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Sample records for predictive state representations

  1. Novel Approach for the Recognition and Prediction of Multi-Function Radar Behaviours Based on Predictive State Representations

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Jian; Chen, Yongguang; Zhao, Feng; Liu, Jin; Xiao, Shunping

    2017-01-01

    The extensive applications of multi-function radars (MFRs) have presented a great challenge to the technologies of radar countermeasures (RCMs) and electronic intelligence (ELINT). The recently proposed cognitive electronic warfare (CEW) provides a good solution, whose crux is to perceive present and future MFR behaviours, including the operating modes, waveform parameters, scheduling schemes, etc. Due to the variety and complexity of MFR waveforms, the existing approaches have the drawbacks of inefficiency and weak practicability in prediction. A novel method for MFR behaviour recognition and prediction is proposed based on predictive state representation (PSR). With the proposed approach, operating modes of MFR are recognized by accumulating the predictive states, instead of using fixed transition probabilities that are unavailable in the battlefield. It helps to reduce the dependence of MFR on prior information. And MFR signals can be quickly predicted by iteratively using the predicted observation, avoiding the very large computation brought by the uncertainty of future observations. Simulations with a hypothetical MFR signal sequence in a typical scenario are presented, showing that the proposed methods perform well and efficiently, which attests to their validity. PMID:28335492

  2. Novel Approach for the Recognition and Prediction of Multi-Function Radar Behaviours Based on Predictive State Representations.

    PubMed

    Ou, Jian; Chen, Yongguang; Zhao, Feng; Liu, Jin; Xiao, Shunping

    2017-03-19

    The extensive applications of multi-function radars (MFRs) have presented a great challenge to the technologies of radar countermeasures (RCMs) and electronic intelligence (ELINT). The recently proposed cognitive electronic warfare (CEW) provides a good solution, whose crux is to perceive present and future MFR behaviours, including the operating modes, waveform parameters, scheduling schemes, etc. Due to the variety and complexity of MFR waveforms, the existing approaches have the drawbacks of inefficiency and weak practicability in prediction. A novel method for MFR behaviour recognition and prediction is proposed based on predictive state representation (PSR). With the proposed approach, operating modes of MFR are recognized by accumulating the predictive states, instead of using fixed transition probabilities that are unavailable in the battlefield. It helps to reduce the dependence of MFR on prior information. And MFR signals can be quickly predicted by iteratively using the predicted observation, avoiding the very large computation brought by the uncertainty of future observations. Simulations with a hypothetical MFR signal sequence in a typical scenario are presented, showing that the proposed methods perform well and efficiently, which attests to their validity.

  3. Predicting the brain activation pattern associated with the propositional content of a sentence: Modeling neural representations of events and states.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Just, Marcel Adam

    2017-10-01

    Even though much has recently been learned about the neural representation of individual concepts and categories, neuroimaging research is only beginning to reveal how more complex thoughts, such as event and state descriptions, are neurally represented. We present a predictive computational theory of the neural representations of individual events and states as they are described in 240 sentences. Regression models were trained to determine the mapping between 42 neurally plausible semantic features (NPSFs) and thematic roles of the concepts of a proposition and the fMRI activation patterns of various cortical regions that process different types of information. Given a semantic characterization of the content of a sentence that is new to the model, the model can reliably predict the resulting neural signature, or, given an observed neural signature of a new sentence, the model can predict its semantic content. The models were also reliably generalizable across participants. This computational model provides an account of the brain representation of a complex yet fundamental unit of thought, namely, the conceptual content of a proposition. In addition to characterizing a sentence representation at the level of the semantic and thematic features of its component concepts, factor analysis was used to develop a higher level characterization of a sentence, specifying the general type of event representation that the sentence evokes (e.g., a social interaction versus a change of physical state) and the voxel locations most strongly associated with each of the factors. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4865-4881, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Representable states on quasilocal quasi *-algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Bagarello, F.; Trapani, C.; Triolo, S.

    2011-01-15

    Continuing a previous analysis originally motivated by physics, we consider representable states on quasilocal quasi *-algebras, starting with examining the possibility for a compatible family of local states to give rise to a global state. Some properties of local modifications of representable states and some aspects of their asymptotic behavior are also considered.

  5. State representations of ARMA-models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomadze, Vakhtang

    2010-10-01

    A state representation of an arbitrary ARMA-model is computed explicitly. It is shown then that every ARMA-model is homotopy equivalent to its state representation, and that two state models are homotopy equivalent if and only if they are similar.

  6. Coherent-State Approach for Majorana Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao-Di; Fu, Li-Bin; Wang, Xiao-Guang

    2017-06-01

    By representing a quantum state and its evolution with the Majorana stars on the Bloch sphere, the Majorana representation provides us an intuitive way to study a physical system with SU(2) symmetry. In this work, based on coherent states, we propose a method to establish the generalization of Majorana representation for a general symmetry. By choosing a generalized coherent state as a reference state, we give a more general Majorana representation for both finite and infinite systems and the corresponding star equations are given. Using this method, we study the squeezed vacuum states for three different symmetries, Heisenberg-Weyl, SU(2) and SU(1,1), and express the effect of squeezing parameter on the distribution of stars. Furthermore, we also study the dynamical evolution of stars for an initial coherent state driven by a nonlinear Hamiltonian, and find that at a special time point, the stars are distributed on two orthogonal large circles. Supported by the National Fundamental Research Program of China under Grant No. 2013CBA01502, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11575027, 11475146, and 11405008, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant No. 2017FZA3005, and the Plan for Scientific and Technological Development of Jilin Province under Grant No. 20160520173JH

  7. The Past Is Present: Representations of Parents, Friends, and Romantic Partners Predict Subsequent Romantic Representations.

    PubMed

    Furman, Wyndol; Collibee, Charlene

    2016-12-28

    This study examined how representations of parent-child relationships, friendships, and past romantic relationships are related to subsequent romantic representations. Two-hundred 10th graders (100 female; Mage  = 15.87 years) from diverse neighborhoods in a Western U.S. city were administered questionnaires and were interviewed to assess avoidant and anxious representations of their relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners. Participants then completed similar questionnaires and interviews about their romantic representations six more times over the next 7.5 years. Growth curve analyses revealed that representations of relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners each uniquely predicted subsequent romantic representations across development. Consistent with attachment and behavioral systems theory, representations of romantic relationships are revised by representations and experiences in other relationships.

  8. On state representations of nonlinear implicit systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira da Silva, Paulo Sergio; Batista, Simone

    2010-03-01

    This work considers a semi-implicit system Δ, that is, a pair (S, y), where S is an explicit system described by a state representation ? , where x(t) ∈ ℝ n and u(t) ∈ ℝ m , which is subject to a set of algebraic constraints y(t) = h(t, x(t), u(t)) = 0, where y(t) ∈ ℝ l . An input candidate is a set of functions v = (v 1, …, v s ), which may depend on time t, on x, and on u and its derivatives up to a finite order. The problem of finding a (local) proper state representation ż = g(t, z, v) with input v for the implicit system Δ is studied in this article. The main result shows necessary and sufficient conditions for the solution of this problem, under mild assumptions on the class of admissible state representations of Δ. These solvability conditions rely on an integrability test that is computed from the explicit system S. The approach of this article is the infinite-dimensional differential geometric setting of Fliess, Lévine, Martin, and Rouchon (1999) ('A Lie-Bäcklund Approach to Equivalence and Flatness of Nonlinear Systems', IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 44(5), (922-937)).

  9. Social state representation in prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naotaka; Hihara, Sayaka; Nagasaka, Yasuo; Iriki, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    One of the cardinal mental faculties of humans and other primates is social brain function, the collective name assigned to the distributed system of social cognitive processes that orchestrate our sophisticated adaptive social behavior. These must include processes for recognizing current social context and maintaining an internal representation of the current social state as a reference for decision-making. But how and where the brain processes such social-state information is unknown. To home in on the neural substrates of social-state representation, the activity of 196 prefrontal (PFC) neurons was recorded from two monkeys simultaneously during a food-grab task under varying social conditions. Of PFC neurons, 39% showed activity modulation during movement-free periods and seemed to be representing current social state. The direction of modulation was opposite between the dominant and submissive monkeys: During social engagement, PFC activity increased in the dominant monkey and was suppressed in the submissive monkey. The modulation was consistently observed in additional PFC neurons (27/72) in additional pairings with two other monkeys. Notably, PFC activity in one formerly submissive monkey switched to dominant modulation mode when he was paired with a new monkey of lower social status. These findings suggest that PFC, as part of a larger social brain network, maintains a multistate classification of social context for use as a behavioral reference for social decision-making.

  10. Network representation of dynamical systems: Connectivity patterns, information and predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Cantú Ros, A.; Forti, G.; Nicolis, G.

    2013-08-01

    The present work elaborates on predictability and information aspects of dynamical systems, in connection with the connectivity features of their network representation. The basic idea underlying this work is to map the set of coarse-grained states of a dynamical system onto a set of network nodes and transitions between them onto a set of network links. Based on the vertex centrality of these nodes, we define (a) a local indicator of predictability, (b) a measure of the information that is available about the state of the system after one transition occurring within an arbitrary long time window and (c) an upper bound for the time horizon of predictability. We address the cases of the tent and the cusp maps, as representative examples of Markov and non-Markov processes. An analytical exact result for the horizon of predictability is obtained for the tent map, as well as for its higher iterates, and its connection with the corresponding network diameters is discussed. Similarly, analytical expressions are derived for the bounds of the predictability horizon in the case of the cusp map.

  11. Spectral Approaches to Learning Predictive Representations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    covariance matrices. The key to this approach is that, for linear dynamical systems, there are many possible equivalent representations for the same system...That is, two LDSs are said to be equivalent if the second order statistics of the output generated by the models is the same, i.e. the covariance...from the filter are similarly equivalent . See Equations 2.20 below for more details. Practically, the equivalence of transformed LDSs means that we can

  12. Acoustic and Lexical Representations for Affect Prediction in Spontaneous Conversations

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Houwei; Savran, Arman; Verma, Ragini; Nenkova, Ani

    2014-01-01

    In this article we investigate what representations of acoustics and word usage are most suitable for predicting dimensions of affect|AROUSAL, VALANCE, POWER and EXPECTANCY|in spontaneous interactions. Our experiments are based on the AVEC 2012 challenge dataset. For lexical representations, we compare corpus-independent features based on psychological word norms of emotional dimensions, as well as corpus-dependent representations. We find that corpus-dependent bag of words approach with mutual information between word and emotion dimensions is by far the best representation. For the analysis of acoustics, we zero in on the question of granularity. We confirm on our corpus that utterance-level features are more predictive than word-level features. Further, we study more detailed representations in which the utterance is divided into regions of interest (ROI), each with separate representation. We introduce two ROI representations, which significantly outperform less informed approaches. In addition we show that acoustic models of emotion can be improved considerably by taking into account annotator agreement and training the model on smaller but reliable dataset. Finally we discuss the potential for improving prediction by combining the lexical and acoustic modalities. Simple fusion methods do not lead to consistent improvements over lexical classifiers alone but improve over acoustic models. PMID:25382936

  13. Acoustic and Lexical Representations for Affect Prediction in Spontaneous Conversations.

    PubMed

    Cao, Houwei; Savran, Arman; Verma, Ragini; Nenkova, Ani

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate what representations of acoustics and word usage are most suitable for predicting dimensions of affect|AROUSAL, VALANCE, POWER and EXPECTANCY|in spontaneous interactions. Our experiments are based on the AVEC 2012 challenge dataset. For lexical representations, we compare corpus-independent features based on psychological word norms of emotional dimensions, as well as corpus-dependent representations. We find that corpus-dependent bag of words approach with mutual information between word and emotion dimensions is by far the best representation. For the analysis of acoustics, we zero in on the question of granularity. We confirm on our corpus that utterance-level features are more predictive than word-level features. Further, we study more detailed representations in which the utterance is divided into regions of interest (ROI), each with separate representation. We introduce two ROI representations, which significantly outperform less informed approaches. In addition we show that acoustic models of emotion can be improved considerably by taking into account annotator agreement and training the model on smaller but reliable dataset. Finally we discuss the potential for improving prediction by combining the lexical and acoustic modalities. Simple fusion methods do not lead to consistent improvements over lexical classifiers alone but improve over acoustic models.

  14. A new protein structure representation for efficient protein function prediction.

    PubMed

    Maghawry, Huda A; Mostafa, Mostafa G M; Gharib, Tarek F

    2014-12-01

    One of the challenging problems in bioinformatics is the prediction of protein function. Protein function is the main key that can be used to classify different proteins. Protein function can be inferred experimentally with very small throughput or computationally with very high throughput. Computational methods are sequence based or structure based. Structure-based methods produce more accurate protein function prediction. In this article, we propose a new protein structure representation for efficient protein function prediction. The representation is based on three-dimensional patterns of protein residues. In the analysis, we used protein function based on enzyme activity through six mechanistically diverse enzyme superfamilies: amidohydrolase, crotonase, haloacid dehalogenase, isoprenoid synthase type I, and vicinal oxygen chelate. We applied three different classification methods, naïve Bayes, k-nearest neighbors, and random forest, to predict the enzyme superfamily of a given protein. The prediction accuracy using the proposed representation outperforms a recently introduced representation method that is based only on the distance patterns. The results show that the proposed representation achieved prediction accuracy up to 98%, with improvement of about 10% on average.

  15. The DACCIWA model evaluation project: representation of the meteorology of southern West Africa in state-of-the-art weather, seasonal and climate prediction models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniffka, Anke; Benedetti, Angela; Knippertz, Peter; Stanelle, Tanja; Brooks, Malcolm; Deetz, Konrad; Maranan, Marlon; Rosenberg, Philip; Pante, Gregor; Allan, Richard; Hill, Peter; Adler, Bianca; Fink, Andreas; Kalthoff, Norbert; Chiu, Christine; Vogel, Bernhard; Field, Paul; Marsham, John

    2017-04-01

    DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa) is an EU-funded project that aims to determine the influence of anthropogenic and natural emissions on the atmospheric composition, air quality, weather and climate over southern West Africa. DACCIWA organised a major international field campaign in June-July 2016 and involves a wide range of modelling activities. Here we report about the coordinated model evaluation performed in the framework of DACCIWA focusing on meteorological fields. This activity consists of two elements: (a) the quality of numerical weather prediction during the field campaign, (b) the ability of seasonal and climate models to represent the mean state and its variability. For the first element, the extensive observations from the main field campaign in West Africa in June-July 2016 (ground supersites, radiosondes, aircraft measurements) will be combined with conventional data (synoptic stations, satellites data from various sensors) to evaluate models against. The forecasts include operational products from centres such as the ECMWF, UK MetOffice and the German Weather Service and runs specifically conducted for the planning and the post-analysis of the field campaign using higher resolutions (e.g., WRF, COSMO). The forecast and the observations are analysed in a concerted way to assess the ability of the models to represent the southern West African weather systems and secondly to provide a comprehensive synoptic overview of the state of the atmosphere. In a second step the process will be extended to long-term modelling periods. This includes both seasonal and climate models, respectively. In this case, the observational dataset contains long-term satellite observations and station data, some of which were digitised from written records in the framework of DACCIWA. Parameter choice and spatial averaging will build directly on the weather forecasting evaluation to allow an assessment of the impact of short-term errors on

  16. Multilevel Atomic Coherent States and Atomic Holomorphic Representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Chang-Qi; Haake, Fritz

    1996-01-01

    The notion of atomic coherent states is extended to the case of multilevel atom collective. Based on atomic coherent states, a holomorphic representation for atom collective states and operators is defined. An example is given to illustrate its application.

  17. Efficient implementation and the product state representation of numbers.

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.; Physics

    2001-10-12

    The relation between the requirement of efficient implementability and the product-state representation of numbers is examined. Numbers are defined to be any model of the axioms of number theory or arithmetic. Efficient implementability (EI) means that the basic arithmetic operations are physically implementable and the space-time and thermodynamic resources needed to carry out the implementations are polynomial in the range of numbers considered. Different models of numbers are described to show the independence of both EI and the product-state representation from the axioms. The relation between EI and the product-state representation is examined. It is seen that the condition of a product-state representation does not imply EI. Arguments used to refute the converse implication, EI implies a product-state representation, seem reasonable; but they are not conclusive. Thus this implication remains an open question.

  18. The Representation of Prediction Error in Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Jonathan; Ulanovsky, Nachum; Tishby, Naftali

    2016-01-01

    To survive, organisms must extract information from the past that is relevant for their future. How this process is expressed at the neural level remains unclear. We address this problem by developing a novel approach from first principles. We show here how to generate low-complexity representations of the past that produce optimal predictions of future events. We then illustrate this framework by studying the coding of ‘oddball’ sequences in auditory cortex. We find that for many neurons in primary auditory cortex, trial-by-trial fluctuations of neuronal responses correlate with the theoretical prediction error calculated from the short-term past of the stimulation sequence, under constraints on the complexity of the representation of this past sequence. In some neurons, the effect of prediction error accounted for more than 50% of response variability. Reliable predictions often depended on a representation of the sequence of the last ten or more stimuli, although the representation kept only few details of that sequence. PMID:27490251

  19. Dynamic representation of time in brain states

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Fernanda Dantas; Morita, Vanessa C.; de Camargo, Raphael Y.; Reyes, Marcelo B.; Caetano, Marcelo S.; Cravo, André M.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to process time on the scale of milliseconds and seconds is essential for behaviour. A growing number of studies have started to focus on brain dynamics as a mechanism for temporal encoding. Although there is growing evidence in favour of this view from computational and in vitro studies, there is still a lack of results from experiments in humans. We show that high-dimensional brain states revealed by multivariate pattern analysis of human EEG are correlated to temporal judgements. First, we show that, as participants estimate temporal intervals, the spatiotemporal dynamics of their brain activity are consistent across trials. Second, we present evidence that these dynamics exhibit properties of temporal perception, such as scale invariance. Lastly, we show that it is possible to predict temporal judgements based on brain states. These results show how scalp recordings can reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of human brain activity related to temporal processing. PMID:28393850

  20. Concrete Representation and Separability Criteria for Symmetric Quantum State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chang'e.; Tao, Yuanhong; Zhang, Jun; Li, Linsong; Nan, Hua

    2014-09-01

    Using the typical generators of the special unitary groups S U(2), the concrete representation of symmetric quantum state is established, then the relations satisfied by those coefficients in the representation are presented. Based on the representation of density matrix, the PPT criterion and CCNR criterion are proved to be equivalent on judging the separability of symmetric quantum states. Moreover, it is showed that the matrix Γ ρ of symmetric quantum state only has five efficient entries, thus the calculation of ∥Γ ρ ∥ is simplified. Finally, the quantitative expressions of real symmetric quantum state under the ∥Γ ρ ∥ separability criterion are obtained.

  1. Deep Patient: An Unsupervised Representation to Predict the Future of Patients from the Electronic Health Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miotto, Riccardo; Li, Li; Kidd, Brian A.; Dudley, Joel T.

    2016-05-01

    Secondary use of electronic health records (EHRs) promises to advance clinical research and better inform clinical decision making. Challenges in summarizing and representing patient data prevent widespread practice of predictive modeling using EHRs. Here we present a novel unsupervised deep feature learning method to derive a general-purpose patient representation from EHR data that facilitates clinical predictive modeling. In particular, a three-layer stack of denoising autoencoders was used to capture hierarchical regularities and dependencies in the aggregated EHRs of about 700,000 patients from the Mount Sinai data warehouse. The result is a representation we name “deep patient”. We evaluated this representation as broadly predictive of health states by assessing the probability of patients to develop various diseases. We performed evaluation using 76,214 test patients comprising 78 diseases from diverse clinical domains and temporal windows. Our results significantly outperformed those achieved using representations based on raw EHR data and alternative feature learning strategies. Prediction performance for severe diabetes, schizophrenia, and various cancers were among the top performing. These findings indicate that deep learning applied to EHRs can derive patient representations that offer improved clinical predictions, and could provide a machine learning framework for augmenting clinical decision systems.

  2. Deep Patient: An Unsupervised Representation to Predict the Future of Patients from the Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Miotto, Riccardo; Li, Li; Kidd, Brian A.; Dudley, Joel T.

    2016-01-01

    Secondary use of electronic health records (EHRs) promises to advance clinical research and better inform clinical decision making. Challenges in summarizing and representing patient data prevent widespread practice of predictive modeling using EHRs. Here we present a novel unsupervised deep feature learning method to derive a general-purpose patient representation from EHR data that facilitates clinical predictive modeling. In particular, a three-layer stack of denoising autoencoders was used to capture hierarchical regularities and dependencies in the aggregated EHRs of about 700,000 patients from the Mount Sinai data warehouse. The result is a representation we name “deep patient”. We evaluated this representation as broadly predictive of health states by assessing the probability of patients to develop various diseases. We performed evaluation using 76,214 test patients comprising 78 diseases from diverse clinical domains and temporal windows. Our results significantly outperformed those achieved using representations based on raw EHR data and alternative feature learning strategies. Prediction performance for severe diabetes, schizophrenia, and various cancers were among the top performing. These findings indicate that deep learning applied to EHRs can derive patient representations that offer improved clinical predictions, and could provide a machine learning framework for augmenting clinical decision systems. PMID:27185194

  3. Deep Patient: An Unsupervised Representation to Predict the Future of Patients from the Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Miotto, Riccardo; Li, Li; Kidd, Brian A; Dudley, Joel T

    2016-05-17

    Secondary use of electronic health records (EHRs) promises to advance clinical research and better inform clinical decision making. Challenges in summarizing and representing patient data prevent widespread practice of predictive modeling using EHRs. Here we present a novel unsupervised deep feature learning method to derive a general-purpose patient representation from EHR data that facilitates clinical predictive modeling. In particular, a three-layer stack of denoising autoencoders was used to capture hierarchical regularities and dependencies in the aggregated EHRs of about 700,000 patients from the Mount Sinai data warehouse. The result is a representation we name "deep patient". We evaluated this representation as broadly predictive of health states by assessing the probability of patients to develop various diseases. We performed evaluation using 76,214 test patients comprising 78 diseases from diverse clinical domains and temporal windows. Our results significantly outperformed those achieved using representations based on raw EHR data and alternative feature learning strategies. Prediction performance for severe diabetes, schizophrenia, and various cancers were among the top performing. These findings indicate that deep learning applied to EHRs can derive patient representations that offer improved clinical predictions, and could provide a machine learning framework for augmenting clinical decision systems.

  4. Cognition and procedure representational requirements for predictive human performance models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, K.

    1992-01-01

    Models and modeling environments for human performance are becoming significant contributors to early system design and analysis procedures. Issues of levels of automation, physical environment, informational environment, and manning requirements are being addressed by such man/machine analysis systems. The research reported here investigates the close interaction between models of human cognition and models that described procedural performance. We describe a methodology for the decomposition of aircrew procedures that supports interaction with models of cognition on the basis of procedures observed; that serves to identify cockpit/avionics information sources and crew information requirements; and that provides the structure to support methods for function allocation among crew and aiding systems. Our approach is to develop an object-oriented, modular, executable software representation of the aircrew, the aircraft, and the procedures necessary to satisfy flight-phase goals. We then encode in a time-based language, taxonomies of the conceptual, relational, and procedural constraints among the cockpit avionics and control system and the aircrew. We have designed and implemented a goals/procedures hierarchic representation sufficient to describe procedural flow in the cockpit. We then execute the procedural representation in simulation software and calculate the values of the flight instruments, aircraft state variables and crew resources using the constraints available from the relationship taxonomies. The system provides a flexible, extensible, manipulative and executable representation of aircrew and procedures that is generally applicable to crew/procedure task-analysis. The representation supports developed methods of intent inference, and is extensible to include issues of information requirements and functional allocation. We are attempting to link the procedural representation to models of cognitive functions to establish several intent inference methods

  5. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Martin J.; Anjum, Raeesa S.; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L.; Spiers, Hugo J.; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the “semantic hub” of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories. PMID:27551087

  6. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Martin J; Anjum, Raeesa S; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L; Spiers, Hugo J; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-09-06

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the "semantic hub" of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories.

  7. Structural class prediction of protein using novel feature extraction method from chaos game representation of predicted secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lichao; Kong, Liang; Han, Xiaodong; Lv, Jinfeng

    2016-07-07

    Protein structural class prediction plays an important role in protein structure and function analysis, drug design and many other biological applications. Extracting good representation from protein sequence is fundamental for this prediction task. In recent years, although several secondary structure based feature extraction strategies have been specially proposed for low-similarity protein sequences, the prediction accuracy still remains limited. To explore the potential of secondary structure information, this study proposed a novel feature extraction method from the chaos game representation of predicted secondary structure to mainly capture sequence order information and secondary structure segments distribution information in a given protein sequence. Several kinds of prediction accuracies obtained by the jackknife test are reported on three widely used low-similarity benchmark datasets (25PDB, 1189 and 640). Compared with the state-of-the-art prediction methods, the proposed method achieves the highest overall accuracies on all the three datasets. The experimental results confirm that the proposed feature extraction method is effective for accurate prediction of protein structural class. Moreover, it is anticipated that the proposed method could be extended to other graphical representations of protein sequence and be helpful in future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Representation in the States: Policymaking and Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nice, David C.

    1983-01-01

    The degree of responsiveness of state policies to the ideological leanings of public opinion is examined. States with more liberal electorates, as indicated by their support for George McGovern in the 1972 presidential election, have higher welfare benefits and expenditures, higher education expenditures, and more consumer protection laws.…

  9. Adaptive modelling of structured molecular representations for toxicity prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertinetto, Carlo; Duce, Celia; Micheli, Alessio; Solaro, Roberto; Tiné, Maria Rosaria

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the possibility of modelling structure-toxicity relationships by direct treatment of the molecular structure (without using descriptors) through an adaptive model able to retain the appropriate structural information. With respect to traditional descriptor-based approaches, this provides a more general and flexible way to tackle prediction problems that is particularly suitable when little or no background knowledge is available. Our method employs a tree-structured molecular representation, which is processed by a recursive neural network (RNN). To explore the realization of RNN modelling in toxicological problems, we employed a data set containing growth impairment concentrations (IGC50) for Tetrahymena pyriformis.

  10. A verification logic representation of indeterministic signal states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    The integration of modern CAD tools with formal verification environments require translation from hardware description language to verification logic. A signal representation including both unknown state and a degree of strength indeterminacy is essential for the correct modeling of many VLSI circuit designs. A higher-order logic theory of indeterministic logic signals is presented.

  11. Gauge transformation of quantum states in probability representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korennoy, Ya A.; Man'ko, V. I.

    2017-04-01

    The gauge invariance of the evolution equations of tomographic probability distribution functions of quantum particles in an electromagnetic field is illustrated. Explicit expressions for the transformations of ordinary tomograms of states under a gauge transformation of electromagnetic field potentials are obtained. Gauge-independent optical and symplectic tomographic quasi-distributions and tomographic probability distributions of states of quantum system are introduced, and their evolution equations have the Liouville equation in corresponding representations as the classical limits are found.

  12. Unified Fock space representation of fractional quantum Hall states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Gioacchino, Andrea; Molinari, Luca Guido; Erba, Vittorio; Rotondo, Pietro

    2017-06-01

    Many bosonic (fermionic) fractional quantum Hall states, such as Laughlin, Moore-Read, and Read-Rezayi wave functions, belong to a special class of orthogonal polynomials: the Jack polynomials (times a Vandermonde determinant). This fundamental observation allows one to point out two different recurrence relations for the coefficients of the permanent (Slater) decomposition of the bosonic (fermionic) states. Here we provide an explicit Fock space representation for these wave functions by introducing a two-body squeezing operator which represents them as a Jastrow operator applied to reference states, which are, in general, simple periodic one-dimensional patterns. Remarkably, this operator representation is the same for bosons and fermions, and the different nature of the two recurrence relations is an outcome of particle statistics.

  13. Dynamics of open bosonic quantum systems in coherent state representation

    SciTech Connect

    Dalvit, D. A. R.; Berman, G. P.; Vishik, M.

    2006-01-15

    We consider the problem of decoherence and relaxation of open bosonic quantum systems from a perspective alternative to the standard master equation or quantum trajectories approaches. Our method is based on the dynamics of expectation values of observables evaluated in a coherent state representation. We examine a model of a quantum nonlinear oscillator with a density-density interaction with a collection of environmental oscillators at finite temperature. We derive the exact solution for dynamics of observables and demonstrate a consistent perturbation approach.

  14. Representations of Canonical Commutation Relations Describing Infinite Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joye, Alain; Merkli, Marco

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the infinite volume limit of quantized photon fields in multimode coherent states. We show that for states containing a continuum of coherent modes, it is mathematically and physically natural to consider their phases to be random and identically distributed. The infinite volume states give rise to Hilbert space representations of the canonical commutation relations which we construct concretely. In the case of random phases, the representations are random as well and can be expressed with the help of Itô stochastic integrals. We analyze the dynamics of the infinite state alone and the open system dynamics of small systems coupled to it. We show that under the free field dynamics, initial phase distributions are driven to the uniform distribution. We demonstrate that coherences in small quantum systems, interacting with the infinite coherent state, exhibit Gaussian time decay. The decoherence is qualitatively faster than the one caused by infinite thermal states, which is known to be exponentially rapid only. This emphasizes the classical character of coherent states.

  15. Predictive representations can link model-based reinforcement learning to model-free mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Russek, Evan M; Momennejad, Ida; Botvinick, Matthew M; Gershman, Samuel J; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2017-09-01

    Humans and animals are capable of evaluating actions by considering their long-run future rewards through a process described using model-based reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms. The mechanisms by which neural circuits perform the computations prescribed by model-based RL remain largely unknown; however, multiple lines of evidence suggest that neural circuits supporting model-based behavior are structurally homologous to and overlapping with those thought to carry out model-free temporal difference (TD) learning. Here, we lay out a family of approaches by which model-based computation may be built upon a core of TD learning. The foundation of this framework is the successor representation, a predictive state representation that, when combined with TD learning of value predictions, can produce a subset of the behaviors associated with model-based learning, while requiring less decision-time computation than dynamic programming. Using simulations, we delineate the precise behavioral capabilities enabled by evaluating actions using this approach, and compare them to those demonstrated by biological organisms. We then introduce two new algorithms that build upon the successor representation while progressively mitigating its limitations. Because this framework can account for the full range of observed putatively model-based behaviors while still utilizing a core TD framework, we suggest that it represents a neurally plausible family of mechanisms for model-based evaluation.

  16. Geometric multiaxial representation of N -qubit mixed symmetric separable states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SP, Suma; Sirsi, Swarnamala; Hegde, Subramanya; Bharath, Karthik

    2017-08-01

    The study of N -qubit mixed symmetric separable states is a longstanding challenging problem as no unique separability criterion exists. In this regard, we take up the N -qubit mixed symmetric separable states for a detailed study as these states are of experimental importance and offer an elegant mathematical analysis since the dimension of the Hilbert space is reduced from 2N to N +1 . Since there exists a one-to-one correspondence between the spin-j system and an N -qubit symmetric state, we employ Fano statistical tensor parameters for the parametrization of the spin-density matrix. Further, we use a geometric multiaxial representation (MAR) of the density matrix to characterize the mixed symmetric separable states. Since the separability problem is NP-hard, we choose to study it in the continuum limit where mixed symmetric separable states are characterized by the P -distribution function λ (θ ,ϕ ) . We show that the N -qubit mixed symmetric separable states can be visualized as a uniaxial system if the distribution function is independent of θ and ϕ . We further choose a distribution function to be the most general positive function on a sphere and observe that the statistical tensor parameters characterizing the N -qubit symmetric system are the expansion coefficients of the distribution function. As an example for the discrete case, we investigate the MAR of a uniformly weighted two-qubit mixed symmetric separable state. We also observe that there exists a correspondence between the separability and classicality of states.

  17. Predictive coding accounts of shared representations in parieto-insular networks.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Keisuke; Grandi, Laura Clara

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons in the ventral premotor cortex (area F5) and inferior parietal cortex (area PFG) in the macaque monkey brain has provided the physiological evidence for direct matching of the intrinsic motor representations of the self and the visual image of the actions of others. The existence of mirror neurons implies that the brain has mechanisms reflecting shared self and other action representations. This may further imply that the neural basis self-body representations may also incorporate components that are shared with other-body representations. It is likely that such a mechanism is also involved in predicting other's touch sensations and emotions. However, the neural basis of shared body representations has remained unclear. Here, we propose a neural basis of body representation of the self and of others in both human and non-human primates. We review a series of behavioral and physiological findings which together paint a picture that the systems underlying such shared representations require integration of conscious exteroception and interoception subserved by a cortical sensory-motor network involving parieto-inner perisylvian circuits (the ventral intraparietal area [VIP]/inferior parietal area [PFG]-secondary somatosensory cortex [SII]/posterior insular cortex [pIC]/anterior insular cortex [aIC]). Based on these findings, we propose a computational mechanism of the shared body representation in the predictive coding (PC) framework. Our mechanism proposes that processes emerging from generative models embedded in these specific neuronal circuits play a pivotal role in distinguishing a self-specific body representation from a shared one. The model successfully accounts for normal and abnormal shared body phenomena such as mirror-touch synesthesia and somatoparaphrenia. In addition, it generates a set of testable experimental predictions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The generalization of attachment representations to new social situations: predicting behavior during initial interactions with strangers.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Brooke C; Cassidy, Jude; Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima

    2008-12-01

    The idea that attachment representations are generalized to new social situations and guide behavior with unfamiliar others is central to attachment theory. However, research regarding this important theoretical postulate has been lacking in adolescence and adulthood, as most research has focused on establishing the influence of attachment representations on close relationship dynamics. Thus, the goal of this investigation was to examine the extent to which attachment representations are predictive of adolescents' initial behavior when meeting and interacting with new peers. High school adolescents (N=135) participated with unfamiliar peers from another school in 2 social support interactions that were videotaped and coded by independent observers. Results indicated that attachment representations (assessed through interview and self-report measures) were predictive of behaviors exhibited during the discussions. Theoretical implications of the results and contributions to the existing literature are discussed.

  19. The Generalization of Attachment Representations to New Social Situations: Predicting Behavior during Initial Interactions with Strangers

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Brooke C.; Cassidy, Jude; Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima

    2008-01-01

    The idea that attachment representations are generalized to new social situations and guide behavior with unfamiliar others is central to attachment theory. However, research regarding this important theoretical postulate has been lacking in adolescence and adulthood, as most research has focused on establishing the influence of attachment representations on close relationship dynamics. Thus, the goal of this investigation was to examine the extent to which attachment representations are predictive of adolescents’ initial behavior when meeting and interacting with new peers. High school adolescents (N = 135) participated with unfamiliar peers from another school in two social support interactions that were videotaped and coded by independent observers. Results indicated that attachment representations (assessed through interview and self-report measures) were predictive of behaviors exhibited during the discussions. Theoretical implications of results and contributions to existing literature are discussed. PMID:19025297

  20. Neural evidence that three dimensions organize mental state representation: Rationality, social impact, and valence

    PubMed Central

    Tamir, Diana I.; Thornton, Mark A.; Contreras, Juan Manuel; Mitchell, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    How do people understand the minds of others? Existing psychological theories have suggested a number of dimensions that perceivers could use to make sense of others’ internal mental states. However, it remains unclear which of these dimensions, if any, the brain spontaneously uses when we think about others. The present study used multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of neuroimaging data to identify the primary organizing principles of social cognition. We derived four unique dimensions of mental state representation from existing psychological theories and used functional magnetic resonance imaging to test whether these dimensions organize the neural encoding of others’ mental states. MVPA revealed that three such dimensions could predict neural patterns within the medial prefrontal and parietal cortices, temporoparietal junction, and anterior temporal lobes during social thought: rationality, social impact, and valence. These results suggest that these dimensions serve as organizing principles for our understanding of other people. PMID:26621704

  1. Neural evidence that three dimensions organize mental state representation: Rationality, social impact, and valence.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Diana I; Thornton, Mark A; Contreras, Juan Manuel; Mitchell, Jason P

    2016-01-05

    How do people understand the minds of others? Existing psychological theories have suggested a number of dimensions that perceivers could use to make sense of others' internal mental states. However, it remains unclear which of these dimensions, if any, the brain spontaneously uses when we think about others. The present study used multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of neuroimaging data to identify the primary organizing principles of social cognition. We derived four unique dimensions of mental state representation from existing psychological theories and used functional magnetic resonance imaging to test whether these dimensions organize the neural encoding of others' mental states. MVPA revealed that three such dimensions could predict neural patterns within the medial prefrontal and parietal cortices, temporoparietal junction, and anterior temporal lobes during social thought: rationality, social impact, and valence. These results suggest that these dimensions serve as organizing principles for our understanding of other people.

  2. Prediction of nociceptive responses during sedation by time-frequency representation.

    PubMed

    Melia, Umberto; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Jospin, Mathieu; Jensen, Erik W; Valencia, Jose Fernando; Clariá, Francesc; Gambus, Pedro L; Caminal, Pere

    2013-01-01

    The level of sedation in patients undergoing medical procedures evolves continuously, such as the effect of the anesthetic and analgesic agents is counteracted by pain stimuli. The monitors of depth of anesthesia, based on the analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), have been progressively introduced into the daily practice to provide additional information about the state of the patient. However, the quantification of analgesia still remains an open problem. The purpose of this work is to analyze the capability of prediction of nociceptive responses based on the time-frequency representation (TFR) of EEG signal. Functions of spectral entropy, instantaneous power and instantaneous frequency were calculated in order to predict the presence or absence of the nociceptive responses to different stimuli during sedation in endoscopy procedure. Values of prediction probability of Pk above 0.75 and percentages of sensitivity and specificity above 70% and 65% respectively were achieved combining TFR functions with bispectral index (BIS) and with concentrations of propofol (CeProp) and remifentanil (CeRemi).

  3. Idiosyncratic Patterns of Representational Similarity in Prefrontal Cortex Predict Attentional Performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeongmi; Geng, Joy J

    2017-02-01

    The efficiency of finding an object in a crowded environment depends largely on the similarity of nontargets to the search target. Models of attention theorize that the similarity is determined by representations stored within an "attentional template" held in working memory. However, the degree to which the contents of the attentional template are individually unique and where those idiosyncratic representations are encoded in the brain are unknown. We investigated this problem using representational similarity analysis of human fMRI data to measure the common and idiosyncratic representations of famous face morphs during an identity categorization task; data from the categorization task were then used to predict performance on a separate identity search task. We hypothesized that the idiosyncratic categorical representations of the continuous face morphs would predict their distractability when searching for each target identity. The results identified that patterns of activation in the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) as well as in face-selective areas in the ventral temporal cortex were highly correlated with the patterns of behavioral categorization of face morphs and search performance that were common across subjects. However, the individually unique components of the categorization behavior were reliably decoded only in right LPFC. Moreover, the neural pattern in right LPFC successfully predicted idiosyncratic variability in search performance, such that reaction times were longer when distractors had a higher probability of being categorized as the target identity. These results suggest that the prefrontal cortex encodes individually unique components of categorical representations that are also present in attentional templates for target search.

  4. Sparse Representation for Prediction of HIV-1 Protease Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaxia; Weber, Irene T; Harrison, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    HIV rapidly evolves drug resistance in response to antiviral drugs used in AIDS therapy. Estimating the specific resistance of a given strain of HIV to individual drugs from sequence data has important benefits for both the therapy of individual patients and the development of novel drugs. We have developed an accurate classification method based on the sparse representation theory, and demonstrate that this method is highly effective with HIV-1 protease. The protease structure is represented using our newly proposed encoding method based on Delaunay triangulation, and combined with the mutated amino acid sequences of known drug-resistant strains to train a machine-learning algorithm both for classification and regression of drug-resistant mutations. An overall cross-validated classification accuracy of 97% is obtained when trained on a publically available data base of approximately 1.5×10(4) known sequences (Stanford HIV database http://hivdb.stanford.edu/cgi-bin/GenoPhenoDS.cgi). Resistance to four FDA approved drugs is computed and comparisons with other algorithms demonstrate that our method shows significant improvements in classification accuracy.

  5. The optimal solution prediction for genetic and distribution building algorithms with binary representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopov, E.; Semenkina, O.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic and distribution building algorithms with binary representation are analyzed. A property of convergence to the optimal solution is discussed. A novel convergence prediction method is proposed and investigated. The method is based on analysis of gene value probabilities distribution dynamics, thus it can predict gene values of the optimal solution to which the algorithm converges. The results of investigations for the optimal prediction algorithm performance are presented.

  6. State-dependent representation of amplitude-modulated noise stimuli in rat auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Marguet, Stephan L.; Harris, Kenneth D.

    2011-01-01

    Cortical responses can vary greatly between repeated presentations of an identical stimulus. Here we report that both trial-to-trial variability and faithfulness of auditory cortical stimulus representations depend critically on brain state. A frozen amplitude-modulated white noise stimulus was repeatedly presented while recording neuronal populations and local field potentials (LFPs) in auditory cortex of urethane-anesthetized rats. An information-theoretic measure was used to predict neuronal spiking activity from either the stimulus envelope or simultaneously recorded LFP. Evoked LFPs and spiking more faithfully followed high-frequency temporal modulations when the cortex was in a “desynchronized” state. In the “synchronized” state, neural activity was poorly predictable from the stimulus envelope, but the spiking of individual neurons could still be predicted from the ongoing LFP. Our results suggest that although auditory cortical activity remains coordinated as a population in the synchronized state, the ability of continuous auditory stimuli to control this activity is greatly diminished. PMID:21525282

  7. Parenting and children's representations of family predict disruptive and callous-unemotional behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Nicholas J.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Willoughby, Michael T.; Zvara, Bharathi; Cox, Martha J.

    2015-01-01

    Data from a large prospective longitudinal study (n = 1,239) was used to investigate the association between observed sensitive parenting in early childhood and children's representations of family relationships as measured by the Family Drawing Paradigm (FDP) in first grade as well as the extent to which these representations partially mediate the influences of early caregiving experiences on later conduct problems and callous-unemotional behaviors. A structural equation modeling approach revealed that less sensitive parenting at 24, 36, and 58 months predicts higher levels of conduct problems (CP) and callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors in first grade controlling for earlier measures of CP and CU behaviors. Results also indicated that greater dysfunctional family representations, as assessed with the FDP, are significantly associated with higher CU behaviors in the first grade, but not CP. Finally, a test of the indirect pathway suggests that children's dysfunctional family representations may, in part, account for the association between sensitive parenting and CU behaviors. PMID:26010385

  8. Cumulative Time Series Representation for Code Blue prediction in the Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Salas-Boni, Rebeca; Bai, Yong; Hu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Patient monitors in hospitals generate a high number of false alarms that compromise patients care and burden clinicians. In our previous work, an attempt to alleviate this problem by finding combinations of monitor alarms and laboratory test that were predictive of code blue events, called SuperAlarms. Our current work consists of developing a novel time series representation that accounts for both cumulative effects and temporality was developed, and it is applied to code blue prediction in the intensive care unit (ICU). The health status of patients is represented both by a term frequency approach, TF, often used in natural language processing; and by our novel cumulative approach. We call this representation "weighted accumulated occurrence representation", or WAOR. These two representations are fed into a L1 regularized logistic regression classifier, and are used to predict code blue events. Our performance was assessed online in an independent set. We report the sensitivity of our algorithm at different time windows prior to the code blue event, as well as the work-up to detect ratio and the proportion of false code blue detections divided by the number of false monitor alarms. We obtained a better performance with our cumulative representation, retaining a sensitivity close to our previous work while improving the other metrics.

  9. Motivational states activate distinct hippocampal representations to guide goal-directed behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Pamela J; Shapiro, Matthew L

    2009-06-30

    Adaptive behaviors are guided by motivation and memory. Motivational states specify goals, and memory can inform motivated behavior by providing detailed records of past experiences when goals were obtained. These 2 fundamental processes interact to guide animals to biologically relevant targets, but the neuronal mechanisms that integrate them remain unknown. To investigate these mechanisms, we recorded unit activity from the same population of hippocampal neurons as rats performed identical tasks while either food or water deprived. We compared the influence of motivational state (hunger and thirst), memory demand, and spatial behavior in 2 tasks: hippocampus-dependent contextual memory retrieval and hippocampus-independent random foraging. We found that: (i) hippocampal coding was most strongly influenced by motivational state during contextual memory retrieval, when motivational cues were required to select among remembered, goal-directed actions in the same places; (ii) the same neuronal populations were relatively unaffected by motivational state during random foraging, when hunger and thirst were incidental to behavior, and signals derived from deprivation states thus informed, but did not determine, hippocampal coding; and (iii) "prospective coding" in the contextual retrieval task was not influenced by allocentric spatial trajectory, but rather by the animal's deprivation state and the associated, non-spatial target, suggesting that hippocampal coding includes a wide range of predictive associations. The results show that beyond coding spatiotemporal context, hippocampal representations encode the relationships between internal states, the external environment, and action to provide a mechanism by which motivation and memory are coordinated to guide behavior.

  10. Phase-space representation of quantum state vectors: The relative-state approach and the displacement-operator approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Masashi

    1999-08-01

    Phase-space representation of quantum state vectors has been recently formulated by means of the relative-state method developed by the present author [J. Math. Phys. 39, 1744 (1998)]. It is, however, pointed out by Mo/ller that the displacement-operator method provides another basis of phase-space representation of quantum state vectors [J. Math. Phys. (to appear)]. Hence the relation between the relative-state approach and the displacement-operator approach is discussed, both of which yield equivalent phase-space representations.

  11. Masking of Children's Early Understanding of the Representational Mind: Backwards Explanation versus Prediction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, E. J.; Mitchell, P.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the use of tasks with backward false belief explanation as an effective technique in gaining a complete picture of the development of understanding of the representational mind. Argues that traditional prediction tests of false belief cannot tell whether children's wrong answers show misunderstanding about false belief or seduction by the…

  12. Multi-voxel patterns of visual category representation during episodic encoding are predictive of subsequent memory

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Brice A.; Rissman, Jesse; Wagner, Anthony D.

    2012-01-01

    Successful encoding of episodic memories is thought to depend on contributions from prefrontal and temporal lobe structures. Neural processes that contribute to successful encoding have been extensively explored through univariate analyses of neuroimaging data that compare mean activity levels elicited during the encoding of events that are subsequently remembered vs. those subsequently forgotten. Here, we applied pattern classification to fMRI data to assess the degree to which distributed patterns of activity within prefrontal and temporal lobe structures elicited during the encoding of word-image pairs were diagnostic of the visual category (Face or Scene) of the encoded image. We then assessed whether representation of category information was predictive of subsequent memory. Classification analyses indicated that temporal lobe structures contained information robustly diagnostic of visual category. Information in prefrontal cortex was less diagnostic of visual category, but was nonetheless associated with highly reliable classifier-based evidence for category representation. Critically, trials associated with greater classifier-based estimates of category representation in temporal and prefrontal regions were associated with a higher probability of subsequent remembering. Finally, consideration of trial-by-trial variance in classifier-based measures of category representation revealed positive correlations between prefrontal and temporal lobe representations, with the strength of these correlations varying as a function of the category of image being encoded. Together, these results indicate that multi-voxel representations of encoded information can provide unique insights into how visual experiences are transformed into episodic memories. PMID:21925190

  13. Investigating Mesoscopic Non-linear Series Circuit with the Coherent Thermo State Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiu-Xia

    2017-03-01

    For the first time we considered the quantum effects of mesoscopic non-linear series circuit with the coherent thermo state representation | τ rangle . After introducing the representation |τ rangle , we derived the expression of the density matrix ρ and find that | ρ rangle T presents Gauss type with the representation | τ rangle . In addition, we derived the Wigner function and calculated the quantum fluctuation in the thermo vacuum state |0( β)>. It is shown that the circuit has the zero current fluctuation because the diode has the reverse saturation current, and the temperature affects the Wigner function of the circuit in thermo vacuum state deeply.

  14. Predicting Neural Activity Patterns Associated with Sentences Using a Neurobiologically Motivated Model of Semantic Representation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Andrew James; Binder, Jeffrey R; Fernandino, Leonardo; Humphries, Colin J; Conant, Lisa L; Aguilar, Mario; Wang, Xixi; Doko, Donias; Raizada, Rajeev D S

    2017-09-01

    We introduce an approach that predicts neural representations of word meanings contained in sentences then superposes these to predict neural representations of new sentences. A neurobiological semantic model based on sensory, motor, social, emotional, and cognitive attributes was used as a foundation to define semantic content. Previous studies have predominantly predicted neural patterns for isolated words, using models that lack neurobiological interpretation. Fourteen participants read 240 sentences describing everyday situations while undergoing fMRI. To connect sentence-level fMRI activation patterns to the word-level semantic model, we devised methods to decompose the fMRI data into individual words. Activation patterns associated with each attribute in the model were then estimated using multiple-regression. This enabled synthesis of activation patterns for trained and new words, which were subsequently averaged to predict new sentences. Region-of-interest analyses revealed that prediction accuracy was highest using voxels in the left temporal and inferior parietal cortex, although a broad range of regions returned statistically significant results, showing that semantic information is widely distributed across the brain. The results show how a neurobiologically motivated semantic model can decompose sentence-level fMRI data into activation features for component words, which can be recombined to predict activation patterns for new sentences. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Representation of DNA sequences in genetic codon context with applications in exon and intron prediction.

    PubMed

    Yin, Changchuan

    2015-04-01

    To apply digital signal processing (DSP) methods to analyze DNA sequences, the sequences first must be specially mapped into numerical sequences. Thus, effective numerical mappings of DNA sequences play key roles in the effectiveness of DSP-based methods such as exon prediction. Despite numerous mappings of symbolic DNA sequences to numerical series, the existing mapping methods do not include the genetic coding features of DNA sequences. We present a novel numerical representation of DNA sequences using genetic codon context (GCC) in which the numerical values are optimized by simulation annealing to maximize the 3-periodicity signal to noise ratio (SNR). The optimized GCC representation is then applied in exon and intron prediction by Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) approach. The results show the GCC method enhances the SNR values of exon sequences and thus increases the accuracy of predicting protein coding regions in genomes compared with the commonly used 4D binary representation. In addition, this study offers a novel way to reveal specific features of DNA sequences by optimizing numerical mappings of symbolic DNA sequences.

  16. Intention understanding over T: a neuroimaging study on shared representations and tennis return predictions

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Fontang, Frederic; Patel, Nisa; Decety, Jean; Monteleone, George; Cacioppo, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Studying the way athletes predict actions of their peers during fast-ball sports, such as a tennis, has proved to be a valuable tool for increasing our knowledge of intention understanding. The working model in this area is that the anticipatory representations of others' behaviors require internal predictive models of actions formed from pre-established and shared representations between the observer and the actor. This model also predicts that observers would not be able to read accurately the intentions of a competitor if the competitor were to perform the action without prior knowledge of their intention until moments before the action. To test this hypothesis, we recorded brain activity from 25 male tennis players while they performed a novel behavioral tennis intention inference task, which included two conditions: (i) one condition in which they viewed video clips of a tennis athlete who knew in advance where he was about to act/serve (initially intended serves) and (ii) one condition in which they viewed video clips of that same athlete when he did not know where he was to act/serve until the target was specified after he had tossed the ball into the air to complete his serve (non-initially intended serves). Our results demonstrated that (i) tennis expertise is related to the accuracy in predicting where another server intends to serve when that server knows where he intends to serve before (but not after) he tosses the ball in the air; and (ii) accurate predictions are characterized by the recruitment of both cortical areas within the human mirror neuron system (that is known to be involved in higher-order (top-down) processes of embodied cognition and shared representation) and subcortical areas within brain regions involved in procedural memory (caudate nucleus). Interestingly, inaccurate predictions instead recruit areas known to be involved in low-level (bottom-up) computational processes associated with the sense of agency and self-other distinction

  17. Using abiotic variables to predict importance of sites for species representation.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Fabio; Beier, Paul

    2015-10-01

    In systematic conservation planning, species distribution data for all sites in a planning area are used to prioritize each site in terms of the site's importance toward meeting the goal of species representation. But comprehensive species data are not available in most planning areas and would be expensive to acquire. As a shortcut, ecologists use surrogates, such as occurrences of birds or another well-surveyed taxon, or land types defined from remotely sensed data, in the hope that sites that represent the surrogates also represent biodiversity. Unfortunately, surrogates have not performed reliably. We propose a new type of surrogate, predicted importance, that can be developed from species data for a q% subset of sites. With species data from this subset of sites, importance can be modeled as a function of abiotic variables available at no charge for all terrestrial areas on Earth. Predicted importance can then be used as a surrogate to prioritize all sites. We tested this surrogate with 8 sets of species data. For each data set, we used a q% subset of sites to model importance as a function of abiotic variables, used the resulting function to predict importance for all sites, and evaluated the number of species in the sites with highest predicted importance. Sites with the highest predicted importance represented species efficiently for all data sets when q = 25% and for 7 of 8 data sets when q = 20%. Predicted importance requires less survey effort than direct selection for species representation and meets representation goals well compared with other surrogates currently in use. This less expensive surrogate may be useful in those areas of the world that need it most, namely tropical regions with the highest biodiversity, greatest biodiversity loss, most severe lack of inventory data, and poorly developed protected area networks. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Spatiotemporal Context Awareness for Urban Traffic Modeling and Prediction: Sparse Representation Based Variable Selection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Su; Shi, Shixiong; Hu, Xiaobing; Wang, Minjie

    2015-01-01

    Spatial-temporal correlations among the data play an important role in traffic flow prediction. Correspondingly, traffic modeling and prediction based on big data analytics emerges due to the city-scale interactions among traffic flows. A new methodology based on sparse representation is proposed to reveal the spatial-temporal dependencies among traffic flows so as to simplify the correlations among traffic data for the prediction task at a given sensor. Three important findings are observed in the experiments: (1) Only traffic flows immediately prior to the present time affect the formation of current traffic flows, which implies the possibility to reduce the traditional high-order predictors into an 1-order model. (2) The spatial context relevant to a given prediction task is more complex than what is assumed to exist locally and can spread out to the whole city. (3) The spatial context varies with the target sensor undergoing prediction and enlarges with the increment of time lag for prediction. Because the scope of human mobility is subject to travel time, identifying the varying spatial context against time lag is crucial for prediction. Since sparse representation can capture the varying spatial context to adapt to the prediction task, it outperforms the traditional methods the inputs of which are confined as the data from a fixed number of nearby sensors. As the spatial-temporal context for any prediction task is fully detected from the traffic data in an automated manner, where no additional information regarding network topology is needed, it has good scalability to be applicable to large-scale networks. PMID:26496370

  19. Spatiotemporal Context Awareness for Urban Traffic Modeling and Prediction: Sparse Representation Based Variable Selection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Su; Shi, Shixiong; Hu, Xiaobing; Wang, Minjie

    2015-01-01

    Spatial-temporal correlations among the data play an important role in traffic flow prediction. Correspondingly, traffic modeling and prediction based on big data analytics emerges due to the city-scale interactions among traffic flows. A new methodology based on sparse representation is proposed to reveal the spatial-temporal dependencies among traffic flows so as to simplify the correlations among traffic data for the prediction task at a given sensor. Three important findings are observed in the experiments: (1) Only traffic flows immediately prior to the present time affect the formation of current traffic flows, which implies the possibility to reduce the traditional high-order predictors into an 1-order model. (2) The spatial context relevant to a given prediction task is more complex than what is assumed to exist locally and can spread out to the whole city. (3) The spatial context varies with the target sensor undergoing prediction and enlarges with the increment of time lag for prediction. Because the scope of human mobility is subject to travel time, identifying the varying spatial context against time lag is crucial for prediction. Since sparse representation can capture the varying spatial context to adapt to the prediction task, it outperforms the traditional methods the inputs of which are confined as the data from a fixed number of nearby sensors. As the spatial-temporal context for any prediction task is fully detected from the traffic data in an automated manner, where no additional information regarding network topology is needed, it has good scalability to be applicable to large-scale networks.

  20. NoGOA: predicting noisy GO annotations using evidences and sparse representation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guoxian; Lu, Chang; Wang, Jun

    2017-07-21

    Gene Ontology (GO) is a community effort to represent functional features of gene products. GO annotations (GOA) provide functional associations between GO terms and gene products. Due to resources limitation, only a small portion of annotations are manually checked by curators, and the others are electronically inferred. Although quality control techniques have been applied to ensure the quality of annotations, the community consistently report that there are still considerable noisy (or incorrect) annotations. Given the wide application of annotations, however, how to identify noisy annotations is an important but yet seldom studied open problem. We introduce a novel approach called NoGOA to predict noisy annotations. NoGOA applies sparse representation on the gene-term association matrix to reduce the impact of noisy annotations, and takes advantage of sparse representation coefficients to measure the semantic similarity between genes. Secondly, it preliminarily predicts noisy annotations of a gene based on aggregated votes from semantic neighborhood genes of that gene. Next, NoGOA estimates the ratio of noisy annotations for each evidence code based on direct annotations in GOA files archived on different periods, and then weights entries of the association matrix via estimated ratios and propagates weights to ancestors of direct annotations using GO hierarchy. Finally, it integrates evidence-weighted association matrix and aggregated votes to predict noisy annotations. Experiments on archived GOA files of six model species (H. sapiens, A. thaliana, S. cerevisiae, G. gallus, B. Taurus and M. musculus) demonstrate that NoGOA achieves significantly better results than other related methods and removing noisy annotations improves the performance of gene function prediction. The comparative study justifies the effectiveness of integrating evidence codes with sparse representation for predicting noisy GO annotations. Codes and datasets are available at http://mlda.swu.edu.cn/codes.php?name=NoGOA .

  1. A state-space representation of the GR4J rainfall-runoff model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Léonard; Thirel, Guillaume; Perrin, Charles

    2017-04-01

    . This state-space representation could be useful for data assimilation methods in prediction (for example the use of Kalman filters) and for variable time step modelling. It also finds applications for dynamic multimodel combination (i.e. SUMO method, van den Berge et al., 2011) as shown in abstract EGU2017-4638. References Clark, M. P. and Kavetski, D. (2010). Ancient numerical daemons of conceptual hydrological modeling : 1. fidelity and efficiency of time stepping schemes. Water Resour. Res., 46(10). van den Berge, L. A., Selten, F. M., Wiegerinck, W., and Duane, G. S. (2011). A multi-model ensemble method that combines imperfect models through learning. Earth System Dynamics, 2(1) :161-177.

  2. Distant failure prediction for early stage NSCLC by analyzing PET with sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Hongxia; Zhou, Zhiguo; Wang, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been widely explored for treatment outcome prediction. Radiomicsdriven methods provide a new insight to quantitatively explore underlying information from PET images. However, it is still a challenging problem to automatically extract clinically meaningful features for prognosis. In this work, we develop a PET-guided distant failure predictive model for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) by using sparse representation. The proposed method does not need precalculated features and can learn intrinsically distinctive features contributing to classification of patients with distant failure. The proposed framework includes two main parts: 1) intra-tumor heterogeneity description; and 2) dictionary pair learning based sparse representation. Tumor heterogeneity is initially captured through anisotropic kernel and represented as a set of concatenated vectors, which forms the sample gallery. Then, given a test tumor image, its identity (i.e., distant failure or not) is classified by applying the dictionary pair learning based sparse representation. We evaluate the proposed approach on 48 NSCLC patients treated by SABR at our institute. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can achieve an area under the characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.70 with a sensitivity of 69.87% and a specificity of 69.51% using a five-fold cross validation.

  3. An Incomplete History: Representation of American Indians in State Social Studies Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journell, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    Using an interpretive analysis, American history standards from nine states that incorporate high-stakes assessments in social studies are analyzed for their representation of American Indians. Research on high-stakes assessments shows that teachers are more likely to align their instruction with state standards due to mounting pressure to achieve…

  4. An Incomplete History: Representation of American Indians in State Social Studies Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journell, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    Using an interpretive analysis, American history standards from nine states that incorporate high-stakes assessments in social studies are analyzed for their representation of American Indians. Research on high-stakes assessments shows that teachers are more likely to align their instruction with state standards due to mounting pressure to achieve…

  5. Representation of compounds for machine-learning prediction of physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seko, Atsuto; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Keita; Takahashi, Akira; Tanaka, Isao

    2017-04-01

    The representations of a compound, called "descriptors" or "features", play an essential role in constructing a machine-learning model of its physical properties. In this study, we adopt a procedure for generating a set of descriptors from simple elemental and structural representations. First, it is applied to a large data set composed of the cohesive energy for about 18 000 compounds computed by density functional theory calculation. As a result, we obtain a kernel ridge prediction model with a prediction error of 0.041 eV/atom, which is close to the "chemical accuracy" of 1 kcal/mol (0.043 eV/atom). A prediction model with an error of 0.071 eV/atom of the cohesive energy is obtained for the normalized prototype structures, which can be used for the practical purpose of searching for as-yet-unknown structures. The procedure is also applied to two smaller data sets, i.e., a data set of the lattice thermal conductivity for 110 compounds computed by density functional theory calculation and a data set of the experimental melting temperature for 248 compounds. We examine the effect of the descriptor sets on the efficiency of Bayesian optimization in addition to the accuracy of the kernel ridge regression models. They exhibit good predictive performances.

  6. Improved protein-protein interactions prediction via weighted sparse representation model combining continuous wavelet descriptor and PseAA composition.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-An; You, Zhu-Hong; Chen, Xing; Yan, Gui-Ying

    2016-12-23

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are essential to most biological processes. Since bioscience has entered into the era of genome and proteome, there is a growing demand for the knowledge about PPI network. High-throughput biological technologies can be used to identify new PPIs, but they are expensive, time-consuming, and tedious. Therefore, computational methods for predicting PPIs have an important role. For the past years, an increasing number of computational methods such as protein structure-based approaches have been proposed for predicting PPIs. The major limitation in principle of these methods lies in the prior information of the protein to infer PPIs. Therefore, it is of much significance to develop computational methods which only use the information of protein amino acids sequence. Here, we report a highly efficient approach for predicting PPIs. The main improvements come from the use of a novel protein sequence representation by combining continuous wavelet descriptor and Chou's pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC), and from adopting weighted sparse representation based classifier (WSRC). This method, cross-validated on the PPIs datasets of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Human and H. pylori, achieves an excellent results with accuracies as high as 92.50%, 95.54% and 84.28% respectively, significantly better than previously proposed methods. Extensive experiments are performed to compare the proposed method with state-of-the-art Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. The outstanding results yield by our model that the proposed feature extraction method combing two kinds of descriptors have strong expression ability and are expected to provide comprehensive and effective information for machine learning-based classification models. In addition, the prediction performance in the comparison experiments shows the well cooperation between the combined feature and WSRC. Thus, the proposed method is a very efficient method to predict PPIs and may be a useful

  7. More Lake States Tree Survival Predictions

    Treesearch

    Roland G. Buchman; Ellen L. Lentz

    1984-01-01

    Species coefficients are reported for predicting individual tree survival for nine Lake States species, supplementing a previous report for 10 species. Tree attributes are diameter growth rate and diameter at breast height. Regional and local performances are summarized.

  8. Ontology and modeling patterns for state-based behavior representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castet, Jean-Francois; Rozek, Matthew L.; Ingham, Michel D.; Rouquette, Nicolas F.; Chung, Seung H.; Kerzhner, Aleksandr A.; Donahue, Kenneth M.; Jenkins, J. Steven; Wagner, David A.; Dvorak, Daniel L.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an approach to capture state-based behavior of elements, that is, the specification of their state evolution in time, and the interactions amongst them. Elements can be components (e.g., sensors, actuators) or environments, and are characterized by state variables that vary with time. The behaviors of these elements, as well as interactions among them are represented through constraints on state variables. This paper discusses the concepts and relationships introduced in this behavior ontology, and the modeling patterns associated with it. Two example cases are provided to illustrate their usage, as well as to demonstrate the flexibility and scalability of the behavior ontology: a simple flashlight electrical model and a more complex spacecraft model involving instruments, power and data behaviors. Finally, an implementation in a SysML profile is provided.

  9. Emotion, Cognition, and Mental State Representation in Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Salzman, C. Daniel; Fusi, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Neuroscientists have often described cognition and emotion as separable processes implemented by different regions of the brain, such as the amygdala for emotion and the prefrontal cortex for cognition. In this framework, functional interactions between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex mediate emotional influences on cognitive processes such as decision-making, as well as the cognitive regulation of emotion. However, neurons in these structures often have entangled representations, whereby single neurons encode multiple cognitive and emotional variables. Here we review studies using anatomical, lesion, and neurophysiological approaches to investigate the representation and utilization of cognitive and emotional parameters. We propose that these mental state parameters are inextricably linked and represented in dynamic neural networks composed of interconnected prefrontal and limbic brain structures. Future theoretical and experimental work is required to understand how these mental state representations form and how shifts between mental states occur, a critical feature of adaptive cognitive and emotional behavior. PMID:20331363

  10. Discriminative learning for dynamic state prediction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minyoung; Pavlovic, Vladimir

    2009-10-01

    We consider the problem of predicting a sequence of real-valued multivariate states that are correlated by some unknown dynamics, from a given measurement sequence. Although dynamic systems such as the State-Space Models are popular probabilistic models for the problem, their joint modeling of states and observations, as well as the traditional generative learning by maximizing a joint likelihood may not be optimal for the ultimate prediction goal. In this paper, we suggest two novel discriminative approaches to the dynamic state prediction: 1) learning generative state-space models with discriminative objectives and 2) developing an undirected conditional model. These approaches are motivated by the success of recent discriminative approaches to the structured output classification in discrete-state domains, namely, discriminative training of Hidden Markov Models and Conditional Random Fields (CRFs). Extending CRFs to real multivariate state domains generally entails imposing density integrability constraints on the CRF parameter space, which can make the parameter learning difficult. We introduce an efficient convex learning algorithm to handle this task. Experiments on several problem domains, including human motion and robot-arm state estimation, indicate that the proposed approaches yield high prediction accuracy comparable to or better than state-of-the-art methods.

  11. Bound states in gauge theories as the Poincare group representations

    SciTech Connect

    Cherny, A. Yu.; Dorokhov, A. E.; Han, Nguyen Suan; Pervushin, V. N. Shilin, V. I.

    2013-03-15

    The bound-state generating functional is constructed in gauge theories. This construction is based on the Dirac Hamiltonian approach to gauge theories, the Poincare group classification of fields and their nonlocal bound states, and the Markov-Yukawa constraint of irreducibility. The generating functional contains additional anomalous creations of pseudoscalar bound states: para-positronium in QED and mesons inQCDin the two-gamma processes of the type of {gamma} + {gamma} {yields} {pi}{sub 0} +para-positronium. The functional allows us to establish physically clear and transparent relations between the perturbativeQCD to its nonperturbative low-energy model by means of normal ordering and the quark and gluon condensates. In the limit of small current quark masses, the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation is derived from the Schwinger-Dyson and Bethe-Salpeter equations. The constituent quark masses can be calculated from a self-consistent nonlinear equation.

  12. Site of metabolism prediction based on ab initio derived atom representations.

    PubMed

    Finkelmann, Arndt R; Göller, Andreas H; Schneider, Gisbert

    2017-03-21

    Machine learning models for site of metabolism (SoM) prediction offer the ability to identify metabolic soft spots in low molecular weight drug molecules at low computational cost and enable data-based reactivity prediction. SoM prediction is an atom classification problem. Successful construction of machine learning models requires atom representations that capture the reactivity-determining features of a potential reaction site. We have developed a descriptor scheme that characterizes an atom's steric and electronic environment and its relative location in the molecular structure. The partial charge distributions were obtained from fast quantum mechanical calculations. We successfully trained machine learning classifiers on curated cytochrome p450 metabolism data. The models based on the new atom descriptors showed sustained accuracy for retrospective analyses of metabolism optimization campaigns and lead optimization projects from Bayer Pharmaceuticals. The results obtained demonstrate the practicality of quantum-chemistry-supported machine learning models for hit-to-lead optimization.

  13. Spatially-explicit representation of state-and-transition models

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The broad-scale assessment of natural resource conditions (e.g., rangeland health, restoration needs) requires knowledge of their spatial distribution. We argue that creating a database that links state-and-transition models (STMs) to spatial units is a valuable management tool for structuring groun...

  14. Interaction of Instrumental and Goal-Directed Learning Modulates Prediction Error Representations in the Ventral Striatum.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rong; Böhmer, Wendelin; Hebart, Martin; Chien, Samson; Sommer, Tobias; Obermayer, Klaus; Gläscher, Jan

    2016-12-14

    Goal-directed and instrumental learning are both important controllers of human behavior. Learning about which stimulus event occurs in the environment and the reward associated with them allows humans to seek out the most valuable stimulus and move through the environment in a goal-directed manner. Stimulus-response associations are characteristic of instrumental learning, whereas response-outcome associations are the hallmark of goal-directed learning. Here we provide behavioral, computational, and neuroimaging results from a novel task in which stimulus-response and response-outcome associations are learned simultaneously but dominate behavior at different stages of the experiment. We found that prediction error representations in the ventral striatum depend on which type of learning dominates. Furthermore, the amygdala tracks the time-dependent weighting of stimulus-response versus response-outcome learning. Our findings suggest that the goal-directed and instrumental controllers dynamically engage the ventral striatum in representing prediction errors whenever one of them is dominating choice behavior. Converging evidence in human neuroimaging studies has shown that the reward prediction errors are correlated with activity in the ventral striatum. Our results demonstrate that this region is simultaneously correlated with a stimulus prediction error. Furthermore, the learning system that is currently dominating behavioral choice dynamically engages the ventral striatum for computing its prediction errors. This demonstrates that the prediction error representations are highly dynamic and influenced by various experimental context. This finding points to a general role of the ventral striatum in detecting expectancy violations and encoding error signals regardless of the specific nature of the reinforcer itself. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3612650-11$15.00/0.

  15. Observables, Evolution Equation, and Stationary States Equation in the Joint Probability Representation of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korennoy, Ya. A.; Man'ko, V. I.

    2017-04-01

    Symplectic and optical joint probability representations of quantum mechanics are considered, in which the functions describing the states are the probability distributions with all random arguments (except the argument of time). The general formalism of quantizers and dequantizers determining the star product quantization scheme in these representations is given. Taking the Gaussian functions as the distributions of the tomographic parameters the correspondence rules for most interesting physical operators are found and the expressions of the dual symbols of operators in the form of singular and regular generalized functions are derived. Evolution equations and stationary states equations for symplectic and optical joint probability distributions are obtained.

  16. Observables, Evolution Equation, and Stationary States Equation in the Joint Probability Representation of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korennoy, Ya. A.; Man'ko, V. I.

    2016-12-01

    Symplectic and optical joint probability representations of quantum mechanics are considered, in which the functions describing the states are the probability distributions with all random arguments (except the argument of time). The general formalism of quantizers and dequantizers determining the star product quantization scheme in these representations is given. Taking the Gaussian functions as the distributions of the tomographic parameters the correspondence rules for most interesting physical operators are found and the expressions of the dual symbols of operators in the form of singular and regular generalized functions are derived. Evolution equations and stationary states equations for symplectic and optical joint probability distributions are obtained.

  17. State space representations of distributed fluid line dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, H.; Goodson, R. E.; Leonard, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the convenience of using a systematic straight forward procedure to obtain meaningful dynamic information for a class of complex distributed parameter fluid line networks. System transients in the time domain are determined by means of state space techniques. Digital computer implementation yields a simple but consistent way of obtaining overall system time solutions. A step-by-step analysis procedure flow chart is shown in Appendix I which illustrates the basic approach for modeling, approximating and selecting digital techniques for simulating the dynamic response of fluid line systems.

  18. Continuum tensor network field states, path integral representations and spatial symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, David; Brockt, Christoph; Haegeman, Jutho; Osborne, Tobias J.; Verstraete, Frank

    2015-06-01

    A natural way to generalize tensor network variational classes to quantum field systems is via a continuous tensor contraction. This approach is first illustrated for the class of quantum field states known as continuous matrix-product states (cMPS). As a simple example of the path-integral representation we show that the state of a dynamically evolving quantum field admits a natural representation as a cMPS. A completeness argument is also provided that shows that all states in Fock space admit a cMPS representation when the number of variational parameters tends to infinity. Beyond this, we obtain a well-behaved field limit of projected entangled-pair states (PEPS) in two dimensions that provide an abstract class of quantum field states with natural symmetries. We demonstrate how symmetries of the physical field state are encoded within the dynamics of an auxiliary field system of one dimension less. In particular, the imposition of Euclidean symmetries on the physical system requires that the auxiliary system involved in the class’ definition must be Lorentz-invariant. The physical field states automatically inherit entropy area laws from the PEPS class, and are fully described by the dissipative dynamics of a lower dimensional virtual field system. Our results lie at the intersection many-body physics, quantum field theory and quantum information theory, and facilitate future exchanges of ideas and insights between these disciplines.

  19. Representability of Bloch states on Projector-augmented-wave (PAW) basis sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapito, Luis; Ferretti, Andrea; Curtarolo, Stefano; Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Design of small, yet `complete', localized basis sets is necessary for an efficient dual representation of Bloch states on both plane-wave and localized basis. Such simultaneous dual representation permits the development of faster more accurate (beyond DFT) electronic-structure methods for atomistic materials (e.g. the ACBN0 method.) by benefiting from algorithms (real and reciprocal space) and hardware acceleration (e.g. GPUs) used in the quantum-chemistry and solid-state communities. Finding a `complete' atomic-orbital basis (partial waves) is also a requirement in the generation of robust and transferable PAW pseudopotentials. We have employed the atomic-orbital basis from available PAW data sets, which extends through most of the periodic table, and tested the representability of Bloch states on such basis. Our results show that PAW data sets allow systematic and accurate representability of the PAW Bloch states, better than with traditional quantum-chemistry double-zeta- and double-zeta-polarized-quality basis sets.

  20. Public Conceptions of Algorithms and Representations in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanna, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Algorithms and representations have been an important aspect of the work of mathematics, especially for understanding concepts and communicating ideas about concepts and mathematical relationships. They have played a key role in various mathematics standards documents, including the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. However, there have…

  1. General formula for finding mother wavelets by virtue of Dirac's representation theory and the coherent state.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hong-Yi; Lu, Hai-Liang

    2006-02-01

    The admissibility condition of a mother wavelet is explored in the context of quantum optics theory. By virtue of Dirac's representation theory and the coherent state property we derive a general formula for finding qualified mother wavelets. A comparison between a wavelet transform computed with the newly found mother wavelet and one computed with a Mexican hat wavelet is presented.

  2. Predictive decision making driven by multiple time-linked reward representations in the anterior cingulate cortex

    PubMed Central

    Wittmann, Marco K.; Kolling, Nils; Akaishi, Rei; Chau, Bolton K. H.; Brown, Joshua W.; Nelissen, Natalie; Rushworth, Matthew F. S.

    2016-01-01

    In many natural environments the value of a choice gradually gets better or worse as circumstances change. Discerning such trends makes predicting future choice values possible. We show that humans track such trends by comparing estimates of recent and past reward rates, which they are able to hold simultaneously in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Comparison of recent and past reward rates with positive and negative decision weights is reflected by opposing dACC signals indexing these quantities. The relative strengths of time-linked reward representations in dACC predict whether subjects persist in their current behaviour or switch to an alternative. Computationally, trend-guided choice can be modelled by using a reinforcement-learning mechanism that computes a longer-term estimate (or expectation) of prediction errors. Using such a model, we find a relative predominance of expected prediction errors in dACC, instantaneous prediction errors in the ventral striatum and choice signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. PMID:27477632

  3. Geometric constraints in semiclassical initial value representation calculations in Cartesian coordinates: excited states.

    PubMed

    Issack, Bilkiss B; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2007-01-14

    The authors show that a recently proposed approach [J. Chem. Phys. 123, 084103 (2005)] for the inclusion of geometric constraints in semiclassical initial value representation calculations can be used to obtain excited states of weakly bound complexes. Sample calculations are performed for free and constrained rare gas clusters. The results show that the proposed approach allows the evaluation of excited states with reasonable accuracy when compared to exact basis set calculations.

  4. Significant contribution of realistic vegetation representation to improved simulation and prediction of climate anomalies over land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandri, Andrea; Catalano, Franco; De Felice, Matteo; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco; van den Hurk, Bart; Miller, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The EC-Earth earth system model has been recently developed to include the dynamics of vegetation through the coupling with the LPJ-Guess model. In its original formulation, the coupling between atmosphere and vegetation variability is simply operated by the vegetation Leaf Area Index (LAI), which affects climate by only changing the vegetation physiological resistance to evapotranspiration. This coupling with no implied change of the vegetation fractional coverage has been reported to have a weak effect on the surface climate modeled by EC-Earth (e.g.: also Weiss et al. 2012). The effective sub-grid vegetation fractional coverage can vary seasonally and at interannual time-scales as a function of leaf-canopy growth, phenology and senescence, and therefore affect biophysical parameters such as the surface roughness, albedo and soil field capacity. To adequately represent this effect in EC-Earth, we included an exponential dependence of the vegetation densitiy to the LAI, based on a Lambert-Beer formulation. By comparing historical 20th century simulations and retrospective forecasts performed applying the new effective fractional-coverage parameterization with the respective reference simulations using the original constant vegetation-fraction, we showed an increased effect of vegetation on the EC-Earth surface climate. The analysis shows considerable sensitivity of EC-Earth surface climate at seasonal to interannual time-scales due to the variability of vegetation effective fractional coverage. Particularly large effects are shown over boreal winter middle-to-high latitudes, where the cooling effect of the new parameterization corrects the warm biases of the control simulations over land. For boreal winter, the realistic representation of vegetation variability leads to a significant improvement of the skill in predicting surface climate over land at seasonal time-scales. A potential predictability experiment extended to longer time-scales also indicates the

  5. The New Operational Hydro-meteorological Ensemble Prediction System at Meteo-France and its representation interface for the French Service for Flood Prediction (SCHAPI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset-Regimbeau, Fabienne; Coustau, Mathieu; Martin, Eric; Thirel, Guillaume; Habets, Florence; De Saint Aubin, Céline; Ardilouze, Constantin

    2013-04-01

    The coupled physically-based hydro-meteorological model SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU (SIM) is developed at Meteo-France for many years. This fully distributed catchment model is used in an operationnal real-time mode since 2005 for producing mid-range ensemble streamflow forecasts based on the 51-member 10-day ECMWF EPS. New improvements have been recently implemented in this forecasting chain. First, the new version of the forecasting chain includes new atmopheric products from the ECWMF (EPS at the resolution of 0,25° over France). Then an improvement of the physics of the ISBA model (a new physical representation of the soil hydraulic conductivity) is now used. And finally, a past discharges assimilation system has been implemented in order to improve the initial states of the ensemble streamflow forecasts. These developpement were first tested in the framework of a Phd thesis, and are now evaluated in real-time conditions. This study aims to assess the improvements obtained by the new version of the forecasting chain. Several experiments were performed ton assess the effects of i) the high resolution atmospheric forcing ii) the new representation of the hydraulic conductivity iii) the data assimilation method and iv) the real-time framework. Tested on a 18-month period of reforecasts, the new chain presents significantly improved ensemble streamflow forecasts compared to the previous version. Finally, this system provides ensemble 10-day streamflow prediction to the French National Service for Flood Prediction (SCHAPI). A collaboration between Meteo-France and SCHAPI led to the development of a new website. This website shows the streamflow predictions for about 200 selected river stations over France (selected regarding their interest for flood warning) , as well as alerts for high flows (two levels of high flows corresponding to the levels of risk of the French flood warning system). It aims at providing to the French hydrological forecaters a real-time tool for mid

  6. Prediction of the Joule-Thomson inversion curve of air from cubic equations of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colina, Coray M.; Olivera-Fuentes, Claudio

    A modified van der Waals equation of state recommended in the literature for improved prediction of the inversion curve of air is shown to be thermodynamically inconsistent, giving large errors in the critical and two-phase regions. An alternative procedure is presented by means of which the cohesion function of any cubic equation of state can be adjusted to give arbitrarily accurate representation of an experimental inversion curve. New versions of the van der Waals, Redlich-Kwong and Peng-Robinson equations of state are developed based on experimental inversion data of air, and are shown to give better inversion predictions than more complex, multiparameter noncubic equations of state.

  7. A sampling-based computational strategy for the representation of epistemic uncertainty in model predictions with evidence theory.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J. D.; Oberkampf, William Louis; Helton, Jon Craig (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Storlie, Curtis B. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC)

    2006-10-01

    Evidence theory provides an alternative to probability theory for the representation of epistemic uncertainty in model predictions that derives from epistemic uncertainty in model inputs, where the descriptor epistemic is used to indicate uncertainty that derives from a lack of knowledge with respect to the appropriate values to use for various inputs to the model. The potential benefit, and hence appeal, of evidence theory is that it allows a less restrictive specification of uncertainty than is possible within the axiomatic structure on which probability theory is based. Unfortunately, the propagation of an evidence theory representation for uncertainty through a model is more computationally demanding than the propagation of a probabilistic representation for uncertainty, with this difficulty constituting a serious obstacle to the use of evidence theory in the representation of uncertainty in predictions obtained from computationally intensive models. This presentation describes and illustrates a sampling-based computational strategy for the representation of epistemic uncertainty in model predictions with evidence theory. Preliminary trials indicate that the presented strategy can be used to propagate uncertainty representations based on evidence theory in analysis situations where naive sampling-based (i.e., unsophisticated Monte Carlo) procedures are impracticable due to computational cost.

  8. Year of the Woman, Decade of the Man: trajectories of growth in women's state legislative representation.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Pamela; Painter, Matthew A; Hughes, Melanie M

    2009-03-01

    The expansion of women's political representation ranks among the most significant trends in American politics of the last 100 years. In this paper, we develop two longitudinal theories to explain patterns of growth and change in women's state legislative representation over time. Gender salience suggests that years in which women's absence from politics is problematized (e.g., 1992-the Year of the Woman) will demonstrate higher levels of growth. Political climate suggests that periods in which domestic issues are stressed (e.g., the 1990s) will produce higher levels of growth than periods in which international issues are stressed (e.g., post 9/11). Combinations of these two theories create four possible trajectories of growth in women's representation that may be observed over time. We use latent growth curve models to assess the four theoretical trajectories, using data on women's state legislative representation from 1982 to 2006. We find that while women achieved fleeting success in the Year of the Woman, further gains were limited in the remainder of the 1990s and average growth stalled completely after 2001. Our results show futher that gender salience and, to a lesser extent political, climate matter to growth and change in women's political power over time.

  9. A group matrix representation relevant to scales of measurement of clinical disease states via stratified vectors.

    PubMed

    Sawamura, Jitsuki; Morishita, Shigeru; Ishigooka, Jun

    2016-02-09

    Previously, we applied basic group theory and related concepts to scales of measurement of clinical disease states and clinical findings (including laboratory data). To gain a more concrete comprehension, we here apply the concept of matrix representation, which was not explicitly exploited in our previous work. Starting with a set of orthonormal vectors, called the basis, an operator Rj (an N-tuple patient disease state at the j-th session) was expressed as a set of stratified vectors representing plural operations on individual components, so as to satisfy the group matrix representation. The stratified vectors containing individual unit operations were combined into one-dimensional square matrices [Rj]s. The [Rj]s meet the matrix representation of a group (ring) as a K-algebra. Using the same-sized matrix of stratified vectors, we can also express changes in the plural set of [Rj]s. The method is demonstrated on simple examples. Despite the incompleteness of our model, the group matrix representation of stratified vectors offers a formal mathematical approach to clinical medicine, aligning it with other branches of natural science.

  10. A graphic representation of protein sequence and predicting the subcellular locations of prokaryotic proteins.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Chun-Ting

    2002-03-01

    Zp curve, a three-dimensional space curve representation of protein primary sequence based on the hydrophobicity and charged properties of amino acid residues along the primary sequence is suggested. Relying on the Zp parameters extracted from the three components of the Zp curve and the Bayes discriminant algorithm, the subcellular locations of prokaryotic proteins were predicted. Consequently, an accuracy of 81.5% in the cross-validation test has been achieved using 13 parameters extracted from the curve for the database of 997 prokaryotic proteins. The result is slightly better than that of using the neural network method (80.9%) based on the amino acid composition for the same database. By jointing the amino acid composition and the Zp parameters, the overall predictive accuracy 89.6% can be achieved. It is about 3% higher than that of the Bayes discriminant algorithm based merely on the amino acid composition for the same database. The prediction is also performed with a larger dataset derived from the version 39 SWISS-PROT databank and two datasets with different sequence similarity. Even for the dataset of non-sequence similarity, the improvement can be of 4.4% in the cross-validation test. The results indicate that the Zp parameters are effective in representing the information within a protein primary sequence. The method of extracting information from the primary structure may be useful for other areas of protein studies.

  11. Human creativity, evolutionary algorithms, and predictive representations: The mechanics of thought trials.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Arne; Haider, Hilde

    2015-08-01

    Creative thinking is arguably the pinnacle of cerebral functionality. Like no other mental faculty, it has been omnipotent in transforming human civilizations. Probing the neural basis of this most extraordinary capacity, however, has been doggedly frustrated. Despite a flurry of activity in cognitive neuroscience, recent reviews have shown that there is no coherent picture emerging from the neuroimaging work. Based on this, we take a different route and apply two well established paradigms to the problem. First is the evolutionary framework that, despite being part and parcel of creativity research, has no informed experimental work in cognitive neuroscience. Second is the emerging prediction framework that recognizes predictive representations as an integrating principle of all cognition. We show here how the prediction imperative revealingly synthesizes a host of new insights into the way brains process variation-selection thought trials and present a new neural mechanism for the partial sightedness in human creativity. Our ability to run offline simulations of expected future environments and action outcomes can account for some of the characteristic properties of cultural evolutionary algorithms running in brains, such as degrees of sightedness, the formation of scaffolds to jump over unviable intermediate forms, or how fitness criteria are set for a selection process that is necessarily hypothetical. Prospective processing in the brain also sheds light on how human creating and designing - as opposed to biological creativity - can be accompanied by intentions and foresight. This paper raises questions about the nature of creative thought that, as far as we know, have never been asked before.

  12. Conditions for uniqueness of product representations for separable quantum channels and separable quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Scott M.

    2014-06-01

    We give a sufficient condition that an operator sum representation of a separable quantum channel in terms of product operators is the unique product representation for that channel, and then provide examples of such channels for any number of parties. This result has implications for efforts to determine whether or not a given separable channel can be exactly implemented by local operations and classical communication. By the Choi-Jamiolkowski isomorphism, it also translates to a condition for the uniqueness of product state ensembles representing a given quantum state. These ideas follow from considerations concerning whether or not a subspace spanned by a given set of product operators contains at least one additional product operator.

  13. Off-Center Coherent-State Representation and an Application to Semiclassics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisio, F.

    2010-07-01

    By using the overcompleteness of coherent states we find an alternative form of the unit operator for which the ket and the bra appearing under the integration sign do not refer to the same phase-space point. This defines a new quantum representation in terms of Bargmann functions, whose basic features are presented. A continuous family of secondary reproducing kernels for the Bargmann functions is obtained, showing that this quantity is not unique for representations based on overcomplete sets. We illustrate the applicability of the presented results by deriving a semiclassical expression for the Feynman propagator that generalizes the well-known van Vleck formula and seems to point a way to cope with long-standing problems in semiclassical propagation of localized states.

  14. A quasi-current representation for information needs inspired by Two-State Vector Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Panpan; Hou, Yuexian; Li, Jingfei; Zhang, Yazhou; Song, Dawei; Li, Wenjie

    2017-09-01

    Recently, a number of quantum theory (QT)-based information retrieval (IR) models have been proposed for modeling session search task that users issue queries continuously in order to describe their evolving information needs (IN). However, the standard formalism of QT cannot provide a complete description for users' current IN in a sense that it does not take the 'future' information into consideration. Therefore, to seek a more proper and complete representation for users' IN, we construct a representation of quasi-current IN inspired by an emerging Two-State Vector Formalism (TSVF). With the enlightenment of the completeness of TSVF, a ;two-state vector; derived from the 'future' (the current query) and the 'history' (the previous query) is employed to describe users' quasi-current IN in a more complete way. Extensive experiments are conducted on the session tracks of TREC 2013 & 2014, and show that our model outperforms a series of compared IR models.

  15. Hybrid electromagnetic transient simulation with the state variable representation of HVDC converter plant

    SciTech Connect

    Zavahir, J.M.; Arrillaga, J.; Watson, N.R. )

    1993-07-01

    The two alternative methods in current use for the transient simulation of HVdc power systems are Electromagnetic Transient Programs and State Variable Analysis. A hybrid algorithm is described in this paper which combines the two methods selecting their best features. The relative performances of conventional and hybrid algorithms are discussed. Simulation results of typical back-to back HVdc link show that the hybrid representation provides more stable, accurate and efficient solutions.

  16. Varied representation of the West Pacific pattern in multiple dynamical seasonal predictions of APCC-MME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yun-Young

    2017-04-01

    phenomena: East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), Atlantic dipole, Pacific/Atlantic jets and Pacific/Atlantic Hadley circulations. Changes in structure and amplitude of them are diagnosed in terms of root mean square error, pattern correlation, intensity bias, zonal displacement and/or downstream extension. There is consistent strengthening/downstream extension of Atlantic jet and absence of southern divergence cell of Atlantic Hadley in most seasonal prediction models. It is demonstrated that WP representation has something to do with bias of Atlantic winter climatology (Atlantic dipole and Atlantic jet) from scatter plot and regression analysis. This implies the importance of realistic simulation of winter climatology further upstream for better WP representation. A fundamental conclusion of this study is that the representation of primary WP features varies among individual models of APCC-MME and it is significantly dependent on the deficiencies of some winter mean climatological patterns.

  17. Predicting siRNA efficacy based on multiple selective siRNA representations and their combination at score level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Fei; Han, Ye; Gong, Jianting; Song, Jiazhi; Wang, Han; Li, Yanwen

    2017-03-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) may induce to targeted gene knockdown, and the gene silencing effectiveness relies on the efficacy of the siRNA. Therefore, the task of this paper is to construct an effective siRNA prediction method. In our work, we try to describe siRNA from both quantitative and qualitative aspects. For quantitative analyses, we form four groups of effective features, including nucleotide frequencies, thermodynamic stability profile, thermodynamic of siRNA-mRNA interaction, and mRNA related features, as a new mixed representation, in which thermodynamic of siRNA-mRNA interaction is introduced to siRNA efficacy prediction for the first time to our best knowledge. And then an F-score based feature selection is employed to investigate the contribution of each feature and remove the weak relevant features. Meanwhile, we encode the siRNA sequence and existed empirical design rules as a qualitative siRNA representation. These two kinds of siRNA representations are combined to predict siRNA efficacy by supported Vector Regression (SVR) at score level. The experimental results indicate that our method may select the features with powerful discriminative ability and make the two kinds of siRNA representations work at full capacity. The prediction results also demonstrate that our method can outperform other popular siRNA efficacy prediction algorithms.

  18. Predicting siRNA efficacy based on multiple selective siRNA representations and their combination at score level

    PubMed Central

    He, Fei; Han, Ye; Gong, Jianting; Song, Jiazhi; Wang, Han; Li, Yanwen

    2017-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) may induce to targeted gene knockdown, and the gene silencing effectiveness relies on the efficacy of the siRNA. Therefore, the task of this paper is to construct an effective siRNA prediction method. In our work, we try to describe siRNA from both quantitative and qualitative aspects. For quantitative analyses, we form four groups of effective features, including nucleotide frequencies, thermodynamic stability profile, thermodynamic of siRNA-mRNA interaction, and mRNA related features, as a new mixed representation, in which thermodynamic of siRNA-mRNA interaction is introduced to siRNA efficacy prediction for the first time to our best knowledge. And then an F-score based feature selection is employed to investigate the contribution of each feature and remove the weak relevant features. Meanwhile, we encode the siRNA sequence and existed empirical design rules as a qualitative siRNA representation. These two kinds of siRNA representations are combined to predict siRNA efficacy by supported Vector Regression (SVR) at score level. The experimental results indicate that our method may select the features with powerful discriminative ability and make the two kinds of siRNA representations work at full capacity. The prediction results also demonstrate that our method can outperform other popular siRNA efficacy prediction algorithms. PMID:28317874

  19. Diagnosis Prediction from Electronic Health Records Using the Binary Diagnosis History Vector Representation.

    PubMed

    Vasiljeva, Ieva; Arandjelović, Ognjen

    2017-08-01

    Large amounts of rich, heterogeneous information nowadays routinely collected by healthcare providers across the world possess remarkable potential for the extraction of novel medical data and the assessment of different practices in real-world conditions. Specifically in this work, our goal is to use electronic health records (EHRs) to predict progression patterns of future diagnoses of ailments for a particular patient, given the patient's present diagnostic history. Following the highly promising results of a recently proposed approach that introduced the diagnosis history vector representation of a patient's diagnostic record, we introduce a series of improvements to the model and conduct thorough experiments that demonstrate its scalability, accuracy, and practicability in the clinical context. We show that the model is able to capture well the interaction between a large number of ailments that correspond to the most frequent diagnoses, show how the original learning framework can be adapted to increase its prediction specificity, and describe a principled, probabilistic method for incorporating explicit, human clinical knowledge to overcome semantic limitations of the raw EHR data.

  20. Multistate, multichannel coupled diabatic state representations of adiabatic states coupled by conical intersections. CH2OH photodissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malbon, Christopher L.; Yarkony, David R.

    2017-04-01

    A coupled diabatic state representation, Hd, of the 1, 2, 3 2A states of CH2OH suitable for the description of the three channel, three state photodissociation process CH2OH(1 2A) + hv → CH2OH(2, 3 2A) → CH2O(X, A) + H, cis-CHOH + H, trans-CHOH + H, is reported. The representation is based on electronic structure data (energies, energy gradients, and derivative couplings) obtained exclusively from multireference configuration interaction single and double excitation wave functions. Diabat shifting is employed to improve the representation's agreement with accurate experimental energetics. A careful analysis of the numerous minima, saddle points, and conical intersection seams is reported. The computed T0(3 2A) ˜ 35 220 cm-1 is in excellent agreement with the experimental estimate of 35 053 cm-1, and the computed channel dissociation energies, D0, for CH2O 9453 (10 160), cis-HCOH 30 310.2 (29 923), and trans-HCOH 28 799 (28 391) cm-1 are in good accord with the measured values given parenthetically. These accurate energetics over a wide range of nuclear configurations strongly support the ability of this Hd to enable quality simulations of nonadiabatic dynamics.

  1. Isospin and particle representations for quasi-bound state of kaonic clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filikhin, Igor; Kezerashvili, Roman; Vlahovic, Branislav

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of the method of the Faddeev equations in configuration space, the NNK (I = 0) (and KK) kaonic cluster system including two identical particles is considered. We use the formalism of isospin and particle representations to describe the systems. The treatment of I = 1 and I = 0 isospin KN channels is discussed. The presence of the Coulomb force in ppK- channel violates the isospin symmetry of the NNK (I = 0) system. According to the particle representation, NNK is a two-level system of coupled ppK- and ppnl channels with and without the Coulomb energy, respectively. The results of calculations for the bound states with the phenomenological and chiral motivated KN potentials are given for different representations. In particular, new single channel calculations for the ppK- (and K-K- p) cluster are presented. It is shown that the exchange of identical particles plays an important role in the formation of a bound state of the systems. The relation of the exchange and the three-body mass rearrangement effects is discussed. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation grant Supplement to the NSF grant HRD-1345219 and NASA (NNX09AV07A).

  2. The Attachment Doll Play Assessment: Predictive Validity with Concurrent Mother-Child Interaction and Maternal Caregiving Representations

    PubMed Central

    George, Carol; Solomon, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Attachment is central to the development of children’s regulatory processes. It has been associated with developmental and psychiatric health across the life span, especially emotional and behavioral regulation of negative affect when stressed (Schore, 2001; Schore and Schore, 2008). Assessment of attachment patterns provides a critical frame for understanding emerging developmental competencies and formulating treatment and intervention. Play-based attachment assessments provide access to representational models of attachment, which are regarded in attachment theory as the central organizing mechanisms associated with stability or change (Bowlby, 1969/1982; Bretherton and Munholland, 2008). The Attachment Doll Play Assessment (ADPA, George and Solomon, 1990–2016; Solomon et al., 1995) is a prominent established representational attachment measure for children aged early latency through childhood. This study examines the predictive validity of the ADPA to caregiving accessibility and responsiveness assessed from mother-child interaction and maternal representation. Sixty nine mothers and their 5–7-year-old children participated in this study. Mother-child interaction was observed during a pre-separation dyadic interaction task. Caregiving representations were rated from the Caregiving Interview (George and Solomon, 1988/1993/2005/2007). Child security with mother was associated with positive dyadic interaction and flexibly integrated maternal caregiving representations. Child controlling/disorganized attachments were significantly associated with problematic dyadic interaction and dysregulated-helpless maternal caregiving representations. The clinical implications and the use of the ADPA in clinical and educational settings are discussed. PMID:27803683

  3. The Attachment Doll Play Assessment: Predictive Validity with Concurrent Mother-Child Interaction and Maternal Caregiving Representations.

    PubMed

    George, Carol; Solomon, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Attachment is central to the development of children's regulatory processes. It has been associated with developmental and psychiatric health across the life span, especially emotional and behavioral regulation of negative affect when stressed (Schore, 2001; Schore and Schore, 2008). Assessment of attachment patterns provides a critical frame for understanding emerging developmental competencies and formulating treatment and intervention. Play-based attachment assessments provide access to representational models of attachment, which are regarded in attachment theory as the central organizing mechanisms associated with stability or change (Bowlby, 1969/1982; Bretherton and Munholland, 2008). The Attachment Doll Play Assessment (ADPA, George and Solomon, 1990-2016; Solomon et al., 1995) is a prominent established representational attachment measure for children aged early latency through childhood. This study examines the predictive validity of the ADPA to caregiving accessibility and responsiveness assessed from mother-child interaction and maternal representation. Sixty nine mothers and their 5-7-year-old children participated in this study. Mother-child interaction was observed during a pre-separation dyadic interaction task. Caregiving representations were rated from the Caregiving Interview (George and Solomon, 1988/1993/2005/2007). Child security with mother was associated with positive dyadic interaction and flexibly integrated maternal caregiving representations. Child controlling/disorganized attachments were significantly associated with problematic dyadic interaction and dysregulated-helpless maternal caregiving representations. The clinical implications and the use of the ADPA in clinical and educational settings are discussed.

  4. Nonclassicality and Entanglement of Photon-Subtracted Two-Mode Squeezed Coherent States Studied via Entangled-States Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Li, Heng-Mei; Yuan, Hong-Chun

    2016-10-01

    We theoretically introduce a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states, i.e., photon-subtracted two-mode squeezed coherent states (PSTMSCS), by successively subtracting photons from each mode of the two-mode squeezed coherent states. The normalization factor which is related to bivariate Hermite polynomials is obtained by virtue of the two-mode squeezing operator in entangled-states representation. The sub-Poissonian photon statistics, antibunching effects, and partial negative Wigner function, respectively, are observed numerically, which fully reflect the nonclassicality of the resultant states. Finally, employing the SV criteria and the EPR correlation, respectively, the entangled property of PSTMSCS is analyzed. It is shown that the photon subtraction operation can effectively enhance the inseparability between the two modes.

  5. Numerical Modeling of the Central Spin Problem Using the Spin-Coherent-State P Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Al Hassanieh, Khaled A; Dobrovitski, V. V.; Dagotto, Elbio R; Harmon, B. N.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we consider decoherence of a central spin by a spin bath. In order to study the nonperturbative decoherence regimes, we develop an efficient mean-field-based method for modeling the spin-bath decoherence, based on the P representation of the central spin density matrix. The method can be applied to longitudinal and transverse relaxation at different external fields. In particular, by modeling large-size quantum systems (up to 16 000 bath spins), we make controlled predictions for the slow long-time decoherence of the central spin.

  6. Maintenance and Representation of Mind Wandering during Resting-State fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ying-hui; Sundman, Mark; Whitson, Heather E.; Gaur, Pooja; Chu, Mei-Lan; Weingarten, Carol P.; Madden, David J.; Wang, Lihong; Kirste, Imke; Joliot, Marc; Diaz, Michele T.; Li, Yi-Ju; Song, Allen W.; Chen, Nan-kuei

    2017-01-01

    Major advances in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques in the last two decades have provided a tool to better understand the functional organization of the brain both in health and illness. Despite such developments, characterizing regulation and cerebral representation of mind wandering, which occurs unavoidably during resting-state fMRI scans and may induce variability of the acquired data, remains a work in progress. Here, we demonstrate that a decrease or decoupling in functional connectivity involving the caudate nucleus, insula, medial prefrontal cortex and other domain-specific regions was associated with more sustained mind wandering in particular thought domains during resting-state fMRI. Importantly, our findings suggest that temporal and between-subject variations in functional connectivity of above-mentioned regions might be linked with the continuity of mind wandering. Our study not only provides a preliminary framework for characterizing the maintenance and cerebral representation of different types of mind wandering, but also highlights the importance of taking mind wandering into consideration when studying brain organization with resting-state fMRI in the future. PMID:28079189

  7. Phase-space representations of symmetric informationally complete positive-operator-valued-measure fiducial states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraceno, Marcos; Ermann, Leonardo; Cormick, Cecilia

    2017-03-01

    The problem of finding symmetric informationally complete positive-operator-valued-measures (SIC-POVMs) has been solved numerically for all dimensions d up to 67 [A. J. Scott and M. Grassl, J. Math. Phys. 51, 042203 (2010), 10.1063/1.3374022], but a general proof of existence is still lacking. For each dimension, it was shown that it is possible to find a SIC-POVM that is generated from a fiducial state upon application of the operators of the Heisenberg-Weyl group. We draw on the numerically determined fiducial states to study their phase-space features, as displayed by the characteristic function and the Wigner, Bargmann, and Husimi representations, adapted to a Hilbert space of finite dimension. We analyze the phase-space localization of fiducial states, and observe that the SIC-POVM condition is equivalent to a maximal delocalization property. Finally, we explore the consequences in phase space of the conjectured Zauner symmetry. In particular, we construct a Hermitian operator commuting with this symmetry that leads to a representation of fiducial states in terms of eigenfunctions with definite semiclassical features.

  8. Commonality of neural representations of sentences across languages: Predicting brain activation during Portuguese sentence comprehension using an English-based model of brain function.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Wang, Jing; Bailer, Cyntia; Cherkassky, Vladimir; Just, Marcel Adam

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to test the cross-language generative capability of a model that predicts neural activation patterns evoked by sentence reading, based on a semantic characterization of the sentence. In a previous study on English monolingual speakers (Wang et al., submitted), a computational model performed a mapping from a set of 42 concept-level semantic features (Neurally Plausible Semantic Features, NPSFs) as well as 6 thematic role markers to neural activation patterns (assessed with fMRI), to predict activation levels in a network of brain locations. The model used two types of information gained from the English-based fMRI data to predict the activation for individual sentences in Portuguese. First, it used the mapping weights from NPSFs to voxel activation levels derived from the model for English reading. Second, the brain locations for which the activation levels were predicted were derived from a factor analysis of the brain activation patterns during English reading. These meta-language locations were defined by the clusters of voxels with high loadings on each of the four main dimensions (factors), namely people, places, actions and feelings, underlying the neural representations of the stimulus sentences. This cross-language model succeeded in predicting the brain activation patterns associated with the reading of 60 individual Portuguese sentences that were entirely new to the model, attaining accuracies reliably above chance level. The prediction accuracy was not affected by whether the Portuguese speaker was monolingual or Portuguese-English bilingual. The model's confusion errors indicated an accurate capture of the events or states described in the sentence at a conceptual level. Overall, the cross-language predictive capability of the model demonstrates the neural commonality between speakers of different languages in the representations of everyday events and states, and provides an initial characterization of the common meta

  9. Acoustic Prediction State of the Art Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.

    2007-01-01

    The acoustic assessment task for both the Subsonic Fixed Wing and the Supersonic projects under NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program was designed to assess the current state-of-the-art in noise prediction capability and to establish baselines for gauging future progress. The documentation of our current capabilities included quantifying the differences between predictions of noise from computer codes and measurements of noise from experimental tests. Quantifying the accuracy of both the computed and experimental results further enhanced the credibility of the assessment. This presentation gives sample results from codes representative of NASA s capabilities in aircraft noise prediction both for systems and components. These include semi-empirical, statistical, analytical, and numerical codes. System level results are shown for both aircraft and engines. Component level results are shown for a landing gear prototype, for fan broadband noise, for jet noise from a subsonic round nozzle, and for propulsion airframe aeroacoustic interactions. Additional results are shown for modeling of the acoustic behavior of duct acoustic lining and the attenuation of sound in lined ducts with flow.

  10. Toward the Computational Representation of Individual Cultural, Cognitive, and Physiological State: The Sensor Shooter Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    RAYBOURN,ELAINE M.; FORSYTHE,JAMES C.

    2001-08-01

    This report documents an exploratory FY 00 LDRD project that sought to demonstrate the first steps toward a realistic computational representation of the variability encountered in individual human behavior. Realism, as conceptualized in this project, required that the human representation address the underlying psychological, cultural, physiological, and environmental stressors. The present report outlines the researchers' approach to representing cognitive, cultural, and physiological variability of an individual in an ambiguous situation while faced with a high-consequence decision that would greatly impact subsequent events. The present project was framed around a sensor-shooter scenario as a soldier interacts with an unexpected target (two young Iraqi girls). A software model of the ''Sensor Shooter'' scenario from Desert Storm was developed in which the framework consisted of a computational instantiation of Recognition Primed Decision Making in the context of a Naturalistic Decision Making model [1]. Recognition Primed Decision Making was augmented with an underlying foundation based on our current understanding of human neurophysiology and its relationship to human cognitive processes. While the Gulf War scenario that constitutes the framework for the Sensor Shooter prototype is highly specific, the human decision architecture and the subsequent simulation are applicable to other problems similar in concept, intensity, and degree of uncertainty. The goal was to provide initial steps toward a computational representation of human variability in cultural, cognitive, and physiological state in order to attain a better understanding of the full depth of human decision-making processes in the context of ambiguity, novelty, and heightened arousal.

  11. Representation of Sea Ice Processes in State of the Art Earth System Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, D. A.; Holland, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    The majority of Earth System Models now include thermodynamic-dynamic sea ice models with a subgridscale representation of ice thickness. The current sea ice component of the Community Earth System Model is the Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE) version 5. This new version of the model includes prognostic salinity in the vertical thermodynamic calculation as well as a representation of melt pond drainage through the sea ice. The CICE5 also includes a melt pond parameterization that takes into account the deformed and non-deformed ice within a model grid cell. Snow on sea ice processes allow for an evolving effective snow grain radius as a function of temperature, which is used in the shortwave radiative transfer and surface albedo calculation. I will discuss the results from coupled climate model sensitivity simulations that consider the subgridscale representations of some of these processes. This will include analysis of mean state and feedbacks in both the Arctic and Antarctic. Additional discussion will be provided on how we have used observations to guide these efforts.

  12. Parenting and Children's Representations of Family Predict Disruptive and Callous-Unemotional Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Nicholas J.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Willoughby, Michael T.; Zvara, Bharathi; Cox, Martha J.

    2015-01-01

    Data from a large prospective longitudinal study (n = 1,239) was used to investigate the association between observed sensitive parenting in early childhood and children's representations of family relationships as measured by the Family Drawing Paradigm (FDP) in first grade as well as the extent to which these representations partially mediate…

  13. Parenting and Children's Representations of Family Predict Disruptive and Callous-Unemotional Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Nicholas J.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Willoughby, Michael T.; Zvara, Bharathi; Cox, Martha J.

    2015-01-01

    Data from a large prospective longitudinal study (n = 1,239) was used to investigate the association between observed sensitive parenting in early childhood and children's representations of family relationships as measured by the Family Drawing Paradigm (FDP) in first grade as well as the extent to which these representations partially mediate…

  14. Self-regulating genes. Exact steady state solution by using Poisson representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugár, István; Simon, István

    2014-09-01

    Systems biology studies the structure and behavior of complex gene regulatory networks. One of its aims is to develop a quantitative understanding of the modular components that constitute such networks. The self-regulating gene is a type of auto regulatory genetic modules which appears in over 40% of known transcription factors in E. coli. In this work, using the technique of Poisson Representation, we are able to provide exact steady state solutions for this feedback model. By using the methods of synthetic biology (P.E.M. Purnick and Weiss, R., Nature Reviews, Molecular Cell Biology, 2009, 10: 410-422) one can build the system itself from modules like this.

  15. Representations and properties of generalized Ar statistics, coherent states and Robertson uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, M.

    2006-01-01

    The generalization of Ar statistics, including bosonic and fermionic sectors, is performed by means of the so-called Jacobson generators. The corresponding Fock spaces are constructed. The Bargmann representations are also considered. For the bosonic Ar statistics, two inequivalent Bargmann realizations are developed. The first (resp. second) realization induces, in a natural way, coherent states recognized as Gazeau-Klauder (resp. Klauder-Perelomov) ones. In the fermionic case, the Bargamnn realization leads to the Klauder-Perelomov coherent states. For each considered realization, the inner product of two analytic functions is defined with respect to a measure explicitly computed. The Jacobson generators are realized as differential operators. It is shown that the obtained coherent states minimize the Robertson-Schrödinger uncertainty relation.

  16. [The legitimacy of representation in forums with social participation: the case of the Bahia State Health Council, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bispo Júnior, José Patrício; Gerschman, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    The electoral representation model is insufficient and inadequate for new participatory roles such as those played by members of health councils. This article analyzes representation and representativeness in the Bahia State Health Council, Brazil. The study included interviews with 20 current or former members of the State Health Council, analysis of the council minutes and bylaws, and observation of plenary meetings. Discourse analysis technique was used to analyze interventions by members. The article discusses the results in four analytical lines: the process by which various organizations name representatives to the Council; the relationship between Council members and their constituencies; interest representation in the Council; and criteria used by the plenary to take positions. The study reveals various problems with the representativeness of the Bahia State Health Council and discusses the peculiarities of representation in social participation forums and the characteristics that give legitimacy to representatives.

  17. Predicting intervention onset in the ICU with switching state space models.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, Marzyeh; Wu, Mike; Hughes, Michael C; Szolovits, Peter; Doshi-Velez, Finale

    2017-01-01

    The impact of many intensive care unit interventions has not been fully quantified, especially in heterogeneous patient populations. We train unsupervised switching state autoregressive models on vital signs from the public MIMIC-III database to capture patient movement between physiological states. We compare our learned states to static demographics and raw vital signs in the prediction of five ICU treatments: ventilation, vasopressor administra tion, and three transfusions. We show that our learned states, when combined with demographics and raw vital signs, improve prediction for most interventions even 4 or 8 hours ahead of onset. Our results are competitive with existing work while using a substantially larger and more diverse cohort of 36,050 patients. While custom classifiers can only target a specific clinical event, our model learns physiological states which can help with many interventions. Our robust patient state representations provide a path towards evidence-driven administration of clinical interventions.

  18. Distributions in the error space: goal-directed movements described in time and state-space representations.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Moria E; Huang, Felix C; Wright, Zachary A; Patton, James L

    2014-01-01

    Manipulation of error feedback has been of great interest to recent studies in motor control and rehabilitation. Typically, motor adaptation is shown as a change in performance with a single scalar metric for each trial, yet such an approach might overlook details about how error evolves through the movement. We believe that statistical distributions of movement error through the extent of the trajectory can reveal unique patterns of adaption and possibly reveal clues to how the motor system processes information about error. This paper describes different possible ordinate domains, focusing on representations in time and state-space, used to quantify reaching errors. We hypothesized that the domain with the lowest amount of variability would lead to a predictive model of reaching error with the highest accuracy. Here we showed that errors represented in a time domain demonstrate the least variance and allow for the highest predictive model of reaching errors. These predictive models will give rise to more specialized methods of robotic feedback and improve previous techniques of error augmentation.

  19. Robust brain parcellation using sparse representation on resting-state fMRI.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Caspers, Svenja; Fan, Lingzhong; Fan, Yong; Song, Ming; Liu, Cirong; Mo, Yin; Roski, Christian; Eickhoff, Simon; Amunts, Katrin; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-11-01

    Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) has been widely used to segregate the brain into individual modules based on the presence of distinct connectivity patterns. Many parcellation methods have been proposed for brain parcellation using rs-fMRI, but their results have been somewhat inconsistent, potentially due to various types of noise. In this study, we provide a robust parcellation method for rs-fMRI-based brain parcellation, which constructs a sparse similarity graph based on the sparse representation coefficients of each seed voxel and then uses spectral clustering to identify distinct modules. Both the local time-varying BOLD signals and whole-brain connectivity patterns may be used as features and yield similar parcellation results. The robustness of our method was tested on both simulated and real rs-fMRI datasets. In particular, on simulated rs-fMRI data, sparse representation achieved good performance across different noise levels, including high accuracy of parcellation and high robustness to noise. On real rs-fMRI data, stable parcellation of the medial frontal cortex (MFC) and parietal operculum (OP) were achieved on three different datasets, with high reproducibility within each dataset and high consistency across these results. Besides, the parcellation of MFC was little influenced by the degrees of spatial smoothing. Furthermore, the consistent parcellation of OP was also well corresponding to cytoarchitectonic subdivisions and known somatotopic organizations. Our results demonstrate a new promising approach to robust brain parcellation using resting-state fMRI by sparse representation.

  20. PREDICTING RECIDIVISM FOR RELEASED STATE PRISON OFFENDERS

    PubMed Central

    Stahler, Gerald J.; Mennis, Jeremy; Belenko, Steven; Welsh, Wayne N.; Hiller, Matthew L.; Zajac, Gary

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of individual and neighborhood characteristics and spatial contagion in predicting reincarceration on a sample of 5,354 released Pennsylvania state prisoners. Independent variables included demographic characteristics, offense type, drug involvement, various neighborhood variables (e.g., concentrated disadvantage, residential mobility), and spatial contagion (i.e., proximity to others who become reincarcerated). Using geographic information systems (GIS) and logistic regression modeling, our results showed that the likelihood of reincarceration was increased with male gender, drug involvement, offense type, and living in areas with high rates of recidivism. Older offenders and those convicted of violent or drug offenses were less likely to be reincarcerated. For violent offenders, drug involvement, age, and spatial contagion were particular risk factors for reincarceration. None of the neighborhood environment variables were associated with increased risk of reincarceration. Reentry programs need to particularly address substance abuse issues of ex-offenders as well as take into consideration their residential locations. PMID:24443612

  1. Prediction Error Representation in Individuals With Generalized Anxiety Disorder During Passive Avoidance.

    PubMed

    White, Stuart F; Geraci, Marilla; Lewis, Elizabeth; Leshin, Joseph; Teng, Cindy; Averbeck, Bruno; Meffert, Harma; Ernst, Monique; Blair, James R; Grillon, Christian; Blair, Karina S

    2017-02-01

    Deficits in reinforcement-based decision making have been reported in generalized anxiety disorder. However, the pathophysiology of these deficits is largely unknown; published studies have mainly examined adolescents, and the integrity of core functional processes underpinning decision making remains undetermined. In particular, it is unclear whether the representation of reinforcement prediction error (PE) (the difference between received and expected reinforcement) is disrupted in generalized anxiety disorder. This study addresses these issues in adults with the disorder. Forty-six unmedicated individuals with generalized anxiety disorder and 32 healthy comparison subjects group-matched on IQ, gender, and age performed a passive avoidance task while undergoing functional MRI. Data analyses were performed using a computational modeling approach. Behaviorally, individuals with generalized anxiety disorder showed impaired reinforcement-based decision making. Imaging results revealed that during feedback, individuals with generalized anxiety disorder relative to healthy subjects showed a reduced correlation between PE and activity within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum, and other structures implicated in decision making. In addition, individuals with generalized anxiety disorder relative to healthy participants showed a reduced correlation between punishment PEs, but not reward PEs, and activity within the left and right lentiform nucleus/putamen. This is the first study to identify computational impairments during decision making in generalized anxiety disorder. PE signaling is significantly disrupted in individuals with the disorder and may lead to their decision-making deficits and excessive worry about everyday problems by disrupting the online updating ("reality check") of the current relationship between the expected values of current response options and the actual received rewards and punishments.

  2. Empirical algorithms to predict aragonite saturation state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turk, Daniela; Dowd, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Novel sensor packages deployed on autonomous platforms (Profiling Floats, Gliders, Moorings, SeaCycler) and biogeochemical models have a potential to increase the coverage of a key water chemistry variable, aragonite saturation state (ΩAr) in time and space, in particular in the under sampled regions of global ocean. However, these do not provide the set of inorganic carbon measurements commonly used to derive ΩAr. There is therefore a need to develop regional predictive models to determine ΩAr from measurements of commonly observed or/and non carbonate oceanic variables. Here, we investigate predictive skill of several commonly observed oceanographic variables (temperature, salinity, oxygen, nitrate, phosphate and silicate) in determining ΩAr using climatology and shipboard data. This will allow us to assess potential for autonomous sensors and biogeochemical models to monitor ΩAr regionally and globally. We apply the regression models to several time series data sets and discuss regional differences and their implications for global estimates of ΩAr.

  3. Continuous multipartite entangled state in Wigner representation and violation of the Zukowski-Brukner inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Chunfeng; Chen Jingling; Oh, C.H.; Kwek, L.C.; Xue Kang

    2005-02-01

    We construct an explicit Wigner function for the N-mode squeezed state. Based on a previous observation that the Wigner function describes correlations in the joint measurement of the phase-space displaced parity operator, we investigate the nonlocality of the multipartite entangled state by the violation of the Zukowski-Brukner N-qubit Bell inequality. We find that quantum predictions for such a squeezed state violate these inequalities by an amount that grows with the number N.

  4. A new integral representation for the scalar products of Bethe states for the XXX spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazama, Yoichi; Komatsu, Shota; Nishimura, Takuya

    2013-09-01

    Based on the method of separation of variables due to Sklyanin, we construct a new integral representation for the scalar products of the Bethe states for the SU(2) XXX spin 1/2 chain obeying the periodic boundary condition. Due to the compactness of the symmetry group, a twist matrix must be introduced at the boundary in order to extract the separated variables properly. Then by deriving the integration measure and the spectrum of the separated variables, we express the inner product of an on-shell and an off-shell Bethe states in terms of a multiple contour integral involving a product of Baxter wave functions. Its form is reminiscent of the integral over the eigenvalues of a matrix model and is expected to be useful in studying the semi-classical limit of the product.

  5. Predictive control and estimation - State space approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawronski, W.

    1991-01-01

    A modified output prediction procedure and a new controller design based on the predictive control law are presented. A new predictive estimator enhances system performance. The predictive controller was designed and applied to the tracking control of the NASA/JPL 70-m antenna. Simulation results show significant improvement in tracking performance over the linear quadratic controller and estimator presently in use.

  6. Thirst and the state-dependent representation of incentive stimulus value in human motive circuitry.

    PubMed

    Becker, Christoph A; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta; Schupp, Harald T

    2015-12-01

    Depletion imposes both need and desire to drink, and potentiates the response to need-relevant cues in the environment. The present fMRI study aimed to determine which neural structures selectively increase the incentive value of need-relevant stimuli in a thirst state. Towards this end, participants were scanned twice--either in a thirst or no-thirst state--while viewing pictures of beverages and chairs. As expected, thirst led to a selective increase in self-reported pleasantness and arousal by beverages. Increased responses to beverage when compared with chair stimuli were observed in the cingulate cortex, insular cortex and the amygdala in the thirst state, which were absent in the no-thirst condition. Enhancing the incentive value of need-relevant cues in a thirst state is a key mechanism for motivating drinking behavior. Overall, distributed regions of the motive circuitry, which are also implicated in salience processing, craving and interoception, provide a dynamic body-state dependent representation of stimulus value.

  7. Spin Coherent State Representation of the Crow-Kimura and Eigen Models of Quasispecies Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancliff, Mark; Park, Jeong-Man

    2011-05-01

    We present a spin coherent state representation of the Crow-Kimura and Eigen models of biological evolution. We deal with quasispecies models where the fitness is a function of Hamming distances from one or more reference sequences. In the limit of large sequence length N, we find exact expressions for the mean fitness and magnetization of the asymptotic quasispecies distribution in symmetric fitness landscapes. The results are obtained by constructing a path integral for the propagator on the coset SU(2)/ U(1) and taking the classical limit. The classical limit gives a Hamiltonian function on a circle for one reference sequence, and on the product of 2 m -1 circles for m reference sequences. We apply our representation to study the Schuster-Swetina phenomena, where a wide lower peak is selected over a narrow higher peak. The quadratic landscape with two reference sequences is also analyzed specifically and we present the phase diagram on the mutation-fitness parameter phase space. Furthermore, we use our method to investigate more biologically relevant system, a model of escape from adaptive conflict through gene duplication, and find three different phases for the asymptotic population distribution.

  8. Hierarchical levels of representation in language prediction: The influence of first language acquisition in highly proficient bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Molinaro, Nicola; Giannelli, Francesco; Caffarra, Sendy; Martin, Clara

    2017-04-03

    Language comprehension is largely supported by predictive mechanisms that account for the ease and speed with which communication unfolds. Both native and proficient non-native speakers can efficiently handle contextual cues to generate reliable linguistic expectations. However, the link between the variability of the linguistic background of the speaker and the hierarchical format of the representations predicted is still not clear. We here investigate whether native language exposure to typologically highly diverse languages (Spanish and Basque) affects the way early balanced bilingual speakers carry out language predictions. During Spanish sentence comprehension, participants developed predictions of words the form of which (noun ending) could be either diagnostic of grammatical gender values (transparent) or totally ambiguous (opaque). We measured electrophysiological prediction effects time-locked both to the target word and to its determiner, with the former being expected or unexpected. Event-related (N200-N400) and oscillatory activity in the low beta-band (15-17Hz) frequency channel showed that both Spanish and Basque natives optimally carry out lexical predictions independently of word transparency. Crucially, in contrast to Spanish natives, Basque natives displayed visual word form predictions for transparent words, in consistency with the relevance that noun endings (post-nominal suffixes) play in their native language. We conclude that early language exposure largely shapes prediction mechanisms, so that bilinguals reading in their second language rely on the distributional regularities that are highly relevant in their first language. More importantly, we show that individual linguistic experience hierarchically modulates the format of the predicted representation.

  9. Analytical representations of precise orbit predictions for Earth orbiting space objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Jizhang; Li, Bin; Chen, Junyu; Zhang, Pin; Ning, Jinsheng

    2017-01-01

    Accurate orbits of Earth orbiting space objects are usually generated from an orbit determination/prediction process using numerical integrators, and presented to users in a tabulated form or a state vector including force model parameters. When dealing with hundreds of thousands of space objects such as in the space conjunction assessment, the memory required for the tabulated orbits or the computing time for propagating orbits using the state vector are both confronting to users. This paper presents two methods of analytically representing numerical orbits considering the accuracy, computing efficiency and memory. The first one is a two-step TLE-based method in which the numerical orbits are first fitted into a TLE set and then correction functions are applied to improve the position accuracy. In the second method, the orbit states are represented in equinoctial elements first, and then again correction functions are applied to reduce the position errors. Experiments using six satellite laser ranging (SLR) satellites and 12 debris objects with accurate orbits show that both methods can represent the accurate orbits over 5 days in an accuracy of a few dozens of meters for the circular orbits and several hundred meters for the eccentric orbits. The computing time is similar to that using the NORAD TLE/SGP4 algorithm, and storage for the orbit elements and function coefficients is about 3-5 KB. These features could make the two methods beneficial for the maintenance of orbit catalog of large numbers of space objects.

  10. Ab Initio Quality NMR Parameters in Solid-State Materials Using a High-Dimensional Neural-Network Representation.

    PubMed

    Cuny, Jérôme; Xie, Yu; Pickard, Chris J; Hassanali, Ali A

    2016-02-09

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most powerful experimental tools to probe the local atomic order of a wide range of solid-state compounds. However, due to the complexity of the related spectra, in particular for amorphous materials, their interpretation in terms of structural information is often challenging. These difficulties can be overcome by combining molecular dynamics simulations to generate realistic structural models with an ab initio evaluation of the corresponding chemical shift and quadrupolar coupling tensors. However, due to computational constraints, this approach is limited to relatively small system sizes which, for amorphous materials, prevents an adequate statistical sampling of the distribution of the local environments that is required to quantitatively describe the system. In this work, we present an approach to efficiently and accurately predict the NMR parameters of very large systems. This is achieved by using a high-dimensional neural-network representation of NMR parameters that are calculated using an ab initio formalism. To illustrate the potential of this approach, we applied this neural-network NMR (NN-NMR) method on the (17)O and (29)Si quadrupolar coupling and chemical shift parameters of various crystalline silica polymorphs and silica glasses. This approach is, in principal, general and has the potential to be applied to predict the NMR properties of various materials.

  11. Prospective validation of a predictive model that identifies homeless people at risk of re-presentation to the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Moore, Gaye; Hepworth, Graham; Weiland, Tracey; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie Frances; Kelaher, Margaret; Dunt, David

    2012-02-01

    To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of a predictive model to identify homeless people at risk of representation to an emergency department. A prospective cohort analysis utilised one month of data from a Principal Referral Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. All visits involving people classified as homeless were included, excluding those who died. Homelessness was defined as living on the streets, in crisis accommodation, in boarding houses or residing in unstable housing. Rates of re-presentation, defined as the total number of visits to the same emergency department within 28 days of discharge from hospital, were measured. Performance of the risk screening tool was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and likelihood ratios. Over the study period (April 1, 2009 to April 30, 2009), 3298 presentations from 2888 individuals were recorded. The homeless population accounted for 10% (n=327) of all visits and 7% (n=211) of all patients. A total of 90 (43%) homeless people re-presented to the emergency department. The predictive model included nine variables and achieved 98% (CI, 0.92-0.99) sensitivity and 66% (CI, 0.57-0.74) specificity. The positive predictive value was 68% and the negative predictive value was 98%. The positive likelihood ratio 2.9 (CI, 2.2-3.7) and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.03 (CI, 0.01-0.13). The high emergency department re-presentation rate for people who were homeless identifies unresolved psychosocial health needs. The emergency department remains a vital access point for homeless people, particularly after hours. The risk screening tool is key to identify medical and social aspects of a homeless patient's presentation to assist early identification and referral. Copyright © 2012 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spatial mental representations derived from spatial descriptions: the predicting and mediating roles of spatial preferences, strategies, and abilities.

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Ronconi, Lucia; Pazzaglia, Francesca; De Beni, Rossana

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate how spatial self-assessments and spatial cognitive abilities jointly influence the construction of mental representations derived from spatial descriptions. Two studies were conducted using the path models approach to test to what extent spatial self-assessments (Study 1, 194 participants) and the combination of the latter with spatial abilities (Study 2, 206 participants) can be modelled to predict memory for spatial descriptions. In both studies, we recorded spatial representation preferences (distinguishing between survey, route, and landmark-focused mode) and self-reported strategies used to memorize descriptions (distinguishing between survey, route, and verbal strategies); in Study 2, we also measured spatial abilities by testing mental rotation (MR) and visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM). Participants listened to spatial descriptions and then completed recall tasks. In both studies, the final path models showed that spatial preferences influenced spatial recall through the mediation of congruent strategies: that is a survey (route) preference influenced spatial recall mediated by a survey (route) strategy. MR predicted spatial recall, mediated by both VSWM and survey strategy (Study 2). Overall, these findings indicate that spatial preferences (particularly for a survey mode) in association with spatial abilities effectively concur to help form mental representations derived from spatial descriptions.

  13. A finite element surface impedance representation for steady-state problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalinowski, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure for determining the scattered pressure field resulting from a monochromatic harmonic wave that is incident upon a layer energy absorbing structure is treated. The situation where the structure is modeled with finite elements and the surrounding acoustic medium (water or air) is represented with either acoustic finite elements, or some type of boundary integral formulation, is considered. Finite element modeling problems arise when the construction of the structure, at the fluid structure interface, are nonhomogeneous and in particular, when the inhomogeneities are small relative to the acoustic wave length. An approximate procedure is presented for replacing the detailed microscopic representation of the layered surface configuration with an equivalent simple surface impedance finite element, which is especially designed to work only at limited frequencies. An example problem is presented using NASTRAN. However, the procedure is general enough to adapt to practically any finite element code having a steady state option.

  14. Vector coherent state theory of the generic representations of so(5) in an so(3) basis

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, P.S.; Rowe, D.J.; Repka, J.

    2006-02-15

    For applications of group theory in quantum mechanics, one generally needs explicit matrix representations of the spectrum generating algebras that arise in bases that reduce the symmetry group of some Hamiltonian of interest. Here we use vector coherent state techniques to develop an algorithm for constructing the matrices for arbitrary finite-dimensional irreps of the SO(5) Lie algebra in an SO(3) basis. The SO(3) subgroup of SO(5) is defined by regarding SO(5) as linear transformations of the five-dimensional space of an SO(3) irrep of angular momentum two. A need for such irreps arises in the nuclear collective model of quadrupole vibrations and rotations. The algorithm has been implemented in MAPLE, and some tables of results are presented.

  15. Prediction of protein-protein interactions using chaos game representation and wavelet transform via the random forest algorithm.

    PubMed

    Jia, J H; Liu, Z; Chen, X; Xiao, X; Liu, B X

    2015-10-02

    Studying the network of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) will provide valuable insights into the inner workings of cells. It is vitally important to develop an automated, high-throughput tool that efficiently predicts protein-protein interactions. This study proposes a new model for PPI prediction based on the concept of chaos game representation and the wavelet transform, which means that a considerable amount of sequence-order effects can be incorporated into a set of discrete numbers. The advantage of using chaos game representation and the wavelet transform to formulate the protein sequence is that it can more effectively reflect its overall sequence-order characteristics than the conventional correlation factors. Using such a formulation frame to represent the protein sequences means that the random forest algorithm can be used to conduct the prediction. The results for a large-scale independent test dataset show that the proposed model can achieve an excellent performance with an accuracy value of about 0.86 and a geometry mean value of about 0.85. The model is therefore a useful supplementary tool for PPI predictions. The predictor used in this article is freely available at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/PPI.

  16. Resting state functional connectivity predicts neurofeedback response

    PubMed Central

    Scheinost, Dustin; Stoica, Teodora; Wasylink, Suzanne; Gruner, Patricia; Saksa, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Hampson, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Tailoring treatments to the specific needs and biology of individual patients—personalized medicine—requires delineation of reliable predictors of response. Unfortunately, these have been slow to emerge, especially in neuropsychiatric disorders. We have recently described a real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback protocol that can reduce contamination-related anxiety, a prominent symptom of many cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Individual response to this intervention is variable. Here we used patterns of brain functional connectivity, as measured by baseline resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI), to predict improvements in contamination anxiety after neurofeedback training. Activity of a region of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and anterior prefrontal cortex, Brodmann area (BA) 10, associated with contamination anxiety in each subject was measured in real time and presented as a neurofeedback signal, permitting subjects to learn to modulate this target brain region. We have previously reported both enhanced OFC/BA 10 control and improved anxiety in a group of subclinically anxious subjects after neurofeedback. Five individuals with contamination-related OCD who underwent the same protocol also showed improved clinical symptomatology. In both groups, these behavioral improvements were strongly correlated with baseline whole-brain connectivity in the OFC/BA 10, computed from rs-fMRI collected several days prior to neurofeedback training. These pilot data suggest that rs-fMRI can be used to identify individuals likely to benefit from rt-fMRI neurofeedback training to control contamination anxiety. PMID:25309375

  17. A three-dimensional sectional representation of aerosol mixing state for simulating optical properties and cloud condensation nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, Ping Pui; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Easter, Richard C.; Riemer, Nicole; Fast, Jerome D.

    2016-05-27

    Light absorption by black carbon (BC) particles emitted from fossil fuel combustion depends on the how thickly they are coated with non-refractory species such as ammonium, sulfate, nitrate, organics, and water. The cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation property of a particle depends on its dry size and the hygroscopicities of all the individual species mixed together. It is therefore necessary to represent both size and mixing state of aerosols to reliably predict their climate-relevant properties in atmospheric models. Here we describe and evaluate a novel sectional framework in the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry, referred to as MOSAIC-mix, that represents the mixing state by resolving aerosol dry size (Ddry), BC dry mass fraction (wBC), and hygroscopicity (κ). Using ten idealized urban plume scenarios in which different types of aerosols evolve over 24 hours under a range of atmospherically relevant environmental conditions, we examine errors in CCN concentrations and optical properties with respect to a more explicit aerosol mixing state representation. We find that only a small number of wBC and κ bins are needed to achieve significant reductions in the errors, and propose a configuration consisting of 24 Ddry bins, 2 wBC bins, and 2 κ bins that gives 24-hour average errors of about 5% or less in CCN concentrations and optical properties, 3-4 times lower than those from size-only-resolved simulations. These results show that MOSAIC-mix is suitable for use in regional and global models to examine the effects of evolving aerosol mixing states on aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks.

  18. Predicting the integration of overlapping memories by decoding mnemonic processing states during learning.

    PubMed

    Richter, Franziska R; Chanales, Avi J H; Kuhl, Brice A

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampal memory system is thought to alternate between two opposing processing states: encoding and retrieval. When present experience overlaps with past experience, this creates a potential tradeoff between encoding the present and retrieving the past. This tradeoff may be resolved by memory integration-that is, by forming a mnemonic representation that links present experience with overlapping past experience. Here, we used fMRI decoding analyses to predict when - and establish how - past and present experiences become integrated in memory. In an initial experiment, we alternately instructed subjects to adopt encoding, retrieval or integration states during overlapping learning. We then trained across-subject pattern classifiers to 'read out' the instructed processing states from fMRI activity patterns. We show that an integration state was clearly dissociable from encoding or retrieval states. Moreover, trial-by-trial fluctuations in decoded evidence for an integration state during learning reliably predicted behavioral expressions of successful memory integration. Strikingly, the decoding algorithm also successfully predicted specific instances of spontaneous memory integration in an entirely independent sample of subjects for whom processing state instructions were not administered. Finally, we show that medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus differentially contribute to encoding, retrieval, and integration states: whereas hippocampus signals the tradeoff between encoding vs. retrieval states, medial prefrontal cortex actively represents past experience in relation to new learning.

  19. A state space representation of VAR models with sparse learning for dynamic gene networks.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kaname; Yamaguchi, Rui; Imoto, Seiya; Yamauchi, Mai; Nagasaki, Masao; Yoshida, Ryo; Shimamura, Teppei; Ueno, Kazuko; Higuchi, Tomoyuki; Gotoh, Noriko; Miyano, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    We propose a state space representation of vector autoregressive model and its sparse learning based on L1 regularization to achieve efficient estimation of dynamic gene networks based on time course microarray data. The proposed method can overcome drawbacks of the vector autoregressive model and state space model; the assumption of equal time interval and lack of separation ability of observation and systems noises in the former method and the assumption of modularity of network structure in the latter method. However, in a simple implementation the proposed model requires the calculation of large inverse matrices in a large number of times during parameter estimation process based on EM algorithm. This limits the applicability of the proposed method to a relatively small gene set. We thus introduce a new calculation technique for EM algorithm that does not require the calculation of inverse matrices. The proposed method is applied to time course microarray data of lung cells treated by stimulating EGF receptors and dosing an anticancer drug, Gefitinib. By comparing the estimated network with the control network estimated using non-treated lung cells, perturbed genes by the anticancer drug could be found, whose up- and down-stream genes in the estimated networks may be related to side effects of the anticancer drug.

  20. State institutions and social identity: National representation in soldiers' and civilians' interview talk concerning military service.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Stephen; Condor, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Theory and research deriving from social identity or self-categorization perspectives often starts out with the presumption that social actors necessarily view societal objects such as nations or states as human categories. However, recent work suggests that this may be only one of a number of forms that societal representation may take. For example, nations may be understood variously as peoples, places, or institutions. This paper presents findings from a qualitative interview study conducted in England, in which soldiers and civilians talked about nationhood in relation to military service. Analysis indicated that, in this context, speakers were often inclined to use the terms 'Britain', 'nation', and 'country' as references to a political institution as opposed to a category of people. In addition, there were systematic differences between the ways in which the two samples construed their nation in institutional terms. The civilians were inclined to treat military service as a matter of obedience to the dictates of the Government of the day. In contrast, the soldiers were more inclined to frame military service as a matter of loyalty to state as symbolically instantiated in the body of the sovereign. Implications for work adopting a social identity perspective are discussed.

  1. Understanding Karma Police: The Perceived Plausibility of Noun Compounds as Predicted by Distributional Models of Semantic Representation.

    PubMed

    Günther, Fritz; Marelli, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Noun compounds, consisting of two nouns (the head and the modifier) that are combined into a single concept, differ in terms of their plausibility: school bus is a more plausible compound than saddle olive. The present study investigates which factors influence the plausibility of attested and novel noun compounds. Distributional Semantic Models (DSMs) are used to obtain formal (vector) representations of word meanings, and compositional methods in DSMs are employed to obtain such representations for noun compounds. From these representations, different plausibility measures are computed. Three of those measures contribute in predicting the plausibility of noun compounds: The relatedness between the meaning of the head noun and the compound (Head Proximity), the relatedness between the meaning of modifier noun and the compound (Modifier Proximity), and the similarity between the head noun and the modifier noun (Constituent Similarity). We find non-linear interactions between Head Proximity and Modifier Proximity, as well as between Modifier Proximity and Constituent Similarity. Furthermore, Constituent Similarity interacts non-linearly with the familiarity with the compound. These results suggest that a compound is perceived as more plausible if it can be categorized as an instance of the category denoted by the head noun, if the contribution of the modifier to the compound meaning is clear but not redundant, and if the constituents are sufficiently similar in cases where this contribution is not clear. Furthermore, compounds are perceived to be more plausible if they are more familiar, but mostly for cases where the relation between the constituents is less clear.

  2. Understanding Karma Police: The Perceived Plausibility of Noun Compounds as Predicted by Distributional Models of Semantic Representation

    PubMed Central

    Günther, Fritz; Marelli, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Noun compounds, consisting of two nouns (the head and the modifier) that are combined into a single concept, differ in terms of their plausibility: school bus is a more plausible compound than saddle olive. The present study investigates which factors influence the plausibility of attested and novel noun compounds. Distributional Semantic Models (DSMs) are used to obtain formal (vector) representations of word meanings, and compositional methods in DSMs are employed to obtain such representations for noun compounds. From these representations, different plausibility measures are computed. Three of those measures contribute in predicting the plausibility of noun compounds: The relatedness between the meaning of the head noun and the compound (Head Proximity), the relatedness between the meaning of modifier noun and the compound (Modifier Proximity), and the similarity between the head noun and the modifier noun (Constituent Similarity). We find non-linear interactions between Head Proximity and Modifier Proximity, as well as between Modifier Proximity and Constituent Similarity. Furthermore, Constituent Similarity interacts non-linearly with the familiarity with the compound. These results suggest that a compound is perceived as more plausible if it can be categorized as an instance of the category denoted by the head noun, if the contribution of the modifier to the compound meaning is clear but not redundant, and if the constituents are sufficiently similar in cases where this contribution is not clear. Furthermore, compounds are perceived to be more plausible if they are more familiar, but mostly for cases where the relation between the constituents is less clear. PMID:27732599

  3. Multiple neural states of representation in short-term memory? It's a matter of attention.

    PubMed

    Larocque, Joshua J; Lewis-Peacock, Jarrod A; Postle, Bradley R

    2014-01-01

    Short-term memory (STM) refers to the capacity-limited retention of information over a brief period of time, and working memory (WM) refers to the manipulation and use of that information to guide behavior. In recent years it has become apparent that STM and WM interact and overlap with other cognitive processes, including attention (the selection of a subset of information for further processing) and long-term memory (LTM-the encoding and retention of an effectively unlimited amount of information for a much longer period of time). Broadly speaking, there have been two classes of memory models: systems models, which posit distinct stores for STM and LTM (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968; Baddeley and Hitch, 1974); and state-based models, which posit a common store with different activation states corresponding to STM and LTM (Cowan, 1995; McElree, 1996; Oberauer, 2002). In this paper, we will focus on state-based accounts of STM. First, we will consider several theoretical models that postulate, based on considerable behavioral evidence, that information in STM can exist in multiple representational states. We will then consider how neural data from recent studies of STM can inform and constrain these theoretical models. In the process we will highlight the inferential advantage of multivariate, information-based analyses of neuroimaging data (fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG)) over conventional activation-based analysis approaches (Postle, in press). We will conclude by addressing lingering questions regarding the fractionation of STM, highlighting differences between the attention to information vs. the retention of information during brief memory delays.

  4. Public Higher Education Performance Accountability Framework Report: Goal--Access and Affordability. Measure: Percentage of Racial Representation in Systems of Higher Education Compared to Racial Representation in the State. Commission Report 07-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Despite segmental efforts to increase diversity in higher education, African American and Latino students are not achieving levels of representation in California public universities that are equivalent to their levels of representation in the overall State population. Using data for the years 1997 through 2006, the California Postsecondary…

  5. Comment on the role of thermodynamic representations in the study of fluids in far from equilibrium steady states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llebot, J. E.; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    1986-03-01

    It is shown that calculations of fluctuations in fluids driven into a stationary state by a temperature gradient are independent of the thermodynamic representation even to nonlinear order in the temperature gradient. The contrast between this result and the conjecture of Garibay-Jiménez and García-Colin, Physica 130A (1985) 616, is clarified.

  6. Talking about Internal States in Mother-Child Reminiscing Influences Children's Self-Representations: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Doan, Stacey N.; Song, Qingfang

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relation of mother-child discussions of internal states during reminiscing to the development of trait and evaluative self-representations in 131 European American and Chinese immigrant 3-year olds. Mothers and children discussed one positive and one negative event, and children were interviewed for self-descriptions.…

  7. Learning network representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyano, Luis G.

    2017-02-01

    In this review I present several representation learning methods, and discuss the latest advancements with emphasis in applications to network science. Representation learning is a set of techniques that has the goal of efficiently mapping data structures into convenient latent spaces. Either for dimensionality reduction or for gaining semantic content, this type of feature embeddings has demonstrated to be useful, for example, for node classification or link prediction tasks, among many other relevant applications to networks. I provide a description of the state-of-the-art of network representation learning as well as a detailed account of the connections with other fields of study such as continuous word embeddings and deep learning architectures. Finally, I provide a broad view of several applications of these techniques to networks in various domains.

  8. Linear predictive control with state variable constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bdirina, K.; Djoudi, D.; Lagoun, M.

    2012-11-01

    While linear model predictive control is popular since the 70s of the past century, the 90s have witnessed a steadily increasing attention from control theoretists as well as control practitioners in the area of model predictive control (MPC). The practical interest is driven by the fact that today's processes need to be operated under tighter performance specifications. At the same time more and more constraints, stemming for example from environmental and safety considerations, need to besatisfied. Often these demands can only be met when process constraints are explicitly considered in the controller. Predictive control with constraints appears to be a well suited approach for this kind of problems. In this paper the basic principle of MPC with constraints is reviewed and some of the theoretical, computational, and implementation aspects of MPC are discussed. Furthermore the MPC with constraints was applied to linear example.

  9. State of volcanic ash dispersion prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliasson, Jonas; Palsson, Thorgeir; Weber, Konradin

    2017-04-01

    The Eyjafjallajokull 2010 and Grimsvotn 2011 eruptions created great problems for commercial aviation in Western Europe and in the North Atlantic region. Comparison of satellite images of the visible and predicted ash clouds showed the VAAC prediction to be much larger than the actual ash clouds. No official explanation of this discrepancy exists apart from the definition of the ash cloud boundary. Papers on simulation of the Eyjafjallajökull ash cloud in peer reviewed journals, typically attempted to simulate the VAAC predictions rather than focusing on the satellite pictures. Sporadic measurements made in-situ showed much lower ash concentrations over Europe than the predicted values. Two of the weak points in ash cloud prediction have been studied in airborne measurements of volcanic ash by the Universities in Kyoto Japan, Iceland and Düsseldorf Germany of eruptions in Sakurajima, Japan. It turns out that gravitational deformation of the plume and a streak fallout process make estimated ash content of clouds larger than the actual, both features are not included in the simulation model. Tropospheric plumes tend to ride in stable inversions this causes gravitational flattening (pancaking) of the volcanic plume, while diffusion in the mixing layer is insignificant. New rules from ICAO, effective from November 2014, reiterate that jetliners should avoid visible ash, this makes information on visible ash important. A procedure developed by JMÁs Tokyo VAAC uses satellite images of visible ash to correct the prediction. This and the fact that meteorological data necessary to model gravitational dispersion and streak fallout do not exist in the international database available to the VAAĆs. This shows that close monitoring by airborne measurements and satellite and other photographic surveillance is necessary.

  10. Early Numeracy Indicators: Examining Predictive Utility Across Years and States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conoyer, Sarah J.; Foegen, Anne; Lembke, Erica S.

    2016-01-01

    Two studies using similar methods in two states investigated the long-term predictive utility of two single-skill early numeracy Curriculum Based Measures (CBMs) and the degree to which they can adequately predict high-stakes test scores. Data were drawn from kindergarten and first-grade students. State standardized assessment data from the…

  11. Early Numeracy Indicators: Examining Predictive Utility Across Years and States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conoyer, Sarah J.; Foegen, Anne; Lembke, Erica S.

    2016-01-01

    Two studies using similar methods in two states investigated the long-term predictive utility of two single-skill early numeracy Curriculum Based Measures (CBMs) and the degree to which they can adequately predict high-stakes test scores. Data were drawn from kindergarten and first-grade students. State standardized assessment data from the…

  12. A canonical state-space representation for SISO systems using multipoint Jordan CFE. [Continued-Fraction Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Chyi; Guo, Tong-Yi; Shieh, Leang-San

    1991-01-01

    A canonical state-space realization based on the multipoint Jordan continued-fraction expansion (CFE) is presented for single-input-single-output (SISO) systems. The similarity transformation matrix which relates the new canonical form to the phase-variable canonical form is also derived. The presented canonical state-space representation is particularly attractive for the application of SISO system theory in which a reduced-dimensional time-domain model is necessary.

  13. State Representation Approach for Atomistic Time-Dependent Transport Calculations in Molecular Junctions.

    PubMed

    Zelovich, Tamar; Kronik, Leeor; Hod, Oded

    2014-08-12

    We propose a new method for simulating electron dynamics in open quantum systems out of equilibrium, using a finite atomistic model. The proposed method is motivated by the intuitive and practical nature of the driven Liouville-von-Neumann equation approach of Sánchez et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 124, 214708] and Subotnik et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 2009, 130, 144105]. A key ingredient of our approach is a transformation of the Hamiltonian matrix from an atomistic to a state representation of the molecular junction. This allows us to uniquely define the bias voltage across the system while maintaining a proper thermal electronic distribution within the finite lead models. Furthermore, it allows us to investigate complex molecular junctions, including multilead configurations. A heuristic derivation of our working equation leads to explicit expressions for the damping and driving terms, which serve as appropriate electron sources and sinks that effectively "open" the finite model system. Although the method does not forbid it, in practice we find neither violation of Pauli's exclusion principles nor deviation from density matrix positivity throughout our numerical simulations of various tight-binding model systems. We believe that the new approach offers a practical and physically sound route for performing atomistic time-dependent transport calculations in realistic molecular junction models.

  14. Do attachment representations predict depression and anxiety in psychiatrically hospitalized prepubertal children?

    PubMed

    Goodman, Geoff; Stroh, Martha; Valdez, Adina

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-six prepubertal inpatients were videotaped completing five stories thematically related to attachment experiences and classified by their attachment representations. Children also completed the Children's Depression Inventory and Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-Revised. Mothers completed demographic questionnaires. Percentage of secure (B) attachment was only about one tenth of the normative percentage, anxious-ambivalent (C) attachment was between two and three times the normative percentage, and disorganized (D) attachment was almost twice the normative percentage. Both D attachment and the total number of disorganized story responses were associated with negative self-esteem and clinical-range depression. Anxious-avoidant (A) attachment decreased the likelihood, while C and D attachment increased the likelihood, of separation anxiety disorder. Clinical intervention needs to focus on the meaning of parental relationships represented in the child's mind, specifically the negative self-esteem and separation anxiety associated with the lack of felt security provided by the parents.

  15. Does Mother's Rather than Father's Attachment Representation Contribute to the Adolescent's Attachment Representation? Commentary on: "Maternal Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) Collected During Pregnancy Predicts Reflective Functioning in AAIs from their First-Born Children 17 Years Later"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, Spangler evaluates the Steele, Perez, Segal, and Steele report that arguede that reflective functioning in adolescence could not be predicted by quality of early infant attachment, but was associated with maternal (but not paternal) attachment representation, assessed before the adolescents' birth. Assuming that parental…

  16. Scoring predictive models using a reduced representation of proteins: model and energy definition.

    PubMed

    Fogolari, Federico; Pieri, Lidia; Dovier, Agostino; Bortolussi, Luca; Giugliarelli, Gilberto; Corazza, Alessandra; Esposito, Gennaro; Viglino, Paolo

    2007-03-23

    Reduced representations of proteins have been playing a keyrole in the study of protein folding. Many such models are available, with different representation detail. Although the usefulness of many such models for structural bioinformatics applications has been demonstrated in recent years, there are few intermediate resolution models endowed with an energy model capable, for instance, of detecting native or native-like structures among decoy sets. The aim of the present work is to provide a discrete empirical potential for a reduced protein model termed here PC2CA, because it employs a PseudoCovalent structure with only 2 Centers of interactions per Amino acid, suitable for protein model quality assessment. All protein structures in the set top500H have been converted in reduced form. The distribution of pseudobonds, pseudoangle, pseudodihedrals and distances between centers of interactions have been converted into potentials of mean force. A suitable reference distribution has been defined for non-bonded interactions which takes into account excluded volume effects and protein finite size. The correlation between adjacent main chain pseudodihedrals has been converted in an additional energetic term which is able to account for cooperative effects in secondary structure elements. Local energy surface exploration is performed in order to increase the robustness of the energy function. The model and the energy definition proposed have been tested on all the multiple decoys' sets in the Decoys'R'us database. The energetic model is able to recognize, for almost all sets, native-like structures (RMSD less than 2.0 A). These results and those obtained in the blind CASP7 quality assessment experiment suggest that the model compares well with scoring potentials with finer granularity and could be useful for fast exploration of conformational space. Parameters are available at the url: http://www.dstb.uniud.it/~ffogolari/download/.

  17. Predictability sieve, pointer states, and the classicality of quantum trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Dalvit, D. A. R.; Zurek, W. H.; Dziarmaga, J.

    2005-12-15

    We study various measures of classicality of the states of open quantum systems subject to decoherence. Classical states are expected to be stable in spite of decoherence, and are thought to leave conspicuous imprints on the environment. Here these expected features of environment-induced superselection are quantified using four different criteria: predictability sieve (which selects states that produce least entropy), purification time (which looks for states that are the easiest to find out from the imprint they leave on the environment), efficiency threshold (which finds states that can be deduced from measurements on a smallest fraction of the environment), and purity loss time (that looks for states for which it takes the longest to lose a set fraction of their initial purity). We show that when pointer states--the most predictable states of an open quantum system selected by the predictability sieve--are well defined, all four criteria agree that they are indeed the most classical states. We illustrate this with two examples: an underdamped harmonic oscillator, for which coherent states are unanimously chosen by all criteria, and a free particle undergoing quantum Brownian motion, for which most criteria select almost identical Gaussian states (although, in this case, the predictability sieve does not select well defined pointer states)

  18. In-silico prediction of disorder content using hybrid sequence representation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intrinsically disordered proteins play important roles in various cellular activities and their prevalence was implicated in a number of human diseases. The knowledge of the content of the intrinsic disorder in proteins is useful for a variety of studies including estimation of the abundance of disorder in protein families, classes, and complete proteomes, and for the analysis of disorder-related protein functions. The above investigations currently utilize the disorder content derived from the per-residue disorder predictions. We show that these predictions may over-or under-predict the overall amount of disorder, which motivates development of novel tools for direct and accurate sequence-based prediction of the disorder content. Results We hypothesize that sequence-level aggregation of input information may provide more accurate content prediction when compared with the content extracted from the local window-based residue-level disorder predictors. We propose a novel predictor, DisCon, that takes advantage of a small set of 29 custom-designed descriptors that aggregate and hybridize information concerning sequence, evolutionary profiles, and predicted secondary structure, solvent accessibility, flexibility, and annotation of globular domains. Using these descriptors and a ridge regression model, DisCon predicts the content with low, 0.05, mean squared error and high, 0.68, Pearson correlation. This is a statistically significant improvement over the content computed from outputs of ten modern disorder predictors on a test dataset with proteins that share low sequence identity with the training sequences. The proposed predictive model is analyzed to discuss factors related to the prediction of the disorder content. Conclusions DisCon is a high-quality alternative for high-throughput annotation of the disorder content. We also empirically demonstrate that the DisCon's predictions can be used to improve binary annotations of the disordered residues from

  19. Five degrees of freedom linear state-space representation of electrodynamic thrust bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdeghem, J. Van; Kluyskens, V.; Dehez, B.

    2017-09-01

    Electrodynamic bearings can provide stable and contactless levitation of rotors while operating at room temperatures. Depending solely on passive phenomena, specific models have to be developed to study the forces they exert and the resulting rotordynamics. In recent years, models allowing us to describe the axial dynamics of a large range of electrodynamic thrust bearings have been derived. However, these bearings being devised to be integrated into fully magnetic suspensions, the existing models still suffer from restrictions. Indeed, assuming the spin speed as varying slowly, a rigid rotor is characterised by five independent degrees of freedom whereas early models only considered the axial degree. This paper presents a model free of the previous limitations. It consists in a linear state-space representation describing the rotor's complete dynamics by considering the impact of the rotor axial, radial and angular displacements as well as the gyroscopic effects. This set of ten equations depends on twenty parameters whose identification can be easily performed through static finite element simulations or quasi-static experimental measurements. The model stresses the intrinsic decoupling between the axial dynamics and the other degrees of freedom as well as the existence of electrodynamic angular torques restoring the rotor to its nominal position. Finally, a stability analysis performed on the model highlights the presence of two conical whirling modes related to the angular dynamics, namely the nutation and precession motions. The former, whose intrinsic stability depends on the ratio between polar and transverse moments of inertia, can be easily stabilised through external damping whereas the latter, which is stable up to an instability threshold linked to the angular electrodynamic cross-coupling stiffness, is less impacted by that damping.

  20. Applying representational state transfer (REST) architecture to archetype-based electronic health record systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The openEHR project and the closely related ISO 13606 standard have defined structures supporting the content of Electronic Health Records (EHRs). However, there is not yet any finalized openEHR specification of a service interface to aid application developers in creating, accessing, and storing the EHR content. The aim of this paper is to explore how the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style can be used as a basis for a platform-independent, HTTP-based openEHR service interface. Associated benefits and tradeoffs of such a design are also explored. Results The main contribution is the formalization of the openEHR storage, retrieval, and version-handling semantics and related services into an implementable HTTP-based service interface. The modular design makes it possible to prototype, test, replicate, distribute, cache, and load-balance the system using ordinary web technology. Other contributions are approaches to query and retrieval of the EHR content that takes caching, logging, and distribution into account. Triggering on EHR change events is also explored. A final contribution is an open source openEHR implementation using the above-mentioned approaches to create LiU EEE, an educational EHR environment intended to help newcomers and developers experiment with and learn about the archetype-based EHR approach and enable rapid prototyping. Conclusions Using REST addressed many architectural concerns in a successful way, but an additional messaging component was needed to address some architectural aspects. Many of our approaches are likely of value to other archetype-based EHR implementations and may contribute to associated service model specifications. PMID:23656624

  1. Applying representational state transfer (REST) architecture to archetype-based electronic health record systems.

    PubMed

    Sundvall, Erik; Nyström, Mikael; Karlsson, Daniel; Eneling, Martin; Chen, Rong; Örman, Håkan

    2013-05-09

    The openEHR project and the closely related ISO 13606 standard have defined structures supporting the content of Electronic Health Records (EHRs). However, there is not yet any finalized openEHR specification of a service interface to aid application developers in creating, accessing, and storing the EHR content.The aim of this paper is to explore how the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style can be used as a basis for a platform-independent, HTTP-based openEHR service interface. Associated benefits and tradeoffs of such a design are also explored. The main contribution is the formalization of the openEHR storage, retrieval, and version-handling semantics and related services into an implementable HTTP-based service interface. The modular design makes it possible to prototype, test, replicate, distribute, cache, and load-balance the system using ordinary web technology. Other contributions are approaches to query and retrieval of the EHR content that takes caching, logging, and distribution into account. Triggering on EHR change events is also explored.A final contribution is an open source openEHR implementation using the above-mentioned approaches to create LiU EEE, an educational EHR environment intended to help newcomers and developers experiment with and learn about the archetype-based EHR approach and enable rapid prototyping. Using REST addressed many architectural concerns in a successful way, but an additional messaging component was needed to address some architectural aspects. Many of our approaches are likely of value to other archetype-based EHR implementations and may contribute to associated service model specifications.

  2. State-space representation of Li-ion battery porous electrode impedance model with balanced model reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Myungsoo; Smith, Kandler; Graf, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an approximate time-domain solution for physics-based electrochemical lithium-ion cell battery models. The time-domain solution is represented in state-space form and can be easily used for the design of a state estimator or controller. It uses an interconnection-of-system approach to derive a state-space representation of a battery impedance model and provides a reduced order model based via the balanced truncation method. Simulation results are also provided to show the performance of the proposed model in the frequency domain.

  3. Moon meteoritic seismic hum: Steady state prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lognonne, P.; Feuvre, M.L.; Johnson, C.L.; Weber, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    We use three different statistical models describing the frequency of meteoroid impacts on Earth to estimate the seismic background noise due to impacts on the lunar surface. Because of diffraction, seismic events on the Moon are typically characterized by long codas, lasting 1 h or more. We find that the small but frequent impacts generate seismic signals whose codas overlap in time, resulting in a permanent seismic noise that we term the "lunar hum" by analogy with the Earth's continuous seismic background seismic hum. We find that the Apollo era impact detection rates and amplitudes are well explained by a model that parameterizes (1) the net seismic impulse due to the impactor and resulting ejecta and (2) the effects of diffraction and attenuation. The formulation permits the calculation of a composite waveform at any point on the Moon due to simulated impacts at any epicentral distance. The root-mean-square amplitude of this waveform yields a background noise level that is about 100 times lower than the resolution of the Apollo long-period seismometers. At 2 s periods, this noise level is more than 1000 times lower than the low noise model prediction for Earth's microseismic noise. Sufficiently sensitive seismometers will allow the future detection of several impacts per day at body wave frequencies. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Improved pan-specific MHC class I peptide-binding predictions using a novel representation of the MHC-binding cleft environment.

    PubMed

    Carrasco Pro, S; Zimic, M; Nielsen, M

    2014-02-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a key role in cell-mediated immune responses presenting bounded peptides for recognition by the immune system cells. Several in silico methods have been developed to predict the binding affinity of a given peptide to a specific MHC molecule. One of the current state-of-the-art methods for MHC class I is NetMHCpan, which has a core ingredient for the representation of the MHC class I molecule using a pseudo-sequence representation of the binding cleft amino acid environment. New and large MHC-peptide-binding data sets are constantly being made available, and also new structures of MHC class I molecules with a bound peptide have been published. In order to test if the NetMHCpan method can be improved by integrating this novel information, we created new pseudo-sequence definitions for the MHC-binding cleft environment from sequence and structural analyses of different MHC data sets including human leukocyte antigen (HLA), non-human primates (chimpanzee, macaque and gorilla) and other animal alleles (cattle, mouse and swine). From these constructs, we showed that by focusing on MHC sequence positions found to be polymorphic across the MHC molecules used to train the method, the NetMHCpan method achieved a significant increase in the predictive performance, in particular, of non-human MHCs. This study hence showed that an improved performance of MHC-binding methods can be achieved not only by the accumulation of more MHC-peptide-binding data but also by a refined definition of the MHC-binding environment including information from non-human species.

  5. The Frequency of "Brilliant" and "Genius" in Teaching Evaluations Predicts the Representation of Women and African Americans across Fields.

    PubMed

    Storage, Daniel; Horne, Zachary; Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane

    2016-01-01

    Women and African Americans-groups targeted by negative stereotypes about their intellectual abilities-may be underrepresented in careers that prize brilliance and genius. A recent nationwide survey of academics provided initial support for this possibility. Fields whose practitioners believed that natural talent is crucial for success had fewer female and African American PhDs. The present study seeks to replicate this initial finding with a different, and arguably more naturalistic, measure of the extent to which brilliance and genius are prized within a field. Specifically, we measured field-by-field variability in the emphasis on these intellectual qualities by tallying-with the use of a recently released online tool-the frequency of the words "brilliant" and "genius" in over 14 million reviews on RateMyProfessors.com, a popular website where students can write anonymous evaluations of their instructors. This simple word count predicted both women's and African Americans' representation across the academic spectrum. That is, we found that fields in which the words "brilliant" and "genius" were used more frequently on RateMyProfessors.com also had fewer female and African American PhDs. Looking at an earlier stage in students' educational careers, we found that brilliance-focused fields also had fewer women and African Americans obtaining bachelor's degrees. These relationships held even when accounting for field-specific averages on standardized mathematics assessments, as well as several competing hypotheses concerning group differences in representation. The fact that this naturalistic measure of a field's focus on brilliance predicted the magnitude of its gender and race gaps speaks to the tight link between ability beliefs and diversity.

  6. Representation of Vegetation and Other Nonerodible Elements in Aeolian Shear Stress Partitioning Models for Predicting Transport Threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, James; Nickling, William G.; Gillies, John A.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of nonerodible elements is well understood to be a reducing factor for soil erosion by wind, but the limits of its protection of the surface and erosion threshold prediction are complicated by the varying geometry, spatial organization, and density of the elements. The predictive capabilities of the most recent models for estimating wind driven particle fluxes are reduced because of the poor representation of the effectiveness of vegetation to reduce wind erosion. Two approaches have been taken to account for roughness effects on sediment transport thresholds. Marticorena and Bergametti (1995) in their dust emission model parameterize the effect of roughness on threshold with the assumption that there is a relationship between roughness density and the aerodynamic roughness length of a surface. Raupach et al. (1993) offer a different approach based on physical modeling of wake development behind individual roughness elements and the partition of the surface stress and the total stress over a roughened surface. A comparison between the models shows the partitioning approach to be a good framework to explain the effect of roughness on entrainment of sediment by wind. Both models provided very good agreement for wind tunnel experiments using solid objects on a nonerodible surface. However, the Marticorena and Bergametti (1995) approach displays a scaling dependency when the difference between the roughness length of the surface and the overall roughness length is too great, while the Raupach et al. (1993) model's predictions perform better owing to the incorporation of the roughness geometry and the alterations to the flow they can cause.

  7. Representation of ecological systems within the protected areas network of the Continental United States.

    PubMed

    Aycrigg, Jocelyn L; Davidson, Anne; Svancara, Leona K; Gergely, Kevin J; McKerrow, Alexa; Scott, J Michael

    2013-01-01

    If conservation of biodiversity is the goal, then the protected areas network of the continental US may be one of our best conservation tools for safeguarding ecological systems (i.e., vegetation communities). We evaluated representation of ecological systems in the current protected areas network and found insufficient representation at three vegetation community levels within lower elevations and moderate to high productivity soils. We used national-level data for ecological systems and a protected areas database to explore alternative ways we might be able to increase representation of ecological systems within the continental US. By following one or more of these alternatives it may be possible to increase the representation of ecological systems in the protected areas network both quantitatively (from 10% up to 39%) and geographically and come closer to meeting the suggested Convention on Biological Diversity target of 17% for terrestrial areas. We used the Landscape Conservation Cooperative framework for regional analysis and found that increased conservation on some private and public lands may be important to the conservation of ecological systems in Western US, while increased public-private partnerships may be important in the conservation of ecological systems in Eastern US. We have not assessed the pros and cons of following the national or regional alternatives, but rather present them as possibilities that may be considered and evaluated as decisions are made to increase the representation of ecological systems in the protected areas network across their range of ecological, geographical, and geophysical occurrence in the continental US into the future.

  8. Representation of ecological systems within the protected areas network of the continental United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aycrigg, Jocelyn L.; Davidson, Anne; Svancara, Leona K.; Gergely, Kevin J.; McKerrow, Alexa; Scott, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    If conservation of biodiversity is the goal, then the protected areas network of the continental US may be one of our best conservation tools for safeguarding ecological systems (i.e., vegetation communities). We evaluated representation of ecological systems in the current protected areas network and found insufficient representation at three vegetation community levels within lower elevations and moderate to high productivity soils. We used national-level data for ecological systems and a protected areas database to explore alternative ways we might be able to increase representation of ecological systems within the continental US. By following one or more of these alternatives it may be possible to increase the representation of ecological systems in the protected areas network both quantitatively (from 10% up to 39%) and geographically and come closer to meeting the suggested Convention on Biological Diversity target of 17% for terrestrial areas. We used the Landscape Conservation Cooperative framework for regional analysis and found that increased conservation on some private and public lands may be important to the conservation of ecological systems in Western US, while increased public-private partnerships may be important in the conservation of ecological systems in Eastern US. We have not assessed the pros and cons of following the national or regional alternatives, but rather present them as possibilities that may be considered and evaluated as decisions are made to increase the representation of ecological systems in the protected areas network across their range of ecological, geographical, and geophysical occurrence in the continental US into the future.

  9. Trait-Based Representation of Biological Nitrification: Model Development, Testing, and Predicted Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Bouskill, Nicholas J.; Tang, Jinyun; Riley, William J.; Brodie, Eoin L.

    2012-01-01

    Trait-based microbial models show clear promise as tools to represent the diversity and activity of microorganisms across ecosystem gradients. These models parameterize specific traits that determine the relative fitness of an “organism” in a given environment, and represent the complexity of biological systems across temporal and spatial scales. In this study we introduce a microbial community trait-based modeling framework (MicroTrait) focused on nitrification (MicroTrait-N) that represents the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) using traits related to enzyme kinetics and physiological properties. We used this model to predict nitrifier diversity, ammonia (NH3) oxidation rates, and nitrous oxide (N2O) production across pH, temperature, and substrate gradients. Predicted nitrifier diversity was predominantly determined by temperature and substrate availability, the latter was strongly influenced by pH. The model predicted that transient N2O production rates are maximized by a decoupling of the AOB and NOB communities, resulting in an accumulation and detoxification of nitrite to N2O by AOB. However, cumulative N2O production (over 6 month simulations) is maximized in a system where the relationship between AOB and NOB is maintained. When the reactions uncouple, the AOB become unstable and biomass declines rapidly, resulting in decreased NH3 oxidation and N2O production. We evaluated this model against site level chemical datasets from the interior of Alaska and accurately simulated NH3 oxidation rates and the relative ratio of AOA:AOB biomass. The predicted community structure and activity indicate (a) parameterization of a small number of traits may be sufficient to broadly characterize nitrifying community structure and (b) changing decadal trends in climate and edaphic conditions could impact nitrification rates in ways that are not captured by extant biogeochemical models. PMID

  10. Dissociable neural representations of reinforcement and belief prediction errors underlie strategic learning.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lusha; Mathewson, Kyle E; Hsu, Ming

    2012-01-31

    Decision-making in the presence of other competitive intelligent agents is fundamental for social and economic behavior. Such decisions require agents to behave strategically, where in addition to learning about the rewards and punishments available in the environment, they also need to anticipate and respond to actions of others competing for the same rewards. However, whereas we know much about strategic learning at both theoretical and behavioral levels, we know relatively little about the underlying neural mechanisms. Here, we show using a multi-strategy competitive learning paradigm that strategic choices can be characterized by extending the reinforcement learning (RL) framework to incorporate agents' beliefs about the actions of their opponents. Furthermore, using this characterization to generate putative internal values, we used model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate neural computations underlying strategic learning. We found that the distinct notions of prediction errors derived from our computational model are processed in a partially overlapping but distinct set of brain regions. Specifically, we found that the RL prediction error was correlated with activity in the ventral striatum. In contrast, activity in the ventral striatum, as well as the rostral anterior cingulate (rACC), was correlated with a previously uncharacterized belief-based prediction error. Furthermore, activity in rACC reflected individual differences in degree of engagement in belief learning. These results suggest a model of strategic behavior where learning arises from interaction of dissociable reinforcement and belief-based inputs.

  11. Prediction of thermal-stress and deformations due to phase change in solidifying objects via flux/stress based finite element representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamma, K. K.; Namburu, R. R.

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents numerical simulations for the prediction of thermal-stress and deformation fields resulting from phase change in solidifying bodies employing new finite element representations. The formulations herein demonstrated provide different perspectives and physical interpretation for the modeling/analysis of thermo-mechanical problems and possess several inherent advantages. In comparison to traditional approaches for solving similar problems, the paper employs new flux/stress based representations to enhance the overall effectiveness. Comparative numerical applications validate applicability of the formulations for predicting the temperature induced deformations and stresses resulting from effects due to phase change.

  12. Dynamic Filtering Improves Attentional State Prediction with fNIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrivel, Angela R.; Weissman, Daniel H.; Noll, Douglas C.; Huppert, Theodore; Peltier, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Brain activity can predict a person's level of engagement in an attentional task. However, estimates of brain activity are often confounded by measurement artifacts and systemic physiological noise. The optimal method for filtering this noise - thereby increasing such state prediction accuracy - remains unclear. To investigate this, we asked study participants to perform an attentional task while we monitored their brain activity with functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We observed higher state prediction accuracy when noise in the fNIRS hemoglobin [Hb] signals was filtered with a non-stationary (adaptive) model as compared to static regression (84% +/- 6% versus 72% +/- 15%).

  13. Dynamic filtering improves attentional state prediction with fNIRS

    PubMed Central

    Harrivel, Angela R.; Weissman, Daniel H.; Noll, Douglas C.; Huppert, Theodore; Peltier, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Brain activity can predict a person’s level of engagement in an attentional task. However, estimates of brain activity are often confounded by measurement artifacts and systemic physiological noise. The optimal method for filtering this noise – thereby increasing such state prediction accuracy – remains unclear. To investigate this, we asked study participants to perform an attentional task while we monitored their brain activity with functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We observed higher state prediction accuracy when noise in the fNIRS hemoglobin [Hb] signals was filtered with a non-stationary (adaptive) model as compared to static regression (84% ± 6% versus 72% ± 15%). PMID:27231602

  14. Automatic speech recognition using a predictive echo state network classifier.

    PubMed

    Skowronski, Mark D; Harris, John G

    2007-04-01

    We have combined an echo state network (ESN) with a competitive state machine framework to create a classification engine called the predictive ESN classifier. We derive the expressions for training the predictive ESN classifier and show that the model was significantly more noise robust compared to a hidden Markov model in noisy speech classification experiments by 8+/-1 dB signal-to-noise ratio. The simple training algorithm and noise robustness of the predictive ESN classifier make it an attractive classification engine for automatic speech recognition.

  15. Dynamic filtering improves attentional state prediction with fNIRS.

    PubMed

    Harrivel, Angela R; Weissman, Daniel H; Noll, Douglas C; Huppert, Theodore; Peltier, Scott J

    2016-03-01

    Brain activity can predict a person's level of engagement in an attentional task. However, estimates of brain activity are often confounded by measurement artifacts and systemic physiological noise. The optimal method for filtering this noise - thereby increasing such state prediction accuracy - remains unclear. To investigate this, we asked study participants to perform an attentional task while we monitored their brain activity with functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We observed higher state prediction accuracy when noise in the fNIRS hemoglobin [Hb] signals was filtered with a non-stationary (adaptive) model as compared to static regression (84% ± 6% versus 72% ± 15%).

  16. Potential impact of remote sensing data on sea-state analysis and prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardone, V. J.

    1983-01-01

    The severe North Atlantic storm which damaged the ocean liner Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2) was studied to assess the impact of remotely sensed marine surface wind data obtained by SEASAT-A, on sea state specifications and forecasts. Alternate representations of the surface wind field in the QE2 storm were produced from the SEASAT enhanced data base, and from operational analyses based upon conventional data. The wind fields were used to drive a high resolution spectral ocean surface wave prediction model. Results show that sea state analyses would have been vastly improved during the period of storm formation and explosive development had remote sensing wind data been available in real time. A modest improvement in operational 12 to 24 hour wave forecasts would have followed automatically from the improved initial state specification made possible by the remote sensing data in both numerical and sea state prediction models. Significantly improved 24 to 48 hour wave forecasts require in addition to remote sensing data, refinement in the numerical and physical aspects of weather prediction models.

  17. Construal Levels and Psychological Distance: Effects on Representation, Prediction, Evaluation, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Trope, Yaacov; Liberman, Nira; Wakslak, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Construal level theory (CLT) is an account of how psychological distance influences individuals’ thoughts and behavior. CLT assumes that people mentally construe objects that are psychologically near in terms of low-level, detailed, and contextualized features, whereas at a distance they construe the same objects or events in terms of high-level, abstract, and stable characteristics. Research has shown that different dimensions of psychological distance (time, space, social distance, and hypotheticality) affect mental construal and that these construals, in turn, guide prediction, evaluation, and behavior. The present paper reviews this research and its implications for consumer psychology. PMID:21822366

  18. The Invisible Link: Using State Space Representations to Investigate the Connection between Variables and Their Referents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    The ability to represent numerical quantities in symbolic form is a necessary foundation for mathematical competence. Variables are particularly important symbolic representations for learning algebra and succeeding in higher mathematics, but the mechanisms of how students link a variable to what it represents are not well understood. Research…

  19. Gender Representation Trends and Relations at the United States Naval Academy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    cooperation, and involving midshipmen in improving the gender climate. 15 . NUMBER OF PAGES 115 14. SUBJECT TERMS Gender Representation...40 Table 15 . Percentage of Midshipman Graduates by Gender and Graduating Class (Selected Years...organizations with regard to their relative numbers. Token groups comprise 15 or less percent of an organization and are often treated as symbols or

  20. Representation of Ecological Systems within the Protected Areas Network of the Continental United States

    PubMed Central

    Aycrigg, Jocelyn L.; Davidson, Anne; Svancara, Leona K.; Gergely, Kevin J.; McKerrow, Alexa; Scott, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    If conservation of biodiversity is the goal, then the protected areas network of the continental US may be one of our best conservation tools for safeguarding ecological systems (i.e., vegetation communities). We evaluated representation of ecological systems in the current protected areas network and found insufficient representation at three vegetation community levels within lower elevations and moderate to high productivity soils. We used national-level data for ecological systems and a protected areas database to explore alternative ways we might be able to increase representation of ecological systems within the continental US. By following one or more of these alternatives it may be possible to increase the representation of ecological systems in the protected areas network both quantitatively (from 10% up to 39%) and geographically and come closer to meeting the suggested Convention on Biological Diversity target of 17% for terrestrial areas. We used the Landscape Conservation Cooperative framework for regional analysis and found that increased conservation on some private and public lands may be important to the conservation of ecological systems in Western US, while increased public-private partnerships may be important in the conservation of ecological systems in Eastern US. We have not assessed the pros and cons of following the national or regional alternatives, but rather present them as possibilities that may be considered and evaluated as decisions are made to increase the representation of ecological systems in the protected areas network across their range of ecological, geographical, and geophysical occurrence in the continental US into the future. PMID:23372754

  1. Ensemble superparameterization versus stochastic parameterization: A comparison of model uncertainty representation in tropical weather prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Aneesh C.; Palmer, Tim N.

    2017-06-01

    Stochastic schemes to represent model uncertainty in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ensemble prediction system has helped improve its probabilistic forecast skill over the past decade by both improving its reliability and reducing the ensemble mean error. The largest uncertainties in the model arise from the model physics parameterizations. In the tropics, the parameterization of moist convection presents a major challenge for the accurate prediction of weather and climate. Superparameterization is a promising alternative strategy for including the effects of moist convection through explicit turbulent fluxes calculated from a cloud-resolving model (CRM) embedded within a global climate model (GCM). In this paper, we compare the impact of initial random perturbations in embedded CRMs, within the ECMWF ensemble prediction system, with stochastically perturbed physical tendency (SPPT) scheme as a way to represent model uncertainty in medium-range tropical weather forecasts. We especially focus on forecasts of tropical convection and dynamics during MJO events in October-November 2011. These are well-studied events for MJO dynamics as they were also heavily observed during the DYNAMO field campaign. We show that a multiscale ensemble modeling approach helps improve forecasts of certain aspects of tropical convection during the MJO events, while it also tends to deteriorate certain large-scale dynamic fields with respect to stochastically perturbed physical tendencies approach that is used operationally at ECMWF.Plain Language SummaryProbabilistic weather forecasts, especially for tropical weather, is still a significant challenge for global weather forecasting systems. Expressing uncertainty along with weather forecasts is important for informed decision making. Hence, we explore the use of a relatively new approach in using super-parameterization, where a cloud resolving model is embedded</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26438803','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26438803"><span>Mental Health and Immigrant Detainees in the United <span class="hlt">States</span>: Competency and Self-<span class="hlt">Representation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Korngold, Caleb; Ochoa, Kristen; Inlender, Talia; McNiel, Dale; Binder, Renée</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Most immigrant detainees held in U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) facilities do not have legal <span class="hlt">representation</span>, because immigration proceedings are a matter of civil, not criminal, law. In 2005, Mr. Franco, an immigrant from Mexico with an IQ between 35 and 55, was found incompetent to stand trial, but was not appointed an attorney for his immigration proceedings. This failure led to a class action lawsuit, known as the Franco litigation, and in April 2013, a federal judge ordered the U. S. government to provide legal <span class="hlt">representation</span> for immigrant detainees in California, Arizona, and Washington who are incompetent to represent themselves due to a mental disorder or defect. This development has implications for forensic evaluators, because there is likely to be an increase in the number of competency examinations requested by courts for immigrant detainees. Furthermore, forensic evaluators must understand that an evaluation for competency of an immigrant detainee includes both the Dusky criteria and capacity for self-<span class="hlt">representation</span>. In this article, we explore the legal context and ethics concerns related to the Franco litigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26565192','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26565192"><span>Conditions for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> quasistationary <span class="hlt">states</span> by rearrangement formula.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki Y; Ogawa, Shun</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> the long-lasting quasistationary <span class="hlt">state</span> for a given initial <span class="hlt">state</span> is one of central issues in Hamiltonian systems having long-range interaction. A recently proposed method is based on the Vlasov description and uniformly redistributes the initial distribution along contours of the asymptotic effective Hamiltonian, which is defined by the obtained quasistationary <span class="hlt">state</span> and is determined self-consistently. The method, to which we refer as the rearrangement formula, was suggested to give precise <span class="hlt">prediction</span> under limited situations. Restricting initial <span class="hlt">states</span> consisting of a spatially homogeneous part and small perturbation, we numerically reveal two conditions that the rearrangement formula prefers: One is a no Landau damping condition for the unperturbed homogeneous part, and the other comes from the Casimir invariants. Mechanisms of these conditions are discussed. Clarifying these conditions, we validate to use the rearrangement formula as the response theory for an external field, and we shed light on improving the theory as a nonequilibrium statistical mechanics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..92d2131Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..92d2131Y"><span>Conditions for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> quasistationary <span class="hlt">states</span> by rearrangement formula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki Y.; Ogawa, Shun</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> the long-lasting quasistationary <span class="hlt">state</span> for a given initial <span class="hlt">state</span> is one of central issues in Hamiltonian systems having long-range interaction. A recently proposed method is based on the Vlasov description and uniformly redistributes the initial distribution along contours of the asymptotic effective Hamiltonian, which is defined by the obtained quasistationary <span class="hlt">state</span> and is determined self-consistently. The method, to which we refer as the rearrangement formula, was suggested to give precise <span class="hlt">prediction</span> under limited situations. Restricting initial <span class="hlt">states</span> consisting of a spatially homogeneous part and small perturbation, we numerically reveal two conditions that the rearrangement formula prefers: One is a no Landau damping condition for the unperturbed homogeneous part, and the other comes from the Casimir invariants. Mechanisms of these conditions are discussed. Clarifying these conditions, we validate to use the rearrangement formula as the response theory for an external field, and we shed light on improving the theory as a nonequilibrium statistical mechanics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28642285','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28642285"><span><span class="hlt">State</span>-Dependent TMS Reveals <span class="hlt">Representation</span> of Affective Body Movements in the Anterior Intraparietal Cortex.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mazzoni, Noemi; Jacobs, Christianne; Venuti, Paola; Silvanto, Juha; Cattaneo, Luigi</p> <p>2017-07-26</p> <p>In humans, recognition of others' actions involves a cortical network that comprises, among other cortical regions, the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), where biological motion is coded and the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), where movement information is elaborated in terms of meaningful goal-directed actions. This action observation system (AOS) is thought to encode neutral voluntary actions, and possibly some aspects of affective motor repertoire, but the role of the AOS' areas in processing affective kinematic information has never been examined. Here we investigated whether the AOS plays a role in representing dynamic emotional bodily expressions. In the first experiment, we assessed behavioral adaptation effects of observed affective movements. Participants watched series of happy or fearful whole-body point-light displays (PLDs) as adapters and were then asked to perform an explicit categorization of the emotion expressed in test PLDs. Participants were slower when categorizing any of the two emotions as long as it was congruent with the emotion in the adapter sequence. We interpreted this effect as adaptation to the emotional content of PLDs. In the second experiment, we combined this paradigm with TMS applied over either the right aIPS, pSTS, and the right half of the occipital pole (corresponding to Brodmann's area 17 and serving as control) to examine the neural locus of the adaptation effect. TMS over the aIPS (but not over the other sites) reversed the behavioral cost of adaptation, specifically for fearful contents. This demonstrates that aIPS contains an explicit <span class="hlt">representation</span> of affective body movements.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In humans, a network of areas, the action observation system, encodes voluntary actions. However, the role of these brain regions in processing affective kinematic information has not been investigated. Here we demonstrate that the aIPS contains a <span class="hlt">representation</span> of affective body movements. First, in a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=dubois&pg=2&id=EJ938735','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=dubois&pg=2&id=EJ938735"><span>Infants' Joint Attention Skills <span class="hlt">Predict</span> Toddlers' Emerging Mental <span class="hlt">State</span> Language</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kristen, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Thoermer, Claudia; Perst, Hannah</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>To assess <span class="hlt">predictive</span> relations between joint attention skills, intention understanding, and mental <span class="hlt">state</span> vocabulary, 88 children were tested with measures of comprehension of gaze and referential pointing, as well as the production of declarative gestures and the comprehension and production of imperative gestures, at the ages of 7-18 months.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=observation+AND+teaching&pg=5&id=EJ1113780','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=observation+AND+teaching&pg=5&id=EJ1113780"><span>Observations and Student Perceptions of the Quality of Preservice Teachers' Teaching Behaviour: Construct <span class="hlt">Representation</span> and <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Maulana, Ridwan; Helms-Lorenz, Michelle</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Observations and student perceptions are recognised as important tools for examining teaching behaviour, but little is known about whether both perspectives share similar construct <span class="hlt">representations</span> and how both perspectives link with student academic outcomes. The present study compared the construct <span class="hlt">representation</span> of preservice teachers' teaching…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7833E..0QS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7833E..0QS"><span>Purely optical navigation with model-based <span class="hlt">state</span> <span class="hlt">prediction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sendobry, Alexander; Graber, Thorsten; Klingauf, Uwe</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">State</span>-of-the-art Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) have a lack of precision especially in GPS denied environments like urban canyons or in pure indoor missions. The proposed Optical Navigation System (ONS) provides bias free ego-motion estimates using triple redundant sensor information. In combination with a model based <span class="hlt">state</span> <span class="hlt">prediction</span> our system is able to estimate velocity, position and attitude of an arbitrary aircraft. Simulating a high performance flow-field estimator the algorithm can compete with conventional low-cost INS. By using measured velocities instead of accelerations the system <span class="hlt">states</span> drift behavior is not as distinctive as for an INS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4743436','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4743436"><span>Perisaccadic Updating of Visual <span class="hlt">Representations</span> and Attentional <span class="hlt">States</span>: Linking Behavior and Neurophysiology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Marino, Alexandria C.; Mazer, James A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>During natural vision, saccadic eye movements lead to frequent retinal image changes that result in different neuronal subpopulations representing the same visual feature across fixations. Despite these potentially disruptive changes to the neural <span class="hlt">representation</span>, our visual percept is remarkably stable. Visual receptive field remapping, characterized as an anticipatory shift in the position of a neuron’s spatial receptive field immediately before saccades, has been proposed as one possible neural substrate for visual stability. Many of the specific properties of remapping, e.g., the exact direction of remapping relative to the saccade vector and the precise mechanisms by which remapping could instantiate stability, remain a matter of debate. Recent studies have also shown that visual attention, like perception itself, can be sustained across saccades, suggesting that the attentional control system can also compensate for eye movements. Classical remapping could have an attentional component, or there could be a distinct attentional analog of visual remapping. At this time we do not yet fully understand how the stability of attentional <span class="hlt">representations</span> relates to perisaccadic receptive field shifts. In this review, we develop a vocabulary for discussing perisaccadic shifts in receptive field location and perisaccadic shifts of attentional focus, review and synthesize behavioral and neurophysiological studies of perisaccadic perception and perisaccadic attention, and identify open questions that remain to be experimentally addressed. PMID:26903820</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1364532','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1364532"><span>SEPARATE PERSONALITY TRAITS FROM <span class="hlt">STATES</span> TO <span class="hlt">PREDICT</span> DEPRESSION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vittengl, Jeffrey; Kraft, Dolores</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Results have been inconsistent regarding the ability of personality measures to <span class="hlt">predict</span> future depression severity levels, leading some researchers to question the validity of personality assessment, especially when patients are acutely depressed. Using a combination of regression and factor analytic techniques, we separated the variance of personality measures into stable trait and variable <span class="hlt">state</span>-affect components. Findings supported the hypotheses that depression severity measured at different time points would correlate with both stable trait and concurrent <span class="hlt">state</span>-affect components in personality measures, whereas change in depression severity would correlate with <span class="hlt">state</span> changes but not with stable trait scores. Thus, personality assessments tap both <span class="hlt">state</span> affect and trait variance, with the <span class="hlt">state</span>-affect variance masking the trait variance when patients are depressed. PMID:12755328</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28627049','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28627049"><span>Making group inferences using sparse <span class="hlt">representation</span> of resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> functional mRI data with application to sleep deprivation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shen, Hui; Xu, Huaze; Wang, Lubin; Lei, Yu; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Peng; Qin, Jian; Zeng, Ling-Li; Zhou, Zongtan; Yang, Zheng; Hu, Dewen</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Past studies on drawing group inferences for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data usually assume that a brain region is involved in only one functional brain network. However, recent evidence has demonstrated that some brain regions might simultaneously participate in multiple functional networks. Here, we presented a novel approach for making group inferences using sparse <span class="hlt">representation</span> of resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> fMRI data and its application to the identification of changes in functional networks in the brains of 37 healthy young adult participants after 36 h of sleep deprivation (SD) in contrast to the rested wakefulness (RW) stage. Our analysis based on group-level sparse <span class="hlt">representation</span> revealed that multiple functional networks involved in memory, emotion, attention, and vigilance processing were impaired by SD. Of particular interest, the thalamus was observed to contribute to multiple functional networks in which differentiated response patterns were exhibited. These results not only further elucidate the impact of SD on brain function but also demonstrate the ability of the proposed approach to provide new insights into the functional organization of the resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> brain by permitting spatial overlap between networks and facilitating the description of the varied relationships of the overlapping regions with other regions of the brain in the context of different functional systems. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4671-4689, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4988572','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4988572"><span>Unacquainted callers can <span class="hlt">predict</span> which citizens will vote over and above citizens’ <span class="hlt">stated</span> self-<span class="hlt">predictions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rogers, Todd; ten Brinke, Leanne; Carney, Dana R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>People are regularly asked to report on their likelihoods of carrying out consequential future behaviors, including complying with medical advice, completing educational assignments, and voting in upcoming elections. Despite these <span class="hlt">stated</span> self-<span class="hlt">predictions</span> being notoriously unreliable, they are used to inform many strategic decisions. We report two studies examining <span class="hlt">stated</span> self-<span class="hlt">prediction</span> about whether citizens will vote. We find that most self-<span class="hlt">predicted</span> voters do not actually vote despite saying they will, and that campaign callers can discern which self-<span class="hlt">predicted</span> voters will not actually vote. In study 1 (n = 4,463), self-<span class="hlt">predicted</span> voters rated by callers as “100% likely to vote” were 2 times more likely to actually vote than those rated unlikely to vote. Study 2 (n = 3,064) replicated this finding and further demonstrated that callers’ <span class="hlt">prediction</span> accuracy was mediated by citizens’ nonverbal signals of uncertainty and deception. Strangers can use nonverbal signals to improve <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of follow through on self-reported intentions—an insight of potential value for politics, medicine, and education. PMID:27217566</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24863377','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24863377"><span>A detailed <span class="hlt">representation</span> of electrostatic energy in <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of sequence and pH dependence of protein stability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dudek, Michael J</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>A molecular mechanics model, previously validated in applications to structure <span class="hlt">prediction</span>, is shown to reproduce experiment in <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of protein ionization <span class="hlt">state</span>, and in <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of sequence and pH dependence of protein stability. Over a large dataset, 1876 values of ΔΔG of folding, the RMSD is 1.34 kcal/mol. Using an alternative measure of accuracy, either the sign of the calculated ΔΔG agrees with experiment or the absolute value of the deviation is less than 1.0 kcal/mol, 1660 of 1876 data points (88.5%) pass the condition. Relative to models used previously in computer-aided protein design, the concept, we propose, most responsible for the performance of our model, and for the extensibility to non-neutral values of pH, is the treatment of electrostatic energy. The electronic structure of the protein is modeled using distributed atomic multipoles. The structured liquid <span class="hlt">state</span> of the solvent is modeled using a dielectric continuum. A modification to the energetics of the reaction field, induced by the protein in the dielectric continuum, attempts to account for preformed multipoles of solvent water molecules and ions. An adjustable weight (with optimal value.141) applied to the total vacuum energy accounts implicitly for electronic polarization. A threshold distance, beyond which pairwise atomic interactions are neglected, is not used. In searches through subspaces of sequences and conformations, efficiency remains acceptable for useful applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=emotion+AND+detection&pg=2&id=ED561666','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=emotion+AND+detection&pg=2&id=ED561666"><span><span class="hlt">Representation</span>, Classification and Information Fusion for Robust and Efficient Multimodal Human <span class="hlt">States</span> Recognition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Li, Ming</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The goal of this work is to enhance the robustness and efficiency of the multimodal human <span class="hlt">states</span> recognition task. Human <span class="hlt">states</span> recognition can be considered as a joint term for identifying/verifing various kinds of human related <span class="hlt">states</span>, such as biometric identity, language spoken, age, gender, emotion, intoxication level, physical activity, vocal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=biometrics&pg=4&id=ED561666','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=biometrics&pg=4&id=ED561666"><span><span class="hlt">Representation</span>, Classification and Information Fusion for Robust and Efficient Multimodal Human <span class="hlt">States</span> Recognition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Li, Ming</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The goal of this work is to enhance the robustness and efficiency of the multimodal human <span class="hlt">states</span> recognition task. Human <span class="hlt">states</span> recognition can be considered as a joint term for identifying/verifing various kinds of human related <span class="hlt">states</span>, such as biometric identity, language spoken, age, gender, emotion, intoxication level, physical activity, vocal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title26-vol18/pdf/CFR-2014-title26-vol18-sec301-6361-2.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title26-vol18/pdf/CFR-2014-title26-vol18-sec301-6361-2.pdf"><span>26 CFR 301.6361-2 - Judicial and administrative proceedings; Federal <span class="hlt">representation</span> of <span class="hlt">State</span> interests.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... to judicial proceedings), and under title 28 of the United <span class="hlt">States</span> Code (relating to the judiciary and... involving the constitution of such <span class="hlt">State</span> is unaffected by any provision of this paragraph; however, the... in a case involving the validity of a qualified tax statute under the <span class="hlt">State</span> constitution, the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title26-vol18/pdf/CFR-2012-title26-vol18-sec301-6361-2.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title26-vol18/pdf/CFR-2012-title26-vol18-sec301-6361-2.pdf"><span>26 CFR 301.6361-2 - Judicial and administrative proceedings; Federal <span class="hlt">representation</span> of <span class="hlt">State</span> interests.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... to judicial proceedings), and under title 28 of the United <span class="hlt">States</span> Code (relating to the judiciary and... involving the constitution of such <span class="hlt">State</span> is unaffected by any provision of this paragraph; however, the... in a case involving the validity of a qualified tax statute under the <span class="hlt">State</span> constitution, the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ETAS&id=EJ920658','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ETAS&id=EJ920658"><span>Disproportionate <span class="hlt">Representation</span> in Placements of Preschoolers with Disabilities in Five Southern <span class="hlt">States</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Morrier, Michael J.; Gallagher, Peggy A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Special education placements for more than 69,000 preschoolers with disabilities were examined within and across five southern <span class="hlt">states</span>. Data were gathered from the 2007 December 1st Child Count reported to the U.S. Department of Education. All <span class="hlt">states</span> examined offered <span class="hlt">state</span>-funded prekindergarten programs. Analyses compared disproportionate…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22U.S+Department+of+State%22&pg=2&id=EJ920658','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22U.S+Department+of+State%22&pg=2&id=EJ920658"><span>Disproportionate <span class="hlt">Representation</span> in Placements of Preschoolers with Disabilities in Five Southern <span class="hlt">States</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Morrier, Michael J.; Gallagher, Peggy A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Special education placements for more than 69,000 preschoolers with disabilities were examined within and across five southern <span class="hlt">states</span>. Data were gathered from the 2007 December 1st Child Count reported to the U.S. Department of Education. All <span class="hlt">states</span> examined offered <span class="hlt">state</span>-funded prekindergarten programs. Analyses compared disproportionate…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC13A0684L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC13A0684L"><span>Nonlinear Dependence of Global Warming <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> on Ocean <span class="hlt">State</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liang, M.; Lin, L.; Tung, K. K.; Yung, Y. L.; Sun, S.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Global temperature has increased by 0.8 C since the pre-industrial era, and is likely to increase further if greenhouse gas emission continues unchecked. Various mitigation efforts are being negotiated among nations to keep the increase under 2 C, beyond which the outcome is believed to be catastrophic. Such policy efforts are currently based on <span class="hlt">predictions</span> by the <span class="hlt">state</span>-of-the-art coupled atmosphere ocean models (AOGCM). Caution is advised for their use for the purpose of short-term (less than a century) climate <span class="hlt">prediction</span> as the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> warming and spatial patterns vary depending on the initial <span class="hlt">state</span> of the ocean, even in an ensemble mean. The range of uncertainty in such <span class="hlt">predictions</span> by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) models may be underreported when models were run with their oceans at various stages of adjustment with their atmospheres. By comparing a very long run (> 1000 years) of the coupled Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) model with what was reported to IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), we show that the fully adjusted model transient climate sensitivity should be 30% higher for the same model, and the 2 C warming should occur sooner than previously <span class="hlt">predicted</span>. Using model archives we further argue that this may be a common problem for the IPCC AR4 models, since few, if any, of the models has a fully adjusted ocean. For all models, multi-decadal climate <span class="hlt">predictions</span> to 2050 are highly dependent on the initial ocean <span class="hlt">state</span> (and so are unreliable). Such dependence cannot be removed simply by subtracting the climate drift from control runs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12839131','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12839131"><span><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> accuracy of rural physicians' <span class="hlt">stated</span> retention plans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pathman, Donald E; Konrad, Thomas R; Agnew, Christopher R</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The retention of rural physicians is a difficult phenomenon to study because job changes--the outcome of interest--take years to unfold. One common way to study retention is to ask rural practitioners through surveys how much longer they expect to remain in their current positions and use these statements of "anticipated retention" as an expedient proxy measure of actual retention. To test the <span class="hlt">predictive</span> accuracy of rural physicians' <span class="hlt">stated</span> retention plans and test the hypotheses that <span class="hlt">predictions</span> are more accurate for certain physicians, such as those with more experience, more control of their work situations, and at less risk for job burnout. A 1991 mail survey (national stratified random sample) prospectively queried rural physicians' retention plans, and a follow-up survey 5 to 6 years later determined if and when respondents (N = 405, 67.5% combined response rate) had moved. Retention <span class="hlt">predictions</span> for the entire cohort corresponded remarkably well to the group's actual retention, with the proportion remaining each year deviating by only a few percentage points from what the group collectively expected. <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> for individuals were also moderately accurate: 4 of 5 physicians who <span class="hlt">predicted</span> remaining at least 5 years did so; 2 of 3 who <span class="hlt">predicted</span> remaining less than 5 years indeed left before 5 years. <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> of job changes in less than 2 years tended to be more accurate than <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of 2 to 5 years. Physicians' <span class="hlt">predictions</span> were more accurate when they worked in practices they owned (greater control) and were on-call 2 or fewer times each week (lower burnout risk). Accuracy was not greater with any of 5 measures of experience. Rural generalist physicians are moderately accurate when reporting how much longer they will remain in their jobs, validating the use of anticipated retention in rural health workforce studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4631489','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4631489"><span>Parallel <span class="hlt">Representation</span> of Value-Based and Finite <span class="hlt">State</span>-Based Strategies in the Ventral and Dorsal Striatum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ito, Makoto; Doya, Kenji</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Previous theoretical studies of animal and human behavioral learning have focused on the dichotomy of the value-based strategy using action value functions to <span class="hlt">predict</span> rewards and the model-based strategy using internal models to <span class="hlt">predict</span> environmental <span class="hlt">states</span>. However, animals and humans often take simple procedural behaviors, such as the “win-stay, lose-switch” strategy without explicit <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of rewards or <span class="hlt">states</span>. Here we consider another strategy, the finite <span class="hlt">state</span>-based strategy, in which a subject selects an action depending on its discrete internal <span class="hlt">state</span> and updates the <span class="hlt">state</span> depending on the action chosen and the reward outcome. By analyzing choice behavior of rats in a free-choice task, we found that the finite <span class="hlt">state</span>-based strategy fitted their behavioral choices more accurately than value-based and model-based strategies did. When fitted models were run autonomously with the same task, only the finite <span class="hlt">state</span>-based strategy could reproduce the key feature of choice sequences. Analyses of neural activity recorded from the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), the dorsomedial striatum (DMS), and the ventral striatum (VS) identified significant fractions of neurons in all three subareas for which activities were correlated with individual <span class="hlt">states</span> of the finite <span class="hlt">state</span>-based strategy. The signal of internal <span class="hlt">states</span> at the time of choice was found in DMS, and for clusters of <span class="hlt">states</span> was found in VS. In addition, action values and <span class="hlt">state</span> values of the value-based strategy were encoded in DMS and VS, respectively. These results suggest that both the value-based strategy and the finite <span class="hlt">state</span>-based strategy are implemented in the striatum. PMID:26529522</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26529522','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26529522"><span>Parallel <span class="hlt">Representation</span> of Value-Based and Finite <span class="hlt">State</span>-Based Strategies in the Ventral and Dorsal Striatum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ito, Makoto; Doya, Kenji</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Previous theoretical studies of animal and human behavioral learning have focused on the dichotomy of the value-based strategy using action value functions to <span class="hlt">predict</span> rewards and the model-based strategy using internal models to <span class="hlt">predict</span> environmental <span class="hlt">states</span>. However, animals and humans often take simple procedural behaviors, such as the "win-stay, lose-switch" strategy without explicit <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of rewards or <span class="hlt">states</span>. Here we consider another strategy, the finite <span class="hlt">state</span>-based strategy, in which a subject selects an action depending on its discrete internal <span class="hlt">state</span> and updates the <span class="hlt">state</span> depending on the action chosen and the reward outcome. By analyzing choice behavior of rats in a free-choice task, we found that the finite <span class="hlt">state</span>-based strategy fitted their behavioral choices more accurately than value-based and model-based strategies did. When fitted models were run autonomously with the same task, only the finite <span class="hlt">state</span>-based strategy could reproduce the key feature of choice sequences. Analyses of neural activity recorded from the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), the dorsomedial striatum (DMS), and the ventral striatum (VS) identified significant fractions of neurons in all three subareas for which activities were correlated with individual <span class="hlt">states</span> of the finite <span class="hlt">state</span>-based strategy. The signal of internal <span class="hlt">states</span> at the time of choice was found in DMS, and for clusters of <span class="hlt">states</span> was found in VS. In addition, action values and <span class="hlt">state</span> values of the value-based strategy were encoded in DMS and VS, respectively. These results suggest that both the value-based strategy and the finite <span class="hlt">state</span>-based strategy are implemented in the striatum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Welfare+AND+state&id=EJ769199','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Welfare+AND+state&id=EJ769199"><span>Women's Political <span class="hlt">Representation</span> and Welfare <span class="hlt">State</span> Spending in 12 Capitalist Democracies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bolzendahl, Catherine; Brooks, Clem</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>One of the sharpest criticisms of welfare <span class="hlt">state</span> research is insufficient attention to factors relating to gender relations and inequalities. Recent scholarship has begun to address welfare <span class="hlt">state</span> effects on gender-related outcomes, but the evaluation of theories of welfare development with respect to gender factors is somewhat less developed,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title26-vol18/pdf/CFR-2011-title26-vol18-sec301-6361-2.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title26-vol18/pdf/CFR-2011-title26-vol18-sec301-6361-2.pdf"><span>26 CFR 301.6361-2 - Judicial and administrative proceedings; Federal <span class="hlt">representation</span> of <span class="hlt">State</span> interests.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... supplemental audits or examinations of tax returns by <span class="hlt">State</span> audit personnel), but all administrative... supplemental audits or examinations of tax returns by <span class="hlt">State</span> audit personnel shall provide that the audits and... shall have the authority to determine which returns shall be audited and when the audits shall occur...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title26-vol18/pdf/CFR-2010-title26-vol18-sec301-6361-2.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title26-vol18/pdf/CFR-2010-title26-vol18-sec301-6361-2.pdf"><span>26 CFR 301.6361-2 - Judicial and administrative proceedings; Federal <span class="hlt">representation</span> of <span class="hlt">State</span> interests.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... supplemental audits or examinations of tax returns by <span class="hlt">State</span> audit personnel), but all administrative... supplemental audits or examinations of tax returns by <span class="hlt">State</span> audit personnel shall provide that the audits and... shall have the authority to determine which returns shall be audited and when the audits shall occur...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=agenda-setting&pg=5&id=EJ939936','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=agenda-setting&pg=5&id=EJ939936"><span>Legislative Agenda Setting for In-<span class="hlt">State</span> Resident Tuition Policies: Immigration, <span class="hlt">Representation</span>, and Educational Access</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McLendon, Michael K.; Mokher, Christine G.; Flores, Stella M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Few recent issues in higher education have been as contentious as that of legislation extending in-<span class="hlt">state</span> college tuition benefits to undocumented students, initiatives now known as in-<span class="hlt">state</span> resident tuition (ISRT) policies. Building on several strands of literature in political science and higher education studies, we analyze the effects of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=representation+AND+women&pg=6&id=EJ769199','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=representation+AND+women&pg=6&id=EJ769199"><span>Women's Political <span class="hlt">Representation</span> and Welfare <span class="hlt">State</span> Spending in 12 Capitalist Democracies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bolzendahl, Catherine; Brooks, Clem</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>One of the sharpest criticisms of welfare <span class="hlt">state</span> research is insufficient attention to factors relating to gender relations and inequalities. Recent scholarship has begun to address welfare <span class="hlt">state</span> effects on gender-related outcomes, but the evaluation of theories of welfare development with respect to gender factors is somewhat less developed,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=college+AND+tuition&pg=6&id=EJ939936','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=college+AND+tuition&pg=6&id=EJ939936"><span>Legislative Agenda Setting for In-<span class="hlt">State</span> Resident Tuition Policies: Immigration, <span class="hlt">Representation</span>, and Educational Access</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McLendon, Michael K.; Mokher, Christine G.; Flores, Stella M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Few recent issues in higher education have been as contentious as that of legislation extending in-<span class="hlt">state</span> college tuition benefits to undocumented students, initiatives now known as in-<span class="hlt">state</span> resident tuition (ISRT) policies. Building on several strands of literature in political science and higher education studies, we analyze the effects of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JASTP..75...22U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JASTP..75...22U"><span><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of magnetic substorms using a <span class="hlt">state</span> space model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Unnikrishnan, K.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Nonlinear dynamical models of the magnetosphere derived from observational time series data using phase space reconstruction techniques have yielded new advances in the understanding of its dynamics. Considering the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction to be a natural input-output system its dynamical features can be reconstructed on the storm time scale by using the method of time delay embedding. Here, fourteen magnetic storm intervals belonging to low/moderate and high solar activity periods are considered and a suitable <span class="hlt">state</span> space model has designed by performing training and validation tests, for which dawn to dusk electric field (VBz) is chosen as the input, and the AL time series as the output. The percentage of the output variations that is reproduced by the model is termed as fit_model and a higher number of fit_model means a better model. The number of components m used in the <span class="hlt">state</span> space model is varied from 1-9 and the best <span class="hlt">prediction</span> is obtained when m=4. The fit_model values of time series used for validation are 67.96, 67.2, 72.44, and 70.89, with m=4. In the present study most of the storms considered are having Dstmax in between -100 and -300 nT, and they can be <span class="hlt">predicted</span> well with this procedure. To reveal the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> capability of the proposed <span class="hlt">state</span> space model the 30 steps ahead outputs for the storm events are generated, which reasonably reproduce the observed values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4465118','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4465118"><span><span class="hlt">State</span> Mindfulness During Meditation <span class="hlt">Predicts</span> Enhanced Cognitive Reappraisal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hanley, Adam; Farb, Norman A.; Froeliger, Brett E.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Putatively, mindfulness meditation involves generation of a <span class="hlt">state</span> of “nonappraisal”, yet, little is known about how mindfulness may influence appraisal processes. We investigated whether the <span class="hlt">state</span> and practice of mindfulness could enhance cognitive reappraisal. Participants (N = 44; M age = 24.44, SD = 4.00, range 19 – 38, 82.2% female) were randomized to either 1) mindfulness, 2) suppression, or 3) mind-wandering induction training conditions. Cognitive reappraisal was assessed with the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) prior to experimental induction, and <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness was assessed immediately following induction using the Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS). Participants practiced their assigned strategy for one week and then were reassessed with the ERQ reappraisal subscale. Participants receiving mindfulness training reported significantly higher levels of <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness than participants in the thought suppression and mind wandering conditions. Although brief mindfulness training did not lead to significantly greater increases in reappraisal than the other two conditions, <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness during mindfulness meditation was prospectively associated with increases in reappraisal. Path analysis revealed that the indirect effect between mindfulness training and reappraisal was significant through <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness. Degree of <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness achieved during the act of mindfulness meditation significantly <span class="hlt">predicted</span> increases in reappraisal over time, suggesting that mindfulness may promote emotion regulation by enhancing cognitive reappraisal. PMID:26085851</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26085851','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26085851"><span><span class="hlt">State</span> Mindfulness During Meditation <span class="hlt">Predicts</span> Enhanced Cognitive Reappraisal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garland, Eric L; Hanley, Adam; Farb, Norman A; Froeliger, Brett E</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Putatively, mindfulness meditation involves generation of a <span class="hlt">state</span> of "nonappraisal", yet, little is known about how mindfulness may influence appraisal processes. We investigated whether the <span class="hlt">state</span> and practice of mindfulness could enhance cognitive reappraisal. Participants (N = 44; M age = 24.44, SD = 4.00, range 19 - 38, 82.2% female) were randomized to either 1) mindfulness, 2) suppression, or 3) mind-wandering induction training conditions. Cognitive reappraisal was assessed with the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) prior to experimental induction, and <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness was assessed immediately following induction using the Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS). Participants practiced their assigned strategy for one week and then were reassessed with the ERQ reappraisal subscale. Participants receiving mindfulness training reported significantly higher levels of <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness than participants in the thought suppression and mind wandering conditions. Although brief mindfulness training did not lead to significantly greater increases in reappraisal than the other two conditions, <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness during mindfulness meditation was prospectively associated with increases in reappraisal. Path analysis revealed that the indirect effect between mindfulness training and reappraisal was significant through <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness. Degree of <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness achieved during the act of mindfulness meditation significantly <span class="hlt">predicted</span> increases in reappraisal over time, suggesting that mindfulness may promote emotion regulation by enhancing cognitive reappraisal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27732589','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27732589"><span>Multi-Sensor Based <span class="hlt">State</span> <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> for Personal Mobility Vehicles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abdur-Rahim, Jamilah; Morales, Yoichi; Gupta, Pankaj; Umata, Ichiro; Watanabe, Atsushi; Even, Jani; Suyama, Takayuki; Ishii, Shin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a study on multi-modal human emotional <span class="hlt">state</span> detection while riding a powered wheelchair (PMV; Personal Mobility Vehicle) in an indoor labyrinth-like environment. The study reports findings on the habituation of human stress response during self-driving. In addition, the effects of "loss of controllability", change in the role of the driver to a passenger, are investigated via an autonomous driving modality. The multi-modal emotional <span class="hlt">state</span> detector sensing framework consists of four sensing devices: electroencephalograph (EEG), heart inter-beat interval (IBI), galvanic skin response (GSR) and stressor level lever (in the case of autonomous riding). Physiological emotional <span class="hlt">state</span> measurement characteristics are organized by time-scale, in terms of capturing slower changes (long-term) and quicker changes from moment-to-moment. Experimental results with fifteen participants regarding subjective emotional <span class="hlt">state</span> reports and commercial software measurements validated the proposed emotional <span class="hlt">state</span> detector. Short-term GSR and heart signal characterizations captured moment-to-moment emotional <span class="hlt">state</span> during autonomous riding (Spearman correlation; ρ = 0.6, p < 0.001). Short-term GSR and EEG characterizations reliably captured moment-to-moment emotional <span class="hlt">state</span> during self-driving (Classification accuracy; 69.7). Finally, long-term GSR and heart characterizations were confirmed to reliably capture slow changes during autonomous riding and also of emotional <span class="hlt">state</span> during participant resting <span class="hlt">state</span>. The purpose of this study and the exploration of various algorithms and sensors in a structured framework is to provide a comprehensive background for multi-modal emotional <span class="hlt">state</span> <span class="hlt">prediction</span> experiments and/or applications. Additional discussion regarding the feasibility and utility of the possibilities of these concepts are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5061423','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5061423"><span>Multi-Sensor Based <span class="hlt">State</span> <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> for Personal Mobility Vehicles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gupta, Pankaj; Umata, Ichiro; Watanabe, Atsushi; Even, Jani; Suyama, Takayuki; Ishii, Shin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a study on multi-modal human emotional <span class="hlt">state</span> detection while riding a powered wheelchair (PMV; Personal Mobility Vehicle) in an indoor labyrinth-like environment. The study reports findings on the habituation of human stress response during self-driving. In addition, the effects of “loss of controllability”, change in the role of the driver to a passenger, are investigated via an autonomous driving modality. The multi-modal emotional <span class="hlt">state</span> detector sensing framework consists of four sensing devices: electroencephalograph (EEG), heart inter-beat interval (IBI), galvanic skin response (GSR) and stressor level lever (in the case of autonomous riding). Physiological emotional <span class="hlt">state</span> measurement characteristics are organized by time-scale, in terms of capturing slower changes (long-term) and quicker changes from moment-to-moment. Experimental results with fifteen participants regarding subjective emotional <span class="hlt">state</span> reports and commercial software measurements validated the proposed emotional <span class="hlt">state</span> detector. Short-term GSR and heart signal characterizations captured moment-to-moment emotional <span class="hlt">state</span> during autonomous riding (Spearman correlation; ρ = 0.6, p < 0.001). Short-term GSR and EEG characterizations reliably captured moment-to-moment emotional <span class="hlt">state</span> during self-driving (Classification accuracy; 69.7). Finally, long-term GSR and heart characterizations were confirmed to reliably capture slow changes during autonomous riding and also of emotional <span class="hlt">state</span> during participant resting <span class="hlt">state</span>. The purpose of this study and the exploration of various algorithms and sensors in a structured framework is to provide a comprehensive background for multi-modal emotional <span class="hlt">state</span> <span class="hlt">prediction</span> experiments and/or applications. Additional discussion regarding the feasibility and utility of the possibilities of these concepts are given. PMID:27732589</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28001394','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28001394"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> the Kinetics of RNA Oligonucleotides Using Markov <span class="hlt">State</span> Models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pinamonti, Giovanni; Zhao, Jianbo; Condon, David E; Paul, Fabian; Noè, Frank; Turner, Douglas H; Bussi, Giovanni</p> <p>2017-02-14</p> <p>Nowadays different experimental techniques, such as single molecule or relaxation experiments, can provide dynamic properties of biomolecular systems, but the amount of detail obtainable with these methods is often limited in terms of time or spatial resolution. Here we use <span class="hlt">state</span>-of-the-art computational techniques, namely, atomistic molecular dynamics and Markov <span class="hlt">state</span> models, to provide insight into the rapid dynamics of short RNA oligonucleotides, to elucidate the kinetics of stacking interactions. Analysis of multiple microsecond-long simulations indicates that the main relaxation modes of such molecules can consist of transitions between alternative folded <span class="hlt">states</span>, rather than between random coils and native structures. After properly removing structures that are artificially stabilized by known inaccuracies of the current RNA AMBER force field, the kinetic properties <span class="hlt">predicted</span> are consistent with the time scales of previously reported relaxation experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2985R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2985R"><span>The Operational Hydro-meteorological Ensemble <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> System at Meteo-France and its <span class="hlt">representation</span> interface for the French Service for Flood <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> (SCHAPI) : description and undergoing developments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rousset-Regimbeau, F.; Martin, E.; Thirel, G.; Habets, F.; Coustau, M.; Roquelaure, S.; De Saint Aubin, C.; Ardilouze, C.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The coupled physically-based hydro-meteorological model SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU (SIM) is developed at Meteo-France for many years. This fully distributed catchment model is used in a pre-operational mode since 2005 for producing mid-range ensemble streamflow forecasts based on the 51-member 10-day ECMWF EPS. Improvements have been made during the past few years.. First, a statistical adaptation has been performed to improve the meteorological ensemble <span class="hlt">predictions</span> from the ECMWF. It has been developped over a 3-year archive, and assessed over a 1-year period. Its impact on the performance of the streamflow forecasts has been calculated over 8 months of <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. Then, a past discharges assimilation system has been implemented in order to improve the initial <span class="hlt">states</span> of these ensemble streamflow forecasts. It has been developped in the framework of a Phd thesis, and it is now evaluated in real-time conditions. Moreover, an improvement of the physics of the ISBA model (the exponential profile of the hydraulic conductivity in the soil) was implemented. Finally, this system provides ensemble 10-day streamflow <span class="hlt">prediction</span> to the French National Service for Flood <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> (SCHAPI). A collaboration between Meteo-France and SCHAPI led to the development of a new website. This website shows the streamflow <span class="hlt">predictions</span> for about 200 selected river stations over France (selected regarding their interest for flood warning) , as well as alerts for high flows (two levels of high flows corresponding to the levels of risk of the French flood warning system). It aims at providing to the French hydrological forecaters a real-time tool for mid-range flood awareness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhA...47D5304C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhA...47D5304C"><span>The symmetric Tamm-Dancoff q-oscillator: the <span class="hlt">representation</span>, quasi-Fibonacci nature, accidental degeneracy and coherent <span class="hlt">states</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chung, Won Sang; Gavrilik, A. M.; Kachurik, I. I.; Rebesh, A. P.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>In this paper we propose a symmetric q-deformed Tamm-Dancoff (S-TD) oscillator algebra and study its <span class="hlt">representation</span>, coordinate realization, and main properties. In particular, the non-Fibonacci (more exactly, quasi-Fibonacci) nature of the S-TD oscillator is established, the possibility of relating it to a certain p,q-deformed oscillator family is shown, and the occurrence of pairwise accidental degeneracy is proven. We also find the coherent <span class="hlt">state</span> for the S-TD oscillator and show that it satisfies a completeness relation. The main advantage of the S-TD model over the usual Tamm-Dancoff oscillator is that due to the q\\leftrightarrow {{q}^{-1}} symmetry, it admits not only real, but also complex (phase-like) values of the deformation parameter q.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1995/of95-684/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1995/of95-684/"><span>Digital <span class="hlt">representation</span> of the Washington <span class="hlt">state</span> geologic map: a contribution to the Interior Columbia River Basin Ecosystem Management Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Raines, Gary L.; Johnson, Bruce R.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>This report describes the digital <span class="hlt">representation</span> of the Washington <span class="hlt">state</span> geologic map (Hunting and others, 1961). This report contains an explantion of why the data were prepared, a description of the digital data, and information on obtaining the digital files. This report is one in a series of digital maps, data files, and reports generated by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide geologic process and mineral resource information to the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (ICBEMP). The various digital maps and data files are being used in a geographic information system (GIS)-based ecosystem assessment including an analysis of diverse questions relating to past, present, and future conditions within the general area of the Columbia River Basin east of the Cascade Mountains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A52A..06B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A52A..06B"><span><span class="hlt">Representation</span> and evaluation of aerosol mixing <span class="hlt">state</span> in a climate model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bauer, S. E.; Prather, K. A.; Ault, A. P.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Aerosol particles in the atmosphere are composed out of multiple chemical species. The aerosol mixing <span class="hlt">state</span> is an important aerosol property that will determine the interaction of aerosols with the climate system via radiative forcings and cloud activation. Through the introduction of aerosol microphysics into climate models, aerosol mixing <span class="hlt">state</span> is by now taken into account to a certain extend in climate models, and evaluation of mixing <span class="hlt">state</span> is the next challenge. Here we use data from the Aerosol Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) and compare the results to the GISS-modelE-MATRIX model, a global climate model including a detailed aerosol micro-physical scheme. We use data from various field campaigns probing, urban, rural and maritime air masses and compare those to climatological and nudged simulations for the years 2005 to 2009. ATOFMS provides information about the size distributions of several mixing <span class="hlt">state</span> classes, including the chemical components of black and organic carbon, sulfates, dust and salts. MATRIX simulates 16 aerosol populations, which definitions are based on mixing <span class="hlt">state</span>. We have grouped ATOFMS and MATRIX data into similar mixing <span class="hlt">state</span> classes and compare the size resolved number concentrations against each other. As a first result we find that climatological simulations are rather difficult to evaluate with field data, and that nudged simulations give a much better agreement. However this is not just caused by the better fit of natural - meteorological driven - aerosol components, but also due to the interaction between meteorology and aerosol formation. The model seems to get the right amount of mixing <span class="hlt">state</span> of black carbon material with sulfate and organic components, but seems to always overestimate the fraction of black carbon that is externally mixed. In order to understand this bias between model and the ATOFMS data, we will look into microphysical processes near emission sources and investigate the climate relevance of these sub</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27504666','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27504666"><span>Dimensionless Equation of <span class="hlt">State</span> to <span class="hlt">Predict</span> Microemulsion Phase Behavior.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ghosh, Soumyadeep; Johns, Russell T</p> <p>2016-09-06</p> <p><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of microemulsion phase behavior for changing <span class="hlt">state</span> variables is critical to formulation design of surfactant-oil-brine (SOB) systems. SOB systems find applications in various chemical and petroleum processes, including enhanced oil recovery. A dimensional equation-of-<span class="hlt">state</span> (EoS) was recently presented by Ghosh and Johns1 that relied on estimation of the surfactant tail length and surface area. We give an algorithm for flash calculations for estimation of three-phase Winsor regions that is more robust, simpler, and noniterative by making the equations dimensionless so that estimates of tail length and surface area are no longer needed. We <span class="hlt">predict</span> phase behavior as a function temperature, pressure, volume, salinity, oil type, oil-water ratio, and surfactant/alcohol concentration. The dimensionless EoS is based on coupling the HLD-NAC (Hydrophilic Lipophilic Difference-Net Average Curvature) equations with new relationships between optimum salinity and solubility. An updated HLD expression that includes pressure is also used to complete the <span class="hlt">state</span> description. A significant advantage of the dimensionless form of the EoS over the dimensional version is that salinity scans are tuned based only on one parameter, the interfacial volume ratio. Further, stability conditions are developed in a simplified way to <span class="hlt">predict</span> whether an overall compositions lies within the single, two-, or three-phase regions. Important new microemulsion relationships are also found, the most important of which is that optimum solubilization ratio is equal to the harmonic mean of the oil and water solubilization ratios in the type III region. Thus, only one experimental measurement is needed in the three-phase zone to estimate the optimum solubilization ratio, a result which can aid experimental design and improve estimates of optimum from noisy data. <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> with changing <span class="hlt">state</span> variables are illustrated by comparison to experimental data using standard diagrams including a new type</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..478R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..478R"><span><span class="hlt">Predictability</span> and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of persistent cool <span class="hlt">states</span> of the Tropical Pacific Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramesh, Nandini; Cane, Mark A.; Seager, Richard; Lee, Dong Eun</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The Tropical Pacific Ocean displays persistently cool sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies that last several years to a decade, with either no El Niño events or a few weak El Niño events. These cause large-scale droughts in the extratropics, including major North American droughts such as the 1930s Dust Bowl, and also modulate the global mean surface temperature. Here we show that two models with different levels of complexity—the Zebiak-Cane intermediate model and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Coupled Model version 2.1—are able to produce such periods in a realistic manner. We then test the <span class="hlt">predictability</span> of these periods in the Zebiak-Cane model using an ensemble of experiments with perturbed initial <span class="hlt">states</span>. Our results show that in most cases the cool mean <span class="hlt">state</span> is <span class="hlt">predictable</span>. We then apply this method to make retrospective forecasts of shifts in the decadal mean <span class="hlt">state</span> and to forecast the mean <span class="hlt">state</span> of the Tropical Pacific Ocean for the upcoming decade. Our results suggest that the Pacific will undergo a shift to a warmer mean <span class="hlt">state</span> after the 2015-2016 El Niño. This could imply the cessation of the drier than normal conditions that have generally afflicted southwest North America since the 1997-1998 El Niño, as well as the twenty-first-century pause in global warming. Implications for our understanding of the origins of such persistent cool <span class="hlt">states</span> and the possibility of improving <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of large-scale droughts are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3965590','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3965590"><span>Resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> cortical connectivity <span class="hlt">predicts</span> motor skill acquisition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Jennifer; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Kaur, Arshdeep; Cramer, Steven C.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Many studies have examined brain <span class="hlt">states</span> in an effort to <span class="hlt">predict</span> individual differences in capacity for learning, with overall moderate results. The present study investigated how measures of cortical network function acquired at rest using dense-array EEG (256 leads) <span class="hlt">predict</span> subsequent acquisition of a new motor skill. Brain activity was recorded in 17 healthy young subjects during three minutes of wakeful rest prior to a single motor skill training session on a digital version of the pursuit rotor task. Practice was associated with significant gains in task performance (% time on target increased from 24% to 41%, p < 0.0001). Using a partial least squares regression (PLS) model, coherence with the region of the left primary motor area (M1) in resting EEG data was a strong predictor of motor skill acquisition (R2 = 0.81 in a leave-one-out cross-validation analysis), exceeding the information provided by baseline behavior and demographics. Within this PLS model, greater skill acquisition was <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by higher connectivity between M1 and left parietal cortex, possibly reflecting greater capacity for visuomotor integration, and by lower connectivity between M1 and left frontal-premotor areas, possibly reflecting differences in motor planning strategies. EEG coherence, which reflects functional connectivity, <span class="hlt">predicts</span> individual motor skill acquisition with a level of accuracy that is remarkably high compared to prior reports using EEG or fMRI measures. PMID:24473097</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4044240','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4044240"><span>Oscillatory Brain <span class="hlt">State</span> <span class="hlt">Predicts</span> Variability in Working Memory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stokes, Mark G.; Walther, Lena; Nobre, Anna C.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Our capacity to remember and manipulate objects in working memory (WM) is severely limited. However, this capacity limitation is unlikely to be fixed because behavioral models indicate variability from trial to trial. We investigated whether fluctuations in neural excitability at stimulus encoding, as indexed by low-frequency oscillations (in the alpha band, 8–14 Hz), contribute to this variability. Specifically, we hypothesized that the spontaneous <span class="hlt">state</span> of alpha band activity would correlate with trial-by-trial fluctuations in visual WM. Electroencephalography recorded from human observers during a visual WM task revealed that the prestimulus desynchronization of alpha oscillations <span class="hlt">predicts</span> the accuracy of memory recall on a trial-by-trial basis. A model-based analysis indicated that this effect arises from a modulation in the precision of memorized items, but not the likelihood of remembering them (the recall rate). The phase of posterior alpha oscillations preceding the memorized item also <span class="hlt">predicted</span> memory accuracy. Based on correlations between prestimulus alpha levels and stimulus-related visual evoked responses, we speculate that the prestimulus <span class="hlt">state</span> of the visual system prefigures a cascade of <span class="hlt">state</span>-dependent processes, ultimately affecting WM-guided behavior. Overall, our results indicate that spontaneous changes in cortical excitability can have profound consequences for higher visual cognition. PMID:24899697</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20640297','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20640297"><span>Conal <span class="hlt">representation</span> of quantum <span class="hlt">states</span> and non-trace-preserving quantum operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Arrighi, Pablo; Patricot, Christophe</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>We represent generalized density matrices of a d-complex dimensional quantum system as a subcone of a real pointed cone of revolution in R{sup d{sup 2}}, or indeed a Minkowskian cone in E{sup 1,d{sup 2}-1}. Generalized pure <span class="hlt">states</span> correspond to certain future-directed lightlike vectors of E{sup 1,d{sup 2}-1}. This extension of the generalized Bloch sphere enables us to cater for non-trace-preserving quantum operations, and in particular to view the per-outcome effects of generalized measurements. We show that these consist of the product of an orthogonal transform about the axis of the cone of revolution and a positive real linear transform. We give detailed formulas for the one-qubit case and express the post-measurement <span class="hlt">states</span> in terms of the initial-<span class="hlt">state</span> vectors and measurement vectors. We apply these results in order to find the information gain versus disturbance trade-off in the case of two equiprobable pure <span class="hlt">states</span>. Thus we recover Fuchs and Peres's formula in an elegant manner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-03/pdf/2013-07382.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-03/pdf/2013-07382.pdf"><span>78 FR 20179 - Changes to <span class="hlt">Representation</span> of Others Before The United <span class="hlt">States</span> Patent and Trademark Office</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-03</p> <p>...The United <span class="hlt">States</span> Patent and Trademark Office (Office or USPTO) is adopting the new USPTO Rules of Professional Conduct (USPTO Rules), which are based on the American Bar Association's (ABA) Model Rules of Professional Conduct (ABA Model Rules), which were published in 1983, substantially revised in 2003 and updated through 2012. The Office has also revised the existing procedural rules......</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25944289','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25944289"><span><span class="hlt">State</span>-Space Approach to Structural <span class="hlt">Representation</span> of Perturbed Pitch Period Sequences in Voice Signals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alzamendi, Gabriel A; Schlotthauer, Gastón; Torres, María E</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to propose a <span class="hlt">state</span> space-based approach to model perturbed pitch period sequences (PPSs), extracted from real sustained vowels, combining the principal features of disturbed real PPSs with structural analysis of stochastic time series and <span class="hlt">state</span> space methods. The PPSs were obtained from a database composed of 53 healthy subjects. <span class="hlt">State</span> space models were developed taking into account different structures and complexity levels. PPS features such as trend, cycle, and irregular structures were considered. Model parameters were calculated using optimization procedures. For each PPS, <span class="hlt">state</span> estimates were obtained combining the developed models and diffuse initialization with filtering and smoothing methods. Statistical tests were applied to objectively evaluate the performance of this method. Statistical tests demonstrated that the proposed approach correctly represented more than the 75% of the database with a significance value of 0.05. In the analysis, structural estimates suitably characterized the dynamics of the PPSs. Trend estimates proved to properly represent slow long-term dynamics, whereas cycle estimates captured short-term autoregressive dependencies. The present study demonstrated that the proposed approach is suitable for representing and analyzing real perturbed PPSs, also allowing to extract further information related to the phonation process. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA080371','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA080371"><span>Model Order Reduction Using the Balanced <span class="hlt">State</span> <span class="hlt">Representation</span>: Theory, Application, and Interactive Software Implementation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1979-12-01</p> <p>Linear Algebra . New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1977. 3. Appiah, R. K. "Linear Model Reduction Using H urwitz Poly’- nomial Approximation...Systems. Aerospace and OXean Eaigbyxwering De~pt. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and <span class="hlt">State</span> University. Blacksburg, Virginia. 2. Antohi, 1-1. Elementary</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=internet+AND+changes+AND+students+AND+study&pg=7&id=EJ1131355','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=internet+AND+changes+AND+students+AND+study&pg=7&id=EJ1131355"><span><span class="hlt">Representation</span> of People of Asian Descent in Mainstream Mass Media within the United <span class="hlt">States</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kim, Younghan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The public school classroom in the United <span class="hlt">States</span> has been getting more diverse, linguistically and ethnically. Immigrant and second/third generation students learn American culture and norms from messages conveyed through mainstream media like internet, advertisements, films, newspapers, TV, and magazines. Their self-perceptions, perspectives…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvL.118a7201Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvL.118a7201Y"><span>Finding Matrix Product <span class="hlt">State</span> <span class="hlt">Representations</span> of Highly Excited Eigenstates of Many-Body Localized Hamiltonians</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Xiongjie; Pekker, David; Clark, Bryan K.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>A key property of many-body localized Hamiltonians is the area law entanglement of even highly excited eigenstates. Matrix product <span class="hlt">states</span> (MPS) can be used to efficiently represent low entanglement (area law) wave functions in one dimension. An important application of MPS is the widely used density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm for finding ground <span class="hlt">states</span> of one-dimensional Hamiltonians. Here, we develop two algorithms, the shift-and-invert MPS (SIMPS) and excited <span class="hlt">state</span> DMRG which find highly excited eigenstates of many-body localized Hamiltonians. Excited <span class="hlt">state</span> DMRG uses a modified sweeping procedure to identify eigenstates, whereas SIMPS applies the inverse of the shifted Hamiltonian to a MPS multiple times to project out the targeted eigenstate. To demonstrate the power of these methods, we verify the breakdown of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis in the many-body localized phase of the random field Heisenberg model, show the saturation of entanglement in the many-body localized phase, and generate local excitations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=definition+AND+God&pg=3&id=ED387543','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=definition+AND+God&pg=3&id=ED387543"><span>Ethnic Labels, Latino Lives. Identity and the Politics of (<span class="hlt">Re)Presentation</span> in the United <span class="hlt">States</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Oboler, Suzanne</p> <p></p> <p>The history and current use of the label "Hispanic" are discussed in this exploration of the myth of cultural and national homogeneity among people of Latin American descent in the United <span class="hlt">States</span>. The historical process of labeling groups of individuals is discussed, and how ethnic labels affect the meaning of citizenship and the struggle…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11788086','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11788086"><span>Anonymous <span class="hlt">predictive</span> testing for Huntington's disease in the United <span class="hlt">States</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Visintainer, C L; Matthias-Hagen, V; Nance, M A</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The widespread use of a <span class="hlt">predictive</span> genetic test for Huntington's disease (HD) since 1993 has brought to the forefront issues regarding genetic privacy. Although the possibility of anonymous genetic testing has been discussed, its use in the United <span class="hlt">States</span> has not been described previously. We review the experiences of 11 genetics specialists with anonymous <span class="hlt">predictive</span> testing for HD. We found that more men than women requested anonymous testing, for reasons that more often related to personal privacy than to insurance or discrimination concerns. A number of approaches to anonymity were used, and genetics specialists varied in the degree to which they were comfortable with the process. A number of legal, medical, and practical questions are raised, which will require resolution if anonymous testing is to be performed with a greater frequency in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT........10Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT........10Y"><span>Constrained model <span class="hlt">predictive</span> control, <span class="hlt">state</span> estimation and coordination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yan, Jun</p> <p></p> <p>In this dissertation, we study the interaction between the control performance and the quality of the <span class="hlt">state</span> estimation in a constrained Model <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Control (MPC) framework for systems with stochastic disturbances. This consists of three parts: (i) the development of a constrained MPC formulation that adapts to the quality of the <span class="hlt">state</span> estimation via constraints; (ii) the application of such a control law in a multi-vehicle formation coordinated control problem in which each vehicle operates subject to a no-collision constraint posed by others' imperfect <span class="hlt">prediction</span> computed from finite bit-rate, communicated data; (iii) the design of the predictors and the communication resource assignment problem that satisfy the performance requirement from Part (ii). Model <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Control (MPC) is of interest because it is one of the few control design methods which preserves standard design variables and yet handles constraints. MPC is normally posed as a full-<span class="hlt">state</span> feedback control and is implemented in a certainty-equivalence fashion with best estimates of the <span class="hlt">states</span> being used in place of the exact <span class="hlt">state</span>. However, if the <span class="hlt">state</span> constraints were handled in the same certainty-equivalence fashion, the resulting control law could drive the real <span class="hlt">state</span> to violate the constraints frequently. Part (i) focuses on exploring the inclusion of <span class="hlt">state</span> estimates into the constraints. It does this by applying constrained MPC to a system with stochastic disturbances. The stochastic nature of the problem requires re-posing the constraints in a probabilistic form. In Part (ii), we consider applying constrained MPC as a local control law in a coordinated control problem of a group of distributed autonomous systems. Interactions between the systems are captured via constraints. First, we inspect the application of constrained MPC to a completely deterministic case. Formation stability theorems are derived for the subsystems and conditions on the local constraint set are derived in order to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA459217','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA459217"><span>Towards Integrating AI Story Controllers and Game Engines: Reconciling World <span class="hlt">State</span> <span class="hlt">Representations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>the user. In this paper, I describe a general technique for translating between an arbi- trary game engine’s proprietary and procedural world <span class="hlt">state</span>...story arc. That is, computer games use story to motivate action but typically have little or no branching. AI techniques have been applied to the...problem of inter- active storytelling for entertainment and training. A com- mon technique among AI research in interactive storytelling is to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://generalisation.icaci.org/prevevents/95-workshop2016program.html','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://generalisation.icaci.org/prevevents/95-workshop2016program.html"><span>High performance computing to support multiscale <span class="hlt">representation</span> of hydrography for the conterminous United <span class="hlt">States</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stanislawski, Larry V.; Liu, Yan; Buttenfield, Barbara P.; Survila, Kornelijus; Wendel, Jeffrey; Okok, Abdurraouf</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) for the United <span class="hlt">States</span> furnishes a comprehensive set of vector features representing the surface-waters in the country (U.S. Geological Survey 2000). The high-resolution (HR) layer of the NHD is largely comprised of hydrographic features originally derived from 1:24,000-scale (24K) U.S. Topographic maps. However, in recent years (2009 to present) densified hydrographic feature content, from sources as large as 1:2,400, have been incorporated into some watersheds of the HR NHD within the conterminous United <span class="hlt">States</span> to better support the needs of various local and <span class="hlt">state</span> organizations. As such, the HR NHD is a multiresolution dataset with obvious data density variations because of scale changes. In addition, data density variations exist within the HR NHD that are particularly evident in the surface-water flow network (NHD flowlines) because of natural variations of local geographic conditions; and also because of unintentional compilation inconsistencies due to variations in data collection standards and climate conditions over the many years of 24K hydrographic data collection (US Geological Survey 1955).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20364915','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20364915"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> flow at work: investigating the activities and job characteristics that <span class="hlt">predict</span> flow <span class="hlt">states</span> at work.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nielsen, Karina; Cleal, Bryan</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Flow (a <span class="hlt">state</span> of consciousness where people become totally immersed in an activity and enjoy it intensely) has been identified as a desirable <span class="hlt">state</span> with positive effects for employee well-being and innovation at work. Flow has been studied using both questionnaires and Experience Sampling Method (ESM). In this study, we used a newly developed 9-item flow scale in an ESM study combined with a questionnaire to examine the predictors of flow at two levels: the activities (brainstorming, planning, problem solving and evaluation) associated with transient flow <span class="hlt">states</span> and the more stable job characteristics (role clarity, influence and cognitive demands). Participants were 58 line managers from two companies in Denmark; a private accountancy firm and a public elder care organization. We found that line managers in elder care experienced flow more often than accountancy line managers, and activities such as planning, problem solving, and evaluation <span class="hlt">predicted</span> transient flow <span class="hlt">states</span>. The more stable job characteristics included in this study were not, however, found to <span class="hlt">predict</span> flow at work. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4559495','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4559495"><span>Characterizing and Differentiating Task-based and Resting <span class="hlt">State</span> FMRI Signals via Two-stage Sparse <span class="hlt">Representations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Shu; Li, Xiang; Lv, Jinglei; Jiang, Xi; Guo, Lei; Liu, Tianming</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A relatively underexplored question in fMRI is whether there are intrinsic differences in terms of signal composition patterns that can effectively characterize and differentiate task-based or resting <span class="hlt">state</span> fMRI (tfMRI or rsfMRI) signals. In this paper, we propose a novel two-stage sparse <span class="hlt">representation</span> framework to examine the fundamental difference between tfMRI and rsfMRI signals. Specifically, in the first stage, the whole-brain tfMRI or rsfMRI signals of each subject were composed into a big data matrix, which was then factorized into a subject-specific dictionary matrix and a weight coefficient matrix for sparse <span class="hlt">representation</span>. In the second stage, all of the dictionary matrices from both tfMRI/rsfMRI data across multiple subjects were composed into another big data-matrix, which was further sparsely represented by a cross-subjects common dictionary and a weight matrix. This framework has been applied on the recently publicly released Human Connectome Project (HCP) fMRI data and experimental results revealed that there are distinctive and descriptive atoms in the cross-subjects common dictionary that can effectively characterize and differentiate tfMRI and rsfMRI signals, achieving 100% classification accuracy. Moreover, our methods and results can be meaningfully interpreted, e.g., the well-known default mode network (DMN) activities can be recovered from the very noisy and heterogeneous aggregated big-data of tfMRI and rsfMRI signals across all subjects in HCP Q1 release. PMID:25732072</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25732072','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25732072"><span>Characterizing and differentiating task-based and resting <span class="hlt">state</span> fMRI signals via two-stage sparse <span class="hlt">representations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Shu; Li, Xiang; Lv, Jinglei; Jiang, Xi; Guo, Lei; Liu, Tianming</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>A relatively underexplored question in fMRI is whether there are intrinsic differences in terms of signal composition patterns that can effectively characterize and differentiate task-based or resting <span class="hlt">state</span> fMRI (tfMRI or rsfMRI) signals. In this paper, we propose a novel two-stage sparse <span class="hlt">representation</span> framework to examine the fundamental difference between tfMRI and rsfMRI signals. Specifically, in the first stage, the whole-brain tfMRI or rsfMRI signals of each subject were composed into a big data matrix, which was then factorized into a subject-specific dictionary matrix and a weight coefficient matrix for sparse <span class="hlt">representation</span>. In the second stage, all of the dictionary matrices from both tfMRI/rsfMRI data across multiple subjects were composed into another big data-matrix, which was further sparsely represented by a cross-subjects common dictionary and a weight matrix. This framework has been applied on the recently publicly released Human Connectome Project (HCP) fMRI data and experimental results revealed that there are distinctive and descriptive atoms in the cross-subjects common dictionary that can effectively characterize and differentiate tfMRI and rsfMRI signals, achieving 100% classification accuracy. Moreover, our methods and results can be meaningfully interpreted, e.g., the well-known default mode network (DMN) activities can be recovered from the very noisy and heterogeneous aggregated big-data of tfMRI and rsfMRI signals across all subjects in HCP Q1 release.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25352153','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25352153"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> brain <span class="hlt">states</span> associated with object categories from fMRI data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Behroozi, Mehdi; Daliri, Mohammad Reza</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Recently, the multivariate analysis methods have been widely used for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the human cognitive <span class="hlt">states</span> from fMRI data. Here, we explore the possibility of <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the human cognitive <span class="hlt">states</span> using a pattern of brain activities associated with thinking about concrete objects. The fMRI signals in conjunction with pattern recognition methods were used for the analysis of cognitive functions associated with viewing of 60 object pictures named by the words in 12 categories. The important step in Multi Voxel Pattern Analysis (MVPA) is feature extraction and feature selection parts. In this study, the new feature selection method (accuracy method) was developed for multi-class fMRI dataset to select the informative voxels corresponding to the objects category from the whole brain voxels. Here the result of three multivariate classifiers namely, Naïve Bayes, K-nearest neighbor and support vector machine, were compared for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the category of presented objects from activation BOLD patterns in human whole brain. We investigated whether the multivariate classifiers are capable to find the associated regions of the brain with the visual presentation of categories of various objects. Overall Naïve Bayes classifier perfumed best and it was the best method for extracting features from the whole brain data. In addition, the results of this study indicate that thinking about different semantic categories of objects have an effect on different spatial patterns of neural activation, and so it is possible to identify the category of the objects based on the patterns of neural activation recorded during <span class="hlt">representation</span> of object line drawing from participants with high accuracy. Finally we demonstrated that the selected brain regions that were informative for object categorization were similar across subjects and this distribution of selected voxels on the cortex may neutrally represent the various object's category properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23387826','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23387826"><span>Discontinuous steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> analytical solutions of the Boussinesq equation and their numerical <span class="hlt">representation</span> by MODFLOW.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zaidel, Jacob</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Known analytical solutions of groundwater flow equations are routinely used for verification of computer codes. However, these analytical solutions (e.g., the Dupuit solution for the steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> unconfined unidirectional flow in a uniform aquifer with a flat bottom) represent smooth and continuous water table configurations, simulating which does not pose any significant problems for the numerical groundwater flow models, like MODFLOW. One of the most challenging numerical cases for MODFLOW arises from drying-rewetting problems often associated with abrupt changes in the elevations of impervious base of a thin unconfined aquifer. Numerical solutions of groundwater flow equations cannot be rigorously verified for such cases due to the lack of corresponding exact analytical solutions. Analytical solutions of the steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> Boussinesq equation, associated with the discontinuous water table configurations over a stairway impervious base, are presented in this article. Conditions resulting in such configurations are analyzed and discussed. These solutions appear to be well suited for testing and verification of computer codes. Numerical solutions, obtained by the latest versions of MODFLOW (MODFLOW-2005 and MODFLOW-NWT), are compared with the presented discontinuous analytical solutions. It is shown that standard MODFLOW-2005 code (as well as MODFLOW-2000 and older versions) has significant convergence problems simulating such cases. The problems manifest themselves either in a total convergence failure or erroneous results. Alternatively, MODFLOW-NWT, providing a good match to the presented discontinuous analytical solutions, appears to be a more reliable and appropriate code for simulating abrupt changes in water table elevations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28085870','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28085870"><span><span class="hlt">Representation</span> of image distortion by Moiré fringes at phase singularity <span class="hlt">state</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Samavati, Katayoon; Taghi Tavassoly, M; Ghomi, Hamid</p> <p>2017-01-10</p> <p>When a grating is imaged by an optical imaging system, due to the aberrations of the system, the parameters of the image grating suffer minute gradual changes across the image. Superimposing an ideal grating image over the real grating image at the phase singularity <span class="hlt">state</span> of the two gratings leads to phase contours, special Moiré fringes, which directly represent the distortions over the image. In this report, after a brief review of the required theoretical bases, we show when the parameters of a grating change linearly the corresponding Moiré fringes at the singularity <span class="hlt">state</span> are represented by quadratic functions, and for nonlinear changes higher order functions are involved. Thus, by imposing desired changes on the parameters of a grating one can produce Moiré fringes satisfying functions of required orders. In the experimental part of the report we apply the technique to evaluate the image distortions imposed by a conventional camera and cameras installed in a mobile and in a tablet.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6964E..0CL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6964E..0CL"><span>A qualia <span class="hlt">representation</span> of cyberspace</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lacey, Timothy H.; Mills, Robert F.; Raines, Richard A.; Oxley, Mark E.; Bauer, Kenneth W.; Rogers, Steven K.</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>E.C Adam defined Situational Awareness (SA) as "the mental <span class="hlt">representation</span> and understanding of objects, events, people, system <span class="hlt">states</span>, interactions, environmental conditions, and other situation-specific factors affecting human performance in complex and dynamic tasks. <span class="hlt">Stated</span> in lay terms, SA is simply knowing what is going on so you can figure out what to do." We propose a novel idea to assist the human in gaining SA. Our hypothesis is that nature uses qualia as a compression scheme to represent the many concepts encountered in everyday life. Qualia enable humans to quickly come up with SA based on many complex measurements from their sensors, (eyes, ears, taste, touch, memory, etc.), expectations, and experiences. Our ultimate objective is to develop a computer that uses qualia concepts to transform sensor data to assist the human in gaining and maintaining improved SA. However, before any computer can use qualia, we must first define a <span class="hlt">representation</span> for qualia that can be implemented computationally. This paper will present our <span class="hlt">representation</span> for qualia. The <span class="hlt">representation</span> is not simply a hierarchical aggregation of input data. Instead, it is a <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of what will happen next, derived from computations resulting from sensory inputs and the computational engine of a qualia generator and qualia processor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CoTPh..65..684L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CoTPh..65..684L"><span>Control and Transfer of Entanglement between Two Atoms Driven by Classical Fields under Dressed-<span class="hlt">State</span> <span class="hlt">Representation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liao, Qing-Hong; Zhang, Qi; Xu, Juan; Yan, Qiu-Rong; Liu, Ye; Chen, An</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We have studied the dynamics and transfer of the entanglement of the two identical atoms simultaneously interacting with vacuum field by employing the dressed-<span class="hlt">state</span> <span class="hlt">representation</span>. The two atoms are driven by classical fields. The influence of the initial entanglement degree of two atoms, the coupling strength between the atom and the classical field and the detuning between the atomic transition frequency and the frequency of classical field on the entanglement and atomic linear entropy is discussed. The initial entanglement of the two atoms can be transferred into the entanglement between the atom and cavity field when the dissipation is neglected. The maximally entangled <span class="hlt">state</span> between the atoms and cavity field can be obtained under some certain conditions. The time of disentanglement of two atoms can be controlled and manipulated by adjusting the detuning and classical driving fields. Moreover, the larger the cavity decay rate is, the more quickly the entanglement of the two atoms decays. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11247213, 61368002, 11304010, 11264030, 61168001, China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant No. 2013M531558, Jiangxi Postdoctoral Research Project under Grant No. 2013KY33, the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province under Grant No. 20142BAB217001, the Foundation for Young Scientists of Jiangxi Province (Jinggang Star) under Grant No. 20122BCB23002, the Research Foundation of the Education Department of Jiangxi Province under Grant Nos. GJJ13051, GJJ13057, and the Graduate Innovation Special Fund of Nanchang University under Grant No. cx2015137</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3899521','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3899521"><span>Multiple neural <span class="hlt">states</span> of <span class="hlt">representation</span> in short-term memory? It’s a matter of attention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>LaRocque, Joshua J.; Lewis-Peacock, Jarrod A.; Postle, Bradley R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Short-term memory (STM) refers to the capacity-limited retention of information over a brief period of time, and working memory (WM) refers to the manipulation and use of that information to guide behavior. In recent years it has become apparent that STM and WM interact and overlap with other cognitive processes, including attention (the selection of a subset of information for further processing) and long-term memory (LTM—the encoding and retention of an effectively unlimited amount of information for a much longer period of time). Broadly speaking, there have been two classes of memory models: systems models, which posit distinct stores for STM and LTM (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968; Baddeley and Hitch, 1974); and <span class="hlt">state</span>-based models, which posit a common store with different activation <span class="hlt">states</span> corresponding to STM and LTM (Cowan, 1995; McElree, 1996; Oberauer, 2002). In this paper, we will focus on <span class="hlt">state</span>-based accounts of STM. First, we will consider several theoretical models that postulate, based on considerable behavioral evidence, that information in STM can exist in multiple <span class="hlt">representational</span> <span class="hlt">states</span>. We will then consider how neural data from recent studies of STM can inform and constrain these theoretical models. In the process we will highlight the inferential advantage of multivariate, information-based analyses of neuroimaging data (fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG)) over conventional activation-based analysis approaches (Postle, in press). We will conclude by addressing lingering questions regarding the fractionation of STM, highlighting differences between the attention to information vs. the retention of information during brief memory delays. PMID:24478671</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28161311','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28161311"><span>Degradation of Cortical <span class="hlt">Representations</span> during Encoding following Sleep Deprivation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Poh, Jia-Hou; Chee, Michael W L</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>A night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) reduces task-related activation of fronto-parietal and higher visual cortical areas. As this reduction in activation corresponds to impaired attention and perceptual processing, it might also be associated with poorer memory encoding. Related animal work has established that cortical columns stochastically enter an 'off' <span class="hlt">state</span> in sleep deprivation, leading to <span class="hlt">predictions</span> that neural <span class="hlt">representations</span> are less stable and distinctive following TSD. To test these <span class="hlt">predictions</span> participants incidentally encoded scene images while undergoing fMRI, either during rested wakefulness (RW) or after TSD. In scene-selective PPA, TSD reduced stability of neural <span class="hlt">representations</span> across repetition. This was accompanied by poorer subsequent memory. Greater <span class="hlt">representational</span> stability benefitted subsequent memory in RW but not TSD. Even for items subsequently recognized, <span class="hlt">representational</span> distinctiveness was lower in TSD, suggesting that quality of encoding is degraded. Reduced <span class="hlt">representational</span> stability and distinctiveness are two novel mechanisms by which TSD can contribute to poorer memory formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=information+AND+culture&pg=4&id=ED533446','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=information+AND+culture&pg=4&id=ED533446"><span>The <span class="hlt">Representation</span> of Other Cultures in Award-Winning Picture Books from the United <span class="hlt">States</span>, Australia, and Great Britain (1960-2009)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hall, Virginia</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">representation</span> of other cultures in award-winning picture books from the United <span class="hlt">States</span>, Australia, and Great Britain between 1960 and 2009. Not only was the cultural content of children's literature over the past fifty years investigated, but the protocol created to evaluate the books was a newly…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=racial+AND+tension+AND+social&pg=4&id=EJ941540','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=racial+AND+tension+AND+social&pg=4&id=EJ941540"><span>Slavery, the Civil War Era, and African American <span class="hlt">Representation</span> in U.S. History: An Analysis of Four <span class="hlt">States</span>' Academic Standards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Anderson, Carl B.; Metzger, Scott Alan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study is a mixed-methods text analysis of African American <span class="hlt">representation</span> within K-12 U.S. History content standards treating the revolutionary era, the early U.S. republic, the Civil War era, and Reconstruction. The <span class="hlt">states</span> included in the analysis are Michigan, New Jersey, South Carolina, and Virginia. The analysis finds that the reviewed…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22heart+attack%22&pg=3&id=EJ677216','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22heart+attack%22&pg=3&id=EJ677216"><span>High Stakes Principalship--Sleepless Nights, Heart Attacks and Sudden Death Accountabilities: Reading Media <span class="hlt">Representations</span> of the United <span class="hlt">States</span> Principal Shortage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Thomson, Pat; Blackmore, Jill; Sachs, Judyth; Tregenza, Karen</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Subjects a corpus of predominantly United <span class="hlt">States</span> news articles to deconstructive narrative analysis and finds that the dominant media <span class="hlt">representation</span> of principals' work is one of long hours, low salary, high stress, and sudden death from high stakes accountabilities. Notes that the media picture may perpetuate the problem, and that it is at odds…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tension+AND+superficial&id=EJ941540','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tension+AND+superficial&id=EJ941540"><span>Slavery, the Civil War Era, and African American <span class="hlt">Representation</span> in U.S. History: An Analysis of Four <span class="hlt">States</span>' Academic Standards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Anderson, Carl B.; Metzger, Scott Alan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study is a mixed-methods text analysis of African American <span class="hlt">representation</span> within K-12 U.S. History content standards treating the revolutionary era, the early U.S. republic, the Civil War era, and Reconstruction. The <span class="hlt">states</span> included in the analysis are Michigan, New Jersey, South Carolina, and Virginia. The analysis finds that the reviewed…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=heart+AND+attack&pg=4&id=EJ677216','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=heart+AND+attack&pg=4&id=EJ677216"><span>High Stakes Principalship--Sleepless Nights, Heart Attacks and Sudden Death Accountabilities: Reading Media <span class="hlt">Representations</span> of the United <span class="hlt">States</span> Principal Shortage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Thomson, Pat; Blackmore, Jill; Sachs, Judyth; Tregenza, Karen</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Subjects a corpus of predominantly United <span class="hlt">States</span> news articles to deconstructive narrative analysis and finds that the dominant media <span class="hlt">representation</span> of principals' work is one of long hours, low salary, high stress, and sudden death from high stakes accountabilities. Notes that the media picture may perpetuate the problem, and that it is at odds…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=books+AND+economics&pg=3&id=ED533446','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=books+AND+economics&pg=3&id=ED533446"><span>The <span class="hlt">Representation</span> of Other Cultures in Award-Winning Picture Books from the United <span class="hlt">States</span>, Australia, and Great Britain (1960-2009)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hall, Virginia</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">representation</span> of other cultures in award-winning picture books from the United <span class="hlt">States</span>, Australia, and Great Britain between 1960 and 2009. Not only was the cultural content of children's literature over the past fifty years investigated, but the protocol created to evaluate the books was a newly…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3711L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3711L"><span>Validation of Atmospheric Dynamics (VADY) - <span class="hlt">representation</span> of circulation types/dynamical modes in the decadal-<span class="hlt">prediction</span> model system of MPI-ESM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lang, Benjamin; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Beck, Christoph; Philipp, Andreas</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The climate research program "Medium-range Climate <span class="hlt">Predictions</span>" (MiKlip), funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany (BMBF), has the aim to improve a climate model system (MPI-ESM) in such a way that it can provide reliable decadal <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of climate, including extreme weather events. A substantial part of the development process is a comprehensive model validation. Within MiKlip, it includes comparisons of model simulations and observations in order to allow statements about the performance of the model and to give particular recommendations for the further development of the model. The research project "Validation of Atmospheric Dynamics" (VADY), conducted by the cooperation partners "Institute of Geography at the University of Augsburg" (IGUA) and the "German Aerospace Centre" (DLR), contributes to model validation within MiKlip with a special focus on atmospheric waves (DLR) and circulation dynamics (IGUA). Within the framework of VADY, DLR validates the <span class="hlt">representation</span> of atmospheric waves on different levels and scales based on suitable activity indices (e.g. the so-called large-scale dynamical activity index (LDAI), which is a measure for the activity of planetary waves). The focus of IGUA is on the model validation with respect to the <span class="hlt">representation</span> of atmospheric circulation types, dynamical modes and the teleconnectivity of the atmospheric circulation. The present contribution provides results of the model validation concerning circulation types/dynamical modes. Results are shown for both the frequency of occurrence and internal characteristics (e. g. persistence or intensity), and for different classification methods (e. g. based on PCA or clustering techniques). The <span class="hlt">representation</span> of circulation types/dynamical modes will be compared for different generations of the MPI-ESM decadal-<span class="hlt">prediction</span> model (baseline0, baseline1, prototype) in order to clarify both advances and limitations in the development of the model. Furthermore</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15978715','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15978715"><span><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of subjective <span class="hlt">states</span> from psychophysiology: a multivariate approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fairclough, Stephen H; Venables, Louise</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Biocybernetic systems utilise real-time changes in psychophysiology in order to adapt aspects of computer control and functionality, e.g. adaptive automation. This approach to system design is based upon an assumption that psychophysiological variations represent implicit fluctuations in the subjective <span class="hlt">state</span> of the operator, e.g. mood, motivation, cognitions. A study was performed to investigate the convergent validity between psychophysiological measurement and changes in the subjective status of the individual. Thirty-five participants performed a demanding version of the Multi-Attribute Task Battery (MATB) over four consecutive 20-min blocks. A range of psychophysiological data were collected (EEG, ECG, skin conductance level (SCL), EOG, respiratory rate) and correlated with changes in subjective <span class="hlt">state</span> as measured by the Dundee Stress <span class="hlt">State</span> Questionnaire (DSSQ). MATB performance was stable across time-on-task; psychophysiological activity exhibited expected changes due to sustained performance. The DSSQ was analysed in terms of three subjective meta-factors: Task Engagement, Distress and Worry. Multiple regression analyses revealed that psychophysiology <span class="hlt">predicted</span> a substantial proportion of the variance for both Task Engagement and Distress but not for the Worry meta-factor. The consequences for the development of biocybernetic systems are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17614499','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17614499"><span><span class="hlt">Representation</span> of the vowel /epsilon/ in normal and impaired auditory nerve fibers: model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of responses in cats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zilany, Muhammad S A; Bruce, Ian C</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>The temporal response of auditory-nerve (AN) fibers to a steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> vowel is investigated using a computational auditory-periphery model. The model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> are validated against a wide range of physiological data for both normal and impaired fibers in cats. The model incorporates two parallel filter paths, component 1 (C1) and component 2 (C2), which correspond to the active and passive modes of basilar membrane vibration, respectively, in the cochlea. The outputs of the two filters are subsequently transduced by two separate functions, added together, and then low-pass filtered by the inner hair cell (IHC) membrane, which is followed by the IHC-AN synapse and discharge generator. The C1 response dominates at low and moderate levels and is responsible for synchrony capture and multiformant responses seen in the vowel responses. The C2 response dominates at high levels and contributes to the loss of synchrony capture observed in normal and impaired fibers. The interaction between C1 and C2 responses explains the behavior of AN fibers in the transition region, which is characterized by two important observations in the vowel responses: First, all components of the vowel undergo the C1/C2 transition simultaneously, and second, the responses to the nonformant components of the vowel become substantial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Aberdeen&pg=4&id=EJ327086','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Aberdeen&pg=4&id=EJ327086"><span>Some Problems of Knowledge <span class="hlt">Representation</span> in an Authoring Environment: Exteriorization, Anomalous <span class="hlt">State</span> Meta-Cognition and Self-Confrontation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McAleese, Ray</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Summarizes findings of a collection of research studies at the University of Aberdeen (Scotland) aiding fundamental understanding of knowledge <span class="hlt">representation</span> and its applications. Issues arising when a knowledge <span class="hlt">representation</span> system is incorporated into an authoring language are discussed, including the problems of exteriorization, metacognition,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9675C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9675C"><span>Calculation of aerosol optical properties under different assumptions on mixing <span class="hlt">state</span>, refractive index, density and hygroscopicity: uncertainties and importance of <span class="hlt">representation</span> of aerosol mixing <span class="hlt">state</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Curci, Gabriele</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The calculation of aerosol optical properties from aerosol mass is a process subject to uncertainty related to necessary assumptions on the treatment of the chemical species mixing <span class="hlt">state</span>, density, refractive index, and hygroscopic growth. We used the FlexAOD post-processing tool to calculate the optical properties (aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (g)) from chemistry-transport model aerosol profiles, using a wide range of assumptions on aerosol chemical and physical properties. We calculated that the most important factor of uncertainty is the assumption about the mixing <span class="hlt">state</span>, for which we estimate an uncertainty of 30-35% on the simulated aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA). The choice of the core composition in the core-shell <span class="hlt">representation</span> is of minor importance for calculation of AOD, while it is critical for the SSA. Other factors of uncertainty tested here have a maximum average impact of 10% each on calculated AOD, and an impact of a few percent on SSA and g. We then tested simple parameterizations of the aerosol mixing <span class="hlt">state</span>, expressed as a function of the aerosol aging, and verified that they may be helpful in reducing the uncertainty when comparing simulations with AERONET retrievals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1300207','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1300207"><span>Improved secondary structure <span class="hlt">predictions</span> for a nicotinic receptor subunit: incorporation of solvent accessibility and experimental data into a two-dimensional <span class="hlt">representation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Le Novère, N; Corringer, P J; Changeux, J P</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p> portion of the complete receptor were incorporated into the model. This led to a proposed two-dimensional <span class="hlt">representation</span> of the secondary structure in which the peptide chain of the extracellular domain winds alternatively between the two interfaces of the subunit. Although this <span class="hlt">representation</span> is not a tertiary structure and does not lead to <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of specific beta-beta interaction, it should provide a basic framework for further mutagenesis investigations and for fold recognition (threading) searches. PMID:10233052</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10233052','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10233052"><span>Improved secondary structure <span class="hlt">predictions</span> for a nicotinic receptor subunit: incorporation of solvent accessibility and experimental data into a two-dimensional <span class="hlt">representation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Le Novère, N; Corringer, P J; Changeux, J P</p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p> portion of the complete receptor were incorporated into the model. This led to a proposed two-dimensional <span class="hlt">representation</span> of the secondary structure in which the peptide chain of the extracellular domain winds alternatively between the two interfaces of the subunit. Although this <span class="hlt">representation</span> is not a tertiary structure and does not lead to <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of specific beta-beta interaction, it should provide a basic framework for further mutagenesis investigations and for fold recognition (threading) searches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4142861','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4142861"><span>Hidden <span class="hlt">state</span> <span class="hlt">prediction</span>: a modification of classic ancestral <span class="hlt">state</span> reconstruction algorithms helps unravel complex symbioses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zaneveld, Jesse R. R.; Thurber, Rebecca L. V.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Complex symbioses between animal or plant hosts and their associated microbiotas can involve thousands of species and millions of genes. Because of the number of interacting partners, it is often impractical to study all organisms or genes in these host-microbe symbioses individually. Yet new phylogenetic <span class="hlt">predictive</span> methods can use the wealth of accumulated data on diverse model organisms to make inferences into the properties of less well-studied species and gene families. <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> functional profiling methods use evolutionary models based on the properties of studied relatives to put bounds on the likely characteristics of an organism or gene that has not yet been studied in detail. These techniques have been applied to <span class="hlt">predict</span> diverse features of host-associated microbial communities ranging from the enzymatic function of uncharacterized genes to the gene content of uncultured microorganisms. We consider these phylogenetically informed <span class="hlt">predictive</span> techniques from disparate fields as examples of a general class of algorithms for Hidden <span class="hlt">State</span> <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> (HSP), and argue that HSP methods have broad value in <span class="hlt">predicting</span> organismal traits in a variety of contexts, including the study of complex host-microbe symbioses. PMID:25202302</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/273727','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/273727"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> ion charge <span class="hlt">state</span> distributions of vacuum arc plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Anders, A.; Schulke, T.</p> <p>1996-04-01</p> <p>Multiply charged ions are present in vacuum arc plasmas. The ions are produced at cathode spots, and their charge <span class="hlt">state</span> distributions (CSDs) depend on the cathode material but only little on the arc current or other parameters as long as the current is relatively low and the anode is not actively involved in the plasma production. There are experimental data of ion CSDs available in the literature for 50 different cathode materials. The CSDs can be calculated based on the assumption that thermodynamic equilibrium is valid in the vicinity of the cathode spot, and the equilibrium CSDs `freeze` at a certain distance from the cathode spot (transition to a non-equilibrium plasma). Plasma temperatures and densities at the `freezing points` have been calculated, and, based on the existence of characteristic groups of elements in the Periodic Table, <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of CSDs can be made for metallic elements which have not yet been used as cathode materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=exact+AND+solutions&pg=3&id=EJ666975','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=exact+AND+solutions&pg=3&id=EJ666975"><span>Why <span class="hlt">Representations</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schultz, James E.; Waters, Michael S.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Discusses <span class="hlt">representations</span> in the context of solving a system of linear equations. Views <span class="hlt">representations</span> (concrete, tables, graphs, algebraic, matrices) from perspectives of understanding, technology, generalization, exact versus approximate solution, and learning style. (KHR)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987PhRvA..35..491P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987PhRvA..35..491P"><span>Convolution <span class="hlt">representation</span> of the relation between total electron density and that of s <span class="hlt">states</span> in closed-shell atoms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pucci, R.; March, N. H.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Motivated by the Coulomb-field result that the derivative of the density ρ(r) for an arbitrary number of closed shells is directly proportional to the s-<span class="hlt">state</span> density ρs(r), we have explored for closed-shell atoms a convolution relation between ρs(r) and ∂ρ/∂r. This relation is most readily expressed in K space, and we thereby establish certain relations between the scattering factors f(K) and fs(K) corresponding to total density and s density, respectively. The method is illustrated by using near-Hartree-Fock accuracy data of Clementi for closed-shell atoms Ne and Ar. For the Hartree-Fock theory, it is shown that at large r, ρs(r)~r-4ρ(r). Use is made in the convolution <span class="hlt">representation</span> of the electron-nuclear potential energy of the closed-shell atom and the second derivative ∂2ρ/∂r2 evaluated at the nucleus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28692990','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28692990"><span>Discriminative Block-Diagonal <span class="hlt">Representation</span> Learning for Image Recognition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zheng; Xu, Yong; Shao, Ling; Yang, Jian</p> <p>2017-07-04</p> <p>Existing block-diagonal <span class="hlt">representation</span> studies mainly focuses on casting block-diagonal regularization on training data, while only little attention is dedicated to concurrently learning both block-diagonal <span class="hlt">representations</span> of training and test data. In this paper, we propose a discriminative block-diagonal low-rank <span class="hlt">representation</span> (BDLRR) method for recognition. In particular, the elaborate BDLRR is formulated as a joint optimization problem of shrinking the unfavorable <span class="hlt">representation</span> from off-block-diagonal elements and strengthening the compact block-diagonal <span class="hlt">representation</span> under the semisupervised framework of LRR. To this end, we first impose penalty constraints on the negative <span class="hlt">representation</span> to eliminate the correlation between different classes such that the incoherence criterion of the extra-class <span class="hlt">representation</span> is boosted. Moreover, a constructed subspace model is developed to enhance the self-expressive power of training samples and further build the <span class="hlt">representation</span> bridge between the training and test samples, such that the coherence of the learned intraclass <span class="hlt">representation</span> is consistently heightened. Finally, the resulting optimization problem is solved elegantly by employing an alternative optimization strategy, and a simple recognition algorithm on the learned <span class="hlt">representation</span> is utilized for final <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves superb recognition results on four face image data sets, three character data sets, and the 15 scene multicategories data set. It not only shows superior potential on image recognition but also outperforms the <span class="hlt">state</span>-of-the-art methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5120326','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5120326"><span>Non-label immune cell <span class="hlt">state</span> <span class="hlt">prediction</span> using Raman spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ichimura, Taro; Chiu, Liang-da; Fujita, Katsumasa; Machiyama, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Fujita, Hideaki</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The acquired immune system, mainly composed of T and B lymphocytes, plays a key role in protecting the host from infection. It is important and technically challenging to identify cell types and their activation status in living and intact immune cells, without staining or killing the cells. Using Raman spectroscopy, we succeeded in discriminating between living T cells and B cells, and visualized the activation status of living T cells without labeling. Although the Raman spectra of T cells and B cells were similar, they could be distinguished by discriminant analysis of the principal components. Raman spectra of activated T cells with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies largely differed compared to that of naïve T cells, enabling the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of T cell activation status at a single cell level. Our analysis revealed that the spectra of individual T cells gradually change from the pattern of naïve T cells to that of activated T cells during the first 24 h of activation, indicating that changes in Raman spectra reflect slow changes rather than rapid changes in cell <span class="hlt">state</span> during activation. Our results indicate that the Raman spectrum enables the detection of dynamic changes in individual cell <span class="hlt">state</span> scattered in a heterogeneous population. PMID:27876845</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H32D..08S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H32D..08S"><span>Sulfur Mass Balances of Forested Catchments: Improving <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> of Stream Sulfate Concentrations Through Better <span class="hlt">Representation</span> of Soil Storage and Release</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scanlon, T. M.; Rice, K. C.; Riscassi, A.; Cosby, B. J., Jr.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in the eastern United <span class="hlt">States</span> have declined by more than 80% since 1970, when the Clean Air Act first established limits on emissions from stationary and mobile sources. In many areas throughout the northeastern U.S., the resulting declines in sulfate (SO42-) deposition have been accompanied by declines in stream SO42- concentrations. In the southeastern U.S., however, declines in stream SO42- concentrations have not been observed on a widespread basis. In fact, SO42- concentrations continue to increase in many southeastern streams despite decades of declining deposition. This difference in behavior between northeastern and southeastern streams, owing to the distinct geological histories of their catchment soils, was anticipated by the Direct/Delayed Response Project initiated by the U.S. EPA during the early 1980s. At that time, understanding of how catchments store and release SO42- was mostly grounded in theory. Now, with the accumulation of long-term stream chemistry and hydrological datasets in forested catchments, we may develop an empirical basis for characterizing catchment storage and release of SO42-. In particular, are whole-catchment isotherms that described the partitioning between adsorbed and dissolved SO42- (1) linear or non-linear and (2) reversible or irreversible? How do these isotherms vary on a geographical basis? We apply mass balance combined with a simple theoretical framework to infer whole-catchment SO42- isotherms in Virginia and New England. Knowledge of this key soil geochemical property is needed to improve <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of how catchments will store and export SO42- under changing levels of atmospheric deposition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3967932','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3967932"><span>Correction of Distortion in Flattened <span class="hlt">Representations</span> of the Cortical Surface Allows <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of V1-V3 Functional Organization from Anatomy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Benson, Noah C.; Butt, Omar H.; Brainard, David H.; Aguirre, Geoffrey K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Several domains of neuroscience offer map-like models that link location on the cortical surface to properties of sensory <span class="hlt">representation</span>. Within cortical visual areas V1, V2, and V3, algebraic transformations can relate position in the visual field to the retinotopic <span class="hlt">representation</span> on the flattened cortical sheet. A limit to the practical application of this structure-function model is that the cortex, while topologically a two-dimensional surface, is curved. Flattening of the curved surface to a plane unavoidably introduces local geometric distortions that are not accounted for in idealized models. Here, we show that this limitation is overcome by correcting the geometric distortion induced by cortical flattening. We use a mass-spring-damper simulation to create a registration between functional MRI retinotopic mapping data of visual areas V1, V2, and V3 and an algebraic model of retinotopy. This registration is then applied to the flattened cortical surface anatomy to create an anatomical template that is linked to the algebraic retinotopic model. This registered cortical template can be used to accurately <span class="hlt">predict</span> the location and retinotopic organization of these early visual areas from cortical anatomy alone. Moreover, we show that <span class="hlt">prediction</span> accuracy remains when extrapolating beyond the range of data used to inform the model, indicating that the registration reflects the retinotopic organization of visual cortex. We provide code for the mass-spring-damper technique, which has general utility for the registration of cortical structure and function beyond the visual cortex. PMID:24676149</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..92m4404O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..92m4404O"><span>SU (N ) Heisenberg model with multicolumn <span class="hlt">representations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Okubo, Tsuyoshi; Harada, Kenji; Lou, Jie; Kawashima, Naoki</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The SU (N ) symmetric antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model with multicolumn <span class="hlt">representations</span> on the two-dimensional square lattice is investigated by quantum Monte Carlo simulations. For the <span class="hlt">representation</span> of a Young diagram with two columns, we confirm that a valence-bond solid (VBS) order appears as soon as the Néel order disappears at N =10 , indicating no intermediate phase. In the case of the <span class="hlt">representation</span> with three columns, there is no evidence for either the Néel or the VBS ordering for N ≥15 . This is actually consistent with the large-N theory, which <span class="hlt">predicts</span> that the VBS <span class="hlt">state</span> immediately follows the Néel <span class="hlt">state</span>, because the expected spontaneous order is too weak to be detected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.8401A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.8401A"><span>Does the uncertainty in the <span class="hlt">representation</span> of terrestrial water flows affect precipitation <span class="hlt">predictability</span>? A WRF-Hydro ensemble analysis for Central Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arnault, Joel; Rummler, Thomas; Baur, Florian; Lerch, Sebastian; Wagner, Sven; Fersch, Benjamin; Zhang, Zhenyu; Kerandi, Noah; Keil, Christian; Kunstmann, Harald</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Precipitation <span class="hlt">predictability</span> can be assessed by the spread within an ensemble of atmospheric simulations being perturbed in the initial, lateral boundary conditions and/or modeled processes within a range of uncertainty. Surface-related processes are more likely to change precipitation when synoptic forcing is weak. This study investigates the effect of uncertainty in the <span class="hlt">representation</span> of terrestrial water flows on precipitation <span class="hlt">predictability</span>. The tools used for this investigation are the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and its hydrologically-enhanced version WRF-Hydro, applied over Central Europe during April-October 2008. The WRF grid is that of COSMO-DE, with a resolution of 2.8 km. In WRF-Hydro, the WRF grid is coupled with a sub-grid at 280 m resolution to resolve lateral terrestrial water flows. Vertical flow uncertainty is considered by modifying the parameter controlling the partitioning between surface runoff and infiltration in WRF, and horizontal flow uncertainty is considered by comparing WRF with WRF-Hydro. Precipitation <span class="hlt">predictability</span> is deduced from the spread of an ensemble based on three turbulence parameterizations. Model results are validated with E-OBS precipitation and surface temperature, ESA-CCI soil moisture, FLUXNET-MTE surface evaporation and GRDC discharge. It is found that the uncertainty in the <span class="hlt">representation</span> of terrestrial water flows is more likely to significantly affect precipitation <span class="hlt">predictability</span> when surface flux spatial variability is high. In comparison to the WRF ensemble, WRF-Hydro slightly improves the adjusted continuous ranked probability score of daily precipitation. The reproduction of observed daily discharge with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients up to 0.91 demonstrates the potential of WRF-Hydro for flood forecasting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4580445','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4580445"><span>Modeling of Cancer Stem Cell <span class="hlt">State</span> Transitions <span class="hlt">Predicts</span> Therapeutic Response</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sehl, Mary E.; Shimada, Miki; Landeros, Alfonso; Lange, Kenneth; Wicha, Max S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Cancer stem cells (CSCs) possess capacity to both self-renew and generate all cells within a tumor, and are thought to drive tumor recurrence. Targeting the stem cell niche to eradicate CSCs represents an important area of therapeutic development. The complex nature of many interacting elements of the stem cell niche, including both intracellular signals and microenvironmental growth factors and cytokines, creates a challenge in choosing which elements to target, alone or in combination. Stochastic stimulation techniques allow for the careful study of complex systems in biology and medicine and are ideal for the investigation of strategies aimed at CSC eradication. We present a mathematical model of the breast cancer stem cell (BCSC) niche to <span class="hlt">predict</span> population dynamics during carcinogenesis and in response to treatment. Using data from cell line and mouse xenograft experiments, we estimate rates of interconversion between mesenchymal and epithelial <span class="hlt">states</span> in BCSCs and find that EMT/MET transitions occur frequently. We examine bulk tumor growth dynamics in response to alterations in the rate of symmetric self-renewal of BCSCs and find that small changes in BCSC behavior can give rise to the Gompertzian growth pattern observed in breast tumors. Finally, we examine stochastic reaction kinetic simulations in which elements of the breast cancer stem cell niche are inhibited individually and in combination. We find that slowing self-renewal and disrupting the positive feedback loop between IL-6, Stat3 activation, and NF-κB signaling by simultaneous inhibition of IL-6 and HER2 is the most effective combination to eliminate both mesenchymal and epithelial populations of BCSCs. <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> from our model and simulations show excellent agreement with experimental data showing the efficacy of combined HER2 and Il-6 blockade in reducing BCSC populations. Our findings will be directly examined in a planned clinical trial of combined HER2 and IL-6 targeted therapy in HER2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5187727','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5187727"><span><span class="hlt">State</span> estimation and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> using clustered particle filters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lee, Yoonsang; Majda, Andrew J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Particle filtering is an essential tool to improve uncertain model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> by incorporating noisy observational data from complex systems including non-Gaussian features. A class of particle filters, clustered particle filters, is introduced for high-dimensional nonlinear systems, which uses relatively few particles compared with the standard particle filter. The clustered particle filter captures non-Gaussian features of the true signal, which are typical in complex nonlinear dynamical systems such as geophysical systems. The method is also robust in the difficult regime of high-quality sparse and infrequent observations. The key features of the clustered particle filtering are coarse-grained localization through the clustering of the <span class="hlt">state</span> variables and particle adjustment to stabilize the method; each observation affects only neighbor <span class="hlt">state</span> variables through clustering and particles are adjusted to prevent particle collapse due to high-quality observations. The clustered particle filter is tested for the 40-dimensional Lorenz 96 model with several dynamical regimes including strongly non-Gaussian statistics. The clustered particle filter shows robust skill in both achieving accurate filter results and capturing non-Gaussian statistics of the true signal. It is further extended to multiscale data assimilation, which provides the large-scale estimation by combining a cheap reduced-order forecast model and mixed observations of the large- and small-scale variables. This approach enables the use of a larger number of particles due to the computational savings in the forecast model. The multiscale clustered particle filter is tested for one-dimensional dispersive wave turbulence using a forecast model with model errors. PMID:27930332</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27930332','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27930332"><span><span class="hlt">State</span> estimation and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> using clustered particle filters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Yoonsang; Majda, Andrew J</p> <p>2016-12-20</p> <p>Particle filtering is an essential tool to improve uncertain model <span class="hlt">predictions</span> by incorporating noisy observational data from complex systems including non-Gaussian features. A class of particle filters, clustered particle filters, is introduced for high-dimensional nonlinear systems, which uses relatively few particles compared with the standard particle filter. The clustered particle filter captures non-Gaussian features of the true signal, which are typical in complex nonlinear dynamical systems such as geophysical systems. The method is also robust in the difficult regime of high-quality sparse and infrequent observations. The key features of the clustered particle filtering are coarse-grained localization through the clustering of the <span class="hlt">state</span> variables and particle adjustment to stabilize the method; each observation affects only neighbor <span class="hlt">state</span> variables through clustering and particles are adjusted to prevent particle collapse due to high-quality observations. The clustered particle filter is tested for the 40-dimensional Lorenz 96 model with several dynamical regimes including strongly non-Gaussian statistics. The clustered particle filter shows robust skill in both achieving accurate filter results and capturing non-Gaussian statistics of the true signal. It is further extended to multiscale data assimilation, which provides the large-scale estimation by combining a cheap reduced-order forecast model and mixed observations of the large- and small-scale variables. This approach enables the use of a larger number of particles due to the computational savings in the forecast model. The multiscale clustered particle filter is tested for one-dimensional dispersive wave turbulence using a forecast model with model errors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25333285','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25333285"><span>[Social <span class="hlt">representation</span> of family support for diabetic patients in users of a family medicine unit in Chalco, <span class="hlt">State</span> of Mexico].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rodríguez, Alejandra; Camacho, Esteban Jaime; Escoto, María Del Consuelo; Contreras, Georgina; Casas, Donovan</p> <p>2014-08-27</p> <p>The goal of this study is to compare and interpret the meaning of family support for diabetic patients and their families using social <span class="hlt">representations</span> according to a structural approach of Abric's theory. The study was carried out in a Family Medicine Center of the Chalco Municipality in Mexico <span class="hlt">State</span>. The population studied comprised ten diabetic patient-family pairs. The first part of the study was a simple word association test that aimed to find terms or statements related to the concept of "family support", as well as its frequency of appearance and range of association. Once the terms or statements were obtained, they were categorized according to their "support" capabilities. A semi-structured interview for each category was conducted as well as a graphic analysis of Friedman's meanings. The discourse of diabetic patients was compared to that of the families in order to find similarities and differences. Evocation of terms was done in the first part of the study, and it was found that the emotional domain was central to the discourse. However, in the second part of the study, when categorization and analysis of discourse is performed, there are differences in the centrality of terms and statements. The family tends to center in the active domain, whereas the patient centers in the emotional domain. This study brings up the emotional needs of the patient as essential components of support efforts. This promotes reflection about changing strategies in the design of public healthcare programs in that they may include family support from the viewpoint of otherness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMB....61..791W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMB....61..791W"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> standard-dose PET image from low-dose PET and multimodal MR images using mapping-based sparse <span class="hlt">representation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Yan; Zhang, Pei; An, Le; Ma, Guangkai; Kang, Jiayin; Shi, Feng; Wu, Xi; Zhou, Jiliu; Lalush, David S.; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Positron emission tomography (PET) has been widely used in clinical diagnosis for diseases and disorders. To obtain high-quality PET images requires a standard-dose radionuclide (tracer) injection into the human body, which inevitably increases risk of radiation exposure. One possible solution to this problem is to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the standard-dose PET image from its low-dose counterpart and its corresponding multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) images. Inspired by the success of patch-based sparse <span class="hlt">representation</span> (SR) in super-resolution image reconstruction, we propose a mapping-based SR (m-SR) framework for standard-dose PET image <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. Compared with the conventional patch-based SR, our method uses a mapping strategy to ensure that the sparse coefficients, estimated from the multimodal MR images and low-dose PET image, can be applied directly to the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of standard-dose PET image. As the mapping between multimodal MR images (or low-dose PET image) and standard-dose PET images can be particularly complex, one step of mapping is often insufficient. To this end, an incremental refinement framework is therefore proposed. Specifically, the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> standard-dose PET image is further mapped to the target standard-dose PET image, and then the SR is performed again to <span class="hlt">predict</span> a new standard-dose PET image. This procedure can be repeated for <span class="hlt">prediction</span> refinement of the iterations. Also, a patch selection based dictionary construction method is further used to speed up the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> process. The proposed method is validated on a human brain dataset. The experimental results show that our method can outperform benchmark methods in both qualitative and quantitative measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25972769','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25972769"><span><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of intracellular metabolic <span class="hlt">states</span> from extracellular metabolomic data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aurich, Maike K; Paglia, Giuseppe; Rolfsson, Óttar; Hrafnsdóttir, Sigrún; Magnúsdóttir, Manuela; Stefaniak, Magdalena M; Palsson, Bernhard Ø; Fleming, Ronan M T; Thiele, Ines</p> <p></p> <p>Metabolic models can provide a mechanistic framework to analyze information-rich omics data sets, and are increasingly being used to investigate metabolic alternations in human diseases. An expression of the altered metabolic pathway utilization is the selection of metabolites consumed and released by cells. However, methods for the inference of intracellular metabolic <span class="hlt">states</span> from extracellular measurements in the context of metabolic models remain underdeveloped compared to methods for other omics data. Herein, we describe a workflow for such an integrative analysis emphasizing on extracellular metabolomics data. We demonstrate, using the lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines Molt-4 and CCRF-CEM, how our methods can reveal differences in cell metabolism. Our models explain metabolite uptake and secretion by <span class="hlt">predicting</span> a more glycolytic phenotype for the CCRF-CEM model and a more oxidative phenotype for the Molt-4 model, which was supported by our experimental data. Gene expression analysis revealed altered expression of gene products at key regulatory steps in those central metabolic pathways, and literature query emphasized the role of these genes in cancer metabolism. Moreover, in silico gene knock-outs identified unique control points for each cell line model, e.g., phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase for the Molt-4 model. Thus, our workflow is well-suited to the characterization of cellular metabolic traits based on extracellular metabolomic data, and it allows the integration of multiple omics data sets into a cohesive picture based on a defined model context.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...628450L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...628450L"><span>Transition-<span class="hlt">state</span> theory <span class="hlt">predicts</span> clogging at the microscale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Laar, T. Van De; Klooster, S. Ten; Schroën, K.; Sprakel, J.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Clogging is one of the main failure mechanisms encountered in industrial processes such as membrane filtration. Our understanding of the factors that govern the build-up of fouling layers and the emergence of clogs is largely incomplete, so that prevention of clogging remains an immense and costly challenge. In this paper we use a microfluidic model combined with quantitative real-time imaging to explore the influence of pore geometry and particle interactions on suspension clogging in constrictions, two crucial factors which remain relatively unexplored. We find a distinct dependence of the clogging rate on the entrance angle to a membrane pore which we explain quantitatively by deriving a model, based on transition-<span class="hlt">state</span> theory, which describes the effect of viscous forces on the rate with which particles accumulate at the channel walls. With the same model we can also <span class="hlt">predict</span> the effect of the particle interaction potential on the clogging rate. In both cases we find excellent agreement between our experimental data and theory. A better understanding of these clogging mechanisms and the influence of design parameters could form a stepping stone to delay or prevent clogging by rational membrane design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4916426','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4916426"><span>Transition-<span class="hlt">state</span> theory <span class="hlt">predicts</span> clogging at the microscale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Laar, T. van de; Klooster, S. ten; Schroën, K.; Sprakel, J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Clogging is one of the main failure mechanisms encountered in industrial processes such as membrane filtration. Our understanding of the factors that govern the build-up of fouling layers and the emergence of clogs is largely incomplete, so that prevention of clogging remains an immense and costly challenge. In this paper we use a microfluidic model combined with quantitative real-time imaging to explore the influence of pore geometry and particle interactions on suspension clogging in constrictions, two crucial factors which remain relatively unexplored. We find a distinct dependence of the clogging rate on the entrance angle to a membrane pore which we explain quantitatively by deriving a model, based on transition-<span class="hlt">state</span> theory, which describes the effect of viscous forces on the rate with which particles accumulate at the channel walls. With the same model we can also <span class="hlt">predict</span> the effect of the particle interaction potential on the clogging rate. In both cases we find excellent agreement between our experimental data and theory. A better understanding of these clogging mechanisms and the influence of design parameters could form a stepping stone to delay or prevent clogging by rational membrane design. PMID:27328715</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023095','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023095"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> red wolf release success in the southeastern United <span class="hlt">States</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>van Manen, Frank T.; Crawford, Barron A.; Clark, Joseph D.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Although the red wolf (Canis rufus) was once found throughout the southeastern United <span class="hlt">States</span>, indiscriminate killing and habitat destruction reduced its range to a small section of coastal Texas and Louisiana. Wolves trapped from 1973 to 1980 were taken to establish a captive breeding program that was used to repatriate 2 mainland and 3 island red wolf populations. We collected data from 320 red wolf releases in these areas and classified each as a success or failure based on survival and reproductive criteria, and whether recaptures were necessary to resolve conflicts with humans. We evaluated the relations between release success and conditions at the release sites, characteristics of released wolves, and release procedures. Although <44% of the variation in release success was explained, model performance based on jackknife tests indicated a 72-80% correct <span class="hlt">prediction</span> rate for the 4 operational models we developed. The models indicated that success was associated with human influences on the landscape and the level of wolf habituation to humans prior to release. We applied the models to 31 prospective areas for wolf repatriation and calculated an index of release success for each area. Decision-makers can use these models to objectively rank prospective release areas and compare strengths and weaknesses of each.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19624193','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19624193"><span>Complex multireference configuration interaction calculations employing a coupled diabatic <span class="hlt">representation</span> for the 2Pi(g) resonance <span class="hlt">states</span> of N2(-).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Honigmann, Michael; Buenker, Robert J; Liebermann, Heinz-Peter</p> <p>2009-07-21</p> <p>Complex multireference configuration interaction calculations have been carried out for the lowest resonance <span class="hlt">states</span> of (2)Pi(g) symmetry of the N(2)(-) molecule. It is shown that there is a forbidden crossing between the two lowest roots of this symmetry and that a satisfactory calculation of vibrational levels and cross sections therefore requires inclusion of both <span class="hlt">states</span> and the coupling between them. A diabatic <span class="hlt">representation</span> for the two (2)Pi(g) <span class="hlt">states</span> was determined and vibronic calculations of the cross sections for vibrational excitation were carried out with a two-dimensional complex variational program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26236030','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26236030"><span>Non-parametric <span class="hlt">representation</span> and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of single- and multi-shell diffusion-weighted MRI data using Gaussian processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Andersson, Jesper L R; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N</p> <p>2015-11-15</p> <p>Diffusion MRI offers great potential in studying the human brain microstructure and connectivity. However, diffusion images are marred by technical problems, such as image distortions and spurious signal loss. Correcting for these problems is non-trivial and relies on having a mechanism that <span class="hlt">predicts</span> what to expect. In this paper we describe a novel way to represent and make <span class="hlt">predictions</span> about diffusion MRI data. It is based on a Gaussian process on one or several spheres similar to the Geostatistical method of "Kriging". We present a choice of covariance function that allows us to accurately <span class="hlt">predict</span> the signal even from voxels with complex fibre patterns. For multi-shell data (multiple non-zero b-values) the covariance function extends across the shells which means that data from one shell is used when making <span class="hlt">predictions</span> for another shell.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4627362','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4627362"><span>Non-parametric <span class="hlt">representation</span> and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of single- and multi-shell diffusion-weighted MRI data using Gaussian processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Andersson, Jesper L.R.; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Diffusion MRI offers great potential in studying the human brain microstructure and connectivity. However, diffusion images are marred by technical problems, such as image distortions and spurious signal loss. Correcting for these problems is non-trivial and relies on having a mechanism that <span class="hlt">predicts</span> what to expect. In this paper we describe a novel way to represent and make <span class="hlt">predictions</span> about diffusion MRI data. It is based on a Gaussian process on one or several spheres similar to the Geostatistical method of “Kriging”. We present a choice of covariance function that allows us to accurately <span class="hlt">predict</span> the signal even from voxels with complex fibre patterns. For multi-shell data (multiple non-zero b-values) the covariance function extends across the shells which means that data from one shell is used when making <span class="hlt">predictions</span> for another shell. PMID:26236030</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26565769','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26565769"><span>Medico-Artistic Complicities on Swedish Stages: The Boys in the Band and the Regulation of Gay Male <span class="hlt">Representation</span> in the Welfare <span class="hlt">State</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gindt, Dirk</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Seeking to understand the highly unfavorable conditions for the development of gay male theater in Sweden, this essay engages in a historical study of the national opening of Mart Crowley's The Boys in the Band at Malmö City Theatre in 1970. Propelled by a Foucauldian-inspired theoretical approach, it identifies the subtle, yet highly effective, measures of control that the, at the time, social democratic welfare <span class="hlt">state</span> exercised over <span class="hlt">representations</span> of homosexuality on stage. <span class="hlt">State</span> representatives, who complied with the official political and medical doctrine that homosexuality was a mental illness and posed a potential threat to social stability, interfered at various levels of the production, including the rehearsal process and post-performance talks between cast members and audiences. This alliance between Swedish theaters and members of the medical, psychological, and sexological professions constituted a medico-artistic complicity that supervised and regulated early attempts of gay <span class="hlt">representation</span> on stage.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3490755','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3490755"><span>Protein-RNA interface residue <span class="hlt">prediction</span> using machine learning: an assessment of the <span class="hlt">state</span> of the art</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background RNA molecules play diverse functional and structural roles in cells. They function as messengers for transferring genetic information from DNA to proteins, as the primary genetic material in many viruses, as catalysts (ribozymes) important for protein synthesis and RNA processing, and as essential and ubiquitous regulators of gene expression in living organisms. Many of these functions depend on precisely orchestrated interactions between RNA molecules and specific proteins in cells. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which proteins recognize and bind RNA is essential for comprehending the functional implications of these interactions, but the recognition ‘code’ that mediates interactions between proteins and RNA is not yet understood. Success in deciphering this code would dramatically impact the development of new therapeutic strategies for intervening in devastating diseases such as AIDS and cancer. Because of the high cost of experimental determination of protein-RNA interfaces, there is an increasing reliance on statistical machine learning methods for training predictors of RNA-binding residues in proteins. However, because of differences in the choice of datasets, performance measures, and data <span class="hlt">representations</span> used, it has been difficult to obtain an accurate assessment of the current <span class="hlt">state</span> of the art in protein-RNA interface <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. Results We provide a review of published approaches for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> RNA-binding residues in proteins and a systematic comparison and critical assessment of protein-RNA interface residue predictors trained using these approaches on three carefully curated non-redundant datasets. We directly compare two widely used machine learning algorithms (Naïve Bayes (NB) and Support Vector Machine (SVM)) using three different data <span class="hlt">representations</span> in which features are encoded using either sequence- or structure-based windows. Our results show that (i) Sequence-based classifiers that use a position-specific scoring</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22574904','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22574904"><span>Protein-RNA interface residue <span class="hlt">prediction</span> using machine learning: an assessment of the <span class="hlt">state</span> of the art.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walia, Rasna R; Caragea, Cornelia; Lewis, Benjamin A; Towfic, Fadi; Terribilini, Michael; El-Manzalawy, Yasser; Dobbs, Drena; Honavar, Vasant</p> <p>2012-05-10</p> <p>RNA molecules play diverse functional and structural roles in cells. They function as messengers for transferring genetic information from DNA to proteins, as the primary genetic material in many viruses, as catalysts (ribozymes) important for protein synthesis and RNA processing, and as essential and ubiquitous regulators of gene expression in living organisms. Many of these functions depend on precisely orchestrated interactions between RNA molecules and specific proteins in cells. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which proteins recognize and bind RNA is essential for comprehending the functional implications of these interactions, but the recognition 'code' that mediates interactions between proteins and RNA is not yet understood. Success in deciphering this code would dramatically impact the development of new therapeutic strategies for intervening in devastating diseases such as AIDS and cancer. Because of the high cost of experimental determination of protein-RNA interfaces, there is an increasing reliance on statistical machine learning methods for training predictors of RNA-binding residues in proteins. However, because of differences in the choice of datasets, performance measures, and data <span class="hlt">representations</span> used, it has been difficult to obtain an accurate assessment of the current <span class="hlt">state</span> of the art in protein-RNA interface <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. We provide a review of published approaches for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> RNA-binding residues in proteins and a systematic comparison and critical assessment of protein-RNA interface residue predictors trained using these approaches on three carefully curated non-redundant datasets. We directly compare two widely used machine learning algorithms (Naïve Bayes (NB) and Support Vector Machine (SVM)) using three different data <span class="hlt">representations</span> in which features are encoded using either sequence- or structure-based windows. Our results show that (i) Sequence-based classifiers that use a position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28796604','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28796604"><span>Dual Temporal and Spatial Sparse <span class="hlt">Representation</span> for Inferring Group-wise Brain Networks from Resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> fMRI Dataset.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gong, Junhui; Liu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Tianming; Zhou, Jiansong; Sun, Gang; Tian, Juanxiu</p> <p>2017-08-09</p> <p>Recently, sparse <span class="hlt">representation</span> has been successfully used to identify brain networks from task-based fMRI dataset. However, when using the strategy to analyze resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> fMRI dataset, it is still a challenge to automatically infer the group-wise brain networks under consideration of group commonalities and subject-specific characteristics. In the paper, a novel method based on dual temporal and spatial sparse <span class="hlt">representation</span> (DTSSR) is proposed to meet this challenge. Firstly, the brain functional networks with subject-specific characteristics are obtained via sparse <span class="hlt">representation</span> with online dictionary learning for the fMRI time series (temporal domain) of each subject. Next, based on the current brain science knowledge, a simple mathematical model is proposed to describe the complex nonlinear dynamic coupling mechanism of the brain networks, with which the group-wise intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) can be inferred by sparse <span class="hlt">representation</span> for these brain functional networks (spatial domain) of all subjects. Experiments on Leiden_2180 dataset show that most group-wise ICNs obtained by the proposed DTSSR are interpretable by current brain science knowledge and are consistent with previous literature reports. The robustness of DTSSR and the reproducibility of the results are demonstrated by experiments on three different datasets (Leiden_2180, Leiden_2200 and our own dataset). Results of the present work shed new light on exploring the coupling mechanism of BFNs from perspective of information science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp..249D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp..249D"><span>On the inherent <span class="hlt">predictability</span> of precipitation across the United <span class="hlt">States</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dhanya, C. T.; Villarini, Gabriele</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Predictability</span> of climate variables is known to be limited to few days up to few weeks due to the inherent chaotic nature and resulting sensitivity to initial conditions. However, such generalization of limited <span class="hlt">predictability</span> is cautioned because of the highly nonlinear nature and the known influence of localized causal factors on many climate variables. Additionally, even though an improvement in <span class="hlt">predictability</span> is expected with coarsening in spatial and temporal resolutions, the extent and rate of this expected improvement is still unexplored. This study investigates the spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">predictability</span> of daily precipitation across the USA. The emphasis is on determining the rate of increase in <span class="hlt">predictability</span> with spatio-temporal averaging, by defining three <span class="hlt">predictability</span> statistics (maximum <span class="hlt">predictability</span>, <span class="hlt">predictive</span> error, and <span class="hlt">predictive</span> instability) based on the nonlinear finite-time Lyapunov exponent. From our analyses, we find that <span class="hlt">predictability</span> increases monotonically with temporal averaging, while spatial averaging has minimal influence, pointing to the possible spatially invariant nature of precipitation dynamics. Modeling the precipitation dynamics at relatively coarser scales of 1° × 1° and higher temporal scales of 5-10 days could markedly improve the <span class="hlt">predictability</span> statistics. Significant changes in the <span class="hlt">predictability</span> characteristics of daily precipitation across large areas of the USA and associated non-stationarity are also identified over the 1948-2006 period. This is consistent with sudden changes in the overall nature of precipitation over time, which include a reduction in non-rainy days, an increase in signal-to-noise ratio, an increase in average precipitation events, and an increase in extremes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4777431','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4777431"><span>The Frequency of “Brilliant” and “Genius” in Teaching Evaluations <span class="hlt">Predicts</span> the <span class="hlt">Representation</span> of Women and African Americans across Fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Storage, Daniel; Horne, Zachary; Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Women and African Americans—groups targeted by negative stereotypes about their intellectual abilities—may be underrepresented in careers that prize brilliance and genius. A recent nationwide survey of academics provided initial support for this possibility. Fields whose practitioners believed that natural talent is crucial for success had fewer female and African American PhDs. The present study seeks to replicate this initial finding with a different, and arguably more naturalistic, measure of the extent to which brilliance and genius are prized within a field. Specifically, we measured field-by-field variability in the emphasis on these intellectual qualities by tallying—with the use of a recently released online tool—the frequency of the words “brilliant” and “genius” in over 14 million reviews on RateMyProfessors.com, a popular website where students can write anonymous evaluations of their instructors. This simple word count <span class="hlt">predicted</span> both women’s and African Americans’ <span class="hlt">representation</span> across the academic spectrum. That is, we found that fields in which the words “brilliant” and “genius” were used more frequently on RateMyProfessors.com also had fewer female and African American PhDs. Looking at an earlier stage in students’ educational careers, we found that brilliance-focused fields also had fewer women and African Americans obtaining bachelor’s degrees. These relationships held even when accounting for field-specific averages on standardized mathematics assessments, as well as several competing hypotheses concerning group differences in <span class="hlt">representation</span>. The fact that this naturalistic measure of a field’s focus on brilliance <span class="hlt">predicted</span> the magnitude of its gender and race gaps speaks to the tight link between ability beliefs and diversity. PMID:26938242</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22369122','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22369122"><span>Identifying regulational alterations in gene regulatory networks by <span class="hlt">state</span> space <span class="hlt">representation</span> of vector autoregressive models and variational annealing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kojima, Kaname; Imoto, Seiya; Yamaguchi, Rui; Fujita, André; Yamauchi, Mai; Gotoh, Noriko; Miyano, Satoru</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In the analysis of effects by cell treatment such as drug dosing, identifying changes on gene network structures between normal and treated cells is a key task. A possible way for identifying the changes is to compare structures of networks estimated from data on normal and treated cells separately. However, this approach usually fails to estimate accurate gene networks due to the limited length of time series data and measurement noise. Thus, approaches that identify changes on regulations by using time series data on both conditions in an efficient manner are demanded. We propose a new statistical approach that is based on the <span class="hlt">state</span> space <span class="hlt">representation</span> of the vector autoregressive model and estimates gene networks on two different conditions in order to identify changes on regulations between the conditions. In the mathematical model of our approach, hidden binary variables are newly introduced to indicate the presence of regulations on each condition. The use of the hidden binary variables enables an efficient data usage; data on both conditions are used for commonly existing regulations, while for condition specific regulations corresponding data are only applied. Also, the similarity of networks on two conditions is automatically considered from the design of the potential function for the hidden binary variables. For the estimation of the hidden binary variables, we derive a new variational annealing method that searches the configuration of the binary variables maximizing the marginal likelihood. For the performance evaluation, we use time series data from two topologically similar synthetic networks, and confirm that our proposed approach estimates commonly existing regulations as well as changes on regulations with higher coverage and precision than other existing approaches in almost all the experimental settings. For a real data application, our proposed approach is applied to time series data from normal Human lung cells and Human lung cells treated by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22987760','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22987760"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> the enantioselectivity of the copper-catalysed cyclopropanation of alkenes by using quantitative quadrant-diagram <span class="hlt">representations</span> of the catalysts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aguado-Ullate, Sonia; Urbano-Cuadrado, Manuel; Villalba, Isabel; Pires, Elísabet; García, José I; Bo, Carles; Carbó, Jorge J</p> <p>2012-10-29</p> <p>We present a new methodology to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the enantioselectivity of asymmetric catalysis based on quantitative quadrant-diagram <span class="hlt">representations</span> of the catalysts and quantitative structure-selectivity relationship (QSSR) modelling. To account for quadrant occupation, we used two types of molecular steric descriptors: the Taft-Charton steric parameter (ν(Charton)) and the distance-weighted volume (V(W) ). By assigning the value of the steric descriptors to each of the positions of the quadrant diagram, we generated the independent variables to build the multidimensional QSSR models. The methodology was applied to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the enantioselectivity in the cyclopropanation of styrene catalysed by copper complexes. The dataset comprised 30 chiral ligands belonging to four different oxazoline-based ligand families: bis- (Box), azabis- (AzaBox), quinolinyl- (Quinox) and pyridyl-oxazoline (Pyox). In the first-order approximation, we generated QSSR models with good <span class="hlt">predictive</span> ability (r(2) =0.89 and q(2) =0.88). The derived stereochemical model indicated that placing very large groups at two diagonal quadrants and leaving free the other two might be enough to obtain an enantioselective catalyst. Fitting the data to a higher-order polynomial, which included crossterms between the descriptors of the quadrants, resulted in an improvement of the <span class="hlt">predicting</span> ability of the QSSR model (r(2) =0.96 and q(2) =0.93). This suggests that the relationship between the steric hindrance and the enantioselectivity is non-linear, and that bulky substituents in diagonal quadrants operate synergistically. We believe that the quantitative quadrant-diagram-based QSSR modelling is a further conceptual tool that can be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the selectivity of chiral catalysts and other aspects of catalytic performance. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26848071','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26848071"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Periodontitis at <span class="hlt">State</span> and Local Levels in the United <span class="hlt">States</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eke, P I; Zhang, X; Lu, H; Wei, L; Thornton-Evans, G; Greenlund, K J; Holt, J B; Croft, J B</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of periodontitis at <span class="hlt">state</span> and local levels across the United <span class="hlt">States</span> by using a novel, small area estimation (SAE) method. Extended multilevel regression and poststratification analyses were used to estimate the prevalence of periodontitis among adults aged 30 to 79 y at <span class="hlt">state</span>, county, congressional district, and census tract levels by using periodontal data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2012, population counts from the 2010 US census, and smoking status estimates from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 2012. The SAE method used age, race, gender, smoking, and poverty variables to estimate the prevalence of periodontitis as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/American Academy of Periodontology case definitions at the census block levels and aggregated to larger administrative and geographic areas of interest. Model-based SAEs were validated against national estimates directly from NHANES 2009-2012. Estimated prevalence of periodontitis ranged from 37.7% in Utah to 52.8% in New Mexico among the <span class="hlt">states</span> (mean, 45.1%; median, 44.9%) and from 33.7% to 68% among counties (mean, 46.6%; median, 45.9%). Severe periodontitis ranged from 7.27% in New Hampshire to 10.26% in Louisiana among the <span class="hlt">states</span> (mean, 8.9%; median, 8.8%) and from 5.2% to 17.9% among counties (mean, 9.2%; median, 8.8%). Overall, the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> prevalence of periodontitis was highest for southeastern and southwestern <span class="hlt">states</span> and for geographic areas in the Southeast along the Mississippi Delta, as well as along the US and Mexico border. Aggregated model-based SAEs were consistent with national prevalence estimates from NHANES 2009-2012. This study is the first-ever estimation of periodontitis prevalence at <span class="hlt">state</span> and local levels in the United <span class="hlt">States</span>, and this modeling approach complements public health surveillance efforts to identify areas with a high burden of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=definition+AND+evolution&pg=7&id=EJ829987','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=definition+AND+evolution&pg=7&id=EJ829987"><span>The Scholarship of Teaching and Web-Based <span class="hlt">Representations</span> of Teaching in the United <span class="hlt">States</span>: Definitions, Histories, and New Directions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hatch, Thomas</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The relationship between the scholarship of teaching and practitioner inquiry is characterized both by questions of definition (what "counts" as scholarship and who can produce it) and execution (how to facilitate the <span class="hlt">representation</span>, interpretation and analysis of teaching). This article addresses both issues by beginning with an…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9535945','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9535945"><span>Vowel <span class="hlt">representations</span> in the ventral cochlear nucleus of the cat: effects of level, background noise, and behavioral <span class="hlt">state</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>May, B J; Prell, G S; Sachs, M B</p> <p>1998-04-01</p> <p>Single-unit responses were studied in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) of cats as formant and trough features of the vowel /epsilon/ were shifted in the frequency domain to each unit's best frequency (BF; the frequency of greatest sensitivity). Discharge rates sampled with this spectrum manipulation procedure (SMP) were used to estimate vowel <span class="hlt">representations</span> provided by populations of VCN neurons. In traditional population measures, a good <span class="hlt">representation</span> of a vowel's formant structure is based on relatively high discharge rates among units with BFs near high-energy formant features and low rates for units with BFs near low-energy spectral troughs. At most vowel levels and in the presence of background noise, chopper units exhibited formant-to-trough rate differences that were larger than VCN primary-like units and auditory-nerve fibers. By contrast, vowel encoding by primary-like units resembled auditory nerve <span class="hlt">representations</span> for most stimulus conditions. As is seen in the auditory nerve, primary-like units with low spontaneous rates (SR <18 spikes/s) produced better <span class="hlt">representations</span> than high SR primary-like units at all but the lowest vowel levels. Awake cats exhibited the same general response properties as anesthetized cats but larger between-subject differences in vowel driven rates. The vowel encoding properties of VCN chopper units support previous interpretations that patterns of auditory nerve convergence on cochlear nucleus neurons compensate for limitations in the dynamic range of peripheral neurons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=National+AND+Geographic&id=ED569377','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=National+AND+Geographic&id=ED569377"><span>Cultural <span class="hlt">Representations</span> in/as the Global Studies Curriculum: Seeing and Knowing China in the United <span class="hlt">States</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mungur, Amy</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study is an examination of how two popular magazines, "National Geographic" and "Life" magazine, and one educational journal, "Social Education," perform the work of <span class="hlt">representation</span> in general, and representing China more specifically. Drawing on postcolonial theorists (Blaut, 1993; Said, 1978; Tchen, 1999; wa…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=chemistry&id=EJ1088241','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=chemistry&id=EJ1088241"><span><span class="hlt">Representation</span> and Analysis of Chemistry Core Ideas in Science Education Standards between China and the United <span class="hlt">States</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wan, Yanlan; Bi, Hualin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Chemistry core ideas play an important role in students' chemistry learning. On the basis of the <span class="hlt">representations</span> of chemistry core ideas about "substances" and "processes" in the Chinese Chemistry Curriculum Standards (CCCS) and the U.S. Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), we conduct a critical comparison of chemistry…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CHemistry&id=EJ1088241','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CHemistry&id=EJ1088241"><span><span class="hlt">Representation</span> and Analysis of Chemistry Core Ideas in Science Education Standards between China and the United <span class="hlt">States</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wan, Yanlan; Bi, Hualin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Chemistry core ideas play an important role in students' chemistry learning. On the basis of the <span class="hlt">representations</span> of chemistry core ideas about "substances" and "processes" in the Chinese Chemistry Curriculum Standards (CCCS) and the U.S. Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), we conduct a critical comparison of chemistry…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=united+AND+states+AND+middle+AND+class&pg=7&id=ED569377','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=united+AND+states+AND+middle+AND+class&pg=7&id=ED569377"><span>Cultural <span class="hlt">Representations</span> in/as the Global Studies Curriculum: Seeing and Knowing China in the United <span class="hlt">States</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mungur, Amy</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study is an examination of how two popular magazines, "National Geographic" and "Life" magazine, and one educational journal, "Social Education," perform the work of <span class="hlt">representation</span> in general, and representing China more specifically. Drawing on postcolonial theorists (Blaut, 1993; Said, 1978; Tchen, 1999; wa…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20020848','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20020848"><span><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of critical properties of mixtures from the PRSV-2 equation of <span class="hlt">state</span>: A correction for <span class="hlt">predicted</span> critical volumes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Abu-Eishah, S.I.</p> <p>1999-09-01</p> <p>Critical properties of a fluid or fluid mixtures are important for describing fluid phase behavior, <span class="hlt">predicting</span> physical properties, developing equations of <span class="hlt">state</span>, and designing supercritical-fluid extraction processes, and compression and refrigeration units. The <span class="hlt">predictive</span> capability of the Peng-Robinson-Styjek-Vera (PRSV-2) equation of <span class="hlt">state</span> (1986) for critical properties of binary mixtures was investigated. The procedure adopted by Heidemann and Khalil (1980) and discussed by Abu-Eishah et al. (1998) was followed. An optimized value for the binary interaction parameter based on minimization of error between experimental and <span class="hlt">predicted</span> critical temperatures was used. The standard and the average of the absolute relative deviations in critical properties are included. The <span class="hlt">predicted</span> critical temperature and pressure for several nonpolar and polar systems agree well with experimental data and are always better than those <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by the group-contribution method. A correction is introduced here to modify the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> critical volume by the PRSV-2 equation of <span class="hlt">state</span>, which makes the average deviations between <span class="hlt">predicted</span> and experimental values very close to or even better than those <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by the group-contribution method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5440750','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5440750"><span>The <span class="hlt">Representation</span> of Motor (Inter)action, <span class="hlt">States</span> of Action, and Learning: Three Perspectives on Motor Learning by Way of Imagery and Execution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Frank, Cornelia; Schack, Thomas</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Learning in intelligent systems is a result of direct and indirect interaction with the environment. While humans can learn by way of different <span class="hlt">states</span> of (inter)action such as the execution or the imagery of an action, their unique potential to induce brain- and mind-related changes in the motor action system is still being debated. The systematic repetition of different <span class="hlt">states</span> of action (e.g., physical and/or mental practice) and their contribution to the learning of complex motor actions has traditionally been approached by way of performance improvements. More recently, approaches highlighting the role of action <span class="hlt">representation</span> in the learning of complex motor actions have evolved and may provide additional insight into the learning process. In the present perspective paper, we build on brain-related findings and sketch recent research on learning by way of imagery and execution from a hierarchical, perceptual-cognitive approach to motor control and learning. These findings provide insights into the learning of intelligent systems from a perceptual-cognitive, <span class="hlt">representation</span>-based perspective and as such add to our current understanding of action <span class="hlt">representation</span> in memory and its changes with practice. Future research should build bridges between approaches in order to more thoroughly understand functional changes throughout the learning process and to facilitate motor learning, which may have particular importance for cognitive systems research in robotics, rehabilitation, and sports. PMID:28588510</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28588510','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28588510"><span>The <span class="hlt">Representation</span> of Motor (Inter)action, <span class="hlt">States</span> of Action, and Learning: Three Perspectives on Motor Learning by Way of Imagery and Execution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Frank, Cornelia; Schack, Thomas</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Learning in intelligent systems is a result of direct and indirect interaction with the environment. While humans can learn by way of different <span class="hlt">states</span> of (inter)action such as the execution or the imagery of an action, their unique potential to induce brain- and mind-related changes in the motor action system is still being debated. The systematic repetition of different <span class="hlt">states</span> of action (e.g., physical and/or mental practice) and their contribution to the learning of complex motor actions has traditionally been approached by way of performance improvements. More recently, approaches highlighting the role of action <span class="hlt">representation</span> in the learning of complex motor actions have evolved and may provide additional insight into the learning process. In the present perspective paper, we build on brain-related findings and sketch recent research on learning by way of imagery and execution from a hierarchical, perceptual-cognitive approach to motor control and learning. These findings provide insights into the learning of intelligent systems from a perceptual-cognitive, <span class="hlt">representation</span>-based perspective and as such add to our current understanding of action <span class="hlt">representation</span> in memory and its changes with practice. Future research should build bridges between approaches in order to more thoroughly understand functional changes throughout the learning process and to facilitate motor learning, which may have particular importance for cognitive systems research in robotics, rehabilitation, and sports.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940026059','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940026059"><span><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> sufficiency and the use of stored internal <span class="hlt">state</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Musliner, David J.; Durfee, Edmund H.; Shin, Kang G.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>In all embedded computing systems, some delay exists between sensing and acting. By choosing an action based on sensed data, a system is essentially <span class="hlt">predicting</span> that there will be no significant changes in the world during this delay. However, the dynamic and uncertain nature of the real world can make these <span class="hlt">predictions</span> incorrect, and thus, a system may execute inappropriate actions. Making systems more reactive by decreasing the gap between sensing and action leaves less time for <span class="hlt">predictions</span> to err, but still provides no principled assurance that they will be correct. Using the concept of <span class="hlt">predictive</span> sufficiency described in this paper, a system can prove that its <span class="hlt">predictions</span> are valid, and that it will never execute inappropriate actions. In the context of our CIRCA system, we also show how <span class="hlt">predictive</span> sufficiency allows a system to guarantee worst-case response times to changes in its environment. Using <span class="hlt">predictive</span> sufficiency, CIRCA is able to build real-time reactive control plans which provide a sound basis for performance guarantees that are unavailable with other reactive systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4537072','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4537072"><span>Mixed LICORS: A Nonparametric Algorithm for <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> <span class="hlt">State</span> Reconstruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Goerg, Georg M.; Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We introduce mixed LICORS, an algorithm for learning nonlinear, high-dimensional dynamics from spatio-temporal data, suitable for both <span class="hlt">prediction</span> and simulation. Mixed LICORS extends the recent LICORS algorithm (Goerg and Shalizi, 2012) from hard clustering of <span class="hlt">predictive</span> distributions to a non-parametric, EM-like soft clustering. This retains the asymptotic <span class="hlt">predictive</span> optimality of LICORS, but, as we show in simulations, greatly improves out-of-sample forecasts with limited data. The new method is implemented in the publicly-available R package LICORS. PMID:26279743</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25448299','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25448299"><span>Text as data: using text-based features for proteins <span class="hlt">representation</span> and for computational <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of their characteristics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shatkay, Hagit; Brady, Scott; Wong, Andrew</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The current era of large-scale biology is characterized by a fast-paced growth in the number of sequenced genomes and, consequently, by a multitude of identified proteins whose function has yet to be determined. Simultaneously, any known or postulated information concerning genes and proteins is part of the ever-growing published scientific literature, which is expanding at a rate of over a million new publications per year. Computational tools that attempt to automatically <span class="hlt">predict</span> and annotate protein characteristics, such as function and localization patterns, are being developed along with systems that aim to support the process via text mining. Most work on protein characterization focuses on features derived directly from protein sequence data. Protein-related work that does aim to utilize the literature typically concentrates on extracting specific facts (e.g., protein interactions) from text. In the past few years we have taken a different route, treating the literature as a source of text-based features, which can be employed just as sequence-based protein-features were used in earlier work, for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> protein subcellular location and possibly also function. We discuss here in detail the overall approach, along with results from work we have done in this area demonstrating the value of this method and its potential use. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090014080','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090014080"><span>Adjoints and Low-rank Covariance <span class="hlt">Representation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tippett, Michael K.; Cohn, Stephen E.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Quantitative measures of the uncertainty of Earth System estimates can be as important as the estimates themselves. Second moments of estimation errors are described by the covariance matrix, whose direct calculation is impractical when the number of degrees of freedom of the system <span class="hlt">state</span> is large. Ensemble and reduced-<span class="hlt">state</span> approaches to <span class="hlt">prediction</span> and data assimilation replace full estimation error covariance matrices by low-rank approximations. The appropriateness of such approximations depends on the spectrum of the full error covariance matrix, whose calculation is also often impractical. Here we examine the situation where the error covariance is a linear transformation of a forcing error covariance. We use operator norms and adjoints to relate the appropriateness of low-rank <span class="hlt">representations</span> to the conditioning of this transformation. The analysis is used to investigate low-rank <span class="hlt">representations</span> of the steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> response to random forcing of an idealized discrete-time dynamical system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010086236','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010086236"><span>Statistical Mining of <span class="hlt">Predictability</span> of Seasonal Precipitation over the United <span class="hlt">States</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lau, William K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Shen, S. P.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Results from a new ensemble canonical correlation (ECC) <span class="hlt">prediction</span> model yield a remarkable (10-20%) increases in baseline <span class="hlt">prediction</span> skills for seasonal precipitation over the US for all seasons, compared to traditional statistical <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. While the tropical Pacific, i.e., El Nino, contributes to the largest share of potential <span class="hlt">predictability</span> in the southern tier <span class="hlt">States</span> during boreal winter, the North Pacific and the North Atlantic are responsible for enhanced <span class="hlt">predictability</span> in the northern Great Plains, Midwest and the southwest US during boreal summer. Most importantly, ECC significantly reduces the spring <span class="hlt">predictability</span> barrier over the conterminous US, thereby raising the skill bar for dynamical <span class="hlt">predictions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7640964','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7640964"><span>Favor referential <span class="hlt">representations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Frazier, L; McNamara, P</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>Avrutin and Hickok (1993) argue that agrammatic patients have the ability to represent nonreferential or "government" chains ("who ... e") but not referential or "binding" chains ("which girl ... e"). By contrast, we propose the "referential <span class="hlt">representation</span> hypothesis," which suggests that agrammatics attempt to cope with their well-known capacity limitations by favoring referential or content-based <span class="hlt">representations</span>. This <span class="hlt">predicts</span> that agrammatic patients' performance should degrade noticeably as task demands increase, and referential demands should take priority over computational ones. In a semantic task, referential phrases should lead to better or more accurate performances. In syntactic tasks, the availability of a referential or content-based <span class="hlt">representation</span> will interfere with the development of a syntactic <span class="hlt">representation</span>, resulting in worse syntactic performance on the referential phrases than on nonreferential ones. This <span class="hlt">predicts</span> that agrammatic patients should incorrectly accept (resumptive) pronoun sentences with a referential wh-phrase because the pronouns will find the semantic or discourse referent of the referential wh-phrase and take it as an antecedent for the pronoun. However, they should reject a (resumptive) pronoun in a sentence with the nonreferential question constituent "who" or "what." "Who" and "what" will remain in syntactic form, since they have only grammatical content and therefore will have only a "nonreferential" syntactic <span class="hlt">representation</span>. Consequently, they cannot serve as the antecedent of the pronoun. These <span class="hlt">predictions</span> were largely confirmed by the results of a grammaticality judgement study. Agrammatics performed well on questions with pragmatic biases but failed to distinguish reliably between grammatical and ungrammatical questions where pragmatic biases were neutralized. They assigned especially low ratings to object gap sentences with referential wh-constituents, as <span class="hlt">predicted</span>. They assigned relatively high ratings to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=exact+AND+solutions&pg=5&id=ED555784','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=exact+AND+solutions&pg=5&id=ED555784"><span>On Belief <span class="hlt">State</span> <span class="hlt">Representation</span> and Its Application in Planning with Incomplete Information, Nondeterministic Actions, and Sensing Actions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>To, Son Thanh</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>"Belief <span class="hlt">state</span>" refers to the set of possible world <span class="hlt">states</span> satisfying the agent's (usually imperfect) knowledge. The use of belief <span class="hlt">state</span> allows the agent to reason about the world with incomplete information, by considering each possible <span class="hlt">state</span> in the belief <span class="hlt">state</span> individually, in the same way as if it had perfect knowledge. However, the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1095420','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1095420"><span>Basophile: Accurate Fragment Charge <span class="hlt">State</span> <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Improves Peptide Identification Rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Dong; Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C.; Holman, Jerry D.; Chen, Kan; Liebler, Daniel; Orton, Daniel J.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Chung, Chang Y.; Rose, Kristie L.; Tabb, David L.</p> <p>2013-03-07</p> <p>In shotgun proteomics, database search algorithms rely on fragmentation models to <span class="hlt">predict</span> fragment ions that should be observed for a given peptide sequence. The most widely used strategy (Naive model) is oversimplified, cleaving all peptide bonds with equal probability to produce fragments of all charges below that of the precursor ion. More accurate models, based on fragmentation simulation, are too computationally intensive for on-the-fly use in database search algorithms. We have created an ordinal-regression-based model called Basophile that takes fragment size and basic residue distribution into account when determining the charge retention during CID/higher-energy collision induced dissociation (HCD) of charged peptides. This model improves the accuracy of <span class="hlt">predictions</span> by reducing the number of unnecessary fragments that are routinely <span class="hlt">predicted</span> for highly-charged precursors. Basophile increased the identification rates by 26% (on average) over the Naive model, when analyzing triply-charged precursors from ion trap data. Basophile achieves simplicity and speed by solving the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> problem with an ordinal regression equation, which can be incorporated into any database search software for shotgun proteomic identification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1095420-basophile-accurate-fragment-charge-state-prediction-improves-peptide-identification-rates','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1095420-basophile-accurate-fragment-charge-state-prediction-improves-peptide-identification-rates"><span>Basophile: Accurate Fragment Charge <span class="hlt">State</span> <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Improves Peptide Identification Rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Wang, Dong; Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C.; ...</p> <p>2013-03-07</p> <p>In shotgun proteomics, database search algorithms rely on fragmentation models to <span class="hlt">predict</span> fragment ions that should be observed for a given peptide sequence. The most widely used strategy (Naive model) is oversimplified, cleaving all peptide bonds with equal probability to produce fragments of all charges below that of the precursor ion. More accurate models, based on fragmentation simulation, are too computationally intensive for on-the-fly use in database search algorithms. We have created an ordinal-regression-based model called Basophile that takes fragment size and basic residue distribution into account when determining the charge retention during CID/higher-energy collision induced dissociation (HCD) of chargedmore » peptides. This model improves the accuracy of <span class="hlt">predictions</span> by reducing the number of unnecessary fragments that are routinely <span class="hlt">predicted</span> for highly-charged precursors. Basophile increased the identification rates by 26% (on average) over the Naive model, when analyzing triply-charged precursors from ion trap data. Basophile achieves simplicity and speed by solving the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> problem with an ordinal regression equation, which can be incorporated into any database search software for shotgun proteomic identification.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3737598','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3737598"><span>Basophile: Accurate Fragment Charge <span class="hlt">State</span> <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Improves Peptide Identification Rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Dong; Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C.; Holman, Jerry D.; Chen, Kan; Liebler, Daniel C.; Orton, Daniel J.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Chung, Chang Y.; Rose, Kristie L.; Tabb, David L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In shotgun proteomics, database search algorithms rely on fragmentation models to <span class="hlt">predict</span> fragment ions that should be observed for a given peptide sequence. The most widely used strategy (Naive model) is oversimplified, cleaving all peptide bonds with equal probability to produce fragments of all charges below that of the precursor ion. More accurate models, based on fragmentation simulation, are too computationally intensive for on-the-fly use in database search algorithms. We have created an ordinal-regression-based model called Basophile that takes fragment size and basic residue distribution into account when determining the charge retention during CID/higher-energy collision induced dissociation (HCD) of charged peptides. This model improves the accuracy of <span class="hlt">predictions</span> by reducing the number of unnecessary fragments that are routinely <span class="hlt">predicted</span> for highly-charged precursors. Basophile increased the identification rates by 26% (on average) over the Naive model, when analyzing triply-charged precursors from ion trap data. Basophile achieves simplicity and speed by solving the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> problem with an ordinal regression equation, which can be incorporated into any database search software for shotgun proteomic identification. PMID:23499924</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1157595','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1157595"><span>Modified Inverse First Order Reliability Method (I-FORM) for <span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Extreme Sea <span class="hlt">States</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Dallman, Ann Renee; Neary, Vincent Sinclair</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Environmental contours describing extreme sea <span class="hlt">states</span> are generated as the input for numerical or physical model simulation s as a part of the stand ard current practice for designing marine structure s to survive extreme sea <span class="hlt">states</span>. Such environmental contours are characterized by combinations of significant wave height ( ) and energy period ( ) values calculated for a given recurrence interval using a set of data based on hindcast simulations or buoy observations over a sufficient period of record. The use of the inverse first - order reliability method (IFORM) i s standard design practice for generating environmental contours. In this paper, the traditional appli cation of the IFORM to generating environmental contours representing extreme sea <span class="hlt">states</span> is described in detail and its merits and drawbacks are assessed. The application of additional methods for analyzing sea <span class="hlt">state</span> data including the use of principal component analysis (PCA) to create an uncorrelated <span class="hlt">representation</span> of the data under consideration is proposed. A reexamination of the components of the IFORM application to the problem at hand including the use of new distribution fitting techniques are shown to contribute to the development of more accurate a nd reasonable <span class="hlt">representations</span> of extreme sea <span class="hlt">states</span> for use in survivability analysis for marine struc tures. Keywords: In verse FORM, Principal Component Analysis , Environmental Contours, Extreme Sea <span class="hlt">State</span> Characteri zation, Wave Energy Converters</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24767883','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24767883"><span>Invited review: Current <span class="hlt">representation</span> and future trends of <span class="hlt">predicting</span> amino acid utilization in the lactating dairy cow.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arriola Apelo, S I; Knapp, J R; Hanigan, M D</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p> tissues that would lead to improved requirement <span class="hlt">prediction</span> systems. Inclusion of variable individual EAA efficiencies derived from splanchnic and mammary responses to nutrient and hormonal signals should help reduce dietary protein levels. Supplementing reduced crude protein diets with individual EAA should increase gross N efficiency to more than 30%, reducing N excretion by the US dairy industry by 92,000 t annually. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4342364','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4342364"><span>The <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Brain <span class="hlt">State</span>: Asynchrony in Disorders of Attention?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ghajar, Jamshid; Ivry, Richard B.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>It is postulated that a key function of attention in goal-oriented behavior is to reduce performance variability by generating anticipatory neural activity that can be synchronized with expected sensory information. A network encompassing the prefrontal cortex, parietal lobe, and cerebellum may be critical in the maintenance and timing of such <span class="hlt">predictive</span> neural activity. Dysfunction of this temporal process may constitute a fundamental defect in attention, causing working memory problems, distractibility, and decreased awareness. PMID:19074688</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615003D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615003D"><span>Investigating Marine Boundary Layer Parameterizations for Improved Off-Shore Wind <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> by Combining Observations with Models via <span class="hlt">State</span> Estimation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Delle Monache, Luca; Hacker, Josh; Kosovic, Branko; Lee, Jared; Vandenberghe, Francois; Wu, Yonghui; Clifton, Andrew; Hawkins, Sam; Nissen, Jesper; Rostkier-Edelstein, Dorita</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Despite advances in model <span class="hlt">representation</span> of the spatial and temporal evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) a fundamental understanding of the processes shaping the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) is still lacking. As part of a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, we are tackling this problem by combining available atmosphere and ocean observations with advanced coupled atmosphere-wave models, and via <span class="hlt">state</span> estimation (SE) methodologies. The over-arching goal is to achieve significant advances in the scientific understanding and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the underlying physical processes of the MBL, with an emphasis on the coupling between the atmosphere and the ocean via momentum and heat fluxes. We are using the single-column model (SCM) and three-dimensional (3D) versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, observations of MBL structure as provided by coastal and offshore remote sensing platforms and meteorological towers, and probabilistic SE. We are systematically investigating the errors in the treatment of the surface layer of the MBL, identifying structural model inadequacies associated with its <span class="hlt">representation</span>. We expect one key deficiency of current model <span class="hlt">representations</span> of the surface layer of the MBL that can have a profound effect on fluxes estimates: the use of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST). This theory was developed for continental ABLs using land-based measurements, which accounts for mechanical and thermal forcing on turbulence but neglects the influence of ocean waves. We have developed an atmosphere-wave coupled modeling system by interfacing WRF with a wave model (Wavewatch III - WWIII), which is used for evaluating errors in the <span class="hlt">representation</span> of wave-induced forcing on the energy balance at the interface between atmosphere and ocean. The Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) includes the SE algorithms that provide the framework for obtaining spatial and temporal statistics of wind-error evolution (and hence</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.145T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.145T"><span>The <span class="hlt">state</span> of the art of flood forecasting - Hydrological Ensemble <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thielen-Del Pozo, J.; Pappenberger, F.; Salamon, P.; Bogner, K.; Burek, P.; de Roo, A.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Flood forecasting systems form a key part of ‘preparedness' strategies for disastrous floods and provide hydrological services, civil protection authorities and the public with information of upcoming events. Provided the warning leadtime is sufficiently long, adequate preparatory actions can be taken to efficiently reduce the impacts of the flooding. Because of the specific characteristics of each catchment, varying data availability and end-user demands, the design of the best flood forecasting system may differ from catchment to catchment. However, despite the differences in concept and data needs, there is one underlying issue that spans across all systems. There has been an growing awareness and acceptance that uncertainty is a fundamental issue of flood forecasting and needs to be dealt with at the different spatial and temporal scales as well as the different stages of the flood generating processes. Today, operational flood forecasting centres change increasingly from single deterministic forecasts to probabilistic forecasts with various <span class="hlt">representations</span> of the different contributions of uncertainty. The move towards these so-called Hydrological Ensemble <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Systems (HEPS) in flood forecasting represents the <span class="hlt">state</span> of the art in forecasting science, following on the success of the use of ensembles for weather forecasting (Buizza et al., 2005) and paralleling the move towards ensemble forecasting in other related disciplines such as climate change <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. The use of HEPS has been internationally fostered by initiatives such as "The Hydrologic Ensemble <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Experiment" (HEPEX), created with the aim to investigate how best to produce, communicate and use hydrologic ensemble forecasts in hydrological short-, medium- und long term <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of hydrological processes. The advantages of quantifying the different contributions of uncertainty as well as the overall uncertainty to obtain reliable and useful flood forecasts also for extreme events</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA243091','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA243091"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Enlistment Behavior from <span class="hlt">Stated</span> Intentions and Demographic Characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1990-12-01</p> <p>researchers could determine how a respondent’s <span class="hlt">stated</span> purchase intention is related to his actual purchase behavior. To understand the relationship...between purchase intention surveys and this thesis, consider the YATS survey discussed briefly in Chapter I. This study is a key component of the Joint</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/15651','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/15651"><span>Forest ingrowth <span class="hlt">prediction</span> model for the Northeastern United <span class="hlt">States</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Linda S. Gribko</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>In the last 20 years, there has been a revival of interest in the use of uneven-aged forest management techniques in the production of timber and forest amenity values. Uneven-aged management is coming into renewed favor especially among non-industrial private landowners in the northeastern United <span class="hlt">States</span>. The practice allows periodic timber removals on relatively small...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311083&keyword=Nitrates&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78806789&CFTOKEN=25984490','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311083&keyword=Nitrates&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78806789&CFTOKEN=25984490"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> SOA from organic nitrates in the southeastern United <span class="hlt">States</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Organic nitrates have been identified as an important component of ambient aerosol in the Southeast United <span class="hlt">States</span>. In this work, we use the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to explore the relationship between gas-phase production of organic nitrates and their subsequ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sss&pg=7&id=EJ846199','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sss&pg=7&id=EJ846199"><span>The <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Validity of Osun <span class="hlt">State</span> Junior Secondary Certificate Examination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Faleye, B. A.; Afolabi, E. R. I.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: The Junior Secondary Certificate Examination (JSCE) is a summative examination taken by candidates at the end (the third year) of Junior Secondary Education in Nigeria. The Examination is in two versions--(a) the one being conducted by the <span class="hlt">States</span>' Ministries of Education (MOE) and (b) the Federal version being conducted by the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311083&keyword=Hydrolysis&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311083&keyword=Hydrolysis&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> SOA from organic nitrates in the southeastern United <span class="hlt">States</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Organic nitrates have been identified as an important component of ambient aerosol in the Southeast United <span class="hlt">States</span>. In this work, we use the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to explore the relationship between gas-phase production of organic nitrates and their subsequ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23819887','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23819887"><span>Compensating for literature annotation bias when <span class="hlt">predicting</span> novel drug-disease relationships through Medical Subject Heading Over-<span class="hlt">representation</span> Profile (MeSHOP) similarity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheung, Warren A; Ouellette, B F Francis; Wasserman, Wyeth W</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Using annotations to the articles in MEDLINE®/PubMed®, over six thousand chemical compounds with pharmacological actions have been tracked since 1996. Medical Subject Heading Over-<span class="hlt">representation</span> Profiles (MeSHOPs) quantitatively leverage the literature associated with biological entities such as diseases or drugs, providing the opportunity to reposition known compounds towards novel disease applications. A MeSHOP is constructed by counting the number of times each medical subject term is assigned to an entity-related research publication in the MEDLINE database and calculating the significance of the count by comparing against the count of the term in a background set of publications. Based on the expectation that drugs suitable for treatment of a disease (or disease symptom) will have similar annotation properties to the disease, we successfully <span class="hlt">predict</span> drug-disease associations by comparing MeSHOPs of diseases and drugs. The MeSHOP comparison approach delivers an 11% improvement over bibliometric baselines. However, novel drug-disease associations are observed to be biased towards drugs and diseases with more publications. To account for the annotation biases, a correction procedure is introduced and evaluated. By explicitly accounting for the annotation bias, unexpectedly similar drug-disease pairs are highlighted as candidates for drug repositioning research. MeSHOPs are shown to provide a literature-supported perspective for discovery of new links between drugs and diseases based on pre-existing knowledge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3654871','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3654871"><span>Compensating for literature annotation bias when <span class="hlt">predicting</span> novel drug-disease relationships through Medical Subject Heading Over-<span class="hlt">representation</span> Profile (MeSHOP) similarity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Using annotations to the articles in MEDLINE®/PubMed®, over six thousand chemical compounds with pharmacological actions have been tracked since 1996. Medical Subject Heading Over-<span class="hlt">representation</span> Profiles (MeSHOPs) quantitatively leverage the literature associated with biological entities such as diseases or drugs, providing the opportunity to reposition known compounds towards novel disease applications. Methods A MeSHOP is constructed by counting the number of times each medical subject term is assigned to an entity-related research publication in the MEDLINE database and calculating the significance of the count by comparing against the count of the term in a background set of publications. Based on the expectation that drugs suitable for treatment of a disease (or disease symptom) will have similar annotation properties to the disease, we successfully <span class="hlt">predict</span> drug-disease associations by comparing MeSHOPs of diseases and drugs. Results The MeSHOP comparison approach delivers an 11% improvement over bibliometric baselines. However, novel drug-disease associations are observed to be biased towards drugs and diseases with more publications. To account for the annotation biases, a correction procedure is introduced and evaluated. Conclusions By explicitly accounting for the annotation bias, unexpectedly similar drug-disease pairs are highlighted as candidates for drug repositioning research. MeSHOPs are shown to provide a literature-supported perspective for discovery of new links between drugs and diseases based on pre-existing knowledge. PMID:23819887</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=286959','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=286959"><span>A history of wind erosion <span class="hlt">prediction</span> models in the United <span class="hlt">States</span> Department of Agriculture: The Wind Erosion <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> System (WEPS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Development of the Wind Erosion <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> System (WEPS) was officially inaugurated in 1985 by United <span class="hlt">States</span> Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) scientists in response to customer requests, particularly those coming from the USDA Soil Conservation Service (SCS), for im...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Journal+AND+Personnel+AND+Psychology&pg=5&id=EJ956576','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Journal+AND+Personnel+AND+Psychology&pg=5&id=EJ956576"><span>Using General Outcome Measures to <span class="hlt">Predict</span> Student Performance on <span class="hlt">State</span>-Mandated Assessments: An Applied Approach for Establishing <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Cutscores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Leblanc, Michael; Dufore, Emily; McDougal, James</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Cutscores for reading and math (general outcome measures) to <span class="hlt">predict</span> passage on New York <span class="hlt">state</span>-mandated assessments were created by using a freely available Excel workbook. The authors used linear regression to create the cutscores and diagnostic indicators were provided. A rationale and procedure for using this method is outlined. This method…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MsT.........42S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MsT.........42S"><span>Extent And Distribution Of Montane Riparian Zone Vegetation And <span class="hlt">Representation</span> In Protected Areas In The Sky Island Region Of The Southwestern United <span class="hlt">States</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shaw, Nicole H.</p> <p></p> <p>The Sky Island region of the southwestern United <span class="hlt">States</span> hosts some of the richest biodiversity anywhere in the world. In the mountain ranges of the Sky Islands, most vertebrate biodiversity is dependent on riparian areas for all or some of their life cycles. Riparian vegetation is threatened by human impacts and climate change. Though riparian vegetation along rivers and major perennial streams is already mapped in this region, vegetation in ephemeral and intermittent riparian areas, arguably equally important for biodiversity in the mountain ranges, has not been quantified. I developed a Random Forest classification model of riparian vegetation for all three types of riparian areas, mapped this vegetation for each of the 25 mountain ranges, described the spatial distribution and connectivity of the vegetation among and between mountain ranges, and demonstrated enhancement of regional riparian land cover classes with the new model of riparian zone vegetation. The resulting map indicates a much broader distribution of riparian zone vegetation than previous land cover mapping efforts indicate, likely due to inclusion of ephemeral and intermittent riparian types. The spatial distribution and connectivity of riparian zone vegetation varied widely within and between mountain ranges, possibly as a result of variability in environmental factors affecting aridity, temperature, water availability, landscape position, and disturbances. The model can be used with other information to augment understanding of the integrity, connectivity, and vulnerability of riparian zone vegetation in this unique and important region. To analyze the conservation status of riparian zone vegetation, I quantified its <span class="hlt">representation</span> in protected areas. I then compared the <span class="hlt">representation</span> relative to the overall amount of riparian zone vegetation in each mountain range. The relationships between <span class="hlt">representation</span> of riparian zone vegetation in protected areas, degree of mountain range protection, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6493223','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6493223"><span>Positron-HF collisions: <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of a weakly bound <span class="hlt">state</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Danby, G.; Tennyson, J.</p> <p>1988-12-12</p> <p>Ab initio molecular R-matrix calculations are presented for collisions of low-energy positrons with the hydrogen fluoride molecule as a function of HF internuclear separation. Calculations presented are for ..sigma.. total symmetry with and without polarization effects. These calculations mirror recent electron-HF scattering calculations by Morgan and Burke. Strong evidence is obtained for the presence of a bound <span class="hlt">state</span> of the e/sup +/HF system. The experimental consequences of this result are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28246663','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28246663"><span>Steady <span class="hlt">state</span> statistical correlations <span class="hlt">predict</span> bistability in reaction motifs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chakravarty, Suchana; Barik, Debashis</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Various cellular decision making processes are regulated by bistable switches that take graded input signals and convert them to binary all-or-none responses. Traditionally, a bistable switch generated by a positive feedback loop is characterized either by a hysteretic signal response curve with two distinct signaling thresholds or by characterizing the bimodality of the response distribution in the bistable region. To identify the intrinsic bistability of a feedback regulated network, here we propose that bistability can be determined by correlating higher order moments and cumulants (≥2) of the joint steady <span class="hlt">state</span> distributions of two components connected in a positive feedback loop. We performed stochastic simulations of four feedback regulated models with intrinsic bistability and we show that for a bistable switch with variation of the signal dose, the steady <span class="hlt">state</span> variance vs. covariance adopts a signatory cusp-shaped curve. Further, we find that the (n + 1)th order cross-cumulant vs. nth order cross-cumulant adopts a closed loop structure for at least n = 3. We also propose that our method is capable of identifying systems without intrinsic bistability even though the system may show bimodality in the marginal response distribution. The proposed method can be used to analyze single cell protein data measured at steady <span class="hlt">state</span> from experiments such as flow cytometry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=perpetual&pg=2&id=EJ892227','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=perpetual&pg=2&id=EJ892227"><span>Representing <span class="hlt">Representation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kuntz, Aaron M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>What can be known and how to render what we know are perpetual quandaries met by qualitative research, complicated further by the understanding that the everyday discourses influencing our <span class="hlt">representations</span> are often tacit, unspoken or heard so often that they seem to warrant little reflection. In this article, I offer analytic memos as a means for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvD..82l4031B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvD..82l4031B"><span>Spinfoams in the holomorphic <span class="hlt">representation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bianchi, Eugenio; Magliaro, Elena; Perini, Claudio</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>We study a holomorphic <span class="hlt">representation</span> for spinfoams. The <span class="hlt">representation</span> is obtained via the Ashtekar-Lewandowski-Marolf-Mourão-Thiemann coherent <span class="hlt">state</span> transform. We derive the expression of the 4d spinfoam vertex for Euclidean and for Lorentzian gravity in the holomorphic <span class="hlt">representation</span>. The advantage of this <span class="hlt">representation</span> rests on the fact that the variables used have a clear interpretation in terms of a classical intrinsic and extrinsic geometry of space. We show how the peakedness on the extrinsic geometry selects a single exponential of the Regge action in the semiclassical large-scale asymptotics of the spinfoam vertex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC.1060..174J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC.1060..174J"><span>Two <span class="hlt">States</span> Mapping Based Time Series Neural Network Model for Compensation <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Residual Error</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jung, Insung; Koo, Lockjo; Wang, Gi-Nam</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>The objective of this paper was to design a model of human bio signal data <span class="hlt">prediction</span> system for decreasing of <span class="hlt">prediction</span> error using two <span class="hlt">states</span> mapping based time series neural network BP (back-propagation) model. Normally, a lot of the industry has been applied neural network model by training them in a supervised manner with the error back-propagation algorithm for time series <span class="hlt">prediction</span> systems. However, it still has got a residual error between real value and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> result. Therefore, we designed two <span class="hlt">states</span> of neural network model for compensation residual error which is possible to use in the prevention of sudden death and metabolic syndrome disease such as hypertension disease and obesity. We determined that most of the simulation cases were satisfied by the two <span class="hlt">states</span> mapping based time series <span class="hlt">prediction</span> model. In particular, small sample size of times series were more accurate than the standard MLP model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H53L..05W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H53L..05W"><span>Improving Hydrologic <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> at the Basin Scale through <span class="hlt">State</span> Updating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weerts, A.; Kockx, A.; Schellekens, J.; Drost, N.; Tretjakova, D.; Ren, J.; Lopez Lopez, P.; Hut, R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Data assimilation (DA) holds considerable potential for improving hydrologic <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. However, advances in hydrologic DA research have not been adequately or timely implemented in operational forecast systems to improve the skill of forecasts for better informed real-world decision making. Several challenges exist (see Liu et al., 2012). The objective of this paper is to highlight several recent studies on basin scale data assimilation using distributed hydrologic models that touch upon these challenges including application of streamflow data assimilation using different algorithms, combined streamflow/snow data assimilation and the development of a generic linkage of OpenDA and the open source hydrologic package Openstreams/Wflow based on the (emerging) standard Basic Model Interface (BMI) as advocated by CSDMS using cross-platform webservices (i.e. Apache Thrift). Liu et al., 2012. Advancing data assimilation in operational hydrologic forecasting: progresses, challenges, and emerging opportunities, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 3863-3887, doi:10.5194/hess-16-3863-2012.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26320866','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26320866"><span>Meditation-induced <span class="hlt">states</span> <span class="hlt">predict</span> attentional control over time.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Colzato, Lorenza S; Sellaro, Roberta; Samara, Iliana; Baas, Matthijs; Hommel, Bernhard</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Meditation is becoming an increasingly popular topic for scientific research and various effects of extensive meditation practice (ranging from weeks to several years) on cognitive processes have been demonstrated. Here we show that extensive practice may not be necessary to achieve those effects. Healthy adult non-meditators underwent a brief single session of either focused attention meditation (FAM), which is assumed to increase top-down control, or open monitoring meditation (OMM), which is assumed to weaken top-down control, before performing an Attentional Blink (AB) task - which assesses the efficiency of allocating attention over time. The size of the AB was considerably smaller after OMM than after FAM, which suggests that engaging in meditation immediately creates a cognitive-control <span class="hlt">state</span> that has a specific impact on how people allocate their attention over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150004035','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150004035"><span>Systems and Methods for Automated Vessel Navigation Using Sea <span class="hlt">State</span> <span class="hlt">Prediction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Huntsberger, Terrance L. (Inventor); Rankin, Arturo (Inventor); Aghazarian, Hrand (Inventor); Howard, Andrew B. (Inventor); Reinhart, Rene Felix (Inventor)</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Systems and methods for sea <span class="hlt">state</span> <span class="hlt">prediction</span> and autonomous navigation in accordance with embodiments of the invention are disclosed. One embodiment of the invention includes a method of <span class="hlt">predicting</span> a future sea <span class="hlt">state</span> including generating a sequence of at least two 3D images of a sea surface using at least two image sensors, detecting peaks and troughs in the 3D images using a processor, identifying at least one wavefront in each 3D image based upon the detected peaks and troughs using the processor, characterizing at least one propagating wave based upon the propagation of wavefronts detected in the sequence of 3D images using the processor, and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> a future sea <span class="hlt">state</span> using at least one propagating wave characterizing the propagation of wavefronts in the sequence of 3D images using the processor. Another embodiment includes a method of autonomous vessel navigation based upon a <span class="hlt">predicted</span> sea <span class="hlt">state</span> and target location.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-15/pdf/2012-11770.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-15/pdf/2012-11770.pdf"><span>77 FR 28536 - <span class="hlt">Representation</span> Procedures and Rulemaking Authority</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-05-15</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Representation</span> Manual (<span class="hlt">Representation</span> Manual) Section 19.601.\\2\\ The <span class="hlt">Representation</span> Manual further <span class="hlt">states</span> that.... <span class="hlt">Representation</span> Manual Section 19.6. The amended RLA, however, now requires at least a fifty percent showing of... with regard to mergers. \\2\\ The <span class="hlt">Representation</span> Manual is an internal statement of agency policy and not...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020003345&hterms=drought&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Ddrought','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020003345&hterms=drought&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Ddrought"><span>Are Droughts in the United <span class="hlt">States</span> Great Plains <span class="hlt">Predictable</span> on Seasonal and Longer Time Scales?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schubert, Siegfried D.; Suarez, M.; Pegion, P.; Kistler, M.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The United <span class="hlt">States</span> Great Plains has experienced numerous episodes of unusually dry conditions lasting anywhere from months to several years, In this presentation, we will examine the <span class="hlt">predictability</span> of such episodes and the physical mechanisms controlling the variability of the summer climate of the continental United <span class="hlt">States</span>. The analysis is based on ensembles of multi-year simulations and seasonal hindcasts generated with the NASA Seasonal to-Interannual <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Project (NSIPP-1) General Circulation Model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020003345&hterms=drought&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Ddrought','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020003345&hterms=drought&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Ddrought"><span>Are Droughts in the United <span class="hlt">States</span> Great Plains <span class="hlt">Predictable</span> on Seasonal and Longer Time Scales?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schubert, Siegfried D.; Suarez, M.; Pegion, P.; Kistler, M.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The United <span class="hlt">States</span> Great Plains has experienced numerous episodes of unusually dry conditions lasting anywhere from months to several years, In this presentation, we will examine the <span class="hlt">predictability</span> of such episodes and the physical mechanisms controlling the variability of the summer climate of the continental United <span class="hlt">States</span>. The analysis is based on ensembles of multi-year simulations and seasonal hindcasts generated with the NASA Seasonal to-Interannual <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Project (NSIPP-1) General Circulation Model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA630983','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA630983"><span>Ocean <span class="hlt">State</span> Estimation and <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> in the Intra-Americas Seas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-06-07</p> <p>Ocean <span class="hlt">State</span> Estimation and <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> in the Intra-Americas Seas Ralph F. Milliff Northwest Research Associates, Inc. Colorado Research...surface forcing and boundary conditions) that limit the <span class="hlt">predictability</span> of the circulation in regional ocean models in a variety of dynamical regimes...3. To develop ensemble <span class="hlt">prediction</span> techniques for regional ocean models; 4. Demonstrate the utility of the ROMS data assimilation framework in a real</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4448024','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4448024"><span>How to trust a perfect stranger: <span class="hlt">predicting</span> initial trust behavior from resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> brain-electrical connectivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Notebaert, Karolien; Anderl, Christine; Teckentrup, Vanessa; Kaßecker, Anja; Windmann, Sabine</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Reciprocal exchanges can be understood as the updating of an initial belief about a partner. This initial level of trust is essential when it comes to establishing cooperation with an unknown partner, as cooperation cannot arise without a minimum of trust not justified by previous successful exchanges with this partner. Here we demonstrate the existence of a <span class="hlt">representation</span> of the initial trust level before an exchange with a partner has occurred. Specifically, we can <span class="hlt">predict</span> the Investor’s initial investment—i.e. his initial level of trust toward the unknown trustee in Round 1 of a standard 10-round Trust Game—from resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> functional connectivity data acquired several minutes before the start of the Trust Game. Resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> functional connectivity is, however, not significantly associated with the level of trust in later rounds, potentially mirroring the updating of the initial belief about the partner. Our results shed light on how the initial level of trust is represented. In particular, we show that a person’s initial level of trust is, at least in part, determined by brain electrical activity acquired well before the beginning of an exchange. PMID:25274577</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25274577','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25274577"><span>How to trust a perfect stranger: <span class="hlt">predicting</span> initial trust behavior from resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> brain-electrical connectivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hahn, Tim; Notebaert, Karolien; Anderl, Christine; Teckentrup, Vanessa; Kaßecker, Anja; Windmann, Sabine</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Reciprocal exchanges can be understood as the updating of an initial belief about a partner. This initial level of trust is essential when it comes to establishing cooperation with an unknown partner, as cooperation cannot arise without a minimum of trust not justified by previous successful exchanges with this partner. Here we demonstrate the existence of a <span class="hlt">representation</span> of the initial trust level before an exchange with a partner has occurred. Specifically, we can <span class="hlt">predict</span> the Investor's initial investment--i.e. his initial level of trust toward the unknown trustee in Round 1 of a standard 10-round Trust Game-from resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> functional connectivity data acquired several minutes before the start of the Trust Game. Resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> functional connectivity is, however, not significantly associated with the level of trust in later rounds, potentially mirroring the updating of the initial belief about the partner. Our results shed light on how the initial level of trust is represented. In particular, we show that a person's initial level of trust is, at least in part, determined by brain electrical activity acquired well before the beginning of an exchange.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4997866','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4997866"><span>Posaconazole Plasma Concentrations on Days Three to Five <span class="hlt">Predict</span> Steady-<span class="hlt">State</span> Levels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Prattes, Jürgen; Duettmann, Wiebke</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Low posaconazole plasma concentrations (PPCs) have been associated with breakthrough invasive fungal infections. We assessed the correlation between pre-steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> PPCs (obtained between days 3 and 5) and PPCs obtained during steady <span class="hlt">state</span> in 48 patients with underlying hematological malignancies receiving posaconazole oral-solution prophylaxis. Pre-steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> PPCs correlated significantly with PPCs obtained at steady <span class="hlt">state</span> (Spearman r = 0.754; P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of pre-steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> PPCs revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.884 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.790 to 0.977) for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> satisfactory PPCs at steady <span class="hlt">state</span>. PMID:27324763</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3855180','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3855180"><span>Replication and Extension: Separate Personality Traits from <span class="hlt">States</span> to <span class="hlt">Predict</span> Depression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E.; Jarrett, Robin B.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Changes in personality trait levels often parallel episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD), whereas trait factor structures and substantial retest correlations are preserved. We explicated this dual <span class="hlt">state</span>/trait nature of personality assessments among adults with recurrent MDD (N=351) receiving cognitive therapy (CT). We tested stability and change in the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality, 2nd Edition (SNAP-2; Clark et al., in press), separated <span class="hlt">state</span> and trait variance, and <span class="hlt">predicted</span> depressive symptoms and clinical outcomes. Many SNAP scale scores changed in CT (e.g., positive temperament increased, negative temperament decreased), and decreases in depressive symptoms accounted for most scales' score changes. Nonetheless, SNAP scales' <span class="hlt">state</span> and trait components <span class="hlt">predicted</span> depressive symptoms early and late in CT as well as clinical outcomes, and <span class="hlt">state</span> components <span class="hlt">predicted</span> changes in symptoms and clinical outcomes. These results support the validity of the SNAP-2 among depressed patients and highlight the salience of personality-relevant <span class="hlt">state</span> affect. PMID:23786268</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1393484-predictability-state-level-flood-damage-conterminous-united-states-role-hazard-exposure-vulnerability','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1393484-predictability-state-level-flood-damage-conterminous-united-states-role-hazard-exposure-vulnerability"><span><span class="hlt">Predictability</span> of <span class="hlt">state</span>-level flood damage in the conterminous United <span class="hlt">States</span>: the role of hazard, exposure and vulnerability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Zhou, Qianqian; Leng, Guoyong; Feng, Leyang</p> <p>2017-07-13</p> <p>Understanding historical changes in flood damage and the underlying mechanisms is critical for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> future changes for better adaptations. In this study, a detailed assessment of flood damage for 1950–1999 is conducted at the <span class="hlt">state</span> level in the conterminous United <span class="hlt">States</span> (CONUS). Geospatial datasets on possible influencing factors are then developed by synthesizing natural hazards, population, wealth, cropland and urban area to explore the relations with flood damage. A considerable increase in flood damage in CONUS is recorded for the study period which is well correlated with hazards. Comparably, runoff indexed hazards simulated by the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) modelmore » can explain a larger portion of flood damage variations than precipitation in 84% of the <span class="hlt">states</span>. Cropland is identified as an important factor contributing to increased flood damage in central US while urbanland exhibits positive and negative relations with total flood damage and damage per unit wealth in 20 and 16 <span class="hlt">states</span>, respectively. Altogether, flood damage in 34 out of 48 investigated <span class="hlt">states</span> can be <span class="hlt">predicted</span> at the 90% confidence level. In extreme cases, ~76% of flood damage variations can be explained in some <span class="hlt">states</span>, highlighting the potential of future flood damage <span class="hlt">prediction</span> based on climate change and socioeconomic scenarios.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=result&pg=5&id=EJ1128640','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=result&pg=5&id=EJ1128640"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Middle Level <span class="hlt">State</span> Standardized Test Results Using Family and Community Demographic Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tienken, Christopher H.; Colella, Anthony; Angelillo, Christian; Fox, Meredith; McCahill, Kevin R.; Wolfe, Adam</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The use of standardized test results to drive school administrator evaluations pervades education policymaking in more than 40 <span class="hlt">states</span>. However, the results of <span class="hlt">state</span> standardized tests are strongly influenced by non-school factors. The models of best fit (n = 18) from this correlational, explanatory, longitudinal study <span class="hlt">predicted</span> accurately the…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/42566','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/42566"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> landscape vegetation dynamics using <span class="hlt">state</span>-and-transition simulation models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Colin J. Daniel; Leonardo. Frid</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper outlines how <span class="hlt">state</span>-and-transition simulation models (STSMs) can be used to project changes in vegetation over time across a landscape. STSMs are stochastic, empirical simulation models that use an adapted Markov chain approach to <span class="hlt">predict</span> how vegetation will transition between <span class="hlt">states</span> over time, typically in response to interactions between succession,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/697174','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/697174"><span><span class="hlt">Representation</span> of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S absorption by aqueous solutions of diethanolamine using an electrolyte equation of <span class="hlt">state</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vallee, G.; Fuerst, W.; Mougin, P.; Jullian, S.</p> <p>1999-09-01</p> <p>The electrolyte equation of <span class="hlt">state</span> published in 1993 by Fuerst and Renon (AIChE J. 1993, 39, 335) has been applied to the <span class="hlt">representation</span> of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S solubility in diethaloamine (DEA) aqueous solutions. This equation of <span class="hlt">state</span> extends the classical Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation of <span class="hlt">state</span> associated with a Wong-Sandler mixing rule to the case of systems containing ions. The study of binary systems allowed the authors to determine the parameters of the nonelectrolyte part of the equation of <span class="hlt">state</span>. The ionic parameters have been fitted from experimental solubility data covering a wide range of experimental conditions (temperature range, 25--100 C; amine concentration, from 0.5 to 3.5 M; loadings up to 2.34 mol{sub Co{sub 2}}/mol{sub amine}). With the assumption used in previous applications of their model to various electrolyte systems, the adjusted ionic parameters are interaction ones involving protonated amine and anions as well as molecular compounds. The resulting model represents experimental data with deviations consistent with the experimental ones and close to the deviations obtained in previous studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19535050','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19535050"><span>Adaptive extended <span class="hlt">state</span> space <span class="hlt">predictive</span> control for a kind of nonlinear systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Ri-Dong; Wang, Shu-Qing; Xue, An-Ke; Ren, Zheng-Yun; Li, Ping</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>This paper presents an adaptive nonlinear <span class="hlt">predictive</span> control design strategy for a kind of nonlinear systems with output feedback coupling and results in the improvement of regulatory capacity for reference tracking, robustness and disturbance rejection. The nonlinear system is first transformed into an equal time-variant system by analyzing the nonlinear part. Then an extended <span class="hlt">state</span> space <span class="hlt">predictive</span> controller with a similar structure of a PI optimal regulator and with P-step setpoint feedforward control is designed. Because changes of the system <span class="hlt">state</span> variables are considered in the objective function, the control performance is superior to conventional <span class="hlt">state</span> space <span class="hlt">predictive</span> control designs which only consider the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> output errors. The proposed method is tested and compared with latest methods in literature. Tracking performance, robustness and disturbance rejection are improved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRD..112.4106C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRD..112.4106C"><span>Seasonal rainfall <span class="hlt">predictions</span> over the southeast United <span class="hlt">States</span> using the Florida <span class="hlt">State</span> University nested regional spectral model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cocke, Steven; Larow, T. E.; Shin, D. W.</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>Seasonal rainfall <span class="hlt">predictions</span> over the southeast United <span class="hlt">States</span> using the recently developed Florida <span class="hlt">State</span> University (FSU) nested regional spectral model are presented. The regional model is nested within the FSU coupled model, which includes a version of the Max Plank Institute Hamburg Ocean Primitive Equation model. The southeast U.S. winter has a rather strong climatic signal due to teleconnections with tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures and thus provides a good test case scenario for a modeling study. Simulations were done for 12 boreal winter seasons, from 1986 to 1997. Both the regional and global models captured the basic large-scale patterns of precipitation reasonably well when compared to observed station data. The regional model was able to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the anomaly pattern somewhat better than the global model. The regional model was particularly more skillful at <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the frequency of significant rainfall events, in part because of the ability to produce heavier rainfall events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15110765','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15110765"><span><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of the disulfide-bonding <span class="hlt">state</span> of cysteines in proteins based on dipeptide composition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Song, Jiang-Ning; Wang, Ming-Lei; Li, Wei-Jiang; Xu, Wen-Bo</p> <p>2004-05-21</p> <p>In this paper, a novel approach has been introduced to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the disulfide-bonding <span class="hlt">state</span> of cysteines in proteins by means of a linear discriminator based on their dipeptide composition. The <span class="hlt">prediction</span> is performed with a newly enlarged dataset with 8114 cysteine-containing segments extracted from 1856 non-homologous proteins of well-resolved three-dimensional structures. The oxidation of cysteines exhibits obvious cooperativity: almost all cysteines in disulfide-bond-containing proteins are in the oxidized form. This cooperativity can be well described by protein's dipeptide composition, based on which the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> accuracy of the oxidation form of cysteines scores as high as 89.1% and 85.2%, when measured on cysteine and protein basis using the rigorous jack-knife procedure, respectively. The result demonstrates the applicability of this new relatively simple method and provides superior <span class="hlt">prediction</span> performance compared with existing methods for the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the oxidation <span class="hlt">states</span> of cysteines in proteins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003Cryo...43..393H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003Cryo...43..393H"><span>A comparison among five equations of <span class="hlt">state</span> in <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the inversion curve of some fluids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haghighi, Behzad; Laee, Mohammad Reza; Seyed Matin, Naser</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>Five equations of <span class="hlt">state</span>, modified Peng-Robinson by Danesh et al. (MPR1), modified SRK equation of <span class="hlt">state</span> by Mathias and Copeman (MSRK), Vdw11, Harmens-Knapp (HK) and modified Peng-Robinson equation of <span class="hlt">state</span> by Ruzy (MPR2) were compared in <span class="hlt">predicting</span> of the inversion curve of some fluids. This enable us to judge the accuracy of the results obtained from different equations of <span class="hlt">state</span>. MSRK and HK equations of <span class="hlt">state</span> give good <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the low-temperatures branch of the inversion curve and are closely matched with the experimental inversion curve. As a corollary to the present study, we have perceived that the agreement of the MPR2 and Vdw11 equations of <span class="hlt">state</span> with the inversion curve are inadequate. We also calculated maximum inversion temperature and maximum inversion pressure for every component used in this work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820054464&hterms=inverter&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dinverter','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820054464&hterms=inverter&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dinverter"><span>Modeling and analysis of several classes of self-oscillating inverters. I - <span class="hlt">State</span>-plane <span class="hlt">representations</span>. II - Model extension, classification, and duality relationships</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lee, F. C. Y.; Wilson, T. G.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The present investigation is concerned with an important class of power conditioning networks, taking into account self-oscillating dc-to-square-wave transistor inverters. The considered circuits are widely used both as the principal power converting and processing means in many systems and as low-power analog-to-discrete-time converters for controlling the switching of the output-stage semiconductors in a variety of power conditioning systems. Aspects of piecewise-linear modeling are discussed, taking into consideration component models, and an equivalent-circuit model. Questions of singular point analysis and <span class="hlt">state</span> plane <span class="hlt">representation</span> are also investigated, giving attention to limit cycles, starting circuits, the region of attraction, a hard oscillator, and a soft oscillator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009CoTPh..51..729F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009CoTPh..51..729F"><span>ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: New Approach for Solving Master Equations in Quantum Optics and Quantum Statistics by Virtue of Thermo-Entangled <span class="hlt">State</span> <span class="hlt">Representation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fan, Hong-Yi; Hu, Li-Yun</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>By introducing a fictitious mode to be a counterpart mode of the system mode under review we introduce the entangled <span class="hlt">state</span> <span class="hlt">representation</span> langleη|, which can arrange master equations of density operators ρ(t) in quantum statistics as <span class="hlt">state</span>-vector evolution equations due to the elegant properties of langleη|. In this way many master equations (respectively describing damping oscillator, laser, phase sensitive, and phase diffusion processes with different initial density operators) can be concisely solved. Specially, for a damping process characteristic of the decay constant κ we find that the matrix element of ρ(t) at time t in langleη| <span class="hlt">representation</span> is proportional to that of the initial ρ0 in the decayed entangled <span class="hlt">state</span> langleηe-κt| <span class="hlt">representation</span>, accompanying with a Gaussian damping factor. Thus we have a new insight about the nature of the dissipative process. We also set up the so-called thermo-entangled <span class="hlt">state</span> <span class="hlt">representation</span> of density operators, ρ = ∫(d2η/π)langleη|ρrangleD(η), which is different from all the previous known <span class="hlt">representations</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28650863','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28650863"><span><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> models for prostate cancer outcomes: what is the <span class="hlt">state</span> of the art in 2017?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kearns, James T; Lin, Daniel W</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Prostate cancer (PCa) remains a significant public health burden, with multiple points for decision-making at all stages of the disease. Given the amount and variety of data that may influence disease management, <span class="hlt">prediction</span> models have been published to assist clinicians and patients in making decisions about the best next course of action at many disease <span class="hlt">states</span>. We sought to review the most important studies related to PCa <span class="hlt">prediction</span> models since 2016 and evaluate their impact upon the evolving field of risk modeling in PCa. There has been a significant amount of work published in the past year concerning risk modeling in PCa at all stages of disease, ranging from screening to <span class="hlt">predicting</span> survival with metastatic disease. The majority of recent publications focus upon the addition of a new biomarker to <span class="hlt">prediction</span> models or upon validating previously published <span class="hlt">prediction</span> models. In particular, MRI has been the topic of a number of more recent studies. <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> modeling in PCa currently compares the area under the receiver operating curve between models with and without the biomarker of interest to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the outcome of interest in multiple disease <span class="hlt">states</span>, ranging from diagnosis to <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of survival with metastatic disease. Future work should provide additional information regarding clinical impact and measures of <span class="hlt">prediction</span> confidence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol1-sec20-301.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol1-sec20-301.pdf"><span>33 CFR 20.301 - <span class="hlt">Representation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Representation</span>. 20.301 Section 20... Motions § 20.301 <span class="hlt">Representation</span>. (a) A party may appear— (1) Without counsel; (2) With an attorney; or (3... United <span class="hlt">States</span>. A personal <span class="hlt">representation</span> of membership is sufficient proof, unless the ALJ orders more...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title24-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title24-vol1-sec180-305.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title24-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title24-vol1-sec180-305.pdf"><span>24 CFR 180.305 - <span class="hlt">Representation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Representation</span>. 180.305 Section 180... <span class="hlt">Representation</span>. (a) HUD is represented by the General Counsel. (b) Any party may appear on his/her/its own behalf... <span class="hlt">State</span>. The attorney's <span class="hlt">representation</span> that he/she is in good standing before any of these courts is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title17-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title17-vol1-sec31-19.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title17-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title17-vol1-sec31-19.pdf"><span>17 CFR 31.19 - Unlawful <span class="hlt">representations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlawful <span class="hlt">representations</span>. 31... TRANSACTIONS § 31.19 Unlawful <span class="hlt">representations</span>. It shall be unlawful for any person: (a) Required to be... without also <span class="hlt">stating</span> in writing in connection with that <span class="hlt">representation</span> that the Commission, by registering...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title37-vol1-sec350-2.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title37-vol1-sec350-2.pdf"><span>37 CFR 350.2 - <span class="hlt">Representation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Representation</span>. 350.2 Section... ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS § 350.2 <span class="hlt">Representation</span>. Individual... <span class="hlt">representation</span> that the attorney is a member of the bar, in one or more <span class="hlt">states</span>, in good standing. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4404745','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4404745"><span>From a <span class="hlt">state</span> to a trait: Trajectories of <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness in meditation during intervention <span class="hlt">predict</span> changes in trait mindfulness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kiken, Laura G.; Garland, Eric L.; Bluth, Karen; Palsson, Olafur S.; Gaylord, Susan A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Theory suggests that heightening <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness in meditation practice over time increases trait mindfulness, which benefits psychological health. We prospectively examined individual trajectories of <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness in meditation during a mindfulness-based intervention in relation to changes in trait mindfulness and psychological distress. Each week during the eight-week intervention, participants reported their <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness in meditation after a brief mindfulness meditation. Participants also completed pre- and post-intervention measures of trait mindfulness and psychological symptoms. Tests of combined latent growth and path models suggested that individuals varied significantly in their rates of change in <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness in meditation during the intervention, and that these individual trajectories <span class="hlt">predicted</span> pre-post intervention changes in trait mindfulness and distress. These findings support that increasing <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness over repeated meditation sessions may contribute to a more mindful and less distressed disposition. However, individuals’ trajectories of change may vary and warrant further investigation. PMID:25914434</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25914434','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25914434"><span>From a <span class="hlt">state</span> to a trait: Trajectories of <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness in meditation during intervention <span class="hlt">predict</span> changes in trait mindfulness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kiken, Laura G; Garland, Eric L; Bluth, Karen; Palsson, Olafur S; Gaylord, Susan A</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Theory suggests that heightening <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness in meditation practice over time increases trait mindfulness, which benefits psychological health. We prospectively examined individual trajectories of <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness in meditation during a mindfulness-based intervention in relation to changes in trait mindfulness and psychological distress. Each week during the eight-week intervention, participants reported their <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness in meditation after a brief mindfulness meditation. Participants also completed pre- and post-intervention measures of trait mindfulness and psychological symptoms. Tests of combined latent growth and path models suggested that individuals varied significantly in their rates of change in <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness in meditation during the intervention, and that these individual trajectories <span class="hlt">predicted</span> pre-post intervention changes in trait mindfulness and distress. These findings support that increasing <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness over repeated meditation sessions may contribute to a more mindful and less distressed disposition. However, individuals' trajectories of change may vary and warrant further investigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4976347','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4976347"><span><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Filamentous Sludge Bulking using a <span class="hlt">State</span>-based Gaussian Processes Regression Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Yiqi; Guo, Jianhua; Wang, Qilin; Huang, Daoping</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Activated sludge process has been widely adopted to remove pollutants in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, stable operation of activated sludge process is often compromised by the occurrence of filamentous bulking. The aim of this study is to build a proper model for timely diagnosis and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of filamentous sludge bulking in an activated sludge process. This study developed a <span class="hlt">state</span>-based Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) model to monitor the filamentous sludge bulking related parameter, sludge volume index (SVI), in such a way that the evolution of SVI can be <span class="hlt">predicted</span> over multi-step ahead. This methodology was validated with SVI data collected from one full-scale WWTP. Online diagnosis and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of filamentous bulking sludge with real-time SVI <span class="hlt">prediction</span> was tested through a simulation study. The results showed that the proposed methodology was capable of <span class="hlt">predicting</span> future SVIs with good accuracy, thus providing sufficient time for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> and controlling filamentous sludge bulking. PMID:27498888</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...631303L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...631303L"><span><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Filamentous Sludge Bulking using a <span class="hlt">State</span>-based Gaussian Processes Regression Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Yiqi; Guo, Jianhua; Wang, Qilin; Huang, Daoping</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Activated sludge process has been widely adopted to remove pollutants in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, stable operation of activated sludge process is often compromised by the occurrence of filamentous bulking. The aim of this study is to build a proper model for timely diagnosis and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of filamentous sludge bulking in an activated sludge process. This study developed a <span class="hlt">state</span>-based Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) model to monitor the filamentous sludge bulking related parameter, sludge volume index (SVI), in such a way that the evolution of SVI can be <span class="hlt">predicted</span> over multi-step ahead. This methodology was validated with SVI data collected from one full-scale WWTP. Online diagnosis and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of filamentous bulking sludge with real-time SVI <span class="hlt">prediction</span> was tested through a simulation study. The results showed that the proposed methodology was capable of <span class="hlt">predicting</span> future SVIs with good accuracy, thus providing sufficient time for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> and controlling filamentous sludge bulking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title5-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title5-vol3-sec2641-202.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title5-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title5-vol3-sec2641-202.pdf"><span>5 CFR 2641.202 - Two-year restriction on any former employee's <span class="hlt">representations</span> to United <span class="hlt">States</span> concerning...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... United <span class="hlt">States</span> is a party or has a direct and substantial interest, and which such person knows or reasonably should know was actually pending under his official responsibility within the one-year period...). (4) Testifying under oath. See § 2641.301(f). (5) Acting on behalf of an international...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title5-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title5-vol3-sec2641-202.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title5-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title5-vol3-sec2641-202.pdf"><span>5 CFR 2641.202 - Two-year restriction on any former employee's <span class="hlt">representations</span> to United <span class="hlt">States</span> concerning...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... United <span class="hlt">States</span> is a party or has a direct and substantial interest, and which such person knows or reasonably should know was actually pending under his official responsibility within the one-year period...). (4) Testifying under oath. See § 2641.301(f). (5) Acting on behalf of an international...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title5-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title5-vol3-sec2641-202.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title5-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title5-vol3-sec2641-202.pdf"><span>5 CFR 2641.202 - Two-year restriction on any former employee's <span class="hlt">representations</span> to United <span class="hlt">States</span> concerning...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... United <span class="hlt">States</span> is a party or has a direct and substantial interest, and which such person knows or reasonably should know was actually pending under his official responsibility within the one-year period...). (4) Testifying under oath. See § 2641.301(f). (5) Acting on behalf of an international...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title5-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title5-vol3-sec2641-202.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title5-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title5-vol3-sec2641-202.pdf"><span>5 CFR 2641.202 - Two-year restriction on any former employee's <span class="hlt">representations</span> to United <span class="hlt">States</span> concerning...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... United <span class="hlt">States</span> is a party or has a direct and substantial interest, and which such person knows or reasonably should know was actually pending under his official responsibility within the one-year period...). (4) Testifying under oath. See § 2641.301(f). (5) Acting on behalf of an international...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CNSNS..26..265Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CNSNS..26..265Y"><span>Wavelet modeling and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the stability of <span class="hlt">states</span>: the Roman Empire and the European Union</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yaroshenko, Tatyana Y.; Krysko, Dmitri V.; Dobriyan, Vitalii; Zhigalov, Maksim V.; Vos, Hendrik; Vandenabeele, Peter; Krysko, Vadim A.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>How can the stability of a <span class="hlt">state</span> be quantitatively determined and its future stability <span class="hlt">predicted</span>? The rise and collapse of empires and <span class="hlt">states</span> is very complex, and it is exceedingly difficult to understand and <span class="hlt">predict</span> it. Existing theories are usually formulated as verbal models and, consequently, do not yield sharply defined, quantitative <span class="hlt">prediction</span> that can be unambiguously validated with data. Here we describe a model that determines whether the <span class="hlt">state</span> is in a stable or chaotic condition and <span class="hlt">predicts</span> its future condition. The central model, which we test, is that growth and collapse of <span class="hlt">states</span> is reflected by the changes of their territories, populations and budgets. The model was simulated within the historical societies of the Roman Empire (400 BC to 400 AD) and the European Union (1957-2007) by using wavelets and analysis of the sign change of the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents. The model matches well with the historical events. During wars and crises, the <span class="hlt">state</span> becomes unstable; this is reflected in the wavelet analysis by a significant increase in the frequency ω (t) and wavelet coefficients W (ω, t) and the sign of the largest Lyapunov exponent becomes positive, indicating chaos. We successfully reconstructed and forecasted time series in the Roman Empire and the European Union by applying artificial neural network. The proposed model helps to quantitatively determine and forecast the stability of a <span class="hlt">state</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011246','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011246"><span><span class="hlt">Representation</span> in incremental learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Work focused on two areas in machine learning: <span class="hlt">representation</span> for inductive learning and how to apply concept learning techniques to learning <span class="hlt">state</span> preferences, which can represent search control knowledge for problem solving. Specifically, in the first area the issues of the effect of <span class="hlt">representation</span> on learning, on how learning formalisms are biased, and how concept learning can benefit from the use of a hybrid formalism are addressed. In the second area, the issues of developing an agent to learn search control knowledge from the relative values of <span class="hlt">states</span>, of the source of that qualitative information, and of the ability to use both quantitative and qualitative information in order to develop an effective problem-solving policy are examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94k5130S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94k5130S"><span>Hidden-fermion <span class="hlt">representation</span> of self-energy in pseudogap and superconducting <span class="hlt">states</span> of the two-dimensional Hubbard model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sakai, Shiro; Civelli, Marcello; Imada, Masatoshi</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We study the frequency-dependent structure of electronic self-energy in the pseudogap and superconducting <span class="hlt">states</span> of the two-dimensional Hubbard model. We present the self-energy calculated with the cellular dynamical mean-field theory systematically in the space of temperature, electron density, and interaction strength. We show that the low-frequency part of the self-energy is well represented by a simple equation, which describes the transitions of an electron to and from a hidden-fermionic <span class="hlt">state</span>. By fitting the numerical data with this simple equation, we determine the parameters characterizing the hidden fermion and discuss its identity. The simple expression of the self-energy offers a way to organize numerical data of these uncomprehended superconducting and pseudogap <span class="hlt">states</span>, as well as a useful tool to analyze spectroscopic experimental results. The successful description by the simple two-component fermion model supports the idea of "dark" and "bright" fermions emerging from a bare electron as bistable excitations in doped Mott insulators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22497469','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22497469"><span>Electrotopological <span class="hlt">state</span> atom (E-<span class="hlt">state</span>) index in drug design, QSAR, property <span class="hlt">prediction</span> and toxicity assessment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roy, Kunal; Mitra, Indrani</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Over the last two decades, a great deal of research has been oriented towards determination of correlation between molecular structures and a variety of responses exhibited by such molecules. Extensive attempts have been made to quantitatively determine the influence of structural fragments on the property profile of molecules through the development of quantitative structure-activity/property/toxicity relationship (QSAR/QSPR/QSTR) models based on regression analysis using different descriptors. Among all descriptors, the topological ones constitute an essential class encoding the crucial structural fragments governing the activity/property or toxicity data of the molecules. To better indicate the important topological features and molecular fragments mediating a particular response, Kier and Hall developed the electrotopological <span class="hlt">state</span> atom (E-<span class="hlt">state</span>) indices in the early 90s. The ability to encode the topology and electronic environment of molecular fragments in unison portrayed the E-<span class="hlt">state</span> indices as an indispensable tool in the field of QSAR/QSPR/QSTR studies. This review looks back at different applications of E-<span class="hlt">state</span> indices in the field of quantitative analysis of molecular properties as a function of their structures for diverse groups of molecules with vivid range of response parameters. The studies summarized here would help to understand potential of the E-<span class="hlt">state</span> indices to identify the structural attributes responsible for various responses of the molecules. Although the present review includes most of the important researches carried out employing E-<span class="hlt">state</span> parameters as the major group of descriptors over the last 15 years, the search is not exhaustive one. Apart from the studies reviewed here, several other researches have also been performed where the E-<span class="hlt">state</span> indices have been engaged in association with several other descriptors to determine the influential molecular fragments for various endpoints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7241G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7241G"><span>Comparison between a steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> and a transient flow model and related radionuclide concentration <span class="hlt">predictions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gedeon, M.; Mallants, D.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Radionuclide concentration <span class="hlt">predictions</span> in aquifers play an important role in estimating impact of planned surface disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium, developed by the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (ONDRAF), who also coordinates and leads the corresponding research. Long-term concentration <span class="hlt">predictions</span> are based on a steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> flow solution obtained by a cascade of multi-scale models from the catchment to the detailed (site) scale performed in MODFLOW. To test the concept and accuracy of the groundwater flow solution and conservativeness of the concentration <span class="hlt">predictions</span> obtained therewith, a transient model, considered more realistic, was set up in a sub-domain of the intermediate scale steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> model. Besides the modelling domain reduction, the transient model was and exact copy of the steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> model, having the infiltration as the only time-varying parameter. The transient model was run for a twenty-year period, whereas the results were compared to the steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> results based on infiltration value and observations averaged over the same period. The comparison of the steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> and transient flow solutions includes the analyses of the goodness of fit, the parameter sensitivities, relative importance of the individual observations and one-percent sensitivity maps. The steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> and transient flow solutions were subsequently translated into a site-scale transport model, used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the radionuclide concentrations in a hypothetical well in the aquifers. The translation of the flow solutions between the models of distinct scales was performed using the Local grid refinement method available in MODFLOW. In the site-scale models, MT3DMS transport simulations were performed to obtain respective concentration <span class="hlt">predictions</span> in a hypothetical well, situated at 70 meters from the disposal tumuli. The equilibrium concentrations based on a constant source flux achieved using a steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> solution were then</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25954359','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25954359"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure waveforms with different Echo <span class="hlt">State</span> Network architectures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fong, Allan; Mittu, Ranjeev; Ratwani, Raj; Reggia, James</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Alarm fatigue caused by false alarms and alerts is an extremely important issue for the medical staff in Intensive Care Units. The ability to <span class="hlt">predict</span> electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure waveforms can potentially help the staff and hospital systems better classify a patient's waveforms and subsequent alarms. This paper explores the use of Echo <span class="hlt">State</span> Networks, a specific type of neural network for mining, understanding, and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure waveforms. Several network architectures are designed and evaluated. The results show the utility of these echo <span class="hlt">state</span> networks, particularly ones with larger integrated reservoirs, for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> electrocardiogram waveforms and the adaptability of such models across individuals. The work presented here offers a unique approach for understanding and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> a patient's waveforms in order to potentially improve alarm generation. We conclude with a brief discussion of future extensions of this research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4419885','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4419885"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Electrocardiogram and Arterial Blood Pressure Waveforms with Different Echo <span class="hlt">State</span> Network Architectures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fong, Allan; Mittu, Ranjeev; Ratwani, Raj; Reggia, James</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Alarm fatigue caused by false alarms and alerts is an extremely important issue for the medical staff in Intensive Care Units. The ability to <span class="hlt">predict</span> electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure waveforms can potentially help the staff and hospital systems better classify a patient’s waveforms and subsequent alarms. This paper explores the use of Echo <span class="hlt">State</span> Networks, a specific type of neural network for mining, understanding, and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure waveforms. Several network architectures are designed and evaluated. The results show the utility of these echo <span class="hlt">state</span> networks, particularly ones with larger integrated reservoirs, for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> electrocardiogram waveforms and the adaptability of such models across individuals. The work presented here offers a unique approach for understanding and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> a patient’s waveforms in order to potentially improve alarm generation. We conclude with a brief discussion of future extensions of this research. PMID:25954359</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4194780','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4194780"><span>Adjusted Clinical Groups: <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Accuracy for Medicaid Enrollees in Three <span class="hlt">States</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Adams, E. Kathleen; Bronstein, Janet M.; Raskind-Hood, Cheryl</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Actuarial split-sample methods were used to assess <span class="hlt">predictive</span> accuracy of adjusted clinical groups (ACGs) for Medicaid enrollees in Georgia, Mississippi (lagging in managed care penetration), and California. Accuracy for two non-random groups—high-cost and located in urban poor areas—was assessed. Measures for random groups were derived with and without short-term enrollees to assess the effect of turnover on <span class="hlt">predictive</span> accuracy. ACGs improved <span class="hlt">predictive</span> accuracy for high-cost conditions in all <span class="hlt">States</span>, but did so only for those in Georgia's poorest urban areas. Higher and more unpredictable expenses of short-term enrollees moderated the <span class="hlt">predictive</span> power of ACGs. This limitation was significant in Mississippi due in part, to that <span class="hlt">State</span>'s very high proportion of short-term enrollees. PMID:12545598</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ITEIS.125.1491A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ITEIS.125.1491A"><span>Congestion Control for TCP/AQM Networks using <span class="hlt">State</span> <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Azuma, Takehito; Fujita, Tsunetoshi; Fujita, Masayuki</p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of this paper is to design congestion controllers for TCP/AQM networks using <span class="hlt">state</span> <span class="hlt">predictive</span> control and illustrate the effectiveness of designed congestion controllers via SIMULINK and the ns-2 simulator. Linearized models of TCP/AQM networks can be described as linear systems with an information delay simply. Using <span class="hlt">state</span> <span class="hlt">predictive</span> control, these linear systems with an information delay is equivalent to linear systems with no delays. Thus congestion controllers (AQM mechanisms) can be designed using the linear control theory. In this paper, LQ control with an observer is adopted for linear systems with no delays which describe linearized systems of TCP/AQM networks. Finally the designed <span class="hlt">state</span> <span class="hlt">predictive</span> controllers using LQ control with an observer is implemented and some simulation results are shown via SIMULINK and the ns-2 simulator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSM41D..03P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSM41D..03P"><span><span class="hlt">Predictability</span> of the geospace variations and measuring the capability to model the <span class="hlt">state</span> of the system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pulkkinen, A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Empirical modeling has been the workhorse of the past decades in <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the <span class="hlt">state</span> of the geospace. For example, numerous empirical studies have shown that global geoeffectiveness indices such as Kp and Dst are generally well <span class="hlt">predictable</span> from the solar wind input. These successes have been facilitated partly by the strongly externally driven nature of the system. Although characterizing the general <span class="hlt">state</span> of the system is valuable and empirical modeling will continue playing an important role, refined physics-based quantification of the <span class="hlt">state</span> of the system has been the obvious next step in moving toward more mature science. Importantly, more refined and localized products are needed also for space weather purposes. <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> of local physical quantities are necessary to make physics-based links to the impacts on specific systems. As we have introduced more localized <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of the geospace <span class="hlt">state</span> one central question is how <span class="hlt">predictable</span> these local quantities are? This complex question can be addressed by rigorously measuring the model performance against the observed data. Space sciences community has made great advanced on this topic over the past few years and there are ongoing efforts in SHINE, CEDAR and GEM to carry out community-wide evaluations of the <span class="hlt">state</span>-of-the-art solar and heliospheric, ionosphere-thermosphere and geospace models, respectively. These efforts will help establish benchmarks and thus provide means to measure the progress in the field analogous to monitoring of the improvement in lower atmospheric weather <span class="hlt">predictions</span> carried out rigorously since 1980s. In this paper we will discuss some of the latest advancements in <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the local geospace parameters and give an overview of some of the community efforts to rigorously measure the model performances. We will also briefly discuss some of the future opportunities for advancing the geospace modeling capability. These will include further development in data assimilation and ensemble</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4943669','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4943669"><span>Both trait and <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness <span class="hlt">predict</span> lower aggressiveness via anger rumination: A multilevel mediation analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Peters, Jessica R.; Pond, Richard S.; DeWall, C. Nathan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Trait mindfulness, or the capacity for nonjudgmental, present-centered attention, <span class="hlt">predicts</span> lower aggression in cross-sectional samples, an effect mediated by reduced anger rumination. Experimental work also implicates <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness (i.e., fluctuations around one's typical mindfulness) in aggression. Despite evidence that both trait and <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness <span class="hlt">predict</span> lower aggression, their relative impact and their mechanisms remain unclear. Higher trait mindfulness and <span class="hlt">state</span> increases in mindfulness facets may reduce aggression-related outcomes by (1) limiting the intensity of anger, or (2) limiting rumination on anger experiences. The present study tests two hypotheses: First, that both trait and <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness contribute unique variance to lower aggressiveness, and second, that the impact of both trait and <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness on aggressiveness will be uniquely partially mediated by both anger intensity and anger rumination. 86 participants completed trait measures of mindfulness, anger intensity, and anger rumination, then completed diaries for 35 days assessing mindfulness, anger intensity, anger rumination, anger expression, and self-reported and behavioral aggressiveness. Using multilevel zero-inflated regression, we examined unique contributions of trait and <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness facets to daily anger expression and aggressiveness. We also examined the mediating roles of anger intensity and anger rumination at both trait and <span class="hlt">state</span> levels. Mindfulness facets <span class="hlt">predicted</span> anger expression and aggressiveness indirectly through anger rumination after controlling for indirect pathways through anger intensity. Individuals with high or fluctuating aggression may benefit from mindfulness training to reduce both intensity of and rumination on anger. PMID:27429667</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..85e4203N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..85e4203N"><span>Ground-<span class="hlt">state</span> characterizations of systems <span class="hlt">predicted</span> to exhibit L11 or L13 crystal structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nelson, Lance J.; Hart, Gus L. W.; Curtarolo, Stefano</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Despite their geometric simplicity, the crystal structures L11 (CuPt) and L13 (CdPt3) do not appear as ground <span class="hlt">states</span> experimentally, except in Cu-Pt. We investigate the possibility that these phases are ground <span class="hlt">states</span> in other binary intermetallic systems, but overlooked experimentally. Via the synergy between high-throughput and cluster-expansion computational methods, we conduct a thorough search for systems that may exhibit these phases and calculate order-disorder transition temperatures when they are <span class="hlt">predicted</span>. High-throughput calculations <span class="hlt">predict</span> L11 ground <span class="hlt">states</span> in the systems Ag-Pd, Ag-Pt, Cu-Pt, Pd-Pt, Li-Pd, Li-Pt, and L13 ground <span class="hlt">states</span> in the systems Cd-Pt, Cu-Pt, Pd-Pt, Li-Pd, Li-Pt. Cluster expansions confirm the appearance of these ground <span class="hlt">states</span> in some cases. In the other cases, cluster expansion <span class="hlt">predicts</span> unsuspected derivative superstructures as ground <span class="hlt">states</span>. The order-disorder transition temperatures for all L11/L13 ground <span class="hlt">states</span> were found to be sufficiently high that their physical manifestation may be possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27429667','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27429667"><span>Both trait and <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness <span class="hlt">predict</span> lower aggressiveness via anger rumination: A multilevel mediation analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Peters, Jessica R; Pond, Richard S; DeWall, C Nathan</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Trait mindfulness, or the capacity for nonjudgmental, present-centered attention, <span class="hlt">predicts</span> lower aggression in cross-sectional samples, an effect mediated by reduced anger rumination. Experimental work also implicates <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness (i.e., fluctuations around one's typical mindfulness) in aggression. Despite evidence that both trait and <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness <span class="hlt">predict</span> lower aggression, their relative impact and their mechanisms remain unclear. Higher trait mindfulness and <span class="hlt">state</span> increases in mindfulness facets may reduce aggression-related outcomes by (1) limiting the intensity of anger, or (2) limiting rumination on anger experiences. The present study tests two hypotheses: First, that both trait and <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness contribute unique variance to lower aggressiveness, and second, that the impact of both trait and <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness on aggressiveness will be uniquely partially mediated by both anger intensity and anger rumination. 86 participants completed trait measures of mindfulness, anger intensity, and anger rumination, then completed diaries for 35 days assessing mindfulness, anger intensity, anger rumination, anger expression, and self-reported and behavioral aggressiveness. Using multilevel zero-inflated regression, we examined unique contributions of trait and <span class="hlt">state</span> mindfulness facets to daily anger expression and aggressiveness. We also examined the mediating roles of anger intensity and anger rumination at both trait and <span class="hlt">state</span> levels. Mindfulness facets <span class="hlt">predicted</span> anger expression and aggressiveness indirectly through anger rumination after controlling for indirect pathways through anger intensity. Individuals with high or fluctuating aggression may benefit from mindfulness training to reduce both intensity of and rumination on anger.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3928558','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3928558"><span>Naturalising <span class="hlt">Representational</span> Content</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shea, Nicholas</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper sets out a view about the explanatory role of <span class="hlt">representational</span> content and advocates one approach to naturalising content – to giving a naturalistic account of what makes an entity a <span class="hlt">representation</span> and in virtue of what it has the content it does. It argues for pluralism about the metaphysics of content and suggests that a good strategy is to ask the content question with respect to a variety of <span class="hlt">predictively</span> successful information processing models in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience; and hence that data from psychology and cognitive neuroscience should play a greater role in theorising about the nature of content. Finally, the contours of the view are illustrated by drawing out and defending a surprising consequence: that individuation of vehicles of content is partly externalist. PMID:24563661</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8907507','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8907507"><span><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of conformational <span class="hlt">states</span> of amino acids using a Ramachandran plot.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kolaskar, A S; Sawant, S</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>(phi, psi) data from crystal structures of 221 proteins having high resolution and sequence similarity cut-off at the 25% level were analysed by dividing the Ramachandran plot in three regions representing three conformational <span class="hlt">states</span>: (i) conformational <span class="hlt">state</span> 1: conformations in the (phi, psi) range from (-140 degrees, -100 degrees) to (0 degrees, 0 degrees); (ii) conformational <span class="hlt">state</span> 2: conformations with (phi, psi) from (-180 degrees, 80 degrees) to (0 degrees, 180 degrees); and (iii) conformational <span class="hlt">state</span> 3: all the remaining conformations in the (phi, psi) plane which are not included in the above two conformational <span class="hlt">states</span>. Normalized probability values of the occurrence of single amino acid residues in conformational regions 1-3 and similar values for dipeptides were calculated. Comparisons of single residue and dipeptide normalized probability values have shown that short-range interactions, although strong, destabilize conformational <span class="hlt">states</span> of only 44 dipeptides out of the 400 x 9 possible <span class="hlt">states</span>. However, dipeptide frequency values provide better resolving power than single-residue potentials when used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> conformational <span class="hlt">states</span> of residues in a protein from its primary structure. The simple approach used in the present study to <span class="hlt">predict</span> conformational <span class="hlt">states</span> yields an accuracy of > 70% for 14 proteins and an accuracy in the range of 50-70% for 247 proteins. Thus these studies point out yet another use of the Ramachandran plot and the role of tertiary interactions in protein folding.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JChPh.146e4107J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JChPh.146e4107J"><span>Dimension of discrete variable <span class="hlt">representation</span> for mixed quantum/classical computation of three lowest vibrational <span class="hlt">states</span> of OH stretching in liquid water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jeon, Kiyoung; Yang, Mino</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Three low-lying vibrational <span class="hlt">states</span> of molecular systems are responsible for the signals of linear and third-order nonlinear vibrational spectroscopies. Theoretical studies based on mixed quantum/classical calculations provide a powerful way to analyze those experiments. A statistically meaningful result can be obtained from the calculations by solving the vibrational Schrödinger equation over many numbers of molecular configurations. The discrete variable <span class="hlt">representation</span> (DVR) method is a useful technique to calculate vibrational eigenstates subject to an arbitrary anharmonic potential surface. Considering the large number of molecular configurations over which the DVR calculations are repeated, the calculations are desired to be optimized in balance between the cost and accuracy. We determine a dimension of the DVR method which appears to be optimum for the calculations of the three <span class="hlt">states</span> of molecular vibrations with anharmonic strengths often found in realistic molecular systems. We apply the numerical technique to calculate the local OH stretching frequencies of liquid water, which are well known to be widely distributed due to the inhomogeneity in molecular configuration, and found that the frequencies of the 0-1 and 1-2 transitions are highly correlated. An empirical relation between the two frequencies is suggested and compared with the experimental data of nonlinear IR spectroscopies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5038709','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5038709"><span>Web of Objects Based Ambient Assisted Living Framework for Emergency Psychiatric <span class="hlt">State</span> <span class="hlt">Prediction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Alam, Md Golam Rabiul; Abedin, Sarder Fakhrul; Al Ameen, Moshaddique; Hong, Choong Seon</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Ambient assisted living can facilitate optimum health and wellness by aiding physical, mental and social well-being. In this paper, patients’ psychiatric symptoms are collected through lightweight biosensors and web-based psychiatric screening scales in a smart home environment and then analyzed through machine learning algorithms to provide ambient intelligence in a psychiatric emergency. The psychiatric <span class="hlt">states</span> are modeled through a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and the model parameters are estimated using a Viterbi path counting and scalable Stochastic Variational Inference (SVI)-based training algorithm. The most likely psychiatric <span class="hlt">state</span> sequence of the corresponding observation sequence is determined, and an emergency psychiatric <span class="hlt">state</span> is <span class="hlt">predicted</span> through the proposed algorithm. Moreover, to enable personalized psychiatric emergency care, a service a web of objects-based framework is proposed for a smart-home environment. In this framework, the biosensor observations and the psychiatric rating scales are objectified and virtualized in the web space. Then, the web of objects of sensor observations and psychiatric rating scores are used to assess the dweller’s mental health status and to <span class="hlt">predict</span> an emergency psychiatric <span class="hlt">state</span>. The proposed psychiatric <span class="hlt">state</span> <span class="hlt">prediction</span> algorithm reported 83.03 percent <span class="hlt">prediction</span> accuracy in an empirical performance study. PMID:27608023</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27608023','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27608023"><span>Web of Objects Based Ambient Assisted Living Framework for Emergency Psychiatric <span class="hlt">State</span> <span class="hlt">Prediction</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alam, Md Golam Rabiul; Abedin, Sarder Fakhrul; Al Ameen, Moshaddique; Hong, Choong Seon</p> <p>2016-09-06</p> <p>Ambient assisted living can facilitate optimum health and wellness by aiding physical, mental and social well-being. In this paper, patients' psychiatric symptoms are collected through lightweight biosensors and web-based psychiatric screening scales in a smart home environment and then analyzed through machine learning algorithms to provide ambient intelligence in a psychiatric emergency. The psychiatric <span class="hlt">states</span> are modeled through a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and the model parameters are estimated using a Viterbi path counting and scalable Stochastic Variational Inference (SVI)-based training algorithm. The most likely psychiatric <span class="hlt">state</span> sequence of the corresponding observation sequence is determined, and an emergency psychiatric <span class="hlt">state</span> is <span class="hlt">predicted</span> through the proposed algorithm. Moreover, to enable personalized psychiatric emergency care, a service a web of objects-based framework is proposed for a smart-home environment. In this framework, the biosensor observations and the psychiatric rating scales are objectified and virtualized in the web space. Then, the web of objects of sensor observations and psychiatric rating scores are used to assess the dweller's mental health status and to <span class="hlt">predict</span> an emergency psychiatric <span class="hlt">state</span>. The proposed psychiatric <span class="hlt">state</span> <span class="hlt">prediction</span> algorithm reported 83.03 percent <span class="hlt">prediction</span> accuracy in an empirical performance study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750048624&hterms=linear+regression&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dlinear%2Bregression','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750048624&hterms=linear+regression&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dlinear%2Bregression"><span><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of elemental creep. [steady <span class="hlt">state</span> and cyclic data from regression analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Davis, J. W.; Rummler, D. R.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Cyclic and steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> creep tests were performed to provide data which were used to develop <span class="hlt">predictive</span> equations. These equations, describing creep as a function of stress, temperature, and time, were developed through the use of a least squares regression analyses computer program for both the steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> and cyclic data sets. Comparison of the data from the two types of tests, revealed that there was no significant difference between the cyclic and steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> creep strains for the L-605 sheet under the experimental conditions investigated (for the same total time at load). Attempts to develop a single linear equation describing the combined steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> and cyclic creep data resulted in standard errors of estimates higher than obtained for the individual data sets. A proposed approach to <span class="hlt">predict</span> elemental creep in metals uses the cyclic creep equation and a computer program which applies strain and time hardening theories of creep accumulation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040027695','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040027695"><span>Linear <span class="hlt">State</span>-Space <span class="hlt">Representation</span> of the Dynamics of Relative Motion, Based on Restricted Three Body Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Luquette,Richard J.; Sanner, Robert M.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Precision Formation Flying is an enabling technology for a variety of proposed space-based observatories, including the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM) , the associated MAXIM pathfinder mission, Stellar Imager (SI) and the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF). An essential element of the technology is the control algorithm, requiring a clear understanding of the dynamics of relative motion. This paper examines the dynamics of relative motion in the context of the Restricted Three Body Problem (RTBP). The natural dynamics of relative motion are presented in their full nonlinear form. Motivated by the desire to apply linear control methods, the dynamics equations are linearized and presented in <span class="hlt">state</span>-space form. The stability properties are explored for regions in proximity to each of the libration points in the Earth/Moon - Sun rotating frame. The dynamics of relative motion are presented in both the inertial and rotating coordinate frames.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040172182&hterms=representation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Drepresentation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040172182&hterms=representation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Drepresentation"><span>Linear <span class="hlt">State</span>-Space <span class="hlt">Representation</span> of the Dynamics of Relative Motion, Based on Restricted Three Body Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Luquette, Richard J.; Sanner, Robert M.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Precision Formation Flying is an enabling technology for a variety of proposed space- based observatories, including the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), Stellar Imager (SI) and the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF). An essential element of the technology is the control algorithm, requiring a clear understanding of the dynamics of relative motion. This paper examines the dynamics of relative motion in the context of the Restricted Three Body Problem (RTBP). The natural dynamics of relative motion are presented in their full nonlinear form. Motivated by the desire to apply linear control methods, the dynamics equations are linearized and presented in <span class="hlt">state</span>-space form. The stability properties are explored for regions in proximity to each of the libration points in the Earth/Moon - Sun rotating frame. The dynamics of relative motion are presented in both the inertial and rotating coordinate frames.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24116568','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24116568"><span>New analytical model for the ozone electronic ground <span class="hlt">state</span> potential surface and accurate ab initio vibrational <span class="hlt">predictions</span> at high energy range.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tyuterev, Vladimir G; Kochanov, Roman V; Tashkun, Sergey A; Holka, Filip; Szalay, Péter G</p> <p>2013-10-07</p> <p>An accurate description of the complicated shape of the potential energy surface (PES) and that of the highly excited vibration <span class="hlt">states</span> is of crucial importance for various unsolved issues in the spectroscopy and dynamics of ozone and remains a challenge for the theory. In this work a new analytical <span class="hlt">representation</span> is proposed for the PES of the ground electronic <span class="hlt">state</span> of the ozone molecule in the range covering the main potential well and the transition <span class="hlt">state</span> towards the dissociation. This model accounts for particular features specific to the ozone PES for large variations of nuclear displacements along the minimum energy path. The impact of the shape of the PES near the transition <span class="hlt">state</span> (existence of the "reef structure") on vibration energy levels was studied for the first time. The major purpose of this work was to provide accurate theoretical <span class="hlt">predictions</span> for ozone vibrational band centres at the energy range near the dissociation threshold, which would be helpful for understanding the very complicated high-resolution spectra and its analyses currently in progress. Extended ab initio electronic structure calculations were carried out enabling the determination of the parameters of a minimum energy path PES model resulting in a new set of theoretical vibrational levels of ozone. A comparison with recent high-resolution spectroscopic data on the vibrational levels gives the root-mean-square deviations below 1 cm(-1) for ozone band centres up to 90% of the dissociation energy. New ab initio vibrational <span class="hlt">predictions</span> represent a significant improvement with respect to all previously available calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6044231','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6044231"><span>Global corresponding <span class="hlt">states</span> <span class="hlt">representation</span> of the interfacial tension and capillary constant for the binary mixtures argon + krypton, methane + krypton, and krypton + ethane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Holcomb, C.D.; Zollweg, J.A. )</p> <p>1993-05-06</p> <p>Corresponding <span class="hlt">states</span> theories for surface tension and capillary constant have been evaluated using constant liquid mole fraction and constant [open quotes]fugacity fraction[close quotes] reference fluids for three binary systems. Experimental vapor-liquid equilibria, capillary constant, and surface tension data for argon + krypton, methane + krypton, and krypton + ethane systems were measured from 125 K to the critical line. These results form a database for phase behavior of varying complexity between simple compounds. The database has been used to compare the [open quotes]fugacity fraction[close quotes] corresponding <span class="hlt">states</span> theory for capillary constant and surface tension with the traditional corresponding <span class="hlt">states</span> theory which uses as a reference fluid a liquid with constant mole fraction. The database was also used to test the Moldover and Rainwater <span class="hlt">prediction</span> for the surface tension coefficient in the fugacity fraction corresponding <span class="hlt">states</span> theory. 33 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415311','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415311"><span>On the description of conical intersections—A continuous <span class="hlt">representation</span> of the local topography of seams of conical intersection of three or more electronic <span class="hlt">states</span>: A generalization of the two <span class="hlt">state</span> result</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhu, Xiaolei Yarkony, David R.</p> <p>2014-11-07</p> <p>For conical intersections of two <span class="hlt">states</span> (I,J = I + 1) the vectors defining the branching or g-h plane, the energy difference gradient vector g{sup I,J}, and the interstate coupling vector h{sup I,J}, can be made orthogonal by a one parameter rotation of the degenerate electronic eigenstates. The <span class="hlt">representation</span> obtained from this rotation is used to construct the parameters that describe the vicinity of the conical intersection seam, the conical parameters, s{sup I,J}{sub x} (R), s{sup I,J}{sub y} (R), g{sup I,J}(R), and h{sup I,J}(R). As a result of the orthogonalization these parameters can be made continuous functions of R, the internuclear coordinates. In this work we generalize this notion to construct continuous parametrizations of conical intersection seams of three or more <span class="hlt">states</span>. The generalization derives from a recently introduced procedure for using non-degenerate electronic <span class="hlt">states</span> to construct coupled diabatic <span class="hlt">states</span> that represent adiabatic <span class="hlt">states</span> coupled by conical intersections. The procedure is illustrated using the seam of conical intersections of three <span class="hlt">states</span> in parazolyl as an example.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25381504','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25381504"><span>On the description of conical intersections--a continuous <span class="hlt">representation</span> of the local topography of seams of conical intersection of three or more electronic <span class="hlt">states</span>: a generalization of the two <span class="hlt">state</span> result.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhu, Xiaolei; Yarkony, David R</p> <p>2014-11-07</p> <p>For conical intersections of two <span class="hlt">states</span> (I,J = I + 1) the vectors defining the branching or g-h plane, the energy difference gradient vector g(I,J), and the interstate coupling vector h(I,J), can be made orthogonal by a one parameter rotation of the degenerate electronic eigenstates. The <span class="hlt">representation</span> obtained from this rotation is used to construct the parameters that describe the vicinity of the conical intersection seam, the conical parameters, s(x)(I,J)(R), s(y)(I,J)(R), g(I,J)(R), and h(I,J)(R). As a result of the orthogonalization these parameters can be made continuous functions of R, the internuclear coordinates. In this work we generalize this notion to construct continuous parametrizations of conical intersection seams of three or more <span class="hlt">states</span>. The generalization derives from a recently introduced procedure for using non-degenerate electronic <span class="hlt">states</span> to construct coupled diabatic <span class="hlt">states</span> that represent adiabatic <span class="hlt">states</span> coupled by conical intersections. The procedure is illustrated using the seam of conical intersections of three <span class="hlt">states</span> in parazolyl as an example.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28391821','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28391821"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> epileptic seizures from scalp EEG based on attractor <span class="hlt">state</span> analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chu, Hyunho; Chung, Chun Kee; Jeong, Woorim; Cho, Kwang-Hyun</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Epilepsy is the second most common disease of the brain. Epilepsy makes it difficult for patients to live a normal life because it is difficult to <span class="hlt">predict</span> when seizures will occur. In this regard, if seizures could be <span class="hlt">predicted</span> a reasonable period of time before their occurrence, epilepsy patients could take precautions against them and improve their safety and quality of life. In this paper, we investigate a novel seizure precursor based on attractor <span class="hlt">state</span> analysis for seizure <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. We analyze the transition process from normal to seizure attractor <span class="hlt">state</span> and investigate a precursor phenomenon seen before reaching the seizure attractor <span class="hlt">state</span>. From the result of an analysis, we define a quantified spectral measure in scalp EEG for seizure <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. From scalp EEG recordings, the Fourier coefficients of six EEG frequency bands are extracted, and the defined spectral measure is computed based on the coefficients for each half-overlapped 20-second-long window. The computed spectral measure is applied to seizure <span class="hlt">prediction</span> using a low-complexity methodology. Within scalp EEG, we identified an early-warning indicator before an epileptic seizure occurs. Getting closer to the bifurcation point that triggers the transition from normal to seizure <span class="hlt">state</span>, the power spectral density of low frequency bands of the perturbation of an attractor in the EEG, showed a relative increase. A low-complexity seizure <span class="hlt">prediction</span> algorithm using this feature was evaluated, using ∼583h of scalp EEG in which 143 seizures in 16 patients were recorded. With the test dataset, the proposed method showed high sensitivity (86.67%) with a false <span class="hlt">prediction</span> rate of 0.367h(-1) and average <span class="hlt">prediction</span> time of 45.3min. A novel seizure <span class="hlt">prediction</span> method using scalp EEG, based on attractor <span class="hlt">state</span> analysis, shows potential for application with real epilepsy patients. This is the first study in which the seizure-precursor phenomenon of an epileptic seizure is investigated based on attractor</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910049378&hterms=1042&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231042','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910049378&hterms=1042&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231042"><span><span class="hlt">Representations</span> of mechanical assembly sequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Homem De Mello, Luiz S.; Sanderson, Arthur C.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Five types of <span class="hlt">representations</span> for assembly sequences are reviewed: the directed graph of feasible assembly sequences, the AND/OR graph of feasible assembly sequences, the set of establishment conditions, and two types of sets of precedence relationships. (precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection between parts and the establishment of another connection, and precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection and <span class="hlt">states</span> of the assembly process). The mappings of one <span class="hlt">representation</span> into the others are established. The correctness and completeness of these <span class="hlt">representations</span> are established. The results presented are needed in the proof of correctness and completeness of algorithms for the generation of mechanical assembly sequences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26876138','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26876138"><span>Distinct <span class="hlt">state</span> anxiety after <span class="hlt">predictable</span> and unpredictable fear training in mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Seidenbecher, Thomas; Remmes, Jasmin; Daldrup, Thiemo; Lesting, Jörg; Pape, Hans-Christian</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Sustained fear paradigms in rodents have been developed to monitor <span class="hlt">states</span> of anxious apprehension and to model situations in patients suffering from long-lasting anxiety disorders. A recent report describes a fear conditioning paradigm, allowing distinction between phasic and sustained <span class="hlt">states</span> of conditioned fear in non-restrained mice. However, so far no prospective studies have yet been conducted to elucidate whether induction of phasic or sustained fear can affect <span class="hlt">states</span> of anxiety. Here, we used CS (conditioned stimulus) and US (unconditioned stimulus) pairing with <span class="hlt">predictable</span> and unpredictable timing to induce phasic and sustained fear in mice. <span class="hlt">State</span> anxiety during various fear response components was assessed using the elevated plus-maze test. Training with unpredictable CS-US timing resulted in CS-evoked sustained components of fear (freezing), while <span class="hlt">predictable</span> CS-US timing resulted in rapid decline. Data suggested the influence of training procedure on <span class="hlt">state</span> anxiety which is dependent on progression of conditioned fear during fear memory retrieval. Animals trained with unpredictable CS-US timing showed an unchanged high anxiety <span class="hlt">state</span> throughout behavioral observation. In contrast, mice trained with <span class="hlt">predictable</span> CS-US timing showed anxiolytic-like behavior 3 min after CS onset, which was accompanied by a fast decline of the fear conditioned response (freezing). Further systematic studies are needed to validate the phasic/sustained fear model in rodents as translational model for anxiety disorders in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20731383','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20731383"><span>Precursor charge <span class="hlt">state</span> <span class="hlt">prediction</span> for electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectra.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sharma, Vagisha; Eng, Jimmy K; Feldman, Sergey; von Haller, Priska D; MacCoss, Michael J; Noble, William S</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) induces fragmentation along the peptide backbone by transferring an electron from a radical anion to a protonated peptide. In contrast with collision-induced dissociation, side chains and modifications such as phosphorylation are left intact through the ETD process. Because the precursor charge <span class="hlt">state</span> is an important input to MS/MS sequence database search tools, the ability to accurately determine the precursor charge is helpful for the identification process. Furthermore, because ETD can be applied to large, highly charged peptides, the need for accurate precursor charge <span class="hlt">state</span> determination is magnified. Otherwise, each spectrum must be searched repeatedly using a large range of possible precursor charge <span class="hlt">states</span>. To address this problem, we have developed an ETD charge <span class="hlt">state</span> <span class="hlt">prediction</span> tool based on support vector machine classifiers that is demonstrated to exhibit superior classification accuracy while minimizing the overall number of <span class="hlt">predicted</span> charge <span class="hlt">states</span>. The tool is freely available, open source, cross platform compatible, and demonstrated to perform well when compared with an existing charge <span class="hlt">state</span> <span class="hlt">prediction</span> tool. The program is available from http://code.google.com/p/etdz/.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5069605','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5069605"><span>Resting‐<span class="hlt">state</span> connectivity <span class="hlt">predicts</span> levodopa‐induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Haagensen, Brian N.; Nielsen, Silas H.; Madsen, Kristoffer H.; Løkkegaard, Annemette; Siebner, Hartwig R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Background Levodopa‐induced dyskinesias are a common side effect of dopaminergic therapy in PD, but their neural correlates remain poorly understood. Objectives This study examines whether dyskinesias are associated with abnormal dopaminergic modulation of resting‐<span class="hlt">state</span> cortico‐striatal connectivity. Methods Twelve PD patients with peak‐of‐dose dyskinesias and 12 patients without dyskinesias were withdrawn from dopaminergic medication. All patients received a single dose of fast‐acting soluble levodopa and then underwent resting‐<span class="hlt">state</span> functional magnetic resonance imaging before any dyskinesias emerged. Levodopa‐induced modulation of cortico‐striatal resting‐<span class="hlt">state</span> connectivity was assessed between the putamen and the following 3 cortical regions of interest: supplementary motor area, primary sensorimotor cortex, and right inferior frontal gyrus. These functional connectivity measures were entered into a linear support vector classifier to <span class="hlt">predict</span> whether an individual patient would develop dyskinesias after levodopa intake. Linear regression analysis was applied to test which connectivity measures would <span class="hlt">predict</span> dyskinesia severity. Results Dopaminergic modulation of resting‐<span class="hlt">state</span> connectivity between the putamen and primary sensorimotor cortex in the most affected hemisphere <span class="hlt">predicted</span> whether patients would develop dyskinesias with a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 91% (P < .0001). Modulation of resting‐<span class="hlt">state</span> connectivity between the supplementary motor area and putamen <span class="hlt">predicted</span> interindividual differences in dyskinesia severity (R 2 = 0.627, P = .004). Resting‐<span class="hlt">state</span> connectivity between the right inferior frontal gyrus and putamen neither <span class="hlt">predicted</span> dyskinesia status nor dyskinesia severity. Conclusions The results corroborate the notion that altered dopaminergic modulation of cortico‐striatal connectivity plays a key role in the pathophysiology of dyskinesias in PD. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=clinical+AND+prediction&pg=3&id=EJ945314','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=clinical+AND+prediction&pg=3&id=EJ945314"><span>Extreme Appraisals of Internal <span class="hlt">States</span> and Bipolar Symptoms: The Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> Inventory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dodd, Alyson L.; Mansell, Warren; Morrison, Anthony P.; Tai, Sara</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> Inventory (HAPPI; W. Mansell, 2006) was developed to assess multiple, extreme, self-relevant appraisals of internal <span class="hlt">states</span>. The present study aimed to validate the HAPPI in a clinical sample. Participants (N = 50) with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (confirmed by a structured clinical interview)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4490906','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4490906"><span>Seizure <span class="hlt">prediction</span> in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy using EEG measures of <span class="hlt">state</span> similarity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gadhoumi, Kais; Lina, Jean-Marc; Gotman, Jean</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objectives In patients with intractable epilepsy, <span class="hlt">predicting</span> seizures above chance and with clinically acceptable performance has yet to be demonstrated. In this study, an intracranial EEG-based seizure <span class="hlt">prediction</span> method using measures of similarity with a reference <span class="hlt">state</span> is proposed. Methods 1565 h of continuous intracranial EEG data from 17 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy were investigated. The recordings included 175 seizures. In each patient the data was split into a training set and a testing set. EEG segments were analyzed using continuous wavelet transform. During training, a reference <span class="hlt">state</span> was defined in the immediate preictal data and used to derive three features quantifying the discrimination between preictal and interictal <span class="hlt">states</span>. A classifier was then trained in the feature space. Its performance was assessed using testing set and compared with a random predictor for statistical validation. Results Better than random <span class="hlt">prediction</span> performance was achieved in 7 patients. The sensitivity was higher than 85%, the warning rate was less than 0.35/h and the proportion of time under warning was less than 30%. Conclusion Seizures are <span class="hlt">predicted</span> above chance in 41% of patients using measures of <span class="hlt">state</span> similarity. Significance Sensitivity and specificity levels are potentially interesting for closed-loop seizure control applications. PMID:23643577</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/53888','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/53888"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> the spread of all invasive forest pests in the United <span class="hlt">States</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Emma J. Hudgins; Andrew M. Liebhold; Brian Leung; Regan Early</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We tested whether a general spread model could capture macroecological patterns across all damaging invasive forest pests in the United <span class="hlt">States</span>. We showed that a common constant dispersal kernel model, simulated from the discovery date, explained 67.94% of the variation in range size across all pests, and had 68.00% locational accuracy between <span class="hlt">predicted</span> and observed...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cognitive+AND+rehabilitation&pg=3&id=EJ834848','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cognitive+AND+rehabilitation&pg=3&id=EJ834848"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Employment Outcomes of Consumers of <span class="hlt">State</span>-Operated Comprehensive Rehabilitation Centers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Beach, David Thomas</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This study used records from a <span class="hlt">state</span>-operated comprehensive rehabilitation center to investigate possible <span class="hlt">predictive</span> factors related to completing comprehensive rehabilitation center programs and successful vocational rehabilitation (VR) case closure. An analysis of demographic data of randomly selected comprehensive rehabilitation center…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=7&id=EJ1110173','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=7&id=EJ1110173"><span>Ability of Early Literacy Measures to <span class="hlt">Predict</span> Future <span class="hlt">State</span> Assessment Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Utchell, Lynn A.; Schmitt, Ara J.; McCallum, Elizabeth; McGoey, Kara E.; Piselli, Kate</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which early literacy measures administered in kindergarten and Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) measures administered in Grade 1 are related to and <span class="hlt">predict</span> future <span class="hlt">state</span> reading assessment performances up to 7 years later. Results indicated that early literacy and ORF performances were…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=controlling&pg=3&id=EJ1110173','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=controlling&pg=3&id=EJ1110173"><span>Ability of Early Literacy Measures to <span class="hlt">Predict</span> Future <span class="hlt">State</span> Assessment Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Utchell, Lynn A.; Schmitt, Ara J.; McCallum, Elizabeth; McGoey, Kara E.; Piselli, Kate</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which early literacy measures administered in kindergarten and Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) measures administered in Grade 1 are related to and <span class="hlt">predict</span> future <span class="hlt">state</span> reading assessment performances up to 7 years later. Results indicated that early literacy and ORF performances were…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VR&pg=5&id=EJ834848','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VR&pg=5&id=EJ834848"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Employment Outcomes of Consumers of <span class="hlt">State</span>-Operated Comprehensive Rehabilitation Centers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Beach, David Thomas</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This study used records from a <span class="hlt">state</span>-operated comprehensive rehabilitation center to investigate possible <span class="hlt">predictive</span> factors related to completing comprehensive rehabilitation center programs and successful vocational rehabilitation (VR) case closure. An analysis of demographic data of randomly selected comprehensive rehabilitation center…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=group+AND+contribution&pg=6&id=EJ1089163','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=group+AND+contribution&pg=6&id=EJ1089163"><span><span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Validity of Early Literacy Measures for Korean English Language Learners in the United <span class="hlt">States</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Han, Jeanie Nam; Vanderwood, Michael L.; Lee, Catherine Y.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study examined the <span class="hlt">predictive</span> validity of early literacy measures with first-grade Korean English language learners (ELLs) in the United <span class="hlt">States</span> at varying levels of English proficiency. Participants were screened using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF), DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bipolar+AND+disorder&pg=7&id=EJ945314','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bipolar+AND+disorder&pg=7&id=EJ945314"><span>Extreme Appraisals of Internal <span class="hlt">States</span> and Bipolar Symptoms: The Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> Inventory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dodd, Alyson L.; Mansell, Warren; Morrison, Anthony P.; Tai, Sara</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> Inventory (HAPPI; W. Mansell, 2006) was developed to assess multiple, extreme, self-relevant appraisals of internal <span class="hlt">states</span>. The present study aimed to validate the HAPPI in a clinical sample. Participants (N = 50) with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (confirmed by a structured clinical interview)…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62484&keyword=Ear&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62484&keyword=Ear&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>CURRENT <span class="hlt">STATE</span> OF <span class="hlt">PREDICTING</span> THE RESPIRATORY ALLERGY POTENTIAL OF CHEMICALS: WHAT ARE THE ISSUES?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Current <span class="hlt">State</span> of <span class="hlt">Predicting</span> the Respiratory Allergy Potential of Chemicals: What Are the Issues? M I. Gilmour1 and S. E. Loveless2, 1USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC and 2DuPont Haskell Laboratory, Newark, DE.<br><br>Many chemicals are clearly capable of eliciting immune respon...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED058832.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED058832.pdf"><span>A Pilot Test of the Resource Requirements <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Model at Humboldt <span class="hlt">State</span> College.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>California State Colleges, Inglewood. Office of the Chancellor.</p> <p></p> <p>This publication presents Humboldt <span class="hlt">State</span> College's experience with the pilot testing of the Resource Requirements <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Model (RRPM), an analytic computer designed to aid management decisionmaking and planning in institutions of higher education. RRPM has great potential as a planning tool that can improve resource management in higher…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62484&keyword=ear&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78789368&CFTOKEN=33137517','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62484&keyword=ear&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78789368&CFTOKEN=33137517"><span>CURRENT <span class="hlt">STATE</span> OF <span class="hlt">PREDICTING</span> THE RESPIRATORY ALLERGY POTENTIAL OF CHEMICALS: WHAT ARE THE ISSUES?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Current <span class="hlt">State</span> of <span class="hlt">Predicting</span> the Respiratory Allergy Potential of Chemicals: What Are the Issues? M I. Gilmour1 and S. E. Loveless2, 1USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC and 2DuPont Haskell Laboratory, Newark, DE.<br><br>Many chemicals are clearly capable of eliciting immune respon...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20018526','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20018526"><span>Information integration based <span class="hlt">predictions</span> about the conscious <span class="hlt">states</span> of a spiking neural network.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gamez, David</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>This paper describes how Tononi's information integration theory of consciousness was used to make detailed <span class="hlt">predictions</span> about the distribution of phenomenal <span class="hlt">states</span> in a spiking neural network. This network had approximately 18,000 neurons and 700,000 connections and it used models of emotion and imagination to control the eye movements of a virtual robot and avoid 'negative' stimuli. The first stage in the analysis was the development of a formal definition of Tononi's theory of consciousness. The network was then analysed for information integration and detailed <span class="hlt">predictions</span> were made about the distribution of consciousness for each time step of recorded activity. This work demonstrates how an artificial system can be analysed for consciousness using a particular theory and in the future this approach could be used to make <span class="hlt">predictions</span> about the phenomenal <span class="hlt">states</span> associated with biological systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4763767','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4763767"><span>Physiological <span class="hlt">state</span> gates acquisition and expression of mesolimbic reward <span class="hlt">prediction</span> signals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cone, Jackson J.; Fortin, Samantha M.; McHenry, Jenna A.; Stuber, Garret D.; McCutcheon, James E.; Roitman, Mitchell F.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Phasic dopamine signaling participates in associative learning by reinforcing associations between outcomes (unconditioned stimulus; US) and their predictors (conditioned stimulus; CS). However, prior work has always engendered these associations with innately rewarding stimuli. Thus, whether dopamine neurons can acquire <span class="hlt">prediction</span> signals in the absence of appetitive experience and update them when the value of the outcome changes remains unknown. Here, we used sodium depletion to reversibly manipulate the appetitive value of a hypertonic sodium solution while measuring phasic dopamine signaling in rat nucleus accumbens. Dopamine responses to the NaCl US following sodium depletion updated independent of prior experience. In contrast, <span class="hlt">prediction</span> signals were only acquired through extensive experience with a US that had positive affective value. Once learned, dopamine <span class="hlt">prediction</span> signals were flexibly expressed in a <span class="hlt">state</span>-dependent manner. Our results reveal striking differences with respect to how physiological <span class="hlt">state</span> shapes dopamine signals evoked by outcomes and their predictors. PMID:26831116</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18954106','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18954106"><span>Nonideal statistical rate theory formulation to <span class="hlt">predict</span> evaporation rates from equations of <span class="hlt">state</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kapoor, Atam; Elliott, Janet A W</p> <p>2008-11-27</p> <p>A method of including nonideal effects in the statistical rate theory (SRT) formulation is presented and a generic equation-of-<span class="hlt">state</span> based SRT model was developed for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> evaporation rates. Further, taking the Peng-Robinson equation of <span class="hlt">state</span> as an example, vapor phase pressures at which particular evaporation rates are expected were calculated, and the <span class="hlt">predictions</span> were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental observations for water and octane. A high temperature range (near the critical region) where the previously existing ideal SRT model is expected to yield inaccurate results was identified and <span class="hlt">predictions</span> (for ethane and butane) were instead made with the Peng-Robinson based SRT model to correct for fluid nonidealities at high temperatures and pressures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27164483','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27164483"><span>Resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> qEEG <span class="hlt">predicts</span> rate of second language learning in adults.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prat, Chantel S; Yamasaki, Brianna L; Kluender, Reina A; Stocco, Andrea</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Understanding the neurobiological basis of individual differences in second language acquisition (SLA) is important for research on bilingualism, learning, and neural plasticity. The current study used quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) to <span class="hlt">predict</span> SLA in college-aged individuals. Baseline, eyes-closed resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> qEEG was used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> language learning rate during eight weeks of French exposure using an immersive, virtual scenario software. Individual qEEG indices <span class="hlt">predicted</span> up to 60% of the variability in SLA, whereas behavioral indices of fluid intelligence, executive functioning, and working-memory capacity were not correlated with learning rate. Specifically, power in beta and low-gamma frequency ranges over right temporoparietal regions were strongly positively correlated with SLA. These results highlight the utility of resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> EEG for studying the neurobiological basis of SLA in a relatively construct-free, paradigm-independent manner. Published by Elsevier Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19203245','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19203245"><span>Charge <span class="hlt">prediction</span> machine: tool for inferring precursor charge <span class="hlt">states</span> of electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectra.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carvalho, Paulo C; Cociorva, Daniel; Wong, Catherine C L; Carvalho, Maria da Gloria da C; Barbosa, Valmir C; Yates, John R</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) can dissociate highly charged ions. Efficient analysis of ions dissociated with ETD requires accurate determination of charge <span class="hlt">states</span> for calculation of molecular weight. We created an algorithm to assign the charge <span class="hlt">state</span> of ions often used for ETD. The program, Charge <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Machine (CPM), uses Bayesian decision theory to account for different charge reduction processes encountered in ETD and can also handle multiplex spectra. CPM correctly assigned charge <span class="hlt">states</span> to 98% of the 13,097 MS2 spectra from a combined data set of four experiments. In a comparison between CPM and a competing program, Charger (ThermoFisher), CPM produced half the mistakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/210073','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/210073"><span><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of the phase <span class="hlt">state</span> of a natural condensed gas mixture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kuranov, G.L.; Pukinskii, I.B.; Smirnova, N.A.; Avdeev, D.Yu.</p> <p>1995-07-20</p> <p>The authors have examined how the type of data on the fractional composition of debutanized gas condensate and the selection of a <span class="hlt">state</span> equation can influence the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the phase <span class="hlt">state</span> of a natural condensed gas mixture. The authors have attempted to have the fractional composition of the mixture as found by single-pass evaporation approach that revealed by fractional distillation. The advantage of the vacancy quasichemical equation of <span class="hlt">states</span> over the Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation in the calculation of phase equilibria has been shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22488902','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22488902"><span>Braid group <span class="hlt">representation</span> on quantum computation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aziz, Ryan Kasyfil; Muchtadi-Alamsyah, Intan</p> <p>2015-09-30</p> <p>There are many studies about topological <span class="hlt">representation</span> of quantum computation recently. One of diagram <span class="hlt">representation</span> of quantum computation is by using ZX-Calculus. In this paper we will make a diagrammatical scheme of Dense Coding. We also proved that ZX-Calculus diagram of maximally entangle <span class="hlt">state</span> satisfies Yang-Baxter Equation and therefore, we can construct a Braid Group <span class="hlt">representation</span> of set of maximally entangle <span class="hlt">state</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16851652','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16851652"><span>A novel equation of <span class="hlt">state</span> for the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of thermodynamic properties of fluids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Polishuk, Ilya; Vera, Juan H</p> <p>2005-03-31</p> <p>This work proposes a new equation of <span class="hlt">state</span> (EOS) based on molecular theory for the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of thermodynamic properties of real fluids. The new EOS uses a novel repulsive term, which gives the correct hard sphere close packed limit and yields accurate values for hard sphere and hard chain virial coefficients. The pressure obtained from this repulsive term is corrected by a combination of van der Waals and Dieterici potentials. No empirical temperature functionality of the parameters has been introduced at this stage. The novel EOS <span class="hlt">predicts</span> the experimental volumetric data of different compounds and their mixtures better than the successful EOS of Peng and Robinson. The <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of vapor pressures is only slightly less accurate than the results obtained with the Peng-Robinson equation that is designed for these purposes. The theoretically based parameters of the new EOS make its <span class="hlt">predictions</span> more reliable than those obtained from purely empirical forms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24982629','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24982629"><span>Machine learning classification of resting <span class="hlt">state</span> functional connectivity <span class="hlt">predicts</span> smoking status.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pariyadath, Vani; Stein, Elliot A; Ross, Thomas J</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Machine learning-based approaches are now able to examine functional magnetic resonance imaging data in a multivariate manner and extract features <span class="hlt">predictive</span> of group membership. We applied support vector machine (SVM)-based classification to resting <span class="hlt">state</span> functional connectivity (rsFC) data from nicotine-dependent smokers and healthy controls to identify brain-based features <span class="hlt">predictive</span> of nicotine dependence. By employing a network-centered approach, we observed that within-network functional connectivity measures offered maximal information for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> smoking status, as opposed to between-network connectivity, or the representativeness of each individual node with respect to its parent network. Further, our analysis suggests that connectivity measures within the executive control and frontoparietal networks are particularly informative in <span class="hlt">predicting</span> smoking status. Our findings suggest that machine learning-based approaches to classifying rsFC data offer a valuable alternative technique to understanding large-scale differences in addiction-related neurobiology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3153777','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3153777"><span>Independence and Interdependence <span class="hlt">Predict</span> Health and Wellbeing: Divergent Patterns in the United <span class="hlt">States</span> and Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kitayama, Shinobu; Karasawa, Mayumi; Curhan, Katherine B.; Ryff, Carol D.; Markus, Hazel Rose</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A cross-cultural survey was used to examine two hypotheses designed to link culture to wellbeing and health. The first hypothesis <span class="hlt">states</span> that people are motivated toward prevalent cultural mandates of either independence (personal control) in the United <span class="hlt">States</span> or interdependence (relational harmony) in Japan. As <span class="hlt">predicted</span>, Americans with compromised personal control and Japanese with strained relationships reported high perceived constraint. The second hypothesis holds that people achieve wellbeing and health through actualizing the respective cultural mandates in their modes of being. As <span class="hlt">predicted</span>, the strongest predictor of wellbeing and health was personal control in the United <span class="hlt">States</span>, but the absence of relational strain in Japan. All analyses controlled for age, gender, educational attainment, and personality traits. The overall pattern of findings underscores culturally distinct pathways (independent versus interdependent) in achieving the positive life outcomes. PMID:21833228</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23505612','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23505612"><span>Arthroplasty Utilization in the United <span class="hlt">States</span> is <span class="hlt">Predicted</span> by Age-Specific Population Groups.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bashinskaya, Bronislava; Zimmerman, Ryan M; Walcott, Brian P; Antoci, Valentin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Osteoarthritis is a common indication for hip and knee arthroplasty. An accurate assessment of current trends in healthcare utilization as they relate to arthroplasty may <span class="hlt">predict</span> the needs of a growing elderly population in the United <span class="hlt">States</span>. First, incidence data was queried from the United <span class="hlt">States</span> Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1993 to 2009. Patients undergoing total knee and hip arthroplasty were identified. Then, the United <span class="hlt">States</span> Census Bureau was queried for population data from the same study period as well as to provide future projections. Arthroplasty followed linear regression models with the population group >64 years in both hip and knee groups. Projections for procedure incidence in the year 2050 based on these models were calculated to be 1,859,553 cases (hip) and 4,174,554 cases (knee). The need for hip and knee arthroplasty is expected to grow significantly in the upcoming years, given population growth <span class="hlt">predictions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27146062','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27146062"><span>The Multivariate Roles of Family Instability and Interparental Conflict in <span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Children's <span class="hlt">Representations</span> of Insecurity in the Family System and Early School Adjustment Problems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Coe, Jesse L; Davies, Patrick T; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>This study examined the moderating role of family instability in relations involving destructive interparental conflict, children's internal <span class="hlt">representations</span> of insecurity in the family system, and their early school maladjustment. Two hundred forty-three preschool children (M age = 4.60 years; 56 % girls) and their families participated in this multi-method (i.e., observations, structured interview, surveys) multi-informant (i.e., observer, parent, teacher), longitudinal study. Findings indicated that the mediational role of children's insecure family <span class="hlt">representations</span> in the pathway between destructive interparental conflict and children's adjustment problems varied significantly depending on the level of family instability. Interparental conflict was specifically associated with insecure family <span class="hlt">representations</span> only under conditions of low family instability. In supporting the role of family instability as a vulnerable-stable risk factor, follow up analyses revealed that children's concerns about security in the family were uniformly high under conditions of heightened instability regardless of their level of exposure to interparental conflict.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016WRR....52.5095M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016WRR....52.5095M"><span>A hybrid statistical-dynamical framework for meteorological drought <span class="hlt">prediction</span>: Application to the southwestern United <span class="hlt">States</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Madadgar, Shahrbanou; AghaKouchak, Amir; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Wood, Andrew W.; Cheng, Linyin; Hsu, Kou-Lin; Svoboda, Mark</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Improving water management in water stressed-regions requires reliable seasonal precipitation predication, which remains a grand challenge. Numerous statistical and dynamical model simulations have been developed for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> precipitation. However, both types of models offer limited seasonal <span class="hlt">predictability</span>. This study outlines a hybrid statistical-dynamical modeling framework for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> seasonal precipitation. The dynamical component relies on the physically based North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) model simulations (99 ensemble members). The statistical component relies on a multivariate Bayesian-based model that relates precipitation to atmosphere-ocean teleconnections (also known as an analog-year statistical model). Here the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) are used in the statistical component. The dynamical and statistical <span class="hlt">predictions</span> are linked using the so-called Expert Advice algorithm, which offers an ensemble response (as an alternative to the ensemble mean). The latter part leads to the best precipitation <span class="hlt">prediction</span> based on contributing statistical and dynamical ensembles. It combines the strength of physically based dynamical simulations and the capability of an analog-year model. An application of the framework in the southwestern United <span class="hlt">States</span>, which has suffered from major droughts over the past decade, improves seasonal precipitation <span class="hlt">predictions</span> (3-5 month lead time) by 5-60% relative to the NMME simulations. Overall, the hybrid framework performs better in <span class="hlt">predicting</span> negative precipitation anomalies (10-60% improvement over NMME) than positive precipitation anomalies (5-25% improvement over NMME). The results indicate that the framework would likely improve our ability to <span class="hlt">predict</span> droughts such as the 2012-2014 event in the western United <span class="hlt">States</span> that resulted in significant socioeconomic impacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JNEng..10f6017Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JNEng..10f6017Z"><span><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of SSVEP-based BCI performance by the resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> EEG network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yangsong; Xu, Peng; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Objective. The <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of brain-computer interface (BCI) performance is a significant topic in the BCI field. Some researches have demonstrated that resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> data are promising candidates to achieve the goal. However, so far the relationships between the resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> networks and the steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI have not been investigated. In this paper, we investigate the possible relationships between the SSVEP responses, the classification accuracy of five stimulus frequencies and the closed-eye resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> network topology. Approach. The resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> functional connectivity networks of the corresponding five stimulus frequencies were created by coherence, and then three network topology measures—the mean functional connectivity, the clustering coefficient and the characteristic path length of each network—were calculated. In addition, canonical correlation analysis was used to perform frequency recognition with the SSVEP data. Main results. Interestingly, we found that SSVEPs of each frequency were negatively correlated with the mean functional connectivity and clustering coefficient, but positively correlated with characteristic path length. Each of the averaged network topology measures across the frequencies showed the same relationship with the SSVEPs averaged across frequencies between the subjects. Furthermore, our results also demonstrated that the classification accuracy can be <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by three averaged network measures and their combination can further improve the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> performance. Significance. These findings indicate that the SSVEP responses and performance are <span class="hlt">predictable</span> using the information at the resting-<span class="hlt">state</span>, which may be instructive in both SSVEP-aided cognition studies and SSVEP-based BCI applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24280591','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24280591"><span><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of SSVEP-based BCI performance by the resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> EEG network.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yangsong; Xu, Peng; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of brain-computer interface (BCI) performance is a significant topic in the BCI field. Some researches have demonstrated that resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> data are promising candidates to achieve the goal. However, so far the relationships between the resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> networks and the steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI have not been investigated. In this paper, we investigate the possible relationships between the SSVEP responses, the classification accuracy of five stimulus frequencies and the closed-eye resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> network topology. The resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> functional connectivity networks of the corresponding five stimulus frequencies were created by coherence, and then three network topology measures--the mean functional connectivity, the clustering coefficient and the characteristic path length of each network--were calculated. In addition, canonical correlation analysis was used to perform frequency recognition with the SSVEP data. Interestingly, we found that SSVEPs of each frequency were negatively correlated with the mean functional connectivity and clustering coefficient, but positively correlated with characteristic path length. Each of the averaged network topology measures across the frequencies showed the same relationship with the SSVEPs averaged across frequencies between the subjects. Furthermore, our results also demonstrated that the classification accuracy can be <span class="hlt">predicted</span> by three averaged network measures and their combination can further improve the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> performance. These findings indicate that the SSVEP responses and performance are <span class="hlt">predictable</span> using the information at the resting-<span class="hlt">state</span>, which may be instructive in both SSVEP-aided cognition studies and SSVEP-based BCI applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1171131','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1171131"><span>The relationship between large-scale and convective <span class="hlt">states</span> in the tropics - Towards an improved <span class="hlt">representation</span> of convection in large-scale models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jakob, Christian</p> <p>2015-02-26</p> <p>This report summarises an investigation into the relationship of tropical thunderstorms to the atmospheric conditions they are embedded in. The study is based on the use of radar observations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site in Darwin run under the auspices of the DOE Atmospheric Systems Research program. Linking the larger scales of the atmosphere with the smaller scales of thunderstorms is crucial for the development of the <span class="hlt">representation</span> of thunderstorms in weather and climate models, which is carried out by a process termed parametrisation. Through the analysis of radar and wind profiler observations the project made several fundamental discoveries about tropical storms and quantified the relationship of the occurrence and intensity of these storms to the large-scale atmosphere. We were able to show that the rainfall averaged over an area the size of a typical climate model grid-box is largely controlled by the number of storms in the area, and less so by the storm intensity. This allows us to completely rethink the way we represent such storms in climate models. We also found that storms occur in three distinct categories based on their depth and that the transition between these categories is strongly related to the larger scale dynamical features of the atmosphere more so than its thermodynamic <span class="hlt">state</span>. Finally, we used our observational findings to test and refine a new approach to cumulus parametrisation which relies on the stochastic modelling of the area covered by different convective cloud types.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9868E..0AD','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9868E..0AD"><span>An algorithm to estimate building heights from Google street-view imagery using single view metrology across a <span class="hlt">representational</span> <span class="hlt">state</span> transfer system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Díaz, Elkin; Arguello, Henry</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Urban ecosystem studies require monitoring, controlling and planning to analyze building density, urban density, urban planning, atmospheric modeling and land use. In urban planning, there are many methods for building height estimation using optical remote sensing images. These methods however, highly depend on sun illumination and cloud-free weather. In contrast, high resolution synthetic aperture radar provides images independent from daytime and weather conditions, although, these images rely on special hardware and expensive acquisition. Most of the biggest cities around the world have been photographed by Google street view under different conditions. Thus, thousands of images from the principal streets of a city can be accessed online. The availability of this and similar rich city imagery such as StreetSide from Microsoft, represents huge opportunities in computer vision because these images can be used as input in many applications such as 3D modeling, segmentation, recognition and stereo correspondence. This paper proposes a novel algorithm to estimate building heights using public Google Street-View imagery. The objective of this work is to obtain thousands of geo-referenced images from Google Street-View using a <span class="hlt">representational</span> <span class="hlt">state</span> transfer system, and estimate their average height using single view metrology. Furthermore, the resulting measurements and image metadata are used to derive a layer of heights in a Google map available online. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can estimate an accurate average building height map of thousands of images using Google Street-View Imagery of any city.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9575536','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9575536"><span>Annual <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of adverse outcomes after glaucoma surgery in the United <span class="hlt">States</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Coleman, A L; Yu, F; Greenland, S</p> <p>1998-03-01</p> <p>To <span class="hlt">predict</span> the number of adverse outcomes or additional ocular surgeries after glaucoma surgery in each year from 1990 to 1994 with ordinary and hierarchical logistic regression models developed with 1989 Medicare data. We obtained data on all intraocular and laser glaucoma surgery claims (for example, laser trabeculoplasty, full-thickness and partial-thickness procedures, and cycloablation) to the Health Care Finance Administration (HCFA) in 1989 and developed an ordinary (non-hierarchical) logistic regression model and two hierarchical logistic regression models. The two hierarchical models smoothed <span class="hlt">state</span>-level effects to different degrees in an effort to improve the precision of model <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. The hierarchical logistic regression models <span class="hlt">predicted</span> the number of adverse outcomes or additional ocular surgeries, including repeat glaucoma surgery, from 1990 to 1994 significantly better than the ordinary model. None of the models <span class="hlt">predicted</span> the downward trend in adverse outcomes in 1990 and 1992, although all three models were able to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the increase in adverse outcomes in 1991 and the downward trend in adverse outcomes in 1993 and 1994. Although systematic changes over time in physician practice or billing patterns affected the ability of both ordinary and hierarchical regression models to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the number of adverse outcomes in 1990 and 1992, hierarchical logistic regression provides a useful framework for analyzing adverse event rates when the model contains many covariates with imprecisely estimated coefficients. The greater accuracy of <span class="hlt">predicted</span> adverse event rates from ophthalmic surgeries obtained with hierarchical logistic regression will be useful for future planning and budgeting purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940006137','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940006137"><span>Information entrophy via Glauber's Q-<span class="hlt">representation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keitel, C. H.; Wodkiewicz, K.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>We present a convenient way to evaluate the information entropy of a quantum mechanical <span class="hlt">state</span> via the Glauber Q-<span class="hlt">representation</span>. As an example we discuss the information entropy of a thermally relaxing squeezed <span class="hlt">state</span> in terms of its Q-<span class="hlt">representation</span> and show the validity of the corresponding entropic uncertainty- and Araki-Lieb inequalities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H13I1692H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H13I1692H"><span>Categorical Drought Monitoring and <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> in the United <span class="hlt">States</span> Based on NLDAS-2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hao, Z.; Xia, Y.; Hao, F.; Singh, V. P.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Drought is a pervasive natural hazard and is a billion-dollar disaster in the United <span class="hlt">States</span>, which is comparable to hurricanes and tropical storms with greater economic impacts than extratropical storms, wildfires, blizzards, and ice storms combined. Drought early warning is of critical importance for drought preparedness planning and mitigation efforts to reduce potential impacts of drought, for which drought monitoring and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> are the essential components. The U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM) has been widely used to track droughts and their impacts. USDM is a composite product that blends quantitative drought indicators and qualitative drought information from multiple sources and classifies drought conditions into different drought categories. Due to the wide application of USDM products, drought monitoring and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> in the categorical form would be of great importance to aid decision makers to take appropriate measures for drought managements. Based on drought indices from North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2 (NLDAS-2), this study proposes a statistical method for the categorical drought monitoring and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> in the United <span class="hlt">States</span>. The probabilities of drought conditions falling into different USDM drought categories can be estimated from the proposed method. The method is found to satisfactorily reconstruct historical USDM drought categories and <span class="hlt">predict</span> future USDM drought categories, and has considerable potential to aid early drought warning in the United <span class="hlt">States</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16350978','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16350978"><span>Evoked potentials for the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of vegetative <span class="hlt">state</span> in the acute stage of coma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fischer, Catherine; Luauté, Jacques</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>For comatose patients in intensive care units, it is important to anticipate their functional outcome as soon and as reliably as possible. Among clinical variables the Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) and the patient's pupil reactivity are the strongest <span class="hlt">predictive</span> variables. Evoked potentials help to assess objectively brain function. Over the past 20 years, numerous studies have assessed their prognostic utility in terms of awakening from coma. Fewer studies, however, have focused upon the utility of evoked potentials in <span class="hlt">predicting</span> progression to the vegetative <span class="hlt">state</span>. In this area evoked potentials appear to have a highly <span class="hlt">predictive</span> value. In anoxic coma the abolition of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) is related to a poor outcome, defined as death or survival in a vegetative <span class="hlt">state</span>, with a 100% specificity. Following traumatic brain injury, the <span class="hlt">predictive</span> value for unfavourable outcome is 98.5% when there are no focal injuries likely to abolish SEP cortical components. In contrast, the presence of event-related evoked potentials, and particularly mismatched negativity (MMN), is a strong predictor of awakening and precludes comatose patients from moving to a permanent vegetative <span class="hlt">state</span> (PVS).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010118543','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010118543"><span>Turbulence Modeling Effects on the <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Equilibrium <span class="hlt">States</span> of Buoyant Shear Flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, C. Y.; So, R. M. C.; Gatski, T. B.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The effects of turbulence modeling on the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of equilibrium <span class="hlt">states</span> of turbulent buoyant shear flows were investigated. The velocity field models used include a two-equation closure, a Reynolds-stress closure assuming two different pressure-strain models and three different dissipation rate tensor models. As for the thermal field closure models, two different pressure-scrambling models and nine different temperature variance dissipation rate, Epsilon(0) equations were considered. The emphasis of this paper is focused on the effects of the Epsilon(0)-equation, of the dissipation rate models, of the pressure-strain models and of the pressure-scrambling models on the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the approach to equilibrium turbulence. Equilibrium turbulence is defined by the time rate (if change of the scaled Reynolds stress anisotropic tensor and heat flux vector becoming zero. These conditions lead to the equilibrium <span class="hlt">state</span> parameters. Calculations show that the Epsilon(0)-equation has a significant effect on the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the approach to equilibrium turbulence. For a particular Epsilon(0)-equation, all velocity closure models considered give an equilibrium <span class="hlt">state</span> if anisotropic dissipation is accounted for in one form or another in the dissipation rate tensor or in the Epsilon(0)-equation. It is further found that the models considered for the pressure-strain tensor and the pressure-scrambling vector have little or no effect on the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the approach to equilibrium turbulence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.8592K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.8592K"><span>Early <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of extreme stratospheric polar vortex <span class="hlt">states</span> based on causal precursors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kretschmer, Marlene; Runge, Jakob; Coumou, Dim</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Variability in the stratospheric polar vortex (SPV) can influence the tropospheric circulation and thereby winter weather. Early <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of extreme SPV <span class="hlt">states</span> are thus important to improve forecasts of winter weather including cold spells. However, dynamical models are usually restricted in lead time because they poorly capture low-frequency processes. Empirical models often suffer from overfitting problems as the relevant physical processes and time lags are often not well understood. Here we introduce a novel empirical <span class="hlt">prediction</span> method by uniting a response-guided community detection scheme with a causal discovery algorithm. This way, we objectively identify causal precursors of the SPV at subseasonal lead times and find them to be in good agreement with known physical drivers. A linear regression <span class="hlt">prediction</span> model based on the causal precursors can explain most SPV variability (r2 = 0.58), and our scheme correctly <span class="hlt">predicts</span> 58% (46%) of extremely weak SPV <span class="hlt">states</span> for lead times of 1-15 (16-30) days with false-alarm rates of only approximately 5%. Our method can be applied to any variable relevant for (sub)seasonal weather forecasts and could thus help improving long-lead <span class="hlt">predictions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4796297','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4796297"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> the activation <span class="hlt">states</span> of the muscles governing upper esophageal sphincter relaxation and opening</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jones, Corinne A.; Hammer, Michael J.; Cock, Charles; Dinning, Philip; Wiklendt, Lukasz; Costa, Marcello; McCulloch, Timothy M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The swallowing muscles that influence upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening are centrally controlled and modulated by sensory information. Activation and deactivation of neural inputs to these muscles, including the intrinsic cricopharyngeus (CP) and extrinsic submental (SM) muscles, results in their mechanical activation or deactivation, which changes the diameter of the lumen, alters the intraluminal pressure, and ultimately reduces or promotes flow of content. By measuring the changes in diameter, using intraluminal impedance, and the concurrent changes in intraluminal pressure, it is possible to determine when the muscles are passively or actively relaxing or contracting. From these “mechanical states” of the muscle, the neural inputs driving the specific motor behaviors of the UES can be inferred. In this study we compared <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of UES mechanical <span class="hlt">states</span> directly with the activity measured by electromyography (EMG). In eight subjects, pharyngeal pressure and impedance were recorded in parallel with CP- and SM-EMG activity. UES pressure and impedance swallow profiles correlated with the CP-EMG and SM-EMG recordings, respectively. Eight UES muscle <span class="hlt">states</span> were determined by using the gradient of pressure and impedance with respect to time. Guided by the level and gradient change of EMG activity, mechanical <span class="hlt">states</span> successfully <span class="hlt">predicted</span> the activity of the CP muscle and SM muscle independently. Mechanical <span class="hlt">state</span> <span class="hlt">predictions</span> revealed patterns consistent with the known neural inputs activating the different muscles during swallowing. Derivation of “activation state” maps may allow better physiological and pathophysiological interpretations of UES function. PMID:26767985</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2373728','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2373728"><span><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of the disulfide-bonding <span class="hlt">state</span> of cysteines in proteins at 88% accuracy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Martelli, Pier Luigi; Fariselli, Piero; Malaguti, Luca; Casadio, Rita</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The task of <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the cysteine-bonding <span class="hlt">state</span> in proteins starting from the residue chain is addressed by implementing a new hybrid system that combines a neural network and a hidden Markov model (hidden neural network). Training is performed using 4136 cysteine-containing segments extracted from 969 nonhomologous proteins of well-resolved three-dimensional structure. After a 20-fold cross-validation procedure, the efficiency of the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> scores as high as 88% and 84%, when measured on cysteine and protein basis, respectively. These results outperform previously described methods for the same task. PMID:12381855</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2438363','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2438363"><span>Geographical information system and <span class="hlt">predictive</span> risk maps of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun <span class="hlt">State</span>, Nigeria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ekpo, Uwem F; Mafiana, Chiedu F; Adeofun, Clement O; Solarin, Adewale RT; Idowu, Adewumi B</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Background The control of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun <span class="hlt">State</span>, Nigeria remains inert due to lack of reliable data on the geographical distribution of the disease and the population at risk. To help in developing a control programme, delineating areas of risk, geographical information system and remotely sensed environmental images were used to developed <span class="hlt">predictive</span> risk maps of the probability of occurrence of the disease and quantify the risk for infection in Ogun <span class="hlt">State</span>, Nigeria. Methods Infection data used were derived from carefully validated morbidity questionnaires among primary school children in 2001–2002, in which school children were asked among other questions if they have experienced "blood in urine" or urinary schistosomiasis. The infection data from 1,092 schools together with remotely sensed environmental data such as rainfall, vegetation, temperature, soil-types, altitude and land cover were analysis using binary logistic regression models to identify environmental features that influence the spatial distribution of the disease. The final regression equations were then used in Arc View 3.2a GIS software to generate <span class="hlt">predictive</span> risk maps of the distribution of the disease and population at risk in the <span class="hlt">state</span>. Results Logistic regression analysis shows that the only significant environmental variable in <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the presence and absence of urinary schistosomiasis in any area of the <span class="hlt">State</span> was Land Surface Temperature (LST) (B = 0.308, p = 0.013). While LST (B = -0.478, p = 0.035), rainfall (B = -0.006, p = 0.0005), ferric luvisols (B = 0.539, p = 0.274), dystric nitosols (B = 0.133, p = 0.769) and pellic vertisols (B = 1.386, p = 0.008) soils types were the final variables in the model for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the probability of an area having an infection prevalence equivalent to or more than 50%. The two <span class="hlt">predictive</span> risk maps suggest that urinary schistosomiasis is widely distributed and occurring in all the Local Government Areas (LGAs) in <span class="hlt">State</span>. The high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28154474','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28154474"><span>Long-Term <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> from Early Adolescent Attachment <span class="hlt">State</span> of Mind to Romantic Relationship Behaviors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tan, Joseph S; Hessel, Elenda T; Loeb, Emily L; Schad, Megan M; Allen, Joseph P; Chango, Joanna M</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Attachment <span class="hlt">state</span> of mind was investigated as a long-term predictor of romantic relationship competence. A secure early adolescent attachment <span class="hlt">state</span> of mind was hypothesized to <span class="hlt">predict</span> more constructive dyadic behaviors during conflict discussions and support seeking interactions in late adolescence and early adulthood. Utilizing multi-method data from a community sample of 184 individuals, followed from ages 14 to 21, adolescents with a secure attachment <span class="hlt">state</span> of mind at age 14 were found to be in relationships that displayed more constructive dyadic conflict discussion behaviors and dyadic supportive behaviors at both ages 18 and 21. Results suggest substantial links between early adolescent attachment <span class="hlt">state</span> of mind and the adult romantic relationship atmosphere an individual creates and experiences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23486959','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23486959"><span>Resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> functional connectivity <span class="hlt">predicts</span> impulsivity in economic decision-making.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Nan; Ma, Ning; Liu, Ying; He, Xiao-Song; Sun, De-Lin; Fu, Xian-Ming; Zhang, Xiaochu; Han, Shihui; Zhang, Da-Ren</p> <p>2013-03-13</p> <p>Increasing neuroimaging evidence suggests an association between impulsive decision-making behavior and task-related brain activity. However, the relationship between impulsivity in decision-making and resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> brain activity remains unknown. To address this issue, we used functional MRI to record brain activity from human adults during a resting <span class="hlt">state</span> and during a delay discounting task (DDT) that requires choosing between an immediate smaller reward and a larger delayed reward. In experiment I, we identified four DDT-related brain networks. The money network (the striatum, posterior cingulate cortex, etc.) and the time network (the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, etc.) were associated with the valuation process; the frontoparietal network and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex-anterior insular cortex network were related to the choice process. Moreover, we found that the resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> functional connectivity of the brain regions in these networks was significantly correlated with participants' discounting rate, a behavioral index of impulsivity during the DDT. In experiment II, we tested an independent group of subjects and demonstrated that this resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> functional connectivity was able to <span class="hlt">predict</span> individuals' discounting rates. Together, these findings suggest that resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> functional organization of the human brain may be a biomarker of impulsivity and can <span class="hlt">predict</span> economic decision-making behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11764310','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11764310"><span><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of anxiety disorders using the <span class="hlt">state</span>-trait anxiety inventory for multiethnic adolescents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hishinuma, E S; Miyamoto, R H; Nishimura, S T; Goebert, D A; Yuen, N Y; Makini, G K; Andrade, N N; Johnson, R C; Carlton, B S</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of the <span class="hlt">State</span>-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) in <span class="hlt">predicting</span> DSM-III-R anxiety disorders based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC, Version 2.3) and using Asian/Pacific Islander adolescents. An overall prevalence rate of 9.19% for generalized anxiety disorder, overanxious disorder, or social phobia was consistent with past studies. As hypothesized, STAI negatively worded (i.e., Factor 2) items were better predictors than positively <span class="hlt">stated</span> (i.e., Factor 1) items. The STAI <span class="hlt">State</span> mean was a better predictor of concurrent DISC anxiety disorders as compared to STAI <span class="hlt">State</span> Factors I or 2. In contrast, the STAI Trait Factor 2 (negatively worded) composite was the best predictor for nonconcurrent DISC anxiety disorders as compared to STAI Trait Factor 1 or the overall STAI Trait subscale. Satisfactory <span class="hlt">predictive</span>-validity values were obtained when using the STAI <span class="hlt">State</span> mean and Trait Factor 2 composite. Implications of these findings are discussed, including using the STAI as a screening measure for ethnically diverse adolescents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18517964','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18517964"><span>First-principles <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of a ground <span class="hlt">state</span> crystal structure of magnesium borohydride.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ozolins, V; Majzoub, E H; Wolverton, C</p> <p>2008-04-04</p> <p>Mg(BH(4))(2) contains a large amount of hydrogen by weight and by volume, but its promise as a candidate for hydrogen storage is dependent on the currently unknown thermodynamics of H2 release. Using first-principles density-functional theory calculations and a newly developed prototype electrostatic ground <span class="hlt">state</span> search strategy, we <span class="hlt">predict</span> a new T=0 K ground <span class="hlt">state</span> of Mg(BH(4))(2) with I4[over ]m2 symmetry, which is 5 kJ/mol lower in energy than the recently proposed P6(1) structure. The calculated thermodynamics of H(2) release are within the range required for reversible storage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7399737','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7399737"><span>Phenytoin pharmacokinetic analysis and steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> level <span class="hlt">prediction</span> using a programmable calculator.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ng, P K</p> <p>1980-07-01</p> <p>This paper describes the use of a programmable calculator (HP-97) to determine the individualized Michaelis-Menten parameters of phenytoin by utilising the linear regression technique in fitting data of multiple doses and corresponding steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> concentrations to a linear-transformed Michaelis-Menten equation and solving for the Michaelis-Menten parameters. In addition, the calculator program can <span class="hlt">predict</span> the corresponding steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> concentration of phenytoin for any given dose used in an individual by employing the derived Michaelis-Menten parameters and the Michaelis-Menten equation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27299958','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27299958"><span><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of high-dimensional <span class="hlt">states</span> subject to respiratory motion: a manifold learning approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Wenyang; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan</p> <p>2016-07-07</p> <p>The development of high-dimensional imaging systems in image-guided radiotherapy provides important pathways to the ultimate goal of real-time full volumetric motion monitoring. Effective motion management during radiation treatment usually requires <span class="hlt">prediction</span> to account for system latency and extra signal/image processing time. It is challenging to <span class="hlt">predict</span> high-dimensional respiratory motion due to the complexity of the motion pattern combined with the curse of dimensionality. Linear dimension reduction methods such as PCA have been used to construct a linear subspace from the high-dimensional data, followed by efficient <span class="hlt">predictions</span> on the lower-dimensional subspace. In this study, we extend such rationale to a more general manifold and propose a framework for high-dimensional motion <span class="hlt">prediction</span> with manifold learning, which allows one to learn more descriptive features compared to linear methods with comparable dimensions. Specifically, a kernel PCA is used to construct a proper low-dimensional feature manifold, where accurate and efficient <span class="hlt">prediction</span> can be performed. A fixed-point iterative pre-image estimation method is used to recover the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> value in the original <span class="hlt">state</span> space. We evaluated and compared the proposed method with a PCA-based approach on level-set surfaces reconstructed from point clouds captured by a 3D photogrammetry system. The <span class="hlt">prediction</span> accuracy was evaluated in terms of root-mean-squared-error. Our proposed method achieved consistent higher <span class="hlt">prediction</span> accuracy (sub-millimeter) for both 200 ms and 600 ms lookahead lengths compared to the PCA-based approach, and the performance gain was statistically significant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMB....61.4989L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMB....61.4989L"><span><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of high-dimensional <span class="hlt">states</span> subject to respiratory motion: a manifold learning approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Wenyang; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The development of high-dimensional imaging systems in image-guided radiotherapy provides important pathways to the ultimate goal of real-time full volumetric motion monitoring. Effective motion management during radiation treatment usually requires <span class="hlt">prediction</span> to account for system latency and extra signal/image processing time. It is challenging to <span class="hlt">predict</span> high-dimensional respiratory motion due to the complexity of the motion pattern combined with the curse of dimensionality. Linear dimension reduction methods such as PCA have been used to construct a linear subspace from the high-dimensional data, followed by efficient <span class="hlt">predictions</span> on the lower-dimensional subspace. In this study, we extend such rationale to a more general manifold and propose a framework for high-dimensional motion <span class="hlt">prediction</span> with manifold learning, which allows one to learn more descriptive features compared to linear methods with comparable dimensions. Specifically, a kernel PCA is used to construct a proper low-dimensional feature manifold, where accurate and efficient <span class="hlt">prediction</span> can be performed. A fixed-point iterative pre-image estimation method is used to recover the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> value in the original <span class="hlt">state</span> space. We evaluated and compared the proposed method with a PCA-based approach on level-set surfaces reconstructed from point clouds captured by a 3D photogrammetry system. The <span class="hlt">prediction</span> accuracy was evaluated in terms of root-mean-squared-error. Our proposed method achieved consistent higher <span class="hlt">prediction</span> accuracy (sub-millimeter) for both 200 ms and 600 ms lookahead lengths compared to the PCA-based approach, and the performance gain was statistically significant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5419692','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5419692"><span>Design of an Artificial Pancreas using Zone Model <span class="hlt">Predictive</span> Control with a Moving Horizon <span class="hlt">State</span> Estimator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lee, Justin J.; Gondhalekar, Ravi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A zone model <span class="hlt">predictive</span> control (zone-MPC) algorithm that utilizes the Moving Horizon <span class="hlt">State</span> Estimator (MHSE) is presented. The control application is an artificial pancreas for treating people with type 1 diabetes mellitus. During the meal challenge, the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> quality of the zone-MPC algorithm with the MHSE was significantly better than when using the current Luenberger observer to provide the <span class="hlt">state</span> estimate. Consequently, the controller using the MHSE rejected the meal disturbance faster and without inducing extra hypoglycemia risk (e.g., lower postprandial blood glucose peak by 10 mg/dL and higher postprandial minimum blood glucose by 11 mg/dL). The faster rejection of the meal disturbance led to a longer time in the clinically accepted safe region (70–180 mg/dL) by 13%, and this may reduce the likelihood of the complications related to type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:28479659</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27225575','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27225575"><span><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Outcome after Traumatic Brain Injury: Comparison of Disease <span class="hlt">State</span> Index and IMPACT Calculator.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liedes, Hilkka; Mattila, Jussi; Lingsma, Hester; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Menon, David; Tenovuo, Olli; van Gils, Mark</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability, especially in young adults. A reliable <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of outcome after TBI is of great importance in clinical practice and research. We aimed to compare performance of the well-established IMPACT calculator and an alternative method, Disease <span class="hlt">State</span> Index (DSI), in the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of six-month outcome after TBI. Performance of the models was evaluated using 2036 patients with moderate or severe TBI from the International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in TBI (IMPACT) database. <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> performance of both models was similar. The models with more variables provided better performance than the simpler models. This study showed that the DSI is a valid tool with efficient visualizations that can help clinicians with their decision making process in clinical practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA617955','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA617955"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Disposal Costs for United <span class="hlt">States</span> Air Force Aircraft (Briefing Charts)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S <span class="hlt">Predicting</span> Disposal Costs for United <span class="hlt">States</span> Air Force Aircraft (Presentation) Mark F. Kaye...control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17638289','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17638289"><span>Bayesian <span class="hlt">state</span> space models for inferring and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> temporal gene expression profiles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liang, Yulan; Kelemen, Arpad</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of gene dynamic behavior is a challenging and important problem in genomic research while estimating the temporal correlations and non-stationarity are the keys in this process. Unfortunately, most existing techniques used for the inclusion of the temporal correlations treat the time course as evenly distributed time intervals and use stationary models with time-invariant settings. This is an assumption that is often violated in microarray time course data since the time course expression data are at unequal time points, where the difference in sampling times varies from minutes to days. Furthermore, the unevenly spaced short time courses with sudden changes make the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of genetic dynamics difficult. In this paper, we develop two types of Bayesian <span class="hlt">state</span> space models to tackle this challenge for inferring and <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the gene expression profiles associated with diseases. In the univariate time-varying Bayesian <span class="hlt">state</span> space models we treat both the stochastic transition matrix and the observation matrix time-variant with linear setting and point out that this can easily be extended to nonlinear setting. In the multivariate Bayesian <span class="hlt">state</span> space model we include temporal correlation structures in the covariance matrix estimations. In both models, the unevenly spaced short time courses with unseen time points are treated as hidden <span class="hlt">state</span> variables. Bayesian approaches with various prior and hyper-prior models with MCMC algorithms are used to estimate the model parameters and hidden variables. We apply our models to multiple tissue polygenetic affymetrix data sets. Results show that the <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of the genomic dynamic behavior can be well captured by the proposed models. (c) 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JHyd..549..264L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JHyd..549..264L"><span><span class="hlt">State</span>-space <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of spring discharge in a karst catchment in southwest China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Zhenwei; Xu, Xianli; Liu, Meixian; Li, Xuezhang; Zhang, Rongfei; Wang, Kelin; Xu, Chaohao</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Southwest China represents one of the largest continuous karst regions in the world. It is estimated that around 1.7 million people are heavily dependent on water derived from karst springs in southwest China. However, there is a limited amount of water supply in this region. Moreover, there is not enough information on temporal patterns of spring discharge in the area. In this context, it is essential to accurately <span class="hlt">predict</span> spring discharge, as well as understand karst hydrological processes in a thorough manner, so that water shortages in this area could be <span class="hlt">predicted</span> and managed efficiently. The objectives of this study were to determine the primary factors that govern spring discharge patterns and to develop a <span class="hlt">state</span>-space model to <span class="hlt">predict</span> spring discharge. Spring discharge, precipitation (PT), relative humidity (RD), water temperature (WD), and electrical conductivity (EC) were the variables analyzed in the present work, and they were monitored at two different locations (referred to as karst springs A and B, respectively, in this paper) in a karst catchment area in southwest China from May to November 2015. Results showed that a <span class="hlt">state</span>-space model using any combinations of variables outperformed a classical linear regression, a back-propagation artificial neural network model, and a least square support vector machine in modeling spring discharge time series for karst spring A. The best <span class="hlt">state</span>-space model was obtained by using PT and RD, which accounted for 99.9% of the total variation in spring discharge. This model was then applied to an independent data set obtained from karst spring B, and it provided accurate spring discharge estimates. Therefore, <span class="hlt">state</span>-space modeling was a useful tool for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> spring discharge in karst regions in southwest China, and this modeling procedure may help researchers to obtain accurate results in other karst regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RuPhJ.tmp...25S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RuPhJ.tmp...25S"><span><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of <span class="hlt">States</span> of Discrete Systems with Unknown Input of the Model Using Compensation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smagin, V. I.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The problem of <span class="hlt">state</span> <span class="hlt">prediction</span> for linear dynamic systems with discrete time is considered in the presence of unknown input and inaccurately specified parameters in the model. An algorithm with compensation for the constant component and estimation of the unknown variable input component by the least squares method is suggested. Results of statistical simulation are presented. The algorithm can be used for solving problems of processing information obtained as a result of observations over physical processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090013727','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090013727"><span>Low-dimensional <span class="hlt">Representation</span> of Error Covariance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tippett, Michael K.; Cohn, Stephen E.; Todling, Ricardo; Marchesin, Dan</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Ensemble and reduced-rank approaches to <span class="hlt">prediction</span> and assimilation rely on low-dimensional approximations of the estimation error covariances. Here stability properties of the forecast/analysis cycle for linear, time-independent systems are used to identify factors that cause the steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> analysis error covariance to admit a low-dimensional <span class="hlt">representation</span>. A useful measure of forecast/analysis cycle stability is the bound matrix, a function of the dynamics, observation operator and assimilation method. Upper and lower estimates for the steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> analysis error covariance matrix eigenvalues are derived from the bound matrix. The estimates generalize to time-dependent systems. If much of the steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> analysis error variance is due to a few dominant modes, the leading eigenvectors of the bound matrix approximate those of the steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> analysis error covariance matrix. The analytical results are illustrated in two numerical examples where the Kalman filter is carried to steady <span class="hlt">state</span>. The first example uses the dynamics of a generalized advection equation exhibiting nonmodal transient growth. Failure to observe growing modes leads to increased steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> analysis error variances. Leading eigenvectors of the steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> analysis error covariance matrix are well approximated by leading eigenvectors of the bound matrix. The second example uses the dynamics of a damped baroclinic wave model. The leading eigenvectors of a lowest-order approximation of the bound matrix are shown to approximate well the leading eigenvectors of the steady-<span class="hlt">state</span> analysis error covariance matrix.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046061','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046061"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> the likelihood of altered streamflows at ungauged rivers across the conterminous United <span class="hlt">States</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Eng, Kenny; Carlisle, Daren M.; Wolock, David M.; Falcone, James A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>An approach is presented in this study to aid water-resource managers in characterizing streamflow alteration at ungauged rivers. Such approaches can be used to take advantage of the substantial amounts of biological data collected at ungauged rivers to evaluate the potential ecological consequences of altered streamflows. National-scale random forest statistical models are developed to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the likelihood that ungauged rivers have altered streamflows (relative to expected natural condition) for five hydrologic metrics (HMs) representing different aspects of the streamflow regime. The models use human disturbance variables, such as number of dams and road density, to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the likelihood of streamflow alteration. For each HM, separate models are derived to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the likelihood that the observed metric is greater than (‘inflated’) or less than (‘diminished’) natural conditions. The utility of these models is demonstrated by applying them to all river segments in the South Platte River in Colorado, USA, and for all 10-digit hydrologic units in the conterminous United <span class="hlt">States</span>. In general, the models successfully <span class="hlt">predicted</span> the likelihood of alteration to the five HMs at the national scale as well as in the South Platte River basin. However, the models <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the likelihood of diminished HMs consistently outperformed models <span class="hlt">predicting</span> inflated HMs, possibly because of fewer sites across the conterminous United <span class="hlt">States</span> where HMs are inflated. The results of these analyses suggest that the primary predictors of altered streamflow regimes across the Nation are (i) the residence time of annual runoff held in storage in reservoirs, (ii) the degree of urbanization measured by road density and (iii) the extent of agricultural land cover in the river basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B12D..03A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B12D..03A"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> drought-induced tree mortality in the western United <span class="hlt">States</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderegg, W.; Wolf, A.; Shevliakova, E.; Pacala, S. W.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Projected responses of forest ecosystems to warming and drying associated with 21st century climate change vary widely from resiliency to widespread dieback. A major shortcoming of current vegetation models is the inability to account for mortality of overstory trees during extreme drought due to uncertainties in mechanisms and thresholds. In this talk, I discuss two modeling efforts to <span class="hlt">predict</span> drought-induced tree mortality in the western United <span class="hlt">States</span>. In the first, we identify a lethal drought threshold in the loss of vascular transport capacity from xylem cavitation, which provides insight into what initiates mortality, in Populus tremuloides in the southwestern United <span class="hlt">States</span>. We then use the hydraulic-based threshold to produce a hindcast of a drought-induced forest dieback and compare <span class="hlt">predictions</span> against three independent regional mortality datasets. The hydraulic threshold <span class="hlt">predicted</span> major regional patterns of tree mortality with high accuracy based on field plots and mortality maps derived from Landsat imagery. Climate model simulations project increasing drought stress in this region that exceeds the observed mortality threshold in the high emissions scenario by the 2050s, likely triggering further widespread diebacks. In the second approach, we build a dynamic plant hydraulic model into a land-surface model and compare <span class="hlt">predictions</span> against observed mortality patterns across multiple species. These methods provide powerful and tractable approaches for incorporating tree mortality into vegetation models to resolve uncertainty over the fate of forest ecosystems in a changing climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22255210','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22255210"><span>Thermodynamic ground <span class="hlt">state</span> of MgB{sub 6} <span class="hlt">predicted</span> from first principles structure search methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Hui; LeBlanc, K. A.; Gao, Bo; Yao, Yansun</p> <p>2014-01-28</p> <p>Crystalline structures of magnesium hexaboride, MgB{sub 6}, were investigated using unbiased structure searching methods combined with first principles density functional calculations. An orthorhombic Cmcm structure was <span class="hlt">predicted</span> as the thermodynamic ground <span class="hlt">state</span> of MgB{sub 6}. The energy of the Cmcm structure is significantly lower than the theoretical MgB{sub 6} models previously considered based on a primitive cubic arrangement of boron octahedra. The Cmcm structure is stable against the decomposition to elemental magnesium and boron solids at atmospheric pressure and high pressures up to 18.3 GPa. A unique feature of the <span class="hlt">predicted</span> Cmcm structure is that the boron atoms are clustered into two forms: localized B{sub 6} octahedra and extended B{sub ∞} ribbons. Within the boron ribbons, the electrons are delocalized and this leads to a metallic ground <span class="hlt">state</span> with vanished electric dipoles. The present <span class="hlt">prediction</span> is in contrast to the previous proposal that the crystalline MgB{sub 6} maintains a semiconducting <span class="hlt">state</span> with permanent dipole moments. MgB{sub 6} is estimated to have much weaker electron-phonon coupling compared with that of MgB{sub 2}, and therefore it is not expected to be able to sustain superconductivity at high temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4043151','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4043151"><span><span class="hlt">Predictable</span> internal brain dynamics in EEG and its relation to conscious <span class="hlt">states</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yoo, Jaewook; Kwon, Jaerock; Choe, Yoonsuck</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Consciousness is a complex and multi-faceted phenomenon defying scientific explanation. Part of the reason why this is the case is due to its subjective nature. In our previous computational experiments, to avoid such a subjective trap, we took a strategy to investigate objective necessary conditions of consciousness. Our basic hypothesis was that <span class="hlt">predictive</span> internal dynamics serves as such a condition. This is in line with theories of consciousness that treat retention (memory), protention (anticipation), and primary impression as the tripartite temporal structure of consciousness. To test our hypothesis, we analyzed publicly available sleep and awake electroencephalogram (EEG) data. Our results show that EEG signals from awake or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep <span class="hlt">states</span> have more <span class="hlt">predictable</span> dynamics compared to those from slow-wave sleep (SWS). Since awakeness and REM sleep are associated with conscious <span class="hlt">states</span> and SWS with unconscious or less consciousness <span class="hlt">states</span>, these results support our hypothesis. The results suggest an intricate relationship among <span class="hlt">prediction</span>, consciousness, and time, with potential applications to time perception and neurorobotics. PMID:24917813</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24064470','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24064470"><span>Quantitative <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of individual psychopathology in trauma survivors using resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> FMRI.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gong, Qiyong; Li, Lingjiang; Du, Mingying; Pettersson-Yeo, William; Crossley, Nicolas; Yang, Xun; Li, Jing; Huang, Xiaoqi; Mechelli, Andrea</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Neuroimaging techniques hold the promise that they may one day aid the clinical assessment of individual psychiatric patients. However, the vast majority of studies published so far have been based on average differences between groups. This study employed a multivariate approach to examine the potential of resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data for making accurate <span class="hlt">predictions</span> about psychopathology in survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake at an individual level. Resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> functional MRI data was acquired for 121 survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake each of whom was assessed for symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using the 17-item PTSD Checklist (PCL). Using a multivariate analytical method known as relevance vector regression (RVR), we examined the relationship between resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> functional MRI data and symptom scores. We found that the use of RVR allowed quantitative <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of clinical scores with statistically significant accuracy (correlation=0.32, P=0.006; mean squared error=176.88, P=0.001). Accurate <span class="hlt">prediction</span> was based on functional activation in a number of prefrontal, parietal, and occipital regions. This is the first evidence that neuroimaging techniques may inform the clinical assessment of trauma-exposed individuals by providing an accurate and objective quantitative estimation of psychopathology. Furthermore, the significant contribution of parietal and occipital regions to such estimation challenges the traditional view of PTSD as a disorder specific to the fronto-limbic network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3895245','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3895245"><span>Quantitative <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Individual Psychopathology in Trauma Survivors Using Resting-<span class="hlt">State</span> fMRI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gong, Qiyong; Li, Lingjiang; Du, Mingying; Pettersson-Yeo, William; Crossley, Nicolas; Yang, Xun; Li, Jing; Huang, Xiaoqi; Mechelli, Andrea</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Neuroimaging techniques hold the promise that they may one day aid the clinical assessment of individual psychiatric patients. However, the vast majority of studies published so far have been based on average differences between groups. This study employed a multivariate approach to examine the potential of resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data for making accurate <span class="hlt">predictions</span> about psychopathology in survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake at an individual level. Resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> functional MRI data was acquired for 121 survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake each of whom was assessed for symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using the 17-item PTSD Checklist (PCL). Using a multivariate analytical method known as relevance vector regression (RVR), we examined the relationship between resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> functional MRI data and symptom scores. We found that the use of RVR allowed quantitative <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of clinical scores with statistically significant accuracy (correlation=0.32, P=0.006; mean squared error=176.88, P=0.001). Accurate <span class="hlt">prediction</span> was based on functional activation in a number of prefrontal, parietal, and occipital regions. This is the first evidence that neuroimaging techniques may inform the clinical assessment of trauma-exposed individuals by providing an accurate and objective quantitative estimation of psychopathology. Furthermore, the significant contribution of parietal and occipital regions to such estimation challenges the traditional view of PTSD as a disorder specific to the fronto-limbic network. PMID:24064470</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AeoRe..10....9W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AeoRe..10....9W"><span>A history of Wind Erosion <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Models in the United <span class="hlt">States</span> Department of Agriculture: The Wind Erosion <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> System (WEPS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wagner, Larry E.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Development of the Wind Erosion <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> System (WEPS) was officially inaugurated in 1985 by United <span class="hlt">States</span> Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) scientists in response to customer requests, particularly those coming from the USDA Soil Conservation Service (SCS), for improved wind erosion <span class="hlt">prediction</span> technology. WEPS was conceived to address deficiencies in the then-20-year-old, predominately empirical Wind Erosion Equation (WEQ) widely used by SCS, and it sparked an endeavor that relied on novel laboratory wind tunnel research as well as extensive field studies to adequately uncover the physical relationships between surface properties and their susceptibility to and influence on wind erosion. The result is that WEPS incorporates many process-based features and other capabilities not available in any other wind erosion simulation model today. The USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) has now implemented WEPS as a replacement for WEQ within their agency. However, the road to achieve that replacement required years of close interaction between ARS and NRCS. NRCS had to ensure they had suitable national-scale WEPS databases before implementation. User input simplifications were required as well as modifications to the reports. Run-time concerns also arose during the lengthy testing and evaluation process. Many of these were strictly non-wind erosion science issues that had to be addressed before NRCS could officially implement and begin using WEPS within their agency. The history of the development of WEPS, its unique features and its solutions to selected critical issues encountered by NRCS prior to implementation are presented and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15656736','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15656736"><span>On the relation between maternal <span class="hlt">state</span> of mind and sensitivity in the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of infant attachment security.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Atkinson, Leslie; Goldberg, Susan; Raval, Vaishali; Pederson, David; Benoit, Diane; Moran, Greg; Poulton, Lori; Myhal, Natalie; Zwiers, Michael; Gleason, Karin; Leung, Eman</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Attachment theorists assume that maternal mental <span class="hlt">representations</span> influence responsivity, which influences infant attachment security. However, primary studies do not support this mediation model. The authors tested mediation using 2 mother-infant samples and found no evidence of mediation. Therefore, the authors explored sensitivity as a moderator, studying the (a) interaction of mental <span class="hlt">representation</span> and sensitivity as it <span class="hlt">predicts</span> infant attachment security and (b) level of sensitivity in mothers whose infants' attachment security is either concordant or discordant with their own. The interactional analyses were not significant. But the match-mismatch data showed that when mother-infant attachment strategies were discordant, maternal sensitivity was more consistent with infant than maternal attachment strategy. These findings are congruent with an interpretation of sensitivity as a moderator that can block transmission of attachment strategy. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27052723','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27052723"><span>What Cognitive <span class="hlt">Representations</span> Support Primate Theory of Mind?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martin, Alia; Santos, Laurie R</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Much recent work has examined the evolutionary origins of human mental <span class="hlt">state</span> <span class="hlt">representations</span>. This work has yielded strikingly consistent results: primates show a sophisticated ability to track the current and past perceptions of others, but they fail to represent the beliefs of others. We offer a new account of the nuanced performance of primates in theory of mind (ToM) tasks. We argue that primates form awareness relations tracking the aspects of reality that other agents are aware of. We contend that these awareness relations allow primates to make accurate <span class="hlt">predictions</span> in social situations, but that this capacity falls short of our human-like <span class="hlt">representational</span> ToM. We end by explaining how this new account makes important new empirical <span class="hlt">predictions</span> about primate ToM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SMaS...23b5036L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SMaS...23b5036L"><span>Localization of nonlinear damage using <span class="hlt">state</span>-space-based <span class="hlt">predictions</span> under stochastic excitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Gang; Mao, Zhu; Todd, Michael; Huang, Zongming</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>This paper presents a study on localizing damage under stochastic excitation by <span class="hlt">state</span>-space-based methods, where the damaged response contains some nonlinearity. Two <span class="hlt">state</span>-space-based modeling algorithms, namely auto- and cross-<span class="hlt">predictions</span>, are employed in this paper, and the greatest <span class="hlt">prediction</span> error will be achieved at the sensor pair closest to the actual damage, in terms of localization. To quantify the distinction of <span class="hlt">prediction</span> error distributions obtained at different sensor locations, the Bhattacharyya distance is adopted as the quantification metric. There are two lab-scale test-beds adopted as validation platforms, including a two-story plane steel frame with bolt loosening damage and a three-story benchmark aluminum frame with a simulated tunable crack. Band-limited Gaussian noise is applied through an electrodynamic shaker to the systems. Testing results indicate that the damage detection capability of the <span class="hlt">state</span>-space-based method depends on the nonlinearity-induced high frequency responses. Since those high frequency components attenuate quickly in time and space, the results show great capability for damage localization, i.e., the highest deviation of Bhattacharyya distance is coincident with the sensors close to the physical damage location. This work extends the <span class="hlt">state</span>-space-based damage detection method for localizing damage to a stochastically excited scenario, which provides the advantage of compatibility with ambient excitations. Moreover, results from both experiments indicate that the <span class="hlt">state</span>-space-based method is only sensitive to nonlinearity-induced damage, thus it can be utilized in parallel with linear classifiers or normalization strategies to insulate the operational and environmental variability, which often affects the system response in a linear fashion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28848275','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28848275"><span>Ecological covariates based <span class="hlt">predictive</span> model of malaria risk in the <span class="hlt">state</span> of Chhattisgarh, India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumar, Rajesh; Dash, Chinmaya; Rani, Khushbu</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Malaria being an endemic disease in the <span class="hlt">state</span> of Chhattisgarh and ecologically dependent mosquito-borne disease, the study is intended to identify the ecological covariates of malaria risk in districts of the <span class="hlt">state</span> and to build a suitable <span class="hlt">predictive</span> model based on those predictors which could assist developing a weather based early warning system. This secondary data based analysis used one month lagged district level malaria positive cases as response variable and ecological covariates as independent variables which were tested with fixed effect panelled negative binomial regression models. Interactions among the covariates were explored using two way factorial interaction in the model. Although malaria risk in the <span class="hlt">state</span> possesses perennial characteristics, higher parasitic incidence was observed during the rainy and winter seasons. The univariate analysis indicated that the malaria incidence risk was statistically significant associated with rainfall, maximum humidity, minimum temperature, wind speed, and forest cover (p < 0.05). The efficient <span class="hlt">predictive</span> model include the forest cover [IRR-1.033 (1.024-1.042)], maximum humidity [IRR-1.016 (1.013-1.018)], and two-way factorial interactions between district specific averaged monthly minimum temperature and monthly minimum temperature, monthly minimum temperature was statistically significant [IRR-1.44 (1.231-1.695)] whereas the interaction term has a protective effect [IRR-0.982 (0.974-0.990)] against malaria infections. Forest cover, maximum humidity, minimum temperature and wind speed emerged as potential covariates to be used in <span class="hlt">predictive</span> models for modelling the malaria risk in the <span class="hlt">state</span> which could be efficiently used for early warning systems in the <span class="hlt">state</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830040214&hterms=Base+data+distributed&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DBase%2Bdata%2Bdistributed','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830040214&hterms=Base+data+distributed&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DBase%2Bdata%2Bdistributed"><span>Use of Landsat data to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the trophic <span class="hlt">state</span> of Minnesota lakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lillesand, T. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Deuell, R. L.; Lindstrom, O. M.; Meisner, D. E.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Near-concurrent Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and ground data were obtained for 60 lakes distributed in two Landsat scene areas. The ground data included measurement of secchi disk depth, chlorophyll-a, total phosphorous, turbidity, color, and total nitrogen, as well as Carlson Trophic <span class="hlt">State</span> Index (TSI) values derived from the first three parameters. The Landsat data best correlated with the TSI values. <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> models were developed to classify some 100 'test' lakes appearing in the two analysis scenes on the basis of TSI estimates. Clouds, wind, poor image data, small lake size, and shallow lake depth caused some problems in lake TSI <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. Overall, however, the Landsat-<span class="hlt">predicted</span> TSI estimates were judged to be very reliable for the secchi-derived TSI estimation, moderately reliable for <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the chlorophyll-a TSI, and unreliable for the phosphorous value. Numerous Landsat data extraction procedures were compared, and the success of the Landsat TSI <span class="hlt">prediction</span> models was a strong function of the procedure employed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830040214&hterms=tsi&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dtsi','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830040214&hterms=tsi&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dtsi"><span>Use of Landsat data to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the trophic <span class="hlt">state</span> of Minnesota lakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lillesand, T. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Deuell, R. L.; Lindstrom, O. M.; Meisner, D. E.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Near-concurrent Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and ground data were obtained for 60 lakes distributed in two Landsat scene areas. The ground data included measurement of secchi disk depth, chlorophyll-a, total phosphorous, turbidity, color, and total nitrogen, as well as Carlson Trophic <span class="hlt">State</span> Index (TSI) values derived from the first three parameters. The Landsat data best correlated with the TSI values. <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> models were developed to classify some 100 'test' lakes appearing in the two analysis scenes on the basis of TSI estimates. Clouds, wind, poor image data, small lake size, and shallow lake depth caused some problems in lake TSI <span class="hlt">prediction</span>. Overall, however, the Landsat-<span class="hlt">predicted</span> TSI estimates were judged to be very reliable for the secchi-derived TSI estimation, moderately reliable for <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the chlorophyll-a TSI, and unreliable for the phosphorous value. Numerous Landsat data extraction procedures were compared, and the success of the Landsat TSI <span class="hlt">prediction</span> models was a strong function of the procedure employed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27264959','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27264959"><span><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of change in protein unfolding rates upon point mutations in two <span class="hlt">state</span> proteins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chaudhary, Priyashree; Naganathan, Athi N; Gromiha, M Michael</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Studies on protein unfolding rates are limited and challenging due to the complexity of unfolding mechanism and the larger dynamic range of the experimental data. Though attempts have been made to <span class="hlt">predict</span> unfolding rates using protein sequence-structure information there is no available method for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> the unfolding rates of proteins upon specific point mutations. In this work, we have systematically analyzed a set of 790 single mutants and developed a robust method for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> protein unfolding rates upon mutations (Δlnku) in two-<span class="hlt">state</span> proteins by combining amino acid properties and knowledge-based classification of mutants with multiple linear regression technique. We obtain a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.79/s and a Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) of 0.71 between <span class="hlt">predicted</span> unfolding rates and experimental observations using jack-knife test. We have developed a web server for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> protein unfolding rates upon mutation and it is freely available at https://www.iitm.ac.in/bioinfo/proteinunfolding/unfoldingrace.html. Prominent features that determine unfolding kinetics as well as plausible reasons for the observed outliers are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25891838','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25891838"><span><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of a neutral noble gas compound in the triplet <span class="hlt">state</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Manna, Debashree; Ghosh, Ayan; Ghanty, Tapan K</p> <p>2015-05-26</p> <p>Discovery of the HArF molecule associated with H-Ar covalent bonding [Nature, 2000, 406, 874-876] has revolutionized the field of noble gas chemistry. In general, this class of noble gas compound involving conventional chemical bonds exists as closed-shell species in a singlet electronic <span class="hlt">state</span>. For the first time, in a bid to <span class="hlt">predict</span> neutral noble gas chemical compounds in their triplet electronic <span class="hlt">state</span>, we have carried out a systematic investigation of xenon inserted FN and FP species by using quantum chemical calculations with density functional theory and various post-Hartree-Fock-based correlated methods, including the multireference configuration interaction technique. The FXeP and FXeN species are <span class="hlt">predicted</span> to be stable by all the computational methods employed in the present work, such as density functional theory (DFT), second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), coupled-cluster theory (CCSD(T)), and multireference configuration interaction (MRCI). For the purpose of comparison we have also included the Kr-inserted compounds of FN and FP species. Geometrical parameters, dissociation energies, transition-<span class="hlt">state</span> barrier heights, atomic charge distributions, vibrational frequency data, and atoms-in-molecules properties clearly indicate that it is possible to experimentally realize the most stable <span class="hlt">state</span> of FXeP and FXeN molecules, which is triplet in nature, through the matrix isolation technique under cryogenic conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...619598W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...619598W"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> DNA Methylation <span class="hlt">State</span> of CpG Dinucleotide Using Genome Topological Features and Deep Networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Yiheng; Liu, Tong; Xu, Dong; Shi, Huidong; Zhang, Chaoyang; Mo, Yin-Yuan; Wang, Zheng</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The hypo- or hyper-methylation of the human genome is one of the epigenetic features of leukemia. However, experimental approaches have only determined the methylation <span class="hlt">state</span> of a small portion of the human genome. We developed deep learning based (stacked denoising autoencoders, or SdAs) software named “DeepMethyl” to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the methylation <span class="hlt">state</span> of DNA CpG dinucleotides using features inferred from three-dimensional genome topology (based on Hi-C) and DNA sequence patterns. We used the experimental data from immortalised myelogenous leukemia (K562) and healthy lymphoblastoid (GM12878) cell lines to train the learning models and assess <span class="hlt">prediction</span> performance. We have tested various SdA architectures with different configurations of hidden layer(s) and amount of pre-training data and compared the performance of deep networks relative to support vector machines (SVMs). Using the methylation <span class="hlt">states</span> of sequentially neighboring regions as one of the learning features, an SdA achieved a blind test accuracy of 89.7% for GM12878 and 88.6% for K562. When the methylation <span class="hlt">states</span> of sequentially neighboring regions are unknown, the accuracies are 84.82% for GM12878 and 72.01% for K562. We also analyzed the contribution of genome topological features inferred from Hi-C. DeepMethyl can be accessed at http://dna.cs.usm.edu/deepmethyl/.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25238153','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25238153"><span>Risk recognition, attachment anxiety, self-efficacy, and <span class="hlt">state</span> dissociation <span class="hlt">predict</span> revictimization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bockers, Estelle; Roepke, Stefan; Michael, Lars; Renneberg, Babette; Knaevelsrud, Christine</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Previous research has identified a number of variables that constitute potential risk factors for victimization and revictimization. However, it remains unclear which factors are associated not only with childhood or adolescent victimization, but specifically with revictimization. The aim of this study was to determine whether risk recognition ability and other variables previously associated with revictimization are specifically able to differentiate individuals with childhood victimization only from revictimized individuals, and thus to <span class="hlt">predict</span> revictimization. Participants were N = 85 women aged 21 to 64 years who were interpersonally victimized in childhood or adolescence only, interpersonally revictimized in another period of life, or not victimized. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine whether risk recognition ability, sensation seeking, self-efficacy, <span class="hlt">state</span> dissociation, shame, guilt, assertiveness, and attachment anxiety <span class="hlt">predicted</span> group membership. The logistic regression analysis revealed risk recognition ability, attachment anxiety, <span class="hlt">state</span> dissociation, and self-efficacy as significant predictors of revictimization. The final model accurately classified 82.4% of revictimized, 59.1% of victimized and 93.1% of non-victimized women. The overall classification rate was 80%. This study suggests that risk recognition ability, attachment anxiety, self-efficacy, and <span class="hlt">state</span> dissociation play a key role in revictimization. Increased risk recognition ability after an interpersonal trauma may act as a protective factor against repeated victimization that revictimized individuals may lack. A lack of increased risk recognition ability in combination with higher attachment anxiety, lower self-efficacy, and higher <span class="hlt">state</span> dissociation may increase the risk of revictimization.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26797014','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26797014"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> DNA Methylation <span class="hlt">State</span> of CpG Dinucleotide Using Genome Topological Features and Deep Networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Yiheng; Liu, Tong; Xu, Dong; Shi, Huidong; Zhang, Chaoyang; Mo, Yin-Yuan; Wang, Zheng</p> <p>2016-01-22</p> <p>The hypo- or hyper-methylation of the human genome is one of the epigenetic features of leukemia. However, experimental approaches have only determined the methylation <span class="hlt">state</span> of a small portion of the human genome. We developed deep learning based (stacked denoising autoencoders, or SdAs) software named "DeepMethyl" to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the methylation <span class="hlt">state</span> of DNA CpG dinucleotides using features inferred from three-dimensional genome topology (based on Hi-C) and DNA sequence patterns. We used the experimental data from immortalised myelogenous leukemia (K562) and healthy lymphoblastoid (GM12878) cell lines to train the learning models and assess <span class="hlt">prediction</span> performance. We have tested various SdA architectures with different configurations of hidden layer(s) and amount of pre-training data and compared the performance of deep networks relative to support vector machines (SVMs). Using the methylation <span class="hlt">states</span> of sequentially neighboring regions as one of the learning features, an SdA achieved a blind test accuracy of 89.7% for GM12878 and 88.6% for K562. When the methylation <span class="hlt">states</span> of sequentially neighboring regions are unknown, the accuracies are 84.82% for GM12878 and 72.01% for K562. We also analyzed the contribution of genome topological features inferred from Hi-C. DeepMethyl can be accessed at http://dna.cs.usm.edu/deepmethyl/.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3207651','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3207651"><span>Behavior-specific changes in transcriptional modules lead to distinct and <span class="hlt">predictable</span> neurogenomic <span class="hlt">states</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chandrasekaran, Sriram; Ament, Seth A.; Eddy, James A.; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Schatz, Bruce R.; Price, Nathan D.; Robinson, Gene E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Using brain transcriptomic profiles from 853 individual honey bees exhibiting 48 distinct behavioral phenotypes in naturalistic contexts, we report that behavior-specific neurogenomic <span class="hlt">states</span> can be inferred from the coordinated action of transcription factors (TFs) and their <span class="hlt">predicted</span> target genes. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of these transcriptomic profiles showed three clusters that correspond to three ecologically important behavioral categories: aggression, maturation, and foraging. To explore the genetic influences potentially regulating these behavior-specific neurogenomic <span class="hlt">states</span>, we reconstructed a brain transcriptional regulatory network (TRN) model. This brain TRN quantitatively <span class="hlt">predicts</span> with high accuracy gene expression changes of more than 2,000 genes involved in behavior, even for behavioral phenotypes on which it was not trained, suggesting that there is a core set of TFs that regulates behavior-specific gene expression in the bee brain, and other TFs more specific to particular categories. TFs playing key roles in the TRN include well-known regulators of neural and behavioral plasticity, e.g., Creb, as well as TFs better known in other biological contexts, e.g., NF-κB (immunity). Our results reveal three insights concerning the relationship between genes and behavior. First, distinct behaviors are subserved by distinct neurogenomic <span class="hlt">states</span> in the brain. Second, the neurogenomic <span class="hlt">states</span> underlying different behaviors rely upon both shared and distinct transcriptional modules. Third, despite the complexity of the brain, simple linear relationships between TFs and their putative target genes are a surprisingly prominent feature of the networks underlying behavior. PMID:21960440</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA136943','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA136943"><span>Issues in Interaction Language Specification and <span class="hlt">Representation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1983-11-01</p> <p>A16~ <span class="hlt">REPRESENTATION</span>(J) VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INST AND <span class="hlt">STATE</span> UNIV BLACKSBURG COMPUTER S. D N JOHNSON ET AL. NOV 83 UNCLASSIFIED CSIE-83-15 NBOB14 81 K...8217, ___ 4 ~ISSUES IN INTERACTION LANGUAGE SPECIFICATION AND <span class="hlt">REPRESENTATION</span> Deborah H. Johnson H. Rex Hartson .4 This document has been approved...ISSUES IN INTERACTION LANGUAGE SPECIFICATION AND <span class="hlt">REPRESENTATION</span> Deborah H. Johnson H. Rex Hartson TECHNICAL REPORT Prepared for Engineering Psychology</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMMR31A0121J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMMR31A0121J"><span>A novel thermodynamic model of Mg2SiO4 with a superior <span class="hlt">representation</span> of experimental data <span class="hlt">predicts</span> negligible layering in mantle convection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jacobs, M. H.; de Jong, B. H.; van den Berg, A. P.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>We present a new thermodynamic database for Mg2SiO4. This novel database has three characteristics (1) thermodynamic properties are anomaly free in the complete temperature-pressure space and experimental data are represented within their experimental uncertainties in accordance with Calphad criteria (2) it discriminates between experimental data (3) it includes thermo-mechanical properties and matches them against tomographic results within experimental uncertainty. Recently [1], we showed that large differences exist between experimental data on ambient volume and between thermal expansivity data for γ-Mg2SiO4, possibly related to hydration effects. We demonstrated that a thermodynamic technique based on polynomial parameterizations of 1 bar thermodynamic properties cannot discriminate between the different ambient volume data and thermal expansivity data for γ-Mg2SiO4, hampering the accurate <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of bulk sound velocities in the transition zone to within tomographic accuracy. We therefore developed a computational technique based on an extended form of Kieffer's [2] approach to model the vibrational density of <span class="hlt">states</span> of a substance, a key property to derive the Helmholtz energy. This canonical thermodynamic framework, which uses input parameters from Raman and infrared spectroscopic data, constrains thermodynamic properties tighter compared to methods based on polynomial parameterizations of thermal expansivity, heat capacity and isothermal bulk modulus. We shall present recent results on the application of this approach to the Mg2SiO4 system [3]. We discovered that anharmonicity in Mg2SiO4 (α) affects the heat capacity (CP), and position and slope of the α-β phase boundary. For γ-Mg2SiO4 our thermodynamic analysis prefers the ambient volume measured by Inoue et al. [4] and thermal expansivity measured by Suzuki [5]. Our analysis reveals that experimental data for MgO and MgSiO3 are represented to within experimental uncertainty by assuming that these</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811423S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811423S"><span>Forced synchronization of large-scale circulation to increase <span class="hlt">predictability</span> of surface <span class="hlt">states</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shen, Mao-Lin; Keenlyside, Noel; Selten, Frank; Wiegerinck, Wim; Duane, Gregory</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Numerical models are key tools in the projection of the future climate change. The lack of perfect initial condition and perfect knowledge of the laws of physics, as well as inherent chaotic behavior limit <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. Conceptually, the atmospheric variables can be decomposed into a <span class="hlt">predictable</span> component (signal) and an unpredictable component (noise). In ensemble <span class="hlt">prediction</span> the anomaly of ensemble mean is regarded as the signal and the ensemble spread the noise. Naturally the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> skill will be higher if the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is larger in the initial conditions. We run two ensemble experiments in order to explore a way to reduce the SNR of surface winds and temperature. One ensemble experiment is AGCM with prescribing sea surface temperature (SST); the other is AGCM with both prescribing SST and nudging the high-level temperature and winds to ERA-Interim. Each ensemble has 30 members. Larger SNR is expected and found over the tropical ocean in the first experiment because the tropical circulation is associated with the convection and the associated surface wind convergence as these are to a large extent driven by the SST. However, small SNR is found over high latitude ocean and land surface due to the chaotic and non-synchronized atmosphere <span class="hlt">states</span>. In the second experiment the higher level temperature and winds are forced to be synchronized (nudged to reanalysis) and hence a larger SNR of surface winds and temperature is expected. Furthermore, different nudging coefficients are also tested in order to understand the limitation of both synchronization of large-scale circulation and the surface <span class="hlt">states</span>. These experiments will be useful for the developing strategies to synchronize the 3-D <span class="hlt">states</span> of atmospheric models that can be later used to build a super model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22711376','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22711376"><span>Intrinsic resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> activity <span class="hlt">predicts</span> working memory brain activation and behavioral performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zou, Qihong; Ross, Thomas J; Gu, Hong; Geng, Xiujuan; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Hong, L Elliot; Gao, Jia-Hong; Stein, Elliot A; Zang, Yu-Feng; Yang, Yihong</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Although resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> brain activity has been demonstrated to correspond with task-evoked brain activation, the relationship between intrinsic and evoked brain activity has not been fully characterized. For example, it is unclear whether intrinsic activity can also <span class="hlt">predict</span> task-evoked deactivation and whether the rest-task relationship is dependent on task load. In this study, we addressed these issues on 40 healthy control subjects using resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> and task-driven [N-back working memory (WM) task] functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected in the same session. Using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) as an index of intrinsic resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> activity, we found that ALFF in the middle frontal gyrus and inferior/superior parietal lobules was positively correlated with WM task-evoked activation, while ALFF in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, superior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and fusiform gyrus was negatively correlated with WM task-evoked deactivation. Further, the relationship between the intrinsic resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> activity and task-evoked activation in lateral/superior frontal gyri, inferior/superior parietal lobules, superior temporal gyrus, and midline regions was stronger at higher WM task loads. In addition, both resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> activity and the task-evoked activation in the superior parietal lobule/precuneus were significantly correlated with the WM task behavioral performance, explaining similar portions of intersubject performance variance. Together, these findings suggest that intrinsic resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> activity facilitates or is permissive of specific brain circuit engagement to perform a cognitive task, and that resting activity can <span class="hlt">predict</span> subsequent task-evoked brain responses and behavioral performance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A44D..01K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A44D..01K"><span>A Methylmercury <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Too For Surface Waters Across The Contiguous United <span class="hlt">States</span> (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Booth, N.; Lutz, M.; Fienen, M. N.; Saltman, T.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>About 20 years ago, researchers at a few locations across the globe discovered high levels of mercury in fish from remote settings lacking any obvious mercury source. We now know that for most locations atmospheric deposition is the dominant mercury source, and that mercury methylation is the key process that translates low mercury loading rates into relatively high levels in top predators of aquatic food webs. Presently, almost all US <span class="hlt">states</span> have advisories for elevated levels of mercury in sport fish, and as a result there is considerable public awareness and concern for this nearly ubiquitous contaminant issue. In some <span class="hlt">states</span>, “statewide” advisories have been issued because elevated fish mercury levels are so common, or the <span class="hlt">state</span> has no effective way to monitor thousands of lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, and streams. As such, resource managers and public health officials have limited options for informing the public on of where elevated mercury concentrations in sport fish are more likely to occur than others. This project provides, for the first time, a national map of <span class="hlt">predicted</span> (modeled) methylmercury concentrations in surface waters, which is the most toxic and bioaccumulative form of mercury in the environment. The map is the result of over two decades of research that resulted in the formulation of conceptual models of the mercury methylation process, which is strongly governed by environmental conditions - specifically hydrologic landscapes and water quality. The resulting <span class="hlt">predictive</span> map shows clear regional trends in the distribution of methylmercury concentrations in surface waters. East of the Mississippi, the Gulf and southeastern Atlantic coast, the northeast, the lower Mississippi valley, and Great Lakes area are <span class="hlt">predicted</span> to have generally higher environmental methylmercury levels. Higher-elevation, well-drained areas of Appalachia are <span class="hlt">predicted</span> to have relatively lower methylmercury abundance. Other than the prairie pothole region, in the western</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NPGeo..24....9A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NPGeo..24....9A"><span>Estimating the <span class="hlt">state</span> of a geophysical system with sparse observations: time delay methods to achieve accurate initial <span class="hlt">states</span> for <span class="hlt">prediction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>An, Zhe; Rey, Daniel; Ye, Jingxin; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The problem of forecasting the behavior of a complex dynamical system through analysis of observational time-series data becomes difficult when the system expresses chaotic behavior and the measurements are sparse, in both space and/or time. Despite the fact that this situation is quite typical across many fields, including numerical weather <span class="hlt">prediction</span>, the issue of whether the available observations are "sufficient" for generating successful forecasts is still not well understood. An analysis by Whartenby et al. (2013) found that in the context of the nonlinear shallow water equations on a β plane, standard nudging techniques require observing approximately 70 % of the full set of <span class="hlt">state</span> variables. Here we examine the same system using a method introduced by Rey et al. (2014a), which generalizes standard nudging methods to utilize time delayed measurements. We show that in certain circumstances, it provides a sizable reduction in the number of observations required to construct accurate estimates and high-quality <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. In particular, we find that this estimate of 70 % can be reduced to about 33 % using time delays, and even further if Lagrangian drifter locations are also used as measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26441778','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26441778"><span>Gender stereotype endorsement differentially <span class="hlt">predicts</span> girls' and boys' trait-<span class="hlt">state</span> discrepancy in math anxiety.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Wolter, Ilka; Hall, Nathan C</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in <span class="hlt">state</span> (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. <span class="hlt">state</span> anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain) was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-<span class="hlt">state</span> discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to <span class="hlt">state</span> measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (N within = 6207). As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for <span class="hlt">state</span> math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and <span class="hlt">state</span> anxiety to be negatively related to students' self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts). Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially <span class="hlt">predicted</span> the trait-<span class="hlt">state</span> discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their <span class="hlt">state</span> anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4585180','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4585180"><span>Gender stereotype endorsement differentially <span class="hlt">predicts</span> girls' and boys' trait-<span class="hlt">state</span> discrepancy in math anxiety</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Wolter, Ilka; Hall, Nathan C.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in <span class="hlt">state</span> (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. <span class="hlt">state</span> anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain) was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-<span class="hlt">state</span> discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to <span class="hlt">state</span> measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2–3 weeks (Nwithin = 6207). As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for <span class="hlt">state</span> math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and <span class="hlt">state</span> anxiety to be negatively related to students' self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts). Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially <span class="hlt">predicted</span> the trait-<span class="hlt">state</span> discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their <span class="hlt">state</span> anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed. PMID:26441778</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21513161','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21513161"><span>Laser Hardening <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> Tool Based On a Solid <span class="hlt">State</span> Transformations Numerical Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Martinez, S.; Ukar, E.; Lamikiz, A.</p> <p>2011-01-17</p> <p>This paper presents a tool to <span class="hlt">predict</span> hardening layer in selective laser hardening processes where laser beam heats the part locally while the bulk acts as a heat sink.The tool to <span class="hlt">predict</span> accurately the temperature field in the workpiece is a numerical model that combines a three dimensional transient numerical solution for heating where is possible to introduce different laser sources. The thermal field was modeled using a kinetic model based on Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation. Considering this equation, an experimental adjustment of transformation parameters was carried out to get the heating transformation diagrams (CHT). With the temperature field and CHT diagrams the model <span class="hlt">predicts</span> the percentage of base material converted into austenite. These two parameters are used as first step to estimate the depth of hardened layer in the part.The model has been adjusted and validated with experimental data for DIN 1.2379, cold work tool steel typically used in mold and die making industry. This steel presents solid <span class="hlt">state</span> diffusive transformations at relative low temperature. These transformations must be considered in order to get good accuracy of temperature field <span class="hlt">prediction</span> during heating phase. For model validation, surface temperature measured by pyrometry, thermal field as well as the hardened layer obtained from metallographic study, were compared with the model data showing a good adjustment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27752418','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27752418"><span>A decision-analytic approach to <span class="hlt">predict</span> <span class="hlt">state</span> regulation of hydraulic fracturing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Linkov, Igor; Trump, Benjamin; Jin, David; Mazurczak, Marcin; Schreurs, Miranda</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The development of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing methods has dramatically increased the potential for the extraction of previously unrecoverable natural gas. Nonetheless, the potential risks and hazards associated with such technologies are not without controversy and are compounded by frequently changing information and an uncertain landscape of international politics and laws. Where each nation has its own energy policies and laws, <span class="hlt">predicting</span> how a <span class="hlt">state</span> with natural gas reserves that require hydraulic fracturing will regulate the industry is of paramount importance for potential developers and extractors. We present a method for <span class="hlt">predicting</span> hydraulic fracturing decisions using multiple-criteria decision analysis. The case study evaluates the decisions of five hypothetical countries with differing political, social, environmental, and economic priorities, choosing among four policy alternatives: open hydraulic fracturing, limited hydraulic fracturing, completely banned hydraulic fracturing, and a cap and trade program. The result is a model that identifies the preferred policy alternative for each archetypal country and demonstrates the sensitivity the decision to particular metrics. Armed with such information, observers can <span class="hlt">predict</span> each country's likely decisions related to natural gas exploration as more data become available or political situations change. Decision analysis provides a method to manage uncertainty and address forecasting concerns where rich and objective data may be lacking. For the case of hydraulic fracturing, the various political pressures and extreme uncertainty regarding the technology's risks and benefits serve as a prime platform to demonstrate how decision analysis can be used to <span class="hlt">predict</span> future behaviors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/768739','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/768739"><span>A <span class="hlt">STATE</span>-VARIABLE APPROACH FOR <span class="hlt">PREDICTING</span> THE TIME REQUIRED FOR 50% RECRYSTALLIZATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>M. STOUT; ET AL</p> <p>2000-08-01</p> <p>It is important to be able to model the recrystallization kinetics in aluminum alloys during hot deformation. The industrial relevant process of hot rolling is an example of where the knowledge of whether or not a material recrystallizes is critical to making a product with the correct properties. Classically, the equations that describe the kinetics of recrystallization <span class="hlt">predict</span> the time to 50% recrystallization. These equations are largely empirical; they are based on the free energy for recrystallization, a Zener-Holloman parameter, and have several adjustable exponents to fit the equation to engineering data. We have modified this form of classical theory replacing the Zener-Hollomon parameter with a deformation energy increment, a free energy available to drive recrystallization. The advantage of this formulation is that the deformation energy increment is calculated based on the previously determined temperature and strain-rate sensitivity of the constitutive response. We modeled the constitutive response of the AA5182 aluminum using a <span class="hlt">state</span> variable approach, the value of the <span class="hlt">state</span> variable is a function of the temperature and strain-rate history of deformation. Thus, the recrystallization kinetics is a function of only the <span class="hlt">state</span> variable and free energy for recrystallization. There are no adjustable exponents as in classical theory. Using this approach combined with engineering recrystallization data we have been able to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the kinetics of recrystallization in AA5182 as a function of deformation strain rate and temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25604680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25604680"><span>The Autonomic System Functional <span class="hlt">State</span> <span class="hlt">Predicts</span> Responsiveness in Disorder of Consciousness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Riganello, Francesco; Cortese, Maria D; Dolce, Giuliano; Lucca, Lucia F; Sannita, Walter G</p> <p>2015-07-15</p> <p>Diagnosis and early prognosis of the vegetative <span class="hlt">state</span>/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) and its differentiation from the minimally-conscious <span class="hlt">state</span> still rest on the clinical observation of responsiveness. The incidence of established clinical indicators of responsiveness also has proven variable in the single subject and is correlated to measures of heart rate variability (HRV) describing the sympathetic/parasympathetic balance. We tested responsiveness when the HRV descriptors nuLF and peakLF were or were not in the ranges with highest incidence of response based on findings from previous studies (10.0-70.0 and 0.05-0.11 Hz, respectively). Testing was blind by The Coma Recovery Scale-revised in the two conditions and in two experimental sessions with a one-week interval. The incidence of responses was not randomly distributed in the "response" and "no-response" conditions (McNemar test; p < 0.0001). The observed incidence in the "response" condition (visual: 55.1%; auditory: 51.5%) was higher than <span class="hlt">predicted</span> statistically (32.1%) or described in previous clinical studies; responses were only occasional in the "no-response" condition (visual, 15.9%; auditory, 13.4%). Models validated the <span class="hlt">predictability</span> with high accuracy. The current clinical criteria for diagnosis and prognosis based on neurological signs should be reconsidered, including variability over time and the autonomic system functional <span class="hlt">state</span>, which could also qualify per se as an independent indicator for diagnosis and prognosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170001220','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170001220"><span><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of Cognitive <span class="hlt">States</span> During Flight Simulation Using Multimodal Psychophysiological Sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Harrivel, Angela R.; Stephens, Chad L.; Milletich, Robert J.; Heinich, Christina M.; Last, Mary Carolyn; Napoli, Nicholas J.; Abraham, Nijo A.; Prinzel, Lawrence J.; Motter, Mark A.; Pope, Alan T.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The Commercial Aviation Safety Team found the majority of recent international commercial aviation accidents attributable to loss of control inflight involved flight crew loss of airplane <span class="hlt">state</span> awareness (ASA), and distraction was involved in all of them. Research on attention-related human performance limiting <span class="hlt">states</span> (AHPLS) such as channelized attention, diverted attention, startle/surprise, and confirmation bias, has been recommended in a Safety Enhancement (SE) entitled "Training for Attention Management." To accomplish the detection of such cognitive and psychophysiological <span class="hlt">states</span>, a broad suite of sensors was implemented to simultaneously measure their physiological markers during a high fidelity flight simulation human subject study. Twenty-four pilot participants were asked to wear the sensors while they performed benchmark tasks and motion-based flight scenarios designed to induce AHPLS. Pattern classification was employed to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the occurrence of AHPLS during flight simulation also designed to induce those <span class="hlt">states</span>. Classifier training data were collected during performance of the benchmark tasks. Multimodal classification was performed, using pre-processed electroencephalography, galvanic skin response, electrocardiogram, and respiration signals as input features. A combination of one, some or all modalities were used. Extreme gradient boosting, random forest and two support vector machine classifiers were implemented. The best accuracy for each modality-classifier combination is reported. Results using a select set of features and using the full set of available features are presented. Further, results are presented for training one classifier with the combined features and for training multiple classifiers with features from each modality separately. Using the select set of features and combined training, multistate <span class="hlt">prediction</span> accuracy averaged 0.64 +/- 0.14 across thirteen participants and was significantly higher than that for the separate training</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940006115','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940006115"><span>One dimensional <span class="hlt">representations</span> in quantum optics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Janszky, J.; Adam, P.; Foldesi, I.; Vinogradov, An. V.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The possibility of representing the quantum <span class="hlt">states</span> of a harmonic oscillator not on the whole alpha-plane but on its one dimensional manifolds is considered. It is shown that a simple Gaussian distribution along a straight line describes a quadrature squeezed <span class="hlt">state</span> while a similar Gaussian distribution along a circle leads to the amplitude squeezed <span class="hlt">state</span>. The connection between the one dimensional <span class="hlt">representations</span> and the usual Glauber <span class="hlt">representation</span> is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930002737','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930002737"><span>A <span class="hlt">state</span>-based approach to trend recognition and failure <span class="hlt">prediction</span> for the Space Station Freedom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nelson, Kyle S.; Hadden, George D.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">state</span>-based reasoning approach to trend recognition and failure <span class="hlt">prediction</span> for the Altitude Determination, and Control System (ADCS) of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) is described. The problem domain is characterized by features (e.g., trends and impending failures) that develop over a variety of time spans, anywhere from several minutes to several years. Our <span class="hlt">state</span>-based reasoning approach, coupled with intelligent data screening, allows features to be tracked as they develop in a time-dependent manner. That is, each <span class="hlt">state</span> machine has the ability to encode a time frame for the feature it detects. As features are detected, they are recorded and can be used as input to other <span class="hlt">state</span> machines, creating a hierarchical feature recognition scheme. Furthermore, each machine can operate independently of the others, allowing simultaneous tracking of features. <span class="hlt">State</span>-based reasoning was implemented in the trend recognition and the prognostic modules of a prototype Space Station Freedom Maintenance and Diagnostic System (SSFMDS) developed at Honeywell's Systems and Research Center.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28717227','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28717227"><span>A Fluctuation Equation of <span class="hlt">State</span> for <span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of High-Pressure Densities of Ionic Liquids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chorążewski, Mirosław; Postnikov, Eugene B; Jasiok, Bernadeta; Nedyalkov, Yuriy V; Jacquemin, Johan</p> <p>2017-07-17</p> <p>During this work, we demonstrate, for the first time, that the volumetric properties of pure ionic liquids could be truly <span class="hlt">predicted</span> as a function of temperature from 219 K to 473 K and pressure up to 300 MPa. This has been achieved by using only density and isothermal compressibility data at atmospheric pressure through the Fluctuation Theory-based Tait-like Equation of <span class="hlt">State</span> (FT-EoS). The experimental density data of 80 different ionic liquids, described in the literature by several research groups as a function of temperature and pressure, was then used to provide comparisons. Excellent <span class="hlt">predictive</span> capability of FT-EoS was observed with an overall relative absolute average deviation close to 0.14% for the 15,298 data points examined during this work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..94e2203K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..94e2203K"><span>Testing for causality in reconstructed <span class="hlt">state</span> spaces by an optimized mixed <span class="hlt">prediction</span> method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krakovská, Anna; Hanzely, Filip</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>In this study, a method of causality detection was designed to reveal coupling between dynamical systems represented by time series. The method is based on the <span class="hlt">predictions</span> in reconstructed <span class="hlt">state</span> spaces. The results of the proposed method were compared with outcomes of two other methods, the Granger VAR test of causality and the convergent cross-mapping. We used two types of test data. The first test example is a unidirectional connection of chaotic systems of Rössler and Lorenz type. The second one, the fishery model, is an example of two correlated observables without a causal relationship. The results showed that the proposed method of optimized mixed <span class="hlt">prediction</span> was able to reveal the presence and the direction of coupling and distinguish causality from mere correlation as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28176497','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28176497"><span><span class="hlt">Predicting</span> the spread of all invasive forest pests in the United <span class="hlt">States</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hudgins, Emma J; Liebhold, Andrew M; Leung, Brian</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>We tested whether a general spread model could capture macroecological patterns across all damaging invasive forest pests in the United <span class="hlt">States</span>. We showed that a common constant dispersal kernel model, simulated from the discovery date, explained 67.94% of the variation in range size across all pests, and had 68.00% locational accuracy between <span class="hlt">predicted</span> and observed locational distributions. Further, by making dispersal a function of forest area and human population density, variation explained increased to 75.60%, with 74.30% accuracy. These results indicated that a single general dispersal kernel model was sufficient to <span class="hlt">predict</span> the majority of variation in extent and locational distribution across pest species and that proxies of propagule pressure and habitat invasibility - well-studied predictors of establishment - should also be applied to the dispersal stage. This model provides a key element to forecast novel invaders and to extend pathway-level risk analyses to include spread.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22279150','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22279150"><span>Improved <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of RNA tertiary structure with insights into native <span class="hlt">state</span> dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bida, John Paul; Maher, L James</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>The importance of RNA tertiary structure is evident from the growing number of published high resolution NMR and X-ray crystallographic structures of RNA molecules. These structures provide insights into function and create a knowledge base that is leveraged by programs such as Assemble, ModeRNA, RNABuilder, NAST, FARNA, Mc-Sym, RNA2D3D, and iFoldRNA for tertiary structure <span class="hlt">prediction</span> and design. While these methods sample native-like RNA structures during simulations, all struggle to capture the native RNA conformation after scoring. We propose RSIM, an improved RNA fragment assembly method that preserves RNA global secondary structure while sampling conformations. This approach enhances the quality of <span class="hlt">predicted</span> RNA tertiary structure, provides insights into the native <span class="hlt">state</span> dynamics, and generates a powerful visualization of the RNA conformational space. RSIM is available for download from http://www.github.com/jpbida/rsim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol2-sec72-206.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol2-sec72-206.pdf"><span>10 CFR 72.206 - <span class="hlt">Representation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Representation</span>. 72.206 Section 72.206 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL... Information to <span class="hlt">State</span> Governments and Indian Tribes § 72.206 <span class="hlt">Representation</span>. Any person who acts under...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol2-sec60-65.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol2-sec60-65.pdf"><span>10 CFR 60.65 - <span class="hlt">Representation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Representation</span>. 60.65 Section 60.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Participation by <span class="hlt">State</span> Governments and Affected Indian Tribes § 60.65 <span class="hlt">Representation</span>. Any person who acts under...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title22-vol1-sec18-13.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title22-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title22-vol1-sec18-13.pdf"><span>22 CFR 18.13 - <span class="hlt">Representation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Representation</span>. 18.13 Section 18.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF <span class="hlt">STATE</span> PERSONNEL REGULATIONS CONCERNING POST EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 18.13 <span class="hlt">Representation</span>. A respondent or proposed respondent may appear in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol2-sec72-206.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol2-sec72-206.pdf"><span>10 CFR 72.206 - <span class="hlt">Representation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Representation</span>. 72.206 Section 72.206 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL... Information to <span class="hlt">State</span> Governments and Indian Tribes § 72.206 <span class="hlt">Representation</span>. Any person who acts under this...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2014/5231/pdf/sir2014-5231.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2014/5231/pdf/sir2014-5231.pdf"><span>A comparison of methods to <span class="hlt">predict</span> historical daily streamflow time series in the southeastern United <span class="hlt">States</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Farmer, William H.; Archfield, Stacey A.; Over, Thomas M.; Hay, Lauren E.; LaFontaine, Jacob H.; Kiang, Julie E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Effective and responsible management of water resources relies on a thorough understanding of the quantity and quality of available water. Streamgages cannot be installed at every location where streamflow information is needed. As part of its National Water Census, the U.S. Geological Survey is planning to provide streamflow <span class="hlt">predictions</span> for ungaged locations. In order to <span class="hlt">predict</span> streamflow at a useful spatial and temporal resolution throughout the Nation, efficient methods need to be selected. This report examines several methods used for streamflow <span class="hlt">prediction</span> in ungaged basins to determine the best methods for regional and national implementation. A pilot area in the southeastern United <span class="hlt">States</span> was selected to apply 19 different streamflow <span class="hlt">prediction</span> methods and evaluate each method by a wide set of performance metrics. Through these comparisons, two methods emerged as the most generally accurate streamflow <span class="hlt">prediction</span> methods: the nearest-neighbor implementations of nonlinear spatial interpolation using flow duration curves (NN-QPPQ) and standardizing logarithms of streamflow by monthly means and standard deviations (NN-SMS12L). It was nearly impossible to distinguish between these two methods in terms of performance. Furthermore, neither of these methods requires significantly more parameterization in order to be applied: NN-SMS12L requires 24 regional regressions—12 for monthly means and 12 for monthly standard deviations. NN-QPPQ, in the application described in this study, required 27 regressions of particular quantiles along the flow duration curve. Despite this finding, the results suggest that an optimal streamflow <span class="hlt">prediction</span> method depends on the intended application. Some methods are stronger overall, while some methods may be better at <span class="hlt">predicting</span> particular statistics. The methods of analysis presented here reflect a possible framework for continued analysis and comprehensive multiple comparisons of methods of <span class="hlt">prediction</span> in ungaged basins (PUB</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900020550','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900020550"><span>Precedence relationship <span class="hlt">representations</span> of mechanical assembly sequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Homendemello, L. S.; Sanderson, A. C.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Two types of precedence relationship <span class="hlt">representations</span> for mechanical assembly sequences are presented: precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection between two parts and the establishment of another connection, and precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection and <span class="hlt">states</span> of the assembly process. Precedence relationship <span class="hlt">representations</span> have the advantage of being very compact. The problem with these <span class="hlt">representations</span> was how to guarantee their correctness and completeness. Two theorems are presented each of which leads to the generation of one type of precedence relationship <span class="hlt">representation</span> guaranteeing its correctness and completeness for a class of assemblies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27494466','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27494466"><span>Precise QCD <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> for the Production of Dijet Final <span class="hlt">States</span> in Deep Inelastic Scattering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Currie, James; Gehrmann, Thomas; Niehues, Jan</p> <p>2016-07-22</p> <p>The production of two-jet final <span class="hlt">states</span> in deep inelastic scattering is an important QCD precision observable. We compute it for the first time to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in perturbative QCD. Our calculation is fully differential in the lepton and jet variables and allows one to impose cuts on the jets in both the laboratory and the Breit frame. We observe that the NNLO corrections are moderate in size, except at kinematical edges, and that their inclusion leads to a substantial reduction of the scale variation uncertainty on the <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. Our results will enable the inclusion of deep inelastic dijet data in precision phenomenology studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11g4018J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11g4018J"><span>Can we <span class="hlt">predict</span> seasonal changes in high impact weather in the United <span class="hlt">States</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jung, Eunsil; Kirtman, Ben P.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Severe convective storms cause catastrophic losses each year in the United <span class="hlt">States</span>, suggesting that any <span class="hlt">predictive</span> capability is of great societal benefit. While it is known that El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influence high impact weather events, such as a tornado activity and severe storms, in the US during early spring, this study highlights that the influence of ENSO on US severe storm characteristics is weak during May-July. Instead, warm water in the Gulf of Mexico is a potential predictor for moist instability, which is an important factor in influencing the storm characteristics in the US during May-July.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2896133','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2896133"><span>DBCP: a web server for disulfide bonding connectivity pattern <span class="hlt">prediction</span> without the prior knowledge of the bonding <span class="hlt">state</span> of cysteines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lin, Hsuan-Hung; Tseng, Lin-Yu</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The proper <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of the location of disulfide bridges is efficient in helping to solve the protein folding problem. Most of the previous works on the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of disulfide connectivity pattern use the prior knowledge of the bonding <span class="hlt">state</span> of cysteines. The DBCP web server provides <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of disulfide bonding connectivity pattern without the prior knowledge of the bonding <span class="hlt">state</span> of cysteines. The method used in this server improves the accuracy of disulfide connectivity pattern <span class="hlt">prediction</span> (Qp) over the previous studies reported in the literature. This DBCP server can be accessed at http://120.107.8.16/dbcp or http://140.120.14.136/dbcp. PMID:20530534</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15936021','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15936021"><span><span class="hlt">Prediction</span> of protein secondary structure based on residue pair types and conformational <span class="hlt">states</span> using dynamic programming algorithm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sadeghi, Mehdi; Parto, Sahar; Arab, Shahriar; Ranjbar, Bijan</p> <p>2005-06-20</p> <p>We have used a statistical approach for protein secondary structure <span class="hlt">prediction</span> based on information theory and simultaneously taking into consideration pairwise residue types and conformational <span class="hlt">states</span>. Since the <span class="hlt">prediction</span> of residue secondary structure by one residue window sliding make ambiguity in <span class="hlt">state</span> <span class="hlt">prediction</span>, we used a dynamic programming algorithm to find the path with maximum score. A score system for residue pairs in particular conformations is derived for adjacent neighbors up to ten residue apart in sequence. The three <span class="hlt">state</span> overall per-residue accuracy, Q3, of this method in a jackknife test with dataset created from PDBSELECT is more than 70%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp...43S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp...43S"><span>Decadal temperature <span class="hlt">predictions</span> over the continental United <span class="hlt">States</span>: Analysis and Enhancement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salvi, Kaustubh; Villarini, Gabriele; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Ghosh, Subimal</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Increases in global temperature over recent decades and the projected acceleration in warming trends over the 21 century have resulted in a strong need to obtain information about future temperature conditions. Hence, skillful decadal temperature <span class="hlt">predictions</span> (DTPs) can have profound societal and economic benefits through informed planning and response. However, skillful and actionable DTPs are extremely challenging to achieve. Even though general circulation models (GCMs) provide decadal <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of different climate variables, the direct use of GCM data for regional-scale impacts assessment is not encouraged because of the limited skill they possibly exhibit and their coarse spatial resolution. Here, we focus on 14 GCMs and evaluate seasonally and regionally averaged skills in DTPs over the continental United <span class="hlt">States</span>. Moreover, we address the limitations in skill and spatial resolution in the GCM outputs using two data-driven approaches: (1) quantile-based bias correction and (2) linear regression-based statistical downscaling. For both the approaches, statistical parameters/relationships, established over the calibration period (1961-1990) are applied to retrospective and near future decadal <span class="hlt">predictions</span> by GCMs to obtain DTPs at `4 km' resolution. <span class="hlt">Predictions</span> are assessed using different evaluation metrics, long-term statistical properties, and uncertainty in terms of the range of <span class="hlt">predictions</span>. Both the approaches adopted here show improvements with respect to the raw GCM data, particularly in terms of the long-term statistical properties and uncertainty, irrespective of lead time. The outcome of the study is monthly DTPs from 14 GCMs with a spatial resolution of 4 km, which can be used as a key input for impacts assessments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26627261','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26627261"><span>Resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> functional connectivity <span class="hlt">predicts</span> longitudinal change in autistic traits and adaptive functioning in autism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Plitt, Mark; Barnes, Kelly Anne; Wallace, Gregory L; Kenworthy, Lauren; Martin, Alex</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Although typically identified in early childhood, the social communication symptoms and adaptive behavior deficits that are characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) persist throughout the lifespan. Despite this persistence, even individuals without cooccurring intellectual disability show substantial heterogeneity in outcomes. Previous studies have found various behavioral assessments [such as intelligence quotient (IQ), early language ability, and baseline autistic traits and adaptive behavior scores] to be <span class="hlt">predictive</span> of outcome, but most of the variance in functioning remains unexplained by such factors. In this study, we investigated to what extent functional brain connectivity measures obtained from resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) could <span class="hlt">predict</span> the variance left unexplained by age and behavior (follow-up latency and baseline autistic traits and adaptive behavior scores) in two measures of outcome--adaptive behaviors and autistic traits at least 1 y postscan (mean follow-up latency = 2 y, 10 mo). We found that connectivity involving the so-called salience network (SN), default-mode network (DMN), and frontoparietal task control network (FPTCN) was highly <span class="hlt">predictive</span> of future autistic traits and the change in autistic traits and adaptive behavior over the same time period. Furthermore, functional connectivity involving the SN, which is predominantly composed of the anterior insula and the dorsal anterior cingulate, <span class="hlt">predicted</span> reliable improvement in adaptive behaviors with 100% sensitivity and 70.59% precision. From rs-fcMRI data, our study successfully <span class="hlt">predicted</span> heterogeneity in outcomes for individuals with ASD that was unaccounted for by simple behavioral metrics and provides unique evidence for networks underlying long-term symptom abatement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmEn.148..337W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmEn.148..337W"><span>Improved MEGAN <span class="hlt">predictions</span> of biogenic isoprene in the contiguous United <span class="hlt">States</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Peng; Schade, Gunnar; Estes, Mark; Ying, Qi</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Isoprene emitted from biogenic sources significantly contributes to ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation in the troposphere. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) has been widely used to estimate isoprene emissions from local to global scales. However, previous studies have shown that MEGAN significantly over-<span class="hlt">predicts</span> isoprene emissions in the contiguous United <span class="hlt">States</span> (US). In this study, ambient isoprene concentrations in the US were simulated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model (v5.0.1) using biogenic emissions estimated by MEGAN v2.10 with several different gridded isoprene emission factor (EF) fields. Best isoprene <span class="hlt">predictions</span> were obtained with the EF field based on the Biogenic Emissions Landcover Database v4 (BELD4) from US EPA for its Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS) model v3.61 (MEGAN-BEIS361). A seven-month simulation (April to October 2011) of isoprene emissions with MEGAN-BEIS361 and ambient concentrations using CMAQ shows that observed spatial and temporal variations (both diurnal and seasonal) of isoprene concentrations can be well <span class="hlt">predicted</span> at most non-urban monitors using isoprene emission estimation from the MEGAN-BEIS361 without significant biases. The <span class="hlt">predicted</span> monthly average vertical column density of formaldehyde (HCHO), a reactive volatile organic compound with significant contributions from isoprene oxidation, generally agree with the spatial distribution of HCHO column density derived using satellite data collected by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), although summer month vertical column densities in the southeast US were overestimated, which suggests that isoprene emission might still be overestimated in that region. The agreement between observation and <span class="hlt">prediction</span> may be further improved if more accurate PAR values, such as those derived from satellite-based observations, were used in modeling the biogenic emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4672806','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4672806"><span>Resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> functional connectivity <span class="hlt">predicts</span> longitudinal change in autistic traits and adaptive functioning in autism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Plitt, Mark; Barnes, Kelly Anne; Wallace, Gregory L.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Martin, Alex</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Although typically identified in early childhood, the social communication symptoms and adaptive behavior deficits that are characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) persist throughout the lifespan. Despite this persistence, even individuals without cooccurring intellectual disability show substantial heterogeneity in outcomes. Previous studies have found various behavioral assessments [such as intelligence quotient (IQ), early language ability, and baseline autistic traits and adaptive behavior scores] to be <span class="hlt">predictive</span> of outcome, but most of the variance in functioning remains unexplained by such factors. In this study, we investigated to what extent functional brain connectivity measures obtained from resting-<span class="hlt">state</span> functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) could <span class="hlt">predict</span> the variance left unexplained by age and behavior (follow-up latency and baseline autistic traits and adaptive behavior scores) in two measures of outcome—adaptive behaviors and autistic traits at least 1 y postscan (mean follow-up latency = 2 y, 10 mo). We found that connectivity involving the so-called salience network (SN), default-mode network (DMN), and frontoparietal task control network (FPTCN) was highly <span class="hlt">predictive</span> of future autistic traits and the change in autistic traits and adaptive behavior over the same time period. Furthermore, functional connectivity involving the SN, which is predominantly composed of the anterior insula and the dorsal anterior cingulate, <span class="hlt">predicted</span> reliable improvement in adaptive behaviors with 100% sensitivity and 70.59% precision. From rs-fcMRI data, our study successfully <span class="hlt">predicted</span> heterogeneity in outcomes for individuals with ASD that was unaccounted for by simple behavioral metrics and provides unique evidence for networks underlying long-term symptom abatement. PMID:26627261</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........78K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........78K"><span>Seasonal snowfall <span class="hlt">prediction</span> in the United <span class="hlt">States</span> using multiple discriminant analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kluver, Daria B.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>This study analyzes the ability of a statistical forecast model based on Multiple Discriminant Analysis to <span class="hlt">predict</span> winter snowfall frequency and amount. Several large-scale atmospheric variables and teleconnection patterns are included as independent predictors, such as the PNA, ENSO, fall temperature, Arctic sea ice extent, and others. Seasonal snowfall forecasts are made for six regions in the United <span class="hlt">States</span> and for 440 individual snowfall stations over the time period 1930 to 2006. Results not only confirm relationships previously documented between atmospheric phenomena and United <span class="hlt">States</span> snowfall, they also expand our understanding of factors that influence decadal-scale snowfall variation by including variables such as Eurasian snow cover extent and Arctic sea ice extent. Based on cross-validation of the model using a jack knife method, the snowfall forecasts are correct 20% to 70% of the time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8856E..19C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8856E..19C"><span>Real-time object tracking with correlation filtering and <span class="hlt">state</span> <span class="hlt">prediction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Contreras, Viridiana; Díaz-Ramírez, Victor H.; Kober, Vitaly; Tapia-Armenta, Juan J.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>A real-time tracking system based on adaptive correlation filtering and <span class="hlt">state</span> <span class="hlt">prediction</span> is proposed. The system is able to estimate at high-rate the position of multiple targets within the observed scene by taking into account information of past and present scene-frames. The position of the targets in the current frame is estimated with the help of a bank of composite correlation filters applied to several small regions taken from the observed scene. These small regions are updated in each frame according to information from a <span class="hlt">state</span> predictor based on the motion model of targets in a twodimensional plane. The proposed system is implemented on a graphics processing unit to take advantage of massive parallelism. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed system are presented and discussed in terms of tracking accuracy and real-time operation efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=wes+AND+anderson&pg=5&id=EJ878534','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=wes+AND+anderson&pg=5&id=EJ878534"><span>The Problem <span class="hlt">State</span>: A Cognitive Bottleneck in Multitasking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Borst, Jelmer P.; Taatgen, Niels A.; van Rijn, Hedderik</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The main challenge for theories of multitasking is to <span class="hlt">predict</span> when and how tasks interfere. Here, we focus on interference related to the problem <span class="hlt">state</span>, a directly accessible intermediate <span class="hlt">representation</span> of the current <span class="hlt">state</span> of a task. On the basis of Salvucci and Taatgen's (2008) threaded cognition theory, we <span class="hlt">predict</span> interference if 2 or more…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4169587','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4169587"><span>Risk Recognition, Attachment Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, and <span class="hlt">State</span> Dissociation <span class="hlt">Predict</span> Revictimization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bockers, Estelle; Roepke, Stefan; Michael, Lars; Renneberg, Babette; Knaevelsrud, Christine</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Previous research has identified a number of variables that constitute potential risk factors for victimization and revictimization. However, it remains unclear which factors are associated not only with childhood or adolescent victimization, but specifically with revictimization. The aim of this study was to determine whether risk recognition ability and other variables previously associated with revictimization are specifically able to differentiate individuals with childhood victimization only from revictimized individuals, and thus to <span class="hlt">predict</span> revictimization. Methods Participants were N = 85 women aged 21 to 64 years who were interpersonally victimized in childhood or adolescence only, interpersonally revictimized in another period of life, or not victimized. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine whether risk recognition ability, sensation seeking, self-efficacy, <span class="hlt">state</span> dissociation, shame, guilt, assertiveness, and attachment anxiety <span class="hlt">predicted</span> group membership. Results The logistic regression analysis revealed risk recognition ability, attachment anxiety, <span class="hlt">state</span> dissociation, and self-efficacy as significant predictors of revictimization. The final model accurately classified 82.4% of revictimized, 59.1% of victimized and 93.1% of non-victimized women. The overall classification rate was 80%. Conclusions This study suggests that risk recognition ability, attachment anxiety, self-efficacy, and <span class="hlt">state</span> dissociation play a key role in revictimization. Increased risk recognition ability after an interpersonal trauma may act as a protective factor against repeated victimization that revictimized individuals may lack. A lack of increased risk recognition ability in combination with higher attachment anxiety, lower self-efficacy, and higher <span class="hlt">state</span> dissociation may increase the risk of revictimization. PMID:25238153</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25225050','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25225050"><span>Social determinants of health <span class="hlt">predict</span> <span class="hlt">state</span> incidence of HIV and AIDS: a short report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zeglin, Robert J; Stein, J Paul</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>There are approximately 1.2 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the USA. Each year, there are roughly 50,000 new HIV diagnoses. The World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) identified several social determinants of health and health inequity (SDH) including childcare, education, employment, gender equality, health insurance, housing, and income. The CSDH also noted the significant impact the SDH can have on advocacy for social change, social interventions to reduce HIV prevalence, and health monitoring. The current analysis evaluated the <span class="hlt">predictive</span> ability of five SDH for HIV and AIDS incidence on the <span class="hlt">state</span> level. The SDH used in the analysis were education, employment, housing, income, and insurance; other SDH were not included because reliable and appropriate <span class="hlt">state</span>-level data were not available. The results of multiple regression analyses indicate that the use of these five SDH create statistically significant models <span class="hlt">predicting</span> HIV incidence (adjusted R(2) = .54) and AIDS incidence (adjusted R(2) = .37) and account for a sizable portion of the variance for each. Stepwise variable selection reduced the necessary SDH to two: (1) education and (2) housing. These models are also statistically significant and account for a notable portion of variance in HIV incidence (adjusted R(2) = .55) and AIDS incidence (adjusted R(2) = .40). These outcomes demonstrate that <span class="hlt">state</span>-level SDH, particularly education and housing, offer significant explanatory power regarding HIV and AIDS incidence rates. Congruent with the recommendations of the CSDH, the results of the current analysis suggest that <span class="hlt">state</span>-sponsored policy and social interventions should consider and target SDH, especially education and housing, in attempts to reduce HIV and AIDS incidence rates.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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