Dissolution and renucleation/growth occurred during digestion. For larger particles, the magnetizations were the same as for the bulk of the phases present, while the coercivities were more system dependent. We have found that nanoscale particles, on the other hand, showed profound size effects. The saturation magnetization of

  1. Properties of GRB light curves from magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniamini, Paz; Granot, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    The energy dissipation mechanism within gamma-ray burst (GRB) outflows, driving their extremely luminous prompt γ-ray emission is still uncertain. The leading candidates are internal shocks and magnetic reconnection. While the emission from internal shocks has been extensively studied, that from reconnection still has few quantitative predictions. We study the expected prompt-GRB emission from magnetic reconnection and compare its temporal and spectral properties to observations. The main difference from internal shocks is that for reconnection one expects relativistic bulk motions with Lorentz factors Γ'≳ a few in the jet's bulk frame. We consider such motions of the emitting material in two antiparallel directions (e.g. of the reconnecting magnetic-field lines) within an ultrarelativistic (with Γ ≫ 1) thin spherical reconnection layer. The emission's relativistic beaming in the jet's frame greatly affects the light curves. For emission at radii R0 < R < R0 + ΔR (with Γ = const), the observed pulse width is ΔT ˜ (R0/2cΓ2) max (1/Γ', ΔR/R0), i.e. up to ˜Γ' times shorter than for isotropic emission in the jet's frame. We consider two possible magnetic reconnection modes: a quasi-steady state with continuous plasma flow into and out of the reconnection layer, and sporadic reconnection in relativistic turbulence that produces relativistic plasmoids. Both of these modes can account for many observed prompt-GRB properties: variability, pulse asymmetry, the very rapid declines at their end and pulse evolutions that are either hard to soft (for Γ' ≲ 2) or intensity tracking (for Γ' > 2). However, the relativistic turbulence mode is more likely to be relevant for the prompt sub-MeV emission and can naturally account also for the peak luminosity - peak frequency correlation.

  2. Magnetic properties and magnetic domain structure of grain-oriented Fe-3%Si steel under compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perevertov, O.; Schäfer, R.

    2016-09-01

    The influence of an applied compressive stress on the magnetic properties and domain structure in Goss-textured (110) [001] Fe-3%Si steel is studied. The magnetic domains and magnetization processes were observed by longitudinal Kerr microscopy at different levels of compressive stress. With stress increase the domain structure without applied field evolves from 180° slab-like domains along the surface-parallel easy axis first into stress pattern I, then into the checkerboard pattern and finally into stress pattern II, in which all internal domains are oriented along the transverse axes. The magnetization process under compression is realized by surface closure [001] domains that grow into the bulk at the expense of transverse domains. The domain evolution by these three stress patterns is not practically noticeable in hysteresis curves above 10 MPa—they change continuously with the same effective field being valid for curves from 10 to 67 MPa. The comparison with previous measurements under different stress/cutting angle combinations shows that for the prediction of a constricted hysteresis loop it is sufficient to consider the energy difference between surface-parallel and transverse easy axes neglecting details of the spatial organization of transverse domains.

  3. Magnetic properties of frictional volcanic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lavallée, Yan; Biggin, Andrew; Ferk, Annika; Leonhardt, Roman

    2015-04-01

    During dome-building volcanic eruptions, highly viscous magma extends through the upper conduit in a solid-like state. The outer margins of the magma column accommodate the majority of the strain, while the bulk of the magma is able to extrude, largely undeformed, to produce magma spines. Spine extrusion is often characterised by the emission of repetitive seismicity, produced in the upper <1 km by magma failure and slip at the conduit margins. The rheology of the magma controls the depth at which fracture can occur, while the frictional properties of the magma are important in controlling subsequent marginal slip processes. Upon extrusion, spines are coated by a carapace of volcanic fault rocks which provide insights into the deeper conduit processes. Frictional samples from magma spines at Mount St. Helens (USA), Soufriere Hills (Montserrat) and Mount Unzen (Japan) have been examined using structural, thermal and magnetic analyses to reveal a history of comminution, frictional heating, melting and cooling to form volcanic pseudotachylyte. Pseudotachylyte has rarely been noted in volcanic materials, and the recent observation of its syn-eruptive formation in dome-building volcanoes was unprecedented. The uniquely high thermal conditions of volcanic environments means that frictional melt remains at elevated temperatures for longer than usual, causing slow crystallisation, preventing the development of some signature "quench" characteristics. As such, rock-magnetic tests have proven to be some of the most useful tools in distinguishing pseudotachylytes from their andesite/ dacite hosts. In volcanic pseudotachylyte the mass normalised natural remanent magnetisation (NRM) when further normalised with the concentration dependent saturation remanence (Mrs) was found to be higher than the host rock. Remanence carriers are defined as low coercive materials across all samples, and while the remanence of the host rock displays similarities to an anhysteretic remanent

  4. Correlation between magnetic properties and the hardness of powder steels

    SciTech Connect

    Ul`yanov, A.I.; Merzlyakov, E.F.; Faizullin, R.G.

    1994-07-01

    Density and carbon content are studied for their effect on strength (hardness) and magnetic (coercive force, saturation magnetization) properties of powder steels ZhGr1 and ZhGr1D3. It is shown that the hardness of articles made of these steels may be determined indirectly by measuring two magnetic characteristics.

  5. Simplified solutions to predicting the magnetic vectors within CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savani, Neel; Vourlidas, Angelos; Pulkinnen, Antti

    2016-04-01

    The direction of magnetic vectors within coronal mass ejections, CMEs, has significant importance for forecasting terrestrial behavior. We have developed a technique to estimate the time-varying magnetic field at the Earth for periods within CMEs. This technique uses solar observational data and empirical relationships along with a constant alpha flux rope model to make the predictions. The technique can be more simply treated as the aggregate from two significant contributions: 1) Estimating the initial topological structure of the CME and 2) Estimating the hypothetical Earth-trajectory after CME evolutionary effects have been considered. In this presentation, we focus on how the evolutionary effects during interplanetary propagation affect the prediction made. We focus on how reliable the predictions are for CME events when the structural shape of the CME is well defined through triangulation of multi-point observations. We show that in such cases of reliable triangulation, the predictions are relatively well constrained to perturbations in the hypothetical Earth trajectory. However, we show how the predictions can be drastically different for cases where the CME direction and orientation remain ambiguous by removing the off Sun-Earth line observations.

  6. Magnetic properties of Dy2Ti2O7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements were made of the magnetization, differential magnetic susceptibility, and magnetic entropy of powered samples of Dy2Ti2O7. The saturation magnetic moment is 4.7 + or - 0.2 Bohr magnetons per Dy ion, instead of 10 as predicted by Hund's rules. A temperature-independent magnetization is observed in the saturation region. Absolute values of magnetic entropy have been obtained for temperatures from 1.25 to 20 K, in applied fields up to 10.4 tesla. The magnetic entropy approaches a maximum value consistent with a ground-state multiplicity of 2. Low field magnetization and differential susceptibility data show a transition to antiferromagnetism near 1.35 K. A construction of the magnetic specific heat from the zero field entropy shows an anomaly near the same temperature.

  7. The magnetic properties of potassium holmium double tungstate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowiec, M. T.; Dyakonov, V. P.; Khatsko, E. N.; Zayarnyuk, T.; Zubov, E. E.; Szewczyk, A.; Gutowska, M. U.; Rykova, A. I.; Pietosa, J.; Majchrowski, A.; Michalski, E.; Hoffmann, J.-U.; Prokes, K.; Woźniak, K.; Dobrzycki, Ł.; Barański, M.; Domukhovski, V.; Shtyrkhunova, V.; Żmija, J.; Szymczak, H.

    2011-08-01

    The magnetic investigations of potassium holmium double tungstate KHo(WO4)2 have been performed. The results of measurements of magnetic susceptibility and magnetization as a function of temperature (T from 0.3 K up to 100 K) and magnetic field (up to 1.5 T) are presented. A strong anisotropy of magnetic properties was found. The magnetic measurements data were used to calculate the interaction energy. It was shown that the interactions between nearest neighbors Ho3+ ions have antiferromagnetic character.

  8. Magnetic Properties of Restacked 2D Spin 1/2 honeycomb RuCl3 Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Weber, Daniel; Schoop, Leslie M; Duppel, Viola; Lippmann, Judith M; Nuss, Jürgen; Lotsch, Bettina V

    2016-06-01

    Spin 1/2 honeycomb materials have gained substantial interest due to their exotic magnetism and possible application in quantum computing. However, in all current materials out-of-plane interactions are interfering with the in-plane order, hence a true 2D magnetic honeycomb system is still in demand. Here, we report the exfoliation of the magnetic semiconductor α-RuCl3 into the first halide monolayers and the magnetic characterization of the spin 1/2 honeycomb arrangement of turbostratically stacked RuCl3 monolayers. The exfoliation is based on a reductive lithiation/hydration approach, which gives rise to a loss of cooperative magnetism due to the disruption of the spin 1/2 state by electron injection into the layers. The restacked, macroscopic pellets of RuCl3 layers lack symmetry along the stacking direction. After an oxidative treatment, cooperative magnetism similar to the bulk is restored. The oxidized pellets of restacked single layers feature a magnetic transition at TN = 7 K if the field is aligned parallel to the ab-plane, while the magnetic properties differ from bulk α-RuCl3 if the field is aligned perpendicular to the ab-plane. The deliberate introduction of turbostratic disorder to manipulate the magnetic properties of RuCl3 is of interest for research in frustrated magnetism and complex magnetic order as predicted by the Kitaev-Heisenberg model. PMID:27176463

  9. Magnetic Properties of Restacked 2D Spin 1/2 honeycomb RuCl3 Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Weber, Daniel; Schoop, Leslie M; Duppel, Viola; Lippmann, Judith M; Nuss, Jürgen; Lotsch, Bettina V

    2016-06-01

    Spin 1/2 honeycomb materials have gained substantial interest due to their exotic magnetism and possible application in quantum computing. However, in all current materials out-of-plane interactions are interfering with the in-plane order, hence a true 2D magnetic honeycomb system is still in demand. Here, we report the exfoliation of the magnetic semiconductor α-RuCl3 into the first halide monolayers and the magnetic characterization of the spin 1/2 honeycomb arrangement of turbostratically stacked RuCl3 monolayers. The exfoliation is based on a reductive lithiation/hydration approach, which gives rise to a loss of cooperative magnetism due to the disruption of the spin 1/2 state by electron injection into the layers. The restacked, macroscopic pellets of RuCl3 layers lack symmetry along the stacking direction. After an oxidative treatment, cooperative magnetism similar to the bulk is restored. The oxidized pellets of restacked single layers feature a magnetic transition at TN = 7 K if the field is aligned parallel to the ab-plane, while the magnetic properties differ from bulk α-RuCl3 if the field is aligned perpendicular to the ab-plane. The deliberate introduction of turbostratic disorder to manipulate the magnetic properties of RuCl3 is of interest for research in frustrated magnetism and complex magnetic order as predicted by the Kitaev-Heisenberg model.

  10. Injection-Molded Soft Magnets Prepared from Fe-Based Metallic Glass: Mechanical and Magnetic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Tian; Huang, Ran; Huang, Jia; Ouyang, Wei

    2015-10-01

    The injection-molded metallic glass soft magnet is prepared from the powder of melt-spun ribbon of Fe36Co36B20Si4Nb4 glassy alloy and Nylon 6,6 of wt.% from 5 to 20 via the polymer injection molding technology. The product is characterized by the SEM, mechanical, and magnetic test. The results indicate that this type of materials has comparable mechanical properties and morphological feature with the conventional injection-molded NdFeB magnet and exhibits excellent soft magnetic behaviors. The magnetic properties of the injected magnets are compared with the raw metallic glass, solvent-casted resin bonding magnets, and thermal-treated magnets to confirm that the processing temperature of Nylon injection does not affect the magnetism. The injection technology is a practical processing method to be applied on the metallic glass for potential usage.

  11. Magnetic and Structural Properties of Chemically Synthesized Ni and

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonder, Michael; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra L.; Zhang, X. Q.; Rieke, R. D.

    1996-03-01

    The reduction of nickel salts using a technique developed by Rieke and co-workers produces highly chemically reactive particles with enhanced magnetic properties due to their nanoscale size. As-synthesized particles are 2-5 nm in diameter and range from superparamagnetic to ferromagnetic, depending on synthesis details. Grain sizes from 5 nm to 1000 nm have been produced by subsequent vacuum annealing. The maximum coercivities and remanence ratios are obtained during the first half-hour to hour of annealing. Coercivities in these systems may be up to ten times the value of bulk nickel, with remanence ratios approaching 0.5. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the nickel grains are square and sometimes embedded in a lithium halide matrix. Under appropriate synthesis and annealing conditions, the as-synthesized particles can be transformed into the metastable Ni_3C phase, which has important implications in catalysis. Comparison with Stoner-Wohlfarth and Holz-Scherrer predictions of the magnetic properties will be made.

  12. Predicting the Future of Permanent-Magnet Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Skomski, R; Manchanda, P; Kumar, P; Balamurugan, B; Kashyap, A; Sellmyer, DJ

    2013-07-01

    There are two main thrusts towards new permanent-magnet materials: improving extrinsic properties by nanostructuring and intrinsic properties by atomic structuring. Theory-both numerical and analytical-plays an important role in this ambitious research. Our analysis of aligned hard-soft nanostructures shows that soft-in-hard geometries are better than hard-in-soft geometries and that embedded soft spheres are better than sandwiched soft layers. Concerning the choice of the hard phase, both a high magnetization and a high anisotropy are necessary. As an example of first-principle research, we consider interatomic Mn exchange in MnAl and find strongly ferromagnetic intralayer exchange, in spite of the small Mn-Mn distances.

  13. Electronic and magnetic properties of nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, Gayanath; Zhang, Zhiwei; Kocharian, Armen

    We have performed tight-binding calculations with open boundary conditions on a set of twisted nanoribbons (4x100), monitoring the band structure as a function of the twist angle θ. When this angle is zero, the ribbon is rectangular and when it is 60 degrees, the ribbon is cut from a honeycomb lattice. Depending on the parameters of the tight-binding model and the filling factor, semi-metallic or insulating behavior is observed. We have also studied the electronic structure of such ribbons due to the adsorption of small atoms such as nitrogen, a magnetic field and the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. The role of the adsorbed atoms and the Rashba term with regard to the conducting properties and the symmetry breaking of the ribbons will be discussed in some detail. In addition, the effects of electronic correlations on selected small ribbons will be examined. The authors acknowledge the computing facilities provided by the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  14. Magnetic Properties of Strontium Hexaferrite Nanostructures Measured with Magnetic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Saura-Múzquiz, Matilde; Besenbacher, Flemming; Christensen, Mogens; Dong, Mingdong

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic property is one of the important properties of nanomaterials. Direct investigation of the magnetic property on the nanoscale is however challenging. Herein we present a quantitative measurement of the magnetic properties including the magnitude and the orientation of the magnetic moment of strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19) nanostructures using magnetic force microscopy (MFM) with nanoscale spatial resolution. The measured magnetic moments of the as-synthesized individual SrFe12O19 nanoplatelets are on the order of ~10−16 emu. The MFM measurements further confirm that the magnetic moment of SrFe12O19 nanoplatelets increases with increasing thickness of the nanoplatelet. In addition, the magnetization directions of nanoplatelets can be identified by the contrast of MFM frequency shift. Moreover, MFM frequency imaging clearly reveals the tiny magnetic structures of a compacted SrFe12O19 pellet. This work demonstrates the mesoscopic investigation of the intrinsic magnetic properties of materials has a potential in development of new magnetic nanomaterials in electrical and medical applications. PMID:27174466

  15. Magnetic Properties of Strontium Hexaferrite Nanostructures Measured with Magnetic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Saura-Múzquiz, Matilde; Besenbacher, Flemming; Christensen, Mogens; Dong, Mingdong

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic property is one of the important properties of nanomaterials. Direct investigation of the magnetic property on the nanoscale is however challenging. Herein we present a quantitative measurement of the magnetic properties including the magnitude and the orientation of the magnetic moment of strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19) nanostructures using magnetic force microscopy (MFM) with nanoscale spatial resolution. The measured magnetic moments of the as-synthesized individual SrFe12O19 nanoplatelets are on the order of ~10(-16) emu. The MFM measurements further confirm that the magnetic moment of SrFe12O19 nanoplatelets increases with increasing thickness of the nanoplatelet. In addition, the magnetization directions of nanoplatelets can be identified by the contrast of MFM frequency shift. Moreover, MFM frequency imaging clearly reveals the tiny magnetic structures of a compacted SrFe12O19 pellet. This work demonstrates the mesoscopic investigation of the intrinsic magnetic properties of materials has a potential in development of new magnetic nanomaterials in electrical and medical applications. PMID:27174466

  16. Magnetic Properties of Strontium Hexaferrite Nanostructures Measured with Magnetic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Saura-Múzquiz, Matilde; Besenbacher, Flemming; Christensen, Mogens; Dong, Mingdong

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic property is one of the important properties of nanomaterials. Direct investigation of the magnetic property on the nanoscale is however challenging. Herein we present a quantitative measurement of the magnetic properties including the magnitude and the orientation of the magnetic moment of strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19) nanostructures using magnetic force microscopy (MFM) with nanoscale spatial resolution. The measured magnetic moments of the as-synthesized individual SrFe12O19 nanoplatelets are on the order of ~10-16 emu. The MFM measurements further confirm that the magnetic moment of SrFe12O19 nanoplatelets increases with increasing thickness of the nanoplatelet. In addition, the magnetization directions of nanoplatelets can be identified by the contrast of MFM frequency shift. Moreover, MFM frequency imaging clearly reveals the tiny magnetic structures of a compacted SrFe12O19 pellet. This work demonstrates the mesoscopic investigation of the intrinsic magnetic properties of materials has a potential in development of new magnetic nanomaterials in electrical and medical applications.

  17. Magnetic Properties of Strontium Hexaferrite Nanostructures Measured with Magnetic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Saura-Múzquiz, Matilde; Besenbacher, Flemming; Christensen, Mogens; Dong, Mingdong

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic property is one of the important properties of nanomaterials. Direct investigation of the magnetic property on the nanoscale is however challenging. Herein we present a quantitative measurement of the magnetic properties including the magnitude and the orientation of the magnetic moment of strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19) nanostructures using magnetic force microscopy (MFM) with nanoscale spatial resolution. The measured magnetic moments of the as-synthesized individual SrFe12O19 nanoplatelets are on the order of ~10‑16 emu. The MFM measurements further confirm that the magnetic moment of SrFe12O19 nanoplatelets increases with increasing thickness of the nanoplatelet. In addition, the magnetization directions of nanoplatelets can be identified by the contrast of MFM frequency shift. Moreover, MFM frequency imaging clearly reveals the tiny magnetic structures of a compacted SrFe12O19 pellet. This work demonstrates the mesoscopic investigation of the intrinsic magnetic properties of materials has a potential in development of new magnetic nanomaterials in electrical and medical applications.

  18. Control over magnetic properties in bulk hybrid materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Christian; Quesada, Adrian; Saerbeck, Thomas; Rubia, Miguel Angel De La; Garcia, Miguel Angel; Fernandez, Jose Francisco; Schuller, Ivan K.; UCSD Collaboration; Instituto de Ceramica, Madrid Collaboration; Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble Collaboration

    We present control of coercivity and remanent magnetization of a bulk ferromagnetic material embedded in bulk vanadium sesquioxide (V2O3) by using a standard bulk synthesis procedure. The method generalizes the use of structural phase transitions of one material to control structural and magnetic properties of another. A structural phase transition (SPT) in the V2O3 host material causes magnetic properties of Ni to change as function of temperature. The remanent magnetization and the coercivity are reversibly controlled by the SPT without additional external magnetic fields. The reversible tuning shown here opens the pathway for controlling the properties of a vast variety of magnetic hybrid bulk systems. This Work is supported by the Office of Basic Energy Science, U.S. Department of Energy, BES-DMS funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Science, DMR under grant DE FG02 87ER-45332.

  19. Spectral properties of superconductors with ferromagnetically ordered magnetic impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, Daniel; Shevtsov, Oleksii; Löfwander, Tomas; Fogelström, Mikael

    2015-12-01

    We present a comprehensive theoretical study of thermodynamic properties of superconductors with a dilute concentration of magnetic impurities, with focus on how the properties of the superconducting host change if the magnetic moments of the impurities order ferromagnetically. Scattering off the magnetic impurities leads to the formation of a band of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states within the superconducting energy gap that drastically influences superconductivity. In the magnetically ordered system, the magnetization displays a sudden drop as a function of the impurity density or magnetic moment amplitude. The drop occurs as the spin-polarized impurity band crosses the Fermi level and is associated with a quantum phase transition first put forward by Sakurai for the single impurity case. Taking into account that the background magnetic field created by the ordered impurity moments enters as a Zeeman shift, we find that the superconducting phase transition changes from second order to first order for high enough impurity concentrations.

  20. Basic Properties of Magnetic Shape-Memory Materials from First-Principles Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entel, Peter; Dannenberg, Antje; Siewert, Mario; Herper, Heike C.; Gruner, Markus E.; Comtesse, Denis; Elmers, Hans-Joachim; Kallmayer, Michael

    2012-08-01

    The mutual influence of phase transformations, magnetism, and electronic properties of magnetic-shape memory Heusler materials is a basic issue of electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory. In this article, we show that these calculations can be pursued to finite temperatures, which allows to derive on a first-principles basis the temperature versus composition phase diagram of the pseudo-binary Ni-Mn-(Ga, In, Sn, Sb) system. The free energy calculations show that the phonon contribution stabilizes the body-centered-cubic (bcc)-like austenite structure at elevated temperatures, whereas magnetism favors the low-temperature martensite phase with body-centered-tetragonal (bct) or rather face-centered-tetragonal (fct) structure. The calculations also allow to make predictions of magnetostructural and magnetic field induced properties of other (new) magnetic Heusler alloys not based on NiMn such as Co-Ni-(Ga-Zn) and Fe-Co-Ni-(Ga-Zn) intermetallic compounds.

  1. Influence of multiple categories on the prediction of unknown properties

    PubMed Central

    Verde, Michael F.; Murphy, Gregory L.; Ross, Brian H.

    2006-01-01

    Knowing an item's category helps us predict its unknown properties. Previous studies suggest that when asked to evaluate the probability of an unknown property, people tend to consider only an item's most likely category, ignoring alternative categories. In the present study, property prediction took the form of either a probability rating or a speeded, binary-choice judgment. Consistent with past findings, subjects ignored alternative categories in their probability ratings. However, their binary-choice judgments were influenced by alternative categories. This novel finding suggests that the way category knowledge is used in prediction depends critically on the form of the prediction. PMID:16156183

  2. Correlation of magnetic properties with deformation in electrical steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulou, S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the utilization of magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) and hysteresis loops methods for the non-destructive characterization of deformed electrical steel samples. For this reason electrical steel samples were subjected to uniaxial tensile tests on elastic and plastic region of deformations. Both the MBN and hysteresis loops were measured. The results shown a strong degradation of the magnetic properties on plastically strains. This was attributed to the irreversible movement of the magnetic domain walls, due to the presence of high dislocation density. The resulting magnetic properties were further evaluated by examining the microstructure of the deformed samples by using scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Magnetic and magnetothermal properties and the magnetic phase diagram of high purity single crystalline terbium along the easy magnetization direction

    SciTech Connect

    Zverev, V. I.; Tishin, A. M.; Chernyshov, A. S.; Mudryk, Ya; Gschneidner Jr., Karl A.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2014-01-21

    The magnetic and magnetothermal properties of a high purity terbium single crystal have been re-investigated from 1.5 to 350 K in magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 75 kOe using magnetization, ac magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity measurements. The magnetic phase diagram has been refined by establishing a region of the fan-like phase broader than reported in the past, by locating a tricritical point at 226 K, and by a more accurate definition of the critical fields and temperatures associated with the magnetic phases observed in Tb.

  4. Magnetic and magnetothermal properties and the magnetic phase diagram of high purity single crystalline terbium along the easy magnetization direction.

    PubMed

    Zverev, V I; Tishin, A M; Chernyshov, A S; Mudryk, Ya; Gschneidner, K A; Pecharsky, V K

    2014-02-12

    The magnetic and magnetothermal properties of a high purity terbium single crystal have been re-investigated from 1.5 to 350 K in magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 75 kOe using magnetization, ac magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity measurements. The magnetic phase diagram has been refined by establishing a region of the fan-like phase broader than reported in the past, by locating a tricritical point at 226 K, and by a more accurate definition of the critical fields and temperatures associated with the magnetic phases observed in Tb. PMID:24451321

  5. Magnetic and magnetothermal properties and the magnetic phase diagram of high purity single crystalline terbium along the easy magnetization direction.

    PubMed

    Zverev, V I; Tishin, A M; Chernyshov, A S; Mudryk, Ya; Gschneidner, K A; Pecharsky, V K

    2014-02-12

    The magnetic and magnetothermal properties of a high purity terbium single crystal have been re-investigated from 1.5 to 350 K in magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 75 kOe using magnetization, ac magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity measurements. The magnetic phase diagram has been refined by establishing a region of the fan-like phase broader than reported in the past, by locating a tricritical point at 226 K, and by a more accurate definition of the critical fields and temperatures associated with the magnetic phases observed in Tb.

  6. Enhancement in magnetic properties of magnesium substituted bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jianlong; Xie, Dan E-mail: RenTL@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Teng, Changjiu; Zhang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Yilin; Ren, Tian-Ling E-mail: RenTL@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Zeng, Min; Gao, Xingsen; Zhao, Yonggang

    2015-06-14

    We report a potential way to effectively improve the magnetic properties of BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) nanoparticles through Mg{sup 2+} ion substitution at the Fe-sites of BFO lattice. The high purity and structural changes induced by Mg doping are confirmed by X-ray powder diffractometer and Raman spectra. Enhanced magnetic properties are observed in Mg substituted samples, which simultaneously exhibit ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic properties at room temperature. A physical model is proposed to support the observed ferromagnetism of Mg doped samples, and the superparamagnetic properties are revealed by the temperature dependent magnetization measurements. The improved magnetic properties and soft nature obtained by Mg doping in BFO nanoparticles demonstrate the possibility of BFO nanoparticles to practical applications.

  7. Real-time prediction of intense magnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, L. E.; Chen, J.; Gonzalez, W. D.

    In this paper a feature-based method for predicting geoeffective solar wind structures and intense geomagnetic storms is shown. The geoeffective structures were identified from observations of the plasma parameters and interplanetary magnetic field measurements by ACE satellite in the internal Lagrangean point (L1). The magnetospheric state was monitored by the Dst index. The proposed algorithm is based on the Chen IMF Prediction Model [Chen et al., 1996; Chen et al., 1997], which attempts to predict the occurrence of intense geomagnetic storms and how long they will last. It does this by looking for a change from positive or zero values of the Z-component of the interplanetary field, to negative values which often produce a geomagnetic storm. When it finds such a signature in ACE data, it models the strength of this component as a sinusoid and uses that to estimate the length of time the Z-component will remain negative. The longer the time, the more likely a storm will occur. Also, one can estimate the length of time that the storm will last. A detailed study of this algorithm using the ACE data for 1998-2001 period showed that this algorithm is capable to predict whether the magnetosphere will reach a certain activity level (Dst < -80nT) with a precision of approximately 80% and antecedence from some hours up to 10 hours. It was verified that the occurrence of false alarms and of periods in that the algorithm is not capable to predict the occurrence of magnetic storms are due mainly to three factors: (1) the rotation rate of the magnetic field during geoeffective events is not constant, as assumed; (2) the southward component of the interplanetary magnetic field is the most important parameter in the solar wind - magnetosphere coupling, but it is not the only one that have to be considered; and, (3) the algorithm doesn't take into account the previous magnetospheric conditions, that is, it is not capable to track the occurrence of multiple injections of energy

  8. Predicting the Electron Diffusion Region in Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, Michael; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Li-Jen; Bessho, Naoki; Kuznetsova, Masha; Burch, James; Birn, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The launch of the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission is leading to a revolution in our understanding of the way magnetic reconnection works. During the first orbit phases, MMS science focuses on asymmetric reconnection, as is commonly found at the Earth's magnetopause. MMS observations have begun to support the view that reconnection operates primarily as a quasi-laminar process, supporting one class of theoretical precitions and a number of concurrent simulations. In this presentation, we present a brief overview of these theoretical and modeling predictions, and we present a comparison to recent MMS observations.

  9. Magnetoresistive properties of nanostructured magnetic metals, manganites, and magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solin, N. I.; Romashev, L. N.; Naumov, S. V.; Saranin, A. A.; Zotov, A. V.; Olyanich, D. A.; Kotlyar, V. G.; Utas, O. A.

    2016-02-01

    We consider methods for controlling magnetoresistive parameters of magnetic metal superlattices, manganites, and magnetic semiconductors. By reducing the thickness of ferromagnetic layers in superlattices (e.g., Fe layers in Fe/Cr superlattices), it is possible to form superparamagnetic clustered-layered nanostructures with a magnetoresistance weakly depending on the direction of the external magnetic field, which is very important for applications of such type of materials. Producing Mn vacancies and additionally annealing lanthanum manganites in the oxygen atmosphere, it is possible to increase their magnetoresistance by more than four orders of magnitude. By changing the thickness of p- n junction in the structure of ferromagnetic semiconductors, their magnetoresistance can be increased by 2-3 orders of magnitude.

  10. Magnetic properties and thermal stability of MnBi/NdFeB hybrid bonded magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, S.; Yue, M.; Yang, Y. X.; Zhang, D. T.; Liu, W. Q.; Zhang, J. X.; Guo, Z. H.; Li, W.

    2011-04-01

    Magnetic properties and thermal stability were investigated for the MnBi/NdFeB (MnBi = 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 wt.%) bonded hybrid magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. Effect of MnBi content on the magnetic properties of the hybrid magnets was studied. With increasing MnBi content, the coercivity of the MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnets increases rapidly, while the remanence and maximum energy product drops simultaneously. Thermal stability measurement on MnBi magnet, NdFeB magnet, and the hybrid magnet with 20 wt.% MnBi indicates that both the NdFeB magnet and the MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnet have a negative temperature coefficient of coercivity, while the MnBi magnet has a positive one. The (BH){sub max} of the MnBi/NdFeB magnet (MnBi = 20 wt.%) is 5.71 MGOe at 423 K, which is much higher than 3.67 MGOe of the NdFeB magnet, indicating a remarkable improvement of thermal stability.

  11. EM Properties of Magnetic Minerals at RADAR Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stillman, D. E.; Olhoeft, G. R.

    2005-01-01

    Previous missions to Mars have revealed that Mars surface is magnetic at DC frequency. Does this highly magnetic surface layer attenuate RADAR energy as it does in certain locations on Earth? It has been suggested that the active magnetic mineral on Mars is titanomaghemite and/or titanomagnetite. When titanium is incorporated into a maghemite or magnetite crystal, the Curie temperature can be significantly reduced. Mars has a wide range of daily temperature fluctuations (303K - 143K), which could allow for daily passes through the Curie temperature. Hence, the global dust layer on Mars could experience widely varying magnetic properties as a function of temperature, more specifically being ferromagnetic at night and paramagnetic during the day. Measurements of EM properties of magnetic minerals were made versus frequency and temperature (300K- 180K). Magnetic minerals and Martian analog samples were gathered from a number of different locations on Earth.

  12. Comparison of Microinstability Properties for Stellarator Magnetic Geometries

    SciTech Connect

    G. Rewoldt; L.-P. Ku; W.M. Tang

    2005-06-16

    The microinstability properties of seven distinct magnetic geometries corresponding to different operating and planned stellarators with differing symmetry properties are compared. Specifically, the kinetic stability properties (linear growth rates and real frequencies) of toroidal microinstabilities (driven by ion temperature gradients and trapped-electron dynamics) are compared, as parameters are varied. The familiar ballooning representation is used to enable efficient treatment of the spatial variations along the equilibrium magnetic field lines. These studies provide useful insights for understanding the differences in the relative strengths of the instabilities caused by the differing localizations of good and bad magnetic curvature and of the presence of trapped particles. The associated differences in growth rates due to magnetic geometry are large for small values of the temperature gradient parameter n identical to d ln T/d ln n, whereas for large values of n, the mode is strongly unstable for all of the different magnetic geometries.

  13. Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Silicene and Silicane Nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Lee, Anna Shin Hwa; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Pan, Hui

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, first-principles calculations are carried out to study the electronic and magnetic properties of silicene and silicane nanoribbons, with and without H-passivation at the edges. We predict that the armchair nanoribbons are nonmagnetic and semiconducting. Interestingly, the band gaps of armchair silicene nanoribbons show oscillating behavior as the ribbon width increases. When their edges are passivated with H atoms, However, the oscillating phase is reversed. The zigzag nanoribbons are anti-ferromagnetic and semiconducting in their ground states, except that the zigzag silicane nanoribbons with edges passivated by H atoms are nonmagnetic. The zigzag silicane nanoribbons with bare edges show the highest magnetic moments in their ground states. The band gaps of zigzag nanoribbons in their ground states decrease with the increment of width. The metastable states of zigzag silicene nanoribbons are ferromagnetic and metallic. The zigzag silicane nanoribbons with bare edges are ferromagnetic and semiconducting in their metastable states. The silicene/silicane nanoribbons with attractive functions, which are achievable by edge engineering or external fields, may be applied to spintronic technologies and nanodevices.

  14. Magnetically Controlled Electronic Transport Properties of a Ferromagnetic Junction on the Surface of a Topological Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng-Qin; Wang, Rui-Qiang; Deng, Ming-Xun; Hu, Liang-Bin

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated the transport properties of the Dirac fermions through a ferromagnetic barrier junction on the surface of a strong topological insulator. The current-voltage characteristic curve and the tunneling conductance are calculated theoretically. Two interesting transport features are predicted: observable negative differential conductances and linear conductances tunable from unit to nearly zero. These features can be magnetically manipulated simply by changing the spacial orientation of the magnetization. Our results may contribute to the development of high-speed switching and functional applications or electrically controlled magnetization switching. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11174088, 11175067, 11274124

  15. Enhanced magnetic-field-induced optical properties of nanostructured magnetic fluids by doping nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang; Pu, Shengli; Ji, Hongzhu; Yu, Guojun

    2012-05-01

    Ferronematic materials composed of 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl nematic liquid crystal and oil-based Fe3O4 magnetic fluid were prepared using ultrasonic agitation. The birefringence (Δ n) and figure of merit of optical properties ( Q = Δ n/α, where α is the extinction coefficient) of pure magnetic fluids and the as-prepared ferronematic materials were examined and compared. The figure of merit of optical properties weighs the birefringence and extinction of the materials and is more appropriate to evaluate their optical properties. Similar magnetic-field- and magnetic-particle-concentration-dependent properties of birefringence and figure of merit of optical properties were obtained for the pure magnetic fluids and the ferronematic materials. For the ferronematic materials, the values of Q increase with the volume fractions of nematic liquid crystal under certain fixed field strength and are larger than those of their corresponding pure magnetic fluids at high field region. In addition, the enhancement of Q value increases monotonously with the magnetic field and becomes remarkable when the applied magnetic field is beyond 50 mT. The maximum relative enhanced value of Q R exceeds 6.8% in our experiments. The results of this work may conduce to extend the pragmatic applications of nanostructured magnetic fluids in optical field.

  16. Enhanced magnetic-field-induced optical properties of nanostructured magnetic fluids by doping nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Pu, Shengli; Ji, Hongzhu; Yu, Guojun

    2012-01-01

    Ferronematic materials composed of 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl nematic liquid crystal and oil-based Fe3O4 magnetic fluid were prepared using ultrasonic agitation. The birefringence (Δn) and figure of merit of optical properties (Q = Δn/α, where α is the extinction coefficient) of pure magnetic fluids and the as-prepared ferronematic materials were examined and compared. The figure of merit of optical properties weighs the birefringence and extinction of the materials and is more appropriate to evaluate their optical properties. Similar magnetic-field- and magnetic-particle-concentration-dependent properties of birefringence and figure of merit of optical properties were obtained for the pure magnetic fluids and the ferronematic materials. For the ferronematic materials, the values of Q increase with the volume fractions of nematic liquid crystal under certain fixed field strength and are larger than those of their corresponding pure magnetic fluids at high field region. In addition, the enhancement of Q value increases monotonously with the magnetic field and becomes remarkable when the applied magnetic field is beyond 50 mT. The maximum relative enhanced value of QR exceeds 6.8% in our experiments. The results of this work may conduce to extend the pragmatic applications of nanostructured magnetic fluids in optical field. PMID:22587542

  17. Enhanced magnetic-field-induced optical properties of nanostructured magnetic fluids by doping nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Pu, Shengli; Ji, Hongzhu; Yu, Guojun

    2012-01-01

    Ferronematic materials composed of 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl nematic liquid crystal and oil-based Fe3O4 magnetic fluid were prepared using ultrasonic agitation. The birefringence (Δn) and figure of merit of optical properties (Q = Δn/α, where α is the extinction coefficient) of pure magnetic fluids and the as-prepared ferronematic materials were examined and compared. The figure of merit of optical properties weighs the birefringence and extinction of the materials and is more appropriate to evaluate their optical properties. Similar magnetic-field- and magnetic-particle-concentration-dependent properties of birefringence and figure of merit of optical properties were obtained for the pure magnetic fluids and the ferronematic materials. For the ferronematic materials, the values of Q increase with the volume fractions of nematic liquid crystal under certain fixed field strength and are larger than those of their corresponding pure magnetic fluids at high field region. In addition, the enhancement of Q value increases monotonously with the magnetic field and becomes remarkable when the applied magnetic field is beyond 50 mT. The maximum relative enhanced value of QR exceeds 6.8% in our experiments. The results of this work may conduce to extend the pragmatic applications of nanostructured magnetic fluids in optical field.

  18. Enhanced magnetic-field-induced optical properties of nanostructured magnetic fluids by doping nematic liquid crystals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ferronematic materials composed of 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl nematic liquid crystal and oil-based Fe3O4 magnetic fluid were prepared using ultrasonic agitation. The birefringence (Δn) and figure of merit of optical properties (Q = Δn/α, where α is the extinction coefficient) of pure magnetic fluids and the as-prepared ferronematic materials were examined and compared. The figure of merit of optical properties weighs the birefringence and extinction of the materials and is more appropriate to evaluate their optical properties. Similar magnetic-field- and magnetic-particle-concentration-dependent properties of birefringence and figure of merit of optical properties were obtained for the pure magnetic fluids and the ferronematic materials. For the ferronematic materials, the values of Q increase with the volume fractions of nematic liquid crystal under certain fixed field strength and are larger than those of their corresponding pure magnetic fluids at high field region. In addition, the enhancement of Q value increases monotonously with the magnetic field and becomes remarkable when the applied magnetic field is beyond 50 mT. The maximum relative enhanced value of QR exceeds 6.8% in our experiments. The results of this work may conduce to extend the pragmatic applications of nanostructured magnetic fluids in optical field. PMID:22587542

  19. Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of CoPt Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trung, Truong Thanh; Nhung, Do Thi; Nam, Nguyen Hoang; Luong, Nguyen Hoang

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles CoPt were prepared by the chemical reduction of cobalt (II) chloride and chloroplatinic acid, then the samples were ultrasonicated for 2 h. After annealing at various temperatures from 400°C to 700°C for 1 h, the samples showed hard magnetic properties with coercivity up to 1.15 kOe at room temperature.

  20. Structural inhomogeneity and magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Pashchenko, V.P.; Samoilenko, Z.A.; Vintonyak, V.M.

    1995-07-01

    The clustered inhomogeneity observed in ferromagnetic materials deepens our concepts of the actual structure of solids and opens new possibilities for controlling their properties. These investigations were made for the purpose of establishment of the relationship between clusterization and magnetic properties of SrO-nFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, where 5.4 < n < 6.2, metal oxide magnetically hard strontium ferrites.

  1. Metabolic theory predicts whole-ecosystem properties

    PubMed Central

    Schramski, John R.; Dell, Anthony I.; Grady, John M.; Sibly, Richard M.; Brown, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of individual organisms on material cycles and energy fluxes within ecosystems is central to predicting the impacts of human-caused changes on climate, land use, and biodiversity. Here we present a theory that integrates metabolic (organism-based bottom-up) and systems (ecosystem-based top-down) approaches to characterize how the metabolism of individuals affects the flows and stores of materials and energy in ecosystems. The theory predicts how the average residence time of carbon molecules, total system throughflow (TST), and amount of recycling vary with the body size and temperature of the organisms and with trophic organization. We evaluate the theory by comparing theoretical predictions with outputs of numerical models designed to simulate diverse ecosystem types and with empirical data for real ecosystems. Although residence times within different ecosystems vary by orders of magnitude—from weeks in warm pelagic oceans with minute phytoplankton producers to centuries in cold forests with large tree producers—as predicted, all ecosystems fall along a single line: residence time increases linearly with slope = 1.0 with the ratio of whole-ecosystem biomass to primary productivity (B/P). TST was affected predominantly by primary productivity and recycling by the transfer of energy from microbial decomposers to animal consumers. The theory provides a robust basis for estimating the flux and storage of energy, carbon, and other materials in terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems and for quantifying the roles of different kinds of organisms and environments at scales from local ecosystems to the biosphere. PMID:25624499

  2. The effects of magnetic nanoparticle properties on magnetic fluid hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappiyoor, Ravi; Liangruksa, Monrudee; Ganguly, Ranjan; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2010-11-01

    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is a noninvasive treatment that destroys cancer cells by heating a ferrofluid-impregnated malignant tissue with an ac magnetic field while causing minimal damage to the surrounding healthy tissue. The strength of the magnetic field must be sufficient to induce hyperthermia but it is also limited by the human ability to safely withstand it. The ferrofluid material used for hyperthermia should be one that is readily produced and is nontoxic while providing sufficient heating. We examine six materials that have been considered as candidates for MFH use. Examining the heating produced by nanoparticles of these materials, barium-ferrite and cobalt-ferrite are unable to produce sufficient MFH heating, that from iron-cobalt occurs at a far too rapid rate to be safe, while fcc iron-platinum, magnetite, and maghemite are all capable of producing stable controlled heating. We simulate the heating of ferrofluid-loaded tumors containing nanoparticles of the latter three materials to determine their effects on tumor tissue. These materials are viable MFH candidates since they can produce significant heating at the tumor center yet maintain the surrounding healthy tissue interface at a relatively safe temperature.

  3. Influence Of Nanoparticles Diameter On Structural Properties Of Magnetic Fluid In Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kúdelčík, Jozef; Bury, Peter; Hardoň, Štefan; Kopčanský, Peter; Timko, Milan

    2015-07-01

    The properties of magnetic fluids depend on the nanoparticle diameter, their concentration and the carrier liquid. The structural changes in magnetic fluids with different nanoparticle diameter based on transformer oils TECHNOL and MOGUL under the effect of a magnetic field and temperature were studied by acoustic spectroscopy. At a linear and jump changes of the magnetic field at various temperatures a continuous change was observed of acoustic attenuation caused by aggregation of the magnetic nanoparticles to structures. From the anisotropy of acoustic attenuation and using the Taketomi theory the basic parameters of the structures are calculated and the impact of nanoparticle diameters on the size of structures is confirmed.

  4. Electronic, magnetic and topological properties of transition metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Yundi

    Transition metal oxides have been the ideal platform for designing materials with exotic properties due to the complex interplay between spin, charge, and orbital degrees of freedom which can be fine-tuned by varying pressure, temperature, and external magnetic field to give rise to novel phases. Transition metal oxides are also a challenge from the theoretical point of view. The (semi)local density approximation for the exchange correlation functional that is often used in density functional calculations fails to adequately describe the many-body effects of 3d and 4f electrons thereby leading to underestimated band gaps. Several techniques, such as hybrid functionals, dynamical mean field theory, and DFT+U, have been developed over the past few decades to account for the many-body effects of 3d and 4f electrons. The DFT+U method, which will be used extensively throughout this thesis, has proved to be very successful in modeling gap opening, structure optimization and predicting transport properties. Rare earth nickelates have attracted a lot of attention in recent years due to their complex phase diagram that arises from the competition between spin, charge, and orbital degrees of freedom. Of particular interest is the metal-insulator transition that occurs upon cooling for RNiO3 (R=rare earth, except for La) which was found to be accompanied by symmetry lowering, later theorized as the evidence for charge ordering. By using first principles calculations, we found that the charge difference between Ni ions in the "charge-ordered" phase is negligibly small, while various aspects such as core energy levels, spectral weight immediately above and below the Fermi level, and magnetic moments do differ. Using Wannier function analysis, the charge states of Ni ions in the lower symmetry structure are systematically studied and found to correlated to the number of Wannier charge centers at the Ni site. The same approach was applied to study the charge states of Ag I and Ag

  5. Magnetic Properties of Restacked 2D Spin 1/2 honeycomb RuCl3Nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Daniel; Schoop, Leslie M.; Duppel, Viola; Lippmann, Judith M.; Nuss, Jürgen; Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2016-06-01

    Spin $\\frac{1}{2}$ honeycomb materials have gained substantial interest due to their exotic magnetism and possible application in quantum computing. However, in all current materials out-of-plane interactions are interfering with the in-plane order, hence a true 2D magnetic honeycomb system is still of demand. Here, we report the exfoliation of the magnetic semiconductor $\\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ into the first halide monolayers and the magnetic characterization of the spin $\\frac{1}{2}$ honeycomb arrangement of turbostratically stacked RuCl$_3$ monolayers. The exfoliation is based on a reductive lithiation/hydration approach, which gives rise to a loss of cooperative magnetism due to the disruption of the spin $\\frac{1}{2}$ state by electron injection into the layers. After an oxidative treatment, cooperative magnetism similar to the bulk is restored. The oxidized pellets of restacked single layers feature a magnetic transition at T$_N$ = 7 K in the in-plane direction, while the magnetic properties in the out-of-plane direction vastly differ from bulk $\\alpha$-RuCl$_3$. The macroscopic pellets of RuCl$_3$ therefore behave like a stack of monolayers without any symmetry relation in the stacking direction. The deliberate introduction of turbostratic disorder to manipulate the spin structure of RuCl$_3$ is of interest for research in frustrated magnetism and complex magnetic order as predicted by the Kitaev-Heisenberg model.

  6. Magnetic properties of MoS2: Existence of ferromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tongay, Sefaattin; Varnoosfaderani, Sima S.; Appleton, Bill R.; Wu, Junqiao; Hebard, Arthur F.

    2012-09-01

    We report on the magnetic properties of MoS2 measured from room temperature down to 10 K and magnetic fields up to 5 T. We find that single crystals of MoS2 display ferromagnetism superimposed onto large temperature-dependent diamagnetism and have observed that ferromagnetism persists from 10 K up to room temperature. We attribute the existence of ferromagnetism partly to the presence of zigzag edges in the magnetic ground state at the grain boundaries. Since the magnetic measurements are relatively insensitive to the interlayer coupling, these results are expected to be valid in the single layer limit.

  7. Thermal to electricity conversion using thermal magnetic properties

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Svoboda, John [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-04-27

    A system for the generation of Electricity from Thermal Energy using the thermal magnetic properties of a Ferromagnetic, Electrically Conductive Material (FECM) in one or more Magnetic Fields. A FECM is exposed to one or more Magnetic Fields. Thermal Energy is applied to a portion of the FECM heating the FECM above its Curie Point. The FECM, now partially paramagnetic, moves under the force of the one or more Magnetic Fields. The movement of the FECM induces an electrical current through the FECM, generating Electricity.

  8. Electronic and magnetic properties of Si substituted Fe3Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanavas, K. V.; McGuire, Michael A.; Parker, David S.

    2015-09-01

    Using first principles calculations, we studied the effect of Si substitution in the hexagonal Fe3Ge. We find the low temperature magnetic anisotropy in this system to be planar and originating mostly from the spin-orbit coupling in Fe-d states. Reduction of the unitcell volume reduces the magnitude of in-plane magnetic anisotropy, eventually turning it positive which reorients the magnetic moments to the axial direction. Substituting Ge with the smaller Si ions also increases the anisotropy, potentially enhancing the region of stability of the axial magnetization, which is beneficial for magnetic applications such as permanent magnets. Our experimental measurements on samples of Fe3Ge1-xSix confirm these predictions and show that substitution of about 6% of the Ge with Si increases by approximately 35 K the temperature range over which anisotropy is uniaxial.

  9. Magnetic Properties of Iron Clusters in Silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elzain, M.; Al Rawas, A.; Yousif, A.; Gismelseed, A.; Rais, A.; Al-Omari, I.; Bouziane, K.; Widatallah, H.

    2004-12-01

    The discrete variational method is used to study the effect of interactions of iron impurities on the magnetic moments, hyperfine fields and isomer shifts at iron sites in silver. We study small clusters of iron atoms as they grow to form FCC phase that is coherent with the silver lattice. The effects of the lattice relaxation and the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic couplings are also considered. When Fe atoms congregate around a central Fe atom in an FCC arrangement under ferromagnetic coupling, the local magnetic moment and the contact charge density at the central atom hardly change as the cluster builds up, whereas the hyperfine field increases asymptotically as the number of Fe nearest neighbors increases. Introduction of antiferromagnetic coupling has minor effect on the local magnetic moments and isomer shifts, however it produces large reduction in the hyperfine field. The lattice relaxation of the surrounding Fe atoms towards a BCC phase around a central Fe atom leads to reduction in the magnetic moment accompanied by increase in the magnetic hyperfine field.

  10. Magnetic properties of mosaic nanocomposites composed of nickel and cobalt nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Sepúlveda, S.; Corona, R. M.; Altbir, D.; Escrig, J.

    2016-10-01

    Mosaic nanocomposites composed of nickel and cobalt nanowires arranged in different configurations were investigated using Monte Carlo simulations and a simple model that considers single-domain structures including length corrections due to the shape anisotropy. Our results showed that for an ordered array both the coercivity and the remanence decrease linearly as a function of the concentration of nickel nanowires. Besides, we obtained that the magnetic properties of an array of a certain hard magnetic material (cobalt) will not change, unless we have more than 50% of nanowires of other soft magnetic material (nickel) in the array. In principle the second material could be other soft magnetic material, but could also be a nonmagnetic material or could even be a situation in which some of the pore arrays were not filled by electrodeposition. Therefore, our results allow us to predict the behavior of magnetic mosaic nanocomposites that are promising candidates for functional electrodes, sensors, and model catalysts.

  11. Magnetic properties of Cr 2[Ni 2(CN) 4] 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juszczyk, S.; Johansson, C.; Hanson, M.; Małecki, G.

    1994-09-01

    We have studied the magnetic properties of Cr 2[Ni 2(CN) 4] 3 in the temperature range 4.2-260 K with the use of fields of up to 12 T. From the magnetization versus temperature curve we have obtained the Curie as well as the Curie-Weiss temperatures, the Curie constant and the effective magnetic moment in the paramagnetic state. From the magnetization curve at T = 10.4 K we have determined the high-field susceptibility. The data suggest that the Cr and Ni cations are magnetic and their sublattices are coupled antiferromagnetically. The properties of the compound are discussed in the framework of the mean field theory.

  12. Prediction of magnetic moment collapse in ZrFe{sub 2} under hydrostatic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wenxu; Zhang, Wanli

    2015-04-28

    Electronic structure and magnetic properties of ZrFe{sub 2} in the cubic Laves phase are investigated by calculations based on density functional theory. The magnetic moment decreases with the increase of the hydrostatic pressure in an unusual way: Two-step magnetic collapse is predicted. The first one is a continuous change from 1.53 μ{sub B}/Fe to 0.63 μ{sub B}/Fe at about 3.6 GPa, and the other is from 0.25 μ{sub B}/Fe to the nonmagnetic state at about 15 GPa in a first order manner under the local spin density approximation of the exchange correlation potential. A metastable state with intermediate spin moment about 0.15 μ{sub B}/Fe may exist before that. We understand this process by the changes of density of states during it. The magnetic moment decreases under the pressure in the vicinity of the experimental lattice constant with dlnm/dp=−0.038 GPa{sup −1}. The spontaneous volume magnetostriction is 3.6%, which is huge enough to find potential applications in magnetostriction actuators and sensors. We suggest that the Invar effect of this compound may be understood when considering the magnetic moment variation according to the magnetostrictive model of Invar.

  13. Correlation Between Domain Behavior and Magnetic Properties of Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Scott Leib

    2003-05-31

    Correlation between length scales in the field of magnetism has long been a topic of intensive study. The long-term desire is simple: to determine one theory that completely describes the magnetic behavior of matter from an individual atomic particle all the way up to large masses of material. One key piece to this puzzle is connecting the behavior of a material's domains on the nanometer scale with the magnetic properties of an entire large sample or device on the centimeter scale. In the first case study involving the FeSiAl thin films, contrast and spacing of domain patterns are clearly related to microstructure and stress. Case study 2 most clearly demonstrates localized, incoherent domain wall motion switching with field applied along an easy axis for a square hysteresis loop. In case study 3, axis-specific images of the complex Gd-Si-Ge material clearly show the influence of uniaxial anisotropy. Case study 4, the only study with the sole intent of creating domain structures for imaging, also demonstrated in fairly simple terms the effects of increasing stress on domain patterns. In case study 5, it was proven that the width of magnetoresistance loops could be quantitatively predicted using only MFM. When all of the case studies are considered together, a dominating factor seems to be that of anisotropy, both magneticrostaylline and stress induced. Any quantitative bulk measurements heavily reliant on K coefficients, such as the saturation fields for the FeSiAl films, H{sub c} in cases 1, 3, and 5, and the uniaxial character of the Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}), transferred to and from the domain scale quite well. In-situ measurements of domain rotation and switching, could also be strongly correlated with bulk magnetic properties, including coercivity, M{sub s}, and hysteresis loop shape. In most cases, the qualitative nature of the domain structures, when properly considered, matched quite well to what might have been expected from theory and calculation

  14. Magnetic properties of rare-earth metallofullerenes

    SciTech Connect

    Funasaka, Hideyuki; Sugiyama, Kenji; Yamamoto, Kazunori; Takahashi, Takeshi )

    1995-02-16

    Bulk amounts of La C[sub 82] and Gd C[sub 82] have been isolated in pure form from various hollow fullerenes. Magnetization data for these powder samples, an isolated La C[sub 82] isomer and a Gd C[sub 82] isomer, have been obtained employing a SQUID magnetometer at temperatures ranging from 3 to 300 K. For La C[sub 82] the inverse susceptibility as a function of temperature follows a Curie-Weiss law. The effective magnetic moment per La C[sub 82] is 0.38 [mu][sub B]. For Gd C[sub 32] the magnetization data fall on a universal curve which is fitted to a Brillouin function in correspondence with the Gd[sup 3+] free ion ground state values of J = 3.38 and g = 2. 33 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Magnetic properties on strained manganite thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapat, C. L.; Singh, M. R.; Gupta, S. K.; Bhattacharya, D.; Basu, S.; Ravikumar, G.

    2014-04-01

    Structural and magnetic studies on La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO) epitaxial films grown on STO (100) and MgO (100) substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition are presented. Due to larger interface strain, the grain size of LSMO on MgO is much smaller than that on STO substrate. However, anisotropy energy produced as a result of in plane tensile strain is much larger in case of the films deposited on MgO in such a way that the blocking (irreversibility) temperature and the coercive fields inferred from temperature and magnetic field dependent magnetization measurements are significantly higher. The importance of this result for the memory applications is highlighted.

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance properties of lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, D.; Weeks, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of Na-23, Al-27, and P-31 in fines samples 10084,60 and 14163,168 and in crystalline rock samples 12021,55 and 14321,166, have been recorded over a range of frequencies up to 20 MHz. A shift in the field at which maximum absorption occurs for all of the spectra relative to the field at which maximum absorption occurs for terrestrial analogues is attributed to a sample-dependent magnetic field at the Na, Al, and P sites opposing the laboratory field. The magnitude of these fields internal to the samples is sample dependent and varies from 5 to 10 G. These fields do not correlate with the iron content of the samples. However, the presence of single-domain particles of iron distributed throughout the plagioclase fraction that contains the principal fraction of Na and Al is inferred from electron magnetic resonance spectra shapes.

  17. Polymer nanocomposites exhibiting magnetically tunable microwave properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojak, K.; Pal, S.; Srikanth, H.; Morales, C.; Dewdney, J.; Weller, T.; Wang, J.

    2011-04-01

    Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) have been synthesized using Rogers polymer and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles (CFO NPs). X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the inverse spinel crystal structure of CFO NPs and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show the uniform dispersion of nanoparticles (10 nm ± 1) into the polymer matrix. Magnetic measurements indicate superparamagnetic response near room temperature for all PNCs. A blocking temperature TB ~ 298 K was observed and does not vary for different loading fractions of CFO NPs for the PNCs. The saturation magnetization (Ms) was found to be 11 emu g - 1 for 30 wt% CFO, increasing to 32 emu g - 1 for the 80 wt% CFO loaded PNC. A large value of coercivity (Hc = 19 kOe) is also observed at 10 K and is not affected by varying CFO loading. Microwave measurements show significant absorption in the 80 wt% CFO loading PNC and the quality factor shows a strong enhancement with applied magnetic field.

  18. Estimation Model for Magnetic Properties of Stamped Electrical Steel Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwara, Yoshiyuki; Fujimura, Hiroshi; Okamura, Kazuo; Imanishi, Kenji; Yashiki, Hiroyoshi

    Less deterioration in magnetic properties of electrical steel sheets in the process of stamping out iron-core are necessary in order to maintain its performance. First, the influence of plastic strain and stress on magnetic properties was studied by test pieces, in which plastic strain was added uniformly and residual stress was not induced. Because the influence of plastic strain was expressed by equivalent plastic strain, at each equivalent plastic strain state the influence of load stress was investigated. Secondly, elastic limit was determined about 60% of macroscopic yield point (MYP), and it was found to agree with stress limit inducing irreversible deterioration in magnetic properties. Therefore simulation models, where beyond elastic limit plastic deformation begins and magnetic properties are deteriorated steeply, are proposed. Besides considered points in the deformation analysis are strain-rate sensitivity of flow stress, anisotropy under deformation, and influence of stress triaxiality on fracture. Finally, proposed models have been shown to be valid, because magnetic properties of 5mm width rectangular sheets stamped out from non-oriented electrical steel sheet (35A250 JIS grade) can be estimated with good accuracy. It is concluded that the elastic limit must be taken into account in both stamping process simulation and magnetic field calculation.

  19. Evolution of magnetic properties and exchange interactions in Ru doped YbCrO3.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Biswajit; Sarkar, Babusona; Dev Ashok, Vishal; De, S K

    2016-10-26

    Magnetic properties of YbCr1-x Ru x O3 as a function of temperature and magnetic field have been investigated to explore the intriguing magnetic phenomena in rare-earth orthochromites. A quantitative analysis of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the mixed valence state (Yb(3+) and Yb(2+)) of Yb ions for the highest doped sample. Field-cooled magnetization reveals a broad peak around 75 K and then becomes zero at about 20-24 K, due to the antiparallel coupling between Cr(3+) and Yb(3+) moments. An increase of the Ru(4+) ion concentration leads to a slight increase of compensation temperature T comp from 20 to 24 K, but the Néel temperature remains constant. A larger value of the magnetic moment of Yb ions gives rise to negative magnetization at low temperature. An external magnetic field significantly modifies the temperature dependent magnetization. Simulation of temperature dependent magnetization data, below T N, based on the three (two) magnetic sub-lattice model predicts stronger intra-sublattice exchange interaction than that of inter-sublattice. Thermal hysteresis and Arrot plots suggest first order magnetic phase transition. Random substitution of Ru(4+) ion reduces the magnetic relaxation time. Weak ferromagnetic component in canted antiferromagnetic system and negative internal magnetic field cause zero-field-cooled exchange bias effect. Large magnetocrystalline anisotropy associated with Ru creates high coercivity in the Ru doped sample. A maximum value of magnetocaloric effect is found around the antiferromagnetic ordering of Yb(3+) ions. Antiferromagnetic transition at about 120 K and temperature induced magnetization reversal lead to normal and inverse magnetocaloric effects in the same material. PMID:27554537

  20. Evolution of magnetic properties and exchange interactions in Ru doped YbCrO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, Biswajit; Sarkar, Babusona; Ashok, Vishal Dev; De, S. K.

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic properties of YbCr1-x Ru x O3 as a function of temperature and magnetic field have been investigated to explore the intriguing magnetic phenomena in rare-earth orthochromites. A quantitative analysis of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the mixed valence state (Yb3+ and Yb2+) of Yb ions for the highest doped sample. Field-cooled magnetization reveals a broad peak around 75 K and then becomes zero at about 20-24 K, due to the antiparallel coupling between Cr3+ and Yb3+ moments. An increase of the Ru4+ ion concentration leads to a slight increase of compensation temperature T comp from 20 to 24 K, but the Néel temperature remains constant. A larger value of the magnetic moment of Yb ions gives rise to negative magnetization at low temperature. An external magnetic field significantly modifies the temperature dependent magnetization. Simulation of temperature dependent magnetization data, below T N, based on the three (two) magnetic sub-lattice model predicts stronger intra-sublattice exchange interaction than that of inter-sublattice. Thermal hysteresis and Arrot plots suggest first order magnetic phase transition. Random substitution of Ru4+ ion reduces the magnetic relaxation time. Weak ferromagnetic component in canted antiferromagnetic system and negative internal magnetic field cause zero-field-cooled exchange bias effect. Large magnetocrystalline anisotropy associated with Ru creates high coercivity in the Ru doped sample. A maximum value of magnetocaloric effect is found around the antiferromagnetic ordering of Yb3+ ions. Antiferromagnetic transition at about 120 K and temperature induced magnetization reversal lead to normal and inverse magnetocaloric effects in the same material.

  1. Prediction of Mechanical Properties of Polymers With Various Force Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Clancy, Thomas C.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of force field type on the predicted elastic properties of a polyimide is examined using a multiscale modeling technique. Molecular Dynamics simulations are used to predict the atomic structure and elastic properties of the polymer by subjecting a representative volume element of the material to bulk and shear finite deformations. The elastic properties of the polyimide are determined using three force fields: AMBER, OPLS-AA, and MM3. The predicted values of Young s modulus and shear modulus of the polyimide are compared with experimental values. The results indicate that the mechanical properties of the polyimide predicted with the OPLS-AA force field most closely matched those from experiment. The results also indicate that while the complexity of the force field does not have a significant effect on the accuracy of predicted properties, small differences in the force constants and the functional form of individual terms in the force fields determine the accuracy of the force field in predicting the elastic properties of the polyimide.

  2. PREDICTION OF THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF COMPLEX FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Donohue

    2006-01-05

    ABSTRACT The goal of this research has been to generalize Density Functional Theory (DFT) for complex molecules, i.e. molecules whose size, shape, and interaction energies cause them to show significant deviations from mean-field behavior. We considered free energy functionals and minimized them for systems with different geometries and dimensionalities including confined fluids (such as molecular layers on surfaces and molecules in nano-scale pores), systems with directional interactions and order-disorder transitions, amphiphilic dimers, block copolymers, and self-assembled nano-structures. The results of this procedure include equations of equilibrium for these systems and the development of computational tools for predicting phase transitions and self-assembly in complex fluids. DFT was developed for confined fluids. A new phenomenon, surface compression of confined fluids, was predicted theoretically and confirmed by existing experimental data and by simulations. The strong attraction to a surface causes adsorbate molecules to attain much higher densities than that of a normal liquid. Under these conditions, adsorbate molecules are so compressed that they repel each other. This phenomenon is discussed in terms of experimental data, results of Monte Carlo simulations, and theoretical models. Lattice version of DFT was developed for modeling phase transitions in adsorbed phase including wetting, capillary condensation, and ordering. Phase behavior of amphiphilic dimers on surfaces and in solutions was modeled using lattice DFT and Monte Carlo simulations. This study resulted in predictive models for adsorption isotherms and for local density distributions in solutions. We have observed a wide variety of phase behavior for amphiphilic dimers, including formation of lamellae and micelles. Block copolymers were modeled in terms of configurational probabilities and in the approximation of random mixing entropy. Probabilities of different orientations for the

  3. Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Double Perovskites and Oxide Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erten, Onur

    where the effective Coulomb correlation is determined by the geometric mean of the Coulomb correlations on Cr and Os. We show that the peculiar magnetic properties of SCOO can be explained through a weakly frustrated magnetic model. In the last chapter we focus on oxide interfaces, particularly LaAlO 3/SrTiO3 interface. Due to polar nature of LaAlO3, two dimensional electron gas is formed at the interface of these two band insulators. An exciting new development is the observation of robust magnetism which persists up to high temperatures ˜100 K. We present a microscopic theory where local moments are stabilized by crystal field splitting at the interface and strong Coulomb correlations. We find that conduction electrons with a gate-tunable Rashba spin-orbit coupling mediate ferromagnetic exchange with a twist. We predict that the zero- field ground state is a long-wavelength spiral. Its evolution in an external field accounts semi-quantitatively for torque magnetometry data and describes qualitative aspects of the scanning SQUID measurements.

  4. Magnetic and Transport Properties of Mn-ion implanted Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preisler, V.; Ogawa, M.; Han, X.; Wang, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the magnetic and transport properties of Mn-ion implanted Si. Both temperature dependent and field dependent measurements of the samples using a SQUID magnometer reveal ferromagnetic properties at room temperature. Magnetotransport measurements show a large positive magnetoresistance up to 4.5 T with no signs of saturation.

  5. Magnetic Anomalies and Rock Magnetic Properties Related to Deep Crustal Rocks of the Athabasca Granulite Terrane, Northern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. L.; Williams, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    transitions at 30-35K. Preliminary results indicate that the same general lithologies can have very different magnetic properties with varying concentrations of magnetic minerals and with widely varying domain sizes and thus magnetic behavior. Additional work is needed to fully understand the magnetic signature causing the aeromagnetic anomalies, but with this information we will be able to better understand the varying rock types, compositions, and exposures in lower crustal rocks, be able to predict anomaly patterns, and eventually better understand the geologic history of this complex area.

  6. Magnetic properties of a classical XY spin dimer in a "planar" magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftja, Orion; Prenga, Dode

    2016-10-01

    Single-molecule magnetism originates from the strong intra-molecular magnetic coupling of a small number of interacting spins. Such spins generally interact very weakly with the neighboring spins in the other molecules of the compound, therefore, inter-molecular spin couplings are negligible. In certain cases the number of magnetically coupled spins is as small as a dimer, a system that can be considered the smallest nanomagnet capable of storing non-trivial magnetic information on the molecular level. Additional interesting patterns arise if the spin motion is confined to a two-dimensional space. In such a scenario, clusters consisting of spins with large-spin values are particularly attractive since their magnetic interactions can be described well in terms of classical Heisenberg XY spins. In this work we calculate exactly the magnetic properties of a nanomagnetic dimer of classical XY spins in a "planar" external magnetic field. The problem is solved by employing a mathematical approach whose idea is the introduction of auxiliary spin variables into the starting expression of the partition function. Results for the total internal energy, total magnetic moment, spin-spin correlation function and zero-field magnetic susceptibility can serve as a basis to understand the magnetic properties of large-spin dimer building blocks.

  7. High temperature structural and magnetic properties of cobalt nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Ait Atmane, Kahina; Zighem, Fatih; Soumare, Yaghoub; Ibrahim, Mona; Boubekri, Rym; Maurer, Thomas; Margueritat, Jeremie; Piquemal, Jean-Yves; Ott, Frederic; Chaboussant, Gregory; Schoenstein, Frederic; Jouini, Noureddine; Viau, Guillaume

    2013-01-15

    We present in this paper the structural and magnetic properties of high aspect ratio Co nanoparticles ({approx}10) at high temperatures (up to 623 K) using in-situ X ray diffraction (XRD) and SQUID characterizations. We show that the anisotropic shapes, the structural and texture properties are preserved up to 500 K. The coercivity can be modelled by {mu}{sub 0}H{sub C}=2(K{sub MC}+K{sub shape})/M{sub S} with K{sub MC} the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant, K{sub shape} the shape anisotropy constant and M{sub S} the saturation magnetization. H{sub C} decreases linearly when the temperature is increased due to the loss of the Co magnetocrystalline anisotropy contribution. At 500 K, 50% of the room temperature coercivity is preserved corresponding to the shape anisotropy contribution only. We show that the coercivity drop is reversible in the range 300-500 K in good agreement with the absence of particle alteration. Above 525 K, the magnetic properties are irreversibly altered either by sintering or by oxidation. - Graphical abstract: We present in this paper the structural and magnetic properties of high aspect ratio Co nanorods ({approx}10) at high temperatures (up to 623 K) using in-situ X-ray diffraction and SQUID characterizations. We show that the anisotropic shapes, the structural and texture properties are preserved up to 500 K. Above 525 K, the magnetic properties are irreversibly altered either by sintering or by oxidation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferromagnetic Co nanorods are prepared using the polyol process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structural and texture properties of the Co nanorods are preserved up to 500 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic properties of the Co nanorods are irreversibly altered above 525 K.

  8. Predicting metapopulation lifetime from macroscopic network properties.

    PubMed

    Drechsler, Martin

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a comparatively simple approximation formula for the mean life time of a metapopulation in a habitat network where habitat patch arrangement may be irregular and patch sizes differ. It is based on previous work on the development of an analytical approximation formula by Frank and Wissel [K. Frank, C. Wissel, A formula for the mean lifetime of metapopulations in heterogeneous landscapes, Am. Nat. 159 (2002) 530] and extends it by abstracting from individual patch locations. The mean metapopulation lifetime is expressed as a function of four macroscopic network properties: the ratio of dispersal range and network size, the ratio of range of environmental correlation and network size, and the total number and (geometric mean) size of the patches. The analysis takes into account that (ceteris paribus) patches close to the boundary of the habitat network contribute less to metapopulation survival than patches close to the centre of the network. Ignoring this fact can lead to a substantial overestimation of the mean metapopulation lifetime. Due to its numerical simplicity, the formula can be used as a conservation objective function even in complex network design problems where the number of patches to be allocated is very large. Numerical tests of the formula show that it performs very well within a wide range of network structures. PMID:19159631

  9. Diagnosing the Properties of the Solar Wind using Magnetic Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikic, Z.; Titov, V. S.; Lionello, R.; Downs, C.; Linker, J.; Torok, T.; Riley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Recent work suggests that the topology of the coronal magnetic field plays a key role in the source and properties of the slow solar wind, through the collection of separatrix surfaces and quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) that define the S-web (Antiochos et al. 2011; Linker et al. 2011; Titov et al. 2011). We have accumulated extensive experience with using the squashing factor Q to analyze the underlying structural skeleton of the coronal magnetic field, to identify magnetic null points, separator field lines, QSLs, and separatrix surfaces, and their relationship with the topology of coronal hole boundaries. This will be extended by implementing slip mapping (Titov et al. 2009) to detect open, closed, and disconnected flux systems that are formed due to magnetic reconnection in a coronal model driven by both the differential rotation and evolution of the photospheric magnetic field. This idea is based on using forward and backward differences in time between the field line mapping expected from ideal MHD motions and the actual mapping to diagnose magnetic reconnection. This technique can identify regions in the photosphere where closed magnetic field lines are about to open (e.g., via interchange reconnection), and conversely, where open field lines are about to close. We will use these concepts to develop tools that relate the changing magnetic topology to the properties of the solar wind, to plan and interpret Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter observations. Research supported by NASA's Living With a Star Program.

  10. Magnetic Properties of Dipolar Chains in Ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avgin, I.; Huber, D. L.

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the dipole interaction energies per particle and the local dipole field distributions in a frozen-magnetization model of a ferrofluid chain in a saturating magnetic field. A lognormal distribution of particle diameters was assumed. The interaction energies were calculated for one-dimensional arrays of dipoles with moments parallel to the chain. We have computed the energies by various approximations related to the hard sphere particle diameter distribution. A similar approach was followed for the local field distributions. It was found that the energy per particle and mean local field were largely determined by the mean particle diameter, but the distribution of local fields was sensitive to both the mean diameter and the assumptions about spatial correlations between particles of different size. Detailed results are presented for water-soluble Fe3O4/PAA (polyacrylic acid).

  11. Magnetic properties of nano-composite particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xia

    Chemical synthesis routes for hollow spherical BaFe12O 19, hollow mesoporous spherical BaFe12O19, worm-shape BaFe12O19 and FeCo particles were developed. These structured particles have great potentials for the applications including magnetic recording medium, catalyst support, and energy storage. Magnetically exchange coupled hard/soft SrFe12O19/FeCo and MnBi/FeCo composites were synthesized through a newly proposed process of magnetic self-assembly. These exchange coupled composites can be potentially used as rare-earth free permanent magnets. Hollow spherical BaFe12O19 particles (shell thickness ˜5 nm) were synthesized from eth-ylene glycol assisted spray pyrolysis. Hollow mesoporous spherical BaFe12O19 particles (shell thickness ˜100 nm) were synthesized from ethanol assisted spray pyrolysis, followed by alkaline ethylene glycol etching at 185 °C. An alpha-Fe2O3 and BaCO3 nanoparticle mixture was synthesized with reverse microemulsion, followed by annealing at 900 °C for 2 hours to get worm-shape BaFe 12O19 particles, which consisted of 3-7 stacked hexagonal plates. FeCo nanoparticles were synthesized by reducing FeCl2 and CoCl2 in diphenyl ether with n-butyllithium at 200 °C in an inert gas environment. The surfactant of oleic acid was used in the synthesis to make particles well dispersed in nonpolar solvents (such as hexane). SrFe12O19/FeCo core/shell particles were prepared through a magnetic self-assembly process. The as-synthesized soft FeCo nanoparticles were magnetically attracted by hard SrFe12O19 parti-cles, forming a SrFe12O19/FeCo core/shell structure. The magnetic self-assembly mechanism was confirmed by applying alternating-current demagnetization to the core/shell particles, which re-sulted in a separation of SrFe 12O19 and FeCo particles. MnBi/FeCo composites were synthesized, and the exchange coupling between MnBi and FeCo phases was demonstrated by smooth magnetic hysteresis loop of MnBi/FeCo composites. The thermal stability of Mn

  12. The symmetry properties of planetary magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raedler, Karl-Heinz; Ness, Norman F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative study of the geometrical structures of the magnetic fields of earth, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, starting from the traditional multipolar representations of these fields. For earth, Jupiter, and Saturn, the centered dipole, quadrupole, and octupole contributions are included, while at Uranus only the dipole and quadrupole contributions are considered. It is found that there are a number of common features of the magnetic fields of earth and Jupiter. Compared to earth and Jupiter, the Saturnian field exhibits not only a high degree of symmetry about the rotation axis but also a high degree of antisymmetry about the equatorial plane. The Uranian field shows strong deviations from both such symmetries. Nevertheless, there remain features common to all four planets.

  13. Basic magnetic properties of bituminous coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, C.C.; Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.

    1979-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility and other static magnetic parameters have been measured on a number of bituminous coals from various locations in the United States. The paramagnetic Curie constant correlates negatively with carbon concentration on a moisture-free basis. The major contribution to the total paramagnetism comes from the mineral matter rather than from free radicals or broken bonds. Analysis of the data indicates that the specific paramagnetism is generally lower in the mineral matter found in high-ash compared to low-ash coal. A substantial number of the coal specimens tested also had a ferromagnetic susceptibility which appeared to be associated with magnetite. Magnetite and ??-iron spherules, possibly of meteoritic or volcanic origin, were found in several specimens. ?? 1979.

  14. Electronic and magnetic properties of Si substituted Fe3Ge

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shanavas, Kavungal Veedu; McGuire, Michael A.; Parker, David S.

    2015-09-23

    Using first principles calculations we studied the effect of Si substitution in the hexagonal Fe3Ge. We find the low temperature magnetic anisotropy in this system to be planar and originating mostly from the spin-orbit coupling in Fe-d states. Reduction of the unitcell volume reduces the in-plane magnetic anisotropy, eventually turning it positive which reorients the magnetic moments to the axial direction. We find that substituting Ge with the smaller Si ions also reduces the anisotropy, potentially enhancing the region of stability of the axial magnetization, which is beneficial for magnetic applications. Thus our experimental measurements on samples of Fe3Ge1–xSix confirmmore » these predictions and show that substitution of about 6% of the Ge with Si increases by approximately 35 K the temperature range over which anisotropy is uniaxial.« less

  15. Tailoring the magnetic and pharmacokinetic properties of iron oxide magnetic particle imaging tracers

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Richard Mathew; Khandhar, Amit P; Arami, Hamed; Hua, Loc; Hovorka, Ondrej; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an attractive new modality for imaging distributions of iron oxide nanoparticle tracers in vivo. With exceptional contrast, high sensitivity, and good spatial resolution, MPI shows promise for clinical imaging in angiography and oncology. Critically, MPI requires high-quality iron oxide nanoparticle tracers with tailored magnetic and surface properties to achieve its full potential. In this review, we discuss optimizing iron oxide nanoparticles’ physical, magnetic, and pharmacokinetic properties for MPI, highlighting results from our recent work in which we demonstrated tailored, biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticle tracers that provided two times better linear spatial resolution and five times better signal-to-noise ratio than Resovist. PMID:23787461

  16. Recent advances in magnetic nanoparticles with bulk-like properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batlle, Xavier

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NP) are an excellent example of nanostructured materials and exhibit fascinating properties with applications in high-density recording and biomedicine. Controlling the effects of the nanostructure and surface chemistry and magnetism at the monolayer level have become relevant issues. As the size is reduced below 100 nm, deviations from bulk behavior have been attributed to finite-size effects and changes in the magnetic ordering at the surface, thus giving rise to a significant decrease in the magnetization and increase in the magnetic anisotropy. The existence of a surface spin glass-like state due to magnetic frustration has been widely suggested in ferrimagnetic NP. However, in this talk, we will show that high crystal quality magnetite Fe3-xO4 NP of about a few nanometers in diameter and coated with different organic surfactants display bulk-like structural, magnetic and electronic properties. Magnetic measurements, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism and Monte Carlo simulations, evidenced that none of the usual particle-like behavior is observed in high quality NP of a few nm. Consequently, the magnetic and electronic disorder phenomena typically observed in those single-phase ferrimagnetic NP should not be considered as an intrinsic effect. We also performed a real-space characterization at the sub-nanometer scale, combining scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and electron magnetic chiral dichroism. For the first time, we found that the surface magnetization is as high as about 70% of that of the core. The comparison to density functional theory suggested the relevance of the strong surface bond between the Fe ions and the organic surfactant. All the foregoing demonstrates the key role of both the crystal quality and surface bond on the physical properties of ferrimagnetic NP and paves the way to the fabrication of the next generation of NP with

  17. Magnetic structure and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline and amorphous Fe-Zr-N films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheftel, Elena N.; Harin, Eugene V.; Tedzhetov, Valentin A.; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Philipp V.; Levashov, Evgeny A.; Perov, Nikolai S.; Titova, Alexandra O.

    2016-08-01

    Data on the magnetic structure and magnetic properties of Fe-Zr-N films, which were prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering of a heated target and deposited on glass substrates, are reported. Depending on the Zr content (from 3 to 35 at%), the film compositions are characterized by Zr-to-N (at%) ratio from 0.3 to 36.5. The magnetic properties (saturation magnetization Ms, coercive field Hc) and magnetic structure (effective local magnetic anisotropy field D1/2Ha, grain size 2Rc, effective anisotropy field of stochastic domain D1/2, relative stochastic domain size RL/Rc) of the films are discussed in interrelation with their phase and structural states. The coercive field of the studied ferromagnetic nanocrystalline films was shown to obey the relationship Hc~(2Rc)6 and depends on not only the grain size but also the local magnetic anisotropy field D1/2Ha. As the grain size of ferromagnetic phase decreases, the contribution of the magnetoelastic component to the coercive field decreases. It was shown, by examples of weak ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic films with amorphous and mixed (amorphous+nanocrystalline) structures containing a nonferromagnetic phase, that the magnetic properties reflect the real structural and phase state of the films, which cannot be revealed by the X-ray diffraction analysis.

  18. Magnetic properties of NdFeB-coated rubberwood composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noodam, Jureeporn; Sirisathitkul, Chitnarong; Matan, Nirundorn; Rattanasakulthong, Watcharee; Jantaratana, Pongsakorn

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic properties of composites prepared by coating lacquer containing neodymium iron boron (Nd-Fe-B) powders on rubberwood were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), magnetic moment measurements, and attraction tests with an iron-core solenoid. The Nd-Fe-B powders were recycled from electronic wastes by the ball-milling technique. Varying the milling time from 20 to 300 min, the magnetic squareness and the coercive field of the Nd-Fe-B powders were at the minimum when the powders were milled for 130 min. It followed that the coercive field of the magnetic wood composites was increased with the milling time increasing from 130 to 300 min. For the magnetic wood composites using Nd-Fe-B obtained from the same milling time, the magnetic squareness and the coercive field were rather insensitive to the variation of Nd-Fe-B concentration in coating lacquer from 0.43 to 1.00 g/cm3. By contrast, the magnetization and magnetic moment were increased with the Nd-Fe-B concentration increasing. Furthermore, the electrical current in the solenoid required for the attraction of the magnetic wood composites was exponentially reduced with the increase in the amount of Nd-Fe-B used in the coating.

  19. The failure analysis and lifetime prediction for the solder joint of the magnetic head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xianghui; Peng, Minfang; Cardoso, Jaime S.; Tang, Rongjun; Zhou, YingLiang

    2015-02-01

    Micro-solder joint (MSJ) lifetime prediction methodology and failure analysis (FA) are to assess reliability by fatigue model with a series of theoretical calculations, numerical simulation and experimental method. Due to shortened time of solder joints on high-temperature, high-frequency sampling error that is not allowed in productions may exist in various models, including round-off error. Combining intermetallic compound (IMC) growth theory and the FA technology for the magnetic head in actual production, this thesis puts forward a new growth model to predict life expectancy for solder joint of the magnetic head. And the impact of IMC, generating from interface reaction between slider (magnetic head, usually be called slider) and bonding pad, on mechanical performance during aging process is analyzed in it. By further researching on FA of solder ball bonding, thesis chooses AuSn4 growth model that affects least to solder joint mechanical property to indicate that the IMC methodology is suitable to forecast the solder lifetime. And the diffusion constant under work condition 60 °C is 0.015354; the solder lifetime t is 14.46 years.

  20. Magnetic properties and magnetic domains of Nd-Fe-B thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S. L.; Liu, W.; Zhang, Z. D.; Gunaratne, G. H.

    2008-01-15

    Anisotropic Nd-Fe-B thin films are fabricated by direct current magnetron sputtering on Si substrates heated to temperatures over a wide range. Surface morphology and magnetic domains of the Nd-Fe-B thin films prepared at different sputtering temperatures (25-600 deg. C) are observed by a scanning probe microscopy. The magnetic domains exhibit a rich variety of textures, changing from striped via maze to cloudlike as the sputtering temperature is increased. Variations in magnetic domains with substrate temperature are discussed using phase components and magnetic anisotropies of the thin films. In addition, patterns of magnetic domains are analyzed using the 'disorder functions', a set of characterizations of complex patterns with labyrinthine structures. The disorder function {delta}(1) and the structure factor {delta}k do not change appreciably until a substrate temperature of 350 deg. C, but increases significantly beyond 400 deg. C. The disorder in magnetic domains increases with increasing sputtering temperature. A simultaneous enhancement of the anisotropic c texture and the hard-magnetic properties of the thin films are observed. The significant change of the disorder function at T{sub s}=400 deg. C appears to be a precursor to the hardening of the Nd-Fe-B film. The most disordered magnetic domains of the film with the substrate temperature of 600 deg. C correspond to the optimum magnetic properties, with the maximum energy product (BH){sub max} of 22.4 MG Oe.

  1. GEMAS: Unmixing magnetic properties of European agricultural soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, Karl; Reimann, Clemens; Kuzina, Dilyara; Kosareva, Lina; Fattakhova, Leysan; Nurgaliev, Danis

    2016-04-01

    High resolution magnetic measurements provide new methods for world-wide characterization and monitoring of agricultural soil which is essential for quantifying geologic and human impact on the critical zone environment and consequences of climatic change, for planning economic and ecological land use, and for forensic applications. Hysteresis measurements of all Ap samples from the GEMAS survey yield a comprehensive overview of mineral magnetic properties in European agricultural soil on a continental scale. Low (460 Hz), and high frequency (4600 Hz) magnetic susceptibility k were measured using a Bartington MS2B sensor. Hysteresis properties were determined by a J-coercivity spectrometer, built at the paleomagnetic laboratory of Kazan University, providing for each sample a modified hysteresis loop, backfield curve, acquisition curve of isothermal remanent magnetization, and a viscous IRM decay spectrum. Each measurement set is obtained in a single run from zero field up to 1.5 T and back to -1.5 T. The resulting data are used to create the first continental-scale maps of magnetic soil parameters. Because the GEMAS geochemical atlas contains a comprehensive set of geochemical data for the same soil samples, the new data can be used to map magnetic parameters in relation to chemical and geological parameters. The data set also provides a unique opportunity to analyze the magnetic mineral fraction of the soil samples by unmixing their IRM acquisition curves. The endmember coefficients are interpreted by linear inversion for other magnetic, physical and chemical properties which results in an unprecedented and detailed view of the mineral magnetic composition of European agricultural soils.

  2. Low Temperature Crystal Structure and Magnetic Properties of RAl2

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Paudyal, Durga; Gschneidner, Karl A.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2014-01-08

    Low temperature crystal structure and magnetic properties of RAl2 (R = Pr and Nd) have been studied using temperature dependent powder x-ray diffraction, magnetization, and heat capacity measurements. Unlike PrAl2, NdAl2 retains cubic MgCu2-type structure from room temperature down to 5 K, which is also confirmed from first principles electronic structure calculations. The magnetization measurements show both PrAl2 and NdAl2 order ferromagnetically at TC = 32 K and 77 K, respectively. However, the magnetization measurements show the former is a hard ferromagnet compared to the latter which is a soft ferromagnetic material. The magnetic entropy change obtained from heat capacity measurements at ΔH = 30 kOe for PrAl2 and NdAl2 are 3.15 J mol-1 K-1 and 1.18 J mol-1 K-1, respectively.

  3. Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Bulk Nanocrystalline MnAl

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, A; Yaqub, R; Baker, I

    2014-01-22

    MnAl is a promising rare-earth free permanent magnet for technological use. We have examined the effects of consolidation by back-pressure, assisted equal channel angular extrusion processing on mechanically-milled, gas-atomized Mn-46% at. Al powder. X-ray diffraction showed both that the extruded rod consisted mostly of metastable tau phase, with some of the equilibrium gamma(2) and beta phases, and that it largely retained the as-milled nanostructure. Magnetic measurements show a coercivity of <= 4.4 kOe and a magnetization at 10 kOe of <= 40 emu/g. In addition, extrusions exhibit greater than 95% of the theoretical density. This study opens a new window in the area of bulk MnAl magnets with improved magnetic properties for technological use.

  4. Dust properties and magnetic field geometry towards LDN 1570

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eswaraiah, C.; Maheswar, G.; Pandey, A. K.

    2015-03-01

    We have performed both optical linear polarimetric and photometric observations of an isolated dark globule LDN 1570 aim to study the dust polarizing and extinction properties and to map the magnetic field geometry so as to understand not only the importance of magnetic fields in formation and evolution of clouds but also the correlation of the inferred magnetic field structure with the cloud structure and its dynamics. Dust size indicators (R V and λ max ) reveal for the presence of slightly bigger dust grains towards the cloud region. The inferred magnetic field geometry, which closely follows the cloud structure revealed by Herschel images, suggest that the cloud could have been formed due to converging material flows along the magnetic field lines.

  5. Structure, synthetic methods, magnetic properties and biomedical applications of ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Shokrollahi, H

    2013-07-01

    This paper is aimed at conducting a survey of the synthetic methods and magnetic properties of nanoparticles as ferrofluids used in biomedicine. As compared with other works in the field, the distinctive feature of the current work is the systematic study of recent advances in ferrofluids utilized in hyperthermia and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The most important feature for application of ferrofluids is super-paramagnetic behavior of magnetic cores with relatively high saturation magnetization. Although Fe3O4 nanoparticles have traditionally been used in medicine; the modified Mn-ferrite has recently received special attention due to its higher saturation magnetization and r2-relaxivity as a contrast agent in MRI. Co-ferrite nanoparticles are also good candidates for hyperthermia treatment because of their high coercivity and magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The thermal decomposition and hydrothermal methods are good candidates for obtaining appropriate super-paramagnetic particles. PMID:23623058

  6. Single crystal Processing and magnetic properties of gadolinium nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Shreve, Andrew John

    2012-01-01

    GdNi is a rare earth intermetallic material that exhibits very interesting magnetic properties. Spontaneous magnetostriction occurs in GdNi at T{sub C}, on the order of 8000ppm strain along the c-axis and only until very recently the mechanism causing this giant magnetostriction was not understood. In order to learn more about the electronic and magnetic structure of GdNi, single crystals are required for anisotropic magnetic property measurements. Single crystal processing is quite challenging for GdNi though since the rare-earth transition-metal composition yields a very reactive intermetallic compound. Many crystal growth methods are pursued in this study including crucible free methods, precipitation growths, and specially developed Bridgman crucibles. A plasma-sprayed Gd2O3 W-backed Bridgman crucible was found to be the best means of GdNi single crystal processing. With a source of high-quality single crystals, many magnetization measurements were collected to reveal the magnetic structure of GdNi. Heat capacity and the magnetocaloric effect are also measured on a single crystal sample. The result is a thorough report on high quality single crystal processing and the magnetic properties of GdNi.

  7. Particle size dependent rheological property in magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jie; Pei, Lei; Xuan, Shouhu; Yan, Qifan; Gong, Xinglong

    2016-06-01

    The influence of the particle size on the rheological property of magnetic fluid was studied both by the experimental and computer simulation methods. Firstly, the magnetic fluids were prepared by dispersing Fe3O4 nanospheres with size varied from 40 nm to 100 nm and 200 nm in the solution. Then, the rheological properties were investigated and it was found that the relative magnetorheological effects increased with increasing the particle size. Finally, the molecular dynamic simulation was used to analyze the mechanical characteristics of the magnetic fluid and the chain-like model agreed well with the experimental result. The authentic chain-like structure observed by a microscope agreed with the simulation results. The three particles composed of the similar cluster nanostructure, thus they exhibited similar magnetic property. To this end, the unique assembling microstructures was the origination of the mechanical difference. And it was found that the higher MR (magnetorheological) effects of the large particle based magnetic fluid was originated from the stronger assembling microstructure under the applying magnetic field.

  8. Magnetic Nanoparticles: Surface Effects and Properties Related to Biomedicine Applications

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Bashar; Obaidat, Ihab M.; Albiss, Borhan A.; Haik, Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Due to finite size effects, such as the high surface-to-volume ratio and different crystal structures, magnetic nanoparticles are found to exhibit interesting and considerably different magnetic properties than those found in their corresponding bulk materials. These nanoparticles can be synthesized in several ways (e.g., chemical and physical) with controllable sizes enabling their comparison to biological organisms from cells (10–100 μm), viruses, genes, down to proteins (3–50 nm). The optimization of the nanoparticles’ size, size distribution, agglomeration, coating, and shapes along with their unique magnetic properties prompted the application of nanoparticles of this type in diverse fields. Biomedicine is one of these fields where intensive research is currently being conducted. In this review, we will discuss the magnetic properties of nanoparticles which are directly related to their applications in biomedicine. We will focus mainly on surface effects and ferrite nanoparticles, and on one diagnostic application of magnetic nanoparticles as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. PMID:24232575

  9. Control of Magnetic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hideki; Nagata, Atsushi; Kubonaka, Nobuo; Fujiwara, Yuji

    2013-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled with iron nanowires show high coercivity owing to their shape anisotropy originating from the high-aspect-ratio shapes of the iron nanowires. In this study, CNTs filled with iron were prepared by the thermal chemical vapor deposition (T-CVD) method using ferrocene as a precursor, and the magnetic properties of the synthesized CNTs were examined in detail. It was found that the CVD temperature and the amount of the ferrocene introduced into the CVD reactor influence the amount of CNT growth and the magnetic properties. The high coercivity of approximately 1.6 kOe or higher was obtained under certain CVD conditions. The selected-area electron diffraction analysis showed that the magnetic properties of the CNTs filled with iron are determined by the crystal structure (α-Fe or Fe3C) of the iron nanowires, which can be controlled by the amount of the ferrocene supplied during CVD.

  10. Electronic, magnetic and transport properties of rare-earth monopnictides.

    PubMed

    Duan, Chun-Gang; Sabirianov, R F; Mei, W N; Dowben, P A; Jaswal, S S; Tsymbal, E Y

    2007-08-01

    The electronic structures and magnetic properties of many rare-earth monopnictides are reviewed in this article. Possible candidate materials for spintronics devices from the rare-earth monopnictide family, i.e. high polarization (nominally half-metallic) ferromagnets and antiferromagnets, are identified. We attempt to provide a unified picture of the electronic properties of these strongly correlated systems. The relative merits of several ab initio theoretical methods, useful in the study of the rare-earth monopnictides, are discussed. We present our current understanding of the possible half-metallicity, semiconductor-metal transitions, and magnetic orderings in the rare-earth monopnictides. Finally, we propose some potential strategies to improve the magnetic and electronic properties of these candidate materials for spintronics devices. PMID:21694120

  11. Magnetic properties of superparamagnetic nanoparticles loaded into silicon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granitzer, Petra; Rumpf, Klemens; Gonzalez, Roberto; Coffer, Jeffery; Reissner, Michael

    2014-08-01

    In this work, the magnetic properties of silicon nanotubes (SiNTs) filled with Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) are investigated. SiNTs with different wall thicknesses of 10 and 70 nm and an inner diameter of approximately 50 nm are prepared and filled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles of 4 and 10 nm in diameter. The infiltration process of the NPs into the tubes and dependence on the wall-thickness is described. Furthermore, data from magnetization measurements of the nanocomposite systems are analyzed in terms of iron oxide nanoparticle size dependence. Such biocompatible nanocomposites have potential merit in the field of magnetically guided drug delivery vehicles.

  12. Magnetic properties of lithium-transition metal orthophosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semkin, Mikhail; Choi, Ki-Young; Sim, Hasung; Urusova, Natali; Volegov, Aleksey; Barykina, Julia; Kellerman, Dina; Park, Je-Geun; Pirogov, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic properties of the lithium-transition metal orthophosphates LiNiPO4, LiNi0.9Co0.1PO4, LiNi0.9Mn0.1PO4 and LiMnPO4 single crystals have been studied. Temperature behavior of a susceptibility against a type of 3d-transition ion was analyzed. Anomalous behavior is observed over narrow temperature region near Neel point. This is caused by a commensurate-incommensurate magnetic phase transition in pure LiNiPO4, Co- and Mn-doped samples. Using Curie-Weiss model we calculated magnetic constants.

  13. Composite Materials with Magnetically Aligned Carbon Nanoparticles Having Enhanced Electrical Properties and Methods of Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Haiping (Inventor); Peterson, G.P. (Bud) (Inventor); Salem, David R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Magnetically aligned carbon nanoparticle composites have enhanced electrical properties. The composites comprise carbon nanoparticles, a host material, magnetically sensitive nanoparticles and a surfactant. In addition to enhanced electrical properties, the composites can have enhanced mechanical and thermal properties.

  14. Estimation of hydrothermal deposits location from magnetization distribution and magnetic properties in the North Fiji Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S.; Kim, C.; Park, C.; Kim, H.

    2013-12-01

    The North Fiji Basin is belong to one of the youngest basins of back-arc basins in the southwest Pacific (from 12 Ma ago). We performed the marine magnetic and the bathymetry survey in the North Fiji Basin for finding the submarine hydrothermal deposits in April 2012. We acquired magnetic and bathymetry datasets by using Multi-Beam Echo Sounder EM120 (Kongsberg Co.) and Overhouser Proton Magnetometer SeaSPY (Marine Magnetics Co.). We conducted the data processing to obtain detailed seabed topography, magnetic anomaly, reduce to the pole(RTP), analytic signal and magnetization. The study areas composed of the two areas(KF-1(longitude : 173.5 ~ 173.7 and latitude : -16.2 ~ -16.5) and KF-3(longitude : 173.4 ~ 173.6 and latitude : -18.7 ~ -19.1)) in Central Spreading Ridge(CSR) and one area(KF-2(longitude : 173.7 ~ 174 and latitude : -16.8 ~ -17.2)) in Triple Junction(TJ). The seabed topography of KF-1 existed thin horst in two grabens that trends NW-SE direction. The magnetic properties of KF-1 showed high magnetic anomalies in center part and magnetic lineament structure of trending E-W direction. In the magnetization distribution of KF-1, the low magnetization zone matches well with a strong analytic signal in the northeastern part. KF-2 area has TJ. The seabed topography formed like Y-shape and showed a high feature in the center of TJ. The magnetic properties of KF-2 displayed high magnetic anomalies in N-S spreading ridge center and northwestern part. In the magnetization distribution of KF-2, the low magnetization zone matches well with a strong analytic signal in the northeastern part. The seabed topography of KF-3 presented a flat and high topography like dome structure at center axis and some seamounts scattered around the axis. The magnetic properties of KF-3 showed high magnetic anomalies in N-S spreading ridge center part. In the magnetization of KF-2, the low magnetization zone mismatches to strong analytic signal in this area. The difference of KF-3

  15. Electrodeposition and magnetic properties of FeCo alloy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dong; Zhou, Mingge; Zhu, Minggang; Yang, Xu; Yue, Ming

    2012-04-01

    FeCo alloys thin films have been successfully electrodeposited on Ag films. The morphology, structure, composition, and magnetic property of the FeCo films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, induction-coupled plasma spectrometry, vibrating sample magnetometer and network analyzer. The use of reverse pulse current in the process of electrodepostion can reduce the surface roughness obviously. The effects of anodic current density and thickness are studied. The results show that the film fabricated under appropriate conditions has low coercivity and excellent high-frequency magnetic property.

  16. Magnetic properties of heat treated bacterial ferrihydrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaev, D. A.; Krasikov, A. A.; Dubrovskiy, A. A.; Popkov, S. I.; Stolyar, S. V.; Bayukov, O. A.; Iskhakov, R. S.; Ladygina, V. P.; Yaroslavtsev, R. N.

    2016-07-01

    The magnetic properties of ferrihydrite nanoparticles, which are products of vital functions of Klebsiella oxitoca bacteria, have been studied. The initial powder containing the nanoparticles in an organic shell was subjected to low-temperature (T=160 °C) heat treatment for up to 240 h. The bacterial ferrihydrite particles exhibit a superparamagnetic behavior. Their characteristic blocking temperature increases from 26 to 80 K with the heat treatment. Analysis of the magnetization curves with regard to the magnetic moment distribution function and antiferromagnetic contribution shows that the low-temperature heat treatment enhances the average magnetic moment of a particle; i.e., the nanoparticles coarsen, probably due to their partial agglomeration during heat treatment. It was established that the blocking temperature nonlinearly depends on the particle volume. Therefore, a model was proposed that takes into account both the bulk and surface magnetic anisotropy. Using this model, the bulk and surface magnetic anisotropy constants KV≈1.7×105 erg/cm3 and KS≈0.055 erg/cm2 have been determined. The effect of the surface magnetic anisotropy of ferrihydrite nanoparticles on the observed magnetic hysteresis loops is discussed.

  17. Physical properties of elongated magnetic particles: magnetization and friction coefficient anisotropies.

    PubMed

    Vereda, Fernando; de Vicente, Juan; Hidalgo-Alvarez, Roque

    2009-06-01

    Anisotropy counts: A brief review of the main physical properties of elongated magnetic particles (EMPs) is presented. The most important characteristic of an EMP is the additional contribution of shape anisotropy to the total anisotropy energy of the particle, when compared to spherical magnetic particles. The electron micrograph shows Ni-ferrite microrods fabricated by the authors.We present an overview of the main physical properties of elongated magnetic particles (EMPs), including some of their more relevant properties in suspension. When compared to a spherical magnetic particle, the most important characteristic of an EMP is an additional contribution of shape anisotropy to the total anisotropy energy of the particle. Increasing aspect ratios also lead to an increase in both the critical single-domain size of a magnetic particle and its resistance to thermally activated spontaneous reversal of the magnetization. For single-domain EMPs, magnetization reversal occurs primarily by one of two modes, coherent rotation or curling, the latter being facilitated by larger aspect ratios. When EMPs are used to prepare colloidal suspensions, other physical properties come into play, such as their anisotropic friction coefficient and the consequent enhanced torque they experience in a shear flow, their tendency to align in the direction of an external field, to form less dense sediments and to entangle into more intricate aggregates. From a more practical point of view, EMPs are discussed in connection with two interesting types of magnetic colloids: magnetorheological fluids and suspensions for magnetic hyperthermia. Advances reported in the literature regarding the use of EMPs in these two systems are included. In the final section, we present a summary of the most relevant methods documented in the literature for the fabrication of EMPs, together with a list of the most common ferromagnetic materials that have been synthesized in the form of EMPs. PMID:19434654

  18. Physical properties of elongated magnetic particles: magnetization and friction coefficient anisotropies.

    PubMed

    Vereda, Fernando; de Vicente, Juan; Hidalgo-Alvarez, Roque

    2009-06-01

    Anisotropy counts: A brief review of the main physical properties of elongated magnetic particles (EMPs) is presented. The most important characteristic of an EMP is the additional contribution of shape anisotropy to the total anisotropy energy of the particle, when compared to spherical magnetic particles. The electron micrograph shows Ni-ferrite microrods fabricated by the authors.We present an overview of the main physical properties of elongated magnetic particles (EMPs), including some of their more relevant properties in suspension. When compared to a spherical magnetic particle, the most important characteristic of an EMP is an additional contribution of shape anisotropy to the total anisotropy energy of the particle. Increasing aspect ratios also lead to an increase in both the critical single-domain size of a magnetic particle and its resistance to thermally activated spontaneous reversal of the magnetization. For single-domain EMPs, magnetization reversal occurs primarily by one of two modes, coherent rotation or curling, the latter being facilitated by larger aspect ratios. When EMPs are used to prepare colloidal suspensions, other physical properties come into play, such as their anisotropic friction coefficient and the consequent enhanced torque they experience in a shear flow, their tendency to align in the direction of an external field, to form less dense sediments and to entangle into more intricate aggregates. From a more practical point of view, EMPs are discussed in connection with two interesting types of magnetic colloids: magnetorheological fluids and suspensions for magnetic hyperthermia. Advances reported in the literature regarding the use of EMPs in these two systems are included. In the final section, we present a summary of the most relevant methods documented in the literature for the fabrication of EMPs, together with a list of the most common ferromagnetic materials that have been synthesized in the form of EMPs.

  19. Magnetic properties and scale-up of nanostructured cobalt carbide permanent magnetic powders

    SciTech Connect

    Zamanpour, Mehdi Bennett, Steven; Taheri, Parisa; Chen, Yajie; Harris, Vincent G.

    2014-05-07

    Co{sub x}C magnetic nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via a modified polyol process without using a rare-earth catalyst during the synthesis process. The present results show admixtures of Co{sub 2}C and Co{sub 3}C phases possessing magnetization values exceeding 45 emu/g and coercivity values exceeding 2.3 kOe at room temperature. Moreover, these experiments have illuminated the important role of surfactants, reaction temperature, and reaction duration on the crystallographic structure and magnetic properties of Co{sub x}C, while tetraethylene glycol was employed as a reducing agent. The role of the ratios of Co{sub 2}C and Co{sub 3}C phases in the admixture magnetic properties is discussed. The crystallographic structure and particle size of the Co{sub x}C nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Vibrating sample magnetometry was used to determine magnetic properties. Scale-up of synthesis to more than 5 g per batch was demonstrated with no significant degradation of magnetic properties.

  20. Control of Magnetic Properties Across Metal to Insulator Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Venta, Jose

    2013-03-01

    Controlling the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic (FM) thin films without magnetic fields is an on-going challenge in condensed matter physics with multiple technological implications. External stimuli and proximity effects are the most used methods to control the magnetic properties. An interesting possibility arises when ferromagnets are in proximity to materials that undergo a metal-insulator (MIT) and structural phase transition (SPT). The stress associated with the structural changes produces a magnetoelastic anisotropy in proximity coupled ferromagnetic films that allows controlling the magnetic properties without magnetic fields. Canonical examples of materials that undergo MIT and SPT are the vanadium oxides (VO2 and V2O3) . VO2 undergoes a metal/rutile to an insulator/monoclinic phase transition at 340 K. In V2O3 the transition at 160 K is from a metallic/rhombohedral to an insulating/ monoclinic phase. We have investigated the magnetic properties of different combinations of ferromagnetic (Ni, Co and Fe) and vanadium oxide thin films. The (0.32%) volume expansion in VO2 or the (1.4%) volume decrease in V2O3 across the MIT produces an interfacial stress in the FM overlayer. We show that the coercivities and magnetizations of the ferromagnetic films grown on vanadium oxides are strongly affected by the phase transition. The changes in coercivity can be as large as 168% and occur in a very narrow temperature interval. These effects can be controlled by the thickness and deposition conditions of the different ferromagnetic films. For VO2/Ni bilayers the large change in the coercivity occurring above room temperature opens the possibilities for technological applications. Work done in collaboration with Siming Wang, J. G. Ramirez, and Ivan K. Schuller. Funded by the US DoE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Award FG03-87ER-45332 and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research No. FA9550-12-1-0381.

  1. Problems of predicting material property retention during long term service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeev, Yu. P.; Khomutov, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    A procedure of materials-science studies accompanying the process of product development, manufacture and service is offered. It provides correct selection of materials, trustworthy prediction of their behavior, high reliability of their operation in products of space-rocket application. Reliable prediction of material behavior during long-term service is achieved by breaking up the complex effect of the environment into individual factors and by analyzing the effect of each factor on the properties of the material.

  2. Prediction of nonlinear optical properties of large organic molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardelino, Beatriz H.

    1992-01-01

    The preparation of materials with large nonlinear responses usually requires involved synthetic processes. Thus, it is very advantageous for materials scientists to have a means of predicting nonlinear optical properties. The prediction of nonlinear optical properties has to be addressed first at the molecular level and then as bulk material. For relatively large molecules, two types of calculations may be used, which are the sum-over-states and the finite-field approach. The finite-field method was selected for this research, because this approach is better suited for larger molecules.

  3. Interval Prediction of Molecular Properties in Parametrized Quantum Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, David E.; Zubarev, Dmitry Yu.; Packard, Andrew; Lester, William A.; Frenklach, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The accurate evaluation of molecular properties lies at the core of predictive physical models. Most reliable quantum-chemical calculations are limited to smaller molecular systems while purely empirical approaches are limited in accuracy and reliability. A promising approach is to employ a quantum-mechanical formalism with simplifications and to compensate for the latter with parametrization. We propose a strategy of directly predicting the uncertainty interval for a property of interest, based on training-data uncertainties, which sidesteps the need for an optimum set of parameters.

  4. Microstructure and magnetic properties of soft magnetic powder cores of amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yapi; Yi, Yide; Shao, Wei; Shao, Yanfang

    2013-03-01

    With the development of modern ferromagnetic technology, soft magnetic powder cores (MPCs) of amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys have been intensively studied for their excellent soft magnetic properties such as high flux density, low coercivity and reduced core loss due to amorphous state and nanocrystalline grains of 10-20 nm dispersed in a residual amorphous matrix. In this paper, the microstructures and soft magnetic properties, i.e., maximum magnetic induction Bm, effective permeability μe, DC-bias properties and volume power losses PCV of MPCs made from amorphous powder of gas atomization and nanocrystalline powder of pulverized melt-spun ribbon were investigated and also compared on the basis of the same level of μe. It is found that μe of both kinds of MPC keeps unchanged up to 1 MHz. The amorphous MPC has lower PCV at lower frequency range, while the nanocrystalline MPC has lower PCV at high frequency range instead. Also, the nanocrystalline MPC has better DC-bias property. Moreover, the DC magnetic properties and the changes of PCV of both MPCs with frequency and flux density are also studied. Furthermore, the electromagnetic characteristics, the microstructures and the mechanisms accounting for these phenomena of both MPCs are also discussed.

  5. Magnetic properties of Ni-based substrates for HTS tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claassen, J. H.; Thieme, C. L. H.

    2008-10-01

    Ni-W alloys are used as the substrate in the manufacture of HTS tape via the RABiTSTM process. Theoretical work has shown that the ferromagnetism in a substrate can affect the ac losses in the superconductor. This occurs in part because of the increased magnetic permeability, which alters the magnetic induction in the superconductor and thereby the loss. Magnetic hysteretic loss in the substrate is an additional contribution to overall ac loss. We report measurements of both permeability and magnetic loss as a function of frequency and magnetic induction for the standard alloy Ni-5W as well as composite substrates incorporating non-magnetic Ni-W alloys. The measurements are done using ac susceptibility at 77 K, at frequencies up to 104 Hz and inductions in the range 1-150 mT. It is shown how to use these results to predict total ac loss in isolated superconducting tape and wound coils. Some important magnetic parameters cannot be obtained with sufficient accuracy using a SQUID or vibrating sample magnetometer, since the size of a sample is limited in these measurements. This makes the demagnetizing factor large enough to degrade the accuracy of a permeability measurement.

  6. Magnetic Properties of Different-Aged Chernozemic Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattakhova, Leysan; Shinkarev, Alexandr; Kosareva, Lina; Nourgaliev, Danis; Shinkarev, Aleksey; Kondrashina, Yuliya

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the magnetic properties and degree of mineral weathering in profiles of different-aged chernozemic soils derived from a uniform parent material. In this work, layer samples of virgin leached chernozem and chernozemic soils formed on the mound of archaeological earthy monument were used. The characterization of the magnetic properties was carried out on the data of the magnetometry and differential thermomagnetic analysis. The evaluation of the weathering degree was carried out on a loss on ignition, cation exchange capacity and X-ray phase analysis on the data of the original soil samples and samples of the heavy fraction of minerals. It was found that the magnetic susceptibility enhancement in humus profiles of newly formed chernozemic soils lagged significantly behind the organic matter content enhancement. This phenomenon is associated with differences in kinetic parameters of humus formation and structural and compositional transformation of the parent material. It is not enough time of 800-900 years to form a relatively "mature" magnetic profile. These findings are well consistent with the chemical kinetic model (Boyle et al., 2010) linking the formation of the soils magnetic susceptibility with the weathering of primary Fe silicate minerals. Different-aged chernozemic soils are at the first stage of formation of a magnetic profile when it is occur an active production of secondary ferrimagnetic minerals from Fe2+ released by primary minerals.

  7. Microstructure and magnetic properties of MnZn-ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, I.N.

    1982-12-01

    Grain boundaries in MnZn-ferrites have been characterized and their effects on the magnetic and electrical properties have been investigated. Addition of CaO into MnZn-ferrite materials leads to the formation of secondary phases along the grain boundaries. It is concluded that the Ca addition does not produce beneficial effects on the electrical properties but only leads to a detrimental influence on the magnetic properties. Other microstructural features such as secondary phases and stacking faults will also affect the domain wall dynanics. They not only retard the domain wall motion but can also act as nucleation sites for domains of reverse magnetization. Controlled-atmosphere annealing improves drastically the apparent resistivity of the sintered MnZn-ferrites through the reduction of ferrous ions content but degrades the magnetic permeability. Control of the oxygen partial pressure at an earlier stage of processing rather than post fabrication annealing is needed in order to raise the intrinsic electrical resistivity of the bulk materials by reducing ferrous ion concentration without affecting the magnetic permeability detrimentally. 145 references, 20 figures.

  8. Anisotropic thermal property of magnetically oriented carbon nanotube polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Dong, Shuai; Wang, Caiping; Wang, Xiaojie; Fang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes a method for preparing multi-walled carbon nanotubea/polydimethylsiloxane (MWCNTs/PDMS) composites with enhanced thermal properties by using a high magnetic field (up to 10T). The MWCNT are oriented magnetically inside a silicone by in-situ polymerization method. The anisotropic structure would be expected to produce directional thermal conductivity. This study will provide a new approach to the development of anisotropic thermal-conductive polymer composites. Systematic studies with the preparation of silicone/graphene composites corresponding to their thermal and mechanical properties are carried out under various conditions: intensity of magnetic field, time, temperature, fillings. The effect of MWCNT/graphene content and preparation procedures on thermal conductivity of composites is investigated. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is used to reveal the mechanical properties of the composites in terms of the filling contents and magnetic field strength. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to observe the micro-structure of the MWCNT composites. The alignment of MWCNTs in PDMS matrix is also studied by Raman spectroscopy. The thermal conductivity measurements show that the magnetically aligned CNT-composites feature high anisotropy in thermal conductivity.

  9. Magnetic properties of pulsed laser deposition-fabricated isotropic Fe-Pt film magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, M.; Oniki, W.; Yanai, T.; Fukunaga, H.

    2011-04-01

    A high-speed pulsed laser deposition method with the deposition rate of several tens of microns per 1 h enabled us to obtain isotropic Fe-Pt thick film magnets. Increase in the laser power enabled us to obtain as-deposited films with L1{sub 0} ordered phase due to the heat radiation from a target, which means that a substrate heating system and a post-annealing process are not required to achieve hard magnetic properties in the process. Use of an Fe-rich target enhanced the magnetic properties, and as a result (BH){sub max} value exceeded 100 kJ/m{sup 3} in an isotropic Fe-Pt film fabricated at the power of 3 W, which was comparable to those of isotropic Fe-Pt thick film magnets prepared by a sputtering method.

  10. Preparation and Properties of Various Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Drbohlavova, Jana; Hrdy, Radim; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Schneeweiss, Oldrich; Hubalek, Jaromir

    2009-01-01

    The fabrications of iron oxides nanoparticles using co-precipitation and gadolinium nanoparticles using water in oil microemulsion method are reported in this paper. Results of detailed phase analysis by XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy are discussed. XRD analysis revealed that the crystallite size (mean coherence length) of iron oxides (mainly γ-Fe2O3) in the Fe2O3 sample was 30 nm, while in Fe2O3/SiO2 where the ε-Fe2O3 phase dominated it was only 14 nm. Gd/SiO2 nanoparticles were found to be completely amorphous, according to XRD. The samples showed various shapes of hysteresis loops and different coercivities. Differences in the saturation magnetization (MS) correspond to the chemical and phase composition of the sample materials. However, we observed that MS was not reached in the case of Fe2O3/SiO2, while for Gd/SiO2 sample the MS value was extremely low. Therefore we conclude that only unmodified Fe2O3 nanoparticles are suitable for intended biosensing application in vitro (e.g. detection of viral nucleic acids) and the phase purification of this sample for this purpose is not necessary. PMID:22574017

  11. Synthesis and properties of magnetic ceramic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorescu, Monica

    2012-02-01

    Magnetic ceramic nanoparticles of the type xIn2O3-(1-x)alpha-Fe2O3, xV2O5-(1-x)alpha-Fe2O3 and xZnO-(1-x)alpha-Fe2O3 (x=0.1-0.7) were synthesized from the mixed oxides using mechanochemical activation for 0-12 hours. X-ray diffraction was used to derive the phase content, lattice constants and particle size information as function of ball milling time. Mossbauer spectroscopy results correlated with In3+, V5+ and Zn2+ substitution of Fe3+ in the hematite lattice. SEM/EDS measurements revealed that the mechanochemical activation by ball milling produced systems with a wide range of particle size distribution, from nanometer particles to micrometer agglomerates, but with a uniform distribution of the elements. Simultaneous DSC-TGA investigations up to 800 degrees C provided information on the heat flow, weight loss and the enthalpy of transformation in the systems under investigation. This study demonstrates the formation of a nanostructured solid solution for the indium oxide, an iron vanadate (FeVO4) for the vanadium oxide, and of the zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) for the zinc oxide. The transformation pathway for each case can be related to the oxidation state of the metallic specie of the oxide used in connection with hematite.

  12. Thermodynamic properties of Heisenberg magnetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Wei; Wang, Huai-Yu; Long, Gui-Lu

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we present a comprehensive investigation of the effects of the transverse correlation function (TCF) on the thermodynamic properties of Heisenberg antiferromagnetic (AFM) and ferromagnetic (FM) systems with cubic lattices. The TCF of an FM system is positive and increases with temperature, while that of an AFM system is negative and decreases with temperature. The TCF lowers internal energy, entropy and specific heat. It always raises the free energy of an FM system but raises that of an AFM system only above a specific temperature when the spin quantum number is S >= 1. Comparisons between the effects of the TCFs on the FM and AFM systems are made where possible.

  13. The magnetic-nanofluid heat pipe with superior thermal properties through magnetic enhancement

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a magnetic-nanofluid (MNF) heat pipe (MNFHP) with magnetically enhanced thermal properties. Its main characteristic was additional porous iron nozzle in the evaporator and the condenser to form a unique flowing pattern of MNF slug and vapor, and to magnetically shield the magnet attraction on MNF flowing. The results showed that an optimal thermal conductivity exists in the applied field of 200 Oe. Furthermore, the minor thermal performance of MNF at the condenser limited the thermal conductivity of the entire MNFHP, which was 1.6 times greater than that filled with water for the input power of 60 W. The feasibilities of an MNFHP with the magnetically enhanced heat transfer and the ability of vertical operation were proved for both a promising heat-dissipation device and the energy architecture integrated with an additional energy system. PMID:22716909

  14. Micromagnetic model for biaxial stress effects on magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sablik, M. J.; Riley, L. A.; Burkhardt, G. L.; Kwun, H.; Cannell, P. Y.; Watts, K. T.; Langman, R. A.

    1994-04-01

    A micromagnetic formulation has been developed for modeling the effect of biaxial stress on magnetoelastic processes in polycrystalline steels. The formulation uses a modified version of the Kashiwaya model for the effect of biaxial stress on magnetic properties and combines it with the Schneider-Cannell-Watts model for magnetoelastic processes in steels. In particular, the model involves use of an effective stress equal to one of the deviatoric (i.e. distortional) normal stress components, depending on whether the field is parallel to a tensile or compressive axis or to the third axis perpendicular to the plane of biaxial stress. Computer results are compared to experimental results on the effects of biaxial stress on magnetic properties in mild steel and in SAE-4130 steel. Good qualitative agreement is found in almost all cases, in that in going from one biaxial stress case to the next, the same kinds of changes are seen magnetically.

  15. Versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing magnetic properties of nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, J. F. D. F.; Bruno, A. C.; Louro, S. R. W.

    2015-10-15

    We constructed a versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing iron oxide nanoparticles. The magnetometer can be operated at room temperature or inside a cryocooler at temperatures as low as 6 K. The magnetometer’s sensor can be easily exchanged and different detection electronics can be used. We tested the assembly with a non-cryogenic commercial Hall sensor and a benchtop multimeter in a four-wire resistance measurement scheme. A magnetic moment sensitivity of 8.5 × 10{sup −8} Am{sup 2} was obtained with this configuration. To illustrate the capability of the assembly, we synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles coated with different amounts of a triblock copolymer, Pluronic F-127, and characterized their magnetic properties. We determined that the polymer coating does not affect the magnetization of the particles at room temperature and demonstrates that it is possible to estimate the average size of coating layers from measurements of the magnetic field of the sample.

  16. Versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing magnetic properties of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, J. F. D. F.; Bruno, A. C.; Louro, S. R. W.

    2015-10-01

    We constructed a versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing iron oxide nanoparticles. The magnetometer can be operated at room temperature or inside a cryocooler at temperatures as low as 6 K. The magnetometer's sensor can be easily exchanged and different detection electronics can be used. We tested the assembly with a non-cryogenic commercial Hall sensor and a benchtop multimeter in a four-wire resistance measurement scheme. A magnetic moment sensitivity of 8.5 × 10-8 Am2 was obtained with this configuration. To illustrate the capability of the assembly, we synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles coated with different amounts of a triblock copolymer, Pluronic F-127, and characterized their magnetic properties. We determined that the polymer coating does not affect the magnetization of the particles at room temperature and demonstrates that it is possible to estimate the average size of coating layers from measurements of the magnetic field of the sample.

  17. Magnetic properties of biaxially oriented Ni-V substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Bettinelli, D.; Petrisor, T.; Gambardella, U.; Boffa, V.; Ceresara, S.; Nistor, L.; Pop, V.; Scardi, P.

    1999-04-20

    The paper presents the structural and magnetic properties of a new non-magnetic biaxially textured substrate based on Ni{sub 100{minus}x}V{sub x} solid-solution for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}y} tape fabrication. The effective atomic magnetic moment monotonously decreases with the vanadium concentration, causing a corresponding decrease of Curie temperature. The Curie temperature reaches the zero value at about 11.5% of vanadium. The texturing studies revealed that (100)[-001] cube texture can be easily developed up to x = 11 at.%, by a cold rolling process followed by a recrystallization thermal treatment. The X-ray {omega} and {phi} scans have demonstrated that the samples have a good out-of-plane and in-plane texture for the whole solubility range, with FWHM of 7{degree} and 11{degree}, respectively. The correlation between the magnetic and structural anisotropy was also studied.

  18. Power frequency magnetic properties and aging of 4130 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, Aleta T.

    2006-05-01

    Cr-Mo steels are utilized in large, high-speed rotating machines where the mechanical stress requirements limit available soft magnetic laminate choices. Because this is currently a niche application, the magnetic properties of these steels are relatively undocumented. This paper presents the magnetic hysteresis behavior of a quenched and tempered 4130 steel at alternating frequencies up to 1200 Hz and temperatures up to 100 °C. The high coercivities and core losses are contrasted with a 3.2%Si-Fe alloy. "Aging" of this behavior over time of cyclic field application was not observed in 300 h. However, surface embrittlement was observed. Designers should be aware that cyclic magnetic fields, even in the absence of temperature excursions and mechanical stress, can lead to a relaxation of the 4130 microstructure and possible deterioration of yield strength.

  19. Transport properties of interacting magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gianakon, T.A.; Callen, J.D.; Hegna, C.C.

    1993-10-01

    This paper explores the equilibrium and transient transport properties of a mixed magnetic topology model for tokamak equilibria. The magnetic topology is composed of a discrete set of mostly non-overlapping magnetic islands centered on the low-order rational surfaces. Transport across the island regions is fast due to parallel transport along the stochastic magnetic field lines about the separatrix of each island. Transport between island regions is assumed to be slow due to a low residual cross-field transport. In equilibrium, such a model leads to: a nonlinear dependence of the heat flux on the pressure gradient; a power balance diffusion coefficient which increases from core to edge; and profile resiliency. Transiently, such a model also exhibits a heat pulse diffusion coefficient larger than the power balance diffusion coefficient.

  20. Versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing magnetic properties of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Araujo, J F D F; Bruno, A C; Louro, S R W

    2015-10-01

    We constructed a versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing iron oxide nanoparticles. The magnetometer can be operated at room temperature or inside a cryocooler at temperatures as low as 6 K. The magnetometer's sensor can be easily exchanged and different detection electronics can be used. We tested the assembly with a non-cryogenic commercial Hall sensor and a benchtop multimeter in a four-wire resistance measurement scheme. A magnetic moment sensitivity of 8.5 × 10(-8) Am(2) was obtained with this configuration. To illustrate the capability of the assembly, we synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles coated with different amounts of a triblock copolymer, Pluronic F-127, and characterized their magnetic properties. We determined that the polymer coating does not affect the magnetization of the particles at room temperature and demonstrates that it is possible to estimate the average size of coating layers from measurements of the magnetic field of the sample.

  1. Magnetorheological properties of a magnetic nanofluid with dispersed carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felicia, Leona J.; Philip, John

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the effect of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the magnetorheological properties of an oil based magnetic nanofluid (ferrofluid). The shear resistant plateau observed in a pure ferrofluid disappears when 0.5 wt % of MWCNT is incorporated. The yield stress values of the composite system are slightly smaller than that of the pure system. This shows that the presence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) weakens the magnetic field induced microstructure of the ferrofluid due to their interaction that affects the hydrodynamic and magnetic interactions between the dispersed nanoparticles. Interestingly, the Mason number plots for both the pure and composite system show scaling of the viscosity curves onto a single master curve for magnetic fields of 80 mT and above while deviations are observed for lower magnetic fields. The weakening of the ferrofluid microstructure in the presence of CNTs is further evident in the amplitude sweep measurements where the linear viscoelastic region develops only at a higher magnetic field strength compared to lower magnetic fields in pure ferrofluids. These results are useful for tailoring ferrofluids with a faster response for various applications.

  2. Magnetorheological properties of a magnetic nanofluid with dispersed carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Felicia, Leona J; Philip, John

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the effect of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the magnetorheological properties of an oil based magnetic nanofluid (ferrofluid). The shear resistant plateau observed in a pure ferrofluid disappears when 0.5 wt% of MWCNT is incorporated. The yield stress values of the composite system are slightly smaller than that of the pure system. This shows that the presence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) weakens the magnetic field induced microstructure of the ferrofluid due to their interaction that affects the hydrodynamic and magnetic interactions between the dispersed nanoparticles. Interestingly, the Mason number plots for both the pure and composite system show scaling of the viscosity curves onto a single master curve for magnetic fields of 80 mT and above while deviations are observed for lower magnetic fields. The weakening of the ferrofluid microstructure in the presence of CNTs is further evident in the amplitude sweep measurements where the linear viscoelastic region develops only at a higher magnetic field strength compared to lower magnetic fields in pure ferrofluids. These results are useful for tailoring ferrofluids with a faster response for various applications.

  3. Magnetorheological properties of a magnetic nanofluid with dispersed carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Felicia, Leona J; Philip, John

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the effect of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the magnetorheological properties of an oil based magnetic nanofluid (ferrofluid). The shear resistant plateau observed in a pure ferrofluid disappears when 0.5 wt% of MWCNT is incorporated. The yield stress values of the composite system are slightly smaller than that of the pure system. This shows that the presence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) weakens the magnetic field induced microstructure of the ferrofluid due to their interaction that affects the hydrodynamic and magnetic interactions between the dispersed nanoparticles. Interestingly, the Mason number plots for both the pure and composite system show scaling of the viscosity curves onto a single master curve for magnetic fields of 80 mT and above while deviations are observed for lower magnetic fields. The weakening of the ferrofluid microstructure in the presence of CNTs is further evident in the amplitude sweep measurements where the linear viscoelastic region develops only at a higher magnetic field strength compared to lower magnetic fields in pure ferrofluids. These results are useful for tailoring ferrofluids with a faster response for various applications. PMID:25353475

  4. Magnetic and ferroelectric properties of multiferroic RMn2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Y.; Kimura, H.; Fukunaga, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Kagomiya, I.; Kohn, K.

    2008-10-01

    The magnetic and ferroelectric properties of multiferroic RMn2O5 (R = Y, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm) are reviewed based on recent neutron diffraction and dielectric measurements. Successive phase transitions of magnetic and dielectric ordering were found to occur simultaneously in this system. The characteristic magnetic ordering of the system exhibits an incommensurate-commensurate phase transition, and again transitions to an incommensurate phase. Special attention is given to the magnetic structure in order to discuss the mechanism for the introduction of ferroelectric polarization. For all the compounds examined, the spin configuration for Mn4+ and Mn3+ ions in the commensurate magnetic phase, where spontaneous electric polarization occurs, was determined to be a transverse spiral spin structure propagating along the c-axis. By contrast, the alignment of the induced 4f moment of R3+ ions showed variation, depending on the character of each of the elements. Corresponding responses to external fields such as a magnetic field, hydrostatic pressure etc at low temperature are strongly dependent on the rare earth element present in the RMn2O5 system. The so-called colossal magnetoelectric effect in this system can be easily interpreted by the phase transition from the magnetic incommensurate and weak ferroelectric phase to the commensurate and ferroelectric phase.

  5. Magnetic Properties of Ubiquitous yet Underrated Antiferromagnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyodo, Y. J.; Till, J. L.; Lagroix, F.; Bonville, P.; Penn, R.; Sainctavit, P.; Ona-Nguema, G.; Morin, G.

    2013-05-01

    Ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite and goethite are antiferromagnetic, weakly "ferromagnetic" iron oxyhydroxides that are commonly found in diverse environments, including ground waters and streams, sediments, soils, or acid mine drainage. One of them, ferrihydrite, constitutes the mineral core of ferritin, a vital iron storage protein. Iron oxyhydroxides take part in multiple biological and abiological processes, and can evolve, under changing environmental or geological conditions, to more magnetic phases such as hematite, maghemite, or magnetite. Therefore, they represent key minerals with regard to paleoclimate, paleoenvironmental, and paleomagnetic studies. We will present low temperature magnetic properties acquired on fully characterized synthetic iron oxyhydroxides. The complex nature of the magnetism of these minerals is revealed by comparing magnetic data with other types of characterizations such as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy or synchrotron X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), or when the early-stages of solid-state alteration (under oxidizing or reducing atmosphere) are studied. In particular, we will present resent results about the structure of 6-line ferrihydrite, about the possible presence of ferri-magnetic nano-clusters in lepidocrocite, and about uncompensated magnetic moments in goethite nanoparticles.

  6. Arrays of nanowires of magnetic metals and multilayers: Perpendicular GMR and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piraux, L.; Dubois, S.; Duvail, J. L.; Ounadjela, K.; Fert, A.

    1997-11-01

    The template strategy combined with electrodeposition techniques have been used to fabricate arrays of nanowires of magnetic metals and multilayers in the cylindrical pores of track-etched polymer membranes. The giant magnetoresistance effects have been investigated in two different types of multilayered nanowires systems: Co/Cu and Ni 80Fe 20/Cu. In addition, a comparative study of the magnetic properties of sub-micron Ni, Co, Fe and Ni 80Fe 20 wires is made by means of anisotropic magnetoresistance and magnetization experiments.

  7. Shreddability of pizza Mozzarella cheese predicted using physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2014-07-01

    This study used rheological techniques such as uniaxial compression, wire cutting, and dynamic oscillatory shear to probe the physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheeses. Predictive models were built using compositional and textural descriptors to predict cheese shreddability. Experimental cheeses were made using milk with (0.25% wt/wt) or without denatured whey protein and renneted at pH 6.5 or 6.4. The cheeses were aged for 8, 22, or 36 d and then tested at 4, 13, or 22°C for textural attributes using 11 descriptors. Adding denatured whey protein and reducing the milk renneting pH strongly affected cheese mechanical properties, but these effects were usually dependent on testing temperature. Cheeses were generally weaker as they aged. None of the compositional or rheological descriptors taken alone could predict the shredding behavior of the cheeses. Using the stepwise method, an objective selection of a few (<4) relevant descriptors made it possible to predict the production of fines (R(2)=0.82), the percentage of long shreds (R(2)=0.67), and to a lesser degree, the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade (R(2)=0.45). The principal component analysis markedly contrasted the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade with other shredding properties such as the production of fines or long shreds. The predictive models and principal component analysis can help manufacturers select relevant descriptors for the development of cheese with optimal mechanical behavior under shredding conditions.

  8. Prediction of Separation Performance of Dry High Intensity Magnetic Separator for Processing of Para-Magnetic Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Sunil Kumar; Singh, Veerendra; Suresh, Nikkam

    2015-10-01

    High intensity dry magnetic separators are gaining popularity for the separation of para-magnetic minerals due to the cost economic factor. Induced roll magnetic separator is found to be an effective dry separator for the separation of fine particles. Separation efficiency of this separator depends on mineral characteristics and the design features of equipment along with the optimization of process variables. Present investigation focuses on the prediction and validation of separation performance of minerals while treating in induced roll magnetic separator. Prediction of the separation is expressed in terms of separation angle at which a particle leaves the rotor surface by using a modified particle flow model derived by Cakir. The validation of the model is carried by capturing the particle trajectory using an image analyzer. It is found that Cakir's mathematical model produces reliable results and a new model is proposed to increase the reliability of separation angle prediction by including the particle shape factor.

  9. 4d electron Ruthenate systems: their unique and new magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungran; Shin, Yeongjae; Anwar, M. S.; Sugimoto, Yusuke; Lee, Mincheol; Kang, Sungjin; Yonezawa, Shingo; Maeno, Yoshiteru; Noh, Taewon

    The Ruddlesden-Popper series (PR) of Srn+1RunO3n+1 has attract much interest of their unique physical properties. Among them, SrRuO3 (n = ∞) (SRO) is the only ferromagnetic metallic oxide especially in Ru 4d transition metal oxides. Bulk SRO has orthorhombic structure showing the Curie temperature (TC) ~ 160 K. It is well known that RuO6 octahedral distortion plays critical roles in its mangetic properties. In film systems, such RuO6 octahedra can be easily controlled by strain-engineering. In this talk, with high quality SRO films fully strained (-1.7%-1%) using various substrates, we systematically studied their structural changes and associated magnetic properties. Compared to theoretical predictions, the structural changes can be explained, while the magnetic property changes cannot be understood. Surprisingly, when SRO113 is grown on its PR series of Sr2RuO4 (n=1) (SRO214) single crystal, the exact substrate of SRO214 magnetization results in strongly enhanced magnetization (M > 3 μB/Ru, TC ~ 160 K), which has never found SRO113 (001) since the low-spin configuration of SRO113 prevent M never exceed 2 μB/Ru. The mystery of M in SRO113 (especially SRO113/SRO214) will be further discussed.

  10. Prediction of biomechanical trabecular bone properties with geometric features using MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Markus B.; Lancianese, Sarah L.; Ikpot, Imoh; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Lerner, Amy L.; Wismüller, Axel

    2010-03-01

    Trabecular bone parameters extracted from magnetic resonance (MR) images are compared in their ability to predict biomechanical properties determined through mechanical testing. Trabecular bone density and structural changes throughout the proximal tibia are indicative of several musculoskeletal disorders of the knee joint involving changes in the bone quality and the surrounding soft tissue. Recent studies have shown that MR imaging, most frequently applied in soft tissue imaging, also allows non-invasive 3-dimensional characterization of bone microstructure. Sophisticated MR image features that estimate local structural and geometric properties of the trabecular bone may improve the ability of MR imaging to determine local bone quality in vivo. The purpose of the current study is to use whole joint MR images to compare the performance of trabecular bone features extracted from the images in predicting biomechanical strength properties measured on the corresponding ex vivo specimens. The regional apparent bone volume fraction (appBVF) and scaling index method (SIM) derived features were calculated; a Multilayer Radial Basis Functions Network was then optimized to calculate the prediction accuracy as measured by the root mean square error (RSME) for each bone feature. The best prediction result was obtained with a SIM feature with the lowest prediction error (RSME=0.246) and the highest coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.769). The current study demonstrates that the combination of sophisticated bone structure features and supervised learning techniques can improve MR imaging as an in vivo imaging tool in determining local trabecular bone quality.

  11. Predicting Thermodynamic Properties of PBXTHs with New Quantum Topological Indexes

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Guowen; Yu, Limei

    2016-01-01

    Novel group quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models on the thermodynamic properties of PBXTHs were presented, by the multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis method. Four thermodynamic properties were studied: the entropy (Sθ), the standard enthalpy of formation (ΔfHθ), the standard Gibbs energy of formation (ΔfGθ), and the relative standard Gibbs energy of formation (ΔRGθ). The results by the formula indicate that the calculated and predicted data in this study are in good agreement with those in literature and the deviation is within the experimental errors. To validate the estimation reliability for internal samples and the predictive ability for other samples, leave-one-out (LOO) cross validation (CV) and external validation were performed, and the results show that the models are satisfactory. PMID:26900689

  12. Magnetic microstructure and magnetic properties of uniaxial itinerant ferromagnet Fe3GeTe2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    León-Brito, Neliza; Bauer, Eric Dietzgen; Ronning, Filip; Thompson, Joe David; Movshovich, Roman

    2016-08-26

    Here, magnetic force microscopy was used to observe the magnetic microstructure of Fe3GeTe2 at 4 K on the (001) surface. The surface magnetic structure consists of a two-phase domain branching pattern that is characteristic for highly uniaxial magnets in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic easy axis. The average surface magnetic domain width Ds = 1.3 μm determined from this pattern, in combination with intrinsic properties calculated from bulk magnetization data (the saturation magnetization Ms = 376 emu/cm3 and the uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant Ku = 1.46 × 107 erg/cm3), was used to determine the following micromagnetic parameters for Fe3GeTe2more » from phenomenological models: the domain wall energy γw = 4.7 erg/cm2, the domain wall thickness δw = 2.5 nm, the exchange stiffness constant Aex = 0.95 × 10–7 erg/cm, the exchange length lex = 2.3 nm, and the critical single domain particle diameter dc = 470 nm.« less

  13. Magnetic microstructure and magnetic properties of uniaxial itinerant ferromagnet Fe3GeTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León-Brito, N.; Bauer, E. D.; Ronning, F.; Thompson, J. D.; Movshovich, R.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic force microscopy was used to observe the magnetic microstructure of Fe3GeTe2 at 4 K on the (001) surface. The surface magnetic structure consists of a two-phase domain branching pattern that is characteristic for highly uniaxial magnets in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic easy axis. The average surface magnetic domain width Ds = 1.3 μm determined from this pattern, in combination with intrinsic properties calculated from bulk magnetization data (the saturation magnetization Ms = 376 emu/cm3 and the uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant Ku = 1.46 × 107 erg/cm3), was used to determine the following micromagnetic parameters for Fe3GeTe2 from phenomenological models: the domain wall energy γw = 4.7 erg/cm2, the domain wall thickness δw = 2.5 nm, the exchange stiffness constant Aex = 0.95 × 10-7 erg/cm, the exchange length lex = 2.3 nm, and the critical single domain particle diameter dc = 470 nm.

  14. Measurement of dielectric and magnetic properties of soil

    SciTech Connect

    Patitz, W.E.; Brock, B.C.; Powell, E.G.

    1995-11-01

    The possibility of subsurface imaging using SAR technology has generated a considerable amount of interest in recent years. One requirement for the successful development of a subsurface imagin system is an understanding of how the soil affects the signal. In response to a need for an electromagnetic characterization of the soil properties, the Radar/Antenna department has developed a measurement system which determines the soils complex electric permittivity and magnetic permeability at UHF frequencies. The one way loss in dB is also calculated using the measured values. There are many reports of measurements of the electric properties of soil in the literature. However, most of these are primarily concerned with measuring only a real dielectric constant. Because some soils have ferromagnetic constituents it is desirable to measure both the electric and magnetic properties of the soil.

  15. Neural networks as tools for predicting materials properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sumpter, B.G.; Noid, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    Materials science is of fundamental significance to science and technology because our industrial base and society depend upon our ability to develop advanced materials. Materials and materials processing cuts across almost every sector of industry. The key in all of these areas is the ability to rapidly screen possible designs which will have significant impact. However up to now materials design and processing have been to a large extent empirical sciences. In addition we are still unable to design new alloys and polymers to meet application specific requirements. Being able to do so quickly and at minimum cost would provide an incredible advantage. Obviously, the ability to predict physical, chemical, or mechanical properties of compounds prior to their synthesis is of great technological value in optimizing their design, processing, or recycling. In addition, in order to realize the ultimate goal of materials by computational design, the reverse problem, prediction of chemical structure based on desired properties, has to be resolved. Research at ORNL has lead to the development of a novel computational paradigm (coupling computational neural networks with graph theory, genetic algorithms, wavelet theory, fuzzy logic, molecular dynamics, and quantum chemistry) capable of performing accurate computational synthesis (both predictions of properties or the design of compounds that have specified performance criteria). The computational paradigm represents a hybrid of a number of emerging technologies and has proven to work very well for test compounds ranging from small organic molecules to polymeric materials. Fundamental to the method is the neural network-based formulation of the correlations between structure and properties. The advantages of this method is in its ease of use, speed, accuracy, and that it can be used to predict both properties from structure, and also structure from properties.

  16. Magnetic Properties of a Heisenberg Coupled-Trimer Molecular Magnet: General

    SciTech Connect

    Haraldsen, Jason T; Barnes, Ted {F E }; Sinclair IV, John W; Thompson, James R; Sacci, Robert L.; Turner, John F. C.

    2009-01-01

    We report predictions for the energy eigenstates and inelastic neutron scattering excitations of an isotropic Heisenberg hexamer consisting of general spin S and S′ trimers. Specializing to spin-1/2 ions, we give analytic results for the energy excitations, magnetic susceptibility, and inelastic neutron scattering intensities for this hexamer system. To examine this model further, we compare these calculations to the measured magnetic susceptibility of a vanadium material, which is considered to be well defined magnetically as an isolated S = 1/2 V4+ trimer model. Using our model, we determine the amount of inter-trimer coupling that can be accommodated by the measured susceptibility, and predict the inelastic neutron scattering spectrum for comparison with future measurements.

  17. Magnetic properties of nanocrystalline KNbO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Golovina, I. S. Shanina, B. D.; Kolesnik, S. P.; Geifman, I. N.; Andriiko, A. A.

    2013-11-07

    Newly synthesized undoped and iron-doped nanoscale powders of KNbO{sub 3} are investigated using magnetic resonance and static magnetization methods in order to determine how the crystal size and doping affect the structure of magnetic defects and material properties. Although the bulk crystals of KNbO{sub 3} are nonmagnetic, the undoped KNbO{sub 3} powder with average particle size of 80 nm exhibits magnetic properties. The ferromagnetic resonance signal and the magnetization curve registered on the powder are thoroughly analyzed. It is concluded that the appearance of the defect driven ferromagnetism in the undoped powder is due to the nano-size of the particles. This effect disappears in the iron-doped KNbO{sub 3} powder with particle sizes above 300 nm. In case of low doping (<1 mol. % Fe), a new electron paramagnetic resonance signal with g{sub eff} = 4.21 is found out in the KNbO{sub 3}:Fe powder. Such a signal has not been observed in the bulk crystals of KNbO{sub 3}:Fe. We suppose that this signal corresponds to individual paramagnetic Fe{sup 3+} ions having rhombic symmetry.

  18. Magnetic antenna excitation of whistler modes. I. Basic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.

    2014-12-15

    Properties of magnetic loop antennas for exciting electron whistler modes have been investigated in a large laboratory plasma. The parameter regime is that of large plasma frequency compared to the cyclotron frequency and signal frequency below half the cyclotron frequency. The antenna diameter is smaller than the wavelength. Different directions of the loop antenna relative to the background magnetic field have been measured for small amplitude waves. The differences in the topology of the wave magnetic field are shown from measurements of the three field components in three spatial directions. The helicity of the wave magnetic field and of the hodogram of the magnetic vector in space and time are clarified. The superposition of wave fields is used to investigate the properties of two antennas for small amplitude waves. Standing whistler waves are produced by propagating two wave packets in opposite directions. Directional radiation is obtained with two phased loops separated by a quarter wavelength. Rotating antenna fields, produced with phased orthogonal loops at the same location, do not produce directionality. The concept of superposition is extended in a Paper II to generate antenna arrays for whistlers. These produce nearly plane waves, whose propagation angle can be varied by the phase shifting the currents in the array elements. Focusing of whistlers is possible. These results are important for designing antennas on spacecraft or diagnosing and heating of laboratory plasmas.

  19. A comparison of arcjet plume properties to model predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappelli, M. A.; Liebeskind, J. G.; Hanson, R. K.; Butler, G. W.; King, D. Q.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study of the plasma plume properties of a 1 kW class hydrogen arcjet thruster and the comparison of measured temperature and velocity field to model predictions. The experiments are based on laser-induced fluorescence excitation of the Balmer-alpha transition. The model is based on a single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic description of the flow originally developed to predict arcjet thruster performance. Excellent agreement between model predictions and experimental velocity is found, despite the complex nature of the flow. Measured and predicted exit plane temperatures are in disagreement by as much as 2000K over a range of operating conditions. The possible sources for this discrepancy are discussed.

  20. Magnetic properties of tektites and other related impact glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochette, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Devouard, B.; Moustard, F.; Bezaeva, N. S.; Cournède, C.; Scaillet, B.

    2015-12-01

    We present a comprehensive overview of the magnetic properties of the four known tektite fields and related fully melted impact glasses (Aouelloul, Belize, Darwin, Libyan desert and Wabar glasses, irghizites, and atacamaites), namely magnetic susceptibility and hysteresis properties as well as properties dependent on magnetic grain-size. Tektites appear to be characterized by pure Fe2+ paramagnetism, with ferromagnetic traces below 1 ppm. The different tektite fields yield mostly non-overlapping narrow susceptibility ranges. Belize and Darwin glasses share similar characteristics. On the other hand the other studied glasses have wider susceptibility ranges, with median close to paramagnetism (Fe2+ and Fe3+) but with a high-susceptibility population bearing variable amounts of magnetite. This signs a fundamental difference between tektites (plus Belize and Darwin glasses) and other studied glasses in terms of oxygen fugacity and heterogeneity during formation, thus bringing new light to the formation processes of these materials. It also appears that selecting the most magnetic glass samples allows to find impactor-rich material, opening new perspectives to identify the type of impactor responsible for the glass generation.

  1. Synthesis and magnetic properties of single-crystalline magnetite nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qin; Liu, Zhenghui; Xu, Yingying; Zhang, Han

    2007-09-01

    By carefully controlling the reaction conditions, nanowires of Fe 3O 4 are directly acquired from nanowires of α-Fe 2O 3 in a reduced atmosphere at 410-430 °C. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, and transmission electron microscopic analyses demonstrate that the product is single-crystalline Fe 3O 4. The nanowires have diameters of 40-90 nm and lengths of 10-20 μm, which are close to those of the pristine α-Fe 2O 3 nanowires. By studying different growth conditions, we find that hydrogen can push the conversion of the crystal structures, while temperature determines the chemical composition of the final products. The magnetic properties of as-prepared Fe 3O 4 nanowires are measured using a quantum design magnetic property measurement system. The nanowires show a ferrimagnetic behavior at room temperature and their magnetic properties are strongly influenced by surface and interface effects. The Verwey transition temperature ( TV=116 K) is found to be a little lower than that of bulk materials, which can be attributed to the small deviation from stoichiometry caused by the oxygen vacancies near the surfaces. Below 12 K, the nanowires show a spin-glass-like behavior owing to the disordered frozen magnetic state at the surfaces.

  2. Magnetic properties of bio-synthesized zinc ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Yeary, Lucas W; Moon, Ji Won; Rawn, Claudia J; Love, Lonnie J; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Thompson, James R; Chakoumakos, Bryan C; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic properties of zinc ferrite (Zn-substituted magnetite, Zn{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) formed by a microbial process compared favorably with chemically synthesized materials. A metal reducing bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter, strain TOR-39 was incubated with Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 1-x}OOH (x=0.01, 0.1, and 0.15) precursors and produced nanoparticulate zinc ferrites. Composition and crystalline structure of the resulting zinc ferrites were verified using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and neutron diffraction. The average composition from triplicates gave a value for y of 0.02, 0.23, and 0.30 with the greatest standard deviation of 0.02. Average crystallite sizes were determined to be 67, 49, and 25 nm, respectively. While crystallite size decreased with more Zn substitution, the lattice parameter and the unit cell volume showed a gradual increase in agreement with previous literature values. The magnetic properties were characterized using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer and were compared with values for the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) reported in the literature. The averaged M{sub s} values for the triplicates with the largest amount of zinc (y=0.30) gave values of 100.1, 96.5, and 69.7 emu/g at temperatures of 5, 80, and 300 K, respectively indicating increased magnetic properties of the bacterially synthesized zinc ferrites.

  3. A Study of the Magnetic and Thermal Properties of Ln

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Daijitsu; Hinatsu, Yukio

    2001-05-01

    Crystal structures, and magnetic, electric, and thermal properties of fluorite related compounds Ln{sub 3}RuO{sub 7} (Ln=Sm, Eu) have been investigated. For Eu{sub 3}RuO{sub 7}, a magnetic transition due to Ru{sup 5+} ions is found at T{sub N}=22.5 K on the susceptibility-temperature curve. Specific heat measurements also exhibit a {lambda}-type anomaly at the same temperature. The Moessbauer spectrum measured at 10 K shows broadening of the line corresponding to magnetic splitting. For Sm{sub 3}RuO{sub 7}, two magnetic anomalies have been observed at 10.5 and 22.5 K from its magnetic susceptibility measurements. Below 22.5 K Ru{sup 5+} ions are antiferromagnetically coupled, and when the temperature is decreased through 10.5 K the ordering of Sm{sup 3+} ions occurs rapidly. Specific heat measurements show first-order transition peaks at T=280 and 190 K for Eu{sub 3}RuO{sub 7} and Sm{sub 3}RuO{sub 7}, respectively. T he results of magnetic susceptibility and electric resistivity measurements indicate that these transitions are structural phase transitions.

  4. Magnetic separation, thermo- and magnetochemical properties of coal liquid residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, E.; Kelland, D. R.

    1981-02-01

    Iron sulfides in the form of ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite have been removed from solvent refined coal by the use of high gradient magnetic separation. The results of such separations have been correlated with those of studies of the thermochemical and magnetochemical properties of the undissolved solids present in the product of coal liquefaction. Complete inorganic desulfurization was achieved at the same temperatures at which the solids exhibit a maximum magnetization, at about 230 °C. The preferred form for the highest magnetization is a monoclinic structure with a composition of Fe0.875S. Where the sulfides do not occur in this form, it has been possible to convert them to the high magnetization state by exposure to a hydrogen sulfide atmosphere at an elevated temperature. To approximate the temperature cycle experienced by the liquid coal coming from the reactor toward the filter, samples were heated above the Curie point to destroy the magnetization and then cooled to about 260 °C for H2S treatment. Measurements on the solids subsequently extracted showed a striking increase in the magnetization compared to the untreated material.

  5. Electronic and magnetic properties of small rhodium clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Soon, Yee Yeen; Yoon, Tiem Leong; Lim, Thong Leng

    2015-04-24

    We report a theoretical study of the electronic and magnetic properties of rhodium-atomic clusters. The lowest energy structures at the semi-empirical level of rhodium clusters are first obtained from a novel global-minimum search algorithm, known as PTMBHGA, where Gupta potential is used to describe the atomic interaction among the rhodium atoms. The structures are then re-optimized at the density functional theory (DFT) level with exchange-correlation energy approximated by Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof generalized gradient approximation. For the purpose of calculating the magnetic moment of a given cluster, we calculate the optimized structure as a function of the spin multiplicity within the DFT framework. The resultant magnetic moments with the lowest energies so obtained allow us to work out the magnetic moment as a function of cluster size. Rhodium atomic clusters are found to display a unique variation in the magnetic moment as the cluster size varies. However, Rh{sub 4} and Rh{sub 6} are found to be nonmagnetic. Electronic structures of the magnetic ground-state structures are also investigated within the DFT framework. The results are compared against those based on different theoretical approaches available in the literature.

  6. Optical Writing of Magnetic Properties by Remanent Photostriction.

    PubMed

    Iurchuk, V; Schick, D; Bran, J; Colson, D; Forget, A; Halley, D; Koc, A; Reinhardt, M; Kwamen, C; Morley, N A; Bargheer, M; Viret, M; Gumeniuk, R; Schmerber, G; Doudin, B; Kundys, B

    2016-09-01

    We present an optically induced remanent photostriction in BiFeO_{3}, resulting from the photovoltaic effect, which is used to modify the ferromagnetism of Ni film in a hybrid BiFeO_{3}/Ni structure. The 75% change in coercivity in the Ni film is achieved via optical and nonvolatile control. This photoferromagnetic effect can be reversed by static or ac electric depolarization of BiFeO_{3}. Hence, the strain dependent changes in magnetic properties are written optically, and erased electrically. Light-mediated straintronics is therefore a possible approach for low-power multistate control of magnetic elements relevant for memory and spintronic applications.

  7. Aging of magnetic properties in MgO films

    SciTech Connect

    Balcells, Ll.; Konstantinovic, Z.; Martinez, B.; Beltran, J. I.; Martinez-Boubeta, C.; Arbiol, J.

    2010-12-20

    In this work we report on the magnetic behavior of MgO thin films prepared by sputtering. A severe aging process of the ferromagnetic properties is detected in magnetic samples exposed to ambient atmosphere. However, ferromagnetism can be successively switched on again by annealing samples in vacuum. We suggest this behavior reflects the key role played by defects in stabilizing ferromagnetism in MgO films and is likely to be closely related to the hydrogen-driven instability of V-type centers in this material.

  8. Optical Writing of Magnetic Properties by Remanent Photostriction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iurchuk, V.; Schick, D.; Bran, J.; Colson, D.; Forget, A.; Halley, D.; Koc, A.; Reinhardt, M.; Kwamen, C.; Morley, N. A.; Bargheer, M.; Viret, M.; Gumeniuk, R.; Schmerber, G.; Doudin, B.; Kundys, B.

    2016-09-01

    We present an optically induced remanent photostriction in BiFeO3 , resulting from the photovoltaic effect, which is used to modify the ferromagnetism of Ni film in a hybrid BiFeO3/Ni structure. The 75% change in coercivity in the Ni film is achieved via optical and nonvolatile control. This photoferromagnetic effect can be reversed by static or ac electric depolarization of BiFeO3 . Hence, the strain dependent changes in magnetic properties are written optically, and erased electrically. Light-mediated straintronics is therefore a possible approach for low-power multistate control of magnetic elements relevant for memory and spintronic applications.

  9. Optical Writing of Magnetic Properties by Remanent Photostriction.

    PubMed

    Iurchuk, V; Schick, D; Bran, J; Colson, D; Forget, A; Halley, D; Koc, A; Reinhardt, M; Kwamen, C; Morley, N A; Bargheer, M; Viret, M; Gumeniuk, R; Schmerber, G; Doudin, B; Kundys, B

    2016-09-01

    We present an optically induced remanent photostriction in BiFeO_{3}, resulting from the photovoltaic effect, which is used to modify the ferromagnetism of Ni film in a hybrid BiFeO_{3}/Ni structure. The 75% change in coercivity in the Ni film is achieved via optical and nonvolatile control. This photoferromagnetic effect can be reversed by static or ac electric depolarization of BiFeO_{3}. Hence, the strain dependent changes in magnetic properties are written optically, and erased electrically. Light-mediated straintronics is therefore a possible approach for low-power multistate control of magnetic elements relevant for memory and spintronic applications. PMID:27636494

  10. Magnetic Properties of MnFe2Ga Heusler Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgendy, Ahmed A.; Salehi-Fashami, Mohammad; Sellmyer, David; Hadjipanayis, George

    2015-03-01

    Recently, MnFe2Ga Heusler alloys have attracted significant attention due to their interesting physical properties such as large magnetic-field-induced strain, giant magnetocaloric effects,large magnetoresistance, and exchange bias behavior. These properties make them promising candidates for various practical applications in the field of smart materials, magnetic refrigeration and spintronics. In this work, we prepared MnFe2Ga alloys by melt-spinning and sputtering and studied the structural and magnetic properties. The melt-spun ribbons were prepared with a wheel speed of 30 m/s. The ribbons were annealed at different temperatures for 1 hour and grinded to make fine powders. The grinded powders were also used to make the target that is used in the cluster gun for the fabrication of MnFe2Ga nanoparticles. The structure of the as made, annealed ribbons, and powders displayed a face-centered-cubic structure. The microstructure of the as-made ribbons showed equiaxed grains with an average size of 3-5 μm while the annealed ribbons showed bigger grains with small particles covering homogeneously their surface. The magnetic properties show an enhancement of magnetization while coercivity remains the same with values M(3T) and HC of 85 emu/g and 150 Oe, respectively Transmission electron microscopy with elemental mapping is currently underway to determine the structure and composition of the surface nanoparticles. The work was supported by DOE-BES-DMSE (Grant No. DE-FG02-04ER4612).

  11. Size Effects on the Magnetic Properties of Nanoscale Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianping

    Finite size effects on the magnetic properties of nanoscale particles have been studied in this work. The first system studied was MnFe_2O _4 prepared by coprecipitation followed by digestion. The particles were single crystals with an average diameter controllable from 5 nm to 25 nm. These particles have a higher inversion degree of metal ion distribution between the tetrahedral sites and octahedral sites of the spinel structure than those synthesized with ceramic methods. This higher inversion leads to a higher Curie temperature. We found that the structure of the particles can be varied by heat treatment. The Curie temperature of the particles decreased after heat treatment in inert gas, however, it increased after heat treatment in air. The size effects show in two aspects on the MnFe_2O _4 particles. First, the Curie temperature decreased as particles size was reduced, which was explained by finite size scaling. Second, the saturation magnetization decreased as particle size decreased because of the existence of a nonmagnetic layer on the surface of MnFe_2 O_4 particles. The second system studied was Co particles synthesized with an inverse micelle technique. The particles were small (1-5 nm) and had a narrow size distribution. The Co particles were superparamagnetic at room temperature and showed a set of consistent magnetic data in magnetic moment per particle, coercivity, and blocking temperature. We found the anisotropy constant and saturation magnetization of Co particles had a strong size dependence. The anisotropy constant was above the bulk value of Co and increased as particle size decreased. The saturation magnetization increased as the particle became smaller. The magnetic properties of Co particles also strongly suggested a core/shell structure in each particle. But no physical inhomogeneity was observed. We have also studied ligand effects on the magnetic properties of Co particles. The magnetization of the Co particles was quenched by 36%, 27

  12. Structural magnetism: Experimental studies of the relations between structures and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tao

    The magnetic properties of transition metals are known to depend strongly upon their crystal structure. One way to artificially control the structure is through the preparation of superlattices, where a metastable phase of one element may be stabilized through epitaxial growth. Many metastable systems achieved exhibit unusual properties. Some newly developed technologies make this study possible. Epitaxial sputtering was established within this decade and it is our primary growth method. X-ray diffraction is still the most important technique in determining crystal structure. Magnetic optical Kerr effect (MOKE) can give lots of important information on magnetic properties such as the coercivity and the saturation Kerr effect. The theory of the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) is quite similar to MOKE except that it uses X-rays instead of visible light. This feature enables XMCD to detect the element specific magnetic properties which play a central role in this study. The studies on Fe/Ni and Fe/Ru multilayers discovered many extraordinary behaviors of Ni and Ru. in their metastable phase. For example, as an important ferromagnetic metal, Ni is found enhanced magnetic moment in bct structure for the first time. The study on the Slater-Pauling curve for the 4d elements is to continue a 70-year construction of Slater-Pauling curve. Benefited from those new techniques, the construction of the Slater- Pauling curve for the 4d elements was accomplished. Metastable phase fct-Fe is of particular interesting because it displays a large variety of structural magnetic properties. It was found in this project that Fe magnetic moment in the [4d alloy/Fe/4d alloy] structure has a strong dependence on the electron interaction between Fe and 4d element. Although there is no solid evidence indicating that the resistance of tunneling junctions with GdN barrier have dependence on external magnetic field, lots of interesting results were still found, such as the relation

  13. A combined theoretical and in vitro modeling approach for predicting the magnetic capture and retention of magnetic nanoparticles in vivo

    PubMed Central

    David, Allan E.; Cole, Adam J.; Chertok, Beata; Park, Yoon Shin; Yang, Victor C.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) continue to draw considerable attention as potential diagnostic and therapeutic tools in the fight against cancer. Although many interacting forces present themselves during magnetic targeting of MNP to tumors, most theoretical considerations of this process ignore all except for the magnetic and drag forces. Our validation of a simple in vitro model against in vivo data, and subsequent reproduction of the in vitro results with a theoretical model indicated that these two forces do indeed dominate the magnetic capture of MNP. However, because nanoparticles can be subject to aggregation, and large MNP experience an increased magnetic force, the effects of surface forces on MNP stability cannot be ignored. We accounted for the aggregating surface forces simply by measuring the size of MNP retained from flow by magnetic fields, and utilized this size in the mathematical model. This presumably accounted for all particle-particle interactions, including those between magnetic dipoles. Thus, our “corrected” mathematical model provided a reasonable estimate of not only fractional MNP retention, but also predicted the regions of accumulation in a simulated capillary. Furthermore, the model was also utilized to calculate the effects of MNP size and spatial location, relative to the magnet, on targeting of MNPs to tumors. This combination of an in vitro model with a theoretical model could potentially assist with parametric evaluations of magnetic targeting, and enable rapid enhancement and optimization of magnetic targeting methodologies. PMID:21295085

  14. A polymer dataset for accelerated property prediction and design.

    PubMed

    Huan, Tran Doan; Mannodi-Kanakkithodi, Arun; Kim, Chiho; Sharma, Vinit; Pilania, Ghanshyam; Ramprasad, Rampi

    2016-01-01

    Emerging computation- and data-driven approaches are particularly useful for rationally designing materials with targeted properties. Generally, these approaches rely on identifying structure-property relationships by learning from a dataset of sufficiently large number of relevant materials. The learned information can then be used to predict the properties of materials not already in the dataset, thus accelerating the materials design. Herein, we develop a dataset of 1,073 polymers and related materials and make it available at http://khazana.uconn.edu/. This dataset is uniformly prepared using first-principles calculations with structures obtained either from other sources or by using structure search methods. Because the immediate target of this work is to assist the design of high dielectric constant polymers, it is initially designed to include the optimized structures, atomization energies, band gaps, and dielectric constants. It will be progressively expanded by accumulating new materials and including additional properties calculated for the optimized structures provided. PMID:26927478

  15. A polymer dataset for accelerated property prediction and design.

    PubMed

    Huan, Tran Doan; Mannodi-Kanakkithodi, Arun; Kim, Chiho; Sharma, Vinit; Pilania, Ghanshyam; Ramprasad, Rampi

    2016-03-01

    Emerging computation- and data-driven approaches are particularly useful for rationally designing materials with targeted properties. Generally, these approaches rely on identifying structure-property relationships by learning from a dataset of sufficiently large number of relevant materials. The learned information can then be used to predict the properties of materials not already in the dataset, thus accelerating the materials design. Herein, we develop a dataset of 1,073 polymers and related materials and make it available at http://khazana.uconn.edu/. This dataset is uniformly prepared using first-principles calculations with structures obtained either from other sources or by using structure search methods. Because the immediate target of this work is to assist the design of high dielectric constant polymers, it is initially designed to include the optimized structures, atomization energies, band gaps, and dielectric constants. It will be progressively expanded by accumulating new materials and including additional properties calculated for the optimized structures provided.

  16. A polymer dataset for accelerated property prediction and design

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Tran Doan; Mannodi-Kanakkithodi, Arun; Kim, Chiho; Sharma, Vinit; Pilania, Ghanshyam; Ramprasad, Rampi

    2016-01-01

    Emerging computation- and data-driven approaches are particularly useful for rationally designing materials with targeted properties. Generally, these approaches rely on identifying structure-property relationships by learning from a dataset of sufficiently large number of relevant materials. The learned information can then be used to predict the properties of materials not already in the dataset, thus accelerating the materials design. Herein, we develop a dataset of 1,073 polymers and related materials and make it available at http://khazana.uconn.edu/. This dataset is uniformly prepared using first-principles calculations with structures obtained either from other sources or by using structure search methods. Because the immediate target of this work is to assist the design of high dielectric constant polymers, it is initially designed to include the optimized structures, atomization energies, band gaps, and dielectric constants. It will be progressively expanded by accumulating new materials and including additional properties calculated for the optimized structures provided. PMID:26927478

  17. Point defect-induced magnetic properties in CuAlO2 films without magnetic impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jie; Lin, Yow-Jon

    2016-03-01

    The magnetic properties of the undoped CuAlO2 thin films with different compositions are examined. In order to understand this phenomenon and to determine the correlation between the magnetic and electrical properties and point defects, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Hall effect measurements are performed. Combining with Hall effect, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and alternating gradient magnetometer measurements, a direct link between the hole concentration, magnetism, copper vacancy (VCu), oxygen vacancy, and interstitial oxygen (Oi) is established. It is shown that an increase in the number of acceptors (VCu and Oi) leads to an increase in the hole concentration. Based on theoretical and experimental investigations, the authors confirmed that both acceptors (VCu and Oi) in CuAlO2 could induce the ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature.

  18. Influence of magnetic electrodes thicknesses on the transport properties of magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Cuchet, Léa; Rodmacq, Bernard; Auffret, Stéphane; Sousa, Ricardo C.; Dieny, Bernard

    2014-08-04

    The influence of the bottom and top magnetic electrodes thicknesses on both perpendicular anisotropy and transport properties is studied in (Co/Pt)/Ta/CoFeB/MgO/FeCoB/Ta magnetic tunnel junctions. By carefully investigating the relative magnetic moment of the two electrodes as a function of their thicknesses, we identify and quantify the presence of magnetically dead layers, likely localized at the interfaces with Ta, that is, 0.33 nm for the bottom electrode and 0.60 nm for the top one. Critical thicknesses (spin-reorientation transitions) are determined as 1.60 and 1.65 nm for bottom and top electrodes, respectively. The tunnel magnetoresistance ratio reaches its maximum value, as soon as both effective (corrected from dead layer) electrode thicknesses exceed 0.6 nm.

  19. Magnetic properties of ultrathin tetragonal Heusler D022-Mn3Ge perpendicular-magnetized films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugihara, A.; Suzuki, K. Z.; Miyazaki, T.; Mizukami, S.

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the crystal structure and magnetic properties of Manganese-germanium (Mn3Ge) films having the tetragonal D022 structure, with varied thicknesses (5-130 nm) prepared on chromium (Cr)-buffered single crystal MgO(001) substrates. A crystal lattice elongation in the in-plane direction, induced by the lattice mismatch between the D022-Mn3Ge and the Cr buffer layer, increased with decreasing thickness of the D022-Mn3Ge layer. The films exhibited clear magnetic hysteresis loops with a squareness ratio close to unity, and a step-like magnetization reversal even at a 5-nm thickness under an external field perpendicular to the film's plane. The uniaxial magnetic anisotropy constant of the films showed a reduction to less than 10 Merg/cm3 in the small thickness range (≤20 nm), likely due to the crystal lattice elongation in the in-plane direction.

  20. Magnetic properties of transition-metal multilayers studied with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Stoehr, J.; Nakajima, R.

    1998-01-01

    The detailed understanding of the magnetic properties of transition-metal multilayers requires the use of state-of-the-art experimental techniques. Over the last few years, the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) technique has evolved into an important magnetometry tool. This paper is an overview of the principles and unique strengths of the technique. Aspects covered include the quantitative determination of element-specific spin and orbital magnetic moments and their anisotropies through sumrule analyses of experimental spectra. A discussion is presented on how the spin and orbital magnetic moments in transition-metal thin films and sandwiches are modified relative to the bulk. The authors show that a thin film of a nonmagnetic metal such as Cu may become magnetically active when adjacent to a magnetic layer, and a thin film of a ferromagnetic metal such as Fe may become magnetically inactive. The orbital moment is found to become anisotropic in thin films; it can be regarded as the microscopic origin of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  1. Magnetic and elastic properties of CoFe2O4- polydimethylsiloxane magnetically oriented elastomer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soledad Antonel, P.; Jorge, Guillermo; Perez, Oscar E.; Butera, Alejandro; Gabriela Leyva, A.; Martín Negri, R.

    2011-08-01

    Magnetic elastic structured composites were prepared by using CoFe2O4 ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic nanoparticles as fillers in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrixes, which were cured in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. Cobalt-iron oxide nanoparticles of three different average sizes (between 2 and 12 nm) were synthesized and characterized. The smallest nanoparticles presented superparamagnetic behavior, with a blocking temperature of approximately 75 K, while larger particles are already blocked at room temperature. Macroscopically structured-anisotropic PDMS-CoFe2O4 composites were obtained when curing the dispersion of the nanoparticles in the presence of a uniform magnetic field (0.3 T). The formation of the particle's chains (needles) orientated in the direction of the magnetic field was observed only when loading with the larger magnetically blocked nanoparticles. The SEM images show that the needles are formed by groups of nanoparticles which retain their original average size. The Young's moduli of the structured composites are four times larger when measured along the oriented needles than in the perpendicular direction. Magnetization (VSM) and ferromagnetic resonance curves of the structured composites were determined as a function of the relative orientation between the needles and the probe field. The remanence magnetization was 30% higher when measured parallel to the needles, while the coercive field remains isotropic. These observations are discussed in terms of the individual nanoparticle's properties and its aggregation in the composites.

  2. Nanoscale magnetism and novel electronic properties of a bilayer bismuth(111) film with vacancies and chemical doping.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, M P K; Zhang, Yajun; Wang, Jie

    2016-07-27

    Magnetically doped topological insulators (TIs) exhibit several exotic phenomena including the magnetoelectric effect and quantum anomalous Hall effect. However, from an experimental perspective, incorporation of spin moment into 3D TIs is still challenging. Thus, instead of 3D TIs, the 2D form of TIs may open up new opportunities to induce magnetism. Based on first principles calculations, we demonstrate a novel strategy to realize robust magnetism and exotic electronic properties in a 2D TI [bilayer Bi(111) film: abbreviated as Bi(111)]. We examine the magnetic and electronic properties of Bi(111) with defects such as bismuth monovacancies (MVs) and divacancies (DVs), and these defects decorated with 3d transition metals (TMs). It has been observed that the MV in Bi(111) can induce novel half metallicity with a net magnetic moment of 1 μB. The origin of half metallicity and magnetism in MV/Bi(111) is further explained by the passivation of the σ-dangling bonds near the defect site. Furthermore, in spite of the nonmagnetic nature of DVs, the TMs (V, Cr, Mn, and Fe) trapped at the 5/8/5 defect structure of DVs can not only yield a much higher spin moment than those trapped at the MVs but also display intriguing electronic properties such as metallic, semiconducting and spin gapless semiconducting properties. The predicted magnetic and electronic properties of TM/DV/Bi(111) systems are explained through density of states, spin density distribution and Bader charge analysis. PMID:27406933

  3. Nanoscale magnetism and novel electronic properties of a bilayer bismuth(111) film with vacancies and chemical doping.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, M P K; Zhang, Yajun; Wang, Jie

    2016-07-27

    Magnetically doped topological insulators (TIs) exhibit several exotic phenomena including the magnetoelectric effect and quantum anomalous Hall effect. However, from an experimental perspective, incorporation of spin moment into 3D TIs is still challenging. Thus, instead of 3D TIs, the 2D form of TIs may open up new opportunities to induce magnetism. Based on first principles calculations, we demonstrate a novel strategy to realize robust magnetism and exotic electronic properties in a 2D TI [bilayer Bi(111) film: abbreviated as Bi(111)]. We examine the magnetic and electronic properties of Bi(111) with defects such as bismuth monovacancies (MVs) and divacancies (DVs), and these defects decorated with 3d transition metals (TMs). It has been observed that the MV in Bi(111) can induce novel half metallicity with a net magnetic moment of 1 μB. The origin of half metallicity and magnetism in MV/Bi(111) is further explained by the passivation of the σ-dangling bonds near the defect site. Furthermore, in spite of the nonmagnetic nature of DVs, the TMs (V, Cr, Mn, and Fe) trapped at the 5/8/5 defect structure of DVs can not only yield a much higher spin moment than those trapped at the MVs but also display intriguing electronic properties such as metallic, semiconducting and spin gapless semiconducting properties. The predicted magnetic and electronic properties of TM/DV/Bi(111) systems are explained through density of states, spin density distribution and Bader charge analysis.

  4. Magnetic properties of point defect interaction with impurity atoms in Fe-Cr alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen-Manh, D.; Lavrentiev, M. Yu.; Dudarev, S. L.

    2009-04-01

    An integrated ab initio and statistical Monte Carlo investigation has been recently carried out to model the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of Fe-Cr alloys. We found that the conventional Fe-Cr phase diagram is not adequate at low temperature region where the magnetic contribution to the free energy plays an important role in the prediction of an ordered Fe 15Cr phase and its negative enthalpy of formation. The origin of the anomalous thermodynamic and magnetic properties of Fe-Cr alloys can be understood using a tight-binding Stoner model combined with the charge neutrality condition. We investigate the environmental dependence of magnetic moment distributions for various self-interstitial atom <1 1 0> dumbbells configurations using spin density maps found using density functional theory calculations. The mixed dumbbell Fe-Cr and Fe-Mn binding energies are found to be positive due to magnetic interactions. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the migration energy of vacancy in Fe-Cr alloys and magnetism at the saddle point configuration.

  5. Micromorphology, microstructure and magnetic properties of sputtered garnet multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Marcelli, R.; Padeletti, G.; Gambacorti, N.; Simeone, M.G.; Fiorani, D.

    1998-12-31

    The growth technique, the micromorphological and microstructural characterization by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and secondary ions mass spectrometry (SIMS) as well as the magnetic properties of a novel class of magnetic multilayers, based on radio frequency (RF) sputtered thin amorphous garnet films, are presented. One, three and five thin film multilayers composed by amorphous pure yttrium iron garnet (a:YIG) and amorphous gadolinium gallium garnet (a:GGG) have been grown on GGG single crystal substrates. The multilayer interfaces have been found to be comparable in both, the three and five-layers structure. Low field susceptibility measurements, showed a paramagnetic behavior for the single layer YIG film. For the three and five layers samples, irreversibility effects were observed, giving evidence of magnetic clusters at the interface YIG/GGG.

  6. Magnetic nanoparticles supported ionic liquids improve firefly luciferase properties.

    PubMed

    Noori, Ali Reza; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Ghiasi, Parisa; Akbari, Jafar; Heydari, Akbar

    2014-03-01

    Ionic liquids as neoteric solvents, microwave irradiation, and alternative energy source are becoming as a solvent for many enzymatic reactions. We recently showed that the incubation of firefly luciferase from Photinus pyralis with various ionic liquids increased the activity and stability of luciferase. Magnetic nanoparticles supported ionic liquids have been obtained by covalent bonding of ionic liquids-silane on magnetic silica nanoparticles. In the present study, the effects of [γ-Fe2O3@SiO2][BMImCl] and [γ-Fe2O3@SiO2][BMImI] were investigated on the structural properties and function of luciferase using circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, and bioluminescence assay. Enzyme activity and structural stability increased in the presence of magnetic nanoparticles supported ionic liquids. Furthermore, the effect of ingredients which were used was not considerable on K(m) value of luciferase for adenosine-5'-triphosphate and also K(m) value for luciferin.

  7. Structure, Transport Properties, and Magnetism of Artificially-Structured Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, John Q.

    Structural, magnetic, and magneto-transport properties of three different classes of artificially structured materials: (1) multilayers (Fe(110)/Ag(111) and Fe(110)/W(110)), (2) Fe-nitrides, and (3) metallic granular solids (Co/Ag, Co/Cu Fe/Ag and (Ni-Fe)/Ag), prepared by magnetron sputtering are presented. In the multilayers, the structure has been characterized using both low-angle and high-angle x-ray diffraction together with theoretical modeling. The magnetic properties of the Fe/Ag and Fe/W multilayers have been studied when the layer thickness of Fe and the intervening Ag or W layers are systematically varied. In the case of Fe/Ag multilayers, the interfaces are sharp. The Fe magnetic moment slightly increases with decreasing Fe layer thickness. The magnetization shows a B T^{3/2} dependence with very large values of B. In the Fe/W multilayers, there are small intermixed regions of one or two monolayers at the interfaces. The Fe moments within this region are deteriorated, whereas the rest of the Fe moments maintain their bulk values. With reactive sputtering using a mixture of argon and ammonia gases, all stable Fe-nitrides (gamma ^'-Fe_4N, varepsilon-Fe_{2 -3}N, and zeta-Fe _2N) of single phase can be fabricated. The phase diagram of Fe-nitride composition as a function of pressure of NH_3 has been determined. The magnetic properties and the Mossbauer parameters are in excellent agreement with those from the bulk samples. The magneto-transport properties in metallic granular solids, related metastable alloys and in samples with mixed phases, have been extensively studied. We have investigated the magneto-transport properties as a function of the annealing temperature, temperatures, and the magnetic concentration. For the first time, giant magnetoresistance (GMR) has been observed in non-layered but granular solids. We have shown that the GMR is isotropic and is the extra resistivity due to scattering from the non-aligned ferromagnetic entities. This extra

  8. Magnetic field of the planet Uranus: predictions, measurements, and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Dolginov, S.S.

    1987-09-01

    The magnitude and tilt of the eccentric dipole of Uranus are examined in the framework of a processing dynamo model. It is shown that the unique parameters of the magnetic field of Uranus are connected with the fact that, unlike the other planets, the magnetic field of Uranus is generated in two bordering regions whose highly conducting materials differ sharply in density: the density anti rho = 12 g x cm/sup -3/ in a core with an upper boundary r = 0.3R/sub U/, and anti rho = 3.1 g x cm/sup -3/ in an ocean with an upper boundary r = 0.6R/sub U/. The upper boundary of the magnetically active region in the ocean is determined by the magnetic pressure P = 1.9 Mbar, at which the ocean material is metallized.

  9. Electrochromic & magnetic properties of electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng-Fei, Guo; Kun, Pan; Xue-Jin, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Progress in electrochromic lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is reviewed, highlighting advances and possible research directions. Methods for using the LIB electrode materials’ magnetic properties are also described, using several examples. Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) film is discussed as an electrochromic material and insertion compound. The opto-electrical properties of the LTO film have been characterized by electrical measurements and UV-Vis spectra. A prototype bi-functional electrochromic LIB, incorporating LTO as both electrochromic layer and anode, has also been characterized by charge- discharge measurements and UV-Vis transmittance. The results show that the bi-functional electrochromic LIB prototype works well. Magnetic measurement has proven to be a powerful tool to evaluate the quality of electrode materials. We introduce briefly the magnetism of solids in general, and then discuss the magnetic characteristics of layered oxides, spinel oxides, olivine phosphate LiFePO4, and Nasicon-type Li3Fe2(PO4)3. We also discuss what kind of impurities can be detected, which will guide us to fabricate high quality films and high performance devices. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA034201) and the Chinese Universities Scientific Fund (Grant No. 2015LX002).

  10. The magnetic properties of the star Kepler-78

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutou, C.; Donati, J.-F.; Lin, D.; Laine, R. O.; Hatzes, A.

    2016-06-01

    Kepler-78 is host to a transiting 8.5-h orbit super-Earth. In this paper, the rotation and magnetic properties of the planet host star are studied. We first revisit the Kepler photometric data for a detailed description of the rotation properties of Kepler-78, showing that the star seems to undergo a cycle in the spot pattern of ˜1300 d duration. We then use spectropolarimetric observations with Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT)/ESPaDOnS to measure the circular polarization in the line profile of the star during its rotation cycle, as well as spectroscopic proxies of the chromospheric activity. The average field has a strength of 16 G. The magnetic topology is characterized by a poloidal and a toroidal component, encompassing 60 per cent and 40 per cent of the magnetic energy, respectively. Differential rotation is detected with an estimated rate of 0.105±0.039 rad d-1. Activity tracers vary with the rotation cycle of the star; there is no hint that a residual activity level is related to the planetary orbit at the precision of our data. The description of the star magnetic field's characteristics then may serve as input for models of interactions between the star and its close-by planet, e.g. Ohmic dissipation and unipolar induction.

  11. Tuning electronic and magnetic properties of GaN nanosheets by surface modifications and nanosheet thickness.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Meixia; Yao, Tingzhen; Ao, Zhimin; Wei, Peng; Wang, Danghui; Song, Haiyang

    2015-04-14

    Density-functional theory calculations are performed to investigate the effects of surface modifications and nanosheet thickness on the electronic and magnetic properties of gallium nitride (GaN) nanosheets (NSs). Unlike the bare GaN NSs terminating with polar surfaces, the systems with hydrogenated Ga (H-GaN), fluorinated Ga (F-GaN), and chlorinated Ga (Cl-GaN) preserve their initial wurtzite structures and exhibit ferromagnetic states. The abovementioned three different decorations on Ga atoms are energetically more favorable for thicker GaN NSs. Moreover, as the thickness increases, H-GaN and F-GaN NSs undergo semiconductor to metal and half-metal to metal transition, respectively, while Cl-GaN NSs remain completely metallic. The predicted diverse and tunable electronic and magnetic properties highlight the potential of GaN NSs for novel electronic and spintronic nanodevices.

  12. Magnetic Interactions Influence the Properties of Helium Defects in Iron.

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskaia, Tatiana; Osetskiy, Yury N; Stoller, Roger E; Stocks, George Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations of He defect properties in iron have shown an unexpected influence of magnetism arising from the defect's electronic structure. In contrast with previous work that neglected such effects, the results indicate that the tetrahedral position is energetically more favorable for the He interstitial than the octahedral site. This may have significant implications for He clustering and bubble nucleation, which will impact material performance in future fusion reactors. These results provide the basis for development of improved atomistic models.

  13. Microscopic and magnetic properties of template assisted electrodeposited iron nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irshad, M. I.; Ahmad, F.; Mohamed, N. M.; Abdullah, M. Z.; Yar, A.

    2015-07-01

    Nanowires of magnetic materials such as Iron, nickel, cobalt, and alloys of them are one of the most widely investigated structures because of their possible applications in high density magnetic recording media, sensor elements, and building blocks in biological transport systems. In this work, Iron nanowires have been prepared by electrodeposition technique using Anodized Aluminium Oxide (AAO) templates. The electrolyte used consisted of FeSO4.6H2O buffered with H3BO3 and acidized by dilute H2SO4. FESEM analysis shows that the asdeposited nanowires are parallel to one another and have high aspect ratio with a reasonably high pore-filing factor. To fabricate the working electrode, a thin film of copper (˜ 220 nm thick) was coated on back side of AAO template by e-beam evaporation system to create electrical contact with the external circuit. The TEM results show that electrodeposited nanowires have diameter around 100 nm and are polycrystalline in structure. Magnetic properties show the existence of anisotropy for in and out of plane configuration. These nanowires have potential applications in magnetic data storage, catalysis and magnetic sensor applications.

  14. Cryogenic properties of dispersion strengthened copper for high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toplosky, V. J.; Han, K.; Walsh, R. P.; Swenson, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    Cold deformed copper matrix composite conductors, developed for use in the 100 tesla multi-shot pulsed magnet at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), have been characterized. The conductors are alumina strengthened copper which is fabricated by cold drawing that introduces high dislocation densities and high internal stresses. Both alumina particles and high density of dislocations provide us with high tensile strength and fatigue endurance. The conductors also have high electrical conductivities because alumina has limited solubility in Cu and dislocations have little scattering effect on conduction electrons. Such a combination of high strength and high conductivity makes it an excellent candidate over other resistive magnet materials. Thus, characterization is carried out by tensile testing and fully reversible fatigue testing. In tensile tests, the material exceeds the design criteria parameters. In the fatigue tests, both the load and displacement were measured and used to control the amplitude of the tests to simulate the various loading conditions in the pulsed magnet which is operated at 77 K in a non-destructive mode. In order to properly simulate the pulsed magnet operation, strain-controlled tests were more suitable than load controlled tests. For the dispersion strengthened coppers, the strengthening mechanism of the aluminum oxide provided better tensile and fatigue properties over convention copper.

  15. Magnetic and transport properties of PrRhSi3.

    PubMed

    Anand, V K; Adroja, D T; Hillier, A D

    2013-05-15

    We have investigated the magnetic and transport properties of a noncentrosymmetric compound PrRhSi3 by dc magnetic susceptibility χ(T), isothermal magnetization M(H), thermoremanent magnetization M(t), specific heat Cp(T), electrical resistivity ρ(T,H) and muon spin relaxation (μSR) measurements. At low fields χ(T) shows two anomalies near 15 and 7 K with an irreversibility between ZFC and FC data below 15 K. In contrast, no anomaly is observed in Cp(T) or ρ(T) data. M(H) data at 2 K exhibit very sharp increase below 0.5 T and a weak hysteresis. M(t) exhibits very slow relaxation, typical for a spin-glass system. Even though the absence of any anomaly in Cp(T) is consistent with the spin-glass type behavior, there is no obvious origin of spin-glass behavior in this structurally well ordered compound. The crystal electric field (CEF) analysis of Cp(T) data indicates a CEF-split singlet ground state lying below a doublet at 81(1) K and a quasi-triplet at 152(2) K. The ρ(T) data indicate a metallic behavior, and ρ(H) exhibits a very high positive magnetoresistance, as high as ~300% in 9 T at 2 K. No long range magnetic order or spin-glass behavior was detected in a μSR experiment down to 1.2 K.

  16. Cryogenic properties of dispersion strengthened copper for high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Toplosky, V. J.; Han, K.; Walsh, R. P.; Swenson, C. A.

    2014-01-27

    Cold deformed copper matrix composite conductors, developed for use in the 100 tesla multi-shot pulsed magnet at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), have been characterized. The conductors are alumina strengthened copper which is fabricated by cold drawing that introduces high dislocation densities and high internal stresses. Both alumina particles and high density of dislocations provide us with high tensile strength and fatigue endurance. The conductors also have high electrical conductivities because alumina has limited solubility in Cu and dislocations have little scattering effect on conduction electrons. Such a combination of high strength and high conductivity makes it an excellent candidate over other resistive magnet materials. Thus, characterization is carried out by tensile testing and fully reversible fatigue testing. In tensile tests, the material exceeds the design criteria parameters. In the fatigue tests, both the load and displacement were measured and used to control the amplitude of the tests to simulate the various loading conditions in the pulsed magnet which is operated at 77 K in a non-destructive mode. In order to properly simulate the pulsed magnet operation, strain-controlled tests were more suitable than load controlled tests. For the dispersion strengthened coppers, the strengthening mechanism of the aluminum oxide provided better tensile and fatigue properties over convention copper.

  17. Structural and magnetic properties of nickel antimony ferrospinels

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, S. A.; Tellgren, R.; Porcher, F.; Andre, G.; Ericsson, T.; Nordblad, P; Sadovskaya, N.; Kaleva, G.; Politova, E.; Baldini, M.; Sun, C.; Arvanitis, D.; Kumar, P. Anil; Mathieu, R.

    2015-05-05

    Spinel-type compounds of Fe–Ni–Sb–O system were synthesized as polycrystalline powders. The crystal and magnetic properties were investigated using X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. The samples crystallize in the cubic system, space group Fd – 3 m. The distribution of cations between octahedral and tetrahedral sites was refined from the diffraction data sets using constraints imposed by the magnetic, Mössbauer and EDS results and the ionic radii. The cation distribution and the temperature dependence of the lattice parameter (a) and the oxygen positional parameter (u) were obtained. A chemical formula close to Fe0.8Ni1.8Sb0.4O4 was determined, with Sb5+ cations occupying octahedral sites, and Fe3+ and Ni2+ occupying both tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Fe3+ mainly (85/15 ratio) occupy tetrahedral sites, and conversely Ni2+ mainly reside on octahedral ones. The magnetic unit cell is the same as the crystallographic one, having identical symmetry relations. The results indicate that the compounds have a collinear ferrimagnetic structure with antiferromagnetic coupling between the tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites. Uniquely, the temperature dependence of the net magnetization of this rare earth free ferrimagnet exhibits a compensation point.

  18. Microscopic and magnetic properties of template assisted electrodeposited iron nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Irshad, M. I. Mohamed, N. M. Yar, A.; Ahmad, F. Abdullah, M. Z.

    2015-07-22

    Nanowires of magnetic materials such as Iron, nickel, cobalt, and alloys of them are one of the most widely investigated structures because of their possible applications in high density magnetic recording media, sensor elements, and building blocks in biological transport systems. In this work, Iron nanowires have been prepared by electrodeposition technique using Anodized Aluminium Oxide (AAO) templates. The electrolyte used consisted of FeSO{sub 4.}6H{sub 2}O buffered with H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and acidized by dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. FESEM analysis shows that the asdeposited nanowires are parallel to one another and have high aspect ratio with a reasonably high pore-filing factor. To fabricate the working electrode, a thin film of copper (∼ 220 nm thick) was coated on back side of AAO template by e-beam evaporation system to create electrical contact with the external circuit. The TEM results show that electrodeposited nanowires have diameter around 100 nm and are polycrystalline in structure. Magnetic properties show the existence of anisotropy for in and out of plane configuration. These nanowires have potential applications in magnetic data storage, catalysis and magnetic sensor applications.

  19. Fermi surface, magnetic, and superconducting properties in actinide compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ōnuki, Yoshichika; Settai, Rikio; Haga, Yoshinori; Machida, Yo; Izawa, Koichi; Honda, Fuminori; Aoki, Dai

    2014-08-01

    The de Haas-van Alphen effect, which is a powerful method to explore Fermi surface properties, has been observed in cerium, uranium, and nowadays even in neptunium and plutonium compounds. Here, we present the results of several studies concerning the Fermi surface properties of the heavy fermion superconductors UPt3 and NpPd5Al2, and of the ferromagnetic pressure-induced superconductor UGe2, together with those of some related compounds for which fascinating anisotropic superconductivity, magnetism, and heavy fermion behavior has been observed. xml:lang="fr"

  20. Magnetic properties in an ash flow tuff with continuous grain size variation: a natural reference for magnetic particle granulometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, J.L.; Jackson, M.J.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Solheid, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Tiva Canyon Tuff contains dispersed nanoscale Fe-Ti-oxide grains with a narrow magnetic grain size distribution, making it an ideal material in which to identify and study grain-size-sensitive magnetic behavior in rocks. A detailed magnetic characterization was performed on samples from the basal 5 m of the tuff. The magnetic materials in this basal section consist primarily of (low-impurity) magnetite in the form of elongated submicron grains exsolved from volcanic glass. Magnetic properties studied include bulk magnetic susceptibility, frequency-dependent and temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic remanence acquisition, and hysteresis properties. The combined data constitute a distinct magnetic signature at each stratigraphic level in the section corresponding to different grain size distributions. The inferred magnetic domain state changes progressively upward from superparamagnetic grains near the base to particles with pseudo-single-domain or metastable single-domain characteristics near the top of the sampled section. Direct observations of magnetic grain size confirm that distinct transitions in room temperature magnetic susceptibility and remanence probably denote the limits of stable single-domain behavior in the section. These results provide a unique example of grain-size-dependent magnetic properties in noninteracting particle assemblages over three decades of grain size, including close approximations of ideal Stoner-Wohlfarth assemblages, and may be considered a useful reference for future rock magnetic studies involving grain-size-sensitive properties.

  1. Nonaqueous magnetic nanoparticle suspensions with controlled particle size and nuclear magnetic resonance properties.

    PubMed

    Meledandri, Carla J; Stolarczyk, Jacek K; Ghosh, Swapankumar; Brougham, Dermot F

    2008-12-16

    We report the preparation of monodisperse maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) nanoparticle suspensions in heptane, by thermal decomposition of iron(III) acetylacetonate in the presence of oleic acid and oleylamine surfactants. By varying the surfactant/Fe precursor mole ratio during synthesis, control was exerted both over the nanocrystal core size, in the range from 3 to 6 nm, and over the magnetic properties of the resulting nanoparticle dispersions. We report field-cycling 1H NMR relaxation analysis of the superparamagnetic relaxation rate enhancement of nonaqueous suspensions for the first time. This approach permits measurement of the relaxivity and provides information on the saturation magnetization and magnetic anisotropy energy of the suspended particles. The saturation magnetization was found to be in the expected range for maghemite particles of this size. The anisotropy energy was found to increase significantly with decreasing particle size, which we attribute to increased shape anisotropy. This study can be used as a guide for the synthesis of maghemite nanoparticles with selected magnetic properties for a given application.

  2. Shape-tuned dynamic properties of magnetic nanoelements during magnetization reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guang-fu; Li, Zhi-xiong; Wang, Xi-guang; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Guo, Guang-hua

    2015-07-01

    We study the dynamic properties of magnetic nanoelements with tapered ends by using micromagnetic simulations. It is found that the spin-wave modes can be effectively manipulated by the element shape. With the increase of the end sharpness (described by tapering parameter h), the frequency of the spin-wave edge mode increases rapidly and its oscillation areas in the both ends of element gradually increase and move toward to the central area. Finally, the edge mode completely merges into the fundamental mode. During the magnetization reversal processes, the edge mode experiences one or two softening depending on h≤60 nm or 60 nm100 nm, it is the fundamental mode that goes to zero at the switching field. The evolution of the spin-wave modes reflects the change of the micromagnetic structures of the elements during the reversal. It is the softening of the edge mode that triggers the magnetization reversal in elements with h<100 nm. The quasi-uniform reversal in the elements with h>100 nm is induced by the softening of the fundamental mode, where the edge mode is completely suppressed. The results presented in this work demonstrate that the dynamic properties and the magnetization reversal can be effectively tuned by changing the shape of the nanoelements and may be useful for designing the nanoscale magnetic devices.

  3. Electronic and magnetic properties of functionalized BN sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiang; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Qian; Jena, Puru

    2010-03-01

    First principles calculations based on density functional theory reveal some unusual properties of BN sheet functionalized with hydrogen and fluorine. These properties differ from those of similarly functionalized graphene even though both share the same honeycomb structure. (1) Unlike graphene which undergoes a metal to insulator transition when fully hydrogenated, the band gap of the BN sheet significantly narrows when fully saturated with hydrogen. Furthermore, the band gap of the BN sheet can be tuned from 4.7 eV to 0.6 eV and the system can be a direct or an indirect semiconductor or even a half-metal depending upon surface coverage. (2) Unlike graphene, BN sheet, due to its hetero-atomic composition, permits the surface to be co-decorated with H and F, thus leading to anisotropic structures with rich electronic and magnetic properties. (3) Unlike graphene, BN sheets can be made ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, or magnetically degenerate depending upon how the surface is functionalized. (4) Unlike graphene, the stability of magnetic coupling of functionalized BN sheet can be modulated by applying external strain. Our study highlights the potential of functionalized BN sheets for novel applications.

  4. Hematite nanoplates: Controllable synthesis, gas sensing, photocatalytic and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Hao, Hongying; Sun, Dandan; Xu, Yanyan; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Guoying; Sun, Yaqiu; Gao, Dongzhao

    2016-01-15

    Uniform hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoplates exposing {001} plane as basal planes have been prepared by a facile solvothermal method under the assistance of sodium acetate. The morphological evolution of the nanoplates was studied by adjusting the reaction parameters including the solvent and the amount of sodium acetate. The results indicated that both the adequate nucleation/growth rate and selective adsorption of alcohol molecules and acetate anions contribute to the formation of the plate-like morphology. In addition, the size of the nanoplates can be adjusted from ca. 180nm to 740nm by changing the reaction parameters. Three nanoplate samples with different size were selected to investigate the gas sensing performance, photocatalytic and magnetic properties. As gas sensing materials, all the α-Fe2O3 nanoplates exhibited high gas sensitivity and stability toward n-butanol. When applied as photocatalyst, the α-Fe2O3 nanoplates show high photodegradation efficiency towards RhB. Both the gas sensing performance and the photocatalytic property of the products exhibit obvious size-dependent effect. Magnetic measurements reveal that the plate-like α-Fe2O3 particles possess good room temperature magnetic properties. PMID:26476200

  5. Hematite nanoplates: Controllable synthesis, gas sensing, photocatalytic and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Hao, Hongying; Sun, Dandan; Xu, Yanyan; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Guoying; Sun, Yaqiu; Gao, Dongzhao

    2016-01-15

    Uniform hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoplates exposing {001} plane as basal planes have been prepared by a facile solvothermal method under the assistance of sodium acetate. The morphological evolution of the nanoplates was studied by adjusting the reaction parameters including the solvent and the amount of sodium acetate. The results indicated that both the adequate nucleation/growth rate and selective adsorption of alcohol molecules and acetate anions contribute to the formation of the plate-like morphology. In addition, the size of the nanoplates can be adjusted from ca. 180nm to 740nm by changing the reaction parameters. Three nanoplate samples with different size were selected to investigate the gas sensing performance, photocatalytic and magnetic properties. As gas sensing materials, all the α-Fe2O3 nanoplates exhibited high gas sensitivity and stability toward n-butanol. When applied as photocatalyst, the α-Fe2O3 nanoplates show high photodegradation efficiency towards RhB. Both the gas sensing performance and the photocatalytic property of the products exhibit obvious size-dependent effect. Magnetic measurements reveal that the plate-like α-Fe2O3 particles possess good room temperature magnetic properties.

  6. Mathematical formulation to predict the harmonics of the superconducting Large Hadron Collider magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammut, Nicholas; Bottura, Luca; Micallef, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    CERN is currently assembling the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) that will accelerate and bring in collision 7 TeV protons for high energy physics. Such a superconducting magnet-based accelerator can be controlled only when the field errors of production and installation of all magnetic elements are known to the required accuracy. The ideal way to compensate the field errors obviously is to have direct diagnostics on the beam. For the LHC, however, a system solely based on beam feedback may be too demanding. The present baseline for the LHC control system hence requires an accurate forecast of the magnetic field and the multipole field errors to reduce the burden on the beam-based feedback. The field model is the core of this magnetic prediction system, that we call the field description for the LHC (FIDEL). The model will provide the forecast of the magnetic field at a given time, magnet operating current, magnet ramp rate, magnet temperature, and magnet powering history. The model is based on the identification and physical decomposition of the effects that contribute to the total field in the magnet aperture of the LHC dipoles. Each effect is quantified using data obtained from series measurements, and modeled theoretically or empirically depending on the complexity of the physical phenomena involved. This paper presents the developments of the new finely tuned magnetic field model and, using the data accumulated through series tests to date, evaluates its accuracy and predictive capabilities over a sector of the machine.

  7. Predicting nonlinear properties of metamaterials from the linear response.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kevin; Suchowski, Haim; Rho, Junsuk; Salandrino, Alessandro; Kante, Boubacar; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of optical second harmonic generation in 1961 started modern nonlinear optics. Soon after, R. C. Miller found empirically that the nonlinear susceptibility could be predicted from the linear susceptibilities. This important relation, known as Miller's Rule, allows a rapid determination of nonlinear susceptibilities from linear properties. In recent years, metamaterials, artificial materials that exhibit intriguing linear optical properties not found in natural materials, have shown novel nonlinear properties such as phase-mismatch-free nonlinear generation, new quasi-phase matching capabilities and large nonlinear susceptibilities. However, the understanding of nonlinear metamaterials is still in its infancy, with no general conclusion on the relationship between linear and nonlinear properties. The key question is then whether one can determine the nonlinear behaviour of these artificial materials from their exotic linear behaviour. Here, we show that the nonlinear oscillator model does not apply in general to nonlinear metamaterials. We show, instead, that it is possible to predict the relative nonlinear susceptibility of large classes of metamaterials using a more comprehensive nonlinear scattering theory, which allows efficient design of metamaterials with strong nonlinearity for important applications such as coherent Raman sensing, entangled photon generation and frequency conversion.

  8. Prediction of the setting properties of calcium phosphate bone cement.

    PubMed

    Rabiee, Seyed Mahmud; Baseri, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Setting properties of bone substitutes are improved using an injectable system. The injectable bone graft substitutes can be molded to the shape of the bone cavity and set in situ when injected. Such system is useful for surgical operation. The powder part of the injectable bone cement is included of β-tricalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, and dicalcium phosphate and the liquid part contains poly ethylene glycol solution with different concentrations. In this way, prediction of the mechanical properties, setting times, and injectability helps to optimize the calcium phosphate bone cement properties. The objective of this study is development of three different adaptive neurofuzzy inference systems (ANFISs) for estimation of compression strength, setting time, and injectability using the data generated based on experimental observations. The input parameters of models are polyethylene glycol percent and liquid/powder ratio. Comparison of the predicted values and measured data indicates that the ANFIS model has an acceptable performance to the estimation of calcium phosphate bone cement properties. PMID:22919372

  9. Prediction of the Setting Properties of Calcium Phosphate Bone Cement

    PubMed Central

    Rabiee, Seyed Mahmud; Baseri, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Setting properties of bone substitutes are improved using an injectable system. The injectable bone graft substitutes can be molded to the shape of the bone cavity and set in situ when injected. Such system is useful for surgical operation. The powder part of the injectable bone cement is included of β-tricalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, and dicalcium phosphate and the liquid part contains poly ethylene glycol solution with different concentrations. In this way, prediction of the mechanical properties, setting times, and injectability helps to optimize the calcium phosphate bone cement properties. The objective of this study is development of three different adaptive neurofuzzy inference systems (ANFISs) for estimation of compression strength, setting time, and injectability using the data generated based on experimental observations. The input parameters of models are polyethylene glycol percent and liquid/powder ratio. Comparison of the predicted values and measured data indicates that the ANFIS model has an acceptable performance to the estimation of calcium phosphate bone cement properties. PMID:22919372

  10. Robust Subjective Visual Property Prediction from Crowdsourced Pairwise Labels.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yanwei; Hospedales, Timothy M; Xiang, Tao; Xiong, Jiechao; Gong, Shaogang; Wang, Yizhou; Yao, Yuan

    2016-03-01

    The problem of estimating subjective visual properties from image and video has attracted increasing interest. A subjective visual property is useful either on its own (e.g. image and video interestingness) or as an intermediate representation for visual recognition (e.g. a relative attribute). Due to its ambiguous nature, annotating the value of a subjective visual property for learning a prediction model is challenging. To make the annotation more reliable, recent studies employ crowdsourcing tools to collect pairwise comparison labels. However, using crowdsourced data also introduces outliers. Existing methods rely on majority voting to prune the annotation outliers/errors. They thus require a large amount of pairwise labels to be collected. More importantly as a local outlier detection method, majority voting is ineffective in identifying outliers that can cause global ranking inconsistencies. In this paper, we propose a more principled way to identify annotation outliers by formulating the subjective visual property prediction task as a unified robust learning to rank problem, tackling both the outlier detection and learning to rank jointly. This differs from existing methods in that (1) the proposed method integrates local pairwise comparison labels together to minimise a cost that corresponds to global inconsistency of ranking order, and (2) the outlier detection and learning to rank problems are solved jointly. This not only leads to better detection of annotation outliers but also enables learning with extremely sparse annotations. PMID:27046498

  11. Synthesis, photoluminescence and magnetic properties of barium vanadate nanoflowers

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jing; Hu, Chenguo; Xi, Yi; Peng, Chen; Wan, Buyong; He, Xiaoshan

    2011-06-15

    Graphical abstract: The flower-shaped barium vanadate was obtained for the first time. The photoluminescence and magnetic properties of the barium vanadate nanoflowers were investigated at room temperature. Research highlights: {yields} In the paper, the flower-shaped barium vanadate were obtained for the first time. The CHM method used here is new and simple for preparation of barium vanadate. {yields} The photoluminescence and magnetic properties of the barium vanadate nanoflowers were investigated at room temperature. The strong bluish-green emission was observed. {yields} The ferromagnetic behavior of the barium vanadate nanoflowers was found with saturation magnetization of about 83.50 x 10{sup -3} emu/g, coercivity of 18.89 Oe and remnant magnetization of 4.63 x 10{sup -3} emu/g. {yields} The mechanisms of PL and magnetic property of barium vanadate nanoflowers have been discussed. -- Abstract: The flower-shaped barium vanadate has been obtained by the composite hydroxide mediated (CHM) method from V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and BaCl{sub 2} at 200 {sup o}C for 13 h. XRD and XPS spectrum of the as-synthesized sample indicate it is hexagonal Ba{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} with small amount of Ba{sub 3}VO{sub 4.8} coexistence. Scan electron microscope and transmission electron microscope display that the flower-shaped crystals are composed of nanosheets with thickness of {approx}20 nm. The UV-visible spectrum shows that the barium vanadate sample has two optical gaps (3.85 eV and 3.12 eV). Photoluminescence spectrum of the barium vanadate flowers exhibits a visible light emission centered at 492 and 525 nm which might be attributed to VO{sub 4} tetrahedron with T{sub d} symmetry in Ba{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8}. The ferromagnetic behavior of the barium vanadate nanoflowers has been found with saturation magnetization of about 83.50 x 10{sup -3} emu/g, coercivity of 18.89 Oe and remnant magnetization of 4.63 x 10{sup -3} emu/g, which is mainly due to the presence of a non

  12. Magnetic properties changes due to hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater table fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to understand the mechanisms and conditions which control the formation and transformation of ferro(i)magnetic minerals caused by hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater, in particular in the zone of fluctuating water levels. The work extends previous studies conducted at the same site. The study area is a former military air base at Hradčany, Czech Republic (50°37'22.71"N, 14°45'2.24"E). The site was heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, due to leaks in petroleum storage tanks and jet fuelling stations over years of active use by the Soviet Union, which closed the base in 1991. The site is one of the most important sources of high quality groundwater in the Czech Republic. In a previous study, Rijal et al. (2010) concluded that the contaminants could be flushed into the sediments as the water level rose due to remediation processes leading to new formation of magnetite. In this previous study three different locations were investigated; however, from each location only one core was obtained. In order to recognize significant magnetic signatures versus depth three cores from each of these three locations were drilled in early 2012, penetrating the unsaturated zone, the groundwater fluctuation (GWF) zone and extending to about one meter below the groundwater level (~2.3 m depth at the time of sampling). Magnetic susceptibility (MS) profiles combined with other magnetic properties were analyzed to obtain a significant depth distribution of the ferro(i)magnetic concentration. Sediment properties, hydrocarbon content and bacterial activity were additionally studied. The results show that the highest ferrimagnetic mineral concentrations exist between 1.4-1.9 m depth from the baseline which is interpreted as the top of the GWF zone. Spikes of MS detected in the previous studies turned out to represent small-scale isolated features, but the trend of increasing MS values from the lowermost position of the groundwater table upward was verified

  13. Spatiotemporal properties of microsaccades: Model predictions and experimental tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian-Fang; Yuan, Wu-Jie; Zhou, Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Microsaccades are involuntary and very small eye movements during fixation. Recently, the microsaccade-related neural dynamics have been extensively investigated both in experiments and by constructing neural network models. Experimentally, microsaccades also exhibit many behavioral properties. It’s well known that the behavior properties imply the underlying neural dynamical mechanisms, and so are determined by neural dynamics. The behavioral properties resulted from neural responses to microsaccades, however, are not yet understood and are rarely studied theoretically. Linking neural dynamics to behavior is one of the central goals of neuroscience. In this paper, we provide behavior predictions on spatiotemporal properties of microsaccades according to microsaccade-induced neural dynamics in a cascading network model, which includes both retinal adaptation and short-term depression (STD) at thalamocortical synapses. We also successfully give experimental tests in the statistical sense. Our results provide the first behavior description of microsaccades based on neural dynamics induced by behaving activity, and so firstly link neural dynamics to behavior of microsaccades. These results indicate strongly that the cascading adaptations play an important role in the study of microsaccades. Our work may be useful for further investigations of the microsaccadic behavioral properties and of the underlying neural dynamical mechanisms responsible for the behavioral properties.

  14. Spatiotemporal properties of microsaccades: Model predictions and experimental tests

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian-Fang; Yuan, Wu-Jie; Zhou, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Microsaccades are involuntary and very small eye movements during fixation. Recently, the microsaccade-related neural dynamics have been extensively investigated both in experiments and by constructing neural network models. Experimentally, microsaccades also exhibit many behavioral properties. It’s well known that the behavior properties imply the underlying neural dynamical mechanisms, and so are determined by neural dynamics. The behavioral properties resulted from neural responses to microsaccades, however, are not yet understood and are rarely studied theoretically. Linking neural dynamics to behavior is one of the central goals of neuroscience. In this paper, we provide behavior predictions on spatiotemporal properties of microsaccades according to microsaccade-induced neural dynamics in a cascading network model, which includes both retinal adaptation and short-term depression (STD) at thalamocortical synapses. We also successfully give experimental tests in the statistical sense. Our results provide the first behavior description of microsaccades based on neural dynamics induced by behaving activity, and so firstly link neural dynamics to behavior of microsaccades. These results indicate strongly that the cascading adaptations play an important role in the study of microsaccades. Our work may be useful for further investigations of the microsaccadic behavioral properties and of the underlying neural dynamical mechanisms responsible for the behavioral properties. PMID:27739541

  15. Method of predicting mechanical properties of decayed wood

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-07-15

    A method for determining the mechanical properties of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms, comprising: a) illuminating a surface of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms with wavelengths from visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectra; b) analyzing the surface of the decayed wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra region; and c) using a multivariate analysis to predict mechanical properties of decayed wood by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra obtained from a reference decay wood, the second spectral data being correlated with a known mechanical property analytical result obtained from the reference decayed wood.

  16. Theoretical study of magnetic properties and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism of the ordered Fe{sub 0.5}Pd{sub 0.5} alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Galanakis, I.; Ostanin, S.; Alouani, M.; Dreysse, H.; Wills, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    A detailed theoretical study of magnetic and structural properties of Fe{sub 0.5}Pd{sub 0.5} ordered face-centered tetragonal (fct) alloy, using both the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), is presented. The total energy surface as a function of the lattice parameters a and c shows a long valley where stable structures may exist. Our calculation using the GGA predicts a magnetic phase transition from perpendicular to parallel magnetization as a function of the lattice parameter, whereas LSDA favors always the [001] magnetization axis for all values of the lattice parameters. The spin and orbital magnetic moments and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra are calculated for the easy [001] and the hard [100] magnetization axis and for three sets of experimental lattice parameters, and are compared to the available experimental results on these films. A supercell calculation for a 4 monolayer Fe{sub 0.5}Pd{sub 0.5} thin film produced similar results. While the spin magnetic moments are in fair agreement with experiment, the orbital magnetic moments are considerably underestimated. To improve the agreement with experiment we included an atomic orbital polarization term; however, the computed orbital moments scarcely changed. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  17. Structure organization and magnetic properties of microscale ferrogels: The effect of particle magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhkov, Aleksandr V.; Melenev, Petr V.; Balasoiu, Maria; Raikher, Yuriy L.

    2016-08-01

    The equilibrium structure and magnetic properties of a ferrogel object of small size (microferrogel(MFG)) are investigated by coarse-grained molecular dynamics. As a generic model of a microferrogel (MFG), a sample with a lattice-like mesh is taken. The solid phase of the MFG consists of magnetic (e.g., ferrite) nanoparticles which are mechanically linked to the mesh making some part of its nodes. Unlike previous models, the finite uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of the particles, as it is the case for real ferrogels, is taken into account. For comparison, two types of MFGs are considered: MFG-1, which dwells in virtually non-aggregated state independently of the presence of an external magnetic field, and MFG-2, which displays aggregation yet under zero field. The structure states of the samples are analyzed with the aid of angle-resolved radial distribution functions and cluster counts. The results reveal the crucial role of the matrix elasticity on the structure organization as well as on magnetization of both MFGs. The particle anisotropy, which plays insignificant role in MFG-1 (moderate interparticle magnetodipole interaction), becomes an important factor in MFG-2 (strong interaction). There, the restrictions imposed on the particle angular freedom by the elastic matrix result in notable diminution of the particle chain lengths as well as the magnetization of the sample. The approach proposed enables one to investigate a large variety of MFGs, including those of capsule type and to purposefully choose the combination of their magnetoelastic parameters.

  18. Structure organization and magnetic properties of microscale ferrogels: The effect of particle magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Ryzhkov, Aleksandr V; Melenev, Petr V; Balasoiu, Maria; Raikher, Yuriy L

    2016-08-21

    The equilibrium structure and magnetic properties of a ferrogel object of small size (microferrogel(MFG)) are investigated by coarse-grained molecular dynamics. As a generic model of a microferrogel (MFG), a sample with a lattice-like mesh is taken. The solid phase of the MFG consists of magnetic (e.g., ferrite) nanoparticles which are mechanically linked to the mesh making some part of its nodes. Unlike previous models, the finite uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of the particles, as it is the case for real ferrogels, is taken into account. For comparison, two types of MFGs are considered: MFG-1, which dwells in virtually non-aggregated state independently of the presence of an external magnetic field, and MFG-2, which displays aggregation yet under zero field. The structure states of the samples are analyzed with the aid of angle-resolved radial distribution functions and cluster counts. The results reveal the crucial role of the matrix elasticity on the structure organization as well as on magnetization of both MFGs. The particle anisotropy, which plays insignificant role in MFG-1 (moderate interparticle magnetodipole interaction), becomes an important factor in MFG-2 (strong interaction). There, the restrictions imposed on the particle angular freedom by the elastic matrix result in notable diminution of the particle chain lengths as well as the magnetization of the sample. The approach proposed enables one to investigate a large variety of MFGs, including those of capsule type and to purposefully choose the combination of their magnetoelastic parameters. PMID:27544124

  19. Lanthanide-Functionalized Hydrophilic Magnetic Hybrid Nanoparticles: Assembly, Magnetic Behaviour, and Photophysical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Shuai; Tang, Yu; Guo, Haijun; Qin, Shenjun; Wu, Jiang

    2016-05-01

    The lanthanide-functionalized multifunctional hybrid nanoparticles combining the superparamagnetic core and the luminescent europium complex were successfully designed and assembled via layer-by-layer strategy in this work. It is noted that the hybrid nanoparticles were modified by a hydrophilic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) through hydrogen bonding which bestowed excellent hydrophilicity and biocompatibility on this material. A bright-red luminescence was observed by fluorescence microscopy, revealing that these magnetic-luminescent nanoparticles were both colloidally and chemically stable in PBS solution. Therefore, the nanocomposite with magnetic resonance response and fluorescence probe property is considered to be of great potential in multi-modal bioimaging and diagnostic applications.

  20. Lanthanide-Functionalized Hydrophilic Magnetic Hybrid Nanoparticles: Assembly, Magnetic Behaviour, and Photophysical Properties.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuai; Tang, Yu; Guo, Haijun; Qin, Shenjun; Wu, Jiang

    2016-12-01

    The lanthanide-functionalized multifunctional hybrid nanoparticles combining the superparamagnetic core and the luminescent europium complex were successfully designed and assembled via layer-by-layer strategy in this work. It is noted that the hybrid nanoparticles were modified by a hydrophilic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) through hydrogen bonding which bestowed excellent hydrophilicity and biocompatibility on this material. A bright-red luminescence was observed by fluorescence microscopy, revealing that these magnetic-luminescent nanoparticles were both colloidally and chemically stable in PBS solution. Therefore, the nanocomposite with magnetic resonance response and fluorescence probe property is considered to be of great potential in multi-modal bioimaging and diagnostic applications. PMID:27245169

  1. Magnetic properties of manganese based one-dimensional spin chains.

    PubMed

    Asha, K S; Ranjith, K M; Yogi, Arvind; Nath, R; Mandal, Sukhendu

    2015-12-14

    We have correlated the structure-property relationship of three manganese-based inorganic-organic hybrid structures. Compound 1, [Mn2(OH-BDC)2(DMF)3] (where BDC = 1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid and DMF = N,N'-dimethylformamide), contains Mn2O11 dimers as secondary building units (SBUs), which are connected by carboxylate anions forming Mn-O-C-O-Mn chains. Compound 2, [Mn2(BDC)2(DMF)2], contains Mn4O20 clusters as SBUs, which also form Mn-O-C-O-Mn chains. In compound 3, [Mn3(BDC)3(DEF)2] (where DEF = N,N'-diethylformamide), the distorted MnO6 octahedra are linked to form a one-dimensional chain with Mn-O-Mn connectivity. The magnetic properties were investigated by means of magnetization and heat capacity measurements. The temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility of all the three compounds could be nicely fitted using a one-dimensional S = 5/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain model and the value of intra-chain exchange coupling (J/k(B)) between Mn(2+) ions was estimated to be ∼1.1 K, ∼0.7 K, and ∼0.46 K for compounds 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Compound 1 does not undergo any magnetic long-range-order down to 2 K while compounds 2 and 3 undergo long-range magnetic order at T(N) ≈ 4.2 K and ≈4.3 K, respectively, which are of spin-glass type. From the values of J/k(B) and T(N) the inter-chain coupling (J(⊥)/k(B)) was calculated to be about 0.1J/k(B) for both compounds 2 and 3, respectively.

  2. Magnetic properties of manganese based one-dimensional spin chains.

    PubMed

    Asha, K S; Ranjith, K M; Yogi, Arvind; Nath, R; Mandal, Sukhendu

    2015-12-14

    We have correlated the structure-property relationship of three manganese-based inorganic-organic hybrid structures. Compound 1, [Mn2(OH-BDC)2(DMF)3] (where BDC = 1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid and DMF = N,N'-dimethylformamide), contains Mn2O11 dimers as secondary building units (SBUs), which are connected by carboxylate anions forming Mn-O-C-O-Mn chains. Compound 2, [Mn2(BDC)2(DMF)2], contains Mn4O20 clusters as SBUs, which also form Mn-O-C-O-Mn chains. In compound 3, [Mn3(BDC)3(DEF)2] (where DEF = N,N'-diethylformamide), the distorted MnO6 octahedra are linked to form a one-dimensional chain with Mn-O-Mn connectivity. The magnetic properties were investigated by means of magnetization and heat capacity measurements. The temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility of all the three compounds could be nicely fitted using a one-dimensional S = 5/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain model and the value of intra-chain exchange coupling (J/k(B)) between Mn(2+) ions was estimated to be ∼1.1 K, ∼0.7 K, and ∼0.46 K for compounds 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Compound 1 does not undergo any magnetic long-range-order down to 2 K while compounds 2 and 3 undergo long-range magnetic order at T(N) ≈ 4.2 K and ≈4.3 K, respectively, which are of spin-glass type. From the values of J/k(B) and T(N) the inter-chain coupling (J(⊥)/k(B)) was calculated to be about 0.1J/k(B) for both compounds 2 and 3, respectively. PMID:26455515

  3. Magnetic properties of the orthorhombic NdPd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Vijay; Provino, A.

    2016-09-01

    The equiatomic NdPd compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic CrB structure type (oS8, Cmcm, No. 63). The NdPd phase melts congruently at 1240 °C, as observed by differential thermal analysis; one further sharp thermal effect detected at 1040 °C is very likely due to a structural transition. We confirm the CrB prototype for the low-temperature form of NdPd. The lattice parameters of this compound are a=3.842(2) Å, b=10.776(7) Å, c=4.605(2) Å, as obtained from Guinier powder pattern; those for the corresponding iso-structural LaPd compound, prepared as non-magnetic reference, are a=3.947(2) Å, b=11.036(3) Å, c=4.663(2) Å. Despite the fact that NdPd has been known since long, its physical properties have not been investigated till date. Here we report the results of magnetization, heat capacity and electrical resistivity measurements performed on this compound. NdPd undergoes a single ferromagnetic transition close to 15 K, inferred from a sharp upturn in the magnetization at lower temperatures and from Arrott plots measured at selected temperatures between 1.9 and 18 K. The coercive field and remnant magnetization at 1.9 K are 320 Oe and 0.24 μB/f.u., which become negligible at 15 K. A sharp peak in the heat capacity at ≈15 K confirms the bulk magnetic transition. Isothermal magnetization at 2 K shows a tendency to saturation, reaching a value of 1.9 μB/f.u. at the maximum applied field of 70 kOe. The zero field resistivity shows an anomaly near 15 K, in correspondence with the magnetic and heat capacity data. A negative magnetoresistivity, typical of a ferromagnet, is observed in the magnetically ordered state in an applied magnetic field of 50 kOe. LaPd is a typical Pauli paramagnet with a Sommerfeld coefficient γ=3.9 mJ/mol K2.

  4. Dielectric and magnetic properties of some gadolinium silica nanoceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Coroiu, I. Pascuta, P. Bosca, M. Culea, E.

    2013-11-13

    Some nanostructure gadolinium silica glass-ceramics were obtained undergoing a sol gel method and a heat-treatment at 1000°C about two hours. The magnetic and dielectric properties of these samples were studied. The magnetic properties were evidenced performing susceptibility measurements in the 80-300K temperature range. A Curie-Weiss behavior has acquired. The values estimated for paramagnetic Curie temperature being small and positive suggest the presence of weak ferromagnetic interactions between Gd{sup 3+} ions. The dielectric properties were evaluated from dielectric permittivity (ε{sub r}) and dielectric loss (tanδ) measurements at the frequency 1 kHz, 10 kHz and 100 kHz, in the 25-225°C temperature range and dielectric dispersion at room temperature for 79.5 kHz - 1GHz frequency area. The dielectric properties suggest that the main polarization mechanism corresponds to interfacial polarization, characteristic for polycrystalline-structured dielectrics. The polycrystalline structure of the samples is due to the polymorphous transformations of the nanostructure silica crystallites in the presence of gadolinium oxide. They were highlighted by SEM micrographs.

  5. Framework for predicting hydraulic properties of calcareous arid lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlosi, Muhammed; Douaik, Ahmed; Habib, Hassan; Gabriels, Donald; Cornelis, Wim

    2014-05-01

    In arid areas, the availability of reliable data on soil hydraulic properties such as the water retention and the hydraulic conductivity curves, particularly of calcareous soils, is low. Such data are needed as input to mathematical models used to support arid land restoration and combating desertification studies. This paper aims at sharing new and pertinent research results that are of interest to the scientific community involved in such studies. The objective of our study was to (1) explore the interaction between soil hydraulic properties, and other physical and chemical properties, (2) test three data mining techniques for developing predictive functions, and (3) set up a framework for predicting soil hydraulic properties of calcareous arid soils. 72 soil samples were collected from rural areas throughout north-west Syria, covering most of its agro-climatic zones and soil types. Soil water content at eight different matric potentials and 11 chemical and physical soil properties were determined. We first found that when destroying carbonates in determining particle size distribution, no significant correlations were found with the water retention points, whereas good correlations were observed when carbonates were not removed and considered as part of the soil's mineralogy. Four principal components (PC) explained 77% of the variation in the data set. Three tested soil-water contents (at -1, -33 and -1500 kPa) were highly linked to PC1 which was correlated to plastic limit, texture, soil carbonate content, and specific surface area. In addition, soil-water content at -1 kPa was also linked to PC4 which is correlated to bulk density. PC2 and PC3, related to gravel, organic matter and hygroscopic water, only explained a negligible amount of variation of soil water content. When setting up predictive functions for the eight water retention points, the support vector machines approach performed significantly better as compared to artificial neural networks and

  6. A comprehensive polymer dataset for accelerated property prediction and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Huan; Kumar Mannodi-Kanakkithodi, Arun; Kim, Chiho; Sharma, Vinit; Oilania, Ghanshyam; Ramprasad, Rampi

    Emerging computation- and data-driven approaches are particularly useful for rationally designing materials with targeted properties. In principle, these approaches rely on identifying structure-property relationships by learning from a dataset of sufficiently large number of relevant materials. The learned information can then be used to rapidly predict the properties of materials not already in the dataset, thus accelerating the design of materials with preferable properties. Here, we report the development of a dataset of 1,065 polymers and related materials, which is available at http://khazana.uconn.edu/. This dataset is uniformly prepared using first-principles calculations with structures obtained either from other sources or by using structure search methods. Because the immediate target of this work is to assist the design of high dielectric constant polymers, it is initially designed to include the optimized structures, atomization energies, band gaps, and dielectric constants. The dataset will be progressively expanded by accumulating new materials and including additional properties calculated for the optimized structures provided. We discuss some information ``learned`` from the dataset and suggest that it may be used as the playground for further data-mining work.

  7. Prediction of the Dst index with magnetic field observations in the inner heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubicka, Manuel; Möstl, Christian; Rollett, Tanja; Boakes, Peter; Feng, Li; Eastwood, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    The prediction of the effects of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) on Earth strongly depends on knowledge of the properties of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), especially it's southward component (Bz), acting as a main driver for geomagnetic storms. We are using data from a spacecraft located in the inner heliosphere, Venus Express (VEX) at 0.72 AU and will provide a proof-of-concept for predicting an ICMEs arrival time and speed at 1AU, the ICMEs Bz component at Earth and the resulting Dst index by only using data measured by VEX. To forecast the Dst index, the two well established Dst models from Burton et al. (1975) and O'Brien & McPherron (2000) are used. In combination with a drag based model (Vršnak et al. 2013) and the WSA/ENLIL model the ICMEs arrival speed at Earth is obtained. Additionally, a power law (Leitner et al. 2007) is used to scale the magnetic field from 0.72 to 1 AU. Investigation of an ICME in June 2012 shows already promising results for the Dst index (predicted: -96 nT ± 17nT, observed: -86 nT), as well as for the arrival speed (predicted: 531 km s-1± 23 kms-1, observed: 490 kms-1± 30 kms-1) and timing (˜6h ± 1h late of true arrival) . An advantage of this method is the high prediction lead time of ˜21 hours compared only ˜40-60 minutes, using an L1 located spacecraft. To further investigate the feasibility of this method, data from any spacecraft temporarily located between Sun and Earth can be used. It is possible to extend this method to arbitrary spacecraft alignments and also to apply it to data from Helios or future space missions like Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus. The techniques we develop could be routinely applied to a mission that forms an artificial Lagrange point along the Sun-Earth line, e.g. for a Sunjammer or Heliostorm mission.

  8. Magnetic and structural properties of ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pariona, N.; Camacho-Aguilar, K. I.; Ramos-González, R.; Martinez, Arturo I.; Herrera-Trejo, M.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.

    2016-05-01

    A rich variety of ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites (NCs) with specific size, composition and properties were obtained in transformation reactions of 2-line ferrihydrite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations showed that the NCs consist of clusters of strongly aggregated nanoparticles (NPs) similarly to a "plum pudding", where hematite NPs "raisins" are surrounded by ferrihydrite "pudding". Magnetic measurements of the NCs correlate very well with TEM results; i.e., higher coercive fields correspond to greater hematite crystallite size. First order reversal curve (FORC) measurements were used for the characterization of the magnetic components of the NCs. FORC diagrams revealed that the NCs prepared at short times are composed by single domains with low coercivity, and NCs prepared at times larger than 60 min exhibited elongated distribution along the Hc axis. It suggested that these samples consist of mixtures of different kinds of hematite particles, ones with low coercivity and others with coercivity greater than 600 Oe. For NCs prepared at times larger than 60 min, Mossbauer spectroscopy revealed the presence of two sextets, which one was assigned to fine hematite particles and other to hematite particles with hyperfine parameters near to bulk hematite. The correlation of the structural and magnetic properties of the ferrihydrite/hematite NCs revealed important characteristics of these materials which have not been reported elsewhere.

  9. Size-dependent magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsula, Vitalii; Moskvin, Maksym; Dutz, Silvio; Horák, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Uniform iron oxide nanoparticles in the size range from 10 to 24 nm and polydisperse 14 nm iron oxide particles were prepared by thermal decomposition of Fe(III) carboxylates in the presence of oleic acid and co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) chlorides by ammonium hydroxide followed by oxidation, respectively. While the first method produced hydrophobic oleic acid coated particles, the second one formed hydrophilic, but uncoated, nanoparticles. To make the iron oxide particles water dispersible and colloidally stable, their surface was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) and sucrose, respectively. Size and size distribution of the nanoparticles was determined by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and X-ray diffraction. Surface of the PEG-functionalized and sucrose-modified iron oxide particles was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Magnetic properties were measured by means of vibration sample magnetometry and specific absorption rate in alternating magnetic fields was determined calorimetrically. It was found, that larger ferrimagnetic particles showed higher heating performance than smaller superparamagnetic ones. In the transition range between superparamagnetism and ferrimagnetism, samples with a broader size distribution provided higher heating power than narrow size distributed particles of comparable mean size. Here presented particles showed promising properties for a possible application in magnetic hyperthermia.

  10. Nano-structured magnetic metamaterial with enhanced nonlinear properties

    PubMed Central

    Kobljanskyj, Yuri; Melkov, Gennady; Guslienko, Konstantin; Novosad, Valentyn; Bader, Samuel D.; Kostylev, Michael; Slavin, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Nano-structuring can significantly modify the properties of materials. We demonstrate that size-dependent modification of the spin-wave spectra in magnetic nano-particles can affect not only linear, but also nonlinear magnetic response. The discretization of the spectrum removes the frequency degeneracy between the main excitation mode of a nano-particle and the higher spin-wave modes, having the lowest magnetic damping, and reduces the strength of multi-magnon relaxation processes. This reduction of magnon-magnon relaxation for the main excitation mode leads to a dramatic increase of its lifetime and amplitude, resulting in the intensification of all the nonlinear processes involving this mode. We demonstrate this experimentally on a two-dimensional array of permalloy nano-dots for the example of parametric generation of a sub-harmonic of an external microwave signal. The characteristic lifetime of this sub-harmonic is increased by two orders of magnitude compared to the case of a continuous magnetic film, where magnon-magnon relaxation limits the lifetime. PMID:22745899

  11. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of bulk dysprosium chromite

    SciTech Connect

    McDannald, A.; Kuna, L.; Jain, M.

    2013-09-21

    In this work, a polycrystalline bulk DyCrO{sub 3} sample was prepared by a solution route and the structural and magnetic properties were investigated. The phase purity and ionic valence state of the DyCrO{sub 3} sample were determined by x-ray diffraction/Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The AC and DC magnetization measurements revealed the onset of antiferromagnetic order at 146 K with an effective moment of 8.88 μ{sub B}. Isothermal magnetization measurements of this material are presented for the first time, showing a peak in the coercive field at 80 K that is explained by the competition between the paramagnetic Dy{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} sublattices. DyCrO{sub 3} was found to display a large magnetocaloric effect (8.4 J/kg K) and relative cooling power (217 J/kg) at 4 T applied field, which renders DyCrO{sub 3} useful for magnetic refrigeration between 5 K and 30 K.

  12. Self-consistent magnetic properties of magnetite tracers optimized for magnetic particle imaging measured by ac susceptometry, magnetorelaxometry and magnetic particle spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Frank; Remmer, Hilke; Kuhlmann, Christian; Wawrzik, Thilo; Arami, Hamed; Ferguson, R. Mathew; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity and spatial resolution in Magnetic Particle Imaging are affected by magnetic properties of the nanoparticle tracers used during imaging. Here, we have carried out a comprehensive magnetic characterization of single-core iron oxide nanoparticles that were designed for MPI. We used ac susceptometry, fluxgate magnetorelaxometry, and magnetic particle spectroscopy to evaluate the tracer’s magnetic core size, hydrodynamic size, and magnetic anisotropy. Our results present a self-consistent set of magnetic and structural parameters for the tracers that is consistent with direct measurements of size using transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering and that can be used to better understand their MPI performance. PMID:25729125

  13. Self-consistent magnetic properties of magnetite tracers optimized for magnetic particle imaging measured by ac susceptometry, magnetorelaxometry and magnetic particle spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Frank; Remmer, Hilke; Kuhlmann, Christian; Wawrzik, Thilo; Arami, Hamed; Ferguson, R. Mathew; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2014-06-01

    Sensitivity and spatial resolution in magnetic particle imaging are affected by magnetic properties of the nanoparticle tracers used during imaging. Here, we have carried out a comprehensive magnetic characterization of single-core iron oxide nanoparticles that were designed for MPI. We used ac susceptometry, fluxgate magnetorelaxometry, and magnetic particle spectroscopy to evaluate the tracer's magnetic core size, hydrodynamic size, and magnetic anisotropy. Our results present a self-consistent set of magnetic and structural parameters for the tracers that is consistent with direct measurements of size using transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering and that can be used to better understand their MPI performance.

  14. Two-dimensional magnetic property measurement for magneto-rheological elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jianbin; Guo, Youguang; Li, Yancheng; Zhu, Jianguo; Li, Jianchun

    2013-05-01

    Magneto-rheological elastomer (MRE) is a new kind of smart material. Its rheological properties can be altered and controlled in a real time manner when it is applied an external magnetic field. For calculating magnetic properties of MRE material, usually Maxwell-Garnet equation is used to acquire an approximately effective permeability. This equation treats the magnetic property of particles as linear. However, when the applied magnetic field is alternating or rotating, the nonlinearity of magnetic property and magnetic hysteresis cannot be neglected. Hence, the measurement and modelling of the magnetic properties under alternating and rotating magnetic fields are essential to explore new applications of the material. This paper presents the investigation on the magnetic hysteresis properties of MRE material under one-dimensional (1-D) alternating and two-dimensional (2-D) rotating magnetic field excitations. A kind of MRE material, consisting of 70% carbonyl iron particles, 10% silicone oil, and 20% silicone rubber, was used to investigate the magnetic properties. The diameter of carbonyl iron particles is 3-5 μm. The measurement results, such as the relations between magnetic field intensity (H) and magnetic flux density (B) under different magnetic field excitations on the MRE sample, have been obtained and analyzed. These data would be useful for design and analysis of MRE smart structures like MR dampers.

  15. Composition-based prediction of dielectric properties of foods.

    PubMed

    Sun, E; Datta, A; Lobo, S

    1995-01-01

    Prediction of accurate dielectric property data from fundamental principles for systems as complex as foods has not been possible. Simple prediction models based on easily measurable composition data can serve many useful purposes. Literature dielectric data on foods and their composition were statistically correlated. Dielectric data on salt solutions were measured to explain some of the results. When composition data were not available, standard handbook compositions were used. Inclusion of all types of foods (meats, fruits, and vegetables) inhibited any useful correlation with composition. Based on a smaller data set of meats, both dielectric constant and loss increased with water and salt content. Dielectric constant generally decreased with temperature whereas dielectric loss decreased with temperature at lower salt concentrations and increased with temperature at higher salt concentrations.

  16. On the applicability of hybrid functionals for predicting fundamental properties of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Weiwei; Abtew, Tesfaye A.; Cai, Tianyi; Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai; Zhang, Peihong

    2016-05-01

    The repercussions of an inaccurate account of electronic states near the Fermi level by hybrid functionals in predicting several important metallic properties are investigated. The difficulties include a vanishing or severely suppressed density of states (DOS) at EF, significantly widened valence bandwidth, greatly enhanced electron-phonon (el-ph) deformation potentials, and an overestimate of magnetic moment in transition metals. The erroneously enhanced el-ph coupling calculated by hybrid functionals may lead to a false prediction of lattice instability. The main culprit of the problem comes from the simplistic treatment of the exchange functional rooted in the original Fock exchange energy. The use of a short-ranged Coulomb interaction alleviates some of the drawbacks but the fundamental issues remain unchanged.

  17. Structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B magnets studied by first-principles calculations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhao, Xin; Ke, Liqin; Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Wang, Cai -Zhuang; Ho, Kai -Ming

    2015-06-23

    The structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B alloys near the composition of Co5Zr with B at. % ≤6% were studied using adaptive genetic algorithm and first-principles calculations. The energy and magnetic moment contour maps as a function of chemical composition were constructed for the Co-Zr-B magnet alloys through extensive structure searches and calculations. We found that Co-Zr-B system exhibits the same structure motif as the “Co11Zr2” polymorphs, and such motif plays a key role in achieving strong magnetic anisotropy. Boron atoms were found to be able to substitute cobalt atoms or occupy the “interruption” sites. First-principles calculations showed that themore » magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies of the boron-doped alloys are close to that of the high-temperature rhombohedral Co5Zr phase and larger than that of the low-temperature Co5.25Zr phase. As a result, our calculations provide useful guidelines for further experimental optimization of the magnetic performances of these alloys.« less

  18. Structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B magnets studied by first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin; Ke, Liqin; Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Wang, Cai -Zhuang; Ho, Kai -Ming

    2015-06-23

    The structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B alloys near the composition of Co5Zr with B at. % ≤6% were studied using adaptive genetic algorithm and first-principles calculations. The energy and magnetic moment contour maps as a function of chemical composition were constructed for the Co-Zr-B magnet alloys through extensive structure searches and calculations. We found that Co-Zr-B system exhibits the same structure motif as the “Co11Zr2” polymorphs, and such motif plays a key role in achieving strong magnetic anisotropy. Boron atoms were found to be able to substitute cobalt atoms or occupy the “interruption” sites. First-principles calculations showed that the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies of the boron-doped alloys are close to that of the high-temperature rhombohedral Co5Zr phase and larger than that of the low-temperature Co5.25Zr phase. As a result, our calculations provide useful guidelines for further experimental optimization of the magnetic performances of these alloys.

  19. Structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B magnets studied by first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Ke, Liqin; Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2015-06-01

    The structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B alloys near the composition of Co5Zr with B at. % ≤6% were studied using adaptive genetic algorithm and first-principles calculations. The energy and magnetic moment contour maps as a function of chemical composition were constructed for the Co-Zr-B magnet alloys through extensive structure searches and calculations. We found that Co-Zr-B system exhibits the same structure motif as the "Co11Zr2" polymorphs, and such motif plays a key role in achieving strong magnetic anisotropy. Boron atoms were found to be able to substitute cobalt atoms or occupy the "interruption" sites. First-principles calculations showed that the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies of the boron-doped alloys are close to that of the high-temperature rhombohedral Co5Zr phase and larger than that of the low-temperature Co5.25Zr phase. Our calculations provide useful guidelines for further experimental optimization of the magnetic performances of these alloys.

  20. Structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B magnets studied by first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin; Ke, Liqin; Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Wang, Cai-Zhuang Ho, Kai-Ming

    2015-06-28

    The structures and magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B alloys near the composition of Co{sub 5}Zr with B at. % ≤6% were studied using adaptive genetic algorithm and first-principles calculations. The energy and magnetic moment contour maps as a function of chemical composition were constructed for the Co-Zr-B magnet alloys through extensive structure searches and calculations. We found that Co-Zr-B system exhibits the same structure motif as the “Co{sub 11}Zr{sub 2}” polymorphs, and such motif plays a key role in achieving strong magnetic anisotropy. Boron atoms were found to be able to substitute cobalt atoms or occupy the “interruption” sites. First-principles calculations showed that the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies of the boron-doped alloys are close to that of the high-temperature rhombohedral Co{sub 5}Zr phase and larger than that of the low-temperature Co{sub 5.25}Zr phase. Our calculations provide useful guidelines for further experimental optimization of the magnetic performances of these alloys.

  1. Magnetic bubbles and magnetic towers - I. General properties and simple analytical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aly, J.-J.; Amari, T.

    2012-02-01

    We consider magnetostatic equilibria in which a bounded region D containing a magnetized plasma is either fully confined by a field-free external medium - magnetic bubble equilibria (MBEqs) - or is confined by both such a medium and line-tying in a dense plasma region - magnetic tower equilibria (MTEqs). We first establish some of their general properties. In particular, we derive a series of useful integral equalities relating the magnetic field and the thermal pressures inside and outside D, respectively. We use them to prove the non-existence of an axisymmetric MBEq with a purely poloidal field, and to discuss some recent results of Braithwaite on MBEq formation by relaxation from an initial non-equilibrium state. We next present two families of exact analytical axisymmetric MBEqs with, respectively, spherical and toroidal shapes. The first family is extracted from Prendergast's model of a self-gravitating magnetized body, while the second one is constructed by using Palumbo's theory of isodynamic equilibria, for which both magnetic and thermal pressures take constant values on any flux surface. MTEqs with a large variety of structures are thus obtained in a simple way: we start from an arbitrary MBEq and just consider the part of it above a given plane cutting the bubble D. For MBEqs and MTEqs in either family, we compute in closed form most of the interesting physical quantities (such as energy, magnetic helicity and twist). Our results are expected to be useful for building up simple models of several astrophysical objects (such as X-ray cavities in the intracluster medium, jets emitted by disc accreting compact objects, eruptive events in stellar coronae and their ejecta).

  2. THE MORPHOLOGIC PROPERTIES OF MAGNETIC NETWORKS OVER THE SOLAR CYCLE 23

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Chong; Yan Yihua; Zhang Yin; Tan Baolin; Li Gang E-mail: yyh@nao.cas.cn

    2012-11-10

    The morphologic properties of the magnetic networks during Carrington Rotations (CRs) 1955-2091 (from 1999 to 2010) have been analyzed by applying the watershed algorithm to magnetograms observed by the Michelson Doppler Interferometer on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft. We find that the average area of magnetic cells on the solar surface at lower latitudes (within {+-}50 Degree-Sign ) is smaller than that at higher latitudes (beyond {+-}50 Degree-Sign ). Statistical analysis of these data indicates that the magnetic networks are fractal in nature and the average fractal dimension is D{sub f} = 1.253 {+-} 0.011. We also find that both the fractal dimension and the size of the magnetic networks are anti-correlated with the sunspot area. This is perhaps because a strong magnetic field can suppress spatially modulated oscillation and compress the boundaries of network cells, leading to smoother cell boundaries. The fractal dimension of the cell deviates from that predicted from an isobar of Kolmogorov k {sup -5/3} homogeneous turbulence.

  3. Structural and magnetic properties of a prospective spin gapless semiconductor MnCrVAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Y.; Gilbert, S.; Kharel, P.; Jin, Y.; Lukashev, P.; Valloppilly, S.; Sellmyer, D. J.

    Recently a new class of material, spin gapless semiconductors (SGS), has attracted much attention because of their potential for spintronic devices. We have synthesized a Heusler compound, MnCrVAl, which is theoretically predicted to exhibit SGS by arc melting, rapid quenching and thermal annealing. First principles calculations are employed to describe its structural, electronic and magnetic properties. X-ray diffraction indicates that the rapidly quenched samples crystallize in the disordered cubic structure. The crystal structure is stable against heat treatment up to 650oC. The samples show very small saturation magnetization, 0.3 emu/g, at room temperature under high magnetic field, 30 kOe. Above room temperature, the magnetization increases with increasing temperature undergoing a magnetic transition at 560oC, similar to an antiferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic transition. The prospect of this material for spintronic applications will be discussed. This research is supported by SDSU Academic/Scholarly Excellence Fund, and Research/Scholarship Support Fund. Research at UNL is supported by DOE (DE-FG02-04ER46152, synthesis, characterization), NSF (ECCS-1542182, facilities), and NRI.

  4. Electrical and magnetic properties of ion-exchangeable layered ruthenates

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimoto, Wataru . E-mail: wsugi@shinshu-u.ac.jp; Omoto, Masashi; Yokoshima, Katsunori; Murakami, Yasushi; Takasu, Yoshio

    2004-12-01

    An ion-exchangeable ruthenate with a layered structure, K{sub 0.2}RuO{sub 2.1}, was prepared by solid-state reactions. The interlayer cation was exchanged with H{sup +}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}NH{sub 3}{sup +}, and ((C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N{sup +}) through proton-exchange, ion-exchange, and guest-exchange reactions. The electrical and magnetic properties of the products were characterized by DC resistivity and susceptibility measurements. Layered K{sub 0.2}RuO{sub 2.1} exhibited metallic conduction between 300 and 13K. The products exhibited similar magnetic behavior despite the differences in the type of interlayer cation, suggesting that the ruthenate sheet in the protonated form and the intercalation compounds possesses metallic nature.

  5. Magnetic properties of epitaxial discontinuous Fe/MgO multilayers.

    PubMed

    García-García, A; Pardo, J A; Strichovanec, P; Magén, C; Vovk, A; De Teresa, J M; Kakazei, G N; Pogorelov, Yu G; Golub, V; Salyuk, O; Morellón, L; Algarabel, P A; Ibarra, M R

    2012-09-01

    We report magnetic, dynamic and transport properties of discontinuous metal-insulator multilayers Fe/MgO grown on amorphous Corning glass and single-crystalline MgO (001) substrates. The films of structure Substrate/MgO (3 nm)/[Fe (0.6 nm)/MgO (3.0 nm)] x 10 were prepared in ultra-high vacuum conditions using Pulsed Laser Deposition. It was shown that conditions of epitaxial growth are favorable for MgO substrates. As a result a substantial increase of tunneling magnetoresistance caused by spin-filtering effect was observed and reasonably theoretically explained. The value of TMR - 9.2% at room temperature in 18 kOe magnetic field is three times higher comparing to that for the samples grown on Corning glass substrates. PMID:23035505

  6. Magnetic properties of sputtered Permalloy/molybdenum multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Romera, M.; Ciudad, D.; Maicas, M.; Aroca, C.

    2011-10-15

    In this work, we report the magnetic properties of sputtered Permalloy (Py: Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20})/molybdenum (Mo) multilayer thin films. We show that it is possible to maintain a low coercivity and a high permeability in thick sputtered Py films when reducing the out-of-plane component of the anisotropy by inserting thin film spacers of a non-magnetic material like Mo. For these kind of multilayers, we have found coercivities which are close to those for single layer films with no out-of-plane anisotropy. The coercivity is also dependent on the number of layers exhibiting a minimum value when each single Py layer has a thickness close to the transition thickness between Neel and Bloch domain walls.

  7. Properties of Ni/Nb magnetic/superconducting multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Mattson, J.E.; Osgood III, R.M.; Potter, C.D.; Sowers, C.H.; Bader, S.D.

    1997-05-01

    We examine structural, magnetic, and superconducting properties of magnetic/superconducting Ni/Nb multilayers. The Ni(Nb) films are textured {l_brace}111{r_brace}({l_brace}110{r_brace}) and have smooth interfaces. The average moment of the Ni atoms in the structure drops by 80{percent} from that of bulk Ni for 19 {Angstrom} thick Ni layers in proximity to 140 {Angstrom} thick Nb layers, and goes to zero for smaller Ni thicknesses. The Nb layer is not superconducting for thicknesses {lt}100 {Angstrom} in the presence of a 19 {Angstrom} thick ferromagnetic Ni layer. The behavior of the superconducting critical temperature as a function of the superconducting layer thickness was fitted and an interfacial scattering parameter and scattering time for the paramagnetic Ni regime determined.

  8. Structural, optical, and magnetic properties of FeVO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pooja; Gupta, Anurag; Dogra, Anjana

    2016-05-01

    We report the structural, optical, and magnetic properties of polycrystalline FeVO3 synthesized by solid state reaction technique.While FeVO3 has rhombohedral crystal structure with space group R-3c (167) identical to the parentα-Fe2O3, the lattice volume reduces due to the replacement of Fe3+ with V3+ having smaller ionic radii. The most remarkable outcome of doping is reduction in band gap from 2.1 (α-Fe2O3) to 1.5 eV (FeVO3), which is favorable for photo-electrochemical applications. Although the canted ferromagnetism persists in FeVO3, an enhancement in magnetic moment is observed as compared to the parent compound.

  9. Self-Assembled Magnetic Metallic Nanopillars in Ceramic Matrix with Anisotropic Magnetic and Electrical Transport Properties.

    PubMed

    Su, Qing; Zhang, Wenrui; Lu, Ping; Fang, Shumin; Khatkhatay, Fauzia; Jian, Jie; Li, Leigang; Chen, Fanglin; Zhang, Xinghang; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L; Chen, Aiping; Jia, Quanxi; Wang, Haiyan

    2016-08-10

    Ordered arrays of metallic nanopillars embedded in a ceramic matrix have recently attracted considerable interest for their multifunctionality in advanced devices. A number of hurdles need to be overcome for achieving practical devices, including selections of metal-ceramic combination, creation of tunable and ordered structure, and control of strain state. In this article, we demonstrate major advances to create such a fine nanoscale structure, i.e., epitaxial self-assembled vertically aligned metal-ceramic composite, in one-step growth using pulsed laser deposition. Tunable diameter and spacing of the nanopillars can be achieved by controlling the growth parameters such as deposition temperature. The magnetic metal-ceramic composite thin films demonstrate uniaxial anisotropic magnetic properties and enhanced coercivity compared to that of bulk metal. The system also presents unique anisotropic electrical transport properties under in-plane and out-of-plane directions. This work paves a new avenue to fabricate epitaxial metal-ceramic nanocomposites, which can simulate broader future explorations in nanocomposites with novel magnetic, optical, electrical, and catalytical properties. PMID:27438729

  10. Magnetic properties and the effect of non-magnetic impurities in the quasi-2D quantum magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuntia, P.; Dey, T.; Mahajan, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    We present synthesis, x-ray diffraction, magnetisation and specific heat studies on the quasi-two-dimensional (2D) S = 1/2 antiferromagnet (CuCl)LaNb2O7 and its doping analogues (Cu1-x Zn x Cl)LaNb2O7 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.05), (Cu0.95Mg0.05Cl)LaNb2O7, and (CuCl)La1-y Ba y Nb2O7 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.10). The magnetic susceptibility and specific heat of the parent compound and its isovalent or hetereovalent counterparts do not display any signature of magnetic ordering down to 1.8 K. The parent compound and its doping variants exhibit spin-singlet behaviour with a finite gap in the spin excitation spectrum due to dimerisation of the dominant intradimer interactions as evidenced from our magnetic susceptibility and specific heat data. The systematic increase of magnetic susceptibility at low temperature with non-magnetic Zn2+ and Mg2+ (S = 0) substitution at the Cu2+ site reflect that impurities induce local moments around the non-magnetic sites. While heterovalent Ba2+ substitution at the La3+ site do not result in mobile holes but rather give rise to a Curie term in the susceptibility due to localisation. The low value of spin S = 1/2, and absence of long range ordering or spin freezing, and the presence of competing exchange interactions hold special significance in hosting novel magnetic properties in this class of quasi-2D quantum material.

  11. Magnetic properties and the effect of non-magnetic impurities in the quasi-2D quantum magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuntia, P.; Dey, T.; Mahajan, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    We present synthesis, x-ray diffraction, magnetisation and specific heat studies on the quasi-two-dimensional (2D) S = 1/2 antiferromagnet (CuCl)LaNb2O7 and its doping analogues (Cu1‑x Zn x Cl)LaNb2O7 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.05), (Cu0.95Mg0.05Cl)LaNb2O7, and (CuCl)La1‑y Ba y Nb2O7 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.10). The magnetic susceptibility and specific heat of the parent compound and its isovalent or hetereovalent counterparts do not display any signature of magnetic ordering down to 1.8 K. The parent compound and its doping variants exhibit spin-singlet behaviour with a finite gap in the spin excitation spectrum due to dimerisation of the dominant intradimer interactions as evidenced from our magnetic susceptibility and specific heat data. The systematic increase of magnetic susceptibility at low temperature with non-magnetic Zn2+ and Mg2+ (S = 0) substitution at the Cu2+ site reflect that impurities induce local moments around the non-magnetic sites. While heterovalent Ba2+ substitution at the La3+ site do not result in mobile holes but rather give rise to a Curie term in the susceptibility due to localisation. The low value of spin S = 1/2, and absence of long range ordering or spin freezing, and the presence of competing exchange interactions hold special significance in hosting novel magnetic properties in this class of quasi-2D quantum material.

  12. Thermal conductivity prediction of magnetic composite sheet for near-field electromagnetic absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joonsik; Nam, Baekil; Ko, Frank K.; Kim, Ki Hyeon

    2015-05-07

    The magnetic composite sheets were designed by using core-shell structured magnetic fillers instead of uncoated magnetic fillers to resolve concurrently the electromagnetic interference and thermal radiation problems. To predict the thermal conductivity of composite sheet, we calculated the thermal conductivity of the uncoated magnetic fillers and core-shell structured fillers. And then, the thermal conductivity of the magnetic composites sheet filled with core-shell structured magnetic fillers was calculated and compared with that of the uncoated magnetic fillers filled in composite sheet. The magnetic core and shell material are employed the typical Fe-Al-Si flake (60 μm × 60 μm × 1 μm) and 250 nm-thick AlN with high thermal conductivity, respectively. The longitudinal thermal conductivity of the core-shell structured magnetic composite sheet (2.45 W/m·K) enhanced about 33.4% in comparison with that of uncoated magnetic fillers (1.83 W/m·K) for the 50 vol. % magnetic filler in polymer matrix.

  13. Hybrid soft computing systems for reservoir PVT properties prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoukhi, Amar

    2012-07-01

    In reservoir engineering, the knowledge of Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) properties is of great importance for many uses, such as well test analyses, reserve estimation, material balance calculations, inflow performance calculations, fluid flow in porous media and the evaluation of new formations for the potential development and enhancement oil recovery projects. The determination of these properties is a complex problem because laboratory-measured properties of rock samples ("cores") are only available from limited and isolated well locations and/or intervals. Several correlation models have been developed to relate these properties to other measures which are relatively abundant. These models include empirical correlations, statistical regression and artificial neural networks (ANNs). In this paper, a comprehensive study is conducted on the prediction of the bubble point pressure and oil formation volume factor using two hybrid of soft computing techniques; a genetically optimised neural network and a genetically enhanced subtractive clustering for the parameter identification of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system. Simulation experiments are provided, showing the performance of the proposed techniques as compared with commonly used regression correlations, including standard artificial neural networks.

  14. A polymer dataset for accelerated property prediction and design

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huan, Tran Doan; Mannodi-Kanakkithodi, Arun; Kim, Chiho; Sharma, Vinit; Pilania, Ghanshyam; Ramprasad, Rampi

    2016-03-01

    Emerging computation- and data-driven approaches are particularly useful for rationally designing materials with targeted properties. Generally, these approaches rely on identifying structure-property relationships by learning from a dataset of sufficiently large number of relevant materials. The learned information can then be used to predict the properties of materials not already in the dataset, thus accelerating the materials design. Herein, we develop a dataset of 1,073 polymers and related materials and make it available at http://khazana.uconn.edu/. This dataset is uniformly prepared using first-principles calculations with structures obtained either from other sources or by using structure search methods. Because the immediate targetmore » of this work is to assist the design of high dielectric constant polymers, it is initially designed to include the optimized structures, atomization energies, band gaps, and dielectric constants. As a result, it will be progressively expanded by accumulating new materials and including additional properties calculated for the optimized structures provided.« less

  15. Effects of gadolinium and silicon substitution on magnetic properties and microstructure of Nd-Fe-B-Nb bulk nanocomposite magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Zubair; Yan, Mi; Tao, Shan; Husain, S. Wilayat; Liu, Zhongwu

    2015-03-01

    The magnetic properties, phase evolution and microstructure of Fe70-xMxB19Nd7Nb4 (M=Si, Gd, Si+Gd; x=0-2.5 at%) bulk nanocomposite permanent magnets in the form of rods produced by annealing the amorphous precursor have been investigated systematically. Microstructural examination, three-dimensional atom probe microanalysis, δM-plots, X-ray diffraction analysis and magnetometer studies deduced that good magnetic properties in the magnets originate from the homogenous microstructure consisting of exchange coupled, soft magnetic (α-Fe, Fe3B) and hard magnetic (Nd,Gd)2Fe14B nanophases. Optimally annealed Fe70B19Nd7Nb4 rod magnets exhibit magnetic properties of Br=0.61 T, iHc=876 kA/m and (BH)max=50.2 kJ/m3. Gadolinium and silicon addition to quaternary Fe70B19Nd7Nb4 alloy increased the mass fraction of hard magnetic phase, strengthened the exchange coupling interactions and enhanced the magnetic properties. Gadolinium and silicon segregated into hard magnetic phase which led to enhance coercivity up to 1115 kA/m. Enhancement in the coercivity is mainly resulted by hard phase increment as well as domain wall pinning, while strengthening of exchange coupling is caused by grain size refinement and increase in Curie temperature of the magnetic phases. The Fe67B19Nd7Gd2Nb4Si1 magnetic rods of 1.2 mm in diameter demonstrated the best magnetic properties such as intrinsic coercivity, iHc of 1115 kA/m, remanence, Br of 0.57 T and maximum energy product, (BH)max of 65.7 kJ/m3.

  16. Anisotropic Thermal Properties of Nanostructured Magnetic, Carbon and Hybrid Magnetic - Carbon Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Sylvester

    In this dissertation research we investigated thermal properties of three groups of nanostructured materials: (i) magnetic; (ii) reduced graphene oxide films; and (iii) hybrid magnetic -- graphite -- graphene composites. The thermal measurements were conducted using the transient "hot disk" and "laser flash" techniques. The rare-earth free nanostructured SrFe12O19 permanent magnets were produced by the current activated pressure assisted densification technique. The thermal conductivity of the nanostructured bulk magnets was found to range from 3.8 to 5.6 W/mK for the in-plane and 2.36 W/mk to 2.65 W/mK for the cross-plane directions, respectively. The heat conduction was dominated by phonons near the room temperature. The anisotropy of heat conduction was explained by the brick-like alignment of crystalline grains with the longer grain size in-plane direction. The thermal conductivity scales up with the average grain size and mass density of the material revealing weak temperature dependence. Using the nanostructured ferromagnetic Fe3O4 composites as an example system, we incorporated graphene and graphite fillers into magnetic material without changing their morphology. It was demonstrated that addition of 5 wt. % of equal mixture of graphene and graphite flakes to the composite results in a factor of x2.6 enhancement of the thermal conductivity without significant degradation of the saturation magnetization. We investigated thermal conductivity of free-standing reduced graphene oxide films subjected to a high-temperature treatment of up to 1000°C. It was found that the high-temperature annealing dramatically increased the in-plane thermal conductivity, K, of the films from ˜3 W/mK to ˜61 W/mK at room temperature. The cross-plane thermal conductivity, K⊥, revealed an interesting opposite trend of decreasing to a very small value of ˜0.09 W/mK in the reduced graphene oxide films annealed at 1000°C. The obtained films demonstrated an exceptionally strong

  17. Supervised classification of down-hole physical properties measurements using neural network to predict the lithology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoodi, Omid; Smith, Richard S.; Tinkham, Douglas K.

    2016-01-01

    The reliability of rock-type prediction using down-hole density, gamma ray response, and magnetic susceptibility measurements was evaluated at the Victoria property, Sudbury, ON. A supervised neural network, trained using lithological information from drill hole FNX1168, yields a predictive accuracy of 83% for the training data. Applying the trained network on drill hole FNX1182 resulted in 64% of the rock types being correctly classified when compared with the classification produced by geologists during logging of the core. The homogenous rock types, like quartz diorite, had a high accuracy of classification; while the heterogeneous rock types such as diabase were poorly classified. Overlap between physical properties of rock types caused by heterogeneity or inherent similarity in physical properties of rock types, which were verified by observing the cores, accounts for most of the misclassification. To reduce the misclassification, the network was trained from physical log units in FNX1168 derived from clustering of physical properties measurements. Four physical log units mainly represented four groups of rocks: i) quartz diorite; ii) metabasalt and metagabbro; iii) metasediment and quartzite; and iv) sulfide and diabase. The predictive accuracy in the training process rose to 95%. The trained network then was applied to predicting the physical log units in FNX1182. Given the relationships between physical log units and rock types from FNX1168, the results of physical-log-unit classification in FNX1182 were interpreted from a geological point of view. Although in ideal cases we would like to be able to extract the same classification that a geologist provides, the extraction of physical log units is a more realistic goal. The interpretation of the lithological units from the physical log units can be compared with the geologist's classification and discrepancies or anomalies analyzed in greater detail.

  18. RaptorX-Property: a web server for protein structure property prediction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Li, Wei; Liu, Shiwang; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-07-01

    RaptorX Property (http://raptorx2.uchicago.edu/StructurePropertyPred/predict/) is a web server predicting structure property of a protein sequence without using any templates. It outperforms other servers, especially for proteins without close homologs in PDB or with very sparse sequence profile (i.e. carries little evolutionary information). This server employs a powerful in-house deep learning model DeepCNF (Deep Convolutional Neural Fields) to predict secondary structure (SS), solvent accessibility (ACC) and disorder regions (DISO). DeepCNF not only models complex sequence-structure relationship by a deep hierarchical architecture, but also interdependency between adjacent property labels. Our experimental results show that, tested on CASP10, CASP11 and the other benchmarks, this server can obtain ∼84% Q3 accuracy for 3-state SS, ∼72% Q8 accuracy for 8-state SS, ∼66% Q3 accuracy for 3-state solvent accessibility, and ∼0.89 area under the ROC curve (AUC) for disorder prediction.

  19. RaptorX-Property: a web server for protein structure property prediction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng; Li, Wei; Liu, Shiwang; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-01-01

    RaptorX Property (http://raptorx2.uchicago.edu/StructurePropertyPred/predict/) is a web server predicting structure property of a protein sequence without using any templates. It outperforms other servers, especially for proteins without close homologs in PDB or with very sparse sequence profile (i.e. carries little evolutionary information). This server employs a powerful in-house deep learning model DeepCNF (Deep Convolutional Neural Fields) to predict secondary structure (SS), solvent accessibility (ACC) and disorder regions (DISO). DeepCNF not only models complex sequence–structure relationship by a deep hierarchical architecture, but also interdependency between adjacent property labels. Our experimental results show that, tested on CASP10, CASP11 and the other benchmarks, this server can obtain ∼84% Q3 accuracy for 3-state SS, ∼72% Q8 accuracy for 8-state SS, ∼66% Q3 accuracy for 3-state solvent accessibility, and ∼0.89 area under the ROC curve (AUC) for disorder prediction. PMID:27112573

  20. RaptorX-Property: a web server for protein structure property prediction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Li, Wei; Liu, Shiwang; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-07-01

    RaptorX Property (http://raptorx2.uchicago.edu/StructurePropertyPred/predict/) is a web server predicting structure property of a protein sequence without using any templates. It outperforms other servers, especially for proteins without close homologs in PDB or with very sparse sequence profile (i.e. carries little evolutionary information). This server employs a powerful in-house deep learning model DeepCNF (Deep Convolutional Neural Fields) to predict secondary structure (SS), solvent accessibility (ACC) and disorder regions (DISO). DeepCNF not only models complex sequence-structure relationship by a deep hierarchical architecture, but also interdependency between adjacent property labels. Our experimental results show that, tested on CASP10, CASP11 and the other benchmarks, this server can obtain ∼84% Q3 accuracy for 3-state SS, ∼72% Q8 accuracy for 8-state SS, ∼66% Q3 accuracy for 3-state solvent accessibility, and ∼0.89 area under the ROC curve (AUC) for disorder prediction. PMID:27112573

  1. Effect on magnetic properties of germanium encapsulated C60 fullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umran, Nibras Mossa; Kumar, Ranjan

    2013-02-01

    Structural and electronic properties of Gen(n = 1-4) doped C60 fullerene are investigated with ab initio density functional theory calculations by using an efficient computer code, known as SIESTA. The pseudopotentials are constructed using a Trouiller-Martins scheme, to describe the interaction of valence electrons with the atomic cores. In endohedral doped embedding of more germanium atoms complexes we have seen that complexes are stable and thereafter cage break down. We have also investigated that binding energy, electronic affinity increases and magnetic moment oscillating behavior as the number of semiconductor atoms in C60 fullerene goes on increasing.

  2. Influence of spherical assembly of copper ferrite nanoparticles on magnetic properties: orientation of magnetic easy axis.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Biplab K; Bhattacharjee, Kaustav; Dey, Abhishek; Ghosh, Chandan K; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan K

    2014-06-01

    The magnetic properties of copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) nanoparticles prepared via sol-gel auto combustion and facile solvothermal method are studied focusing on the effect of nanoparticle arrangement. Randomly oriented CuFe2O4 nanoparticles (NP) are obtained from the sol-gel auto combustion method, while the solvothermal method allows us to prepare iso-oriented uniform spherical ensembles of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles (NS). X-ray diffractometry (XRD), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), infra-red (IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) are used to investigate the composition, microstructure and magnetic properties of as-prepared ferrite nanoparticles. The field-dependent magnetization measurement for the NS sample at low temperature exhibits a step-like rectangular hysteresis loop (M(R)/M(S) ~ 1), suggesting cubic anisotropy in the system, whereas for the NP sample, typical features of uniaxial anisotropy (M(R)/M(S) ~ 0.5) are observed. The coercive field (HC) for the NS sample shows anomalous temperature dependence, which is correlated with the variation of effective anisotropy (K(E)) of the system. A high-temperature enhancement of H(C) and K(E) for the NS sample coincides with a strong spin-orbit coupling in the sample as evidenced by significant modification of Cu/Fe-O bond distances. The spherical arrangement of nanocrystals at mesoscopic scale provokes a high degree of alignment of the magnetic easy axis along the applied field leading to a step-like rectangular hysteresis loop. A detailed study on the temperature dependence of magnetic anisotropy of the system is carried out, emphasizing the influence of the formation of spherical iso-oriented assemblies. PMID:24714977

  3. Frequency spectrum of alternating current magnetic susceptibility: A new rock magnetic property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, K.

    2011-12-01

    Low-field alternating current magnetic susceptibility (MS) is among the most commonly used magnetic property, from fundamental rock magnetism to various applied fields such as environmental magnetism studies. The prevalence of MS is mainly due to the rapid and simple measurements by means of commercially available devices. Frequency dependent susceptibility, a magnetic parameter defined as the change in MS per decade frequency, has also been frequently used in environmental magnetism. However, the performance of conventional instruments has put some constraint when characterizing SP-SD particle ensemble in terms of grain size distribution. The limitation is due to the specific operating frequencies, generally with one fixed frequency in hundreds of Hz associated with one or two more frequency steps in the range of kHz at the highest. This study proposes a new MS-derived magnetic property, or Frequency Spectrum of MS (FSM), which consists of MS values measured at multiple frequencies ranging in three orders of magnitudes from hundreds of Hz to hundreds of kHz. The FSM analyses were made for selected volcanic rocks and sediments, each characterized by the inclusion of SP, SD, MD particles, or their mixtures. The studied samples include andesite (Sakurajima, Japan), basalt (Kilauea), granite (Minnesota), and less and paleosol (Luochuan, China). Most remarkable is the FSM from the andesite samples showing a susceptibility increase, as much as 5%, observed over a specific frequency interval between 16 kHz and 128 kHz. This anomalous increase is superimposed on a linear decay of MS over the entire frequency range, which obviously shows a broad distribution of SP particle ensemble. In contrast, the FSM of granite shows no frequency dependence, while the basalt and paleosol exhibit the patterns indicating the presence of SP grains with broad volume distributions. The characteristic FSM pattern from the andesite suggests a new rock magnetic phenomena, which is most likely a

  4. Predicting the impact of biochar additions on soil hydraulic properties.

    PubMed

    Lim, T J; Spokas, K A; Feyereisen, G; Novak, J M

    2016-01-01

    Different physical and chemical properties of biochar, which is made out of a variety of biomass materials, can impact water movement through amended soil. The objective of this research was to develop a decision support tool predicting the impact of biochar additions on soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat). Four different kinds of biochar were added to four different textured soils (coarse sand, fine sand, loam, and clay texture) to assess these effects at the rates of 0%, 1%, 2%, and 5% (w/w). The Ksat of the biochar amended soils were significantly influenced by the rate and type of biochar, as well as the original particle size of soil. The Ksat decreased when biochar was added to coarse and fine sands. Biochar with larger particles sizes (60%; >1 mm) decreased Ksat to a larger degree than the smaller particle size biochar (60%; <1 mm) in the two sandy textured soils. Increasing tortuosity in the biochar amended sandy soil could explain this behavior. On the other hand, for the clay loam 1% and 2% biochar additions universally increased the Ksat with higher biochar amounts providing no further alterations. The developed model utilizes soil texture pedotransfer functions for predicting agricultural soil Ksat as a function of soil texture. The model accurately predicted the direction of the Ksat influence, even though the exact magnitude still requires further refinement. This represents the first step to a unified theory behind the impact of biochar additions on soil saturated conductivity. PMID:26145507

  5. Predicting the impact of biochar additions on soil hydraulic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spokas, Kurt; Lim, Tae Jun; Feyereisen, Gary; Novak, Jeff

    2015-04-01

    Different physical and chemical properties of biochar, which is made out of a variety of biomass materials, can impact water movement through amended soil. The objective of this research was to develop a decision support tool predicting the impact of biochar additions on soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat). Four different kinds of biochar were added to four different textured soils (coarse sand, fine sand, loam, and clay texture) to assess these effects at the rates of 0, 1, 2, and 5 % (w/w). The Ksat of the biochar amended soils were significantly influenced by the rate and type of biochar, as well as the original particle size of soil. The Ksat decreased when biochar was added to coarse and fine sands. Biochar with larger particles sizes (60%; >1 mm) decreased Ksat to a larger degree than the smaller particle size biochar (60%; <1 mm) in the two sandy textured soils. Increasing tortuosity in the amended sandy soil could explain this behavior. On the other hand, for the clay loam 1% and 2% biochar additions universally increased the Ksat with higher biochar amounts providing no further alterations. The developed model utilizes soil texture pedotransfer functions for predicting agricultural soil Ksat as a function of soil texture. The model accurately predicted the direction of the Ksat influence, even though the exact magnitude still requires further refinement.

  6. Predicting the impact of biochar additions on soil hydraulic properties.

    PubMed

    Lim, T J; Spokas, K A; Feyereisen, G; Novak, J M

    2016-01-01

    Different physical and chemical properties of biochar, which is made out of a variety of biomass materials, can impact water movement through amended soil. The objective of this research was to develop a decision support tool predicting the impact of biochar additions on soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat). Four different kinds of biochar were added to four different textured soils (coarse sand, fine sand, loam, and clay texture) to assess these effects at the rates of 0%, 1%, 2%, and 5% (w/w). The Ksat of the biochar amended soils were significantly influenced by the rate and type of biochar, as well as the original particle size of soil. The Ksat decreased when biochar was added to coarse and fine sands. Biochar with larger particles sizes (60%; >1 mm) decreased Ksat to a larger degree than the smaller particle size biochar (60%; <1 mm) in the two sandy textured soils. Increasing tortuosity in the biochar amended sandy soil could explain this behavior. On the other hand, for the clay loam 1% and 2% biochar additions universally increased the Ksat with higher biochar amounts providing no further alterations. The developed model utilizes soil texture pedotransfer functions for predicting agricultural soil Ksat as a function of soil texture. The model accurately predicted the direction of the Ksat influence, even though the exact magnitude still requires further refinement. This represents the first step to a unified theory behind the impact of biochar additions on soil saturated conductivity.

  7. Predicting the transport properties of sedimentary rocks from microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Understanding transport properties of sedimentary rocks, including permeability, relative permeability, and electrical conductivity, is of great importance for petroleum engineering, waste isolation, environmental restoration, and other applications. These transport properties axe controlled to a great extent by the pore structure. How pore geometry, topology, and the physics and chemistry of mineral-fluid and fluid-fluid interactions affect the flow of fluids through consolidated/partially consolidated porous media are investigated analytically and experimentally. Hydraulic and electrical conductivity of sedimentary rocks are predicted from the microscopic geometry of the pore space. Cross-sectional areas and perimeters of individual pores are estimated from two-dimensional scanning electron microscope (SEM) photomicrographs of rock sections. Results, using Berea, Boise, Massilon, and Saint-Gilles sandstones show close agreement between the predicted and measured permeabilities. Good to fair agreement is found in the case of electrical conductivity. In particular, good agreement is found for a poorly cemented rock such as Saint-Gilles sandstone, whereas the agreement is not very good for well-cemented rocks. The possible reasons for this are investigated. The surface conductance contribution of clay minerals to the overall electrical conductivity is assessed. The effect of partial hydrocarbon saturation on overall rock conductivity, and on the Archie saturation exponent, is discussed. The region of validity of the well-known Kozeny-Carman permeability formulae for consolidated porous media and their relationship to the microscopic spatial variations of channel dimensions are established. It is found that the permeabilities predicted by the Kozeny-Carman equations are valid within a factor of three of the observed values methods.

  8. Magnetic and Structural Properties of Ultra-Thin Cobalt Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedmann, Michael Helmut

    In situ polar Kerr effect measurements have been used to study the magnetic anisotropy of Au(111)/Co/X, Pd(111)/Co/X, Cu(111)/Co/X, and Pd(100)/Co/X sandwiches, where X is the nonmagnetic metal Ag, Au, Cu, Ir, and Pd or the insulator MgO. The films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). For the metals, we found that the magnitude of the Co/X perpendicular interface anisotropy is strongly peaked at ~1 atomic layer (1.5-2.5 A) coverage. To investigate structural influences on the anisotropy, we have used reflection high energy diffraction (RHEED) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) to measure changes resulting from overlayer coverage. Analysis of digitized RHEED images captured every ~ 1 A during metal overlayer coverage shows no abrupt change of the in-plane lattice constant. We have also investigated the out-of-plane lattice spacing as a function of nonmagnetic metal coverage by measuring LEED I-V curves along the (0,0) rod. In the case of Cu, where the LEED behavior is nearly kinematic, we see no evidence of any abrupt structural changes at ~1 atomic layer coverage. These results suggest the observed peak in magnetic anisotropy is not structural in origin. The influence of an insulating overlayer, MgO, on the perpendicular magnetic properties was also investigated.

  9. An Investigation of Magnetic, Electronic and Structural Properties of Metallofullerenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, S. Vincent; Qian, Meichun; Khanna, Shiv

    2008-03-01

    Gadolinium based endohedral metallofullerenes Gd3N@C80 functionalized with OH radicals have been found to enhance the relaxivity by orders of magnitude over conventional agents and are being sought as new contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Using state of the art density functional theory (DFT) in the regime of the local density approximation with the on-site Coulomb interaction (LSDA+U), we have carried out theoretical studies to determine the electronic and magnetic properties of gadolinium-based and lutetium-based nitride fullerenes, namely Lu3-xGdxN@C80 (x = 1-2). While Gd3N@C80 has previously shown promising features as a contrast agent, the idea of replacing gadolinium atoms by lutetium has been proposed to result in a mixed-metal species for multi-modal imaging. Our results indicate that Lu2GdN@C80 is the most stable of all possible configurations with a binding energy 16.57 eV, can be considered for use as both an MRI contrast agent, due to gadolinium's high magnetic moment, and as a potential radioactive therapeutic or diagnostic agent, by neutron activation of a lutetium radioisotope. These results along with details of electronic structure will be presented.

  10. Magnetic properties of point defects in proton irradiated diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makgato, T. N.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Ramos, M. A.; García-Hernández, M.; Climent-Font, A.; Zucchiatti, A.; Muñoz-Martin, A.; Shrivastava, S.; Erasmus, R.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of ultra-pure type-IIa diamond following irradiation with proton beams of ≈1-2 MeV energy. SQUID magnetometry indicate the formation of Curie type paramagnetism according to the Curie law. Raman and Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements show that the primary structural features created by proton irradiation are the centers: GR1, ND1, TR12 and 3H. The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) Monte Carlo simulations together with SQUID observations show a strong correlation between vacancy production, proton fluence and the paramagnetic factor. At an average surface vacancy spacing of ≈1-1.6 nm and bulk (peak) vacancy spacing of ≈0.3-0.5 nm Curie paramagnetism is induced by formation of ND1 centres with an effective magnetic moment μeff~(0.1-0.2)μB. No evidence of long range magnetic ordering is observed in the temperature range 4.2-300 K.

  11. Magnetic properties for cobalt nanorings: Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qingying; Chen, Shuiyuan; Zhong, Kehua; Huang, Zhigao

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, two structure models of cobalt nanoring cells (double-nanorings and four-nanorings, named as D-rings and F-rings, respectively) have been considered. Base on Monte Carlo simulation, the magnetic properties of the D-rings and F-rings, such as hysteresis loops, spin configuration, coercivity, etc., have been studied. The simulated results indicate that both D-rings and F-rings with different inner radius ( r) and separation of ring centers ( d) display interesting magnetization behavior and spin configurations (onion-, vortex- and crescent shape vortex-type states) in magnetization process. Moreover, it is found that the overlap between the nearest single nanorings connect can result in the deviation of the vortex-type states in the connected regions. Therefore, the appropriate d should be well considered in the design of nanoring device. The simulated results can be explained by the competition between exchange energy and dipolar energy in Co nanorings system. Furthermore, it is found that the simulated temperature dependence of the coercivity for the D-rings with different d can be well described by Hc= H0 exp[-( T/ T0) p].

  12. Two dysprosium-incorporated tungstoarsenates: synthesis, structures and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengyan; Guo, Weihua; Xu, Lin; Ma, Lifang; Wang, Yuchao

    2012-08-14

    Two dysprosium-containing tungstoarsenates [C(NH(2))(3)](11)[Dy(2)(Hcit)(2)(AsW(10)O(38))]·9H(2)O (1) and K(8-n)H(3-n)[Dy(3-n)K(n)(H(2)O)(3)(CO(3))(A-α-AsW(9)O(34))(A-β-AsW(9)O(34))]·22H(2)O (n = 0 or 1) (2) have been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, thermogravimetric analyses and infrared spectroscopy. Compound 1 is a citrate-decorated Keggin type di-substituted Ln/POM derivative with the two non-adjacent substituted sites occupied. Compound 2 is composed of two different trivacant Keggin unit isomers [A-α-AsW(9)O(34)](9-) and [A-β-AsW(9)O(34)](9-), linked to each other via one {Dy(3-n)K(n)(H(2)O)(3)(CO(3))}((7 - 2n)+) (n = 0 or 1) unit, where CO(3)(2-) is encapsulated in the triangle plane, resulting in a stable dysprosium carbonate-containing sandwich-type polyoxoanion with D(2h) symmetry. The investigation on both static and dynamic magnetic properties of 1 and 2 show that the magnetic relaxation behavior of 2 appear in a static magnetic field of 5000 Oe, while 1 shows no positive out-of-phase ac susceptibility.

  13. Magnetic properties and loss separation in iron-silicone-MnZn ferrite soft magnetic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shen; Sun, Aizhi; Xu, Wenhuan; Zou, Chao; Yang, Jun; Dong, Juan

    2013-12-16

    This paper investigates the magnetic and structural properties of iron-based soft magnetic composites coated with silicone-MnZn ferrite hybrid. The organic silicone resin was added to improve the flexibility of the insulated iron powder and causes better adhesion between particles to increase the mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy and distribution maps show that the iron particle surface is covered with a thin layer of silicone-MnZn ferrite. Silicone-MnZn ferrite coated samples have higher permeability when compared with the non-magnetic silicone resin coated compacts. The real part of permeability increases by 34.18% when compared with the silicone resin coated samples at 20 kHz. In this work, a formula for calculating the total loss component by loss separation method is presented and finally the different parts of total losses are calculated. The results show that the eddy current loss coefficient is close to each other for the silicone-MnZn ferrite, silicone resin and MnZn ferrite coated samples (0.0078

  14. Gold and gold-iron oxide magnetic glyconanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Jesús M; Alcántara, David; Eaton, Peter; Crespo, Patricia; Rojas, Teresa C; Fernandez, Asunción; Hernando, Antonio; Penadés, Soledad

    2006-07-01

    The preparation, characterization and the magnetic properties of gold and gold-iron oxide glyconanoparticles (GNPs) are described. Glyconanoparticles were prepared in a single step procedure in the presence of aqueous solution of thiol functionalized neoglycoconjugates and either gold salts or both gold and iron salts. Neoglycoconjugates of lactose and maltose disaccharides with different linkers were used. Iron-free gold or gold-iron oxide GNPs with controlled gold-iron ratios were obtained. The average core-size diameters are in the range of 1.5-2.5 nm. The GNPs are fully characterized by (1)H NMR spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-vis and X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies. Inductive plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP) and elemental analysis gave the average number of neoglycoconjugates per cluster. The magnetic properties were measured in a SQUID magnetometer. The most remarkable results was the observation of a permanent magnetism up to room temperature in the iron-free gold GNPs, that was not present in the corresponding gold-iron oxide GNPs. PMID:16805609

  15. Magnetic and mechanical properties of rotary forged aluminum compacted Nd-Fe-B magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Brett, R.L.; Rowlinson, N.; Ashraf, M.M.; Harris, I.R.; Bowen, P. )

    1990-05-01

    Magnetic and mechanical properties have been studied and compared for rotary forged aluminum compacts containing MQI and MQIII (isotropic and anisotropic melt-spun Nd-Fe-B, respectively) in the as-forged condition, and after subsequent heat treatment both above and below the Curie point. A maximum coercivity of 1165 kA m{sup {minus}1} and a maximum energy product of 84 kJ m{sup {minus}3} have been measured for compacts containing MQI material and 10% aluminum by volume. Compacts containing MQIII material possess superior fracture strengths to those containing MQI material in both bend tests (30 compared with 17 MPa) and uniaxial compression tests (185 compared with 67 MPa), and this is attributed primarily to more uniform compaction due to the morphology of the MQIII particles. Energy dispersive spectrography and fractography have indicated failure of MQIII compacts along interfaces between the aluminum and magnetic material, whereas MQI compacts fail through areas of incomplete compaction. In addition, heat treatment in vacuum subsequent to forging is shown to strengthen compacts containing both MQI and MQIII material substantially with only minor reductions measured in magnetic properties.

  16. Gold and gold-iron oxide magnetic glyconanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Jesús M; Alcántara, David; Eaton, Peter; Crespo, Patricia; Rojas, Teresa C; Fernandez, Asunción; Hernando, Antonio; Penadés, Soledad

    2006-07-01

    The preparation, characterization and the magnetic properties of gold and gold-iron oxide glyconanoparticles (GNPs) are described. Glyconanoparticles were prepared in a single step procedure in the presence of aqueous solution of thiol functionalized neoglycoconjugates and either gold salts or both gold and iron salts. Neoglycoconjugates of lactose and maltose disaccharides with different linkers were used. Iron-free gold or gold-iron oxide GNPs with controlled gold-iron ratios were obtained. The average core-size diameters are in the range of 1.5-2.5 nm. The GNPs are fully characterized by (1)H NMR spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-vis and X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies. Inductive plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP) and elemental analysis gave the average number of neoglycoconjugates per cluster. The magnetic properties were measured in a SQUID magnetometer. The most remarkable results was the observation of a permanent magnetism up to room temperature in the iron-free gold GNPs, that was not present in the corresponding gold-iron oxide GNPs.

  17. Magnetic properties and magnetic phase diagram of frustrated Co1 - xFexPt3 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T. H.; Cadeville, M. C.; Dinia, A.; Rakoto, H.

    1997-04-01

    The investigation of the magnetic properties of the pseudobinary Co1-xFexPt3 L12 ordered compounds resulting from alloying ferromagnet CoPt3 and frustrated antiferromagnet FePt3 is reported. The magnetic phase diagram of this system shows the presence of a pure spin glass phase that separates the ferromagnetic region from the antiferromagnetic one. On the Co-rich side (x<0.6), two re-entrant spin glass phases are found to emerge at low temperature in the ferromagnetic region. On the iron-rich side, an antiferromagnetic region with two antiferromagnetic [1/2 1/20] and [1/200] structures is observed for 1⩾x⩾0.8. This magnetic phase diagram is discussed comparatively with the previously determined (Fe-Mn)Pt3 and (Co-Mn)Pt3 phase diagrams. The randomness of the average exchange interaction is suggested to arise from a competition between the three dominant magnetic interactions JCoCo, JFeFe, and JCoFe of 3d atoms in sites of second nearest neighbors in the L12 structure.

  18. Magnetic properties of dust on Mars - Results from the Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leer, K.; Hjollum, J. I.; Bertelsen, P.; Goetz, W.; Kinch, K.; Hviid, S. F.; Knudsen, J.; Madsen, M.

    2004-12-01

    Results from the "Magnetic Properties Experiments" onboard the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity will be presented. Each rover carries seven magnets for detailed investigation of the magnetic properties of airborne dust and rocks on Mars, each magnet with a specific scientific purpose. The ring shaped sweep magnet has attracted airborne dust and the results from analysis of Pancam images from both rovers show that essentially all the dust suspended in the Martian atmosphere is somewhat magnetic in the sense that the particles are attracted to permanent magnets. The capture and filter magnet are designed so that the capture magnet is as strong as possible, and therefore has attracted all magnetic dust particles within its reach, while the filter magnet is designed to preferentially attract the more strongly magnetic dust particles. Differences in reflectivity spectra from these two magnets as observed by Pancam show that the filter magnet have succeded in picking out a more magnetic fraction of the airborne particles on both rovers. This provides interesting samples for further studies by the Microscopic Imager, the APX spectrometer and the Mössbauer spectrometer. The four RAT magnets, placed in the Rock Abrasion Tool, provide information about the magnetic material present within the rocks. There are three different RAT magnets; two of the four magnets (#1) are identical and very strong. These magnets are designed to attract all magnetic particles from the grinding process that happen to come close to this magnet, while the two other RAT magnets (#2 and #3) are different and designed - as the filter magnet - to different degrees to attract and hold preferentially the more strongly magnetic particles liberated by the grinding process.

  19. Mimicking the magnetic properties of rare earth elements using superatoms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi-Bo; Berkdemir, Cuneyt; Castleman, A W

    2015-04-21

    Rare earth elements (REs) consist of a very important group in the periodic table that is vital to many modern technologies. The mining process, however, is extremely damaging to the environment, making them low yield and very expensive. Therefore, mimicking the properties of REs in a superatom framework is especially valuable but at the same time, technically challenging and requiring advanced concepts about manipulating properties of atom/molecular complexes. Herein, by using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, we provide original idea and direct experimental evidence that chosen boron-doped clusters could mimic the magnetic characteristics of REs. Specifically, the neutral LaB and NdB clusters are found to have similar unpaired electrons and magnetic moments as their isovalent REs (namely Nd and Eu, respectively), opening up the great possibility in accomplishing rare earth mimicry. Extension of the superatom concept into the rare earth group not only further shows the power and advance of this concept but also, will stimulate more efforts to explore new superatomic clusters to mimic the chemistry of these heavy atoms, which will be of great importance in designing novel building blocks in the application of cluster-assembled nanomaterials. Additionally, based on these experimental findings, a novel "magic boron" counting rule is proposed to estimate the numbers of unpaired electrons in diatomic LnB clusters. PMID:25848014

  20. Mimicking the magnetic properties of rare earth elements using superatoms

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shi-Bo; Berkdemir, Cuneyt; Castleman, A. W.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REs) consist of a very important group in the periodic table that is vital to many modern technologies. The mining process, however, is extremely damaging to the environment, making them low yield and very expensive. Therefore, mimicking the properties of REs in a superatom framework is especially valuable but at the same time, technically challenging and requiring advanced concepts about manipulating properties of atom/molecular complexes. Herein, by using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, we provide original idea and direct experimental evidence that chosen boron-doped clusters could mimic the magnetic characteristics of REs. Specifically, the neutral LaB and NdB clusters are found to have similar unpaired electrons and magnetic moments as their isovalent REs (namely Nd and Eu, respectively), opening up the great possibility in accomplishing rare earth mimicry. Extension of the superatom concept into the rare earth group not only further shows the power and advance of this concept but also, will stimulate more efforts to explore new superatomic clusters to mimic the chemistry of these heavy atoms, which will be of great importance in designing novel building blocks in the application of cluster-assembled nanomaterials. Additionally, based on these experimental findings, a novel “magic boron” counting rule is proposed to estimate the numbers of unpaired electrons in diatomic LnB clusters. PMID:25848014

  1. Thermal and magnetic properties of chitosan-iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Soares, Paula I P; Machado, Diana; Laia, César; Pereira, Laura C J; Coutinho, Joana T; Ferreira, Isabel M M; Novo, Carlos M M; Borges, João Paulo

    2016-09-20

    Chitosan is a biopolymer widely used for biomedical applications such as drug delivery systems, wound healing, and tissue engineering. Chitosan can be used as coating for other types of materials such as iron oxide nanoparticles, improving its biocompatibility while extending its range of applications. In this work iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) produced by chemical precipitation and thermal decomposition and coated with chitosan with different molecular weights were studied. Basic characterization on bare and chitosan-Fe3O4 NPs was performed demonstrating that chitosan does not affect the crystallinity, chemical composition, and superparamagnetic properties of the Fe3O4 NPs, and also the incorporation of Fe3O4 NPs into chitosan nanoparticles increases the later hydrodynamic diameter without compromising its physical and chemical properties. The nano-composite was tested for magnetic hyperthermia by applying an alternating current magnetic field to the samples demonstrating that the heating ability of the Fe3O4 NPs was not significantly affected by chitosan.

  2. Mimicking the magnetic properties of rare earth elements using superatoms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi-Bo; Berkdemir, Cuneyt; Castleman, A W

    2015-04-21

    Rare earth elements (REs) consist of a very important group in the periodic table that is vital to many modern technologies. The mining process, however, is extremely damaging to the environment, making them low yield and very expensive. Therefore, mimicking the properties of REs in a superatom framework is especially valuable but at the same time, technically challenging and requiring advanced concepts about manipulating properties of atom/molecular complexes. Herein, by using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, we provide original idea and direct experimental evidence that chosen boron-doped clusters could mimic the magnetic characteristics of REs. Specifically, the neutral LaB and NdB clusters are found to have similar unpaired electrons and magnetic moments as their isovalent REs (namely Nd and Eu, respectively), opening up the great possibility in accomplishing rare earth mimicry. Extension of the superatom concept into the rare earth group not only further shows the power and advance of this concept but also, will stimulate more efforts to explore new superatomic clusters to mimic the chemistry of these heavy atoms, which will be of great importance in designing novel building blocks in the application of cluster-assembled nanomaterials. Additionally, based on these experimental findings, a novel "magic boron" counting rule is proposed to estimate the numbers of unpaired electrons in diatomic LnB clusters.

  3. Structural and magnetic properties of chromium doped zinc ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian, Rintu Mary; Thankachan, Smitha; Xavier, Sheena; Mohammed, E. M.; Joseph, Shaji

    2014-01-28

    Zinc chromium ferrites with chemical formula ZnCr{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) were prepared by Sol - Gel technique. The structural as well as magnetic properties of the synthesized samples have been studied and reported here. The structural characterizations of the samples were analyzed by using X – Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The single phase spinel cubic structure of all the prepared samples was tested by XRD and FTIR. The particle size was observed to decrease from 18.636 nm to 6.125 nm by chromium doping and induced a tensile strain in all the zinc chromium mixed ferrites. The magnetic properties of few samples (x = 0.0, 0.4, 1.0) were investigated using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM)

  4. Controlled synthesis and magnetic properties of monodispersed ceria nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Sumeet; Ojha, Animesh K.; Srivastava, Manish E-mail: manish-mani84@rediffmail.com; Singh, Jay; Layek, Samar; Yashpal, Madhu; Materny, Arnulf

    2015-02-15

    In the present study, monodispersed CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) of size 8.5 ± 1.0, 11.4 ± 1.0 and 15.4 ± 1.0 nm were synthesized using the sol-gel method. Size-dependent structural, optical and magnetic properties of as-prepared samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), ultra-violet visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements. The value of optical band gap is calculated for each particle size. The decrease in the value of optical band gap with increase of particle size may be attributed to the quantum confinement, which causes to produce localized states created by the oxygen vacancies due to the conversion of Ce{sup 4+} into Ce{sup 3+} at higher calcination temperature. The Raman spectra showed a peak at ∼461 cm{sup -1} for the particle size 8.5 nm, which is attributed to the 1LO phonon mode. The shift in the Raman peak could be due to lattice strain developed due to variation in particle size. Weak ferromagnetism at room temperature is observed for each particle size. The values of saturation magnetization (Ms), coercivity (Hc) and retentivity (Mr) are increased with increase of particle size. The increase of Ms and Mr for larger particle size may be explained by increase of density of oxygen vacancies at higher calcination temperature. The latter causes high concentrations of Ce{sup 3+} ions activate more coupling between the individual magnetic moments of the Ce ions, leading to an increase of Ms value with the particle size. Moreover, the oxygen vacancies may also produce magnetic moment by polarizing spins of f electrons of cerium (Ce) ions located around oxygen vacancies, which causes ferromagnetism in pure CeO{sub 2} samples.

  5. Tables of thermodynamic properties of helium magnet coolant. Revision A

    SciTech Connect

    McAshan, M.

    1992-07-01

    The most complete treatment of the thermodynamic properties of helium at the present time is the monograph by McCarty: ``Thermodynamic Properties of Helium 4 from 2 to 1500 K at Pressures to 10{sup 8} Pa``, Robert D. McCarty, Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Vol. 2, page 923--1040 (1973). In this work the complete range of data on helium is examined and the P-V-T surface is described by an equation of state consisting of three functions P(r,T) covering different regions together with rules for making the transition from one region to another. From this thermodynamic compilation together with correlations of the transport properties of helium was published the well-known NBS Technical Note: ``Thermophysical Properties of Helium 4 from 2 to 1500 K with pressures to 1000 Atmospheres``, Robert D. McCarty, US Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 631 (1972). This is the standard reference for helium cryogenics. The NBS 631 tables cover a wide range of temperature and pressure, and as a consequence, the number of points tabulated in the region of the single phase coolant for the SSC magnets are relatively few. The present work sets out to cover the range of interest in more detail in a way that is consistent with NBS 631. This new table is essentially identical to the older one and can be used as an auxiliary to it.

  6. Tables of thermodynamic properties of helium magnet coolant

    SciTech Connect

    McAshan, M.

    1992-07-01

    The most complete treatment of the thermodynamic properties of helium at the present time is the monograph by McCarty: Thermodynamic Properties of Helium 4 from 2 to 1500 K at Pressures to 10{sup 8} Pa'', Robert D. McCarty, Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Vol. 2, page 923--1040 (1973). In this work the complete range of data on helium is examined and the P-V-T surface is described by an equation of state consisting of three functions P(r,T) covering different regions together with rules for making the transition from one region to another. From this thermodynamic compilation together with correlations of the transport properties of helium was published the well-known NBS Technical Note: Thermophysical Properties of Helium 4 from 2 to 1500 K with pressures to 1000 Atmospheres'', Robert D. McCarty, US Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 631 (1972). This is the standard reference for helium cryogenics. The NBS 631 tables cover a wide range of temperature and pressure, and as a consequence, the number of points tabulated in the region of the single phase coolant for the SSC magnets are relatively few. The present work sets out to cover the range of interest in more detail in a way that is consistent with NBS 631. This new table is essentially identical to the older one and can be used as an auxiliary to it.

  7. Tables of thermodynamic properties of helium magnet coolant, revision A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAshan, M.

    1992-07-01

    The most complete treatment of the thermodynamic properties of helium at the present time is the monograph by McCarty: 'Thermodynamic Properties of Helium 4 from 2 to 1500 K at Pressures to 10(exp 8) Pa', Robert D. McCarty, Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Vol. 2, page 923-1040 (1973). In this work the complete range of data on helium is examined and the P-V-T surface is described by an equation of state consisting of three functions P(r,T) covering different regions together with rules for making the transition from one region to another. From this thermodynamic compilation together with correlations of the transport properties of helium was published the well-known NBS Technical Note: 'Thermophysical Properties of Helium 4 from 2 to 1500 K with pressures to 1000 Atmospheres', Robert D. McCarty, US Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 631 (1972). This is the standard reference for helium cryogenics. The NBS 631 tables cover a wide range of temperature and pressure, and as a consequence, the number of points tabulated in the region of the single phase coolant for the SSC magnets are relatively few. The present work sets out to cover the range of interest in more detail in a way that is consistent with NBS 631. This new table is essentially identical to the older one and can be used as an auxiliary to it.

  8. Force prediction in permanent magnet flat linear motors (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastham, J. F.; Akmese, R.

    1991-11-01

    The advent of neodymium iron boron rare-earth permanent magnet material has afforded the opportunity to construct linear machines of high force to weight ratio. The paper describes the design and construction of an axial flux machine and rotating drum test rig. The machine occupies an arc of 45° on a drum 1.22 m in diameter. The excitation is provided by blocks of NdFeB material which are skewed in order to minimize the force variations due to slotting. The stator carries a three-phase short-chorded double-layer winding of four poles. The machine is supplied by a PWM inverter the fundamental component of which is phase locked to the rotor position so that a ``dc brushless'' drive system is produced. Electromagnetic forces including ripple forces are measured at supply frequencies up to 100 Hz. They are compared with finite-element analysis which calculates the force variation over the time period. The paper then considers some of the causes of ripple torque. In particular, the force production due solely to the permanent magnet excitation is considered. This has two important components each acting along the line of motion of the machine, one is due to slotting and the other is due to the finite length of the primary. In the practical machine the excitation poles are skewed to minimize the slotting force and the effectiveness of this is confirmed by both results from the experiments and the finite-element analysis. The end effect force is shown to have a space period of twice that of the excitation. The amplitude of this force and its period are again confirmed by practical results.

  9. Homometallic and Heterometallic Antiferromagnetic Rings: Magnetic Properties Studied by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Casadei, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present thesis is to investigate the local magnetic properties of homometallic Cr8 antiferromagnetic (AFM) ring and the changes occurring by replacing one Cr3+ ion with diamagnetic Cd2+ (Cr7Cd) and with Ni2+ (Cr7Ni). In the heterometallic ring a redistribution of the local magnetic moment is expected in the low temperature ground state. We have investigated those changes by both 53Cr-NMR and 19F-NMR. We have determined the order of magnitude of the transferred hyperfine coupling constant 19F - M+ where M+ = Cr3+, Ni2+ in the different rings. This latter result gives useful information about the overlapping of the electronic wavefunctions involved in the coordinative bond.

  10. The Parsec-Scale Magnetic Field Properties of Low-Optical Polarization Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, M. L.; Smith, P. S.

    1999-05-01

    Radio variability studies of flat-spectrum, compact extra-galactic radio sources have suggested that low- and high-optically polarized quasars (LPQ/HPQ) are the same type of object, differing only in the angle their relativistic jets make to the line of sight. Recent millimeter-wave polarization observations, however, have indicated that the inner jets of LPQs generally have lower fractional polarizations than HPQs, and inferred magnetic field directions that are mostly parallel to the jet. The magnetic fields of HPQs, on the other hand, lie mainly in a transverse direction. The latter configuration is a prediction of the standard shock-in-jet model, in which a portion of a jet undergoes a strong transverse compression, thereby enhancing the perpendicular components of an originally tangled magnetic field. The magnetic field orientations of several HPQs have been shown to be stable over many years, which may be due to standing shock(s) located close to the base of the jet. Since these shocks are able to produce large amounts of optically polarized synchrotron radiation, their presence may very well determine whether an object is classified as an HPQ or LPQ. We have carried out the first systematic study of the parsec-scale magnetic field properties of LPQs with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 43 and 22 GHz, and have obtained near-simultaneous optical polarization measurements with the Steward Observatory 60'' telescope. We discuss correlations between the optical and radio polarization data, and compare the LPQ properties to those of a sample of HPQs presently being monitored with the VLBA and James Clerk Maxwell Telescope at mm and sub-mm wavelengths, respectively. This research was performed in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA.

  11. A strong angular dependence of magnetic properties of magnetosome chains: Implications for rock magnetism and paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinhua; Ge, Kunpeng; Pan, Yongxin; Williams, Wyn; Liu, Qingsong; Qin, Huafeng

    2013-10-01

    Single-domain magnetite particles produced by magnetotactic bacteria (magnetosomes) and aligned in chains are of great interest in the biosciences and geosciences. Here, we investigated angular variation of magnetic properties of aligned Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 cells, each of which contains one single fragmental chain of magnetosomes. With measurements at increasing angles from the chain direction, we observed that (i) the hysteresis loop gradually changes from nearly rectangular to a ramp-like shape (e.g., Bc and remanence decrease), (ii) the acquisition and demagnetization curves of IRM shift toward higher fields (e.g., Bcr increases), and (iii) the FORC diagram shifts toward higher coercivity fields (e.g., Bc,FORC increases). For low-temperature results, compared to unoriented samples, the samples containing aligned chains have a much lower remanence loss of field-cooled (δFC) and zero-field-cooled (δZFC) remanence upon warming through the Verwey transition, higher δ-ratio (δ = δFC/δZFC) for the measurement parallel to the chain direction, and lower δ-ratio, larger δFC and δZFC values for the perpendicular measurement. Micromagnetic simulations confirm the experimental observations and reveal that the magnetization reversal of magnetosome chain appears to be noncoherent at low angles and coherent at high angles. The simulations also demonstrate that the angular dependence of magnetic properties is related to the dispersion degree of individual chains, indicating that effects of anisotropy need to be accounted for when using rock magnetism to identify magnetosomes or magnetofossils once they have been preserved in aligned chains. Additionally, this study experimentally demonstrates an empirical correspondence of the parameter Bc,FORC to Bcr rather than Bc, at least for magnetite chains with strong shape anisotropy. This suggests FORC analysis is a good discriminant of magnetofossils in sediments and rocks.

  12. Can We Predict CME Deflections Based on Solar Magnetic Field Configuration Alone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, C.; Opher, M.; Evans, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate space weather forecasting requires knowledge of the trajectory of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), including predicting CME deflections close to the Sun and through interplanetary space. Deflections of CMEs occur due to variations in the background magnetic field or solar wind speed, magnetic reconnection, and interactions with other CMEs. Using our newly developed model of CME deflections due to gradients in the background solar magnetic field, ForeCAT (Kay et al. 2013), we explore the questions: (a) do all simulated CMEs ultimately deflect to the minimum in the background solar magnetic field? (b) does the majority of the deflection occur in the lower corona below 4 Rs? ForeCAT does not include temporal variations in the magnetic field of active regions (ARs), spatial variations in the background solar wind speed, magnetic reconnection, or interactions with other CMEs. Therefore we focus on the effects of the steady state solar magnetic field. We explore two different Carrington Rotations (CRs): CR 2029 (April-May 2005) and CR 2077 (November-December 2008). Little is known about how the density and magnetic field fall with distance in the lower corona. We consider four density models derived from observations (Chen 1996, Mann et al. 2003, Guhathakurta et al. 2006, Leblanc et al. 1996) and two magnetic field models (PFSS and a scaled model). ForeCAT includes drag resulting from both CME propagation and deflection through the background solar wind. We vary the drag coefficient to explore the effect of drag on the deflection at 1 AU.

  13. Theoretical studies of electronic, vibrational, and magnetic properties of chemisorbed surfaces and nanoalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcantara Ortigoza, Marisol

    In this work we present a study of the geometric, electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties of several nanostructured systems for which experimental data call for a theoretical understanding. In order to investigate the effect of magnetic dipolar interactions on the magnetization of nanomagnets arranged in finite lattices, we utilize a phenomenological classical approach, which is based on the Landau-Lifshitz equation. Dipolar interactions lead to hysteretic behavior of the magnetization curves and established that the external field sweep rate, sample temperature, and shape anisotropy play a role in determining the specifics. Our results (derived from a classical approach) for magnets arranged in a square lattice suggest that stepped hysteresis curves do not have necessarily a quantum origin (quantum tunneling of the magnetization). We also find that in the square lattice small changes in the dipolar strength introduce sudden transitions in the magnetic hysteresis. For the examination of geometric vibrational and electronic structure of systems of interest, we turn to density functional theory (DFT), which is the leading technique for modeling nanoscale systems from first principles. We have applied DFT to either address some old queries of surface science, such as the dynamics of the CO-chemisorbed Cu(001) surface, or to contribute to the forefront of hydrogen-based economy through the comprehension of the growth and diffusion of Pt islets on Ru(0001), or to predict the geometric and electronic properties of materials to-be-created, as in the case of core-shell bimetallic nanoclusters. In the case of CO on Cu(001), although the bond has been considered to be weak enough so as to treat the adsorbate and substrate separately, our calculations are able to reproduce measurements and provide evidence that the dynamics of the molecule is influenced by the substrate and vice versa, as well as by intermolecular interactions. Taking into account the adsorbate

  14. Predicting the sun's polar magnetic fields with a surface flux transport model

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David H. E-mail: lar0009@uah.edu

    2014-01-01

    The Sun's polar magnetic fields are directly related to solar cycle variability. The strength of the polar fields at the start (minimum) of a cycle determine the subsequent amplitude of that cycle. In addition, the polar field reversals at cycle maximum alter the propagation of galactic cosmic rays throughout the heliosphere in fundamental ways. We describe a surface magnetic flux transport model that advects the magnetic flux emerging in active regions (sunspots) using detailed observations of the near-surface flows that transport the magnetic elements. These flows include the axisymmetric differential rotation and meridional flow and the non-axisymmetric cellular convective flows (supergranules), all of which vary in time in the model as indicated by direct observations. We use this model with data assimilated from full-disk magnetograms to produce full surface maps of the Sun's magnetic field at 15 minute intervals from 1996 May to 2013 July (all of sunspot cycle 23 and the rise to maximum of cycle 24). We tested the predictability of this model using these maps as initial conditions, but with daily sunspot area data used to give the sources of new magnetic flux. We find that the strength of the polar fields at cycle minimum and the polar field reversals at cycle maximum can be reliably predicted up to 3 yr in advance. We include a prediction for the cycle 24 polar field reversal.

  15. Distance scaling method for accurate prediction of slowly varying magnetic fields in satellite missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Panagiotis P.; Chatzineofytou, Elpida G.; Spantideas, Sotirios T.; Capsalis, Christos N.

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, the determination of the magnetic behavior of localized magnetic sources from near-field measurements is examined. The distance power law of the magnetic field fall-off is used in various cases to accurately predict the magnetic signature of an equipment under test (EUT) consisting of multiple alternating current (AC) magnetic sources. Therefore, parameters concerning the location of the observation points (magnetometers) are studied towards this scope. The results clearly show that these parameters are independent of the EUT's size and layout. Additionally, the techniques developed in the present study enable the placing of the magnetometers close to the EUT, thus achieving high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Finally, the proposed method is verified by real measurements, using a mobile phone as an EUT.

  16. Magnetic properties of dendrimer structures with different coordination numbers: A Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of Cayley trees of large molecules with dendrimer structure using Monte Carlo simulations. The thermal magnetization and magnetic susceptibility of a dendrimer structure are given with different coordination numbers, Z=3, 4, 5 and different generations g=3 and 2. The variation of magnetizations with the exchange interactions and crystal fields have been given of this system. The magnetic hysteresis cycles have been established.

  17. Magnetic properties of Ni substituted Y-type barium ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Won, Mi Hee; Kim, Chul Sung

    2014-05-07

    Y-type barium hexaferrite is attractive material for various applications, such as high frequency antennas and RF devices, because of its interesting magnetic properties. Especially, Ni substituted Y- type hexaferrites have higher magnetic ordering temperature than other Y-type. We have investigated macroscopic and microscopic properties of Y-type barium hexaferrite. Ba{sub 2}Co{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} (x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) samples are prepared by solid-state reaction method and studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, as well as a network analyzer for high frequency characteristics. The XRD pattern is analyzed by Rietveld refinement method and confirms the hexagonal structure with R-3m. The hysteresis curve shows ferrimagnetic behavior. Saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) decreases with Ni contents. Ni{sup 2+}, which preferentially occupies the octahedral site with up-spin sub-lattice, has smaller spin value S of 1 than Co{sup 2+} having S = 3/2. The zero-field-cooled (ZFC) measurement of Ba{sub 2}Co{sub 1.5}Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} shows that Curie and spin transition temperatures are found to be 718 K and 209 K, respectively. The Curie temperature T{sub C} is increased with Ni contents, while T{sub S} is decreased with Ni. The Mössbauer spectra were measured at various temperatures and fitted by using a least-squares method with six sextet of six Lorentzian lines for Fe sites, corresponding to the 3b{sub VI}, 6c{sub IV}*, 6c{sub VI}, 18h{sub VI}, 6c{sub IV}, and 3a{sub IV} sites at below T{sub C}. From Mössbauer measurements, we confirmed the spin state of Fe ion to be Fe{sup 3+} and obtained the isomer shift (δ), magnetic hyperfine field (H{sub hf}), and the occupancy ratio of Fe ions at six sub-lattices. The complex permeability and permittivity are measured between 100 MHz and 4 GHz, suggesting that Y-type barium hexaferrite is promising for antenna

  18. Engineering Property Prediction Tools for Tailored Polymer Composite Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Foss, Peter; Wyzgoski, Michael; Trantina, Gerry; Kunc, Vlastimil; Schutte, Carol; Smith, Mark T.

    2009-12-23

    This report summarizes our FY 2009 research activities for the project titled:"Engineering Property Prediction Tools for Tailored Polymer Composite Structures." These activities include (i) the completion of the development of a fiber length attrition model for injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs), (ii) development of the a fatigue damage model for LFTs and its implementation in ABAQUS, (iii) development of an impact damage model for LFTs and its implementation in ABAQUS, (iv) development of characterization methods for fatigue testing, (v) characterization of creep and fatigue responses of glass-fiber/polyamide (PA6,6) and glass-fiber/polypropylene (PP), (vi) characterization of fiber length distribution along the flow length of glass/PA6,6 and glass-fiber/PP, and (vii) characterization of impact responses of glass-fiber/PA6,6. The fiber length attrition model accurately captures the fiber length distribution along the flow length of the studied glass-fiber/PP material. The fatigue damage model is able to predict the S-N and stiffness reduction data which are valuable to the fatigue design of LFTs. The impact damage model correctly captures damage accumulation observed in experiments of glass-fiber/PA6,6 plaques.Further work includes validations of these models for representative LFT materials and a complex LFT part.

  19. Property prediction of new semiconductors by computer modeling and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ping; Lin, Guo Q.; Zeng, Yingzhi

    2002-11-01

    A new methodology of systematic design of new materials for various applications is presented in this paper. In particular, a large number of candidate compounds that are formed by all possible combinations of the targeted elements in the periodic table are first screened and shortlisted by artificial neural network techniques. Then the quantum mechanics computation is employed to evaluate the promising candidates selected from the first step. Finally experiments are performed to further examine the computation results. In the present work, we apply this methodology to the study of semiconductors of binary (III-V and II-VI) and ternary (I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2) compounds. Firstly, we systematically study all possible binary and ternary compounds by using pattern recognition and perform prediction of two important properties, namely band gap energy and lattice constant, with the artificial neural network model. Candidate semiconductors are then selected. On the basis of the above study, we perform first principles quantum mechanics computation for some promising II-VI binary candidates. The first principles study of the ternary candidates will be conducted in the near future, and the experiment study of the binary compounds is ongoing. The model predicted new compounds as well as the developed design methodology may be of interest to general materials scientists including these of smart materials research.

  20. Early functional magnetic resonance imaging activations predict language outcome after stroke.

    PubMed

    Saur, Dorothee; Ronneberger, Olaf; Kümmerer, Dorothee; Mader, Irina; Weiller, Cornelius; Klöppel, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    An accurate prediction of system-specific recovery after stroke is essential to provide rehabilitation therapy based on the individual needs. We explored the usefulness of functional magnetic resonance imaging scans from an auditory language comprehension experiment to predict individual language recovery in 21 aphasic stroke patients. Subjects with an at least moderate language impairment received extensive language testing 2 weeks and 6 months after left-hemispheric stroke. A multivariate machine learning technique was used to predict language outcome 6 months after stroke. In addition, we aimed to predict the degree of language improvement over 6 months. 76% of patients were correctly separated into those with good and bad language performance 6 months after stroke when based on functional magnetic resonance imaging data from language relevant areas. Accuracy further improved (86% correct assignments) when age and language score were entered alongside functional magnetic resonance imaging data into the fully automatic classifier. A similar accuracy was reached when predicting the degree of language improvement based on imaging, age and language performance. No prediction better than chance level was achieved when exploring the usefulness of diffusion weighted imaging as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging acquired two days after stroke. This study demonstrates the high potential of current machine learning techniques to predict system-specific clinical outcome even for a disease as heterogeneous as stroke. Best prediction of language recovery is achieved when the brain activation potential after system-specific stimulation is assessed in the second week post stroke. More intensive early rehabilitation could be provided for those with a predicted poor recovery and the extension to other systems, for example, motor and attention seems feasible. PMID:20299389

  1. Structure and magnetic properties of epitaxial terbium- iron thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuei-Tang

    TbFe2 is a giant magnetostrictive material which has the largest known room temperature magnetostriction constant. The large magnetostriction constant suggests that we can manipulate the magnetic anisotropy of the material using small strains. Other research groups have grown amorphous and polycrystalline TbFe2 films; however, these films lose giant mangetostriction because of diordered atomic structure in the amorphous films and random grain orientation in the polycrystalline films. Single-crystal structure is needed to achieve the large magnetostriction, so epitaxial growth of TbFe2 thin films is necessary. The goal of this research is to grow epitaxial TbFe2 films and study the effect of film strain on magnetic anisotropy. A technique was developed to grow epitaxial TbFe2films using DC magnetron sputtering. The films were grown in a UHV system using elemental Tb and Fe sputtering targets and single-crystal Al2O3, MgO, and CaF2 substrates. (110) -oriented Mo, W, and Nb were used as buffer layers to provide the base for epitaxial growth and to prevent chemical reactions between the TbFe2 films and the substrates. On the Mo and W buffer layers the TbFe2 film is (111) -oriented but on the Nb buffer layer it is (110) -oriented. Preliminary calculation of magnetostrictive anisotropy in TbFe2(111) films predicts that compressive strain greater than 0.5% will induce perpendicular magnetization while tensile strain greater than 0.5% will induce an in- plane magnetization. Epitaxial growth on CaF2 provides compressive thermal strain of 0.51%, and SQUID measurements confirmed that these samples did have perpendicular magnetization. On the other hand, Al2O3 provides tensile thermal strain of 0.56%, and SQUID measurements showed the films on Al2O3 were in-plane. The values of strain on these three substrates were determined by strain measurement from synchrotron radiation. X-ray epitaxial quality measurements revealed a new orientation relationship, R30o, at the TbFe2

  2. Predicting radiative transport properties of plasma sprayed porous ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B. X.; Zhao, C. Y.

    2016-03-01

    The typical yttria-stabilized zirconia material for making the thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is intrinsically semitransparent to thermal radiation, and the unique disordered microstructures in TBCs make them surprisingly highly scattering. To quantitatively understand the influence of disordered microstructures, this paper presents a quantitative prediction on the radiative properties, especially the transport scattering coefficient of plasma sprayed TBC based on microstructure analysis and rigorous electromagnetic theory. The impact of the porosity, shape, size, and orientation of different types of voids on transport scattering coefficient is comprehensively investigated under the discrete dipole approximation. An inverse model integrating these factors together is then proposed to quantitatively connect transport scattering coefficient with microstructural information, which is also validated by available experimental data. Afterwards, an optimization procedure is carried out based on this model to obtain the optimal size and orientation distribution of the microscale voids to achieve the maximal radiation insulation performance at different operating temperatures, providing guidelines for practical coating design and fabrication. This work suggests that the current model is effective and also efficient for connecting scattering properties to microstructures and can be implemented as a quantitative tool for further studies like non-destructive infrared imaging as well as micro/nanoscale thermal design of TBCs.

  3. Properties prediction of non-toxic ice inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Pachter, R.; Trohalaki, S.

    1996-10-01

    Toxic de-icing compounds currently employed in jet fuels (ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether) dissolve in the water {open_quote}bottoms{close_quote} present in storage tanks, thus producing hazardous waste which requires expensive disposal. The fastest and most cost effective way to develop alternative compounds is to design desirable features theoretically and thus direct the synthesis of those candidates having sought after properties. Empirical and quantum mechanical approaches for partition coefficients calculations, as well as Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSAR) evaluations, were investigated. We demonstrate that molecular orbital calculations have to be used for a reliable prediction of partition coefficients, and moreover that the conformational response to solvent is significant. Although the values of the calculated partition coefficients are not in full agreement with experimental results, the trends are well reproduced. QSAR estimations to elucidate the toxicity of the proposed alternative compounds are reported and assessed. An approach for deriving phase diagrams of a binary mixture is outlined, where molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed on bulk systems consisting of pure water, pure de-icer, and binary mixtures of de-icer and water. Analysis of the NO trajectories yield insights into the de-icing mechanism and form a basis for comparison of different de-icers.

  4. Prediction of trabecular bone qualitative properties using scanning quantitative ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yi-Xian; Lin, Wei; Mittra, Erik; Xia, Yi; Cheng, Jiqi; Judex, Stefan; Rubin, Clint; Müller, Ralph

    2013-11-01

    Microgravity induced bone loss represents a critical health problem in astronauts, particularly occurred in weight-supporting skeleton, which leads to osteopenia and increase of fracture risk. Lack of suitable evaluation modality makes it difficult for monitoring skeletal status in long term space mission and increases potential risk of complication. Such disuse osteopenia and osteoporosis compromise trabecular bone density, and architectural and mechanical properties. While X-ray based imaging would not be practical in space, quantitative ultrasound may provide advantages to characterize bone density and strength through wave propagation in complex trabecular structure. This study used a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic and navigation system (SCAN) to evaluate trabecular bone quality in 60 cubic trabecular samples harvested from adult sheep. Ultrasound image based SCAN measurements in structural and strength properties were validated by μCT and compressive mechanical testing. This result indicated a moderately strong negative correlations observed between broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and μCT-determined bone volume fraction (BV/TV, R2=0.53). Strong correlations were observed between ultrasound velocity (UV) and bone's mechanical strength and structural parameters, i.e., bulk Young's modulus (R2=0.67) and BV/TV (R2=0.85). The predictions for bone density and mechanical strength were significantly improved by using a linear combination of both BUA and UV, yielding R2=0.92 for BV/TV and R2=0.71 for bulk Young's modulus. These results imply that quantitative ultrasound can characterize trabecular structural and mechanical properties through measurements of particular ultrasound parameters, and potentially provide an excellent estimation for bone's structural integrity.

  5. Detection of the Cosmic Dust and Micrometeorites in Sediments Using Their Magnetic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzina, D. M.; Nurgaliev, D. K.; Pechersky, D. M.

    2016-08-01

    Shown reliability of using magnetic properties (Curie temperature) for identification of cosmic dust and micrometeorites in sediments (Atlantic Ocean, Lake Baikal, Mongolian, Austrian, Russian sedimentary outcrops).

  6. A facile route to synthesize core/shell structured carbon/magnetic nanoparticles hybrid and their magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Xiaosi; Xu, Jianle; Zhong, Wei; Du, Youwei

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Controllable synthesis of core/shell structured carbon/magnetic nanoparticles hybrid and their tunable magnetic properties. - Highlights: • The paper reports a simple route for core/shell structured carbon/magnetic nanoparticles hybrid. • By controlling the temperature, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@CNCs, Fe@HCNTs and Fe@LCNTs were produced selectively. • The magnetic properties of the obtained core/shell structured hybrid could be tuned effectively. - Abstract: By controlling the pyrolysis temperature, core/shell structured Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/carbon nanocages, Fe/helical carbon nanotubes and Fe/low helicity of carbon nanotubes could be synthesized selectively over Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanotubes generated by a hydrothermal method. The transmission electron microscopic and scanning electron microscopic investigations revealed that the efficiency of generating core/shell structured hybrid was high, exceeding 90%. Because of the magnetic nanoparticles tightly wrapped in graphitic layers, the obtained core/shell structured hybrids showed high stability and good magnetic properties. And the magnetic properties of the obtained core/shell structured hybrid could be tuned by the decomposition temperature and time. Therefore, a simple, inexpensive and environment-benign route was proposed to produce magnetism-tunable core/shell structured hybrid in large quantities.

  7. Applied magnetic field angle dependence of the static and dynamic magnetic properties in FeCo films during the deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Derang; Zhu, Zengtai; Feng, Hongmei; Pan, Lining; Cheng, Xiaohong; Wang, Zhenkun; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2016-10-01

    FeCo films were prepared by a simple and convenient electrodeposition method. An external magnetic field was applied to the film to induce magnetic anisotropy during deposition. Comparing with the previous work, the angle between the direction of applied magnetic field and film plane is changed from in-plane to out-plane. The influence of the applied magnetic field on magnetic properties was investigated. As a result, it can be found that the in-plane anisotropy is driven by the in-plane component of the magnetic field applied during growth. In addition, the result can also be confirmed by the dynamic magnetic anisotropy of the film obtained by vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance technique.

  8. Magnetic properties of Fe-Mn-Pt for heat assisted magnetic recording applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jihoon; Hong, Yang-Ki; Kim, Seong-Gon; Gao, Li; Thiele, Jan-Ulrich

    2015-02-01

    We calculate the electronic structures of FePt and Fe0.5Mn0.5Pt using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory within the local-spin-density approximation. The Curie temperature (Tc) was calculated by mean field approximation. Composition dependence of the Cure temperature (Tc(x)) of Fe1-xMnxPt was used to identify a composition to meet the desired Tc in the range of 600-650 K. The identified composition (0.0294 ≤ x ≤ 0.0713) gives saturation magnetization (Ms) in the range of 1041-919 emu/cm3 and magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (K) in the range of 9.96-8.36 × 106 J/m3 at 0 K. Temperature dependent M(T) and K(T) of Fe1-xMnxPt (0.0294 ≤ x ≤ 0.0713) were calculated using the Brillouin function and Callen-Callen experimental relation, respectively. Fe1-xMnxPt (0.0294 ≤ x ≤ 0.0713) shows 930-800 emu/cm3 of Ms and 7.18-5.61 × 106 J/m3 of K at 300 K, thereby satisfying desired magnetic properties for heat-assisted magnetic recording media to achieve 4 Tb/in.2 areal density.

  9. Magnetic Properties of UPdSn Under High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsmadi, Abdel; Sung Team; Heinz Team; Fumi Collaboration; Valadimir Collaborations; Myung Collaborations; Alex Collaboration; Prokes Collaborations; Kamarad Collaboration; Bruck Collaboration

    2002-03-01

    UPdSn crystallizes in the hexagonal P63mc structure and orders below 40 K in a noncollinear antiferromagnetic structure. Another antiferromagnetic phase transition occurs below 25 K [1]. The magnetic properties of UPdSn are strongly anisotropic with the c-axis as the hard magnetization direction. Among uranium intermetallic compounds, UPdSn can be classified as a local-moment system were we have a small linear specific heat coefficient which is about 5 mJmole-1k-2 and a large ordered moment of about two times the Bohr moment per uranium ion [2]. Here, we report on resistance and magnetoresistance results on single-crystalline UPdSn with the current along the c-axic and the magnetic field up to 18 T applied perpendicular to the c-axis under hydrostatic pressure up to 9 kbar. While the second ordering temperature decrease with increasing pressure, we find relatively weak pressure dependence on the first ordering temperature. In addition, we find that the critical fields decrease with increasing pressure. In comparison with other uranium compounds, the results are discussed in terms of moment instability and variation of the exchange due to increased 5f-ligand hybridization. [1] H. Nakotte, E. Bruck, F .R .de Boer, P. Svoboda, N. C. Tuan, L. Havela, V. Sechovsky and R. A. Robinson, J. Appl. Phys. 73(10), 1993. [2] H. Nakoote, R. A. Robinson, A. Purwanto, Z. Tun, K. Prokes, E. Bruck abd F. R. de Boer, Physical Review B, 58(14), 1998.

  10. Superconducting and magnetic properties of Sn-doped Ru-1222

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balchev, N.; Nenkov, K.; Mihova, G.; Kunev, B.; Pirov, J.

    2007-12-01

    Samples with nominal compositions Ru1-xSnxSr2Gd1.4Ce0.6Cu2Oy (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.2) were synthesized and their superconducting and magnetic properties were investigated. A non-monotonic behaviour of the lattice parameters and Tc with the increase of the dopant content was observed. It was established that small doping levels (0magnetic transition Tmag weakly depends on the dopant content.

  11. Synthesis and magnetic properties of gold coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Susmita; Morales, Marienette; Mukherjee, Pritish; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2009-04-01

    We report on synthesis, structural, and magnetic properties of chemically synthesized iron oxide (Fe3O4) and Fe3O4@Au core-shell nanoparticles. Structural characterization was done using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, and the magnetite phase of the core (˜6nm) and fcc Au shell (thickness of ˜1nm) were confirmed. Magnetization (M) versus temperature (T) data at H =200Oe for zero-field-cooled and field-cooled modes exhibited a superparamagnetic blocking temperature TB˜35K (40K) for parent (core-shell) system. Enhanced coercivity (Hc˜200Oe) at 5K along with nonsaturating M-H loops observed for Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles indicate the possible role of spin disorder at the Au -Fe3O4 interface and weak exchange coupling between surface and core spins. Analysis of ac susceptibility (χ' and χ″) data shows that the interparticle interaction is reduced upon Au coating and the relaxation mechanism follows the Vogel-Fulcher law.

  12. Texture and magnetic properties of exchange bias systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aley, N. P.; Bowes, M.; Kroeger, R.; O'Grady, K.

    2010-05-15

    We report on the magnetic and structural properties of IrMn/CoFe exchange bias systems deposited onto a dual seed layer of NiCr(X)/Ru(5 nm), with X=2, 6, and 20 nm. Samples with the structure NiCr (Xnm)/IrMn (7 nm)/CoFe (3 nm)/Ta (10 nm) with X=2, 6, and 20 nm were prepared by dc sputtering for magnetic characterization. A second set of samples with structure NiCr (Xnm)/IrMn (10 nm) with X=2, 6, and 20 nm were deposited onto TEM grids for structural characterization by TEM. A method of manipulating of the TEM grid to allow a qualitative analysis of the in-plane texture of the samples is described and used to analyze the microstructure of these samples. The microstructure and particularly the texture are correlated with the anisotropy constant (K{sub AF}) of the antiferromagnet (AF) layer, with an optimum NiCr seed layer of 6 nm to give a maximum value of K{sub AF} of 1.2x10{sup 7} ergs/cc.

  13. Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Electrodeposited Cobalt Film

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuiyan, Md S; Taylor, B. J.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Thompson, James R; Sinclair, J.

    2008-01-01

    Cobalt films were electrodeposited onto both iron and copper substrates from an aqueous solution containing a mixture of cobalt sulfate, boric acid, sodium citrate, and vanadyl sulfate. The structural, intermetallic diffusion and magnetic properties of the electrodeposited films were studied. Cobalt electrodeposition was carried out in a passively divided cell aided by addition of vanadyl sulfate to keep the counter electrode clean. The divided electrolytic cell with very negative current densities cause the electrodeposited Co to adopt a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure, which is more magnetically reversible than the hexagonally close-packed (hcp) structured Co. The coercive field is also significantly less in the fcc-electrodeposited cobalt than in the hcp. SEM images show dense, uniform Co films without any cracks or porosity. Beside the deposition current, thickness of the film was also found to affect the crystal orientation particularly on iron substrates. Diffusion of cobalt film into the iron substrate was studied under reduced environment and a fast process was observed.

  14. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of L10 binary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edström, Alexander; Chico, Jonathan; Jakobsson, Adam; Bergman, Anders; Rusz, Jan

    2014-07-01

    We present a systematic study of the magnetic properties of L10 binary alloys FeNi, CoNi, MnAl, and MnGa via two different density functional theory approaches. Our calculations show large magnetocrystalline anisotropies in the order 1MJ/m3 or higher for CoNi, MnAl, and MnGa, while FeNi shows a somewhat lower value in the range 0.48-0.77MJ/m3. Saturation magnetization values of 1.3MA/m, 1.0MA/m, 0.8MA/m, and 0.9MA/m are obtained for FeNi, CoNi, MnAl, and MnGa, respectively. Curie temperatures are evaluated via Monte Carlo simulations and show TC=916K and TC=1130K for FeNi and CoNi, respectively. For Mn-based compounds Mn-rich off-stoichiometric compositions are found to be important for the stability of a ferro- or ferrimagnetic ground state with TC greater than 600K. The effect of substitutional disorder is studied and found to decrease both magnetocrystalline anisotropies and Curie temperatures in FeNi and CoNi.

  15. Exchange-Coupling in Magnetic Nanoparticles to Enhance Magnetostrictive Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Radousky, H; McElfresh, M; Berkowitz, A; Carman, G P

    2002-01-31

    Spark erosion is a versatile and economical method for producing particles of virtually any type of material that has a nominal conductivity: particles can be prepared in sizes ranging from a few nm to tens of {micro}m. The purpose of this feasibility study was to demonstrate the capability of making spherical particles of specific magnetic materials. We chose (Tb Dy)Fe{sub 2} (Terfenol-D) due to its potential use as the magnetostrictive component in magneto-elastomer composites. We also chose to work with pure Ni as a model system. Improvements in the properties of magneto-elastomer composites have broad applications in the areas of sensor development, enhanced actuators and damping systems.

  16. Downstream properties of magnetic flux transfer events. [in magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    Attention is given to the downstream evolution of the field line tubes known as 'flux transfer events' (FTEs), whose magnetic field and plasma properties are distinct from those of the nearby unmerged magnetosheath and magnetosphere field lines. After the FTE has moved 200 earth radii down the tail, its drained portion reaches 25 earth radii radially outward from the tail boundary. It is suggested that most multiple crossings of the tail boundary observed by spacecraft are encounters with tailward-moving FTEs, thereby explaining both the behavior of boundary normals during multiple crossings and how the sign of the IMF causes the observed dawn-dusk asymmetries in the thickness of the magnetotail boundary layer.

  17. Magnetic properties of Mn2+: PEO+PVP polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K. Naveen; Sivaiah, K.; Buddhudu, S.

    2014-04-01

    Polymer blended films of PEO+PVP:Mn2+ ions at in varied concentrations have been synthesized by solution casting method. For these films, structural, thermal & magnetic properties have been carried out successfully and a semicrystalline nature of the polymer films has been confirmed from their XRD. Thermal stability of the films has been investigated based on TG-DTA profiles. Superparamagnetic nature with a weak ferromagnetic signal has been explained using VSM & EPR. The EPR spectra of polymer samples with Mn2+ have exhibited resonance signals. The number of spins and also Zero-field splitting parameter (ZFP) (D) at RT have been evaluated from the intensities of the allowed hyperfine(hf) lines. These polymer films have revealed superparamagnetic nature from their profiles.

  18. Magnetic properties of Pm in NdNi

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, K.; Mori, K.; Ohya, S.; Muto, S.; Isikawa, Y.

    1996-06-01

    Magnetic properties of Pm as an impurity in NdNi single crystal were investigated by means of low-temperature nuclear orientation of the {sup 144}Pm isotope. The angular distribution of {gamma}-ray anisotropy revealed that the direction of the hyperfine field experienced by the nuclei was in the ({ital a},{ital c}) plane and made an angle of 29(10){degree} and/or 209(10){degree} with the {ital a} axis. The strength of the field was deduced to be 395(48) T with a full-field site fraction of 76(3){percent} from the temperature dependence of the anisotropy. The {beta} decay of {sup 144}Pm was found to proceed mainly via the {Delta}{ital J}{sub {beta}}=1 matrix element. A brief discussion of crystal electric field effects and exchange interactions is given. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  19. Tuning microstructure and magnetic properties of electrodeposited CoNiP films by high magnetic field annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chun; Wang, Kai; Li, Donggang; Lou, Changsheng; Zhao, Yue; Gao, Yang; Wang, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    A high magnetic field (up to 12 T) has been used to anneal 2.6-μm-thick Co50Ni40P10 films formed by pulse electrodeposition. The effects of high magnetic field annealing on the microstructure and magnetic properties of CoNiP thin films have been investigated. It was found that a high magnetic field accelerated a phase transformation from fcc to hcp and enhanced the preferred hcp-(002) orientation during annealing. Compared with the films annealed without a magnetic field, annealing at 12 T decreased the surface particle size, roughness, and coercivity, but increased the saturation magnetization and remanent magnetization of CoNiP films. The out-of-plane coercivity was higher than that the in-plane for the as-deposited films. After annealing without a magnetic field, the out-of-plane coercivity was equal to that of the in-plane. However, the out-of-plane coercivity was higher than that of the in-plane when annealing at 12 T. These results indicate that high magnetic field annealing is an effective method for tuning the microstructure and magnetic properties of thin films.

  20. Can we predict the property cycle? A study of securitized property market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Eddie Chi-Man; Wang, Ziyou

    2015-05-01

    Academia takes interest in cyclicality of real estate market. Compared to various findings on housing cycles, no literature takes insight into the cycles of securitized property markets. To address the issue, a nonlinear model is developed to probe into the characteristics of cycles in global markets (US, UK, Australia, Japan, Singapore and Hong Kong) over the last 23 years. The findings suggest that (a) cointegrating relationships influence the six markets in the long term and become stronger during bullish markets. (b) The short-term dynamics of each market is more likely to have a regime-switching structure. (c) The cyclical pattern shows differences between securitized property and housing markets, as well as between securitized property and general stock markets. Meanwhile, the cyclical pattern in developed markets is also different from that in developing markets. (d) The duration dependence shows a weak effect of the boom on predicting the occurrence of the upcoming bust. Instead, the magnitude of boom growth plays a significant role in predicting the duration of following bust. (e) The asymmetric analysis brings forward the "paralleling effect" which indicates that the asymmetry in returns is parallel with the movements of r. The methodology shall serve in providing detailed implications on the characters of cycle and duration forecast in securitized property markets for investors and governments.

  1. Magnetic nanoparticles for power absorption: Optimizing size, shape and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, M.A.; Torres, T.E.; Andres-Verges, M.; Costo, R.; Presa, P. de la; Serna, C.J.; Morales, M.P.; Marquina, C.; Ibarra, M.R.; Goya, G.F.

    2009-10-15

    We present a study on the magnetic properties of naked and silica-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with sizes between 5 and 110 nm. Their efficiency as heating agents was assessed through specific power absorption (SPA) measurements as a function of particle size and shape. The results show a strong dependence of the SPA with the particle size, with a maximum around 30 nm, as expected for a Neel relaxation mechanism in single-domain particles. The SiO{sub 2} shell thickness was found to play an important role in the SPA mechanism by hindering the heat outflow, thus decreasing the heating efficiency. It is concluded that a compromise between good heating efficiency and surface functionality for biomedical purposes can be attained by making the SiO{sub 2} functional coating as thin as possible. - Graphical Abstract: The magnetic properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles from 5 to 110 nm are presented, and their efficiency as heating agents discussed as a function of particle size, shape and surface functionalization.

  2. Nanostructure and magnetic properties of the MnZnO system, a room temperature magnetic semiconductor?

    PubMed

    Costa-Krämer, J L; Briones, F; Fernández, J F; Caballero, A C; Villegas, M; Díaz, M; García, M A; Hernando, A

    2005-02-01

    The magnetic properties of the system MnZnO prepared by conventional ceramic procedures using ZnO and MnO(2) starting powders are studied and related to the nanostructure. Thermal treatment at 500 °C produces a ferromagnetic phase, although this temperature is not high enough to promote proper sintering; thus the thermally treated compact shows brittle characteristics of unreacted and poorly densified ceramic samples. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray analysis reveal the appearance of a new phase, most probably related to the diffusion of Zn into MnO(2) oxide nanocrystals. The magnetic properties deviate considerably from what would be expected of an unreacted mixture of ZnO (diamagnetic) and MnO(2) particles (paramagnetic above 100 K and anti-ferromagnetic below that temperature), exhibiting a ferromagnetic like behaviour from 5 to 300 K and beyond mixed with a paramagnetic component. The ferromagnetic phase seems to be originated by diffusion at the nanoscale of Zn into MnO(2) grains. The Curie temperature of the ferromagnetic phase, once the paramagnetic component has been subtracted from the hysteresis loops, is measured to be 450 K. EPR resonance experiments from 100 to 600 K confirm a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic like transition above room temperature for these materials.

  3. SOLAR CYCLE PROPAGATION, MEMORY, AND PREDICTION: INSIGHTS FROM A CENTURY OF MAGNETIC PROXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz-Jaramillo, Andres; DeLuca, Edward E.; Dasi-Espuig, Maria; Balmaceda, Laura A. E-mail: edeluca@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: lbalmaceda@icate-conicet.gob.ar

    2013-04-20

    The solar cycle and its associated magnetic activity are the main drivers behind changes in the interplanetary environment and Earth's upper atmosphere (commonly referred to as space weather). These changes have a direct impact on the lifetime of space-based assets and can create hazards to astronauts in space. In recent years there has been an effort to develop accurate solar cycle predictions (with aims at predicting the long-term evolution of space weather), leading to nearly a hundred widely spread predictions for the amplitude of solar cycle 24. A major contributor to the disagreement is the lack of direct long-term databases covering different components of the solar magnetic field (toroidal versus poloidal). Here, we use sunspot area and polar faculae measurements spanning a full century (as our toroidal and poloidal field proxies) to study solar cycle propagation, memory, and prediction. Our results substantiate predictions based on the polar magnetic fields, whereas we find sunspot area to be uncorrelated with cycle amplitude unless multiplied by area-weighted average tilt. This suggests that the joint assimilation of tilt and sunspot area is a better choice (with aims to cycle prediction) than sunspot area alone, and adds to the evidence in favor of active region emergence and decay as the main mechanism of poloidal field generation (i.e., the Babcock-Leighton mechanism). Finally, by looking at the correlation between our poloidal and toroidal proxies across multiple cycles, we find solar cycle memory to be limited to only one cycle.

  4. Magnetic viscosity of tropical soils: classification and prediction as an aid for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igel, J.; Preetz, H.; Altfelder, S.

    2012-08-01

    assessing the impact of the subsurface on EMI sensors for landmine detection. In general, intermediate, felsic and sedimentary rocks have no influence on the detectors and only a weak influence in the most extreme cases. Soils derived from these rocks typically have no influence; however, they can have a very severe influence in a few cases. In contrast, ultramafic and mafic rocks typically have a moderate influence and a very severe influence in extreme cases, with the associated soils resulting in a severe influence in general. The deduced prognosis system can be used by demining organizations to help them predict metal detector performance in tropical regions on the basis of geologic and/or soil maps, which do not supply information on electromagnetic properties. In this way, such a system may eventually help with the planning of demining campaigns and selection of appropriate sensors.

  5. Magnetic and Magneto-Optical Properties of Doped Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqahtani, Mohammed

    This thesis describes the growth, structural characterisation, magnetic and magneto-optics properties of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSMO), GdMnO3 and transition metal (TM)-doped In2O3 thin films grown under different conditions. The SrTiO3 has been chosen as a substrate because its structure is suitable to grow epitaxial LSMO and GdMnO3 films. However, the absorption of SrTiO3 above its band gap at about 3.26 eV is actually a limitation in this study. The LSMO films with 30% Sr, grown on both SrTiO3 and sapphire substrates, exhibit a high Curie temperature (Tc) of 340 K. The magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) intensity follows the magnetisation for LSMO on sapphire; however, the measurements on SrTiO3 were dominated by the birefringence and magneto-optical properties of the substrate. In the GdMnO3 thin films, there are two well-known features in the optical spectrum; the charge transfer transition between Mn d states at 2 eV and the band edge transition from the oxygen p band to d states at about 3 eV; these are observed in the MCD. This has been measured at remanence as well as in a magnetic field. The optical absorption at 3 eV is much stronger than at 2 eV, however, the MCD is considerably stronger at 2 eV. The MCD at 2 eV correlates well with the Mn spin ordering and it is very notable that the same structure appears in this spectrum, as is seen in LaMnO3. The results of the investigations of Co and Fe-doped In2O3 thin films show that TM ions in the films are TM2+ and substituted for In3+. The room temperature ferromagnetism observed in TM-doped In2O3 is due to the polarised electrons in localised donor states associated with oxygen vacancies. The formation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in some Fe-doped films is due the fact that TM-doped In2O3 thin films are extremely sensitive to the growth method and processing condition. However, the origin of the magnetisation in these films is due to both the Fe-doped host matrix and also to the nanoparticles of Fe3O4.

  6. The Predictive Value of Selection Criteria in an Urban Magnet School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmeier, Jill Hendrickson; Raad, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The predictive value of selection criteria on outcome data from two cohorts of students (Total N = 525) accepted to an urban magnet high school were evaluated. Regression analyses of typical screening variables (suspensions, absences, metropolitan achievement tests, middle school grade point averages [GPAs], Matrix Analogies test scores, and…

  7. The magnetic anomaly model of the Jovian magnetosphere - Predictions for Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. J.; Vasyliunas, V. M.

    1979-01-01

    The magnetic anomaly model, in which the anomalously weak magnetic field region in the northern hemisphere of Jupiter influences the outer Jovian magnetosphere by one or more plasma interaction processes, has been put forth to account for the various observed Jovian magnetospheric phenomena that show evidence of Jovian longitudinal asymmetry or planetary spin periodicity. From this model, normalized by empirical fitting to Pioneer 10 and 11 flyby data and to ground-based radio data, a series of predictions are made that are subject to test by the forthcoming flybys of Jupiter by Voyagers 1 and 2. These predictions cover: (1) the longitude range and time intervals of enhanced interaction between Io (and possibly Europa) and Jupiter's ionosphere, (2) plasma, energetic particle, and magnetic field periodicities in the outer magnetosphere, and (3) the sub-spacecraft System III longitude and the time, modulo 10 hours, of the first and subsequent magnetopause crossings.

  8. Properties enhancement and recoil loop characteristics for hot deformed nanocrystalline NdFeB permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. W.; Huang, Y. L.; Hu, S. L.; Zhong, X. C.; Y Yu, H.; Gao, X. X.

    2014-06-01

    Nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and SPS followed by HD using melt spun ribbons as the starting materials. The microstructure of SPSed and HDed magnets were analyzed. The effects of process including temperature and compression ratio on the microstructure and properties were investigated. High magnetic properties were obtained in anisotropic HDed magnets. The combination of Zn and Dy additions was successfully employed to improve the coercivity and thermal stability of the SPSed magnets. Open recoil loops were found in these magnets with Nd-rich composition and without soft magnetic phase for the first time. The relationship between the recoil loops and microstructure for SPS and HD NdFeB magnets were investigated. The investigations showed that the magnetic properties of SPS+HDed magnets are related to the extent of the aggregation of Nd-rich phase, which was formed during HD due to existence of porosity in SPSed precursor. Large local demagnetization fields induced by the Nd-rich phase aggregation leads to the open loops and significantly reduced the coercivity. By reducing the recoil loop openness, the magnetic properties of HDed NdFeB magnets were successfully improved.

  9. The influence of microstructure on magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe-Pt-Nb-B permanent magnet ribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Randrianantoandro, N.; Greneche, J. M.; Crisan, A. D.; Crisan, O.; Marcin, J.; Kovac, J.; Hanko, J.; Skorvanek, I.; Svec, P.; Chrobak, A.

    2010-11-15

    A FePt-based hard-magnetic nanocomposite of exchange spring type was prepared by isothermal annealing of melt-spun Fe{sub 52}Pt{sub 28}Nb{sub 2}B{sub 18} (atomic percent) ribbons. The relationship between microstructure and magnetic properties was investigated by qualitative and quantitative structural analysis based on the x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectrometry on one hand and the superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry on the other hand. The microstructure consists of L1{sub 0}-FePt hard-magnetic grains (15-45 nm in diameter) dispersed in a soft magnetic medium composed by A1 FePt, Fe{sub 2}B, and boron-rich (FeB)PtNb remainder phase. The ribbons annealed at 700 deg. C for 1 h exhibit promising hard-magnetic properties at room temperature: M{sub r}/M{sub s}=0.69; H{sub c}=820 kA/m and (BH){sub max}=70 kJ/m{sup 3}. Strong exchange coupling between hard and soft magnetic phases was demonstrated by a smooth demagnetizing curve and positive {delta}M-peak in the Henkel plot. The magnetic properties measured from 5 to 750 K reveals that the hard characteristics remains rather stable up to 550 K, indicating a good prospect for the use of these permanent magnets in a wide temperature range.

  10. Ferric Phosphate Hydroxide Microstructures Affect Their Magnetic Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junhong; Zhang, Youjuan; Run, Zhen; Li, Pengwei; Guo, Qifei; Pang, Huan

    2015-06-01

    Uniformly sized and shape-controlled nanoparticles are important due to their applications in catalysis, electrochemistry, ion exchange, molecular adsorption, and electronics. Several ferric phosphate hydroxide (Fe4(OH)3(PO4)3) microstructures were successfully prepared under hydrothermal conditions. Using controlled variations in the reaction conditions, such as reaction time, temperature, and amount of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), the crystals can be grown as almost perfect hyperbranched microcrystals at 180 °C (without CTAB) or relatively monodisperse particles at 220 °C (with CTAB). The large hyperbranched structure of Fe4(OH)3(PO4)3 with a size of ∼19 μm forms with the "fractal growth rule" and shows many branches. More importantly, the magnetic properties of these materials are directly correlated to their size and micro/nanostructure morphology. Interestingly, the blocking temperature (T B) shows a dependence on size and shape, and a smaller size resulted in a lower T B. These crystals are good examples that prove that physical and chemical properties of nano/microstructured materials are related to their structures, and the precise control of the morphology of such functional materials could allow for the control of their performance.

  11. Dielectric, magnetic, and phonon properties of nickel hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermet, P.; Gourrier, L.; Bantignies, J.-L.; Ravot, D.; Michel, T.; Deabate, S.; Boulet, P.; Henn, F.

    2011-12-01

    We carried out a complete study (magnetic, electronic, dielectric, dynamic, and elastic properties) of the nickel hydroxide [Ni(OH)2] from first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. No theoretical investigations of these physical properties have been previously reported in literature. Our work supports that Ni(OH)2 is an A-type antiferromagnetic material. In addition, it is negative uniaxial and semiconducting with a direct band gap at the Γ point around 3 eV. By contrast to its electronic dielectric tensor, its static tensor is strongly anisotropic in the plane orthogonal to its optical axis. This anisotropy is mainly governed by a highly polar phonon centered around 510 cm-1 and assigned as a rotational Eu mode. Both Raman and infrared spectra have been computed to clarify the longstanding debate on the assignment of the Ni(OH)2 phonon modes reported in literature. All these theoretical results are fruitfully compared to the experimental ones obtained on large Ni(OH)2 “pseudosingle” crystals when available.

  12. (The relationship between microstructure and magnetic properties in high-energy permanent magnets characterized by polytwinned structures)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study of the relationship between microstructure and magnetic properties in a unique genre of ferromagnetic material characterized by a polysynthetically twinned structure which arises during solid state transformation. These results stem from the work over a period of approximately 27 months of a nominal 3 year grant period. The report also contains a proposal to extend the research project for an additional 3 years. The polytwinned structures produce an inhomogeneous magnetic medium in which the easy axis of magnetization varies quasi-periodically giving rise to special domain configurations which are expected to markedly influence the mechanism of magnetization reversal and hysteresis behavior of these materials in bulk or thin films. The extraordinary permanent magnet properties exhibited by the well-known Co-Pt alloys as well as the Fe-Pt and Fe-Pd systems near the equiatomic composition derive from the formation of a polytwinned microstructure.

  13. [The relationship between microstructure and magnetic properties in high-energy permanent magnets characterized by polytwinned structures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study of the relationship between microstructure and magnetic properties in a unique genre of ferromagnetic material characterized by a polysynthetically twinned structure which arises during solid state transformation. These results stem from the work over a period of approximately 27 months of a nominal 3 year grant period. The report also contains a proposal to extend the research project for an additional 3 years. The polytwinned structures produce an inhomogeneous magnetic medium in which the easy axis of magnetization varies quasi-periodically giving rise to special domain configurations which are expected to markedly influence the mechanism of magnetization reversal and hysteresis behavior of these materials in bulk or thin films. The extraordinary permanent magnet properties exhibited by the well-known Co-Pt alloys as well as the Fe-Pt and Fe-Pd systems near the equiatomic composition derive from the formation of a polytwinned microstructure.

  14. Effect of Co doping on the structural, magnetic and electron transport properties of Mn2PtSn Heusler alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharel, Parashu; Huh, Yung; Nelson, Austin; Shah, Valloppilly; Skomski, Ralph; Sellmyer, David

    2014-03-01

    Materials with high magnetic anisotropy and Curie temperature well above room temperature have huge potential for a range of applications including permanent magnet, high density recording and spintronic devices. Tetragonal Mn2PtSn is one such Heuslar compounds which has been predicted to have very high magnetic anisotropy but its low Curie temperature (Tc = 374 K) is a drawback. Our experimental investigation of the rapidly quenched nanostructured ribbons shows that a single phase Mn2PtSn in the tetragonal structure cannot be easily prepared without the substitution of an external element. We have found that a partial replacement of Pt with Co in Mn2PtSn stabilizes the tetragonal structure and also improves the magnetic properties. The experimentally observed values of the room-temperature saturation magnetization (Ms) and Curie temperature (Tc) are respectively 35 emu/g and 385 K for Mn2PtSn and 43 emu/g and 516 K for Mn2Pt0.3Co0.7Sn. The effect of cobalt on the magnetic anisotropy and electron transport properties of this material will be discussed. This research is supported by NSF-MRSEC (DMR-0820521).

  15. Magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe0.5Ni0.5 permalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, D.; Majumdar, S.; Giri, S.

    2012-06-01

    We investigate magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe0.5Ni0.5 alloy embedded in the amorphous SiO2 host with volume fractions φ ≈ 10%. The static and dynamic aspects of the magnetic properties are investigated by investigating thermal and time dependence of low-field dc magnetization. Signature of strong interparticle interaction is noted in the magnetization results. The relaxation process at low temperature is fitted with stretched exponential function, displaying coexistence of ferromagnetic and glassy magnetic components.

  16. Magnetic properties of high-temperature superconductors: Analysis within the framework of the impurity mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Chaban, I.A.

    1996-02-01

    The impurity mechanism proposed earlier is used to interpret the magnetic properties of high-temperature superconductors. The appearance of superconductive granules and the existence of weak bonds in grains of ceramics and in single crystals is explained. The irreversibility line is obtained and its new interpretation as the line of thresholds of appearance of infinite nonsuperconductive cluster is given. The relaxation time of the magnetic susceptibility in alternating magnetic fields is calculated. The decrease of the Meissner fraction with increase in magnetic field and decrease in doping, and other magnetic properties are explained.

  17. Tuning the Magnetic Properties of Cobalt-Based Metallic Glass Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veligatla, Medha; Das, Santanu; Lee, Won Ki; Hwang, Junyeon; Thumthan, Orathai; Hao, Yaowu; Mukherjee, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Temperature-induced variation in magnetic properties for cobalt-based metallic glass was investigated. The formation of metastable nanocrystalline phases prior to complete devitrification and their effect on magnetic properties for Co72B19.2Si4.8Cr4 metallic glass was studied. The nature, shape, and distribution of the intermediate nanocrystalline phases were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. A drastic change in magnetic properties was found in going from a fully amorphous state to different stages of nanocrystallization. The coercivity changes from amorphous soft magnetic state ( H c ~ 0.12 Oe) to a nanocrystalline-dispersed hard magnetic state ( H c ~ 187 Oe), with no significant change in saturation magnetization. This suggests potential use in futuristic magnetic switches, fluxgate sensors, and electromagnetic shielding devices.

  18. Magnetic Property Measurements on Single Wall Carbon Nanotube-Polyimide Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Keun J.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Park, Cheol

    2008-01-01

    Temperature and magnetic field dependent magnetization measurements were performed on polyimide nanocomposite samples, synthesized with various weight percentages of single wall carbon nanotubes. It was found that the magnetization of the composite, normalized to the mass of nanotube material in the sample, decreased with increasing weight percentage of nanotubes. It is possible that the interfacial coupling between the carbon nanotube (CNT) fillers and the polyimide matrix promotes the diamagnetic response from CNTs and reduces the total magnetization of the composite. The coercivity of the samples, believed to originate from the residual magnetic catalyst particles, was enhanced and had a stronger temperature dependence as a result of the composite synthesis. These changes in magnetic properties can form the basis of a new approach to investigate the interfacial properties in the CNT nanocomposites through magnetic property measurements.

  19. Evolution of phase, texture, microstructure and magnetic properties of Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-Ti permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Zubair; ul Haq, A.; Yan, Mi; Iqbal, Zafar

    2012-08-01

    Magnetic phase evolution, crystallographic texture, microstructure and magnetic properties of Fe-28Cr-15Co-3.5Mo-1.8Ti alloy have been investigated by X-ray diffractometry, scanning transmission electron microscopy and magnetometry techniques as a function of processing conditions. Heat treatment conditions for obtaining optimum textural, microstructural and magnetic properties have been established by the experimentations. The Goss {110}<001> and cube type {001}<010> textures have been developed in an optimal treated Fe-28Cr-15Co-3.5Mo-1.8Ti magnets. The coercive force in Fe-28Cr-15Co-3.5Mo-1.8Ti magnets depends critically on the shape anisotropy of rod-like Fe Co Ti-rich α1 particles and remanence on the alignment and elongation of α1 particles parallel to applied magnetic field <100> directions. The optimum magnetic properties obtained in Fe-28Cr-15Co-3.5Mo-1.8Ti alloy are intrinsic coercive force, iHc, of 78.8 kA/m (990 Oe), remanence, Br of 1.12 T (11.2 kG) and energy product, (BH)max of 52.5 kJ/m3 (6.5 MGOe). The development of Fe-28Cr-15Co-3.5Mo-1.8Ti magnets as well as characterization of texture, microstructural and magnetic properties in the current study would be helpful in designing the new Fe-Cr-Co-Mo based magnets suitable for scientific and technological applications.

  20. Endowing carbon nanotubes with superparamagnetic properties: applications for cell labeling, MRI cell tracking and magnetic manipulations.

    PubMed

    Lamanna, Giuseppe; Garofalo, Antonio; Popa, Gabriela; Wilhelm, Claire; Bégin-Colin, Sylvie; Felder-Flesch, Delphine; Bianco, Alberto; Gazeau, Florence; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia

    2013-05-21

    Coating of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) imparts novel magnetic, optical, and thermal properties with potential applications in the biomedical domain. Multi-walled CNTs have been decorated with iron oxide superparamagnetic NPs. Two different approaches have been investigated based on ligand exchange or "click chemistry". The presence of the NPs on the nanotube surface allows conferring magnetic properties to CNTs. We have evaluated the potential of the NP/CNT hybrids as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their interactions with cells. The capacity of the hybrids to magnetically monitor and manipulate cells has also been investigated. The NP/CNTs can be manipulated by a remote magnetic field with enhanced contrast in MRI. They are internalized into tumor cells without showing cytotoxicity. The labeled cells can be magnetically manipulated as they display magnetic mobility and are detected at a single cell level through high resolution MRI.

  1. Quantitative prediction of radio frequency induced local heating derived from measured magnetic field maps in magnetic resonance imaging: A phantom validation at 7 T

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaotong; Liu, Jiaen; Van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois; Schmitter, Sebastian; He, Bin

    2014-12-15

    Electrical Properties Tomography (EPT) technique utilizes measurable radio frequency (RF) coil induced magnetic fields (B1 fields) in a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system to quantitatively reconstruct the local electrical properties (EP) of biological tissues. Information derived from the same data set, e.g., complex numbers of B1 distribution towards electric field calculation, can be used to estimate, on a subject-specific basis, local Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). SAR plays a significant role in RF pulse design for high-field MRI applications, where maximum local tissue heating remains one of the most constraining limits. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the feasibility of such B1-based local SAR estimation, expanding on previously proposed EPT approaches. To this end, B1 calibration was obtained in a gelatin phantom at 7 T with a multi-channel transmit coil, under a particular multi-channel B1-shim setting (B1-shim I). Using this unique set of B1 calibration, local SAR distribution was subsequently predicted for B1-shim I, as well as for another B1-shim setting (B1-shim II), considering a specific set of parameter for a heating MRI protocol consisting of RF pulses plaid at 1% duty cycle. Local SAR results, which could not be directly measured with MRI, were subsequently converted into temperature change which in turn were validated against temperature changes measured by MRI Thermometry based on the proton chemical shift.

  2. Quantitative prediction of radio frequency induced local heating derived from measured magnetic field maps in magnetic resonance imaging: A phantom validation at 7 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaotong; Van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois; Liu, Jiaen; Schmitter, Sebastian; He, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Electrical Properties Tomography (EPT) technique utilizes measurable radio frequency (RF) coil induced magnetic fields (B1 fields) in a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system to quantitatively reconstruct the local electrical properties (EP) of biological tissues. Information derived from the same data set, e.g., complex numbers of B1 distribution towards electric field calculation, can be used to estimate, on a subject-specific basis, local Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). SAR plays a significant role in RF pulse design for high-field MRI applications, where maximum local tissue heating remains one of the most constraining limits. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the feasibility of such B1-based local SAR estimation, expanding on previously proposed EPT approaches. To this end, B1 calibration was obtained in a gelatin phantom at 7 T with a multi-channel transmit coil, under a particular multi-channel B1-shim setting (B1-shim I). Using this unique set of B1 calibration, local SAR distribution was subsequently predicted for B1-shim I, as well as for another B1-shim setting (B1-shim II), considering a specific set of parameter for a heating MRI protocol consisting of RF pulses plaid at 1% duty cycle. Local SAR results, which could not be directly measured with MRI, were subsequently converted into temperature change which in turn were validated against temperature changes measured by MRI Thermometry based on the proton chemical shift.

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of magnetic properties of a nano-graphene bilayer in a longitudinal magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Ruijia; Lv, Dan; Luo, Xiaohong

    2016-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulation has been used to study the magnetic properties of a nano-graphene bilayer which consists of the upper layer A with spin-3/2 and the bottom layer B with spin-5/2. The effects of the single-ion anisotropy, the intralayer exchange coupling and the longitudinal magnetic field on the magnetization, the susceptibility, the blocking temperature and hysteresis loops of the mixed-spin nano-graphene bilayer system have been examined detailedly. In particular, the variations of the blocking temperature with different intralayer exchange couplings, single-ion anisotropies, and the longitudinal magnetic field are obtained for the present system. Many multiple hysteresis loop behaviors have also been found, depending on the combinations of both the upper and bottom layer magnetizations in the longitudinal magnetic field. Through a comparison, our results obtained are according well with other theoretical researches and experimental results.

  4. Effects of wear on structure-sensitive magnetic properties of ceramic ferrite in contact with magnetic tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.; Tanaka, K.

    1985-01-01

    Wear experiments and electron microscopy and diffraction studies were conducted to examine the wear and deformed layers in single-crystal Mn-Zn (ceramic) ferrite magnetic head material in contact with magnetic tape and the effects of that contact on magnetic properties. The crystalline state of the single-crystal magnetic head was changed drastically during the sliding process. A nearly amorphous structure was produced on its wear surface. Deformation in the surficial layer of the magnetic head was a critical factor in readback signal loss above 2.5 dB. The signal output level was reduced as applied normal load was increased. Considerable plastic flow occurred on the magnetic tape surface with sliding, and the signal loss due to the tape wear was approximately 1 dB.

  5. Structural, magnetic, and transport properties of (Zn,V)Te semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weigang; Ni, Chaoying; Zhu, Tao; Zhang, Huiwu; Xiao, John Q.

    2006-04-01

    Vanadium-doped ZnTe has been predicted to be one of the candidates for ferromagnetic semiconductors with a high Curie temperature [K. Sato and H. Katayama-Yoshida, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 17, 367 (2002)]. In this paper, we report the structural, magnetic, and transport properties of (Zn,V)Te films prepared by magnetron sputtering. Samples were fabricated on both GaAs and thermally oxidized silicon substrate at elevated temperature. Oriented sample (100) can be achieved on GaAs substrates and only polycrystalline samples are observed on Si substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) show no magnetic precipitates in the (Zn,V)Te film. The magnetization measurement shows that the oriented sample is paramagnetic at 5 K, while films on Si substrate shows weak ferromagnetism at 5 K. The sign of magnetoresistance (MR=[R(H)-R(0)]/R(0)) gradually changes from negative to positive with temperature, and positive MR at high temperatures shows H2 dependence, indicating ordinary MR effect. It is believed the observed negative MR corresponds to the ferromagnetic ordering at lower temperature.

  6. Growth parameter dependence of magnetic property of CrAs thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Jing-Feng; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Deng, Jia-Jun; Zheng, Yu-Hong; Wang, Wei-Zhu; Lu, Jun; Ji, Yang; Li, Shu-Shen

    2007-12-01

    This paper has systematically investigated the substrate temperature and thickness dependence of surface morphology and magnetic property of CrAs compound films grown on GaAs by molecular-beam epitaxy. It finds that the substrate temperature affects the surface morphology and magnetic property of CrAs thin film more potently than the thickness.

  7. Investigation of magnetic properties of thin films using computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakirev, N. A.; Zhikharev, V. A.; Gumarov, G. G.

    2012-03-01

    A two-dimensional dendrite is generated within the diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) model in the presence of an external magnetic field. The magnetic interaction between a grown dendrite and diffusing atoms results in the elongation of the dendrite in the direction of the magnetic field. The dependence is studied of the dendrite elongation on the grid occupation. The energy of the magnetic anisotropy is calculated for an elongated dendrite. The FMR spectra are calculated in geometries when the static magnetic field is either perpendicular or parallel to dendrite plane. It is shown that the FMR signals in latter case depend on the static magnetic field orientation with respect to the elongation direction.

  8. Fe and Co nanostructures embedded into the Cu(100) surface: Self-Organization and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, S. V.; Klavsyuk, A. L.; Saletsky, A. M.

    2015-10-01

    The self-organization and magnetic properties of small iron and cobalt nanostructures embedded into the first layer of a Cu(100) surface are investigated using the self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo method and density functional theory. The similarities and differences between the Fe/Cu(100) and the Co/Cu(100) are underlined. The time evolution of magnetic properties of a copper monolayer with embedded magnetic atoms at 380 K is discussed.

  9. Fe and Co nanostructures embedded into the Cu(100) surface: Self-Organization and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnikov, S. V. Klavsyuk, A. L.; Saletsky, A. M.

    2015-10-15

    The self-organization and magnetic properties of small iron and cobalt nanostructures embedded into the first layer of a Cu(100) surface are investigated using the self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo method and density functional theory. The similarities and differences between the Fe/Cu(100) and the Co/Cu(100) are underlined. The time evolution of magnetic properties of a copper monolayer with embedded magnetic atoms at 380 K is discussed.

  10. Antiviral properties of silver nanoparticles on a magnetic hybrid colloid.

    PubMed

    Park, SungJun; Park, Hye Hun; Kim, Sung Yeon; Kim, Su Jung; Woo, Kyoungja; Ko, GwangPyo

    2014-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are considered to be a potentially useful tool for controlling various pathogens. However, there are concerns about the release of AgNPs into environmental media, as they may generate adverse human health and ecological effects. In this study, we developed and evaluated a novel micrometer-sized magnetic hybrid colloid (MHC) decorated with variously sized AgNPs (AgNP-MHCs). After being applied for disinfection, these particles can be easily recovered from environmental media using their magnetic properties and remain effective for inactivating viral pathogens. We evaluated the efficacy of AgNP-MHCs for inactivating bacteriophage ΦX174, murine norovirus (MNV), and adenovirus serotype 2 (AdV2). These target viruses were exposed to AgNP-MHCs for 1, 3, and 6 h at 25°C and then analyzed by plaque assay and real-time TaqMan PCR. The AgNP-MHCs were exposed to a wide range of pH levels and to tap and surface water to assess their antiviral effects under different environmental conditions. Among the three types of AgNP-MHCs tested, Ag30-MHCs displayed the highest efficacy for inactivating the viruses. The ΦX174 and MNV were reduced by more than 2 log10 after exposure to 4.6 × 10(9) Ag30-MHCs/ml for 1 h. These results indicated that the AgNP-MHCs could be used to inactivate viral pathogens with minimum chance of potential release into environment.

  11. Superconducting properties of experimental YBCO coils for FFAG accelerator magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, S.; Koyanagi, K.; Tosaka, T.; Tasaki, K.; Kurusu, T.; Ishii, Y.; Amemiya, N.; Ogitsu, T.

    2014-05-01

    A project to develop fundamental technologies for accelerator magnets using high-Tc coated conductors is currently in progress. The primary applications of this project are fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerators for carbon cancer therapy systems and accelerator-driven subcritical reactors. Several types of superconducting coils for FFAG accelerators have been conceptually designed. These coils have complicated shapes, including a negative-bend part or a three-dimensional bent part. One of the aims of the project is to establish winding technologies for complicated coil shapes using coated conductors. To demonstrate winding technologies for YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) coils, small test coils having a negative-bend part or a three-dimensional bent part were designed and fabricated according to the present design of the FFAG magnet. The outside dimensions of the negative-bend test coil were 460 mm long and 190 mm wide, and the radius of curvature of the negative-bend part was 442 mm. The outside dimensions of the three-dimensional test coil were 380 mm long and 280 mm wide, and the radius of curvature of the mandrel of the three-dimensional coil was 700 mm. The test coils were wound using YBCO coated conductors with a length of about 100 m and were then impregnated with epoxy resin. The coils were placed in liquid nitrogen and excited to measure their V-I characteristics. From the V-I characteristics throughout a voltage range down to 10-9 V/cm, the V-I characteristics before and after impregnation were approximately the same, demonstrating that the superconducting properties were not degraded.

  12. Technique to quantitatively measure magnetic properties of thin structures at <10 NM spatial resolution

    DOEpatents

    Bajt, Sasa

    2003-07-08

    A highly sensitive and high resolution magnetic microscope images magnetic properties quantitatively. Imaging is done with a modified transmission electron microscope that allows imaging of the sample in a zero magnetic field. Two images from closely spaced planes, one in focus and one slightly out of focus, are sufficient to calculate the absolute values of the phase change imparted to the electrons, and hence obtain the magnetization vector field distribution.

  13. Magnetic properties of nanocomposites based on opal matrices with embedded ferrite-spinel nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinkevich, A. B.; Korolev, A. V.; Samoylovich, M. I.; Klescheva, S. M.; Perov, D. V.

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic properties of nanocomposites based on opal matrices with ferrite-spinel nanoparticles embedded have been investigated in temperature range from 2 to 300 K. The magnetization curves and hysteresis loops as well as the temperature dependence of magnetic moment and the temperature and frequency dependences of AC susceptibility have been measured. The results of magnetic measurements are compared to X-ray analysis and electron microscopy investigations.

  14. Magnetic properties of Fe-Mn-Pt for heat assisted magnetic recording applications

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jihoon; Hong, Yang-Ki; Kim, Seong-Gon; Gao, Li; Thiele, Jan-Ulrich

    2015-02-07

    We calculate the electronic structures of FePt and Fe{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Pt using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory within the local-spin-density approximation. The Curie temperature (T{sub c}) was calculated by mean field approximation. Composition dependence of the Cure temperature (T{sub c}(x)) of Fe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Pt was used to identify a composition to meet the desired T{sub c} in the range of 600–650 K. The identified composition (0.0294 ≤ x ≤ 0.0713) gives saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) in the range of 1041–919 emu/cm{sup 3} and magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (K) in the range of 9.96–8.36 × 10{sup 6 }J/m{sup 3} at 0 K. Temperature dependent M(T) and K(T) of Fe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Pt (0.0294 ≤ x ≤ 0.0713) were calculated using the Brillouin function and Callen-Callen experimental relation, respectively. Fe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Pt (0.0294 ≤ x ≤ 0.0713) shows 930–800 emu/cm{sup 3} of M{sub s} and 7.18–5.61 × 10{sup 6 }J/m{sup 3} of K at 300 K, thereby satisfying desired magnetic properties for heat-assisted magnetic recording media to achieve 4 Tb/in.{sup 2} areal density.

  15. Investigation of magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles using temperature dependent magnetic hyperthermia in ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemala, H.; Thakur, J. S.; Naik, V. M.; Vaishnava, P. P.; Lawes, G.; Naik, R.

    2014-07-01

    Rate of heat generated by magnetic nanoparticles in a ferrofluid is affected by their magnetic properties, temperature, and viscosity of the carrier liquid. We have investigated temperature dependent magnetic hyperthermia in ferrofluids, consisting of dextran coated superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, subjected to external magnetic fields of various frequencies (188-375 kHz) and amplitudes (140-235 Oe). Transmission electron microscopy measurements show that the nanoparticles are polydispersed with a mean diameter of 13.8 ± 3.1 nm. The fitting of experimental dc magnetization data to a standard Langevin function incorporating particle size distribution yields a mean diameter of 10.6 ± 1.2 nm, and a reduced saturation magnetization (˜65 emu/g) compared to the bulk value of Fe3O4 (˜95 emu/g). This is due to the presence of a finite surface layer (˜1 nm thickness) of non-aligned spins surrounding the ferromagnetically aligned Fe3O4 core. We found the specific absorption rate, measured as power absorbed per gram of iron oxide nanoparticles, decreases monotonically with increasing temperature for all values of magnetic field and frequency. Using the size distribution of magnetic nanoparticles estimated from the magnetization measurements, we have fitted the specific absorption rate versus temperature data using a linear response theory and relaxation dissipation mechanisms to determine the value of magnetic anisotropy constant (28 ± 2 kJ/m3) of Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

  16. Physicochemical properties of magnetic fluids based on synthetic oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, V. V.; Ramazanova, A. G.; Yashkova, V. I.; Balmasova, O. V.

    2013-04-01

    A technique for synthesizing magnetic fluids based on Alkaren synthetic oil is described. The optimum synthesis conditions for the magnetite are selected, and the magnetic phase-stabilizer quantitative ratio is calculated. A magnetic fluid based on synthetic hydrocarbon oil is synthesized, and its physicochemical characteristics are determined.

  17. Tidal signals in ocean-bottom magnetic measurements of the Northwestern Pacific: observation versus prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepf, N. R.; Manoj, C.; Kuvshinov, A.; Toh, H.; Maus, S.

    2014-08-01

    Motional induction in the ocean by tides has long been observed by both land and satellite measurements of magnetic fields. While these signals are weak (˜10 nT) when compared to the main magnetic field, their persistent nature makes them important for consideration during geomagnetic field modelling. Previous studies have reported several discrepancies between observations and numerical predictions of the tidal magnetic signals and those studies were inconclusive of the source of the error. We address this issue by (1) analysing magnetometer data from ocean-bottom stations, where the low-noise and high-signal environment is most suitable for detecting the weak tidal magnetic signals, (2) by numerically predicting the magnetic field with a spatial resolution that is 16 times higher than the previous studies and (3) by using four different models of upper-mantle conductivity. We use vector magnetic data from six ocean-bottom electromagnetic (OBEM) stations located in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. The OBEM tidal amplitudes were derived using an iteratively re-weighted least-squares (IRLS) method and by limiting the analysis of lunar semidiurnal (M2), lunar elliptic semidinurnal (N2) and diurnal (O1) tidal modes to the night-time. Using a 3-D electromagnetic induction solver and the TPX07.2 tidal model, we predict the tidal magnetic signal. We use earth models with non-uniform oceans and four 1-D mantle sections underneath taken from Kuvshinov and Olsen, Shimizu et al. and Baba et al. to compare the effect of upper-mantle conductivity. We find that in general, the predictions and observations match within 10-70 per cent across all the stations for each of the tidal modes. The median normalized percent difference (NPD) between observed and predicted amplitudes for the tidal modes M2, N2 and O1 were 15 per cent, 47 per cent and 98 per cent, respectively, for all the stations and models. At the majority of stations, and for each of

  18. Multifunctional wood materials with magnetic, superhydrophobic and anti-ultraviolet properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Wentao; Gao, Likun; Sun, Qingfeng; Jin, Chunde; Lu, Yun; Li, Jian

    2015-03-01

    Multifunctional wood materials with magnetic, superhydrophobic and anti-ultraviolet properties were obtained successfully by precipitated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles on the wood surface and then treated with a layer of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS). The as-fabricated wood composites exhibited excellent magnetic property and the water contact angle of the OTS-modified magnetic wood surface reached as high as 150°, revealed the superhydrophobic property. Moreover, accelerated aging tests suggested that the treated wood composites also have an excellent anti-ultraviolet property.

  19. Improving the predictions of solar wind speed and interplanetary magnetic field at the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Tham

    2009-09-01

    The Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model, an advanced version of the potential field source surface (PFSS) model, is widely used to predict the solar wind speed (SWS) and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) polarities at the Earth. The results, however, do not always match the observations. To improve the predictive capability of this model we made the following changes: (1) We used the high resolution magnetograms produced by the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observer (SOHO) spacecraft. We properly calibrated the magnetic field strength of the MDI observations using the Mt. Wilson (MWO) FeI magnetograms so that each MDI level 1.8 magnetogram can be converted to the same basis as the saturation-corrected long-duration MWO Fel magnetogram. (2) The WSA model requires a map of full solar surface magnetic field, and traditionally a synoptic chart is used. However, the synoptic chart does not represent the full solar surface at a particular time. Therefore, we suggest to use a new format called heliospheric (or snapshot) map in the model. (3) We implement a better estimate of the polar field that is not observable during some part of the year due to the solar tilted angle B0. The magnetic field near the solar poles is very important because it may be the dominant part of the solar magnetic field far away from the Sun, especially during the period of solar minimum. (4) The WSA model assumes that the solar photospheric magnetic field is nearly radial, so that its radial component can be obtained directly from the line-of-sight (LOS) of the observed field. This approach produces very strong radial magnetic field near the solar poles. We solve this problem by first obtaining the spherical harmonic coefficients directly from the LOS magnetic data and then reconstructing the radial magnetic chart. (5) Finally, changing the radius of the source surface, rss, in the PFSS analysis strongly affects the predicted SWS and IMF at the Earth. Our

  20. Recent Impacts on Mars: Cluster Properties and Seismic Signal Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justine Daubar, Ingrid; Schmerr, Nicholas; Banks, Maria; Marusiak, Angela; Golombek, Matthew P.

    2016-10-01

    Impacts are a key source of seismic waves that are a primary constraint on the formation, evolution, and dynamics of planetary objects. Geophysical missions such as InSight (Banerdt et al., 2013) will monitor seismic signals from internal and external sources. New martian craters have been identified in orbital images (Malin et al., 2006; Daubar et al., 2013). Seismically detecting such impacts and subsequently imaging the resulting craters will provide extremely accurate epicenters and source crater sizes, enabling calibration of seismic velocities, the efficiency of impact-seismic coupling, and retrieval of detailed regional and local internal structure.To investigate recent impact-induced seismicity on Mars, we have assessed ~100 new, dated impact sites. In approximately half of new impacts, the bolide partially disintegrates in the atmosphere, forming multiple craters in a cluster. We incorporate the resulting, more complex, seismic effects in our model. To characterize the variation between sites, we focus on clustered impacts. We report statistics of craters within clusters: diameters, morphometry indicating subsurface layering, strewn-field azimuths indicating impact direction, and dispersion within clusters indicating combined effects of bolide strength and elevation of breakup.Measured parameters are converted to seismic predictions for impact sources using a scaling law relating crater diameter to the momentum and source duration, calibrated for impacts recorded by Apollo (Lognonne et al., 2009). We use plausible ranges for target properties, bolide densities, and impact velocities to bound the seismic moment. The expected seismic sources are modeled in the near field using a 3-D wave propagation code (Petersson et al., 2010) and in the far field using a 1-D wave propagation code (Friederich et al., 1995), for a martian seismic model. Thus we calculate the amplitudes of seismic phases at varying distances, which can be used to evaluate the detectability

  1. The Static and Dynamic Properties of Magnetic Particles in Quasi-Two Dimensional Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    1995-11-01

    The static and dynamic properties of magnetic particles confined in quasi-two dimensional aqueaous solution under magnetic field H are studied using static light scattering and real space video image analysis techniques. In the static study, it is found that the system undergoes a structural transition: single particles to elongated disordered columns to array of correlated columns, as H increases. Different structure regions are separated by two critical field lines H_{C1}(phi) and H_{C2}(phi), where phi is the concentration of the particles. Due to disorders inherited in the self-assembling process the magnetic columns remain short-range ordered even in the high field limit, H >> H_{C2}. The translational and bond-orientational correlation lengths are also measured when H>= H_ {C1}. These appear to be of the order of lattice space both in low and high fields. The system also shows a hysteretic effect and nonergodicity. These observations strongly suggest that the system undergoes a glass transition as H increases. Along with the static measurements, the dynamics of the system is also studied. By tracing the magnetic columns with a video imaging technique, the position of magnetic columns at time t, r_{i} (t), is measured. Using r_{i }(t), the self and the relative motions of magnetic columns are studied. It is found that the self mean-square displacement, < Delta r^2 >, depends on the aligning field H and displays two different behaviors. In short times < Delta r^2 > is subdiffusive whereas in long times exhibits normal diffusion. The characteristic time, separating the two time regimes diverges exponentially with H, indicating fast frozen-in density fluctuations in the system. Our experimental results deviate significantly from the predictions of mode-coupling theory. The relative motion of magnetic column pairs is dominated by the transverse component in all scales. At small scales, the correlated domains (or clusters), consisting of a few columns

  2. Eryptosis Indices as a Novel Predictive Parameter for Biocompatibility of Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles on Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ran, Qian; Xiang, Yang; Liu, Yao; Xiang, Lixin; Li, Fengjie; Deng, Xiaojun; Xiao, Yanni; Chen, Li; Chen, Lili; Li, Zhongjun

    2015-11-05

    Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4-MNPs) have been widely used in clinical diagnosis. Hemocompatibility of the nanoparticles is usually evaluated by hemolysis. However, hemolysis assessment does not measure the dysfunctional erythrocytes with pathological changes on the unbroken cellular membrane. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of suicidal death of erythrocytes (i.e. eryptosis indices) as a novel predictive and prognostic parameter, and to determine the impact of Fe3O4-MNPs on cellular membrane structure and the rheology properties of blood in circulation. Our results showed that phosphatidylserine externalization assessment was significantly more sensitive than classical hemolysis testing in evaluating hemocompatibility. Although no remarkable changes of histopathology, hematology and serum biochemistry indices were observed in vivo, Fe3O4-MNPs significantly affected hemorheology indices including erythrocyte deformation index, erythrocyte rigidity index, red blood cell aggregation index, and erythrocyte electrophoresis time, which are related to the mechanical properties of the erythrocytes. Oxidative stress induced calcium influx played a critical role in the eryptotic activity of Fe3O4-MNPs. This study demonstrated that Fe3O4-MNPs cause eryptosis and changes in flow properties of blood, suggesting that phosphatidylserine externalization can serve as a predictive parameter for hemocompatibility assay.

  3. Eryptosis Indices as a Novel Predictive Parameter for Biocompatibility of Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles on Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Qian; Xiang, Yang; Liu, Yao; Xiang, Lixin; Li, Fengjie; Deng, Xiaojun; Xiao, Yanni; Chen, Li; Chen, Lili; Li, Zhongjun

    2015-01-01

    Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4-MNPs) have been widely used in clinical diagnosis. Hemocompatibility of the nanoparticles is usually evaluated by hemolysis. However, hemolysis assessment does not measure the dysfunctional erythrocytes with pathological changes on the unbroken cellular membrane. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of suicidal death of erythrocytes (i.e. eryptosis indices) as a novel predictive and prognostic parameter, and to determine the impact of Fe3O4-MNPs on cellular membrane structure and the rheology properties of blood in circulation. Our results showed that phosphatidylserine externalization assessment was significantly more sensitive than classical hemolysis testing in evaluating hemocompatibility. Although no remarkable changes of histopathology, hematology and serum biochemistry indices were observed in vivo, Fe3O4-MNPs significantly affected hemorheology indices including erythrocyte deformation index, erythrocyte rigidity index, red blood cell aggregation index, and erythrocyte electrophoresis time, which are related to the mechanical properties of the erythrocytes. Oxidative stress induced calcium influx played a critical role in the eryptotic activity of Fe3O4-MNPs. This study demonstrated that Fe3O4-MNPs cause eryptosis and changes in flow properties of blood, suggesting that phosphatidylserine externalization can serve as a predictive parameter for hemocompatibility assay. PMID:26537855

  4. Local geometrical properties of magnetic configurations with nested equilibrium magnetic surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Skovoroda, A. A.

    2009-04-15

    The complete set of universal local relationships between geometrical (the curvature and torsion of the force lines of the magnetic field and the field complementary to it) and magnetic (|B|, |{nabla}{Phi}|, b {center_dot} ({nabla} x b), and the local shear s) quantities in currentless magnetic configurations comprising a system of equilibrium nested magnetic surfaces, including those with several magnetic axes, is derived. Possible applications of these relationships are discussed.

  5. The magnetic and transport properties of template-synthesized carbon-based and related nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Adam Louis

    that the contact resistances, which are normally on the order of mega-ohms for these tubes, can be lowered to the order of kilo-ohms by annealing in H 2/Ar atmosphere. We find that the disorder in these carbon nanotubes allows for the uptake of H during the annealing process. These H-complex hydrogen impurities, along with C and H adatoms, induce ferromagnetism in the carbon nanotubes. We carry out a magnetic study on the annealed carbon nanotubes. Moreover, the ferromagnetism of the carbon nanotubes results in hysteric magnetoresistance. We study this effect, attributing it to strong magneto-viscosity effects and anisotropic magnetoresistance. We also study the transport and magnetotransport properties of the annealed carbon nanotubes as a function of temperature and inner diameter. We find that there is an order-disorder transition that occurs at lower temperatures that resembles behavior predicted in disordered carbon fibers by the Bright model. We also find that the nanotubes behave as one-dimensional Luttinger liquids. Finally, as a means of comparison, we fabricate and study the properties of monolayer graphene devices.

  6. Magnetoelastic properties of antiferromagnetically coupled magnetic composite media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia-Cardona, Juan J.; Leo, Perry H.

    2016-08-01

    We study the magnetic response of a ferromagnetic bilayer with antiferromagnetic coupling, where the layers experience magnetostrictive strains and epitaxial misfit strains. These strains cause the layers to stretch and bend as the magnetic spins of the layers rotate, resulting in elastic energy that adds to the magnetic energy of the system. The magnetic and elastic energies are computed as a function of spin direction in each layer for a given set of material and geometric parameters. By finding the rotations that minimize the total energy, we compute magnetic hysteresis loops for different combinations of magnetic and elastic parameters. The elastic contribution is reflected in the transitions at the corners of the hysteresis curves as well as in the coercive field of the main loop. The details of the elastic contribution depend in a complicated way on the magnetostriction of the layers, the epitaxial strain, the magnetic anisotropies, and the system geometry.

  7. Enhanced Magnetic Properties in Antiferromagnetic-Core/Ferrimagnetic-Shell Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vasilakaki, Marianna; Trohidou, Kalliopi N.; Nogués, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Bi-magnetic core/shell nanoparticles are gaining increasing interest due to their foreseen applications. Inverse antiferromagnetic(AFM)/ferrimagnetic(FiM) core/shell nanoparticles are particularly appealing since they may overcome some of the limitations of conventional FiM/AFM systems. However, virtually no simulations exist on this type of morphology. Here we present systematic Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations of the exchange bias properties of such nanoparticles. The coercivity, HC, and loop shift, Hex, present a non-monotonic dependence with the core diameter and the shell thickness, in excellent agreement with the available experimental data. Additionally, we demonstrate novel unconventional behavior in FiM/AFM particles. Namely, while HC and Hex decrease upon increasing FiM thickness for small AFM cores (as expected), they show the opposite trend for large cores. This presents a counterintuitive FiM size dependence for large AFM cores that is attributed to the competition between core and shell contributions, which expands over a wider range of core diameters leading to non-vanishing Hex even for very large cores. Moreover, the results also hint different possible ways to enhance the experimental performance of inverse core/shell nanoparticles for diverse applications. PMID:25872473

  8. Tuning of magnetic properties in cobalt ferrite nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedeño-Mattei, Y.; Perales-Perez, O.; Tomar, M. S.; Roman, F.; Voyles, P. M.; Stratton, W. G.

    2008-04-01

    Cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) possesses excellent chemical stability, good mechanical hardness, and a large positive first order crystalline anisotropy constant, making it a promising candidate for magneto-optical recording media. In addition to precise control of the composition and structure of CoFe2O4, its practical application will require the capability to control particle size at the nanoscale. The results of a synthesis approach in which size control is achieved by modifying the oversaturation conditions during ferrite formation in water through a modified coprecipitation approach are reported. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) diffraction, and TEM energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analyses confirmed the formation of the nanoscale cobalt ferrite. M-H measurements verified the strong influence of synthesis conditions on crystal size and hence, on the magnetic properties of ferrite nanocrystals. The room-temperature coercivity values increased from 460 up to 4626Oe under optimum synthesis conditions determined from a 23 factorial design.

  9. Tuning of magnetic properties in cobalt ferrite nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Cedeno-Mattei, Y.; Roman, F.; Perales-Perez, O.; Tomar, M. S.; Voyles, P. M.; Stratton, W. G.

    2008-04-01

    Cobalt ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) possesses excellent chemical stability, good mechanical hardness, and a large positive first order crystalline anisotropy constant, making it a promising candidate for magneto-optical recording media. In addition to precise control of the composition and structure of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, its practical application will require the capability to control particle size at the nanoscale. The results of a synthesis approach in which size control is achieved by modifying the oversaturation conditions during ferrite formation in water through a modified coprecipitation approach are reported. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) diffraction, and TEM energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analyses confirmed the formation of the nanoscale cobalt ferrite. M-H measurements verified the strong influence of synthesis conditions on crystal size and hence, on the magnetic properties of ferrite nanocrystals. The room-temperature coercivity values increased from 460 up to 4626 Oe under optimum synthesis conditions determined from a 2{sup 3} factorial design.

  10. Electric and magnetic properties of contrast agents for thermoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunlade, Olumide; Beard, Paul

    2014-03-01

    The endogenous contrast in thermoacoustic imaging is due to the water and ionic content in tissue. This results in poor tissue speci city between high water content tissues. As a result, exogenous contrast agents have been employed to improve tissue speci city and also increase the SNR. An investigation into the sources of contrast produced by several exogenous contrast agents is described. These include three gadolinium based MRI contrast agents, iron oxide particles, single wall carbon nanotubes, saline and sucrose solutions. Both the dielectric and magnetic properties of contrast agents at 3GHz have been measured using microwave resonant cavities. The DC conductivity of the contrast agents were also measured. It is shown that the measured increase in dielectric contrast, relative to water, is due to dipole rotational loss of polar non electrolytes, ionic loss of electrolytes or a combination of both. It is shown that for the same dielectric contrast, electrolytes make better thermoacoustic contrast agents than non-electrolytes, for thermoacoustic imaging.

  11. Optical and magneto-optical properties of one-dimensional magnetized coupled resonator plasma photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Hamidi, S. M.

    2012-01-15

    In this paper, the optical and magneto-optical properties of one-dimensional magnetized coupled resonator plasma photonic crystals have been investigated. We use transfer matrix method to solve our magnetized coupled resonator plasma photonic crystals consist of dielectric and magnetized plasma layers. The results of the change in the optical and magneto-optical properties of structure as a result of the alteration in the structural properties such as thickness, plasma frequency and collision frequency, plasma filling factor, number of resonators and dielectric constant of dielectric layers and external magnetic field have been reported. The main feature of this structure is a good magneto-optical rotation that takes place at the defect modes and the edge of photonic band gap of our proposed optical magnetized plasma waveguide. Our outcomes demonstrate the potential applications of the device for tunable and adjustable filters or reflectors and active magneto-optic in microwave devices under structural parameter and external magnetic field.

  12. Relationship between physico-chemical properties of magnetic fluids and their heating capacity.

    PubMed

    Salas, Gorka; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino; Morales, Maria del Puerto

    2013-12-01

    The final goal in magnetic hyperthermia research is to use nanoparticles in the form of a colloidal suspension injected into human beings for a therapeutic application. Therefore the challenge is not only to develop magnetic nanoparticles with good heating capacities, but also with good colloidal properties, long blood circulation time and with grafted ligands able to facilitate their specific internalisation in tumour cells. Significant advances have been achieved optimising the properties of the magnetic nanoparticles, showing extremely large specific absorption rate values that will contribute to a reduction in the concentration of the magnetic fluid that needs to be administered. In this review we show the effect of different characteristics of the magnetic particles, such as size, size distribution and shape, and the colloidal properties of their aqueous suspensions, such as hydrodynamic size and surface modification, on the heating capacity of the magnetic colloids.

  13. Optical and magneto-optical properties of one-dimensional magnetized coupled resonator plasma photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidi, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the optical and magneto-optical properties of one-dimensional magnetized coupled resonator plasma photonic crystals have been investigated. We use transfer matrix method to solve our magnetized coupled resonator plasma photonic crystals consist of dielectric and magnetized plasma layers. The results of the change in the optical and magneto-optical properties of structure as a result of the alteration in the structural properties such as thickness, plasma frequency and collision frequency, plasma filling factor, number of resonators and dielectric constant of dielectric layers and external magnetic field have been reported. The main feature of this structure is a good magneto-optical rotation that takes place at the defect modes and the edge of photonic band gap of our proposed optical magnetized plasma waveguide. Our outcomes demonstrate the potential applications of the device for tunable and adjustable filters or reflectors and active magneto-optic in microwave devices under structural parameter and external magnetic field.

  14. Effects of strain-induced martensite and its reversion on the magnetic properties of AISI 201 austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza Filho, I. R.; Sandim, M. J. R.; Cohen, R.; Nagamine, L. C. C. M.; Hoffmann, J.; Bolmaro, R. E.; Sandim, H. R. Z.

    2016-12-01

    Strain-induced martensite (SIM) and its reversion in a cold-rolled AISI 201 austenitic stainless steel was studied by means of magnetic properties, light optical (LOM) and scanning electron (SEM) microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), texture measurements, and Vickers microhardness testing. According to Thermo-calc© predictions, the BCC phase (residual δ-ferrite and SIM) is expected to be stable until 600 °C. The current material was cold rolled up to 60% thickness reduction and submitted to both isothermal and stepwise annealing up to 800 °C. Magnetic measurements were taken during annealing (in situ) of the samples and also for their post mortem conditions. The Curie temperatures (Tc) of residual δ-ferrite and SIM have similar values between 550 and 600 °C. Besides Tc, the focused magnetic parameters were saturation magnetization (Ms), remanent magnetization (MR), and coercive field (Hc). SIM reversion was found to occur in the range of 600-700 °C in good agreement with Thermo-calc© predictions. The microstructures of the material, annealed at 600 and 700 °C for 1 h, were investigated via EBSD. Microtexture measurements for these samples revealed that the texture components were mainly those found for the 60% cold rolled material. This is an evidence that the SIM reversion occurred by an athermal mechanism.

  15. Effects of terbium sulfide addition on magnetic properties, microstructure and thermal stability of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang-Bin, Li; Shuo, Liu; Xue-Jing, Cao; Bei-Bei, Zhou; Ling, Chen; A-Ru, Yan; Gao-Lin, Yan

    2016-07-01

    To increase coercivity and thermal stability of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets for high-temperature applications, a novel terbium sulfide powder is added into (Pr0.25Nd0.75)30.6Cu0.15FebalB1 (wt.%) basic magnets. The effects of the addition of terbium sulfide on magnetic properties, microstructure, and thermal stability of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets are investigated. The experimental results show that by adding 3 wt.% Tb2S3, the coercivity of the magnet is remarkably increased by about 54% without a considerable reduction in remanence and maximum energy product. By means of the electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) technology, it is observed that Tb is mainly present in the outer region of 2:14:1 matrix grains and forms a well-developed Tb-shell phase, resulting in enhancement of H A, which accounts for the coercivity enhancement. Moreover, compared with Tb2S3-free magnets, the reversible temperature coefficients of remanence (α) and coercivity (β) and the irreversible flux loss of magnetic flow (h irr) values of Tb2S3-added magnets are improved, indicating that the thermal stability of the magnets is also effectively improved. Project supported by the Science Funds from the Ministry of Science and Technology, China (Grant Nos. 2014DFB50130 and 2011CB612304) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51172168 and 51072139).

  16. Magnetic properties and concurrence for fluid {sup 3}He on kagome lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Ananikian, N. S. Ananikian, L. N.; Lazaryan, H. A.

    2012-10-15

    We present the results of magnetic properties and entanglement for kagome lattice using Heisenberg model with two- and three-site exchange interactions in strong magnetic field. Kagome lattice correspond to the third layer of fluid {sup 3}He absorbed on the surface of graphite. The magnetic properties and concurrence as a measure of pairwise thermal entanglement are studied by means of variational mean-field like treatment based on Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality. The system exhibits different magnetic behaviors depending on the values of the exchange parameters (J{sub 2}, J{sub 3}). We have obtained the magnetization plateaus at low temperatures. The central theme of the paper is comparing the entanglement and magnetic behavior for kagome lattice. We have found that in the antiferromagnetic region behavior of the concurrence coincides with the magnetic susceptibility one.

  17. Investigation of magnetic properties in thick CoFeB alloy films for controllable anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Huang, Ya; Chen, Ruofei; Xu, Zhan

    2016-02-01

    CoFeB alloy material has attracted interest for its wide uses in magnetic memory devices and sensors. We investigate magnetic properties of thick Co40Fe40B20 films in the thickness range from 10 to 100 nm sandwiched by MgO and Ta layers. Strong in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy is revealed in the as-deposited amorphous films by angular dependent magnetic measurements, and the growth-induced anisotropy is found to strongly depend on the film thickness. A fourfold cubic magnetic anisotropy develops with annealing, as a result of improved crystalline structure in films confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. The observed magnetic properties can be explained by the superposition of the uniaxial and additional cubic magnetic anisotropy, tuned by annealing temperature.

  18. Grass fires—an unlikely process to explain the magnetic properties of prairie soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, Stephani A.; Johnson, William C.; Geiss, Christoph E.

    2013-12-01

    It has been proposed that grass fires affect the magnetic properties of soils by combining generally reducing soil conditions with elevated temperatures. To explore this supposition, we analysed surface and subsurface samples from loessic soils and compared their differences in magnetic properties as a function of fire intensity. Fire intensity was established based on types of burnt vegetation, which ranged from low-intensity fires in short-grass areas to high-intensity fires in tall-grass and forested areas. We measured low-field magnetic susceptibility (χ), a common proxy for the abundance of magnetic minerals, frequency-dependent susceptibility (χFD), a proxy for the presence of ultrafine-grained superparamagnetic minerals, and susceptibility of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (χARM), a magnetic parameter highly dependent on the presence of fine, single-domain magnetic particles. Although intense fires led to an increase in frequency-dependent susceptibility and low-field magnetic susceptibility, moderately intense fires did not produce significant changes in magnetic properties. Observed magnetic changes are limited to sites that were very heavily burnt in forest areas. Grass fires are therefore an unlikely mechanism to explain a measurable component of the magnetic enhancement in prairie soils.

  19. Two-dimensional molecular magnets with weak topological invariant magnetic moments: mathematical prediction of targets for chemical synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Packwood, D. M.; Reaves, K. T.; Federici, F. L.; Katzgraber, H. G.; Teizer, W.

    2013-01-01

    An open problem in applied mathematics is to predict interesting molecules that are realistic targets for chemical synthesis. In this paper, we use a spin Hamiltonian-type model to predict molecular magnets (MMs) with magnetic moments that are intrinsically robust under random shape deformations to the molecule. Using the concept of convergence in probability, we show that for MMs in which all spin centres lie in-plane and all spin centre interactions are ferromagnetic, the total spin of the molecule is a ‘weak topological invariant’ when the number of spin centres is sufficiently large. By weak topological invariant, we mean that the total spin of the molecule depends only upon the arrangement of spin centres in the molecule, and is unlikely to change under shape deformations to the molecule. Our calculations show that only between 20 and 50 spin centres are necessary for the total spin of these MMs to be a weak topological invariant. The robustness effect is particularly enhanced for two-dimensional ferromagnetic MMs that possess a small number of spin rings in the structure. PMID:24353469

  20. Nanomechanical control of properties of biological membranes achieved by rodlike magnetic nanoparticles in a superlow-frequency magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovin, Yu. I.; Klyachko, N. L.; Gribanovskii, S. L.; Golovin, D. Yu.; Samodurov, A. A.; Majouga, A. G.; Sokolsky-Papkov, M.; Kabanov, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    It is proposed to use single-domain rodlike magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as mediators for nanomechanical control of properties of biological membranes and cells on the molecular or cellular level by exposing them to a homogeneous nonheating low-frequency magnetic field (AC MF). The trigger effect is achieved due to rotatory-oscillatory motion of MNPs in the AC MF, which causes the needed deformations in macromolecules of the membrane interacting with these MNPs.

  1. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of (N, C)-codoped ZnO nanotube: First principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmailian, Amirhosein; Shahrokhi, Masoud; Kanjouri, Faramarz

    2015-04-01

    We have studied the electronic structure and magnetic properties of Nitrogen and Carbon codoped ZnO (5,0) single-walled zigzag nanotube using first-principle calculations based on the density functional theory. We performed our calculations for N- and C- codoping ZnO nanotube in two different configurations. For the first configuration in which the two impurity atoms (N or C) are on first nearest-neighbor sites in the plane of codoping, our calculation predicts that the N- and C-codoped ZnO nanotubes are antiferromagnetic material with no net magnetization. On the other hand, it is found that for the configuration in which the two impurity atoms are next nearest-neighbors, a spin polarization results in a magnetic moment in the N- and C-codoped ZnO nanotubes.

  2. Investigation of the application in the simulation program 'PSpice' of the Jiles-Atherton model for nonlinear magnetic materials in order to predict the degaussing of magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderlinden, Ad

    1990-03-01

    The MicroSim computer code PSpice for the simulation of electrical circuits was used for the description of nonlinear magnetic properties, applying the Jiles-Atherton model. The PSpice results show no agreement with the obvious relation between the parameters of the model and the well known microscopic and macroscopic theory of magnetism. However, the results of a trial and error PSpice simulation of a degaussing circuit show quantitative agreement with experimental data of magnet steel of the firm 'Sigma phi'. Based onthese results, the degaussing behavior of the AFBU magnet B401 and the ESC magnets M1 and M4 are described.

  3. Results of the Magnetic Properties Experiment on the Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hviid, S. F.; Goetz, W.; Madsen, M. B.; Knudsen, J. M.; Bertelsen, P.; MER Science

    2004-11-01

    The two Mars Exploration Rovers each carry a set of Magnetic Properties Experiments (MPE) to investigate the properties of the air-borne dust in the Martian atmosphere. The goal of the MPE is to provide information on the processes that formed the dust (past and present). The objectives are: a) To identify the magnetic mineral(s) in the dust, soil and rocks on Mars. b) To establish if the magnetic material is present in the form of nanosized possibly superparamagnetic crystallites embedded in the micrometer sized airborne dust particles. c) To establish if the magnets are culling a subset of strongly magnetic particles or if essentially all particles of the airborne dust are sufficiently magnetic to be attracted by the magnets. d) Detect possible compositional differences between the airborne dust and the soil at the two landing sites. The MPE is composed of three major units: a) The Filter and Capture magnets. b) The Sweep Magnet and c) The RAT Magnets. The Filter and Capture magnets are designed to measure the elemental composition/iron mineralogy of the air-borne dust using the APX and Mössbauer Spectrometers and to investigate possible differences in trace element concentrations between the air-borne dust as a whole and the magnetic separate of the air-borne dust. The Sweep Magnet experiment is designed to serve two purposes: 1) Detect if any non-magnetic minerals are present in the atmospheric dust in any significant amount. 2) Provide a magnetically attracted dust layer suitable for spectroscopic investigation by the multispectral Panoramic Camera (PANCAM). The RAT magnet experiment is mounted inside the Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) and is designed to detect the presence of magnetic grains released by the grinding process of rocks. A summary of the results of these experiments will be presented at the Assembly.

  4. Prediction of iron losses in doubly salient permanent magnet machine with rectangular current waveform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Minxi; Cheng, Ming

    2012-04-01

    Iron losses in doubly salient permanent magnet (DSPM) machine are difficult to predict, as the flux waveforms are complex and dc bias existed. This paper measures iron losses at no load for different rotor speeds and these measured loss data are used to calibrate the iron loss model of the DSPM machine. Then the iron losses at rated load are predicted under three phase rectangular currents exerting on the armature windings. The result shows that small increment of iron losses is in the rotor at rated load which do benefit to the rotor thermal dissipation design.

  5. Modifying the morphology and magnetic properties of magnetite nanoparticles using swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, Shubha; Lamba, Subhalakshmi; Kumari, Neha; Singh, Bhupendra; Avasthi, D. K.; Kulkarni, S. K.

    2014-08-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanospheres of ˜8-11 nm diameter synthesized using a chemical co-precipitation method were deposited as thin films on different substrates using spin coating. The thin films were irradiated with Ag ions at 100 MeV energy. Comparison of unirradiated, as synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticulate thin film and ion irradiated film shows that irradiation causes dramatic changes in the morphology, structure and magnetic properties. Monte Carlo simulations carried out on this system indicate that the origin of the changes in the magnetic properties lies in the enhanced magnetic anisotropy energy density and reorientation of magnetic easy axis.

  6. Magnetic surfactants as molecular based-magnets with spin glass-like properties.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paul; Smith, Gregory N; Hernández, Eduardo Padrón; James, Craig; Eastoe, Julian; Nunes, Wallace C; Settens, Charles M; Hatton, T Alan; Baker, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the use of muon spin relaxation spectroscopy to study how the aggregation behavior of magnetic surfactants containing lanthanide counterions may be exploited to create spin glass-like materials. Surfactants provide a unique approach to building in randomness, frustration and competing interactions into magnetic materials without requiring a lattice of ordered magnetic species or intervening ligands and elements. We demonstrate that this magnetic behavior may also be manipulated via formation of micelles rather than simple dilution, as well as via design of surfactant molecular architecture. This somewhat unexpected result indicates the potential of using novel magnetic surfactants for the generation and tuning of molecular magnets. PMID:27028571

  7. Magnetic surfactants as molecular based-magnets with spin glass-like properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Paul; Smith, Gregory N.; Padrón Hernández, Eduardo; James, Craig; Eastoe, Julian; Nunes, Wallace C.; Settens, Charles M.; Hatton, T. Alan; Baker, Peter J.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the use of muon spin relaxation spectroscopy to study how the aggregation behavior of magnetic surfactants containing lanthanide counterions may be exploited to create spin glass-like materials. Surfactants provide a unique approach to building in randomness, frustration and competing interactions into magnetic materials without requiring a lattice of ordered magnetic species or intervening ligands and elements. We demonstrate that this magnetic behavior may also be manipulated via formation of micelles rather than simple dilution, as well as via design of surfactant molecular architecture. This somewhat unexpected result indicates the potential of using novel magnetic surfactants for the generation and tuning of molecular magnets.

  8. A Solid State Nanopore Device for Investigating the Magnetic Properties of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Park, SangYoon; Lim, Jaekwan; Pak, Y. Eugene; Moon, Seunghyun; Song, Yoon-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we explored magnetic nanoparticles translocating through a nanopore in the presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field. By detecting the ionic current blockade signals with a silicon nitride nanopore, we found that the translocation velocity that is driven by magnetic and hydrodynamic forces on a single magnetic nanoparticle can be accurately determined and is linearly proportional to the magnetization of the magnetic nanoparticle. Thus, we obtained the magneto-susceptibility of an individual nanoparticle and the average susceptibility over one hundred particles within a few minutes. PMID:23708272

  9. Variability of the ocean-induced magnetic field predicted at sea surface and at satellite altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glazman, Roman E.; Golubev, Yury N.

    2005-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of the magnetic field component induced by ocean circulation is investigated on the basis of a standard thin-shell approximation of electro- and magneto-static equations. Well-known difficulties of numerical solution of the governing equations are resolved by reducing the problem to an equation for the electric field potential,(ef) as opposed to a more conventional approach focused on the vertical jump, (psi), of the magnetic field potential across a combined ocean/ marine-sediment-layer spherical shell. The present formulation permits using more realistic input data on ocean currents and ultimately yields much greater (by at least an order of magnitude) values of the magnetic field at sea surface than predicted in earlier studies. Such large values are comparable to, and in some cases exceed, magnetic field variations caused by lithospheric and ionospheric sources on monthly to interannual timescales. At the 400-km altitude (of CHAMP satellite), the field attains 6 nT. The model predictions show favorable comparisons with some in situ measurements as well as with Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite magnetometer data.

  10. Magnetic Properties of Surface Sediments in Small Temperate Lakes: Modern Analogues for Paleolimnologic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascu, I.; Plank, C.

    2007-12-01

    Magnetic properties of lake sediments are routinely measured as part of paleolimnological and paleoclimatic research. Basic parameters such as magnetic susceptibility (MS), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) are used for correlating cores from different sites in the same basin, tracking erosion history and lake level changes, or investigating eutrophication and microbial processes. However, a detailed investigation of the syn-depositional processes that control the distribution of magnetic minerals across lake basins is lacking for most types of lake systems. In order to understand the main controls on environmental magnetic records, we systematically investigated the magnetic properties of surface sediments collected along transects in nine Minnesota lakes. The lakes are small (<1 sq. km), have simple morphologies, are hydrologically closed, and are distributed across an east-west moisture gradient, as well as a north-south temperature gradient. The structure of lake water columns was investigated by measuring temperature, specific conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and pH. Sediment composition was determined via loss on ignition (LOI). The magnetic properties of the sediments reflect the change in depositional environments from shallow to deep water, as defined in sedimentological context by LOI and sediment granulometry. All lake basins exhibit a characteristic pattern in terms of concentration (MS and IRM) and grain size (ARM/IRM) of magnetic minerals. Sediments above wave base (0.5 m) have high concentrations of coarse grained magnetic minerals. Below wave base, but in the thermally mixed layer, magnetic particles are finer-grained and present in lower concentrations. Profundal slope sediments are characterized by variable magnetic and compositional parameters, indicative of a dynamic sedimentological and geochemical environment. In the deep, anoxic regions, magnetic concentration increases again, associated

  11. Atomistic simulation of static magnetic properties of bit patterned media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbeláez-Echeverri, O. D.; Agudelo-Giraldo, J. D.; Restrepo-Parra, E.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we present a new design of Co based bit pattern media with out-of-plane uni-axial anisotropy induced by interface effects. Our model features the inclusion of magnetic impurities in the non-magnetic matrix. After the material model was refined during three iterations using Monte Carlo simulations, further simulations were performed using an atomistic integrator of Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation with Langevin dynamics to study the behavior of the system paying special attention to the super-paramagnetic limit. Our model system exhibits three magnetic phase transitions, one due to the magnetically doped matrix material and the weak magnetic interaction between the nano-structures in the system. The different magnetic phases of the system as well as the features of its phase diagram are explained.

  12. Influence of hydrogen patterning gas on electric and magnetic properties of perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, J. H.; Endoh, T.; Kim, Y.; Kim, W. K.; Park, S. O.

    2014-05-07

    To identify the degradation mechanism in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) using hydrogen, the properties of the MTJs were measured by applying an additional hydrogen etch process and a hydrogen plasma process to the patterned MTJs. In these studies, an additional 50 s hydrogen etch process caused the magnetoresistance (MR) to decrease from 103% to 14.7% and the resistance (R) to increase from 6.5 kΩ to 39 kΩ. Moreover, an additional 500 s hydrogen plasma process decreased the MR from 103% to 74% and increased R from 6.5 kΩ to 13.9 kΩ. These results show that MTJs can be damaged by the hydrogen plasma process as well as by the hydrogen etch process, as the atomic bonds in MgO may break and react with the exposed hydrogen gas. Compounds such as MgO hydrate very easily. We also calculated the damaged layer width (DLW) of the patterned MTJs after the hydrogen etching and plasma processes, to evaluate the downscaling limitations of spin-transfer-torque magnetic random-access memory (STT-MRAM) devices. With these calculations, the maximum DLWs at each side of the MTJ, generated by the etching and plasma processes, were 23.8 nm and 12.8 nm, respectively. This result validates that the hydrogen-based MTJ patterning processes cannot be used exclusively in STT-MRAMs beyond 20 nm.

  13. Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of erbium silicide epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chroboczek, J. A.; Briggs, A.; Joss, W.; Auffret, S.; Pierre, J.

    1991-02-01

    Hexagonal Er3Si5 films epitaxially grown on Si show strong anisotropies in magnetization and magnetotransport below the ordering temperature. The magnetoresistance has a cusplike positive anomaly or is negative and featureless for a magnetic field applied, respectively, along or perpendicular to the [0001] axis. A noncollinear structure, composed of an antiferromagnetic and a ferromagnetic component accounts for the magnetization data. The latter used in conjunction with the Yamada-Takada theory of magnetotransport accounts for the magnetoresistance data.

  14. Thermodynamic properties of anisotropic spin ladder in a longitudinal magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezania, H.

    2015-08-01

    We address thermodynamic properties of quasi-one dimensional two leg antiferromagnetic ladder in the presence of magnetic field. A generalized bond operator formalism is used to transform the spin model to a hard core bosonic gas. We have implemented Green's function approach to obtain the temperature dependence of spin excitation spectrum in field induced spin polarized phase. The results show energy gap that vanishes at critical magnetic field for fixed values of temperatures. We have also found the temperature dependence of the specific heat and magnetization component in the magnetic field direction for various magnetic field strengths and anisotropies in the Heisenberg interactions on both leg and rung couplings. At low temperatures, the specific heat is found to be monotonically increasing with temperature for magnetic fields in the spin polarized phase region. Furthermore we studied the temperature dependence of the longitudinal magnetization for different magnetic field and anisotropy parameters.

  15. Magnetic, electrical, and thermodynamic properties of NpIr: Ambient and high-pressure measurements, and electronic structure calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, H. C.; McEwen, K. A.; Griveau, J.-C.; Eloirdi, R.; Amador, P.; Maldonado, P.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Colineau, E.

    2015-05-01

    We present bulk property measurements of NpIr, a newly synthesized member of the Np-Ir binary phase diagram, which is isostructural to the noncentrosymmetric pressure-induced ferromagnetic superconductor UIr. Magnetic susceptibility, electronic transport properties at ambient and high pressure, and heat capacity measurements have been performed for temperatures T =0.55 -300 K in a range of magnetic fields up to 14 T and under pressure up to 17.3 GPa. These reveal that NpIr is a moderately heavy fermion Kondo system with strong antiferromagnetic interactions, but there is no evidence of any phase transition down to 0.55 K or at the highest pressure achieved. Experimental results are compared with ab initio calculations of the electronic band structure and lattice heat capacity. An extremely low lattice thermal conductivity is predicted for NpIr at temperatures above 300 K.

  16. Large-scale properties of the interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, K. H.

    1972-01-01

    Early theoretical work of Parker is presented along with the observational evidence supporting his Archimedes spiral model. Variations present in the interplanetary magnetic field from the spiral angle are related to structures in the solar wind. The causes of these structures are found to be either nonuniform radial solar wind flow or the time evolution of the photospheric field. Coronal magnetic models are related to the connection between the solar magnetic field and the interplanetary magnetic field. Direct extension of the solar field-magnetic nozzle controversy is discussed along with the coronal magnetic models. Effects of active regions on the interplanetary magnetic field is discussed with particular reference to the evolution of interplanetary sectors. Interplanetary magnetic field magnitude variations are shown throughout the solar cycle. The percentage of time the field magnitude is greater than 10 gamma is shown to closely parallel sunspot number. The sun's polar field influence on the interplanetary field and alternative views of the magnetic field structure out of the ecliptic plane are presented. In addition, a variety of significantly different interplanetary field structures are discussed.

  17. Electronic and magnetic properties of N-N split substitution in GaAs: A hybrid density functional study

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Ruiqi; Wang, Qingxia; Cai, Xiaolin; Li, Chong; Jia, Yu; Wang, Fei; Wang, Sanjun

    2015-07-15

    Employing the first-principles combined with hybrid functional calculations, the electronic and magnetic properties of GaAs doped with a N{sub 2} molecule are investigated in this work. We find that in Ga{sub 32}As{sub 31}(N{sub 2}){sub As} the N-N split is able to saturate the dangling bond of Ga atom ,form sp{sup 3}-like hybridization, and simultaneously supply an extra localized electron, leading to a magnetic ground state with a magnetic moment of ∼1μ{sub B}. This magnetic ground state is different from previously nonmagnetic results predicted by PBE functional, which results from the self-interaction error inherent in semi-local density functional theory. Moreover, the band gap of magnetic ground state of Ga{sub 32}As{sub 31}(N{sub 2}){sub As} alloy decreases, which is relative to GaAs . Finally we discuss and explain why the magnetism is not discovered in previous experiments and theories.

  18. Evaluation of the magnetic properties of cosmetic contact lenses with a superconducting quantum interference device.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Kagayaki; Shirakawa, Naoki; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Tawara, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Akihiro; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the magnetization of 21 cosmetic contact lens samples that included various coloring materials with a superconducting quantum interference device with regard to magnetic resonance (MR) safety. We found 7 samples were ferromagnetic; two had both ferromagnetic and diamagnetic properties; and the rest were diamagnetic. The saturated magnetization of the most ferromagnetic sample was 15.0 µJ/T, which yielded a magnetically induced displacement force of 90.0 µN when the spatial gradient of the static magnetic field was 6.0 T/m. The force was less than one-third of the gravitational force.

  19. Magnetic properties of 3D nanocomposites consisting of an opal matrix with embedded spinel ferrite particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinkevich, A. B.; Korolev, A. V.; Samoylovich, M. I.; Kleshcheva, S. M.; Perov, D. V.

    2016-02-01

    The magnetic properties of 3D nanocomposites representing Mn-Zn, Ni-Zn, Co-Zn, La-Co-Zn, and Nd-Co-Zn spinel ferrite particles embedded in the interspherical spaces of opal matrices are studied. Experimental data are obtained in the temperature interval 2-300 K by measuring the magnetization at a static magnetic field strength of up to 50 kOe and the ac magnetic susceptibility at an alternating magnetic field amplitude of 4 kOe and a frequency of 80 Hz.

  20. Magnetic properties in kagomé lattice with RKKY interaction: A Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.; Benyoussef, A.; Hamedoun, M.

    2016-03-01

    The magnetic properties of the kagomé lattice have been studied with Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) exchange interactions in a spin-7/2 Ising model using Monte Carlo simulations. The RKKY interaction between the two magnetic layers is considered for different distances. The magnetizations and magnetic susceptibilities of this lattice are given for different triquadratic interactions around each triangular face. The critical temperature is obtained for a fixed size. The magnetic hysteresis cycle of kagomé lattice with RKKY interactions is obtained for different temperatures and for different crystal field with a fixed size of nonmagnetic layer.

  1. Electronic and magnetic properties of manganite thin films with different compositions and its correlation with transport properties: An X-ray resonant magnetic scattering study

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Surendra; Freeland, J. W.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Jeen, H.; Biswas, A.

    2014-12-14

    Here, we present x-ray resonant magnetic dichroism and x-ray resonant magnetic scattering measurements of the temperature dependence of magnetism in Pr-doped La-Ca-Mn-O films grown on (110) NdGaO{sub 3} substrates. We observed thermal hysteresis of the ferromagnetism in one film that also showed large thermal hysteresis of ∼18 K in transport measurements. While in a second film of a different nominal chemistry, which showed very small thermal hysteresis ∼3 K in transport measurements, no thermal hysteresis of the ferromagnetism was observed. These macroscopic properties are correlated with evolution of surface magnetization across metal insulator transition for these films as observed by soft x-ray resonant magnetic scattering measurements.

  2. Electronic and magnetic properties of manganite thin films with different compositions and its correlation with transport properties: An X-ray resonant magnetic scattering study

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Singh, Surendra; Freeland, J. W.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Jeen, H.; Biswas, A.

    2014-12-08

    Here, we present x-ray resonant magnetic dichroism and x-ray resonant magnetic scattering measurements of the temperature dependence of magnetism in Pr-doped La-Ca-Mn-O films grown on (110) NdGaO3 substrates. We observed thermal hysteresis of the ferromagnetism in one film that also showed large thermal hysteresis of ~18K in transport measurements. While in a second film of a different nominal chemistry, which showed very small thermal hysteresis ~3K in transport measurements, no thermal hysteresis of the ferromagnetism was observed. As a result, these macroscopic properties are correlated with evolution of surface magnetization across metal insulator transition for these films as observed bymore » soft x-ray resonant magnetic scattering measurements.« less

  3. Electronic and magnetic properties of manganite thin films with different compositions and its correlation with transport properties: An X-ray resonant magnetic scattering study

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Surendra; Freeland, J. W.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Jeen, H.; Biswas, A.

    2014-12-08

    Here, we present x-ray resonant magnetic dichroism and x-ray resonant magnetic scattering measurements of the temperature dependence of magnetism in Pr-doped La-Ca-Mn-O films grown on (110) NdGaO3 substrates. We observed thermal hysteresis of the ferromagnetism in one film that also showed large thermal hysteresis of ~18K in transport measurements. While in a second film of a different nominal chemistry, which showed very small thermal hysteresis ~3K in transport measurements, no thermal hysteresis of the ferromagnetism was observed. As a result, these macroscopic properties are correlated with evolution of surface magnetization across metal insulator transition for these films as observed by soft x-ray resonant magnetic scattering measurements.

  4. The effect of nanocrystalline silicon host on magnetic properties of encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Granitzer, P; Rumpf, K; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, R; Coffer, J L; Reissner, M

    2015-12-21

    The purpose of this work is a detailed comparison of the fundamental magnetic properties of nanocomposite systems consisting of Fe3O4 nanoparticle-loaded porous silicon as well as silicon nanotubes. Such composite structures are of potential merit in the area of magnetically guided drug delivery. For magnetic systems to be utilized in biomedical applications, there are certain magnetic properties that must be fulfilled. Therefore magnetic properties of embedded Fe3O4-nanoparticles in these nanostructured silicon host matrices, porous silicon and silicon nanotubes, are investigated. Temperature-dependent magnetic investigations have been carried out for four types of iron oxide particle sizes (4, 5, 8 and 10 nm). The silicon host, in interplay with the iron oxide nanoparticle size, plays a sensitive role. It is shown that Fe3O4 loaded porous silicon and SiNTs differ significantly in their magnetic behavior, especially the transition between superparamagnetic behavior and blocked state, due to host morphology-dependent magnetic interactions. Importantly, it is found that all investigated samples meet the magnetic precondition of possible biomedical applications of exhibiting a negligible magnetic remanence at room temperature.

  5. A METHOD TO MEASURE THE FOCUSING PROPERTIES (R-MATRIX) OF A MAGNET.

    SciTech Connect

    TSOUPAS,N.THIEBERGER,P.BROWN,K.GASSNER,D.GLENN,W.AHRENS,L.ROSER,T.LEE,Y.Y.WEI,J.

    2004-07-05

    In this paper we discuss, and study the feasibility of a method that may be used to measure the focusing properties of a magnet. This method may prove valuable when applied to ''non-conventional'' magnets that deviate from the usual dipole magnets or other multipole magnets (quadrupoles/sextupoles etc.) which are commonly used in a synchrotron or a beam line. In this category of ''non-conventional'' magnets, fall special magnets, which come under the name ''Snakes'', which are being used in synchrotron accelerators to introduce artificial spin resonances to help overcome the intrinsic and/or imperfection spin resonances which appear during the acceleration of polarized beams. This method of measuring the focusing properties of a magnet requires the use of ''low energy'' and ''high rigidity'' heavy-ions which may be obtained from the BNL Tandem accelerator. In brief the method consists on, injecting ''narrow-beamlets'' of heavy ions into a magnet and measuring the coordinates, of these ''narrow-beamlets'', at the entrance and exit of the magnet. From the measurement of the coordinates of the ''narrow-beamlets'' we can deduce information on the R matrix (first order transfer matrix elements) and higher order matrix elements that define the focusing properties of the magnet.

  6. Magnetic properties of hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal synthesis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadic, Marin; Panjan, Matjaz; Damnjanovic, Vesna; Milosevic, Irena

    2014-11-01

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles are successfully synthesized by using the hydrothermal synthesis method. An X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) of the sample shows formation of the nanocrystalline α-Fe2O3 phase. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements show spherical morphology of the hematite nanoparticles and narrow size distribution. An average hematite nanoparticle size is estimated to be about 8 nm by TEM and XRD. Magnetic properties were measured using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. Investigation of the magnetic properties of hematite nanoparticles showed a divergence between field-cooled (FC) and zero-field-cooled (ZFC) magnetization curves below Tirr = 103 K (irreversibility temperature). The ZFC magnetization curve showed maximum at TB = 52 K (blocking temperature). The sample did not exhibit the Morin transition. The M(H) (magnetization versus magnetic field) dependence at 300 K showed properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION). The M(H) data were successfully fitted by the Langevin function and magnetic moment μp = 657 μB and diameter d = 8.1 nm were determined. Furthermore, magnetic measurements showed high magnetization at room temperature (MS = 3.98 emu/g), which is desirable for application in spintronics and biomedicine. Core-shell structure of the nanoparticles was used to describe high magnetization of the hematite nanoparticles.

  7. Electrical and magnetic properties of hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets with different DyF3 additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawatzki, Simon; Dirba, Imants; Schultz, Ludwig; Gutfleisch, Oliver

    2013-10-01

    The effect of deformation and DyF3 additions on the electrical resistivity and the magnetic performance has been studied in hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B melt-spun ribbons and correlated with respective microstructures. Despite the nanocrystallinity of hot-compacted magnets, the specific electrical resistivity measured by four-point-method was shown to be comparable with that of sintered magnets. Die-upsetting reduces electrical resistivity within the magnetically hard plane because of an enhanced shape anisotropy of the grains. The addition of DyF3 overcompensates this reduction due to the presence of electrically insulating Dy-F rich inclusions and thus reduces eddy current losses within the magnet. Magnetic measurements reveal an increase in coercivity without a change in remanence for die-upset magnets with a total height reduction of 63% and 1.2 wt. % Dy (1.6 wt. %DyF3). Both properties, remanence and coercivity, demonstrate an effective reduction in heavy rare earth Dy for Nd-Fe-B magnets.

  8. Controlling magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles using post-synthesis thermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, Vineet; Bhandarkar, Upendra; Neergat, Manoj; Suresh, K. G.

    2014-02-01

    Changes in morphological and magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles before and after annealing are investigated in the present work. The nanoparticles are synthesized in a standard capacitively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition system with two electrodes using ferrocene as the source compound. Post annealing, due to the sintering process, the particles fuse along with recrystallization. This results in increased size of the nanoparticles and the interparticle interaction, which play a major role in deciding the magnetic properties. X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples before and after annealing indicate a phase change from Fe3O4 to Fe2O3. Annealing at 200 ∘C causes the apparent saturation magnetization to increase from 6 emu g-1 to 15 emu g-1. When annealed at 500 ∘C, the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles resemble those of the bulk material. The evidence for the transition from a superparamagnetic state to a collective state is also observed when annealed at 500 ∘C. Variation of the magnetic relaxation data with annealing also reflects the change in the magnetic state brought about by the annealing. The correlation between annealing temperature and the magnetic properties can be used to obtain nanocrystallites of iron oxide with different sizes and magnetic properties.

  9. Magnetic properties, microstructure and mineralogical phases of technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) in urban soils: Their source identification and environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shenggao; Yu, Xiuling; Chen, Yuyin

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic measurement is an effective method to determine spatial distribution and the degree of heavy metal pollution and to identify various anthropogenic sources of heavy metals. The objectives of this investigation are to characterize the magnetic properties, microstructure and mineralogical phases of technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) in urban soils and to discuss their potential environmental implications. The TMPs are separated from the urban topsoils of Luoyang city, China. The magnetic properties, morphology, and mineral phase of TMPs are studied using mineral magnetic measurement, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction, and synchrotron-radiation-based microprobe. The content of TMPs in urban topsoils ranges from 0.05 to 1.95% (on average 0.32%). The magnetic susceptibility of TMPs ranges from 4559×10(-8) to 23,661×10(-8) m(3) kg(-1) (on average 13,637×10(-8) m(3) kg(-1)). Thermomagnetic and bulk X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that main magnetic minerals of TMPs are magnetite (Fe3O4) and hematite (α-Fe2O3). The morphology of TMPs observed by SEM includes three shape types: spherule, irregular-shaped, and aggregate particles. The size of spherical TMPs ranges from 30 to about 200 μm, with the largest percentage of 30-50 μm. Synchrotron-radiation-based microprobe (μ-XRF and μ-XRD) indicates that TMPs are enriched with heavy metals Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, and Cr, which are incorporated into lattice or adsorbed on the surface of magnetite/hematite. The content of TMPs significantly relates with the Tomlinson Pollution Load Index (PLI) (R(2)=0.467), suggesting that it can be used as proxy indicator of degree of heavy metal contamination in urban soils. The magnetic properties, microstructure and mineralogical phases of TMPs can serve as the identification of pollution sources in urban soils.

  10. From Process Modeling to Elastic Property Prediction for Long-Fiber Injection-Molded Thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Frame, Barbara J.; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.; Bapanapalli, Satish K.; Holbery, James D.; Smith, Mark T.

    2007-09-13

    This paper presents an experimental-modeling approach to predict the elastic properties of long-fiber injection-molded thermoplastics (LFTs). The approach accounts for fiber length and orientation distributions in LFTs. LFT samples were injection-molded for the study, and fiber length and orientation distributions were measured at different locations for use in the computation of the composite properties. The current fiber orientation model was assessed to determine its capability to predict fiber orientation in LFTs. Predicted fiber orientations for the studied LFT samples were also used in the calculation of the elastic properties of these samples, and the predicted overall moduli were then compared with the experimental results. The elastic property prediction was based on the Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka method combined with the orientation averaging technique. The predictions reasonably agree with the experimental LFT data

  11. Dielectric properties for prediction of moisture content in Vidalia onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microwave Sensing provides a means for nondestructively determining the amount of moisture in materials by sensing the dielectric properties of the material. In this study, dielectric properties of Vidalia onions were analyzed for moisture dependence at 13.36 GHz and 23°C for moisture content betwee...

  12. Structure and magnetic properties of chromium doped cobalt molybdenum nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guskos, Niko; Żołnierkiewicz, Grzegorz; Typek, Janusz; Guskos, Aleksander; Adamski, Paweł; Moszyński, Dariusz

    2016-09-01

    Four nanocomposites containing mixed phases of Co3Mo3N and Co2Mo3N doped with chromium have been prepared. A linear fit is found for relation between Co2Mo3N and chromium concentrations. The magnetization in ZFC and FC modes at different temperatures (2-300 K) and in applied magnetic fields (up to 70 kOe) have been investigated. It has been detected that many magnetic characteristics of the studied four nanocomposites correlate not with the chromium concentration but with nanocrystallite sizes. The obtained results were interpreted in terms of magnetic core-shell model of a nanoparticle involving paramagnetic core with two magnetic sublattices and a ferromagnetic shell related to chromium doping.

  13. Assessing Predictive Properties of Genome-Wide Selection in Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Alencar; Muir, William M; Rainey, Katy Martin

    2016-01-01

    Many economically important traits in plant breeding have low heritability or are difficult to measure. For these traits, genomic selection has attractive features and may boost genetic gains. Our goal was to evaluate alternative scenarios to implement genomic selection for yield components in soybean (Glycine max L. merr). We used a nested association panel with cross validation to evaluate the impacts of training population size, genotyping density, and prediction model on the accuracy of genomic prediction. Our results indicate that training population size was the factor most relevant to improvement in genome-wide prediction, with greatest improvement observed in training sets up to 2000 individuals. We discuss assumptions that influence the choice of the prediction model. Although alternative models had minor impacts on prediction accuracy, the most robust prediction model was the combination of reproducing kernel Hilbert space regression and BayesB. Higher genotyping density marginally improved accuracy. Our study finds that breeding programs seeking efficient genomic selection in soybeans would best allocate resources by investing in a representative training set. PMID:27317786

  14. Magnetic properties of soils from landslide potential area (Case study: Pasir Ipis-Lembang, West Bandung)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramdhani, Rifat; Fitriani, Dini; Hajar Kirana, Kartika; Wijatmoko, Bambang; Sutanto, Ogi

    2016-08-01

    In this study we have analized magnetic properties of soils from landslide potential area. Top soil and four soil cores from Pasir Ipis as study area were taken as samples. All samples measured by rock magnetism method, magnetic susceptibility, to describe the characteristic of the physical property of samples. Magnetic susceptibility values of top soil samples are ranging from 193 × 10-8 m3/kg to 545 × 10-8 m3/kg, whereas for soil cores the magnetic susceptibility values range from 245 × 10-8 m3/kg to 674 × 10-8 m3/kg. It implies that the soil samples are dominated by ferrimagnetic minerals. Relative difference of magnetic susceptibility values measured at two frequencies or χfd f (%) for all samples range from 2 to 10%, indicating that the samples contain a mixture of ultrafine superparamagnetic grains and non superparamagnetic grains.

  15. Magnetic properties of bcc-Fe(001)/C₆₀ interfaces for organic spintronics.

    PubMed

    Tran, T Lan Anh; Cakır, Deniz; Wong, P K Johnny; Preobrajenski, Alexei B; Brocks, Geert; van der Wiel, Wilfred G; de Jong, Michel P

    2013-02-01

    The magnetic structure of the interfaces between organic semiconductors and ferromagnetic contacts plays a key role in the spin injection and extraction processes in organic spintronic devices. We present a combined computational (density functional theory) and experimental (X-ray magnetic circular dichroism) study on the magnetic properties of interfaces between bcc-Fe(001) and C(60) molecules. C(60) is an interesting candidate for application in organic spintronics due to the absence of hydrogen atoms and the associated hyperfine fields. Adsorption of C(60) on Fe(001) reduces the magnetic moments on the top Fe layers by ∼6%, while inducing an antiparrallel magnetic moment of ∼-0.2 μ(B) on C(60). Adsorption of C(60) on a model ferromagnetic substrate consisting of three Fe monolayers on W(001) leads to a different structure but to very similar interface magnetic properties.

  16. Magnetic properties of double perovskite La2BMnO6 (B = Ni or Co) nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Yuanbing; Parsons, Jason; McCloy, John S.

    2013-03-31

    Double perovskite La2BMnO6 (B = Ni and Co) nanoparticles with average particle size of ~50 nm were synthesized using a facile, environmentally friendly, scalable molten-salt reaction at 700 °C in air. Their structural and morphological properties were characterized by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic properties were evaluated using dc magnetic M-T and M-H, and ac magnetic susceptibility versus frequency, temperature, and field. The magnetization curve shows a paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition at TC ~275 and 220 K for La2NiMnO6 (LNMO) and La2CoMnO6 (LCMO) nanoparticles, respectively. ac susceptibility revealed that the LCMO had a single magnetic transition indicative of Co2+-O2--Mn4+ ordering, whereas the LNMO showed more complex magnetic behavior suggesting a re-entrant spin glass.

  17. Thermodynamic properties of mixed-spin chains in magnetic field by the transfer matrix method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, H. H.; Yao, K. L.; Liu, Z. L.

    2006-10-01

    Motivated by recent experimental synthesis of molecule-based ferrimagnetics, we have investigated the thermodynamic properties of one-dimensional antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic mixed spin- {1}/{2} lozenge chain in external magnetic fields at low temperature, using the transfer matrix method. The magnetization and the specific heat of the spin system have been evaluated numerically from the free energy. The magnetization as a function of the magnetic field at low temperature shows step-like plateau characterized by three critical magnetic fields, which reflects the competing effect of magnetic interactions and thermal fluctuations. The double-peak structure in the curves of the specific heat is also found, which comes from the huge variation of the long-range order parameters. Our results show that the thermodynamic properties of the mixed spin- {1}/{2} molecule-based ferrimagnetics are very analogous to the behaviors of the spin-1 and spin- {1}/{2} mixed antiferromagentic chain.

  18. Magnetic Properties of High-Surface-Area Carbons and Their Effect on Adsorbed Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Beckner, Matthew; Kraus, Michael; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter

    2009-03-01

    We report the discovery that a large number of nanoporous carbon samples, made from corn cob and exhibiting high hydrogen storage capacities (Pfeifer et al, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1041 R02-02 (2008)), show unexpected magnetic properties, due to iron impurities in the samples. Magnetization curves are consistent with ferromagnetic and/or super-paramagnetic behavior. Magnetic susceptibilities, saturation magnetizations, coercivities and remanence magnetizations, from measurements on a SQUID magnetometer, will be presented, and their temperature dependence will be discussed. Results will be presented regarding the presence of small iron clusters, magnetic properties of iron-leached samples, and hydrogen binding energies as a function of iron leaching. This material is based on work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Award No. DE-FG-08GO18142.

  19. Effect of Mg-Zr substitution and microwave processing on magnetic properties of barium hexaferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manju; Kashyap, Subhash C.; Gupta, H. C.

    2014-09-01

    The effect of substitution of Mg-Zr for Fe in M-type barium hexaferrite (BHF) and of processing technique on the magnetic properties and microstructure has been reported in the present paper. Significant changes in magnetic properties have been observed on substituting Fe ions by Mg and Zr ions in M-type barium hexaferrite, i.e. BaFe12O19 as well as by single mode microwave processing. The single mode microwave processing of the undoped sample reduced the coercivity to nearly 25% of the value for the sintered sample along with the enhancement in magnetization, thereby making it suitable for memory devices. The improvement in magnetic properties is explained on the basis of microstructure. The addition of substituents, though assisted in the formation of single phase, it, however, degraded the magnetization besides decreasing the coercivity, possibly due to substitution at the octahedral sites.

  20. Preparation and Magnetic Properties of MnBi-based Hard/Soft Composite Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Yilong; Liu, Xubo; Gandha, Kinjal; Vuong, Nguyen V.; Yang, Y. B.; Yang, Jinbo; Poudyal, Narayan; Cui, Jun; Liu, J.Ping

    2014-05-07

    Bulk anisotropic composite magnets based on MnBi/Co(Fe) exhibiting the different morphology of the soft magnetic phase were prepared by powder metallurgy processing. First, single-phase MnBi bulk magnets were produced using a maximum energy product [(BH)m] of 6.3 MGOe at room temperature. The nanoscale soft phase with the different morphology was then added to form a composite magnet. It was observed that addition of magnetic soft-phase nanoparticles and nanoflakes causes a dramatic coercivity reduction. However, the addition of soft magnetic phase nanowires enhanced the composite magnetization without sacrificing the coercivity. Nevertheless, a kink was still observed on the demagnetization curves and the coercivity decreased when the soft-phase content was larger than 10 wt. %, which was caused by the agglomeration of the soft phase nanowires that also led to a decreased degree of texture.

  1. The magnetism and spin-dependent electronic transport properties of boron nitride atomic chains.

    PubMed

    An, Yipeng; Zhang, Mengjun; Wu, Dapeng; Fu, Zhaoming; Wang, Tianxing; Jiao, Zhaoyong; Wang, Kun

    2016-07-28

    Very recently, boron nitride atomic chains were successively prepared and observed in experiments [O. Cretu et al., ACS Nano 8, 11950 (2015)]. Herein, using a first-principles technique, we study the magnetism and spin-dependent electronic transport properties of three types of BN atomic chains whose magnetic moment is 1 μB for BnNn-1, 2 μB for BnNn, and 3 μB for BnNn+1 type atomic chains, respectively. The spin-dependent electronic transport results demonstrate that the short BnNn+1 chain presents an obvious spin-filtering effect with high spin polarization ratio (>90%) under low bias voltages. Yet, this spin-filtering effect does not occur for long BnNn+1 chains under high bias voltages and other types of BN atomic chains (BnNn-1 and BnNn). The proposed short BnNn+1 chain is predicted to be an effective low-bias spin filters. Moreover, the length-conductance relationships of these BN atomic chains were also studied. PMID:27475355

  2. The magnetism and spin-dependent electronic transport properties of boron nitride atomic chains.

    PubMed

    An, Yipeng; Zhang, Mengjun; Wu, Dapeng; Fu, Zhaoming; Wang, Tianxing; Jiao, Zhaoyong; Wang, Kun

    2016-07-28

    Very recently, boron nitride atomic chains were successively prepared and observed in experiments [O. Cretu et al., ACS Nano 8, 11950 (2015)]. Herein, using a first-principles technique, we study the magnetism and spin-dependent electronic transport properties of three types of BN atomic chains whose magnetic moment is 1 μB for BnNn-1, 2 μB for BnNn, and 3 μB for BnNn+1 type atomic chains, respectively. The spin-dependent electronic transport results demonstrate that the short BnNn+1 chain presents an obvious spin-filtering effect with high spin polarization ratio (>90%) under low bias voltages. Yet, this spin-filtering effect does not occur for long BnNn+1 chains under high bias voltages and other types of BN atomic chains (BnNn-1 and BnNn). The proposed short BnNn+1 chain is predicted to be an effective low-bias spin filters. Moreover, the length-conductance relationships of these BN atomic chains were also studied.

  3. Electronic and magnetic properties of X-doped (X=Ni, Pd, Pt) WS2 monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xu; Xia, Congxin; Dai, Xianqi; Wang, Tianxing; Chen, Peng; Tian, Liang

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of X-doped (X=Ni, Pd, Pt) WS2 monolayer using the first-principles methods based on density functional theory. The results show that WS2 monolayer doped by Ni, Pd and Pt is ferromagnetic. The impurity states near the Fermi level depend highly on the atomic size and electronegativity. For different X-doped WS2, the formation energy is lower under S-rich conditions, which indicates that it is energy favorable and relatively easier to incorporate X atom into WS2 under S-rich experimental conditions. Moreover, Ni-doped system owns the lowest formation energy compared with other atoms under S-rich experimental condition. Our studies predict X-doped (X=Ni, Pd, Pt) WS2 monolayers to be candidates for thin dilute magnetic semiconductors. Ni-doped WS2 has relatively wide half-metallic gap. So Ni-doped WS2 is the most ideal for spin injection among Ni, Pd, and Pt, which is important for application in semiconductor spintronics.

  4. The magnetism and spin-dependent electronic transport properties of boron nitride atomic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yipeng; Zhang, Mengjun; Wu, Dapeng; Fu, Zhaoming; Wang, Tianxing; Jiao, Zhaoyong; Wang, Kun

    2016-07-01

    Very recently, boron nitride atomic chains were successively prepared and observed in experiments [O. Cretu et al., ACS Nano 8, 11950 (2015)]. Herein, using a first-principles technique, we study the magnetism and spin-dependent electronic transport properties of three types of BN atomic chains whose magnetic moment is 1 μB for BnNn-1, 2 μB for BnNn, and 3 μB for BnNn+1 type atomic chains, respectively. The spin-dependent electronic transport results demonstrate that the short BnNn+1 chain presents an obvious spin-filtering effect with high spin polarization ratio (>90%) under low bias voltages. Yet, this spin-filtering effect does not occur for long BnNn+1 chains under high bias voltages and other types of BN atomic chains (BnNn-1 and BnNn). The proposed short BnNn+1 chain is predicted to be an effective low-bias spin filters. Moreover, the length-conductance relationships of these BN atomic chains were also studied.

  5. Tuning electronic properties of bilayer Bernal graphene nanoribbon by magnetic modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T. S.; Hsieh, C. T.; Chang, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    This study shows that the electronic properties of bilayer Bernal graphene nanoribbon can be effectively tuned by a spatially modulated magnetic field. The electronic structures are significantly influenced by varying the field strength or the period of the modulated field. In addition, there exists competition between the magnetic confinement effect and the quantum confinement effect. The density of states (DOS) exhibits many asymmetric square-root divergent peaks due to the oscillatory parabolic subbands. These peaks can be classified into primary and secondary ones. The number, height, and energy of the peaks depend sensitively on the strength and the period of the modulated field. The evolution of the DOS peak energy with the field strength and the period is explored. The energies of primary peaks first exhibit linear, then square-root dependence on the field strength. On the other hand, the field strength dependence of the secondary peaks is purely square root. These theoretical predictions can be validated by STS or magneto-transmission measurements.

  6. The formation of sunspot penumbra. Magnetic field properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, R.; Bello González, N.; Schlichenmaier, R.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We study the magnetic flux emergence and formation of a sunspot penumbra in the active region NOAA 11024. Methods: We simultaneously observed the Stokes parameters of the photospheric iron lines at 1089.6 nm with the TIP and 617.3 nm with the GFPI spectropolarimeters along with broad-band images using G-band and Ca ii K filters at the German VTT. The photospheric magnetic field vector was reconstructed from an inversion of the measured Stokes profiles. Using the AZAM code, we converted the inclination from line-of-sight (LOS) to the local reference frame (LRF). Results: Individual filaments are resolved in maps of magnetic parameters. The formation of the penumbra is intimately related to the inclined magnetic field. No penumbra forms in areas with strong magnetic field strength and small inclination. Within 4.5 h observing time, the LRF magnetic flux of the penumbra increases from 9.7 × 1020 to 18.2 × 1020 Mx, while the magnetic flux of the umbra remains constant at ~3.8 × 1020 Mx. Magnetic flux in the immediate surroundings is incorporated into the spot, and new flux is supplied via small flux patches (SFPs), which on average have a flux of 2-3 × 1018 Mx. The spot's flux increase rate of 4.2 × 1016 Mx s-1 corresponds to the merging of one SFP per minute. We also find that, during the formation of the spot penumbra, a) the maximum magnetic field strength of the umbra does not change; b) the magnetic neutral line keeps the same position relative to the umbra; c) the new flux arrives on the emergence side of the spot while the penumbra forms on the opposite side; d) the average LRF inclination of the light bridges decreases from 50° to 37°; and e) as the penumbra develops, the mean magnetic field strength at the spot border decreases from 1.0 to 0.8 kG. Conclusions: The SFPs associated with elongated granules are the building blocks of structure formation in active regions. During the sunspot formation, their contribution is comparable to the

  7. Quantifying the motion of magnetic particles in excised tissue: Effect of particle properties and applied magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Sandip; Ramaswamy, Bharath; Horton, Emily; Gangapuram, Sruthi; Nacev, Alek; Depireux, Didier; Shimoji, Mika; Shapiro, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    This article presents a method to investigate how magnetic particle characteristics affect their motion inside tissues under the influence of an applied magnetic field. Particles are placed on top of freshly excised tissue samples, a calibrated magnetic field is applied by a magnet underneath each tissue sample, and we image and quantify particle penetration depth by quantitative metrics to assess how particle sizes, their surface coatings, and tissue resistance affect particle motion. Using this method, we tested available fluorescent particles from Chemicell of four sizes (100 nm, 300 nm, 500 nm, and 1 μm diameter) with four different coatings (starch, chitosan, lipid, and PEG/P) and quantified their motion through freshly excised rat liver, kidney, and brain tissues. In broad terms, we found that the applied magnetic field moved chitosan particles most effectively through all three tissue types (as compared to starch, lipid, and PEG/P coated particles). However, the relationship between particle properties and their resulting motion was found to be complex. Hence, it will likely require substantial further study to elucidate the nuances of transport mechanisms and to select and engineer optimal particle properties to enable the most effective transport through various tissue types under applied magnetic fields.

  8. Magnetic properties of cherts from the Basque-Cantabrian basin and surrounding regions: archeological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrasoaña, Juan; Beamud, Elisabet; Olivares, Maitane; Murelaga, Xabier; Tarriño, Andoni; Baceta, Juan; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2016-04-01

    We present the first rock magnetic study of archeologically-relevant chert samples from the Basque-Cantabrian basin (BCB) and surrounding regions, which was conducted in order to test the usefulness of non-destructive magnetic properties for assessing chert quality, distinguishing source areas, and identifying heated samples in the archeological record. Our results indicate that the studied BCB cherts are diamagnetic and have very low amounts of magnetic minerals. The only exception is the chert of Artxilondo, which has a mean positive magnetic susceptibility associated with larger concentrations of magnetic minerals. But even in this case, the magnetic susceptibility is within the lower range of other archeologically-relevant cherts elsewhere, which indicates that the studied BCB cherts can be considered as flint. The similar mean values for all magnetic properties, along with their associated large standard deviations, indicates that rock magnetic methods are of limited use for sourcing different types of flint except in some specific contexts involving the Artxilondo flint. With regards to the identification of chert heating in the archeological record, our results indicate only a minor magnetic enhancement of BCB natural flint samples upon heating, which we attribute to the low amount of non-silica impurities. In any case, the diamagnetic behavior of most BCB natural flints, along with the local use only of the Artxilondo type, suggests that any flint tool within the core of the BCB with positive magnetic susceptibility values is likely to have been subjected to heating for improving its knapping properties. Further studies are necessary to better identify the type, origin and grain size of magnetic minerals in BCB natural flints, and to apply non-destructive magnetic properties to flint tools in order to identify the use of heat treatment in the BCB archeological record.

  9. Modulation of homochiral Dy(III) complexes: single-molecule magnets with ferroelectric properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi-Li; Chen, Chun-Lai; Gao, Yu-Liang; Liu, Cai-Ming; Feng, Xiang-Li; Gui, Yang-Hai; Fang, Shao-Ming

    2012-11-12

    Homochiral Dy(III) complexes: by changing the ligand-to-metal ratio, enantiomeric pairs of a Dy(III) complex of different nuclearity could be obtained. The mono- and dinuclear complexes exhibit characteristics of single-molecule magnets and different slow magnetic relaxation processes. In addition, the dinuclear complexes exhibit ferroelectric behavior, thus representing the first chiral polynuclear lanthanide-based single-molecule magnets with ferroelectric properties.

  10. Porous Silicon Nanocomposites with Combined Hard and Soft Magnetic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumpf, Klemens; Granitzer, Petra; Michor, Herwig

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic nanostructures of two ferromagnetic metals have been combined within porous silicon, and the magnetic switching behavior of the resulting porous silicon/metal nanocomposite has been modified by varying the arrangement. The two magnetic materials are Ni and Co, whereas Co is the magnetic harder one. These "hard/soft" magnetic nanocomposites have been achieved by two different routes. On the one hand, double-sided porous silicon has been used whereas one side has been filled with Ni nanostructures and the other one with Co nanostructures. On the other hand, Ni and Co have been deposited within one porous layer alternatingly. The filling of the pores has been carried out by electrodeposition with varying the deposition parameters. In systems which offer two distinct slopes of the hysteresis curves due to the different saturation behavior of the two types of deposited metal, magnetic exchange coupling is not present. For samples which show smooth hysteresis curves exchange, coupling between the Ni and Co nanostructures seems to be present. The aim is to control especially the structure size of the soft and the hard magnetic materials and the distance between them at the nanoscale to optimize exchange coupling resulting in a maximum energy product.

  11. Porous Silicon Nanocomposites with Combined Hard and Soft Magnetic Properties.

    PubMed

    Rumpf, Klemens; Granitzer, Petra; Michor, Herwig

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic nanostructures of two ferromagnetic metals have been combined within porous silicon, and the magnetic switching behavior of the resulting porous silicon/metal nanocomposite has been modified by varying the arrangement. The two magnetic materials are Ni and Co, whereas Co is the magnetic harder one. These "hard/soft" magnetic nanocomposites have been achieved by two different routes. On the one hand, double-sided porous silicon has been used whereas one side has been filled with Ni nanostructures and the other one with Co nanostructures. On the other hand, Ni and Co have been deposited within one porous layer alternatingly. The filling of the pores has been carried out by electrodeposition with varying the deposition parameters. In systems which offer two distinct slopes of the hysteresis curves due to the different saturation behavior of the two types of deposited metal, magnetic exchange coupling is not present. For samples which show smooth hysteresis curves exchange, coupling between the Ni and Co nanostructures seems to be present. The aim is to control especially the structure size of the soft and the hard magnetic materials and the distance between them at the nanoscale to optimize exchange coupling resulting in a maximum energy product. PMID:27624341

  12. Prediction of frozen food properties during freezing using product composition.

    PubMed

    Boonsupthip, W; Heldman, D R

    2007-06-01

    Frozen water fraction (FWF), as a function of temperature, is an important parameter for use in the design of food freezing processes. An FWF-prediction model, based on concentrations and molecular weights of specific product components, has been developed. Published food composition data were used to determine the identity and composition of key components. The model proposed in this investigation had been verified using published experimental FWF data and initial freezing temperature data, and by comparison to outputs from previously published models. It was found that specific food components with significant influence on freezing temperature depression of food products included low molecular weight water-soluble compounds with molality of 50 micromol per 100 g food or higher. Based on an analysis of 200 high-moisture food products, nearly 45% of the experimental initial freezing temperature data were within an absolute difference (AD) of +/- 0.15 degrees C and standard error (SE) of +/- 0.65 degrees C when compared to values predicted by the proposed model. The predicted relationship between temperature and FWF for all analyzed food products provided close agreements with experimental data (+/- 0.06 SE). The proposed model provided similar prediction capability for high- and intermediate-moisture food products. In addition, the proposed model provided statistically better prediction of initial freezing temperature and FWF than previous published models.

  13. Prediction of Solvent Physical Properties using the Hierarchical Clustering Method

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently a QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) method, the hierarchical clustering method, was developed to estimate acute toxicity values for large, diverse datasets. This methodology has now been applied to the estimate solvent physical properties including sur...

  14. Prediction of Solar Activity from Solar Background Magnetic Field Variations in Cycles 21-23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Simon J.; Zharkov, Sergei I.; Zharkova, Valentina V.

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive spectral analysis of both the solar background magnetic field (SBMF) in cycles 21-23 and the sunspot magnetic field in cycle 23 reported in our recent paper showed the presence of two principal components (PCs) of SBMF having opposite polarity, e.g., originating in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. Over a duration of one solar cycle, both waves are found to travel with an increasing phase shift toward the northern hemisphere in odd cycles 21 and 23 and to the southern hemisphere in even cycle 22. These waves were linked to solar dynamo waves assumed to form in different layers of the solar interior. In this paper, for the first time, the PCs of SBMF in cycles 21-23 are analyzed with the symbolic regression technique using Hamiltonian principles, allowing us to uncover the underlying mathematical laws governing these complex waves in the SBMF presented by PCs and to extrapolate these PCs to cycles 24-26. The PCs predicted for cycle 24 very closely fit (with an accuracy better than 98%) the PCs derived from the SBMF observations in this cycle. This approach also predicts a strong reduction of the SBMF in cycles 25 and 26 and, thus, a reduction of the resulting solar activity. This decrease is accompanied by an increasing phase shift between the two predicted PCs (magnetic waves) in cycle 25 leading to their full separation into the opposite hemispheres in cycle 26. The variations of the modulus summary of the two PCs in SBMF reveals a remarkable resemblance to the average number of sunspots in cycles 21-24 and to predictions of reduced sunspot numbers compared to cycle 24: 80% in cycle 25 and 40% in cycle 26.

  15. Prediction of solar activity from solar background magnetic field variations in cycles 21-23

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, Simon J.; Zharkov, Sergei I.; Zharkova, Valentina V. E-mail: s.zharkov@hull.ac.uk

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive spectral analysis of both the solar background magnetic field (SBMF) in cycles 21-23 and the sunspot magnetic field in cycle 23 reported in our recent paper showed the presence of two principal components (PCs) of SBMF having opposite polarity, e.g., originating in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. Over a duration of one solar cycle, both waves are found to travel with an increasing phase shift toward the northern hemisphere in odd cycles 21 and 23 and to the southern hemisphere in even cycle 22. These waves were linked to solar dynamo waves assumed to form in different layers of the solar interior. In this paper, for the first time, the PCs of SBMF in cycles 21-23 are analyzed with the symbolic regression technique using Hamiltonian principles, allowing us to uncover the underlying mathematical laws governing these complex waves in the SBMF presented by PCs and to extrapolate these PCs to cycles 24-26. The PCs predicted for cycle 24 very closely fit (with an accuracy better than 98%) the PCs derived from the SBMF observations in this cycle. This approach also predicts a strong reduction of the SBMF in cycles 25 and 26 and, thus, a reduction of the resulting solar activity. This decrease is accompanied by an increasing phase shift between the two predicted PCs (magnetic waves) in cycle 25 leading to their full separation into the opposite hemispheres in cycle 26. The variations of the modulus summary of the two PCs in SBMF reveals a remarkable resemblance to the average number of sunspots in cycles 21-24 and to predictions of reduced sunspot numbers compared to cycle 24: 80% in cycle 25 and 40% in cycle 26.

  16. Preoperative Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predicts Biochemical Recurrence in Prostate Cancer after Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    George, Arvin K.; Frye, Thomas; Kilchevsky, Amichai; Fascelli, Michele; Shakir, Nabeel A.; Chelluri, Raju; Abboud, Steven F.; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Sankineni, Sandeep; Merino, Maria J.; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter L.; Wood, Bradford J.; Pinto, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the utility of preoperative multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) in predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR) following radical prostatectomy (RP). Materials/Methods From March 2007 to January 2015, 421 consecutive patients with prostate cancer (PCa) underwent preoperative MP-MRI and RP. BCR-free survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify clinical and imaging variables predictive of BCR. Logistic regression was performed to generate a nomogram to predict three-year BCR probability. Results Of the total cohort, 370 patients met inclusion criteria with 39 (10.5%) patients experiencing BCR. On multivariate analysis, preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (p = 0.01), biopsy Gleason score (p = 0.0008), MP-MRI suspicion score (p = 0.03), and extracapsular extension on MP-MRI (p = 0.03) were significantly associated with time to BCR. A nomogram integrating these factors to predict BCR at three years after RP demonstrated a c-index of 0.84, outperforming the predictive value of Gleason score and PSA alone (c-index 0.74, p = 0.02). Conclusion The addition of MP-MRI to standard clinical factors significantly improves prediction of BCR in a post-prostatectomy PCa cohort. This could serve as a valuable tool to support clinical decision-making in patients with moderate and high-risk cancers. PMID:27336392

  17. Electronic and magnetic properties of Fe and Mn doped two dimensional hexagonal germanium sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Soni, Himadri R. Jha, Prafulla K.

    2014-04-24

    Using first principles density functional theory calculations, the present paper reports systematic total energy calculations of the electronic properties such as density of states and magnetic moment of pristine and iron and manganese doped two dimensional hexagonal germanium sheets.

  18. Magnetic properties of a Pt/Co2FeAl/MgO structure with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Qi; Xu, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Yong; Zhang, De-Lin; Miao, Jun; Jiang, Yong

    2012-10-01

    Microstructures and magnetic properties of Ta/Pt/Co2FeAl (CFA)/MgO multilayers are studied to understand perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of half-metallic full-Heusler alloy films. PMA is realized in a 2.5-nm CFA film with B2-ordered structure observed by a high resolution transmission electron microscope. It is demonstrated that a high quality interface between the ferromagnetic layer and oxide layer is not essential for PMA. The conversions between in-plane anisotropy and PMA are investigated to study the dependence of magnetic moment on temperature. At the intersection points, the decreasing slope of the saturation magnetization (Ms) changes because of the conversions. The dependence of Ms on the annealing temperature and MgO thickness is also studied.

  19. Magnetic properties of Sr-ferrites synthesized in molten (NaCl+KCl) flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Si-Dong; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2006-12-01

    The Sr-ferrite powders, SrFe12O19, were synthesized by the molten salt method using (NaCl+KCl) mixture. Particle morphology was homogeneous and hexagonal platelet like. Both particle size and thickness increased as the reaction temperature and time increased. The sintering density of Sr-ferrite magnet prepared with powders by the molten salt method showed the maximum value at the sintering temperature of 1200C. The magnetic properties of the Sr-ferrite magnet were investigated with various sintering temperatures. The maximum values of remanent magnetization ( σr, 45 emu/g) and coercivity field ( Hcj, 298 kA/m) occurred at the sintering temperatures of 1150- 1200C. The Sr-ferrite magnet by a molten salt method showed higher remanent magnetization and coercivity field than those of the Sr-ferrite magnet prepared with the same starting materials by a conventional ceramic process.

  20. Ab initio calculations on the magnetic properties of transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Bodenstein, Tilmann; Fink, Karin

    2015-12-31

    We present a protocol for the ab initio determination of the magnetic properties of mono- and polynuclear transition metal compounds. First, we obtain the low lying electronic states by multireference methods. Then, we include spin-orbit coupling and an external magnetic field for the determination of zero-field splitting and g-tensors. For the polynuclear complexes the magnetic exchange coupling constants are determined by a modified complete active space self consistent field method. Based on the results of the ab initio calculations, magnetic data such as magnetic susceptibility or magnetization are simulated and compared to experimental data. The results obtained for the polynuclear complexes are further analysed by calculations on model complexes where part of the magnetic centers are substituted by diamagnetic ions. The methods are applied to different Co and Ni containing transition metal complexes.