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Sample records for predicting glycemic control

  1. Diabetes management and glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes: test of a predictive model.

    PubMed

    Drotar, Dennis; Ittenbach, Richard; Rohan, Jennifer M; Gupta, Resmi; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to test a comprehensive model of biologic (pubertal status), family (communication and conflict), and psychological influences (behavioral autonomy) on diabetes management and glycemic control in a sample of youth (N = 226) with type 1 diabetes recruited during late childhood/early adolescence (ages 9-11 years). The study design was a prospective, multisite, multi-method study involving prediction of diabetes management and glycemic control 1 year post-baseline. The primary outcome measures included diabetes management behaviors based on the Diabetes Self-Management Profile (DSMP) administered separately to mothers and youth and glycemic control measured by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) obtained by blood samples and analyzed by a central laboratory to ensure standardization. Our hypothesized predictive model received partial support based on structural equation modeling analyses. Family conflict predicted less adequate glycemic control 1 year later (p < 0.05). Higher conflict predicted less adequate diabetes management and less adequate glycemic control. More advanced pubertal status also predicted less adequate glycemic control, but behavioral autonomy did not. Family conflict is an important, potentially clinically significant influence on glycemic control that should be considered in primary and secondary prevention in the management of type 1 diabetes in youth.

  2. Diabetes management and glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes: test of a predictive model

    PubMed Central

    Ittenbach, Richard; Rohan, Jennifer M.; Gupta, Resmi; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a comprehensive model of biologic (pubertal status), family (communication and conflict), and psychological influences (behavioral autonomy) on diabetes management and glycemic control in a sample of youth (N = 226) with type 1 diabetes recruited during late childhood/early adolescence (ages 9–11 years). The study design was a prospective, multisite, multi-method study involving prediction of diabetes management and glycemic control 1 year post-baseline. The primary outcome measures included diabetes management behaviors based on the Diabetes Self-Management Profile (DSMP) administered separately to mothers and youth and glycemic control measured by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) obtained by blood samples and analyzed by a central laboratory to ensure standardization. Our hypothesized predictive model received partial support based on structural equation modeling analyses. Family conflict predicted less adequate glycemic control 1 year later (p < 0.05). Higher conflict predicted less adequate diabetes management and less adequate glycemic control. More advanced pubertal status also predicted less adequate glycemic control, but behavioral autonomy did not. Family conflict is an important, potentially clinically significant influence on glycemic control that should be considered in primary and secondary prevention in the management of type 1 diabetes in youth. PMID:22569775

  3. Stress and Coping Predicts Adjustment and Glycemic Control in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jaser, Sarah S; Patel, Niral; Xu, Meng; Tamborlane, William V; Grey, Margaret

    2017-02-01

    Adolescents with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk for deteriorating glycemic control, poor quality of life, and depressive symptoms. Stress and coping are related to these outcomes in adolescents with diabetes, yet few studies have examined these constructs longitudinally. This study aimed to describe stress and coping in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to examine coping strategies as predictors of adolescent adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms, quality of life) and glycemic control. Adolescents with type 1 diabetes completed measures of diabetes-related stress, coping, symptoms of depression, and quality of life at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Data on glycemic control were collected from the adolescents' medical charts. The adolescents' use of primary control coping (e.g., problem solving) and secondary control engagement coping (e.g., positive thinking) strategies predicted significantly fewer problems with quality of life and fewer depressive symptoms over time. In contrast, the use of disengagement coping strategies (e.g., avoidance) predicted more problems with quality of life and depressive symptoms. Coping was not a significant predictor of glycemic control. Coping mediated the effects of diabetes-related stress on depressive symptoms and quality of life. The ways in which adolescents with type 1 diabetes cope with diabetes-related stress predict quality of life and symptoms of depression but not glycemic control. Through the use of screening to identify adolescent's diabetes-related stress and targeted interventions to improve coping strategies, there is potential to improve outcomes.

  4. Patterns of Self-Management in Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Predict Level of Glycemic Control Two Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Rohan, Jennifer M.; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan; Dolan, Lawrence; Reeves, Grafton; Drotar, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if three distinct self-management patterns (i.e., maladaptive, moderate/mixed, and adaptive) observed at baseline, one, and two years in a sample of youth with type 1 diabetes and their caregivers predicted mean differences in adolescent’s subsequent glycemic control. Methods This study is a descriptive, multisite, prospective study that examined a sample of youth diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (ages 9–11 years at baseline). Youth and their maternal and paternal caregivers provided information about the youth’s self-management patterns at baseline, one, and two years using the Diabetes Self-Management Profile (DSMP) structured interview. Glycemic control (Hemoglobin A1c: HbA1c) was examined at baseline, six, 12, 18, and 24 months. Results Three distinct self-management patterns were observed at one and two years that were conceptually consistent with previously reported baseline self-management patterns. Youth identified by their maternal caregivers as having adaptive self-management patterns at baseline had better glycemic control across two years compared to those in the maladaptive and mixed self-management groups. Similarly, maternal reports suggested that youth with less adaptive self-management patterns generally had worse glycemic control over time as well as HbA1c values above the American Diabetes Association recommendations. Youth and paternal caregiver reports yielded more variable findings. Conclusions Findings underscore the stability of self-management patterns in pediatric type 1 diabetes and the need for preventive interventions that are tailored to specific patterns of self-management associated with risk for problematic glycemic control. PMID:23572169

  5. Elevated α-Hydroxybutyrate and Branched-Chain Amino Acid Levels Predict Deterioration of Glycemic Control in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tricò, Domenico; Prinsen, Hetty; Giannini, Cosimo; de Graaf, Robin; Juchem, Christoph; Li, Fangyong; Caprio, Sonia; Santoro, Nicola; Herzog, Raimund I

    2017-07-01

    Traditional risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus are weak predictors of changes in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in youth. To identify early metabolic features of insulin resistance (IR) in youth and whether they predict deterioration of glycemic control. A cross-sectional and longitudinal study was conducted at the Yale Pediatric Obesity Clinic. Concentrations of α-hydroxybutyrate, β-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 78 nondiabetic adolescents during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Associations between baseline metabolic alterations and longitudinal changes in glucose control were tested in 16 subjects after a mean follow-up of 2.3 years. The relationship between metabolite levels, parameters of IR, and glycemic control, and their progression over time. Elevated fasting α-hydroxybutyrate levels were observed in adolescents with reduced insulin sensitivity after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, Tanner stage, and body mass index z-score (P = 0.014). Plasma α-hydroxybutyrate and BCAAs were increased throughout the course of the OGTT in this group (P < 0.03). Notably, borderline IR was associated with a progressive α-hydroxybutyrate decrease from elevated baseline concentrations to normal levels (P = 0.02). Increased baseline α-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were further associated with progressive worsening of glucose tolerance and disposition index. α-Hydroxybutyrate and BCAA concentrations during an OGTT characterize insulin-resistant youth and predict worsening of glycemic control. These findings provide potential biomarkers for risk assessment of type 2 diabetes and new insights into IR pathogenesis.

  6. Interaction of APOE e4 and poor glycemic control predicts white matter hyperintensity growth from 73 to 76.

    PubMed

    Cox, Simon R; Ritchie, Stuart J; Dickie, David Alexander; Pattie, Alison; Royle, Natalie A; Corley, Janie; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Harris, Sarah E; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Gow, Alan J; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark E; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J

    2017-06-01

    We examined whether apolipoprotein E (APOE) status interacts with vascular risk factors (VRFs) to predict the progression of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on brain MRI scans over a specific period of life in older age when the risk of dementia increases. At age 73 years, baseline VRFs were assessed via self-reported history of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and hypercholesterolemia, and via objective measures of blood HbA1c, body mass index, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, and blood high-density lipoprotein to total cholesterol (HDL) ratio. APOE e4 allele was coded as either present or absent. WMH progression was measured on MRI over 3 years in 434 older adults, in a same-year-of-birth cohort. APOE e4 carriers with either a self-reported diagnosis of diabetes (β = 0.160, p = 0.002) or higher glycated hemoglobin levels (β = 0.114, p = 0.014) exhibited greater WMH progression, and the former survived correction for multiple testing. All other APOE-VRF interactions were nonsignificant (βinteraction < 0.056, p > 0.228). The results suggest that carrying the APOE "risk" e4 allele increases the risk of greater age-related WMH progression over the early part of the eighth decade of life, when combined with poorer glycemic control. The interaction effect was robust to co-occurring VRFs, suggesting a possible target for mitigating brain and cognitive aging at this age. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Distinct lipid profiles predict improved glycemic control in obese, nondiabetic patients after a low-caloric diet intervention: the Diet, Obesity and Genes randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Valsesia, Armand; Saris, Wim Hm; Astrup, Arne; Hager, Jörg; Masoodi, Mojgan

    2016-09-01

    An aim of weight loss is to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in obese subjects. However, the relation with long-term glycemic improvement remains unknown. We evaluated the changes in lipid composition during weight loss and their association with long-term glycemic improvement. We investigated the plasma lipidome of 383 obese, nondiabetic patients within a randomized, controlled dietary intervention in 8 European countries at baseline, after an 8-wk low-caloric diet (LCD) (800-1000 kcal/d), and after 6 mo of weight maintenance. After weight loss, a lipid signature identified 2 groups of patients who were comparable at baseline but who differed in their capacities to lose weight and improve glycemic control. Six months after the LCD, one group had significant glycemic improvement [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) mean change: -0.92; 95% CI: -1.17, -0.67)]. The other group showed no improvement in glycemic control (HOMA-IR mean change: -0.26; 95% CI: -0.64, 0.13). These differences were sustained for ≥1 y after the LCD. The same conclusions were obtained with other endpoints (Matsuda index and fasting insulin and glucose concentrations). Significant differences between the 2 groups were shown in leptin gene expression in adipose tissue biopsies. Significant differences were also observed in weight-related endpoints (body mass index, weight, and fat mass). The lipid signature allowed prediction of which subjects would be considered to be insulin resistant after 6 mo of weight maintenance [validation's receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC): 71%; 95% CI: 62%, 81%]. This model outperformed a clinical data-only model (validation's ROC AUC: 61%; 95% CI: 50%, 71%; P = 0.01). In this study, we report a lipid signature of LCD success (for weight and glycemic outcome) in obese, nondiabetic patients. Lipid changes during an 8-wk LCD allowed us to predict insulin-resistant patients after 6 mo of weight

  8. Perceptions of disease severity and barriers to self-care predict glycemic control in Aboriginal persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Mark; Messer, Lynne C

    2002-01-01

    The Health Belief Model (HBM) was evaluated for secondary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in an Aboriginal population in British Columbia. Glycemic markers (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c]), insulin and post-load glucose), diabetes health beliefs (susceptibility, severity, benefits and barriers), knowledge and behaviour were measured for 16 men and 18 women with diabetes (age [SD]=57.7 [11.6]). Eighteen months later, HbA1c and behaviour were measured for all participants, and health beliefs obtained for 17 of them. Perceived severity and perceived barriers were related to glycemic status at baseline and follow up, and predicted reduction in HbA1c (b[SE] |0.40| [0.18], p <0.05). The results support a therapeutic emphasis on belief in the severity of diabetes complications, and the complementary belief that barriers to therapeutic behaviour can be overcome in efforts to support Aboriginal persons with diabetes to manage their disease. The empirical utility of the HBM in glycemic control was partially upheld.

  9. Incretin therapies: effects beyond glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Mudaliar, Sunder; Henry, Robert R

    2009-07-01

    Impaired insulin secretion plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and progressive loss of beta-cell function is a pathophysiologic hallmark of type 2 diabetes. Recent science has elaborated on the role of the incretin hormones on beta-cell function and insulin secretion, as well as the role that incretin-based pharmacotherapies may have on glycemic control and beta-cell function, possibly altering the progressive loss of beta-cell function and possibly reversing/halting disease progression. However, incretin-based therapies may also have benefits extending beyond glycemic control and insulin secretion. In this review we examine some of those "beyond-glycemic" benefits, including presentation of data on weight reduction, blood pressure lowering, beneficial changes in the lipid profile, and improvements in myocardial and endothelial function. We investigate how those effects may help ameliorate the cardiovascular burden in patients with diabetes.

  10. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load, and breast cancer risk: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Augustin, L S; Dal Maso, L; La Vecchia, C; Parpinel, M; Negri, E; Vaccarella, S; Kendall, C W; Jenkins, D J; Francesch, S

    2001-11-01

    Certain types of carbohydrates increase glucose and insulin levels to a greater extent than others. In turn, insulin may raise levels of insulin-like growth factors, which may influence breast cancer risk. We analyzed the effect of type and amount of carbohydrates on breast cancer risk, using the glycemic index and the glycemic load measures in a large case-control study conducted in Italy. Cases were 2,569 women with incident, histologically-confirmed breast cancer interviewed between 1991 and 1994. Controls were 2588 women admitted to the same hospital network for a variety of acute, non-neoplastic conditions. Average daily glycemic index and glycemic load were calculated from a validated 78-item food frequency questionnaire. Direct associations with breast cancer risk emerged for glycemic index (odds ratio, OR for highest vs. lowest quintile = 1.4; P for trend <0.01) and glycemic load (OR = 1.3; P < 0.01). High glycemic index foods, such as white bread, increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.3) while the intake of pasta, a medium glycemic index food, seemed to have no influence (OR = 1.0). Findings were consistent across different strata of menopausal status, alcohol intake, and physical activity level. This study supports the hypothesis of moderate, direct associations between glycemic index or glycemic load and breast cancer risk and, consequently, a possible role of hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance in breast cancer development.

  11. Practice of strict glycemic control in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Marcus J; de Graaff, Mart J; Royakkers, Annic A N M; van Braam Houckgeest, Floris; van der Sluijs, Johannes P; Kieft, Hans; Spronk, Peter E

    2008-11-01

    Blood glucose control aiming at normoglycemia, frequently referred to as "strict glycemic control", decreases mortality and morbidity of critically ill patients. We searched the medical literature for export opinions, surveys, and clinical reports on blood glucose control in intensive care medicine. While strict glycemic control has been recommended standard of care for critically ill patients, the risk of severe hypoglycemia with strict glycemic control is frequently mentioned by experts. Some rationalize this risk, though others strongly point out the high incidence of hypoglycemia to be (one) reason not to perform strict glycemic control. Implementation of strict glycemic control is far from complete in intensive care units across the world. Frequently local guidelines accept higher blood glucose levels than those with strict glycemic control. Only a minority of retrieved manuscripts are on blood glucose regimens with the lower targets as with strict glycemic control. Hypoglycemia certainly is encountered with blood glucose control, in particular with strict glycemic control. Reports show intensive care-nurses can adequately and safely perform strict glycemic control. Implementation of strict glycemic control is far from complete, at least in part because of the feared risks of hypoglycemia. The preference for hyperglycemia over intermittent hypoglycemia is irrational, however, because there is causal evidence of harm for the former but only associative evidence of harm for the latter. For several reasons it is wise to have strict glycemic control being a nurse-based strategy.

  12. Patient adherence improves glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Mary K; Slocum, Wrenn; Ziemer, David C; Culler, Steven D; Cook, Curtiss B; El-Kebbi, Imad M; Gallina, Daniel L; Barnes, Catherine; Phillips, Lawrence S

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of appointment keeping and medication adherence on HbA1c. A retrospective evaluation was performed in 1560 patients with type 2 diabetes who presented for a new visit to the Grady Diabetes Clinic between 1991 and 2001 and returned for a follow-up visit and HbA1c after 1 year of care. Appointment keeping was assessed by the number of scheduled intervening visits that were kept, and medication adherence was assessed by the percentage of visits in which self-reported diabetes medication use was as recommended at the preceding visit. The patients had an average age of 55 years, body mass index (BMI) of 32 kg/m2, diabetes duration of 4.6 years, and baseline HbA1c of 9.1%. Ninety percent were African American, and 63% were female. Those who kept more intervening appointments had lower HbA1c levels after 12 months of care (7.6% with 6-7 intervening visits vs 9.7% with 0 intervening visits). Better medication adherence was also associated with lower HbA1c levels after 12 months of care (7.8% with 76%-100% adherence). After adjusting for age, gender, race, BMI, diabetes duration, and diabetes therapy in multivariate linear regression analysis, the benefits of appointment keeping and medication adherence remained significant and contributed independently; the HbA1c was 0.12% lower for every additional intervening appointment that was kept (P = .0001) and 0.34% lower for each quartile of better medication adherence (P = .0009). Keeping more appointments and taking diabetes medications as directed were associated with substantial improvements in HbA1c. Efforts to enhance glycemic outcomes should include emphasis on these simple but critically important aspects of patient adherence.

  13. Identifying older diabetic patients at risk of poor glycemic control

    PubMed Central

    Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli; Corsonello, Andrea; Pedone, Claudio; Corica, Francesco; Carosella, Luciana; Mazzei, Bruno; Perticone, Francesco; Carbonin, PierUgo

    2002-01-01

    Background Optimal glycemic control prevents the onset of diabetes complications. Identifying diabetic patients at risk of poor glycemic control could help promoting dedicated interventions. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of poor short-term and long-term glycemic control in older diabetic in-patients. Methods A total of 1354 older diabetic in-patients consecutively enrolled in a multicenter study formed the training population (retrospective arm); 264 patients consecutively admitted to a ward of general medicine formed the testing population (prospective arm). Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured on admission and one year after the discharge in the testing population. Independent correlates of a discharge glycemia ≥ 140 mg/dl in the training population were assessed by logistic regression analysis and a clinical prediction rule was developed. The ability of the prediction rule and that of admission HbA1c to predict discharge glycemia ≥ 140 mg/dl and HbA1c > 7% one year after discharge was assessed in the testing population. Results Selected admission variables (diastolic arterial pressure < 80 mmHg, glycemia = 143–218 mg/dl, glycemia > 218 mg/dl, history of insulinic or combined hypoglycemic therapy, Charlson's index > 2) were combined to obtain a score predicting a discharge fasting glycemia ≥ 140 mg/dl in the training population. A modified score was obtained by adding 1 if admission HbA1c exceeded 7.8%. The modified score was the best predictor of both discharge glycemia ≥ 140 mg/dl (sensitivity = 79%, specificity = 63%) and 1 year HbA1c > 7% (sensitivity = 72%, specificity = 71%) in the testing population. Conclusion A simple clinical prediction rule might help identify older diabetic in-patients at risk of both short and long term poor glycemic control. PMID:12194701

  14. Islet antigen specific IL-10+ immune responses but not CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ cells at diagnosis predict glycemic control in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sanda, Srinath; Roep, Bart O; von Herrath, Matthias

    2008-05-01

    The immune phenotype of the partial remission phase or "honeymoon phase" of type 1 diabetes is not well defined. We compared flow cytometry and cytokine production by ELISPOT assays in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and children in the partial remission phase of type 1 diabetes. Newly diagnosed children had higher levels of FoxP3 expression in CD4 CD25 double positive cells (56.1%+/-24.9 vs. 24.9%+/-24.6 p=0.03) and higher mean numbers of IL-10 producing cells (7.3 cells/2x10(5) cells+/-6.6 vs. 0.86 cells/2x10(5)+/-0.36 p=0.0043) compared to partial remission patients. Higher FoxP3 expression at diagnosis predicted worse future glycemic control while higher mean numbers of IL-10 cells were associated with better future glucose control. These data provide an immune phenotype of the honeymoon phase and suggest that analyzing IL-10 and FoxP3 at diagnosis may identify patients that will experience better glucose control.

  15. Glycemic control and outcome related to cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Thiessen, Steven; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2015-06-01

    Perioperative hyperglycemia, aggravated by cardiopulmonary bypass, is associated with adverse outcome in adult and pediatric patients. Whereas hyperglycemia was originally perceived as an adaptive response to surgical stress, it is now clear that glycemic control is a strategy to reduce adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. The optimal blood glucose target, whether or not glycemic control should be initiated already intraoperatively, and whether or not perioperative glucose administration affects the impact of glycemic control on ischemia-reperfusion damage remain open questions. Hypoglycemia, the risk of which is increased with glycemic control, is also associated with adverse outcomes. However, it remains controversial whether brief episodes of hypoglycemia, rapidly corrected during glycemic control, have adverse effects on outcome. This review gives an overview of the currently available literature on glycemic control during and after cardiac surgery and focuses on the indicated open questions about this intervention for this specific patient population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Glycemic goals in diabetes: trade-off between glycemic control and iatrogenic hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Cryer, Philip E

    2014-07-01

    The selection of a glycemic goal in a person with diabetes is a compromise between the documented upside of glycemic control-the partial prevention or delay of microvascular complications-and the documented downside of glycemic control-the recurrent morbidity and potential mortality of iatrogenic hypoglycemia. The latter is not an issue if glycemic control is accomplished with drugs that do not cause hypoglycemia or with substantial weight loss. However, hypoglycemia becomes an issue if glycemic control is accomplished with a sulfonylurea, a glinide, or insulin, particularly in the setting of absolute endogenous insulin deficiency with loss of the normal decrease in circulating insulin and increase in glucagon secretion and attenuation of the sympathoadrenal response as plasma glucose concentrations fall. Then the selection of a glycemic goal should be linked to the risk of hypoglycemia. A reasonable individualized glycemic goal is the lowest A1C that does not cause severe hypoglycemia and preserves awareness of hypoglycemia, preferably with little or no symptomatic or even asymptomatic hypoglycemia, at a given stage in the evolution of the individual's diabetes.

  17. Evaluation of Implementation of a Fully Automated Algorithm (Enhanced Model Predictive Control) in an Interacting Infusion Pump System for Establishment of Tight Glycemic Control in Medical Intensive Care Unit Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kulnik, Roman; Plank, Johannes; Pachler, Christoph; Wilinska, Malgorzata E.; Groselj-Strele, Andrea; Röthlein, Doris; Wufka, Matthias; Kachel, Norman; Smolle, Karl Heinz; Perl, Sabine; Pieber, Thomas Rudolf; Hovorka, Roman; Ellmerer, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of a newly developed decision support system for the establishment of tight glycemic control in medical intensive care unit (ICU) patients for a period of 72 hours. Methods This was a single-center, open, non-controlled feasibility trial including 10 mechanically ventilated ICU patients. The CS-1 decision support system (interacting infusion pumps with integrated enhanced model predictive control algorithm and user interface) was used to adjust the infusion rate of administered insulin to normalize blood glucose. Efficacy and safety were assessed by calculating the percentage of values within the target range (80–110 mg/dl), hyperglycemic index, mean glucose, and hypoglycemic episodes (<40 mg/dl). Results The percentage of values in time in target was 47.0% (±13.0). The average blood glucose concentration and hyperglycemic index were 109 mg/dl (±13) and 10 mg/dl (±9), respectively. No hypoglycemic episode (<40 mg/dl) was detected. Eleven times (1.5% of all given advice) the nurses did not follow and, thus, overruled the advice of the CS-1 system. Several technical malfunctions of the device (repetitive error messages and missing data in the data log) due to communication problems between the new hardware components are shortcomings of the present version of the device. As a consequence of these technical failures of system integration, treatment had to be stopped ahead of schedule in three patients. Conclusions Despite technical malfunctions, the performance of this prototype CS-1 decision support system was, from a clinical point of view, already effective in maintaining tight glycemic control. Accordingly, and with technical improvement required, the CS-1 system has the capacity to serve as a reliable tool for routine establishment of glycemic control in ICU patients. PMID:19885285

  18. Glycemic outcome not predicted by baseline psychological measures in a diabetes management program.

    PubMed

    Graco, Marnie; Hutchinson, Anastasia; Barker, Anna; Lawlor, Vicki; Wong, Rita; Fourlanos, Spiros

    2012-06-01

    The Northern Health Diabetes Hospital Admission Risk Program is a chronic disease management program that aims to improve the glycemic management of patients with diabetes. The aim of this project was to determine if there was any relationship between psychological characteristics and glycemic outcome in a diabetes management program. A prospective study of patients attending the diabetes management program investigated validated measures of cognition, stage of change, locus of control, self-efficacy, depression and anxiety, and quality of life. The study investigated 86 type 2 diabetes patients (mean age 59 years, 49% female). Glycemic control (HbA1c) was measured at baseline and after 12 months in the program. Glycemic control was poor on admission to the service with a mean HbA1c of 8.9%. The measures of cognition, self-efficacy, locus of control, mental health, and quality of life were not associated with improvements in HbA1c. Those participants with shorter duration of disease and more contacts with the service were significantly more likely to experience improvements in HbA1c. Psychometric data were not predictive of glycemic outcome. Rather, in this chronic disease management program, glycemia improved more in patients who were seen earlier in their disease course and managed more intensively, regardless of their psychometric status.

  19. Development of perioperative glycemic control using an artificial endocrine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Namikawa, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that tight glycemic control (TGC) in patients with diabetes mellitus is the most important to reduce complications, such as nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. Also, surgical stress induced hyperglycemia leading to glucose toxicity is the main cause of infectious complications after surgery. Recently perioperative TGC has been proven an effective method to reduce postoperative infectious complications and accelerate enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS), with the main purpose of short staying hospital. However, conventional TGC with open-loop glycemic control system is likely to induce not only occurrence of hypoglycemia but also unstable glycemic control. To solve these problems, we have involved introduction of novel glycemic control using an artificial pancreas (AP) with closed-loop glycemic control system since 2006. To date, this novel perioperative glycemic control was performed in more than 400 surgical patients. As a result, we established stable and safe TGC using an AP to improve surgical outcomes without hypoglycemia. In this paper, we report current scientific evidence focusing on perioperative glycemic control using an AP.

  20. Understanding basic carbohydrate counting, glycemic index, and glycemic load for improved glycemic control in Hispanic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Lidia Guadalupe Compeán; Berry, Diane C; Ruiz, Octelina Castillo; González, Eunice Reséndiz; Pérez, Paulina Aguilera; Rivas, Elva Del Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus generally have poor glycemic control. Constant hyperglycemia in individuals with type 2 diabetes can cause microvascular and macrovascular complications that lead to early morbidity and mortality. Good glycemic control requires a balance between diet, exercise, and medication, but dietary balance is difficult to achieve for many patients. Of the macronutrients, carbohydrates mostly affect blood glucose levels. Basic carbohydrate counting, glycemic index, and glycemic load are important tools for patients to master to control their blood glucose levels.

  1. Factors Associated With Poor Glycemic Control or Wide Glycemic Variability Among Diabetes Patients in Hawaii, 2006–2009

    PubMed Central

    Sentell, Tetine; Tokumaru, Sheri; Goo, Roy; Davis, James W.; Mau, Marjorie M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Although glycemic control is known to reduce complications associated with diabetes, it is an elusive goal for many patients with diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with sustained poor glycemic control, some glycemic variability, and wide glycemic variability among diabetes patients over 3 years. Methods This retrospective study was conducted among 2,970 diabetes patients with poor glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] >9%) who were enrolled in a health plan in Hawaii in 2006. We conducted multivariable logistic regressions to examine factors related to sustained poor control, some glycemic variability, and wide glycemic variability during the next 3 years. Independent variables evaluated as possible predictors were age, sex, type of insurance coverage, morbidity, diabetes duration, history of cardiovascular disease, and number of medications. Results Longer duration of diabetes, being under age 35, and taking 15 or more medications were significantly associated with sustained poor glycemic control. Preferred provider organization and Medicare (vs health maintenance organization) enrollees and patients with high morbidity were less likely to have sustained poor glycemic control. Wide glycemic variability was significantly related to being younger than age 50, longer duration of diabetes, having coronary artery disease, and taking 5 to 9 medications per year. Conclusion Results indicate that duration of diabetes, age, number of medications, morbidity, and type of insurance coverage are risk factors for sustained poor glycemic control. Patients with these characteristics may need additional therapies and targeted interventions to improve glycemic control. Patients younger than age 50 and those with a history of coronary heart disease should be warned of the health risks of wide glycemic variability. PMID:23017247

  2. Tight Glycemic Control in Critically Ill Children.

    PubMed

    Agus, Michael S D; Wypij, David; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Srinivasan, Vijay; Faustino, E Vincent; Luckett, Peter M; Alexander, Jamin L; Asaro, Lisa A; Curley, Martha A Q; Steil, Garry M; Nadkarni, Vinay M

    2017-02-23

    Background In multicenter studies, tight glycemic control targeting a normal blood glucose level has not been shown to improve outcomes in critically ill adults or children after cardiac surgery. Studies involving critically ill children who have not undergone cardiac surgery are lacking. Methods In a 35-center trial, we randomly assigned critically ill children with confirmed hyperglycemia (excluding patients who had undergone cardiac surgery) to one of two ranges of glycemic control: 80 to 110 mg per deciliter (4.4 to 6.1 mmol per liter; lower-target group) or 150 to 180 mg per deciliter (8.3 to 10.0 mmol per liter; higher-target group). Clinicians were guided by continuous glucose monitoring and explicit methods for insulin adjustment. The primary outcome was the number of intensive care unit (ICU)-free days to day 28. Results The trial was stopped early, on the recommendation of the data and safety monitoring board, owing to a low likelihood of benefit and evidence of the possibility of harm. Of 713 patients, 360 were randomly assigned to the lower-target group and 353 to the higher-target group. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the median number of ICU-free days did not differ significantly between the lower-target group and the higher-target group (19.4 days [interquartile range {IQR}, 0 to 24.2] and 19.4 days [IQR, 6.7 to 23.9], respectively; P=0.58). In per-protocol analyses, the median time-weighted average glucose level was significantly lower in the lower-target group (109 mg per deciliter [IQR, 102 to 118]; 6.1 mmol per liter [IQR, 5.7 to 6.6]) than in the higher-target group (123 mg per deciliter [IQR, 108 to 142]; 6.8 mmol per liter [IQR, 6.0 to 7.9]; P<0.001). Patients in the lower-target group also had higher rates of health care-associated infections than those in the higher-target group (12 of 349 patients [3.4%] vs. 4 of 349 [1.1%], P=0.04), as well as higher rates of severe hypoglycemia, defined as a blood glucose level below 40 mg per

  3. Health literacy, diabetes self-care, and glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Chandra Y; Bains, Sujeev S; Egede, Leonard E

    2010-11-01

    Although limited health literacy is a barrier to disease management and has been associated with poor glycemic control, the mechanisms underlying the relationships between health literacy and diabetes outcomes are unknown. We examined the relationships between health literacy, determinants of diabetes self-care, and glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Patients with diabetes were recruited from an outpatient primary care clinic. We collected information on demographics, health literacy, diabetes knowledge, diabetes fatalism, social support, and diabetes self-care, and hemoglobin A1c values were extracted from the medical record. Structural equation models tested the predicted pathways linking health literacy to diabetes self-care and glycemic control. No direct relationship was observed between health literacy and diabetes self-care or glycemic control. Health literacy had a direct effect on social support (r = -0.20, P < 0.05) and through social support had an indirect effect on diabetes self-care (r = -0.07) and on glycemic control (r = -0.01). More diabetes knowledge (r = 0.22, P < 0.05), less fatalism (r = -0.22, P < 0.05), and more social support (r = 0.27, P < 0.01) were independent, direct predictors of diabetes self-care and through self-care were related to glycemic control (r = -0.20, P < 0.05). Our findings suggest health literacy has an indirect effect on diabetes self-care and glycemic control through its association with social support. This suggests that for patients with limited health literacy, enhancing social support would facilitate diabetes self-care and improved glycemic control.

  4. Health Literacy, Diabetes Self-Care, and Glycemic Control in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Bains, Sujeev S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Although limited health literacy is a barrier to disease management and has been associated with poor glycemic control, the mechanisms underlying the relationships between health literacy and diabetes outcomes are unknown. We examined the relationships between health literacy, determinants of diabetes self-care, and glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods Patients with diabetes were recruited from an outpatient primary care clinic. We collected information on demographics, health literacy, diabetes knowledge, diabetes fatalism, social support, and diabetes self-care, and hemoglobin A1c values were extracted from the medical record. Structural equation models tested the predicted pathways linking health literacy to diabetes self-care and glycemic control. Results No direct relationship was observed between health literacy and diabetes self-care or glycemic control. Health literacy had a direct effect on social support (r = −0.20, P < 0.05) and through social support had an indirect effect on diabetes self-care (r = −0.07) and on glycemic control (r = −0.01). More diabetes knowledge (r = 0.22, P < 0.05), less fatalism (r = −0.22, P < 0.05), and more social support (r = 0.27, P < 0.01) were independent, direct predictors of diabetes self-care and through self-care were related to glycemic control (r = −0.20, P < 0.05). Conclusions Our findings suggest health literacy has an indirect effect on diabetes self-care and glycemic control through its association with social support. This suggests that for patients with limited health literacy, enhancing social support would facilitate diabetes self-care and improved glycemic control. PMID:20879964

  5. Early glycemic control in critically ill patients with burn injury.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Claire V; Coffey, Rebecca; Cook, Charles H; Gerlach, Anthony T; Miller, Sidney F

    2011-01-01

    Glucose management in patients with burn injury is often difficult because of their hypermetabolic state with associated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. Recent studies suggest that time to glycemic control is associated with improved outcomes. The authors sought to determine the influence of early glycemic control on the outcomes of critically ill patients with burn injury. A retrospective analysis was performed at the Ohio State University Medical Center. Patients hospitalized with burn injury were enrolled if they were admitted to the intensive care unit between March 1, 2006, and February 28, 2009. Early glycemic control was defined as the achievement of a mean daily blood glucose of ≤150 mg/dl for at least two consecutive days by postburn day 3. Forty-six patients made up the study cohort with 26 achieving early glycemic control and 20 who did not. The two groups were similar at baseline with regard to age, pre-existing diabetes, APACHE II score and burn size and depth. There were no differences in number of surgical interventions, infectious complications, or length of stay between patients who achieved or failed early glycemic control. Failure of early glycemic control was, however, associated with significantly higher mortality both by univariate (35.0 vs 7.7%, P = .03) and multivariate analyses (hazard ratio 6.754 [1.16-39.24], P = .03) adjusting for age, TBSA, and inhalation injury. Failure to achieve early glycemic control in patients with burn injury is associated with an increased risk of mortality. However, further prospective controlled trials are needed to establish causality of this association.

  6. Pollution by metals: Is there a relationship in glycemic control?

    PubMed

    González-Villalva, Adriana; Colín-Barenque, Laura; Bizarro-Nevares, Patricia; Rojas-Lemus, Marcela; Rodríguez-Lara, Vianey; García-Pelaez, Isabel; Ustarroz-Cano, Martha; López-Valdez, Nelly; Albarrán-Alonso, Juan Carlos; Fortoul, Teresa I

    2016-09-01

    There are evidences of environmental pollution and health effects. Metals are pollutants implicated in systemic toxicity. One of the least studied effects, but which is currently becoming more important, is the effect of metals on glycemic control. Metals have been implicated as causes of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress and are associated to obesity, hyperglycemia and even diabetes. Arsenic, iron, mercury, lead, cadmium and nickel have been studied as a risk factor for hyperglycemia and diabetes. There is another group of metals that causes hypoglycemia such as vanadium, chromium, zinc and magnesium by different mechanisms. Zinc, magnesium and chromium deficiency is associated with increased risk of diabetes. This review summarizes some metals involved in glycemic control and pretends to alert health professionals about considering environmental metals as an important factor that could explain the poor glycemic control in patients. Further studies are needed to understand this poorly assessed problem.

  7. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, glycemic control, and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Onitilo, Adedayo A; Stankowski, Rachel V; Berg, Richard L; Engel, Jessica M; Glurich, Ingrid; Williams, Gail M; Doi, Suhail A

    2014-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by prolonged hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and progressive hyperglycemia. Disease management relies on glycemic control through diet, exercise, and pharmacological intervention. The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of glycemic control and the use of glucose-lowering medication on the risk of breast, prostate, and colon cancer. Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (N=9486) between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2009 were identified and data on glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c, glucose), glucose-lowering medication use (insulin, metformin, sulfonylurea), age, BMI, date of diabetes diagnosis, insurance status, comorbidities, smoking history, location of residence, and cancer diagnoses were electronically abstracted. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to examine the relationship between glycemic control, including medication use, and cancer risk. The results varied by cancer type and medication exposure. There was no association between glycemic control and breast or colon cancer; however, prostate cancer risk was significantly higher with better glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c ≤ 7.0%). Insulin use was associated with increased colon cancer incidence in women, but not with colon cancer in men or breast or prostate cancer risk. Metformin exposure was associated with reduced breast and prostate cancer incidence, but had no association with colon cancer risk. Sulfonylurea exposure was not associated with risk of any type of cancer. The data reported here support hyperinsulinemia, rather than hyperglycemia, as a major diabetes-related factor associated with increased risk of breast and colon cancer. In contrast, hyperglycemia appears to be protective in the case of prostate cancer.

  8. Achieving glycemic control in special populations in hospital: perspectives in practice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Alice Y Y

    2014-04-01

    Achieving and maintaining glycemic control in patients with diabetes admitted to hospital is challenging because of the many competing factors of nutrition, pharmacotherapy and other patient-related and systemic factors. For patients receiving enteral or parenteral feeding, eating irregularly or receiving glucocorticoid therapy, the challenges are even greater. The basic principles to follow when managing glycemia in these populations are as follows: 1) Recognition of those at risk for hyperglycemia; 2) frequent bedside glucose monitoring; 3) a proactive approach with routine insulin administration based on the predicted glucose patterns; 4) constant reassessment of the glycemic status and titration of the routine insulin accordingly.

  9. Top 10 Facts to Know About Inpatient Glycemic Control.

    PubMed

    Horton, William B; Subauste, Jose S

    2016-02-01

    Uncontrolled hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients with or without a previous diagnosis of diabetes is associated with adverse outcomes and longer lengths of hospital stay. It is estimated that one-third of hospitalized patients will experience significant hyperglycemia, and the cost associated with hospitalization for patients with diabetes accounts for half of all health care expenditures for this disease. Optimizing glycemic control should be a priority for all health care providers in the inpatient setting. Appropriate management strategies should include identification of appropriate glycemic targets, prevention of hypoglycemia, initiation of appropriate basal-plus-bolus insulin regimens, and planning for the transition from inpatient to outpatient therapy before hospital discharge.

  10. Stochastic modelling of insulin sensitivity and adaptive glycemic control for critical care.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jessica; Lee, Dominic; Chase, J Geoffrey; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Le Compte, Aaron; Lotz, Thomas; Wong, Jason; Lonergan, Timothy; Hann, Christopher E

    2008-02-01

    Targeted, tight model-based glycemic control in critical care patients that can reduce mortality 18-45% is enabled by prediction of insulin sensitivity, S(I). However, this parameter can vary significantly over a given hour in the critically ill as their condition evolves. A stochastic model of S(I) variability is constructed using data from 165 critical care patients. Given S(I) for an hour, the stochastic model returns the probability density function of S(I) for the next hour. Consequently, the glycemic distribution following a known intervention can be derived, enabling pre-determined likelihoods of the result and more accurate control. Cross validation of the S(I) variability model shows that 86.6% of the blood glucose measurements are within the 0.90 probability interval, and 54.0% are within the interquartile interval. "Virtual Patients" with S(I) behaving to the overall S(I) variability model achieved similar predictive performance in simulated trials (86.8% and 45.7%). Finally, adaptive control method incorporating S(I) variability is shown to produce improved glycemic control in simulated trials compared to current clinical results. The validated stochastic model and methods provide a platform for developing advanced glycemic control methods addressing critical care variability.

  11. Boost glycemic control in teen diabetics through 'family focused teamwork'.

    PubMed

    2003-09-01

    While family conflict during the teenaged years is typical, it can have long-term health consequences when it involves an adolescent with diabetes. However, researchers at Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston have developed a low-cost intervention that aims to remove conflict from disease management responsibilities--and a new study shows that it can boost glycemic control as well.

  12. Glycemic control in diabetic patients served by community health centers.

    PubMed

    Maizlish, Neil A; Shaw, Beryl; Hendry, Khati

    2004-01-01

    The Community Health Center Network measured the prevalence of glycemic control in diabetic patients at 7 community health centers as part of its clinical quality improvement program. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in a random sample of 1817 diabetic patients having 1 or more encounters from October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2001. Computerized laboratory results for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) tests were available for half the sample. Manual review of medical charts was carried out for the rest. The proportion of diabetic patients with 1 or more HbA1c tests in the measurement year was 91% (CI95%: 90-93%) and poor glycemic control (HbA1c > 9%) occurred in 27% (CIM%: 25-30%). The mean of the most recent test was 7.8%. The frequency of testing varied significantly by clinic from 79% to 94% and increased with the number of encounters. Poor glycemic control also varied significantly by clinic (17-48%) and was significantly better in females and older patients. Measures of glycemic control were not associated with ethnicity or insurance status in multivariate analyses. A high proportion of diabetic patients received appropriate care, and this care was not associated with ethnicity or insurance status. The data warehouse was an essential tool for the clinical quality improvement program.

  13. Fathers’ Involvement in Preadolescents’ Diabetes Adherence and Glycemic Control*

    PubMed Central

    Rohan, Jennifer M.; Carle, Adam C.; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan; Drotar, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship of paternal involvement in diabetes care with adherence and glycemic control. Methods One hundred and thirty-six mothers and fathers of preadolescents (aged 9–12 years) with type 1 diabetes reported on paternal involvement. Adherence was measured by interview and blood glucose meter downloads. Mothers’ and fathers’ ratings of paternal involvement in diabetes care were compared. We evaluated three structural equation models linking paternal involvement with adherence and glycemic control. Results Mothers and fathers reported similar amounts of paternal involvement, yet mothers rated paternal involvement as more helpful. The data supported a model indicating links between more paternal involvement and higher HbA1c and between lower adherence and higher HbA1c. Mediation and moderation models were not supported. Discussion Although paternal involvement was not directly associated with treatment adherence, it was associated with poorer glycemic control. Some fathers may increase their involvement in response to suboptimal glycemic outcomes. PMID:21515643

  14. Starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index in the bread fortified with pomelo (Citrus maxima) fruit segments.

    PubMed

    Reshmi, S K; Sudha, M L; Shashirekha, M N

    2017-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index in breads incorporated with pomelo fruit (Citrus maxima) segments. Volume of the white and brown breads supplemented with pomelo fresh segments increased, while the crumb firmness decreased. Bread with 20% fresh and 5% dry pomelo segments were sensorily acceptable. Bioactive components such as phenolics, flavonoids, naringin and carotenoids were retained to a greater extent in bread containing dry pomelo segments. The pomelo incorporated bread had higher levels of resistant starch fractions (3.87-10.96%) with low predicted glycemic index (62.97-53.13%), despite their higher total starch (69.87-75.47%) content compared to control bread. Thus pomelo segments in the product formulations lowered the glycemic index probably by inhibiting carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme activity which could be attributed to naringin. Hence fortified bread prepared from pomelo fruit segment is recommended to gain nutritional value and to decrease the risk of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Potential of an in Vitro Digestion Method for Predicting Glycemic Response of Foods and Meals

    PubMed Central

    Argyri, Konstantina; Athanasatou, Adelais; Bouga, Maria; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Increased interest in glycemic response derives from its linkage with chronic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to develop an in vitro method that predicts glycemic response. We proposed a simulated gastrointestinal digestion protocol that uses the concentration of dialyzable glucose (glucose in the soluble low molecular weight fraction of digests) as an index for the prediction of glycemic response. For protocol evaluation, dialyzable glucose from 30 foods or meals digested in vitro were compared with published values for their glycemic index (GI) (nine foods), glycemic load (GL) (16 foods) and glycemic response (14 meals). The correlations were significant when comparing dialyzable glucose with GL (Spearman’s rho = 0.953, p < 0.001), GI (Spearman’s rho = 0.800, p = 0.010) and glycemic response (Spearman’s rho = 0.736, p = 0.003). These results demonstrate that despite limitations associated with in vitro approaches, the proposed protocol may be a useful tool for predicting glycemic response of foods or meals.

  16. Changes in Treatment Adherence and Glycemic Control During the Transition to Adolescence in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Joseph R.; Hood, Korey K.; Delamater, Alan; Shroff Pendley, Jennifer; Rohan, Jennifer M.; Reeves, Grafton; Dolan, Lawrence; Drotar, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test models of unidirectional and bidirectional change between treatment adherence and glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a 2-year longitudinal, multisite study of 225 youth with type 1 diabetes recruited at the cusp of adolescence (aged 9–11 years) to describe the mutual influences of glycemic control as measured by HbA1c and treatment adherence as measured by blood glucose monitoring frequency (BGMF) during the transition to adolescence. RESULTS HbA1c increased from 8.2 to 8.6% (P < 0.001) and BGMF decreased from 4.9 to 4.5 checks per day (P < 0.02) during the 2-year period. Changes in the BGMF slope predicted changes in HbA1c. A change (increase) in HbA1c was associated with a change (decrease) in BGMF of 1.26 (P < 0.001) after controlling for covariates. CONCLUSIONS The magnitude of the effect of declining treatment adherence (BGMF) on glycemic control in young adolescents may be even greater than declines observed among older adolescents. BGMF offers a powerful tool for targeted management of glycemic control for type 1 diabetes during the critical transition to adolescence. PMID:22474040

  17. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and risk of pancreatic cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Marta; Lipworth, Loren; Polesel, Jerry; Negri, Eva; Bosetti, Cristina; Talamini, Renato; McLaughlin, Joseph K; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2010-06-01

    Carbohydrates and dietary glycemic index (GI) influence the secretion of insulin and insulin-related growth factors and may play a role in the development of diabetes and obesity, both of which have been related to pancreatic cancer risk. We examined the association between dietary GI and glycemic load (GL) and pancreatic cancer by conducting a hospital-based case-control study in Italy in 1991-2008 of 326 cases of pancreatic cancer and 652 control patients. Dietary data were obtained with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were computed with the use of multiple logistic regression. GI was positively associated with pancreatic cancer, with ORs of 1.56 (95% CI, 1.06-2.30) and 1.78 (95% CI, 1.20-2.62) for the second and third tertiles, respectively, compared with the lowest. No significant association was observed between GL and pancreatic cancer. Consumption of sugar, candy, honey, and jam was positively associated with pancreatic cancer, whereas consumption of fruit was inversely associated. In conclusion, the positive association with high GI, in the absence of an association with dietary GL, fruit, or total carbohydrates, likely reflects the positive association between sweets or refined carbohydrates and pancreatic cancer in this study population. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diabetes, glycemic control, and urinary incontinence in women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Lefevre, Roger; Hacker, Michele R.; Golen, Toni H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To estimate the association between urinary incontinence and glycemic control in women ages 20 to 85. METHODS We included 7,270 women from the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, stratified into three groups of glycemic control defined by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c): i) those below the diagnostic threshold (HbA1c<6.5%), ii) those with relatively controlled diabetes (HbA1c 6.5–8.5%), and iii) those with poorly controlled diabetes (HbA1c>8.5%) to allow for a different relationship between glycemic control and urinary incontinence within each group. The primary outcomes were the presence of any, only stress, only urgency, and mixed urinary incontinence. We calculated adjusted risk ratios using Poisson regressions with robust variance estimates. RESULTS The survey-weighted prevalence was 52.9% for any, 27.2% for only stress, 9.9% for only urgency, and 15.8% for mixed urinary incontinence. Among women with relatively controlled diabetes, each one-unit increase in HbA1c was associated with a 13% (95% CI: 1.03–1.25) increase for any urinary incontinence and a 34% (95% CI 1.06–1.69) increase in risk for only stress incontinence but was not significantly associated with only urgency and mixed incontinence. Other risk factors included body mass index, hormone replacement therapy, smoking, and physical activity. CONCLUSIONS Worsening glycemic control is associated with an increased risk for stress incontinence for women with relatively controlled diabetes. For those either below the diagnostic threshold or with poorly controlled diabetes, the risk may be driven by other factors. Further prospective investigation of HbA1c as a modifiable risk factor may motivate measures to improve continence in women with diabetes. PMID:26313496

  19. Utility of different glycemic control metrics for optimizing management of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kohnert, Klaus-Dieter; Heinke, Peter; Vogt, Lutz; Salzsieder, Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    The benchmark for assessing quality of long-term glycemic control and adjustment of therapy is currently glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Despite its importance as an indicator for the development of diabetic complications, recent studies have revealed that this metric has some limitations; it conveys a rather complex message, which has to be taken into consideration for diabetes screening and treatment. On the basis of recent clinical trials, the relationship between HbA1c and cardiovascular outcomes in long-standing diabetes has been called into question. It becomes obvious that other surrogate and biomarkers are needed to better predict cardiovascular diabetes complications and assess efficiency of therapy. Glycated albumin, fructosamin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol have received growing interest as alternative markers of glycemic control. In addition to measures of hyperglycemia, advanced glucose monitoring methods became available. An indispensible adjunct to HbA1c in routine diabetes care is self-monitoring of blood glucose. This monitoring method is now widely used, as it provides immediate feedback to patients on short-term changes, involving fasting, preprandial, and postprandial glucose levels. Beyond the traditional metrics, glycemic variability has been identified as a predictor of hypoglycemia, and it might also be implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular diabetes complications. Assessment of glycemic variability is thus important, but exact quantification requires frequently sampled glucose measurements. In order to optimize diabetes treatment, there is a need for both key metrics of glycemic control on a day-to-day basis and for more advanced, user-friendly monitoring methods. In addition to traditional discontinuous glucose testing, continuous glucose sensing has become a useful tool to reveal insufficient glycemic management. This new technology is particularly effective in patients with complicated diabetes and provides the opportunity to characterize

  20. Utility of different glycemic control metrics for optimizing management of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kohnert, Klaus-Dieter; Heinke, Peter; Vogt, Lutz; Salzsieder, Eckhard

    2015-02-15

    The benchmark for assessing quality of long-term glycemic control and adjustment of therapy is currently glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Despite its importance as an indicator for the development of diabetic complications, recent studies have revealed that this metric has some limitations; it conveys a rather complex message, which has to be taken into consideration for diabetes screening and treatment. On the basis of recent clinical trials, the relationship between HbA1c and cardiovascular outcomes in long-standing diabetes has been called into question. It becomes obvious that other surrogate and biomarkers are needed to better predict cardiovascular diabetes complications and assess efficiency of therapy. Glycated albumin, fructosamin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol have received growing interest as alternative markers of glycemic control. In addition to measures of hyperglycemia, advanced glucose monitoring methods became available. An indispensible adjunct to HbA1c in routine diabetes care is self-monitoring of blood glucose. This monitoring method is now widely used, as it provides immediate feedback to patients on short-term changes, involving fasting, preprandial, and postprandial glucose levels. Beyond the traditional metrics, glycemic variability has been identified as a predictor of hypoglycemia, and it might also be implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular diabetes complications. Assessment of glycemic variability is thus important, but exact quantification requires frequently sampled glucose measurements. In order to optimize diabetes treatment, there is a need for both key metrics of glycemic control on a day-to-day basis and for more advanced, user-friendly monitoring methods. In addition to traditional discontinuous glucose testing, continuous glucose sensing has become a useful tool to reveal insufficient glycemic management. This new technology is particularly effective in patients with complicated diabetes and provides the opportunity to characterize

  1. Comparison of glycemic control and variability in patients with type 2 and posttransplantation diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Werzowa, Johannes; Pacini, Giovanni; Hecking, Manfred; Fidler, Catharina; Haidinger, Michael; Brath, Helmut; Thomas, Andreas; Säemann, Marcus D; Tura, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common complication after renal transplantation leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) increased glycemic variability and poor glycemic control have been associated with cardiovascular complications. We therefore aimed at determining glycemic variability and glycemic control in subjects with PTDM in comparison to T2DM subjects. In this observational study we analyzed 10 transplanted subjects without diabetes (Control), 10 transplanted subjects with PTDM, and 8 non-transplanted T2DM subjects using Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM). Several indices of glycemic control quality and variability were computed. Many indices of both glycemic control quality and variability were different between control and PTDM subjects, with worse values in PTDM. The indices of glycemic control, such as glucose mean, GRADE and M-value, were similar in PTDM and T2DM, but some indices of glycemic variability, that is CONGA, lability index and shape index, showed a markedly higher (i.e., worse) value in T2DM than in PTDM (P value range: 0.001-0.035). Although PTDM and T2DM subjects showed similar glycemic control quality, glycemic variability was significantly higher in T2DM. These data underscore potential important pathophysiological differences between T2DM and PTDM indicating that increased glycemic variability may not be a key factor for the excess cardiovascular mortality in patients with PTDM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Body image mediates negative family climate and deteriorating glycemic control for single adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hartl, Amy C; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Laursen, Brett

    2015-12-01

    Glycemic control declines during adolescence, as youth with diabetes struggle with pubertal changes and a changing social world. The present study tests whether body image mediates longitudinal links between family climate and changes in adolescent glycemic control. Mediation was hypothesized for nondating adolescents but not for dating adolescents, because the former are thought to remain more family oriented than the latter. Participants were German adolescents with Type 1 diabetes (51 girls, 58 boys; M = 15.84 years, SD = 1.44). Participants reported body image and family climate. Physicians assayed blood HbA1c levels (M = 8.22%, SD = 1.80%) to measure glycemic control. For nondating adolescents, body image mediated associations between family climate and longitudinal changes in glycemic control. Poorer family climate was associated with poorer body image, which predicted deteriorating glycemic control. For dating adolescents, family climate was unassociated with changes in glycemic control. Nondating adolescents may look to parents for feedback on body image, which affects how they manage the challenges of diabetes. Parents and practitioners alike should be alert to the fact that family climate continues to be an important determinant of adolescent adjustment, particularly for those who have not moved into romantic relationships. We know that body image matters to adolescents, but for some youth, body image may be the difference between health and serious physical problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The Glycemic Indices in Dialysis Evaluation (GIDE) study: Comparative measures of glycemic control in diabetic dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mark E; Mittman, Neal; Ma, Lin; Brennan, Julia I; Mooney, Ann; Johnson, Curtis D; Jani, Chinu M; Maddux, Franklin W; Lacson, Eduardo

    2015-10-01

    The validity of hemoglobin A1c (HgbA1c) is undergoing increasing scrutiny in the advanced CKD/ESRD (chronic kidney disease/end-stage renal disease) population, where it appears to be discordant from other glycemic indices. In the Glycemic Indices in Dialysis Evaluation (GIDE) Study, we sought to assess correlation of HgbA1c with casual glucose, glycated albumin, and serum fructosamine in a large group of diabetic patients on dialysis. From 26 dialysis facilities in the United States, 1758 diabetic patients (hemodialysis = 1476, peritoneal dialysis = 282) were enrolled in the first quarter of 2013. The distributions of HgbA1c and the other glycemic indices were analyzed. Intra-patient coefficients of variation and correlations among the four glycemic indices were determined. Patients with low HgbA1c values were both on higher erythropoietin (ESA) doses and more anemic. Serum glucose exhibited the highest intra-patient variability over a 3-month period; variability was modest among the other glycemic indices, and least with HgbA1c. Statistical analyses inclusive of all glycemic markers indicated modest to strong correlations. HgbA1c was more likely to be in the target range than glycated albumin or serum fructosamine, suggesting factors which may or may not be directly related to glycemic control, including anemia, ESA management, and iron administration, in interpreting HgbA1c values. These initial results from the GIDE Study clarify laboratory correlations among glycemic indices and add to concerns about reliance on HgbA1c in patients with diabetes and advanced kidney disease.

  4. Effects of glycemic control on refraction in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai-Yan; Luo, Guo-Chun; Guo, Jiang; Liang, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effects of glycemic control on refraction in diabetic patients. METHODS Twenty newly diagnosed diabetic patients were included in this study. The random blood glucose, HbA1c levels, fasting C-peptide and postprandial 2h C-peptide were measured before treatment. The patients with random blood glucose higher than 12.0mmol/L and HbA1c level higher than 10.0% were selected. Refraction, intraocular pressure, radius of the anterior corneal curvature, depth of the anterior chamber, lens thickness, vitreous length, and axial length were measured on admission and at the end of week 1, 2, 3 and 4 during glycemic control. RESULTS A transient hyperopic change occurred in all the patients receiving glycemic control. The maximum hyperopic change was 1.60D (range 0.50±3.20D). Recovery of the previous refraction occurred between two and four weeks after insulin treatment. There was a positive correlation between the maximum hyperopic changes and the HbA1c levels on admission (r=0.84, P<0.05). There was a positive correlation between the maximum hyperopic changes and the daily rate of blood glucose reduction over the first 7 days of the treatment (r=0.53, P<0.05). During transient hyperopia, no significant changes were observed in the intraocular pressure, radius of the anterior corneal curvature, depth of the anterior chamber, lens thickness, vitreous length and axial length. CONCLUSION Transient hyperopic changes occur after glycemic control in diabetic patients with severe hyperglycemia. The degrees of transient hyperopia are highly dependent on HbA1c levels before treatment and the rate of reduction of the blood glucose level. PMID:22553542

  5. Genetic Risk Score Modelling for Disease Progression in New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes Patients: Increased Genetic Load of Islet-Expressed and Cytokine-Regulated Candidate Genes Predicts Poorer Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Brorsson, Caroline A.; Nielsen, Lotte B.; Andersen, Marie Louise; Kaur, Simranjeet; Bergholdt, Regine; Hansen, Lars; Mortensen, Henrik B.; Pociot, Flemming; Størling, Joachim; Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 40 type 1 diabetes risk loci. The clinical impact of these loci on β-cell function during disease progression is unknown. We aimed at testing whether a genetic risk score could predict glycemic control and residual β-cell function in type 1 diabetes (T1D). As gene expression may represent an intermediate phenotype between genetic variation and disease, we hypothesized that genes within T1D loci which are expressed in islets and transcriptionally regulated by proinflammatory cytokines would be the best predictors of disease progression. Two-thirds of 46 GWAS candidate genes examined were expressed in human islets, and 11 of these significantly changed expression levels following exposure to proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β + IFNγ + TNFα) for 48 h. Using the GWAS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from each locus, we constructed a genetic risk score based on the cumulative number of risk alleles carried in children with newly diagnosed T1D. With each additional risk allele carried, HbA1c levels increased significantly within first year after diagnosis. Network and gene ontology (GO) analyses revealed that several of the 11 candidate genes have overlapping biological functions and interact in a common network. Our results may help predict disease progression in newly diagnosed children with T1D which can be exploited for optimizing treatment. PMID:26904692

  6. An observational study of glycemic control in canagliflozin treated patients.

    PubMed

    Meckley, L M; Miyasato, G; Kokkotos, F; Bumbaugh, J; Bailey, R A

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate changes in glycemic control following the initial canagliflozin pharmacy claim in a real-world population. A retrospective cohort analysis of adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was conducted using 2013 medical, pharmacy and laboratory claims from the Inovalon MORE 2 Registry. Patients with T2DM aged ≥18 years with ≥60 days of canagliflozin supply and HbA1c test results within 120 days before and ≥60 days after initial canagliflozin claim (defined as index date) were included. The differences between HbA1c levels pre- and post-index were assessed. Changes pre- and post-index in Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) glycemic control criteria of HbA1c <7% and <8% and poor control of HbA1c >9% were evaluated. Subgroup analyses of patients with HbA1c >7% at baseline and patients aged ≥65 were also conducted. Among the 268 patients meeting the study criteria, mean HbA1c pre-index was 8.3% and post-index was 7.6%; the mean reduction in HbA1c pre-post index was 0.7% (95% CI: 0.6%, 0.9%). The proportions of patients meeting the HEDIS glycemic control measures (HbA1c <7%, <8% and poor control of >9%) improved and was significantly different pre- and post-index (all p < 0.001). Of the patients with an HbA1c >7% prior to index (81% of the cohort; mean pre-index HbA1c = 8.8%), HbA1c was reduced by 0.9% (95% CI: 0.8%, 1.1%). The aged ≥65 subgroup consisted of 15% of the cohort, with a pre-index HbA1c of 8.3%. The mean reduction in HbA1c test results pre- and post-canagliflozin index was 0.6% (95% CI: 0.4%, 0.9%). This analysis did not adjust for changes in antihyperglycemic agents during the study period. Patients with T2DM were observed to have improved glycemic control following initial canagliflozin pharmacy claim as measured by HbA1c change and attainment of specific glycemic control criteria.

  7. Tight glycemic control in the ICU - is the earth flat?

    PubMed

    Steil, Garry M; Agus, Michael S D

    2014-06-27

    Tight glycemic control in the ICU has been shown to reduce mortality in some but not all prospective randomized control trials. Confounding the interpretation of these studies are differences in how the control was achieved and underlying incidence of hypoglycemia, which can be expected to be affected by the introduction of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). In this issue of Critical Care, a consensus panel provides a list of the research priorities they believe are needed for CGM to become routine practice in the ICU. We reflect on these recommendations and consider the implications for using CGM today.

  8. Vasculogenesis and Diabetic Erectile Dysfunction: How Relevant Is Glycemic Control?

    PubMed

    Castela, Angela; Gomes, Pedro; Silvestre, Ricardo; Guardão, Luísa; Leite, Liliana; Chilro, Rui; Rodrigues, Ilda; Vendeira, Pedro; Virag, Ronald; Costa, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a complication of diabetes, condition responsible for causing endothelial dysfunction (EDys) and hampering repair mechanisms. However, scarce information is available linking vasculogenesis mediated by Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) and diabetes-associated ED. Furthermore, it remains to be elucidated if glycemic control plays a role on EPCs functions, EPCs modulators, and penile vascular health. We evaluated the effects of diabetes and insulin therapy on bone marrow (BM) and circulating EPCs, testosterone, and systemic/penile Stromal Derived Factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α) expression. Male Wistar rats were divided into groups: age-matched controls, 8-weeks streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetics, and insulin-treated 8-weeks diabetics. EPCs were identified by flow cytometry for CD34/CD133/VEGFR2/CXCR4 antigens. Systemic SDF-1α and testosterone levels were evaluated by ELISA. Penile SDF-1α protein expression was assessed, in experimental and human diabetic cavernosal samples, by immunohistochemical techniques. Diabetic animals presented a reduction of BM-derived EPCs and an increase in putative circulating endothelial cells (CECs) sloughed from vessels wall. These alterations were rescued by insulin therapy. In addition, glycemic control promoted an increase in systemic testosterone and SDF-1α levels, which were significantly decreased in animals with diabetes. SDF-1α protein expression was reduced in experimental and human cavernosal diabetic samples, an effect prevented by insulin in treated animals. Insulin administration rescued the effects of diabetes on BM function, CECs levels, testosterone, and plasmatic/penile SDF-1α protein expression. This emphasizes the importance of glycemic control in the prevention of diabetes-induced systemic and penile EDys, by the amelioration of endothelial damage, and increase in protective pathways. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 82-91, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Periodontitis and glycemic control in diabetes: NHANES 2009 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Dina; Tarima, Sergey; Okunseri, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    This study examines the association between periodontitis, diabetes (DM), and glycemic control. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for 2009 to 2012 were analyzed. Periodontitis status of each participant was assessed using the full-mouth periodontal examination protocol, classified using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Periodontology surveillance case definition for total periodontitis. Self-reported DM status was defined as yes or no. Glycemic control was assessed using glycohemoglobin data at cutoff points of 7.0%, 7.5%, 8.0%, 8.5%, and 9.0%. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed, and all analyses were adjusted for the survey design. Overall, 7,042 adults ≥30 years old with complete data were included in the study. The mean glycohemoglobin levels for individuals with and without periodontitis were 5.9% and 5.6%, respectively, and increased to 7.4% and 7.0% for participants with DM. The majority of participants with and without periodontitis were aged 50 to 64 and 35 to 49 years (37.4% versus 44.5%), respectively. In the bivariate analysis, several demographic factors were significantly associated with having periodontitis, including self-reported DM status and glycemic control. In the multivariate analysis, demographic factors, glycohemoglobin cutoff values of 8.0%, 8.5%, and 9.0%, and mean glycohemoglobin level remained significant, but self-reported DM status was not. This study demonstrates that glycohemoglobin and demographic factors are significantly associated with periodontitis, but not self-reported status.

  10. Children's glycemic control: mother's knowledge and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Al-Odayani, Abdulrahman Nasser; Alsharqi, Omar Zayyan; Ahmad, Alaeddin Mohammad Khalaf; Khalaf Ahmad, Ala'eddin Mohammad; Al-Borie, Hussein Mohammad; Qattan, Ameerah M N

    2013-10-29

    The present study was designed to examine the role of socioeconomic status (SES) of the mother's knowledge about different aspects of diabetes and the glycemic control of type 1 children with diabetes. Samples were taken from successive admissions to the outpatient diabetes clinics in Prince Sultan Medical Military City (PSMMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A well designed questionnaire covering different aspects including demographic data, educational background, and socioeconomic status of the care providers was used to collect information from mothers of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) children. The questionnaire was designed on the basis of the Michigan diabetes knowledge scale and also on the basis of food habits of Saudi Arabia and it was validated. The questionnaire was completed after interviewing the mothers during visits to the PSMMC hospital. Every mother was asked with those particular questions. Glycemic control was assessed by glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c). The socio-demographic data of mothers was recorded by self-report. It was found that, there was significant variation in the knowledge of diabetes among mothers with different ages (P 0.05). No significant results were observed between family income and diabetes knowledge (p>0.05).However, a positive relationship was observed with higher income and higher knowledge. There was a significant association between mothers knowledge of diabetes and HbA1C level (r = -0.1739, p.<0.05) indicating that, higher knowledge ultimately leads to greater control of HbA1c level. A significant association was also observed between education and HbA1c level (r=-02538, p<0.05) with children of mothers with higher level of education showing a better control of glycated haemoglobin levels. However, no significant association was found between monthly family income and HbA1C level. In conclusion, the current study illustrated that, mothers with more knowledge of diabetes and with better education were maintaining a better

  11. Effect of Fructose on Glycemic Control in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cozma, Adrian I.; Sievenpiper, John L.; de Souza, Russell J.; Chiavaroli, Laura; Ha, Vanessa; Wang, D. David; Mirrahimi, Arash; Yu, Matt E.; Carleton, Amanda J.; Di Buono, Marco; Jenkins, Alexandra L.; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Wolever, Thomas M.S.; Beyene, Joseph; Kendall, Cyril W.C.; Jenkins, David J.A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The effect of fructose on cardiometabolic risk in humans is controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials to clarify the effect of fructose on glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (through 22 March 2012) for relevant trials lasting ≥7 days. Data were aggregated by the generic inverse variance method (random-effects models) and expressed as mean difference (MD) for fasting glucose and insulin and standardized MD (SMD) with 95% CI for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glycated albumin. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran Q statistic and quantified by the I2 statistic. Trial quality was assessed by the Heyland methodological quality score (MQS). RESULTS Eighteen trials (n = 209) met the eligibility criteria. Isocaloric exchange of fructose for carbohydrate reduced glycated blood proteins (SMD −0.25 [95% CI −0.46 to −0.04]; P = 0.02) with significant intertrial heterogeneity (I2 = 63%; P = 0.001). This reduction is equivalent to a ∼0.53% reduction in HbA1c. Fructose consumption did not significantly affect fasting glucose or insulin. A priori subgroup analyses showed no evidence of effect modification on any end point. CONCLUSIONS Isocaloric exchange of fructose for other carbohydrate improves long-term glycemic control, as assessed by glycated blood proteins, without affecting insulin in people with diabetes. Generalizability may be limited because most of the trials were <12 weeks and had relatively low MQS (<8). To confirm these findings, larger and longer fructose feeding trials assessing both possible glycemic benefit and adverse metabolic effects are required. PMID:22723585

  12. Glycemic Control and Urinary Incontinence in Women with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Karter, Andrew J.; Thai, Julie N.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Huang, Elbert S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Although many studies have shown that diabetes increases the risk for urinary incontinence, it is unclear whether poor glycemic control in women with diabetes is associated with incontinence. This study aims to determine the relationship between the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level and urinary incontinence in a large, diverse cohort of older women. Methods We examined 6026 older women who responded to a survey (62% response rate) and were enrolled in the Diabetes and Aging Study, an ethnically stratified random sample of patients with diabetes enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Our primary independent variable was the mean of all HbA1c measurements in the year preceding the survey. Outcomes included the presence/absence of incontinence and limitations in daily activities due to incontinence. We used modified Poisson regression and ordinal logistic regression models to account for age, race, body mass index, parity, diabetes treatment, duration of diabetes, and comorbidity. Results Sixty-five percent of women reported incontinence (mean age 59±10 years). After adjustment, HbA1c levels were not associated with the presence or absence of incontinence. However, among women reporting incontinence, HbA1c ≥9% was associated with more limitations due to incontinence than HbA1c <6% (adjusted odds ratio 1.67, 95% confidence interval: 1.09–2.57). Conclusion In this cross-sectional analysis, HbA1c level is not associated with the presence or absence of incontinence. However, for women with incontinence, poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥9%) is associated with more limitations in daily activities due to incontinence. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether improving glycemic control to HbA1c <9% leads to fewer limitations in daily activities due to incontinence. PMID:24032999

  13. Testing a self-determination theory process model for promoting glycemic control through diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Williams, Geoffrey C; McGregor, Holly A; Zeldman, Allan; Freedman, Zachary R; Deci, Edward L

    2004-01-01

    A longitudinal study tested the self-determination theory (SDT) process model of health behavior change for glycemic control within a randomized trial of patient activation versus passive education. Glycosylated hemoglobin for patients with Type 2 diabetes (n=159) was assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Autonomous motivation and perceived competence were assessed at baseline and 6 months, and the autonomy supportiveness of clinical practitioners was assessed at 3 months. Perceptions of autonomy and competence were promoted by perceived autonomy support, and changes in perceptions of autonomy and competence, in turn, predicted change in glycemic control. Self-management behaviors mediated the relation between change in perceived competence and change in glycemic control. The self-determination process model fit the data well.

  14. Mother-father informant discrepancies regarding diabetes management: Associations with diabetes-specific family conflict and glycemic control

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Erica D.; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan; Rohan, Jennifer M.; Pulgaron, Elizabeth; Drotar, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship of mother-father informant discrepancies regarding diabetes management to diabetes-specific family conflict and glycemic control. Methods 136 mothers and fathers of youth with type 1 diabetes reported on the youth's diabetes management, diabetes-specific family conflict, and amount of paternal involvement in diabetes care. Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was used to measure glycemic control. Results As hypothesized, mother-father discrepancies regarding diabetes management were positively associated with frequency of diabetes-specific family conflict. Contrary to hypotheses, mother-father discrepancies regarding diabetes management predicted poorer glycemic control for youth with less involved fathers only. Conclusions Results highlight the importance of caregivers being consistent about pediatric illness management and support the idea that informant discrepancies represent an important window into the functioning of the family system. PMID:22823070

  15. Indicators of glycemic control in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and pregnant women with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Kunihiko; Koga, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it has become clear that mild abnormal glucose tolerance increases the incidence of perinatal maternal-infant complications, and so the definition and diagnostic criteria of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been changed. Therefore, in patients with GDM and pregnant women with diabetes mellitus, even stricter glycemic control than before is required to reduce the incidence of perinatal maternal-infant complications. Strict glycemic control cannot be attained without an indicator of glycemic control; this review proposes a reliable indicator. The gold standard indicator of glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus is hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c); however, we have demonstrated that HbA1c does not reflect glycemic control accurately during pregnancy because of iron deficiency. It has also become clear that glycated albumin, another indicator of glycemic control, is not influenced by iron deficiency and therefore might be a better indicator of glycemic control in patients with GDM and pregnant women with diabetes mellitus. However, large-population epidemiological studies are necessary in order to confirm our proposal. Here, we outline the most recent findings about the indicators of glycemic control during pregnancy including fructosamine and 1,5-anhydroglucitol. PMID:26240701

  16. Glycemic control of diabetes patients under continuous rocket attacks.

    PubMed

    Soskolne, Varda; Dekel, Rachel; Vinker, Shlomo

    2016-01-01

    Evidence regarding the detrimental effects of exposure to stress on glycemic control among diabetes patients has mainly focused on personal life events or acute trauma. However, the effects of continuous exposure to extreme stress on type 2 diabetes patients have rarely been studied. The aim of the current study was to examine the association of continuous exposure to rocket attacks with glycemic control and with risk factors for diabetes complications among civilian type 2 diabetes patients. We focus on patients residing in the Western Negev in the south of Israel that has been subjected to rocket attacks fired from Gaza since the end of 2001. A two-arm retrospective cohort study of type 2 diabetes patients, aged 35-70 years, residing in a region with chronic exposure to rocket attacks (N = 1697) and in a non-exposed comparison region in Israel (N = 3000). Data were retrieved from the Health Maintenance Organization (HMO)'s database for four time periods representing exposure: chronic-2008; elevated-2009 (post'Cast Lead' operation); return to chronic-2010, 2011. Data included socio-demographic variables, HbA1c, BMI, LDL cholesterol, blood pressure. General Linear Models (GLM) were used for analysis. For HbA1c, the model yielded a significant main effect for time, a borderline significance main effect for region, and a significant time by region interaction: no differences in HbA1c levels between the regions in 2008 and 2009, followed by significant differences between the regions in 2010 and 2011 when HbA1c continued to increase in the exposed region but decreased in the comparison region. Regarding risk factors, a significant main effect for time for LDL cholesterol only, and significant main effects for region were found in all factors: BMI and LDL cholesterol were higher in the exposed than in the comparison region, but blood pressure values were lower. Continuous exposure to rocket attacks is associated with glycemic control and risk factors in a complex

  17. Effect of lowering the glycemic load with canola oil on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C; Vuksan, Vladimir; Faulkner, Dorothea; Augustin, Livia S A; Mitchell, Sandra; Ireland, Christopher; Srichaikul, Korbua; Mirrahimi, Arash; Chiavaroli, Laura; Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Nishi, Stephanie; Sahye-Pudaruth, Sandhya; Patel, Darshna; Bashyam, Balachandran; Vidgen, Edward; de Souza, Russell J; Sievenpiper, John L; Coveney, Judy; Josse, Robert G; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2014-07-01

    Despite their independent cardiovascular disease (CVD) advantages, effects of α-linolenic acid (ALA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and low-glycemic-load (GL) diets have not been assessed in combination. We therefore determined the combined effect of ALA, MUFA, and low GL on glycemic control and CVD risk factors in type 2 diabetes. The study was a parallel design, randomized trial wherein each 3-month treatment was conducted in a Canadian academic center between March 2011 and September 2012 and involved 141 participants with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c 6.5%-8.5% [48-69 mmol/mol]) treated with oral antihyperglycemic agents. Participants were provided with dietary advice on either a low-GL diet with ALA and MUFA given as a canola oil-enriched bread supplement (31 g canola oil per 2,000 kcal) (test) or a whole-grain diet with a whole-wheat bread supplement (control). The primary outcome was HbA1c change. Secondary outcomes included calculated Framingham CVD risk score and reactive hyperemia index (RHI) ratio. Seventy-nine percent of the test group and 90% of the control group completed the trial. The test diet reduction in HbA1c units of -0.47% (-5.15 mmol/mol) (95% CI -0.54% to -0.40% [-5.92 to -4.38 mmol/mol]) was greater than that for the control diet (-0.31% [-3.44 mmol/mol] [95% CI -0.38% to -0.25% (-4.17 to -2.71 mmol/mol)], P = 0.002), with the greatest benefit observed in those with higher systolic blood pressure (SBP). Greater reductions were seen in CVD risk score for the test diet, whereas the RHI ratio increased for the control diet. A canola oil-enriched low-GL diet improved glycemic control in type 2 diabetes, particularly in participants with raised SBP, whereas whole grains improved vascular reactivity. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  18. Metabolic responses to high glycemic index and low glycemic index meals: a controlled crossover clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The consumption of low glycemic index (LGI) foods before exercise results in slower and more stable glycemic increases. Besides maintaining an adequate supply of energy during exercise, this response may favor an increase in fat oxidation in the postprandial period before the exercise compared to high glycemic index (HGI) foods. The majority of the studies that evaluated the effect of foods differing in glycemic index on substrate oxidation during the postprandial period before the exercise are acute studies in which a single meal is consumed right before the exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of consuming two daily HGI or LGI meals for five consecutive days on substrate oxidation before the exercise and in the concentrations of glucose, insulin and free fatty acids before and during a high intensity exercise. Methods Fifteen male cyclists, aged 24.4 ± 3.8 years, with body mass index of 21.9 ± 1.4 kg.m-2 and a VO2 max of 70.0 ± 5.3 mL.kg-1.min-1, participated in this crossover study. All test meals were consumed in the laboratory. On days 1 and 5, substrate oxidation (30 minutes before and 90 minutes after breakfast (HGI or LGI)) and diet-induced thermogenesis (90 minutes postprandial) were assessed before the exercise. The levels of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids were determined during 2 h after breakfast on these same days. Ninety minutes after breakfast, subjects completed a 30 min cycloergometric exercise at 85 to 95% of their maximum heart rate, during which lactate concentrations were assessed. Results The consumption of HGI meals resulted in higher areas under the glycemic and insulinemic curves in the postprandial period. However, glycemia did not differ by study treatment during exercise. There were no differences in free fatty acids in the postprandial period or in lactate levels during exercise. LGI meals resulted in lower fat oxidation and higher carbohydrate oxidation than the HGI meal in the

  19. Blood glucose monitoring and glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: meter downloads versus self-report.

    PubMed

    Guilfoyle, Shanna M; Crimmins, Nancy A; Hood, Korey K

    2011-09-01

    Reported frequencies of blood glucose monitoring (BGM) by both adolescents and their caregivers serve as adherence proxies when meter downloads are not available. Yet, correlates of reported BGM frequencies and their predictive utility are understudied. To identify sociodemographic, psychological, and disease-specific correlates of reported BGM frequencies in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to explore the predictive utility of BGM indices on glycemic control. Study participants included caregivers and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (N=143, 13-18 yr) receiving diabetes treatment at a tertiary care setting. At the initial visit, adolescents and caregivers reported on daily BGM frequencies. A sub-sample provided meter downloads. Adolescents also completed a depression inventory. Three months later, adolescents provided blood sampling for A1c assessment. Multivariate general linear modeling identified that older adolescent age and more depressive symptoms were associated with reports of less frequent BGM. Two stepwise multivariate regression models examined the predictive utility of BGM indices (i.e., adolescent-reported BGM, caregiver-reported BGM, meter download) on glycemic control. Caregiver-reported BGM frequency predicted glycemic control in the absence of meter download data (p<0.001). However, when clinical and contextual variables were included, meter download data were the most robust predictor of glycemic control (p<0.0001). Meter downloads have the most robust association with glycemic control when contextual variables are considered. Caregiver-reported BGM frequencies can serve as reliable substitutes in the absence of meter download, but they may not be as reliable in adolescents with depressive symptoms. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Predicting the effectiveness of insulin pump therapy on glycemic control in clinical practice: a retrospective study of patients with type 1 diabetes from 10 outpatient diabetes clinics in Sweden over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Clements, Mark; Matuleviciene, Viktorija; Attvall, Stig; Ekelund, Magnus; Pivodic, Aldina; Dahlqvist, Sofia; Fahlén, Martin; Haraldsson, Börje; Lind, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Multicenter long-term studies of predictors for the effectiveness of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in clinical practice are lacking. We hypothesized that there are substantially greater reductions in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in patients with poor glycemic control and that other predictors may also exist. We used data from 10 outpatient diabetic clinics in Sweden and studied CSII treatment over 5 years. Patients with HbA1c values available ≤ 6 months before starting CSII and at 5 years were included (n = 272, 82% of CSII patients) along with 2,437 contemporaneous controls on multiple daily insulin injections (MDI). Baseline variables evaluated were age, sex, diabetes duration, insulin dose, body mass index (BMI), HbA1c at baseline, and outpatient clinical care unit. At 5 years, significantly greater reductions in HbA1c by CSII compared with MDI were found for patients with higher baseline HbA1c (P = 0.032) and lower baseline BMI (P = 0.013). For baseline HbA1c levels of 7.0%, 8.0%, and 9.0% and a BMI of 25 kg/m(2), the reduction in HbA1c level by CSII was 0.08% (difference not significant), 0.16% (95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.29%), and 0.25% (95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.39%), respectively. Corresponding analyses for the change in HbA1c level from start to 1 and 2 years revealed a significant interaction of insulin pump therapy only with baseline HbA1c levels (P < 0.001 and P = 0.030, respectively). The interaction term between outpatient clinical care unit and CSII treatment was statistically significant for some care units, with some care units demonstrating a benefit from CSII and others demonstrating a detriment. Patients with high HbA1c levels have a greater probability of improved HbA1c after initiating pump therapy, but effects remain relatively modest even for patients with poor control. Factors predicting successful insulin pump use need further study.

  1. Trace elements, oxidative stress and glycemic control in young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Chiang; Huang, Hsiu-Hua; Hu, Chiung-Wen; Chen, Bai-Hsiun; Chong, Inn-Wen; Chao, Yu-Ying; Huang, Yeou-Lih

    2014-01-01

    Trace elements and oxidative stress are associated with glycemic control and diabetic complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we analyzed the levels of serum copper, zinc, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and urinary MDA and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in 33 type 1 diabetic patients with optimal and suboptimal glycemic control (HbA1C<9.0%) and 40 patients with poor glycemic control (HbA1C≥9%) and 27 age- and sex-matched non-diabetic controls to evaluate the differences between these markers in different glycemic control states. Diabetic patients, especially poor-glycemic-control subjects (HbA1C≥9%), exhibited significantly lower levels of serum zinc and increased levels of serum copper (and, therefore, increased serum copper-to-zinc ratios), serum SOD, blood MDA, and urinary MDA and 8-OHdG, relative to non-diabetic subjects. Furthermore, significant correlations existed in these patients between the serum copper, serum copper-to-zinc ratio, and urinary MDA (all p<0.001) and the levels of urinary 8-OHdG (p=0.007) and HbA1C. Our results suggest that high serum copper levels and oxidative stress correlate with glycemic control. Therefore, strict glycemic control, decreased oxidative stress, and a lower copper concentration might prevent diabetic complications in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  2. Relationship between vitamin D and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Olt, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Herein I investigated the impact of vitamin D on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 128 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled in this study (mean (S.D) age: 57.7±10 years, 26.6% were female). It was collected clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients from hospital records retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups according to the HBA1c values: good glycemic control (HbA1c≤7%) and poor glycemic control (HbA1c>7%). It was compared 25 hydroxyvitamin (OH) D and other collected laboratory parameters between the two groups. The vitamin D deficiency rate was 98.3%. In the result with ROC curve analyzes and Mann Whitney U test vitamin D was'nt significantly associated with glycemic control (P value >0.05). Among other parameters result with ROC curve analyzes and student t test RDW-CV was found to be significantly associated with glycemic control (P value <0.05). Although high level of vitamin D deficiency, present study indicated that vitamin D was'nt significantly related to glycemic control in type 2 diyabetes mellitus. Even so RDW-CV was significantly related to glycemic control.

  3. Association between glycemic control and antidiabetic drugs in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with cardiovascular complications.

    PubMed

    Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Ling, Doris Yew Hui; Ahmad, Wan Azman Wan

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a macrovascular complication in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To date, glycemic control profiles of antidiabetic drugs in cardiovascular (CV) complications have not been clearly elucidated. Therefore, this study was conducted retrospectively to assess the association of antidiabetic drugs and glycemic control with CV profiles in T2DM patients. The association of concurrent medications and comorbidities with glycemic control was also investigated. A total of 220 T2DM patients from the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia, who had at least one CV complication and who had been taking at least one antidiabetic drug for at least 3 months, were included. The associations of antidiabetics, cardiovascular diseases, laboratory parameters, concurrent medications, comorbidities, demographics, and clinical characteristics with glycemic control were investigated. Sulfonylureas in combination (P=0.002) and sulfonylurea monotherapy (P<0.001) were found to be associated with good glycemic control, whereas insulin in combination (P=0.051), and combination biguanides and insulin therapy (P=0.012) were found to be associated with poor glycemic control. Stroke (P=0.044) was the only type of CVD that seemed to be significantly associated with good glycemic control. Other factors such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (P=0.026), elderly patients (P=0.018), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P=0.021), and fasting plasma glucose (P<0.001) were found to be significantly correlated with good glycemic control. Individualized treatment in T2DM patients with CVDs can be supported through a better understanding of the association between glycemic control and CV profiles in T2DM patients.

  4. Association between glycemic control and antidiabetic drugs in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with cardiovascular complications

    PubMed Central

    Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Ling, Doris Yew Hui; Ahmad, Wan Azman Wan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a macrovascular complication in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To date, glycemic control profiles of antidiabetic drugs in cardiovascular (CV) complications have not been clearly elucidated. Therefore, this study was conducted retrospectively to assess the association of antidiabetic drugs and glycemic control with CV profiles in T2DM patients. The association of concurrent medications and comorbidities with glycemic control was also investigated. Methods A total of 220 T2DM patients from the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia, who had at least one CV complication and who had been taking at least one antidiabetic drug for at least 3 months, were included. The associations of antidiabetics, cardiovascular diseases, laboratory parameters, concurrent medications, comorbidities, demographics, and clinical characteristics with glycemic control were investigated. Results Sulfonylureas in combination (P=0.002) and sulfonylurea monotherapy (P<0.001) were found to be associated with good glycemic control, whereas insulin in combination (P=0.051), and combination biguanides and insulin therapy (P=0.012) were found to be associated with poor glycemic control. Stroke (P=0.044) was the only type of CVD that seemed to be significantly associated with good glycemic control. Other factors such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (P=0.026), elderly patients (P=0.018), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P=0.021), and fasting plasma glucose (P<0.001) were found to be significantly correlated with good glycemic control. Conclusion Individualized treatment in T2DM patients with CVDs can be supported through a better understanding of the association between glycemic control and CV profiles in T2DM patients. PMID:26316711

  5. Assessing inpatient glycemic control: what are the next steps?

    PubMed

    Cook, Curtiss B; Wellik, Kay E; Kongable, Gail L; Shu, Jianfen

    2012-03-01

    Despite the emergence of glucometrics (i.e., systematic analysis of data on blood glucose levels of inpatients) as a subject of high interest, there remains a lack of standardization on how glucose parameters are measured and reported. This dilemma must be resolved before a national benchmarking process can be developed that will allow institutions to track and compare inpatient glucose control performance against established guidelines and that can also be supported by quality care organizations. In this article, we review some of the questions that need to be resolved through consensus and review of the evidence, and discuss some of the limitations in analyzing and reporting inpatient glucose data that must be addressed (or at least accepted as limitations) before hospitals can commit resources to gathering, compiling, and presenting inpatient glucose statistics as a health care quality measure. Standards must include consensus on which measures to report, the unit of analysis, definitions of targets for hyperglycemia treatment, a definition of hypoglycemia, determination of how data should be gathered (from chart review or from laboratory information systems), and which type of sample (blood or point of care) should be used for analysis of glycemic control. Hospitals and/or their representatives should be included in the discussion. For inpatient glucose control to remain a focus of interest, further dialogue and consensus on the topic are needed.

  6. Body mass index and glycemic control influences lipoproteins in children with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Vaid, Shalini; Hanks, Lynae; Griffin, Russell; Ashraf, Ambika P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) have an extremely high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. It is well-known that dyslipidemia is a subclinical manifestation of atherosclerosis. Objective To analyze presence and predicting factors of lipoprotein abnormalities prevalent in children with T1DM and whether race specific differences exists between non-Hispanic White (NHW) and non-Hispanic Black (NHB) in the lipoprotein characteristics. Methods A retrospective electronic chart review including 600 (123 NHB and 477 NHW ) T1DM patients, ages 7.85 ± 3.75 years who underwent lipoprotein analysis. Results Relative to NHW counterparts, NHB T1DM subjects had a higher HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), apoB 100, lipoprotein (a), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), HDL-2 and -3. Body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with TC, LDL, apoB 100, and non-HDL and inversely associated with HDL, HDL-2, and HDL-3. HbA1c was positively associated with TC, LDL, apoB100, non-HDL, and HDL-3. Multilinear regression analysis demonstrated that HbA1c was positively associated with apoB 100 in both NHB and NHW, and BMI was a positive determinant of apoB 100 in NHW only. Conclusion Poor glycemic control and high BMI may contribute to abnormal lipoprotein profiles. Glycemic control (in NHB and NHW) and weight management (in NHW) may have significant implications in T1DM. ApoB100 concentrations in subjects with T1DM were determined by modifiable risk factors, BMI, HbA1C, and blood pressure, indicating the importance of adequate weight-, glycemic-, and blood pressure control for better diabetes care, and likely lower CVD risk. PMID:27678442

  7. Almond consumption improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Almond consumption is associated with ameliorations in obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. The hypothesis of this 12-wk randomized crossover clinical trial was that almond consumption would improve glycemic control and decrease risk to cardiovascular disease in 20 Chinese type ...

  8. Veganism Is a Viable Alternative to Conventional Diet Therapy for Improving Blood Lipids and Glycemic Control.

    PubMed

    Trepanowski, John F; Varady, Krista A

    2015-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) have each outlined a set of dietary recommendations aimed at improving glycemic control and blood lipids, respectively. However, traditional vegan diets (low-fat diets that proscribe animal product consumption) are also effective at improving glycemic control, and dietary portfolios (vegan diets that contain prescribed amounts of plant sterols, viscous fibers, soy protein, and nuts) are also effective at improving blood lipids. The purpose of this review was to compare the effects of traditional vegan diets and dietary portfolios with ADA and NCEP diets on body weight, blood lipids, blood pressure, and glycemic control. The main findings are that traditional vegan diets appear to improve glycemic control better than ADA diets in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while dietary portfolios have been consistently shown to improve blood lipids better than NCEP diets in hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  9. Impact of hyperbaric oxygen on diabetic ulcers is unaffected by glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiani, Parkash; Bahktiani, Parkash; Mansuri, Owaise; Yadav, Abhijeet; Osuoha, Chima; Knight, Patty; Baynosa, Richard; McLafferty, Robert; Jakoby, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy is an established intervention for treating chronic diabetic lower extremity ulcers, but the impact of glycemic control on its efficacy has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of blood glucose control at initiation of HBO2 treatment on wound healing. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was measured at start of HBO2 therapy for 22 patients undergoing treatment of chronic lower extremity ulcers at two regional wound care centers. Patients with HbA1c < 7.5% were stratified into a "good glycemic control" group (n = 12, mean HbA1c 6.5 ± 0.8%), and patients with HbA1c ≥ 7.5% were stratified into a "poor glycemic control" group (n = 10, mean HbA1c 8.8 ± 1.4%, p = 0.004 compared to "good glycemic control group"). After 20 HBO2 sessions over 30 days in addition to standard wound care interventions, there was no difference in wound healing between the two glycemic control groups as indicated by. reduction from baseline in ulcer surface area, depth, or volume. The diabetic lower extremity wound response to HBO2 therapy is unaffected by glycemic control prior to treatment, and HBO2 treatment should not be delayed for suboptimal blood glucose control.

  10. Postprandial blood glucose control in type 1 diabetes for carbohydrates with varying glycemic index foods.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Shogo; Noguchi, Claudia Cecilia Yamamoto; Furutani, Eiko

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of type 1 diabetes consists of maintaining postprandial normoglycemia using the correct prandial insulin dose according to food intake. Nonetheless, it is hardly achieved in practice, which results in several diabetes-related complications. In this study we present a feedforward plus feedback blood glucose control system that considers the glycemic index of foods. It consists of a preprandial insulin bolus whose optimal bolus dose and timing are stated as a minimization problem, which is followed by a postprandial closed-loop control based on model predictive control. Simulation results show that, for a representative carbohydrate intake of 50 g, the present control system is able to maintain postprandial glycemia below 140 mg/dL while preventing postprandial hypoglycemia as well.

  11. Self-Efficacy Links Health Literacy and Numeracy to Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Cavanaugh, Kerri; Wallston, Kenneth A.; Rothman, Russell L.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the relationship between health literacy, numeracy, and glycemic control are unclear. We explored the role of self-efficacy in the predicted pathway linking health literacy and numeracy to glycemic control (A1C). Adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (N=383) were enrolled in a cross-sectional study at primary care and diabetes clinics at three medical centers. Data collected included demographic information, health literacy, general numeracy, and A1C. Path analytic models estimated relations among health literacy, numeracy, and self-efficacy as predictors of A1C. Health literacy (r=0.14, p<0.01) and numeracy skills (r=0.17, p<0.001) were each associated with greater self-efficacy; and greater diabetes self-efficacy was associated with lower A1C levels (r=−0.25, p<001). When considered in combination, numeracy was related to self-efficacy (r=0.13, p<0.05) and the effect of health literacy on self-efficacy was reduced to non-significance (r=0.06, p=0.30). Health literacy and numeracy are each associated with greater diabetes self-efficacy; and greater diabetes self-efficacy is associated with lower A1C levels. Diabetes self-efficacy may be an important target of interventions to improve diabetes control and promote health equity related to health literacy and general numeracy skills needed for diabetes management. PMID:20845200

  12. Frequency and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in an African diabetic population

    PubMed Central

    Kibirige, Davis; Akabwai, George Patrick; Kampiire, Leaticia; Kiggundu, Daniel Ssekikubo; Lumu, William

    2017-01-01

    Background Persistent suboptimal glycemic control is invariably associated with onset and progression of acute and chronic diabetic complications in diabetic patients. In Uganda, studies documenting the magnitude and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in adult ambulatory diabetic patients are limited. This study aimed at determining the frequency and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in adult diabetic patients attending three urban outpatient diabetic clinics in Uganda. Methods In this hospital-based cross-sectional study, eligible ambulatory adult diabetic patients attending outpatient diabetic clinics of three urban hospitals were consecutively enrolled over 11 months. Suboptimal glycemic control was defined as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7%. Multivariable analysis was applied to determine the predictors. Results The mean age of the study participants was 52.2±14.4 years, and the majority of them were females (283, 66.9%). The median (interquartile range) HbA1c level was 9% (6.8%–12.4%). Suboptimal glycemic control was noted in 311 study participants, accounting for 73.52% of the participants. HbA1c levels of 7%–8%, 8.1%–9.9%, and ≥10% were noted in 56 (13.24%), 76 (17.97%), and 179 (42.32%) study participants, respectively. The documented predictors of suboptimal glycemic control were metformin monotherapy (odds ratio: 0.36, 95% confidence interval: 0.21–0.63, p<0.005) and insulin therapy (odds ratio: 2.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.41–4.12, p=0.001). Conclusion Suboptimal glycemic control was highly prevalent in this study population with an association to metformin monotherapy and insulin therapy. Strategies aimed at improving glycemic control in diabetes care in Uganda should be enhanced. PMID:28260942

  13. Glycemic control and antidiabetic drugs in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with renal complications

    PubMed Central

    Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Lim, Lay Peng; Lim, Soo Kun

    2015-01-01

    Background Good glycemic control can delay the progression of kidney diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with renal complications. To date, the association between antidiabetic agents and glycemic control in this specific patient population is not well established. Purpose This study aimed to identify antidiabetic regimens as well as other factors that associated with glycemic control in T2DM patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patients and methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study involved 242 T2DM inpatients and outpatients with renal complications from January 2009 to March 2014 and was conducted in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) was used as main parameter to assess patients’ glycemic status. Patients were classified to have good (A1C <7%) or poor glycemic control (A1C ≥7%) based on the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association. Results Majority of the patients presented with CKD stage 4 (43.4%). Approximately 55.4% of patients were categorized to have poor glycemic control. Insulin (57.9%) was the most commonly prescribed antidiabetic medication, followed by sulfonylureas (43%). Of all antidiabetic regimens, sulfonylureas monotherapy (P<0.001), insulin therapy (P=0.005), and combination of biguanides with insulin (P=0.038) were found to be significantly associated with glycemic control. Other factors including duration of T2DM (P=0.004), comorbidities such as anemia (P=0.024) and retinopathy (P=0.033), concurrent medications such as erythropoietin therapy (P=0.047), α-blockers (P=0.033), and antigouts (P=0.003) were also correlated with A1C. Conclusion Identification of factors that are associated with glycemic control is important to help in optimization of glucose control in T2DM patients with renal complication. PMID:26300627

  14. Association between depression and glycemic control among type 2 diabetes patients in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Crispín‐Trebejo, Brenda; Bernabé‐Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction There is limited and controversial information regarding the potential impact of depression on glycemic control. This study aims to evaluate the association between depression and poor glycemic control. In addition, the prevalence of depression and rates of poor glycemic control were determined. Methods Cross‐sectional study performed in the endocrinology unit of two hospitals of ESSALUD in Peru. The outcome of interest was poor glycemic control, evaluated by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c: < 7% versus ≥ 7%), whereas the exposure of interest was depression defined as 15 or more points in the Patient Health Questionnaire‐9 tool. The association of interest was evaluated using Poisson regression models with robust standard errors reporting prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) adjusting for potential confounders. Results A total of 277 participants, 184 (66.4%) males, mean age 59.0 (SD: 4.8), and 7.1 (SD: 6.8) years of disease were analyzed. Only 31 participants (11.2%; 95% CI: 7.5%–14.9%) had moderately severe or severe depression, whereas 70 (25.3%; 95% CI 20.3%–30.8%) had good glycemic control. Depression increased the probability of having poor glycemic control (PR = 1.32; 95% CI 1.15–1.51) after adjusting for several potential confounders. Conclusions There is an association between depression and poor glycemic control among type 2 diabetes patients. Our results suggest that early detection of depression might be important to facilitate appropriate glycemic control and avoid further metabolic complications. PMID:26037488

  15. Glycemic control in cardiac surgery: implementing an evidence-based insulin infusion protocol.

    PubMed

    Hargraves, Joelle D

    2014-05-01

    Acute hyperglycemia following cardiac surgery increases the risk of deep sternal wound infection, significant early morbidity, and mortality. Insulin infusion protocols that target tight glycemic control to treat hyperglycemia have been linked to hypoglycemia and increased mortality. Recently published studies examining glycemic control in critical illness and clinical practice guidelines from professional organizations support moderate glycemic control. To measure critical care nurses' knowledge of glycemic control in cardiac surgery before and after education. To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of an evidence-based insulin infusion protocol targeting moderate glycemic control in cardiac surgery patients. This evidence-based practice change was implemented in the cardiovascular unit in a community teaching hospital. Nurses completed a self-developed questionnaire to measure knowledge of glycemic control. Blood glucose data, collected (retrospectively) from anesthesia end time through 11:59 PM on postoperative day 2, were compared from 2 months before to 2 months after the practice change. Nurses' knowledge (test scores) increased significantly after education (pretest mean = 53.10, SD = 11.75; posttest mean = 79.10, SD = 12.02; t54 = -8.18, P < .001). Mean blood glucose level after implementation was 148 mg/dL. The incidence of hypoglycemia, 2.09% before and 0.22% after the intervention, was significantly reduced ( $${\\hbox{ \\chi }}_{1}^{2}$$ [n = 29] = 13.9, P < .001). The percentage of blood glucose levels less than 180 mg/dL was 88.30%. Increasing nurses' knowledge of glycemic control and implementing an insulin infusion protocol targeting moderate glycemic control were effective for treating acute hyperglycemia following cardiac surgery with decreased incidence of hypoglycemia.

  16. Effects of periodontal therapy on glycemic control and inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Patricia A A; Taba, Mario; Nomizo, Auro; Foss Freitas, Maria C; Suaid, Flavia A; Uyemura, Sergio A; Trevisan, Glauce L; Novaes, Arthur B; Souza, Sergio L S; Palioto, Daniela B; Grisi, Marcio F M

    2008-05-01

    Periodontitis, a complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), can induce or perpetuate systemic conditions. This double-masked, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of periodontal therapy (scaling and root planing [SRP]) on the serum levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and on inflammatory biomarkers. Thirty subjects with type 2 DM and periodontitis were treated with SRP + placebo (SRP; N = 15) or with SRP + doxycycline (SRP+Doxy; N = 15), 100 mg/day, for 14 days. Clinical and laboratory data were recorded at baseline and at 3 months after treatment. After 3 months, the reduction in probing depth was 0.8 mm for the SRP group (P <0.01) and 1.1 mm for the SRP+Doxy group (P <0.01) followed by a 0.9% (SRP; P = 0.17) and 1.5% (SRP+Doxy; P <0.01) reduction in HbA1c levels. A significant reduction in interleukin (IL)-6; interferon-inducible protein 10; soluble fas ligand; granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; RANTES; and IL-12 p70 serum levels were also verified (N = 30). To our knowledge, this is the first report on the effects of periodontal therapy on multiple systemic inflammatory markers in DM. Periodontal therapy may influence the systemic conditions of patients with type 2 DM, but no statistical difference was observed with the adjunctive systemic doxycycline therapy. Moreover, it is possible that the observed improvement in glycemic control and in the reduction of inflammatory markers could also be due to diet, which was not controlled in our study. Therefore, a confirmatory study with a larger sample size and controlled diet is necessary.

  17. Nurses' perceptions of glycemic control in patients who have undergone cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Henry, Linda; Dunning, Elizabeth; Halpin, Linda; Stanger, Debra; Martin, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Previous work investigating the effect of glycemic control in patients who underwent cardiac surgery has demonstrated that obtaining and maintaining blood glucose values between 80 and 120 is imperative in achieving excellent clinical outcomes in a patient who have undergone cardiac surgery. However, the caregiver's workload associated with meeting this goal is only now beginning to be understood. This qualitative study used focus groups held on 3 consecutive days to interview nurses in the cardiovascular intensive care unit and cardiovascular step-down unit about their thoughts on glycemic control.Three research questions were developed to help guide the focus group discussions. Ten nurses, 3 from cardiovascular intensive care unit and 7 from cardiovascular step-down unit, participated in the focus groups and saturation was accomplished. The essence of the nurses' message was that they recognize glycemic control as a very important part of their patient care. However, to be able to perform this intervention, they need available equipment, a designated person to obtain all blood glucose values, periodic updates on patient outcomes related to glycemic control, and a less intrusive way to draw the patients' blood. The ability of the nurses to obtain glycemic control is hindered by the lack of time, lack of necessary resources/equipment, lack of knowledge about the long-term outcomes resulting from glycemic control, and the discomfort to patients caused by the frequent blood draws. Hospitals need to investigate alternative mechanisms that will assist the nurse in meeting this goal.

  18. Glycemic Pentad.

    PubMed

    Forum, Glycemic Pentad

    2017-07-01

    Conventionally, diabetes management involved targeting the triad of FPG, PPG, and HbA1c. However, several studies have suggested the quintessential need for a paradigm shift to incorporate glycemic variability and quality of life in the holistic diabetes control regimen. To generate a consensus and ratify the position of Glycemic Variability (GV) and Quality of Life (QOL), along with the traditional triad, in diabetes management in India. To evaluate whether the triple fixed dose combination of metformin, glimepiride, and voglibose can accomplish the goals of glycemic pentad. Glycemic pentad forum was instituted comprising of 55 experts from different regions of India in the field of diabetology who discussed various evidences related to the topic and shared their experiences and expressed their opinion on the relevance of glycemic pentad in the present diabetes management and whether triple fixed dose combination of metformin, glimepiride, and voglibose is able to achieve glycemic pentad targets. Forum has come to a consensus that the conglomerate of quintuple elements - FPG, PPG, HbA1c, glycemic variability and quality of life to be termed as glycemic pentad and these milestones to be considered for any antidiabetic therapy. Experts opined that combination therapy is required to achieve the Glycemic Pentad, as monotherapy might not address all the five arms of Glycemic Pentad. Group also agreed that the diabetes management in Indians require separate attention due to their distinct dietary habits (high carbohydrate content) and socio-economic status (economically weak and poorly educated). Therefore, mild adjustments to the standard practices in the western countries are suggested. After evaluating various drugs in the current market to identify candidates that could regulate the elements of Glycemic Pentad, the forum assume that a triple fixed dose combination of metformin, glimepiride, and voglibose could be a better choice in Indians as the combination is safe

  19. Baseline Circulating FGF21 Concentrations and Increase after Fenofibrate Treatment Predict More Rapid Glycemic Progression in Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the FIELD Study.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kwok-Leung; O'Connell, Rachel; Januszewski, Andrzej S; Jenkins, Alicia J; Xu, Aimin; Sullivan, David R; Barter, Philip J; Scott, Russell S; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Waldman, Boris; Colman, Peter G; Best, James D; Simes, John R; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Keech, Anthony C

    2017-07-01

    It is not known whether circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) concentrations are associated with glycemic progression in patients with established type 2 diabetes. This study reports this relationship in type 2 diabetes patients participating in the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) trial. Plasma FGF21 was quantified in 9697 study participants. Among patients with lifestyle-only glucose control measures at baseline, glycemic progression was defined as the initiation of oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin therapy. We assessed the relationship of FGF21 concentrations with glycohemoglobin (Hb A1c), the homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-B) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and glycemic progression. Among 2584 patients with lifestyle-only glycemic therapy at baseline, plasma FGF21 concentrations were positively associated with HOMA-IR (5.1% increase per 100% increase in FGF21 concentrations). Patients with higher baseline plasma FGF21 concentrations had higher risk of glycemic progression over a 5-year period (P = 0.02), but the association was not significant after further adjusting for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme activity. During the fenofibrate active run-in phase, higher tertiles of fenofibrate-induced increase in FGF21 concentrations were associated with higher risk of glycemic progression (adjusted hazards ratio = 1.09 and 1.18 for tertiles 2 and 3, respectively, P for trend = 0.01), even after adjusting for ALT enzyme activity. This association was statistically significant in the fenofibrate group only (P = 0.01). Higher baseline and fenofibrate-induced increase in FGF21 concentrations predict more rapid glycemic progression in type 2 diabetes patients. This association may be partly explained by hepatic function. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  20. Effect of current glycemic control on qualitative body composition in sedentary ambulatory Type 2 diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Jayesh Dalpatbhai; Makwana, Amit H.; Mehta, Hemant B.; Kamdar, Panna; Gokhale, Pradnya A.; Shah, Chinmay J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus are on rise with cause–effect relationship. Diabetics monitor blood sugar, neglecting qualitative body composition, leaving residual threat of ectopic fat unattended. We tried to correlate glycemic triad with parameters of body composition derived objectively by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Materials and Methods: A sample of 78 under treatment sedentary Type 2 diabetics of either sex with known glycemic and lipidemic control from our city. Following baseline assessment measurement was done by instrument Omron Karada Scan (Model HBF-510, China) using the principle of tetra poplar BIA to derive parameters of body composition. We tried to correlate glycemic triad with these parameters, both directly as well as after defining them as per established cutoff norms. Results: We found poor glycemic control in the study group (20% for Hb1AC), high body mass index, subcutaneous fat, visceral fat (VF), total body fat (TBF), and lesser mass of skeletal muscle in Type 2 diabetics. However, there were small, insignificant, and inconsistent difference of these parameters while directly correlating with the fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin. On qualitative assessment, the impact of glycemic control as per standard norms, the risk of high VF, high TBF, low skeletal muscle mass was though high (between 1 and 2) in Type 2 diabetics with poor glycemic control as compared to good glycemics, but each strength lacks statistical significance. Conclusion: BIA reveals that Type 2 diabetics have more ectopic fat on expense of skeletal muscle that do not correlate with current glycemic status, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Measurement of body composition can be included and subjects can be motivated for lifestyle modification strategies while managing metabolic derangements of Type 2 diabetes. PMID:27185972

  1. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH POOR GLYCEMIC CONTROL IN OLDER MEXICAN AMERICAN DIABETICS AGED 75 YEARS AND OLDER

    PubMed Central

    Otiniano, Max E.; Al Snih, Soham; Goodwin, James S.; Ray, Laura; Al Ghatrif, Majd; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examines the prevalence and correlates of poor glycemic control in Mexican Americans aged 75 years and older with diabetes. Methods Data are from the 5th wave (2004–05) of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (H-EPESE). A total of 2,069 Mexican Americans aged 75 and over were interviewed. Six hundred eighty nine subjects (33.5%) reported having been diagnosed with diabetes and 209 (30.3%) subjects agreed to a blood test of their HbA1c level. Results Of the 209 diabetic subjects with an HbA1c test, 73 (34.9%) had good glycemic control (HbA1c <7%) and 136 (65.1%) had poor glycemic control (HbA1c >7%). Bivariate analysis revealed that subjects with poor control had longer disease duration, had lower education, used the glucometer more frequently, and had more diabetes-complications when compared to those in the good glycemic control group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found the following factors associated with poor glycemic control: < 8 years of education, foreign-born, smoking, obesity, longer disease duration, daily glucometer use, and having macro-complications. Discussion Prevalence of poor glycemic control is very high in this population with very high and rising prevalence of diabetes. Further studies are needed to explore the effect of these and other characteristics on glycemic control among older Mexican Americans and to develop appropriate interventions to improve diabetes outcomes and increase life-expectancy. PMID:22520403

  2. Empiric validation of simulation models for estimating glucose meter performance criteria for moderate levels of glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Karon, Brad S; Boyd, James C; Klee, George G

    2013-12-01

    We used simulation modeling to relate glucose meter performance criteria to insulin dosing errors for patients on a moderate glycemic control protocol (glucose target, 110-150 mg/dL) and empirically validated assumptions from simulation models using observed glucose meter and laboratory glucose values obtained nearly simultaneously. The 25,948 glucose values from 1,513 patients on a moderate glycemic control protocol were used to represent the expected distribution of glucose values in this patient population. Simulation models were used to relate glucose meter analytical performance to insulin dosing errors assuming 10%, 15%, or 20% total allowable error (TEa). In addition, 4,017 paired glucose meter and serum laboratory glucose measurements drawn within 5 min of each other were used to generate an empiric dataset to validate simulation model assumptions relating glucose meter performance to insulin dosing errors. Large (three or more category) insulin dosing errors are predicted to occur only under the 20% TEa condition. Two category insulin dosing errors were common (6-20% of all insulin dosing decisions) when 20% TEa was assumed, but frequency decreased to only 0.2% of dosing decisions when 10% TEa was modeled. When insulin dosing error rates were measured empirically by comparing paired glucose meter and laboratory glucose values, insulin dosing error rates were very similar to those predicted for the 20% TEa condition. Both simulation models and empiric data demonstrate that glucose meters that perform at ≥20% TEa allow large insulin dosing errors during a moderate glycemic control protocol.

  3. Update on glycemic control for the treatment of diabetic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Girish N; Yacoub, Rabi; Coca, Steven G

    2015-07-01

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a common, complex condition that has become a significant public health problem. The beneficial effects of intensive glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus on development of DKD are proven; however, the evidence for nephroprotection in patients with type 2 diabetes is conflicting. Moreover, a strategy of intensive glycemic control increases the risk for adverse effects (hypoglycemic episodes) with no obvious impact on macrovascular events or mortality in recent large randomized controlled trials. The risk for hypoglycemia with intensive therapy is heightened in patients with significant renal dysfunction, due to decreased renal clearance of insulin. Establishing an ideal level of glycemic control in patients requires an individualized approach taking into account duration of diabetes and presence of coexisting comorbidities and pre-existing DKD. In this article, we review the available evidence from both observational studies and randomized controlled trials and provide suggestions about evaluating the potential benefits and harm from intensive glycemic control in patients. We also discuss how in the future, a personalized approach using biomarkers might help identify patients most likely to respond as well as those most susceptible to harm. We believe that using the optimal level of glycemic control in diabetic patients using a multi-pronged strategy will improve individual patient outcomes and decrease the overall burden of morbidity and mortality.

  4. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Eric C; Yancy, William S; Mavropoulos, John C; Marquart, Megan; McDuffie, Jennifer R

    2008-01-01

    Objective Dietary carbohydrate is the major determinant of postprandial glucose levels, and several clinical studies have shown that low-carbohydrate diets improve glycemic control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a diet lower in carbohydrate would lead to greater improvement in glycemic control over a 24-week period in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research design and methods Eighty-four community volunteers with obesity and type 2 diabetes were randomized to either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (<20 g of carbohydrate daily; LCKD) or a low-glycemic, reduced-calorie diet (500 kcal/day deficit from weight maintenance diet; LGID). Both groups received group meetings, nutritional supplementation, and an exercise recommendation. The main outcome was glycemic control, measured by hemoglobin A1c. Results Forty-nine (58.3%) participants completed the study. Both interventions led to improvements in hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and weight loss. The LCKD group had greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c (-1.5% vs. -0.5%, p = 0.03), body weight (-11.1 kg vs. -6.9 kg, p = 0.008), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+5.6 mg/dL vs. 0 mg/dL, p < 0.001) compared to the LGID group. Diabetes medications were reduced or eliminated in 95.2% of LCKD vs. 62% of LGID participants (p < 0.01). Conclusion Dietary modification led to improvements in glycemic control and medication reduction/elimination in motivated volunteers with type 2 diabetes. The diet lower in carbohydrate led to greater improvements in glycemic control, and more frequent medication reduction/elimination than the low glycemic index diet. Lifestyle modification using low carbohydrate interventions is effective for improving and reversing type 2 diabetes. PMID:19099589

  5. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Westman, Eric C; Yancy, William S; Mavropoulos, John C; Marquart, Megan; McDuffie, Jennifer R

    2008-12-19

    Dietary carbohydrate is the major determinant of postprandial glucose levels, and several clinical studies have shown that low-carbohydrate diets improve glycemic control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a diet lower in carbohydrate would lead to greater improvement in glycemic control over a 24-week period in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eighty-four community volunteers with obesity and type 2 diabetes were randomized to either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (<20 g of carbohydrate daily; LCKD) or a low-glycemic, reduced-calorie diet (500 kcal/day deficit from weight maintenance diet; LGID). Both groups received group meetings, nutritional supplementation, and an exercise recommendation. The main outcome was glycemic control, measured by hemoglobin A1c. Forty-nine (58.3%) participants completed the study. Both interventions led to improvements in hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and weight loss. The LCKD group had greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c (-1.5% vs. -0.5%, p = 0.03), body weight (-11.1 kg vs. -6.9 kg, p = 0.008), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+5.6 mg/dL vs. 0 mg/dL, p < 0.001) compared to the LGID group. Diabetes medications were reduced or eliminated in 95.2% of LCKD vs. 62% of LGID participants (p < 0.01). Dietary modification led to improvements in glycemic control and medication reduction/elimination in motivated volunteers with type 2 diabetes. The diet lower in carbohydrate led to greater improvements in glycemic control, and more frequent medication reduction/elimination than the low glycemic index diet. Lifestyle modification using low carbohydrate interventions is effective for improving and reversing type 2 diabetes.

  6. Determinants of Long-Term Durable Glycemic Control in New-Onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung Jin; Choi, Ju Hee; Kim, Kyeong Jin; An, Jee Hyun; Kim, Hee Young; Kim, Sin Gon; Kim, Nam Hoon

    2017-08-01

    Long-term durable glycemic control is a difficult goal in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We evaluated the factors associated with durable glycemic control in a real clinical setting. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 194 new-onset, drug-naïve patients with T2DM who were diagnosed between January 2011 and March 2013, and were followed up for >2 years. Glycemic durability was defined as the maintenance of optimal glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] <7.0%) for 2 years without substitution or adding other glucose-lowering agents. Clinical factors and glycemic markers associated with glycemic durability were compared between two groups: a durability group and a non-durability group. Patients in the durability group had a higher baseline body mass index (26.1 kg/m² vs. 24.9 kg/m²) and lower HbA1c (8.6% vs. 9.7%) than the non-durability group. The initial choice of glucose-lowering agents was similar in both groups, except for insulin and sulfonylureas, which were more frequently prescribed in the non-durability group. In multiple logistic regression analyses, higher levels of education, physical activity, and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) were associated with glycemic durability. Notably, lower HbA1c (<7.0%) at baseline and first follow-up were significantly associated with glycemic durability (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 7.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.51 to 22.3) (adjusted OR, 9.27; 95% CI, 1.62 to 53.1, respectively), after adjusting for confounding variables including the types of glucose-lowering agents. Early achievement of HbA1c level within the glycemic target was a determinant of long-term glycemic durability in new-onset T2DM, as were higher levels of education, physical activity, and HOMA-β.

  7. Determinants of Long-Term Durable Glycemic Control in New-Onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Jin; Choi, Ju Hee; Kim, Kyeong Jin; An, Jee Hyun; Kim, Hee Young; Kim, Sin Gon

    2017-01-01

    Background Long-term durable glycemic control is a difficult goal in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We evaluated the factors associated with durable glycemic control in a real clinical setting. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 194 new-onset, drug-naïve patients with T2DM who were diagnosed between January 2011 and March 2013, and were followed up for >2 years. Glycemic durability was defined as the maintenance of optimal glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] <7.0%) for 2 years without substitution or adding other glucose-lowering agents. Clinical factors and glycemic markers associated with glycemic durability were compared between two groups: a durability group and a non-durability group. Results Patients in the durability group had a higher baseline body mass index (26.1 kg/m2 vs. 24.9 kg/m2) and lower HbA1c (8.6% vs. 9.7%) than the non-durability group. The initial choice of glucose-lowering agents was similar in both groups, except for insulin and sulfonylureas, which were more frequently prescribed in the non-durability group. In multiple logistic regression analyses, higher levels of education, physical activity, and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) were associated with glycemic durability. Notably, lower HbA1c (<7.0%) at baseline and first follow-up were significantly associated with glycemic durability (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 7.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.51 to 22.3) (adjusted OR, 9.27; 95% CI, 1.62 to 53.1, respectively), after adjusting for confounding variables including the types of glucose-lowering agents. Conclusion Early achievement of HbA1c level within the glycemic target was a determinant of long-term glycemic durability in new-onset T2DM, as were higher levels of education, physical activity, and HOMA-β. PMID:28868826

  8. Poor glycemic control in younger women attending Malaysian public primary care clinics: findings from adults diabetes control and management registry.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Ai Theng; Lee, Ping Yein; Sazlina, Shariff-Ghazali; Mohamad Adam, Bujang; Chew, Boon How; Mastura, Ismail; Jamaiyah, Haniff; Syed Alwi, Syed-Abdul-Rahman; Sri Wahyu, Taher; Nafiza, Mat-Nasir

    2013-12-10

    Women of reproductive age are a group of particular concern as diabetes may affect their pregnancy outcome as well as long-term morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to compare the clinical profiles and glycemic control of reproductive and non-reproductive age women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in primary care settings, and to determine the associated factors of poor glycemic control in the reproductive age group women. This was a cross-sectional study using cases reported by public primary care clinics to the Adult Diabetes Control and Management registry from 1st January to 31st December 2009. All Malaysian women aged 18 years old and above and diagnosed with T2D for at least 1 year were included in the analysis. The target for glycemic control (HbA1c < 6.5%) is in accordance to the recommended national guidelines. Both univariate and multivariate approaches of logistic regression were applied to determine whether reproductive age women have an association with poor glycemic control. Data from a total of 30,427 women were analyzed and 21.8% (6,622) were of reproductive age. There were 12.5% of reproductive age women and 18.0% of non-reproductive age women that achieved glycemic control. Reproductive age group women were associated with poorer glycemic control (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-1.8). The risk factors associated with poor glycemic control in the reproductive age women were being of Malay and Indian race, longer duration of diabetes, patients on anti-diabetic agents, and those who had not achieved the target total cholesterol and triglycerides. Women with T2D have poor glycemic control, but being of reproductive age was associated with even poorer control. Health care providers need to pay more attention to this group of patients especially for those with risk factors. More aggressive therapeutic strategies to improve their cardiometabolic control and pregnancy outcome are warranted.

  9. Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Association with Blood Glucose Monitoring and Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Herzer, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of anxiety symptoms and their association with blood glucose monitoring (BGM) and glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Methods 276 adolescents and their caregivers completed measures of anxiety symptoms. Adolescents completed a measure of depressive symptoms. Demographic and family characteristics were obtained from caregiver report. Diabetes duration, regimen type, BGM frequency, and glycemic control were also collected. Results Trait anxiety symptoms that suggest further clinical assessment is needed were present in 17% of adolescents; the rate was 13% for state anxiety symptoms. Higher levels of state anxiety symptoms were associated with less frequent BGM F(14, 261) = 6.35, p < .0001, R2 = .25, and suboptimal glycemic control, F(15, 260) = 7.97, p < .0001, R2 = .32. State anxiety symptoms were correlates of BGM frequency and glycemic control independent of depressive symptoms. Conclusions State anxiety symptoms are associated with less frequent BGM and suboptimal glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. PMID:19684117

  10. Lowering physical activity impairs glycemic control in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mikus, Catherine R; Oberlin, Douglas J; Libla, Jessica L; Taylor, Angelina M; Booth, Frank W; Thyfault, John P

    2012-02-01

    Postprandial glucose (PPG) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and death, regardless of diabetes status. Whereas changes in physical activity produce changes in insulin sensitivity, it is not clear whether changes in daily physical activity directly affect PPG in healthy free-living persons. We used continuous glucose monitors to measure PPG and PPG excursions (ΔPPG, postmeal - premeal blood glucose) at 30-min increments after meals in healthy habitually active volunteers (n = 12, age = 29 ± 1 yr, body mass index = 23.6 ± 0.9 kg·m(-2), VO2max = 53.6 ± 3.0 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) during 3 d of habitual (≥10,000 steps per day) and reduced (<5000 steps per day) physical activity. Diets were standardized across monitoring periods, and fasting-state oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed on the fourth day of each monitoring period. During 3 d of reduced physical activity (12,956 ± 769 to 4319 ± 256 steps per day), PPG increased at 30 and 60 min after a meal (6.31 ± 0.19 to 6.68 ± 0.23 mmol·L(-1) and 5.75 ± 0.16 to 6.26 ± 0.28 mmol·L(-1), P < 0.05 relative to corresponding active time point), and ΔPPG increased by 42%, 97%, and 33% at 30, 60, and 90 min after a meal, respectively (P < 0.05). Insulin and C-peptide responses to the OGTT increased after 3 d of reduced activity (P < 0.05), and the glucose response to the OGTT did not change significantly. Thus, despite evidence of compensatory increases in plasma insulin during an OGTT, ΔPPG assessed by continuous glucose monitoring systems increased markedly during 3 d of reduced physical activity in otherwise healthy free-living individuals. These data indicate that daily physical activity is an important mediator of glycemic control, even among healthy individuals, and reinforce the utility of physical activity in preventing pathologies associated with elevated PPG.

  11. A low-glycemic-load diet improves symptoms in acne vulgaris patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robyn N; Mann, Neil J; Braue, Anna; Mäkeläinen, Henna; Varigos, George A

    2007-07-01

    Although the pathogenesis of acne is currently unknown, recent epidemiologic studies of non-Westernized populations suggest that dietary factors, including the glycemic load, may be involved. The objective was to determine whether a low-glycemic-load diet improves acne lesion counts in young males. Forty-three male acne patients aged 15-25 y were recruited for a 12-wk, parallel design, dietary intervention incorporating investigator-blinded dermatology assessments. The experimental treatment was a low-glycemic-load diet composed of 25% energy from protein and 45% from low-glycemic-index carbohydrates. In contrast, the control situation emphasized carbohydrate-dense foods without reference to the glycemic index. Acne lesion counts and severity were assessed during monthly visits, and insulin sensitivity (using the homeostasis model assessment) was measured at baseline and 12 wk. At 12 wk, mean (+/-SEM) total lesion counts had decreased more (P=0.03) in the low-glycemic-load group (-23.5 +/- 3.9) than in the control group (-12.0 +/- 3.5). The experimental diet also resulted in a greater reduction in weight (-2.9 +/- 0.8 compared with 0.5 +/- 0.3 kg; P<0.001) and body mass index (in kg/m(2); -0.92 +/- 0.25 compared with 0.01 +/- 0.11; P=0.001) and a greater improvement in insulin sensitivity (-0.22 +/- 0.12 compared with 0.47 +/- 0.31; P=0.026) than did the control diet. The improvement in acne and insulin sensitivity after a low-glycemic-load diet suggests that nutrition-related lifestyle factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of acne. However, further studies are needed to isolate the independent effects of weight loss and dietary intervention and to further elucidate the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms.

  12. Executive Functioning, Treatment Adherence, and Glycemic Control in Children With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Kelly; Rohan, Jennifer; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan; Drotar, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The primary aim of the study was to investigate the relationship among executive functioning, diabetes treatment adherence, and glycemic control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Two hundred and thirty-five children with type 1 diabetes and their primary caregivers were administered the Diabetes Self-Management Profile to assess treatment adherence. Executive functioning was measured using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning and glycemic control was based on A1C. RESULTS Structural equation modeling indicated that a model in which treatment adherence mediated the relationship between executive functioning and glycemic control best fit the data. All paths were significant at P < 0.01. CONCLUSIONS These results indicate that executive functioning skills (e.g., planning, problem-solving, organization, and working memory) were related to adherence, which was related to diabetes control. Executive functioning may be helpful to assess in ongoing clinical management of type 1 diabetes. PMID:20215458

  13. Effects of a Psychoeducational Group on Mood and Glycemic Control in Adults with Diabetes and Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trozzolino, Linda; Thompson, Pamela S.; Tansman, Mara S.; Azen, Stanley P.

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 12-week psychoeducational group therapy program in improving mood and glycemic control in 48 adults with diabetes and visual impairments. Participants made statistically significant gains in glycemic control. There was a significant positive relationship between control and improvement in depression, but…

  14. Effects of a Psychoeducational Group on Mood and Glycemic Control in Adults with Diabetes and Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trozzolino, Linda; Thompson, Pamela S.; Tansman, Mara S.; Azen, Stanley P.

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 12-week psychoeducational group therapy program in improving mood and glycemic control in 48 adults with diabetes and visual impairments. Participants made statistically significant gains in glycemic control. There was a significant positive relationship between control and improvement in depression, but…

  15. Reductions in regimen distress are associated with improved management and glycemic control over time.

    PubMed

    Hessler, Danielle; Fisher, Lawrence; Glasgow, Russell E; Strycker, Lisa A; Dickinson, L Miriam; Arean, Patricia A; Masharani, Umesh

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations among regimen distress (RD), self-management, and glycemic control were undertaken to explore mechanisms of operation among these variables. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a behavioral randomized control trial (RCT) to reduce RD, 392 adults with type 2 diabetes were assessed for RD, diet, exercise, medication adherence, and HbA1c at baseline and at 4 and 12 months. Associations among RD, self-management, and HbA1c were examined in cross-sectional analyses at baseline, in prospective analyses using baseline values to predict change over time, and in time-varying analyses. RESULTS At baseline, greater RD and poorer medication adherence were independently associated with higher HbA1c (P = 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively), and greater RD was associated with poorer medication adherence (P = 0.03). No consistent pattern of significant prospective associations was found. Significant time-varying findings showed that decreases in RD were associated with improvements in medication adherence (P < 0.01), physical activity (P < 0.001), and HbA1c (P = 0.02) over time following intervention. Changes in self-management were not associated with changes in HbA1c over time. CONCLUSIONS In the context of an RCT to reduce distress, RD, self-management, and HbA1c were interrelated in cross-sectional and time-varying analyses. Decreases in RD were associated with improvements in both self-management and HbA1c over 12 months. Findings point to the complex and likely multifaceted pathways of association among these key constructs, with results indicating significant linkages between RD and both self-management and glycemic control over time.

  16. Nutrition Support Team-Led Glycemic Control Program for Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Roland N; Maish, George O; Minard, Gayle; Brown, Rex O

    2014-08-01

    Glycemic control is an important component of the metabolic management of the critically ill patient. Nutrition support teams are frequently challenged by complicated patients who exhibit multiple concurrent etiologies for hyperglycemia. Nutrition support teams can serve in a pivotal role in the development and evaluation of safe and effective techniques for achieving glycemic control. This review describes the efforts of a nutrition support team in achieving safe and effective glycemic control at their institution. Identification of target blood glucose concentration range, development, initiation, monitoring of a continuous intravenous insulin infusion algorithm, nursing adherence to the algorithm, modification of the algorithm based on the presence of conditions that alter insulin metabolism and glucose homeostasis, and transition of the patient who receives continuous enteral nutrition from a continuous intravenous insulin infusion to intermittent subcutaneous insulin therapy are discussed.

  17. Breaking down patient and physician barriers to optimize glycemic control in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ross, Stuart A

    2013-09-01

    Approximately half of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) do not achieve globally recognized blood glucose targets, despite the availability of a wide range of effective glucose-lowering therapies. Failure to maintain good glycemic control increases the risk of diabetes-related complications and long-term health care costs. Patients must be brought under glycemic control to improve treatment outcomes, but existing barriers to optimizing glycemic control must first be overcome, including patient nonadherence to treatment, the failure of physicians to intensify therapy in a timely manner, and inadequacies in the health care system itself. The reasons for such barriers include treatment side effects, complex treatment regimens, needle anxiety, poor patient education, and the absence of an adequate patient care plan; however, newer therapies and devices, combined with comprehensive care plans involving adequate patient education, can help to minimize barriers and improve treatment outcomes.

  18. Exercise and Glycemic Control: Focus on Redox Homeostasis and Redox-Sensitive Protein Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Lewan; Shaw, Christopher S.; Stepto, Nigel K.; Levinger, Itamar

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity, excess energy consumption, and obesity are associated with elevated systemic oxidative stress and the sustained activation of redox-sensitive stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Sustained SAPK activation leads to aberrant insulin signaling, impaired glycemic control, and the development and progression of cardiometabolic disease. Paradoxically, acute exercise transiently increases oxidative stress and SAPK signaling, yet postexercise glycemic control and skeletal muscle function are enhanced. Furthermore, regular exercise leads to the upregulation of antioxidant defense, which likely assists in the mitigation of chronic oxidative stress-associated disease. In this review, we explore the complex spatiotemporal interplay between exercise, oxidative stress, and glycemic control, and highlight exercise-induced reactive oxygen species and redox-sensitive protein signaling as important regulators of glucose homeostasis. PMID:28529499

  19. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease: changing the focus from glycemic control to improving long-term survival.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cecilia C Low; Reusch, Jane E B

    2012-11-06

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the fifth-leading cause of death worldwide and contributes to leading causes of death, cancer and cardiovascular disease, including CAD, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and other vascular disease. While glycemic management remains a cornerstone of DM care, the co-management of hypertension, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular risk reduction, and prevention of long-term consequences associated with DM are now well recognized as essential to improve long-term survival. Clinical trial evidence substantiates the importance of glycemic control, low-density cholesterol-lowering therapy, blood pressure lowering, control of albuminuria, and comprehensive approaches targeting multiple risk factors to reduce cardiovascular risk. This article presents a review of the role of DM in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiac dysfunction, recent evidence on the degree of glycemic control and mortality, and available evidence for a multifaceted approach to improve long-term outcomes for patients.

  20. Ethnic Disparities in Glycemic Control Among Rural Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Wetmore, Lindsay K.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Glycemic control is a predictor of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about how well older adults in rural communities, with limited access to self-care resources and specialty care practitioners, control their diabetes. Even less is known about whether minority, older, rural adults are at increased risk for poor glycemic control. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected older (≥65 years) adults with type 2 diabetes in rural North Carolina. Participants (N=693) were men and women from three ethnic groups: African American, Native American, and White. Capillary blood samples were collected for HbA1C analysis. HbA1C levels (<7%, 7%–<8%, and ≥8%) were compared across ethnic and gender groups. Two multiple logistic regression models (model 1: personal characteristics; model 2: personal and health characteristics) were used to evaluate potential predictors of HbA1C ≥7%. Overall, 36.4% had HbA1C ≥7%. Native Americans and African-American men had the highest proportion at levels of poor glycemic control (≥7%), and African-American women and White men had the lowest. In bivariate analysis, ethnicity, living arrangements, use of medications for diabetes, having a diabetes-related healthcare visit in the past year, and duration of diabetes were significantly associated with glycemic control. In multivariate analysis (model 1), being Native American, having low income without Medicaid, and being married were associated with poor glycemic control. Adding health characteristics (model 2), longer diabetes duration and diabetes medication therapy were significant predictors. These data indicate that older ethnic minorities in rural communities are at increased risk for diabetes complications and need diabetes management strategies to improve glycemic control. PMID:16259490

  1. Evaluation of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese communities: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shan, Shan; Gu, Liubao; Lou, Qinglin; Ouyang, Xiaojun; Yu, Yun; Wu, Haidi; Bian, Rongwen

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic levels in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to explore the factors related to the results of glycemic control. A total of 2454 T2DM patients from 11 communities were examined for glycosylated hemoglobin levels and glycemic control options. Potential factors related to the results of glycemic control were analyzed using logistic regression. Of all the patients, 55.3 % achieved the glycemic control target of HbA1c < 7 %. Multivariate analysis showed that male sex (OR 1.345, 95 % CI 1.022-1.769; P = 0.034), higher levels of fasting blood glucose (OR 1.954, 95 % CI 1.778-2.147; P < 0.001), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.181, 95 % CI 1.020-1.367; P = 0.026) were significantly associated with poor glycemic control. The complexity of antidiabetics was also associated with poor glycemic control (P < 0.05). Compared to diet and exercise, insulin injection was most strongly associated with poor glycemic control (OR 6.210, 95 % CI 4.054-9.514; P < 0.001). Male patients with higher levels of total cholesterol, lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or longer diabetic durations showed poor glycemic control, which was not found in female patients. Glycemic control was not satisfactory in T2DM patients of Nanjing communities. Various factors are associated with poor results of glycemic control.

  2. Taking a Low Glycemic Index Multi-Nutrient Supplement as Breakfast Improves Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Di; Zhang, Peiwen; Guo, Honghui; Ling, Wenhua

    2014-01-01

    Dietary therapy is the mainstay of treatment for diabetes. This study examined the effect of a low glycemic index (GI) multi-nutrient supplement, consumed in place of breakfast, on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 71 participants were randomized at a 2:1 ratio into either a breakfast replacement group or a normal breakfast group for a 12-week interventional study. The primary outcome measure was change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Nutrition status and somatometry were studied as secondary outcomes. The breakfast replacement group displayed a −0.2% absolute reduction in HbA1c (95% CI (confidence interval), −0.38% to −0.07%, p = 0.004), while the HbA1c of the control group increased 0.3% (95% CI, 0.1% to 0.5%, p = 0.005). The baseline Mini Nutritional Assessment score for both groups was 26.0 and no significant changes occurred following intervention. However, there was a statistically significant difference in body mass index between the treatment and control groups (p = 0.032) due to the weight gain in the control group (increased 0.5 kg, 95% CI was 0.2 to 0.9, p = 0.007). These data suggest that breakfast replacement with a low GI multi-nutrient supplement can improve glycemic and weight control in T2DM. PMID:25514391

  3. Taking a low glycemic index multi-nutrient supplement as breakfast improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Di; Zhang, Peiwen; Guo, Honghui; Ling, Wenhua

    2014-12-10

    Dietary therapy is the mainstay of treatment for diabetes. This study examined the effect of a low glycemic index (GI) multi-nutrient supplement, consumed in place of breakfast, on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 71 participants were randomized at a 2:1 ratio into either a breakfast replacement group or a normal breakfast group for a 12-week interventional study. The primary outcome measure was change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Nutrition status and somatometry were studied as secondary outcomes. The breakfast replacement group displayed a -0.2% absolute reduction in HbA1c (95% CI (confidence interval), -0.38% to -0.07%, p = 0.004), while the HbA1c of the control group increased 0.3% (95% CI, 0.1% to 0.5%, p = 0.005). The baseline Mini Nutritional Assessment score for both groups was 26.0 and no significant changes occurred following intervention. However, there was a statistically significant difference in body mass index between the treatment and control groups (p = 0.032) due to the weight gain in the control group (increased 0.5 kg, 95% CI was 0.2 to 0.9, p = 0.007). These data suggest that breakfast replacement with a low GI multi-nutrient supplement can improve glycemic and weight control in T2DM.

  4. Impact of postoperative glycemic control and nutritional status on clinical outcomes after total pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hao-Jun; Jin, Chen; Fu, De-Liang

    2017-01-14

    To evaluate the impact of glycemic control and nutritional status after total pancreatectomy (TP) on complications, tumor recurrence and overall survival. Retrospective records of 52 patients with pancreatic tumors who underwent TP were collected from 2007 to 2015. A series of clinical parameters collected before and after surgery, and during the follow-up were evaluated. The associations of glycemic control and nutritional status with complications, tumor recurrence and long-term survival were determined. Risk factors for postoperative glycemic control and nutritional status were identified. High early postoperative fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels (OR = 4.074, 95%CI: 1.188-13.965, P = 0.025) and low early postoperative prealbumin levels (OR = 3.816, 95%CI: 1.110-13.122, P = 0.034) were significantly associated with complications after TP. Postoperative HbA1c levels over 7% (HR = 2.655, 95%CI: 1.299-5.425, P = 0.007) were identified as one of the independent risk factors for tumor recurrence. Patients with postoperative HbA1c levels over 7% had much poorer overall survival than those with HbA1c levels less than 7% (9.3 mo vs 27.6 mo, HR = 3.212, 95%CI: 1.147-8.999, P = 0.026). Patients with long-term diabetes mellitus (HR = 15.019, 95%CI: 1.278-176.211, P = 0.031) and alcohol history (B = 1.985, SE = 0.860, P = 0.025) tended to have poor glycemic control and lower body mass index levels after TP, respectively. At least 3 mo are required after TP to adapt to diabetes and recover nutritional status. Glycemic control appears to have more influence over nutritional status on long-term outcomes after TP. Improvement in glycemic control and nutritional status after TP is important to prevent early complications and tumor recurrence, and improve survival.

  5. Glycemic control mentored implementation: creating a national network of shared information.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Kendall M; Childers, Diana J; Messler, Jordan; Nolan, Ann; Nickel, Wendy K; Maynard, Gregory A

    2014-03-01

    The Society of Hospital Medicine's (SHM's) Glycemic Control Mentored Implementation (GCMI) program, which, like all MI programs, is conducted as an improvement collaborative, is intended to help hospitals improve inpatient glycemic control in diabetic and nondiabetic patients by educating and mentoring quality teams. Hospital quality improvement (QI) teams applied for participation in GCMI from 2009 through 2012. Accepted sites were assigned either a hospitalist or endocrinologist mentor to work through the life cycle of a QI project. SHM's Implementation Guide, online resources, measurement strategies, Web-based Glycemic Control Data Center for Performance Tracking, webinars, interactive list-serve, and other tools help mentors guide these teams through the program. Mentors in GCMI bring expertise in both inpatient glycemic control and QI. One hundred fourteen hospital QI teams were enrolled into the GCMI program in the course of 2.5 years. Of these 114 sites, 90 completed the program, with 63 of them uploading data to the Data Center. Feedback from the sites was consistently positive, with the listserve, Data Center, and mentorship reported as the top three most effective components of the program. Ninety-five percent of respondents stated that they would recommend participation in an SHM-mentored implementation program to a colleague. Participants reported improved leadership skills and increased institutional support for glycemic control. Hospital quality teams participating in the GCMI program gained support to overcome barriers, focus on improving glycemic control, network with peers and expert mentor physicians, collect and analyze data, and build quality leaders. The features and structure of this program can be used in other multisite QI goals and projects.

  6. Patient perception of understanding health education and instructions has moderating effect on glycemic control

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Whether health literacy is independently associated with processes or outcomes of diabetes-related care is controversial. We tried to demonstrate the interaction of health literacy and understanding of health education and instructions in achieving glycemic control. Methods Five hundred and one consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in the outpatient clinic of the metabolism department were recruited into this pilot study. The demographic data were collected from patients’ self-reports. The clinical background information was collected through electronic medical records. A questionnaire derived from part of the Mandarin Health Literacy Scale was used to measure numeracy and functional health literacy of people with diabetes. Health literacy levels were categorized into inadequate, marginal and adequate. Patient self-ratings of their perceived understanding of the health education information and instructions provided by their case manager in the past were categorized into two subgroups: better and poor. Patients with an HbA1c level equal to or below 7% were considered to have good glycemic control. Multivariate logistic regression was used to find associated factors of health literacy and understanding of health education and instructions. GENMOD procedures were used to analyze repeated outcome measurements of glycemic control. Results Higher educational attainment and higher household income (odds ratios were 2.23 and 2.22, respectively) were significantly associated with patients who had adequate health literacy. Higher educational attainment and patients with a family history of DM (odds ratios were 4.99 and 1.85, respectively) were significantly associated with better understanding of health education and instructions. Adequate health literacy is not the only factor associated with good glycemic control. The effect of adequate health literacy in achieving good glycemic control might be masked by patients with better understanding

  7. Hope matters to the glycemic control of adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fábio R M; Sigulem, Daniel; Areco, Kelsy C N; Gabbay, Monica A L; Dib, Sergio A; Bernardo, Viviane

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the association of hope and its factors with depression and glycemic control in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes. A total of 113 patients were invited to participate. Significant negative correlations were found between hope and HbA1c and also between hope and depression. Hope showed a significant association with HbA1c and depression in the stepwise regression model. Among the hope factors, "inner positive expectancy" was significantly associated with HbA1c and depression. This study supports that hope matters to glycemic control and depression. Intervention strategies focusing on hope should be further explored.

  8. GLYCEMIC CONTROL AND PROSTATE CANCER PROGRESSION: RESULTS FROM THE SEARCH DATABASE

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Howard; Presti, Joseph C.; Aronson, William J.; Terris, Martha K.; Kane, Christopher J.; Amling, Christopher L.; Freedland, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Several studies have examined the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and prostate cancer (PCa) risk and progression, however nearly all of these studies have compared diabetic vs. non-diabetic men. We sought to investigate the role of glycemic control, as measured by HbA1c, on PCa aggressiveness and prognosis in men with DM and PCa from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database. Methods We identified 247 men in SEARCH with DM and a recorded HbA1c value twelve months prior to radical prostatectomy between 1988 and 2009. We divided men into tertiles by HbA1c level. The association between HbA1c tertiles and risk of adverse pathology and biochemical recurrence were tested using multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively. Results Median HbA1c level was 6.9. On multivariate analysis, HbA1c tertiles were predictive of pathological Gleason score (p-trend=0.001). Relative to the first tertile, men in the second (OR 5.90, p=0.002) and third tertile (OR 7.15, p=0.001) were more likely to have Gleason score ≥ 4+3. HbA1c tertiles were not associated with margin status, node status, extracapsular extension or seminal vesicle invasion (all p-trend>0.2). In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, increasing HbA1c tertiles were not significantly related to risk of biochemical recurrence (p-trend=0.56). Conclusion Men with higher HbA1c levels presented with more biologically aggressive prostate tumors at radical prostatectomy. Although risk of recurrence was unrelated to HbA1c levels, further studies are needed to better explore the importance of glycemic control on long-term outcomes in diabetic men with PCa. PMID:20687228

  9. The Importance of Social Support on Glycemic Control in Low-Income Latinos with Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotberg, Britt; Junqueira, Yasmine; Gosdin, Lucas; Mejia, Roberto; Umpierrez, Guillermo E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The U.S. Latino population exhibits poorer glycemic control than the white population, leading to more frequent health complications and greater disease severity. Social support has been shown a significant factor in health and well-being. Purpose: To determine the association between glycemic control and social support in patients…

  10. The Importance of Social Support on Glycemic Control in Low-Income Latinos with Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotberg, Britt; Junqueira, Yasmine; Gosdin, Lucas; Mejia, Roberto; Umpierrez, Guillermo E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The U.S. Latino population exhibits poorer glycemic control than the white population, leading to more frequent health complications and greater disease severity. Social support has been shown a significant factor in health and well-being. Purpose: To determine the association between glycemic control and social support in patients…

  11. Cross-sectional study of glycemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Amarasekara Appuhamillage Thamara Dilhani; Fongkaew, Warunee; Wimalasekera, Savithri Wasundara; Turale, Sue; Chanprasit, Chawapornpan

    2015-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition, a global concern, and a serious issue in Sri Lanka, where there is little data regarding the influence of dietary control, exercise, and adherence to medication behaviors among adults diabetes. In this cross-sectional, descriptive study, we identified current factors influencing glycemic control and glycemic control behavior among adults with diabetes. A total of 230 people attending diabetes clinics in a tertiary hospital and a primary care institute were administered the self-report Diabetes Information Form, assessing their socioeconomic and medical information and glycemic control behaviors. Data were analyzed by frequency distribution, percentages, mean scores, and standard deviation. The results indicated that most participants had not achieved the recommended fasting blood glucose level (< 126 mg/dL). Although dietary control was practised by 72%, regular exercise was not practised by 85%, and while 77% reported adhering to regular medication, they still had poor glycemic control. The findings highlight the need for health professionals to adopt new strategies for diabetes education to overcome issues related to misconceptions and barriers in providing diabetes care in Sri Lanka.

  12. The effect of glycemic control on CEA, CA 19-9, amylase and lipase levels

    PubMed Central

    Ata, Naim; Dal, Kürşat; Kucukazman, Metin; Karakaya, Serdar; Unsal, Oktay; Dagdeviren, Murat; Akın, Kadir O.; Baser, Salih; Beyan, Esin; Ertugrul, Derun T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is closely related to pancreas cancer. In this study we aimed to investigate the effect of hyperglycemia on tumor and inflammation markers, as well as pancreatic exocrine functions. Methods A total of 98 consecutive diabetic patients with poor glycemic control, and 50 healthy controls were included in the study. We measured hsCRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), CA19-9, CEA, amylase and lipase in addition to routine biochemistry tests, before and after euglycemia was achieved. Results Fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, CA19-9, CEA, hsCRP, ESR, triglycerides, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, total cholesterol and LDL-C levels decreased significantly with the regulation of glycemic control. Amylase and lipase levels increased with the regulation of glycemic control. After glycemic control, CA19-9 and CEA levels were still higher, whereas amylase and lipase levels were still lower in the diabetic group compared with the control group. Basal HbA1c showed significant correlation with CA19-9, CEA, amylase and lipase. Conclusions We propose to repeat observations of tumor markers after hyperglycemia is resolved, in order to avoid unnecessary invasive tests. Our data also suggest that pancreatic exocrine function was improved with lowering blood glucose in a short period of time. PMID:28352671

  13. Interactions between Starch, Lipids, and Proteins in Foods: Microstructure Control for Glycemic Response Modulation.

    PubMed

    Parada, Javier; Santos, Jose L

    2016-10-25

    In real food, starch is usually forming part of a matrix with lipids and proteins. However, research on this ternary system and interactions between such food components has been scarce so far. The control of food microstructure is crucial to determine the product properties, including sensorial and nutritionals ones. This paper reviews the microstructural principles of interactions between starch, lipids, and proteins in foods as well as their effect on postprandial glycemic response, considering human intrinsic differences on postprandial glycemic responses. Several lines of research support the hypothesis that foods without rapidly digestible starch will not mandatorily generate the lowest postprandial glycemic response, highlighting that the full understanding of food microstructure, which modulates starch digestion, plays a key role on food design from a nutritional viewpoint.

  14. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Kizirian, Nathalie V.; Markovic, Tania P.; Muirhead, Roslyn; Brodie, Shannon; Garnett, Sarah P.; Louie, Jimmy C. Y.; Petocz, Peter; Ross, Glynis P.; Brand-Miller, Jennie C.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI) on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96) and late (n = 88) pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037). In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010) and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034). Higher fat intake (%E) and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy). Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity. PMID:27164136

  15. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition.

    PubMed

    Kizirian, Nathalie V; Markovic, Tania P; Muirhead, Roslyn; Brodie, Shannon; Garnett, Sarah P; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Petocz, Peter; Ross, Glynis P; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2016-05-06

    The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI) on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96) and late (n = 88) pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037). In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010) and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034). Higher fat intake (%E) and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy). Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity.

  16. [Cardiovascular risk factors in children with type 1 diabetes and their relationship with the glycemic control].

    PubMed

    Abregu, Adela V; Carrizo, Teresita del R; Prado, Maria M; Velarde, Maria S; Diaz, Elba I; Perez Aguilar, Rossana C; Fonio, Maria C; Bazan, Maria C

    2005-01-01

    Diabetics have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this work was to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors in infant-juvenile type 1 diabetics and their association with the degree of glycemic control. A total of 52 patients, aged 5-15 years, were studied and compared with 37 control subjects. The degree of glycemic control, lipid profile, plasma fibrinogen, microalbuminuria and blood pressure were investigated. The patients were grouped in diabetics with good glycemic control [DGGC, glycosilated hemoglobin (HbA1c) < 8%] and poor glycemic control [DPGC, HA1c > or = 8%]. Diabetic patients presented incremented values of total cholesterol (4.1 +/- 0.9 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.7 mmol/l, p = 0.0008), LDL-cholesterol (2.4 +/- 0.9 vs. 1.7 +/- 0.7 mmol/l, p = 0.0001), HDL-cholesterol (1.2 +/- 0.3 vs. 1.0 +/- 0.2 mmol/l, p = 0.0002), with respect to control group. Eighty three per cent of diabetics showed a poor glycemic control. There were not significant differences in lipid profile between DGGC and DPGC, excepting HDL-cholesterol which was higher in DPGC group (p = 0.007). Plasma fibrinogen levels were similar in diabetics and controls, but they were higher in DPGC than in DGGC (265 +/- 46 vs. 229 +/- 22 mg/dl, p = 0.02). Three patients with microalbuminuria and none with hypertension were detected. In these patients the most pronounced risk factors for CVD were dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, which justify the need for the early detection of these factors as well as strict metabolic control.

  17. Association between Social Relationship and Glycemic Control among Older Japanese: JAGES Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kawachi, Ichiro; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Nagamine, Yuiko; Tani, Yukako; Shirai, Kokoro; Tazuma, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    Aim The present study examined whether social support, informal socializing and social participation are associated with glycemic control in older people. Methods Data for this population-based cross-sectional study was obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) 2010 linked to the annual health check-up data in Japan. We analyzed 9,554 individuals aged ≥65 years without the certification of needed long-term care. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of social support, informal socializing and social participations on glycemic control. The outcome measure was HbA1c ≥8.4%. Results 1.3% of the participants had a level of HbA1c over 8.4%. Better glycemic control was significantly associated with meeting with friends one to four times per month (odds ratio [OR] 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]0.30–0.89, compared to meeting with friends a few times per year or less) and participation in sports groups (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26–0.97) even after adjusting for other variables. Meeting with friends more than twice per week, receiving social support, and being married were not associated with better control of diabetes. Conclusions Meeting with friends occasionally is associated with better glycemic control among older people. PMID:28060887

  18. Physician and patient management of type 2 diabetes and factors related to glycemic control in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Yurgin, Nicole Rae; Boye, Kristina Secnik; Dilla, Tatiana; Suriñach, Núria Lara; Llach, Xavier Badia

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess current treatment patterns, blood glucose test strip usage, and treatment compliance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in primary care centers in Spain, and to assess factors related to glycemic control. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with T2DM and measured treatment compliance using the Morisky-Green questionnaire. 294 patients were included in the study from a population of patients attending 30 primary care centers throughout Spain. Results showed that the majority of patients were treated with oral monotherapy (36%) and oral combination therapy (35%). Less than half of the patients had good glycemic control (HbA1c ≤ 6.5%). Half of the patients treated pharmacologically reported good compliance with treatment. Logistic regression analyses performed to identify factors associated with glycemic control showed that high body mass index (BMI) and poor compliance were the strongest predictors of poor HbA1c control (OR: 2.198 and 1.789, respectively, p < 0.05). In conclusion, in the course of managing diabetes, physicians and patients should attempt to improve compliance and lower BMI, which could lead to better glycemic control. PMID:19920948

  19. Glycemic Control in a Clinic-Based Sample of Diabetics in M'Bour Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BeLue, Rhonda; Ndiaye, Khadidiatou; NDao, Fatou; Ba, Fatou Niass Niang; Diaw, Mor

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) including Senegal is faced with a significant and increasing burden of type 2 diabetes. However, little information is available about diabetes management among Senegalese diabetics. Purpose: The current study aims to describe the level of glycemic control among a convenience sample of diabetics who receive…

  20. Glycemic Control in a Clinic-Based Sample of Diabetics in M'Bour Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BeLue, Rhonda; Ndiaye, Khadidiatou; NDao, Fatou; Ba, Fatou Niass Niang; Diaw, Mor

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) including Senegal is faced with a significant and increasing burden of type 2 diabetes. However, little information is available about diabetes management among Senegalese diabetics. Purpose: The current study aims to describe the level of glycemic control among a convenience sample of diabetics who receive…

  1. Determinants of glycemic control in youth with type 2 diabetes at randomization in the TODAY study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to investigate insulin sensitivity and secretion indices and determinants of glycemic control in youth with recent-onset type 2 diabetes (T2DM) at randomization in the TODAY study, the largest study of youth with T2DM to date. We examined estimates of insulin sensitivit...

  2. Relation between energy intake and glycemic control in physically active young adults with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Marie-Christine; Prud'homme, Denis; Lemieux, Simone; Lavoie, Carole; Weisnagel, S John

    2014-01-01

    To examine the relationships between daily energy expenditure, energy intake and glycemic control in young adults with type 1 diabetes. Cross-sectional study. Energy expenditure (kcal kg(-1)d(-1)) and duration of participation in physical activity were measured from a 3-d activity diary and categorized according to their intensity on a 1-9 scale. Energy intake was measured by a 3-d food record. Glycemic control was measured using the HbA1c. Energy expenditure and intake were assessed in 35 young adults with type 1 diabetes (age: 28 ± 7 years). Participants with higher energy expenditure from moderate to intense physical activity (categories 6-9) presented higher proportion of energy intake derived from carbohydrate and lower proportion of lipids in the diet with significantly higher HbA(1c) values (7.3 ± 1.0% vs 6.7 ± 0.6%). These results suggest that highly physically active individuals with type 1 diabetes consume more carbohydrates than lipids, a strategy that may affect their glycemic control. Further studies are needed to develop interventions to improve glycemic control in highly active individuals with type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of Exercise Stages of Change with Glycemic Control in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natarajan, Sundar; Clyburn, Ernest B.; Brown, Ronald T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the distribution of diabetic patients' stages of change to follow an exercise regimen, examining whether later stages of change were associated with better glycemic control. Data on participants from a primary care clinic (who were predominantly black, female, and indigent) indicated that over half of were in pre-contemplation,…

  4. The effects of glycemic control on seizures and seizure-induced excitotoxic cell death

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder after stroke, affecting more than 50 million persons worldwide. Metabolic disturbances are often associated with epileptic seizures, but the pathogenesis of this relationship is poorly understood. It is known that seizures result in altered glucose metabolism, the reduction of intracellular energy metabolites such as ATP, ADP and phosphocreatine and the accumulation of metabolic intermediates, such as lactate and adenosine. In particular, it has been suggested that the duration and extent of glucose dysregulation may be a predictor of the pathological outcome of status. However, little is known about neither the effects of glycemic control on brain metabolism nor the effects of managing systemic glucose concentrations in epilepsy. Results In this study, we examined glycemic modulation of kainate-induced seizure sensitivity and its neuropathological consequences. To investigate the relationship between glycemic modulation, seizure susceptibility and its neuropathological consequences, C57BL/6 mice (excitotoxin cell death resistant) were subjected to hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, followed by systemic administration of kainic acid to induce seizures. Glycemic modulation resulted in minimal consequences with regard to seizure severity but increased hippocampal pathology, irrespective of whether mice were hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic prior to kainate administration. Moreover, we found that exogenous administration of glucose following kainic acid seizures significantly reduced the extent of hippocampal pathology in FVB/N mice (excitotoxin cell death susceptible) following systemic administration of kainic acid. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that modulation of the glycemic index can modify the outcome of brain injury in the kainate model of seizure induction. Moreover, modulation of the glycemic index through glucose rescue greatly diminishes the extent of seizure-induced cell death following kainate

  5. Sleep Pattern, Duration and Quality in Relation with Glycemic Control in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Gozashti, Mohammad Hossein; Eslami, Nazanin; Radfar, Mohammad Hadi; Pakmanesh, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances have been shown to be associated with diabetes control, but the relation between planned wakings or napping with glycemic indices has not been evaluated yet. This study evaluated the relation between sleep quality, duration, and pattern, including daytime napping of people with diabetes and their glycemic control. A cross-sectional correlation research design was used for this study. We enrolled 118 people with type 2 diabetes receiving oral agents without major complications at the Shahid Bahonar Center, Kerman. The age, weight, height, serum HbA1c, as well as other glycemic indices and lipid profile were measured. BMI was also calculated. All participants were requested to fill in the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire to evaluate their sleep quality. In addition, they were inquired about their sleep schedule during day and night. Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the correlation between HbA1c and sleep pattern variables. The variables were also compared between participants with or without napping using t-test. All analyses were performed with the SPSS version 19 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The mean age was 58±11 years and mean HbA1c (%) was 7.8±11 (62±13 mmol/mol). Sleep duration and the number of sleep segments significantly predicted HbA1c (F (2,114)=5.232, P=0.007, R2=0.084). A one-hour increment in sleep duration was associated with a 0.174% (1.4 mmol/mol) decrement in HbA1c. PSQI score did not contribute to the regression model. Moreover, participants who napped (66%) had a lower HbA1c (7.6±1) compared to others (8.1±1.3) (P=0.04). We concluded that napping and segmented sleep are associated with a better glycemic control in type 2 diabetes and there is a linear correlation between sleep duration and better glycemic control. PMID:27853334

  6. Hindbrain DPP-IV inhibition improves glycemic control and promotes negative energy balance.

    PubMed

    Mietlicki-Baase, Elizabeth G; McGrath, Lauren E; Koch-Laskowski, Kieran; Krawczyk, Joanna; Pham, Tram; Lhamo, Rinzin; Reiner, David J; Hayes, Matthew R

    2017-05-01

    The beneficial glycemic and food intake-suppressive effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) have made this neuroendocrine system a leading target for pharmacological approaches to the treatment of diabetes and obesity. One strategy to increase the activity of endogenous GLP-1 is to prevent the rapid degradation of the hormone by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV). However, despite the expression of both DPP-IV and GLP-1 in the brain, and the clear importance of central GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling for glycemic and energy balance control, the metabolic effects of central inhibition of DPP-IV activity are unclear. To test whether hindbrain DPP-IV inhibition suppresses blood glucose, feeding, and body weight gain, the effects of 4th intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of the FDA-approved DPP-IV inhibitor sitagliptin were evaluated. Results indicate that hindbrain delivery of sitagliptin improves glycemic control in a GLP-1R-dependent manner, suggesting that this effect is due at least in part to increased endogenous brainstem GLP-1 activity after sitagliptin administration. Furthermore, 4th ICV injection of sitagliptin reduced 24h body weight gain and energy intake, with a selective suppression of high-fat diet, but not chow, intake. These data reveal a novel role for hindbrain GLP-1R activation in glycemic control and also demonstrate that DPP-IV inhibition in the caudal brainstem promotes negative energy balance.

  7. Revisiting tight glycemic control in perioperative and critically ill patients: when one size may not fit all.

    PubMed

    Abdelmalak, Basem B; Lansang, M Cecilia

    2013-09-01

    Glycemic control has received intense scrutiny in the last decade as an important aspect of patient care. Earlier studies suggested that tight glycemic control (target level of 80 - 110 mg/dL) improved outcomes in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Subsequent trials did not confirm the same benefit. Moreover, increased mortality was found in association with such tight control compared with a less strict target. As a result, tight glucose control has become less popular. The interaction between diabetic status and outcomes in relation to glucose control strategies and/or chronic glycemic state in perioperative and critically ill patients was examined. Tight glucose control appears to be more beneficial in patients without diabetes than in those with known diabetes. It also may be more beneficial in improving outcomes in surgical rather than nonsurgical ICU patients, and in decreasing sepsis rather than mortality. Tight glycemic control was associated with a high incidence of hypoglycemia, which may offset some of its potential benefits. Tight glycemic control in the perioperative and intensive care settings should not be totally abandoned either as a clinical practice or as a subject of future research. Beneficial effects of tight glycemic control may be demonstrated when the appropriate glycemic targets are matched to the appropriate population.

  8. Prevalence of microalbuminuria in relation to glycemic control in type-2 diabetic patients in Mymensingh.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M J; Muqueet, A; Sharmeen, A; Hoque, M R

    2015-01-01

    Microalbuminuria is a renal marker of generalized vascular endothelial damage and early atherosclerosis. Patients with microalbuminuria are at increased risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes mellitus like myocardial infarction, stroke and nephropathy. Poor glycemic control increases the risk of microalbuminuria. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes and compare the frequency of microalbuminuria in poor and good glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. One Hundred and twenty two type 2 diabetic patients were included in the study. Data on age, gender, duration of diabetes, microalbuminuria and HbA1c were recorded. Urine and blood samples were collected and analyzed for microalbuminuria, blood glucose and HbA1c. All patients of both genders with type 2 diabetes for over 2 years were selected in this study. Patients with other causes of proteinuria were excluded. Out of 120 cases 93(77.5%) were male and 27(22.5%) were female. Mean age of patients was 57.8±14.7 years and average duration of diabetes was 9.2 years. Microalbuminuria was found 76.9% of male and 23.1% of female. Patients with poor glycemic control and good glycemic control have frequency of microalbuminuria of 55% and 54% respectively. Uncontrolled diabetes is strongly associated with prevalence of microalbuminuria. Screening for microalbuminuria and HbA1c test should be done both in newly and already diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients as an early marker of renal dysfunction and glycemic control.

  9. Association between secondhand smoke and glycemic control in adult diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dare; Choy, Yoon Soo; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a major chronic disease, and many studies have shown an association between diabetes with severe complications and certain causes of diabetes, including secondhand smoke. Smoking has been considered a significant issue around the world, and research has been conducted on its relationship with diseases including diabetes. However, previous studies have focused on the onset of diabetes, rather than glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Thus, this study aims to provide evidence of a relationship between secondhand smoke and glycemic control. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2014). We included 1168 male and 1248 female survey participants. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home and/or at workplaces was considered the primary independent variable, and glycemic control was represented by HbA1c levels. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate the association. A significant association was found between secondhand smoke and glycemic control (male at home, odds ratio [OR]: 0.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.14-0.90; female at both locations, OR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.11-0.74). The sub-group analysis showed a negative association of diabetes management with secondhand smoke in both sexes, regardless of income status or healthy/unhealthy behaviors. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home was revealed as a risk factor for poor glycemic control. Thus, healthcare providers should help diabetes patients to avoid secondhand smoke by educating them on the dangers of secondhand smoke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of aerobic and anaerobic exercises on glycemic control in type 1 diabetic youths

    PubMed Central

    Lukács, Andrea; Barkai, László

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the long-term effect of aerobic and/or anaerobic exercise on glycemic control in youths with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Literature review was performed in spring and summer 2014 using PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Scopus, and ScienceDirect with the following terms: aerobic, anaerobic, high-intensity, resistance, exercise/training, combined with glycemic/metabolic control, glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and type 1 diabetes. Only peer-reviewed articles in English were included published in the last 15 years. It was selected from 1999 to 2014. Glycemic control was measured with HbA1c. Studies with an intervention lasting at least 12 wk were included if the HbA1c was measured before and after the intervention. RESULTS: A total of nine articles were found, and they were published between the years of 2002-2011. The sample size was 401 diabetic youths (166 males and 235 females) with an age range of 10-19 years except one study, in which the age range was 13-30 years. Study participants were from Australia, Tunisia, Lithuania, Taiwan, Turkey, Brazilia, Belgium, Egypt and France. Four studies were aerobic-based, four were combined aerobic and anaerobic programs, and one compared aerobic exercise to anaerobic one. Available studies had insufficient evidence that any type of exercise or combined training would clearly improve the glycemic control in type 1 diabetic youth. Only three (two aerobic-based and one combined) studies could provide a significant positive change in glycemic control. CONCLUSION: The regular physical exercise has several other valuable physiological and health benefits that justify the inclusion of exercise in pediatric diabetes treatment and care. PMID:25897363

  11. Low Glycemic Index Carbohydrates versus All Types of Carbohydrates for Treating Diabetes in Pregnancy: A Randomized Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Effect of Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Rodríguez-Cano, Ameyalli; Legorreta-Legorreta, Jennifer; Parra-Covarrubias, Adalberto; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Background. Due to the higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM), more pregnant women complicated with diabetes are in need of clinical care. Purpose. Compare the effect of including only low glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates (CHO) against all types of CHO on maternal glycemic control and on the maternal and newborn's nutritional status of women with type 2 DM and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods. Women (n = 107, ≤29 weeks of gestation) were randomly assigned to one of two nutrition intervention groups: moderate energy and CHO restriction (Group 1: all types of CHO, Group 2: low GI foods). Results. No baseline differences in clinical data were observed. Capillary glucose concentrations throughout pregnancy were similar between groups. Fewer women in Group 2 exceeded weight gain recommendations. Higher risk of prematurity was observed in women in Group 2. No differences in glycemic control were observed between women with type 2 DM and those with GDM. Conclusions. Inclusion of low GI CHO as part of a comprehensive nutrition intervention is equally effective in improving glycemic control as compared to all types of CHO. This strategy had a positive effect in preventing excessive maternal weight gain but increased the risk of prematurity. PMID:23251152

  12. Low Glycemic Index Carbohydrates versus All Types of Carbohydrates for Treating Diabetes in Pregnancy: A Randomized Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Effect of Glycemic Control.

    PubMed

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Rodríguez-Cano, Ameyalli; Legorreta-Legorreta, Jennifer; Parra-Covarrubias, Adalberto; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Background. Due to the higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM), more pregnant women complicated with diabetes are in need of clinical care. Purpose. Compare the effect of including only low glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates (CHO) against all types of CHO on maternal glycemic control and on the maternal and newborn's nutritional status of women with type 2 DM and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods. Women (n = 107, ≤29 weeks of gestation) were randomly assigned to one of two nutrition intervention groups: moderate energy and CHO restriction (Group 1: all types of CHO, Group 2: low GI foods). Results. No baseline differences in clinical data were observed. Capillary glucose concentrations throughout pregnancy were similar between groups. Fewer women in Group 2 exceeded weight gain recommendations. Higher risk of prematurity was observed in women in Group 2. No differences in glycemic control were observed between women with type 2 DM and those with GDM. Conclusions. Inclusion of low GI CHO as part of a comprehensive nutrition intervention is equally effective in improving glycemic control as compared to all types of CHO. This strategy had a positive effect in preventing excessive maternal weight gain but increased the risk of prematurity.

  13. The influence of carbohydrate consumption on glycemic control in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ásbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Akueson, Cecelia E; Ronneby, Helle; Rytter, Ane; Andersen, Jens R; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2017-05-01

    To study the influence of the quantity and the quality of carbohydrate consumption on glycemic control in early pregnancy among women with type 1 diabetes. A retrospective study of 107 women with type 1 diabetes who completed 1-3days of diet recording before first antenatal visit, as a part of routine care. The total daily carbohydrate consumption from the major sources (e.g. bread, potatoes, rice, pasta, dairy products, fruits, candy) was calculated. A dietician estimated the overall glycemic index score (scale 0-7). At least two days of diet recording were available in 75% of the 107 women at mean 64 (SD±14) gestational days. The quantity of carbohydrate consumption from major sources was 180 (±51)g/day. HbA1c was positively associated with the quantity of carbohydrate consumption (β=0.41; 95% CI 0.13-0.70, P=0.005), corresponding to an increase of 0.4% in HbA1c per 100g carbohydrates consumed daily, when adjusted for insulin dose/bodyweight and use of insulin pump treatment. The median (IQR) glycemic index score was 2 (0-3). An adjusted association between HbA1c and glycemic index score was not demonstrated. The women using carbohydrate counting daily (45%) had lower HbA1c compared to the remaining women (6.4 (±0.5) vs. 6.8 (±0.9)% (47±6 vs. 51±10mmol/mol), P=0.01). HbA1c in early pregnancy was positively associated with the quantity of carbohydrate consumption regardless of insulin treatment. Carbohydrate counting is probably important for glycemic control in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Value of continuous glucose monitoring for minimizing severe hypoglycemia during tight glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Steil, Garry M; Langer, Monica; Jaeger, Karen; Alexander, Jamin; Gaies, Michael; Agus, Michael S D

    2011-11-01

    Tight glycemic control can potentially reduce morbidity and mortality in the intensive care unit but increases the risk of hypoglycemia. The most effective means to avoid hypoglycemia is to obtain frequent blood glucose samples, but this increases the burden to nursing staff. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of a real-time continuous glucose monitor to reduce hypoglycemia (blood glucose <60 mg/dL [3.3 mmol/L]) during standard care or tight glycemic control effected with a proportional integral derivative insulin titration algorithm. Real-time continuous glucose monitor profiles obtained from an ongoing prospective randomized trial of tight glycemic control were retrospectively analyzed to determine whether the continuous glucose measure had prevented instances of hypoglycemia. Cardiac intensive care unit. Children 3 yrs of age or younger undergoing cardiac surgery were studied. Intravenous insulin infusion and rescue glucose guided by the real-time continuous glucose monitor and the proportional integral derivative algorithm in the tight glycemic control arm (n = 155; target glucose 80-110 mg/dL [4.4-6.1 mmol/L]) and the real-time continuous glucose monitor in the standard care arm (n = 156). No reduction in hypoglycemia was observed with real-time continuous glucose monitor alarms set at 60 mg/dL (3.3 mmol/L) (zero of 19 occurrences of blood glucose <60 mg/dL [3.3 mmol/L] detected); 18 of 40 subsequent incidences of hypoglycemia were detected after the alarm threshold was increased to 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L). In the tight glycemic control arm, eight incidences were reduced in duration and an additional eight events were prevented with intravenous glucose. In the standard care arm, three of nine occurrences of hypoglycemia were detected with the duration reduced in all cases. On average, one to two false hypoglycemia alarms were observed in each patient. The real-time continuous glucose monitor in combination with proportional integral derivative

  15. Diabetes management at the end of life: transitioning from tight glycemic control to comfort.

    PubMed

    Tice, Martha A

    2006-05-01

    Tight glycemic control has become the standard of care for prevention of the long-term side effects of diabetes mellitus. When individuals with diabetes approach the end of life from advanced cancer or another chronic illness, they often become anorexic. The result is an increased risk for hypoglycemic episodes. It is appropriate to shift the goal of therapy from tight control of blood sugar to maintaining comfort and enhancing quality of life.

  16. Impact of postoperative glycemic control and nutritional status on clinical outcomes after total pancreatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hao-Jun; Jin, Chen; Fu, De-Liang

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the impact of glycemic control and nutritional status after total pancreatectomy (TP) on complications, tumor recurrence and overall survival. METHODS Retrospective records of 52 patients with pancreatic tumors who underwent TP were collected from 2007 to 2015. A series of clinical parameters collected before and after surgery, and during the follow-up were evaluated. The associations of glycemic control and nutritional status with complications, tumor recurrence and long-term survival were determined. Risk factors for postoperative glycemic control and nutritional status were identified. RESULTS High early postoperative fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels (OR = 4.074, 95%CI: 1.188-13.965, P = 0.025) and low early postoperative prealbumin levels (OR = 3.816, 95%CI: 1.110-13.122, P = 0.034) were significantly associated with complications after TP. Postoperative HbA1c levels over 7% (HR = 2.655, 95%CI: 1.299-5.425, P = 0.007) were identified as one of the independent risk factors for tumor recurrence. Patients with postoperative HbA1c levels over 7% had much poorer overall survival than those with HbA1c levels less than 7% (9.3 mo vs 27.6 mo, HR = 3.212, 95%CI: 1.147-8.999, P = 0.026). Patients with long-term diabetes mellitus (HR = 15.019, 95%CI: 1.278-176.211, P = 0.031) and alcohol history (B = 1.985, SE = 0.860, P = 0.025) tended to have poor glycemic control and lower body mass index levels after TP, respectively. CONCLUSION At least 3 mo are required after TP to adapt to diabetes and recover nutritional status. Glycemic control appears to have more influence over nutritional status on long-term outcomes after TP. Improvement in glycemic control and nutritional status after TP is important to prevent early complications and tumor recurrence, and improve survival. PMID:28127200

  17. Community Interventions to Improve Glycemic Control in African Americans With Type 2 Diabetes: A Systemic Review

    PubMed Central

    Smalls, Brittany L.; Walker, Rebekah J.; Bonilha, Heather S.; Campbell, Jennifer A.; Egede, Leonard E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of published community interventions to evaluate different components of community interventions and their ability to positively impact glycemic control in African Americans with T2DM. Methods: Medline, PsychInfo, and CINAHL were searched for potentially eligible studies published from January 2000 through January 2012. The following inclusion criteria were established for publications: (1) describe a community intervention, not prevention; (2) specifically indicate, in data analysis and results, the impact of the community intervention on African American adults, 18 years and older; (3) measure glycemic control (HbA1C) as an outcome measure; and (4) involve patients in a community setting, which excludes hospitals and hospital clinics. Results: Thirteen studies out of 9,233 articles identified in the search met the predetermined inclusion criteria. There were 5 randomized control trials and 3 reported improved glycemic control in the intervention group compared to the control group at the completion of the study. Of the 8 studies that were not randomized control trials, 6 showed a statistically significant change in HbA1C. Conclusion: In general, the community interventions assessed led to significant reductions in HbA1C in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Community health workers did not have a greater impact on glycemic control in this sample. The findings of this study provides insight for designing community-based interventions in the future, such as including use of multiple delivery methods, consideration of mobile device software, nutritionist educator, and curriculum-based approaches. PMID:26156923

  18. Glycemic control during consecutive days with prolonged walking exercise in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Eijsvogels, Thijs M; Nyakayiru, Jean; Schreuder, Tim H A; Hopman, Maria T; Thijssen, Dick H; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-07-01

    Despite its general benefits for health, exercise complicates the maintenance of stable blood glucose concentrations in individuals with type 1 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to examine changes in food intake, insulin administration, and 24-h glycemic control in response to consecutive days with prolonged walking exercise (∼8h daily) in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Ten individuals with type 1 diabetes participating in the worlds' largest walking event were recruited for this observational study. Simultaneous measurements of 24-h glycemic control (continuous glucose monitoring), insulin administration and food intake were performed during a non-walking day (control) and during three subsequent days with prolonged walking exercise (daily distance 40 or 50km). Despite an increase in daily energy (31±18%; p<0.01) and carbohydrate (82±71g; p<0.01) intake during walking days, subjects lowered their insulin administration by 26±16% relative to the control day (p<0.01). Average 24-h blood glucose concentrations, the prevalence of hyperglycemia (blood glucose >10 mmol/L) and hypoglycemia (blood glucose <3.9mmol/L) did not differ between the control day and walking days (p>0.05 for all variables). The prolonged walking exercise was associated with a modest increase in glycemic variability compared with the control day (p<0.05). Prolonged walking exercise allows for profound reductions in daily insulin administration in persons with type 1 diabetes, despite large increments in energy and carbohydrate intake. When taking such adjustments into account, prolonged moderate-intensity exercise does not necessarily impair 24-h glycemic control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Glycemic control and insulin requirements in type 1 diabetic patients depending on the clinical characteristics at diabetes onset.

    PubMed

    Beato-Víbora, Pilar Isabel; Tormo-García, M Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The long-term prognosis of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) was evaluated in relation to the clinical characteristics at the time of diabetes onset. We examined retrospectively the clinical and laboratory characteristics present at the time of diagnosis in 301 adult patients (187 men) consecutively admitted to hospital with T1DM onset and evaluated the clinical outcome of T1DM during 6 ± 4.8 years following diagnosis. Women needed a greater insulin dose per kg of body weight over the first 2 years following diagnosis. Younger patients at diagnosis had greater insulin requirements during follow-up. Patients with at least one positive pancreatic antibody needed a greater insulin dose 2 years after diagnosis and developed poorer glycemic control during follow-up than patients with no detectable pancreatic antibodies at onset. Diabetic ketoacidosis at onset was associated with greater insulin requirements over the first 2 years of follow-up and with poorer glycemic control during the course of the illness. C-peptide levels at diagnosis correlated with insulin requirements during the first 2 years of follow-up. Patients with higher HbA1c levels at diagnosis had greater insulin requirements in the first year of follow-up. A correlation was found between the HbA1c levels at the consecutive years of follow-up. Female sex, younger age, humoral pancreatic autoimmunity, diabetic ketoacidosis, lower pancreatic reserve and higher HbA1c levels at onset could predict a poor long-term clinical outcome of T1DM in terms of insulin requirements and glycemic control.

  20. Evaluation of a novel artificial pancreas: closed loop glycemic control system with continuous blood glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Yuuki; Kinoshita, Yoshihiko; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Munekage, Masaya; Munekage, Eri; Takezaki, Yuka; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Koichi; Yamazaki, Rie; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Tarumi, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Mishina, Suguru; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2013-04-01

    A closed-loop glycemic control system using an artificial pancreas has been applied with many clinical benefits in Japan since 1987. To update this system incorporating user-friendly features, we developed a novel artificial pancreas (STG-55). The purpose of this study was to evaluate STG-55 for device usability, performance of blood glucose measurement, glycemic control characteristics in vivo in animal experiments, and evaluate its clinical feasibility. There are several features for usability improvement based on the design concepts, such as compactness, display monitor, batteries, guidance function, and reduction of the preparation time. All animal study data were compared with a clinically available artificial pancreas system in Japan (control device: STG-22). We examined correlations of both blood glucose levels between two groups (STG-55 vs. control) using Clarke's error grid analysis, and also compared mean glucose infusion rate (GIR) during glucose clamp. The results showed strong correlation in blood glucose concentrations (Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient: 0.97; n = 1636). Clarke's error grid analysis showed that 98.4% of the data fell in Zones A and B, which represent clinically accurate or benign errors, respectively. The difference in mean GIRs was less than 0.2 mg/kg/min, which was considered not significant. Clinical feasibility study demonstrated sufficient glycemic control maintaining target glucose range between 80 and 110 (mg/dL), and between 140 and 160 without any hypoglycemia. In conclusion, STG-55 was a clinically acceptable artificial pancreas with improved interface and usability. A closed-loop glycemic control system with STG-55 would be a useful tool for surgical and critical patients in intensive care units, as well as diabetic patients. © 2013, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2013, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Influence of sourdough on in vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic indices of gluten-free breads.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Anika; Hager, Anna-Sophie; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-03-01

    Gluten-free flours (buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff) were fermented using obligate heterofermentative strain Weissella cibaria MG1 (Wc) and facultative heterofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum FST1.7 (Lp). Starch hydrolysis of breads with and without sourdough (controls) was analyzed in vitro using enzymatic digestion followed by dialysis (10-11 kDa). Hydrolysis indices as well as predicted glycemic indices (pGI) were calculated from reducing sugars released into the dialysate. Amounts of resistant starch (RS; % of total starch) were determined by enzymatic digestion. Upon sourdough addition, RS significantly decreased in buckwheat (Wc 1.28%, Lp 1.44%) and teff sourdough breads (Wc 0.87%, Lp 0.98%) in comparison to their controls (2.01% and 1.92%, respectively). However, no correlation was found with starch hydrolysis. Predicted GIs were reduced upon sourdough addition in wheat (ctrl 100; Wc 85; Lp 76) in comparison to control breads. This was not the case in most gluten-free breads with the exception of sorghum (ctrl 72; Lp 69) and teff sourdough breads (ctrl 74; Lp 68). In contrast, increased pGIs were found in quinoa (ctrl 95; Wc 106; Lp 103) and buckwheat sourdough breads (ctrl 80; Wc 89; Lp 86).

  2. Factors associated with glycemic control in people with diabetes at the Family Health Strategy in Pernambuco.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rodrigo Fonseca; Fontbonne, Annick; Carvalho, Eduardo Maia Freese de; Montarroyos, Ulisses Ramos; Barreto, Maria Nelly Sobreira de Carvalho; Cesse, Eduarda Ângela Pessoa

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors associated with glycemic control in people with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) registered in the Family Health Strategy (FHS) in Pernambuco, Brazil. Associations between glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin A lower or equal to 7%) presented by people with DM and variables related to sociodemographic conditions, lifestyle, characteristics of diabetes, treatment and follow-up of patients by health services were investigated by multiple regression. More than 65% of the participants presented inadequate glycemic control, especially those with lower age, longer illness duration, more annual contacts with FHS and complex therapeutic regimen. People with DM without referrals to specialists presented greater glycemic control. Associations with education level and obesity did not remain significant in the multivariate model. The evolution of diabetes hinders adequate control, however, attention to younger people with DM and referrals to specialists are factors that can improve glycemic control. Identificar fatores associados ao controle glicêmico em pessoas com Diabetes Mellitus (DM) tipo 2 cadastradas na Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF) em Pernambuco, Brasil. Foram investigadas, por regressão múltipla, as associações entre o controle glicêmico (hemoglobina A glicosilada menor ou maior ou igual a 7%) apresentado pelas pessoas com DM e variáveis relacionadas com condições sociodemográficas, hábitos de vida, características do diabetes, de seu tratamento e acompanhamento dos pacientes pelos serviços de saúde. Mais de 65% dos participantes apresentaram controle glicêmico inadequado, principalmente aqueles com idade menor, duração da doença mais longa, mais contatos anuais com a ESF e regime terapêutico complexo. Pessoas com DM sem encaminhamentos para especialistas apresentaram um maior descontrole glicêmico. Associações com escolaridade e obesidade não permaneceram significativas no modelo multivariado. A evolução do

  3. Diabetes mellitus with poor glycemic control increases bladder cancer recurrence risk in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tai, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Chung-Hsin; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Tai, Huai-Chin; Wang, Sho-Mon; Pu, Yeong-Shiau

    2015-03-01

    The association of diabetes mellitus and bladder cancer recurrence following radical nephroureterectomies (RNUs) in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) was investigated. Between January 1996 and March 2009, 538 patients with UTUC who received RNU and had no previous bladder cancer histories were enrolled. The clinicopathological characteristics were obtained and used for the analysis of metachronous bladder recurrence by using Cox proportional hazard model. The diabetic patients (N = 104, 19.3%) were elderly (72 vs 67 years, p < 0.001) and had more hypertension (56.7 vs 34.5%, p < 0.001) as compared with non-diabetic patients. There was no significant difference in the rest of clinicopathological characteristics between patient groups. During the median follow-up duration of 51 months, bladder recurrences were discovered in 47.1 and 33.1% of diabetic and non-diabetic patients with UTUC, respectively. Poorly controlled diabetic patients (HbA1c  ≥ 7.0%) exhibited a shorter duration of bladder cancer recurrence-free survival as compared with those with good glycemic controlled diabetes mellitus and without diabetes mellitus (log-rank test, p < 0.001 and <0.001, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, male gender [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.67, p = 0.017], ureteral tumour (HR = 1.61, p = 0.020), end-stage renal disease (HR = 2.09, p = 0.030) and diabetes mellitus with poor glycemic control (HR = 2.10, p < 0.018) independently predicted bladder recurrence after RNU. Diabetes mellitus with poor glycemic control (HbA1c  ≥ 7.0%) increases the risk of subsequent bladder cancer recurrence. These results underscore the need for intensive glycemic control and close follow-up for diabetic patients. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Perioperative glycemic control using an artificial endocrine pancreas in patients undergoing total pancreatectomy: tight glycemic control may be justified in order to avoid brittle diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Masaki; Tsukamoto, Yuuki; Kinoshita, Yoshihiko; Munekage, Masaya; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    I dedicate this paper to the late Prof. Yukihiko Nosé with all my heart. In 2001, under the direction of Prof. Nosé and Prof. Brunicardi at Baylor College of Medicine, we published a review article entitled "Artificial endocrine pancreas" in JACS. Subsequently, we reported that perioperative tight glycemic control (TGC) using an artificial pancreas (AP) with a closed-loop system could stably maintain near-normoglycemia in total-pancreatectomized dogs. Based on this experimental study in Houston, since 2006, we have introduced perioperative TGC using an AP into clinical use in Kochi. As of 2011, this novel TGC method has provided safe and stable blood glucose levels in more than 400 surgical patients. In this paper, we report new clinical findings regarding perioperative TGC using an AP in total-pancreatectomized patients. TGC using an AP enables us to achieve stable glycemic control not only without hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia but also with less variation in blood glucose concentration from the target blood glucose range, even in patients with the most serious form of diabetes, so-called "brittle diabetes", undergoing total pancreatectomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first clinical report of TGC using an AP in patients undergoing total pancreatic resection.

  5. HbA1c After a Short Period of Monotherapy With Metformin Identifies Durable Glycemic Control Among Adolescents With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zeitler, Phil; Copeland, Kenneth C.; El ghormli, Laure; Levitt Katz, Lorraine; Levitsky, Lynne L.; Linder, Barbara; McGuigan, Paul; White, Neil H.; Wilfley, Denise

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether clinically accessible parameters early in the course of youth-onset type 2 diabetes predict likelihood of durable control on oral therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS TODAY was a randomized clinical trial of adolescents with type 2 diabetes. Two groups, including participants from all three treatments, were defined for analysis: 1) those who remained in glycemic control for at least 48 months of follow-up and 2) those who lost glycemic control before 48 months. Outcome group was analyzed in univariate and multivariate models as a function of baseline characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, BMI, waist circumference, Tanner stage, disease duration, depressive symptoms) and biochemical measures (HbA1c, C-peptide, lean and fat body mass, insulin inverse, insulinogenic index). Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to analyze HbA1c cut points. RESULTS In multivariate models including factors significant in univariate analysis, only HbA1c and insulinogenic index at randomization remained significant (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0002, respectively). An HbA1c cutoff of 6.3% (45 mmol/mol) (positive likelihood ratio [PLR] 3.7) was identified that optimally distinguished the groups; sex-specific cutoffs were 6.3% (45 mmol/mol) for females (PLR 4.4) and 5.6% (38 mmol/mol) for males (PLR 2.1). CONCLUSIONS Identifying youth with type 2 diabetes at risk for rapid loss of glycemic control would allow more targeted therapy. HbA1c is a clinically accessible measure to identify high risk for loss of glycemic control on oral therapy. Adolescents with type 2 diabetes unable to attain a non–diabetes range HbA1c on metformin are at increased risk for rapid loss of glycemic control. PMID:26537182

  6. Glycemic control in diabetic children: role of mother's knowledge and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Tahirovic, Husref; Toromanovic, Alma

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of mother's knowledge and socioeconomic status (SES) of the family on glycemic control in diabetic children. Our sample was taken from successive admissions to the outpatient's diabetes clinics in Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Diabetes knowledge was assessed using the Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center Diabetes Knowledge Test. Glycemic control was assessed by glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1C)). The mother's demographics were obtained by self-report. To categorize families' SES, parents' level of education, and current employment were recorded and analyzed using the Hollingshed two-factor index of social position. As expected, higher mother's knowledge was significantly associated with lower HbA(1C) (r = -0.2861705, p = 0.0442). Also, a significant correlation was found between the families' SES and HbA(1C) levels (r = 0.4401921; p = 0.0015). Mothers with more knowledge have children with better metabolic control, and low SES is significantly associated with higher levels of HbA1c. Improvement of mothers' knowledge and family SES may improve glycemic control and ultimately decrease acute and chronic complications of diabetes in children.

  7. Overcoming barriers to glycemic control in African Americans with type-2 diabetes: benefits of insulin therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Merville C.

    2007-01-01

    A disproportionate number of African-American men and women are affected by obesity and diabetes. The documented rate of poor glycemic control in the African-American population may contribute to the high rate of morbidity and mortality due to diabetes observed in these patients. Since the benefits of strict glycemic control have been demonstrated in multiple large trials, the aim of treatment should be to achieve the goals set forth by the American Diabetes Association. Insulin remains an essential therapeutic agent for helping patients achieve glycemic control and preventing long-term comorbidities. However, barriers to insulin therapy exist for both the physician and patient. Strategies to counter this resistance include identifying barriers to treatment, restoring the patient's sense of control, utilizing simple regimens, and reviewing the benefits of insulin and the risk of hypoglycemia. In treating African-American patients with diabetes, providers of various racial and ethnic backgrounds may maximize treatment efficacy by attempting to understand and practice culturally competent care. PMID:17722663

  8. Association between Responsible Pet Ownership and Glycemic Control in Youths with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) a chronic characterized by an absolute insulin deficiency requires conscientious patient self-management to maintain glucose control within a normal range. Family cohesion and adaptability, positive coping strategies, social support and adequate self-regulatory behavior are found to favorably influence glycemic control. Our hypothesis was that the responsible care of a companion animal is associated with these positive attributes and correlated with the successful management of a chronic illness such as type 1 diabetes. We recruited 223 youths between 9 and 19 years of age from the Pediatric Diabetes clinic at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, reviewed the status of their glycemic control (using three consecutive A1c values) and asked them questions about the presence of a pet at home, and their level of involvement with its care. Multivariate analyses show that children who care actively for one or more pets at home are 2.5 times more likely to have control over their glycemic levels than children who do not care for a pet, adjusting for duration of disease, socio-economic status, age and self-management [1.1 to 5.8], pWald = 0.032. A separate model involving the care of a petdog only yielded comparable results (ORa = 2.6 [1.1 to 5.9], pWald = 0.023). PMID:27104736

  9. The association between glycemic control and microalbuminuria in Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Showail, Anwar Ali; Ghoraba, Medhat

    2016-05-01

    Microalbuminuria is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and renal out- come in a patient with Type 2 diabetes. The evidence that intensive glycemic control reduces the microvascular complications of diabetes is based almost exclusively on prevention of micro- albuminuria. To evaluate the association between microalbuminuria and glycemic control and other factors in Type 2 diabetes, we studied retrospectively 551 patients with Type 2 diabetes. The patients were divided into two groups: 175 patients with microalbuminuria in the case group and 376 with normal urine albumin-creatinine ratio in the control group. Our data indicated that there was a significant association between the uncontrolled glycemia and development of microalbuminuria and that was more obvious if HbA1c level was >11%. Our data also indicate that there was a statistical significant association between male gender, age, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels, and the microalbuminuria in crude odds ratios (ORs). We conclude that there was a clear association between the glycemic control and microalbuminuria, and microalbuminuria was associated with older age, male gender, and systolic and DBP in crude ORs.

  10. Association between Responsible Pet Ownership and Glycemic Control in Youths with Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Maranda, Louise; Gupta, Olga T

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) a chronic characterized by an absolute insulin deficiency requires conscientious patient self-management to maintain glucose control within a normal range. Family cohesion and adaptability, positive coping strategies, social support and adequate self-regulatory behavior are found to favorably influence glycemic control. Our hypothesis was that the responsible care of a companion animal is associated with these positive attributes and correlated with the successful management of a chronic illness such as type 1 diabetes. We recruited 223 youths between 9 and 19 years of age from the Pediatric Diabetes clinic at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, reviewed the status of their glycemic control (using three consecutive A1c values) and asked them questions about the presence of a pet at home, and their level of involvement with its care. Multivariate analyses show that children who care actively for one or more pets at home are 2.5 times more likely to have control over their glycemic levels than children who do not care for a pet, adjusting for duration of disease, socio-economic status, age and self-management [1.1 to 5.8], pWald = 0.032. A separate model involving the care of a petdog only yielded comparable results (ORa = 2.6 [1.1 to 5.9], pWald = 0.023).

  11. Impact of Long-Term Poor and Good Glycemic Control on Metabolomics Alterations in Type 1 Diabetic People

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Tumpa; Kudva, Yogish C.; Persson, Xuan-Mai T.; Schenck, Louis A.; Ford, G. Charles; Singh, Ravinder J.; Carter, Rickey

    2016-01-01

    Context: Poor glycemic control in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with both micro- and macrovascular complications, but good glycemic control does not fully prevent the risk of these complications. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether T1D with good glycemic control have persistent abnormalities of metabolites and pathways that exist in T1D with poor glycemic control. Design: We compared plasma metabolites in T1D with poor (glycated hemoglobin ≥ 8.5%, T1D[−] and good (glycated hemoglobin < 6.5%, T1D[+]) glycemic control with nondiabetic controls (ND). Setting: The study was conducted at the clinical research unit. Patients or Other Participants: T1D with poor (n = 14), T1D(−) and good, T1D(+) (n = 15) glycemic control and matched (for age, sex, and body mass index) ND participants were included in the study. Intervention(s): There were no intervention. Main Outcome Measure(s): Comparison of qualitative and quantitative profiling of metabolome was performed. Results: In T1D(−), 347 known metabolites belonging to 38 metabolic pathways involved in cholesterol, vitamin D, tRNA, amino acids (AAs), bile acids, urea, tricarboxylic acid cycle, immune response, and eicosanoids were different from ND. In T1D(+),154 known metabolites belonging to 26 pathways including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, bile acids, tRNA biosynthesis, AAs, branch-chain AAs, retinol, and vitamin D metabolism remained altered from ND. Targeted measurements of AA metabolites, trichloroacetic acid, and free fatty acids showed directional changes similar to the untargeted metabolomics approach. Conclusions: Comprehensive metabolomic profiling identified extensive metabolomic abnormalities in T1D with poor glycemic control. Chronic good glycemic control failed to normalize many of these perturbations, suggesting a potential role for these persistent abnormalities in many complications in T1D. PMID:26796761

  12. Missed appointments and poor glycemic control: an opportunity to identify high-risk diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Karter, Andrew J; Parker, Melissa M; Moffet, Howard H; Ahmed, Ameena T; Ferrara, Assiamira; Liu, Jennifer Y; Selby, Joe V

    2004-02-01

    When patients miss scheduled medical appointments, continuity and effectiveness of healthcare delivery is reduced, appropriate monitoring of health status lapses, and the cost of health services increases. We evaluated the relationship between missed appointments and glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin or HbA1c) in a large, managed care population of diabetic patients. Missed appointment rate was related cross-sectionally to glycemic control among 84,040 members of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Diabetes Registry during 2000. Adjusted least-square mean estimates of HbA1c were derived by level of appointment keeping (none missed, 1-30% missed, and >30% missed appointments for the calendar year) stratified by diabetes therapy. Twelve percent of the subjects missed more than 30% of scheduled appointments during 2000. Greater rates of missed appointments were associated with significantly poorer glycemic control after adjusting for demographic factors (age, sex), clinical status, and health care utilization. The adjusted mean HbA1c among members who missed >30% of scheduled appointments was 0.70 to 0.79 points higher (P <0.0001) relative to those attending all appointments. Patients who missed more than 30% of their appointments were less likely to practice daily self-monitoring of blood glucose and to have poor oral medication refill adherence. Patients who underuse care lack recorded information needed to determine level of risk. Frequently missed appointments were associated with poorer glycemic control and suboptimal diabetes self-management practice, are readily ascertained in clinical settings, and therefore could have clinical utility as a risk-stratifying criterion indicating the need for targeted case management.

  13. Improved glycemic control in mice lacking Sglt1 and Sglt2.

    PubMed

    Powell, David R; DaCosta, Christopher M; Gay, Jason; Ding, Zhi-Ming; Smith, Melinda; Greer, Jennifer; Doree, Deon; Jeter-Jones, Sabrina; Mseeh, Faika; Rodriguez, Lawrence A; Harris, Angela; Buhring, Lindsey; Platt, Kenneth A; Vogel, Peter; Brommage, Robert; Shadoan, Melanie K; Sands, Arthur T; Zambrowicz, Brian

    2013-01-15

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) is the major, and SGLT1 the minor, transporter responsible for renal glucose reabsorption. Increasing urinary glucose excretion (UGE) by selectively inhibiting SGLT2 improves glycemic control in diabetic patients. We generated Sglt1 and Sglt2 knockout (KO) mice, Sglt1/Sglt2 double-KO (DKO) mice, and wild-type (WT) littermates to study their relative glycemic control and to determine contributions of SGLT1 and SGLT2 to UGE. Relative to WTs, Sglt2 KOs had improved oral glucose tolerance and were resistant to streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Sglt1 KOs fed glucose-free high-fat diet (G-free HFD) had improved oral glucose tolerance accompanied by delayed intestinal glucose absorption and increased circulating glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), but had normal intraperitoneal glucose tolerance. On G-free HFD, Sglt2 KOs had 30%, Sglt1 KOs 2%, and WTs <1% of the UGE of DKOs. Consistent with their increased UGE, DKOs had lower fasting blood glucose and improved intraperitoneal glucose tolerance than Sglt2 KOs. In conclusion, 1) Sglt2 is the major renal glucose transporter, but Sglt1 reabsorbs 70% of filtered glucose if Sglt2 is absent; 2) mice lacking Sglt2 display improved glucose tolerance despite UGE that is 30% of maximum; 3) Sglt1 KO mice respond to oral glucose with increased circulating GLP-1; and 4) DKO mice have improved glycemic control over mice lacking Sglt2 alone. These data suggest that, in patients with type 2 diabetes, combining pharmacological SGLT2 inhibition with complete renal and/or partial intestinal SGLT1 inhibition may improve glycemic control over that achieved by SGLT2 inhibition alone.

  14. Sputum glucose and glycemic control in cystic fibrosis-related diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Van Sambeek, Lindsey; Cowley, Elise S; Newman, Dianne K; Kato, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes affects up to half of cystic fibrosis patients and is associated with increased mortality and more frequent pulmonary exacerbations. However, it is unclear to what degree good glycemic control might mitigate these risks and clinical outcomes have not previously been studied in relation to glucose from the lower airways, the site of infection and CF disease progression. We initially hypothesized that diabetic cystic fibrosis patients with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) > 6.5% have worse pulmonary function, longer and more frequent exacerbations and also higher sputum glucose levels than patients with HbA(1c) ≤ 6.5% or cystic fibrosis patients without diabetes. To test this, we analyzed spontaneously expectorated sputum samples from 88 cystic fibrosis patients. The median sputum glucose concentration was 0.70 mM (mean, 4.75 mM; range, 0-64.6 mM). Sputum glucose was not correlated with age, sex, body mass index, diabetes diagnosis, glycemic control, exacerbation frequency or length, or pulmonary function. Surprisingly, sputum glucose was highest in subjects with normal glucose tolerance, suggesting the dynamics of glycemic control, sputum glucose and pulmonary infections are more complex than previously thought. Two-year mean HbA(1c) was positively correlated with the length of exacerbation admission (p < 0.01), and negatively correlated with measures of pulmonary function (p < 0.01). While total number of hospitalizations for exacerbations were not significantly different, subjects with an HbA(1c) > 6.5% were hospitalized on average 6 days longer than those with HbA(1c) ≤ 6.5% (p < 0.01). Current clinical care guidelines for cystic fibrosis-related diabetes target HbA(1c) ≤ 7% to limit long-term microvascular damage, but more stringent glycemic control (HbA(1c) ≤ 6.5%) may further reduce the short-term pulmonary complications.

  15. Social support and glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chew, B H; Khoo, E M; Chia, Y C

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of social support and its association with glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in an urban primary care center within an academic institution. Social support is important in the management of chronic diseases. However, its association with glycemic control has been controversial. This was part of a study examining religiosity in T2D patients. Nonsmoking patients with T2D for at least 3 years and aged 30 years and above were recruited. Social support was measured using The Social Support Survey-Medical Outcomes Study (SS), a self-administered questionnaire; the scores range from 19 to 95, and a high score indicates better social support. Glycemic control was measured using the 3 most recent glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels within the past 3 years. A total of 175 participants completed the SS survey (response rate 79.0%). The mean age was 62.7 (standard deviation [SD] = 10.8) years, and the mean duration of diabetes was 11.74 (SD = 6.7) years. The mean HbA1c level was 8.15 (SD = 1.44). The mean SS score was 68.1. The prevalence of high and low social support were 29.7% and 24.0 %, respectively. A significant correlation was found between SS score and number of social supporters (n = 167). No significant correlation was found between the self-reported number of social supporters or the SS score and the mean HbA1c level. Social support was not associated with glycemic control in adult patients with T2D in this primary care setting. © 2011 APJPH.

  16. IMPROVING GLYCEMIC CONTROL SAFELY IN CRITICAL CARE PATIENTS A COLLABORATIVE SYSTEMS APPROACH IN NINE HOSPITALS.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Gregory A; Holdych, Janet; Kendall, Heather; Harrison, Karen; Montgomery, Patricia A; Kulasa, Kristen

    2017-02-22

    Objective Safely improve glycemic control in the critical care units of nine hospitals. Methods Critical care adult inpatients from nine hospitals with ≥ 4 point-of-care (POC) blood glucose (BG) readings over ≥ 2 days were targeted by collaborative improvement efforts to reduce hyper- and hypo-glycemia. Balanced glucometric goals for each hospital were set targeting improvement from baseline, or goals deemed desirable from Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM) benchmarking data. Collaborative interventions included standardized insulin infusion protocols, hypoglycemia prevention bundles, audit and feedback, education, and measure-vention (coupling measurement of patients "off protocol" with concurrent interventions to correct suboptimal care). Results All sites improved glycemic control. Six reached pre-specified levels of improvement of the day-weighted mean (DWM) BG. The DWM BG for the cohort decreased by 7.7 mg/dL [95% CI 7.0 - 8.4] to 151.3 mg/dL. Six of nine sites showed improvement in the percent ICU days with severe hyperglycemia (any BG > 299 mg/dL). ICU severe hyperglycemic days declined from 8.6% to 7.2% for the cohort [RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.80 - 0.88]. Patient days with any BG < 70 mg / dL were reduced by 0.4% [95% CI 0.06 - 0.6%] from 4.5% to 4.1% for a small but statistically significant reduction in hypoglycemia. Seven of nine sites showed improvement. Conclusion Multi-hospital improvements in ICU glycemic control, severe hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia are feasible. Balanced goals for glycemic control and hypoglycemia in the ICU using SHM benchmarks and metrics enhanced successful improvement efforts with good staff acceptance and sustainability.

  17. Smoking, Central Adiposity, and Poor Glycemic Control Increase Risk of Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Nondahl, David M.; Dalton, Dayna S.; Fischer, Mary E.; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Nieto, F. Javier; Schubert, Carla R.; Tweed, Ted S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine associations between smoking, adiposity, diabetes, and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and the 15-yr incidence of hearing impairment (HI). Design The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is a longitudinal population-based cohort study (1993–95 to 2009–2010). Setting Beaver Dam, WI. Participants Participants in the Beaver Dam Eye Study (1988–90; residents of Beaver Dam, WI ages 43–84 years in 1987–88) were eligible for the EHLS. There were 1925 participants with normal hearing at baseline. Measurements 15-year cumulative incidence of HI (pure-tone average (PTA) of hearing thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz > 25 decibels Hearing Level (dB HL) in either ear). Cigarette smoking, exercise, and other factors were ascertained by questionnaire. Blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured. Results Follow-up examinations (≥1) were obtained from 87.2% (n=1678; mean baseline age 61 years). The 15-year cumulative incidence of HI was 56.8%. Adjusting for age and sex, current smoking (Hazard Ratio (HR) =1.31, p=0.048), education (<16 yrs; HR=1.35, p=0.01), waist circumference (HR=1.08 per 10 cm, p=0.017), and poorly controlled diabetes (HR=2.03, p=0.048) were associated with increased risk of HI. Former smokers and people with better controlled diabetes were not at increased risk. Conclusion Smoking, central adiposity and poorly controlled diabetes predicted incident HI. These well-known CVD risk factors, suggest vascular changes may contribute to HI in aging. Interventions targeting reductions in smoking and adiposity, and improved glycemic control in people with diabetes, may help to prevent or delay the onset of HI. PMID:25953199

  18. α-2-Macroglobulin in Saliva Is Associated with Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, Juan Pablo; Ortiz, Carolina; Morales-Bozo, Irene; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Baeza, Mauricio; Beltran, Caroll

    2015-01-01

    Background. Subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) require an adequate glycemic control to avoid diabetic complications. Currently, saliva biomarkers are used as a diagnostic tool and can be indicative of the degree of progression and control of various diseases. Several studies indicate that α-2-macroglobulin levels are elevated in diabetic patients. Methods. 120 subjects with DM2 were enrolled and classified into two groups according to their glycemic control (percentage of glycated hemoglobin-A1c (HbA1c), <7% adequate glycemic control group; >7% inadequate glycemic control group). The relationship between α-2-macroglobulin levels from saliva samples and HbA1c was subsequently evaluated. Results. We found a positive correlation between α-2-macroglobulin and HbA1c (r = 0.778 and P < 0.0001). Area under the receivers operating characteristic (ROC) curve of α-2-macroglobulin indicated a positive discrimination threshold of α-2-macroglobulin (AUC = 0.903, CI 95%: 0.847–0.959, P < 0.0001) to diagnose glycemic control. Conclusions. Our data strongly suggest that the level of saliva α-2-macroglobulin is an indicator for the degree of glycemic control in diabetic patients and represents a promising alternative method to evaluate this parameter. PMID:25821337

  19. Determinants of Glycemic Control among Insulin Treated Diabetic Patients in Southwest Ethiopia: Hospital Based Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Angamo, Mulugeta Tarekegn; Melese, Belete Habte; Ayen, Wubeante Yenet

    2013-01-01

    Background Good glycemic control reduces the risk of diabetic complications. Despite this, achieving good glycemic control remains a challenge in diabetic patients. The objective of this study is to identify determinants of glycemic control among insulin treated diabetic patients at Jimma University Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted on systematically sampled 284 insulin-treated diabetic patients with a regular follow up. Data was collected by interviewing patients during hospital visits and reviewing respective databases of September 2010 to December 2011. Data collection took place from February 20 to May 20, 2012. Poor glycemic control was defined as fasting blood sugar (FBS) ≥126 mg/dL. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of poor glycemic control. Results Patients had a mean age of 41.37 (±15.08) years, 58.5% were males, the mean duration of insulin treatment was 4.9 (±5.1) years, 18.3% achieved good glycemic control (FBS≤126 mg/dL), 95% self-reported repeated use of disposable insulin syringe-needle and 48% correctly rotating insulin injection sites. Most (83.1%) of study participants had one or more complications. On multivariable logistic regression analyses, body weight of >70 Kg (AOR = 0.21; P<0.001), total daily dose of insulin ≤35 IU/day (AOR = 0.26; P<0.001), total daily dose variation without checking glycemic level (AOR = 3.39; P = 0.020), knowledge deficit about signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia (AOR = 3.60; P = 0.004), and non-adherence to dietary management (AOR = 0.35; P = 0.005) were independent predictors of poor glycemic control. Conclusions The proportion of patients with poor glycemic control was high, which resulted in the development of one or more complications regardless of duration on insulin treatment. Hence, appropriate management of patients focusing on the relevant associated factors and independent

  20. Socioeconomic status and glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes: a mediation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Houle, Janie; Lauzier-Jobin, François; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Meunier, Sophie; Coulombe, Simon; Côté, José; Lespérance, François; Chiasson, Jean-Louis; Bherer, Louis; Lambert, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the contribution of health behaviors (self-management and coping), quality of care, and individual characteristics (depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, illness representations) as mediators in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and glycemic control. Methods A sample of 295 adult patients with type 2 diabetes was recruited at the end of a diabetes education course. Glycemic control was evaluated through glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Living in poverty and education level were used as indicators of SES. Results Bootstrapping analysis showed that the significant effects of poverty and education level on HbA1c were mediated by avoidance coping and depressive symptoms. The representation that diabetes is unpredictable significantly mediated the relationship between living in poverty and HbA1c, while healthy diet mediated the relationship between education level and HbA1c. Conclusions To improve glycemic control among patients with low SES, professionals should regularly screen for depression, offering treatment when needed, and pay attention to patients' illness representations and coping strategies for handling stress related to their chronic disease. They should also support patients in improving their self-management skills for a healthy diet. PMID:27239316

  1. Body size and shape and glycemic control among Maya women in rural Yucatán.

    PubMed

    McLorg, Penelope A

    2003-01-01

    Studies on relationships between aspects of physique and glucose physiology generally focus on clinical glucose tolerance or on fasting glucose or insulin assays showing glycemic status at the time of testing. Little work has examined the associations between body variables and glycemic control, or average past glucose levels in regular living conditions. The aim of this research was to investigate connections between body size and shape and glycemic control. The sample consists of 60 nondiabetic Maya women, ages 40-85 years, residing in 16 rural villages around Mérida, Yucatán. Body morphology was assessed through anthropometric and derived measures of size and shape, including indicators of fat distribution and general adiposity. Glycemic control was measured through microvenous samples analyzed for glycated blood proteins HbA(1c) and fructosamine to demonstrate average circulating glucose under customary living conditions during the previous several months and weeks. Four-variable regression models explain 17% of the variance in HbA(1c) and 25% of the variance in fructosamine. Arm circumference has the largest positive effect on HbA(1c), while weight has the greatest positive impact on fructosamine. The predictor with the largest negative effect on both glycated blood proteins is calf circumference. In general, variables reflecting overall adiposity and central adiposity demonstrate positive associations with HbA(1c) and fructosamine, whereas lean body measures exhibit negative associations. Findings support the value of glycated blood proteins and of less common anthropometric measures, such as calf circumference, in population research on morphological relations with glycemia. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Comparison between a novel and conventional artificial pancreas for perioperative glycemic control using a closed-loop system.

    PubMed

    Namikawa, Tsutomu; Munekage, Masaya; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Maeda, Hiromichi; Tsukamoto, Yuuki; Hirano, Kenichi; Asano, Takuji; Kinoshita, Yoshihiko; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2017-03-01

    This clinical study aimed to compare a novel and conventional artificial pancreas (AP) used in surgical patients for perioperative glycemic control, with respect to usability, blood glucose measurements, and glycemic control characteristics. From July in 2010 to March in 2015, 177 patients underwent perioperative glycemic control using a novel AP. Among them, 166 patients were eligible for inclusion in this study. Intensive insulin therapy (IIT) targeting a blood glucose range of 80-110 mg/dL was implemented in 82 patients (49 %), and the remaining 84 patients (51 %) received a less-intensive regime of insulin therapy. Data were collected prospectively and were reviewed or analyzed retrospectively. A comparison study of 324 patients undergoing IIT for glycemic control using a novel (n = 82) or conventional AP (n = 242) was conducted retrospectively. All patients had no hypoglycemia. The comparison study revealed no significant differences in perioperative mean blood glucose level, achievement rates for target blood glucose range, and variability in blood glucose level achieved with IIT between the novel AP and conventional AP groups. The usability, performance with respect to blood glucose measurement, and glycemic control characteristics of IIT were comparable between novel and conventional AP systems. However, the novel AP was easier to manipulate than the conventional AP due to its smaller size, lower weight, and shorter time for preparation. In the near future, this novel AP system might be accepted worldwide as a safe and useful device for use in perioperative glycemic control.

  3. Glucometer use and glycemic control among Hispanic patients with diabetes in southern Florida.

    PubMed

    Kenya, Sonjia; Lebron, Cynthia; Reyes Arrechea, Ernesto; Li, Hua

    2014-04-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) has been deemed a critical component of diabetes care in the United States. To be effective, patients must have some diabetes knowledge, glucometer proficiency, and an ability to take appropriate actions when certain readings are obtained. However, most patients take no action in response to out-of-range glucometer readings, and in many populations, SMBG practices are not associated with improved glycemic control. Thus, SMBG utilization is being reconsidered in other countries. Nonetheless, SMBG behaviors are increasingly recommended in the United States, where the Hispanic population represents the fastest-growing minority group and is disproportionately affected by suboptimal diabetes outcomes. Because a growing number of interventions aim to reduce diabetes disparities by improving glycemic control among minorities, it is essential to determine whether efforts should focus on SMBG practices. We present data on SMBG behaviors and glycemic control among participants from the Miami Healthy Heart Initiative (MHHI), a National Institutes of Health/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored trial assessing a community health worker (CHW) intervention among Hispanic patients with poorly controlled diabetes. This study examined the effects of a CHW intervention on SMBG practices, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and knowledge of appropriate responses to glucometer readings among Hispanic patients with diabetes. This study was an ancillary investigation within MHHI, a randomized, controlled trial in 300 Hispanic patients. Participants were intervention-group members who received 12 months of CHW support. Assessments were administered at baseline and poststudy to determine potential barriers to optimal health. Items from validated instruments were used to determine knowledge of appropriate responses to different glucose readings. These data were linked to HbA1c values. Means and frequencies were used to describe population

  4. The benefits of tight glycemic control in critical illness: Sweeter than assumed?

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew John

    2014-12-01

    Hyperglycemia has long been observed amongst critically ill patients and associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Tight glycemic control (TGC) is the clinical practice of controlling blood glucose (BG) down to the "normal" 4.4-6.1 mmol/L range of a healthy adult, aiming to avoid any potential deleterious effects of hyperglycemia. The ground-breaking Leuven trials reported a mortality benefit of approximately 10% when using this technique, which led many to endorse its benefits. In stark contrast, the multi-center normoglycemia in intensive care evaluation-survival using glucose algorithm regulation (NICE-SUGAR) trial, not only failed to replicate this outcome, but showed TGC appeared to be harmful. This review attempts to re-analyze the current literature and suggests that hope for a benefit from TGC should not be so hastily abandoned. Inconsistencies in study design make a like-for-like comparison of the Leuven and NICE-SUGAR trials challenging. Inadequate measures preventing hypoglycemic events are likely to have contributed to the increased mortality observed in the NICE-SUGAR treatment group. New technologies, including predictive models, are being developed to improve the safety of TGC, primarily by minimizing hypoglycemia. Intensive Care Units which are unequipped in trained staff and monitoring capacity would be unwise to attempt TGC, especially considering its yet undefined benefit and the deleterious nature of hypoglycemia. International recommendations now advise clinicians to ensure critically ill patients maintain a BG of <10 mmol/L. Despite encouraging evidence, currently we can only speculate and remain optimistic that the benefit of TGC in clinical practice is sweeter than assumed.

  5. Vegetarian diets and glycemic control in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yoko; Barnard, Neal D; Levin, Susan M; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested an association between vegetarian diets and improvements in glycemic control in diabetes, although this relationship is not well established. No meta-analysis of these studies has been performed. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials examining the association between vegetarian diets and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. The electronic databases Medline, Web of Science, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for articles published in any language through December 9, 2013. The following criteria were used for study inclusion: (I) age of participants >20 years; (II) vegetarian diet as intervention; (III) mean difference in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and/or fasting blood glucose levels used as outcomes; and (IV) controlled trials, duration ≥4 weeks. Exclusion criteria were: (I) not an original investigation; (II) duplicate samples; (III) diabetes other than type 2; (IV) multiple interventions; and (V) uncontrolled studies. The data collected included study design, baseline population characteristics, dietary data, and outcomes. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. Differences in HbA1c and fasting blood glucose levels associated with vegetarian diets were assessed. Of 477 studies identified, six met the inclusion criteria (n=255, mean age 42.5 years). Consumption of vegetarian diets was associated with a significant reduction in HbA1c [-0.39 percentage point; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.62 to -0.15; P=0.001; I(2)=3.0; P for heterogeneity =0.389], and a non-significant reduction in fasting blood glucose concentration (-0.36 mmol/L; 95% CI, -1.04 to 0.32; P=0.301; I(2)=0; P for heterogeneity =0.710), compared with consumption of comparator diets. Consumption of vegetarian diets is associated with improved glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. PROSPERO registration number is CRD42013004370.

  6. Zinc transporter gene expression and glycemic control in post-menopausal women with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Foster, Meika; Chu, Anna; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2014-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated often with underlying zinc deficiency and nutritional supplements such as zinc may be of therapeutic benefit in the disease. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial in postmenopausal women (n=48) with Type 2 DM we investigated the effects of supplementation with zinc (40mg/d) and flaxseed oil (FSO; 2g/d) on the gene expression of zinc transporters (ZnT1, ZnT5, ZnT6, ZnT7, ZnT8, Zip1, Zip3, Zip7, and Zip10) and metallothionein (MT-1A, and MT-2A), and markers of glycemic control (glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c]). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. No significant effects of zinc or FSO supplementation were observed on glycemic marker concentrations, HOMA-IR or fold change over 12 weeks in zinc transporter and metallothionein gene expression. In multivariate analysis, the change over 12 weeks in serum glucose concentrations (P=0.001) and HOMA-IR (P=0.001) predicted the fold change in Zip10. In secondary analysis, marginal statistical significance was observed with the change in both serum glucose concentrations (P=0.003) and HOMA-IR (P=0.007) being predictive of the fold change in ZnT6. ZnT8 mRNA expression was variable; HbA1c levels were higher (P=0.006) in participants who exhibited ZnT8 expression compared to those who did not. The significant predictive relationships between Zip10, ZnT6, serum glucose and HOMA-IR are preliminary, as is the relationship between HbA1c and ZnT8; nevertheless the observations support an association between Type 2 DM and zinc homeostasis that requires further exploration.

  7. The role of parent-adolescent attachment in the glycemic control of adolescents with Type 1 diabetes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Tziporah; Shields, Cleveland G

    2009-09-01

    This pilot study explored the associations between parent and adolescent reports of adolescent attachment and glycemic control in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that more secure attachment would correlate with more optimal diabetes control. Thirty-one families completed written self-report questionnaires about adolescent attachment, demographic data, and diabetes control. Adolescents and parents reported on their perceptions of adolescents' attachment to mothers and fathers. Mean HbA1c for the sample was 7.6% (SD = 1.14). Mothers' perceptions of adolescents' attachment were significantly correlated with adolescents' hemoglobin A1c (r = -.42, p = .022), indicating that maternal perceptions of more secure attachment was associated with better glycemic control. Neither fathers' perceptions nor adolescents' reports of attachment was significantly correlated with glycemic control. Attachment appears to be associated with glycemic control in this population though the mechanisms are unclear. Mothers' perceptions of attachment had the strongest associations with control, not adolescent reports. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms through which parent reports of adolescent attachment are associated with glycemic control.

  8. Glycemic control in pediatric type 1 diabetes: role of caregiver literacy.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Krishnavathana; Heptulla, Rubina A

    2010-05-01

    Poorly controlled diabetes may occur because caregivers of children with type 1 diabetes fail to comprehend provided diabetes education. We hypothesized that poorly controlled diabetes is associated with lower literacy/numerical skills of caregivers of children with type 1 diabetes. Primary caregivers were evaluated by using Newest Vital Sign (NVS) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The NVS identifies individuals who are at risk for low health literacy by measuring general literacy/numeracy skills and yields an overall estimate of health literacy. The NVS scores are interpreted to suggest inadequate, limited, or adequate literacy. Two hundred caregivers of children who had type 1 diabetes with mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 8.8 +/- 1.9%, age of 11.8 +/- 3.7 years, duration of disease of 4.8 +/- 3.3 years, and BMI of 20.8 +/- 4.4 kg/m(2) participated. HbA1c in those of inadequate literacy (10.4 +/- 2.2%) was significantly higher than in those of adequate literacy (8.6 +/- 1.7%; P < .001). HbA1c in those whose caregivers had limited literacy (9.5 +/- 2.2%) did not differ significantly from the other 2 groups. On adjusting for independent covariates, we found that children whose caregivers had at least 50% correct math answers had better glycemic control (8.5 +/- 1.7%) than those who failed (9.8 +/- 2.1%; P < .0005). Literacy and numerical skills of caregivers significantly influence glycemic control of their children with type 1 diabetes. Assessing literacy/numeracy skills of caregivers and addressing these deficiencies may be crucial in optimizing glycemic control.

  9. Outpatient Glycemic Control with a Bionic Pancreas in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Manasi; Magyar, Kendra L.; McKeon, Katherine; Goergen, Laura G.; Balliro, Courtney; Hillard, Mallory A.; Nathan, David M.; Damiano, Edward R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The safety and effectiveness of automated glycemic management have not been tested in multiday studies under unrestricted outpatient conditions. METHODS In two random-order, crossover studies with similar but distinct designs, we compared glycemic control with a wearable, bihormonal, automated, “bionic” pancreas (bionic-pancreas period) with glycemic control with an insulin pump (control period) for 5 days in 20 adults and 32 adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The automatically adaptive algorithm of the bionic pancreas received data from a continuous glucose monitor to control subcutaneous delivery of insulin and glucagon. RESULTS Among the adults, the mean plasma glucose level over the 5-day bionic-pancreas period was 138 mg per deciliter (7.7 mmol per liter), and the mean percentage of time with a low glucose level (<70 mg per deciliter [3.9 mmol per liter]) was 4.8%. After 1 day of automatic adaptation by the bionic pancreas, the mean (±SD) glucose level on continuous monitoring was lower than the mean level during the control period (133±13 vs. 159±30 mg per deciliter [7.4±0.7 vs. 8.8±1.7 mmol per liter], P<0.001) and the percentage of time with a low glucose reading was lower (4.1% vs. 7.3%, P = 0.01). Among the adolescents, the mean plasma glucose level was also lower during the bionic-pancreas period than during the control period (138±18 vs. 157±27 mg per deciliter [7.7±1.0 vs. 8.7±1.5 mmol per liter], P = 0.004), but the percentage of time with a low plasma glucose reading was similar during the two periods (6.1% and 7.6%, respectively; P = 0.23). The mean frequency of interventions for hypoglycemia among the adolescents was lower during the bionic-pancreas period than during the control period (one per 1.6 days vs. one per 0.8 days, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS As compared with an insulin pump, a wearable, automated, bihormonal, bionic pancreas improved mean glycemic levels, with less frequent hypoglycemic episodes, among both

  10. Effect of proton pump inhibitors on glycemic control in patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Takebayashi, Kohzo; Inukai, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Gastrin is a linear peptide hormone which is secreted mostly in the stomach pyloric antrum G cells. Although the main role of this hormone is the promotion of the secretion of gastric acid from the stomach parietal cells, gastrin can also behave as a growth factor and stimulate gastric cell proliferation. It is also reported that gastrin promotes β cell neogenesis in the pancreatic ductal complex, modest pancreatic β cell replication, and improvement of glucose tolerance in animal models, in which the remodeling of pancreatic tissues is promoted. These findings suggest the possibility that gastrin has the potential to promote an increase of β cell mass in pancreas, and therefore that gastrin may improve glucose tolerance. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are wildly used clinically for the therapy of gastro-esophageal reflex disease, gastritis due to excess stomach acid, and gastric ulcers. PPIs indirectly elevate serum gastrin levels via a negative feedback effect. Recent evidence has revealed the beneficial effect of PPIs on glycemic control especially in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), probably via the elevation of the levels of serum gastrin, although the detailed mechanism remains unclear. In addition, the beneficial effects of a combination therapy of gastrin or a PPI with a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist on glycemic control in animal models have been demonstrated. Although PPIs may be possible candidates for a new approach in the therapy of diabetes, a prospective, long-term, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study is needed to establish the effect of PPIs on glycemic control in a large number of patients with T2DM. PMID:26322158

  11. Oral salmon calcitonin improves fasting and postprandial glycemic control in lean healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Feigh, M; Nielsen, R H; Hansen, C; Henriksen, K; Christiansen, C; Karsdal, M A

    2012-02-01

    A novel oral form of salmon calcitonin (sCT) was recently demonstrated to improve both fasting and postprandial glycemic control and induce weight loss in diet-induced obese and insulin-resistant rats. To further explore the glucoregulatory efficacy of oral sCT, irrespective of obesity and metabolic dysfunction, the present study investigated the effect of chronic oral sCT treatment on fasting and postprandial glycemic control in male lean healthy rats. 20 male rats were divided equally into a control group receiving oral vehicle or an oral sCT (2 mg/kg) group. All rats were treated twice daily for 5 weeks. Body weight and food intake were monitored during the study period and fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin and insulin sensitivity were determined and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) performed at study end. Compared with the vehicle group, rats receiving oral sCT had improved fasting glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance, as measured by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), with no change in body weight or fasting plasma insulin. In addition, the rats receiving oral sCT had markedly reduced glycemia and insulinemia during OGTT. This is the first report showing that chronic oral sCT treatment exerts a glucoregulatory action in lean healthy rats, irrespective of influencing body weight. Importantly, oral sCT seems to exert a dual treatment effect by improving fasting and postprandial glycemic control and insulin sensitivity. This and previous studies suggest oral sCT is a promising agent for the treatment of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

  12. A Journey to Improved Inpatient Glycemic Control by Redesigning Meal Delivery and Insulin Administration.

    PubMed

    Engle, Martha; Ferguson, Allison; Fields, Willa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quality improvement project was to redesign a hospital meal delivery process in order to shorten the time between blood glucose monitoring and corresponding insulin administration and improve glycemic control. This process change redesigned the workflow of the dietary and nursing departments. Modifications included nursing, rather than dietary, delivering meal trays to patients receiving insulin. Dietary marked the appropriate meal trays and phoned each unit prior to arrival on the unit. The process change was trialed on 2 acute care units prior to implementation hospital wide. Elapsed time between blood glucose monitoring and insulin administration was analyzed before and after process change as well as evaluation of glucometrics: percentage of patients with blood glucose between 70 and 180 mg/dL (percent perfect), blood glucose greater than 300 mg/dL (extreme hyperglycemia), and blood glucose less than 70 mg/dL (hypoglycemia). Percent perfect glucose results improved from 45% to 53%, extreme hyperglycemia (blood glucose >300 mg/dL) fell from 11.7% to 5%. Hypoglycemia demonstrated a downward trend line, demonstrating that with improving glycemic control hypoglycemia rates did not increase. Percentage of patients receiving meal insulin within 30 minutes of blood glucose check increased from 35% to 73%. In the hospital, numerous obstacles were present that interfered with on-time meal insulin delivery. Establishing a meal delivery process with the nurse performing the premeal blood glucose check, delivering the meal, and administering the insulin improves overall blood glucose control. Nurse-led process improvement of blood glucose monitoring, meal tray delivery, and insulin administration does lead to improved glycemic control for the inpatient population.

  13. Importance of Perioperative Glycemic Control in General Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Steve; Thompson, Rachel; Dellinger, Patchen; Yanez, David; Farrohki, Ellen; Flum, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship of perioperative hyperglycemia and insulin administration on outcomes in elective colon/rectal and bariatric operations. Background There is limited evidence to characterize the impact of perioperative hyperglycemia and insulin on adverse outcomes in patients, with and without diabetes, undergoing general surgical procedures. Methods The Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program is a Washington State quality improvement benchmarking-based initiative. We evaluated the relationship of perioperative hyperglycemia (>180 mg/dL) and insulin administration on mortality, reoperative interventions, and infections for patients undergoing elective colorectal and bariatric surgery at 47 participating hospitals between fourth quarter of 2005 and fourth quarter of 2010. Results Of the 11,633 patients (55.4 ± 15.3 years; 65.7% women) with a serum glucose determination on the day of surgery, postoperative day 1, or postoperative day 2, 29.1% of patients were hyperglycemic. After controlling for clinical factors, those with hyperglycemia had a significantly increased risk of infection [odds ratio (OR) 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.63–2.44], reoperative interventions (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.41–2.3), and death (OR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.72–4.28). Increased risk of poor outcomes was observed both for patients with and without diabetes. Those with hyperglycemia on the day of surgery who received insulin had no significant increase in infections (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.72–1.42), reoperative interventions (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.89–1.89), or deaths (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.61–2.42). A dose-effect relationship was found between the effectiveness of insulin-related glucose control (worst 180–250 mg/dL, best <130 mg/dL) and adverse outcomes. Conclusions Perioperative hyperglycemia was associated with adverse outcomes in general surgery patients with and without diabetes. However, patients with hyperglycemia who received insulin were at no

  14. Diabetes mellitus, glycemic control, and pneumonia in long-term care facilities: a 2-year, prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Kung; Peng, Li-Ning; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Lai, Hsiu-Yun; Lin, Hsin-Chieh; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2011-01-01

    To determine the relationships among diabetes mellitus (DM), glycemic control, and long-term care facility (LTCF)-acquired pneumonia. Prospective cohort study. Ten private LTCFs in Taiwan. Participants were 233 LTCF residents. Barthel index (BI), Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), hemoglobin A1c, episodes of LTCF-acquired pneumonia. None. A total of 233 residents (76.9 ± 10.6 years, 54.9% males, 27.9% diabetic) from 10 private LTCFs participated. There were 173 LTCF-acquired pneumonia episodes. The incidence of LTCF-acquired pneumonia between patients with and without diabetes, or between diabetic subjects with different status of glycemic control was similar. Adjusted for baseline BI, CCI, feeding tube placement, and baseline serum albumin, DM was not a significant risk factor for LTCF-acquired pneumonia. Poorer glycemic control (HbA1c >7%) was not a significant risk factor for LTCF-acquired pneumonia in diabetic subjects. Tighter glycemic control did not protect diabetic LTCF residents from pneumonia. A prospective randomized controlled trial is needed to determine the optimal goal of glycemic control for LTCF residents. Copyright © 2011 American Medical Directors Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez, A; Mediavilla, J J; Miñambres, I; González-Segura, D

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the degree of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes in Spain and identify factors associated with glycemic control. This was a cross-sectional, multicenter, epidemiological study that used consecutive sampling and was conducted in primary care practices in Spain. A total of 5591 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus lasting more than 1 year and who were treated with hypoglycemic agents for more than 3 months were included in the study. At a single visit, HbA1c levels were measured (A1cNow+ system) and demographic and clinical variables related to diabetes and its treatment were recorded. During the visit, CV risk factors (CVRF), the presence of target-organ damage (TOD), the presence of hypoglycemia and body weight changes within the previous year were recorded. We analyzed data from 5382 patients (mean age 66.7 [10.8] years, mean duration of the diabetes 8.8 [6.3] years). TOD was present in 43.6% of the patients and 59.1% were taking 2 or more drugs. The patients' mean HbA1c was 7.1 (1.1)%, and 48.6% had HbA1c levels <7.0%. The patients with HbA1c levels ≥7.0% had longer-standing diabetes, a higher prevalence of TOD and CVRF, used more complex therapies, experienced more hypoglycemic episodes in the previous year and had more weight gain. In the multivariate analysis, the absence of insulin treatment, the absence of abdominal obesity and atherogenic dyslipidemia, a duration of the diabetes <10 years and an age >70 years were associated with improved glycemic control. Patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus are highly prevalent in Spain. Factors associated with poorer glycemic control include the complexity of both the disease and the hypoglycemic therapy, a history of hypoglycemia and weight gain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Serum protein-bound hexose in diabetes: the effect of glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, A L; Kandell, T W; Merimee, T J

    1979-11-01

    To determine whether the carbohydrate content of serum proteins is related to overall glycemic control, we studied serum protein-bound hexose and glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1(a+b+c)] in 37 ambulant diabetic patients and 32 nondiabetic controls. Protein-bound hexose was correlated with HbA1(a+b+c) in the diabetic patients (r = 0.36, P less than 0.025). The mean protein-bound hexose level of the diabetic patients was greater than that of the controls (190.8 versus 174.7 mg/dl, P less than 0.01), but diabetic patients with HbA1(a+b+c) less than 12% had a mean protein-bound hexose similar to the controls. In nine of the diabetic patients, mean protein-bound hexose and HbA1(a+b+c) were significantly reduced during a period of intensive outpatient care, while two major serum glycoproteins, haptoglobins and alpha-1-antitrypsin, were unchanged. Our findings support the hypothesis that increased glycosylation of serum proteins may occur in diabetes mellitus; this abnormality in serum protein-bound hexose may be corrected by close attention to overall glycemic control.

  17. Chromium supplements for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: limited evidence of effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Johanna T.; Bailey, Regan L.

    2016-01-01

    Some adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) believe that chromium-containing supplements will help control their disease, but the evidence is mixed. This narrative review examines the efficacy of chromium supplements for improving glycemic control as measured by decreases in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Using systematic search criteria, 20 randomized controlled trials of chromium supplementation in T2DM patients were identified. Clinically meaningful treatment goals were defined as an FPG of ≤7.2 mmol/dL, a decline in HbA1c to ≤7%, or a decrease of ≥0.5% in HbA1c. In only a few randomized controlled trials did FPG (5 of 20), HbA1c (3 of 14), or both (1 of 14) reach the treatment goals with chromium supplementation. HbA1c declined by ≥0.5% in 5 of 14 studies. On the basis of the low strength of existing evidence, chromium supplements have limited effectiveness, and there is little rationale to recommend their use for glycemic control in patients with existing T2DM. Future meta-analyses should include only high-quality studies with similar forms of chromium and comparable inclusion/exclusion criteria to provide scientifically sound recommendations for clinicians. PMID:27261273

  18. Chromium supplements for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: limited evidence of effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Costello, Rebecca B; Dwyer, Johanna T; Bailey, Regan L

    2016-07-01

    Some adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) believe that chromium-containing supplements will help control their disease, but the evidence is mixed. This narrative review examines the efficacy of chromium supplements for improving glycemic control as measured by decreases in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Using systematic search criteria, 20 randomized controlled trials of chromium supplementation in T2DM patients were identified. Clinically meaningful treatment goals were defined as an FPG of ≤7.2 mmol/dL, a decline in HbA1c to ≤7%, or a decrease of ≥0.5% in HbA1c. In only a few randomized controlled trials did FPG (5 of 20), HbA1c (3 of 14), or both (1 of 14) reach the treatment goals with chromium supplementation. HbA1c declined by ≥0.5% in 5 of 14 studies. On the basis of the low strength of existing evidence, chromium supplements have limited effectiveness, and there is little rationale to recommend their use for glycemic control in patients with existing T2DM. Future meta-analyses should include only high-quality studies with similar forms of chromium and comparable inclusion/exclusion criteria to provide scientifically sound recommendations for clinicians.

  19. Factors associated with glycemic control in adult type 1 diabetes patients treated with insulin pump therapy.

    PubMed

    Matejko, Bartłomiej; Skupien, Jan; Mrozińska, Sandra; Grzanka, Małgorzata; Cyganek, Katarzyna; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Malecki, Maciej T; Klupa, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) by insulin pump seems to improve glycemia and quality of life as compared to conventional insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). However, while many T1DM subjects achieve excellent glycemic control, some others cannot reach recommended goals. In a retrospective analysis, we searched for factors associated with glycemic control in T1DM patients treated with insulin pump therapy. Data from 192 patients (133 women and 59 men) treated with personal insulin pumps at the Department of Metabolic Diseases, University Hospital, Krakow, Poland were analyzed. Sources of information included medical records, memory read-outs from insulin pumps and data from glucose meters. Univariate, multivariate linear and logistic regression analysis for the association with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level were performed. The mean age of the subjects was 28.9 (±11.2) years, the mean duration of T1DM-14.6 (±7.6) years, mean body mass index-23.5 (±3.1) kg/m2. The mean HbA1c level in the entire study group was 7.4% (57 mmol/mol). In the multivariate linear regression analysis, HbA1c correlated with the mean number of daily blood glucose measurements, number of hypoglycemic episodes per 100 blood glucose measurements, age at the examination, and continuous glucose monitoring system use. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for reaching the therapeutic target of HbA1c<7.0% (53 mmol/mol) showed that the independent predictors of achieving this goal included the same four variables. In a large clinical observation, we identified that patient-related and technological factors associated with glycemic control in adult pump-treated T1DM subjects.

  20. Quantifying the effect of metformin treatment and dose on glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Jennifer A; Farmer, Andrew J; Ali, Raghib; Roberts, Nia W; Stevens, Richard J

    2012-02-01

    Metformin is the first-line oral medication recommended for glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. We reviewed the literature to quantify the effect of metformin treatment on glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) levels in all types of diabetes and examine the impact of differing doses on glycemic control. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched from 1950 to June 2010 for trials of at least 12 weeks' duration in which diabetic patients were treated with either metformin monotherapy or as an add-on therapy. Data on change in HbA(1c) were pooled in a meta-analysis. Data from dose-comparison trials were separately pooled. A total of 35 trials were identified for the main analysis and 7 for the dose-comparison analysis. Metformin monotherapy lowered HbA(1c) by 1.12% (95% CI 0.92-1.32; I(2) = 80%) versus placebo, metformin added to oral therapy lowered HbA(1c) by 0.95% (0.77-1.13; I(2) = 77%) versus placebo added to oral therapy, and metformin added to insulin therapy lowered HbA(1c) by 0.60% (0.30-0.91; I(2) = 79.8%) versus insulin only. There was a significantly greater reduction in HbA(1c) using higher doses of metformin compared with lower doses of metformin with no significant increase in side effects. Evidence supports the effectiveness of metformin therapy in a clinically important lowering of HbA(1c) used as monotherapy and in combination with other therapeutic agents. There is potential for using higher doses of metformin to maximize glycemic control in diabetic patients without increasing gastrointestinal effects.

  1. Changes in glycemic control and body weight after explantation of the duodenal-jejunal bypass liner.

    PubMed

    Betzel, Bark; Koehestanie, Parviez; Homan, Jens; Aarts, Edo O; Janssen, Ignace M C; de Boer, Hans; Wahab, Peter J; Groenen, Marcel J M; Berends, Frits J

    2017-02-01

    The duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL) is an endoscopic device that induces weight loss and improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of DJBL explantation on glycemic control and body weight. This prospective, observational study included only patients with T2DM who had the DJBL implanted for at least 6 months and had a follow-up of at least 12 months after explantation. The primary endpoints were changes in glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and body weight during the 12 months after explantation. Secondary endpoints were changes in fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, and plasma lipid levels. In total, 59 patients completed the 12-month follow-up after explantation. During this period body weight increased by 5.6 (standard deviation, 6.4) kg (P < .001) and HbA1c rose from 65 (SD 17) to 70 (SD 20) mmol/mol (P < .001). However, body weight remained 8.0 (SD 8.6) kg (P < .001) lower than before implantation, that is, corresponding to a net total body weight loss of 7.4% (SD 7.6) (P < .001). Although HbA1c was significantly higher 12 months after explantation compared with baseline and the mean daily dose of insulin used was comparable, the number of patients on insulin remained significantly lower than before implantation. Explantation of the DJBL is associated with weight gain and worsening of glycemic control, although some beneficial effects remained detectable 12 months after explantation. A change in strategy is needed to preserve the beneficial effects of DJBL treatment. (Clinical trial registration number: 746∖100111.). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Adherence to oral diabetes medications and glycemic control during and following breast cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Calip, Gregory S.; Hubbard, Rebecca A.; Stergachis, Andy; Malone, Kathleen E.; Gralow, Julie R.; Boudreau, Denise M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We evaluated changes in oral DM medication adherence and persistence, as well as glycemic control for the year prior to breast cancer (BC) diagnosis (Year −1), during BC treatment, and in subsequent years. Methods Cohort study of 4,216 women diagnosed with incident early stage (I,II) invasive BC from 1990-2008, enrolled in Group Health Cooperative. Adherence was measured in prevalent users at baseline (N=509), during treatment, and 1-3 years post-diagnosis using medication possession ratio (MPR), %-adherent (MPR≥0.80) and discontinuation rates (DR). Laboratory data on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) was obtained for the corresponding periods. Results Compared to Year −1, mean MPR for metformin/sulfonylureas (0.86 versus 0.49, P<0.001) and %-adherent (75.3% versus 24.6%, P<0.001) declined during BC treatment. MPR and %-adherent rose slightly during years 1-3 post diagnosis but never returned to baseline. DR increased from treatment to Year +1 (59.3% versus 75.6%, P<0.001) and remained elevated during subsequent observation periods. Compared to baseline, increased HbA1C (7.0% versus 7.4%, P=0.001) and % women with high HbA1C >7.0% (34.9% versus 51.1%, P<0.001) coincided with decreased adherence. Conclusion DM medication adherence declined following BC diagnosis while discontinuation rates were relatively stable but poor overall. The proportion of adherent users increased only marginally following treatment, while the proportion of women meeting goals for HbA1C decreased considerably. These data support the hypothesis that adherence and subsequent glycemic control are sensitive to BC diagnosis and treatment. Confirmatory studies in other settings, on reasons for reduced adherence post-cancer diagnosis, and on subsequent indicators of glycemic control are warranted. PMID:24923811

  3. Association between cognitive function and social support with glycemic control in adults with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Okura, Toru; Heisler, Michele; Langa, Kenneth M

    2009-10-01

    To examine whether cognitive impairment in adults with diabetes mellitus is associated with worse glycemic control and to assess whether level of social support for diabetes mellitus care modifies this relationship. Cross-sectional analysis. The 2003 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Mail Survey on Diabetes and the 2004 wave of the HRS. Adults aged 50 and older with diabetes mellitus in the United States (N=1,097, mean age 69.2). Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level; cognitive function, measured with the 35-point HRS cognitive scale (HRS-cog); sociodemographic variables; duration of diabetes mellitus; depressed mood; social support for diabetes mellitus care; self-reported knowledge of diabetes mellitus; treatments for diabetes mellitus; components of the Total Illness Burden Index related to diabetes mellitus; and functional limitations. In an ordered logistic regression model for the three ordinal levels of HbA1c (<7.0, 7.0-7.9, >or=8.0 mg/dL), respondents with HRS-cog scores in the lowest quartile had significantly higher HbA1c levels than those in the highest cognitive quartile (adjusted odds ratio=1.80, 95% confidence interval=1.11-2.92). A high level of social support for diabetes mellitus care modified this association; for respondents in the lowest cognitive quartile, those with high levels of support had significantly lower odds of having higher HbA1c than those with low levels of support (1.11 vs 2.87, P=.02). Although cognitive impairment was associated with worse glycemic control, higher levels of social support for diabetes mellitus care ameliorated this negative relationship. Identifying the level of social support available to cognitively impaired adults with diabetes mellitus may help to target interventions for better glycemic control.

  4. Impact of Improved Glycemic Control on Cardiac Function in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Leung, Melissa; Wong, Vincent W; Hudson, Malcolm; Leung, Dominic Y

    2016-03-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at risk of heart failure. Specific therapeutic interventions for diabetic heart disease are still elusive. We aimed to examine the impact of improved glycemic control on left ventricular (LV) function in these patients. A total of 105 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (aged 54±10 years) and poor glycemic control received optimization of treatment for blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol to recommended targets for 12 months. LV systolic and diastolic function, measured by LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) and septal e' velocities, were compared before and after optimization. At baseline, patients had impaired LV systolic (GLS -14.9±3.2%) and diastolic function (e' 6.2±1.7 cm/s). After 12 months, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) decreased from 10.3±2.4% to 8.3±2.0%, which was associated with significant relative improvement in GLS of 21% and septal e' of 24%. There was a progressively greater improvement in GLS as patients achieved a lower final HbA1c. Patients achieving an HbA1c of <7.0% had the largest improvement. The 15 patients whose HbA1c worsened experienced a decline in GLS. Patients who improved their HbA1c by ≥1.0% had a significantly higher relative improvement in e' than those who did not (32% versus 8%; P=0.003). Baseline GLS, decrease in body mass index, and treatment with metformin were additional independent predictors of GLS improvement. Improvements in glycemic control over a 12-month period led to improvements in LV systolic and diastolic function. This may have long-term prognostic implications. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Glycemic control and pregnancy outcomes in patients with diabetes in pregnancy: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Buhary, Badurudeen Mahmood; Almohareb, Ohoud; Aljohani, Naji; Alzahrani, Saad H.; Elkaissi, Samer; Sherbeeni, Suphia; Almaghamsi, Abdulrahman; Almalki, Mussa

    2016-01-01

    Context: Diabetes in pregnancy (DIP) is either pregestational or gestational. Aims: To determine the relationship between glycemic control and pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of DIP patients. Settings and Design: In this 12-month retrospective study, a total of 325 Saudi women with DIP who attended the outpatient clinics at a tertiary center Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were included. Subjects and Methods: The patients were divided into two groups, those with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≤6.5% (48 mmol/mol) and those with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) above 6.5%. The two groups were compared for differences in maternal and fetal outcomes. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent Student's t-test and analysis of variance were performed for comparison of continuous variables and Chi-square test for frequencies. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression. Results: Patients with higher HbA1c were older (P = 0.0077), had significantly higher blood pressure, proteinuria (P < 0.0001), and were multiparous (P = 0.0269). They had significantly shorter gestational periods (P = 0.0002), more preterm labor (P < 0.0001), more perineal tears (P = 0.0406), more miscarriages (P < 0.0001), and more operative deliveries (P < 0.0001). Their babies were significantly of greater weight, had more Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) admissions, hypoglycemia, and macrosomia. Conclusions: Poor glycemic control during pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes (shortened gestational period, greater risk of miscarriage, increased likelihood of operative delivery, hypoglycemia, macrosomia, and increased NICU admission). Especially at risk are those with preexisting diabetes, who would benefit from earlier diabetes consultation and tighter glycemic control before conception. PMID:27366714

  6. Effect of Selenium Supplementation on Glycemic Control and Lipid Profiles in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Bahmani, Fereshteh; Kia, Mahsa; Soleimani, Alireza; Asemi, Zatollah; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    To our knowledge, data on the effects of selenium supplementation on glycemic control and lipid concentrations in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) are scarce. The current study was done to determine the effects of selenium supplementation on glycemic control and lipid concentrations in patients with DN. This was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial in which 60 patients with DN were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either 200 μg of selenium supplements (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) daily for 12 weeks. Blood sampling was performed for the quantification of glycemic indicators and lipid profiles at the onset of the study and after 12 weeks of intervention. Selenium supplementation for 12 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in serum insulin levels (P = 0.01), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P = 0.02), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated B cell function (HOMA-B) (P = 0.009) and a significant rise in plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (P = 0.001) compared with the placebo. Taking selenium supplements had no significant effects on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) and lipid profiles compared with the placebo. Overall, our study demonstrated that selenium supplementation for 12 weeks among patients with DN had beneficial effects on plasma GPx, serum insulin levels, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B, while it did not affect FPG, QUICKI, and lipid profiles.

  7. Clinical nurse specialists lead teams to impact glycemic control after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Klinkner, Gwen; Murray, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this evidence-based practice improvement project was to improve patients' blood glucose control after cardiac surgery, specifically aiming to keep blood glucose levels less than 200 mg/dL. Glycemic control is essential for wound healing and infection prevention. Multiple factors including the use of corticosteroids and the stress of critical illness put cardiac surgery patients at greater risk for elevated blood glucose levels postoperatively. A Surgical Care Improvement Project measure related to infection prevention calls for the morning blood glucose level (closest to 6:00 AM) to be less than 200 mg/dL on postoperative days 0 to 2. Patients on our cardiothoracic surgery unit were experiencing blood glucose levels greater than benchmark goals. A practice improvement effort was designed to decrease the number of blood glucose results greater than 200 mg/dL after cardiac surgery. The clinical nurse specialists for diabetes and cardiac surgery worked with nursing staff and the interdisciplinary team to implement a 4-pronged approach to improve efficiency in care processes: (1) increase frequency of glucose monitoring, (2) improve accessibility of insulin orders, (3) develop delegation protocol to facilitate nurse-initiated insulin infusion, and (4) implement revised insulin infusion protocol. Hyperglycemia was identified more quickly, and a nurse-initiated protocol prompted more timely use of revised insulin infusion orders and involvement of the diabetes specialty team. Clinically significant improvement in postoperative glycemic control was achieved. Empowering nurses to initiate hyperglycemia treatment and consultation by diabetes specialists may greatly improve efficiency in care processes and clinical outcomes for cardiac surgery patients. Clinical nurse specialists are well positioned to plan and implement interventions that facilitate an evidence-based approach to glycemic management after cardiac surgery.

  8. Family Density and SES Related to Diabetes Management and Glycemic Control in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Caccavale, Laura J; Weaver, Patrick; Chen, Rusan; Streisand, Randi; Holmes, Clarissa S

    2015-06-01

    Youth with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) from single-parent families have poorer glycemic control; a finding confounded with socioeconomic status (SES). Family density (FD), or youth:adult ratio, may better characterize family risk status. Structural equation modeling assessed the relation of single-parent status, SES, and FD to parenting stress, diabetes-related conflict, parental monitoring, adherence, and glycemic control using cross-sectional parent and youth data (n = 257). Single-parent status exhibited similar relations as SES and was removed. Lower FD was associated with better glycemic control (β = -.29, p = .014) via less conflict (β = .17, p = .038) and greater adherence (β = -.54, p < .001). Beyond SES, FD plays a significant role in adherence and glycemic control via diabetes-related conflict. In contrast, the effects of single-parent status were indistinguishable from those of SES. FD provides distinct information related to adolescent glycemic control. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Hypovitaminosis D in type 2 diabetes: relation with features of the metabolic syndrome and glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Miñambres, Inka; Sánchez-Quesada, Jose Luis; Vinagre, Irene; Sánchez-Hernández, Joan; Urgell, Eulalia; de Leiva, Alberto; Pérez, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    To assess the association of hypovitaminosis D with clinical and biochemical characteristics of type 2 diabetic patients and to determine the effect of glycemic control optimization on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. Cross-sectional study of 63 patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age 60 ± 9.8 years, 69.8% men). Twenty of the 63 patients were also studied before and after glycemic control optimization. Mean 25(OH)D concentrations were 63.64 ± 25.51 nmol/L and 74.6% of patients had hypovitaminosis D. Compared with patients with vitamin D sufficiency, patients with hypovitaminosis D had higher prevalence of overweight or obesity (72.3% versus 37.5%; p = 0.012) and higher VLDL cholesterol (VLDL-c) (0.71 (0.24-3.59) versus 0.45 (0.13-1.6) mmol/L; p = 0.011) and C-reactive protein (3.28 (0.36-17.69) versus 1.87 (0.18-17.47) mg/L; p = 0.033) concentrations. The composition of HDL particles also differed in both groups, with higher relative content of triglycerides and lower of cholesterol in patients with hypovitaminosis D. After adjustment for age, seasonality and BMI, differences remained significant for VLDL-c and triglyceride content of HDL. No differences were found regarding other diabetes characteristics. Improvement of glycemic control (HbA1c 9.4 (7.6-14.8) versus 7.3 (6.2-8.7)%; p = 0.000) was accompanied by a decrease in 25(OH)D concentrations (72.7 ± 33.3 to 59.0 ± 21.0 nmol/L; p = 0.035). Correlation analysis revealed that changes in 25(OH)D concentrations were negatively associated to changes in HbA1c (r - 0.482; p = 0.032). Hypovitaminosis D is associated with features of the metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes and improvement of glycemic control decreases 25(OH)D concentrations.

  10. Response to Acute Psychophysical Stress and 24-Hour Glycemic Control in Healthy Older People

    PubMed Central

    DiPietro, Loretta; Yeckel, Catherine W.; Gribok, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relation between stress reactivity and 24 h glycemic control in 17 inactive, healthy older people (≥60 years) under both a novel psychophysical stress and a seated control condition. Plasma cortisol was measured over the course of the stress and recovery periods. Glycemic control was determined over the subsequent 3 h from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and over 24 h via continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). We observed significant (P < 0.05) elevations in perceived stress, cardiovascular activity, and peak cortisol response at 30 min (10.6 ± 3.1 versus 8.6 ± 2.6 μg·dL−1, resp.) during the stress compared with the control condition; however, 3 h OGTT glucose and insulin responses were similar between conditions. The CGM data suggested a 30–40 min postchallenge delay in peak glucose response and attenuated glucose clearance over the 6 h following the stress condition, but these alterations were not statistically significant. Healthy older people may demonstrate minimal disruption in metabolic resiliency following everyday psychological stress. PMID:22830023

  11. Glycemic control in diabetic patients in King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) - Riyadh - Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Rowais, Norah Abdullah

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate glycemic control of diabetic patients at the King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross sectional study was conducted among diabetic patients attending KKUH, Riyadh. Patients were identified through the hospital pharmacy records, over a one year period (January-December, 2009). A total of 20,000 patients were identified, and 1520 patients were selected by a simple random method. Medical charts were reviewed, the data were collected in a specially designed data sheet: and entered in a computer, and finally analyzed using a SPSS program. About 90% of patients were older than 40 years old and 90% were overweight or obese. Fasting blood sugar was above 7.2 mmol/L in 60% of the patients and random blood sugar was more than 10 mmol/L in about 70% of patients. The overall glycemic control as evaluated by HBA1C was acceptable in about 40% of the patients. Cholesterol level was normal in more than 70% of patients while triglyceride was normal in 56% of patients. In about half of the patients systolic blood pressure was not controlled, while in 27% the diastolic blood pressure was above the target level. The control of diabetes and its associated cardiovascular risk factors in this hospital - based survey, in Riyadh is far from optimal. Further studies are needed to find out the possible causes for this defective care of diabetic patients.

  12. Barriers to achieving optimal glycemic control in a multi-ethnic society: a US focus.

    PubMed

    Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; Funnell, Martha M; Davidson, Jaime

    2006-08-01

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes is particularly apparent in certain ethnic groups, such as African and Hispanic Americans. These groups generally also have poorer glycemic control and outcomes. To better understand the issues surrounding these problems and possible methods to overcome them we performed a literature review from the past 15 years on barriers to glycemic control with a focus on US data. The literature reveals that barriers may be inherent (eg, genetic, cultural, and language/communication) or acquired (eg, those associated with changes in lifestyle and socioeconomic factors). Healthcare interventions that take into consideration cultural and population-specific characteristics can reduce the prevalence and severity of diabetes and its resulting complications. Implementing such strategies will require suitable education for patients and providers, the availability of culturally-sensitive, patient-centered healthcare teams, the creation of collaborative relationships between providers and patients, better use of community resources, and assistance for patients to make informed decisions about available treatment options. There is also evidence suggesting that at the same level of glucose control Hispanics and African Americans have the same degree of complications as whites; therefore, good control is essential for the future well-being of all patients. Addressing these issues may help to decrease the ethnic disparities that currently exist in diabetes care.

  13. Hypoglycemic drugs induce antioxidant aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and remain high in patients with glycemic control in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Picazo, Alejandra; Jiménez-Osorio, Angélica S; Zúñiga-Mejía, Porfirio; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Monroy, Adriana; Rodríguez-Arellano, M Eunice; Barrera-Oviedo, Diana

    2017-04-05

    The antioxidant system results essential to control and prevent lipid peroxidation due to stress damage in type 2 diabetes. An example is aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), an enzyme that is involved in the detoxification of aldehydes formed during lipid peroxidation. This study was conducted to evaluate ALDH activity and to determine their association with hypoglycemic treatment in type 2 diabetes patients. The study population consisted of 422 Mexican subjects: a control group and type 2 diabetes patients. Type 2 diabetes patients were re-classified as those with or without hypoglycemic treatment and those with or without glycemic control (according to glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)). Clinical parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities (ALDH, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and oxidative markers (reactive oxygen species and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) were evaluated. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers were higher in type 2 diabetes patients with hypoglycemic treatment and without glycemic control than control group. The activity of ALDH and SOD remained high in type 2 diabetes patients with moderate glycemic control while only ALDH's remained high in type 2 diabetes patients with tight glycemic control. Increased ALDH and SOD activities were associated with hypoglycemic therapy. TBARS levels were associated with glycemic control. The persistence of high ALDH and SOD activities in type 2 diabetes patients with glycemic control may be to avoid a significant damage due to the increase in reactive oxygen species and TBARS. It is possible that this new oxidative status prevented the development the classical complications of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Work-related psychosocial stress and glycemic control among working adults with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Annor, Francis B; Roblin, Douglas W; Okosun, Ike S; Goodman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and four subscales of work-related psychosocial stress at study baseline and over time. We used survey data from a major HMO located in the Southeastern part of the US on health and healthy behaviors linked with patients' clinical, pharmacy and laboratory records for the period between 2005 and 2009. Study participants (n=537) consisted of working adults aged 25-59 years, diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) but without advanced micro or macrovascular complications at the time of the survey. We estimated the baseline (2005) association between HbA1c and work-related psychosocial stress and their interactions using linear regression analysis. Using individual growth model approach, we estimated the association between HbA1c over time and work-related psychosocial stress. Each of the models controlled for socio-demographic variables, diet and physical activity factor, laboratory factor, physical examinations variables and medication use in a hierarchical fashion. After adjusting for all study covariates, we did not find a significant association between work-related psychosocial stress and glycemic control either at baseline or over time. Among fairly healthy middle aged working adults with DM, work-related psychosocial stress was not directly associated with glycemic control. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of garlic oil and diallyl trisulfide on glycemic control in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng-Tzu; Hse, Hunry; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Chen, Phi-Sam; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2005-06-01

    We investigated the effects of garlic oil and diallyl trisulfide on glycemic control in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Diabetic rats received by gavage garlic oil (100 mg/kg body weight), diallyl trisulfide (40 mg/kg body weight), or corn oil every other day for 3 weeks. Control rats received corn oil only. Both garlic compounds significantly raised the basal insulin concentration. The insulin resistance index as assessed by homeostasis model assessment and the first-order rate constant for glucose disappearance were significantly improved by both garlic compounds (P<0.05). Oral glucose tolerance was also improved by both garlic compounds and was accompanied by a significantly increased rate of insulin secretion (P<0.05). Glycogen formation (but not that of lactate or carbon dioxide) from glucose by the soleus muscle in the presence of 10 or 100 microU/ml of insulin was significantly better after treatment with both garlic compounds. Both garlic oil and diallyl trisulfide improve glycemic control in diabetic rats through increased insulin secretion and increased insulin sensitivity.

  16. Antioxidant alpha-tocopherol ameliorates glycemic control of GK rats, a model of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Y; Yamada, Y; Toyokuni, S; Miyawaki, K; Ban, N; Adachi, T; Kuroe, A; Iwakura, T; Kubota, A; Hiai, H; Seino, Y

    2000-05-04

    We have shown recently that oxidative stress by chronic hyperglycemia damages the pancreatic beta-cells of GK rats, a model of non-obese type 2 diabetes, which may worsen diabetic condition and suggested the administration of antioxidants as a supportive therapy. To determine if natural antioxidant alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) has beneficial effects on the glycemic control of type 2 diabetes, GK rats were fed a diet containing 0, 20 or 500 mg/kg diet alpha-tocopherol. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test revealed a significant increment of insulin secretion at 30 min and a significant decrement of blood glucose levels at 30 and 120 min after glucose loading in the GK rats fed with high alpha-tocopherol diet. The levels of glycated hemoglobin A1c, an indicator of glycemic control, were also reduced. Vitamin E supplementation clearly ameliorated diabetic control of GK rats, suggesting the importance of not only dietary supplementation of natural antioxidants but also other antioxidative intervention as a supportive therapy of type 2 diabetic patients.

  17. Analysis of alternatives for insulinizing patients to achieve glycemic control and avoid accompanying risks of hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jialin; Xiong, Qianyin; Miao, Jun; Zhang, Yao; Xia, Libing; Lu, Meiqin; Zhang, Binhua; Chen, Yueping; Zhang, Ansu; Yu, Cui; Wang, Li-Zhuo

    2015-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to explore the efficacy of glycemic control and the risks of hypoglycemia with different methods of insulin therapy, and to provide reference data for the clinical treatment of diabetes. In this retrospective study, hospitalized patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between March and December 2014, in the Department of Endocrinology in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College, were divided into three groups, including an intensive insulin analogue therapy group, a premixed insulin analogue treatment group and a premixed human insulin therapy group. The efficacy of glycemic control and the incidence of hypoglycemia were determined in each of the insulin treatment groups. Compared with the other treatment groups, the intensive insulin analogue therapy group was associated with superior blood glucose control, shorter time to reach standard insulin regimen, shorter hospitalization time, fewer fluctuations in blood glucose levels and lower insulin dosage on discharge from hospital. However, this treatment was also associated with a high risk of hypoglycemia. In conclusion, when combined with the effective prevention of hypoglycemia and appropriate nursing care (especially in hospital care), intensive insulin analogue therapy may provide the greatest benefit to patients.

  18. Glycemic control during labor and delivery: a survey of academic centers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Grant, Erica; Joshi, Girish P

    2012-02-01

    Significant controversy surrounds the management of blood glucose levels during labor and delivery. The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology has recommended "tight" blood glucose control (<110 mg/dL). However, there is concern that tight control can increase the incidence of maternal hypoglycemia. Thus, there remains a lack of consensus regarding glycemic control during labor and delivery. To assess the current intrapartum glycemic management, we surveyed obstetrical residency programs in the United States. Questionnaires were distributed via email and if there was no response within 3 weeks, they were mailed to obstetrics/gynecology residency program directors. Of the 117 questionnaires distributed, 49 responses (41.9%) were received, but one was excluded, as it was incomplete. Although 85% of responders reported having a written protocol in place regarding intrapartum BG management, there was significant variation in target blood glucose levels, maintenance of those levels, monitoring of glucose levels, and fluid management during labor and delivery. The key finding of our survey is that there is significant variation in blood glucose management during labor and delivery. This survey identifies areas for improvement as well as areas for future research. Given the sparse obstetrical literature, properly conducted trials are necessary to assess all aspects of optimal intrapartum glucose management.

  19. Low prevalence of glucokinase gene mutations in gestational diabetic patients with good glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Frigeri, H R; Santos, I C R; Réa, R R; Almeida, A C R; Fadel-Picheth, C M T; Pedrosa, F O; Souza, E M; Rego, F G M; Picheth, G

    2012-05-18

    Glucokinase (GCK) plays a key role in glucose homeostasis. Gestational diabetes mellitus increases the risk of gestational complications in pregnant women and fetuses. We screened for mutations in coding and flanking regions of the GCK gene in pregnant women with or without gestational diabetes in a Brazilian population. A sample of 200 pregnant women classified as healthy (control, N = 100) or with gestational diabetes (N = 100) was analyzed for mutations in the GCK gene. All gestational diabetes mellitus patients had good glycemic control maintained by diet alone and no complications during pregnancy. Mutations were detected by single-strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing. Thirteen of the 200 subjects had GCK gene mutations. The mutations detected were in intron 3 (c.43331A>G, new), intron 6 (c.47702T>C, rs2268574), intron 9 (c.48935C>T, rs2908274), and exon 10 (c.49620G>A, rs13306388). None of these GCK mutations were found to be significantly associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. In summary, we report a low frequency of GCK mutations in a pregnant Brazilian population and describe a new intronic variation (c.43331A>G, intron 3). We conclude that mutations in GCK introns and in non-translatable regions of the GCK gene do not affect glycemic control and are not correlated with gestational diabetes mellitus.

  20. Association of periodontal disease with glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes in Indian population.

    PubMed

    Khanuja, Palka Kaur; Narula, Satish Chander; Rajput, Rajesh; Sharma, Rajinder Kumar; Tewari, Shikha

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the link between glycated hemoglobin and diabetic complications with chronic periodontitis. A total of 207 patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis (CP) were divided according to tertiles of mean PISA (periodontal inflamed surface area) scores as low, middle and high PISA groups. Simultaneously a group of 67 periodontally healthy individuals (PH) was recruited. Periodontal examinations, including full-mouth assessment of probing depths (PPD), bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level and plaque scores were determined. Blood analyses were carried out for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h post parandial glucose (PPG). Individuals in PH group had significantly better glycemic control than CP group. Upon one-way analysis of variance, subjects with increased PISA had significantly higher HbA1c levels, retinopathy and nephropathy (P < 0.05). After controlling for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), family history of diabetes and periodontitis, duration of diabetes, the mean PISA in mm(2), PPD 4-6 mm (%) and PPD ≥ 7 mm (%) emerged as significant predictors for elevated HbA1c in regression model (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that PISA was associated with higher risk of having retinopathy and neuropathy (odds ratio). In our study, the association between glycemic control and diabetic complications with periodontitis was observed.

  1. Differentiating Approaches to Diabetes Self-Management of Multi-ethnic Rural Older Adults at the Extremes of Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Brewer-Lowry, Aleshia Nichol; Arcury, Thomas A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study identified approaches to diabetes self-management that differentiate persons with well-controlled from poorly controlled diabetes. Previous research has focused largely on persons participating in self-management interventions. Design and Methods: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 adults, drawn from a population-based sample aged 65 years or older with diabetes. The sample was stratified by sex and ethnic group (African American, American Indian, and White) from the low (A1C <6%) and high (A1C >8%) extremes of the glycemic control distribution. Case-based text analysis was guided by a model, including six self-management domains and four resource types (self-care, informal support, formal services, and medical care). Results: A “structured” approach to self-management differentiated respondents in good glycemic control from those in poor glycemic control. Those in good glycemic control were more likely to practice specific food behaviors to limit food consumption and practice regular blood glucose monitoring with specific target values. This approach was facilitated by a greater use of home aides to assist with diabetes care. Respondents in poor glycemic control demonstrated less structure, naming general food categories and checking blood glucose in reaction to symptoms. Implications: Results provide evidence that degree of structure differentiates self-management approaches of persons with good and poor glycemic control. Findings should provide a foundation for further research to develop effective self-management programs for older adults with diabetes. PMID:20110333

  2. The Risks and Benefits of Implementing Glycemic Control Guidelines in Frail Elders with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sei J.; Boscardin, W. John; Cenzer, Irena Stijacic; Huang, Elbert S.; Rice-Trumble, Kathy; Eng, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES To determine the hypo- and hyper-glycemic outcomes associated with implementing the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) guideline for Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)<8% in frail older patients with diabets. DESIGN/SETTING Guideline Implementation in PACE (Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly) PARTICIPANTS All patients in the Before (10/02–12/04, n=338), Early (1/05–6/06, n=289) and Late phases of guideline implementation (7/06–12/08, n=385) with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and at least one HbA1c measurement. INTERVENTION Clinician education in 2005 with annual monitoring of the proportion of each clinician’s patients with diabetes with HbA1c<8%. MEASUREMENTS Hypoglycemia (Blood sugar or BS<50), hyperglycemia (BS>400) and severe hypoglycemia (Emergency room or ER visit for hypoglycemia) RESULTS Before, Early and Late groups were similar in mean age, race/ethnicity, comorbidity and functional dependency. Antihyperglycemic medication use increased with more patients using metformin (28% Before versus 42% Late, p<0.001) and insulin (23% Before versus 34% Late, p<0.001), with more patients achieving the AGS glycemic target of HbA1c<8% (74% Before versus 84% Late, p<0.001). Episodes of hyperglycemia (per 100 person-years) decreased dramatically (159 Before versus 46 Late, p<0.001) and episodes of hypoglycemia were unchanged (10.1 versus 9.3, p=0.50). Episodes of severe hypoglycemia were increased in the Early period (1.1 Before versus 2.9 Early, p=0.03). CONCLUSION Implementing the AGS glycemic control guideline for frail elders led to fewer hyperglycemic episodes, but more severe hypoglycemic episodes requiring ER visits in the Early implementation period. Future glycemic control guideline implementation efforts should be coupled with close monitoring for severe hypoglycemia in the early implementation period. PMID:21480838

  3. Association between glycemic control and morning blood surge with vascular endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Nuthalapati, Rama Kumari; Indukuri, Bhaskara Raju

    2016-01-01

    poor glycemic control and IR have predictive value for the occurrence of MBPS in T2DM patients, which might be significantly associated with endothelial dysfunction. PMID:27042413

  4. Plasma Proteins Modified by Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) Reveal Site-specific Susceptibilities to Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Greifenhagen, Uta; Frolov, Andrej; Blüher, Matthias; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2016-04-29

    Protein glycation refers to the reversible reaction between aldoses (or ketoses) and amino groups yielding relatively stable Amadori (or Heyns) products. Consecutive oxidative cleavage reactions of these products or the reaction of amino groups with other reactive substances (e.g. α-dicarbonyls) yield advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that can alter the structures and functions of proteins. AGEs have been identified in all organisms, and their contents appear to rise with some diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. Here, we report a pilot study using highly sensitive and specific proteomics approach to identify and quantify AGE modification sites in plasma proteins by reversed phase HPLC mass spectrometry in tryptic plasma digests. In total, 19 AGE modification sites corresponding to 11 proteins were identified in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus under poor glycemic control. The modification degrees of 15 modification sites did not differ among cohorts of normoglycemic lean or obese and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients under good and poor glycemic control. The contents of two amide-AGEs in human serum albumin and apolipoprotein A-II were significantly higher in patients with poor glycemic control, although the plasma levels of both proteins were similar among all plasma samples. These two modification sites might be useful to predict long term, AGE-related complications in diabetic patients, such as impaired vision, increased arterial stiffness, or decreased kidney function.

  5. Glycemic control in hospitalized patients not in intensive care: beyond sliding-scale insulin.

    PubMed

    Nau, Konrad C; Lorenzetti, Rosemarie C; Cucuzzella, Mark; Devine, Timothy; Kline, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    Glycemic control in hospitalized patients who are not in intensive care remains unsatisfactory. Despite persistent expert recommendations urging its abandonment, the use of sliding-scale insulin remains pervasive in U.S. hospitals. Evidence for the effectiveness of sliding-scale insulin is lacking after more than 40 years of use. New physiologic subcutaneous insulin protocols use basal, nutritional, and correctional insulin. The initial total daily dose of subcutaneous insulin is calculated using a factor of 0.3 to 0.6 units per kg body weight, with one half given as long-acting insulin (the basal insulin dose), and the other one half divided daily over three meals as short-acting insulin doses (nutritional insulin doses). A correctional insulin dose provides a final insulin adjustment based on the preprandial glucose value. This correctional dose resembles a sliding scale, but is only a small fine-tuning of therapy, as opposed to traditional sliding-scale insulin alone. Insulin sensitivity, nutritional intake, and total daily dosing review can alter the physiologic insulin-dosing schedule. Prospective trials have demonstrated reductions in hyperglycemic measurements, hypoglycemia, and adjusted hospital length of stay when physiologic subcutaneous insulin protocols are used. Transitions in care require special considerations and attention to glycemic control medications. Changing the sliding-scale insulin culture requires a multidisciplinary effort to improve patient safety and outcomes.

  6. Benefits and risks for intensive glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Blonde, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Overweight, obesity, pre-diabetes and diabetes have become epidemic in most of Western society. An estimated 25.8 million United States adults have diabetes and some 79 million have prediabetes and are thus at high risk for future development of diabetes. Appropriate treatment of the ABCs of diabetes [A1C, blood pressure and cholesterol (dyslipidemia)] can reduce the risk for the development and progression of diabetic complications. This paper reviews some of the research studies that support treatment goals established by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology and the American Diabetes Association. Multiple studies have demonstrated that intensive glycemic control will reduce the risk for diabetes microvascular and neuropathic disease, but none showed decreased macrovascular disease events during the initial phase of the trials, although benefit was seen in long-term follow-up of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology and the American Diabetes Association goals for glycemia informed by these studies indicate the importance of individualizing targets for patients based on factors including the duration of diabetes, presence of acute and chronic complications and life expectancy. Writing groups convened by these organizations have also developed treatment algorithms to help clinicians appropriately use both lifestyle and pharmacotherapy interventions to safely achieve glycemic targets.

  7. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Shinnosuke; Goto, Yasuaki; Ito, Kyo; Hayasaka, Shinya; Kurihara, Shigeo; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Fukuda, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW) has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW) or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition. PMID:26798400

  8. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shinnosuke; Goto, Yasuaki; Ito, Kyo; Hayasaka, Shinya; Kurihara, Shigeo; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Fukuda, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW) has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW) or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition.

  9. Eating disinhibition and vagal tone moderate the postprandial response to glycemic load: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Young, Hayley A.; Watkins, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the glycemic load (GL) of the diet may benefit appetite control but its utility is complicated by psychological influences on eating. Disinhibited behaviour, a risk factor for overconsumption, is characterized by reduced prefrontal cortex activity, which in turn modulates vagal tone; a phenomenon associated with glucoregulation. This double blind randomised controlled trial explored for the first time the influence of disinhibited eating and vagal tone (heart rate variability (HRV)) on hunger and the postprandial response to GL. Blood glucose (BG) and hunger were measured 30 and 150 min after consumption of water, glucose or isomaltulose (low glycemic sugar). After consuming glucose, independently of BMI or habitual diet, those with the highest levels of disinhibition had higher BG levels after thirty minutes (B = 0.192, 95% CI LL. 086, UL 0.297), and lower BG after one hundred and fifty minutes (B = −0.240, 95% CI LL −0.348, UL −0.131). BG was related to hunger but only in low disinhibited eaters. Disinhibited eaters were characterised by a reduced HRV which was related to greater BG excursions (B = 0.407, 95% CI LL 0.044, UL 1.134). These findings highlight novel mechanisms by which disinhibited eating leads to obesity and insulin resistance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02827318. PMID:27761024

  10. Glycemic control in young children with diabetes: the role of parental health literacy.

    PubMed

    Pulgarón, Elizabeth R; Sanders, Lee M; Patiño-Fernandez, Anna Maria; Wile, Diana; Sanchez, Janine; Rothman, Russell L; Delamater, Alan M

    2014-01-01

    This cross sectional study examined the relationship between parental health literacy (HL), diabetes related numeracy, and parental perceived diabetes self-efficacy on glycemic control in a sample of young children with Type 1 DM. Seventy primary caregivers of children (age 3-9 years) with Type 1 DM were recruited and surveyed at diabetes outpatient clinic visits. Patients' medical histories were obtained by medical chart review. Parental diabetes related numeracy (r=-.52, p<01), but not reading skills (r=-.25, p=NS) were inversely correlated with the child's glycemic control (HbA1c). Parental perceived diabetes self-efficacy was also negatively correlated to their child's HbA1c (r=-.47, p<01). When numeracy and parental perceived diabetes self-efficacy were included as predictors of HbA1c, the model was significant (F=12.93, p<.01) with both numeracy (β=-.46, p<.01) and parental perceived diabetes self-efficacy (β=-.36, p=.01) as significant predictors of HbA1c. Data from this study highlight the importance of considering the role of parental numeracy, in health outcomes for children with Type 1 DM. Practitioners should assess parental health literacy and consider intervention when needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and the ischemic heart: Additional benefits beyond glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Chattipakorn, Nipon; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2016-01-01

    Obese-insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have become global health problems, and they are both associated with a higher risk of ischemic heart disease. Although reperfusion therapy is the treatment to increase blood supply to the ischemic myocardium, this intervention potentially causes cardiac tissue damage and instigates arrhythmias, processes known as reperfusion injury. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are glycemic control drugs commonly used in T2DM patients. Growing evidence from basic and clinical studies demonstrates that a DPP-4 inhibitor could exert cardioprotection and improve left ventricular function by reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis, and increasing reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) activity. However, recent reports also showed potentially adverse cardiac events due to the use of a DPP-4 inhibitor. To investigate this disparity, future large clinical trials are essential in verifying whether DPP-4 inhibitors are beneficial beyond their glycemic control particularly for the ischemic heart in obese-insulin resistant subjects and T2DM patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical activity, glycemic control, and diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a national sample.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Hager, Kathy K; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2014-01-01

    To determine if physical activity and/or blood glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) are associated with the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy (PN) in a representative population of diabetics. Three hundred thirty-nine diabetic participants (40-85 yrs) taking part in 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were studied. Participants were defined as having peripheral neuropathy if examination determined ≥1 insensate area in either foot. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was objectively-measured using accelerometry. After adjustments, MVPA was not significantly associated with PN (OR=1.16; 95% CI: 0.48-2.78), nor was HbA1c (OR=0.55; 95% CI: 0.28-1.04). However, there was evidence of statistical interaction (OR=0.24; 95% CI: 0.06-0.87) between MVPA and HbA1c status, showing that diabetics engaging in higher levels of MVPA and having normal HgbA1c levels were less likely to have PN than what would be expected based on the individual effects of MVPA and HbA1c alone. Although MVPA was not directly associated with PN, these findings suggest that proper physical activity, coupled with good glycemic control, is associated with less neuropathy. Future longitudinal studies are required to evaluate whether physical activity and improved glycemic control may help prevent or slow the progression of diabetic end-organ damage, particularly diabetic neuropathy.

  13. Actions of insulin beyond glycemic control: a perspective on insulin detemir.

    PubMed

    Tibaldi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The physiologic effects of insulin on carbohydrate metabolism in health in general and in diabetes are well known. Less understood, but far more intriguing, are the extrapancreatic effects of insulin that go beyond glycemic control to help sense, integrate, and maintain energy balance. Virtually every organ, including the brain, is a target for insulin action. When exogenous insulin is administered directly into the brains of experimental animals, the net effect is anorectic; however, patients with type 2 diabetes who transition to insulin therapy often gain weight--a tendency that opposes good glycemic control and overall therapeutic goals. After the brief review of extrapancreatic insulin--signaling pathways presented here, the physiologic impact of developing insulin resistance in relation to body weight is considered. Attention is then focused on insulin detemir, a longacting insulin analog that has consistently been associated with less weight gain than conventional formulations such as neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin. Mechanisms offered to explain this effect include the lower incidence of hypoglycemia and less within-patient variability associated with insulin detemir; however, recent observations and considerations of insulin-signaling pathways have shed light on other important properties of insulin detemir that may impart these weight-neutral effects. Namely, albumin binding, faster transport across the bloodbrain barrier, and preferential activity in brain and liver are characteristics of insulin detemir that potentially explain the observed weight benefit seen in clinical trials, as well as in the real-world practice setting.

  14. The Potential for Glycemic Control Monitoring and Screening for Diabetes at Dental Visits Using Oral Blood

    PubMed Central

    Rosedale, Mary T.; Pesce, Michael A.; Rindskopf, David M.; Kaur, Navjot; Juterbock, Caroline M.; Wolff, Mark S.; Malaspina, Dolores; Danoff, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the potential for glycemic control monitoring and screening for diabetes in a dental setting among adults (n = 408) with or at risk for diabetes. Methods. In 2013 and 2014, we performed hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) tests on dried blood samples of gingival crevicular blood and compared these with paired “gold-standard” HbA1c tests with dried finger-stick blood samples in New York City dental clinic patients. We examined differences in sociodemographics and diabetes-related risk and health care characteristics for 3 groups of at-risk patients. Results. About half of the study sample had elevated HbA1c values in the combined prediabetes and diabetes ranges, with approximately one fourth of those in the diabetes range. With a correlation of 0.991 between gingival crevicular and finger-stick blood HbA1c, measures of concurrence between the tests were extremely high for both elevated HbA1c and diabetes-range HbA1c levels. Persons already diagnosed with diabetes and undiagnosed persons aged 45 years or older could especially benefit from HbA1c testing at dental visits. Conclusions. Gingival crevicular blood collected at the dental visit can be used to screen for diabetes and monitor glycemic control for many at-risk patients. PMID:25713975

  15. [Dapagliflozin: Beyond glycemic control in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Sanz-Serra, Pol; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Flores-Le Roux, Juana A; Benaiges, David; Chillarón, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have a high or very high cardiovascular risk. The clinical practice guidelines focus on the need to achieve optimal glycemic control, and strategies for a multifactorial therapeutic approach have shown significant cardiovascular benefits in these patients. Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) are a new class of orally administered drugs in the treatment of T2DM, which act by inhibiting reabsorption of glucose in the renal proximal tubule with consequent glycosuric effect and lowering of blood glucose. Dapagliflozin, SGLT-2 inhibitor marketed in Europe and Australia, has been shown to achieve glycosylated hemoglobin reductions similar to other oral agents, as well as beneficial effects on major comorbidities associated with T2DM. Therefore, it is considered of interest to review the clinical efficacy of this new oral hypoglycemic on glycemic control, risk of hypoglycemia, and its impact on body weight, blood pressure, lipid profile and renal function. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct and indirect effects of neighborhood factors and self-care on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Smalls, Brittany L; Gregory, Chris M; Zoller, James S; Egede, Leonard E

    2015-03-01

    To determine whether neighborhood factors have direct or indirect effects, via self-care behaviors on glycemic control. Adult patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from an academic medical center and Veterans Affairs Medical Center in the southeastern United States. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to create latent variables for neighborhood factors and diabetes self-care behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to test direct and indirect effects between neighborhood factors and glycemic control as assessed by HbA1c levels. CFA yielded four latent variables for neighborhood factors (neighborhood violence, access to healthy food, social support, and neighborhood aesthetics) and one latent variable diabetes self-care. We found that social support (β=0.28, z=4.86, p<0.001) and access to healthy foods (β=-0.17, z=-2.95, p=0.003) had direct effects on self-care; self-care (β=-0.15, z=-2.48, p=0.013) and neighborhood aesthetics (β=0.12, z=2.19, p=0.03) had direct effects on glycemic control; while social support (β=-0.04, z=-2.26, p=0.02) had an indirect effect on glycemic control via self-care. This study showed that self-care behaviors and neighborhood aesthetics have direct effects on glycemic control, social support and access to health foods had direct effects on self-care, and social support had an indirect effect on glycemic control via self-care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Colonic Fermentation of Unavailable Carbohydrates from Unripe Banana and its Influence over Glycemic Control.

    PubMed

    Dan, Milana C T; Cardenette, Giselli H L; Sardá, Fabiana A H; Giuntini, Eliana Bistriche; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Carpinelli, Ângelo R; Lajolo, Franco M; Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the colonic fermentation of unavailable carbohydrates from unripe banana (mass - UBM - and starch - UBS) over parameters related to glucose and insulin response in rats. Wistar male rats were fed either a control diet, a UBM diet (5 % resistant starch - RS) or a UBS diet (10 % RS) for 28 days. In vivo (oral glucose tolerance test) and in vitro (cecum fecal fermentation, pancreatic islet insulin secretion) analyses were performed. The consumption of UBM and UBS diets by Wistar rats for 28 days improved insulin/glucose ratio. Also, pancreatic islets isolated from the test groups presented significant lower insulin secretion compared to the control group, when the same in vitro glucose stimulation was done. Total short chain fatty acids produced were higher in both experimental groups in relation to the control group. These findings suggest that UBM and UBS diets promote colonic fermentation and can influence glycemic control, improving insulin sensitivity in rats.

  18. Higher glycemic index and glycemic load diet is associated with increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Eslamian, Ghazaleh; Jessri, Mahsa; Hajizadeh, Bahareh; Ibiebele, Torukiri I; Rashidkhani, Bahram

    2013-09-01

    Several studies have indicated the association between intake of foods high in dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with an increased risk of digestive tract cancers. We hypothesized that GI and GL may be associated with risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a high-risk population in Iran. In total, we interviewed 47 cases with incident of ESCC and 96 frequency-matched hospital controls, then calculated the average dietary GI and GL via a validated food frequency questionnaire. Dietary GL was calculated as a function of GI, carbohydrate content, and frequency of intake of certain foods. Dietary GI and GL levels were significantly higher among the ESCC cases compared with the controls (P < .05). After adjustment for potential confounders, those in the highest tertile of dietary GI had 2.95 times higher risk of ESCC compared with those in the lowest (95% confidence interval, 1.68-3.35; P for trend = .002). In addition, being in the highest tertile of dietary GL was positively associated with an ESCC risk (odds ratio, 3.49; 95% confidence interval, 2.98-4.41; P for trend = .001). Findings of the present study indicate that diets with high GI and GL might have potentially unfavorable effects on ESCC risk and suggest a possible role for excess circulating insulin and related insulin-like growth factor 1 in esophageal cancer development. © 2013.

  19. Glycemic Control Modifies Difference in Mortality Risk Between Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis in Incident Dialysis Patients With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Jung; Kwon, Young Eun; Park, Kyoung Sook; Kee, Youn Kyung; Yoon, Chang-Yun; Han, In Mee; Han, Seung Gyu; Oh, Hyung Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon Su; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam-Ho; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although numerous studies have tried to elucidate the best dialysis modality in end-stage renal disease patients with diabetes, results were inconsistent and varied with the baseline characteristics of patients. Furthermore, none of the previous studies on diabetic dialysis patients accounted for the impact of glycemic control. We explored whether glycemic control had modifying effect on mortality between hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) in incident dialysis patients with diabetes. A total of 902 diabetic patients who started dialysis between August 2008 and December 2013 were included from a nationwide prospective cohort in Korea. Based on the interaction analysis between hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and dialysis modalities for patient survival (P for interaction = 0.004), subjects were stratified into good and poor glycemic control groups (HbA1c< or ≥8.0%). Differences in survival rates according to dialysis modalities were ascertained in each glycemic control group after propensity score matching. During a median follow-up duration of 28 months, the relative risk of death was significantly lower in PD compared with HD in the whole cohort and unmatched patients (whole cohort, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.47–0.90, P = 0.01; patients with available HbA1c [n = 773], HR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.46–0.91, P = 0.01). In the good glycemic control group, there was a significant survival advantage of PD (HbA1c <8.0%, HR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.37–0.94, P = 0.03). However, there was no significant difference in survival rates between PD and HD in the poor glycemic control group (HbA1c ≥8.0%, HR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.46–2.76, P = 0.80). This study demonstrated that the degree of glycemic control modified the mortality risk between dialysis modalities, suggesting that glycemic control might partly contribute to better survival of PD in incident dialysis patients with diabetes

  20. Effect of low glycemic load diet on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in poorly-controlled diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Ziaee, Amir; Afaghi, Ahmad; Sarreshtehdari, Majied

    2011-12-29

    Different carbohydrate diets have been administrated to diabetic patients to evaluate the glycemic response, while Poor-controlled diabetes is increasing world wide. To investigate the role of an alternative carbohydrate diet on glycemic control, we explored the effect of a low glycemic load (Low GL)-high fat diet on glycemic response and also glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of poor-controlled diabetes patients. Hundred poorly-controlled diabetes patients, HbA1c > 8, age 52.8 ± 4.5 y, were administrated a low GL diet , GL = 67 (Energy 1800 kcal; total fat 36%; fat derived from olive oil and nuts 15%; carbohydrate 42%; protein 22%) for 10 weeks. Patients did their routine life style program during intervention. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c before and after intervention with significant reduction were: 169 ± 17, 141 ± 12; 8.85% (73 mmol/mol) ± 0.22%, and 7.81% (62 mmol/mol) ± 0.27%; respectively (P < 0.001). Mean fasting blood glucose reduced by 28.1 ± 12.5 and HbA1c by 1.1% (11 mmol/mol) ± 0.3% (P=0.001). There was positive moderate correlation between HbA1c concentration before intervention and FBS reduction after intervention (P < 0.001, at 0.01 level, R =0.52), and strong positive correlation between FBS before intervention and FBS reduction (P < 0.001, at 0.01 level, R = 0.70). This study demonstrated that our alternative low glycemic load diet can be effective in glycemic control.

  1. Trajectories in glycemic control over time are associated with cognitive performance in elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Heymann, Anthony; Schmeidler, James; Moshier, Erin; Godbold, James; Sano, Mary; Leroith, Derek; Johnson, Sterling; Preiss, Rachel; Koifman, Keren; Hoffman, Hadas; Silverman, Jeremy M; Beeri, Michal Schnaider

    2014-01-01

    To study the relationships of long-term trajectories of glycemic control with cognitive performance in cognitively normal elderly with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Subjects (n = 835) pertain to a diabetes registry (DR) established in 1998 with an average of 18 HbA1c measurements per subject, permitting identification of distinctive trajectory groups of HbA1c and examining their association with cognitive function in five domains: episodic memory, semantic categorization, attention/working memory, executive function, and overall cognition. Analyses of covariance compared cognitive function among the trajectory groups adjusting for sociodemographic, cardiovascular, diabetes-related covariates and depression. Subjects averaged 72.8 years of age. Six trajectories of HbA1c were identified, characterized by HbA1c level at entry into the DR (Higher/Lower), and trend over time (Stable/Decreasing/Increasing). Both groups with a trajectory of decreasing HbA1c levels had high HbA1c levels at entry into the DR (9.2%, 10.7%), and high, though decreasing, HbA1c levels over time. They had the worst cognitive performance, particularly in overall cognition (p<0.02) and semantic categorization (p<0.01), followed by that of subjects whose HbA1c at entry into the DR was relatively high (7.2%, 7.8%) and increased over time. Subjects with stable HbA1c over time had the lowest HbA1c levels at entry (6.0%, 6.8%) and performed best in cognitive tests. Glycemic control trajectories, which better reflect chronicity of T2D than a single HbA1c measurement, predict cognitive performance. A trajectory of stable HbA1c levels over time is associated with better cognitive function.

  2. Association between aerobic capacity and the improvement in glycemic control after the exercise training in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nojima, Hideki; Yoneda, Masayasu; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamane, Kiminori; Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Yamamoto, Hideya; Yokoyama, Akihito; Hattori, Noboru; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the influence of aerobic capacity on the improvement in glycemic control achieved by long-term aerobic exercise in type 2 diabetes. Fifty-three male patients with type 2 diabetes, recruited from outpatient clinics, wore multiple-memory accelerometers and were instructed to exercise at moderate intensity for ≥30 min on ≥3 days per week over 12 months. Peak oxygen uptake (peak [Formula: see text]) and serum glycated albumin (GA) were measured at baseline and after 3, 6, 12 months. Peak [Formula: see text] data were expressed as percentages of predicted values. According to the number of bouts of exercise (intensity, ≥4 METs; duration, ≥15 min), the subjects were divided into inactive (<3 times per week) or active (≥3 times per week) groups. Serum GA decreased significantly after 3, 6, 12 months only in the active group. When the subjects were assigned to four groups according to initial peak [Formula: see text] (%pred) (low-fitness or high-fitness) and the number of bouts of exercise (active or inactive), serum GA decreased significantly after 3, 6, 12 months only in the high-fitness/active group. When the subjects were also assigned to four groups according to the change in peak [Formula: see text] (%pred) (improved or unimproved) and the number of bouts of exercise (active or inactive), serum GA decreased significantly after 3 and 12 months only in the improved/active group. The improvement in glycemic control achieved by aerobic exercise was associated with both the initial and the increase in peak [Formula: see text] during aerobic exercise.

  3. Glycemic Control in the Burn Intensive Care Unit: Focus on the Role of Anemia in Glucose Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Elizabeth A.; Mora, Alejandra G.; Pidcoke, Heather F.; Wolf, Steven E.; Wade, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    Glycemic control with intensive insulin therapy (IIT) has received widespread adoption secondary to findings of improved clinical outcomes and survival in the burn population. Severe burn as a model for trauma is characterized by a hypermetabolic state, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance. In this article, we review the findings of a burn center research facility in terms of understanding glucose management. The conferred benefits from IIT, our findings of poor outcomes associated with glycemic variability, advantages from preserved diurnal variation of glucose and insulin, and impacts of glucometer error and hematocrit correction factor are discussed. We conclude with direction for further study and the need for a reliable continuous glucose monitoring system. Such efforts will further the endeavor for achieving adequate glycemic control in order to assess the efficacy of target ranges and use of IIT. PMID:20144386

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GLYCEMIC CONTROL AND GASTRIC EMPTYING IN POORLY CONTROLLED TYPE 2 DIABETES

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Kudva, Yogish; Basu, Ananda; Camilleri, Michael; Low, Phillip A.; Vella, Adrian; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Acute hyperglycemia delays gastric emptying in patients with diabetes. However, it is not clear whether improved control of glycemia affects gastric emptying in these patients. We investigated whether overnight and short-term (6 months) improvements in control of glycemia affect gastric emptying. Methods We studied 30 patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (levels of glycated hemoglobin >9%). We measured gastric emptying using the [13C]-spirulina platensis breath test on the patients’ first visit (visit 1), after overnight administration of insulin or saline, 1 week later (visit 2), and 6 months after intensive therapy for diabetes. We also measured fasting and post-prandial plasma levels of C-peptide, GLP1, and amylin, as well as autonomic functions. Results At visit 1, gastric emptying was normal in 10 patients, delayed in 14, and accelerated in 6; 6 patients had gastrointestinal symptoms; vagal dysfunction was associated with delayed gastric emptying (P<.05). Higher fasting blood levels of glucose were associated with shorter half-times of gastric emptying (thalf) at visits 1 (r= −0.46, P=.01) and 2 (r= −0.43, P=.02). Although blood levels of glucose were lower after administration of insulin (132±7 mg/dl) than saline (211±15 mg/dl; P=0.0002), gastric emptying thalf was not lower after administration of insulin, compared with saline. After 6 months of intensive therapy, levels of glycated hemoglobin decreased from 10.6%±0.3% to 9%±0.4% (P=.0003), but gastric emptying thalf did not change (92±8 min before, 92±7 min after). Gastric emptying did not correlate with plasma levels of GLP1 and amylin. Conclusions Two-thirds of patients with poorly-controlled type 2 diabetes have mostly asymptomatic yet abnormal gastric emptying. Higher fasting blood levels of glucose are associated with faster gastric emptying. Overnight and sustained (6 months) improvements in glycemic control do not affect gastric emptying. PMID:25041866

  5. Relationship between glycemic control and gastric emptying in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E; Kudva, Yogish; Basu, Ananda; Camilleri, Michael; Low, Phillip A; Vella, Adrian; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2015-03-01

    Acute hyperglycemia delays gastric emptying in patients with diabetes. However, it is not clear whether improved control of glycemia affects gastric emptying in these patients. We investigated whether overnight and short-term (6 mo) improvements in control of glycemia affect gastric emptying. We studied 30 patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (level of glycosylated hemoglobin, >9%). We measured gastric emptying using the [(13)C]-Spirulina platensis breath test on the patients' first visit (visit 1), after overnight administration of insulin or saline, 1 week later (visit 2), and 6 months after intensive therapy for diabetes. We also measured fasting and postprandial plasma levels of C-peptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and amylin, as well as autonomic functions. At visit 1, gastric emptying was normal in 10 patients, delayed in 14, and accelerated in 6; 6 patients had gastrointestinal symptoms; vagal dysfunction was associated with delayed gastric emptying (P < .05). Higher fasting blood levels of glucose were associated with shorter half-times of gastric emptying (thalf) at visits 1 (r = -0.46; P = .01) and 2 (r = -0.43; P = .02). Although blood levels of glucose were lower after administration of insulin (132 ± 7 mg/dL) than saline (211 ± 15 mg/dL; P = .0002), gastric emptying thalf was not lower after administration of insulin, compared with saline. After 6 months of intensive therapy, levels of glycosylated hemoglobin decreased from 10.6% ± 0.3% to 9% ± 0.4% (P = .0003), but gastric emptying thalf did not change (92 ± 8 min before, 92 ± 7 min after). Gastric emptying did not correlate with plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 and amylin. Two-thirds of patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes have mostly asymptomatic yet abnormal gastric emptying. Higher fasting blood levels of glucose are associated with faster gastric emptying. Overnight and sustained (6 mo) improvements in glycemic control do not affect gastric emptying

  6. First pilot trial of the STAR-Liege protocol for tight glycemic control in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Penning, Sophie; Le Compte, Aaron J; Moorhead, Katherine T; Desaive, Thomas; Massion, Paul; Preiser, Jean-Charles; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2012-11-01

    Tight glycemic control (TGC) has shown benefits in ICU patients, but been difficult to achieve consistently due to inter- and intra- patient variability that requires more adaptive, patient-specific solutions. STAR (Stochastic TARgeted) is a flexible model-based TGC framework accounting for patient variability with a stochastically derived maximum 5% risk of blood glucose (BG) below 72 mg/dL. This research describes the first clinical pilot trial of the STAR approach and the post-trial analysis of the models and methods that underpin the protocol. The STAR framework works with clinically specified targets and intervention guidelines. The clinically specified glycemic target was 125 mg/dL. Each trial was 24 h with BG measured 1-2 hourly. Two-hourly measurement was used when BG was between 110-135 mg/dL for 3 h. In the STAR approach, each intervention leads to a predicted BG level and outcome range (5-95th percentile) based on a stochastic model of metabolic patient variability. Carbohydrate intake (all sources) was monitored, but not changed from clinical settings except to prevent BG<100 mg/dL when no insulin was given. Insulin infusion rates were limited (6 U/h maximum), with limited increases based on current infusion rate (0.5-2.0 U/h), making this use of the STAR framework an insulin-only TGC approach. Approval was granted by the Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty of the University of Liege (Liege, Belgium). Nine patient trials were undertaken after obtaining informed consent. There were 205 measurements over all 9 trials. Median [IQR] per-patient results were: BG: 138.5 [130.6-146.0]mg/dL; carbohydrate administered: 2-11 g/h; median insulin:1.3 [0.9-2.4]U/h with a maximum of 6.0 [4.7-6.0]U/h. Median [IQR] time in the desired 110-140 mg/dL band was: 50.0 [31.2-54.2]%. Median model prediction errors ranged: 10-18%, with larger errors due to small meals and other clinical events. The minimum BG was 63 mg/dL and no other measurement was below 72 mg/dL, so

  7. Vegetarian diets and glycemic control in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Neal D.; Levin, Susan M.; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have suggested an association between vegetarian diets and improvements in glycemic control in diabetes, although this relationship is not well established. No meta-analysis of these studies has been performed. Methods To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials examining the association between vegetarian diets and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Data source: The electronic databases Medline, Web of Science, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for articles published in any language through December 9, 2013. Study selection: The following criteria were used for study inclusion: (I) age of participants >20 years; (II) vegetarian diet as intervention; (III) mean difference in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and/or fasting blood glucose levels used as outcomes; and (IV) controlled trials, duration ≥4 weeks. Exclusion criteria were: (I) not an original investigation; (II) duplicate samples; (III) diabetes other than type 2; (IV) multiple interventions; and (V) uncontrolled studies. Data extraction and synthesis: The data collected included study design, baseline population characteristics, dietary data, and outcomes. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. Main outcomes and measures: Differences in HbA1c and fasting blood glucose levels associated with vegetarian diets were assessed. Results Of 477 studies identified, six met the inclusion criteria (n=255, mean age 42.5 years). Consumption of vegetarian diets was associated with a significant reduction in HbA1c [−0.39 percentage point; 95% confidence interval (CI), −0.62 to −0.15; P=0.001; I2=3.0; P for heterogeneity =0.389], and a non-significant reduction in fasting blood glucose concentration (−0.36 mmol/L; 95% CI, −1.04 to 0.32; P=0.301; I2=0; P for heterogeneity =0.710), compared with consumption of comparator diets. Conclusions Consumption of vegetarian diets is

  8. Improving Glycemic Control and Insulin Ordering Efficiency for Hospitalized Patients With Diabetes Through Carbohydrate Counting.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Kristina K; Reiland, Sarah A; Meara, John G O; Brown, Julie K; Fedraw, Leslie A; Mapes, David L

    2016-01-01

    Glycemic control in hospitalized patients is challenging but important for optimal outcomes. Insulin dosing through carbohydrate counting may address patient, provider, and institutional factors that complicate hospital glycemic management. On two surgical units at a tertiary care teaching hospital, we pilot tested postmeal insulin dosing based on carbohydrate counting (plus basal insulin) rather than the current process of ordering scheduled premeal insulin without knowledge of the patient's consumption. Analysis assessed hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, insulin orders, and nurse and provider satisfaction and confidence. On general surgery, mean glucose level improved from 188 to 137 mg/dl (p < .001). On cardiovascular surgery, mean glucose improved only mildly from 177 to 175 mg/dl (p < .28). No hypoglycemia was reported. Efficiency of mealtime insulin dosing improved through reduced average number of insulin orders per meal from 1.1 to 0.09. Process satisfaction improved for providers (preintervention, 60%; postintervention, 100%), general surgery nurses (preintervention, 72%; postintervention, 100%), and cardiovascular surgery nurses (preintervention, 69%; postintervention, 84%). Confidence in insulin dose accuracy improved for providers (preintervention, 50%; postintervention, 100%), general surgery nurses (preintervention, 59%; postintervention, 100%), and cardiovascular surgery nurses (preintervention, 48%; postintervention, 84%). Carbohydrate counting is effective and efficient and improved staff satisfaction and confidence in hospital mealtime insulin dosing.

  9. A Mixed Methods Study Exploring the Factors and Behaviors That Affect Glycemic Control Following a Structured Education Program: The Irish DAFNE Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Dympna; O'Hara, Mary Clare; Meehan, Ben; Byrne, Molly; Dinneen, Sean F.; Murphy, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To explain the factors affecting glycemic control (measured by HbA1c) following the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) program. Background: DAFNE is a structured education program designed to assist persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus achieve optimal glycemic control. However, not all participants reach this goal. Few studies…

  10. A Mixed Methods Study Exploring the Factors and Behaviors That Affect Glycemic Control Following a Structured Education Program: The Irish DAFNE Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Dympna; O'Hara, Mary Clare; Meehan, Ben; Byrne, Molly; Dinneen, Sean F.; Murphy, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To explain the factors affecting glycemic control (measured by HbA1c) following the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) program. Background: DAFNE is a structured education program designed to assist persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus achieve optimal glycemic control. However, not all participants reach this goal. Few studies…

  11. A randomized controlled trial of resistance exercise training to improve glycemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Castaneda, Carmen; Layne, Jennifer E; Munoz-Orians, Leda; Gordon, Patricia L; Walsmith, Joseph; Foldvari, Mona; Roubenoff, Ronenn; Tucker, Katherine L; Nelson, Miriam E

    2002-12-01

    To determine the efficacy of high-intensity progressive resistance training (PRT) on glycemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes. We performed a 16-week randomized controlled trial in 62 Latino older adults (40 women and 22 men; mean +/- SE age 66 +/- 8 years) with type 2 diabetes randomly assigned to supervised PRT or a control group. Glycemic control, metabolic syndrome abnormalities, body composition, and muscle glycogen stores were determined before and after the intervention. Sixteen weeks of PRT (three times per week) resulted in reduced plasma glycosylated hemoglobin levels (from 8.7 +/- 0.3 to 7.6 +/- 0.2%), increased muscle glycogen stores (from 60.3 +/- 3.9 to 79.1 +/- 5.0 mmol glucose/kg muscle), and reduced the dose of prescribed diabetes medication in 72% of exercisers compared with the control group, P = 0.004-0.05. Control subjects showed no change in glycosylated hemoglobin, a reduction in muscle glycogen (from 61.4 +/- 7.7 to 47.2 +/- 6.7 mmol glucose/kg muscle), and a 42% increase in diabetes medications. PRT subjects versus control subjects also increased lean mass (+1.2 +/- 0.2 vs. -0.1 +/- 0.1 kg), reduced systolic blood pressure (-9.7 +/- 1.6 vs. +7.7 +/- 1.9 mmHg), and decreased trunk fat mass (-0.7 +/- 0.1 vs. +0.8 +/- 0.1 kg; P = 0.01-0.05). PRT as an adjunct to standard of care is feasible and effective in improving glycemic control and some of the abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome among high-risk older adults with type 2 diabetes.

  12. Defining the role of medication adherence in poor glycemic control among a general adult population with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Becca S; Cohen-Stavi, Chandra J; Leibowitz, Morton; Hoshen, Moshe B; Singer, Shepherd R; Bitterman, Haim; Lieberman, Nicky; Balicer, Ran D

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the attributable impact of adherence to oral glucose medications as a risk factor for poor glycemic control in population subgroups of a large general population, using an objective medication adherence measure. Using electronic health records data, adherence to diabetes medications over a two-year period was calculated by prescription-based Medication Possession Ratios for adults with diabetes diagnosed before January 1, 2010. Glycemic control was determined by the HbA1c test closest to the last drug prescription during 2010-2012. Poor control was defined as HbA1c>75 mmol/mol (9.0%). Medication adherence was categorized as "good" (>80%), "moderate" (50-80%), or "poor" (<50%). Logistic regression models assessed the role medication adherence plays in the association between disease duration, age, and poor glycemic control. We calculated the change in the attributable fraction of glucose control if the non-adherent diabetic medication population would become adherent by age-groups. Among 228,846 diabetes patients treated by oral antiglycemic medication, 46.4% had good, 28.8% had moderate, and 24.8% had poor adherence. Good adherence rates increased with increasing disease duration, while glycemic control became worse. There was a strong inverse association between adherence level and poor control (OR = 2.50; CI = 2.43-2.58), and adherence was a significant mediator between age and poor control. A large portion of the diabetes population is reported to have poor adherence to oral diabetes medications, which is strongly associated with poor glycemic control in all disease durations. While poor adherence does not mediate the poorer glycemic control seen in patients with longer-standing disease, it is a significant mediator of poor glycemic control among younger diabetes patients. A greater fraction of poorly controlled younger patients, compared to older patients, could be prevented if at least 80% adherence to their medications was achieved

  13. Relationship of planter pressure and glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients with and without neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Halawa, Mohammed R; Eid, Yara M; El-Hilaly, Rana A; Abdelsalam, Mona M; Amer, Amr H

    2017-09-23

    Foot disease is a common complication of type 2 diabetes that can have tragic consequences. Abnormal plantar pressures are considered to play a major role in the pathologies of neuropathic ulcers in the diabetic foot. To examine Relationship of Planter Pressure and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with and without Neuropathy. The study was conducted on 50 type 2 diabetic patients and 30 healthy volunteers. BMI calculation, disease duration, Hemoglobin A1c and presence of neuropathy (by history, foot examination and DN4 questionnaire) were recorded. Plantar pressure was recorded for all patients using the Mat-scan (Tekscan, Inc.vers. 6.34 Boston USA) in static conditions (standing) and dynamic conditions (taking a step on the Mat-scan). Plantar pressures (kPa) were determined at the five metatarsal areas, mid foot area, medial and lateral heel areas and medial three toes. Static and dynamic plantar pressures in both right and left feet were significantly higher in diabetic with neuropathy group than in control group in measured areas (P<0.05). Static and dynamic pressures in right and left feet were significantly higher in diabetic with neuropathy group than in diabetic without neuropathy group in measured areas (P<0.05). On comparison between controls and diabetic without neuropathy group there was a significant difference in plantar pressures especially in metatarsal areas (P<0.05). No significant correlations were present between the studied variables age, disease duration, BMI and HbA1c and plantar pressures in all studied areas. Persons with diabetic neuropathy have elevated peak plantar pressure (PPP) compared to patients without neuropathy and control group. HbA1c% as a surrogate for glycemic control had no direct impact on peak planter pressure, yet it indirectly impacts neuropathy evolution through out disease duration eventually leading to the drastic planter pressure and gait biomechanics changes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Characterizing the dynamic interaction among gastric emptying, glucose absorption, and glycemic control in nondiabetic obese adults.

    PubMed

    Wilbaux, Mélanie; Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K; Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Beglinger, Christoph; Pfister, Marc

    2017-03-01

    The effects of altered gastric emptying on glucose absorption and kinetics are not well understood in nondiabetic obese adults. The aim of this work was to develop a physiology-based model that can characterize and compare interactions among gastric emptying, glucose absorption, and glycemic control in nondiabetic obese and lean healthy adults. Dynamic glucose, insulin, and gastric emptying (measured with breath test) data from 12 nondiabetic obese and 12 lean healthy adults were available until 180 min after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with 10, 25, and 75 g of glucose. A physiology-based model was developed to characterize glucose kinetics applying nonlinear mixed-effects modeling with NONMEM7.3. Glucose kinetics after OGTT was described by a one-compartment model with an effect compartment to describe delayed insulin effects on glucose clearance. After the interactions between individual gastric emptying and glucose absorption profiles were accounted for, the glucose absorption rate was found to be similar in nondiabetic obese and lean controls. Baseline glucose concentration was estimated to be only marginally higher in nondiabetic obese subjects (4.9 vs. 5.2 mmol/l), whereas insulin-dependent glucose clearance in nondiabetic obese subjects was found to be cut in half compared with lean controls (0.052 vs. 0.029 l/min) and the insulin concentration associated with 50% of insulin-dependent glucose elimination rate was approximately twofold higher in nondiabetic obese subjects compared with lean controls (7.1 vs. 15.3 μU/ml). Physiology-based models can characterize and compare the dynamic interaction among gastric emptying, glucose absorption and glycemic control in populations of interest such as lean healthy and nondiabetic obese adults. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Safety and efficacy of saxagliptin for glycemic control in non-critically ill hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Rajesh; Schuman, Brooke; Hurwitz, Shelley; Metzger, Cheyenne; Bhandari, Shreya

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether saxagliptin is non-inferior to basal-bolus insulin therapy for glycemic control in patients with controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) admitted to hospital with non-critical illnesses. Research design and methods This was an open-label, randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients received either saxagliptin or basal-bolus insulin, both with correctional insulin doses. The main study outcome was the mean daily blood glucose (BG) after the first day of randomization. Results Of 66 patients completing the study, 33 (age 69±10 years, 40% men) were randomized to saxagliptin and 33 (age 67±10 years, 52% men) to basal-bolus insulin therapy. The mean daily BG was 149.8±22.0 mg/dL in the saxagliptin group and 146.9±30.5 mg/dL in the insulin group (p=0.59). With an observed group difference of 2.9 mg/dL and an a priori margin of 20 mg/dL, inferiority of saxagliptin was rejected in favor of non-inferiority (p=0.007). There was no significant difference in the percentage of high or low BG values. The insulin group received a higher number of insulin injections (2.3±1.7/day vs 1.2±1.9/day; p<0.001) as well as a higher daily insulin dose (13.3±12.9 units/day vs 2.4±3.3 units/day; p<0.001) than did the saxagliptin group. Continuous BG monitoring showed that glycemic variability was lower in the saxagliptin group as compared to the insulin group. Patient satisfaction scores were similar in the two groups. Conclusions We conclude that saxagliptin use is non-inferior to basal-bolus insulin in non-critically ill hospitalized patients with T2DM controlled on 0–2 oral agents without insulin. Saxagliptin use may decrease glycemic variability in these patients. Trial registration number NCT02182895. PMID:28405346

  16. Glibenclamide or metformin combined with honey improves glycemic control in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Erejuwa, Omotayo Owomofoyon; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi Ab; Sirajudeen, Kuttulebbai Nainamohammed Salam; Salleh, Md Salzihan Md; Gurtu, Sunil

    2011-03-14

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with deterioration of glycemic control and progressive metabolic derangements. This study investigated the effect of honey as an adjunct to glibenclamide or metformin on glycemic control in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin. The diabetic rats were randomized into six groups and administered distilled water, honey, glibenclamide, glibenclamide and honey, metformin or metformin and honey. The animals were treated orally once daily for four weeks. The diabetic control rats showed hypoinsulinemia (0.27 ± 0.01 ng/ml), hyperglycemia (22.4 ± 1.0 mmol/L) and increased fructosamine (360.0 ± 15.6 µmol/L). Honey significantly increased insulin (0.41 ± 0.06 ng/ml), decreased hyperglycemia (12.3 ± 3.1 mmol/L) and fructosamine (304.5 ± 10.1 µmol/L). Although glibenclamide or metformin alone significantly (p < 0.05) reduced hyperglycemia, glibenclamide or metformin combined with honey produced significantly much lower blood glucose (8.8 ± 2.9 or 9.9 ± 3.3 mmol/L, respectively) compared to glibenclamide or metformin alone (13.9 ± 3.4 or 13.2 ± 2.9 mmol/L, respectively). Similarly, glibenclamide or metformin combined with honey produced significantly (p < 0.05) lower fructosamine levels (301.3 ± 19.5 or 285.8 ± 22.6 µmol/L, respectively) whereas glibenclamide or metformin alone did not decrease fructosamine (330.0 ± 29.9 or 314.6 ± 17.9 µmol/L, respectively). Besides, these drugs or their combination with honey increased insulin levels. Glibenclamide or metformin combined with honey also significantly reduced the elevated levels of creatinine, bilirubin, triglycerides, and VLDL cholesterol. These results indicate that combination of glibenclamide or metformin with honey improves glycemic control, and provides additional metabolic benefits, not achieved with either glibenclamide or metformin alone.

  17. THE CONTENT OF MICROELEMENTS IN BLOOD SERUM AND ERYTHROCYTES IN CHILDREN WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE I DEPENDING ON LEVEL OF GLYCEMIC CONTROL.

    PubMed

    Gluschenko, N; Vasylyshyn, Kh; Roschupkin, A; Lekishvili, S; Gladchenko, O

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the content of chromium, cobalt and nickel in serum and erythrocytes in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, depending on the level of glycemic control. The study was conducted on 68 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The patients were divided into four groups based on glycemic control. Group I was composed of 9 children with optimal level of glycemic control. Group II - 25 children with suboptimal level of glycemic control. Group III - 34 children with a high risk to life level of glycemic control. Group IV (control group) consisted of 30 healthy children. Compensation state of type 1 diabetes was evaluated according to ISPAD (Consensus for the Management of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescens 2000). The content of trace elements in biological agents was determined by atomic absorbtion spectrophotometry method with C-115M1 mass-spectrophotometer, manufactured by «Selmi» enterprise (Ukraine). It is found that there is a decrease in serum concentrations of chromium and erythrocyte content of cobalt in patients with optimal level of glycemic control. The deficiency of chromium is accompanied by the deficiency of cobalt in patients with suboptimal level of glycemic control. The lower levels of cobalt and nickel are recorded simultaneously, but there is theexcess of chromium in the erythrocytes of these patients. Patients, who suffer from 1 type diabetes mellitus and high risk for life level of glycemic control have considerable polideficiency of cobalt, nickel and chromium in serum.The increasing level of chromium was recorded only in the erythrocytes. The level of glycemic control and the duration of 1 type diabetes mellitus are important in the forecasting of the development of chronic diabetic complications. It is found that the duration of 1 type diabetes mellitus influences the levels of cobalt and nickel in serum mostly, while the level of glycemic control influences the chromium content.

  18. Improvement of Glycemic Control in Insulin-Dependent Diabetics with Depression by Concomitant Treatment with Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Radojkovic, Jana; Sikanic, Natasa; Bukumiric, Zoran; Tadic, Marijana; Kostic, Nada; Babic, Rade

    2016-01-01

    Background It is still disputable whether negative effects of comorbid depression in diabetics can be diminished by successful treatment of depression. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether addition of antidepressants to existing insulin treatment would further improve glycemic control in these patients. A secondary objective was to assess whether such treatment impairs their lipid and inflammatory status. Material/Methods Total of 192 patients with poorly controlled diabetes (defined as HbA1c ≥8%) in the absence of any uncontrolled medical condition entered the 6-month run-in phase with optimization of diabetic therapy. Depression status was screened at the end of this phase by BDI-II depression testing. Patients with BDI-II ≥14 and psychiatric confirmation of depression (58 patients) entered the 6-month interventional phase with SSRI class antidepressants. Results Fifty patients completed the study. During the run-in phase, HbA1c dropped from 10.0±1.8% to 8.5±1.2% (p<0.001), and during the interventional phase it dropped from 8.5±1.2% to 7.7±0.7% (p<0.001). BDI-II scores improved significantly from 30.4±13.2 to 23.5±11.0 (p=0.02) during the interventional phase. A positive linear correlation between improvement in depression scale and improvement in glycemic control was observed (R2=0.139, p=0.008). Lipid profile and inflammatory status did not change significantly during the interventional phase. Conclusions Patients with poorly controlled diabetes and comorbid depression might benefit from screening and treatment of depression with SSRI antidepressants by achieving an incremental effect on glycoregulation. This therapy did not have any adverse effects on lipid profile or inflammatory status. PMID:27329213

  19. Ipragliflozin Improves Glycemic Control and Decreases Body Fat in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Takehiro; Iizuka, Takashi; Iemitsu, Kotaro; Takihata, Masahiro; Takai, Masahiko; Nakajima, Shigeru; Minami, Nobuaki; Umezawa, Shinichi; Kanamori, Akira; Takeda, Hiroshi; Ito, Shogo; Kikuchi, Taisuke; Amemiya, Hikaru; Kaneshiro, Mizuki; Mokubo, Atsuko; Takuma, Tetsuo; Machimura, Hideo; Tanaka, Keiji; Asakura, Taro; Kubota, Akira; Aoyanagi, Sachio; Hoshino, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Masashi; Matsuzawa, Yoko; Obana, Mitsuo; Sasai, Nobuo; Kaneshige, Hideaki; Minagawa, Fuyuki; Saito, Tatsuya; Shinoda, Kazuaki; Miyakawa, Masaaki; Tanaka, Yasushi; Terauchi, Yasuo; Matsuba, Ikuro

    2017-07-01

    Ipragliflozin, a sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitor, was administered to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for 24 weeks to evaluate its effect on glycemic control and body composition. This was an investigator-initiated multicenter prospective intervention study in which ipragliflozin (50 mg) was administered once daily and glycemic control, blood pressure, body weight (BW), body composition (measured by a biological impedance method), the lipid profile, and adverse events were evaluated after 4, 12, and 24 weeks of treatment. Efficacy and safety up to 24 weeks of ipragliflozin therapy were analyzed in 367 patients and 451 patients, respectively. Hemoglobin A1c decreased significantly from 8.07% at the start of ipragliflozin therapy to 7.26% in week 24 (P < 0.001). Fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels were significantly reduced by ipragliflozin. In week 24, there were significant decreases from baseline in BW (-2.6 kg), waist circumference (-2.9 cm), and body fat mass (-1.9 kg) (P < 0.001). The body water mass and mineral mass were decreased significantly by 0.5 and by 0.1 kg, respectively (P < 0.001), whereas the protein mass did not change significantly. Intracellular water mass did not change significantly, whereas extracellular water mass showed a significant decrease of 0.5 kg (P < 0.001). Muscle mass did not change in the upper and lower limbs, but that of the trunk decreased significantly (P < 0.001). There was a significant decrease in the fasting triglyceride level and a significant increase in fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, while low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was unchanged. Adverse events occurred in 23.5% of the patients, with a high frequency of genital infections, such as vulvovaginal candidiasis (3.1%) and genital pruritus (1.8%). Adverse drug reactions were noted in 13.7% of the patients. Administration of ipragliflozin for 24 weeks improved glycemic control and decreased BW. Reduction of body fat

  20. Adherence to oral diabetes medications and glycemic control during and following breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Calip, Gregory S; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Stergachis, Andy; Malone, Kathleen E; Gralow, Julie R; Boudreau, Denise M

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated changes in oral diabetes mellitus medication adherence and persistence, as well as glycemic control for the year prior to breast cancer (BC) diagnosis (Year -1), during BC treatment, and in subsequent years. Cohort study of 4216 women diagnosed with incident early stage (I and II) invasive BC from 1990-2008, enrolled in Group Health Cooperative. Adherence was measured in prevalent users at baseline (N = 509), during treatment, and 1-3 years post-diagnosis using medication possession ratio (MPR), % adherent (MPR ≥0.80) and discontinuation rates. Laboratory data on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c ) was obtained for the corresponding periods. Compared with Year -1, mean MPR for metformin/sulfonylureas (0.86 vs 0.49, p < 0.001) and % adherent (75.3% vs 24.6%, p < 0.001) declined during BC treatment. MPR and % adherent rose slightly during Years 1-3 post-diagnosis but never returned to baseline. Discontinuation rates increased from treatment to Year +1 (59.3% vs 75.6%, p < 0.001) and remained elevated during subsequent observation periods. Compared with baseline, increased HbA1c (7.0% vs 7.4%, p = 0.001) and % women with high HbA1c >7.0% (34.9% vs 51.1%, p < 0.001) coincided with decreased adherence. Diabetes mellitus medication adherence declined following BC diagnosis, whereas discontinuation rates were relatively stable but poor overall. The proportion of adherent users increased only marginally following treatment, whereas the proportion of women meeting goals for HbA1c decreased considerably. These data support the hypothesis that adherence and subsequent glycemic control are sensitive to BC diagnosis and treatment. Confirmatory studies in other settings, on reasons for reduced adherence post-cancer diagnosis, and on subsequent indicators of glycemic control are warranted. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Determinants of glycemic control in youth with type 2 diabetes at randomization in the TODAY study.

    PubMed

    Bacha, Fida; Pyle, Laura; Nadeau, Kristen; Cuttler, Leona; Goland, Robin; Haymond, Morey; Levitsky, Lynne; Lynch, Jane; Weinstock, Ruth S; White, Neil H; Caprio, Sonia; Arslanian, Silva

    2012-08-01

    To investigate insulin sensitivity and secretion indices and determinants of glycemic control in youth with recent-onset type 2 diabetes (T2DM) at randomization in the TODAY study, the largest study of youth with T2DM to date. We examined estimates of insulin sensitivity [1/fasting insulin (1/I(F)), fasting glucose/insulin (G(F) /I(F)), 1/fasting C-peptide (1/C(F)), G(F) /C(F)], β-cell function [insulinogenic index (ΔI30/ΔG30), and ΔC30/ΔG30], and disposition index (DI) in the TODAY cohort of 704 youth (14.0 ± 2.0 yr; diabetes duration 7.8 ± 5.8 months; 64.9% female; 41.1% Hispanic, 31.5% Black, 19.6% White, 6.1% American Indian, and 1.7% Asian) according to hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) quartiles at study randomization. The randomization visit followed a run-in period (median 71 d) during which glycemic control (HbA1c ≤ 8% for at least 2 months) was achieved with metformin alone. These measures were also examined in relation to screening HbA1c levels before run-in. Insulin secretion indices declined with increasing HbA1c quartiles, at randomization (ΔC30/ΔG30: 0.11 ± 0.09, 0.10 ± 0.19, 0.07 ± 0.06, and 0.03 ± 0.03 ng/mL per mg/dL, p < 0.0001; DI: 0.03 ± 0.03, 0.03 ± 0.05, 0.02 ± 0.02, and 0.01 ± 0.01 mg/dL(-1) , p < 0.0001) and at screening, with no significant difference in insulin sensitivity. There were no significant differences in estimates of insulin sensitivity or secretion between genders or across the different racial groups. At randomization and screening, HbA1c correlated with DI (r = -0.3, p < 0.001), with ΔC30/ΔG30, but not with insulin sensitivity estimates. In youth with recent-onset T2DM treated with metformin, glycemic control, as measured by HbA1c, appears to be associated with residual β-cell function and not insulin sensitivity. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Relationship Between Gastric Emptying and Diurnal Glycemic Control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Gopanandan; Kudva, Yogish C; Low, Phillip A; Camilleri, Michael; Basu, Ananda; Bharucha, Adil E

    2017-02-01

    In type 1 diabetes (T1D), delayed gastric emptying (GE) may predispose to a mismatch between insulin delivery and glucose absorption. Previous studies evaluated, only partly, the relationship between delayed GE and postprandial, but not diurnal, glycemia. To assess the relationship between GE disturbances and glycemic control in T1D and the effects of accelerating GE on glycemic control. This was a randomized placebo-controlled trial in 30 patients with T1D on an insulin pump at an academic medical center. GE was evaluated with a [13C]-Spirulina breath test at baseline (GEbaseline), during intravenous saline or erythromycin (2 or 3 mg/kg; GEiv), and after 7 days of oral erythromycin or placebo (GEoral). Weighed meals were provided throughout the study. These were GE and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). The baseline glycosylated hemoglobin was 7.6% ± 0.8% (60 ± 8.7 mmol/mol); 12 patients (40%) had delayed GE; faster GE was associated with a greater postprandial CGM-based glucose, but slower GE was not associated with postprandial hypoglycemia (<70 mg/dL). Intravenous (3 mg/kg) but not oral erythromycin accelerated GE. The relationship between GE and glycemia differed between the postprandial periods and the entire day. After adjusting for carbohydrate intake and insulin consumption, faster GE was associated with more hyperglycemia during the postprandial period but lower glucose values across the entire study. In T1D, pharmacologically mediated acceleration of GE increases postprandial CGM-based glucose. In contrast, delayed GE is associated with greater CGM-based glucose values over the entire day.

  3. Glycemic control and sponsor rank of military dependents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Paz, Rachael; Rouhanian, Minoo; Vogt, Karen

    2016-09-01

    Disparities in glycemic control are reported in children with type 1 diabetes related to differences in access to health care and socioeconomic status. In the US military, rank is an indicator of socioeconomic status, but all have complete health care access without cost. We sought to determine if glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes differs if their sponsor (parent) is an officer vs. enlisted military service member. We performed a cross-sectional retrospective chart review of children with type 1 diabetes >1 yr duration whose parent is a military service member. A total of 281 subjects met study criteria, 136 (48.4%) having an enlisted and 145 (51.6%) having an officer sponsor. The groups differed by race with 38.2% black in the enlisted and 9% black in the officer group (p < 0.001). The median enlisted average hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) over the most recent year of available data was significantly higher than the officer group (9.2 vs. 8.4%, p < 0.001). The difference remained significant when controlled for age and race. Diabetes-related hospitalizations were greater in the enlisted group (39.0 vs. 19.3%, p < 0.001). More subjects in the officer group were on insulin pumps (54.5 vs. 28.7%, p < 0.001). Dependent children of enlisted service members with type 1 diabetes have higher HbA1c levels, more diabetes-related hospitalizations, and are less likely to use insulin pumps than children of officers. These differences are likely linked to socioeconomic status and education levels given the universal access to health care within the military system. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Impact of psychological stress caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on glycemic control in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, K; Saito, A; Heianza, Y; Gibo, H; Suzuki, H; Shimano, H; Saito, K; Kodama, S; Yamada, N; Sone, H

    2012-10-01

    We examined the relationship between psychological stress and the worsening of glycemic control in diabetic patients at the time of the Great East Japan Earthquake. HbA1c levels in diabetic patients before and after the disaster were evaluated with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and other questions including those on changes in diet, exercise, psychological stress and drug intake in 320 consecutive diabetic patients who had been followed in a diabetes clinic. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the total GHQ scores (odds ratio [OR] 1.03 [95% confidence interval 1.01-1.06]; p<0.01) and interruption of drug intake (OR 4.48 [1.57-12.7]; p=0.01) were independently associated with worsening of glycemic control defined as an increase in the HbA1c level equal to or greater than 0.5%. Among the scores on the GHQ, those for somatic symptoms (OR 1.18 [1.01-1.38]; p=0.03) and sleep disturbances or anxiety (OR 1.26 [1.08-1.46]; p<0.01) were independently associated with glycemic control. These results suggest that psychological stress during a disaster has independent effects on worsening of glycemic control. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Do Perceptions of Empowerment Affect Glycemic Control and Self-Care Among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Melba Sheila; Karkada, Subrahmanya Nairy; Hanrahan, Nancy P.; Venkatesaperumal, Ramesh; Amirtharaj, Anandhi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Arab adult with T2DM is understudied with less known facts about the perception of empowerment and its relationship with self-care and glycemic control. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which perception of empowerment by Arab adults living with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) was associated with better glycemic control and self-care management. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was led among 300 Arab adults living in Oman with T2DM in an outpatient diabetes clinic. The Diabetes Empowerment Scale (DES), glycosylated haemaglobin (HbA1c) and Body mass index was assessed. The DES was found to be valid and reliable for the population. ANOVA, Regression analysis, and Structural equation modeling was used for analysis. Results: The composite score and three subscales of DES were a significant and strong predictor of good glycemic control among Omani adults with T2DM (p<0.001). Age, education, duration of DM, prior DM education program and medications were significantly associated with DES. Conclusion: Diabetes nurse educators engaged in the care of adults with T2DM should assess self-empowerment and tailor interventions to increase empowerment for better glycemic control. Patient empowerment plays an essential role in maintaining self-care behaviours and HbA1c. PMID:26156908

  6. Long-Term Glycemic Control as a Result of Initial Education for Children With New Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Susanne M.; Srivastava, Nayan T.; Behzadi, Jennifer M.; Pottorff, Tina M.; DiMeglio, Linda A.; Walvoord, Emily C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the role of initial diabetes education delivery at an academic medical center (AMC) versus non-AMCs on long-term glycemic control. Methods We performed a retrospective study of children with type 1 diabetes referred to an AMC after being educated at non-AMCs. These children were matched to a group of children diagnosed and educated as inpatients at an AMC. The A1C levels at 2, 3, and 5 years from diagnosis were compared between the 2 groups of children. Results Records were identified from 138 children. Glycemic control was comparable in the non-AMC-educated versus AMC-educated patients at 2, 3, and 5 years from diagnosis. The A1C was also highly consistent in each patient over time. Conclusions Long-term glycemic control was independent of whether initial education was delivered at an AMC or non-AMC. Formal education and location at time of diagnosis do not appear to play a significant role in long-term glycemic control. Novel educational constructs, focusing on developmental stages of childhood and reeducation over time, are likely more important than education at time of diagnosis. PMID:23427241

  7. Group visits in the management of diabetes and hypertension: effect on glycemic and blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Loney-Hutchinson, Lisel M; Provilus, Alfrede D; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Zizi, Ferdinand; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; McFarlane, Samy I

    2009-06-01

    Diabetes is a major public health problem that is reaching epidemic proportions in the United States and worldwide. Over 22 million Americans currently have diabetes and it is forecast that over 350 million people worldwide will be affected by 2030. Furthermore, the economic cost of diabetes care is enormous. Despite current efforts on the part of health care providers and their patients, outcomes of care remain largely suboptimal, with only 3% to 7% of the entire diabetes population meeting recommended treatment goals for glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid control. Therefore, alternative approaches to diabetes care are desperately needed. Group visits may provide a viable option for patients and health care providers, with the potential to improve outcomes and cost effectiveness. In this review, we highlight the magnitude of the diabetes epidemic, the barriers to optimal diabetes care, and the utility of the concept of group visits as a chronic disease management strategy for diabetes care.

  8. Pilot Study of the SPRINT Glycemic Control Protocol in a Hungarian Medical Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Benyo, Balazs; Illyés, Attila; Némedi, Noémi Szabó; Le Compte, Aaron J.; Havas, Attila; Kovacs, Levente; Fisk, Liam; Shaw, Geoffrey M.; Chase, J. Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Stress-induced hyperglycemia increases morbidity and mortality. Tight control can reduce mortality but has proven difficult to achieve. The SPRINT (Specialized Relative Insulin and Nutrition Tables) protocol is the only protocol that reduced both mortality and hypoglycemia by modulating both insulin and nutrition, but it has not been tested in independent hospitals. Methods SPRINT was used for 12 adult intensive care unit patients (949 h) at Kálmán Pándy Hospital (Gyula, Hungary) as a clinical practice assessment. Insulin recommendations (0–6 U/h) were administered via constant infusion rather than bolus delivery. Nutrition was administered per local standard protocol, weaning parenteral to enteral nutrition, but was modulated per SPRINT recommendations. Measurement was every 1 to 2 h, per protocol. Glycemic performance is assessed by percentage of blood glucose (BG) measurements in glycemic bands for the cohort and per patient. Safety from hypoglycemia is assessed by numbers of patients with BG < 2.2 (severe) and %BG < 3.0 and < 4.0 mmol/liter (moderate and light). Clinical effort is assessed by measurements per day. Results are median (interquartile range). Results There were 742 measurements over 1088 h of control (16.4 measurements/day), which is similar to clinical SPRINT results (16.2/day). Per-patient hours of control were 65 (50–95) h. Initial per-patient BG was 10.5 (7.9–11.2) mmol/liter. All patients (100%) reached 6.1 mmol/liter. Cohort BG was 6.3 (5.5–7.5) mmol/liter, with 42.2%, 65.1% and 77.6% of BG in the 4.0–6.1, 4.0–7.0, and 4.0–8.0 mmol/liter bands. Per-patient, median percentage time in these bands was 40.2 (26.7–51.5)%, 62.5 (46.0–75.7)%, and 74.7 (61.6.8–87.8)%, respectively. No patients had BG < 2.2 mmol/liter, and the %BG < 4.0 mmol/liter was 1.9%. These results were achieved using 3.0 (3.0–5.0) U/h of insulin with 7.4 (4.4–10.2) g/h of dextrose administration (all sources) for the cohort. Per

  9. Gluten-free snacks using plantain-chickpea and maize blend: chemical composition, starch digestibility, and predicted glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Flores-Silva, Pamela C; Rodriguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2015-05-01

    An increase in celiac consumers has caused an increasing interest to develop good quality gluten-free food products with high nutritional value. Snack foods are consumed worldwide and have become a normal part of the eating habits of the celiac population making them a target to improve their nutritive value. Extrusion and deep-frying of unripe plantain, chickpea, and maize flours blends produced gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber contents (13.7-18.2 g/100 g) and low predicted glycemic index (28 to 35). The gluten-free snacks presented lower fat content (12.7 to 13.6 g/100 g) than those reported in similar commercial snacks. The snack with the highest unripe plantain flour showed higher slowly digestible starch (11.6 and 13.4 g/100 g) than its counterpart with the highest chickpea flour level (6 g/100 g). The overall acceptability of the gluten-free snacks was similar to that chili-flavored commercial snack. It was possible to develop gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber content and low predicted glycemic index with the blend of the 3 flours, and these gluten-free snacks may also be useful as an alternative to reduce excess weight and obesity problems in the general population and celiac community.

  10. Biopsychosocial pathways linking subjective socioeconomic disadvantage to glycemic control in youths with type I diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zilioli, Samuele; Ellis, Deborah A; Carré, Justin M; Slatcher, Richard B

    2017-04-01

    Older adolescent and young adults (OAYA) with type 1 diabetes (T1D) living in contexts of socio-economic disadvantage (SED) suffer disproportionately from poor glycemic control and related health complications. Although SED may convey a variety of risks, it may exacerbate diabetes-related stress levels, which in turn may account for observed disparities in health outcomes. The primary goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between subjective SED, diabetes-related perceived stress, and diurnal cortisol secretion in urban OAYA with T1D. A secondary goal was to determine if cortisol was related to measures of blood glucose (HbA1c and mean blood glucose). Analyses were conducted among OAYA ages 17-20 years (n=61) affected by T1D, who provided daily saliva samples for four days, measures of glycemic control (i.e., HbA1c and mean blood glucose assessed via Continuous Glucose Monitor), and completed psychosocial questionnaires. We found that subjective SED was associated with a flatter diurnal cortisol rhythm via diabetes-related stress. Flattened cortisol rhythm was, in turn, associated with higher levels of HbA1c, but not with mean blood glucose assessed via Continuous Glucose Monitor. These results represent some of the first empirical evidence on how distal social factors (i.e., subjective SED) and proximal psychological processes (diabetes-related perceived stress) are connected to condition-relevant biological mechanisms (i.e., elevated HbA1c), via broad biological pathways implicated in health (i.e., flatter cortisol slope).

  11. Sustainability of Improved Glycemic Control After Diabetes Self-Management Education.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, Katie G; Ramser, Kristie L; Campbell, Jennifer D; Suda, Katie J; Lee, Marilyn D; Wood, G Christopher; Sumter, Robert; Hamann, Gale L

    2014-08-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate glycemic control as measured by A1C during a 2-year period after patients received diabetes self-management education (DSME). Methods. Patients who completed DSME in 2009 and received medical follow-up with A1C measurements for at least 2 years after DSME were included in the evaluation. Primary endpoints were changes in A1C from before to immediately after, 1 year after, and 2 years after DSME. Secondary outcomes included the effects of the following factors on change in A1C: sex, duration of diabetes, uncontrolled diabetes (A1C ≥ 9%), health insurance coverage, and self-reported education level. Results. Forty-three patients were included in the evaluation. Mean A1C before DSME was 10.2 ± 3.7%. Mean A1C after DSME was 7.8 ± 2.2% (P < 0.0001), a 23.5% reduction. Mean A1C at 1 and 2 years after DSME was 7.8 ± 2.1% for each year and remained unchanged from just after DSME to 1 and 2 years after DSME (P > 0.05). Patients with a duration of diabetes of < 1 year had a significantly greater reduction in mean A1C than those with a duration of diabetes ≥ 1 year (28.7 and 20.2%, respectively, P = 0.001). Conclusion. DSME improved glycemic control to a substantial degree, and the effect was sustained for up to 2 years. Although the reduction in A1C was significant for all patients receiving DSME, there was a significantly greater reduction for patients who had a duration of diabetes of < 1 year than for those with a duration of diabetes > 1 year.

  12. Family involvement is helpful and harmful to patients’ self-care and glycemic control

    PubMed Central

    Mayberry, Lindsay Satterwhite; Osborn, Chandra Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We assessed the relationships between supportive and obstructive family behaviors and patients’ diabetes self-care activities and HbA1C, and potential interaction effects and differences by demographic characteristics. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 192 adults with type 2 diabetes completed the Diabetes Family Behavior Checklist-II, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities, and a glycemic control (HbA1C) test. Results Participants reported similar rates of supportive and obstructive behaviors that were positively correlated (rho=0.61, p<.001). In adjusted analyses, supportive family behaviors were associated with adherence to different self-care behaviors (β=0.20–0.50, p<.05), whereas obstructive family behaviors were associated with less adherence to self-care behaviors (β=−0.28–−0.39, p<.01) and worse HbA1C (β=0.18, p<.05). Supportive behaviors protected against the detrimental effect of obstructive behaviors on HbA1C (interaction β=−0.22, p<.001). Non-Whites reported more supportive and obstructive behaviors than Whites, but race did not affect the relationships between family behaviors and self-care or HbA1C. Conclusion Involving family members in patients’ diabetes management may compromise patients’ self-care and glycemic control unless family members are taught to avoid obstructive behaviors. Practice Implications Our findings endorse interventions that help family members develop actionable plans to support patients’ self-care and train them to communicate productively about diabetes management. PMID:25282327

  13. Potential Overtreatment of Diabetes Mellitus in Older Adults With Tight Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Lipska, Kasia J.; Ross, Joseph S.; Miao, Yinghui; Shah, Nilay D.; Lee, Sei J.; Steinman, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE In older adults with multiple serious comorbidities and functional limitations, the harms of intensive glycemic control likely exceed the benefits. OBJECTIVES To examine glycemic control levels among older adults with diabetes mellitus by health status and to estimate the prevalence of potential overtreatment of diabetes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional analysis of the data on 1288 older adults (≥65 years) with diabetes from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2001 through 2010 who had a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurement. All analyses incorporated complex survey design to produce nationally representative estimates. EXPOSURES Health status categories: very complex/poor, based on difficulty with 2 or more activities of daily living or dialysis dependence; complex/intermediate, based on difficulty with 2 or more instrumental activities of daily living or presence of 3 or more chronic conditions; and relatively healthy if none of these were present. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Tight glycemic control (HbA1c level, <7%) and use of diabetes medications likely to result in hypoglycemia (insulin or sulfonylureas). RESULTS Of 1288 older adults with diabetes, 50.7% (95% CI, 46.6%–54.8%), representing 3.1 million (95% CI, 2.7–3.5), were relatively healthy, 28.1% (95% CI, 24.8%–31.5%), representing 1.7 million (95% CI, 1.4–2.0), had complex/intermediate health, and 21.2% (95% CI, 18.3%–24.4%), representing 1.3 million (95% CI, 1.1–1.5), had very complex/poor health. Overall, 61.5% (95% CI, 57.5%–65.3%), representing 3.8 million (95% CI, 3.4–4.2), had an HbA1c level of less than 7%; this proportion did not differ across health status categories (62.8% [95% CI, 56.9%–68.3%]) were relatively healthy, 63.0% (95% CI, 57.0%–68.6%) had complex/intermediate health, and 56.4% (95% CI, 49.7%–62.9%) had very complex/poor health (P = .26). Of the older adults with an HbA1c level of less than 7%, 54.9% (95

  14. Potential overtreatment of diabetes mellitus in older adults with tight glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Lipska, Kasia J; Ross, Joseph S; Miao, Yinghui; Shah, Nilay D; Lee, Sei J; Steinman, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    In older adults with multiple serious comorbidities and functional limitations, the harms of intensive glycemic control likely exceed the benefits. To examine glycemic control levels among older adults with diabetes mellitus by health status and to estimate the prevalence of potential overtreatment of diabetes. Cross-sectional analysis of the data on 1288 older adults (≥65 years) with diabetes from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2001 through 2010 who had a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurement. All analyses incorporated complex survey design to produce nationally representative estimates. Health status categories: very complex/poor, based on difficulty with 2 or more activities of daily living or dialysis dependence; complex/intermediate, based on difficulty with 2 or more instrumental activities of daily living or presence of 3 or more chronic conditions; and relatively healthy if none of these were present. Tight glycemic control (HbA1c level, <7%) and use of diabetes medications likely to result in hypoglycemia (insulin or sulfonylureas). Of 1288 older adults with diabetes, 50.7% (95% CI, 46.6%-54.8%), representing 3.1 million (95% CI, 2.7-3.5), were relatively healthy, 28.1% (95% CI, 24.8%-31.5%), representing 1.7 million (95% CI, 1.4-2.0), had complex/intermediate health, and 21.2% (95% CI, 18.3%-24.4%), representing 1.3 million (95% CI, 1.1-1.5), had very complex/poor health. Overall, 61.5% (95% CI, 57.5%-65.3%), representing 3.8 million (95% CI, 3.4-4.2), had an HbA1c level of less than 7%; this proportion did not differ across health status categories (62.8% [95% CI, 56.9%-68.3%]) were relatively healthy, 63.0% (95% CI, 57.0%-68.6%) had complex/intermediate health, and 56.4% (95% CI, 49.7%-62.9%) had very complex/poor health (P = .26). Of the older adults with an HbA1c level of less than 7%, 54.9% (95% CI, 50.4%-59.3%) were treated with either insulin or sulfonylureas; this proportion was similar across health status

  15. Glycosylated Hemoglobin and Albumin-Corrected Fructosamine Are Good Indicators for Glycemic Control in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, I-Chieh; Yen, Chung-Jen; Chueh, Shu-Neng; Chuang, Hsueh-Fang; Wu, Hon-Yen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Cheng, Hui-Teng; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease and is an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality after dialysis. However, glycemic control among such patients is difficult to assess. The present study examined glycemic control parameters and observed glucose variation after refilling different kinds of fresh dialysate in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods A total of 25 DM PD patients were recruited, and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) was applied to measure interstitial fluid (ISF) glucose levels at 5-min intervals for 3 days. Patients filled out diet and PD fluid exchange diaries. The records measured with CGMS were analyzed and correlated with other glycemic control parameters such as fructosamine, albumin-corrected fructosamine (AlbF), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and glycated albumin levels. Results There were significant correlations between mean ISF glucose and fructosamine (r = 0.45, P<0.05), AlbF (r = 0.54, P<0.01), and HbA1c (r = 0.51, P<0.01). The ISF glucose levels in glucose-containing dialysate increased from approximately 7–8 mg/dL within 1 hour of exchange in contrast to icodextrin dialysate which kept ISF glucose levels unchanged. Conclusion HbA1c and AlbF significantly correlated with the mean ISF glucose levels, indicating that they are reliable indices of glycemic control in DM PD patients. Icodextrin dialysate seems to have a favorable glycemic control effect when compared to the other glucose-containing dialysates. PMID:23469230

  16. Differential effect of race, education, gender, and language discrimination on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, D Brice; Walker, Rebekah J; Campbell, Jennifer A; Egede, Leonard E

    2015-04-01

    Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes, but little research has investigated different types of discrimination to determine if some have a greater impact on outcomes. We examined the differential effect of discrimination based on race, level of education, gender, and language on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Six hundred two patients with type 2 diabetes from two adult primary care clinics in the southeastern United States completed validated questionnaires. Questions included perceived discrimination because of race/ethnicity, level of education, sex/gender, or language. A multiple linear regression model assessed the differential effect of each type of perceived discrimination on glycemic control while adjusting for relevant covariates, including race, site, gender, marital status, duration of diabetes, number of years in school, number of hours worked per week, income, and health status. The mean age was 61.5 years, and the mean duration of diabetes was 12.3 years. Of the sample, 61.6% were men, and 64.9% were non-Hispanic black. In adjusted models, education discrimination remained significantly associated with glycemic control (β=0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.03, 0.92). Race, gender and language discrimination were not significantly associated with poor glycemic control in either unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Discrimination based on education was found to be significantly associated with poor glycemic control. The findings suggest that education discrimination may be an important social determinant to consider when providing care to patients with type 2 diabetes and should be assessed separate from other types of discrimination, such as that based on race.

  17. Psyllium fiber improves glycemic control proportional to loss of glycemic control: a meta-analysis of data in euglycemic subjects, patients at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and patients being treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Roger D; McRorie, Johnson W; Russell, Darrell A; Hasselblad, Vic; D'Alessio, David A

    2015-12-01

    A number of health benefits are associated with intake of soluble, viscous, gel-forming fibers, including reduced serum cholesterol and the attenuation of postprandial glucose excursions. We assess the effects of psyllium, which is a soluble, gel-forming, nonfermented fiber supplement, on glycemic control in patients who were being treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and in patients who were at risk of developing T2DM. A comprehensive search was performed of available published literature (Scopus scientific database) and clinical records stored by Procter & Gamble with the use of key search terms to identify clinical studies that assessed the glycemic effects of psyllium in nondiabetic, pre-T2DM, and T2DM patients. We identified 35 randomized, controlled, clinical studies that spanned 3 decades and 3 continents. These data were assessed in 8 meta-analyses. In patients with T2DM, multiweek studies (psyllium dosed before meals) showed significant improvement in both the fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentration (-37.0 mg/dL; P < 0.001) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) [-0.97% (-10.6 mmol/mol); P = 0.048]. Glycemic effects were proportional to baseline FBG; no significant glucose lowering was observed in euglycemic subjects, a modest improvement was observed in subjects with pre-T2DM, and the greatest improvement was observed in subjects who were being treated for T2DM. These data indicate that psyllium would be an effective addition to a lifestyle-intervention program. The degree of psyllium's glycemic benefit was commensurate with the loss of glycemic control. Because the greatest effect was seen in patients who were being treated for T2DM, additional studies are needed to determine how best to incorporate psyllium into existing prevention and treatment algorithms with concomitant hypoglycemic medications. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Glycemic Control in Kenyan Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Ngwiri, Thomas; Were, Fred; Predieri, Barbara; Ngugi, Paul; Iughetti, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Background. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is the most common endocrine disorder in children and adolescents worldwide. While data about prevalence, treatment, and complications are recorded in many countries, few data exist for Sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of control in patients with T1DM aged 1–19 years over a 6-month period in 3 outpatient Kenyan clinics. It also sought to determine how control was influenced by parameters of patient and treatment. Methods. Eighty-two children and adolescents with T1DM were included in the study. Clinical history regarding duration of illness, type and dose of insulin, and recent symptoms of hypoglycemia/hyperglycemia were recorded. Glycaemia, HbA1c, and ketonuria were tested. HbA1c of 8.0% and below was defined as the cut-off for acceptable control. Results. The median HbA1c for the study population was 11.1% (range: 6.3–18.8). Overall, only 28% of patients had reasonable glycemic control as defined in this study. 72% therefore had poor control. It was also found that age above 12 years was significantly associated with poor control. Conclusions. African children and with T1DM are poorly controlled particularly in adolescents. Our data strongly support the necessity of Kenya children to receive more aggressive management and follow-up. PMID:26494998

  19. The impact of measurement frequency on the domains of glycemic control in the critically ill--a Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Krinsley, James S; Bruns, David E; Boyd, James C

    2015-03-01

    The role of blood glucose (BG) measurement frequency on the domains of glycemic control is not well defined. This Monte Carlo mathematical simulation of glycemic control in a cohort of critically ill patients modeled sets of 100 patients with simulated BG-measuring devices having 5 levels of measurement imprecision, using 2 published insulin infusion protocols, for 200 hours, with 3 different BG-measurement intervals-15 minutes (Q15'), 1 hour (Q1h), and 2 hours (Q2h)-resulting in 1,100,000 BG measurements for 3000 simulated patients. The model varied insulin sensitivity, initial BG value and rate of gluconeogenesis. The primary outcomes included rates of hyperglycemia (BG > 180 mg/dL), hypoglycemia (BG < 70 and 40 mg/dL), proportion of patients with elevated glucose variability (within-patient coefficient of variation [CV] > 20%), and time in range (BG ranges 80-150 mg/dL and 80-180 mg/dL). Percentages of hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia at both thresholds, and patients with elevated glucose variability as well as time outside glycemic targets were substantially higher in simulations with measurement interval Q2h compared to those with measurement interval Q1h and moderately higher in simulations with Q1h than in those with Q15'. Higher measurement frequency mitigated the deleterious effect of high measurement imprecision, defined as CV ≥ 15%. This Monte Carlo simulation suggests that glycemic control in critically ill patients is more optimal with a BG measurement interval no longer than 1h, with further benefit obtained with use of measurement interval of 15'. These findings have important implications for the development of glycemic control standards.

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Internet-Based Mentoring Program for Type 1 Diabetes Patients with Inadequate Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Sunghwan; Jean, Cheol; Koo, Mihyun; Lee, Sun Young; Cho, Min Ja; Sim, Kang-Hee; Jin, Sang-Man; Bae, Ji Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine whether an internet-based mentoring program can improve glycemic control in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods Subjects with T1DM on intensive insulin therapy and with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥8.0% were randomized to mentored (glucometer transmission with feedback from mentors) or control (glucometer transmission without feedback) groups and were examined for 12 weeks. Five mentors were interviewed and selected, of which two were T1DM patients themselves and three were parents with at least one child diagnosed with T1DM since more than 5 years ago. Results A total of 57 T1DM adult subjects with a mean duration after being diagnosed with diabetes of 7.4 years were recruited from Samsung Medical Center. Unfortunately, the mentored group failed to show significant improvements in HbA1c levels or other outcomes, including the quality of life, after completion of the study. However, the mentored group monitored their blood glucose (1.41 vs. 0.30) and logged into our website (http://ubisens.co.kr/) more frequently (20.59 times vs. 5.07 times) than the control group. Conclusion A 12-week internet-based mentoring program for T1DM patients with inadequate glycemic control did not prove to be superior to the usual follow-up. However, the noted increase in the subjects' frequency of blood glucose monitoring may lead to clinical benefits. PMID:24851207

  1. Prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and relation to glycemic control therapies at baseline in the BARI 2D cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pop-Busui, Rodica; Lu, Jiang; Lopes, Neuza; Jones, Teresa L. Z.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the associations between glycemic therapies and prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) at baseline among participants in the Bypass-Angioplasty-Revascularization-Investigation-2-Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial on medical and revascularization therapies for coronary artery disease (CAD) and on insulin-sensitizing versus insulin-providing treatments for diabetes. 2368 patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD were evaluated. DPN was defined as clinical examination score >2 using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). DPN odds ratios across different groups of glycemic therapy were evaluated by multiple logistic regression, adjusted for multiple covariates including age, sex, HbA1c, diabetes duration. 51% BARI 2D subjects with valid baseline characteristics and MNSI scores had DPN. After adjusting for all variables, use of insulin was significantly associated with DPN (OR1.57, 1.15, 2.13). Patients on sulfonylurea or combination of sulfonylurea/metformin/TZD had marginally higher rates of DPN than the metformin/TZD group. This cross-sectional study in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD showed association of insulin use with higher DPN prevalence, independent of disease duration, glycemic control and other characteristics. The causality between a glycemic control strategy and DPN cannot be evaluated in this cross-sectional study, but continued assessment of DPN and randomized therapies in BARI 2D trial may provide further explanations on the development of DPN. PMID:19335534

  2. Carbohydrate intake and glycemic index affect substrate oxidation during a controlled weight cycle in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Kahlhöfer, J; Lagerpusch, M; Enderle, J; Eggeling, B; Braun, W; Pape, D; Müller, M J; Bosy-Westphal, A

    2014-09-01

    Because both, glycemic index (GI) and carbohydrate content of the diet increase insulin levels and could thus impair fat oxidation, we hypothesized that refeeding a low GI, moderate-carbohydrate diet facilitates weight maintenance. Healthy men (n=32, age 26.0±3.9 years; BMI 23.4±2.0 kg/m(2)) followed 1 week of controlled overfeeding, 3 weeks of caloric restriction and 2 weeks of hypercaloric refeeding (+50, -50 and +50% energy requirement) with low vs high GI (41 vs 74) and moderate vs high CHO intake (50% vs 65% energy). We measured adaptation of fasting macronutrient oxidation and the capacity to supress fat oxidation during an oral glucose tolerance test. Changes in fat mass were measured by quantitative magnetic resonance. During overfeeding, participants gained 1.9±1.2 kg body weight, followed by a weight loss of -6.3±0.6 kg and weight regain of 2.8±1.0 kg. Subjects with 65% CHO gained more body weight compared with 50% CHO diet (P<0.05) particularly with HGI meals (P<0.01). Refeeding a high-GI diet led to an impaired basal fat oxidation when compared with a low-GI diet (P<0.02), especially at 65% CHO intake. Postprandial metabolic flexibility was unaffected by refeeding at 50% CHO but clearly impaired by 65% CHO diet (P<0.05). Impairment in fasting fat oxidation was associated with regain in fat mass (r=0.43, P<0.05) and body weight (r=0.35; P=0.051). Both higher GI and higher carbohydrate content affect substrate oxidation and thus the regain in body weight in healthy men. These results argue in favor of a lower glycemic load diet for weight maintenance after weight loss.

  3. Social Support Groups in the Maintenance of Glycemic Control after Community-Based Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guangxing; Hughes, Claire; Kehauoha, Bridget Puni; Sinclair, Ka‘imi A.

    2016-01-01

    Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NH/PI; e.g., Samoan and Chuukese) have higher type 2 diabetes prevalence compared to other groups in Hawai‘i. Partners in Care (PIC), a culturally tailored, community-based, diabetes self-management education intervention (DSME), is effective at improving participants' glycemic control and self-care behaviors. Maintenance of improvements is challenging. Diabetes-related social support groups (SSG) are a promising maintenance component for DSME. This study examined the effects of a diabetes-specific SSG component relative to a control group, after the receipt of the 3-month PIC intervention, which was delivered to 47 adult NH/PI with type 2 diabetes. Participants were then randomized to either a 3-month, 6-session SSG or a control group. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure, triglycerides, cholesterol, and diabetes self-management knowledge and behaviors were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Results indicated significant improvements in HbA1c, diabetes-related self-management knowledge, and behaviors from baseline to 3-month assessment. However, no differences between the SSG and control group from 3-month to 6-month assessment suggest that all participants were able to maintain initial improvements. The SSG group had a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure from 3-month to 6-month assessment while the control group did not. Study limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:27563680

  4. Social Support Groups in the Maintenance of Glycemic Control after Community-Based Intervention.

    PubMed

    Ing, Claire Townsend; Zhang, Guangxing; Dillard, Adrienne; Yoshimura, Sheryl R; Hughes, Claire; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Kehauoha, Bridget Puni; Sinclair, Ka'imi A; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku

    2016-01-01

    Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NH/PI; e.g., Samoan and Chuukese) have higher type 2 diabetes prevalence compared to other groups in Hawai'i. Partners in Care (PIC), a culturally tailored, community-based, diabetes self-management education intervention (DSME), is effective at improving participants' glycemic control and self-care behaviors. Maintenance of improvements is challenging. Diabetes-related social support groups (SSG) are a promising maintenance component for DSME. This study examined the effects of a diabetes-specific SSG component relative to a control group, after the receipt of the 3-month PIC intervention, which was delivered to 47 adult NH/PI with type 2 diabetes. Participants were then randomized to either a 3-month, 6-session SSG or a control group. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure, triglycerides, cholesterol, and diabetes self-management knowledge and behaviors were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Results indicated significant improvements in HbA1c, diabetes-related self-management knowledge, and behaviors from baseline to 3-month assessment. However, no differences between the SSG and control group from 3-month to 6-month assessment suggest that all participants were able to maintain initial improvements. The SSG group had a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure from 3-month to 6-month assessment while the control group did not. Study limitations and future directions are discussed.

  5. Impact of phone call intervention on glycemic control in diabetes patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Suksomboon, Naeti; Poolsup, Nalinee; Nge, Yuu Lay

    2014-01-01

    Telephone-delivered intervention can provide many supports in diabetes self-management to improve glycemic control. Several trials showed that telephone intervention was positively associated with glycemic outcomes in diabetes. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the impact of telephone contact intervention (intervention group) on glycemic control compared with standard clinical care (control group). Randomized control studies of telephone intervention in diabetes were searched on Medline (Pubmed), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science (ISI), and Scopus. Electronic search was done from inception to April 2013. The following MeSH terms were used: diabetes mellitus, randomized control trials and telemedicine, together with keywords including phone intervention, diabetes, and glycemic control. Historical search was also conducted on the references of relevant articles. The quality of the trials was assessed using Maastricht-Amsterdam scale. Treatment effect was estimated with mean difference in the change of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from baseline between the intervention and control groups. A total of 203 articles were examined. Five trials involving 953 patients met the inclusion criteria and contributed to the meta-analysis. Telephone contact intervention was no more effective than standard clinical care in improving glycemic control (pooled mean difference in HbA1c -0.38%, 95%CI -0.91 to 0.16%). This meta-analysis showed that the phone contact intervention was no more effective than standard clinical care in improving glycemic control in diabetes. However, telephone intervention may still have potential benefits especially for low-and middle-income countries; thus further large sample size and well-controlled studies are needed to evaluate the impact of the intervention.

  6. Glycemic penalty index for adequately assessing and comparing different blood glucose control algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Van Herpe, Tom; De Brabanter, Jos; Beullens, Martine; De Moor, Bart; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Blood glucose (BG) control performed by intensive care unit (ICU) nurses is becoming standard practice for critically ill patients. New (semi-automated) 'BG control' algorithms (or 'insulin titration' algorithms) are under development, but these require stringent validation before they can replace the currently used algorithms. Existing methods for objectively comparing different insulin titration algorithms show weaknesses. In the current study, a new approach for appropriately assessing the adequacy of different algorithms is proposed. Methods Two ICU patient populations (with different baseline characteristics) were studied, both treated with a similar 'nurse-driven' insulin titration algorithm targeting BG levels of 80 to 110 mg/dl. A new method for objectively evaluating BG deviations from normoglycemia was founded on a smooth penalty function. Next, the performance of this new evaluation tool was compared with the current standard assessment methods, on an individual as well as a population basis. Finally, the impact of four selected parameters (the average BG sampling frequency, the duration of algorithm application, the severity of disease, and the type of illness) on the performance of an insulin titration algorithm was determined by multiple regression analysis. Results The glycemic penalty index (GPI) was proposed as a tool for assessing the overall glycemic control behavior in ICU patients. The GPI of a patient is the average of all penalties that are individually assigned to each measured BG value based on the optimized smooth penalty function. The computation of this index returns a number between 0 (no penalty) and 100 (the highest penalty). For some patients, the assessment of the BG control behavior using the traditional standard evaluation methods was different from the evaluation with GPI. Two parameters were found to have a significant impact on GPI: the BG sampling frequency and the duration of algorithm application. A higher BG

  7. Relationship among psychopathological dimensions, coping mechanisms, and glycemic control in a Croatian sample of adolescents with diabetes mellitus type 1.

    PubMed

    Skocić, Milena; Rudan, Vlasta; Brajković, Lovorka; Marcinko, Darko

    2010-06-01

    Psychopathological factors associated with metabolic control in juvenile insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) deserve further investigation. This study assessed the relationship among specific psychopathological dimensions, coping mechanisms, and metabolic control in a Croatian clinical sample of adolescents with IDDM. One-hundred and one adolescents (aged 11-18) with IDDM filled out the youth self report (YSR) assessing psychopathological dimension and the scale of coping with stress (SCS). Glycemic control was estimated by the percentage of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Subjects were divided into three groups according to HbA1C values: "optimal", "suboptimal control", and "at high risk". Subjects in optimal glycemic control presented with significantly lower scores in most of YSR scales compared to subjects at high risk. Moreover, they had significantly lower scores in avoidance and emotional reactivity and significantly higher scores in cognitive restructuring and problem solving SCS subscales. Regression models revealed that both internalizing and externalizing YSR scores, as well as emotional reactivity coping scores, independently contributed to explain variability of HbA1C values. Both internalizing and externalizing psychopathological dimensions, as well as emotion-oriented coping strategies, are independently associated with poor metabolic control in both boys and girls with IDDM, thus representing potential interest targets of psychotherapeutic interventions aimed at improving glycemic control in this population.

  8. Quantifying direct effects of social determinants of health on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rebekah J; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Martin-Harris, Bonnie; Egede, Leonard E

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if self-care is the pathway through which social determinants of health impact diabetes outcomes by analyzing the direct and indirect effects of socioeconomic and psychosocial factors on self-care and glycemic control. Six hundred fifteen adults were recruited from two primary care clinics in the southeastern United States. A series of confirmatory factor analyses identified the latent factors underlying social status, psychosocial determinants (psychological distress, self-efficacy, and social support), and self-care (diet, exercise, foot care, glucose testing, and medication adherence). Structured equation modeling investigated the relationship among social determinants, self-care and glycemic control. Latent variables were created for diabetes self-care, psychological distress, self-efficacy, social support, and social status. The final model [χ(2)(275)=450.07, P<0.001, R(2)=99, root mean square error of approximation=0.03, comparative fit index=0.98] showed lower psychological distress (r=-0.13, P=0.012), higher social support (r=0.14, P=0.01), and higher self-efficacy (r=0.47, P<0.001) were significantly related to diabetes self-care. Lower psychological distress (r=0.10, P=0.03), lower social support (r=0.10, P=0.02), and higher self-efficacy (r=-0.37, P<0.001) were significantly related to lower glycemic control. When social determinants of health variables were included in the model, self-care was no longer significantly associated with glycemic control (r=0.01, P=0.83). This study suggests a direct relationship between psychosocial determinants of health and glycemic control. Although associated with self-care, the relationship between social determinants of health and glycemic control is not mediated by self-care. Development of interventions should take psychosocial factors into account as independent influences on diabetes outcomes, rather than as indirect influences via self-care behavior.

  9. Effect of glycemic control on corneal nerves and peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57Bl/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Yorek, Matthew S; Obrosov, Alexander; Shevalye, Hanna; Lupachyk, Sergey; Harper, Matthew M; Kardon, Randy H; Yorek, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    We sought to determine the impact that duration of hyperglycemia and control has on corneal nerve fiber density in relation to standard diabetic neuropathy endpoints. Control and streptozotocin-diabetic C57Bl/6J mice were analyzed after 4, 8, 12, and 20 weeks. For the 20-week time point, five groups of mice were compared: control, untreated diabetic, and diabetic treated with insulin designated as having either poor glycemic control, good glycemic control, or poor glycemic control switched to good glycemic control. Hyperglycemia was regulated by use of insulin-releasing pellets. Loss of corneal nerves in the sub-epithelial nerve plexus or corneal epithelium progressed slowly in diabetic mice requiring 20 weeks to reach statistical significance. In comparison, slowing of motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity developed rapidly with significant difference compared with control mice observed after 4 and 8 weeks of hyperglycemia, respectively. In diabetic mice with good glycemic control, average blood glucose levels over the 20-week experimental period were lowered from 589 ± 2 to 251 ± 9 mg/dl. All diabetic neuropathy endpoints examined were improved in diabetic mice with good glycemic control compared with untreated diabetic mice. However, good control of blood glucose was not totally sufficient in preventing diabetic neuropathy.

  10. Defective production of interleukin-1 beta in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Restoration by proper glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Kousathana, Foteini; Georgitsi, Marianna; Lambadiari, Vaia; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Dimitriadis, George; Mouktaroudi, Maria

    2017-02-01

    The underlying immune defect of susceptibility in diabetes mellitus type 2 to infections remains unknown. The qualitative changes in cytokine biosynthesis by circulating mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and its modulation by glycemic control were investigated. PBMCs were isolated from 39 patients and 25 controls. They were stimulated with purified ligands and heat-killed bacteria in the absence/presence of glucose and NLPR3 inflammasome ligands. Experiments were repeated after 3 and 6months. Cytokine production was measured in cell supernatants; pro-interleukin(IL)-1 β was measured in cell lysates. Gene expression of IL-1β and activity of caspase-1 were measured as well. Adequate release of interleukin (IL)-1β was found in 42.9% of patients compared to 90% of controls (p: 0.0001). This was related with down-regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome since gene expression of IL-1β remained unaltered whereas both the ratio of IL-1β to the intracellular pro-IL-1β and the activity of caspase-1 was lower in patients than controls. Addition of glucose did not modify defective IL-1β production. IL-6 production was increased after stimulation with Pam3Cys, phytohemagglutinin and C. albicans. After proper glycemic control, release of IL-1β was increased and of IL-6 decreased; cells of patients with improved glycemic control responded better to LPS stimulation under increased concentrations of glucose. It is concluded that diabetes type 2 is characterized by defective production of IL-1β from circulating monocytes due to impaired activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and increased production of the anti-inflammatory IL-6. Defects are restored with proper glycemic control.

  11. A 3-Year Prospective Study of Parent–Child Communication in Early Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes: Relationship to Adherence and Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Rohan, Jennifer M.; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan; Drotar, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine changes in parent–child communication patterns and their relation to glycemic control and treatment adherence using observational data in a 3-year prospective multisite study of youth with type 1 diabetes aged 9–11 years at baseline and their families (n = 217). Methods Adolescents and caregivers participated in a diabetes problem-solving discussion. Families were rated on negative and positive communication and interactions using the Interaction Behavior Code. Results Maternal and paternal negative communication decreased over time, whereas adolescent and maternal positive communication and positive reciprocity increased. Baseline preadolescent youth and maternal positive communication predicted adherence 3 years later. Changes in family communication did not predict changes in glycemic control or adherence. Conclusions During the transition to adolescence, family communication changed in unexpected and positive ways. Additionally, the relationship of baseline family communication to subsequent adherence suggests the need to assess family communication concerning diabetes-related management during preadolescence. PMID:24839292

  12. A 3-year prospective study of parent-child communication in early adolescents with type 1 diabetes: relationship to adherence and glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Iskander, Jeannette M; Rohan, Jennifer M; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan; Drotar, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    To examine changes in parent-child communication patterns and their relation to glycemic control and treatment adherence using observational data in a 3-year prospective multisite study of youth with type 1 diabetes aged 9-11 years at baseline and their families (n = 217). Adolescents and caregivers participated in a diabetes problem-solving discussion. Families were rated on negative and positive communication and interactions using the Interaction Behavior Code. Maternal and paternal negative communication decreased over time, whereas adolescent and maternal positive communication and positive reciprocity increased. Baseline preadolescent youth and maternal positive communication predicted adherence 3 years later. Changes in family communication did not predict changes in glycemic control or adherence. During the transition to adolescence, family communication changed in unexpected and positive ways. Additionally, the relationship of baseline family communication to subsequent adherence suggests the need to assess family communication concerning diabetes-related management during preadolescence. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Predictors of social support, acceptance, health-promoting behaviors, and glycemic control in African-Americans with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Patricia E; Wykle, May L; Misra, Ranjita; Suwonnaroop, Nantawon; Burant, Christopher J

    2002-07-01

    Chronic illness is particularly important in older African-Americans because this population comprises the fastest growing segment of that ethnic group. This study explored relationships among personal factors (education and co-morbidity), mental health, and physical functioning on social support, social support on acceptance and health-promoting behaviors, acceptance on health-promoting behaviors, and health-promoting behaviors on HgbA1c. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a convenience sample of 63 African-Americans from a community clinic. Participants were asked their highest level of education and to indicate their chronic conditions. Other instruments used were: Health Survey (SF-36), Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ-85), Revised (IAD-R) scale (Acceptance), and Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II. Glycemic control was measured using glycosylated hemoglobin. Physical functioning was the only significant predictor of social support (beta = .30, p = .03). In turn, social support predicted acceptance (beta = .32, p = .01) and health behaviors beta = .39, p = .002).

  14. Poor glycemic control is associated with the risk of subclinical hypothyroidism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Ho; Kim, Ho Jin; Lee, Jun Ho; Park, Il Rae; Moon, Jun Sung; Yoon, Ji Sung; Lee, In-Kyu; Won, Kyu Chang; Lee, Hyoung Woo

    2016-07-01

    Overt hypothyroidism is frequently found in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but it remains unknown the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and T2DM. We attempt to evaluate the difference in prevalence of SCH between patients with T2DM and general population, and the association between SCH and glycemic control status ofdiabetic patients. This was cross-sectional study. Total 8,528 subjects who visited for health check-up were recruited. SCH was defined as an elevated level of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (> 4.0 mIU/L) with a normal level of free thyroxine. T2DM group was categorized into three groups by glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c): < 7% (reference), ≥ 7% and < 9%, ≥ 9%. Finally, 7,966 subjects were included. The prevalence of SCH was not different between healthy controls and subjects with T2DM (8.1% vs. 7.4%, p = 0.533; in men, 5.7% vs. 5.1%, p = 0.573; in women, 10.9% vs. 11.7%, p = 0.712), but it was increased with highest HbA1c group more than well controlled group, especially in women. The risk of SCH was increased by group with poorer glycemic control; the odds ratio for HbA1c ≥ 9% compared to < 7% was 2.52 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 5.86; p = 0.031), and 4.58 (95% CI, 1.41 to 14.87; p = 0.011) in women, but not significant in men. The prevalence of SCH was similar between T2DM and healthy group. Poor glycemic control in T2DM was obviously associated with the risk of SCH, especially in elderly women. These results suggest SCH as comorbidity may be considered in elderly women with poor glycemic control.

  15. Severe Type 2 Diabetes Induces Reversible Modifications of Endothelial Progenitor Cells Which are Ameliorate by Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    De Pascale, Maria Rosaria; Bruzzese, Giuseppe; Crimi, Ettore; Grimaldi, Vincenzo; Liguori, Antonio; Brongo, Sergio; Barbieri, Michelangela; Picascia, Antonietta; Schiano, Concetta; Sommese, Linda; Ferrara, Nicola; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Napoli, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating endothelial progenitors cells (EPCs) play a critical role in neovascularization and endothelial repair. There is a growing evidence that hyperglycemia related to Diabetes Mellitus (DM) decreases EPC number and function so promoting vascular complications. Aim of the Study This study investigated whether an intensive glycemic control regimen in Type 2 DM can increase the number of EPCs and restores their function. Methods Sixty-two patients with Type 2 DM were studied. Patients were tested at baseline and after 3 months of an intensive regimen of glycemic control. The Type 2 DM group was compared to control group of subjects without diabetes. Patients with Type 2 DM (mean age 58.2±5.4 years, 25.6% women, disease duration of 15.4±6.3 years) had a baseline HgA1c of 8.7±0.5% and lower EPC levels (CD34+/KDR+) in comparison to healthy controls (p<0.01). Results The intensive glycemic control regimen (HgA1c decreased to 6.2±0.3%) was coupled with a significant increase of EPC levels (mean of 18%, p<0.04 vs. baseline) and number of EPCs CFUs (p<0.05 vs. baseline). Conclusion This study confirms that number and bioactivity of EPCs are reduced in patients with Type 2 DM and, most importantly, that the intensive glycemic control in Type 2 DM promotes EPC improvement both in their number and in bioactivity. PMID:27426095

  16. Technical challenges and clinical outcomes of using a closed-loop glycemic control system in the hospital.

    PubMed

    Okabayashi, Takehiro; Kozuki, Akihito; Sumiyoshi, Tatsuaki; Shima, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    According to large randomized trials, results suggest that maintaining normoglycemia postoperatively through tight glycemic control (TGC) and intensive insulin therapy (IIT) can improve surgical outcomes as well as reduce mortality and morbidity in critically ill patients. However, trials examining the effects of TGC have had conflicting results. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have also led to differing conclusions. The main reason these clinical trials and meta-analyses show negative results for TGC is the high incidence of hypoglycemia induced by IIT. This could not be prevented because there is no reliable technique that can avoid this condition during IIT. The development of accurate, continuous blood glucose monitoring devices and closed-loop systems for computer-assisted blood glucose control in the intensive care unit (ICU) will probably help avoid hypoglycemia in these situations. The STG closed-loop glycemic control system was introduced to our department to be used and evaluated for strict serum glucose control with no hypoglycemic episodes during IIT in the surgical ICU, to reduce the workload of ICU nurses, and to decrease incidents related to the management of blood glucose levels according to manual conventional venous infusion insulin therapy. The goal of our team was to use the STG closed-loop glycemic control system for perioperative TGC in surgical patients to solve the complications of IIT and reduce risk of hypoglycemia. The challenge at our hospital demonstrated that the STG closed-loop glycemic control system can be expected to achieve TGC with no occurrence of hypoglycemia induced by IIT after surgery. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. Effects of a pharmaceutical care model on medication adherence and glycemic control of people with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Wen Wei; Chua, Siew Siang; Lai, Pauline Siew Mei; Chan, Siew Pheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a lifelong chronic condition that requires self-management. Lifestyle modification and adherence to antidiabetes medications are the major determinants of therapeutic success in the management of diabetes. Purpose To assess the effects of a pharmaceutical care (PC) model on medication adherence and glycemic levels of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients and methods A total of 241 people with type 2 diabetes were recruited from a major teaching hospital in Malaysia and allocated at random to the control (n=121) or intervention (n=120) groups. Participants in the intervention group received PC from an experienced pharmacist, whereas those in the control group were provided the standard pharmacy service. Medication adherence was assessed using the Malaysian Medication Adherence Scale, and glycemic levels (glycated hemoglobin values and fasting blood glucose [FBG]) of participants were obtained at baseline and after 4, 8, and 12 months. Results At baseline, there were no significant differences in demographic data, medication adherence, and glycemic levels between participants in the control and intervention groups. However, statistically significant differences in FBG and glycated hemoglobin values were observed between the control and intervention groups at months 4, 8, and 12 after the provision of PC (median FBG, 9.0 versus 7.2 mmol/L [P<0.001]; median glycated hemoglobin level, 9.1% versus 8.0% [P<0.001] at 12 months). Medication adherence was also significantly associated with the provision of PC, with a higher proportion in the intervention group than in the control group achieving it (75.0% versus 58.7%; P=0.007). Conclusion The provision of PC has positive effects on medication adherence as well as the glycemic control of people with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the PC model used in this study should be duplicated in other health care settings for the benefit of more patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25214772

  18. Evaluation of Glycemic Control, Lifestyle and Clinical Characteristics in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Treated at King Abdullah University Hospital in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Eitan, Laith N; Nassar, Ahmad M; Saadeh, Nesreen A; Almomani, Basima A

    2016-12-01

    The study aimed to assess glycemic control in a Jordanian population with type 2 diabetes and to explore the sociodemographic, clinical and medication-related factors as well as the anthropometric indexes and laboratory values associated with and possibly contributing to unsatisfactory glycemic control. We included 237 patients previously diagnosed as having type 2 diabetes. Data were collected through direct interviews. Sociodemographic and clinical details were collected using a questionnaire designed for the purpose of the study, anthropometric measurements were obtained at the time of the interviews, and laboratory data were extracted from the medical records of King Abdullah University Hospital. Of the participants, 60.8% were found to have unsatisfactory glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin levels ≥7%). Unsatisfactory glycemic control was associated with younger ages at diabetes diagnosis, higher mean weights and higher prevalences of diabetic neuropathy. No relationships were found among glycemic control and body mass index, waist circumference or central obesity. Patients with adequate control were more likely to have health insurance and to have hypothyroidism as a comorbidity. Insulin use and medication plans containing insulin were associated with unsatisfactory control. Patients with unsatisfactory control had higher mean levels of low-density lipoproteins and triglycerides and lower mean levels of high-density lipoproteins. Moreover, elevated triglycerides (≥150 mg/dL) and dyslipidemia were associated with unsatisfactory glycemic control. More than half of the participants had unsatisfactory glycemic control, highlighting the need for a change in the approach and strategies used for patients with diabetes in Jordan. Factors associated with glycemic control that were found in this study should be further studied and used in the prevention and management of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  19. Effect of Nigella sativa seeds on the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bamosa, Abdullah O; Kaatabi, Huda; Lebdaa, Fatma M; Elq, Abdul-Muhssen Al; Al-Sultanb, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic disease affecting millions of people world wide. Standard treatment is failing to achieve required correction of blood glucose in many patients. Therefore, there is a need for investigating potential hypoglycemic drugs or herbs to improve glycemic control in diabetic patients. Nigella sativa seeds were used as an adjuvant therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 added to their anti-diabetic medications. A total of 94 patient were recruited and divided randomly into three dose groups. Capsules containing Nigella sativa were administered orally in a dose of 1, 2 and 3 gm/day for three months. The effect of Nigella sativa on the glycemic control was assessed through measurement of fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood glucose level 2 hours postprandially (2 hPG), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Serum C-peptide and changes in body weight were also measured. Insulin resistance and beta-cell function were calculated usin the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA2). Nigella sativa at a dose of 2 gm/day caused significant reductions in FBG, 2hPG, and HbA1 without significant change in body weight. Fasting blood glucose was reduced by an average of 45, 62 and 56 mg/dl at 4, 8 and 12 weeks respectively. HbAlC was reduced by 1.52% at the end of the 12 weeks of treatment (P<0.0001). Insulin resistance calculated by HOMA2 was reduced significantly (P<0.01), while B-cell function was increased (P<0.02) at 12 weeks of treatment. The use of Nigella sativa in a dose of 1 gm/day also showed trends in improvement in all the measured parameters but it was not statistically significant from the baseline. However, no further increment in the beneficial response was observed with the 3 gm/day dose. The three doses of Nigella sativa used in the study did not adversely affect either renal functions or hepatic functions of the diabetic patients throughout the study period. the results of this study indicate that a dose of 2 gm/ day of Nigella

  20. Periprocedural glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing coronary angiography with possible percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Shah, Binita; Berger, Jeffrey S; Amoroso, Nicholas S; Mai, Xingchen; Lorin, Jeffrey D; Danoff, Ann; Schwartzbard, Arthur Z; Lobach, Iryna; Guo, Yu; Feit, Frederick; Slater, James; Attubato, Michael J; Sedlis, Steven P

    2014-05-01

    Periprocedural hyperglycemia is an independent predictor of mortality in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, periprocedural management of blood glucose is not standardized. The effects of routinely continuing long-acting glucose-lowering medications before coronary angiography with possible PCI on periprocedural glycemic control have not been investigated. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM; n = 172) were randomized to continue (Continue group; n = 86) or hold (Hold group; n = 86) their clinically prescribed long-acting glucose-lowering medications before the procedure. The primary end point was glucose level on procedural access. In a subset of patients (no DM group: n = 25; Continue group: n = 25; and Hold group: n = 25), selected measures of platelet activity that change acutely were assessed. Patients with DM randomized to the Continue group had lower blood glucose levels on procedural access compared with those randomized to the Hold group (117 [97 to 151] vs 134 [117 to 172] mg/dl, p = 0.002). There were two hypoglycemic events in the Continue group and none in the Hold group, and no adverse events in either group. Selected markers of platelet activity differed across the no DM, Continue, and Hold groups (leukocyte platelet aggregates: 8.1% [7.2 to 10.4], 8.7% [6.9 to 11.4], 10.9% [8.6 to 14.7], p = 0.007; monocyte platelet aggregates: 14.0% [10.3 to 16.3], 20.8% [16.2 to 27.0], 22.5% [15.2 to 35.4], p <0.001; soluble p-selectin: 51.9 ng/ml [39.7 to 74.0], 59.1 ng/ml [46.8 to 73.2], 72.2 ng/ml [58.4 to 77.4], p = 0.014). In conclusion, routinely continuing clinically prescribed long-acting glucose-lowering medications before coronary angiography with possible PCI help achieve periprocedural euglycemia, appear safe, and should be considered as a strategy for achieving periprocedural glycemic control.

  1. The relationship between literacy and glycemic control in a diabetes disease-management program.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Russell; Malone, Robb; Bryant, Betsy; Horlen, Cheryl; DeWalt, Darren; Pignone, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the role of literacy in patients with poorly controlled diabetes who were participating in a diabetes management program that included low-literacy-oriented interventions. A before-after analysis was performed of a pharmacist-led diabetes management program for 159 patients with type 2 diabetes and poor glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c [A1C] > or = 8.0%). Clinic-based pharmacists offered one-to-one education and medication management for these patients using techniques that did not require high literacy. Literacy was measured by the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) test and dichotomized at the 6th-grade level. The A1C values were collected prior to enrollment, at enrollment, and approximately 6 months after enrollment. Of the 111 patients with follow-up data, 55% had literacy levels at the 6th-grade level or below. Lower literacy was more common among African Americans, older patients, and patients who required medication assistance. There was no significant relationship between literacy status and A1C prior to enrollment or at enrollment. Over the 6-month study period, patients with low and high literacy had similar improvements in A1C. This diabetes care program, which used individualized teaching with low-literacy techniques, significantly improved A1C values independent of literacy status.

  2. Molecular variants and derivatives of insulin for improved glycemic control in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Sonika; Srivastava, Deepa; Jayadev, M S K; Dubey, A K

    2006-07-01

    Insulin is a historic molecule. It presents many first instances, such as the first protein to be fully sequenced, one of the first proteins to be crystallized in pure form, one among the early proteins whose structure was investigated using X-ray crystallography, the first protein to be chemically synthesized and the first Biotech drug. Therefore, the development of insulin in the early years is intricately intertwined with the progress in molecular and structural biology. In recent years, development of a range of insulin analogs has led to better control of glucose levels, thus preventing secondary complications and improving the quality of life in diabetic patients. Such analogs were obtained by modification of the native insulin sequence. They vary with regard to their pharmacokinetic profile, stability, tissue specificity and mode of administration. In addition, alterations involving incorporation of various chemical moieties in insulin and its co-crystallization with insoluble derivatives are used to modulate the time-action profile of the drug. This article traces the development of molecular variants and derivatives of insulin. It discusses future directions for further improvement in their properties to produce still better insulin therapeutics for tight glycemic control.

  3. Practical strategies for developing the business case for hospital glycemic control teams.

    PubMed

    Magee, Michelle F; Beck, Adam

    2008-09-01

    Many business models may be used to make the business case for support of a multidisciplinary team to implement targeted glucose control in the hospital. Models may be hospital-supported or self-supporting. In the former, the hospital provides financial support based on improved documentation opportunities, reduction in length of stay, and improved resource utilization. In the latter, clinical revenues for diabetes management offsets costs of salary, fringe benefits, and overheads. A combination of these strategies may also be used. The business plan presented to administration must justify return on investment. It is imperative to involve hospital administration, particularly representatives from coding, billing, and finance, in the development of the business plan. The business case for hospital support will be based on opportunities related to improving accuracy of documentation and coding for diabetes-related diagnoses, including level of control and complications present, on reduction in length of stay and on optimization of resource utilization through reduction in morbidity and mortality (cost aversion). The case for revenue generation through billing for clinical services will be based on opportunities to increase the provision of glycemic management services in the hospital. Examples from the literature and of analyses to support each of these models are presented. (c) 2008 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  4. Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Gloria Y; Eisenberg, David M; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Phillips, Russell S

    2003-04-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy and safety of herbal therapies and vitamin/mineral supplements for glucose control in patients with diabetes. We conducted an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, OLDMEDLINE, Cochrane Library Database, and HealthSTAR, from database inception to May 2002, in addition to performing hand searches and consulting with experts in the field. Available clinical studies published in the English language that used human participants and examined glycemic control were included. Data were extracted in a standardized manner, and two independent investigators assessed methodological quality of randomized controlled trials using the Jadad scale. A total of 108 trials examining 36 herbs (single or in combination) and 9 vitamin/mineral supplements, involving 4,565 patients with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. There were 58 controlled clinical trials involving individuals with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (42 randomized and 16 nonrandomized trials). Most studies involved patients with type 2 diabetes. Heterogeneity and the small number of studies per supplement precluded formal meta-analyses. Of these 58 trials, the direction of the evidence for improved glucose control was positive in 76% (44 of 58). Very few adverse effects were reported. There is still insufficient evidence to draw definitive conclusions about the efficacy of individual herbs and supplements for diabetes; however, they appear to be generally safe. The available data suggest that several supplements may warrant further study. The best evidence for efficacy from adequately designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is available for Coccinia indica and American ginseng. Chromium has been the most widely studied supplement. Other supplements with positive preliminary results include Gymnema sylvestre, Aloe vera, vanadium, Momordica charantia, and nopal.

  5. Sleep in Adolescents and Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes: Associations with Diabetes Management and Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Jaser, Sarah S.; Ellis, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe sleep in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes and explore the association between sleep disturbances, diabetes management and glycemic control. Methods Adolescents with type 1 diabetes (n = 159, mean age = 16.4, 43% female, 69% white, mean A1C = 9.3%) completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to assess sleep quantity and quality and sleep disturbances. Frequency of blood glucose monitoring (meter downloads) was used as a measure of diabetes management. Results Average sleep duration was 7.4 hours, below the recommended duration for this age. Adolescents using insulin pumps reported fewer sleep disturbances and longer sleep duration than those on injections, and older adolescents reported less sleep than younger adolescents. Poorer sleep duration was related to poorer diabetes management and better self-reported sleep quality was associated with better glycemic control for males but not for females. Conclusions Assessing for and treating sleep disturbances in adolescents may improve diabetes management. PMID:27081578

  6. [Tight glycemic control in the management of diabetic patients: what has changed since the '90s in the clinical approach?].

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Sesti, Giorgio

    2014-12-01

    Tight glycemic control represents one of the major goals of the therapeutic management of diabetes mellitus. However, several clinical studies have reported that an intensive glucose-lowering treatment, especially when insulin or sulfonylureas are used, is associated with an increased risk of hypoglycemia and may exert negative effects on the cardiovascular risk. Hypoglycemia is the major side effect of antidiabetic therapy and it has also been associated with adverse cardiovascular events. The surge of sympathetic activity during hypoglycemic episodes may induce cardiac and cerebral ischemia and promote potentially fatal arrhythmias. In addition, hypoglycemic episodes have a negative effect on patient compliance to the antidiabetic treatment and consequently may worsen glycemic control, thus increasing the risk of micro- and macroangiopathic complications of diabetes. Therefore, in order to counteract the cardiovascular risk it is necessary achieving a good glycemic control through therapeutic strategies associated with a lower risk of hypoglycemia. Unlike treatment with sulfonylureas, glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors have been demonstrated to improve metabolic control without inducing hypoglycemia and, therefore, represent a new therapeutic option for type 2 diabetes, which offer the advantage of combining glucose-lowering activity with a low risk of hypoglycemia, thus providing a greater cardiovascular protection.

  7. A systematic review and meta-analysis of beta-glucan consumption on glycemic control in hypercholesterolemic individuals.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ying; Liao, Dan; Huang, Haohai; Li, Tao; Chi, Honggang

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from animal and observational studies has supported the beneficial effects of beta-glucan intake on glycemic control, but intervention studies in hypercholesterolemic crowd have generated mixed results and have not been systematically examined. In the present study, we aimed to quantitatively evaluate the relation between beta-glucan consumption from oats or barley on glycemic control in hypercholesterolemic individuals. A systematic literature review was conducted for relevant published randomized controlled trials studies (RCTs) in electronic databases through July 2014. Twelve trials with a total of 603 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. Beta-glucan consumption did not significantly affect measures of glycemic control. Summary estimates of weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95% confidence interval was 0.05 mmol/L (-0.11, 0.02) for fasting glucose concentration and 0.75 pmol/L (-1.82, 3.32) for fasting insulin concentrations. In conclusion, there was not a significant overall effect of beta-glucan intake on improvements of fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

  8. Tight glycemic control using an artificial endocrine pancreas may play an important role in preventing infection after pancreatic resection.

    PubMed

    Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2012-08-07

    It is well known that perioperative hyperglycemia is the main cause of infectious complications after surgery. To improve perioperative glycemic control, we wish to highlight and comment on an interesting paper published recently by the Annals of Surgery entitled: "Early postoperative hyperglycemia is associated with postoperative complications after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD)" by Eshuis et al. The authors concluded that early postoperative glucose levels more than 140 mg/dL was significantly associated with complications after PD. Since we recommend that perioperative tight glycemic control (TGC) is an effective method to prevent postoperative complications including surgical site infection after distal, proximal, and total pancreatic resection, we support strongly this conclusion drawn in this article. However, if early postoperative glucose control in patients undergoing PD was administrated by conventional method such as sliding scale approach as described in this article, it is difficult to maintain TGC. Therefore, we introduce a novel perioperative glycemic control using an artificial endocrine pancreas against pancreatogenic diabetes after pancreatic resection including PD.

  9. Differing Effects of Metformin on Glycemic Control by Race-Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Padhukasahasram, Badri; Ahmedani, Brian K.; Peterson, Edward L.; Wells, Karen E.; González Burchard, Esteban; Lanfear, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Metformin is considered first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, little is known about its effects in African American individuals. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess whether metformin's effect on glycemic control differs by race-ethnicity Design: Electronic health records were used to identify adults who had a diagnosis of diabetes, two or more fills of metformin, and two or more glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) measurements. Pharmacy claims were used to estimate metformin exposure based on fill frequency and dose dispensed. Regression analyses modeled the relationship between metformin exposure and HbA1c levels. Analyses were stratified by race-ethnicity and baseline HbA1c values. Setting: The study was conducted at a large health system in southeast Michigan. Main Outcome Measure: Differences in HbA1c levels while on metformin were measured. Results: We identified 19 672 patients with diabetes taking metformin; 7429 were African American and 8783 were European American. Baseline HbA1c values in these two groups were 7.81% (61.8 mmol/mol) and 7.38% (57.1 mmol/mol), respectively. Compared with no use, metformin was associated with a 0.62% (6.8 mmol/mol) reduction in HbA1c; however, there was a significant difference by race-ethnicity (P < .001). Among African American individuals, metformin use was associated with a 0.90% (9.8 mmol/mol) reduction in HbA1c levels, whereas among European Americans, metformin was associated with a 0.42% (4.6 mmol/mol) reduction. Irrespective of baseline HbA1c, metformin use was associated with lower HbA1c levels in African American individuals. Conclusions: African American individuals appear to have a better glycemic response to metformin when compared with European Americans. Further studies are needed to determine whether this translates to commensurate reductions in diabetes complications. PMID:24921653

  10. Acarbose improves glycemic control and reduces body weight: Subanalysis data of South Asia region.

    PubMed

    Kalra, S; Sahay, R K; Schnell, O; Sheu, W H H; Grzeszczak, W; Watada, H; Soegondo, S; Yamamoto, N; Weng, J; Rathod, R

    2013-10-01

    Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) are widely used especially in Asian countries as a treatment option for type 2 diabetes patients with high postprandial glycaemia. However, data from South Asia region is very limited. In order to examine the effect of AGI in real-life setting, 10 PMS/NIS from all over the world from the launch of acarbose to date were pooled in one database and exploratory analysis was performed for glycemic parameters and weight. In total 62,905 patients were pooled from 21 countries and regions. Mean follow up (± SD) was 12.2 ± 4.8 weeks (range 0.1-108.9). From South Asia region (India and Pakistan), 8,738 Asian patients were enrolled. Mean PPG decreased from 240.0 and 261.1 mg/dl at baseline by 70.26 ± 65.10 and 82.96 ± 56.59 mg/dl at the last visit in total and South Asian populations, respectively (n = 53,883; n = 7,991, P < 0.0001 for both). Mean FPG decreased from 171.6 and 176.5 mg/dl at baseline by 38.48 ± 47.83 and 49.59 ± 41.41 mg/dl at the last visit in total and South Asian populations, respectively (n = 56,672; n = 7,837, P < 0.0001 for both). Mean HbA1c decreased from 8.4 and 8.4% at baseline by 1.11 ± 1.31% and 0.91 ± 0.93% at the last visit in total and South Asian populations, respectively (n = 38,843; n = 2,343, P < 0.0001 for both). Mean relative reduction of body weight (BW) was 1.40 ± 3.28% and 1.10 ± 3.39% at the last visit for mean baseline BW 73.6 and 74.2 kg in total and South Asian populations, respectively (n = 54,760; n = 7,718, P < 0.0001 for both). Consistent with RCT meta-analyses, post-hoc analysis of real-life data showed acarbose treatment improved glycaemic control and reduced the BW. Acarbose treatment in real life setting showed significant reductions in all glycemic parameters and BW in Asian patients from South Asia region.

  11. Effects of high performance inulin supplementation on glycemic control and antioxidant status in women with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Dehghan, Parvin; Aliasgharzadeh, Akbar; Asghari Jafar-Abadi, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of high performance inulin supplementation on blood glycemic control and antioxidant status in women with type 2 diabetes. In a randomized, triple-blind controlled trial, 49 females (fiber intake <30 g/day, 25control, n=25) for 2 months. Fasting blood samples were obtained and both glycemic control and antioxidant status were determined at baseline and at the end of the study. At the end of the study period, there were significant decreases in fasting plasma glucose (8.47%), glycosylated hemoglobin (10.43%), and malondialdehyde (37.21%) levels and significant increases in total antioxidant capacity (18.82%) and superoxide dismutase activity (4.36%) in the inulin group when compared to the maltodextrin group (P<0.05). Changes in fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and catalase activity were not significant in the inulin group when compared with the maltodextrin group. Glutathione peroxidase activity remained unchanged in both groups. Inulin supplementation may improve some glycemic and antioxidant indices and decrease malondialdehyde levels in women with type 2 diabetes. Further investigations are needed in order to confirm the positive effects that inulin may have on the glycemic and antioxidant indices of patients with type 2 diabetes.

  12. Effects of High Performance Inulin Supplementation on Glycemic Control and Antioxidant Status in Women with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Aliasgharzadeh, Akbar; Asghari Jafar-abadi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of high performance inulin supplementation on blood glycemic control and antioxidant status in women with type 2 diabetes. Methods In a randomized, triple-blind controlled trial, 49 females (fiber intake <30 g/day, 25control, n=25) for 2 months. Fasting blood samples were obtained and both glycemic control and antioxidant status were determined at baseline and at the end of the study. Results At the end of the study period, there were significant decreases in fasting plasma glucose (8.47%), glycosylated hemoglobin (10.43%), and malondialdehyde (37.21%) levels and significant increases in total antioxidant capacity (18.82%) and superoxide dismutase activity (4.36%) in the inulin group when compared to the maltodextrin group (P<0.05). Changes in fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and catalase activity were not significant in the inulin group when compared with the maltodextrin group. Glutathione peroxidase activity remained unchanged in both groups. Conclusion Inulin supplementation may improve some glycemic and antioxidant indices and decrease malondialdehyde levels in women with type 2 diabetes. Further investigations are needed in order to confirm the positive effects that inulin may have on the glycemic and antioxidant indices of patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23641355

  13. Influence of the informal primary caretaker on glycemic control among prepubertal pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zurita-Cruz, Jessie Nallely; Nishimura-Meguro, Elisa; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Angel; Hernández-Méndez, Maria Elena; Garrido-Magaña, Eulalia; Rivera-Hernández, Aleida De Jesús

    In prepubertal type 1 diabetic patients (DM1), the availability of an informal primary caregiver (ICP) is critical to making management decisions; in this study, the ICP-related risk factors associated with glycemic control were identified. A comparative cross-sectional study was performed. Fifty-five patients with DM1 under the age of 11 years were included. The patient-related factors associated with glycemic control evaluated were physical activity, DM1 time of evolution, and adherence to medical indications. The ICP-related factors evaluated were education, employment aspects, depressive traits (Beck questionnaire), family functionality (family APGAR), support of another person in patient care, stress (Perceived Stress Scale), and socioeconomic status (Bronfman questionnaire). Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were performed. The patients' median age was 8 years; 29 patients had good glycemic control, and 26 were uncontrolled. The main risk factor associated with glycemic dyscontrol was stress in the ICP (OR 24.8; 95% CI 4.06-151.9, p=0.001). While, according to the linear regression analysis it was found that lower level of education (β 0.991, 95% CI 0.238-1.743, p=0.011) and stress (β 1.918, 95% CI 1.10-2.736, p=0.001) in the ICP, as well as family dysfunction (β 1.256, 95% CI 0.336-2.177, p=0.008) were associated with higher levels of glycated hemoglobin. Level of education and stress in the ICP, as well as family dysfunction, are factors that influence the lack of controlled blood glucose levels among prepubertal DM1 patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Eating glutinous brown rice twice a day for 8 weeks improves glycemic control in Japanese patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, T; Nagai, Y; Uehara, Y; Nakamura, Y; Ishii, S; Kato, H; Tanaka, Y

    2017-05-08

    We recently reported that eating glutinous brown rice (GBR) for 1 day improved the whole-day glucose profile and postprandial plasma glucose level compared with eating white rice (WR) or standard brown rice. However, it was unknown whether eating GBR could maintain improvement of glycemic control for a longer period. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of GBR intake for 8 weeks on glycemic control in outpatients with diabetes mellitus. This was an open-label randomized crossover study in outpatients with type 2 diabetes. Among the 18 subjects registered in this study, 2 were excluded from analysis. After a 1-week observation period while eating WR twice a day, the patients were randomly assigned to two groups. One group ate GBR as a staple food twice a day for 8 weeks and then switched to WR for the next 8 weeks, while the other group ate WR first and then switched to GBR. A mixed meal tolerance test was performed at baseline and after 8 and 16 weeks of dietary intervention to evaluate plasma glucose and serum C-peptide. None of the subjects failed to complete the study because of disliking the taste of GBR. Hemoglobin A1c (7.5-7.2%, P=0.014) and glycoalbumin (20.4-19.4%, P=0.029) both decreased significantly when the patients were eating GBR. Additionally, the 30-min postprandial plasma glucose level (194-172 mg dl(-1), P=0.031) and the incremental area under the concentration vs time curve of serum C-peptide (31.3-22.1 ng min ml(-1), P=0.023) during the mixed meal tolerance test were also decreased significantly by intake of GBR. In contrast, there were no changes of glycemic control during the WR period. We confirmed that GBR was well tolerated for 8 weeks and improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  15. Glycemic Control in the Burn Intensive Care Unit: Focus on the Role of Anemia in Glucose Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    1319 Glycemic Control in the Burn Intensive Care Unit: Focus on the Role of Anemia in Glucose Measurement MAJ Elizabeth A. Mann, R.N., M.S...outcomes and survival in the burn population. Severe burn as a model for trauma is characterized by a hypermetabolic state, hyperglycemia, and insulin...resistance. In this article, we review the findings of a burn center research facility in terms of understanding glucose management. The conferred

  16. Current topics in glycemic control by wearable artificial pancreas or bedside artificial pancreas with closed-loop system.

    PubMed

    Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Munekage, Masaya; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Munekage, Eri; Shiga, Mai; Maeda, Hiromichi; Namikawa, Tsutomu

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of diabetes is increasing at an unprecedented pace and has become a serious health concern worldwide during the last two decades. Despite this, adequate glycemic control using an artificial pancreas has not been established, although the 21st century has seen rapid developments in this area. Herein, we review current topics in glycemic control for both the wearable artificial pancreas for type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and the bedside artificial pancreas for surgical diabetic patients. In type 1 diabetic patients, nocturnal hypoglycemia associated with insulin therapy remains a serious problem that could be addressed by the recent development of a wearable artificial pancreas. This smart phone-like device, comprising a real-time, continuous glucose monitoring system and insulin pump system, could potentially significantly reduce nocturnal hypoglycemia compared with conventional glycemic control. Of particular interest in this space are the recent inventions of a low-glucose suspend feature in the portable systems that automatically stops insulin delivery 2 h following a glucose sensor value <70 mg/dL and a bio-hormonal pump system consisting of insulin and glucagon pumps. Perioperative tight glycemic control using a bedside artificial pancreas with the closed-loop system has also proved safe and effective for not only avoiding hypoglycemia, but also for reducing blood glucose level variability resulting in good surgical outcomes. We hope that a more sophisticated artificial pancreas with closed-loop system will now be taken up for routine use worldwide, providing enormous relief for patients suffering from uncontrolled hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and/or variability in blood glucose concentrations.

  17. Improved Glycemic Control in Intensively Treated Adult Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Using Insulin Guidance Software

    PubMed Central

    Bookout, Tevin R.; McFann, Kim K.; Kelly, William C.; Beatson, Christie; Ellis, Samuel L.; Gutin, Raymond S.; Gottlieb, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Management of type 1 diabetes could be significantly improved with the availability of computerized insulin algorithms for home use. Methods This was a 1-year open label randomized control trial involving 123 adult subjects with type 1 diabetes (hemoglobin A1c values 7.5–11%) assigned to either the insulin guidance software (ACCU-CHEK® [Roche, Indianapolis, IN] Advisor) for personal data assistant (experimental group) or the control group. The primary aim of the study was to see if subjects using insulin dosing advisor software will improve glucose control over 1 year. The principal end point was an improvement in A1c at 6 and 12 months by ≥0.4%. Results Baseline demographics were similar in the two groups. Mean A1c was 8.54 ± 0.11% in the control group and 8.42 ± 0.11% (P = 0.4265) in the experimental group. The mean A1c was significantly lower from 3 to 12 months in the experimental group (P < 0.02). A1c reduction of ≥0.6% was maintained at 12 months in the experimental group. Also, a significantly higher number of subjects achieved A1c <7.5% in the experimental group from 3 to 9 months. Within target range glycemia (70–150 mg/dL) was higher in the experimental group at 3–9 months without any change in insulin dose or weight. Above target range glycemia was lower in the experimental group throughout the study. Frequency of testing per day was higher in the experimental group. Nocturnal hypoglycemia was not different between groups; however, the experimental group experienced more severe hypoglycemic events. Conclusions This is the first report that shows improved glycemic control can be maintained over 12 months in patients with type 1 diabetes by using Advisor with no change in insulin dose and weight. PMID:18715213

  18. Lifestyle and glycemic control in Japanese adults receiving diabetes treatment: an analysis of the 2009 Japan Society of Ningen Dock database.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Eiko; Moriyama, Kengo; Yamakado, Minoru

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the level of glycemic control in 7020 patients treated with diabetes medications. We found that the overall mean HbA1c was 7.3% (56 mmol/mol). Over half had HbA1c levels ≥7.0% (53 mmol/mol) and poorer glycemic control was associated with unhealthy lifestyle habits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of Glycemic Control and Metformin Use on the Recurrence and Progression of Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the potential relationships of glycemic control and use of metformin with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer characteristics. We reviewed data from 645 patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer between January 2004 and May 2015. We analyzed the association of pre and post-operative glycemic control and use of metformin with clinical characteristics of bladder tumors. We also analyzed the association of glycemic control and use of metformin with recurrence-free and progression-free survivals. Diabetes mellitus patients showed decreased recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio 1.42; 95% confidence interval 1.1–1.9; P = 0.021) and progression-free survival (hazard ratio 1.79; 95% confidence interval 1.1–2.8; P = 0.013). Diabetes mellitus patients with a HbA1c ≥ 7.0% demonstrated a higher rate of progression (P = 0.026). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that progression-free survival rate was associated with poor baseline glycemic control (P = 0.026) and post-operative glycemic control (P = 0.025). However, use of metformin had no impact on the recurrence (P = 1.00) and progression (P = 0.282). In conclusion, poor baseline and post-operative glycemic control was related with shorter progression-free survival of patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Use of metformin had no impact on the recurrence and progression. Therefore, tight glycemic control and close follow-up for bladder tumor may be beneficial in patients with poor glycemic control. PMID:27510392

  20. Beyond Glycemic Control in Diabetes Mellitus: Effects of Incretin-Based Therapies on Bone Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ceccarelli, Elena; Guarino, Elisa G.; Merlotti, Daniela; Patti, Aurora; Gennari, Luigi; Nuti, Ranuccio; Dotta, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and osteoporosis (OP) are common disorders with a significant health burden, and an increase in fracture risk has been described both in type 1 (T1DM) and in type 2 (T2DM) diabetes. The pathogenic mechanisms of impaired skeletal strength in diabetes remain to be clarified in details and they are only in part reflected by a variation in bone mineral density. In T2DM, the occurrence of low bone turnover together with a decreased osteoblast activity and compromised bone quality has been shown. Of note, some antidiabetic drugs (e.g., thiazolidinediones, insulin) may deeply affect bone metabolism. In addition, the recently introduced class of incretin-based drugs (i.e., GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors) is expected to exert potentially beneficial effects on bone health, possibly due to a bone anabolic activity of GLP-1, that can be either direct or indirect through the involvement of thyroid C cells. Here we will review the established as well as the putative effects of incretin hormones and of incretin-based drugs on bone metabolism, both in preclinical models and in man, taking into account that such therapeutic strategy may be effective not only to achieve a good glycemic control, but also to improve bone health in diabetic patients. PMID:23785355

  1. Beyond glycemic control in diabetes mellitus: effects of incretin-based therapies on bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Elena; Guarino, Elisa G; Merlotti, Daniela; Patti, Aurora; Gennari, Luigi; Nuti, Ranuccio; Dotta, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and osteoporosis (OP) are common disorders with a significant health burden, and an increase in fracture risk has been described both in type 1 (T1DM) and in type 2 (T2DM) diabetes. The pathogenic mechanisms of impaired skeletal strength in diabetes remain to be clarified in details and they are only in part reflected by a variation in bone mineral density. In T2DM, the occurrence of low bone turnover together with a decreased osteoblast activity and compromised bone quality has been shown. Of note, some antidiabetic drugs (e.g., thiazolidinediones, insulin) may deeply affect bone metabolism. In addition, the recently introduced class of incretin-based drugs (i.e., GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors) is expected to exert potentially beneficial effects on bone health, possibly due to a bone anabolic activity of GLP-1, that can be either direct or indirect through the involvement of thyroid C cells. Here we will review the established as well as the putative effects of incretin hormones and of incretin-based drugs on bone metabolism, both in preclinical models and in man, taking into account that such therapeutic strategy may be effective not only to achieve a good glycemic control, but also to improve bone health in diabetic patients.

  2. Glucose meter performance criteria for tight glycemic control estimated by simulation modeling.

    PubMed

    Karon, Brad S; Boyd, James C; Klee, George G

    2010-07-01

    Glucose meter analytical performance criteria required for safe and effective management of patients on tight glycemic control (TGC) are not currently defined. We used simulation modeling to relate glucose meter performance characteristics to insulin dosing errors during TGC. We used 29,920 glucose values from patients on TGC at 1 institution to represent the expected distribution of glucose values during TGC, and we used 2 different simulation models to relate glucose meter analytical performance to insulin dosing error using these 29,920 initial glucose values and assuming 10%, 15%, or 20% total allowable error (TEa) criteria. One-category insulin dosing errors were common under all error conditions. Two-category insulin dosing errors occurred more frequently when either 20% or 15% TEa was assumed compared with 10% total error. Dosing errors of 3 or more categories, those most likely to result in hypoglycemia and thus patient harm, occurred infrequently under all error conditions with the exception of 20% TEa. Glucose meter technologies that operate within a 15% total allowable error tolerance are unlikely to produce large (>or=3-category) insulin dosing errors during TGC. Increasing performance to 10% TEa should reduce the frequency of 2-category insulin dosing errors, although additional studies are necessary to determine the clinical impact of such errors during TGC. Current criteria that allow 20% total allowable error in glucose meters may not be optimal for patient management during TGC.

  3. Management of diabetes mellitus in individuals with chronic kidney disease: therapeutic perspectives and glycemic control

    PubMed Central

    Betônico, Carolina C R; Titan, Silvia M O; Correa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia C; Nery, Márcia; Queiroz, Márcia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic options for diabetes treatment and their potential side effects, in addition to analyzing the risks and benefits of tight glycemic control in patients with diabetic kidney disease. For this review, a search was performed using several pre-defined keyword combinations and their equivalents: “diabetes kidney disease” and “renal failure” in combination with “diabetes treatment” and “oral antidiabetic drugs” or “oral hypoglycemic agents.” The search was performed in PubMed, Endocrine Abstracts and the Cochrane Library from January 1980 up to January 2015. Diabetes treatment in patients with diabetic kidney disease is challenging, in part because of progression of renal failure-related changes in insulin signaling, glucose transport and metabolism, favoring both hyperglycemic peaks and hypoglycemia. Additionally, the decline in renal function impairs the clearance and metabolism of antidiabetic agents and insulin, frequently requiring reassessment of prescriptions. The management of hyperglycemia in patients with diabetic kidney disease is even more difficult, requiring adjustment of antidiabetic agents and insulin doses. The health team responsible for the follow-up of these patients should be vigilant and prepared to make such changes; however, unfortunately, there are few guidelines addressing the nuances of the management of this specific population. PMID:26872083

  4. Management of diabetes mellitus in individuals with chronic kidney disease: therapeutic perspectives and glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Betônico, Carolina C R; Titan, Silvia M O; Correa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia C; Nery, Márcia; Queiroz, Márcia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic options for diabetes treatment and their potential side effects, in addition to analyzing the risks and benefits of tight glycemic control in patients with diabetic kidney disease. For this review, a search was performed using several pre-defined keyword combinations and their equivalents: "diabetes kidney disease" and "renal failure" in combination with "diabetes treatment" and "oral antidiabetic drugs" or "oral hypoglycemic agents." The search was performed in PubMed, Endocrine Abstracts and the Cochrane Library from January 1980 up to January 2015. Diabetes treatment in patients with diabetic kidney disease is challenging, in part because of progression of renal failure-related changes in insulin signaling, glucose transport and metabolism, favoring both hyperglycemic peaks and hypoglycemia. Additionally, the decline in renal function impairs the clearance and metabolism of antidiabetic agents and insulin, frequently requiring reassessment of prescriptions. The management of hyperglycemia in patients with diabetic kidney disease is even more difficult, requiring adjustment of antidiabetic agents and insulin doses. The health team responsible for the follow-up of these patients should be vigilant and prepared to make such changes; however, unfortunately, there are few guidelines addressing the nuances of the management of this specific population.

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and type 2 diabetes: impact on the glycemic control mechanism.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Olívia Gonçalves Leão; da Silva, Bárbara Pereira; Rocha, Daniela Mayumi Usuda Prado; Lopes, Lílian Lelis; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves

    2016-02-06

    There is a growing mortality related to co-morbidities associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake has been associated with low cardiometabolic risk and reduction of inflammatory process. The objective of this paper is to review the impact of PUFA intake on glycemic control in diabetic patients, as well as elucidate the possible mechanisms involved. Medline/PubMed electronic database was searched to identify studies published within the last 5 years regarding the effect of PUFA intake on glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetics. The search terms used were: "polyunsaturated fatty acid (s)", "PUFA", and "diabetes." We included only intervetion studies that assessed the effects of PUFA intake on glucose metabolism - fasting glucose, serum insulin, HbA1c and HOMA-IR assessment- in type 2 diabetics. Initially, 48 articles were identified, which 1 was not available and 41 did not match the inclusion criteria. Within the selected studies, 3 showed an improvement on fasting blood glucose, 2 showed an increase on fasting glycemia and there was no effect of the intervention in only 1. Based on the analyzed clinical intervention studies, supplementation of 0,42-5,2 g PUFA/day for at least 8 weeks may be an alternative treatment for T2DM, particularly to Asian people.

  6. Mobile Phone Diabetes Project Led To Improved Glycemic Control And Net Savings For Chicago Plan Participants

    PubMed Central

    Nundy, Shantanu; Dick, Jonathan J.; Chou, Chia-Hung; Nocon, Robert S.; Chin, Marshall H.; Peek, Monica E.

    2014-01-01

    Even with the best health care available, patients with chronic illnesses typically spend no more than a few hours a year in a health care setting, while their outcomes are largely determined by their activities during the remaining 5,000 waking hours of the year. As a widely available, low-cost technology, mobile phones are a promising tool to use in engaging patients in behavior change and facilitating self-care between visits. We examined the impact of a six-month mobile health (mHealth) demonstration project among adults with diabetes who belonged to an academic medical center’s employee health plan. In addition to pre-post improvements in glycemic control (p = 0.01) and patients’ satisfaction with overall care (p = 0.04), we observed a net cost savings of 8.8 percent. Those early results suggest that mHealth programs can support health care organizations’ pursuit of the triple aim of improving patients’ experiences with care, improving population health, and reducing the per capita cost of health care. PMID:24493770

  7. Preserving Mafa expression in diabetic islet β-cells improves glycemic control in vivo.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Taka-aki; Kaneto, Hideaki; Kawashima, Satoshi; Miyatsuka, Takeshi; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Yoshikawa, Atsushi; Imagawa, Akihisa; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi; Gannon, Maureen; Stein, Roland; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2015-03-20

    The murine Mafa transcription factor is a key regulator of postnatal islet β-cell activity, affecting insulin transcription, insulin secretion, and β-cell mass. Human MAFA expression is also markedly decreased in islet β-cells of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Moreover, levels are profoundly reduced in db/db islet β-cells, a mouse model of T2DM. To examine the significance of this key islet β-cell-enriched protein to glycemic control under diabetic conditions, we generated transgenic mice that conditionally and specifically produced Mafa in db/db islet β-cells. Sustained expression of Mafa resulted in significantly lower plasma glucose levels, higher plasma insulin, and augmented islet β-cell mass. In addition, there was increased expression of insulin, Slc2a2, and newly identified Mafa-regulated genes involved in reducing β-cell stress, like Gsta1 and Gckr. Importantly, the levels of human GSTA1 were also compromised in T2DM islets. Collectively, these results illustrate how consequential the reduction in Mafa activity is to islet β-cell function under pathophysiological conditions.

  8. [Factors associated with glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus on an insulin pump].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Xu, Wen; Ai, Heying; Lü, Jing; Zhu, Yanhua; Yang, Daizhi; Lin, Shuo; Liu, Li; Zheng, Xueying; Yan, Jinhua; Yao, Bin; Weng, Jianping

    2014-12-02

    To explore the factors associated with glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) on an insulin pump. A total of 108 patients aged over 18 years and on an insulin pump therapy for >6 months were selected from 16 centers of Guangdong Type 1 diabetes Translational Medicine Study. They were classified into two groups according to the (American Diabetes Association) ADA Hemoglobin A1c target (7.0%). Those reaching the target (n = 59) were compared with those failed (n = 49) using ANOVA and Logistic regression. There were 75 females and 33 males with a median age of 32.0 (25.9-40.9) years and a median disease duration of 7.9(4.2-12.3) years. Logistic regression analysis revealed an odds ratio of 4.48(95%CI 1.53-13.15, P = 0.00) for total daily basal insulin dose within 0.2-0.3 units per kilogram, an OR of 1.31 (95%CI 1.05-1.63, P = 0.01) for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and an OR of 3.43 (95%CI 1.18-10.01, P = 0.02) for males. Higher frequencies of SMBG and appropriate basal insulin dose are essential for adult patients with T1D on an insulin pump.

  9. Predictive feedback control.

    PubMed

    Giovanini, Leonardo L

    2003-04-01

    In this work a new method for designing predictive controllers for linear single-input/single-output systems is presented. It uses only one prediction of the process output J time intervals ahead to compute the correspondent future error. Then, the predictive feedback controller is defined by introducing a filter which weights the last w predicted errors. In this way, the resulting control action is computed by observing the system future behavior and also by weighting present and past errors. This last feature improves the closed-loop performance to disturbance rejection as shown through simulations of two linear systems and a nonlinear continuous stirred tank reactor.

  10. Exercise at lunchtime: effect on glycemic control and oxidative stress in middle-aged men with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Haxhi, Jonida; Leto, Gaetano; di Palumbo, Alessandro Scotto; Sbriccoli, Paola; Guidetti, Laura; Fantini, Cristina; Buzzetti, Raffaella; Caporossi, Daniela; Di Luigi, Luigi; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia and glycemic oscillations have been associated with increased oxidative stress. We sought to investigate the effect of two walking exercise protocols performed during lunchtime on glycemic control and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. Nine T2D patients participated in three randomized crossover trials; a control trial (Con), with participants having a standard lunch followed by their normal daily activities and two exercise trials (ContEx and Splitex). In ContEx, subjects performed 40 min of brisk walking 40 min after lunch, whereas in SplitEx the walking exercise was divided in two 20-min isoenergetic bouts, before and 40 min after meal. 24-h glycemic control was monitored by continuous glucose monitoring. 24-h urinary levels of 8-iso PGF2ɑ were measured as a marker of oxidative stress. SplitEx resulted in less time spent in moderate hyperglycemia after lunch vs ContEx (42.4 ± 38.7% vs 68.2 ± 32.7%, P = 0.04). ContEx reduced hyperglycemic time after breakfast consumed the morning after the exercise session (58.3 ± 29.6 Con vs 40.2 ± 33.4% ContEx, P = 0.02). Compared with Con, 24-h urinary isoprostanes were decreased both in ContEx (-68%, P = 0.02) and SplitEx (-63%, P = 0.04). Splitting an exercise session into two bouts, pre- and post-lunch, affects mainly the glycemic response to lunch, while a single-continuous isoenergetic session exerts its effect later in the 24-h period. Both exercise modalities effectively attenuate systemic oxidative stress with similar overall benefits.

  11. Effects of dietary pattern and education on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Dr. Sardjito Central General Hospital, Yogyakarta.

    PubMed

    Sinorita, Hemi; Saádah; Jazakillah, Setyowati

    2008-04-01

    to recognize the effect of education and diet on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Dr. Sardjito Central General Hospital, Jogjakarta. a cross-sectional study was conducted in 88 patients with type 2 DM who had routine visit to the outpatient clinic in Endocrinology Division of Dr. Sardjito Central General Hospital, Jogjakarta. As inclusion criteria, patients who had routine visit in 3 month continuously with fasting plasma glucose (GDN) < or = 126 mg/dl was participated as a well glycemic control group, and the one with GDN > 126 mg/dl as poor glycemic control group. Data were recorded which included age, sex, period of DM, daily diet pattern, and education received. we found that glycemic control was not affected by sex (p=0.52) and age (p=0.38), but it was affected by period of DM (p=0.02). Glycemic control in the present study was affected by dietary pattern (p=0.01), but not by education (p=1.00). the present study has found significant correlation between regulation of dietary pattern and glycemic control (p=0.01).

  12. Effect of Poor Glycemic Control in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Smear-Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Mahishale, Vinay; Avuthu, Sindhuri; Patil, Bhagyashri; Lolly, Mitchelle; Eti, Ajith; Khan, Sujeer

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence that diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). A significant number of DM patients have poor glycemic control. This study was carried out to find the impact of poor glycemic control on newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: In a hospital-based prospective study, newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary TB with DM patients were classified as poorly controlled diabetes (HBA1C≥7%) and optimal control diabetics (HbA1c<7%). Patients were started on anti-TB treatment and followed for 2 years for severity and treatment outcome. ANOVA was used for numerical variables in the univariable analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used for multivariable analysis of treatment outcome. The significance level was kept at a P≤0.05. Results: A total of 630 individuals who met the inclusion criteria were analyzed; of which 423 patients had poor glycemic control (PGC) and 207 patients had optimal glycemic control (OGC). The average HbA1c was 10±2.6 and 5±1.50 in the PGC and OGC groups, respectively. The mean symptom score was significantly higher in the PGC group compared with patients in the OGC group (4.55±0.80 vs. 2.70±0.82, P<0.001). PGC was associated with more extensive lung disease, lung cavitation, and positive sputum smear at the baseline. In PGC, sputum smears were significantly more likely to remain positive after 2 months of treatment. PGC patients had significantly higher rates of treatment failure (adj. OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.58-0.74, P<0.001) and relapse (adj. OR 2.83, 95% CI 2.60-2.92, P<0.001). Conclusion: Poor glycemic control is associated with an increased risk of advanced and more severe TB disease in the form of lung cavitations, positive sputum smear, and slower smear conversion. It has a profound negative effect on treatment completion, cure, and relapse rates in patients with pulmonary

  13. Inflammatory biomarkers in type 2 diabetic patients: effect of glycemic control and impact of LDL subfraction phenotype.

    PubMed

    Vinagre, Irene; Sánchez-Quesada, José Luis; Sánchez-Hernández, Juan; Santos, David; Ordoñez-Llanos, Jordi; De Leiva, Alberto; Pérez, Antonio

    2014-02-04

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with higher cardiovascular risk partly related to an increase in inflammatory parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the association of inflammatory biomarkers with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfraction phenotype and glycemic control in subjects with T2D and poor glycemic control. A cross-sectional study was performed comparing 122 subjects with T2D (59 ± 11 years old, body mass index 30.2 ± 5.6 kg/m2) with 54 control subjects. Patients with T2D were classified according to their LDL subfraction phenotype and inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein, Interleukin-6, Interleukin-8, Transforming growth factor β1, Monocyte chemotactic protein 1, Leptin, Adiponectin) were evaluated according to the degree of glycemic control, LDL phenotype and other clinical characteristics. Forty-two subjects with T2D were studied before and after 3 months of improving glycemic control by different strategies. Patients with T2D had higher C-reactive protein (CRP) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1) levels and lower adiponectin concentration, compared to controls. T2D subjects with body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 had higher CRP levels (5.2 ± 4.8 mg/l vs 3.7 ± 4.3 mg/l; p < 0.05). The presence of LDL phenotype B was related to higher levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) (53.92 ± 52.82 ng/l vs 31.35 ± 33.74 ng/l; p < 0.05) and lower levels of adiponectin (3663 ± 3044 ng/l vs 2723 ± 1776 ng/l; p < 0.05). The reduction of HbA1c from 9.5 ± 1.8% at baseline to 7.4 ± 0.8% was associated with a significant reduction of TGF-β1 (41.86 ± 32.84 ng/l vs 26.64 ± 26.91 ng/l; p = 0.02). Subjects with T2D, especially those with LDL phenotype B and obesity, have higher levels of inflammatory biomarkers. Improvement of glycemic control reduces TGF-β1 levels, which may contribute partly to its renoprotective role.

  14. Colestimide improves glycemic control via hepatic glucose production in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Tadashi; Ogihara, Kikumi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Muraoka, Tomonori; Kadonosono, Kazuaki; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the chronic effects of a bile acid sequestrant, colestimide, on glucose metabolism. After db/db mice were fed a diet containing colestimide or cholic acid (CA) for 12 weeks, we investigated the impact of these agents on glucose and lipid metabolism. Colestimide significantly reduced the elevated fasting blood glucose level (p<0.01), and CA even more markedly reduced fasting blood glucose. The blood glucose level after an oral glucose load was significantly lower in the CA group than in the control group, but the colestimide group showed no significant difference. The insulin response to a glucose load was abolished in the control and colestimide groups. A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study revealed that colestimide significantly improved the GIR (p=0.013). Hepatic EGP and Rd were also improved by colestimide, suggesting that it alleviated insulin resistance by suppressing hepatic glucose production and increasing peripheral glucose usage. CA significantly increased both the weight and cholesterol content of the liver, while colestimide reduced these parameters. Colestimide suppressed hepatic gene expression of SHP, but enhanced SREBP2 expression. On the other hand, CA increased the expression of SHP and lipogenic enzymes such as ACC and SCD-1, but had no effect on SREBP2. The present study demonstrated that colestimide improves hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, as well as reducing the hepatic lipid content. In contrast, CA exacerbates hyperlipidemia and increases the hepatic lipid content, although it improves glycemic control. Thus, colestimide is a well-balanced drug for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  15. Effect of the carbohydrate counting method on glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The importance of achieving and maintaining an appropriate metabolic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) has been established in many studies aiming to prevent the development of chronic complications. The carbohydrate counting method can be recommended as an additional tool in the nutritional treatment of diabetes, allowing patients with DM1 to have more flexible food choices. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of nutrition intervention and the use of multiple short-acting insulin according to the carbohydrate counting method on clinical and metabolic control in patients with DM1. Methods Our sample consisted of 51 patients with DM1, 32 females, aged 25.3 ± 1.55 years. A protocol of nutritional status evaluation was applied and laboratory analysis was performed at baseline and after a three-month intervention. After the analysis of the food records, a balanced diet was prescribed using the carbohydrate counting method, and short-acting insulin was prescribed based on the total amount of carbohydrate per meal (1 unit per 15 g of carbohydrate). Results A significant decrease in A1c levels was observed from baseline to the three-month evaluation after the intervention (10.40 ± 0.33% and 9.52 ± 0.32%, respectively, p = 0.000). It was observed an increase in daily insulin dose after the intervention (0.99 ± 0.65 IU/Kg and 1.05 ± 0.05 IU/Kg, respectively, p = 0.003). No significant differences were found regarding anthropometric evaluation (BMI, waist, hip or abdominal circumferences and waist to hip ratio) after the intervention period. Conclusions The use of short-acting insulin based on the carbohydrate counting method after a short period of time resulted in a significant improvement of the glycemic control in patients with DM1 with no changes in body weight despite increases in the total daily insulin doses. PMID:20716374

  16. Prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and relation to glycemic control therapies at baseline in the BARI 2D cohort.

    PubMed

    Pop-Busui, Rodica; Lu, Jiang; Lopes, Neuza; Jones, Teresa L Z

    2009-03-01

    We evaluated the associations between glycemic therapies and prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) at baseline among participants in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial on medical and revascularization therapies for coronary artery disease (CAD) and on insulin-sensitizing vs. insulin-providing treatments for diabetes. A total of 2,368 patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD was evaluated. DPN was defined as clinical examination score >2 using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). DPN odds ratios across different groups of glycemic therapy were evaluated by multiple logistic regression adjusted for multiple covariates including age, sex, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and diabetes duration. Fifty-one percent of BARI 2D subjects with valid baseline characteristics and MNSI scores had DPN. After adjusting for all variables, use of insulin was significantly associated with DPN (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.15-2.13). Patients on sulfonylurea (SU) or combination of SU/metformin (Met)/thiazolidinediones (TZD) had marginally higher rates of DPN than the Met/TZD group. This cross-sectional study in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD showed association of insulin use with higher DPN prevalence, independent of disease duration, glycemic control, and other characteristics. The causality between a glycemic control strategy and DPN cannot be evaluated in this cross-sectional study, but continued assessment of DPN and randomized therapies in BARI 2D trial may provide further explanations on the development of DPN.

  17. Closed-loop insulin therapy improves glycemic control in children aged <7 years: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dauber, Andrew; Corcia, Liat; Safer, Jason; Agus, Michael S D; Einis, Sara; Steil, Garry M

    2013-02-01

    To assess the possibility of improving nocturnal glycemic control as well as meal glycemic response using closed-loop therapy in children aged <7 years. This was a randomized controlled crossover trial comparing closed-loop with standard open-loop insulin pump therapy performed in an inpatient clinical research center. Ten subjects aged <7 years with type 1 diabetes for >6 months treated with insulin pump therapy were studied. Closed-loop therapy and standard open-loop therapy were compared from 10:00 p.m. to 12:00 p.m. on 2 consecutive days. The primary outcome was plasma glucose time in range (110-200 mg/dL) during the night (10:00 p.m.-8:00 a.m.). Secondary outcomes included peak postprandial glucose levels, incidence of hypoglycemia, degree of hyperglycemia, and prelunch glucose levels. A trend toward a higher mean nocturnal time within target range was noted for closed- versus open-loop therapy, although not reaching statistical significance (5.3 vs. 3.2 h, P = 0.12). There was no difference in peak postprandial glucose or number of episodes of hypoglycemia. There was significant improvement in time spent >300 mg/dL overnight with closed-loop therapy (0.18 vs. 1.3 h, P = 0.035) and the total area under the curve of glucose >200 mg/dL (P = 0.049). Closed-loop therapy returned prelunch blood glucose closer to target (189 vs. 273 mg/dL on open loop, P = 0.009). Closed-loop insulin delivery decreases the severity of overnight hyperglycemia without increasing the incidence of hypoglycemia. The therapy is better able to reestablish target glucose levels in advance of a subsequent meal. Younger children with type 1 diabetes may reap significant benefits from closed-loop therapy.

  18. Diabetes care, glycemic control, and complications in children with type 1 diabetes from Asia and the Western Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Craig, Maria E; Jones, Timothy W; Silink, Martin; Ping, Yeo Jing

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes is increasing in many parts of Asia, where resources may not enable targets for glycemic control to be achieved. The aims of this study were to describe glycemic control, diabetes care, and complications in youth with type 1 diabetes from the Western Pacific Region and to identify factors associated with glycemic control and hypoglycemia. A cross-sectional clinic-based study on 2312 children and adolescents (aged <18 years; 45% males) from 96 pediatric diabetes centers in Australia, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand was conducted. Clinical and management details were recorded, and finger-pricked blood samples were obtained for central glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)). The median age of the patients was 12.5 years [interquartile range (IQR)=9.4-15.3 years]; diabetes duration, 4.4 years (IQR=2.5-7.2 years); and HbA(1c) level, 8.3% (IQR 7.4%-9.7%). Insulin treatment consisted of one or two daily injections in 61% of the patients (range=22%-90% by country), and home blood glucose monitoring (range=67%-100%) was practiced by 96%. HbA(1c) level was significantly associated with country, age, diabetes duration, sex, insulin dose per kilogram, insulin regimen, and frequency of home blood glucose measurement in multiple regression analysis. The incidence of severe hypoglycemia, defined as any episode requiring assistance in the previous 3 months, was 73 per 100 patient-years and was associated with country, male sex, higher HbA(1c) level, an insulin regimen with three or more injections, and more frequent home blood glucose testing. The incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis was 10 per 100 patient-years and was associated with country, higher HbA(1c) level, and higher insulin dose per kilogram. There is marked variability in glycemic control, hypoglycemia, complication rates, and diabetes care among children from the Western Pacific Region. Most are not achieving adequate

  19. Glycemic control in youth with type 2 diabetes declines as early as two years after diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Levitt Katz, Lorraine E; Magge, Sheela Natesh; Hernandez, Marcia L; Murphy, Kathryn M; McKnight, Heather M; Lipman, Terri

    2011-01-01

    To determine the course of glycemic decline in a pediatric cohort with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by defining longitudinal changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and insulin requirement. We also followed markers of insulin reserve (fasting C-peptide and IGFBP-1) over time. Participants included two groups: (1) T2DM Nonacidotic (NA) (n = 46); and (2) T2DM diabetic ketoacidosis (n = 13). HbA1c, insulin dose, and fasting C-peptide and IGFBP-1 were obtained at baseline and every 6 months for 4 years. At baseline, Mann Whitney tests demonstrated that the diabetic ketoacidosis group had higher HbA1c (P = .002), required more insulin (P = .036), and had lower C-peptide (P = .003) than the NA group. Baseline insulin dose (Spearman r = -0.424, P = .009) and baseline IGFBP-1 (Spearman r = -0.349, P = .046) correlated negatively with C-peptide. Over time, HbA1c, insulin dose, and C-peptide changed significantly in a complex manner, with group differences. HbA1c reached a nadir at 6 to 12 months and began to rise after 1.5 years. Insulin requirements reached a nadir at 1 year and began to rise after 2 years. Unlike adults, children with T2DM require increasing insulin doses over a 4-year period, and diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis predicts greater β-cell decline over time. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Supported Telemonitoring and Glycemic Control in People with Type 2 Diabetes: The Telescot Diabetes Pragmatic Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Sarah H.; Hanley, Janet; Lewis, Stephanie C.; McKnight, John A.; Padfield, Paul L.; Parker, Richard A.; Pinnock, Hilary; Sheikh, Aziz; McKinstry, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-monitoring of blood glucose among people with type 2 diabetes not treated with insulin does not appear to be effective in improving glycemic control. We investigated whether health professional review of telemetrically transmitted self-monitored glucose results in improved glycemic control in people with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. Methods and Findings We performed a randomized, parallel, investigator-blind controlled trial with centralized randomization in family practices in four regions of the United Kingdom among 321 people with type 2 diabetes and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) >58 mmol/mol. The supported telemonitoring intervention involved self-measurement and transmission to a secure website of twice-weekly morning and evening glucose for review by family practice clinicians who were not blinded to allocation group. The control group received usual care, with at least annual review and more frequent reviews for people with poor glycemic or blood pressure control. HbA1c assessed at 9 mo was the primary outcome. Intention-to-treat analyses were performed. 160 people were randomized to the intervention group and 161 to the usual care group between June 6, 2011, and July 19, 2013. HbA1c data at follow-up were available for 146 people in the intervention group and 139 people in the control group. The mean (SD) HbA1c at follow-up was 63.0 (15.5) mmol/mol in the intervention group and 67.8 (14.7) mmol/mol in the usual care group. For primary analysis, adjusted mean HbA1c was 5.60 mmol/mol / 0.51% lower (95% CI 2.38 to 8.81 mmol/mol/ 95% CI 0.22% to 0.81%, p = 0·0007). For secondary analyses, adjusted mean ambulatory systolic blood pressure was 3.06 mmHg lower (95% CI 0.56–5.56 mmHg, p = 0.017) and mean ambulatory diastolic blood pressure was 2.17 mmHg lower (95% CI 0.62–3.72, p = 0.006) among people in the intervention group when compared with usual care after adjustment for baseline differences and minimization strata. No significant

  1. Comparative effects of energy restriction and resveratrol intake on glycemic control improvement.

    PubMed

    Milton-Laskibar, I; Aguirre, L; Macarulla, M T; Etxeberria, U; Milagro, F I; Martínez, J A; Contreras, J; Portillo, M P

    2017-02-20

    Resveratrol (RSV) has been proposed as an energy restriction mimetic. This study aimed to compare the effects of RSV and energy restriction on insulin resistance induced by an obesogenic diet. Any additive effect of both treatments was also analyzed. Rats were fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet for 6 weeks. They were then distributed in four experimental groups which were either fed a standard control diet (C), or treated with RSV (30 mg/kg/d), or submitted to energy restriction (R, 15%), or treated with RSV and submitted to energy restriction (RR). A glucose tolerance test was performed, and serum glucose, insulin, fructosamine, adiponectin, and leptin concentrations determined. Muscle triacylglycerol content and protein expression of insulin receptor (IRβ), protein kinase B (Akt), Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) were measured. In RSV rats, fructosamine concentrations were reduced, HOMA-IR remained unchanged, but glucose tolerance was improved, without changes in phosphorylation of IRβ, Akt, and AS160 or in GLUT-4 protein expression. Rats under energy restriction showed an improvement in all the markers related to glycemic control, as well as increased phosphorylation of AS160 and protein expression of GLUT-4. In rats from RR group the results were similar to R group, with the exception of IRβ and Akt phosphorylation, which were increased. In conclusion, mild energy restriction is more efficient than intake of RSV within a standard balanced diet, and acts by means of a different mechanism from that of RSV. No additive effects between RSV and energy restriction were observed. © 2016 BioFactors, 2016.

  2. Assessment of an educational intervention in the management of non-critical inpatient glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Huelgas, R; Lopez-Carmona, M D; Jansen-Chaparro, S; Sobrino, B; Chaves, M; Martin-Gallardo, P; Garcia-Fernandez, C; Bernal-Lopez, M R

    2014-01-01

    In hospitalized diabetic patients, the recommended insulin therapy is basal bolus plus correction-dose regimen instead of sliding-scale insulin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the implementation of a new protocol based on basal bolus therapy on managing diabetes in a university hospital setting. We performed a cross-sectional study before and 12 months after a 4-month intervention period to implement a basal bolus regimen in hospitalized patients. Non-critical patients admitted into the hospital for at least 72 h were included. Changes in prescribing habits, glucose control and incidence of hypoglycemia were evaluated. An increase in the use of the new protocol and a decrease in sliding scale were observed after the intervention. In the pre-intervention group, a total of 59.2% glucose readings were between 70 and 180 mg/dL versus 57.1% after the intervention, without observing statistical differences. Significant reductions in hypoglycemia between pre- and post-intervention (13.04 vs. 4.08%, p = 0.0215) were observed. The percentage of hospitalized diabetic patients who had HbA1c was 10.43 and 4.08% in pre- and post-intervention phases, respectively. The protocol showed beneficial outcomes in terms of fewer hypoglycemia episodes and reflected a change in prescription habits, but it did not improve glycemic control. Furthermore, the percentage of patients who had an HbA1c test during their hospitalization remained very low after the intervention. This fact may seriously limit the correct management of hyperglycemia after the hospital discharge.

  3. Family Physician Clinical Inertia in Glycemic Control among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Valerija Bralić; Marković, Biserka Bergman; Kranjčević, Ksenija

    2015-01-01

    Background Many patients with diabetes do not achieve target values. One of the reasons for this is clinical inertia. The correct explanation of clinical inertia requires a conjunction of patient with physician and health care system factors. Our aim was to determine the rate of clinical inertia in treating diabetes in primary care and association of patient, physician, and health care setting factors with clinical inertia. Material/Methods This was a national, multicenter, observational, cross-sectional study in primary care in Croatia. Each family physician (FP) provided professional data and collected clinical data on 15–25 type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. Clinical inertia was defined as a consultation in which treatment change based on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels was indicated but did not occur. Results A total of 449 FPs (response rate 89.8%) collected data on 10275 patients. Mean clinical inertia per FP was 55.6% (SD ±26.17) of consultations. All of the FPs were clinically inert with some patients, and 9% of the FPs were clinically inert with all patients. The main factors associated with clinical inertia were: higher percentage of HbA1c, oral anti-diabetic drug initiated by diabetologist, increased postprandial glycemia and total cholesterol, physical inactivity of patient, and administration of drugs other than oral antidiabetics. Conclusions Clinical inertia in treating patients with T2DM is a serious problem. Patients with worse glycemic control and those whose therapy was initiated by a diabetologist experience more clinical inertia. More research on causes of clinical inertia in treating patients with T2DM should be conducted to help achieve more effective diabetes control. PMID:25652941

  4. Family physician clinical inertia in glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bralić Lang, Valerija; Bergman Marković, Biserka; Kranjčević, Ksenija

    2015-02-05

    Many patients with diabetes do not achieve target values. One of the reasons for this is clinical inertia. The correct explanation of clinical inertia requires a conjunction of patient with physician and health care system factors. Our aim was to determine the rate of clinical inertia in treating diabetes in primary care and association of patient, physician, and health care setting factors with clinical inertia. This was a national, multicenter, observational, cross-sectional study in primary care in Croatia. Each family physician (FP) provided professional data and collected clinical data on 15-25 type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. Clinical inertia was defined as a consultation in which treatment change based on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels was indicated but did not occur. A total of 449 FPs (response rate 89.8%) collected data on 10275 patients. Mean clinical inertia per FP was 55.6% (SD ±26.17) of consultations. All of the FPs were clinically inert with some patients, and 9% of the FPs were clinically inert with all patients. The main factors associated with clinical inertia were: higher percentage of HbA1c, oral anti-diabetic drug initiated by diabetologist, increased postprandial glycemia and total cholesterol, physical inactivity of patient, and administration of drugs other than oral antidiabetics. Clinical inertia in treating patients with T2DM is a serious problem. Patients with worse glycemic control and those whose therapy was initiated by a diabetologist experience more clinical inertia. More research on causes of clinical inertia in treating patients with T2DM should be conducted to help achieve more effective diabetes control.

  5. Impact of insulin pump therapy on long-term glycemic control in a pediatric Spanish cohort.

    PubMed

    Colino, Esmeralda; Martín-Frías, María; Yelmo, Rosa; Álvarez, M Ángeles; Roldán, Belén; Barrio, Raquel

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) in a pediatric cohort and to determine if the ISPAD/IDF/ADA criteria for good metabolic control are achieved during long periods of time. Retrospective longitudinal study including ninety patients [10.5 (6.5-13.9) years of age, 58% males]. Age at debut, type 1 diabetes mellitus duration, pubertal stage, HbA1c, insulin dose, mean number of glycemic controls, number of basal rates, % basal/total insulin, severe hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis events were analyzed. Subgroup analysis based on age and pubertal stage was performed. HbA1c decreased from 6.9% [52 mmol/mol] to 6.7% [50 mmol/mol] after one year of CSII. Afterwards, it remained less than 7% during the follow-up period (median 3.5 ± 1.8 years (range 1-8). Prior to CSII, 76% of the subjects met ISPAD/ADA criteria. One year after initiating CSII, 96% of children had HbA1c<7.5%. Improvement in glycohemoglobin levels was most prominent in those patients with the highest HbA1c initial levels. Total insulin dose decreased from 0.89 to 0.73 UI/kg/day (p<0.001). Proportion of basal/total insulin changed significantly (47 to 42% (p<0.05)). Number of fractions of the basal rate increased from 5.6 ± 1.8 at one year of CSII to 6.7 ± 2.1 five years later. Incidence of severe hypoglycemic events decreased from 19 to 6.9 episodes/100 patient-year. Only 2 episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis occurred. CSII allows reaching ISPAD/IDF/ADA goals safely during an extended follow-up period in a diabetic pediatric cohort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diabetic nephropathy: new approaches for improving glycemic control and reducing risk.

    PubMed

    Schernthaner, Guntram; Schernthaner, Gerit Holger

    2013-01-01

    Nephropathy is a common consequence of diabetes, with a high prevalence in patients with type 1 (15%-25%) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; 30%-40%). Nephropathy is associated with a poor prognosis and high economic burden. The risk of developing nephropathy increases with the duration of diabetes, and early diagnosis and treatment of risk factors for nephropathy (e.g., tight control of glycemia and hypertension) can reduce the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of renal complications associated with diabetes and the etiology of nephropathy have identified additional risk factors for nephropathy, and novel therapeutic options are being explored. This review discusses the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy and common risk factors. Furthermore, we discuss emerging treatments for T2DM that could potentially slow or prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy. The use of incretin-based therapies, such as the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs, is growing in patients with T2DM, due to their efficacy and tolerability profiles. As renal safety is a key factor when choosing treatment options to manage patients with T2DM, drugs that are suitable for use in patients with varying degrees of renal impairment without a requirement for dose adjustment, such as the DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin, are of particular use. The ongoing advances in T2DM therapy may allow optimization of glycemic control in a wide range of patients, thereby helping to reduce the increasing morbidity and mortality associated with diabetic nephropathy.

  7. Characterization of Factors Affecting Attainment of Glycemic Control in Asian Americans With Diabetes in a Culturally Specific Program

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hung; Wong, Sophia; Iftikar, Tracy; Keenan, Hillary; King, George L.; Hsu, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a culturally specific pilot clinic for Asian Americans (AA) in reaching glycemic target and to characterize factors affecting the attainment of glycemic control in comparison with white counterparts. Methods This electronic health record review included all new AA patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 109) in a culturally specific program and a randomly selected sample of new white patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 218) in the adult clinic within the same time period and diabetes center. Results AA and whites had a comparable proportion of patients with A1C ≤7% (32.1%, 34.9%; P = .621) at baseline and after 12 months of care (48.6%, 56.0%; P = .210), with a similar A1C decline (−0.9% ± 1.6%, −0.8% ± 1.7%, P = .710) by 12 months. Factors associated with the lack of success in reaching target in AA but not in whites included older age, lower educational attainment, less likelihood of having health insurance, and a need for more educational visits. The percentage of AA reaching A1C ≤7%, as compared to whites, worsened among those with highest initial A1C when stratified by ascending quartiles (96.7% vs 85.2%, P = .101; 61.9% vs 58.9%, P = .813; 24.0% vs 37.7%, P = .230; 15.2% vs 35.4%, P = .044). Conclusion While a culturally specific diabetes program in a specialty setting achieved a similar glycemic outcome for AA compared with whites, reasons for not reaching glycemic target differed. The findings suggest that the elimination of diabetes disparities requires not only culturally and linguistically specific programs, but must also identify and address the socio-environmental differences unique to each population. PMID:23771841

  8. The impact of prediabetes on glycemic control and clinical outcomes postburn injury.

    PubMed

    Somerset, Amy; Coffey, Rebecca; Jones, Larry; Murphy, Claire V

    2014-01-01

    Poor glucose control and clinical outcomes have been observed in diabetic versus nondiabetic patients postburn injury. Prediabetes is a precursor to diabetes. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of prediabetes on postinjury glucose control and clinical outcomes. A retrospective review was conducted comparing prediabetics and euglycemic controls. Patients who were admitted for burn care were 18 to 89 years of age and had a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) obtained on admission. Prediabetics were defined by an HbA1c of 5.7 to 6.4% and controls by HbA1c < 5.7%. Inpatient glucose levels were recorded, in addition to clinical outcomes. Two hundred eight patients were included: 54 prediabetics and 154 controls. The prediabetic population was older (50.7 vs 39 years; P < .001) with more hypertensives (44.4 vs 16.9%; P < .001), consisted of more African-Americans (20.4 vs 12%; P = .04), and had larger areas of full-thickness burns (4.5 vs 1.75%; P = .02). Median admission HbA1c was 5.9 (5.7-6.0)% among prediabetics and 5.3 (5-5.45)% among controls (P < .001). Prediabetics had significantly higher time-weighted glucose levels (127.7 [105.5-147.6] vs 108.0 [97.1-122.2] mg/dl; P < .001) and more had an average inpatient glucose >150 mg/dl (20.4 vs 9.1%; P = .028). There was no difference in rates of hypoglycemia (glucose <70 mg/dl) or glycemic variability. Prediabetics had lower survival rates (92.6 vs 98.7%; P = .041), but similar rates of unplanned readmission (1.9 vs 3.9%; P = .68), intensive care unit admission (29.6 vs 23.4%; P = .36), mechanical ventilation (24.1 vs 16.2%; P = .20), length of hospital stay (4 [2-8] vs 3 [2-11]; P = .71), and infection (11.1 vs 11.7%; P = .99). Prediabetic status has a significant impact on glucose control and mortality after burn injury.

  9. Application of BASNEF educational model for nutritional education among elderly patients with type 2 diabetes: improving the glycemic control*

    PubMed Central

    Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Najimi, Arash; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Azadbakht, Leila

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of nutritional educational program on glycemic control of elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this parallel randomized controlled educational trial, 100 diabetic elderly patients (≥60 years) were chosen (50 in control and 50 in test group). Nutrition education based on beliefs, attitudes, subjective norms and enabling factors (BASNEF model) was conducted. Dietary intake and glycemic indices as well as the components of the BASNEF model were assessed. The four 70-minute educational sessions were conducted in one month. Three months after training intervention, questionnaire was completed again and blood tests were performed. RESULTS: Increased intake in the mean daily servings of fruits (0.91± 0.82 vs. 0.17±0.79; p < 0.001), vegetables (0.87±0.86 vs. 0.03±1; p < 0.001) and dairy (0.35±0.52 vs. and 0.12±0.76; p < 0.001) were reported in the intervention group compared to the control group (p < 0.001). The amount of fruits, vegetables and dairy increased in the intervention group at the end of the study (p < 0.001). However, it was not significantly changed in the control group. HbA1c and fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels decreased significantly in the interventional group compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Comparing the amount of FBS and HbA1c at the end of the study with the baseline measurements showed significant reduction in interventional group (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant change in control group in this regard. CONCLUSIONS: BASNEF–based nutritional educational intervention improved dietary intakes as well as glycemic control, 3 months after intervention. PMID:22973383

  10. Glycemic control and alveolar bone loss progression in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G W; Burt, B A; Becker, M P; Genco, R J; Shlossman, M

    1998-07-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the risk for alveolar bone loss is greater, and bone loss progression more severe, for subjects with poorly controlled (PC) type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) compared to those without type 2 DM or with better controlled (BC) type 2 DM. The PC group had glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1) > or = 9%; the BC group had HbA1 < 9%. Data from the longitudinal study of the oral health of residents of the Gila River Indian Community were analyzed. Of the 359 subjects, aged 15 to 57 with less than 25% radiographic bone loss at baseline, 338 did not have type 2 DM, 14 were BC, and 7 were PC. Panoramic radiographs were used to assess interproximal bone level. Bone scores (scale 0-4) corresponding to bone loss of 0%, 1% to 24%, 25% to 49%, 50% to 74%, or > or = 75% were used to identify the worst bone score (WBS) in the dentition. Change in worst bone score at follow-up, the outcome, was specified on a 4-category ordinal scale as no change, or a 1-, 2-, 3-, or 4-category increase over baseline WBS (WBS1). Poorly controlled diabetes, age, calculus, time to follow-up examination, and WBS1 were statistically significant explanatory variables in ordinal logistic regression models. Poorly controlled type 2 DM was positively associated with greater risk for a change in bone score (compared to subjects without type 2 DM) when the covariates were included in the model. The cumulative odds ratio (COR) at each threshold of the ordered response was 11.4 (95% CI = 2.5, 53.3). When contrasted with subjects with BC type 2 DM, the COR for those in the PC group was 5.3 (95% CI = 0.8, 53.3). The COR for subjects with BC type 2 DM was 2.2 (95% CI = 0.7, 6.5), when contrasted to those without type 2 DM. These results suggest that poorer glycemic control leads to both an increased risk for alveolar bone loss and more severe progression over those without type 2 DM, and that there may be a gradient, with the risk for bone loss progression for those with better

  11. Effect of glycemic control on self-perceived oral health, periodontal parameters, and alveolar bone loss among patients with prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Javed, Fawad; Thafeed Alghamdi, Ali Saad; Mikami, Toshinari; Mehmood, Abid; Ahmed, Hameeda Bashir; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Tenenbaum, Howard C

    2014-02-01

    The effect of glycemic control on severity of periodontal inflammatory parameters in patients with prediabetes is unknown. The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of glycemic control on self-perceived oral health, periodontal parameters, and marginal bone loss (MBL) in patients with prediabetes. A total of 303 individuals were included. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose levels (FBGLs) were recorded. Participants were divided into three groups: 1) group A: 75 patients with prediabetes (FBGLs = 100 to 125 mg/dL [HbA1c ≥5%]); 2) group B: 78 individuals previously considered prediabetic but having FBGLs <100 mg/dL (HbA1c <5%) resulting from dietary control; and 3) control group: 150 medically healthy individuals. Self-perceived oral health, socioeconomic status, and education status were determined using a questionnaire. Plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment loss (AL) were recorded. Premolar and molar MBLs were measured on panoramic radiographs. Periodontal parameters (PI, BOP, PD, and AL) (P <0.01) and MBL (P <0.01) were worse among individuals in group A than those in group B. Self-perceived gingival bleeding (P <0.001), pain on chewing (P <0.001), dry mouth (P <0.001), and oral burning sensations (P <0.05) were worse among patients in group A than those in group B. There was no difference in periodontal parameters, MBL, and self-perceived oral symptoms among patients with prediabetes in group B and healthy controls. Self-perceived oral health, severity of periodontal parameters, and MBL are worse in patients with prediabetes than controls. Glycemic control significantly reduces the severity of these parameters as well as the state of prediabetes in affected individuals.

  12. Effect of domestic cooking on the starch digestibility, predicted glycemic indices, polyphenol contents and alpha amylase inhibitory properties of beans (Phaseolis vulgaris) and breadfruit (Treculia africana).

    PubMed

    Chinedum, E; Sanni, S; Theressa, N; Ebere, A

    2017-08-09

    The effect of processing on starch digestibility, predicted glycemic indices (pGI), polyphenol contents and alpha amylase inhibitory properties of beans (Phaseolis vulgaris) and breadfruit (Treculia africana) was studied. Total starch ranged from 4.3 to 68.3g/100g, digestible starch ranged from 4.3 to 59.2 to 65.7g/100g for the raw and processed legumes; Resistance starch was not detected in most of the legumes except in fried breadfruit and the starches in both the raw and processed breadfruit were more rapidly digested than those from raw and cooked beans. Raw and processed breadfruit had higher hydrolysis curves than raw and processed beans with the amylolysis level in raw breadfruit close to that of white bread. Raw beans had a low glycemic index (GI); boiled beans and breadfruit had intermediate glycemic indices respectively while raw and fried breadfruit had high glycemic indices. Aqueous extracts of the food samples had weak α-amylase inhibition compared to acarbose. The raw and processed legumes contained considerable amounts of dietary phenols and flavonoids. The significant correlation (r=0.626) between α-amylase inhibitory actions of the legumes versus their total phenolic contents suggests the contribution of the phenolic compounds in these legumes to their α-amylase inhibitory properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Association of English Ability and Glycemic Control among Latinos with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Arshiya A.; Locklin, Cara A.; Foley, Edward; Ewigman, Bernard; Meltzer, David O.; Huang, Elbert S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Language barriers may be significant contributors to diabetes disparities. We sought to assess the association of English speaking ability with glycemic control among Latinos with diabetes. Methods We analyzed 167 Latinos from a cross-sectional survey of adults with type 2 diabetes. The main outcome was HbA1c ≥7.0%. The main predictor was self-reported English speaking ability. Adjusted analyses accounted for age, gender, education, annual income, health insurance status, duration of diabetes, birth in the U.S., and years in the U.S. Results In unadjusted analyses, point estimates for the odds of having a high HbA1c revealed a U-shaped curve with English speaking ability. Those who spoke English very well (OR=2.32, 95% CI, 1.00–5.41) or not at all (OR=4.11, 95% CI 1.35–12.54) had higher odds of having an elevated HbA1c than those who spoke English well, although this was only statistically significant for those who spoke no English. In adjusted analyses, the U-shaped curve persisted with the highest odds among those who spoke English very well (OR=3.20, 95% CI 1.05–9.79) or not at all (OR 4.95, 95% CI 1.29–18.92). Conclusions The relationship between English speaking ability and diabetes management is more complex than previously described. Interventions aimed at improving diabetes outcomes may need to be tailored to specific subgroups within the Latino population. PMID:24620445

  14. Data Entry Errors and Design for Model-Based Tight Glycemic Control in Critical Care

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Logan; Steel, James; Le Compte, Aaron; Evans, Alicia; Tan, Chia-Siong; Penning, Sophie; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Desaive, Thomas; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Tight glycemic control (TGC) has shown benefits but has been difficult to achieve consistently. Model-based methods and computerized protocols offer the opportunity to improve TGC quality but require human data entry, particularly of blood glucose (BG) values, which can be significantly prone to error. This study presents the design and optimization of data entry methods to minimize error for a computerized and model-based TGC method prior to pilot clinical trials. Method To minimize data entry error, two tests were carried out to optimize a method with errors less than the 5%-plus reported in other studies. Four initial methods were tested on 40 subjects in random order, and the best two were tested more rigorously on 34 subjects. The tests measured entry speed and accuracy. Errors were reported as corrected and uncorrected errors, with the sum comprising a total error rate. The first set of tests used randomly selected values, while the second set used the same values for all subjects to allow comparisons across users and direct assessment of the magnitude of errors. These research tests were approved by the University of Canterbury Ethics Committee. Results The final data entry method tested reduced errors to less than 1–2%, a 60–80% reduction from reported values. The magnitude of errors was clinically significant and was typically by 10.0 mmol/liter or an order of magnitude but only for extreme values of BG < 2.0 mmol/liter or BG > 15.0–20.0 mmol/liter, both of which could be easily corrected with automated checking of extreme values for safety. Conclusions The data entry method selected significantly reduced data entry errors in the limited design tests presented, and is in use on a clinical pilot TGC study. The overall approach and testing methods are easily performed and generalizable to other applications and protocols. PMID:22401331

  15. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in a nutrient-controlled feeding study.

    PubMed

    Botero, Diego; Ebbeling, Cara B; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Creager, Mark A; Swain, Janis F; Feldman, Henry A; Ludwig, David S

    2009-09-01

    Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between antioxidant capacity and reactive oxygen species, may be an early event in a metabolic cascade elicited by a high glycemic index (GI) diet, ultimately increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We conducted a feeding study to evaluate the acute effects of low-GI compared with high-GI diets on oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The crossover study comprised two 10-day in-patient admissions to a clinical research center. For the admissions, 12 overweight or obese (BMI: 27-45 kg/m(2)) male subjects aged 18-35 years consumed low-GI or high-GI diets controlled for potentially confounding nutrients. On day 7, after an overnight fast and then during a 5-h postprandial period, we assessed total antioxidant capacity (total and perchloric acid (PCA) protein-precipitated plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay) and oxidative stress status (urinary F(2alpha)-isoprostanes (F(2)IP)). On day 10, we measured cardiovascular disease risk factors. Under fasting conditions, total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher during the low-GI vs. high-GI diet based on total ORAC (11,736 +/- 668 vs. 10,381 +/- 612 micromol Trolox equivalents/l, P = 0.002) and PCA-ORAC (1,276 +/- 96 vs. 1,210 +/- 96 micromol Trolox equivalents/l, P = 0.02). Area under the postprandial response curve also differed significantly between the two diets for total ORAC and PCA-ORAC. No diet effects were observed for the other variables. Enhancement in plasma total antioxidant capacity occurs within 1 week on a low-GI diet, before changes in other risk factors, raising the possibility that this phenomenon may mediate, at least in part, the previously reported effects of GI on health.

  16. Technology Use for Diabetes Problem Solving in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Relationship to Glycemic Control.

    PubMed

    Kumah-Crystal, Yaa A; Hood, Korey K; Ho, Yu-Xian; Lybarger, Cindy K; O'Connor, Brendan H; Rothman, Russell L; Mulvaney, Shelagh A

    2015-07-01

    This study examines technology use for problem solving in diabetes and its relationship to hemoglobin A1C (A1C). A sample of 112 adolescents with type 1 diabetes completed measures assessing use of technologies for diabetes problem solving, including mobile applications, social technologies, and glucose software. Hierarchical regression was performed to identify the contribution of a new nine-item Technology Use for Problem Solving in Type 1 Diabetes (TUPS) scale to A1C, considering known clinical contributors to A1C. Mean age for the sample was 14.5 (SD 1.7) years, mean A1C was 8.9% (SD 1.8%), 50% were female, and diabetes duration was 5.5 (SD 3.5) years. Cronbach's α reliability for TUPS was 0.78. In regression analyses, variables significantly associated with A1C were the socioeconomic status (β = -0.26, P < 0.01), Diabetes Adolescent Problem Solving Questionnaire (β = -0.26, P = 0.01), and TUPS (β = 0.26, P = 0.01). Aside from the Diabetes Self-Care Inventory--Revised, each block added significantly to the model R(2). The final model R(2) was 0.22 for modeling A1C (P < 0.001). Results indicate a counterintuitive relationship between higher use of technologies for problem solving and higher A1C. Adolescents with poorer glycemic control may use technology in a reactive, as opposed to preventive, manner. Better understanding of the nature of technology use for self-management over time is needed to guide the development of technology-mediated problem solving tools for youth with type 1 diabetes.

  17. Technology Use for Diabetes Problem Solving in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Relationship to Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Kumah-Crystal, Yaa A.; Hood, Korey K.; Ho, Yu-Xian; Lybarger, Cindy K.; O'Connor, Brendan H.; Rothman, Russell L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study examines technology use for problem solving in diabetes and its relationship to hemoglobin A1C (A1C). Subjects and Methods: A sample of 112 adolescents with type 1 diabetes completed measures assessing use of technologies for diabetes problem solving, including mobile applications, social technologies, and glucose software. Hierarchical regression was performed to identify the contribution of a new nine-item Technology Use for Problem Solving in Type 1 Diabetes (TUPS) scale to A1C, considering known clinical contributors to A1C. Results: Mean age for the sample was 14.5 (SD 1.7) years, mean A1C was 8.9% (SD 1.8%), 50% were female, and diabetes duration was 5.5 (SD 3.5) years. Cronbach's α reliability for TUPS was 0.78. In regression analyses, variables significantly associated with A1C were the socioeconomic status (β=−0.26, P<0.01), Diabetes Adolescent Problem Solving Questionnaire (β=−0.26, P=0.01), and TUPS (β=0.26, P=0.01). Aside from the Diabetes Self-Care Inventory—Revised, each block added significantly to the model R2. The final model R2 was 0.22 for modeling A1C (P<0.001). Conclusions: Results indicate a counterintuitive relationship between higher use of technologies for problem solving and higher A1C. Adolescents with poorer glycemic control may use technology in a reactive, as opposed to preventive, manner. Better understanding of the nature of technology use for self-management over time is needed to guide the development of technology-mediated problem solving tools for youth with type 1 diabetes. PMID:25826706

  18. The optimal target for acute glycemic control in critically ill patients: a network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yatabe, Tomoaki; Inoue, Shigeaki; Sakaguchi, Masahiko; Egi, Moritoki

    2017-01-01

    The optimal target blood glucose concentration for acute glycemic control remains unclear because few studies have directly compared 144-180 with 110-144 or >180 mg/dL. Accordingly, we performed a network meta-analysis to compare four different target blood glucose levels (<110, 110-144, 144-180, and >180 mg/dL) in terms of the benefit and risk of insulin therapy. We included all of the studies from three systematic reviews and searched the PubMed and Cochrane databases for other studies investigating glucose targets among critically ill patients. The primary outcome was hospital mortality, and the secondary outcomes were sepsis or bloodstream infection and the risk of hypoglycemia. Network meta-analysis to identify an optimal target glucose concentration. The network meta-analysis included 18,098 patients from 35 studies. There were no significant differences in the risk of mortality and infection among the four blood glucose ranges overall or in subgroup analysis. Conversely, target concentrations of <110 and 110-144 mg/dL were associated with a four to ninefold increase in the risk of hypoglycemia compared with 144-180 and >180 mg/dL. However, there were no significant differences between the target concentrations of 144-180 and >180 mg/dL. This network meta-analysis found no significant difference in the risk of mortality and infection among four target blood glucose ranges in critically ill patients, but indicated that target blood glucose levels of <110 and 110-144 mg/dL were associated with a higher risk of hypoglycemia than target levels of 144-180 and >180 mg/dL. Further studies are required to refute or confirm our findings.

  19. Use of a Uniform Treatment Algorithm Abolishes Racial Disparities in Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Mary K.; Ziemer, David C.; Caudle, Jane; Kolm, Paul; Phillips, Lawrence S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare glycemic control between blacks and whites in a setting where patient and provider behavior is assessed, and where a uniform treatment algorithm is used to guide care. Methods This observational cohort study was conducted in 3542 patients (3324 blacks, 218 whites) with type 2 diabetes with first and 1-year follow-up visits to a municipal diabetes clinic; a subset had 2-year follow-up. Patient adherence and provider management were determined. The primary endpoint was A1c. Results At presentation, A1c was higher in blacks than whites (8.9% vs 8.3%; P < .001), even after adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. During 1 year of follow-up, patient adherence to scheduled visits and medications was comparable in both groups, and providers intensified medications with comparable frequency and amount. After 1 year, A1c differences decreased but remained significant (7.7% vs 7.3%; P = .029), even in multivariable analysis (P = .003). However, after 2 years, A1c differences were no longer observed by univariate (7.6% vs 7.5%; P = .51) or multivariable analysis (P = .18). Conclusions Blacks have higher A1c than whites at presentation, but differences narrow after 1 year and disappear after 2 years of care in a setting where patient and provider behavior are comparable and that emphasizes uniform intensification of therapy. Presumably, racial disparities at presentation reflected prior inequalities in management. Use of uniform care algorithms nationwide should help to reduce disparities in diabetes outcomes. PMID:18669807

  20. Safety and Efficacy of D-Tagatose in Glycemic Control in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ensor, Mark; Banfield, Amy B; Smith, Rebecca R; Williams, Jarrod; Lodder, Robert A

    The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate the treatment effect of D-tagatose on glycemic control, determined by a statistically significant decrease in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and safety profile of D-tagatose compared to placebo. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the treatment effects on fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid profiles, changes in BMI, and the proportion of subjects achieving HbA1c targets of <7%. Type 2 diabetic patients not taking any blood glucose lowering medications were administered either 15 g of D-tagatose dissolved in 125-250 ml of water three times a day or placebo with meals. Reduction in HbA1c was statistically significant compared to placebo at all post-baseline time points in the ITT population. Additionally, secondary endpoints were achieved in the ITT population with regard to LDL, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and proportion of subjects achieving HbA1c targets of <7%. D-tagatose was unable to lower triglycerides or raise HDL compared to placebo. A subgroup LOCF analysis on the ITT US population showed a greater and statistically significant LS mean reduction in HbA1c in the D-tagatose group at all post-baseline visits. Based on these results it is concluded that in the ITT population D-tagatose is an effective single agent at treating many of the therapy targets of type 2 diabetes including lowering fasting blood glucose and HbA1c, and lowering of LDL and total cholesterol.

  1. Safety and Efficacy of D-Tagatose in Glycemic Control in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ensor, Mark; Banfield, Amy B.; Smith, Rebecca R.; Williams, Jarrod; Lodder, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate the treatment effect of D-tagatose on glycemic control, determined by a statistically significant decrease in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and safety profile of D-tagatose compared to placebo. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the treatment effects on fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid profiles, changes in BMI, and the proportion of subjects achieving HbA1c targets of <7%. Type 2 diabetic patients not taking any blood glucose lowering medications were administered either 15 g of D-tagatose dissolved in 125–250 ml of water three times a day or placebo with meals. Reduction in HbA1c was statistically significant compared to placebo at all post-baseline time points in the ITT population. Additionally, secondary endpoints were achieved in the ITT population with regard to LDL, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and proportion of subjects achieving HbA1c targets of <7%. D-tagatose was unable to lower triglycerides or raise HDL compared to placebo. A subgroup LOCF analysis on the ITT US population showed a greater and statistically significant LS mean reduction in HbA1c in the D-tagatose group at all post-baseline visits. Based on these results it is concluded that in the ITT population D-tagatose is an effective single agent at treating many of the therapy targets of type 2 diabetes including lowering fasting blood glucose and HbA1c, and lowering of LDL and total cholesterol. PMID:27054147

  2. Interface design and human factors considerations for model-based tight glycemic control in critical care.

    PubMed

    Ward, Logan; Steel, James; Le Compte, Aaron; Evans, Alicia; Tan, Chia-Siong; Penning, Sophie; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Desaive, Thomas; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Tight glycemic control (TGC) has shown benefits but has been difficult to implement. Model-based methods and computerized protocols offer the opportunity to improve TGC quality and compliance. This research presents an interface design to maximize compliance, minimize real and perceived clinical effort, and minimize error based on simple human factors and end user input. The graphical user interface (GUI) design is presented by construction based on a series of simple, short design criteria based on fundamental human factors engineering and includes the use of user feedback and focus groups comprising nursing staff at Christchurch Hospital. The overall design maximizes ease of use and minimizes (unnecessary) interaction and use. It is coupled to a protocol that allows nurse staff to select measurement intervals and thus self-manage workload. The overall GUI design is presented and requires only one data entry point per intervention cycle. The design and main interface are heavily focused on the nurse end users who are the predominant users, while additional detailed and longitudinal data, which are of interest to doctors guiding overall patient care, are available via tabs. This dichotomy of needs and interests based on the end user's immediate focus and goals shows how interfaces must adapt to offer different information to multiple types of users. The interface is designed to minimize real and perceived clinical effort, and ongoing pilot trials have reported high levels of acceptance. The overall design principles, approach, and testing methods are based on fundamental human factors principles designed to reduce user effort and error and are readily generalizable. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  3. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in nutrient-controlled feeding study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between antioxidant capacity and reactive oxygen species, may be an early event in a metabolic cascade elicited by a high glycemic index (GI) diet, ultimately increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We conducted a feeding study to evalua...

  4. Enhanced fitness: a randomized controlled trial of the effects of home-based physical activity counseling on glycemic control in older adults with prediabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Morey, Miriam C; Pieper, Carl F; Edelman, David E; Yancy, William S; Green, Jennifer B; Lum, Helen; Peterson, Matthew J; Sloane, Richard; Cowper, Patricia A; Bosworth, Hayden B; Huffman, Kim M; Cavanaugh, James T; Hall, Katherine S; Pearson, Megan P; Taylor, Gregory A

    2012-09-01

    To determine whether a home-based multicomponent physical activity counseling (PAC) intervention is effective in reducing glycemic measures in older outpatients with prediabetes mellitus. Controlled clinical trial. Primary care clinics of the Durham Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center between September 29, 2008, and March 25, 2010. Three hundred two overweight (body mass index 25-45 kg/m(2) ), older (60-89) outpatients with impaired glucose tolerance (fasting blood glucose 100-125 mg/dL, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <7%) randomly assigned to a PAC intervention group (n = 180) or a usual care control group (n = 122). A 12-month, home-based multicomponent PAC program including one in-person baseline counseling session, regular telephone counseling, physician endorsement in clinic with monthly automated encouragement, and customized mailed materials. All study participants, including controls, received a consultation in a VA weight management program. The primary outcome was a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), calculated from fasting insulin and glucose levels at baseline and 3 and 12 months. HbA1c was the secondary indicator of glycemic control. Other secondary outcomes were anthropometric measures and self-reported physical activity, health-related quality of life, and physical function. There were no significant differences between the PAC and control groups over time for any of the glycemic indicators. Both groups had small declines over time of approximately 6% in fasting blood glucose (P < .001), and other glycemic indicators remained stable. The declines in glucose were not sufficient to affect the change in HOMA-IR scores due to fluctuations in insulin over time. Endurance physical activity increased significantly in the PAC group (P < .001) and not in the usual care group. Home-based telephone counseling increased physical activity levels but was insufficient to improve glycemic indicators in older outpatients with prediabetes

  5. Brief intervention to promote smoking cessation and improve glycemic control in smokers with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, William H. C.; Wang, M. P.; LAM, T. H.; Cheung, Yannes T. Y.; Cheung, Derek Y. T.; Suen, Y. N.; Ho, K. Y.; Tan, Kathryn C. B.; CHAN, Sophia S. C.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of a brief stage-matched smoking cessation intervention group compared with a control group (with usual care) in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who smoked by randomized controlled trial. There were 557 patients, randomized either into the intervention group (n = 283) who received brief (20- minute) individualized face-to-face counseling by trained nurses and a diabetes mellitus-specific leaflet, or a control group (n = 274) who received standard care. Patient follow-ups were at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months via telephone, and assessment of smoking status from 2012 to 2014. Patients smoked an average of 14 cigarettes per day for more than 37 years, and more than 70% were in the precontemplation stage of quitting. The primary outcome showed that both the intervention and control groups had similar 7-day point-prevalence smoking abstinence (9.2% vs. 13.9%; p = 0.08). The secondary outcome showed that HbA1c levels with 7.95% [63 mmol/mol] vs. 8.05% [64 mmol/mol], p = 0.49 at 12 months, respectively. There was no evidence for effectiveness in promoting the brief stage-matched smoking cessation or improving glycemic control in smokers with type 2 diabetes mellitus, particularly those in the pre-contemplation stage. PMID:28378764

  6. Clinical review: Consensus recommendations on measurement of blood glucose and reporting glycemic control in critically ill adults.

    PubMed

    Finfer, Simon; Wernerman, Jan; Preiser, Jean-Charles; Cass, Tony; Desaive, Thomas; Hovorka, Roman; Joseph, Jeffrey I; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Krinsley, James; Mackenzie, Iain; Mesotten, Dieter; Schultz, Marcus J; Scott, Mitchell G; Slingerland, Robbert; Van den Berghe, Greet; Van Herpe, Tom

    2013-06-14

    The management reporting and assessment of glycemic control lacks standardization. The use of different methods to measure the blood glucose concentration and to report the performance of insulin treatment yields major disparities and complicates the interpretation and comparison of clinical trials. We convened a meeting of 16 experts plus invited observers from industry to discuss and where possible reach consensus on the most appropriate methods to measure and monitor blood glucose in critically ill patients and on how glycemic control should be assessed and reported. Where consensus could not be reached, recommendations on further research and data needed to reach consensus in the future were suggested. Recognizing their clear conflict of interest, industry observers played no role in developing the consensus or recommendations from the meeting. Consensus recommendations were agreed for the measurement and reporting of glycemic control in clinical trials and for the measurement of blood glucose in clinical practice. Recommendations covered the following areas: How should we measure and report glucose control when intermittent blood glucose measurements are used? What are the appropriate performance standards for intermittent blood glucose monitors in the ICU? Continuous or automated intermittent glucose monitoring - methods and technology: can we use the same measures for assessment of glucose control with continuous and intermittent monitoring? What is acceptable performance for continuous glucose monitoring systems? If implemented, these recommendations have the potential to minimize the discrepancies in the conduct and reporting of clinical trials and to improve glucose control in clinical practice. Furthermore, to be fit for use, glucose meters and continuous monitoring systems must match their performance to fit the needs of patients and clinicians in the intensive care setting.

  7. Clinical review: Consensus recommendations on measurement of blood glucose and reporting glycemic control in critically ill adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The management reporting and assessment of glycemic control lacks standardization. The use of different methods to measure the blood glucose concentration and to report the performance of insulin treatment yields major disparities and complicates the interpretation and comparison of clinical trials. We convened a meeting of 16 experts plus invited observers from industry to discuss and where possible reach consensus on the most appropriate methods to measure and monitor blood glucose in critically ill patients and on how glycemic control should be assessed and reported. Where consensus could not be reached, recommendations on further research and data needed to reach consensus in the future were suggested. Recognizing their clear conflict of interest, industry observers played no role in developing the consensus or recommendations from the meeting. Consensus recommendations were agreed for the measurement and reporting of glycemic control in clinical trials and for the measurement of blood glucose in clinical practice. Recommendations covered the following areas: How should we measure and report glucose control when intermittent blood glucose measurements are used? What are the appropriate performance standards for intermittent blood glucose monitors in the ICU? Continuous or automated intermittent glucose monitoring - methods and technology: can we use the same measures for assessment of glucose control with continuous and intermittent monitoring? What is acceptable performance for continuous glucose monitoring systems? If implemented, these recommendations have the potential to minimize the discrepancies in the conduct and reporting of clinical trials and to improve glucose control in clinical practice. Furthermore, to be fit for use, glucose meters and continuous monitoring systems must match their performance to fit the needs of patients and clinicians in the intensive care setting. See related commentary by Soto-Rivera and Agus, http://ccforum.com/content/17

  8. Effects of diets differing in glycemic index and glycemic load on cardiovascular risk factors: review of randomized controlled-feeing trials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite a considerable amount of data available on the relationship between dietary glycemic index (GI) or load (GL) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, in aggregate, the area remains unsettled. The aim of the present review was to summarize the effect of diets differing in GI/GL on CVD r...

  9. Stable predictive control horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Raúl; Favela, Antonio; Raimondi, Angelo; Nevado, Antonio; Requena, Ricardo; Beltrán-Carbajal, Francisco

    2012-04-01

    The stability theory of predictive and adaptive predictive control for processes of linear and stable nature is based on the hypothesis of a physically realisable driving desired trajectory (DDT). The formal theoretical verification of this hypothesis is trivial for processes with a stable inverse, but it is not for processes with an unstable inverse. The extended strategy of predictive control was developed with the purpose of overcoming methodologically this stability problem and it has delivered excellent performance and stability in its industrial applications given a suitable choice of the prediction horizon. From a theoretical point of view, the existence of a prediction horizon capable of ensuring stability for processes with an unstable inverse was proven in the literature. However, no analytical solution has been found for the determination of the prediction horizon values which guarantee stability, in spite of the theoretical and practical interest of this matter. This article presents a new method able to determine the set of prediction horizon values which ensure stability under the extended predictive control strategy formulation and a particular performance criterion for the design of the DDT generically used in many industrial applications. The practical application of this method is illustrated by means of simulation examples.

  10. An unbiased lipidomics approach identifies early second trimester lipids predictive of Maternal Glycemic Traits and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Liangjian; Koulman, Albert; Petry, Clive J.; Jenkins, Benjamin; Matthews, Lee; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Ong, Ken K.; Dunger, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between early second trimester serum lipidomic variation and maternal glycemic traits at 28 weeks, and to identify predictive lipid biomarkers for Gestational Diabetes (GDM). Research Design and Methods Prospective study of 817 pregnant women (Discovery cohort, n=200; Validation cohort, n=617) who provided an early second trimester serum sample, and underwent oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) at 28 weeks. In the discovery cohort, lipids were measured using direct infusion mass spectrometry, and correlated with OGTT results. Variable Importance in Projection (VIP) scores were used to identify candidate lipid biomarkers. Candidate biomarkers were measured in the validation cohort using Liquid Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry, and tested for associations with OGTT results and GDM status. Results Early second trimester lipidomic variation was associated with 1-hour post-load glucose levels, but not with fasting plasma glucose. Of the 13 lipid species identified by VIP scores, 10 had nominally significant associations with post-load glucose levels. In the validation cohort, 5 of these 10 lipids had significant associations with post-load glucose levels independent of maternal age and BMI, i.e. TG(51:1), TG(48:1), PC(32:1), PCae(40:3) and PCae(40:4). All except the last were also associated with maternal GDM status. Together, these 4 lipid biomarkers had moderate ability to predict GDM (Area under curve (AUC)= 0.71±0.04, p=4.85×10-7), and improved the prediction of GDM by age and BMI alone from AUC 0.69 to AUC 0.74. Conclusions Specific early second trimester lipid biomarkers can predict maternal GDM status independent of maternal age and BMI, potentially enhancing risk factor-based screening. PMID:27703025

  11. Comparison of Space Glucose Control and Routine Glucose Management Protocol for Glycemic Control in Critically Ill Patients: A Prospective, Randomized Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Biao; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Chun-Yao; Weng, Li; Hu, Xiao-Yun; Peng, Jin-Min; Du, Bin

    2017-09-05

    The Space Glucose Control (SGC) system is a computer-assisted device combining infusion pumps with the enhanced Model Predictive Control algorithm to achieve the target blood glucose (BG) level safely. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glycemic control by SGC with customized BG target range of 5.8-8.9 mmol/L in the critically ill patients. It is a randomized controlled trial of seventy critically ill patients with mechanical ventilation and hyperglycemia (BG ≥ 9.0 mmol/L). Thirty-six patients in the SGC group and 34 in the routine glucose management group were observed for three consecutive days. Target BG for both groups was 5.8-8.9 mmol/L. The primary outcome was the percentage time in the target range. The percentage time within BG target range in the SGC group (69 ± 15%) was significantly higher than in the routine management group (52 ± 24%; P< 0.01). No measurement was ≤2.2 mmol/L, and there was only one episode of hypoglycemia (2.3-3.3 mmol/L) in each group. The average BG was significantly lower in the SGC group (7.8 ± 0.7 mmol/L) than in the routine management group (9.1 ± 1.6 mmol/L, P< 0.001). Target BG level was reached earlier in the SGC group than routine management group (2.5 ± 2.9 vs. 12.1 ± 15.3 h, P= 0.001). However, the SGC group performed worse for daily insulin requirement (59.8 ± 39.3 vs. 28.4 ± 36.7 U, P= 0.001) and sampling interval (2.0 ± 0.5 vs. 3.7 ± 0.5 h, P< 0.001) than the routine management group did. Multiple linear regression showed that the intervention group remained a significant individual predictor (P < 0.001) of the percentage time in target range. The SGC system, with a BG target of 5.8-8.9 mmol/L, resulted in effective and reliable glycemic control with few hypoglycemic episodes in critically ill patients with mechanical ventilation and hyperglycemia. However, the workload was increased. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT 02491346; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show

  12. Deadbeat Predictive Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Phan, Minh

    1997-01-01

    Several new computational algorithms are presented to compute the deadbeat predictive control law. The first algorithm makes use of a multi-step-ahead output prediction to compute the control law without explicitly calculating the controllability matrix. The system identification must be performed first and then the predictive control law is designed. The second algorithm uses the input and output data directly to compute the feedback law. It combines the system identification and the predictive control law into one formulation. The third algorithm uses an observable-canonical form realization to design the predictive controller. The relationship between all three algorithms is established through the use of the state-space representation. All algorithms are applicable to multi-input, multi-output systems with disturbance inputs. In addition to the feedback terms, feed forward terms may also be added for disturbance inputs if they are measurable. Although the feedforward terms do not influence the stability of the closed-loop feedback law, they enhance the performance of the controlled system.

  13. Oxamate Improves Glycemic Control and Insulin Sensitivity via Inhibition of Tissue Lactate Production in db/db Mice.

    PubMed

    Ye, Weiran; Zheng, Yijia; Zhang, Shanshan; Yan, Li; Cheng, Hua; Wu, Muchao

    2016-01-01

    Oxamate (OXA) is a pyruvate analogue that directly inhibits the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-catalyzed conversion process of pyruvate into lactate. Earlier and recent studies have shown elevated blood lactate levels among insulin-resistant and type 2 diabetes subjects and that blood lactate levels independently predicted the development of incident diabetes. To explore the potential of OXA in the treatment of diabetes, db/db mice were treated with OXA in vivo. Treatment of OXA (350-750 mg/kg of body weight) for 12 weeks was shown to decrease body weight gain and blood glucose and HbA1c levels and improve insulin secretion, the morphology of pancreatic islets, and insulin sensitivity in db/db mice. Meanwhile, OXA reduced the lactate production of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle and serum lactate levels and decreased serum levels of TG, FFA, CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α in db/db mice. The PCR array showed that OXA downregulated the expression of Tnf, Il6, leptin, Cxcr3, Map2k1, and Ikbkb, and upregulated the expression of Irs2, Nfkbia, and Pde3b in the skeletal muscle of db/db mice. Interestingly, LDH-A expression increased in the islet cells of db/db mice, and both treatment of OXA and pioglitazone decreased LDH-A expression, which might be related to the improvement of insulin secretion. Taken together, increased lactate production of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle may be at least partially responsible for insulin resistance and diabetes in db/db mice. OXA improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity in db/db mice primarily via inhibition of tissue lactate production. Oxamic acid derivatives may be a potential drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  14. Associations between nocturnal urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, obstructive sleep apnea severity and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Reutrakul, Sirimon; Siwasaranond, Nantaporn; Nimitphong, Hataikarn; Saetung, Sunee; Chirakalwasan, Naricha; Chailurkit, La-Or; Srijaruskul, Kriangsuk; Ongphiphadhanakul, Boonsong; Thakkinstian, Ammarin

    2017-01-01

    Reduced nocturnal secretion of melatonin, a pineal hormone under circadian control, and obstructive sleep apnea have been both identified as risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Whether they interact to impact glycemic control in patients with existing type 2 diabetes is not known. Therefore, this study explores the relationships between obstructive sleep apnea, melatonin and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. As diabetic retinopathy may affect melatonin secretion, we also explore the relationship between retinopathy, melatonin and glycemic control. Fifty-six non-shift workers with type 2 diabetes, who were not using beta-blockers, participated. Most recent hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and the results of ophthalmologic examinations were obtained from medical records. Obstructive sleep apnea was diagnosed using an ambulatory device. Sleep duration and fragmentation were recorded by 7-day wrist actigraphy. The urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin/creatinine ratio, an indicator of nocturnal melatonin secretion, was measured in an overnight urine sample. Mediation analyses were applied to explore whether low nocturnal urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin/creatinine ratio could be a causal link between increasing obstructive sleep apnea severity [as measured by an Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI)] and poorer glycemic control, and between the presence of retinopathy and glycemic control. AHI and HbA1c were log-scale (ln) transformed. Obstructive sleep apnea was found in 76.8%, and 25.5% had diabetic retinopathy. The median (interquartile range) of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin/creatinine ratio was 12.3 (6.0, 20.1) ng/mg. Higher lnHbA1c significantly correlated with lower 6-sulfatoxymelatonin/creatinine ratio (p = 0.04) but was not directly associated with OSA severity. More severe obstructive sleep apnea (lnAHI, p = 0.01), longer diabetes duration (p = 0.02), retinopathy (p = 0.01) and insulin use (p = 0.03) correlated with lower urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin

  15. Language barriers, physician-patient language concordance, and glycemic control among insured Latinos with diabetes: the Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE).

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Alicia; Schillinger, Dean; Warton, E Margaret; Adler, Nancy; Moffet, Howard H; Schenker, Yael; Salgado, M Victoria; Ahmed, Ameena; Karter, Andrew J

    2011-02-01

    A significant proportion of US Latinos with diabetes have limited English proficiency (LEP). Whether language barriers in health care contribute to poor glycemic control is unknown. To assess the association between limited English proficiency (LEP) and glycemic control and whether this association is modified by having a language-concordant physician. Cross-sectional, observational study using data from the 2005-2006 Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE). Patients received care in a managed care setting with interpreter services and self-reported their English language ability and the Spanish language ability of their physician. Outcome was poor glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin A1c > 9%). The unadjusted percentage of patients with poor glycemic control was similar among Latino patients with LEP (n = 510) and Latino English-speakers (n = 2,683), and higher in both groups than in whites (n = 3,545) (21% vs 18% vs. 10%, p < 0.005). This relationship differed significantly by patient-provider language concordance (p < 0.01 for interaction). LEP patients with language-discordant physicians (n = 115) were more likely than LEP patients with language-concordant physicians (n = 137) to have poor glycemic control (27.8% vs 16.1% p = 0.02). After controlling for potential demographic and clinical confounders, LEP Latinos with language-concordant physicians had similar odds of poor glycemic control as Latino English speakers (OR 0.89; CI 0.53-1.49), whereas LEP Latinos with language-discordant physicians had greater odds of poor control than Latino English speakers (OR 1.76; CI 1.04-2.97). Among LEP Latinos, having a language discordant physician was associated with significantly poorer glycemic control (OR 1.98; CI 1.03-3.80). Language barriers contribute to health disparities among Latinos with diabetes. Limited English proficiency is an independent predictor for poor glycemic control among insured US Latinos with diabetes, an association not observed

  16. Language Barriers, Physician-Patient Language Concordance, and Glycemic Control Among Insured Latinos with Diabetes: The Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE)

    PubMed Central

    Schillinger, Dean; Warton, E. Margaret; Adler, Nancy; Moffet, Howard H.; Schenker, Yael; Salgado, M. Victoria; Ahmed, Ameena; Karter, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND A significant proportion of US Latinos with diabetes have limited English proficiency (LEP). Whether language barriers in health care contribute to poor glycemic control is unknown. OBJECTIVE To assess the association between limited English proficiency (LEP) and glycemic control and whether this association is modified by having a language-concordant physician. DESIGN Cross-sectional, observational study using data from the 2005–2006 Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE). Patients received care in a managed care setting with interpreter services and self-reported their English language ability and the Spanish language ability of their physician. Outcome was poor glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin A1c > 9%). KEY RESULTS The unadjusted percentage of patients with poor glycemic control was similar among Latino patients with LEP (n = 510) and Latino English-speakers (n = 2,683), and higher in both groups than in whites (n = 3,545) (21% vs 18% vs. 10%, p < 0.005). This relationship differed significantly by patient-provider language concordance (p < 0.01 for interaction). LEP patients with language-discordant physicians (n = 115) were more likely than LEP patients with language-concordant physicians (n = 137) to have poor glycemic control (27.8% vs 16.1% p = 0.02). After controlling for potential demographic and clinical confounders, LEP Latinos with language-concordant physicians had similar odds of poor glycemic control as Latino English speakers (OR 0.89; CI 0.53–1.49), whereas LEP Latinos with language-discordant physicians had greater odds of poor control than Latino English speakers (OR 1.76; CI 1.04–2.97). Among LEP Latinos, having a language discordant physician was associated with significantly poorer glycemic control (OR 1.98; CI 1.03–3.80). CONCLUSIONS Language barriers contribute to health disparities among Latinos with diabetes. Limited English proficiency is an independent

  17. Impact on Diabetes Self-Management and Glycemic Control of a New Color-Based SMBG Meter.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Oliver; Klausmann, Gerd; Gutschek, Bettina; Garcia-Verdugo, Rosa Maria; Hummel, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is a key pillar of personal diabetes management. The objective of this observational study was to analyze diabetes self-management (DSM) and glycemic outcomes before and during system implementation in real-life settings of a blood glucose meter system with a color-coded display of glucose levels, which helps identify out-of-range levels. A total of 193 insulin-treated diabetes patients (11% T1DM; 55% male, age 60 ± 4 years, mean diabetes duration 14 ± 9 years, HbA1c 8.68 ± 1.2%) were enrolled into the study. Both the Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ) and glycemic control were analyzed at baseline and 3 and 6 months after study initiation. DSMQ general perception improved significantly by the end of the study period ("Sum Scale," P < .05). Moreover, after 6 months patient's attitudes on self-care (Q16, P = .0046) and nutrition ("Dietary Control," P = .004) showed significant improvements. Use of the blood glucose meter resulted in improved glycemic control, as shown by mean HbA1c levels, which decreased from 8.68 ± 1.2% at baseline to 8.13 ± 1.02% after 3 months ( P < .0001) and to 7.9 ± 1.1% at 6 months ( P < .0001). Both patients and diabetes educators agreed in the advantages of the color-coded indicator and on its helpfulness in assisting patients on their diabetes management, as drawn from the results of the self-reported satisfaction questionnaire. This real-world study demonstrates that SMBG implemented via this new blood glucose meter not only leads to an improvement in metabolic control, but also is associated with a significant improvement in diabetes management.

  18. Glycemic Control and Urinary Tract Infections in Women with Type 1 Diabetes: Results from the DCCT/EDIC.

    PubMed

    Lenherr, Sara M; Clemens, J Quentin; Braffett, Barbara H; Cleary, Patricia A; Dunn, Rodney L; Hotaling, James M; Jacobson, Alan M; Kim, Catherine; Herman, William; Brown, Jeanette S; Wessells, Hunter; Sarma, Aruna V

    2016-10-01

    We examined the relationship between glycemic control and urinary tract infections in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Women enrolled in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study, the observational followup of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, were surveyed to assess the rate of physician diagnosed urinary tract infections in the preceding 12 months. The relationship between glycated hemoglobin levels and number of urinary tract infections in the previous 12 months was assessed using a multivariable Poisson regression model. A total of 572 women were evaluated at year 17. Mean age was 50.7 ± 7.2 years, mean body mass index was 28.6 ± 5.9 kg/m(2), mean type 1 diabetes duration was 29.8 ± 5.0 years and mean glycated hemoglobin was 8.0% ± 0.9%. Of these women 86 (15.0%) reported at least 1 physician diagnosed urinary tract infection during the last 12 months. Higher glycated hemoglobin levels were significantly associated with number of urinary tract infections such that for every unit increase (1%) in recent glycated hemoglobin level, there was a 21% (p=0.02) increase in urinary tract infection frequency in the previous 12 months after adjusting for race, hysterectomy status, urinary incontinence, sexual activity in the last 12 months, peripheral and autonomic neuropathy, and nephropathy. The frequency of urinary tract infections increases with poor glycemic control in women with type 1 diabetes. This relationship is independent of other well described predictors of urinary tract infections and suggests that factors directly related to glycemic control may influence the risk of lower urinary tract infections. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Intensive glycemic control and thiazolidinedione use: effects on cortical and trabecular bone at the radius and tibia.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Ann V; Vittinghoff, Eric; Margolis, Karen L; Scibora, Lesley M; Palermo, Lisa; Ambrosius, Walter T; Hue, Trisha F; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2013-05-01

    Factors that contribute to bone fragility in type 2 diabetes are not well understood. We assessed the effects of intensive glycemic control, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), and A1C levels on bone geometry and strength at the radius and tibia. In a substudy of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes trial, peripheral quantitative computed tomographic (pQCT) scans of the radius and tibia were obtained 2 years after randomization on 73 participants (intensive n = 35, standard n = 38). TZD use and A1C levels were measured every 4 months during the trial. Effects of intervention assignment, TZD use, and A1C on pQCT parameters were assessed in linear regression models. Intensive, compared with standard, glycemic control was associated with 1.3 % lower cortical volumetric BMD at the tibia in men (p = 0.02) but not with other pQCT parameters. In women, but not men, each additional year of TZD use was associated with an 11 % lower polar strength strain index (SSIp) at the radius (p = 0.04) and tibia (p = 0.002) in models adjusted for A1C levels. In women, each additional 1 % increase in A1C was associated with an 18 % lower SSIp at the ultradistal radius (p = 0.04) in models adjusted for TZD use. There was no consistent evidence of an effect of intensive, compared with standard, glycemic control on bone strength at the radius or tibia. In women, TZD use may reduce bone strength at these sites. Higher A1C may also be associated with lower bone strength at the radius, but not tibia, in women.

  20. GLYCEMIC CONTROL AND URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN WOMEN WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES: RESULTS FROM THE DCCT/EDIC

    PubMed Central

    Lenherr, Sara M.; Clemens, J. Quentin; Braffett, Barbara H.; Cleary, Patricia A.; Dunn, Rodney L.; Hotaling, James M.; Jacobson, Alan M.; Kim, Catherine; Herman, William; Brown, Jeanette S.; Wessells, Hunter; Sarma, Aruna V.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We examined the relationship between glycemic control and urinary tract infections (UTI) in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS Women enrolled in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, the observational follow-up of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) were surveyed to assess the rate of physician-diagnosed UTI in the preceding 12 months. The relationship between HbA1c levels and number of UTIs in the previous 12 months was assessed using a multivariable Poisson regression model. RESULTS At EDIC Year 17, 572 women were evaluated: mean age 50.7 ± 7.2 years, mean body mass index (BMI) 28.6 ± 5.9 kg/m2, type 1 diabetes duration 29.8 ± 5.0 years, and mean HbA1c 8.0 ± 0.9%. Of these, 86 (15.0%) reported at least one physician diagnosed UTI during the past 12 months. Higher HbA1c levels were significantly associated with number of UTIs, such that for every unit increase (1%) in recent HbA1c level, there was a 21% (p=0.02) increase in UTI frequency in the previous 12 months after adjusting for race, hysterectomy status, urinary incontinence (UI), sexual activity in the past 12 months, peripheral and autonomic neuropathy and nephropathy. CONCLUSIONS The frequency of UTI increases with poor glycemic control in women with type 1 diabetes. This relationship is independent of other well-described predictors of UTI and suggests that factors directly related to glycemic control may influence the risk of lower urinary tract infections. PMID:27131462

  1. Impact of glycemic control on heart rate variability in youth with type 1 diabetes: the SEARCH CVD study.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Mamta; Fingerlin, Tasha E; Urbina, Elaine M; Wadwa, R Paul; Talton, Jennifer W; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Hamman, Richard F; Daniels, Stephen R; Marcovina, Santica M; Dolan, Larry M; Dabelea, Dana

    2013-12-01

    This study explored the role of glycemic control on cardiac autonomic function, measured by heart rate variability (HRV), in youth with type 1 diabetes. A retrospective cohort of 345 youth with type 1 diabetes (mean age, 18.5 years; duration, 10 years) participating in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study were enrolled in the ancillary SEARCH Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) study. Anthropometric, metabolic, and HRV parameters were collected at the current research visit. Glycemic control over time was assessed by the mean glycated hemoglobin (A1c) levels collected over the past 6 years. Multiple linear regression analysis assessed the association between A1c over time and HRV parameters, independent of demographic and CVD risk factors. Participants were categorized into four glycemic control categories based on their mean A1c over time: Group 1, optimal (mean A1c, ≤7.4%); Group 2 (mean A1c, 7.5-8.4%); Group 3 (mean A1c, 8.5-9.4%), and Group 4, poor (mean A1c, ≥9.5%), and a linear trend was explored across these categories. For every 1% increase in the average A1c over 6 years there was a 5% decrease in the SD of the normal RR interval (SDNN) (P=0.02) and 7% decrease in the root mean square successive difference of the RR interval (RMSSD) (P=0.02), independent of demographic and traditional CVD risk factors. A dose-response relationship between worsening glucose control categories and measures of overall reduced HRV was found. Chronic hyperglycemia is the main determinant of early cardiac autonomic dysfunction, manifested as reduced overall HRV and parasympathetic loss, among youth with type 1 diabetes.

  2. Impact of Glycemic Control on Heart Rate Variability in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: The SEARCH CVD Study

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Mamta; Fingerlin, Tasha E.; Urbina, Elaine M.; Wadwa, R. Paul; Talton, Jennifer W.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Hamman, Richard F.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Dolan, Larry M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aim: This study explored the role of glycemic control on cardiac autonomic function, measured by heart rate variability (HRV), in youth with type 1 diabetes. Patients and Methods: A retrospective cohort of 345 youth with type 1 diabetes (mean age, 18.5 years; duration, 10 years) participating in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study were enrolled in the ancillary SEARCH Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) study. Anthropometric, metabolic, and HRV parameters were collected at the current research visit. Glycemic control over time was assessed by the mean glycated hemoglobin (A1c) levels collected over the past 6 years. Multiple linear regression analysis assessed the association between A1c over time and HRV parameters, independent of demographic and CVD risk factors. Participants were categorized into four glycemic control categories based on their mean A1c over time: Group 1, optimal (mean A1c, ≤7.4%); Group 2 (mean A1c, 7.5–8.4%); Group 3 (mean A1c, 8.5–9.4%), and Group 4, poor (mean A1c, ≥9.5%), and a linear trend was explored across these categories. Results: For every 1% increase in the average A1c over 6 years there was a 5% decrease in the SD of the normal RR interval (SDNN) (P=0.02) and 7% decrease in the root mean square successive difference of the RR interval (RMSSD) (P=0.02), independent of demographic and traditional CVD risk factors. A dose–response relationship between worsening glucose control categories and measures of overall reduced HRV was found. Conclusions: Chronic hyperglycemia is the main determinant of early cardiac autonomic dysfunction, manifested as reduced overall HRV and parasympathetic loss, among youth with type 1 diabetes. PMID:24010960

  3. Racial comparisons of health care and glycemic control for African American and white diabetic adults in an urban managed care organization.

    PubMed

    Gary, Tiffany L; McGuire, Maura; McCauley, Jeanne; Brancati, Frederick L

    2004-01-01

    The excess risk of diabetic complications in African Americans may be due to poor glycemic control arising from suboptimal use and/or quality of diabetes-related health care. However, little is known about racial differences in these factors, particularly in urban populations. We conducted a cross-sectional study using medical claims and encounter data on 1,106 adults with diabetes aged > or =30 years who were members of an urban managed care organization in capitated health plans. We examined health care and routine hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) testing in a biracial cohort for 12 months. We then followed individuals for an additional 12 months, using a retrospective cohort design, to determine how this health care predicted subsequent emergency room visits. On average, compared with their white counterparts, African Americans had fewer primary care visits (85% vs. 91% with four or more visits) and fewer HbA(1c) tests (56% vs. 68% with two or more HbA(1c) tests) (all P < 0.05). Likewise, in the subset who underwent one or more HbA(1c) measurement (n = 855), African Americans displayed poorer glycemic control (HbA(1c) 9.1 +/- 2.9%) than whites (8.5 +/- 2.2%; P = 0.001). In multivariate analyses, racial differences in visit frequency and HbA(1c) testing were attenuated by adjustment for age, sex, and type of capitated plan and did not remain statistically significant. The relationship of health care to subsequent emergency room visits differed by race; in African Americans, fewer primary care visits and HbA(1c) tests predicted greater risk of emergency room visits. Even in a capitated, managed care setting, urban African Americans with diabetes are less likely than their white counterparts to undergo routine primary care visits and laboratory testing and are more likely to have suboptimal glycemic control. Differences in age, sex, and insurance type seemed to explain some of the disparities. Future research should determine the individual contributions of physician

  4. Overnight Closed Loop Control Improves Glycemic Control in a Multicenter Study of Adults with Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sue A; Breton, Marc D; Anderson, Stacey M; Kollar, Laura; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Levy, Carol J; Lam, David W; Levister, Camilla; Baysal, Nihat; Kudva, Yogish C; Basu, Ananda; Dadlani, Vikash; Hinshaw, Ling; McCrady-Spitzer, Shelly; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Visentin, Roberto; Galasso, Silvia; Favero, Simone Del; Leal, Yenny; Boscari, Federico; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio; Kovatchev, Boris P

    2017-06-28

    Closed-loop control (CLC) for the management of T1D is a novel method for optimizing glucose control and strategies for individualized implementation are being developed. Analyze glycemic control in an Overnight CLC system designed to "reset" the patient to near normal glycemic targets every morning. Randomized cross-over multicenter clinical trial. 44 subjects with T1D on insulin pump therapy. Sensor-augmented pump therapy (SAP) at home vs 5 nights of CLC (active from 23:00 to 07:00) in a supervised outpatient setting (research house or hotel) with a substudy of 5 nights of CLC subsequently at home. Percent time spent in target range (70-180 mg/dL measured by CGM). 40 subjects (age:45.5±9.5 years, HbA1c:7.4±0.8%) completed the study. Time in target range (70-180 mg/dL) significantly improved in CLC vs. SAP over 24 hours (78.3% vs. 71.4%, p=0.003) as well as overnight (85.7% vs. 67.6%, p<0.001). Time spent in a hypoglycemic range (<70 mg/dL) significantly decreased in CLC vs. SAP over 24 hours (2.5% vs. 4.3%, p=0.002) and overnight (0.9% vs. 3.2%, p<0.001). Mean glucose at 07:00 was lower with CLC vs. SAP (123.7 vs. 145.3 mg/dL, p<0.001). The substudy at home, involving 10 T1D subjects, showed similar trends with increased time in target (70-180 mg/dL) overnight (75.2% vs. 62.2%, p=0.07) and decreased time spent in hypoglycemic range (<70 mg/dL) overnight in CLC vs SAP (0.6% vs. 3.7%, p=0.03). Overnight-only CLC increased time in target range over 24 hours and decreased time in hypoglycemic range over 24 hours in a supervised outpatient setting. A pilot extension study at home showed a similar non-significant trend.

  5. Association of glycemic control with mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Praneet K; Agarwal, Shikhar; Ellis, Stephen G; Goel, Sachin S; Cho, Leslie; Tuzcu, E Murat; Lincoff, A Michael; Kapadia, Samir R

    2014-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus adversely affects outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The association of baseline hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at the time of percutaneous coronary intervention with long-term mortality is unknown. Consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention between 1998 and 2008 were identified from our institutional database. Characteristics and outcomes of patients were compared based on HbA1c categories (≤7%, 7.1%-8.0%, 8.1%-9.0%, 9.1%-10.0%, and >10.0%). Among 3008 patients, 1321 had HbA1c ≤7%, 782 with HbA1c 7.1% to 8.0%, 401 with HbA1c 8.1% to 9.0%, 229 with HbA1c 9.1% to 10.0%, and 275 with HbA1c >10%. Compared with low HbA1c (≤7%), those with highest HbA1c (>10%) were younger (56.5 versus 67.5 years), had higher total cholesterol (188 versus 157 mg/dL), more insulin use (54% versus 26%), and presented more often with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (10.9% versus 5.6%). Those with lower HbA1c (≤7%) more often had other comorbidities (more hypertension [90.4% versus 82.5%] and chronic renal failure [14.4% versus 7.6%]). On multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling, survival analysis demonstrated a trend toward higher mortality with higher HbA1c. Compared with the reference group of patients with HbA1c ≤7%, patients with HbA1c >10% had a significantly higher mortality on follow-up (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.52 [1.17-1.99]; P=0.002). This difference was primarily seen among noninsulin users; however, insulin users had no significant differences in mortality among HbA1c categories. Patients with diabetes mellitus who were not on insulin and had poor glycemic control (HbA1c >10%) had significantly higher long-term mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention as compared with those with well-controlled diabetes mellitus, evidenced by HbA1c ≤7%. Insulin users, however, had similar rates of mortality among different HbA1c categories. © 2014

  6. Beneficial Effects of Resistance Exercise on Glycemic Control Are Not Further Improved by Protein Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Leigh; Philp, Andrew; Shaw, Christopher S.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.; Baar, Keith; Tipton, Kevin D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the mechanisms underpinning modifications in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity 24 h after a bout of resistance exercise (RE) with or without protein ingestion. Methods Twenty-four healthy males were assigned to a control (CON; n = 8), exercise (EX; n = 8) or exercise plus protein condition (EX+PRO; n = 8). Muscle biopsy and blood samples were obtained at rest for all groups and immediately post-RE (75% 1RM, 8×10 repetitions of leg-press and extension exercise) for EX and EX+PRO only. At 24 h post-RE (or post-resting biopsy for CON), a further muscle biopsy was obtained. Participants then consumed an oral glucose load (OGTT) containing 2 g of [U-13C] glucose during an infusion of 6, 6-[2H2] glucose. Blood samples were obtained every 10 min for 2 h to determine glucose kinetics. EX+PRO ingested an additional 25 g of intact whey protein with the OGTT. A final biopsy sample was obtained at the end of the OGTT. Results Fasted plasma glucose and insulin were similar for all groups and were not different immediately post- and 24 h post-RE. Following RE, muscle glycogen was 26±8 and 19±6% lower in EX and EX+PRO, respectively. During OGTT, plasma glucose AUC was lower for EX and EX+PRO (75.1±2.7 and 75.3±2.8 mmol·L−1∶120 min, respectively) compared with CON (90.6±4.1 mmol·L−1∶120 min). Plasma insulin response was 13±2 and 21±4% lower for EX and CON, respectively, compared with EX+PRO. Glucose disappearance from the circulation was ∼12% greater in EX and EX+PRO compared with CON. Basal 24 h post-RE and insulin-stimulated PAS-AS160/TBC1D4 phosphorylation was greater for EX and EX+PRO. Conclusions Prior RE improves glycemic control and insulin sensitivity through an increase in the rate at which glucose is disposed from the circulation. However, co-ingesting protein during a high-glucose load does not augment this response at 24 h post-exercise in healthy, insulin-sensitive individuals. PMID:21701685

  7. Differential association of body mass index on glycemic control in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Young; Lee, Yong-Ho; Jin, Sang-Man; Yang, Hae Kyung; Jung, Chang Hee; Park, Cheol-Young; Cho, Jae Hyoung; Lee, Woo Je; Lee, Byung-Wan; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to type 2 diabetes, the association of body mass index (BMI) with glycemic control in type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between BMI and average HbA1c levels in subjects with T1D. In this multi-centre observational study, we analysed 719 subjects with T1D aged ≥18 years. Average HbA1c levels over 18 months and other clinical and laboratory parameters were evaluated. The mean age and duration of diabetes at baseline were 41.5 ± 13.9 and 11.3 ± 8.7 years, respectively. A U-shaped correlation between BMI and 18-month average HbA1c levels was documented by a spline curve. Based on this finding, subjects were divided into three groups according to BMI (group I, <21; group II, 21-23; and group III, ≥23 kg/m(2) ). In group I, the BMI negatively correlated with average HbA1c (r = -0.172, p = 0.011), while a positive relationship was observed (r = 0.162, p = 0.012) in group III. Average HbA1c levels were lower and the proportion of individuals with well-controlled glycemia (HbA1c <7%) were increased in the higher BMI tertile group among subjects with group I as well as in the lower BMI tertile group among subjects with group III BMI. After adjustment with additional covariates in the multiple regression model, these associations between BMI and HbA1c levels according to the different BMI ranges remained significant. In Korean subjects with T1D, an inverse relationship of BMI with HbA1c levels was observed in the low BMI group, while a positive correlation was shown in the high BMI group. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Changes in diabetes distress related to participation in an internet-based diabetes care management program and glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Fonda, Stephanie J; McMahon, Graham T; Gomes, Helen E; Hickson, Sara; Conlin, Paul R

    2009-01-01

    This article investigated how changes in diabetes distress relate to receiving care management through an Internet-based care management (IBCM) program for diabetes and level of participation in this program. Further, it examined the relationship between diabetes distress and changes in glycemic control. We enrolled patients of the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System with diabetes who had hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of ≥9.0%. Subjects were randomized to usual care (n=52) or IBCM (n=52) for 1 year. We measured diabetes distress at baseline and quarterly thereafter using the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) questionnaire. Glycemic control was determined by baseline and quarterly HbA1c. For subjects randomized to IBCM, we measured participation by observing frequency and consistency of their usage of the IBCM patient portal over 12 months. Linear mixed models were used to analyze THE data. PAID scores declined over time for both treatment groups. Among subjects randomized to IBCM, the decline in PAID scores over time was significant for sustained users of the IBCM patient portal but not for nonusers. Moreover, subjects whose usage of the patient portal was sustained throughout the study had lower PAID scores at baseline. With respect to changes in glycemic control, HbA1c reduced individual differences in PAID scores by 44%; a lower baseline HbA1c was associated with lower baseline PAID scores, and over time, the decrease in HbA1c was associated with further decreases in the PAID score. Participation in IBCM varies by initial diabetes distress, with people with less distress participating more. For people who participate, IBCM further mitigates diabetes distress. There is also a relationship between achievements in glycemic control and subsequent lowering of diabetes distress. Future research should identify how to maximize fit between patient needs and the provisions of IBCM, with the aim of increasing patient engagement in the active management of their

  9. Glycemic control protects against trabecular bone microarchitectural damage in a juvenile male rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Guilherme José Pimentel Lopes; Basso, Túlio Luiz Durigan; Fontanari, Lucas Amaral; Faloni, Ana Paula de Souza; Marcantonio, Élcio; Orrico, Silvana Regina Perez

    2017-08-01

    To determine which features of the bone microarchitecture are affected by established diabetes mellitus (DM) and the effectiveness of glycemic control in the protection of bone tissue. Sixty juvenile Wistar male rats were divided into three groups of 20 animals: a control group (C) that included healthy animals, a diabetic group (D) that included animals with induced diabetes, and a controlled diabetic group (CD) that included animals with induced diabetes that were treated with insulin. The animals were euthanized at the periods of 6 and 8 weeks after the induction of diabetes (10 animals per group/period). Vertebral L4 specimens were submitted to μCT analysis to assess the following parameters of the bone microarchitecture: bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular number (Tb.N), and trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp). The D group exhibited lower values of BV/TV (%) and numbers of trabeculae compared with the C group at 6 and 8 weeks and compared with the CD group at 8 weeks. The CD group exhibited higher trabecular thickness values compared with the D group at 8 weeks. There were no differences between the groups regarding the spaces between the trabeculae. Induced diabetes affected the microarchitecture of the trabecular bone of the vertebrae by reducing the values of the majority of the parameters in relation to those of the control group. Glycemic control with insulin appears to protect bones from the effects of the hyperglycemia.

  10. Color record in self-monitoring of blood glucose improves glycemic control by better self-management.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Akiko; Harashima, Shin-ichi; Honda, Ikumi; Shimizu, Yoshiyuki; Harada, Norio; Nagashima, Kazuaki; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Hosoda, Kiminori; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2014-07-01

    Color affects emotions, feelings, and behaviors. We hypothesized that color used in self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is helpful for patients to recognize and act on their glucose levels to improve glycemic control. Here, two color-indication methods, color record (CR) and color display (CD), were independently compared for their effects on glycemic control in less frequently insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. One hundred twenty outpatients were randomly allocated to four groups with 2×2 factorial design: CR or non-CR and CD or non-CD. Blood glucose levels were recorded in red or blue pencil in the CR arm, and a red or blue indicator light on the SMBG meter was lit in the CD arm, under hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, respectively. The primary end point was difference in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction in 24 weeks. Secondary end points were self-management performance change and psychological state change. HbA1c levels at 24 weeks were significantly decreased in the CR arm by -0.28% but were increased by 0.03% in the non-CR arm (P=0.044). In addition, diet and exercise scores were significantly improved in the CR arm compared with the non-CR arm. The exercise score showed significant improvement in the CD arm compared with the non-CD arm but without a significant difference in HbA1c reduction. Changes in psychological states were not altered between the arms. CR has a favorable effect on self-management performance without any influence on psychological stress, resulting in improved glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients using less frequent insulin injection. Thus, active but not passive usage of color-indication methods by patients is important in successful SMBG.

  11. Hepatic Expression of Adenovirus 36 E4ORF1 Improves Glycemic Control and Promotes Glucose Metabolism Through AKT Activation.

    PubMed

    McMurphy, Travis B; Huang, Wei; Xiao, Run; Liu, Xianglan; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V; Cao, Lei

    2017-02-01

    Considering that impaired proximal insulin signaling is linked with diabetes, approaches that enhance glucose disposal independent of insulin signaling are attractive. In vitro data indicate that the E4ORF1 peptide derived from human adenovirus 36 (Ad36) interacts with cells from adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver to enhance glucose disposal, independent of proximal insulin signaling. Adipocyte-specific expression of Ad36E4ORF1 improves hyperglycemia in mice. To determine the hepatic interaction of Ad36E4ORF1 in enhancing glycemic control, we expressed E4ORF1 of Ad36 or Ad5 or fluorescent tag alone by using recombinant adeno-associated viral vector in the liver of three mouse models. In db/db or diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice, hepatic expression of Ad36E4ORF1 but not Ad5E4ORF1 robustly improved glycemic control. In normoglycemic wild-type mice, hepatic expression of Ad36E4ORF1 lowered nonfasting blood glucose at a high dose of expression. Of note, Ad36E4ORF1 significantly reduced insulin levels in db/db and DIO mice. The improvement in glycemic control was observed without stimulation of the proximal insulin signaling pathway. Collectively, these data indicate that Ad36E4ORF1 is not a typical sensitizer, mimetic, or secretagogue of insulin. Instead, it may have insulin-sparing action, which seems to reduce the need for insulin and, hence, to reduce insulin levels. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  12. Effect of Insulin Dilution on Lowering Glycemic Variability in Pump-Treated Young Children with Inadequately Controlled Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mianowska, Beata; Fendler, Wojciech; Tomasik, Bartłomiej; Młynarski, Wojciech; Szadkowska, Agnieszka

    2015-09-01

    We investigated whether in young children with inadequately controlled type 1 diabetes and technical problems with continuous subcutaneous infusion of insulin at 100 units/mL the switch to insulin diluted to 10 units/mL (U10) can limit technical problems and improve glycemic control. Diluted U10 insulin was started in three children 3.8, 3.2, and 1.3 years old with a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level (mean±SD) of 8.1±0.17% (65±1.7 mmol/mol) and insulin dose of 8.80±2.93 units/day. Patients were evaluated with continuous glucose monitoring (iPro™2; Medtronic Minimed, Northridge, CA) and a quality of life questionnaire (PedsQL™; www.pedsql.org/ ) and surveyed for pump-related problems at baseline and after 3 and 9 months of U10 insulin therapy. Continuous glucose monitoring records showed that glycemic variability assessed by SD and M100 decreased significantly (P=0.0085 and P=0.0482, respectively). HbA1c levels dropped to 7.3±1.00% (56±11.0 mmol/mol) after 3 months and to 6.7±0.55% (50±6.1 mmol/mol) after 9 months (P=0.12). Technical difficulties were minimized. These results suggest that the use of U10 insulin decreases glycemic variability and improves hampered pump therapy in young children with inadequately controlled type 1 diabetes.

  13. Analysis of the relationships between type 2 diabetes status, glycemic control, and neuroimaging measures in the Diabetes Heart Study Mind.

    PubMed

    Raffield, Laura M; Cox, Amanda J; Freedman, Barry I; Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Wagner, Benjamin C; Xu, Jianzhao; Maldjian, Joseph A; Bowden, Donald W

    2016-06-01

    To examine the relationships between type 2 diabetes (T2D) status, glycemic control, and T2D duration with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived neuroimaging measures in European Americans from the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) Mind cohort. Relationships were examined using marginal models with generalized estimating equations in 784 participants from 514 DHS Mind families. Fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and diabetes duration were analyzed in 682 participants with T2D. Models were adjusted for potential confounders, including age, sex, history of cardiovascular disease, smoking, educational attainment, and use of statins or blood pressure medications. Association was tested with gray and white matter volume, white matter lesion volume, gray matter cerebral blood flow, and white and gray matter fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity. Adjusting for multiple comparisons, T2D status was associated with reduced white matter volume (p = 2.48 × 10(-6)) and reduced gray and white matter fractional anisotropy (p ≤ 0.001) in fully adjusted models, with a trend toward increased white matter lesion volume (p = 0.008) and increased gray and white matter mean diffusivity (p ≤ 0.031). Among T2D-affected participants, neither fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, nor diabetes duration were associated with the neuroimaging measures assessed (p > 0.05). While T2D was significantly associated with MRI-derived neuroimaging measures, differences in glycemic control in T2D-affected individuals in the DHS Mind study do not appear to significantly contribute to variation in these measures. This supports the idea that the presence or absence of T2D, not fine gradations of glycemic control, may be more significantly associated with age-related changes in the brain.

  14. Glycemic variability: Clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Satya Krishna, Surabhi Venkata; Kota, Sunil K; Modi, Kirtikumar D

    2013-07-01

    Glycemic control and its benefits in preventing microvascular diabetic complications are convincingly proved by various prospective trials. Diabetes control and complications trial (DCCT) had reported variable glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) as a cause of increased microvascular complications in conventional glycemic control group versus intensive one. However, in spite of several indirect evidences, its link with cardiovascular events or macrovascular complications is still not proved. Glycemic variability (GV) is one more tool to explain relation between hyperglycemia and increased cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients. In fact GV along with fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, HbA1C, and quality of life has been proposed to form glycemic pentad, which needs to be considered in diabetes management. Postprandial spikes in blood glucose as well as hypoglycemic events, both are blamed for increased cardiovascular events in Type 2 diabetics. GV includes both these events and hence minimizing GV can prevent future cardiovascular events. Modern diabetes management modalities including improved sulfonylureas, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based therapy, newer basal insulins, and modern insulin pumps address the issue of GV effectively. This article highlights mechanism, clinical implications, and measures to control GV in clinical practice.

  15. Glycemic variability: Clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Satya Krishna, Surabhi Venkata; Kota, Sunil K.; Modi, Kirtikumar D.

    2013-01-01

    Glycemic control and its benefits in preventing microvascular diabetic complications are convincingly proved by various prospective trials. Diabetes control and complications trial (DCCT) had reported variable glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) as a cause of increased microvascular complications in conventional glycemic control group versus intensive one. However, in spite of several indirect evidences, its link with cardiovascular events or macrovascular complications is still not proved. Glycemic variability (GV) is one more tool to explain relation between hyperglycemia and increased cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients. In fact GV along with fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, HbA1C, and quality of life has been proposed to form glycemic pentad, which needs to be considered in diabetes management. Postprandial spikes in blood glucose as well as hypoglycemic events, both are blamed for increased cardiovascular events in Type 2 diabetics. GV includes both these events and hence minimizing GV can prevent future cardiovascular events. Modern diabetes management modalities including improved sulfonylureas, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based therapy, newer basal insulins, and modern insulin pumps address the issue of GV effectively. This article highlights mechanism, clinical implications, and measures to control GV in clinical practice. PMID:23961476

  16. Self-efficacy, self-care behaviors and glycemic control among type-2 diabetes patients attending two private clinics in Yangon, Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Wynn Nyunt, Sandhi; Howteerakul, Nopporn; Suwannapong, Nawarat; Rajatanun, Thitipat

    2010-07-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of glycemic control and its associated factors among type-2 diabetes patients attending two private clinics in Yangon, Myanmar. Two hundred sixty-six diabetes patients attending two private diabetes clinics in Yangon during February and March, 2009 were included in the study. The participants completed a structured questionnaire. HbA(1c) was used as the index for glycemic control. The prevalence of successful glycemic control (HbA(1c) < or =7%) was 27.1%. The median HbA(1c) value was 7.8%. About 62.0% of patients had high self-efficacy levels, and 30.8% had good self-care behavior. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed four variables associated with glycemic control: age > or =60 years (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.17-5.21), taking one oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA) (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.26-5.19), being overweight (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.02-3.95) and having a high self-efficacy level (OR 5.29, 95% CI 2.20-12.75). Interventions to increase diabetic patient self-efficacy levels and self-care behavior, especially related to diet and exercise, are needed to reduce poor glycemic control.

  17. Perioperative intensive insulin therapy using an artificial endocrine pancreas with closed-loop glycemic control system: the effects of no hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Munekage, Masaya; Dabanaka, Ken; Takezaki, Yuka; Tsukamoto, Yuuki; Asano, Takuji; Kinoshita, Yoshihiko; Namikawa, Tsutomu

    2014-06-01

    We examined whether perioperative intensive insulin therapy (IIT) using an artificial pancreas (AP) with a closed-loop glycemic control system can be used to prevent hypoglycemia in surgical patients. Between 2006 and 2012, perioperative glycemic control using an AP was performed in 427 patients undergoing general surgery. A total of 305 patients undergoing IIT using an AP in the target blood glucose range of 80 to 110 mg/dL were enrolled in the study. Data were collected prospectively and were reviewed or analyzed retrospectively. No patients had hypoglycemia. Perioperative mean blood glucose level and achievement rates in target blood glucose range of 80 to 110 mg/dL were 100.5 ± 11.9 mg/dL and 88.1% ± 16.0%, respectively. For the 3 primary operative methods, including hepatic, pancreatic, and esophageal resections, there were no significant differences in glycemic control stability between the types of surgery. Perioperative IIT using an AP with a closed-loop glycemic control system can be used to prevent hypoglycemia and maintain stable glycemic control with less variability of blood glucose concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of knowledge about diabetes, resilience and depression on glycemic control: a cross-sectional study among adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between glycemic control and the factors of knowledge about diabetes, resilience, depression and anxiety among Brazilian adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes. Methods This cross-sectional study included 85 adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes, aged between 11–22 years, with an average age of 17.7 ± 3.72 years. Glycemic control degree was evaluated through HbA1c. To assess psychosocial factors, the following questionnaires were used: resilience (Resilience Scale, RS) and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS). The Diabetes Knowledge Assessment Scale (DKNA) was used to assess knowledge about diabetes. Results Significant correlations were found between HbA1c and resilience, anxiety and depression. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the only variable which presented significant association with the value of HbA1c was depression. Conclusions Depression has a significant association with higher HbA1c levels, as demonstrated in a regression analysis. The results suggest that depression, anxiety and resilience should be considered in the design of a multidisciplinary approach to type 1 diabetes, as these factors were significantly correlated with glycemic control. Glycemic control was not correlated with knowledge of diabetes, suggesting that theoretical or practical understanding of this disease is not by itself significantly associated with appropriate glycemic control (HbA1c ≤ 7.5%). PMID:24289093

  19. Dyadic measures of the parent-child relationship during the transition to adolescence and glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barbara J; Holmbeck, Grayson; Iannotti, Ronald J; McKay, Siripoom V; Lochrie, Amanda; Volkening, Lisa K; Laffel, Lori

    2009-06-01

    To identify aspects of family behavior associated with glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus during the transition to adolescence, the authors studied 121 9- to 14-year-olds (M = 12.1 yrs) and their parents, who completed the Diabetes Family Conflict Scale (DFCS) and the Diabetes Family Responsibility Questionnaire (DFRQ). From the DFRQ, the authors derived 2 dyadic variables, frequency of agreement (exact parent and child concurrence about who was responsible for a task) and frequency of discordance (opposite parent and child reports about responsibility). The authors divided the cohort into Younger (n = 57, M = 10.6 yrs) and Older (n = 64, M = 13.5 yrs) groups. Family conflict was significantly related to glycemic control in the entire cohort and in both the Younger and Older groups. However, only in the Younger group was Agreement related to glycemic control, with higher Agreement associated with better glycemic control. Findings suggest that Agreement about sharing of diabetes responsibilities may be an important target for family-based interventions aiming to optimize glycemic control in preteen youth.

  20. Acceleration of Biliary Cholesterol Secretion Restores Glycemic Control and Alleviates Hypertriglyceridemia in Obese db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Su, Kai; Sabeva, Nadezhda S.; Wang, Yuhuan; Liu, Xiaoxi; Lester, Joshua D.; Liu, Jingjing; Liang, Shuang; Graf, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Recent studies support a role for cholesterol in the development of obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Mice lacking the ABCG5 ABCG8 (G5G8) sterol transporter have reduced biliary cholesterol secretion and are more susceptible to steatosis, hepatic insulin resistance, and loss of glycemic control when challenged with a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that accelerating G5G8-mediated biliary cholesterol secretion would correct these phenotypes in obese mice. Approach and Results Obese (db/db) male and their lean littermates were administered a cocktail of control adenovirus or adenoviral vectors encoding ABCG5 and ABCG8 (AdG5G8). Three days after viral administration, measures of lipid and glucose homeostasis were determined, and tissues were collected for biochemical analyses. AdG5G8 increased biliary cholesterol and fecal sterol elimination. Fasting glucose and triglycerides declined, and glucose tolerance improved in obese mice expressing G5G8 compared with mice receiving control adenovirus. These changes were associated with a reduction in phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in liver, suggesting alleviation of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Phosphorylated insulin receptor and protein kinase B were increased, indicating restored hepatic insulin signaling. However, there was no reduction in hepatic triglycerides after the 3-day treatment period. Conclusions Accelerating biliary cholesterol secretion restores glycemic control and reduces plasma triglycerides in obese db/db mice. PMID:24202306

  1. Acceleration of biliary cholesterol secretion restores glycemic control and alleviates hypertriglyceridemia in obese db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Su, Kai; Sabeva, Nadezhda S; Wang, Yuhuan; Liu, Xiaoxi; Lester, Joshua D; Liu, Jingjing; Liang, Shuang; Graf, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies support a role for cholesterol in the development of obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Mice lacking the ABCG5 ABCG8 (G5G8) sterol transporter have reduced biliary cholesterol secretion and are more susceptible to steatosis, hepatic insulin resistance, and loss of glycemic control when challenged with a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that accelerating G5G8-mediated biliary cholesterol secretion would correct these phenotypes in obese mice. Obese (db/db) male and their lean littermates were administered a cocktail of control adenovirus or adenoviral vectors encoding ABCG5 and ABCG8 (AdG5G8). Three days after viral administration, measures of lipid and glucose homeostasis were determined, and tissues were collected for biochemical analyses. AdG5G8 increased biliary cholesterol and fecal sterol elimination. Fasting glucose and triglycerides declined, and glucose tolerance improved in obese mice expressing G5G8 compared with mice receiving control adenovirus. These changes were associated with a reduction in phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in liver, suggesting alleviation of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Phosphorylated insulin receptor and protein kinase B were increased, indicating restored hepatic insulin signaling. However, there was no reduction in hepatic triglycerides after the 3-day treatment period. Accelerating biliary cholesterol secretion restores glycemic control and reduces plasma triglycerides in obese db/db mice.

  2. Macronutrient Intake, Diagnosis Status, and Glycemic Control Among US Hispanics/Latinos With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xueyin; Jung, Molly; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Espinoza Giacinto, Rebeca A.; Pirzada, Amber; Reina, Samantha A.; Casagrande, Sarah S.; Wang, Tao; Avilés-Santa, M. Larissa; Kaplan, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Diet modification is a mainstay of diabetes management. US Hispanics/Latinos are disproportionately affected by diabetes, but few studies have examined dietary intake among US Hispanics/Latinos with diabetes, and little is known regarding the influence of diabetes awareness on dietary intake. Objective: We evaluated macronutrient intake and its associations with diabetes awareness and glycemic control among US Hispanics/Latinos with diabetes. Participants: This analysis included 3310 diabetic adults aged 18–74 years from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (2008–2011). Main Outcome Measures: Diabetes was defined as diagnosed (based on medical history or antihyperglycemic medication use) or undiagnosed diabetes (based on fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] ≥ 6.5%, or 2 h glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL in the absence of a physician diagnosis). Dietary intake was assessed using two 24-hour recalls. Results: Among Hispanic/Latino adults with diabetes, 21.2%, 55.7%, and 71.2% met the American Diabetes Association recommendations for fiber (≥14 g per 1000 kcal), saturated fat (<10% of total energy), and cholesterol intake (<300 mg), respectively. Compared with those with undiagnosed diabetes, people with diagnosed diabetes consumed less carbohydrate (50.3 vs 52.4% of total energy; P = .017), total sugar (19.1 vs 21.5% of total energy; P = .002), added sugar (9.8 vs 12.1% of total energy; P < .001), and more total fat (30.7 vs 29.3% of total energy; P = .048) and monounsaturated fat (11.5 vs 10.7% of total energy; P = .021). Association between diabetes awareness and low total and added sugar intake was observed in individuals of Mexican and Puerto Rican background but not in other groups (P for interaction < .05). Among people with diagnosed diabetes, those with HbA1c of 7% or greater consumed more total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol than those with HbA1c less than 7% (all P < .05). Conclusions: Among US Hispanics

  3. Glycemic control and adherence to basal insulin therapy in Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chien, Ming-Nan; Chen, Yen-Ling; Hung, Yi-Jen; Wang, Shu-Yi; Lu, Wen-Tsung; Chen, Chih-Hung; Lin, Ching-Ling; Huang, Tze-Pao; Tsai, Ming-Han; Tseng, Wei-Kung; Wu, Ta-Jen; Ho, Cheng; Lin, Wen-Yu; Chen, Bill; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the glycemic control, adherence and treatment satisfaction in a real-world setting with basal insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes patients in Taiwan. This was a multicenter, prospective, observational registry. A total of 836 patients with type 2 diabetes taking oral antidiabetic drugs with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) >7% entered the study. Basal insulin was given for 24 weeks. All treatment choices and medical instructions were at the physician's discretion to reflect real-life practice. After 24-week treatment, 11.7% of patients reached set HbA1c goals without severe hypoglycemia (primary effectiveness end-point). HbA1c and fasting blood glucose were significantly decreased from (mean ± SD) 10.1 ± 1.9% to 8.7 ± 1.7% (-1.4 ± 2.1%, P < 0.0001) and from 230.6 ± 68.8 mg/dL to 159.1 ± 55.6 mg/dL (-67.4 ± 72.3 mg/dL, P < 0.0001), respectively. Patients received insulin therapy at a frequency of nearly one shot per day on average, whereas self-monitoring of blood glucose was carried out approximately four times a week. Hypoglycemia was reported by 11.4% of patients, and only 0.7% of patients experienced severe hypoglycemia. Slight changes in weight (0.7 ± 2.4 kg) and a low incidence of adverse drug reactions (0.4%) were also noted. The score of 7-point treatment satisfaction rated by patients was significantly improved by 1.9 ± 1.7 (P < 0.0001). Basal insulin therapy was associated with a decrease in HbA1c and fasting blood glucose, and an improved treatment satisfaction. Most patients complied with physicians' instructions. The treatment was generally well tolerated by patients with type 2 diabetes, but findings pointed out the need to reinforce the early and appropriate uptitration to achieve treatment targets. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Dietary insulin index and insulin load in relation to biomarkers of glycemic control, plasma lipids, and inflammation markers.

    PubMed

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Franz, Mary; Sampson, Laura; Willett, Walter C; Giovannucci, Edward

    2011-07-01

    Dietary glycemic index and load are widely used to estimate the effect of carbohydrate-containing foods on postprandial blood glucose concentrations and as surrogates for insulin response. The food insulin index (II) directly quantifies the postprandial insulin secretion of a food and takes into account foods with a low or no carbohydrate content. We investigated the average dietary II and insulin load (IL) in relation to biomarkers of glycemic control, plasma lipids, and inflammation markers. In a cross-sectional setting and with the use of data from the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, we measured plasma concentrations of C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin (Hb A(1c)), HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in fasting blood samples of 4002 healthy men and women. The dietary II and IL were assessed from food-frequency questionnaires by using directly analyzed or published food II data. After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quintile of II had 26% higher triglyceride concentrations than did participants in the lowest quintile of II (P for trend < 0.0001). This association was strongest in obese [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) ≥30] participants (difference between highest and lowest quintiles in the II: 72%; P for trend = 0.01). Dietary II was inversely associated with HDL cholesterol in obese participants (difference: -18%; P for trend = 0.03). Similar associations were seen for the IL. Dietary II and IL were not significantly associated with plasma C-peptide, Hb A(1c), LDL cholesterol, CRP, or IL-6. Dietary II and IL were not associated with fasting biomarkers of glycemic control but may be physiologically relevant to plasma lipids, especially in obese individuals.

  5. Effect of Vitamin D3 Supplement in Glycemic Control of Pediatrics with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadian, Sakineh; Zaeri, Hossein; Vakili, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glycemic control prevents microvascular complications in patients with type I diabetes mellitus such as retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy that influences quality of life. Some studies show the immunomodulatory effect of vitamin D in synthesis and secretion of insulin. Aims: In this study we evaluate glycemic changes after vitamin D3 supplement in children with type I diabetes mellitus and vitamin D deficiency. Materials and Methods: In children with type I diabetes mellitus, level of vitamin D and HbA1C was measured. Patients with type I diabetes mellitus who had vitamin D deficiency (25OHD < 50 nmol/lit) treated with 300,000 units of vitamin D3. Calcium supplement (40mg/kg/day) divided in two doses in order to avoid hungry bone was also used. After three months, 25OHD and HbA1C were measured again. Differences, in mean ± SD HbA1C and 25OHD were evaluated before and after the study. Results: Mean ± SD HbA1C was 9.73±1.85 before the study which was diminished to 8.55±1.91 after vitamin D3 supplement treatment. This decline has a significant difference (p-value < 0.0001). Mean ± SD 25OHD was 17.33±8.97 nmol/lit before the study which is increased to 39.31±14.38 nmol/lit after treatment with vitamin D3 supplement. This increase also has a significant difference (p-value < 0.0001). Vitamin D3 supplement causes the improvement of HbA1C in all groups of glycemic control including HbA1C <7.8, 7.8-9.9, and >9.9. This supplement transfer patients toward better glycemic control for the entire group (p-value < 0.0001). Conclusion: Vitamin D3 supplement improves HbA1C in pediatrics with type I diabetes mellitus and vitamin D deficiency. PMID:25954674

  6. Effect of vitamin d3 supplement in glycemic control of pediatrics with type 1 diabetes mellitus and vitamin d deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mohammadian, Sakineh; Fatahi, Nasrin; Zaeri, Hossein; Vakili, Mohammad Ali

    2015-03-01

    Glycemic control prevents microvascular complications in patients with type I diabetes mellitus such as retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy that influences quality of life. Some studies show the immunomodulatory effect of vitamin D in synthesis and secretion of insulin. In this study we evaluate glycemic changes after vitamin D3 supplement in children with type I diabetes mellitus and vitamin D deficiency. In children with type I diabetes mellitus, level of vitamin D and HbA1C was measured. Patients with type I diabetes mellitus who had vitamin D deficiency (25OHD < 50 nmol/lit) treated with 300,000 units of vitamin D3. Calcium supplement (40mg/kg/day) divided in two doses in order to avoid hungry bone was also used. After three months, 25OHD and HbA1C were measured again. Differences, in mean ± SD HbA1C and 25OHD were evaluated before and after the study. Mean ± SD HbA1C was 9.73±1.85 before the study which was diminished to 8.55±1.91 after vitamin D3 supplement treatment. This decline has a significant difference (p-value < 0.0001). Mean ± SD 25OHD was 17.33±8.97 nmol/lit before the study which is increased to 39.31±14.38 nmol/lit after treatment with vitamin D3 supplement. This increase also has a significant difference (p-value < 0.0001). Vitamin D3 supplement causes the improvement of HbA1C in all groups of glycemic control including HbA1C <7.8, 7.8-9.9, and >9.9. This supplement transfer patients toward better glycemic control for the entire group (p-value < 0.0001). Vitamin D3 supplement improves HbA1C in pediatrics with type I diabetes mellitus and vitamin D deficiency.

  7. Study of Adiponectin Level in Diabetic Adolescent Girls in Relation to Glycemic Control and Complication of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Dayem, Soha M. Abd El; Nazif, Hayam K.; EI-Kader, Mona Abd; El-Tawil, Maha

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the relation between adiponectin level with glycemic control and complication of diabetes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 40 female adolescent type 1 diabetic patients and 40 healthy volunteers of the same age and sex. Blood sample was taken for assessment of glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profile and adiponectine. Urine sample was taken for assessment of albumin/creatinine ratio. RESULTS: Diabetic patients had a significantly higher diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL and adiponectin than controls. Patients with diabetes complication had a significant lower BMI and HDL. On the other hand, they had higher disease duration, total cholesterol, HbA1, albumin/creatinine ratio and adiponectin. Patients with microalbuminuria had a lower BMI, higher disease duration, diastolic blood pressure and adiponectin. Patients with diabetic retinopathy had higher disease duration, insulin dose, HbA1, microalbuminuria and adiponectin. Adiponectin in diabetic patients had a significant negative correlation with BMI and positive correlation with systolic blood pressure and microlabuminuria. CONCLUSION: Serum adiponectin level is high in adolescent type 1 diabetic girls. It can be used as a predictor of diabetes complications rather than a sensitive biochemical marker for glycemic control. PMID:27275296

  8. Therapeutic silencing of fat-specific protein 27 improves glycemic control in mouse models of obesity and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Langhi, Cédric; Arias, Noemí; Rajamoorthi, Ananthi; Basta, Jeannine; Lee, Richard G; Baldán, Ángel

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a component of the metabolic syndrome, mechanistically linked to diabetes, fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular disease. Proteins that regulate the metabolic fate of intracellular lipid droplets are potential therapeutic candidates to treat obesity and its related consequences. CIDEC (cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector C), also known in mice as Fsp27 (fat-specific protein 27), is a lipid droplet-associated protein that prevents lipid mobilization and promotes intracellular lipid storage. The consequences of complete loss of FSP27 on hepatic metabolism and on insulin resistance are controversial, as both healthy and deleterious lipodystrophic phenotypes have been reported in Fsp27(-/-) mice. To test whether therapeutic silencing of Fsp27 might be useful to improve obesity, fatty liver, and glycemic control, we used antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) in both nutritional (high-fat diet) and genetic (leptin-deficient ob/ob) mouse models of obesity, hyperglycemia, and hepatosteatosis. We show that partial silencing Fsp27 in either model results in the robust decrease in visceral fat, improved insulin sensitivity and whole-body glycemic control, and tissue-specific changes in transcripts controlling lipid oxidation and synthesis. These data suggest that partial reduction of FSP27 activity (e.g., using ASOs) might be exploited therapeutically in insulin-resistant obese or overweight patients. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. On identified predictive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1993-01-01

    Self-tuning control algorithms are potential successors to manually tuned PID controllers traditionally used in process control applications. A very attractive design method for self-tuning controllers, which has been developed over recent years, is the long-range predictive control (LRPC). The success of LRPC is due to its effectiveness with plants of unknown order and dead-time which may be simultaneously nonminimum phase and unstable or have multiple lightly damped poles (as in the case of flexible structures or flexible robot arms). LRPC is a receding horizon strategy and can be, in general terms, summarized as follows. Using assumed long-range (or multi-step) cost function the optimal control law is found in terms of unknown parameters of the predictor model of the process, current input-output sequence, and future reference signal sequence. The common approach is to assume that the input-output process model is known or separately identified and then to find the parameters of the predictor model. Once these are known, the optimal control law determines control signal at the current time t which is applied at the process input and the whole procedure is repeated at the next time instant. Most of the recent research in this field is apparently centered around the LRPC formulation developed by Clarke et al., known as generalized predictive control (GPC). GPC uses ARIMAX/CARIMA model of the process in its input-output formulation. In this paper, the GPC formulation is used but the process predictor model is derived from the state space formulation of the ARIMAX model and is directly identified over the receding horizon, i.e., using current input-output sequence. The underlying technique in the design of identified predictive control (IPC) algorithm is the identification algorithm of observer/Kalman filter Markov parameters developed by Juang et al. at NASA Langley Research Center and successfully applied to identification of flexible structures.

  10. Glycemic control and variability in association with body mass index and body composition over 18months in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Leah M; Gee, Benjamin; Liu, Aiyi; Nansel, Tonja R

    2016-10-01

    The impact of adiposity on glycemic control in type 1 diabetes patients has important implications for preventing complications. This study examined associations of glycemic outcomes with body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) and body composition in youth with type 1 diabetes. This is a secondary analysis of an 18-month randomized controlled dietary intervention trial (N=136, baseline age=12.3±2.5y, HbA1c=8.1±1.0% (65±11mmol/mol)). Measured height and weight every 3months were abstracted from medical records. Body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline, 12 and 18months. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glycemic variability assessed by masked 3-day continuous blood glucose monitoring (CGM) were obtained every 3months. 1,5-Anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) was assessed every 6months. Adjusted random effects models for repeated measures estimated associations of time-varying BMI and body composition with time-varying glycemic outcomes. There was no treatment effect on glycemic outcomes. HbA1c was not associated with BMI or body composition indicators. 1,5-AG was inversely associated with BMI and adiposity indicators (%fat, trunk fat mass and trunk %fat), adjusting for developmental covariates. Adiposity indicators were positively associated with %glucose >180mg/dL and >126mg/dL when adjusting for developmental covariates, and %glucose >126mg/dL when additionally adjusting for diabetes-related covariates. Fewer consistent relationships were observed for 3-day mean glucose and %glucose <70.2mg/dL. BMI and body composition variables were not associated with standard deviation of glycemic values or mean amplitude of glycemic excursions. The role of greater BMI and adiposity in diabetes management in youth with type 1 diabetes may relate specifically to increased hyperglycemic excursions. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Low glycemic index treatment for seizure control in Angelman syndrome: A case series from the Center for Dietary Therapy of Epilepsy at the Massachusetts General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Grocott, Olivia R; Herrington, Katherine S; Pfeifer, Heidi H; Thiele, Elizabeth A; Thibert, Ronald L

    2017-03-01

    The low glycemic index treatment, a dietary therapy that focuses on glycemic index and reduced carbohydrate intake, has been successful in reducing seizure frequency in the general epilepsy population. Epilepsy is a common feature of Angelman syndrome and seizures are often refractory to multiple medications, especially in those with maternal deletions. Dietary therapy has become a more frequently used option for treating epilepsy, often in combination with other antiepileptic drugs, due to its efficacy and favorable side effect profile. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of the low glycemic index treatment for seizure control in Angelman syndrome. Through a retrospective medical record review of 23 subjects who utilized the low glycemic index treatment at the Clinic and Center for Dietary Therapy of Epilepsy at the Massachusetts General Hospital, we found that the high level of seizure control and favorable side effect profile make the low glycemic index treatment a viable treatment for seizures in Angelman syndrome. The majority of subjects in our cohort experienced some level of seizure reduction after initiating the diet, 5 (22%) maintained complete seizure freedom, 10 (43%) maintained seizure freedom except in the setting of illness or non-convulsive status epilepticus, 7 (30%) had a decrease in seizure frequency, and only 1 (4%) did not have enough information to determine seizure control post-initiation. The low glycemic index treatment monotherapy was successful for some subjects in our cohort but most subjects used an antiepileptic drug concurrently. Some subjects were able to maintain the same level of seizure control on a liberalized version of the low glycemic index treatment which included a larger amount of low glycemic carbohydrates. No correlation between the level of carbohydrate restriction and level of seizure control was found. Few subjects experienced side effects and those that did found them to be mild and easily treated. The

  12. Effect of scaling and root planing on serum interleukin-10 levels and glycemic control in chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Anirudh Balakrishna; Thakur, Srinath; Muddapur, Mahadevayya Veerayya

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Chronic periodontal disease (CPD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) share common pathogenic pathways involving the cytokine network resulting in increased susceptibility to both diseases, leading to increased inflammatory destruction, insulin resistance, and poor glycemic control. Periodontal treatment may improve glycemic control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of scaling and root planing (SRP) of T2DM patients with CPD on hyperglycemia and the levels of serum interleukin-10 (IL-10). Materials and Methods: Forty-five subjects were divided into three groups comprising 15 subjects each as Group 1 (healthy controls), Group 2 (CPD patients), and Group 3 (T2DM patients with CPD). Plaque index, gingival index (GI), probing pocket depths (PPD), clinical attachment loss (AL), bleeding on probing (BoP), random blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), and serum IL-10 were measured at baseline; SRP was performed on Groups 2 and 3 and the selected parameters recorded again at 6 months. Results: Statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences were observed in the variables at baseline and 6 months after SRP between the three groups using one-way ANOVA. The paired samples t-test for PPD and AL in Group 3 was statistically significant. Group 3 revealed positive correlations between PPD and HbA1C, BoP and IL-10, respectively, at 6 months and a predictable association of HbA1C with PPD and GI, and IL-10 levels with BoP, respectively, at 6 months. Conclusion: Scaling and root planing is effective in reducing blood glucose levels in T2DM patient with pocket depths and effective in elevating systemic IL-10 levels in CPD patients and CPD patients with T2DM. PMID:26015670

  13. EFFECT OF HIGH-DOSE VITAMIN D REPLETION ON GLYCEMIC CONTROL IN AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN WITH PREDIABETES AND HYPOVITAMINOSIS D

    PubMed Central

    Barengolts, Elena; Manickam, Buvana; Eisenberg, Yuval; Akbar, Arfana; Kukreja, Subhash; Ciubotaru, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Objective This double blind, randomized, controlled trial evaluated 12 months high dose vitamin D2 supplementation for improving insulin sensitivity, secretion and glycemic status. Methods African American men with prediabetes (A1C 5.7 – 6.4%), hypovitaminosis D (25OHD 5 – 29 ng/ml), and prevalent medical problems were supplemented with vitamin D3 (400 IU/day) and then randomized to weekly placebo or vitamin D2 (50,000 IU). The primary outcome was the change in oral glucose insulin sensitivity (OGIS, from oral glucose tolerance test) after 12 months of treatment. Secondary outcomes included other glycemic indices, A1C and incident diabetes. Results Baseline characteristics were similar in vitamin D-supplemented (n = 87) and placebo (n = 86) subjects completing the trial with average concentrations 14.4 ng/ml, 362 and 6.1% for 25OHD, OGIS and A1C, respectively. After 12 months vitamin D-supplemented group had a change in serum 25OHD +35 vs +6 ng/ml for placebo, p<0.001; OGIS +7.8 vs −16.0 for placebo, p = 0.026; and A1C −0.01 vs +0.01% for placebo, p = 0.66; while 10% in both groups progressed to diabetes. A post hoc analysis of participants with baseline impaired fasting glucose showed that more subjects in the vitamin D subgroup (31.6%) than placebo (8.3%) returned to normal glucose tolerance, but the difference did not reach significance (p=0.13). Conclusion The trial does not provide evidence that 12 months of high-dose D2 repletion improves clinically relevant glycemic outcomes in subjects with prediabetes and hypovitaminosis D (NCT01375660). PMID:25716637

  14. Associations between health literacy, diabetes knowledge, self-care behaviors, and glycemic control in a low income population with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bains, Sujeev S; Egede, Leonard E

    2011-03-01

    This study assessed associations among health literacy, diabetes knowledge, self-care, and glycemic control in a low income, predominately minority population with type 2 diabetes. One hundred twenty-five adults with diabetes were recruited from a primary care clinic. Subjects completed validated surveys to measure health literacy, diabetes knowledge, and self-care (medication adherence, diet, exercise, blood sugar testing, and foot care). Hemoglobin A1c values were extracted from the medical record. Spearman's correlation and multiple linear regression were used to assess the relationship among health literacy, diabetes knowledge, self-care, and glycemic control controlling for covariates. Cronbach's α was 0.95 for the Revised Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine. The majority of the sample was <65 years old (50.7%), female (72.5%), and African American (71.4%), had less than a high school education (68.2%) and a household income < $15,000 (64.2%), and reported their health status as worse than last year (73.9%). In adjusted models that examined the associations among health literacy, diabetes knowledge, medication adherence, and self-care, health literacy was only significantly associated with diabetes knowledge (β = 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29, 0.82). In the final adjusted model for independent factors associated with glycemic control, both diabetes knowledge (β = 0.12; 95% CI 0.01, 0.23) and perceived health status (β = 1.14; 95% CI 0.13, 2.16) were significantly associated with glycemic control, whereas health literacy was not associated with glycemic control (β = -0.03; 95% CI -0.19, 0.13). Diabetes knowledge and perceived health status are the most important factors associated with glycemic control in this population. Health literacy appears to exert its influence through diabetes knowledge and is not directly related to self-care or medication adherence.

  15. Inflammatory biomarkers in type 2 diabetic patients: effect of glycemic control and impact of ldl subfraction phenotype

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with higher cardiovascular risk partly related to an increase in inflammatory parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the association of inflammatory biomarkers with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfraction phenotype and glycemic control in subjects with T2D and poor glycemic control. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed comparing 122 subjects with T2D (59 ± 11 years old, body mass index 30.2 ± 5.6 kg/m2) with 54 control subjects. Patients with T2D were classified according to their LDL subfraction phenotype and inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein, Interleukin-6, Interleukin-8, Transforming growth factor β1, Monocyte chemotactic protein 1, Leptin, Adiponectin) were evaluated according to the degree of glycemic control, LDL phenotype and other clinical characteristics. Forty-two subjects with T2D were studied before and after 3 months of improving glycemic control by different strategies. Results Patients with T2D had higher C-reactive protein (CRP) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1) levels and lower adiponectin concentration, compared to controls. T2D subjects with body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 had higher CRP levels (5.2 ± 4.8 mg/l vs 3.7 ± 4.3 mg/l; p < 0.05). The presence of LDL phenotype B was related to higher levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) (53.92 ± 52.82 ng/l vs 31.35 ± 33.74 ng/l; p < 0.05) and lower levels of adiponectin (3663 ± 3044 ng/l vs 2723 ± 1776 ng/l; p < 0.05). The reduction of HbA1c from 9.5 ± 1.8% at baseline to 7.4 ± 0.8% was associated with a significant reduction of TGF-β1 (41.86 ± 32.84 ng/l vs 26.64 ± 26.91 ng/l; p = 0.02). Conclusions Subjects with T2D, especially those with LDL phenotype B and obesity, have higher levels of inflammatory biomarkers. Improvement of glycemic control reduces TGF-β1 levels, which may contribute partly to its renoprotective

  16. Intensive glycemic control after heart transplantation is safe and effective for diabetic and non-diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Cristina; Wallia, Amisha; Gupta, Suruchi; Schmidt, Kathleen; Malekar-Raikar, Shilpa; Johnson Oakes, Diana; Aleppo, Grazia; Grady, Kathleen; McGee, Edwin; Cotts, William; Andrei, Adin-Cristian; Molitch, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Some studies have shown increased mortality, infection, and rejection rates among diabetic (DM) compared to non-diabetic (non-DM) patients undergoing heart transplant (HT). This is a retrospective chart review of adult patients (DM, n = 26; non-DM, n = 66) undergoing HT between June 1, 2005, and July 31, 2009. Glycemic control used intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SQ) insulin protocols with a glucose target of 80-110 mg/dL. There were no significant differences between DM and non-DM patients in mean glucose levels on the IV and SQ insulin protocols. Severe hypoglycemia (glucose <40 mg/dL) did not occur on the IV protocol and was experienced by only 3 non-DM patients on the SQ protocol. Moderate hypoglycemia (glucose >40 and <60 mg/dL) occurred in 17 (19%) patients on the IV protocol and 24 (27%) on the SQ protocol. There were no significant differences between DM and non-DM patients within 30 d of surgery in all-cause mortality, treated HT rejection episodes, reoperation, prolonged ventilation, 30-d readmissions, ICU readmission, number of ICU hours, hospitalization days after HT, or infections. This study demonstrates that DM and non-DM patients can achieve excellent glycemic control post-HT with IV and SQ insulin protocols with similar surgical outcomes and low hypoglycemia rates.

  17. Continuous vs interval training on glycemic control and macro- and microvascular reactivity in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Mitranun, W; Deerochanawong, C; Tanaka, H; Suksom, D

    2014-04-01

    To determine the effects of continuous aerobic exercise training (CON) vs interval aerobic exercise training (INT) on glycemic control and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, 43 participants with type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to the sedentary, CON, and INT groups. The CON and INT exercise training programs were designed to yield the same energy expenditure/exercise session and included walking on treadmill for 30 and 40 min/day, 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Body fatness and heart rate at rest decreased and leg muscle strength increased (all P < 0.05) in both the CON and INT groups. Fasting blood glucose levels decreased (P < 0.05) in both exercise groups but glycosylated hemoglobin levels decreased (P < 0.05) only in the INT group. Maximal aerobic capacity, flow-mediated dilation, and cutaneous reactive hyperemia increased significantly in both exercise groups; however, the magnitude of improvements was greater in the INT group. Only the INT group experienced reductions in erythrocyte malondialdehyde and serum von Willebrand factor and increases in plasma glutathione peroxidase and nitric oxide (all P < 0.05). We concluded that both continuous and interval training were effective in improving glycemic control, aerobic fitness, and endothelium-dependent vasodilation, but the interval training program appears to confer greater improvements than the continuous training program.

  18. Night eating in patients with type 2 diabetes. Associations with glycemic control, eating patterns, sleep, and mood.

    PubMed

    Hood, Megan M; Reutrakul, Sirimon; Crowley, Stephanie J

    2014-08-01

    Night eating is a complex behavior associated with disruptions in eating, sleep, and mood regulation. While night eating has been associated with alterations in neuroendocrine functioning, night eating and Night Eating Syndrome (NES) are not well understood in patients with prevalent metabolic conditions, such as diabetes. In this study, 194 adults with Type 2 diabetes completed questionnaires assessing night eating symptoms as well as eating, sleep, and depressive symptoms. Glycemic control data, as measured by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), were gathered from patient medical charts. Results indicated that 7% of participants met criteria for NES. Increased symptoms of night eating were associated with poorer glycemic control and disruptions in eating, sleep, and mood, including significantly increased likelihood of having HbA1c levels >7% and endorsing clinical levels of depressive symptoms. Increasing understanding of the relationship between night eating and metabolic and psychosocial functioning in patients with diabetes may provide new avenues for treatment of these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of Tight Glycemic Control on Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 1 Year of Age for Children with Congenital Heart Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Sadhwani, Anjali; Asaro, Lisa A; Goldberg, Caren; Ware, Janice; Butcher, Jennifer; Gaies, Michael; Smith, Cynthia; Alexander, Jamin L; Wypij, David; Agus, Michael S D

    2016-07-01

    To assess the association of postoperative tight glycemic control and hypoglycemia in children undergoing cardiac surgery with neurodevelopmental outcomes at 1 year of age. A 2-center, prospective, randomized trial of postoperative tight glycemic control vs standard care was conducted in 980 children undergoing cardiac surgery. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed at nine to 18 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III), the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition, the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Third Edition, and the Brief Infant Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment. Neurodevelopmental follow-up was performed on 237 patients with a mean age of 13 months. No significant treatment group differences were found in the Bayley-III and Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition composite scores or percentage at risk based on the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Third Edition and the Brief Infant Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment. Patients who experienced moderate to severe hypoglycemia (n = 8) had lower Bayley-III composite scores compared with patients with no to mild hypoglycemia, even after controlling for factors known to be associated with poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes. For infants undergoing cardiac surgery, tight glycemic control did not impact neurodevelopmental outcomes compared with standard care. These data suggest a possible association between moderate to severe hypoglycemia and poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes at 1 year of age. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00443599. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Status of serum magnesium in Egyptian children with type 1 diabetes and its correlation to glycemic control and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Shahbah, Doaa; El Naga, Amr Abo; Hassan, Tamer; Zakaria, Marwa; Beshir, Mohamed; Al Morshedy, Salah; Abdalhady, Mohamed; Kamel, Ezzat; Rahman, Doaa Abdel; Kamel, Lamiaa; Abdelkader, May

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been suggested to be the most common metabolic disorder associated with magnesium deficiency, having 25% to 39% prevalence. This deficit could be associated with the development of late diabetic complications, especially macroangiopathy.We aimed to evaluate the status of serum Mg in children with type 1 diabetes and assess its relation to glycemic control and lipid profile.We included 71 Egyptian children with type 1diabetes having their follow-up at Pediatric Endocrinology outpatient clinic, Zagazig University Hospital and 71 age- and sex-matched control. We measured Serum magnesium, HbA1c, and lipid profile in all study subjects.Diabetic children had significantly lower serum magnesium level compared to control children (1.83 ± .27 mg/dL in diabetic children versus 2.00 ± .16 mg/dL in control children). Taking cut-off level of serum magnesium <1.7 mg/dL for definition of hypomagnesemia, hypomagnesemia was detected in 28.2% of diabetic children compared to 9.9% of control children. In diabetic patients, there was statistically significant difference in HbA1c between hypomagnesemic and normomagnesemic group being higher in the low magnesium group, as it is mean ± SD was 11.93 ± 3.17 mg/dL in group I versus 8.92 ± 0.93 mg/dL in the normomagnesemic group. Serum magnesium was found to be positively correlated with HDL (P < 0.001), and negatively correlated with age, HbA1c, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, and duration of diabetes (P < 0.001).We concluded that total serum magnesium was frequently low in Egyptian children with type 1 diabetes and it is correlated with HbA1c and with lipid profile. Hypomagnesemia was more evident in patients with poor diabetic control and those with higher atherogenic lipid parameters. We suggest that low serum magnesium may be included in pathogenesis of poor glycemic control and abnormal lipid profile in children with type 1 diabetes. We need to perform further

  1. Status of serum magnesium in Egyptian children with type 1 diabetes and its correlation to glycemic control and lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    Shahbah, Doaa; El Naga, Amr Abo; Hassan, Tamer; Zakaria, Marwa; Beshir, Mohamed; Al Morshedy, Salah; Abdalhady, Mohamed; Kamel, Ezzat; Rahman, Doaa Abdel; Kamel, Lamiaa; Abdelkader, May

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diabetes mellitus has been suggested to be the most common metabolic disorder associated with magnesium deficiency, having 25% to 39% prevalence. This deficit could be associated with the development of late diabetic complications, especially macroangiopathy. We aimed to evaluate the status of serum Mg in children with type 1 diabetes and assess its relation to glycemic control and lipid profile. We included 71 Egyptian children with type 1diabetes having their follow-up at Pediatric Endocrinology outpatient clinic, Zagazig University Hospital and 71 age- and sex-matched control. We measured Serum magnesium, HbA1c, and lipid profile in all study subjects. Diabetic children had significantly lower serum magnesium level compared to control children (1.83 ± .27 mg/dL in diabetic children versus 2.00 ± .16 mg/dL in control children). Taking cut-off level of serum magnesium <1.7 mg/dL for definition of hypomagnesemia, hypomagnesemia was detected in 28.2% of diabetic children compared to 9.9% of control children. In diabetic patients, there was statistically significant difference in HbA1c between hypomagnesemic and normomagnesemic group being higher in the low magnesium group, as it is mean ± SD was 11.93 ± 3.17 mg/dL in group I versus 8.92 ± 0.93 mg/dL in the normomagnesemic group. Serum magnesium was found to be positively correlated with HDL (P < 0.001), and negatively correlated with age, HbA1c, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, and duration of diabetes (P < 0.001). We concluded that total serum magnesium was frequently low in Egyptian children with type 1 diabetes and it is correlated with HbA1c and with lipid profile. Hypomagnesemia was more evident in patients with poor diabetic control and those with higher atherogenic lipid parameters. We suggest that low serum magnesium may be included in pathogenesis of poor glycemic control and abnormal lipid profile in children with type 1 diabetes. We need to perform

  2. Telemedicine for the Management of Glycemic Control and Clinical Outcomes of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shaun W H; Ooi, Leanne; Lai, Yin K

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Telemedicine has been shown to be an efficient and effective means of providing care to patients with chronic disease especially in remote and undeserved regions, by improving access to care and reduce healthcare cost. However, the evidence surrounding its applicability in type 1 diabetes remains scarce and conflicting. Objective: To synthesize evidence and quantify the effectiveness of telemedicine interventions for the management of glycemic and clinical outcomes in type 1 diabetes patients, relative to comparator conditions. Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and CINAHL were searched for published articles since inception until December 2016. Study Selection: Original articles reporting the results of randomized controlled studies on the effectiveness of telemedicine in people with type 1 diabetes were included. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two reviewers independently extracted data, assessed quality, and strength of evidence. Interventions were categorized based upon the telemedicine focus (monitoring, education, consultation, case-management, and peer mentoring). Main Outcome and Measure: Absolute change in glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from baseline to follow-up assessment. Results: A total of 38 studies described in 41 articles were identified. Positive effects on glycemic control were noted with studies examining telemedicine, with a mean reduction of 0.18% at the end of intervention. Studies with longer duration (>6 months) who had recruited patients with a higher baseline HbA1c (≥9%) were associated with larger effects. Telemedicine interventions that involve individualized assessments, audit with feedback and skill building were also m