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  1. Do early MRI signals predict lesion size in a neonatal stroke rat model?

    PubMed

    Fau, S; Po, C; Goyenvalle, C; Meric, P; Charriaut-Marlangue, C

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we compared lesion size by using VADC and VT2 at 0, 2, 5, 24, and 48 hours and histologic lesions at 48 hours in a P7 rat stroke model. The best correlation between VHISTO and VADC was at H0, and between VHISTO and VT2, at H2-H5. Early MR imaging signals allowed excluding "no-lesion" and "no-reflow" animals to help standardize this neonatal stroke model and predict lesion size.

  2. Early cranial ultrasound lesions predict head circumference at age 2 in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Kalpathy S.; Kuban, Karl CK; O’Shea, T. Michael; Westra, Sjirk; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Leviton, Alan

    2016-01-01

    To assess how well early ultrasound lesions in preterm newborns predict reduced head circumference at two years, we followed 923 children born before the 28th week of gestation who were not microcephalic then until they were 2 years old. Two independent sonologists agreed on the presence/absence of four lesions, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), moderate/severe ventriculomegaly, an echodense lesion, and an echolucent lesion. Each also recorded the size, laterality and location. 6% of children who had a normal ultrasound scan were microcephalic compared to 15% who had IVH, 19% who had an echolucent lesion, and in 20% who had ventriculomegaly. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for microcephaly associated with different ultrasound images were IVH: 1.5 (0.9, 2.4), ventriculomegaly: 2.7 (1.6, 4.8), an echodense lesion 1.4 (0.8, 2.3), and an echolucent lesion: 2.8 (1.4, 5.4). Ventriculomegaly and an echolucent lesion had very similar low positive predictive values (24% and 27%) and high negative predictive values (91% and 90%) for microcephaly. Ventriculomegaly had a higher sensitivity for microcephaly than did an echolucent lesion (24% vs 16%). Focal white-matter damage, as characterized by an echolucent lesion, and diffuse white-matter damage, as suggested by ventriculomegaly, predict an increased risk of microcephaly. PMID:20724751

  3. Early Gesture Predicts Language Delay in Children with Pre- Or Perinatal Brain Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Eve; Levine, Susan C.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Does early gesture use predict later productive and receptive vocabulary in children with pre- or perinatal unilateral brain lesions (PL)? Eleven children with PL were categorized into 2 groups based on whether their gesture at 18 months was within or below the range of typically developing (TD) children. Children with PL whose gesture was within…

  4. Predicting Outcome after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury by Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging Lesion Location and Volume

    PubMed Central

    Smitherman, Emily; Hernandez, Ana; Stavinoha, Peter L.; Huang, Rong; Kernie, Steven G.; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brain lesions after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are heterogeneous, rendering outcome prognostication difficult. The aim of this study is to investigate whether early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lesion location and lesion volume within discrete brain anatomical zones can accurately predict long-term neurological outcome in children post-TBI. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI hyperintense lesions in 63 children obtained 6.2±5.6 days postinjury were correlated with the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended-Pediatrics (GOS-E Peds) score at 13.5±8.6 months. FLAIR lesion volume was expressed as hyperintensity lesion volume index (HLVI)=(hyperintensity lesion volume / whole brain volume)×100 measured within three brain zones: zone A (cortical structures); zone B (basal ganglia, corpus callosum, internal capsule, and thalamus); and zone C (brainstem). HLVI-total and HLVI-zone C predicted good and poor outcome groups (p<0.05). GOS-E Peds correlated with HLVI-total (r=0.39; p=0.002) and HLVI in all three zones: zone A (r=0.31; p<0.02); zone B (r=0.35; p=0.004); and zone C (r=0.37; p=0.003). In adolescents ages 13–17 years, HLVI-total correlated best with outcome (r=0.5; p=0.007), whereas in younger children under the age of 13, HLVI-zone B correlated best (r=0.52; p=0.001). Compared to patients with lesions in zone A alone or in zones A and B, patients with lesions in all three zones had a significantly higher odds ratio (4.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.19–16.0) for developing an unfavorable outcome. PMID:25808802

  5. Early-Stage White Matter Lesions Detected by Multispectral MRI Segmentation Predict Progressive Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Jokinen, Hanna; Gonçalves, Nicolau; Vigário, Ricardo; Lipsanen, Jari; Fazekas, Franz; Schmidt, Reinhold; Barkhof, Frederik; Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana; Inzitari, Domenico; Pantoni, Leonardo; Erkinjuntti, Timo

    2015-01-01

    White matter lesions (WML) are the main brain imaging surrogate of cerebral small-vessel disease. A new MRI tissue segmentation method, based on a discriminative clustering approach without explicit model-based added prior, detects partial WML volumes, likely representing very early-stage changes in normal-appearing brain tissue. This study investigated how the different stages of WML, from a “pre-visible” stage to fully developed lesions, predict future cognitive decline. MRI scans of 78 subjects, aged 65–84 years, from the Leukoaraiosis and Disability (LADIS) study were analyzed using a self-supervised multispectral segmentation algorithm to identify tissue types and partial WML volumes. Each lesion voxel was classified as having a small (33%), intermediate (66%), or high (100%) proportion of lesion tissue. The subjects were evaluated with detailed clinical and neuropsychological assessments at baseline and at three annual follow-up visits. We found that voxels with small partial WML predicted lower executive function compound scores at baseline, and steeper decline of executive scores in follow-up, independently of the demographics and the conventionally estimated hyperintensity volume on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. The intermediate and fully developed lesions were related to impairments in multiple cognitive domains including executive functions, processing speed, memory, and global cognitive function. In conclusion, early-stage partial WML, still too faint to be clearly detectable on conventional MRI, already predict executive dysfunction and progressive cognitive decline regardless of the conventionally evaluated WML load. These findings advance early recognition of small vessel disease and incipient vascular cognitive impairment. PMID:26696814

  6. Whole body magnetic resonance imaging in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: early changes in lesional signal fat fraction predict disease response.

    PubMed

    Latifoltojar, Arash; Hall-Craggs, Margaret; Rabin, Neil; Popat, Rakesh; Bainbridge, Alan; Dikaios, Nikolaos; Sokolska, Magdalena; Rismani, Ali; D'Sa, Shirley; Punwani, Shonit; Yong, Kwee

    2017-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging techniques are being increasingly used for disease evaluation in patients with multiple myeloma. Whole body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) scanning is superior to plain radiography in baseline assessment of patients but changes following treatment have not been systematically explored. We carried out paired WB-MRI scans in 21 newly diagnosed patients prior to, and 8-weeks after, starting chemotherapy, and analysed stringently selected focal lesions (FLs) for parametric changes. A total of 323 FLs were evaluated, median 20 per patient. At 8 weeks, there was a reduction in estimated tumour volume (eTV), and an increase in signal fat fraction (sFF) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the group as a whole (P < 0·001). Patients who achieved complete/very good partial response (CR/VGPR) to induction had a significantly greater increase in sFF compared to those achieving ≤ partial response (PR; P = 0·001). When analysed on a per-patient basis, all patients achieving CR/VGPR had a significant sFF increase in their FL's, in contrast to patients achieving ≤PR. sFF changes in patients reaching maximal response within 100 days (fast responders) were greater compared to slow responders (P = 0·001). Receiver Operator Characteristic analysis indicated that sFF changes at 8 weeks were the best biomarker (area under the Curve 0·95) for an inferior response (≤PR). We conclude that early lesional sFF changes may provide important information on depth of response, and are worthy of further prospective study. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Haematology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. BGP expression in gastric biopsies may predict the development of new lesions after local treatment for early gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Shinya; Shiomori, Kenji; Honmyo, Ubehiko; Maeno, Masanobu; Yagi, Yasushi; Ogawa, Michio

    2002-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated the significant role of the generative cells of intestinal metaplasia (IM) expressing brain (fetal)-type glycogen phosphorylase (BGP) (BGP-IM) as a premalignant lesion of intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. The aims of the present study were to investigate the incidence of BGP-IM in gastric biopsy specimens and to establish BGP-IM as a predictor of the coexistence of accessory carcinoma and/or metachronous cancers before and after local treatment for early gastric carcinoma. We studied the incidence of BGP-IM in eight endoscopic biopsy specimens of methylene blue-positive mucosa of the stomach obtained from patients with multiple gastric carcinomas (n = 14), a single carcinoma (n = 25), and atrophic gastritis (n = 20). BGP positivity was 93.3% in the multiple carcinomas and 80.0% in the single carcinomas. The incidences of BGP-IM (mean percentage +/- SD) in the stomachs with multiple carcinomas, single carcinoma, and atrophic gastritis were 83.2% +/- 22.8%, 36.5% +/- 41.3%, and 7.1% +/- 18.0%, respectively. The incidence was significantly higher in the stomachs with multiple carcinomas than in those with a single carcinoma or those with atrophic gastritis (P < 0.001). It is suggested that the frequent appearance of BGP-IM reflects the high potential of carcinogenesis of intestinal-type gastric cancer, and that the involvement of BGP-IM in more than 50% of the eight biopsies may be a predictor of the coexistence of accessory and/or metachronous carcinoma before and after local treatment for early gastric carcinoma.

  8. Bone lesions in early congenital syphilis.

    PubMed

    Rosen, E U; Solomon, A

    1976-01-31

    A radiological study of bone changes in 112 children with congenital syphilis was undertaken. A similar number of normal children acted as a control group. Radiological examination of 5 syphilitic children showed that their bones were normal. Combined metaphyseal and periosteal lesions were the commonest bone disorders seen and are thus the most convincing radiological evidence of congenital syphilis. Transverse metaphyseal lucencies occur early in the disease, and with Wimburger's sign they are the prime evidence of pathology in syphilitic bone. Other radiographic changes are probably owing to minimal trauma in fragile disorganized bone. The occurrence of periosteal lesions alone has also been evaluated.

  9. Neuroimaging of intraparenchymal lesions predicts outcome in shaken baby syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bonnier, Christine; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile; Saint-Martin, Christine; Mesples, Bettina; Kadhim, Hazim; Sébire, Guillaume

    2003-10-01

    Studies of long-term outcome on nonaccidental head injury (NAHI) in young children have shown severe neurodevelopmental sequelae in most cases. For improving the knowledge of outcome and for identifying prognostic factors, additional clinical and cerebral imaging data are needed. The aim of this study was to describe clinical and imaging features over time and to consider their value for predicting neurodevelopmental outcome. A retrospective medical record review was conducted of 23 children with confirmed NAHI, for whom an extended follow-up of 2.5 to 13 years (mean: 6 years) was contemplated. Glasgow Coma Scale scores, severity of retinal hemorrhages, presence of skull fractures, cranial growth deceleration, and sequential neuroimaging data (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging) were compared with patterns of clinical evolution assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Clinical outcome showed that 14 (61%) children had severe disabilities, 8 (35%) had moderate disabilities, and 1 (4%) was normal. A low initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, severe retinal hemorrhages, presence of skull fracture, and cranial growth deceleration were significantly associated with poor developmental outcome. Eighteen of the 23 patients had abnormal magnetic resonance imaging scans. This examination disclosed atrophy when performed beyond 15 days of injury. Atrophy seemingly resulted from various brain lesions, namely, contusions, infarcts, and other lesions within the white matter. Presence of intraparenchymal brain lesions within the first 3 months was significantly associated with neurodevelopmental impairment. Severity of motor and cognitive dysfunctions was related to the extent of intraparenchymal lesions. Early clinical and radiologic findings in NAHI are of prognostic value for neurodevelopmental outcome.

  10. Clinical parameters predictive of enlargement of melanocytic choroidal lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Augsburger, J J; Schroeder, R P; Territo, C; Gamel, J W; Shields, J A

    1989-01-01

    The authors followed up 197 melanotic choroidal lesions (62 categorised as benign naevi, 76 classified as suspicious naevi, 41 diagnosed as dormant melanomas, and 18 categorised as active melanomas) left untreated after their initial clinical documentation. Thirty-nine of these lesions enlarged during a five-year follow-up interval (cumulative proportion of lesions that enlarged = 26.2% by Kaplan-Meier method). Individual clinical parameters predictive of lesion enlargement (p less than 0.01) included larger size of the lesion, especially lesion thickness, presence of retinal detachment, location of the lesion's posterior margin within 2 disc diameters of the optic disc, presence of symptoms, and presence of orange pigment clumps on the lesion's surface. The best combination of these parameters for prediction of lesion enlargement, as identified by multivariate Cox regression analysis, consisted of thickness of the lesion, retinal detachment, and symptoms. The five-year incidence of lesion enlargement for patients with none of these prognostic parameters was 5.8%, while that for patients with all three unfavourable parameters simultaneously was 90.6%. Images PMID:2605146

  11. Early Preinvasive Lesions in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chene, Gautier; Lamblin, Gery; Le Bail-Carval, Karine; Chabert, Philippe; Bakrin, Naoual; Mellier, Georges

    2014-01-01

    Faced with the catastrophic prognosis for ovarian cancer due to the fact that it is most often diagnosed late at the peritoneal carcinomatosis stage, screening and early detection could probably reduce the mortality rate. A better understanding of the molecular characteristics of the different ovarian cancer subtypes and their specific molecular signatures is indispensable prior to development of new screening strategies. We discuss here the early natural history of ovarian cancer and its origins. PMID:24804229

  12. Multispectral near-IR reflectance imaging of simulated early occlusal lesions: variation of lesion contrast with lesion depth and severity.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jacob C; Chan, Kenneth H; Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Early demineralization appears with high contrast at near-IR wavelengths due to a 10- to 20-fold difference in the magnitude of light scattering between sound and demineralized enamel. Water absorption in the near-IR has a significant effect on the lesion contrast and the highest contrast has been measured in spectral regions with higher water absorption. The purpose of this study was to determine how the lesion contrast changes with lesion severity and depth for different spectral regions in the near-IR and compare that range of contrast with visible reflectance and fluorescence. Forty-four human molars were used in this in vitro study. Teeth were painted with an acid-resistant varnish, leaving a 4 mm × 4 mm window on the occlusal surface of each tooth exposed for demineralization. Artificial lesions were produced in the unprotected windows after 12-48 hours exposure to a demineralizing solution at pH 4.5. Near-IR reflectance images were acquired over several near-IR spectral distributions, visible light reflectance, and fluorescence with 405-nm excitation and detection at wavelengths >500-nm. Crossed polarizers were used for reflectance measurements to reduce interference from specular reflectance. Cross polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) was used to non-destructively assess the depth and severity of demineralization in each sample window. Matching two-dimensional CP-OCT images of the lesion depth and integrated reflectivity were compared with the reflectance and fluorescence images to determine how accurately the variation in the lesion contrast represents the variation in the lesion severity. Artificial lesions appear more uniform on tooth surfaces exposed to an acid challenge at visible wavelengths than they do in the near-IR. Measurements of the lesion depth and severity using CP-OCT show that the lesion severity varies markedly across the sample windows and that the lesion contrast in the visible does not accurately reflect the

  13. Multispectral near-IR reflectance imaging of simulated early occlusal lesions: Variation of lesion contrast with lesion depth and severity

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Jacob C.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Early demineralization appears with high contrast at near-IR wavelengths due to a ten to twenty fold difference in the magnitude of light scattering between sound and demineralized enamel. Water absorption in the near-IR has a significant effect on the lesion contrast and the highest contrast has been measured in spectral regions with higher water absorption. The purpose of this study was to determine how the lesion contrast changes with lesion severity and depth for different spectral regions in the near-IR and compare that range of contrast with visible reflectance and fluorescence. Materials and Methods Forty-four human molars were used in this in vitro study. Teeth were painted with an acid-resistant varnish, leaving a 4×4 mm window on the occlusal surface of each tooth exposed for demineralization. Artificial lesions were produced in the unprotected windows after 12–48 hr exposure to a demineralizing solution at pH-4.5. Near-IR reflectance images were acquired over several near-IR spectral distributions, visible light reflectance, and fluorescence with 405-nm excitation and detection at wavelengths greater than 500-nm. Crossed polarizers were used for reflectance measurements to reduce interference from specular reflectance. Cross polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) was used to non-destructively assess the depth and severity of demineralization in each sample window. Matching two dimensional CP-OCT images of the lesion depth and integrated reflectivity were compared with the reflectance and fluorescence images to determine how accurately the variation in the lesion contrast represents the variation in the lesion severity. Results Artificial lesions appear more uniform on tooth surfaces exposed to an acid challenge at visible wavelengths than they do in the near-IR. Measurements of the lesion depth and severity using CP-OCT show that the lesion severity varies markedly across the sample windows and that the lesion

  14. Necrotizing lymphocytic folliculitis: the early lesion of acne necrotica (varioliformis).

    PubMed

    Kossard, S; Collins, A; McCrossin, I

    1987-05-01

    Skin biopsy specimens from four patients who had recurrent bouts of lesions conforming to the clinical description of acne necrotica were studied. The pathologic findings were dominated by lymphocytic inflammation around centrally placed follicles evolving to follicular necrosis that extended to the perifollicular epidermis and dermis. Early lesions showed the development of multiple individual necrotic keratinocytes within the follicular sheath and adjacent epidermis with lymphocytic exocytosis. Later lesions showed more intense necrosis and scale crust obscuring the central target but were still dominated by a peripheral lymphocytic infiltrate. The early pathologic findings of acne necrotica (varioliformis) are represented by a necrotizing lymphocytic folliculitis and differ from the pattern seen in association with nonspecific excoriations, acute bacterial folliculitis, classic comedogenic acne, or acnitis.

  15. Type II collagen fragment HELIX-II is a marker for early cartilage lesions but does not predict the progression of cartilage destruction in human knee joint synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaochun; Yin, Kun; Li, Pengcui; Wang, Huan; Ding, Juan; Duan, Wangping; Wei, Lei

    2013-07-01

    To determine whether there is a direct correlation between the concentration of type II collagen fragment HELIX-II in synovial fluid and the severity of cartilage damage at the knee joint, 83 patients who had undergone knee arthroscopy or total knee replacement were enrolled in this study (49% women, mean ± SD age 49.5 ± 19). The content of HELIX-II in the synovial fluid samples was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cartilage damage at the knee joint was classified during arthroscopy or direct surgical observation, using the Outerbridge cartilage damage scoring system. The maximum damage score was defined as the highest score among the six areas of the knee joint, and the cumulative score was defined as the sum of the scores of the six areas of the knee joint. The intra-assay and inter-assay variations of the HELIX-II ELISA were lower than 13 and 15%, respectively. The level of HELIX-II in the severely damaged cartilage groups (cumulative scores = 11-24 or maximum score = 2-4) was much higher than in the slightly damaged cartilage groups (cumulative scores = 0-10 or maximum score = 0-1). The level of HELIX-II in cartilage from severely damaged cartilage groups was significantly higher than in the slightly damaged groups, but no significant difference was detected in the level of HELIX-II among the severely damaged cartilage sub-groups. There was a significant correlation between the HELIX-II concentration in the synovial fluid and the cumulative (r = 0.807) and maximum scores (r = 0.794). Thus, elevated HELIX-II level is correlated with early cartilage lesions, but does not have the sensitivity to predict the progression of severity of cartilage damage in the knee joint.

  16. Identifying predictive morphologic features of malignancy in eyelid lesions

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Christina; Johnson, Davin; Pang, Renee; Kratky, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine features of eyelid lesions most predictive of malignancy, and to design a key to assist general practitioners in the triaging of such lesions. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Department of Ophthalmology at Queen’s University in Kingston, Ont. Participants A total of 199 consecutive periocular lesions requiring biopsy or excision were included. Main outcome measures First, potential features suggestive of malignancy for eyelid lesions were identified based on a survey sent to Canadian oculoplastic surgeons. The sensitivity, specificity, and odds ratios (ORs) of these features were then determined using 199 consecutive photographed eyelid lesions of patients who presented to the Department of Ophthalmology and underwent biopsy or excision. A triage key was then created based on the features with the highest ORs, and it was pilot-tested by a group of medical students. Results Of the 199 lesions included, 161 (80.9%) were benign and 38 (19.1%) were malignant. The 3 features with the highest ORs in predicting malignancy were infiltration (OR = 18.2, P < .01), ulceration (OR = 14.7, P < .01), and loss of eyelashes (OR = 6.0, P < .01). The acronym LUI (loss of eyelashes, ulceration, infiltration) was created to assist in memory recall. After watching a video describing the LUI triage key, the mean total score of a group of medical students for correctly identifying malignant lesions increased from 46% to 70% (P < .001). Conclusion Differentiating benign from malignant eyelid lesions can be difficult even for experienced physicians. The LUI triage key provides physicians with an evidence-based, easy-to-remember system for assisting in the triaging of these lesions. PMID:25756148

  17. Pathologic Heterogeneity Persists in Early Active Multiple Sclerosis Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Imke; Weigand, Stephen D; Popescu, Bogdan F G; Frischer, Josa M; Parisi, Joseph E; Guo, Yong; Lassmann, Hans; Brück, Wolfgang; Lucchinetti, Claudia F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions demonstrate immunopathological heterogeneity in patterns of demyelination. Previous cross-sectional studies reported immunopatterns of demyelination were identical among multiple active demyelinating lesions from the same individual, but differed between individuals, leading to the hypothesis of intraindividual pathological homogeneity and interindividual heterogeneity. Other groups suggested a time-dependent heterogeneity of lesions. The objective of our present study was to analyze tissue samples collected longitudinally to determine whether patterns of demyelination persist over time within a given patient. Methods Archival tissue samples derived from patients with pathologically confirmed CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease who had undergone either diagnostic serial biopsy or biopsy followed by autopsy, were analyzed immunohistochemically. Inclusion criteria was the presence of early active demyelinating lesions - required for immunopattern classification - obtained from the same patient at two or more time points. Results Among 1321 surgical biopsies consistent with MS, 22 cases met study inclusion criteria. Twenty-one patients (95%) showed a persistence of immunopathological patterns in tissue sampled from different time points. This persistence was demonstrated for all major patterns of demyelination. A single patient showed features suggestive of both pattern II and pattern III on biopsy, but only pattern II among all active lesions examined at autopsy. Interpretation These findings continue to support the concept of patient-dependent immunopathological heterogeneity in early MS and suggest that the mechanisms and targets of tissue injury may differ among patient subgroups. These observations have potentially significant implications for individualized therapeutic approaches. PMID:24771535

  18. Spatial distribution of early red lesions is a risk factor for development of vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Ometto, Giovanni; Assheton, Phil; Calivá, Francesco; Chudzik, Piotr; Al-Diri, Bashir; Hunter, Andrew; Bek, Toke

    2017-09-07

    Diabetic retinopathy is characterised by morphological lesions related to disturbances in retinal blood flow. It has previously been shown that the early development of retinal lesions temporal to the fovea may predict the development of treatment-requiring diabetic maculopathy. The aim of this study was to map accurately the area where lesions could predict progression to vision-threatening retinopathy. The predictive value of the location of the earliest red lesions representing haemorrhages and/or microaneurysms was studied by comparing their occurrence in a group of individuals later developing vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy with that in a group matched with respect to diabetes type, age, sex and age of onset of diabetes mellitus who did not develop vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy during a similar observation period. The probability of progression to vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy was higher in a circular area temporal to the fovea, and the occurrence of the first lesions in this area was predictive of the development of vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy. The calculated peak value showed that the risk of progression was 39.5% higher than the average. There was no significant difference in the early distribution of lesions in participants later developing diabetic maculopathy or proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The location of early red lesions in diabetic retinopathy is predictive of whether or not individuals will later develop vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy. This evidence should be incorporated into risk models used to recommend control intervals in screening programmes for diabetic retinopathy.

  19. Hypoperfusion predicts lesion progression in cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Musolino, Patricia Leonor; Rapalino, Otto; Caruso, Paul; Caviness, Verne Strudwick; Eichler, Florian Sebald

    2012-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging sequences such as diffusion and spectroscopy have been well studied in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, but no data exist on magnetic resonance perfusion imaging. Since inflammation is known to modulate the microcirculation, we investigated the hypothesis that changes in the local perfusion might be one of the earliest signs of lesion development. Twenty patients with different phenotypes of adrenoleukodystrophy and seven age-matched controls were evaluated between 2006 and 2011. Fluid attenuated inversion recovery, post-contrast T(1)-weighted and normalized dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance perfusion cerebral blood volume maps were co-registered, segmented when cerebral lesion was present, and normalized cerebral blood volume values were analysed using a Food and Drug Association approved magnetic resonance perfusion software (NordicICE). Clinical and imaging data were reviewed to determine phenotype and status of progression. All eight patients with cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy had an average 80% decrease in normalized cerebral blood volume at the core of the lesion (P < 0.0001). Beyond the leading edge of contrast enhancement cerebral perfusion varied, patients with progressive lesions showed an average 60% decrease in normalized cerebral blood volume (adults P < 0.05; children P < 0.001), while one child with arrested progression normalized cerebral blood volume in this region. In six of seven patients with cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy lesions and follow-up imaging (2-24 month interval period), we found progression of contrast enhancement into the formerly hypoperfused perilesional zone. Asymptomatic, adrenomyeloneuropathy and female heterozygote patients had no significant changes in cerebral perfusion. Our data indicate that decreased brain magnetic resonance perfusion precedes leakage of the blood-brain barrier as demonstrated by contrast enhancement in cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy and is an early sign of lesion

  20. Hypoperfusion predicts lesion progression in cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Musolino, Patricia Leonor; Rapalino, Otto; Caruso, Paul; Caviness, Verne Strudwick

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging sequences such as diffusion and spectroscopy have been well studied in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, but no data exist on magnetic resonance perfusion imaging. Since inflammation is known to modulate the microcirculation, we investigated the hypothesis that changes in the local perfusion might be one of the earliest signs of lesion development. Twenty patients with different phenotypes of adrenoleukodystrophy and seven age-matched controls were evaluated between 2006 and 2011. Fluid attenuated inversion recovery, post-contrast T1-weighted and normalized dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance perfusion cerebral blood volume maps were co-registered, segmented when cerebral lesion was present, and normalized cerebral blood volume values were analysed using a Food and Drug Association approved magnetic resonance perfusion software (NordicICE). Clinical and imaging data were reviewed to determine phenotype and status of progression. All eight patients with cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy had an average 80% decrease in normalized cerebral blood volume at the core of the lesion (P < 0.0001). Beyond the leading edge of contrast enhancement cerebral perfusion varied, patients with progressive lesions showed an average 60% decrease in normalized cerebral blood volume (adults P < 0.05; children P < 0.001), while one child with arrested progression normalized cerebral blood volume in this region. In six of seven patients with cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy lesions and follow-up imaging (2–24 month interval period), we found progression of contrast enhancement into the formerly hypoperfused perilesional zone. Asymptomatic, adrenomyeloneuropathy and female heterozygote patients had no significant changes in cerebral perfusion. Our data indicate that decreased brain magnetic resonance perfusion precedes leakage of the blood–brain barrier as demonstrated by contrast enhancement in cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy and is an early sign of lesion

  1. Improved Detection of Microsatellite Instability in Early Colorectal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Dawn M.; Grimes, Ian C.; Weiss, Jennifer M.; Matkowskyj, Kristina A.; Agni, Rashmi M.; Vyazunova, Irina; Clipson, Linda; Storts, Douglas R.; Thliveris, Andrew T.; Halberg, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) occurs in over 90% of Lynch syndrome cancers and is considered a hallmark of the disease. MSI is an early event in colon tumor development, but screening polyps for MSI remains controversial because of reduced sensitivity compared to more advanced neoplasms. To increase sensitivity, we investigated the use of a novel type of marker consisting of long mononucleotide repeat (LMR) tracts. Adenomas from 160 patients, ranging in age from 29–55 years old, were screened for MSI using the new markers and compared with current marker panels and immunohistochemistry standards. Overall, 15 tumors were scored as MSI-High using the LMRs compared to 9 for the NCI panel and 8 for the MSI Analysis System (Promega). This difference represents at least a 1.7-fold increase in detection of MSI-High lesions over currently available markers. Moreover, the number of MSI-positive markers per sample and the size of allelic changes were significantly greater with the LMRs (p = 0.001), which increased confidence in MSI classification. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the LMR panel for detection of mismatch repair deficient lesions were 100% and 96%, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of the MSI Analysis System were 67% and 100%; and for the NCI panel, 75% and 97%. The difference in sensitivity between the LMR panel and the other panels was statistically significant (p<0.001). The increased sensitivity for detection of MSI-High phenotype in early colorectal lesions with the new LMR markers indicates that MSI screening for the early detection of Lynch syndrome might be feasible. PMID:26252492

  2. HPV and oral lesions: preventive possibilities, vaccines and early diagnosis of malignant lesions

    PubMed Central

    TESTI, D.; NARDONE, M.; MELONE, P.; CARDELLI, P.; OTTRIA, L.; ARCURI, C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The importance of HPV in world healthy is high, in fact high-risk HPV types contribute significantly to viral associated neoplasms. In this article we will analyze vary expression of HPV in oral cavity both benign and malignant, their prevalence and the importance in early diagnosis and prevention. The classical oral lesions associated with human papillomavirus are squamous cell papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Overall, HPV types 2, 4, 6, 11, 13 and 32 have been associated with benign oral lesions while HPV types 16 and 18 have been associated with malignant lesions, especially in cancers of the tonsils and elsewhere in the oropharynx. Transmission of the virus can occur with direct contact, genital contact, anal and oral sex; latest studies suggest a salivary transmission and from mother to child during delivery. The number of lifetime sexual partners is an important risk factor for the development of HPV-positive head-neck cancer. Oral/oropharyngeal cancer etiologically associated with HPV having an increased survival and a better prognostic (85%–90% to five years). There is no cure for the virus. There are two commercially available prophylactic vaccines against HPV today: the bivalent (16 and 18) Cervarix® and the tetravalent (6, 11, 16 and 18) Gardasil® and new vaccine Gardasil 9 (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) was approved in the United States. To be effective, such vaccination should start before “sexual puberty”. The vaccine could be an important preventive strategy, in fact the scientific community is in agreement on hypothesis that blocking the contagion it may also limit the distance complications as the oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:27555904

  3. HPV and oral lesions: preventive possibilities, vaccines and early diagnosis of malignant lesions.

    PubMed

    Testi, D; Nardone, M; Melone, P; Cardelli, P; Ottria, L; Arcuri, C

    2015-01-01

    The importance of HPV in world healthy is high, in fact high-risk HPV types contribute significantly to viral associated neoplasms. In this article we will analyze vary expression of HPV in oral cavity both benign and malignant, their prevalence and the importance in early diagnosis and prevention. The classical oral lesions associated with human papillomavirus are squamous cell papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Overall, HPV types 2, 4, 6, 11, 13 and 32 have been associated with benign oral lesions while HPV types 16 and 18 have been associated with malignant lesions, especially in cancers of the tonsils and elsewhere in the oropharynx. Transmission of the virus can occur with direct contact, genital contact, anal and oral sex; latest studies suggest a salivary transmission and from mother to child during delivery. The number of lifetime sexual partners is an important risk factor for the development of HPV-positive head-neck cancer. Oral/oropharyngeal cancer etiologically associated with HPV having an increased survival and a better prognostic (85%-90% to five years). There is no cure for the virus. There are two commercially available prophylactic vaccines against HPV today: the bivalent (16 and 18) Cervarix® and the tetravalent (6, 11, 16 and 18) Gardasil® and new vaccine Gardasil 9 (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) was approved in the United States. To be effective, such vaccination should start before "sexual puberty". The vaccine could be an important preventive strategy, in fact the scientific community is in agreement on hypothesis that blocking the contagion it may also limit the distance complications as the oropharyngeal cancer.

  4. Immunopathogenesis of folliculitis decalvans: clues in early lesions.

    PubMed

    Chiarini, Caterina; Torchia, Daniele; Bianchi, Beatrice; Volpi, Walter; Caproni, Marzia; Fabbri, Paolo

    2008-10-01

    Folliculitis decalvans (FD) is a rare variant of primary cicatricial alopecia, for which the etiopathogenesis remains unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate whether certain immunologic mechanisms might have a significant role in the pathogenesis of FD. Lesional scalp biopsy specimens from 7 patients with FD, 7 with lichen planopilaris, and 4 with alopecia areata were studied immunohistochemically by using monoclonal antibodies to CD1a, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD25, HLA-DR, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-4, IL-8, interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule. We showed that early FD lesions are characterized by an infiltration of activated T-helper cells, featuring mixed TH1/TH2 polarization. IL-8 and ICAM-1 may contribute to the infiltration of neutrophils, whereas b-FGF and TGF-beta may represent important mediators of the fibrosis that characterizes late-phase FD.

  5. What Predicts Early Smoking Milestones?

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Megan E.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: As many cigarette smokers begin experimenting before age 16, prevention efforts require a comprehensive understanding of smoking predictors during adolescence. Research has made many advances in understanding the predictors of smoking initiation, yet more precision is still needed to determine whether the patterns of prediction differ across early smoking milestones. The purpose of this study was to use a sample of young adolescents to examine the predictors of two key milestones in smoking initiation: first puff and first cigarette. Method: Data came from an ongoing, prospective project examining psychosocial factors related to adolescent substance use. At Time 1 (T1), the sample was 1,023 Rhode Island middle school students (ages 10–15 years; M = 12.2). T1 measures included empirically supported risk and protective factors, as well as current smoking. Follow-up surveys assessed smoking behavior over the ensuing year (T2 smoking). Results: Cigarette availability was the most robust predictor of smoking milestones, increasing the likelihood of both first puff and first cigarette in cross-sectional and prospective analyses. Multivariable analyses also showed specificity, where some factors were only associated with one time point (e.g., age and T1 puff and cigarette), whereas others were only associated with one milestone (e.g., parental monitoring and whole cigarette at both time points). Conclusions: This study found different patterns of predictors for two early smoking milestones. Such findings are the first to suggest that puff and whole cigarette are distinct smoking milestones and reaffirm arguments that researchers should distinguish the various stages of smoking initiation when examining the broader period of onset/initiation. PMID:25785801

  6. Early Prediction of Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, D.; Feynman, J.

    2000-01-01

    A detailed conceptual design has been developed for a mission and microspacecraft that can provide information needed to answer key questions about the physics of space weather and also both provide and validate a system for early warning of hazardous space weather.

  7. Human aortic fibrolipid lesions. Progenitor lesions for fibrous plaques, exhibiting early formation of the cholesterol-rich core.

    PubMed Central

    Bocan, T. M.; Guyton, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The early development of the lipid-rich core and other features of atherosclerotic fibrous plaques has been elucidated by examining discrete, small regions of raised intima in human aorta, which often bear a resemblance to both fatty streaks and fibrous plaques. Approximately one-fourth of small raised lesions (less than 16 sq mm of surface area) contained little or no stainable lipid, while three-fourths had a characteristic appearance, which included a superficial layer of foam cells, a core of noncrystalline and/or crystalline lipid, and a developed or developing collagenous cap. Total intimal volumes of the lipid-containing lesions, termed "fibrolipid lesions," ranged from 3 to 43 microliters, with the majority less than 16 microliters. Core lipid in the smallest lesions was located in the musculoelastic layer of the intima. In larger lesions the core extended luminally into the elastic hyperplastic layer, and cholesterol crystals were found more frequently. Total cholesterol concentration in fibrolipid lesions was similar to that in fatty streaks; however, the ratio of unesterified to total cholesterol was relatively high, similar to that found in fibrous plaques. It is concluded that 1) the formation of a lipid-rich core and cholesterol crystallization are early events in the development of many raised lesions; 2) the consistent association between the superficial layer of foam cells and the deep-lying lipid-rich core raises the possibility of an influence, possibly indirect, of foam-cell lipid metabolism on core formation; and 3) the fibrolipid lesion may represent one stage in a potential transitional morphologic sequence between fatty streak and fibrous plaque. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:4025509

  8. Early Gesture "Selectively" Predicts Later Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The gestures children produce predict the early stages of spoken language development. Here we ask whether gesture is a global predictor of language learning, or whether particular gestures predict particular language outcomes. We observed 52 children interacting with their caregivers at home, and found that gesture use at 18 months selectively…

  9. Clinical monitoring of early caries lesions using cross polarization optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Staninec, Michal; Darling, Cynthia L.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Pelzner, Roger B.

    New methods are needed for the nondestructive measurement of tooth demineralization and remineralization and to monitor the progression of incipient caries lesions (tooth decay) for effective nonsurgical intervention and to evaluate the performance of anti-caries treatments such as chemical treatments or laser irradiation. Studies have shown that optical coherence tomography (OCT) has great potential to fulfill this role, since it can be used to measure the depth and severity of early lesions with an axial resolution exceeding 10-μm. It is easy to apply in vivo and it can be used to image the convoluted topography of tooth occlusal surfaces. In this paper we present early results from two clinical studies underway to measure the effect of fluoride intervention on early lesions. CP-OCT was used to monitor early lesions on enamel and root surfaces before and after intervention with fluoride varnish. The lesion depth and internal structure were resolved for all the lesions examined and some lesions had well defined surface zones of lower reflectivity that may be indicative of arrested lesions. Changes were also noted in the structure of some of the lesions after fluoride intervention.

  10. Early thalamic lesions in patients with sleep-potentiated epileptiform activity

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez Fernández, I.; Takeoka, M.; Tas, E.; Peters, J.M.; Prabhu, S.P.; Stannard, K.M.; Gregas, M.; Eksioglu, Y.; Rotenberg, A.; Riviello, J.J.; Kothare, S.V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the prevalence and type of early developmental lesions in patients with a clinical presentation consistent with electrical status epilepticus in sleep either with or without prominent sleep-potentiated epileptiform activity (PSPEA). Methods: We performed a case-control study and enrolled patients with 1) clinical features consistent with electrical status epilepticus in sleep, 2) ≥1 brain MRI scan, and 3) ≥1 overnight EEG recording. We quantified epileptiform activity using spike percentage, the percentage of 1-second bins in the EEG tracing containing at least 1 spike. PSPEA was present when spike percentage during non-REM sleep was ≥50% than spike percentage during wakefulness. Results: One hundred patients with PSPEA (cases) and 47 patients without PSPEA (controls) met the inclusion criteria during a 14-year period. Both groups were comparable in terms of clinical and epidemiologic features. Early developmental lesions were more frequent in cases (48% vs 19.2%, p = 0.002). Thalamic lesions were more frequent in cases (14% vs 2.1%, p = 0.037). The main types of early developmental lesions found in cases were vascular lesions (14%), periventricular leukomalacia (9%), and malformation of cortical development (5%). Vascular lesions were the only type of early developmental lesions that were more frequent in cases (14% vs 0%, p = 0.005). Conclusions: Patients with PSPEA have a higher frequency of early developmental lesions and thalamic lesions than a comparable population of patients without PSPEA. Vascular lesions were the type of early developmental lesions most related to PSPEA. PMID:22539569

  11. Methylene Blue as a Diagnostic Aid in the Early Detection of Potentially Malignant and Malignant Lesions of Oral Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Lejoy, Abraham; Arpita, Rai; Krishna, Burde; Venkatesh, Naikmasur

    2016-05-01

    In vivo stains are the prompt resources, which have emerged in recent years to aid as clinical diagnostic tools in detecting early potentially malignant and malignant lesions. Toluidine blue, by its property of retaining in the increased DNA and RNA cellular activity areas, aids in delineating the suspicious areas. However, it is hazardous if swallowed, and has been shown to have toxicity to fibroblasts. Methylene blue has a similar chemical structure and exhibits similar physicochemical properties as toluidine blue. It is less toxic to the human body and has recently been proposed for screening some gastrointestinal or prostate tumors. The application of this material in detecting oral lesions has so far not been addressed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and reliability of in vivo staining with methylene blue as a diagnostic adjunct in screening for oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions. The present study involved the examination of 75 patients suspected of having oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions by methylene blue staining. The results of methylene blue uptake were compared with a simultaneous biopsy of these lesions. The overall sensitivity was 95% (100% for malignancy and 92% for potentially malignant lesions) and specificity was 70%. The positive predictive value was 91% and negative predictive value of 80% was observed in the study. We consider that methylene blue staining is a useful diagnostic adjunct in a large, community-based oral cancer screening program for high-risk individuals.

  12. Early atherosclerotic lesions spiraling through the femoral artery.

    PubMed

    Wensing, P J; Meiss, L; Mali, W P; Hillen, B

    1998-10-01

    Atherosclerosis is common in the adductor hiatus region. The aim of this study was to evaluate atherosclerosis in relation to themorphological structure of the femoropopliteal region. Two anatomic features are thought to play an important role in the origin of these lesions: (1) curvature of the vessel, which may lead to unfavorable local hemodynamic factors that change during leg flexion; and (2) abrupt changes in stiffness of surrounding tissues of the vessel. The distal part of 23 postmortem femoral arteries were investigated. Cross sections were obtained every 1 mm over a length of 100 mm. For each cross section, lesion thickness was measured at 12 points along the circumference of the vessel. No apparent relation was found between surrounding structures of the femoral artery and location of atherosclerotic lesions. Three-dimensional reconstructions showed that atherosclerotic lesions were spiraling through the artery in 18 of 23 cases. Spiraling atherosclerotic lesions may be consistent with expected flow patterns in this part of the femoral artery.

  13. [Efficacy of early cerebral MR in the detection of brain lesions in high risk preterm infants compared with conventional US].

    PubMed

    Vendemmia, M; Millet, V; Simeoni, U; Girard, N; Paludetto, R

    2004-01-01

    To identify the efficacy of early cerebral MR, performed in the first month of birth, in the detection of brain lesions in high risk preterm infants, compared with conventional US, we recruited into the study a group of 30 preterm infants born at or below a gestational age of 30 weeks, who had a pathologic scan. The findings on US were compared with those of the early MR scan, performed in the same days, the results of which were considered as the final diagnosis. The value of cranial US as a predictor of MR signal intensity was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. Agreement between two investigations was evaluated by calculating the K coefficient. US showed 33 haemorrhagic lesions in 25 preterms; MR showed 27 haemorrhagic lesions in 22 infants: in 16 cases MR gave the same results of US. Cranial US was reliable in detecting lesions such as GLH and IVH, but less sensitive in the definition of their size and distribution. Sensitivity of US for haemorrhagic lesions was 96.3%, PPV 78.8%, K coefficient 0.55 (p < 0.001). About the White Matter, cranial US demonstrated 20 lesions in 20 preterms; MR showed 16 lesions in 16 infants: in 3 cases MR was agree to US. US showed high reliability in the detection of cystic lesions, but significant limitations in the demonstration of non-cystic injury. We founded that normal WM echogenicity on US is not a good predictor of normal WM signal intensity on MR (30%). Sensitivity of US for WM lesions was 81.3%, PPV 65%, K coefficient 0.23 (p = 0.04). Finally US showed 4 lesions in other brain locations, MR confirmed 3 of them and discovered other 10. Sensitivity of US for these lesions was 23.1%, PPV 75%, K coefficient 0.21 (p = 0.11). We founded that cranial US is a good method for detecting GLH, IVH, HPI and severe WM lesions (cystic PVL), but it can miss non-cystic PVL, punctate haemorrhages, WMD and lesions in other brain locations, that, on the other hand, MR detects clearly.

  14. Predictive factors for early menarche in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chie, W C; Liu, Y H; Chi, J; Wu, V; Chen, A

    1997-06-01

    The rapid increase of breast cancer in Taiwan has prompted the authors to evaluate the predictive factors of early menarche among contemporary Taiwanese girls. A total of 895 four-grade girls from eight elementary schools in Taipei City and County were identified as a closed cohort from the first semester of 1993. Data were collected from self-administered questionnaires and school records. A total of 799 girls who had not menstruated in the first year remained in the group through 1994. The effects of potential predictive factors were assessed by logistic regression. Among the 799 girls followed, 69 (8.6%) had first menstruation between the fourth and fifth grades. Height, weight, body mass index and maternal early onset of menarche were positively related to the onset of menarche within the preceding year. Energy consumption during exercise showed only moderate association after being adjusted for age and weight. Calorie intake from junk food was not associated with early menarche within the preceding year. Poor interpersonal family relationships and stressful life events also showed a moderate association with early menarche. The data obtained supported the hypothesis that height, weight, body mass index and maternal early menarche are positive predictive factors of early menarche. The effects of exercise and childhood stress are less prominent.

  15. Noninvasive Assessment of Early Dental Lesion Using a Dual-Contrast Photoacoustic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Renxiang; Shao, Jiaojiao; Gao, Xiaoxiang; Tao, Chao; Ge, Jiuyu; Liu, Xiaojun

    2016-02-01

    Dental hard tissue lesions, including caries, cracked-tooth, etc., are the most prevalent diseases of people worldwide. Dental lesions and correlative diseases greatly decrease the life quality of patients throughout their lifetime. It is still hard to noninvasively detect these dental lesions in their early stages. Photoacoustic imaging is an emerging hybrid technology combining the high spatial resolution of ultrasound in deep tissue with the rich optical contrasts. In this study, a dual-contrast photoacoustic tomography is applied to detect the early dental lesions. One contrast, named B-mode, is related to the optical absorption. It is good at providing the sharp image about the morphological and macro-structural features of the teeth. Another contrast, named S-mode, is associated with the micro-structural and mechanical properties of the hard tissue. It is sensitive to the change of tissue properties induced by the early dental lesions. Experiments show that the comprehensive analysis of dual-contrast information can provide reliable information of the early dental lesions. Moreover, the imaging parameter of S-mode is device-independent and it could measure tissue properties quantitatively. We expect that the proposed scheme could be beneficial for improving safety, accuracy and sensitivity of the clinical diagnosis of the dental lesion.

  16. Noninvasive Assessment of Early Dental Lesion Using a Dual-Contrast Photoacoustic Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Renxiang; Shao, Jiaojiao; Gao, Xiaoxiang; Tao, Chao; Ge, Jiuyu; Liu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Dental hard tissue lesions, including caries, cracked-tooth, etc., are the most prevalent diseases of people worldwide. Dental lesions and correlative diseases greatly decrease the life quality of patients throughout their lifetime. It is still hard to noninvasively detect these dental lesions in their early stages. Photoacoustic imaging is an emerging hybrid technology combining the high spatial resolution of ultrasound in deep tissue with the rich optical contrasts. In this study, a dual-contrast photoacoustic tomography is applied to detect the early dental lesions. One contrast, named B-mode, is related to the optical absorption. It is good at providing the sharp image about the morphological and macro-structural features of the teeth. Another contrast, named S-mode, is associated with the micro-structural and mechanical properties of the hard tissue. It is sensitive to the change of tissue properties induced by the early dental lesions. Experiments show that the comprehensive analysis of dual-contrast information can provide reliable information of the early dental lesions. Moreover, the imaging parameter of S-mode is device-independent and it could measure tissue properties quantitatively. We expect that the proposed scheme could be beneficial for improving safety, accuracy and sensitivity of the clinical diagnosis of the dental lesion. PMID:26902394

  17. A simple brain atrophy measure improves the prediction of malignant middle cerebral artery infarction by acute DWI lesion volume.

    PubMed

    Beck, Christoph; Kruetzelmann, Anna; Forkert, Nils D; Juettler, Eric; Singer, Oliver C; Köhrmann, Martin; Kersten, Jan F; Sobesky, Jan; Gerloff, Christian; Fiehler, Jens; Schellinger, Peter D; Röther, Joachim; Thomalla, Götz

    2014-06-01

    In patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMI) decompressive surgery within 48 h improves functional outcome. In this respect, early identification of patients at risk of developing MMI is crucial. While the acute diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) lesion volume was found to predict MMI with high predictive values, the potential impact of preexisting brain atrophy on the course of space-occupying middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction and the development of MMI remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the combination of the acute DWI lesion volume with simple measures of brain atrophy improves the early prediction of MMI. Data from a prospective, multicenter, observational study, which included patients with acute middle cerebral artery main stem occlusion studied by MRI within 6 h of symptom onset, was analyzed retrospectively. The development of MMI was defined according to the European randomized controlled trials of decompressive surgery. Acute DWI lesion volume, as well as brain and cerebrospinal fluid volume (CSF) were delineated. The intercaudate distance (ICD) was assessed as a linear brain atrophy marker by measuring the hemi-ICD of the intact hemisphere to account for local brain swelling. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify significant predictors of MMI. Cut-off values were determined by Classification and Regression Trees analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the resulting models were calculated. Twenty-one (18 %) of 116 patients developed a MMI. Malignant middle cerebral artery infarctions patients had higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores on admission and presented more often with combined occlusion of the internal carotid artery and MCA. There were no differences in brain and CSF volume between the two groups. Diffusion weighted imaging lesion volume was larger (p < 0.001), while hemi-ICD was smaller (p = 0.029) in

  18. Plasma Cholesterol–Induced Lesion Networks Activated before Regression of Early, Mature, and Advanced Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Björkegren, Johan L. M.; Hägg, Sara; Jain, Rajeev K.; Cedergren, Cecilia; Shang, Ming-Mei; Rossignoli, Aránzazu; Takolander, Rabbe; Melander, Olle; Hamsten, Anders; Michoel, Tom; Skogsberg, Josefin

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cholesterol lowering (PCL) slows and sometimes prevents progression of atherosclerosis and may even lead to regression. Little is known about how molecular processes in the atherosclerotic arterial wall respond to PCL and modify responses to atherosclerosis regression. We studied atherosclerosis regression and global gene expression responses to PCL (≥80%) and to atherosclerosis regression itself in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In atherosclerotic aortic wall from Ldlr−/−Apob 100/100 Mttp flox/floxMx1-Cre mice, atherosclerosis regressed after PCL regardless of lesion stage. However, near-complete regression was observed only in mice with early lesions; mice with mature and advanced lesions were left with regression-resistant, relatively unstable plaque remnants. Atherosclerosis genes responding to PCL before regression, unlike those responding to the regression itself, were enriched in inherited risk for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, indicating causality. Inference of transcription factor (TF) regulatory networks of these PCL-responsive gene sets revealed largely different networks in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In early lesions, PPARG was identified as a specific master regulator of the PCL-responsive atherosclerosis TF-regulatory network, whereas in mature and advanced lesions, the specific master regulators were MLL5 and SRSF10/XRN2, respectively. In a THP-1 foam cell model of atherosclerosis regression, siRNA targeting of these master regulators activated the time-point-specific TF-regulatory networks and altered the accumulation of cholesterol esters. We conclude that PCL leads to complete atherosclerosis regression only in mice with early lesions. Identified master regulators and related PCL-responsive TF-regulatory networks will be interesting targets to enhance PCL-mediated regression of mature and advanced atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24586211

  19. Plasma cholesterol-induced lesion networks activated before regression of early, mature, and advanced atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Björkegren, Johan L M; Hägg, Sara; Talukdar, Husain A; Foroughi Asl, Hassan; Jain, Rajeev K; Cedergren, Cecilia; Shang, Ming-Mei; Rossignoli, Aránzazu; Takolander, Rabbe; Melander, Olle; Hamsten, Anders; Michoel, Tom; Skogsberg, Josefin

    2014-02-01

    Plasma cholesterol lowering (PCL) slows and sometimes prevents progression of atherosclerosis and may even lead to regression. Little is known about how molecular processes in the atherosclerotic arterial wall respond to PCL and modify responses to atherosclerosis regression. We studied atherosclerosis regression and global gene expression responses to PCL (≥80%) and to atherosclerosis regression itself in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In atherosclerotic aortic wall from Ldlr(-/-)Apob (100/100) Mttp (flox/flox)Mx1-Cre mice, atherosclerosis regressed after PCL regardless of lesion stage. However, near-complete regression was observed only in mice with early lesions; mice with mature and advanced lesions were left with regression-resistant, relatively unstable plaque remnants. Atherosclerosis genes responding to PCL before regression, unlike those responding to the regression itself, were enriched in inherited risk for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, indicating causality. Inference of transcription factor (TF) regulatory networks of these PCL-responsive gene sets revealed largely different networks in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In early lesions, PPARG was identified as a specific master regulator of the PCL-responsive atherosclerosis TF-regulatory network, whereas in mature and advanced lesions, the specific master regulators were MLL5 and SRSF10/XRN2, respectively. In a THP-1 foam cell model of atherosclerosis regression, siRNA targeting of these master regulators activated the time-point-specific TF-regulatory networks and altered the accumulation of cholesterol esters. We conclude that PCL leads to complete atherosclerosis regression only in mice with early lesions. Identified master regulators and related PCL-responsive TF-regulatory networks will be interesting targets to enhance PCL-mediated regression of mature and advanced atherosclerotic lesions.

  20. Targeting Premalignant Lesions: Implications for Early Breast Cancer Detection and Intervention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    characterized by distinct phenotypic changes that occur in the mammary gland . We proposed to utilize this animal model to probe early stage...of the matrix in the mammary glands containing the early cancer lesions. On further analysis, we determined that CSG peptide co-localizes with

  1. Behavior and progression of early carious lesions in early childhood: a 1-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Parisotto, Thaís Manzano; Santos, Marinês Nobre dos; Rodrigues, Lidiany Karla Azevedo; Costa, Luciana Scarlazzari

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this 1-year follow-up study was to evaluate the behavior/progression of early carious lesions (active noncavitated carious lesions) by surface and type of tooth in early childhood. A total of 179 3-and 4-year-old preschoolers took part in this study. Clinical examinations were conducted by a calibrated examiner using a mirror, ball-ended probe, gauze for cleaning and drying of teeth, and artificial light. The World Health Organization criteria, with an added measurement of early carious lesions (ECLs), were employed for the caries examinations. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used in the statistical analysis. After a 1-year follow-up, the study population developed 1.60 ± 1.64 new carious lesions. Children with caries activity at baseline showed much higher risks of developing new lesions than caries-free children (odds ratio=17.3 for ECL development, OR=24.5 for cavitations/fillings). Most ECLs remained active/unchanged after 1 year, whereas approximately 36% were arrested. Approximately 10% of the ECLs became cavitated, were filled, or were missing due to caries at follow-up. ECLs turned into cavities or fillings more frequently in the posterior region. This study's findings support the conservative management of ECLs since, after 1 year, the majority of lesions were active/unchanged or were arrested on the smooth surfaces of primary teeth.

  2. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, with particular emphasis on early lesions.

    PubMed

    Di Palma, Silvana

    2013-07-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is a broad category of carcinomas of the salivary glands which includes at least 2 clinically relevant categories; one is referred here as early CXPA (ECXPA), the other as widely invasive CXPA. The former includes several histological patterns ranging from non-invasive/in situ/intraductal/intratubular, early invasive/extratubular/intracapsular and extracapsular (up to 6 mm). The latter includes any CXPA with invasion of >6 mm. The clinical behaviour of ECXPA is not aggressive and tends to overlap that of a pleomorphic adenoma (PA) which makes the histological report of carcinoma contradictory. These early malignant changes in PA are known since the 1970s but it has been the use of immunohistochemical and molecular genetic analysis for HER-2 and TP53 gene in the last decade that has clarified the genuine malignant nature of the cells. HER-2 and TP53 gene and protein are involved in the early stages of malignant transformation of PA. Moreover the immunohistochemical over-expression HER-2, p53 protein and Mib-1 proliferation marker may be useful markers to identify malignant areas in PA.

  3. [CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF BIOMARKERS OF OSTEOCHONDRAL LESIONS IN EARLY RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS].

    PubMed

    Rekalov, D

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the research was to study biomarkers of osteochondral lesions on early stages of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The data showed the prognostic value of indicators of the erosive and destructive changes of joints in early and in the advanced stage of RA. Indicators that determine how directly, inflammatory process activity and markers associated with the speed and staging damage of articular surfaces is analyzed. That can adequately justify individualized clinical strategy in patients with early RA.

  4. Ten problems and solutions when predicting individual outcome from lesion site after stroke.

    PubMed

    Price, Cathy J; Hope, Thomas M; Seghier, Mohamed L

    2017-01-15

    In this paper, we consider solutions to ten of the challenges faced when trying to predict an individual's functional outcome after stroke on the basis of lesion site. A primary goal is to find lesion-outcome associations that are consistently observed in large populations of stroke patients because consistent associations maximise confidence in future individualised predictions. To understand and control multiple sources of inter-patient variability, we need to systematically investigate each contributing factor and how each factor depends on other factors. This requires very large cohorts of patients, who differ from one another in typical and measurable ways, including lesion site, lesion size, functional outcome and time post stroke (weeks to decades). These multivariate investigations are complex, particularly when the contributions of different variables interact with one another. Machine learning algorithms can help to identify the most influential variables and indicate dependencies between different factors. Multivariate lesion analyses are needed to understand how the effect of damage to one brain region depends on damage or preservation in other brain regions. Such data-led investigations can reveal predictive relationships between lesion site and outcome. However, to understand and improve the predictions we need explanatory models of the neural networks and degenerate pathways that support functions of interest. This will entail integrating the results of lesion analyses with those from functional imaging (fMRI, MEG), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and diffusor tensor imaging (DTI) studies of healthy participants and patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Early Results of Retrograde Transpopliteal Angioplasty of Iliofemoral Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Saumitra; Gibson, Matthew; Magee, Timothy R.; Galland, Robert B.; Torrie, E. Peter H.

    2001-12-15

    Purpose: To assess whether the retrograde transpopliteal approach is a safe, practical and effective alternative to femoral puncture for percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA).Methods: Forty PTAs in 38 patients were evaluated. Intentional subintimal recanalization was performed in 13 limbs. Ultrasound evaluation of the popliteal fossa was carried out 30 min and 24 hr post procedurally in the first 10 patients to exclude local complications. All patients had a follow-up of at least 6 weeks.Results: The indication for PTA was critical ischemia in seven limbs and disabling claudication in the remainder.Stenoses (single or multiple) were present in 24 and occlusion in 15.The superficial femoral artery (SFA) was the commonest segment affected(36) followed by common femoral artery (CFA) in four and iliac artery in four. Technical success was achieved in 38 of 39 limbs where angioplasty was carried out. In one limb no lesion was found.Immediate complications were distal embolization in two and thrombosis in one. None of these required immediate surgery. There were no puncture site hematomas or popliteal arteriovenous fistulae.Symptomatic patency at 6 weeks was 85%. Further reconstructive surgery was required in three limbs and amputation in two.Conclusion: The transpopliteal approach has a high technical success rate and a low complication rate with a potential to develop into an outpatient procedure. It should be considered for flush SFA occulsions or iliac disease with tandem CFA/SFA disease where the contralateral femoral approach is often technically difficult.

  6. Glossitis with linear lesions: an early sign of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Graells, Jordi; Ojeda, Rosa Maria; Muniesa, Cristina; Gonzalez, Jesus; Saavedra, Jose

    2009-03-01

    The classic oral manifestations of vitamin B(12) deficiency are considered nonspecific. We describe 4 patients with oral linear lesions associated with vitamin B(12) deficiency. Patients were free of neurologic symptoms and anemia at diagnosis. We believe that glossitis with linear lesions is an early clinical sign of vitamin B(12) deficiency. We recommend the determination of vitamin B(12) in such patients, even in the absence of anemia.

  7. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545

  8. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  9. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma - precursor lesions and early diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Antonio Barros; Fagundes, Renato Borges

    2012-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SCCE) carries a poor prognosis due to late diagnosis. Early detection is highly desirable, since surgical and endoscopic resection offers the only possible cure for esophageal cancer. Population screening should be undertaken in high risk areas, and in low or moderate risk areas for people with risk factors (alcoholics, smokers, mate drinkers, history of head and neck cancer, achalasia and lye stricture of the esophagus). Esophageal balloon cytology is an easy and inexpensive sampling technique, but the current methods are insufficient for primary screening due to sampling errors. Conventional endoscopy with biopsy remains the standard procedure for the identification of pre-malignant and early malignant changes in esophageal mucosa and endoscopic detection. It may be enhanced by several techniques such as dye and optic chromoendoscopy, magnifying endoscopy, and optical-based spectroscopic and imaging modalities. Since more than 80% of SCCE deaths occur in developing countries, where expensive techniques such as narrow band imaging (NBI) and autofluorescence imaging are unavailable, the most cost-effective tool for targeting biopsies may be Lugol dye chromoendoscopy, since it is easy, accurate, inexpensive and available worldwide. In ideal conditions, or in developed countries, is it reasonable to think that optimal detection will require a combination of techniques, such as the combination of Lugol’s chromoendoscopy and NBI to identify esophageal areas that require further characterization by a high resolution technique. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness will determine whether these modalities will become part of standard endoscopy practice. PMID:22267978

  10. Behavioral and cognitive changes after early postnatal lesions of the rat mediodorsal thalamus.

    PubMed

    Ouhaz, Zakaria; Ba-M'hamed, Saadia; Mitchell, Anna S; Elidrissi, Abdeslem; Bennis, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    Early insults to the thalamus result in functional and/or structural abnormalities in the cerebral cortex. However, differences in behavioral and cognitive changes after early insult are not well characterized. The present study assessed whether early postnatal damage to mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD), reciprocally interconnected with the prefrontal cortex, causes behavioral and cognitive alterations in young adult rats. Rat pups at postnatal day 4 received bilateral electrolytic lesion of MD, or a MD Sham lesion or were anesthetized controls; on recovery they were returned to their mothers until weaning. Seven weeks later, all rats were tested with the following behavioral and cognitive paradigms: T-maze test, open field test, actimetry, elevated plus maze test, social interactions test and passive avoidance test. Rats with bilateral MD damage presented with disrupted recognition memory, deficits in shifting response rules, significant hypoactivity, increased anxiety-like behavior, deficits in learning associations as well as decreased locomotor activity, and reduced social interactions compared to MD Sham lesion and anesthetized Control rats. The lesion also caused significant decreases in pyramidal cell density in three frontal cortex regions: medial infralimbic cortex, dorsolateral anterior cortex, and cingulate Cg1 cortex. The present findings suggest a functional role for MD in the postnatal maturation of affective behavior. Further some of the behavioral and cognitive alterations observed in these young adult rats after early MD lesion are reminiscent of those present in major psycho-affective disorders, such as schizophrenia in humans.

  11. Computer-aided detection of early neoplastic lesions in Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Svitlana; Curvers, Wouter L; Bisschops, Raf; Pech, Oliver; Weusten, Bas L A M; Bergman, Jacques J G H M; de With, Peter H N; Schoon, Erik J

    2016-07-01

    Early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus is difficult to detect and often overlooked during Barrett's surveillance. An automatic detection system could be beneficial, by assisting endoscopists with detection of early neoplastic lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a computer system to detect early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus. Based on 100 images from 44 patients with Barrett's esophagus, a computer algorithm, which employed specific texture, color filters, and machine learning, was developed for the detection of early neoplastic lesions in Barrett's esophagus. The evaluation by one endoscopist, who extensively imaged and endoscopically removed all early neoplastic lesions and was not blinded to the histological outcome, was considered the gold standard. For external validation, four international experts in Barrett's neoplasia, who were blinded to the pathology results, reviewed all images. The system identified early neoplastic lesions on a per-image analysis with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.83. At the patient level, the system achieved a sensitivity and specificity of 0.86 and 0.87, respectively. A trade-off between the two performance metrics could be made by varying the percentage of training samples that showed neoplastic tissue. The automated computer algorithm developed in this study was able to identify early neoplastic lesions with reasonable accuracy, suggesting that automated detection of early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus is feasible. Further research is required to improve the accuracy of the system and prepare it for real-time operation, before it can be applied in clinical practice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Validity of Acute Stroke Lesion Volume Estimation by Diffusion-Weighted Imaging–Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomographic Score Depends on Lesion Location in 496 Patients With Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Julian; Cheng, Bastian; Ebinger, Martin; Köhrmann, Martin; Wu, Ona; Kang, Dong-Wha; Liebeskind, David S.; Tourdias, Thomas; Singer, Oliver C.; Christensen, Soren; Campbell, Bruce; Luby, Marie; Warach, Steven; Fiehler, Jens; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomographic Score (ASPECTS) has been used to estimate diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesion volume in acute stroke. We aimed to assess correlations of DWI-ASPECTS with lesion volume in different middle cerebral artery (MCA) subregions and reproduce existing ASPECTS thresholds of a malignant profile defined by lesion volume ≥100 mL. Methods We analyzed data of patients with MCA stroke from a prospective observational study of DWI and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery in acute stroke. DWI-ASPECTS and lesion volume were calculated. The population was divided into subgroups based on lesion localization (superficial MCA territory, deep MCA territory, or both). Correlation of ASPECTS and infarct volume was calculated, and receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis was performed to identify the optimal ASPECTS threshold for ≥100-mL lesion volume. Results A total of 496 patients were included. There was a significant negative correlation between ASPECTS and DWI lesion volume (r=−0.78; P<0.0001). With regards to lesion localization, correlation was weaker in deep MCA region (r=−0.19; P=0.038) when compared with superficial (r=−0.72; P<0.001) or combined superficial and deep MCA lesions (r=−0.72; P<0.001). Receiver-operating characteristics analysis revealed ASPECTS≤6 as best cutoff to identify ≥100-mL DWI lesion volume; however, positive predictive value was low (0.35). Conclusions ASPECTS has limitations when lesion location is not considered. Identification of patients with malignant profile by DWI-ASPECTS may be unreliable. ASPECTS may be a useful tool for the evaluation of noncontrast computed tomography. However, if MRI is used, ASPECTS seems dispensable because lesion volume can easily be quantified on DWI maps. PMID:25316278

  13. Validity of acute stroke lesion volume estimation by diffusion-weighted imaging-Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomographic Score depends on lesion location in 496 patients with middle cerebral artery stroke.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Julian; Cheng, Bastian; Ebinger, Martin; Köhrmann, Martin; Wu, Ona; Kang, Dong-Wha; Liebeskind, David S; Tourdias, Thomas; Singer, Oliver C; Christensen, Soren; Campbell, Bruce; Luby, Marie; Warach, Steven; Fiehler, Jens; Fiebach, Jochen B; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz

    2014-12-01

    Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomographic Score (ASPECTS) has been used to estimate diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesion volume in acute stroke. We aimed to assess correlations of DWI-ASPECTS with lesion volume in different middle cerebral artery (MCA) subregions and reproduce existing ASPECTS thresholds of a malignant profile defined by lesion volume ≥100 mL. We analyzed data of patients with MCA stroke from a prospective observational study of DWI and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery in acute stroke. DWI-ASPECTS and lesion volume were calculated. The population was divided into subgroups based on lesion localization (superficial MCA territory, deep MCA territory, or both). Correlation of ASPECTS and infarct volume was calculated, and receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis was performed to identify the optimal ASPECTS threshold for ≥100-mL lesion volume. A total of 496 patients were included. There was a significant negative correlation between ASPECTS and DWI lesion volume (r=-0.78; P<0.0001). With regards to lesion localization, correlation was weaker in deep MCA region (r=-0.19; P=0.038) when compared with superficial (r=-0.72; P<0.001) or combined superficial and deep MCA lesions (r=-0.72; P<0.001). Receiver-operating characteristics analysis revealed ASPECTS≤6 as best cutoff to identify ≥100-mL DWI lesion volume; however, positive predictive value was low (0.35). ASPECTS has limitations when lesion location is not considered. Identification of patients with malignant profile by DWI-ASPECTS may be unreliable. ASPECTS may be a useful tool for the evaluation of noncontrast computed tomography. However, if MRI is used, ASPECTS seems dispensable because lesion volume can easily be quantified on DWI maps. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. [Cutaneous lesion associated with multiple endocrine neoplasms type 2A (Sipple's syndrome). An early clinical marker].

    PubMed

    Chabre, O; Labat-Moleur, F; Berthod, F; Tarel, V; Stoebner, P; Sobol, H; Bachelot, I

    1992-02-22

    We report the association of a cutaneous lesion with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) in three patients from a French family. These lesions are very similar to those previously described in an Italian and an American MEN 2A family and called cutaneous lichen amyloidosis. In all three families the patients presented with a pruritic and pigmented cutaneous lesion localized unilaterally on the upper back. However, in the French family the patients also complained of paroxysmal pain in the same area, in which we could elicit a touch hypoesthesia and pain hyperesthesia. Such an association of cutaneous and neurological features in the upper back is known as Notalgia Paresthetica (NP). NP is believed to represent a neuropathy of the posterior dorsal nerve rami. Unlike the two previously reported families, the histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis of the skin biopsies of the French patients did not show any amyloid material. This suggests that the presence of amyloid may not be a constant feature of the cutaneous lesions associated with MEN 2A. We consider these lesions as a form of dorsal neuropathy rather than a cutaneous lichen amyloidosis. Whatever their origin, these cutaneous lesion usually precede the appearance of the neoplastic lesions of MEN 2A. They may act as an early clinical marker that must be searched for in each subject at risk for MEN 2A. In addition, all patients presenting with NP should be screened for MEN 2A.

  15. Predictable Locations Aid Early Object Name Learning

    PubMed Central

    Benitez, Viridiana L.; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy-based localized attention has been shown to promote the formation and retrieval of multisensory memories in adults. Three experiments show that these processes also characterize attention and learning in 16- to 18- month old infants and, moreover, that these processes may play a critical role in supporting early object name learning. The three experiments show that infants learn names for objects when those objects have predictable rather than varied locations, that infants who anticipate the location of named objects better learn those object names, and that infants integrate experiences that are separated in time but share a common location. Taken together, these results suggest that localized attention, cued attention, and spatial indexing are an inter-related set of processes in young children that aid in the early building of coherent object representations. The relevance of the experimental results and spatial attention for everyday word learning are discussed. PMID:22989872

  16. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and hyaluronic acid are sensitive serum biomarkers for early cartilage lesions in the knee joint.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Qiang; Wei, Lei; Chen, Chongwei; Li, Pengcui; Wang, Xiaohu; Li, Yongping; Guo, Li; Zhang, Congming; Wei, Xiaochun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between five previously established serum osteoarthritis biomarkers and the severity of cartilage lesions in the knee. Cartilage damage (classified according to the Outerbridge scoring system) and serum concentrations of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), collagen type II C-telopeptide (CTX-II), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), collagen type III N-propeptide, (PIIINP), and hyaluronic acid (HA) were determined in 79 patients who underwent knee arthroscopy or total knee replacement. HA and COMP concentrations were significantly higher in the Outerbridge score 1 and 2 groups, respectively. These results suggest that serum COMP and HA concentrations can be used to predict early cartilage lesions in the knee.

  17. Detection of early carious lesions using contrast enhancement with coherent light scattering (speckle imaging)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deana, A. M.; Jesus, S. H. C.; Koshoji, N. H.; Bussadori, S. K.; Oliveira, M. T.

    2013-07-01

    Currently, dental caries still represent one of the chronic diseases with the highest prevalence and present in most countries. The interaction between light and teeth (absorption, scattering and fluorescence) is intrinsically connected to the constitution of the dental tissue. Decay induced mineral loss introduces a shift in the optical properties of the affected tissue; therefore, study of these properties may produce novel techniques aimed at the early diagnosis of carious lesions. Based on the optical properties of the enamel, we demonstrate the application of first-order spatial statistics in laser speckle imaging, allowing the detection of carious lesions in their early stages. A highlight of this noninvasive, non-destructive, real time and cost effective approach is that it allows a dentist to detect a lesion even in the absence of biofilm or moisture.

  18. Targeting Premalignant Lesions: Implications for Early Breast Cancer Detection and Intervention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0032 TITLE: Targeting Premalignant Lesions: Implications for Early Breast Cancer Detection and Intervention...ABSTRACT Breast cancer progression constitutes a multistep process through a series of intermediate hyperplastic and neoplastic stages to invasive...Considerable numbers of CAFs are frequently observed within the tumor- associated stroma of various human cancers , including those of the breast

  19. Functional Topography of Early Periventricular Brain Lesions in Relation to Cytoarchitectonic Probabilistic Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staudt, Martin; Ticini, Luca F.; Grodd, Wolfgang; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2008-01-01

    Early periventricular brain lesions can not only cause cerebral palsy, but can also induce a reorganization of language. Here, we asked whether these different functional consequences can be attributed to topographically distinct portions of the periventricular white matter damage. Eight patients with pre- and perinatally acquired left-sided…

  20. Functional Topography of Early Periventricular Brain Lesions in Relation to Cytoarchitectonic Probabilistic Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staudt, Martin; Ticini, Luca F.; Grodd, Wolfgang; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2008-01-01

    Early periventricular brain lesions can not only cause cerebral palsy, but can also induce a reorganization of language. Here, we asked whether these different functional consequences can be attributed to topographically distinct portions of the periventricular white matter damage. Eight patients with pre- and perinatally acquired left-sided…

  1. Lesion stability characteristics outperform degree of stenosis in predicting outcomes following stenting for symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Alexander, M D; Cooke, D L; Meyers, P M; Amans, M R; Dowd, C F; Halbach, V V; Higashida, R T; Hetts, S W

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Treatment decisions have most commonly been driven by the degree of luminal stenosis. This study compares ICAD lesion stability features with percentage stenosis for associations with adverse outcomes following treatment with stents. Retrospective analysis was performed of prospectively maintained procedure logs. Lesions were classified by symptom type as hypoperfusion, non-hypoperfusion, or indeterminate, and pretreatment asymptomatic intervals were noted. Hypoperfusion lesions and indeterminate or non-hypoperfusion lesions with ≥14 days of asymptomatic interval were classified as stable. Percentage stenosis was calculated and compared against these other symptom features for value in predicting technical complication, ischemic stroke, disability, or death at 90 days and 2 years using univariate and multivariate analysis. 130 lesions were treated in 124 patients. The only statistically significant percent stenosis finding was lesions with 60-99% stenosis were less likely to have technical complications. In univariate analysis, stroke at 2 years was less common with hypoperfusion and stable lesions. In multivariate analysis, only hypoperfusion status was associated with lower stroke rates at 2 years. Lesion stability features, particularly non-hypoperfusion symptomatology, outperform percentage stenosis in predicting outcomes following treatment of ICAD with stents. Further examination is needed to better classify the natural history of ICAD and more precisely classify lesion stability. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Early Warning and Prediction of Interest Attacks and Exploits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    EARLY WARNING AND PREDICTION OF INTERNET ATTACKS AND EXPLOITS THESIS Brian P. Zeitz... EARLY WARNING AND PREDICTION OF INTERNET ATTACKS AND EXPLOITS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer...RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED iv AFIT/GIA/ENG/05-06 EARLY WARNING AND PREDICTION OF INTERNET ATTACKS AND EXPLOITS

  3. Identification of early cancerous lesion of esophagus with endoscopic images by hyperspectral image technique (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Shih-Hua; Chen, Weichung; Wu, I.-Chen; Wu, Ming Tsang; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a method to identify early esophageal cancer within endoscope using hyperspectral imaging technology. The research samples are three kinds of endoscopic images including white light endoscopic, chromoendoscopic, and narrow-band endoscopic images with different stages of pathological changes (normal, dysplasia, dysplasia - esophageal cancer, and esophageal cancer). Research is divided into two parts: first, we analysis the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images with different stages to know the spectral responses by pathological changes. Second, we identified early cancerous lesion of esophagus by principal component analysis (PCA) of the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images. The results of this study show that the identification of early cancerous lesion is possible achieve from three kinds of images. In which the spectral characteristics of NBI endoscopy images of a gray area than those without the existence of the problem the first two, and the trend is very clear. Therefore, if simply to reflect differences in the degree of spectral identification, chromoendoscopic images are suitable samples. The best identification of early esophageal cancer is using the NBI endoscopic images. Based on the results, the use of hyperspectral imaging technology in the early endoscopic esophageal cancer lesion image recognition helps clinicians quickly diagnose. We hope for the future to have a relatively large amount of endoscopic image by establishing a hyperspectral imaging database system developed in this study, so the clinician can take this repository more efficiently preliminary diagnosis.

  4. Diverging lesion and connectivity patterns influence early and late swallowing recovery after hemispheric stroke.

    PubMed

    Galovic, Marian; Leisi, Natascha; Pastore-Wapp, Manuela; Zbinden, Martin; Vos, Sjoerd B; Mueller, Marlise; Weber, Johannes; Brugger, Florian; Kägi, Georg; Weder, Bruno J

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge about the recovery of oral intake after hemispheric stroke is important to guide therapeutic decisions, including the administration of enteral tube feeding and the choice of the appropriate feeding route. They aimed to determine the localization and connectivity of lesions in impaired recovery versus recovered swallowing after initially dysphagic stroke. Sixty-two acute ischemic hemispheric stroke patients with impaired oral intake were included in a prospective observational cohort study. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and probabilistic tractography were used to determine the association of lesion location and connectivity with impaired recovery of oral intake ≥7 days (indication for early tube feeding) and ≥4 weeks (indication for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding) after stroke. Two distinct patterns influencing recovery of swallowing were recognized. Firstly, impaired recovery of oral intake after ≥7 days was significantly associated with lesions of the superior corona radiata (65% of statistical map, P < 0.05). The affected fibers were connected with the thalamus, primary motor, and supplemental motor areas and the basal ganglia. Secondly, impaired recovery of oral intake after ≥4 weeks significantly correlated with lesions of the anterior insula (54% of statistical map, P < 0.05), which was connected to adjacent operculo-insular areas of deglutition. These findings indicate that early swallowing recovery is influenced by white matter lesions disrupting thalamic and corticobulbar projection fibers. Late recovery is determined by specific cortical lesions affecting association fibers. This knowledge may help clinicians to identify patients at risk of prolonged swallowing problems that would benefit from enteral tube feeding. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2165-2176, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Early serum biomarker networks in infants with distinct retinochoroidal lesion status of congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Thádia Evelyn; Coelho-Dos-Reis, Jordana Grazziela; Béla, Samantha Ribeiro; Carneiro, Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos; Machado, Anderson Silva; Cardoso, Ludmila Melo; Ribeiro, Ágata Lopes; Dias, Michelle Hallais França; Queiroz Andrade, Gláucia Manzan; Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Januário, José Nélio; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Vitor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida; Ferro, Eloisa Amália Vieira; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2017-07-01

    The present study characterized the early changes in the serum chemokines/cytokine signatures and networks in infants with congenital-toxoplasmosis/(TOXO) as compared to non-infected-controls/(NI). TOXO were subgrouped according to the retinochoroidal lesion status as no-lesion/(NL), active-lesion/(ARL), active/cicatricial-lesion/(ACRL) and cicatricial-lesion/(CRL). The results showed that TOXO display prominent chemokine production mediated by IL-8/CXCL8, MIG/CXCL9, IP-10/CXCL10 and RANTES/CCL5. Additionally, TOXO is accompanied by mixed proinflammatory/regulatory cytokine pattern mediated by IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10. While TNF appears as a putative biomarker for NL and IFN-γ/IL-5 as immunological features for ARL, IL-10 emerges as a relevant mediator in ACRL/CRL. IL-8/CXCL8 and IP-10/CXCL10 are broad-spectrum indicators of ocular disease, whereas TNF is a NL biomarker, IFN-γ and MIG/CXCL9 point out to ARL; and IL-10 is highlighted as a genuine serum biomarker of ACRL/CRL. The network analysis demonstrated a broad chemokine/cytokine crosstalk with divergences in the molecular signatures in patients with different ocular lesions during congenital toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Automated detection of dark and bright lesions in retinal images for early detection of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Akram, Usman M; Khan, Shoab A

    2012-10-01

    There is an ever-increasing interest in the development of automatic medical diagnosis systems due to the advancement in computing technology and also to improve the service by medical community. The knowledge about health and disease is required for reliable and accurate medical diagnosis. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common causes of blindness and it can be prevented if detected and treated early. DR has different signs and the most distinctive are microaneurysm and haemorrhage which are dark lesions and hard exudates and cotton wool spots which are bright lesions. Location and structure of blood vessels and optic disk play important role in accurate detection and classification of dark and bright lesions for early detection of DR. In this article, we propose a computer aided system for the early detection of DR. The article presents algorithms for retinal image preprocessing, blood vessel enhancement and segmentation and optic disk localization and detection which eventually lead to detection of different DR lesions using proposed hybrid fuzzy classifier. The developed methods are tested on four different publicly available databases. The presented methods are compared with recently published methods and the results show that presented methods outperform all others.

  7. Brain lesion volume and neuropsychological function predict efficacy of treatment for depression in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mohr, David C; Epstein, Lucy; Luks, Tracy L; Goodkin, Donald; Cox, Darcy; Goldberg, Alison; Chin, Cynthia; Nelson, Sarah

    2003-12-01

    This study examined the effects of brain lesions and neuropsychological impairment on the efficacy of treatment for depression in patients with comorbid diagnoses of multiple sclerosis (MS) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Thirty patients meeting criteria for MS and MDD received 1 of 3 16-week treatments for depression and were followed for 6 months following treatment cessation. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological evaluations were also obtained. End-of-treatment Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; A. T. Beck, C. H. Ward, M. Mendelson, J. Mock, & J. Erbaugh, 1961) results residualized for baseline BDI were related to right temporal periventricular lesion volume (R2=.32, p=.002) and left temporal grey-white junction lesion volume (R2=.19, p=.02) but were not statistically related to lesion volume in any other brain region or to neuropsychological function. BDI results at 6-month follow-up, residualized for end-of-treatment BDI, were predicted by total lesion volume (R2=.22, p=.005), lesion volume in many discrete areas, and neuropsychological functioning (R2=.29, p=.0009). The effect of total lesion volume on 6-month follow-up BDI results was fully mediated by neuropsychological function. (c) 2003 APA

  8. Within-lesion differences in quantitative MRI parameters predict contrast enhancement in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jurcoane, Alina; Wagner, Marlies; Schmidt, Christoph; Mayer, Christoph; Gracien, Rene-Maxime; Hirschmann, Marc; Deichmann, Ralf; Volz, Steffen; Ziemann, Ulf; Hattingen, Elke

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) and contrast enhancement in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. We compared maps of T1 relaxation time, proton density (PD), and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) between lesions with and without contrast enhancement as quantified by the amount of T1 shortening postcontrast agent (CA). In 17 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 15 with progressive MS (PMS), and 17 healthy controls, T1, PD, and MTR were measured at 3T and T1-mapping was repeated after CA administration. Manually drawn MS-lesions (3D-FLAIR) were labeled as enhancing if post-CA T1-shortening exceeded mean T1-shortening in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) by at least 2 standard deviations. Precontrast T1, PD, and MTR were compared in enhancing lesions, nonenhancing lesions, NAWM, and gray matter. Precontrast T1, PD, and MTR differed significantly between enhancing and nonenhancing lesions in RRMS and PMS patients (all P < 0.01). In PMS patients, PD of NAWM, enhancing, and nonenhancing lesions and MTR and T1 of gray matter differed significantly from RRMS and controls. Only MTR of gray matter differed between RRMS and controls. Contrast enhancement in MS quantified by relative T1 shortening may be predicted by precontrast abnormalities of T1, PD, and MTR and likely represents blood-brain barrier damage. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Early menopause predicts angina after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Parashar, Susmita; Reid, Kimberly J.; Spertus, John A.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Vaccarino, Viola

    2011-01-01

    Objective Population studies have shown that age at menopause (AAM) predicts coronary heart disease. It is unknown, however, whether early menopause predicts post–myocardial infarction (MI) angina. We examined whether younger AAM increases risk of post-MI angina. Methods In a prospective multicenter MI registry, 493 postmenopausal women were enrolled (mean ± SD age, 65.4 ± 11.3 y, and mean ± SD AAM, 45.2 ± 7.8 y). We categorized AAM into 40 years or younger, 41 to 49 years, and 50 years or older. In the multivariable analysis, we examined whether AAM predicted 1-year post-MI angina and severity of angina after adjusting for angina before MI, demographics, comorbidities, MI severity, and quality of care (QOC). Results Women with early AAM (≤40 y; n = 132, 26.8%) were younger and more often smokers but were as likely to have comorbidities as were women with an AAM of 50 years or older. Although there were no differences in pre-MI angina, MI severity, obstructive coronary disease, and QOC based on AAM, the rate of 1-year angina was higher in women with an AAM of 40 years or younger (32.4%) than in women with an AAM of 50 years or older (12.2%). In the multivariable analysis, women with an AAM of 40 years or younger had more than twice the risk of angina (relative risk, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.38–3.17) and a higher severity of angina (odds ratio, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.34–5.22 for a higher severity level) compared with women with an AAM of 50 years or older. Conclusions Women with early menopause are at higher risk of angina after MI, independent of comorbidities, severity of MI, and QOC. The use of a simple question regarding AAM may help in the identification of women who need closer follow-up, careful evaluation, and intervention to improve their symptoms and quality of life after MI. PMID:20651619

  10. Thermophotonic lock-in imaging of early demineralized and carious lesions in human teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, Nima; Mandelis, Andreas; Amaechi, Bennett Tochukwu

    2011-07-01

    As an extension of frequency-domain photothermal radiometry, a novel dental-imaging modality, thermophotonic lock-in imaging (TPLI), is introduced. This methodology uses photothermal wave principles and is capable of detecting early carious lesions and cracks on occlusal and approximal surfaces as well as early caries induced by artificial demineralizing solutions. The increased light scattering and absorption within early carious lesions increases the thermal-wave amplitude and shifts the thermal-wave centroid, producing contrast between the carious lesion and the intact enamel in both amplitude and phase images. Samples with artificial and natural occlusal and approximal caries were examined in this study. Thermophotonic effective detection depth is controlled by the modulation frequency according to the well-known concept of thermal diffusion length. TPLI phase images are emissivity normalized and therefore insensitive to the presence of stains. Amplitude images, on the other hand, provide integrated information from deeper enamel regions. It is concluded that the results of our noninvasive, noncontacting imaging methodology exhibit higher sensitivity to very early demineralization than dental radiographs and are in agreement with the destructive transverse microradiography mineral density profiles.

  11. Serum Amyloid A Facilitates Early Lesion Development in Ldlr−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Krishack, Paulette A; Bhanvadia, Clarissa V; Lukens, John; Sontag, Timothy J; De Beer, Maria C; Getz, Godfrey S; Reardon, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder, and several studies have demonstrated a positive association between plasma serum amyloid A (SAA) levels and cardiovascular disease risk. The aim of the study was to examine whether SAA has a role in atherogenesis, the underlying basis of most cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results Mice globally deficient in acute-phase isoforms Saa1 and Saa2 (Saa−/−) were crossed to Ldlr−/− mice (Saa−/−Ldlr−/−). Saa−/−Ldlr−/− mice demonstrated a 31% reduction in lesional area in the ascending aorta but not in the aortic root or innominate artery after consuming a high-fat, high-cholesterol Western-type diet for 6 weeks. The lesions were predominantly macrophage foam cells. The phenotype was lost in more mature lesions in mice fed a Western-type diet for 12 weeks, suggesting that SAA is involved in early lesion development. The decreased atherosclerosis in the Saa−/−Ldlr−/− mice occurred despite increased levels of blood monocytes and was independent of plasma lipid levels. SAA is produced predominantly by hepatocytes and macrophages. To determine which source of SAA may have a dominant role in lesion development, bone marrow transplantation was performed. Ldlr−/− mice that received bone marrow from Saa−/−Ldlr−/− mice had slightly reduced ascending aorta atherosclerosis compared with Saa−/−Ldlr−/− mice receiving bone marrow from Ldlr−/− mice, indicating that the expression of SAA by macrophages may have an important influence on atherogenesis. Conclusions The results indicate that SAA produced by macrophages promotes early lesion formation in the ascending aorta. PMID:26187995

  12. Women With Early Menopause Have Higher Rates of Target Lesion Revascularization After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Zhijian; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Zhiming; Zhao, Yingxin; Shi, Dongmei; Liu, Yuyang; Liang, Jing; Yang, Lixia; Chai, Meng; Zhou, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    Early menopause has been found to be associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to investigate the impact of early menopause on clinical outcomes for women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We observed female patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing PCI and found that women with early menopause (≤46 years old) were more likely to have CAD risk factors and more severe coronary lesions. During the 18-month follow-up, early menopause was associated with similar risk of death and myocardial infarction but higher risk of target lesion revascularization (TLR; 7.8% vs 5.3%, P = .003) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs; 11.3% vs 9.0%, P = .007). After adjustment, early menopause was an independent risk factor for 18-month MACEs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.00) and TLR (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.21-2.13). In conclusion, for women undergoing PCI, early menopause is associated with higher risk of MACE, which is mainly driven by risk of TLR. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Expression of p53 in preneoplastic and early neoplastic bronchial lesions.

    PubMed

    Martin, B; Verdebout, J-M; Mascaux, C; Paesmans, M; Rouas, G; Verhest, A; Ninane, V; Sculier, J-P

    2002-01-01

    p53 alteration has been reported to be an early event in bronchial carcinogenesis. Our study purpose was to determine the rate of p53 expression in the various preneoplastic and early neoplastic bronchial lesions obtained by biopsy during fluorescence bronchoscopy and to analyse its association with patients characteristics. Various stages of preneoplastic lesions as well as radio-occult lung cancer were studied in biopsies obtained by fluorescence bronchoscopy. We assessed the expression of p53 by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibody clone DO7. The p53 expression was considered as positive if > or = 1% of cells were positive and the level of positivity was expressed in percentage of positive cells. Fourteen patients were included in each category of preneoplastic lesions. At the threshold of 1% of positive cells p53 expression was observed in 28.5% of the patients with a histologically normal epithelium. This number of positive patients increased with the severity of preneoplastic lesions and reached 100% in the mild dysplasia. The mean rates of p53 positive cells for normal epithelium, hyperplasia, metaplasia, mild and severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ and invasive radio-occult carcinoma were respectively 0.9, 3.4, 9.1, 20.5, 50.2, 34.7 and 42.5%. There was no statistically significant correlation between p53 expression and patient characteristics such as sex, age, smoking habits and indication for fluorescence bronchoscopy. The alteration of p53 expression in patients with high risk of lung cancer was an early event: this abnormality increased with the severity of the lesions, without significant correlation with patient characteristics.

  14. Decreased early atherosclerotic lesions in hypertriglyceridemic mice expressing cholesteryl ester transfer protein transgene.

    PubMed Central

    Hayek, T; Masucci-Magoulas, L; Jiang, X; Walsh, A; Rubin, E; Breslow, J L; Tall, A R

    1995-01-01

    The human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) facilitates the transfer of cholesteryl ester from HDL to triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The activity of CETP results in a reduction in HDL cholesterol levels, but CETP may also promote reverse cholesterol transport. Thus, the net impact of CETP expression on atherogenesis is uncertain. The influence of hypertriglyceridemia and CETP on the development of atherosclerotic lesions in the proximal aorta was assessed by feeding transgenic mice a high cholesterol diet for 16 wk. 13 out of 14 (93%) hypertriglyceridemic human apo CIII (HuCIII) transgenic (Tg) mice developed atherosclerotic lesions, compared to 18 out of 29 (62%) controls. In HuCIII/CETPTg, human apo AI/CIIITg and HuAI/CIII/CETPTg mice, 7 of 13 (54%), 5 of 10 (50%), and 5 of 13 (38%), respectively, developed lesions in the proximal aorta (P < .05 compared to HuCIIITg). The average number of aortic lesions per mouse in HuCIIITg and controls was 3.4 +/- 0.8 and 2.7 +/- 0.6, respectively in HuCIII/CETPTg, HuAI/CIIIg, and HuAI/CIII/CETPTg mice the number of lesions was significantly lower than in HuCIIITg and control mice: 0.9 +/- 0.4, 1.5 +/- 0.5, and 0.9 +/- 0.4, respectively. There were parallel reductions in mean lesion area. In a separate study, we found an increased susceptibility to dietary atherosclerosis in nonhypertriglyceridemic CETP transgenic mice compared to controls. We conclude that CETP expression inhibits the development of early atherosclerotic lesions but only in hypertriglyceridemic mice. PMID:7560101

  15. Can early effective anticoagulation prevent new lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in acute cardioembolic stroke?

    PubMed

    Nomura, Eiichi; Ohshita, Tomohiko; Imamura, Eiji; Wakabayashi, Shinichi; Kajikawa, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2014-09-01

    The timing of warfarin administration for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients with atrial fibrillation (Af) has not been established. We hypothesized that achieving targeted prothrombin time and international normalized ratio (PT-INR) at 2 weeks could prevent AIS patients with Af from developing a new lesion on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). Of consecutively enrolled AIS patients with Af between 2008 and 2011, we selected the patients who were given warfarin within 2 weeks of admission and had DW-MRI and blood test for PT-INR both on admission and at 2 weeks. Warfarin was started as early as possible and heparin was administered until the targeted PT-INR (2.0-3.0 for patients aged <70 years or 1.6-2.6 for those aged ≥70 years) was achieved. One hundred and twenty-three patients were selected, consisting of 88 patients without a new lesion and 35 patients with a new lesion. Patients with a new lesion had a significantly higher median score on National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (11.0 vs. 5.5, P = .0053), a lower rate of achieving targeted PT-INR at 2 weeks (25.7% vs. 48.9%, P = .0190), and a lower median dosage of warfarin at 2 weeks (2.0 mg vs. 2.5 mg, P = .0209) than patients without a new lesion. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that failure to achieve targeted PT-INR (P = .0298) was significantly associated with the occurrence of a new lesion. Our findings suggest that achieving targeted PT-INR at 2 weeks by using warfarin prevents new lesions in AIS patients with Af. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuroaxonal regeneration is more pronounced in early multiple sclerosis than in traumatic brain injury lesions.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Lucas; Merkler, Doron; König, Fatima B; Brück, Wolfgang; Stadelmann, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The extent of irreversible neuroaxonal damage is the key determinant of permanent disability in traumatic and inflammatory conditions of the central nervous system (CNS). Structural damage is nevertheless in part compensated by neuroplastic events. However, it is unknown whether the same kinetics and mechanisms of neuroaxonal de- and regeneration take place in inflammatory and traumatic conditions. We analyzed neuroaxonal degeneration and plasticity in early multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuroaxonal degeneration identified by the presence of SMI31+ chromatolytic neurons and SMI32+ axonal profiles were characteristic features of leukocortical TBI lesions. Axonal transport disturbances as determined by amyloid precursor protein (APP)+ spheroids were present in both TBI and MS lesions to a similar degree. Neurons expressing growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) and synaptophysin (Syn) were found under both pathological conditions. However, axonal swellings immunopositive for GAP43 and Syn clearly prevailed in subcortical MS lesions, suggesting a higher regenerative potential in MS. In this context, GAP43+/APP+ axonal spheroid ratios correlated with macrophage infiltration in TBI and MS lesions, supporting the idea that phagocyte activation might promote neuroplastic events. Furthermore, axonal GAP43+ and Syn+ swellings correlated with prolonged survival after TBI, indicating a sustained regenerative response.

  17. Orofacial hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: high power diode laser in early and advanced lesion treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempesta, Angela; Franco, Simonetta; Miccoli, Simona; Suppressa, Patrizia; De Falco, Vincenzo; Crincoli, Vito; Lacaita, Mariagrazia; Giuliani, Michele; Favia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) is a muco-cutaneous inherited disease. Symptoms are epistaxis, visceral arterio-venous malformations, multiple muco-cutaneous telangiectasia with the risk of number increasing enlargement, bleeding, and super-infection. The aim of this work is to show the dual Diode Laser efficacy in preventive treatment of Early Lesions (EL < 2mm) and therapeutic treatment of Advanced Lesions (AL < 2mm). 21 patients affected by HHT with 822 muco-cutaneous telangiectatic nodules have been treated in several sessions with local anaesthesia and cooling of treated sites. EL preventive treatment consists of single Laser impulse (fibre 320) in ultrapulsed mode (2 mm single point spot). AL therapeutic treatment consists of repeated Laser impulses in pulsed mode (on 200ms / off 400ms). According to the results, Diode Laser used in pulsed and ultra-pulsed mode is very effective as noninvasive treatment both in early and advanced oral and perioral telangiectasia.

  18. Oral precancerous lesions: Problems of early detection and oral cancer prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gileva, Olga S.; Libik, Tatiana V.; Danilov, Konstantin V.

    2016-08-01

    The study presents the results of the research in the structure, local and systemic risk factors, peculiarities of the clinical manifestation, and quality of primary diagnosis of precancerous oral mucosa lesions (OMLs). In the study a wide range of OMLs and high (25.4%) proportion of oral precancerous lesions (OPLs) in their structure was indicated. The high percentage of different diagnostic errors and the lack of oncological awareness of dental practitioners, as well as the sharp necessity of inclusion of precancer/cancer early detection techniques into their daily practice were noted. The effectiveness of chemilumenescence system of early OPLs and oral cancer detection was demonstrated, the prospects of infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool were also discussed.

  19. Clinical Use of CT Perfusion For Diagnosis and Prediction of Lesion Growth in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Huisa, Branko N; Neil, William P; Schrader, Ronald; Maya, Marcel; Pereira, Benedict; Bruce, Nhu T; Lyden, Patrick D

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose CT perfusion (CTP) mapping in research centers correlates well with diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) lesions and may accurately differentiate the infarct core from ischemic penumbra. The value of CTP in real-world clinical practice has not been fully established. We investigated the yield of CTP– derived cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transient time (MTT) for the detection of cerebral ischemia and ischemic penumbra in a sample of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Methods We studied 165 patients with initial clinical symptoms suggestive of AIS. All patients had an initial non-contrast head CT, CT Perfusion (CTP), CT angiogram (CTA) and follow up brain MRI. The obtained perfusion images were used for image processing. CBV, MTT and DWI lesion volumes were visually estimated and manually traced. Statistical analysis was done using R-2.14.and SAS 9.1. Results All normal DWI sequences had normal CBV and MTT studies (N=89). Seventy-three patients had acute DWI lesions. CBV was abnormal in 23.3% and MTT was abnormal in 42.5% of these patients. There was a high specificity (91.8%)but poor sensitivity (40.0%) for MTT maps predicting positive DWI. Spearman correlation was significant between MTT and DWI lesions (ρ=0.66, p>0.0001) only for abnormal MTT and DWI lesions>0cc. CBV lesions did not correlate with final DWI. Conclusions In real-world use, acute imaging with CTP did not predict stroke or DWI lesions with sufficient accuracy. Our findings argue against the use of CTP for screening AIS patients until real-world implementations match the accuracy reported from specialized research centers. PMID:23253533

  20. Predicted regional flux of hydrogen sulfide correlates with distribution of nasal olfactory lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Moulin, Frederic J-M; Brenneman, Karrie A; Kimbell, Julia S; Dorman, David C

    2002-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a toxic gas that is released by both natural and industrial sources. H(2)S selectively targets the olfactory system in humans and rodents. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the distribution of H(2)S-induced nasal pathology is correlated with the location of high-flux areas within the upper respiratory tract. To investigate whether the location of the olfactory lesion is dependent on regional gas uptake patterns, a comparison was made between lesion locations and regions of high H(2)S flux predicted using a 3-dimensional, anatomically accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of rat nasal passages. Rats were exposed by inhalation to 0, 10, 30, or 80 ppm H(2)S for 6 h/day for 70 days. The regional incidence of olfactory lesions and predicted H(2)S flux were determined at the mid-dorsomedial meatus and the middle portion of the ethmoid recess, and their rank correlation was evaluated. At these 2 levels, regions lined by respiratory epithelium were predicted to exhibit the highest mass flux values; however, H(2)S exposure elicited little or no response in this tissue. In contrast, regions lined by olfactory epithelium showed a close correlation between H(2)S flux and lesion incidence (p < 0.005) for both the 30 and 80-ppm exposure groups. These results indicate that airflow-driven patterns of H(2)S uptake within the inherently sensitive olfactory epithelium play an important role in the distribution of H(2)S-induced lesions and should therefore be taken into consideration when extrapolating from nasal lesions in rats to estimates of risk to human health.

  1. Early depressive symptoms after ischemic stroke are associated with a left lenticulocapsular area lesion.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Komaba, Yuichi; Ueda, Masayuki; Nagayama, Hiroshi; Amemiya, Shimon; Katayama, Yasuo

    2010-05-01

    Poststroke depression is one of the most frequent and important complications of stroke. Although many studies of depression after stroke have been reported, clinical association between the risk of depression after stroke and the lesion location remains unclear. The presence of depression after stroke reportedly confers a poor prognosis; however, early recognition of depressive symptoms may improve outcomes. We examined the relation between lesion location and presence of depressive symptoms 1 month after ischemic stroke, with a view toward early management of depressive symptoms. In all, 134 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke were followed up to determine whether depression was present 1 month after stroke onset. Depressive symptoms were assessed by means of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. The lesion location was determined on magnetic resonance or computed tomography images. The incidence of depressive symptoms 1 month after stroke onset was 34.3%. Backward stepwise logistic regression analysis showed hypertension, education, and the presence of a left lenticulocapsular infarct, in particular, to be independent predictors of depressive symptoms. Patients with ischemic stroke, particularly in the left lenticulocapsular area, should be carefully evaluated for early detection and treatment of depressive symptoms, which may greatly influence outcome. Copyright (c) 2010 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive flexibility predicts early reading skills.

    PubMed

    Colé, Pascale; Duncan, Lynne G; Blaye, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    An important aspect of learning to read is efficiency in accessing different kinds of linguistic information (orthographic, phonological, and semantic) about written words. The present study investigates whether, in addition to the integrity of such linguistic skills, early progress in reading may require a degree of cognitive flexibility in order to manage the coordination of this information effectively. Our study will look for evidence of a link between flexibility and both word reading and passage reading comprehension, and examine whether any such link involves domain-general or reading-specific flexibility. As the only previous support for a predictive relationship between flexibility and early reading comes from studies of reading comprehension in the opaque English orthography, another possibility is that this relationship may be largely orthography-dependent, only coming into play when mappings between representations are complex and polyvalent. To investigate these questions, 60 second-graders learning to read the more transparent French orthography were presented with two multiple classification tasks involving reading-specific cognitive flexibility (based on words) and non-specific flexibility (based on pictures). Reading skills were assessed by word reading, pseudo-word decoding, and passage reading comprehension measures. Flexibility was found to contribute significant unique variance to passage reading comprehension even in the less opaque French orthography. More interestingly, the data also show that flexibility is critical in accounting for one of the core components of reading comprehension, namely, the reading of words in isolation. Finally, the results constrain the debate over whether flexibility has to be reading-specific to be critically involved in reading.

  3. Cognitive flexibility predicts early reading skills

    PubMed Central

    Colé, Pascale; Duncan, Lynne G.; Blaye, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    An important aspect of learning to read is efficiency in accessing different kinds of linguistic information (orthographic, phonological, and semantic) about written words. The present study investigates whether, in addition to the integrity of such linguistic skills, early progress in reading may require a degree of cognitive flexibility in order to manage the coordination of this information effectively. Our study will look for evidence of a link between flexibility and both word reading and passage reading comprehension, and examine whether any such link involves domain-general or reading-specific flexibility. As the only previous support for a predictive relationship between flexibility and early reading comes from studies of reading comprehension in the opaque English orthography, another possibility is that this relationship may be largely orthography-dependent, only coming into play when mappings between representations are complex and polyvalent. To investigate these questions, 60 second-graders learning to read the more transparent French orthography were presented with two multiple classification tasks involving reading-specific cognitive flexibility (based on words) and non-specific flexibility (based on pictures). Reading skills were assessed by word reading, pseudo-word decoding, and passage reading comprehension measures. Flexibility was found to contribute significant unique variance to passage reading comprehension even in the less opaque French orthography. More interestingly, the data also show that flexibility is critical in accounting for one of the core components of reading comprehension, namely, the reading of words in isolation. Finally, the results constrain the debate over whether flexibility has to be reading-specific to be critically involved in reading. PMID:24966842

  4. Performance of the immunochemical fecal occult blood test in predicting lesions in the lower gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Tsung-Hsien; Lee, Yi-Chia; Tu, Chia-Hung; Chiu, Han-Mo; Wu, Ming-Shiang

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that the immunochemical fecal occult blood test has superior specificity for detecting bleeding in the lower gastrointestinal tract even if bleeding occurs in the upper tract. We conducted a large population-based study involving asymptomatic adults in Taiwan, a population with prevalent upper gastrointestinal lesions, to confirm this claim. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study involving asymptomatic people aged 18 years or more in Taiwan recruited to undergo an immunochemical fecal occult blood test, colonoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy between August 2007 and July 2009. We compared the prevalence of lesions in the lower and upper gastrointestinal tracts between patients with positive and negative fecal test results. We also identified risk factors associated with a false-positive fecal test result. Results: Of the 2796 participants, 397 (14.2%) had a positive fecal test result. The sensitivity of the test for predicting lesions in the lower gastrointestinal tract was 24.3%, the specificity 89.0%, the positive predictive value 41.3%, the negative predictive value 78.7%, the positive likelihood ratio 2.22, the negative likelihood ratio 0.85 and the accuracy 73.4%. The prevalence of lesions in the lower gastrointestinal tract was higher among those with a positive fecal test result than among those with a negative result (41.3% v. 21.3%, p < 0.001). The prevalence of lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract did not differ significantly between the two groups (20.7% v. 17.5%, p = 0.12). Almost all of the participants found to have colon cancer (27/28, 96.4%) had a positive fecal test result; in contrast, none of the three found to have esophageal or gastric cancer had a positive fecal test result (p < 0.001). Among those with a negative finding on colonoscopy, the risk factors associated with a false-positive fecal test result were use of antiplatelet drugs (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.46, 95% confidence

  5. Spatiotemporal dynamics of early DNA damage response proteins on complex DNA lesions.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Frank; Löb, Daniel; Lengert, Nicor; Durante, Marco; Drossel, Barbara; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela; Jakob, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    The response of cells to ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) is determined by the activation of multiple pathways aimed at repairing the injury and maintaining genomic integrity. Densely ionizing radiation induces complex damage consisting of different types of DNA lesions in close proximity that are difficult to repair and may promote carcinogenesis. Little is known about the dynamic behavior of repair proteins on complex lesions. In this study we use live-cell imaging for the spatio-temporal characterization of early protein interactions at damage sites of increasing complexity. Beamline microscopy was used to image living cells expressing fluorescently-tagged proteins during and immediately after charged particle irradiation to reveal protein accumulation at damaged sites in real time. Information on the mobility and binding rates of the recruited proteins was obtained from fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Recruitment of the DNA damage sensor protein NBS1 accelerates with increasing lesion density and saturates at very high damage levels. FRAP measurements revealed two different binding modalities of NBS1 to damage sites and a direct impact of lesion complexity on the binding. Faster recruitment with increasing lesion complexity was also observed for the mediator MDC1, but mobility was limited at very high damage densities due to nuclear-wide binding. We constructed a minimal computer model of the initial response to DSB based on known protein interactions only. By fitting all measured data using the same set of parameters, we can reproduce the experimentally characterized steps of the DNA damage response over a wide range of damage densities. The model suggests that the influence of increasing lesion density accelerating NBS1 recruitment is only dependent on the different binding modes of NBS1, directly to DSB and to the surrounding chromatin via MDC1. This elucidates an impact of damage clustering on repair without the

  6. Early prediction of maxillary canine impaction

    PubMed Central

    Storms, Ann-Sophie; Voet, Martine; Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy

    2016-01-01

    in panoramic radiographs is weak. However, the final prediction model, based on canine–first premolar angle, canine cusp tip to midline distance and canine cusp tip to maxillary occlusal plane distance, might be useful to discriminate canine impaction for early intervention or regular follow-up. PMID:26683426

  7. Noninvasive Real-Time Automated Skin Lesion Analysis System for Melanoma Early Detection and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Abuzaghleh, Omar; Barkana, Buket D.

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma spreads through metastasis, and therefore, it has been proved to be very fatal. Statistical evidence has revealed that the majority of deaths resulting from skin cancer are as a result of melanoma. Further investigations have shown that the survival rates in patients depend on the stage of the cancer; early detection and intervention of melanoma implicate higher chances of cure. Clinical diagnosis and prognosis of melanoma are challenging, since the processes are prone to misdiagnosis and inaccuracies due to doctors’ subjectivity. Malignant melanomas are asymmetrical, have irregular borders, notched edges, and color variations, so analyzing the shape, color, and texture of the skin lesion is important for the early detection and prevention of melanoma. This paper proposes the two major components of a noninvasive real-time automated skin lesion analysis system for the early detection and prevention of melanoma. The first component is a real-time alert to help users prevent skinburn caused by sunlight; a novel equation to compute the time for skin to burn is thereby introduced. The second component is an automated image analysis module, which contains image acquisition, hair detection and exclusion, lesion segmentation, feature extraction, and classification. The proposed system uses PH2 Dermoscopy image database from Pedro Hispano Hospital for the development and testing purposes. The image database contains a total of 200 dermoscopy images of lesions, including benign, atypical, and melanoma cases. The experimental results show that the proposed system is efficient, achieving classification of the benign, atypical, and melanoma images with accuracy of 96.3%, 95.7%, and 97.5%, respectively. PMID:27170906

  8. Predictive testing of early CIN behaviour by molecular biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Baak, Jan P A; Kruse, Arnold-Jan; Janssen, Emiel; van Diermen, Bianca

    2005-01-01

    Each year, 330,000 new Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasias(CIN) occur in the European Union (EU) of which 120,000 are early CIN where grade (1, 2) indicates the progression-risk to CIN-3 and therefore determines the treatment choice. However, the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of CIN grade to predict progression is low (10% and 20% for CIN-1 and -2 respectively, 16% on average) resulting in an enormous number of over-treatments indicating worrisome grade reproducibility.Certain molecular biomarkers such as Ki-67 have a higher PPV (30%, an improvement of 14%), which in Europe alone could improve treatment for many thousands of women per year with considerable cost reduction for the health care system. The quantitative Ki-67 prognostic model has been validated in independent retrospective and prospective studies from different laboratories. Moreover, the PPV of Ki-67 alone can be improved by additional molecular biomarkers (retinoblastoma protein = Rb, cytokeratins= CK-14/-13). Combined Ki67-Rb allows a 2-tiered progression-risk subgroup assignment as very low ( approximately 0% progression, 71% of all CIN-I/II patients)and high risk (48% progression risk, incidence 32%), leaving a small (7% of all) prognostically undetermined group (17% progression). Additional CK-14 and -13 analysis can sub-classify the high-risk in an intermediate and very high risk subgroup(with 40% and 100% progression risks respectively).Thus, molecular biomarkers are potentially important determinators of early CIN lesion behaviour. Important factors for widespread acceptance of molecular biomarkers are (1) market penetration by user-friendly equipment, (2) (inter)national keeping of GLP conditions (reproducibility, independent validation), requiring customer-driven industrial efforts,governmental measures, and additional PPV improvement to further reduce over-treatment.

  9. Collagen and Its Role in predicting the Biological Behavior of Odontogenic Lesions.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Pavan G; Kumari, M Aruna; Jahagirdar, Abhishek; Nandan, Srk; Reddy D, Shyam Prasad; Keerthi, M

    2017-02-01

    Odontogenic cysts and tumors have variable recurrence rates. Recurrence rate is mainly due to the activity of the epithelium. The epithelium of these lesions has been investigated extensively in regard to their role in proliferative and aggressive behavior of the lesions. However, the role of the connective tissue wall in their behavior has not been studied as extensively. Collagen is an essential part of the connective tissue as a whole and fibrous wall of cystic lesions especially. It is demonstrated by picrosirius red dye staining combined with polarization microscopy. This method permits the evaluation of the nature of the collagen fibers in addition to their thickness. A total of 56 histopathologically diagnosed cases comprising odontogenic follicle, dentigerous cyst, unicystic ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT), multicystic/solid ameloblastoma, and ameloblastic carcinoma were taken and stained using picrosirius red stain and evaluated using a polarizing microscope. Collagen fibers in odontogenic follicles and dentiger-ous cysts showed predominant orange-red birefringence; fibers in unicystic ameloblastoma and KCOT showed both orange red and greenish-yellow birefringence; and fibers of multicystic/ solid ameloblastoma showed predominant greenish-yellow birefringence and ameloblastic carcinoma that showed almost complete greenish birefringence. As the biological behavior of the lesions in the spectrum studied progress toward aggressive nature, increase in immature collagen fibers is noticed. This study suggests that the nature of collagen fibers plays a pivotal role in predicting the biological behavior of odontogenic lesions. Aggressive nature of the odontogenic lesions is determined by both the epithelium and the connective tissue components (collagen). Studying the nature and type of collagen helps in predicting its biological behavior.

  10. Characterization of mouse models of early pancreatic lesions induced by alcohol and chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shiping; Chheda, Chintan; Ouhaddi, Yassine; Benhaddou, Hajar; Bourhim, Mouloud; Grippo, Paul J.; Principe, Daniel R.; Mascariñas, Emman; DeCant, Brian; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Pandol, Stephen J.; Edderkaoui, Mouad

    2015-01-01

    Objective We describe the first mouse model of pancreatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions induced by alcohol in the presence and absence of chronic pancreatitis. Methods Pdx1-Cre; LSL-Kras (KC) mice were exposed to Lieber-DeCarli alcohol diet for 6 weeks with cerulein injections. PanIN lesions and markers of fibrosis, inflammation, histone de-acetylation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cancer stemness were measured by immuno-histochemistry and Western. Results Exposure of KC mice to an alcohol diet significantly stimulated fibrosis and slightly, but not significantly, increased the level of PanIN lesions associated with an increase in tumor-promoting M2-macrophages. Importantly, the alcohol diet did not increase activation of stellate cells. Alcohol diet and cerulein injections resulted in synergistic and additive effects on PanIN lesion and M2-Macrophage phenotype induction, respectively. Cerulein-pancreatitis caused stellate cell activation, EMT, and cancer stemness in the pancreas. Pancreatitis caused histone deacetylation which was promoted by the alcohol diet. Pancreatitis increased EMT and cancer stemness markers which not further affected by the alcohol diet. Conclusion The results suggest that alcohol has independent effects on promotion of PDAC associated with fibrosis formed through a stellate cell-independent mechanism and that it further promotes early PDAC and M2 macrophage induction in the context of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:26166469

  11. Electrode radius predicts lesion radius during radiofrequency energy heating. Validation of a proposed thermodynamic model

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, D.E.; Watson, D.D.; Verow, A.F. )

    1990-07-01

    Myocardial heating by transcatheter delivery of radiofrequency (RF) energy has been proposed as an effective means of arrhythmia ablation. A thermodynamic model describing the radial temperature gradient at steady state during RF-induced heating is proposed. If one assumes that RF power output is adjusted to maintain a constant electrode-tissue interface temperature at all times, then this thermodynamic model predicts that the radius of the RF-induced lesion will be directly proportional to the electrode radius. A total of 76 RF-induced lesions were created in a model of isolated canine right ventricular free wall perfused and superfused with oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Electrode radius was varied between 0.75 and 2.25 mm. RF energy (500 kHz) was delivered for 90 seconds, and the power output was adjusted to maintain a constant electrode-tissue interface temperature of 60 degrees C. A strong linear correlation was observed between electrode radius and lesion radius in two dimensions: transverse (p = 0.0001, r = 0.85) and transmural (p = 0.0001, r = 0.89). With these data, the temperature correlation with irreversible myocardial injury in this model was calculated at 46.6-48.8 degrees C. Therefore, the proposed thermodynamic model closely predicts the observed relation between electrode radius and lesion size during RF myocardial heating.

  12. Study of early appearance of skin lesions in coal gasification workers.

    PubMed

    Begraca, M; Ukmata, H; Morris, S C; Canhasi, B; Haxhiu, M A

    1991-09-01

    A retrospective cohort morbidity study was conducted among workers employed at the Kosovo coal gasification plant and a reference population of open-pit lignite miners. The aim was to determine the rate of early skin cancer and pre-cancerous skin lesions. In 15 years of commercial operation of the coal gasification plant, seven workers were diagnosed with benign skin tumors, six with pre-cancerous skin diseases, but none with skin cancer. The lesions were significantly fewer than were reported earlier over a shorter time period and in a smaller population at a coal hydrogenation plant. Compared to the reference population who received medical care in the same clinic, gasification workers had a lower skin cancer rate, but a higher rate of benign skin tumors and potentially pre-cancerous skin diseases.

  13. Anosognosia, neglect, extinction and lesion site predict impairment of daily living after right-hemispheric stroke.

    PubMed

    Vossel, Simone; Weiss, Peter H; Eschenbeck, Philipp; Fink, Gereon R

    2013-01-01

    Right-hemispheric stroke can give rise to manifold neuropsychological deficits, in particular, impairments of spatial perception which are often accompanied by reduced self-awareness of these deficits (anosognosia). To date, the specific contribution of these deficits to a patient's difficulties in daily life activities remains to be elucidated. In 55 patients with right-hemispheric stroke we investigated the predictive value of different neglect-related symptoms, visual extinction and anosognosia for the performance of standardized activities of daily living (ADL). The additional impact of lesion location was examined using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Step-wise linear regression revealed that anosognosia for visuospatial deficits was the most important predictor for performance in standardized ADL. In addition, motor-intentional and perceptual-attentional neglect, extinction and cancellation task performance significantly predicted ADL performance. Lesions comprising the right frontal and cingulate cortex and adjacent white matter explained additional variance in the performance of standardized ADL, in that damage to these areas was related to lower performance than predicted by the regression model only. Our data show a decisive role of anosognosia for visuospatial deficits for impaired ADL and therefore outcome/disability after stroke. The findings further demonstrate that the severity of neglect and extinction also predicts ADL performance. Our results thus strongly suggest that right-hemispheric stroke patients should not only be routinely assessed for neglect and extinction but also for anosognosia to initiate appropriate rehabilitative treatment. The observation that right frontal lesions explain additional variance in ADL most likely reflects that dysfunction of the supervisory system also significantly impacts upon rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolic reprogramming identifies the most aggressive lesions at early phases of hepatic carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Perra, Andrea; Menegon, Silvia; Masgras, Ionica; Trevisan, Elena; Angioni, Maria Maddalena; Fornari, Francesca; Quagliata, Luca; Ledda-Columbano, Giovanna Maria; Gramantieri, Laura; Terracciano, Luigi; Giordano, Silvia; Chiarugi, Paola; Rasola, Andrea; Columbano, Amedeo

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic changes are associated with cancer, but whether they are just bystander effects of deregulated oncogenic signaling pathways or characterize early phases of tumorigenesis remains unclear. Here we show in a rat model of hepatocarcinogenesis that early preneoplastic foci and nodules that progress towards hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are characterized both by inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and by enhanced glucose utilization to fuel the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). These changes respectively require increased expression of the mitochondrial chaperone TRAP1 and of the transcription factor NRF2 that induces the expression of the rate-limiting PPP enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), following miR-1 inhibition. Such metabolic rewiring exclusively identifies a subset of aggressive cytokeratin-19 positive preneoplastic hepatocytes and not slowly growing lesions. No such metabolic changes were observed during non-neoplastic liver regeneration occurring after two/third partial hepatectomy. TRAP1 silencing inhibited the colony forming ability of HCC cells while NRF2 silencing decreased G6PD expression and concomitantly increased miR-1; conversely, transfection with miR-1 mimic abolished G6PD expression. Finally, in human HCC patients increased G6PD expression levels correlates with grading, metastasis and poor prognosis. Our results demonstrate that the metabolic deregulation orchestrated by TRAP1 and NRF2 is an early event restricted to the more aggressive preneoplastic lesions. PMID:27070090

  15. Policy Paper: The Predictive Validity of Early Childhood Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apling, Richard; Bryk, Anthony

    Some early childhood variables are examined to evaluate their predictive validity. The selection of children needing early childhood Title I services is complicated by the lack of criteria for defining who is educationally disadvantaged and the special problems of early childhood testing and measurement. The study used re-analysis of longitudinal…

  16. Predicting the likelihood of developing boar taint: early physical indicators in entire male pigs.

    PubMed

    Bekaert, K M; Aluwé, M; Millet, S; Goethals, K; Nijs, G; Isebaert, S; De Brabander, D L; Verheyden, K; De Brabander, H F; Vanhaecke, L; Tuyttens, F A M

    2012-12-01

    Three potential early-age predictors of which boars are likely to develop boar taint (testes volume, skin lesions and dirtiness) were measured on 102 boars every fortnight from 10 weeks of age until slaughter. These predictors were correlated with the level of boar taint according to the hot iron method and the concentrations of skatole and androstenone as determined by chemical analysis. The chance of no/low boar taint according to the hot iron method decreased with higher testes volume (weeks 22 and 24) and increased with skin lesion score (weeks 12, 16 and 18). For the concentrations of androstenone and skatole, the strongest correlation was found with testes volume in week 12. Skin lesions in week 16 were negatively correlated with skatole levels. Dirtiness was negatively correlated with skatole concentrations (week 18) but positively correlated with androstenone concentrations (weeks 20 and 22). Testes volume has the greatest potential for predicting the likelihood of developing boar taint.

  17. Synchronous polyps predict metachronous colorectal lesions after curative resection of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Pozza, Anna; Ruffolo, Cesare; Fiorot, Alain; Padoan, Luigi; Erroi, Francesca; Massani, Marco; Caratozzolo, Ezio; Bonariol, Luca; Ferrara, Francesco; Norberto, Lorenzo; Castoro, Carlo; Bassi, Nicolò; Scarpa, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The principal aim of endoscopic follow-up programs after curative resection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is to improve survival and identify local recurrence and metachronous CRC. The aim of our study was to identify the possible predictors of metachronous colorectal lesions. The records of 348 consecutive patients with CRC and who completed at least 1 year of endoscopic follow-up after surgery were analyzed. In this group, 336 patients underwent surgery for primitive CRC and 12 for metachronous cancer. Patients' characteristics, operative details, and endoscopical follow-up findings were retrieved. Multivariate survival analyses were used to identify patient categories at risk of metachronous colonic lesions. 128 patients presented a metachronous lesion: 118 adenomas and 10 adenocarcinomas. At multivariate analysis, active smoke (HR = 1.84, p = 0.03), neoadjuvant therapy (HR = 0.24, p = 0.01), and presence of synchronous polyps (HR = 1.55, p = 0.04) resulted independent predictors of metachronous adenoma after CRC removal while neoadjuvant therapy (HR = 0.25, p = 0.02), active smoke (HR = 1.54, p = 0.04), and presence of synchronous polyps (HR = 1.86, p = 0.02) resulted independent predictors of metachronous lesions after CRC removal. This study demonstrated a high rate of metachronous lesions in the early follow-up after curative CRC resection. The negative effects of synchronous polyps should be carefully evaluated when planning patients' follow-up.

  18. Enhanced production of IL-8 in chronic but not in early ileal lesions of Crohn's disease (CD)

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, E; Colombel, J-F; Ectors, N; Gambiez, L; Emilie, D; Geboes, K; Capron, M; Desreumaux, P

    2000-01-01

    Distinct Th1/Th2 patterns have been observed during the evolution of CD. The aim of this study was to compare neutrophil involvement and IL-8 mRNA and protein expression during early recurrent lesions and chronic phases of CD. Twenty-nine patients with CD having ileocolonic resection with anastomosis were studied. Biopsies were obtained during surgery from the non-inflamed ileal mucosa and from chronic ileal lesions. Endoscopic ileal biopsies were also taken from early recurrent ileal lesions occurring 3 months after surgery. Neutrophil counts were performed and mucosal IL-8 levels were evaluated by competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Early recurrent ileal lesions were characterized by low neutrophil counts and IL-8 production at the mRNA and protein levels compared with the ileal chronic lesions. The main cellular sources of IL-8 in the early recurrent lesions were neutrophils, while in chronic lesions the majority of IL-8-stained cells were CD3+ T cells and macrophages. These results confirmed that the nature of the inflammatory infiltrate and the expression of cytokine profiles may differ between the acute and chronic phases of CD. PMID:11091272

  19. Osteochondral lesion depth on MRI can help predict the need for a sandwich procedure.

    PubMed

    Nizak, R; Bekkers, J; de Jong, P A; Witkamp, T; Luijkx, T; Saris, D

    2017-05-01

    Autologous subchondral bone grafting in combination with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) (sandwich procedure) is a well-accepted procedure for the treatment of osteochondral lesions of the knee. This requires a different surgical technique and preoperative planning compared to ACI alone. In addition, pain from bone marrow donor site locations can be expected and should be part of patient consent and expectations. This study evaluates whether the MRI made as part of the standard preoperative cartilage patient work up has the diagnostic accuracy to predict the need for a sandwich procedure. Retrospectively, 185 preoperative MRI scans (PD and T2 sequences) of patients planned for ACI were included. The integrity of the subchondral bone and lamina was scored by four different observers (3 radiologists, and 1 orthopaedic resident). The depth of the defect was measured perpendicular from articulating surface to the bottom of the bony lesion. The area under the curve (AUC) for subchondral defect on MRI (i.e. lamina or bone defect or expert impression), depth measurements and eventual sandwich procedure were calculated. Also inter-observer Kappa values were determined. The AUCs for lamina (0.74-0.80) and bone defect (0.73-0.79) were fair and inter-observer Kappas ranged from 0.49 to 0.76, indicating a moderate-good inter-observer agreement and moderate prediction of the need for a sandwich procedure based on the presence of lamina and or subchondral bone defect on MRI. However, depth measurements resulted in an AUC of 0.90 (95% CI: 0.84-0.95,) with an optimal cut-off point at 6.5mm depth of the lesion (90% sensitivity, 80% specificity) to predict the need for a sandwich procedure. Ours is the first study examining MRI as a diagnostic tool in predicting the need for a sandwich procedure. Our results show that the integrity of the subchondral layer on MRI has a moderate role in predicting the need for an eventual autologous bone graft to augment ACI whereas in our

  20. Solar Index prediction methodology for early delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Solar Index project in 1978, it has been one of the primary objectives to deliver the Indices in mid-afternoon local standard time. This was desirable because it would make it possible to have the numbers broadcast in the early evening news. A short description of the current project is presented and then a summary of the work that led to the early delivery of the Solar Index is given.

  1. Predictability crisis in early universe cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeenk, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Inflationary cosmology has been widely accepted due to its successful predictions: for a "generic" initial state, inflation produces a homogeneous, flat, bubble with an appropriate spectrum of density perturbations. However, the discovery that inflation is "generically eternal," leading to a vast multiverse of inflationary bubbles with different low-energy physics, threatens to undermine this account. There is a "predictability crisis" in eternal inflation, because extracting predictions apparently requires a well-defined measure over the multiverse. This has led to discussions of anthropic predictions based on a measure over the multiverse, and an assumption that we are typical observers. I will give a pessimistic assessment of attempts to make predictions in this sense, emphasizing in particular problems that arise even if a unique measure can be found.

  2. Fine mapping of the lesion mimic and early senescence 1 (lmes1) in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Yingxin; Liu, Lin; Liu, Qunen; Bi, Zhenzhen; Yu, Ning; Cheng, Shihua; Cao, Liyong

    2014-07-01

    A novel rice mutant, lesion mimic and early senescence 1 (lmes1), was induced from the rice 93-11 cultivar in a γ-ray field. This mutant exhibited spontaneous disease-like lesions in the absence of pathogen attack at the beginning of the tillering stage. Moreover, at the booting stage, lmes1 mutants exhibited a significantly increased MDA but decreased chlorophyll content, soluble protein content and photosynthetic rate in the leaves, which are indicative of an early senescence phenotype. The lmes1 mutant was significantly more resistant than 93-11 against rice bacterial blight infection, which was consistent with a marked increase in the expression of three resistance-related genes. Here, we employed a map-based cloning approach to finely map the lmes1 gene. In an initial mapping with 94 F2 individuals derived from a cross between the lmes1 mutant and Nipponbare, the lmes1 gene was located in a 10.6-cM region on the telomere of the long arm of chromosome 7 using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. To finely map lmes1, we derived two F2 populations with 940 individuals from two crosses between the lmes1 mutant and two japonica rice varieties, Nipponbare and 02428. Finally, the lmes1 gene was mapped to an 88-kb region between two newly developed inDel markers, Zl-3 and Zl-22, which harbored 15 ORFs.

  3. Visuomotor performance in a patient with visual agnosia due to an early lesion.

    PubMed

    Dijkerman, H Chris; Lê, Sandra; Démonet, Jean-François; Milner, A David

    2004-06-01

    We tested a patient with visual agnosia who had suffered severe bilateral brain damage early in life, on a series of visuomotor tasks. The broad pattern of results confirms that S.B., like the extensively tested patient D.F., shows an impressive array of preserved skills, despite his severe perceptual problems. Also like D.F., S.B. shows certain subtle visuomotor difficulties that can be related to the idea that his partially intact occipito-parietal areas are unable to benefit from interactions with the apparently severely damaged occipito-temporal regions. Unlike D.F., however, he is able to make accurate discriminations of simple visual features, such as object width and orientation, albeit with very slow response times. We hypothesize that several factors such as the early onset of S.B.'s lesion and the long period since his brain lesion have allowed his brain to compensate to a degree what has been impossible in D.F., whose brain damage occurred in adulthood. This may include an element of 'rewiring' and self-monitoring of visuomotor processes that allow S.B. to achieve perceptual access to visual information processed in the dorsal stream: information that is normally only available for on-line visuomotor control.

  4. Silver diamine fluoride and glass ionomer differentially remineralize early caries lesions, in situ.

    PubMed

    Nantanee, Ratichanok; Santiwong, Busayarat; Trairatvorakul, Chutima; Hamba, Hidenori; Tagami, Junji

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the percent mean mineral density (MD) change of early caries lesions after the application of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) or glass ionomer cement (GIC). This double-blind, crossover study involved two experimental phases of 28 days each. Thirty-two pairs of enamel slabs were created from the proximal surfaces of 16 premolars. Each pair of artificial carious slabs was randomly divided into the control or test group (38 % SDF or GIC). The slabs were attached to orthodontic brackets and bonded to the maxillary first permanent molars of 16 subjects for 28 days. After a 7-day washout period between phases, the subjects received the other material for the second phase. The mean MD of the lesions was measured by microcomputed tomography. SDF yielded a percent mean MD increase at a depth of 0-84 μm, although increase in the GIC group was observed at a depth of 24-108 μm. The percent mean MD changes of the SDF and GIC groups were similar (p = 0.100) and significantly higher than in control (p < 0.001, p = 0.003, respectively). The two materials increased the percent mean MD change of early proximal caries lesions to a similar extent, but with different spatial patterns. Due to deeper level of GIC remineralization, the refractive index of the GIC applied enamel might be closer to sound enamel. Hence, GIC is recommended for remineralization of anterior teeth. SDF staining makes it unsuitable for use in anterior teeth; thus, it is reserved for use in posterior teeth.

  5. Detection and Localization of Pre-Cancerous Lesions and Early Lung Cancer Using Tissue Autofluorescence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Jaclyn Yip-Chan

    In this work, two different yet related hypotheses were tested by experimental means as follows: (i) pre-cancerous and non-invasive (early) lung cancer can be detected and localized using the fluorescence properties of tumour localizing drugs at non-photosensitizing doses to skin tissue; (ii) significant differences exist in laser-induced autofluorescence between normal, pre-cancerous and cancerous tissues such that these differences alone can be exploited to detect and delineate early lung cancer without using exogenous drug(s). Exogenous fluorescent tumour markers such as hematoporphyrin derivatives (e.g. Photofrin) have been used to enhance to detection of occult lung lesions. Photofrin is preferentially retained in tumor tissues compared to the surrounding normal tissues; it fluoresces at 630 nm and 690 nm when excited at -405 nm. Based on this principle several imaging and non-imaging devices have been developed. However, wider clinical applications were limited due to the skin photosensitivity property of Photofrin. We have postulated that this could be solved by employing a much lower dose of Photofrin (0.25 mg/kg) which was believed to be less photosensitizing to human patients. This postulate was experimentally tested by ratio fluorometry and early lung cancers were detected with no false negative results and no apparent skin photosensitivity. An important finding in this study was that the mechanism for detection of early cancer was mainly due to the differences in the green autofluorescence between normal and malignant tissues, rather than fluorescence of tumour localizing drug. This discovery led to the second postulate of this thesis that tissue autofluorescence alone can be exploited for the detection of early lung cancer. The results indicated that algorithm(s) could be developed to clearly delineate early lesions from the normal tissues. Several algorithms were then tested using a non-imaging ratio fluorometer device and a prototype imaging

  6. Early Literacy and Early Numeracy: The Value of Including Early Literacy Skills in the Prediction of Numeracy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Hume, Laura E.; Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Cristopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a…

  7. Early Literacy and Early Numeracy: The Value of Including Early Literacy Skills in the Prediction of Numeracy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Hume, Laura E.; Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Cristopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a…

  8. Early executive function predicts reasoning development.

    PubMed

    Richland, Lindsey E; Burchinal, Margaret R

    2013-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is a core cognitive skill that distinguishes humans from all other species and contributes to general fluid intelligence, creativity, and adaptive learning capacities. Yet its origins are not well understood. In the study reported here, we analyzed large-scale longitudinal data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to test predictors of growth in analogical-reasoning skill from third grade to adolescence. Our results suggest an integrative resolution to the theoretical debate regarding contributory factors arising from smaller-scale, cross-sectional experiments on analogy development. Children with greater executive-function skills (both composite and inhibitory control) and vocabulary knowledge in early elementary school displayed higher scores on a verbal analogies task at age 15 years, even after adjusting for key covariates. We posit that knowledge is a prerequisite to analogy performance, but strong executive-functioning resources during early childhood are related to long-term gains in fundamental reasoning skills.

  9. Biological behavior of CIN lesions is predictable by multiple parameter logistic regression models.

    PubMed

    van Hamont, D; Bulten, J; Shirango, H; Melchers, W J G; Massuger, L F A G; de Wilde, P C M

    2008-04-01

    Progression and regression of premalignant cervical lesions cannot be predicted using conventional cytomorphological or histomorphological parameters. However, markers such as human papillomavirus (HPV) or makers indicating proliferation, genetic instability and chromosomal aberration may be of predictive value assessing short-term biological behavior of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. In this paper, we have studied the usage of logistic regression models with Ki-67 labeling index (LI), chromosome index for chromosome 1 (CI#1) and aneusomy for chromosome 1 in cervical smears to predict progressive and regressive behavior of premalignant cervical lesions. Retrospectively, the intake smears of 42 women showing regression in follow-up and of 31 women showing progression in follow-up were assessed. A multiparameter logistic regression model containing the parameters Ki-67 LI, CI#1 and the fraction of cells with four copies of chromosome 1 per nucleus appeared to be the best predicting model, overall correct classification of 93.2% (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.96 +/- 0.02). After cross-validation, the model correctly classified 66 of 73 samples (90.4%). Moreover, the model predicted biological behavior perfectly assessing the smear taken subsequently to the intake smear of 46 women. Although measuring parameters indicating proliferation and chromosome 1 aberration is laborious, this study demonstrates that short-term progressive and regressive behavior is highly predictable using a model combing these parameters. We also showed that in the triage management of high-risk human papillomavirus-positive women with minimally abnormal smears applying a model as such can be useful.

  10. Preoperative predictive factors for gallbladder cholesterol polyp diagnosed after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for polypoid lesions of gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyojin; Park, Inseok; Cho, Hyunjin; Gwak, Geumhee; Yang, Keunho; Bae, Byung-Noe; Kim, Hong-Ju; Kim, Young Duk

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims We investigated patients' clinical and radiological data to determine preoperative factors that predict cholesterol gallbladder (GB) polyps of large size, which can be helpful for decision on further diagnostic tools. Methods In this study, we retrospectively analyzed 126 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for GB polyps >10 mm diagnosed preoperatively by abdominal ultrasonography between February 2002 and February 2016 in Department of Surgery, Sanggye Paik Hospital. Patients were divided into non-cholesterol polyps group and cholesterol polyps group, based on the postoperative pathologic diagnosis. Clinical and radiological data, such as gender, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), laboratory findings, size, number and shape of the polypoid lesions, and presence of the concurrent GB stone were compared between the two groups. Results Of the 126 cases, 73 had cholesterol polyps (57.9%) and 53 cases were non-cholesterol polyps (42.1%). The younger age (<48.5 years), size of polyp <13.25 mm and multiple polyps were independent predictive variables for cholesterol polyps, with odd ratios (OR) of 2.352 (p=0.045), 5.429 (p<0.001) and 0.472 (p<0.001), respectively. Conclusions Age, size and polyp number were used to predict cholesterol GB polyp among polypoid lesions of the gallbladder >10 mm. For cases in which these factors are not applicable, it is strongly recommended to evaluate further diagnostic tools, such as computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasonography and tumor markers. PMID:28261697

  11. Intragraft pressures predict outcomes in hemodialysis patients with graft outflow lesions undergoing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chi-Cheng; Chung, Hsiao-Min; Tsai, Han-Lin; Mar, Guang-Yuan; Tseng, Ching-Jiunn; Liu, Chun-Peng

    2010-08-01

    This study is to introduce intragraft pressure (IGP) as intraprocedural parameter for outcome survey in hemodialysis patients with graft outflow lesions undergoing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). The role of IGP on procedural endpoint and patency is unknown. Seventy-five participants with graft outflow lesions receiving PTA were enrolled. Procedural data regarding IGP and angiographic findings were collected and the 1-year graft patency through collaboration with hemodialysis units. Analyses and comparisons among IGP, angiographic findings, and patency were conducted. Using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, we intended to detect significance and the cut-off points of IGP for patency prediction, and difference in patency between the two groups divided by using the cut-off points. Pre-PTA and post-PTA IGP were significantly associated with 1-year patency (both significance <0.01) with 0.756 and 0.791 areas under the ROC curves, respectively. The cut-off points of pre-PTA and post-PTA IGP were closer to 106 and 47 mm Hg for prediction of 1-year patency (sensitivity = 0.76, specificity = 0.69; sensitivity = 0.79, specificity = 0.69, respectively; 95% CI). Significant reductions in 1-year patency were shown in the subjects with greater than the cut-off values, either pre-PTA or post-PTA IGP, compared with those with smaller than these values (both log rank test < 0.001). IGP might be useful to evaluate procedural endpoints and predict patency outcomes in hemodialysis patients with graft outflow lesions undergoing PTA. Patients with the greater pre-PTA or post-PTA IGP, to some level, seem to have the shorter patency. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Predictable Locations Aid Early Object Name Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benitez, Viridiana L.; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy-based localized attention has been shown to promote the formation and retrieval of multisensory memories in adults. Three experiments show that these processes also characterize attention and learning in 16- to 18-month old infants and, moreover, that these processes may play a critical role in supporting early object name learning. The…

  13. Predictable Locations Aid Early Object Name Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benitez, Viridiana L.; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy-based localized attention has been shown to promote the formation and retrieval of multisensory memories in adults. Three experiments show that these processes also characterize attention and learning in 16- to 18-month old infants and, moreover, that these processes may play a critical role in supporting early object name learning. The…

  14. Early and Later Prediction of Reading Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Rollanda E.; Jenkins, Joseph R.

    A study worked toward designing a small set of phonological, letter, and memory tasks that would allow teachers and other school personnel concerned with early intervention in reading to reliably identify children likely to develop reading disabilities (RD). A total of 446 kindergarten children from diverse geographic (west and east coasts),…

  15. Early Results with the Use of Heparin-bonded Stent Graft to Rescue Failed Angioplasty of Chronic Femoropopliteal Occlusive Lesions: TASC D Lesions Have a Poor Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhan, Ganesh Abisi, Said; Braithwaite, Bruce D.; MacSweeney, Shane T. R.; Whitaker, Simon C.; Habib, Said B.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate early patency rate of the heparin-bonded stent grafts in atherosclerotic long femoropopliteal occlusive disease, and to identify factors that affect outcome. Methods: Heparin-bonded Viabahn stent grafts were placed in 33 limbs in 33 patients during 2009-2010. The stents were deployed to rescue failed conventional balloon angioplasty. Mean age was 69 (range 44-88) years, and 67 % (22 of 33) were men. Most procedures (21 of 33, 64 %) were performed for critical limb ischemia (33 % for rest pain, 30 % tissue loss). Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox regression analysis were used to identify significant risk factors. Results: The average length of lesions treated was 25 {+-} 10 cm, and they were predominantly TASC (Transatlantic Intersociety Consensus) D (n = 13) and C (n = 17) lesions. The median primary patency was 5.0 months (95 % confidence interval 1.22-8.77). The mean secondary patency was 8.6 months (95 % confidence interval 6.82-10.42). Subsequently, 4 patients underwent bypass surgery and 5 patients underwent major amputation. One patient died. There were 5 in-stent or edge-stent stenoses. Cox multivariate regression analysis identified TASC D lesions to be a significant risk factor for early occlusion (p = 0.035). Conclusion: TASC D lesions of femoropopliteal occlusions have poor patency rates with the use of heparin-bonded stent grafts after failed conventional angioplasty. Alternative options should be considered for these patients.

  16. Anorectal fistula is an early manifestation of Crohn's disease that occurs before bowel lesions advance: a study of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Saigusa, Naoto; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Shinozaki, Masaru; Miyahara, Ryoji; Konishi, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Toshio; Yokoyama, Yasuhisa

    2013-08-01

    The diagnostic significance of single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) in patients presenting with Crohn's disease (CD)-like anorectal fistula is unknown. We experienced 11 cases undergoing SBE due to CD-like fistulas between December 2007 and April 2013. The mean interval from fistula onset to SBE was 19.2 months with a range of 1.3-44.7. Prior to SBE, all patients underwent anorectal examination under anesthesia (EUA), and 9 patients underwent total colonoscopy with terminal ileal cannulation (TCS-I). One of 7 patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy had CD-like gastritis. EUA revealed CD fissures in 7 patients, 1 of whom had no intestinal lesion. Primary TCS-I identified early lesions, such as aphthes and small ulcers, in 4 patients. Among the other 5 patients without any intestinal lesions with TCS-I, SBE indicated early lesions in 3 patients. One of 2 patients who initially underwent SBE without TCS-I showed multiple aphthes. Of the 11 patients, only 4 patients fulfilled the definitive Japanese diagnostic criteria for CD and 7 remained 'suspected CD' cases. Intrinsic anorectal fistulas as a presenting symptom of CD may be an early predictor of bowel lesions. SBE has the potential to reveal incipient disease because an early ileal lesion is not rare for patients with anorectal fistulas.

  17. Prediction and set-dependent scaling of early postural responses in cerebellar patients.

    PubMed

    Timmann, D; Horak, F B

    1997-02-01

    We reported previously that patients with cerebellar deficits were unable to scale the magnitude of their early automatic postural responses to the predicted amplitudes of surface translations based on central set from prior experience. The present study investigated whether this deficit in set-dependent amplitude scaling was based predominantly on the cerebellar patient's disability (i) to predict perturbation amplitudes on the basis of prior experience, (ii) to scale the gain or magnitude of upcoming postural responses or (iii) to habituate postural responses. The increase in size of the early postural response when a larger than actual platform amplitude was expected and decrease when a smaller one was expected was defined as a measure of set-dependent amplitude prediction. The suppression of the postural response when the same platform velocity was repeated was used as a measure of habituation. The correlation between the size of early postural responses and platform amplitudes when presented serially, but not randomly, tested the ability to scale the gain of postural responses based on prior experience. Results show that although cerebellar patients could predict perturbation amplitudes based on prior experience, they could not use this prediction to modify precisely the gain of responses. The ability to habituate the magnitude of postural responses was not affected by cerebellar lesions. Thus, the cerebellum might not be critical for predicting upcoming events or for habituating to repeated postural stimuli, although it is important for accurate tuning of response gain based on prediction.

  18. Can radiological characteristics of preoperative cerebral lesions predict postoperative intracranial haemorrhage in endocarditis patients?

    PubMed

    Diab, Mahmoud; Guenther, Albrecht; Scheffel, Philipp; Sponholz, Christoph; Lehmann, Thomas; Hedderich, Johannes; Faerber, Gloria; Brunkhorst, Frank; Pletz, Mathias W; Doenst, Torsten

    2016-05-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with high mortality (20-40%) and neurological complications (20-50%). Postoperative intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is a feared complication especially in patients with preoperative cerebral infarcts. The aim of this study was to determine the radiological characteristics of cerebral lesions that could predict the occurrence of postoperative ICH in IE patients. We retrospectively reviewed all charts, brain imaging and follow-up data from patients operated for left-sided endocarditis between January 2007 and April 2013. A total of 308 patients (age 62.0 ± 13.9) underwent surgery for IE. Preoperative cerebrovascular complications were present in 122 patients (39.6%), representing stroke in 87, silent cerebral infarctions in 31 patients and transient ischaemic attacks in 4 patients. Among 118 patients with cerebral lesions, the aetiological classification of the lesions was ischaemic in 63.6%, ischaemic with haemorrhagic transformation (HT) in 17.8%, ischaemic with concomitant microbleeds in 16.1% and intracerebral bleeding in 2.5%. Postoperative ICH occurred in 17 patients and its incidence was slightly higher in patients with preoperative cerebral infarcts compared with those without preoperative cerebral infarcts [7.6 vs 4.2%, respectively, odds ratio (OR) 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-5.02, P = 0.21]. However, the difference was not statistically significant. Similarly, the incidence of postoperative ICH was higher in cases of HT of ischaemic infarcts than in cases of ischaemic infarcts not complicated with HT (19.0 vs 5.3%). However, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.24). The radiological pattern of preoperative cerebral lesions was single in 35.6% and multiple in 60.0% of cases. Multiple cerebral lesions were associated with a non-significantly lower incidence of postoperative ICH than single lesions (5.6 vs 11.9%, respectively, OR: 0.44, CI: 0.11-1.73, P = 0.29). The results suggest that

  19. Predictive Factors for Upgrading Patients with Benign Breast Papillary Lesions Using a Core Needle Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young Ran; Song, Byung Joo; Jung, Sang Seol; Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Sung Hun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Intraductal papilloma (IDP) is a benign breast disease with malignant potential, for which complete surgical excision is usually recommended. The aim of the present study was to investigate predictive factors for upgrading patients with a benign papillary lesion (BPL). Methods This study was an observational study using a prospectively collected cohort. In total, 13,049 patients who underwent a core needle biopsy (CNB) for a breast lesion between January 2009 and May 2015 were enrolled. We reviewed all patients with pathologically confirmed BPL from a CNB. Results Surgical treatment was performed for 363 out of a total of 592 lesions. According to the pathological differences, the lowest upgrade rate was shown in IDP without atypia (without atypia, 6.0%; with atypia, 26.8%; papillary neoplasm, 31.5%; p<0.001). The univariate analysis showed that, in IDP without atypia, the age at diagnosis, size of BPL on ultrasonography, and density on mammography were associated with upgrading. The multivariate analysis revealed that age >54 years and lesion size >1 cm were significantly associated with upgrade to malignancy (odds ratio [OR]=4.351, p=0.005 and OR=4.236, p=0.001, respectively). Conclusion The indications for surgical treatment can be defined as age >54 years and mass size >1 cm, even in IDP without atypia in the CNB results; this also includes cases of IDP with atypia or papillary neoplasm. Therefore, we suggest that close observation without surgery is sufficient for younger women with a small IDP without atypia. PMID:28053629

  20. HVC lesions modify immediate early gene expression in auditory forebrain regions of female songbirds.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Kathleen S; Kleitz-Nelson, Hayley K; Ball, Gregory F

    2013-04-01

    It is well established that auditory forebrain regions of oscine birds are essential for the encoding of species-typical songs and are, therefore, vital for recognition of song during sociosexual interactions. Regions such as the caudal medial nidopallium (NCM) and the caudal medial mesopallium (CMM) are involved in perceptual processing of song and the formation of auditory memories. There is an additional telencephalic nucleus, however, that has also been implicated in species recognition. This nucleus is HVC, a prominent nucleus that sits at the apex of the song system, and is well known for its critical role in song learning and song production in male songbirds. Here, we explore the functional relationship between auditory forebrain regions (i.e., NCM and CMM) and HVC in female canaries (Serinus canaria). We lesion HVC and examine immediate early gene responses to conspecific song presentation within CMM and NCM to explore whether HVC can modulate auditory responses within these forebrain regions. Our results reveal robust deficits in ZENK-ir in CMM and NCM of HVC-lesioned females when compared with control- and sham-lesioned females, indicating that functional connections exists between HVC and NCM/CMM. Although these connected regions have been implicated in song learning and production in males, they likely serve distinct functions in female songbirds that face the task of song recognition rather than song production. Identifying functional connections between HVC and auditory regions involved in song perception is an essential step toward developing a comprehensive understanding of the neural basis of song recognition.

  1. Predicting Visual Semantic Descriptive Terms from Radiological Image Data: Preliminary Results with Liver Lesions in CT

    PubMed Central

    Depeursinge, Adrien; Kurtz, Camille; Beaulieu, Christopher F.; Napel, Sandy; Rubin, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a framework to model visual semantics of liver lesions in CT images in order to predict the visual semantic terms (VST) reported by radiologists in describing these lesions. Computational models of VST are learned from image data using high–order steerable Riesz wavelets and support vector machines (SVM). The organization of scales and directions that are specific to every VST are modeled as linear combinations of directional Riesz wavelets. The models obtained are steerable, which means that any orientation of the model can be synthesized from linear combinations of the basis filters. The latter property is leveraged to model VST independently from their local orientation. In a first step, these models are used to predict the presence of each semantic term that describes liver lesions. In a second step, the distances between all VST models are calculated to establish a non–hierarchical computationally–derived ontology of VST containing inter–term synonymy and complementarity. A preliminary evaluation of the proposed framework was carried out using 74 liver lesions annotated with a set of 18 VSTs from the RadLex ontology. A leave–one–patient–out cross–validation resulted in an average area under the ROC curve of 0.853 for predicting the presence of each VST when using SVMs in a feature space combining the magnitudes of the steered models with CT intensities. Likelihood maps are created for each VST, which enables high transparency of the information modeled. The computationally–derived ontology obtained from the VST models was found to be consistent with the underlying semantics of the visual terms. It was found to be complementary to the RadLex ontology, and constitutes a potential method to link the image content to visual semantics. The proposed framework is expected to foster human–computer synergies for the interpretation of radiological images while using rotation–covariant computational models of VSTs to (1) quantify their

  2. Vision After Early-Onset Lesions of the Occipital Cortex: II. Physiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Knyazeva, M. G.; Maeder, P.; Kiper, D. C.; Deonna, T.; Innocenti, G. M.

    2002-01-01

    In one of two patients (MS and FJ) with bilateral, early-onset lesion of the primary visual cortex, Kiper et al. (2002) observed a considerable degree of functional recovery. To clarify the physiological mechanisms involved in the recovery, we used fMRI and quantitative EEG to study both patients. The fMRI investigations indicated that in both patients, isolated islands of the primary visual cortex are functioning, in the right hemisphere in MS and in the left in FJ. The functional recovery observed in MS roughly correlated with the functional maturation of interhemispheric connections and might reflect the role of corticocortical connectivity in visual perception. The functionality of interhemispheric connections was assessed by analyzing the changes in occipital inter-hemispheric coherence of EEG signals (ICoh) evoked by moving gratings. In the patient MS, this ICoh response was present at 7:11 y and was more mature at 9:2 y. In the more visually mpaired patient, FJ, a consistent increase in ICoh to visual stimuli could not be obtained, possibly because of the later occurrence of the lesion. PMID:12458787

  3. Arrested development: early prefrontal lesions impair the maturation of moral judgement

    PubMed Central

    Taber-Thomas, Bradley C.; Asp, Erik W.; Koenigs, Michael; Sutterer, Matthew; Anderson, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Learning to make moral judgements based on considerations beyond self-interest is a fundamental aspect of moral development. A deficit in such learning is associated with poor socialization and criminal behaviour. The neural systems required for the acquisition and maturation of moral competency are not well understood. Here we show in a unique sample of neurological patients that focal lesions involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex, acquired during development, result in an abnormally egocentric pattern of moral judgement. In response to simple hypothetical moral scenarios, the patients were more likely than comparison participants to endorse self-interested actions that involved breaking moral rules or physically harming others in order to benefit themselves. This pattern (which we also found in subjects with psychopathy) differs from that of patients with adult-onset ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions—the latter group showed normal rejection of egocentric rule violations. This novel contrast of patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions acquired during development versus during adulthood yields new evidence suggesting that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex is a critical neural substrate for the acquisition and maturation of moral competency that goes beyond self-interest to consider the welfare of others. Disruption to this affective neural system early in life interrupts moral development. PMID:24519974

  4. Early ischemic lesions following subarachnoid hemorrhage: common cold remedy as precipitating factor?

    PubMed

    Genonceaux, Sandrine; Cosnard, Guy; Van De Wyngaert, Françoise; Hantson, Philippe

    2011-03-01

    A 46-year-old woman presented with tetraplegia contrasting with a relatively preserved consciousness following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Multiple ischemic lesions were detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in the absence of vasospasm or signs of increased intracranial pressure. During the weeks before SAH, the patient had repeatedly used a nasal decongestant containing phenylephrine. After coiling of the aneurysm harboured by the right posterior cerebral artery, symptomatic vasospasm developed in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery and required aggressive therapy by intra-arterial infusion of milrinone followed by continuous intravenous administration. Follow-up MRI did not reveal new ischemic lesions. Echocardiography had demonstrated the presence of a patent foramen ovale. At 3 months follow-up, a major motor deficit persisted with akinetic mutism. The mechanisms of multiple early infarction following aneurysmal SAH are still debated, as vasospasm is usually not seen on the first imaging. Among precipitating factors of microvascular vasospasm, vasoactive substances like phenylephrine, may play a significant role.

  5. Early Breast Cancer Precursor Lesions: Lessons Learned from Molecular and Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sinn, Hans-Peter; Elsawaf, Zeinab; Helmchen, Birgit; Aulmann, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), flat epithelial atypia (FEA), and lobular neoplasia (LN) form a group of early precursor lesions that are part of the low-grade pathway in breast cancer development. This concept implies that the neoplastic disease process begins at a stage much earlier than in situ carcinoma. We have performed a review of the published literature for the upgrade risk to ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma in open biopsy after a diagnosis of ADH, FEA, or LN in core needle biopsy. This has revealed the highest upgrade risk for ADH (28.2% after open biopsy), followed by LN (14.9%), and FEA (10.2%). With LN, the pleomorphic subtype is believed to confer a higher risk than classical LN. With all types of precursor lesions, careful attention must be paid to the clinicopathological correlation for the guidance of the clinical management. Follow-up biopsies are generally indicated in ADH, and if there is any radiological-pathological discrepancy, also in LN or FEA. PMID:22590441

  6. Nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals for nondestructive repair of early caries lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuma, Kazuo; Yamagishi, Kazue; Oyane, Ayako

    2005-08-01

    Characterization of synthetic enamel formed by newly developed dental paste for repairing early caries lesions was performed using scanning and transmission electron microscopies and atomic force microscopy, with the chemical composition analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was shown that the hydroxyapatite nanocrystals seamlessly grew in the interface between the paste and tooth enamel, and arranged their (0 0 0 1) face parallel to the tooth surface same as enamel apatite. The rapid growth of high crystalline large hydroxyapatite crystals by applying the paste is attributed to the dissociation of calcium phosphate clusters, Ca 9(PO 4) 6, which is the main growth unit of hydroxyapatite when it grows under physiological conditions, to ionic species in the concentrated and low pH phosphate solution.

  7. Use of the HPV MLPA assay in cervical cytology for the prediction of high grade lesions.

    PubMed

    Litjens, Rogier J N T M; Theelen, Wendy; van de Pas, Yvonne; Ossel, Jessica; Reijans, Martin; Simons, Guus; Speel, Ernst-Jan M; Slangen, Brigitte F M; Ramaekers, Frans C S; Kruitwagen, Roy F P M; Hopman, Anton H N

    2013-08-01

    Current screening methods for uterine cervical cancer such as Papanicolaou smears and/or high risk human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) detection have a high negative predictive value but a low positive predictive value for the presence of high grade cervical lesions. Therefore, new parameters are needed to reduce the rate of unnecessary referrals for colposcopy. The predictive value of the HPV multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay, which can assess simultaneously HPV16/18 viral load and viral integration, was evaluated. The assay was applied to 170 cervical cytological samples, and the results were correlated with the matching histological follow-up. The GP5+/6+ assay and qPCR were used as a control for HR-HPV typing. The MLPA assay classified a higher percentage of cases as high-risk (high-viral load and/or viral integration) with higher grades of dysplasia. There was a high correlation between the HPV MLPA assay and qPCR for viral load and HPV genotyping, and between the MLPA assay and the GP5+/6+ assay for HPV genotyping. The sensitivity and specificity of the HPV MLPA assay for the detection of high-grade lesions were 44% and 93%, respectively. This study demonstrates that the HPV MLPA assay can reliably detect HPV 16/18, viral load, and viral integration in cytological samples. Also, high-risk classification correlated well with the presence of high-grade dysplasia. However, for the implementation of the MLPA assay into clinical practice, additional HR-HPV types need to be included to increase the sensitivity of the assay, and thereby increase its negative predictive value.

  8. Prediction Score for Antimony Treatment Failure in Patients with Ulcerative Leishmaniasis Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dujardin, Jean Claude; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Chappuis, François; Zimic, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    Background Increased rates for failure in leishmaniasis antimony treatment have been recently recognized worldwide. Although several risk factors have been identified there is no clinical score to predict antimony therapy failure of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods A case control study was conducted in Peru from 2001 to 2004. 171 patients were treated with pentavalent antimony and followed up to at least 6 months to determine cure or failure. Only patients with ulcerative cutaneous leishmaniasis (N = 87) were considered for data analysis. Epidemiological, demographical, clinical and laboratory data were analyzed to identify risk factors for treatment failure. Two prognostic scores for antimonial treatment failure were tested for sensitivity and specificity to predict antimony therapy failure by comparison with treatment outcome. Results Among 87 antimony-treated patients, 18 (21%) failed the treatment and 69 (79%) were cured. A novel risk factor for treatment failure was identified: presence of concomitant distant lesions. Patients presenting concomitant-distant lesions showed a 30.5-fold increase in the risk of treatment failure compared to other patients. The best prognostic score for antimonial treatment failure showed a sensitivity of 77.78% and specificity of 95.52% to predict antimony therapy failure. Conclusions A prognostic score including a novel risk factor was able to predict antimonial treatment failure in cutaneous leishmaniasis with high specificity and sensitivity. This prognostic score presents practical advantages as it relies on clinical and epidemiological characteristics, easily obtained by physicians or health workers, and makes it a promising clinical tool that needs to be validated before their use for developing countries. PMID:22720098

  9. The Predictive Validity of the Early Warning System Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Evelyn; Semmelroth, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    The Early Warning System is a tool developed by the National High School Center to collect data on indicators including attendance, grade point average, course failures, and credits earned. These indicators have been found to be highly predictive of a student's likelihood of dropping out of high school in large, urban areas. The Early Warning…

  10. The Predictive Validity of the Early Warning System Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Evelyn; Semmelroth, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    The Early Warning System is a tool developed by the National High School Center to collect data on indicators including attendance, grade point average, course failures, and credits earned. These indicators have been found to be highly predictive of a student's likelihood of dropping out of high school in large, urban areas. The Early Warning…

  11. Remineralization of early enamel caries lesions using different bioactive elements containing toothpastes: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Li; Gong, Lin; Li, Jialing; He, Shaowei; Ji, Yan; Sun, Weibin

    2016-09-14

    found in surface hardness and roughness between Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief and NovaMin® during the pH-cycling test and acid resistance test (P= 0.45 and P= 0.83, respectively). Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief and NovaMin® present an advantage in enhancing remineralization and inhibiting demineralization for early enamel carious lesions in comparison with GC Tooth Mousse.

  12. Early Numeracy Indicators: Examining Predictive Utility Across Years and States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conoyer, Sarah J.; Foegen, Anne; Lembke, Erica S.

    2016-01-01

    Two studies using similar methods in two states investigated the long-term predictive utility of two single-skill early numeracy Curriculum Based Measures (CBMs) and the degree to which they can adequately predict high-stakes test scores. Data were drawn from kindergarten and first-grade students. State standardized assessment data from the…

  13. Early Numeracy Indicators: Examining Predictive Utility Across Years and States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conoyer, Sarah J.; Foegen, Anne; Lembke, Erica S.

    2016-01-01

    Two studies using similar methods in two states investigated the long-term predictive utility of two single-skill early numeracy Curriculum Based Measures (CBMs) and the degree to which they can adequately predict high-stakes test scores. Data were drawn from kindergarten and first-grade students. State standardized assessment data from the…

  14. Predicting Future Morphological Changes of Lesions from Radiotracer Uptake in 18F-FDG-PET Images

    PubMed Central

    Bagci, Ulas; Yao, Jianhua; Miller-Jaster, Kirsten; Chen, Xinjian; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a novel computational framework to enable automated identification of texture and shape features of lesions on 18F-FDG-PET images through a graph-based image segmentation method. The proposed framework predicts future morphological changes of lesions with high accuracy. The presented methodology has several benefits over conventional qualitative and semi-quantitative methods, due to its fully quantitative nature and high accuracy in each step of (i) detection, (ii) segmentation, and (iii) feature extraction. To evaluate our proposed computational framework, thirty patients received 2 18F-FDG-PET scans (60 scans total), at two different time points. Metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma, cerebellar hemongioblastoma, non-small cell lung cancer, neurofibroma, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, lung neoplasm, neuroendocrine tumor, soft tissue thoracic mass, nonnecrotizing granulomatous inflammation, renal cell carcinoma with papillary and cystic features, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, metastatic alveolar soft part sarcoma, and small cell lung cancer were included in this analysis. The radiotracer accumulation in patients' scans was automatically detected and segmented by the proposed segmentation algorithm. Delineated regions were used to extract shape and textural features, with the proposed adaptive feature extraction framework, as well as standardized uptake values (SUV) of uptake regions, to conduct a broad quantitative analysis. Evaluation of segmentation results indicates that our proposed segmentation algorithm has a mean dice similarity coefficient of 85.75±1.75%. We found that 28 of 68 extracted imaging features were correlated well with SUVmax (p<0.05), and some of the textural features (such as entropy and maximum probability) were superior in predicting morphological changes of radiotracer uptake regions longitudinally, compared to single intensity feature such as SUVmax. We also found that integrating textural features with SUV measurements

  15. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-04-19

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations.

  16. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  17. In vivo remineralising effect of GC tooth mousse on early dental enamel lesions: SEM analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrazzano, Gianmaria F; Amato, Ivana; Cantile, Tiziana; Sangianantoni, Giancarla; Ingenito, Aniello

    2011-08-01

    Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomplexes (CPP-ACP) exhibit anticariogenic potential in laboratory, animal and human experiments. The remineralising potential of synthetic CPPs on early enamel caries was investigated. In vivo study. University of Naples 'Federico II', School of Dentistry, Department of Paediatric Dentistry, 2010, Italy. 40 volunteers (age range 10-16 years) were recruited and divided in two groups of 20 (Group A and B). In Group A subjects two demineralised enamel specimens were placed on the buccal surfaces of the first molars and subjects were instructed to apply a commercial product containing CPPs (GC Tooth Mousse) only on the right-sided specimen and a placebo mousse on the left, for 1 month. In Group B subjects two enamel specimens were similarly placed into the mouth and used as controls. SEM analysis revealed a diffuse and homogeneous mineral coating, reducing the surface alterations only in the demineralised specimens treated with synthetic CPPs into the mouth. Results demonstrate that CPPs are able to promote remineralisation of early enamel lesions. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.

  18. Predictive factors of resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin and coronary artery lesions in Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We conducted a study to determine which factors may be useful as predictive markers in identifying Kawasaki disease (KD) patients with a high risk of resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and developing coronary artery lesions (CAL). Methods We enrolled 287 patients in acute phase of KD at a single center. The demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected retrospectively. Results There were 34 patients in the IVIG resistant group. The IVIG resistant group had significantly higher serum N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic protein (NT-proBNP) levels (P<0.01) and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) percentage (P<0.01) in comparison to the IVIG responders. The results yielded sensitivity (78.8%, 60.6%), specificity (58.2%, 90%) and cutoff value (628.6 pg/mL, 80.3%) of NT-proBNP and PMN respectively, in predicting IVIG resistance. Despite IVIG administration, 13 of the 287 patients developed CAL. The patients in the CAL group had higher NT-proBNP levels (P<0.01) and higher PMN percentage (P<0.01). In these patients, the results yielded sensitivity (73.3%, 56.7%), specificity (67.9%, 88.9%) and cutoff value (853.4 pg/mL, 80.3%) of NT-proBNP and PMN respectively, for predicting CAL. The area under the curve (AUC) for predicting resistance to IVIG was NT-proBNP 0.712, PMN 0.802. The AUC for predicting CAL was NT-proBNP 0.739, and PMN 0.773. Conclusion Serum NT-proBNP levels and PMN percentage were significantly elevated in patients with KD with IVIG resistance and CAL. Thus, they may be useful predicting markers for IVIG resistance and development of CAL in KD patients. PMID:28194213

  19. Predicting malignant transformation of esophageal squamous cell lesions by combined biomarkers in an endoscopic screening program

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Hao; Ma, Qing; Yang, Fang-Yan; Diao, Tao-Yu

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the association of p53, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA19-9 protein expression with esophageal carcinogenesis. METHODS An iodine staining endoscopic screening program of esophageal lesions was carried out in the high-incidence area of Feicheng County, China. Seventy-seven patients with basal cell hyperplasia (BCH), 247 with low-grade dysplasia (LGD), 51 with high-grade dysplasia (HGD), 134 with invasive cancer, and 80 normal controls diagnosed by mucous membrane biopsy pathology were enrolled. Immunohistochemical detection of p53, CEA and CA19-9 proteins was performed. In the ROC curve analysis, the expression of a single biomarker and the expression of a combination of biomarkers were used to predict the risk of these four esophageal lesions. RESULTS The positive rates of p53 protein expression in invasive cancer, HGD, LGD, BCH and the normal control groups were 53.0%, 52.9%, 35.6%, 27.3% and 20.0%, respectively; the positive rates of CA19-9 protein expression were 44.0%, 33.3%, 16.5%, 9.2% and 6.2%, respectively; the positive rates of CEA protein expression were 74.6%, 60.8%, 23.3%, 23.7% and 16.2%, respectively. The positive rates of the combined expression of the three biomarkers were 84.3%, 76.5%, 47.6%, 42.9% and 27.5%, respectively. In the receiver operating characteristic curves of the combination of the three biomarkers, the specificity was 88.8% for the normal controls, and the sensitivity was 58.2% for invasive cancer, 25.5% for HGD, 11.2% for LGD, and 6.5% for BCH. CONCLUSION p53, CEA and CA19-9 protein expression was correlated with esophageal carcinogenesis, and testing for the combination of these biomarkers is useful for identifying high-risk patients with precancerous lesions. PMID:27818592

  20. Depth-resolved nanoscale nuclear architecture mapping for early prediction of cancer progression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttam, Shikhar; Pham, Hoa V.; LaFace, Justin; Hartman, Douglas J.; Liu, Yang

    2016-03-01

    Effective management of patients who are at risk of developing invasive cancer is a primary challenge in early cancer detection. Techniques that can help establish clear-cut protocols for successful triaging of at-risk patients have the potential of providing critical help in improving patient care while simultaneously reducing patient cost. We have developed such a technique for early prediction of cancer progression that uses unstained tissue sections to provide depth-resolved nanoscale nuclear architecture mapping (nanoNAM) of heterogeneity in optical density alterations manifested in precancerous lesions during cancer progression. We present nanoNAM and its application to predicting cancer progression in a well-established mouse model of spontaneous carcinogenesis: ApcMin/+ mice.

  1. Do positive or negative stressful events predict the development of new brain lesions in people with Multiple Sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Michelle Nicole; Nawacki, Ewa; Kwasny, Mary J.; Pelletier, Daniel; Mohr, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Stressful life events have long been suspected to contribute to multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity. The few studies examining the relationship between stressful events and neuroimaging markers have been small and inconsistent. This study examined whether different types of stressful events and perceived stress could predict development of brain lesions. Methods This was a secondary analysis of 121 patients with MS followed for 48 weeks during a randomized controlled trial comparing Stress Management Therapy for MS to a waitlist control. Patients underwent MRI’s every 8 weeks. Monthly, patients completed an interview measure assessing stressful life events, and self-report measures of perceived stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, which were used to predict the presence of gadolinium enhancing (Gd+) and T2 lesions on MRI’s 29–62 days later. Participants classified stressful events as positive or negative. Negative events were considered “major” if they involved physical threat or threat to the patient’s family structure, and “moderate” otherwise. Results Positive stressful events predicted decreased risk for subsequent Gd+ lesions in the control group (OR=.53 for each additional positive stressful event, 95% CI=.30–.91) and less risk for new or enlarging T2 lesions regardless of group assignment (OR=.74, 95% CI=.55–.99). Across groups, major negative stressful events predicted Gd+ lesions (OR=1.77, 95% CI=1.18–2.64) and new or enlarging T2 lesions (OR=1.57, 95% CI=1.11–2.23), while moderate negative stressful events, perceived stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms did not. Conclusions Major negative stressful events predict increased risk for Gd+ and T2 lesions, while positive stressful events predict decreased risk. PMID:23680407

  2. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in early cutaneous melanocytic lesion progression.

    PubMed

    Einspahr, Janine G; Thomas, Tracy L; Saboda, Kathylynn; Nickolof, Brian J; Warneke, James; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Ranger-Moore, James; Duckett, Laura; Bangert, Jerry; Fruehauf, John P; Alberts, David S

    2007-12-01

    A considerable body of evidence supports the concept that a significant number of cutaneous malignant melanomas progress through a precursor lesion or dysplastic melanocytic nevi (DN). Tumor angiogenesis likely plays a critical role in early development of melanoma, and intermediate biomarkers of angiogenesis could be useful as chemoprevention and prognostic markers. Markers of angiogenesis that included expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and microvessel density counts (MVD) were evaluated in 13 prospectively collected benign nevi (BN) and 19 DN from 16 individuals and in a comparison group of 17 primary melanomas (16 archival samples and 1 prospective melanoma). VEGF expression in melanocytic cells (mean+/-standard error [SE]) was low or absent in BN (3.4+/-1.4), increased significantly in DN (41.0+/-10.1; P=.0003 for BN vs DN), and increased further in primary melanoma (119.9+/-28.3; P = .06 for DN vs melanoma). MVD using CD31 (mean+/-SE [percentage x intensity]) followed a similar pattern with similarity between BN (2.6+/-0.7; N=13) and DN (2.2+/-0.8; N=19; P=.4 for BN vs DN), whereas primary melanomas were significantly higher (39.4+/-6.4; N=17; P=.0001 for BN or DN vs melanoma). In a prospective setting, the current data suggested that increased VEGF-A expression in DN may be a good indicator of preneoplastic change in melanocytic lesions with the potential for improving the understanding and prevention of the transformation of DN to melanoma. Copyright (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.

  3. Early magnetic resonance imaging prediction of arterial recanalization and late infarct volume in acute carotid artery stroke.

    PubMed

    Hermier, Marc; Nighoghossian, Norbert; Adeleine, Patrice; Berthezène, Yves; Derex, Laurent; Yilmaz, Hasan; Dugor, Jean-François; Dardel, Pascal; Cotton, François; Philippeau, Frédéric; Trouillas, Paul; Froment, Jean-Claude

    2003-02-01

    In patients with acute ischemic stroke, early recanalization may save tissue at risk for ischemic infarction, thus resulting in smaller infarcts and better clinical outcome. The hypothesis that clinical and diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging (DWI, PWI) parameters may have a predictive value for early recanalization and final infarct size was assessed. Twenty-nine patients were prospectively enrolled and underwent sequential magnetic resonance imaging (1) within 6 hours from hemispheric stroke onset, before thrombolytic therapy; (2) at day 1; and (3) at day 60. Late infarct volume was assessed by T2 -weighted imaging. At each time, clinical status was assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Twenty-eight patients had arterial occlusion at day 0 magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). They were classified into two groups according to day 1 MRA: recanalization (n = 18) versus persistent occlusion (n = 10). Any significant differences between these groups were assessed regarding (1) PWI and DWI abnormality volumes, (2) relative and absolute time-to-peak (TTP) and apparent diffusion coefficient within the lesion on DWI; and (3) day 60 lesion volume on T2 -weighted imaging. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the most powerful predictive factors for recanalization were lower baseline NIHSS score and lower baseline absolute TTP within the lesion on DWI. The best predictors of late infarct size were day 0 lesion volume on DWI and day 1 recanalization. Early PWI and DWI studies and day 1 MRA provide relevant predictive information on stroke outcome.

  4. Early prognosis after severe traumatic brain injury with minor or absent computed tomography scan lesions.

    PubMed

    Calvi, Maria Rosa; Rosa, Calvi Maria; Beretta, Luigi; Luigi, Beretta; Dell'Acqua, Antonio; Antonio, Dell'Acqua; Anzalone, Nicoletta; Nicoletta, Anzalone; Licini, Gloria; Gloria, Licini; Gemma, Marco; Marco, Gemma

    2011-02-01

    To assess the prognostic value of corpus callosum lesions (CCL) and brain stem lesions (BSL) in diffuse axonal injury (DAI) patients. From December 1989 to December 2008, 102 consecutive patients with pure DAI were admitted to our neurosurgical intensive care unit. Age, gender, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation score, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), pupillary light reactivity on admission, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 24 hours to 72 hours after trauma and sepsis, shock, adult respiratory distress syndrome, renal failure, neurosurgery, high intracranial pressure during the 6 months posttrauma were studied with multiple logistic regression, and Cox's proportional hazards, respectively, considering the Glasgow Outcome Scale and the time to recovery of consciousness as outcome variables. Four variables predicted unfavorable Glasgow Outcome Scale (likelihood ratio p<0.0001; Area Under the Receiver Operator Curve (AUROC)=0.92; Naglekerke's R=0.64; Goodness-of-Fit p=0.8679): age (5-year odds ratio [OR], 1.44; 95% CI, 1.14-1.82; p=0.002), bilateral absence of light reflexes (OR, 11.11; 95% CI, 2.19-57.67; p=0.004), multiplicity of CCL (OR, 29.23; 95% CI, 7.06-121.01; p<0.001), and multiplicity of BSL (OR, 9.43; 95% CI, 2.44-36.42; p=0.001). Four variables affected time to recovery of consciousness: age (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.99; p=0.009), bilateral absence of light reflexes (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.27-0.97; p=0.041), multiplicity of CCL (hazard ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.25-0.66; p<0.001), and total GCS on admission (hazard ratio, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.23-1.71; p<0.001). In DAI patients, bad outcome is predicted by age, bilateral absence of pupillary light reflexes, multiplicity of CCL, and BSL on MRI. Time to recovery of consciousness is predicted by age, bilateral absence of light reflexes, multiplicity of CCL on MRI, and GCS on admission.

  5. Tumor Budding Is Independently Predictive for Lymph Node Involvement in Early Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gulluoglu, Mine; Yegen, Gulcin; Ozluk, Yasemin; Keskin, Metin; Dogan, Serap; Gundogdu, Gökçen; Onder, Semen; Balik, Emre

    2015-08-01

    The most important prognostic factor for early gastric cancer (EGC) is the lymph node status. It is important to predict early lesions without lymph node metastasis (LNM) before proceeding to radical surgery in locally excised lesions. Tumor budding is a feature known to be related to aggressive tumor behavior in several solid tumors. We aimed to assess the predictive value of tumor budding for LNM in pT1a and pT1b gastric cancer. We retrospectively investigated radical gastrectomy specimens for of 126 EGC patients and assess the possible relation between the clinicopathologic features, including age, gender, tumor location, tumor size, macroscopic tumor type, histologic differentiation, depth and width of submucosal invasion, lymphovascular invasion, and tumor budding with lymph node involvement. Among the 126 EGCs, 38 were stages as pT1a and 88 as pT1b. LNM rate in pT1a tumors was 13% whereas it was 33% in pT1b tumors. Tumor budding was the only factor significantly and independently related to LNM in pT1a patients. Female gender and tumor budding were found to be independent risk factors in pT1b group. Other clinicopathologic features were not related to LNM. Based on these results, we suggest that budding is a promising parameter to assess for prediction of LNM in EGC removed by endoscopic surgery, and to decide on the appropriate surgical approach. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Pre-diagnostic digital imaging prediction model to discriminate between malignant melanoma and benign pigmented skin lesion.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jeppe H; Soerensen, Mads B T; Linghui, Zhong; Chen, Sun; Jensen, Morten O

    2010-02-01

    Malignant cutaneous melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer with an increasing incidence over the past decades. The final diagnosis provided is typically based on a biopsy of the skin lesion under consideration. To assist the naked-eye examination and decision on whether or not a biopsy is necessary, digital image processing techniques provide promising results. The hypothesis of this study was that a computer-aided assessment tool could assist the evaluation of a pigmented skin lesion. Hence, the overall aim was to discriminate between malignant and benign pigmented skin lesions using digital image processing. Discriminating algorithms utilizing novel well-established morphological operations and methods were constructed. The algorithms were implemented utilizing graphical programming (LabVIEW Vision). Verification was performed with reference to an image database consisting of 97 pigmented skin lesion pictures of various resolutions and light distributions. The outcome of the algorithms was analysed statistically with MATLAB and a prediction model was constructed. The prediction model evaluates pigmented skin lesions with regards to the overall shape, border and colour distribution with a total of nine different discriminating parameters. The prediction model outputs an index score, and by using the optimal threshold value, a diagnostic accuracy of 77% in discriminating between malignant and benign skin lesions was obtained. This is an improvement compared with the naked-eye analysis performed by professionals, rendering the system a significant assistance in detecting malignant cutaneous melanoma.

  7. The Role of Epilepsy in Early Language Development in a Child with a Congenital Lesion in the Right Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayor-Dubois, C.; Maeder-Ingvar, M.; Deonna, T.; Roulet-Perez, E.

    2008-01-01

    Early epilepsy is known to worsen the developmental prognosis of young children with a congenital focal brain lesion, but its direct role is often very difficult to delineate from the other variables. This requires prolonged periods of follow-up with simultaneous serial electrophysiological and developmental assessments which are rarely obtained.…

  8. The Role of Epilepsy in Early Language Development in a Child with a Congenital Lesion in the Right Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayor-Dubois, C.; Maeder-Ingvar, M.; Deonna, T.; Roulet-Perez, E.

    2008-01-01

    Early epilepsy is known to worsen the developmental prognosis of young children with a congenital focal brain lesion, but its direct role is often very difficult to delineate from the other variables. This requires prolonged periods of follow-up with simultaneous serial electrophysiological and developmental assessments which are rarely obtained.…

  9. Differential neural mechanisms for early and late prediction error detection

    PubMed Central

    Malekshahi, Rahim; Seth, Anil; Papanikolaou, Amalia; Mathews, Zenon; Birbaumer, Niels; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.; Caria, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that prediction, instantiated at different perceptual levels, facilitate visual processing and enable prompt and appropriate reactions. Until now, the mechanisms underlying the effect of predictive coding at different stages of visual processing have still remained unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate early and late processing of spatial prediction violation by performing combined recordings of saccadic eye movements and fast event-related fMRI during a continuous visual detection task. Psychophysical reverse correlation analysis revealed that the degree of mismatch between current perceptual input and prior expectations is mainly processed at late rather than early stage, which is instead responsible for fast but general prediction error detection. Furthermore, our results suggest that conscious late detection of deviant stimuli is elicited by the assessment of prediction error’s extent more than by prediction error per se. Functional MRI and functional connectivity data analyses indicated that higher-level brain systems interactions modulate conscious detection of prediction error through top-down processes for the analysis of its representational content, and possibly regulate subsequent adaptation of predictive models. Overall, our experimental paradigm allowed to dissect explicit from implicit behavioral and neural responses to deviant stimuli in terms of their reliance on predictive models. PMID:27079423

  10. Predictive value of red blood cell distribution width for coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haiyan; Fu, Songling; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Jian; Gao, Lichao; Zhu, Weihua; Gong, Fangqi

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that elevated red blood cell distribution width is associated with poor outcome in cardiovascular diseases. In order to assess the predictive value of red blood cell distribution width, before treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins, for coronary artery lesions in patient with Kawasaki disease, we compared 83 patients with coronary artery lesions and 339 patients without coronary artery lesions before treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. Clinical, echocardiographic, and biochemical values were evaluated along with red blood cell distribution width. A total of 422 consecutive patients with Kawasaki disease were enrolled into our study. According to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the optimal red blood cell distribution width cut-off value for predicting coronary artery lesions was 14.55% (area under the curve was 0.721; p=0.000); eighty-three patients (19.7%) had coronary artery lesions, and 70% of the patients with coronary artery lesions had red blood cell distribution width level >14.55%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that fever duration >14 days (odds ratio was 3.42, 95% confidence interval was 1.27-9.22; p=0.015), intravenous immunoglobulin resistance (odds ratio was 2.33, 95% confidence interval was 1.02-5.29; p=0.04), and red blood cell distribution width >14.55% (odds ratio was 3.49, 95% confidence interval was 2.01-6.05; p=0.000) were independent predictors of coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease. In Conclusion, red blood cell distribution width may be helpful for predicting coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease.

  11. Spinal Cord Lesion by Minor Trauma as an Early Sign of Multiple System Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Brum, Marisa; Reimão, Sofia; Sousa, Djalma; de Carvalho, Rui; Ferreira, Joaquim J.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is characterized clinically by parkinsonism, cerebellar, autonomic, and corticospinal features of variable severity. When the presentation is only parkinsonism, the disease might be difficult to differentiate from Parkinson’s disease (PD). We present a case of an 80-year-old man with previous diagnosis of PD. One year after the diagnosis, he had a whiplash cervical trauma due to a tricycle accident caused by a hole in the road. This low-energy trauma caused an unstable C4–C5 cervical fracture with spinal cord injury, which required surgical decompression and stabilization. Neurological examination showed marked postural instability, no rest and postural tremor, finger tapping slowed on the right, spastic tetraparesis (ASIA D) – predominantly on the left side, brisk deep tendon reflexes in the upper and lower extremities, and bilateral extensor plantar response. He also presented with vertical gaze restriction, mild hypometria in horizontal saccades, moderate dysphagia, and dysphonia. As atypical parkinsonism was suspected, he underwent an MRI that revealed conjunction of findings suggestive of parkinsonian-type MSA. In our case, we hypothesize that the loss of postural reflexes, as an early manifestation of MSA, did not allow the patient to have an effective reaction response to a low-energy trauma, resulting in a more severe injury. With this case report, we speculate that the severe spinal lesions caused by minor accidents can be an early sign of postural instability, which may lead to clinical suspicion of neurodegenerative disorder manifested by postural reflexes impairment. PMID:27014185

  12. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate remineralization of primary teeth early enamel lesions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunhua; Zhang, Dongliang; Bai, Yuxing; Li, Song

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is a serious problem that progresses rapidly and often goes untreated. Current traumatic treatments may be replaced by safe and effective remineralization at very early stages. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the remineralization effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste on enamel lesions by assessing ultrastructure, nanomechanical properties, and compound and elemental analysis. Enamel specimens from 6-year-old children were divided into groups: (1) native enamel; (2) water as negative control; (3) 500ppm NaF as positive control; and (4-7) CPP-ACP paste for 4, 8, 12, and 24h, as test groups. Ultrastructure and roughness were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM); nanohardness and elastic modulus were measured by nanoindentation; compound and crystal size of enamel surface patterns were investigated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). An electron microprobe (EPMA) was used for element analysis. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. The CPP-ACP paste repaired the microstructure of enamel, including prism and interprism, through significantly increased hydroxyapatite crystal size (12.06±0.21nm) and Ca/P molar ratios (1.637±0.096) as compared with NaF (8.56±0.13nm crystal size and 1.397±0.086 Ca/P, p<0.01). Both CPP-ACP and NaF decrease roughness, and increase the nanohardness and elastic modulus, with no significant differences between the materials. The CPP-ACP paste is more suitable for children than NaF, due to advantages for remineralization. The AFM, nanoindentation, EPMA, and XRD are very helpful methods for further understanding of microscale and nanoscale remineralization mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Early detection of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in the cervix with quantitative spectroscopic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mirkovic, Jelena; Yu, Chung-Chieh; O’Donoghue, Geoff P.; Galindo, Luis; Dasari, Ramachandra; de las Morenas, Antonio; Feld, Michael; Stier, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Quantitative spectroscopy has recently been extended from a contact-probe to wide-area spectroscopic imaging to enable mapping of optical properties across a wide area of tissue. We train quantitative spectroscopic imaging (QSI) to identify cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) in 34 subjects undergoing the loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP subjects). QSI’s performance is then prospectively evaluated on the clinically suspicious biopsy sites from 47 subjects undergoing colposcopic-directed biopsy. The results show the per-subject normalized reduced scattering coefficient at 700 nm (An) and the total hemoglobin concentration are significantly different (p<0.05) between HSIL and non-HSIL sites in LEEP subjects. An alone retrospectively distinguishes HSIL from non-HSIL with 89% sensitivity and 83% specificity. It alone applied prospectively on the biopsy sites distinguishes HSIL from non-HSIL with 81% sensitivity and 78% specificity. The findings of this study agree with those of an earlier contact-probe study, validating the robustness of QSI, and specifically An, for identifying HSIL. The performance of An suggests an easy to use and an inexpensive to manufacture monochromatic instrument is capable of early cervical cancer detection, which could be used as a screening and diagnostic tool for detecting cervical cancer in low resource countries. PMID:23843090

  14. The early history of odontogenic ghost cell lesions: from Thoma to Gorlin.

    PubMed

    Ide, Fumio; Kikuchi, Kentaro; Miyazaki, Yuji; Kusama, Kaoru; Saito, Ichiro; Muramatsu, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    To reappraise the early history of odontogenic ghost cell lesions (OGCL), the extensive world literature published from 1838 to 1962 was reviewed. In light of the long history of OGCL, the term "calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe" first appeared in a 1931 French report, and the term "ghost cells" had its origin in two American seminal articles by Thoma and Goldman in 1946. Although Gorlin et al. coined the term "calcifying odontogenic cyst" (COC) in 1962, this type of cyst was initially reported three decades earlier by Rywkind in Russia, and almost concurrently by Blood good in the United States and Sato in Japan. In 1948, Willis provided the initial histological evidence of a peripheral COC in his British pathology textbook. Credit for the earliest clinical presentation of odontoma associated calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor belongs to the American radiology textbook by Thoma in 1917. A Scandinavian journal report published in 1953 by Husted and Pindborg was the first to address a dentinogenic ghost cell tumor, and its peripheral counterpart was originally reported in the Swiss literature 7 years later. The current concept of COC was undoubtedly established by Gorlin et al. but the history of OGCL really started with Thoma's pioneering work about a century ago.

  15. Pre-operative factors that can predict neoplastic polypoid lesions of the gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Byung Hyo; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok; Lee, Sang Hyub; Kim, Jang Eon; Cho, Jai Young; Kim, Haeryoung; Kim, So Yeon

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the preoperative factors that can predict neoplastic polypoid lesions of the gallbladder (PLGs) as well as malignant PLGs. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on the 210 consecutively enrolled patients who underwent cholecystectomy due to a PLG larger than 10 mm, as was determined by preoperative trans-abdominal ultrasonography or endoscopic ultrasonography. We analyzed the medical, laboratory, radiologic data and the pathologic results. RESULTS: In 210 cases, 146 had non-neoplastic polyps (69.5%) and 64 cases were neoplastic polyps (30.5%). An older age (≥ 65 years), the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and the size of polyp (≥ 15 mm) were revealed to be independent predictive variables for neoplastic polyps with odd ratios (OR) of 2.27 (P = 0.044), 2.64 (P = 0.021) and 4.94 (P < 0.01), respectively. Among the neoplastic PLGs, an older age (≥ 65 years), the presence of DM and polyp size (≥ 15 mm) were associated with malignancy with ORs of 4.97 (P = 0.005), 6.13 (P = 0.001) and 20.55 (P < 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSION: Among patients with PLGs larger than 10 mm in size, higher risk groups such as elderly patients more than 65 years old, those with DM or a large polyp size (≥ 15 mm) should be managed by cholecystectomy. PMID:21633532

  16. Early electrophysiological indicators for predictive processing in audition: a review.

    PubMed

    Bendixen, Alexandra; SanMiguel, Iria; Schröger, Erich

    2012-02-01

    The auditory system essentially deals with sequential type of input and thus requires processing that is particularly suited to extract stimulus relations within a sequence. Evidence from a variety of paradigms converges to show that the auditory system automatically uses stimulus predictability for facilitating its sequential processing. This type of predictive processing does not require attentional processing of the sounds or cognitive control of the predictions, nor does it involve the preparation of motor responses to the auditory stimuli. We will present a taxonomy of paradigms and resulting electrophysiological indicators for such automatic predictive processing in terms of event-related potential components and oscillatory activity. These indicators will include signals of fulfilled predictions (match signals such as N1 attenuation, repetition positivity, and early evoked gamma band response enhancement) as well as signals of violated predictions (mismatch signals such as the mismatch negativity and stimulus omission responses). We will show how recent approaches have revealed particularly early indicators of predictive processing down to the level of the auditory middle-latency responses. We will discuss the strength of the various indicators in terms of a truly predictive account of auditory processing (as opposed to, e.g., a retrospective verification of predictions). Finally, we will discuss the benefits of a predictive system within and beyond auditory processing. In conclusion, we argue in favor of the overwhelming evidence for predictions in audition, flexibly instantiated on different levels and timescales, and we aim to provide guidance along a variety of research paradigms illustrating the existence of these predictions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Is high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasonography better for prediction of clinical events induced by carotid vulnerable lesions?

    PubMed

    Qin, Haiqiang; Sui, Binbin; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Guihong; Zhou, Yong; Gao, Peiyi; Wang, Yongjun

    2008-05-01

    To find a better way to predict the clinical events caused by carotid vulnerable lesions via comparison study on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US). Twenty-seven symptomatic stroke patients were recruited, all of which were given both high-resolution MRI and US at bilateral carotids. Respective correlations of high-resolution MRI and US outcomes with clinical events were performed and the lesion numbers identified by high-resolution MRI and US were statistically analysed. Six carotid arteries in six patients were excluded because of uninterpretable high-resolution MRI findings or patients' intolerance. In the remaining 48 carotids analysed, the number of carotid with vulnerable/stable lesion was 17/31 by high-resolution MRI and 25/23 by US, respectively. Contingency coefficient was 0.40 between vulnerable lesion by high-resolution MRI and clinical event (p=0.004), and 0.19 (p=0.221) by US and clinical event, respectively. The difference of detected lesion numbers between high-resolution MRI and US was statistically significant p=0.039) through matched chi-square test. High-resolution MRI may be a better way than US in predicting the clinical events caused by carotid vulnerable lesions.

  18. Does physical abuse in early childhood predict substance use in adolescence and early adulthood?

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E

    2010-05-01

    Prospective longitudinal data from 585 families were used to examine parents' reports of child physical abuse in the first 5 years of life as a predictor of substance use at ages 12, 16, and 24. Path analyses revealed that physical abuse in the first 5 years of life predicted subsequent substance use for females but not males. We found a direct effect of early physical abuse on girls'substance use at age 12 and indirect effects on substance use at age 16 and age 24 through substance use at age 12. For boys, age 12 substance use predicted age 16 substance use, and age 16 substance use predicted age 24 substance use, but physical abuse in the first 5 years of life was unrelated to subsequent substance use. These findings suggest that for females, a mechanism of influence of early physical abuse on substance use into early adulthood appears to be through precocious initiation of substance use in early adolescence.

  19. Children with severe early childhood caries: streptococci genetic strains within carious and white spot lesions.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Kenneth; Joseph, Raphael; Vo, Alex; Patel, Trusha; Chaudhry, Samiya; Nguyen, Uyen; Trevor, Amy; Robinson, Erica; Campbell, Margaret; McLennan, John; Houran, Farielle; Wong, Tristan; Flann, Kendra; Wages, Melissa; Palmer, Elizabeth A; Peterson, John; Engle, John; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A

    2014-01-01

    Mutans streptococci (MS) are one of the major microbiological determinants of dental caries. The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC), and assess if cariogenic MS and non-cariogenic streptococci might independently exist as primary bacterial strains on distinct sites within the dentition of individual children. Dental plaque from children (N=20; aged 3-6) with S-ECC was collected from carious lesions (CLs), white spot lesions (WSLs) and non-carious enamel surfaces. Streptococcal isolates (N=10-20) from each site were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify MS, and arbitrarily primed-PCR for assignment of genetic strains. Primary strains were identified as ≥50% of the total isolates surveyed at any site. In several cases, strains were characterized for acidurity using ATP-driven bioluminescence and subjected to PCR-determination of potential MS virulence products. Identification of non-MS was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Sixty-four independent MS or non-MS streptococcal strains were identified. All children contained 1-6 strains. In many patients (N=11), single primary MS strains were identified throughout the dentition. In other patients (N=4), primary MS strains were identified within CLs that were distinct from primary strains found on enamel. Streptococcus gordonii strains were identified as primary strains on enamel or WSLs in four children, and in general were less aciduric than MS strains. Many children with S-ECC contained only a single primary MS strain that was present in both carious and non-carious sites. In some cases, MS and non-cariogenic S. gordonii strains were found to independently exist as dominant strains at different locations within the dentition of individual children, and the aciduric potential of these strains may influence susceptibility in the

  20. Children with severe early childhood caries: streptococci genetic strains within carious and white spot lesions

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Kenneth; Joseph, Raphael; Vo, Alex; Patel, Trusha; Chaudhry, Samiya; Nguyen, Uyen; Trevor, Amy; Robinson, Erica; Campbell, Margaret; McLennan, John; Houran, Farielle; Wong, Tristan; Flann, Kendra; Wages, Melissa; Palmer, Elizabeth A.; Peterson, John; Engle, John; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Mutans streptococci (MS) are one of the major microbiological determinants of dental caries. The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC), and assess if cariogenic MS and non-cariogenic streptococci might independently exist as primary bacterial strains on distinct sites within the dentition of individual children. Design Dental plaque from children (N=20; aged 3–6) with S-ECC was collected from carious lesions (CLs), white spot lesions (WSLs) and non-carious enamel surfaces. Streptococcal isolates (N=10–20) from each site were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify MS, and arbitrarily primed-PCR for assignment of genetic strains. Primary strains were identified as ≥50% of the total isolates surveyed at any site. In several cases, strains were characterized for acidurity using ATP-driven bioluminescence and subjected to PCR-determination of potential MS virulence products. Identification of non-MS was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results Sixty-four independent MS or non-MS streptococcal strains were identified. All children contained 1–6 strains. In many patients (N=11), single primary MS strains were identified throughout the dentition. In other patients (N=4), primary MS strains were identified within CLs that were distinct from primary strains found on enamel. Streptococcus gordonii strains were identified as primary strains on enamel or WSLs in four children, and in general were less aciduric than MS strains. Conclusions Many children with S-ECC contained only a single primary MS strain that was present in both carious and non-carious sites. In some cases, MS and non-cariogenic S. gordonii strains were found to independently exist as dominant strains at different locations within the dentition of individual children, and the aciduric

  1. [18F]FDG Accumulation in Early Coronary Atherosclerotic Lesions in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Tarkia, Miikka; Saraste, Antti; Stark, Christoffer; Vähäsilta, Tommi; Savunen, Timo; Strandberg, Marjatta; Saunavaara, Virva; Tolvanen, Tuula; Teuho, Jarmo; Teräs, Mika; Metsälä, Olli; Rinne, Petteri; Heinonen, Ilkka; Savisto, Nina; Pietilä, Mikko; Saukko, Pekka; Roivainen, Anne; Knuuti, Juhani

    2015-01-01

    Objective Inflammation is an important contributor to atherosclerosis progression. A glucose analogue 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) has been used to detect atherosclerotic inflammation. However, it is not known to what extent [18F]FDG is taken up in different stages of atherosclerosis. We aimed to study the uptake of [18F]FDG to various stages of coronary plaques in a pig model. Methods First, diabetes was caused by streptozotocin injections (50 mg/kg for 3 days) in farm pigs (n = 10). After 6 months on high-fat diet, pigs underwent dual-gated cardiac PET/CT to measure [18F]FDG uptake in coronary arteries. Coronary segments (n = 33) were harvested for ex vivo measurement of radioactivity and autoradiography (ARG). Results Intimal thickening was observed in 16 segments and atheroma type plaques in 10 segments. Compared with the normal vessel wall, ARG showed 1.7±0.7 times higher [18F]FDG accumulation in the intimal thickening and 4.1±2.3 times higher in the atheromas (P = 0.004 and P = 0.003, respectively). Ex vivo mean vessel-to-blood ratio was higher in segments with atheroma than those without atherosclerosis (2.6±1.2 vs. 1.3±0.7, P = 0.04). In vivo PET imaging showed the highest target-to-background ratio (TBR) of 2.7. However, maximum TBR was not significantly different in segments without atherosclerosis (1.1±0.5) and either intimal thickening (1.2±0.4, P = 1.0) or atheroma (1.6±0.6, P = 0.4). Conclusions We found increased uptake of [18F]FDG in coronary atherosclerotic lesions in a pig model. However, uptake in these early stage lesions was not detectable with in vivo PET imaging. Further studies are needed to clarify whether visible [18F]FDG uptake in coronary arteries represents more advanced, highly inflamed plaques. PMID:26120829

  2. Early Prediction of Reading Comprehension within the Simple View Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catts, Hugh W.; Herrera, Sarah; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner

    2015-01-01

    The simple view of reading proposes that reading comprehension is the product of word reading and language comprehension. In this study, we used the simple view framework to examine the early prediction of reading comprehension abilities. Using multiple measures for all constructs, we assessed word reading precursors (i.e., letter knowledge,…

  3. Predicting ADHD Symptoms in Adolescence from Early Childhood Temperament Traits.

    PubMed

    Einziger, Tzlil; Levi, Linoy; Zilberman-Hayun, Yael; Auerbach, Judith G; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Arbelle, Shoshana; Berger, Andrea

    2017-03-20

    Extreme levels of certain temperament traits can be early markers of different developmental pathways of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the long-term utility of using these traits as predictors of ADHD is not fully known. This study includes 64 male adolescents (M age = 13.5), who have been followed since birth as part of a longitudinal study. The primary aim was to test effortful control (EC), activity level, and anger, measured in early childhood - both with mother's reports and laboratory assessments -as predictors of ADHD symptoms in adolescence. Further, we investigated the specificity of this prediction to the different ADHD symptom domains. The results demonstrated that early temperament dimensions of EC and activity level were predictive of ADHD symptoms about 10 years later, when the participants reached adolescence. Moreover, activity level showed specificity only to hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms whereas EC was a predictor of the two symptom domains. Anger had a predictive correlation with ADHD symptoms; however, it did not have a unique predictive contribution. These results emphasize the relevance of EC and activity level in the developmental course of ADHD. Identification of early risk factors can lead to more efficient design and implementation of intervention programs.

  4. Insights into the Virulence Traits of Streptococcus mutans in Dentine Carious Lesions of Children with Early Childhood Caries.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Daniela S; Stipp, Rafael N; Neves, Beatriz G; Guedes, Sarah F F; Nascimento, Marcelle M; Rodrigues, Lidiany K A

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is an oral bacterium considered to play a major role in the development of dental caries. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of S. mutans in active and arrested dentine carious lesions of children with early childhood caries and to examine the expression profile of selected S. mutans genes associated with survival and virulence, within the same carious lesions. Dentine samples were collected from 29 active and 16 arrested carious lesions that were diagnosed in preschool children aged 2-5 years. Total RNA was extracted from the dentine samples, and reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR analyses were performed for the quantification of S. mutans and for analyses of the expression of S. mutans genes associated with bacterial survival (atpD, nox, pdhA) and virulence (fabM and aguD). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of S. mutans between active and arrested carious lesions. Expression of the tested genes was detected in both types of carious dentine. The pdhA (p = 0.04) and aguD (p = 0.05) genes were expressed at higher levels in arrested as compared to active lesions. Our findings revealed that S. mutans is part of the viable microbial community in active and arrested dentine carious lesions. The increase in expression of the pdhA and aguD genes in arrested lesions is likely due to the unfavourable environmental conditions for microbial growth, inherent to this type of lesions. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Predicting early academic achievement in a baccalaureate nursing program.

    PubMed

    Newton, Sarah E; Smith, Laureen H; Moore, Gary; Magnan, Morris

    2007-01-01

    Baccalaureate nursing programs are under increased pressure to graduate greater numbers of students to meet the demands of the nurse workforce of the future. Schools of nursing are admitting larger cohorts of students, but early academic achievement in the nursing major and retention are problematic. Historical predictors of early academic achievement, such as scholastic aptitude, may not be the best for identifying students at risk of early academic failure. Increasingly, baccalaureate nursing programs are relying on standardized nursing aptitude tests to evaluate the readiness of applicants for the nursing major. However, reliable predictors of early academic achievement have yet to be identified. The purpose of this study was to explore whether scholastic aptitude and nursing aptitude are predictive of early academic achievement in a baccalaureate nursing program. Using an exploratory descriptive design, data from 164 sophomore nursing students were examined. The data indicated that scholastic aptitude and nursing aptitude together predicted 20.2% of the variance in early academic achievement, with scholastic aptitude accounting for 15.4% of the variance.

  6. Genetic profiling to predict recurrence of early cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Kim, Ji-Young; Choi, Chel Hun; Do, In-Gu; Song, Sang Yong; Sohn, Insuk; Jung, Sin-Ho; Bae, Duk-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Byoung-Gie

    2013-12-01

    Recurrence is the major cause of death in early cervical cancer. We compared the prediction powers for disease recurrence between the gene set prognostic model and the clinical prognostic model. A gene set model to predict disease free survival was developed using the cDNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension, and ligation (DASL) assay data set from a cohort of early cervical cancer patients who had been treated with radical surgery with or without adjuvant therapy. A clinical prediction model was also developed using the same cohort, and the ability of predicting recurrence from each model was compared. Adequate DASL assay profiles were obtained from 300 patients, and we selected 12 genes for the gene set model. When patients were categorized as having a low or high risk by the prognostic score, the Kaplan-Meier curve showed significantly different recurrence rates between the two groups. The clinical model was developed using FIGO stage and post-surgical pathological findings. In multivariate Cox regression analysis of prognostic models, the gene set prognostic model showed a higher hazard ratio than that of the clinical prognostic model. The genetic quantitative approach may be better in predicting recurrence in early cervical cancer patients. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effects of Early vs. Late Cerebral Lesions on Verbal Learning and Memory in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Isaacs, Elizabeth

    The study sought to determine whether children with unilateral cerebral lesions sustained either prenatally or postnatally suffer from deficts in learning and memory skills and whether these differentiate left-sided from right-sided lesions. The subjects, 69 children ranging in age from 6 to 17 were divided into four patient groups: hemoplegic Ss…

  8. Early hepatocellular carcinoma with high-grade atypia in small vaguely nodular lesions.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Hidenori; Masugi, Yohei; Tsujikawa, Hanako; Emoto, Katsura; Fujii-Nishimura, Yoko; Hatano, Mami; Kawaida, Miho; Itano, Osamu; Kitagawa, Yuko; Sakamoto, Michiie

    2016-04-01

    Multistep hepatocarcinogenesis progresses from dysplastic nodules to early hepatocellular carcinoma (eHCC) and to advanced HCC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the detailed histopathological features of eHCC. We investigated 66 small vaguely nodular lesions resected from 40 patients. The degree of cellular and structural atypia and stromal invasion were assessed. The immunohistochemical expression of HCC-related markers adenylate cyclase-associated protein 2 (CAP2), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), Bmi-1, CD34 and h-caldesmon were evaluated. Of the 66 nodules, 10 were diagnosed as low-grade dysplastic nodules (LGDN), 10 as high-grade dysplastic nodules (HGDN) and 46 as eHCC. Among the 46 eHCC, 18 nodules (39.1%) showed marked stromal invasion and/or the presence of the scirrhous component and were subclassified as high-grade eHCC (HGeHCC). The remaining 28 eHCC, which lacked these features, were subclassified as low-grade eHCC (LGeHCC) and were examined further. HGeHCC showed high levels of cellular and structural atypia and large tumor size. The immunohistochemical expression of CAP2 and the area of sinusoidal vascularization showed increases from LGDN to HGeHCC. The density of arterial tumor vessels was high in HGeHCC compared with other nodule types. Cluster analysis of these parameters subclassified 65 nodules into HGeHCC-dominant, LGeHCC and HGDN-dominant, and LGDN-dominant groups. These results indicate the increased malignant potential of HGeHCC and suggest that it is already a transitional stage to advanced HCC. We consider that our grading classification system may be valuable for considering treatment strategies for eHCC around 2 cm in diameter.

  9. DWI lesions and TIA etiology improve the prediction of stroke after TIA.

    PubMed

    Calvet, David; Touzé, Emmanuel; Oppenheim, Catherine; Turc, Guillaume; Meder, Jean-François; Mas, Jean-Louis

    2009-01-01

    The ABCD(2) score has been shown to predict the early risk of stroke after transient ischemic attack (TIA). The additional predictive value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and TIA etiology is not well known. From January 2003 to June 2007, 343 consecutive patients (mean+/-SD age, 62.4+/-15.4 years) with TIA were admitted to our stroke unit. Most (339) patients underwent DWI and all had an etiologic work-up and were followed up for 3 months. The predictive value of the ABCD(2) score, positive DWI findings, large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA), and atrial fibrillation (AF) with respect to occurrence of ischemic stroke at 1 week and 3 months was assessed. DWI was positive in 136 (40%) patients. Sixty (17%) patients had LAA and 27 (8%) had AF. Patients with positive DWI findings were more likely to have unilateral weakness (odds ratio [OR]=2.2; 95% CI, 1.3 to 3.7), TIA duration >/=60 minutes (OR=2.6; 95% CI, 1.3 to 5.2), ABCD(2) >5 (OR=4.7; 95% CI, 2.0 to 11.0), LAA (OR=1.8; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.1), and AF (OR=3.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 8.0). During follow-up, 5 patients had a stroke within 7 days (absolute risk=1.5%, 95% CI, 0.3% to 2.7%), and 10 had a stroke within 3 months (absolute risk=2.9%; 95% CI, 1.1% to 4.7%). All early strokes but 1 occurred in patients with positive DWI findings. ABCD(2) score and positive DWI findings were associated with an increased 7-day and 3-month risk of stroke. At 3 months, ABCD(2) score >5 (hazard ratio=10.1; 95% CI, 1.1 to 93.4), positive DWI result (hazard ratio=8.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 71.0), and LAA (hazard ratio=3.4; 95% CI, 1.0 to 11.8) were independently associated with an increased risk of stroke. There was no association with AF. Taking DWI and TIA etiology into account in addition to the ABCD(2) score improves the prediction of the early risk of stroke after TIA.

  10. Early burn wound excision and skin grafting postburn trauma restores in vivo neutrophil delivery to inflammatory lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Tchervenkov, J.I.; Epstein, M.D.; Silberstein, E.B.; Alexander, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    This study assessed the effect of early vs delayed postburn wound excision and skin grafting on the in vivo neutrophil delivery to a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction and a bacterial skin lesion (BSL). Male Lewis rats were presensitized to keyhole-limpet hemocyanin. Group 1 comprised sham controls. Groups 2 through 4 were given a 30% 3 degrees scald burn, but the burn wounds were excised, and skin was grafted on days 1, 3, and 7, respectively, after the burn. Group 5 comprised burn controls. Twelve days after burn trauma, all rats were injected at different intervals (during a 24-hour period) with a trio of intradermal injections of keyhole-limpet hemocyanin, Staphylococcus aureus 502A, and saline at different sites. In vivo neutrophil delivery to these dermal lesions was determined by injecting indium in 111 oxyquinoline-labeled neutrophils isolated from similarly treated groups of rats. Neutrophil delivery to DTH and BSL lesions was restored to normal by excision and skin grafting of the burn wound one day after burn trauma. Waiting three days after burn trauma to excise and skin graft the wound partially, but not completely, restored the in vivo neutrophil delivery to DTH and BSL lesions. Waiting one week to excise and skin graft a burn wound resulted in no improvement in neutrophil delivery to DTH and BSL dermal lesions. It was concluded that burn wound excision and skin grafting immediately after burn trauma restored in vivo neutrophil delivery to a BSL and DTH dermal lesion. This may, in part, explain the beneficial effect of early aggressive burn wound debridement in patients with burn injuries.

  11. Early prediction of organ failure under the revised Atlanta classification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Cao, Feng; Dong, Xiao Min; Li, Peng Yu; Li, Hai Chao; Qi, Bao Ju; Li, Fei

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the ability of conventional laboratory markers and scoring systems to early predict organ failure (OF) and to differentiate between transient and persistent OF in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) using the revised Atlanta classification. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 214 patients with AP between January 2014 and July 2015. The predictive values of laboratory markers were analyzed. The predictive accuracy of individual markers, extrapancreatic inflammation on computed tomography (EPIC), acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II), and bedside index for severity in acute pancreatitis (BISAP) scores were measured using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). OF was diagnosed in 32 (15%) patients and persistent OF in 14 (6.5%). There were statistically significant differences between patients with and without OF with respect to white blood cell count, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, calcium (Ca), arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), base excess (BE), APACHE II, BISAP scores, and EPIC scores. Logistic regression analysis identified Ca, PaO2, and BE as independent predictors of OF. Using AUROC, the EPIC score had the highest accuracy for the early prediction of OF, which was 0.82. No significant differences were detected between patients with transient and persistent OF. Several laboratory markers and score systems were useful for the early prediction of OF in patients with AP, of which Ca, PaO2, and BE had highest predicting value, and EPIC score had the highest accuracy. We could not predict the duration of OF using laboratory markers.

  12. Evaluation of DILI Predictive Hypotheses in Early Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Chan, Rosa; Benet, Leslie Z

    2017-04-17

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a leading cause of drug failure in clinical trials and a major reason for drug withdrawals. DILI has been shown to be dependent on both daily dose and extent of hepatic metabolism. Yet, early in drug development daily dose is unknown. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of the published hypotheses that attempt to predict DILI, including a new analysis of the Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) in evaluating the severity of DILI warnings in drug labels approved by the FDA and the withdrawal status due to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Our analysis confirms that higher doses ≥50 mg/day lead to increased DILI potential, but this property alone is not sufficient to predict the DILI potential. We evaluate prior attempts to categorize DILI such as Rule of 2, BSEP inhibition, and measures of key mechanisms of toxicity compared to BDDCS classification. Our results show that BDDCS Class 2 drugs exhibit the highest DILI severity and that all of the published methodologies evaluated here, except when daily dose is known, do not yield markedly better predictions than BDDCS. The assertion that extensive metabolized compounds are at higher risk of developing DILI is confirmed but can be enhanced by differentiating BDDCS Class 2 from Class 1 drugs. We do not propose that the BDDCS classification, which does not require knowledge of the clinical dose, is sufficiently predictive/accurate of DILI potential for new molecular entities but suggest that comparison of proposed DILI prediction methodologies with BDDCS classification is a useful tool to evaluate the potential reliability of newly proposed algorithms. The most successful approaches to predict DILI potential all include a measure of dose, yet there is a quantifiable uncertainty associated with the predicted dose early in drug development. Here, we compare the possibility of predicting DILI potential using the BDDCS classification versus previously

  13. Behaviors predicting foot lesions in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Suico, J G; Marriott, D J; Vinicor, F; Litzelman, D K

    1998-07-01

    Associations between specific foot-care behaviors and foot lesions in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were prospectively investigated. Data from a randomized controlled trial for preventing diabetic foot lesions were analyzed as a prospective cohort using logistic regression. Independent variables included foot-care behaviors, patient self-foot examination, going barefoot, availability of foot-care assistance, and visits to health-care providers. The dependent variable was a foot wound on each foot at follow-up. In the final multivariate model, patients who rarely lubricated their feet had an increased risk of foot lesions. Increasing patient use of emollients may be key to preventing foot lesions.

  14. Early-Life Intelligence Predicts Midlife Biological Age.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Jonathan D; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, Honalee; Houts, Renate; Israel, Salomon; Levine, Morgan E; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2016-11-01

    Early-life intelligence has been shown to predict multiple causes of death in populations around the world. This finding suggests that intelligence might influence mortality through its effects on a general process of physiological deterioration (i.e., individual variation in "biological age"). We examined whether intelligence could predict measures of aging at midlife before the onset of most age-related disease. We tested whether intelligence assessed in early childhood, middle childhood, and midlife predicted midlife biological age in members of the Dunedin Study, a population-representative birth cohort. Lower intelligence predicted more advanced biological age at midlife as captured by perceived facial age, a 10-biomarker algorithm based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and Framingham heart age (r = 0.1-0.2). Correlations between intelligence and telomere length were less consistent. The associations between intelligence and biological age were not explained by differences in childhood health or parental socioeconomic status, and intelligence remained a significant predictor of biological age even when intelligence was assessed before Study members began their formal schooling. These results suggest that accelerated aging may serve as one of the factors linking low early-life intelligence to increased rates of morbidity and mortality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Assessment of epigenetic alterations in early colorectal lesions containing BRAF mutations

    PubMed Central

    Nojima, Masanori; Harada, Taku; Maruyama, Reo; Ashida, Masami; Aoki, Hironori; Matsushita, Hiro-o; Yoshikawa, Kenjiro; Harada, Eiji; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Wakita, Shigenori; Niinuma, Takeshi; Kai, Masahiro; Eizuka, Makoto; Sugai, Tamotsu; Suzuki, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the molecular and clinicopathological characteristics of colorectal serrated lesions, we assessed the DNA methylation of cancer-associated genes in a cohort of BRAF-mutant precancerous lesions from 94 individuals. We then compared those results with the lesions' clinicopathological features, especially colorectal subsites. The lesions included hyperplastic polyps (n = 16), traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs) (n = 15), TSAs with sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs) (n = 6), SSAs (n = 49) and SSAs with dysplasia (n = 16). The prevalence of lesions exhibiting the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was lower in the sigmoid colon and rectum than in other bowel subsites, including the cecum, ascending, transverse and descending colon. In addition, several cancer-associated genes showed higher methylation levels within lesions in the proximal to sigmoid colon than in the sigmoid colon and rectum. These results indicate that the methylation status of lesions with BRAF mutation is strongly associated with their location, histological findings and neoplastic pathways. By contrast, no difference in aberrant DNA methylation was observed in normal-appearing background colonic mucosa along the bowel subsites, which may indicate the absence of an epigenetic field defect. PMID:27145369

  16. Parasites and hepatic lesions among pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), during early seawater residence.

    PubMed

    Saksida, S M; Marty, G D; Jones, S R M; Manchester, H A; Diamond, C L; Bidulka, J; St-Hilaire, S

    2012-02-01

    Juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), in the Broughton Archipelago region of western Canada were surveyed over 2 years for sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi), gross and microscopic lesions and evidence of infections with viruses and bacteria. The 1071 fish examined had an approximate ocean residence time no longer than 3 months. A high prevalence of degenerative liver lesions, renal myxosporean parasites and a low prevalence of skin lesions and sea lice were observed. No indications of viral or bacterial diseases were detected in either year. The monthly prevalence of sea lice in 2007 (18-51%) was higher than in 2008 (1-26%), and the infestation density exceeded the lethal threshold in only two fish. Degenerative hepatic lesions and renal myxosporean parasites occurred in approximately 40% of the pink salmon examined in June of both years, and the peak monthly prevalence of hepatocellular hydropic degeneration was greater in 2007 (32%, in May) than in 2008 (12%, in June). Logistic regression analysis found skin lesions and hepatocellular hydropic degeneration significantly associated with sea lice. Most parasites and lesions occurred during both years, but the prevalence was often higher in 2007. Fish weight was 35% less in June 2007 than in June 2008, but condition factor was not different. Further research is required to monitor inter-annual variations and aetiology of the liver lesions and to assess their potential role on pink salmon survival.

  17. Machine learning approaches to personalize early prediction of asthma exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Jeong, In Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Patient telemonitoring results in an aggregation of significant amounts of information about patient disease trajectory. However, the potential use of this information for early prediction of exacerbations in adult asthma patients has not been systematically evaluated. The aim of this study was to explore the utility of telemonitoring data for building machine learning algorithms that predict asthma exacerbations before they occur. The study dataset comprised daily self-monitoring reports consisting of 7001 records submitted by adult asthma patients during home telemonitoring. Predictive modeling included preparation of stratified training datasets, predictive feature selection, and evaluation of resulting classifiers. Using a 7-day window, a naive Bayesian classifier, adaptive Bayesian network, and support vector machines were able to predict asthma exacerbation occurring on day 8, with sensitivity of 0.80, 1.00, and 0.84; specificity of 0.77, 1.00, and 0.80; and accuracy of 0.77, 1.00, and 0.80, respectively. Our study demonstrated that machine learning techniques have significant potential in developing personalized decision support for chronic disease telemonitoring systems. Future studies may benefit from a comprehensive predictive framework that combines telemonitoring data with other factors affecting the likelihood of developing acute exacerbation. Approaches implemented for advanced asthma exacerbation prediction may be extended to prediction of exacerbations in patients with other chronic health conditions. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Early reported rectal sensation predicts continence in anorectal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Skerritt, Clare; Tyraskis, Athanasios; Rees, Clare; Cockar, Iram; Kiely, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Straining at stool is an automatic reflex in babies and implies the presence of rectal sensation. We hypothesised that early reported rectal sensation would predict future continence in children with anorectal anomalies. The aim of this study is to determine if early straining at stool was a useful predictor of future continence in infants born with high anorectal malformations. A retrospective case note review of prospectively collected clinical information was performed with institutional review board approval. All patients with intermediate/high anorectal malformation operated on by a single surgeon from 1984 to 2010 were included. After stoma closure, parents were asked: The responses were noted within the first year of stoma closure and then all patients were followed up until they were at least 3 ½years old and continence could be assessed using the Krickenbeck outcome classification. Data were compared using Fisher's exact test and sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated. Forty-eight patients were included in the study. Sixteen (33%) were female (12 cloacal malformation, 3 rectovaginal fistula, 1 rectal atresia) and 32 (66%) were male (6 rectovesical fistulae, 22 rectourethral fistulae, 4 no fistula). Median follow-up was 9.7years (range 3.5-17.9). Twenty-one children were noted by their parents to exhibit early straining at stool after stoma closure. Twenty of them achieved long term continence. The sensitivity of early straining as a predictor for long term continence was 77%, specificity 95% and positive predictive value 95%. The presence of early rectal sensation reported by parents is a good predictor of long term continence. This allows more informed discussion with families in the early years of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical use of computed tomographic perfusion for the diagnosis and prediction of lesion growth in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Huisa, Branko N; Neil, William P; Schrader, Ronald; Maya, Marcel; Pereira, Benedict; Bruce, Nhu T; Lyden, Patrick D

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) mapping in research centers correlates well with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesions and may accurately differentiate the infarct core from ischemic penumbra. The value of CTP in real-world clinical practice has not been fully established. We investigated the yield of CTP-derived cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transient time (MTT) for the detection of cerebral ischemia and ischemic penumbra in a sample of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. We studied 165 patients with initial clinical symptoms suggestive of AIS. All patients had an initial noncontrast head CT, CTP, CT angiogram (CTA), and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. The obtained perfusion images were used for image processing. CBV, MTT, and DWI lesion volumes were visually estimated and manually traced. Statistical analysis was conducted using R and SAS software. All normal DWI sequences had normal CBV and MTT studies (N = 89). Seventy-three patients had acute DWI lesions. CBV was abnormal in 23.3% and MTT was abnormal in 42.5% of these patients. There was a high specificity (91.8%) but poor sensitivity (40.0%) for MTT maps predicting positive DWI. The Spearman correlation was significant between MTT and DWI lesions (ρ = 0.66; P > .0001) only for abnormal MTT and DWI lesions >0 cc. CBV lesions did not correlate with final DWI. In real-world use, acute imaging with CTP did not predict stroke or DWI lesions with sufficient accuracy. Our findings argue against the use of CTP for screening AIS patients until real-world implementations match the accuracy reported from specialized research centers. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Peripheral ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels correlate with and predict histological tissue lesion severity in naturally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Noh, Susan M; White, Stephen N; Snekvik, Kevin R; Truscott, Thomas; Knowles, Donald P

    2009-04-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine whether anti-ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) antibody responses in serum or OPP provirus levels in peripheral blood associate with the degree of histologically measured tissue lesions in naturally OPPV-infected sheep. Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and hematoxylin- and eosin-stained lung, mammary gland, carpal synovial membrane, and brain tissues from 11 OPPV-infected ewes (mean age of 8.6 years) and 5 OPPV-uninfected ewes (mean age of 6 years) were evaluated for lesion severity. Ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP) provirus levels and anti-OPPV antibody titers in peripheral blood and serum samples, respectively, were measured upon euthanasia and 3 years prior to euthanasia. Both mean peripheral OPP provirus levels and mean serum anti-surface envelope glycoprotein (anti-SU) antibody titers at the time of euthanasia were significantly higher in ewes with moderate to severe histological lesions than in ewes with no to mild histological lesions. However, although mean peripheral blood OPP provirus levels at euthanasia and 3 years prior to euthanasia significantly correlated with the highest histological lesion score for any affected tissue (two-tailed P values, 0.03 and 0.02), mean serum anti-SU antibody titers, anti-capsid antibody titers, and anti-transmembrane 90 antibody titers at euthanasia did not show a significant correlation with the highest histological lesion score for any tissue (two-tailed P values, 0.32, 0.97, and 0.18, respectively). These data are the first to show that OPP provirus levels predict and correlate with the extent of OPPV-related histological lesions in various OPPV-affected tissues. These findings suggest that peripheral OPP provirus levels quantitatively contribute more to the development of histological lesions than the systemic anti-SU antibody host immune response.

  1. A Novel Evaluation for Predicting Aortic Complicated Lesions Using Calcification on Chest X-ray.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Tomotaka; Yoshimura, Sohei; Koga, Masatoshi; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2017-07-28

    The aorta is a significant source of cerebral thromboembolisms. Aortic complicated lesions (ACLs) are key findings on transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for assessing aortic sources of emboli to the brain. TEE is sometimes avoided due to its invasiveness. However, few reports have examined alternative methods for predicting ACLs. We investigated relationships between aortic arch calcification (AAC) on chest X-ray and ACLs. Participants comprised 300 patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack who underwent TEE for the evaluation of the aortic arch and heart. A postero-anterior plain chest X-ray in the recumbent position was evaluated on admission for each patient. AAC was evaluated using 4 grades (0-3) and "AAC thickness" defined as the distance from the inner margin of the most distant AAC to the outer margin of the aortic vessel wall. ACLs were defined by intima-media thickness (IMT) ≥4.0 mm or presence of ulcerated or mobile plaques. Carotid maximum IMT on ultrasonography was also evaluated. Comparison of the diagnostic ability to predict ACL was performed between AAC grades and AAC thickness or AAC thickness and carotid maximum IMT using the Delong method. ACLs were identified in 71 patients (23.7%), including ACLs with ulcerated plaques in 24 (8.0%) and ACLs with mobile plaques in 9 (3.0%). Plaque thickness was greater in higher AAC grades or higher quartiles of AAC thickness (p for trend <0.001 each). The Cochran-Armitage test showed that both higher AAC grade and higher quartile of AAC thickness were significantly associated with the presence of ACLs, as well as the presence of ulcerated or mobile plaques (p for trend < 0.001 each). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed optimal cut-off values for AAC thickness of 5.6 mm for ACLs and 6.0 mm for ulcerated or mobile plaques. Multivariate logistic regression revealed a higher grade of AAC (grades 2-3) and AAC thickness (≥6 mm) as significantly associated with ACLs

  2. Different characteristics of cardiac biomarkers to decide and predict the culprit lesions in patients with suspicious acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Mitsunobu; Hata, Noritake; Takayama, Tadateru; Hirayama, Atsushi; Ogawa, Masashi; Yamashina, Akira; Mera, Hisaaki; Yoshino, Hideaki; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Seino, Yoshihiko

    2016-06-01

    This multicenter prospective study was conducted to assess high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) and other biomarkers to decide and predict culprit lesions indicated for emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with suspicious acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We have reported Hs-TnT is the most sensitive biomarker for earlier diagnosis and decision making in patients with suspected ACS. In this study, we had conducted subanalysis investigating the usefulness for prediction of ACS culprit lesion. The patients with suspicious ACS and initially negative whole-blood rapid troponin T test, who underwent coronary angiogram (CAG), were enrolled (n = 74). Hs-TnT, quantitative assay for conventional troponin T (c-TnT), creatine kinase MB isozyme (CK-MB), and heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) were simultaneously measured. ACS culprit lesion was described as total occlusion, subtotal occlusion, and/or angiographical unstable lesion such as thrombosis, ulceration or irregularity. The CAG revealed that 49 cases had ACS lesions to be indicated for emergency PCI. The areas under the ROC curves and ROC-optimized cut-off of hs-TnT, c-TnT, CK-MB, and H-FABP were 0.75, 0.67, 0.68, and 0.75, respectively, and 18, 11, 2.0, and 4.6 ng/ml, respectively. In patients with total occlusion and 90-99 % of diameter stenosis (TIMI 2 or 3), hs-TnT could predict emergency PCI with significantly higher sensitivity compared with H-FABP (hs-TnT >14 ng/ml; 71 %, and H-FABP >6.2 ng/dl; 51 %, p = 0.021) and other biomarkers. Meanwhile, H-FABP displayed significant correlations with number of diseased vessels and presence of thrombotic lesion. The present study first revealed different characteristics of correlation between the angiographic culprit lesions and each cardiac biomarker. For prediction of ACS lesions requiring emergency PCI, hs-TnT had the highest sensitivity with satisfied analytical precision.

  3. Lung cancer risk prediction: a tool for early detection.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Adrian; Duffy, Stephen W; Myles, Jonathan P; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Field, John K

    2007-01-01

    Although 45% of men and 39% of women will be diagnosed with cancer in their lifetime, it is difficult to predict which individuals will be affected. For some cancers, substantial progress in individual risk estimation has already been made. However, relatively few models have been developed to predict lung cancer risk beyond effects of age and smoking. This paper reviews published models for lung cancer risk prediction, discusses their potential contribution to clinical and research settings and suggests improvements to the risk modeling strategy for lung cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of existing cancer risk models is less than optimal. Improvement in individual risk prediction is important for selection of individuals for prevention or early detection interventions. In addition to smoking, factors related to occupational exposure, personal medical history and family history of cancer can add to the predictive power. A good risk prediction model is one that can identify a small fraction of the population in which a large proportion of the disease cases will occur. In the future, genetic and other biological markers are likely to be useful, although they will require rigorous evaluation. Validation is essential to establish the predictive effect and for ongoing monitoring of the model's continued relevance.

  4. Dietary carnosine prevents early atherosclerotic lesion formation in apolipoprotein E-null mice.

    PubMed

    Barski, Oleg A; Xie, Zhengzhi; Baba, Shahid P; Sithu, Srinivas D; Agarwal, Abhinav; Cai, Jian; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Srivastava, Sanjay

    2013-06-01

    Atherosclerotic lesions are associated with the accumulation of reactive aldehydes derived from oxidized lipids. Although inhibition of aldehyde metabolism has been shown to exacerbate atherosclerosis and enhance the accumulation of aldehyde-modified proteins in atherosclerotic plaques, no therapeutic interventions have been devised to prevent aldehyde accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions. We examined the efficacy of carnosine, a naturally occurring β-alanyl-histidine dipeptide, in preventing aldehyde toxicity and atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-null mice. In vitro, carnosine reacted rapidly with lipid peroxidation-derived unsaturated aldehydes. Gas chromatography mass-spectrometry analysis showed that carnosine inhibits the formation of free aldehydes 4-hydroxynonenal and malonaldialdehyde in Cu(2+)-oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Preloading bone marrow-derived macrophages with cell-permeable carnosine analogs reduced 4-hydroxynonenal-induced apoptosis. Oral supplementation with octyl-D-carnosine decreased atherosclerotic lesion formation in aortic valves of apolipoprotein E-null mice and attenuated the accumulation of protein-acrolein, protein-4-hydroxyhexenal, and protein-4-hydroxynonenal adducts in atherosclerotic lesions, whereas urinary excretion of aldehydes as carnosine conjugates was increased. The results of this study suggest that carnosine inhibits atherogenesis by facilitating aldehyde removal from atherosclerotic lesions. Endogenous levels of carnosine may be important determinants of atherosclerotic lesion formation, and treatment with carnosine or related peptides could be a useful therapy for the prevention or the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  5. Dietary Carnosine Prevents Early Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation in ApoE-null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Barski, Oleg A.; Xie, Zhengzhi; Baba, Shahid P.; Sithu, Srinivas D.; Agarwal, Abhinav; Cai, Jian; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Srivastava, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerotic lesions are associated with the accumulation of reactive aldehydes derived from oxidized lipids. Although inhibition of aldehyde metabolism has been shown to exacerbate atherosclerosis and enhance the accumulation of aldehyde-modified proteins in atherosclerotic plaques, no therapeutic interventions have been devised to prevent aldehyde accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions. Approach and Results We examined the efficacy of carnosine, a naturally occurring β-alanyl-histidine dipeptide in preventing aldehyde toxicity and atherogenesis in apoE-null mice. In vitro, carnosine reacted rapidly with lipid peroxidation-derived unsaturated aldehydes. Gas chromatography mass-spectrometry analysis showed that carnosine inhibits the formation of free aldehydes - HNE and malonaldialdehyde in Cu2+-oxidized LDL. Preloading bone marrow-derived macrophages with cell-permeable carnosine analogs reduced HNE-induced apoptosis. Oral supplementation with octyl-D-carnosine decreased atherosclerotic lesion formation in aortic valves of apoE-null mice and attenuated the accumulation of protein-acrolein, protein-HHE and protein-HNE adducts in atherosclerotic lesions, while urinary excretion of aldehydes as carnosine conjugates was increased. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that carnosine inhibits atherogenesis by facilitating aldehyde removal from atherosclerotic lesions. Endogenous levels of carnosine may be important determinants of atherosclerotic lesion formation and treatment with carnosine or related peptides could be a useful therapy for the prevention or the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:23559625

  6. Prenatal Substance Exposure: What Predicts Behavioral Resilience by Early Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Liebschutz, Jane; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Heymann, Orlaith D.; Lange, Allison V.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure (IUSE) in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (age 12.4–15.9) at-risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. IUSEs included in this analysis were cocaine (IUCE), tobacco (IUTE), alcohol (IUAE), and marijuana (IUME). We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African-American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower IUCE level predicted resilience compared to higher IUCE, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.90–19.00, p=0.002), lower violence exposure (AOR=4.07, 95% CI=1.77–9.38, p<0.001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR=3.71, 95% CI= 1.28–10.74, p=0.02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predict behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. PMID:26076097

  7. Prenatal substance exposure: What predicts behavioral resilience by early adolescence?

    PubMed

    Liebschutz, Jane M; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P; Heymann, Orlaith D; Lange, Allison V; Frank, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (ages 12.4-15.9 years) at risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. Intrauterine substance exposures included in this analysis were cocaine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower intrauterine cocaine exposure level predicted resilience compared with higher cocaine exposure, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.90, 19.00], p = .002), lower violence exposure (AOR = 4.07, 95% CI [1.77, 9.38], p < .001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR = 3.71, 95% CI [1.28, 10.74], p = .02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predicted behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. National Early Warning Score (NEWS) at ICU discharge can predict early clinical deterioration after ICU transfer.

    PubMed

    Uppanisakorn, Supattra; Bhurayanontachai, Rungsun; Boonyarat, Jaruwan; Kaewpradit, Julawan

    2017-09-13

    This study aims to determine the ability of the National Early Warning Score at ICU discharge (NEWSdc) to predict the development of clinical deterioration within 24h. A prospective observational study was conducted. The NEWS was immediately recorded before discharge (NEWSdc). The development of early clinical deterioration was defined as acute respiratory failure or circulatory shock within 24h of ICU discharge. The discrimination of NEWSdc and the best cut off value of NEWSdc to predict the early clinical deterioration was determined. Data were collected from 440 patients. The incidence of early clinical deterioration after ICU discharge was 14.8%. NEWSdc was an independent predictor for early clinical deterioration after ICU discharge (OR 2.54; 95% CI 1.98-3.26; P<0.001). The AUROC of NEWSdc was 0.92±0.01 (95% CI 0.89-0.94, P<0.001). A NEWSdc>7 showed a sensitivity of 93.6% and a specificity of 82.2% to detect an early clinical deterioration after ICU discharge. Among critically ill patients who were discharged from ICU, a NEWSdc>7 showed the best sensitivity and specificity to detect early clinical deterioration 24h after ICU discharge. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of a Diagnostic Predictive Probability Model Provided by a Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis Device for Melanoma and Other High-risk Pigmented Lesions and its Impact on Biopsy Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jane; Tucker, Natalie; White, Richard; Rigel, Darrell S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Risk prediction models for primary malignant melanoma thus far have relied on qualitative patient information. The authors propose a quantitative diagnostic predictive probability model using Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis for melanoma and other high-risk pigmented lesions and evaluate its effectiveness optimizing biopsy decisions by dermatologists. Design: Data from 1,632 pigmented lesions analyzed by a Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis device were used to perform a logistic regression analysis. This new quantitative melanoma or melanoma/atypical melanocytic hyperplasia/high-grade dysplastic nevus probability model was then evaluated to determine its impact on dermatologist decisions to biopsy pigmented lesions clinically suggestive of melanoma. Participants were given an electronic keypad and answered “yes” or “no” if they would biopsy each of 12 pigmented lesions when presented first with patient history, clinical images, and dermoscopic images and again when subsequently shown Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis data. Setting/participants: Study of 191 dermatologists at a medical conference. Measurements: Sensitivity, specificity, biopsy accuracy, overall biopsy rate, and percentage dermatologists biopsying all five melanomas. Results: Dermatologists were significantly more sensitive, specific, and accurate while decreasing overall biopsy rates with Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis probability information. Conclusion: Integration of Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis probability information in the biopsy evaluation and selection process of pigmented lesions has the potential to improve melanoma sensitivity of dermatologists without the concomitant costs associated with additional biopsies being performed. PMID:25584133

  10. Early prediction of blonanserin response in Japanese patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Taro; Matsuda, Yuki; Fujita, Kiyoshi; Iwata, Nakao

    2014-01-01

    Background Blonanserin is a second-generation antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia in Japan and Korea. The present study aimed to examine early prediction of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia. Methods An 8-week, prospective, single-arm, flexible-dose clinical trial of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia was conducted under real-world conditions. The inclusion criteria were antipsychotic naïve, and first-episode schizophrenia patients or schizophrenia patients with no consumption of any antipsychotic medication for more than 4 weeks before enrollment in this study. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power were calculated for the response status at week 4 to predict the subsequent response at week 8. Results Thirty-seven patients were recruited (56.8% of them had first-episode schizophrenia), and 28 (75.7%) completed the trial. At week 8, blonanserin was associated with a significant improvement in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (P<0.0001) and in positive (P<0.0001), negative (P<0.0001), and general subscale scores (P<0.0001). In terms of percentage improvement of PANSS total scores from baseline to week 8, 64.9% of patients showed a ≥20% reduction in the PANSS total score and 48.6% showed a ≥30% reduction. However, 8.1% of patients experienced at least one adverse event. Using the 20% reduction in the PANSS total score at week 4 as a definition of an early response, the negative predictive values for later responses (ie, reductions of ≥30 and ≥40 in the PANSS total scores) were 88.9% and 94.1%, respectively. The specificities were 80.0% and 51.6%, respectively. Conclusion Our results suggest that the blonanserin response at week 4 could predict the later response at week 8. PMID:25285009

  11. Early prediction of blonanserin response in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Taro; Matsuda, Yuki; Fujita, Kiyoshi; Iwata, Nakao

    2014-01-01

    Blonanserin is a second-generation antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia in Japan and Korea. The present study aimed to examine early prediction of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia. An 8-week, prospective, single-arm, flexible-dose clinical trial of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia was conducted under real-world conditions. The inclusion criteria were antipsychotic naïve, and first-episode schizophrenia patients or schizophrenia patients with no consumption of any antipsychotic medication for more than 4 weeks before enrollment in this study. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power were calculated for the response status at week 4 to predict the subsequent response at week 8. Thirty-seven patients were recruited (56.8% of them had first-episode schizophrenia), and 28 (75.7%) completed the trial. At week 8, blonanserin was associated with a significant improvement in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (P<0.0001) and in positive (P<0.0001), negative (P<0.0001), and general subscale scores (P<0.0001). In terms of percentage improvement of PANSS total scores from baseline to week 8, 64.9% of patients showed a ≥20% reduction in the PANSS total score and 48.6% showed a ≥30% reduction. However, 8.1% of patients experienced at least one adverse event. Using the 20% reduction in the PANSS total score at week 4 as a definition of an early response, the negative predictive values for later responses (ie, reductions of ≥30 and ≥40 in the PANSS total scores) were 88.9% and 94.1%, respectively. The specificities were 80.0% and 51.6%, respectively. Our results suggest that the blonanserin response at week 4 could predict the later response at week 8.

  12. Does preterm period sleep development predict early childhood growth trajectories?

    PubMed

    Winkler, M R; Park, J; Pan, W; Brandon, D H; Scher, M; Holditch-Davis, D

    2017-09-01

    The current study examined the relationship between sleep state development across the preterm and early post-term periods and subsequent growth trajectories from 1 to 27 months corrected age. Retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively from 111 preterm infants (⩽34 weeks gestation) who participated in a multi-site longitudinal study. Separate longitudinal parallel process models were calculated for each sleep state (active and quiet sleep) and growth (weight, length and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores) variable to estimate the associations between their developmental trajectories. Significant associations were identified between the trajectories of quiet sleep and weight, active sleep and weight, quiet sleep and BMI, and active sleep and BMI. No statistically meaningful associations were identified between the trajectories of early childhood length and the preterm sleep states. Faster preterm period sleep development appears to predict more favorable early childhood growth trajectories, particularly for weight, indicating preterm sleep may be an important biomarker for subsequent growth outcomes.

  13. Functional aspects of early brain development are preserved in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) epileptogenic lesions.

    PubMed

    Ruffolo, Gabriele; Iyer, Anand; Cifelli, Pierangelo; Roseti, Cristina; Mühlebner, Angelika; van Scheppingen, Jackelien; Scholl, Theresa; Hainfellner, Johannes A; Feucht, Martha; Krsek, Pavel; Zamecnik, Josef; Jansen, Floor E; Spliet, Wim G M; Limatola, Cristina; Aronica, Eleonora; Palma, Eleonora

    2016-11-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare multi-system genetic disease characterized by several neurological disorders, the most common of which is the refractory epilepsy caused by highly epileptogenic cortical lesions. Previous studies suggest an alteration of GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission in TSC brain indicating an unbalance of excitation/inhibition that can explain, at least in part, the high incidence of epilepsy in these patients. Here we investigate whether TSC cortical tissues could retain GABAA and AMPA receptors at early stages of human brain development thus contributing to the generation and recurrence of seizures. Given the limited availability of pediatric human brain specimens, we used the microtransplantation method of injecting Xenopus oocytes with membranes from TSC cortical tubers and control brain tissues. Moreover, qPCR was performed to investigate the expression of GABAA and AMPA receptor subunits (GABAA α1-5, β3, γ2, δ; GluA1, GluA2) and cation chloride co-transporters NKCC1 and KCC2. The evaluation of nine human cortical brain samples, from 15 gestation weeks to 15years old, showed a progressive shift towards more hyperpolarized GABAA reversal potential (EGABA). This shift was associated with a differential expression of the chloride cotransporters NKCC1 and KCC2. Furthermore, the GluA1/GluA2 mRNA ratio of expression paralleled the development process. On the contrary, in oocytes micro-transplanted with epileptic TSC tuber tissue from seven patients, neither the GABAA reversal potential nor the GluA1/GluA2 expression showed similar developmental changes. Our data indicate for the first time, that in the same cohort of TSC patients, the pattern of both GABAAR and GluA1/GluA2 functions retains features that are typical of an immature brain. These observations support the potential contribution of altered receptor function to the epileptic disorder of TSC and may suggest novel therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, our findings

  14. An analysis of early nonmortality outcome prediction in esophageal atresia.

    PubMed

    Alshehri, Abdullah; Lo, Andrea; Baird, Robert

    2012-05-01

    Advances in care for neonates with esophageal atresia (EA) has improved overall survival rates. Disease-specific prognostic scores for EA assess mortality risk without assessing patient morbidity. We undertook an analysis of these and generic scoring systems evaluating their ability to predict early nonmortality outcomes. We conducted a retrospective review of all patients with EA at our tertiary care children's hospital. Disease-specific (Spitz, Waterston, and Montreal) and generic prognostic scores (Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology II and Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-Perinatal Extension) were calculated. Outcomes investigated included mortality and early nonmortality outcomes (leak, stricture, and recurrent fistula). These were assessed individually and as a composite "poor outcome" score. Correlations were sought, and receiver operating characteristic curves were generated. Fifty patients were included for analysis, with 5 deaths (10%) in our series. Eight patients developed a postoperative leak, 18 developed stenosis requiring dilatation, and 2 developed refistulization. Overall, 51% of survivors had a poor composite outcome. Although no prognostic score achieved statistical significance, the generic scores outperformed the disease-specific scores in predicting early nonmortality outcomes. Postoperative morbidity remains common in patients with EA. Disease-specific, preexisting prognostic scoring systems do not delineate surviving patients at risk for early complications and appears to underperform when compared with generic prognostic scores. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting Readmission at Early Hospitalization Using Electronic Clinical Data

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaowu; Nunez, Carlos M.; Gupta, Vikas; Johannes, Richard S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Identifying patients at high risk for readmission early during hospitalization may aid efforts in reducing readmissions. We sought to develop an early readmission risk predictive model using automated clinical data available at hospital admission. Methods: We developed an early readmission risk model using a derivation cohort and validated the model with a validation cohort. We used a published Acute Laboratory Risk of Mortality Score as an aggregated measure of clinical severity at admission and the number of hospital discharges in the previous 90 days as a measure of disease progression. We then evaluated the administrative data–enhanced model by adding principal and secondary diagnoses and other variables. We examined the c-statistic change when additional variables were added to the model. Results: There were 1,195,640 adult discharges from 70 hospitals with 39.8% male and the median age of 63 years (first and third quartile: 43, 78). The 30-day readmission rate was 11.9% (n=142,211). The early readmission model yielded a graded relationship of readmission and the Acute Laboratory Risk of Mortality Score and the number of previous discharges within 90 days. The model c-statistic was 0.697 with good calibration. When administrative variables were added to the model, the c-statistic increased to 0.722. Conclusions: Automated clinical data can generate a readmission risk score early at hospitalization with fair discrimination. It may have applied value to aid early care transition. Adding administrative data increases predictive accuracy. The administrative data–enhanced model may be used for hospital comparison and outcome research. PMID:27755391

  16. Early growth hormone (GH) treatment promotes relevant motor functional improvement after severe frontal cortex lesion in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Margarita; Fuente, A; Criado, J; Yajeya, J; Devesa, J; Riolobos, A S

    2013-06-15

    A number of studies, in animals and humans, describe the positive effects of the growth hormone (GH) treatment combined with rehabilitation on brain reparation after brain injury. We examined the effect of GH treatment and rehabilitation in adult rats with severe frontal motor cortex ablation. Thirty-five male rats were trained in the paw-reaching-for-food task and the preferred forelimb was recorded. Under anesthesia, the motor cortex contralateral to the preferred forelimb was aspirated or sham-operated. Animals were then treated with GH (0.15 mg/kg/day, s.c) or vehicle during 5 days, commencing immediately or 6 days post-lesion. Rehabilitation was applied at short- and long-term after GH treatment. Behavioral data were analized by ANOVA following Bonferroni post hoc test. After sacrifice, immunohistochemical detection of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and nestin were undertaken in the brain of all groups. Animal group treated with GH immediately after the lesion, but not any other group, showed a significant improvement of the motor impairment induced by the motor lesion, and their performances in the motor test were no different from sham-operated controls. GFAP immunolabeling and nestin immunoreactivity were observed in the perilesional area in all injured animals; nestin immunoreactivity was higher in GH-treated injured rats (mainly in animals GH-treated 6 days post-lesion). GFAP immunoreactivity was similar among injured rats. Interestingly, nestin re-expression was detected in the contralateral undamaged motor cortex only in GH-treated injured rats, being higher in animals GH-treated immediately after the lesion than in animals GH-treated 6 days post-lesion. Early GH treatment induces significant recovery of the motor impairment produced by frontal cortical ablation. GH effects include increased neurogenesis for reparation (perilesional area) and for increased brain plasticity (contralateral motor area). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. Lesion Load May Predict Long-Term Cognitive Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lavorgna, Luigi; Messina, Silvia; Chisari, Clara Grazia; Ippolito, Domenico; Lanzillo, Roberta; Vacchiano, Veria; Realmuto, Sabrina; Valentino, Paola; Coniglio, Gabriella; Buccafusca, Maria; Paolicelli, Damiano; D’Ambrosio, Alessandro; Montella, Patrizia; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo; Savettieri, Giovanni; Alfano, Bruno; Gallo, Antonio; Simone, Isabella; Viterbo, Rosa; Zappia, Mario; Bonavita, Simona; Tedeschi, Gioacchino

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques provided evidences into the understanding of cognitive impairment (CIm) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Objectives To investigate the role of white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) in predicting long-term CIm in a cohort of MS patients. Methods 303 out of 597 patients participating in a previous multicenter clinical-MRI study were enrolled (49.4% were lost at follow-up). The following MRI parameters, expressed as fraction (f) of intracranial volume, were evaluated: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-f), WM-f, GM-f and abnormal WM (AWM-f), a measure of lesion load. Nine years later, cognitive status was assessed in 241 patients using the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), the Semantically Related Word List Test (SRWL), the Modified Card Sorting Test (MCST), and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). In particular, being SRWL a memory test, both immediate recall and delayed recall were evaluated. MCST scoring was calculated based on the number of categories, number of perseverative and non-perseverative errors. Results AWM-f was predictive of an impaired performance 9 years ahead in SDMT (OR 1.49, CI 1.12–1.97 p = 0.006), PASAT (OR 1.43, CI 1.14–1.80 p = 0.002), SRWL-immediate recall (OR 1.72 CI 1.35–2.20 p<0.001), SRWL-delayed recall (OR 1.61 CI 1.28–2.03 p<0.001), MCST-category (OR 1.52, CI 1.2–1.9 p<0.001), MCST-perseverative error(OR 1.51 CI 1.2–1.9 p = 0.001), MCST-non perseverative error (OR 1.26 CI 1.02–1.55 p = 0.032). Conclusion In our large MS cohort, focal WM damage appeared to be the most relevant predictor of the long-term cognitive outcome. PMID:25816303

  18. [The histological lesions of chronic hepatitis C as predicting factors of sustained response to the treatment with interferon].

    PubMed

    Gento Peña, E G; López Morante, A; Cordero Guevara, J; Echevarría Iturbe, C; Martín Lorente, J L; Olcoz Goñi, J L; González San Martín, F; Caro-Patón Gómez, A; Jorquera Plaza, F; Velicia Llames, R; Sáez-Royuela, F

    2001-07-01

    Although many studies have been implemented in order to determine the pre-treatment factors that can predict patients' response to interferon (IFN) therapy, it is not yet clear whether characteristic histologic abnormalities in chronic hepatitis C can predict such response. The aim of this study were to evaluate, in patients with chronic hepatitis C, (i) the predictive value of histologic lesions for the sustained response to IFN therapy (ii) other pre-treatment (epidemiological and analytical) factors known to be predictive of response. Sustained response was retrospectively evaluated in two hundred one patients who had been treated with IFN for at least 3 months in four different hospitals from Castilla y León. The following histological parameters were studied as predictors of response: histological diagnosis, Knodell index, grading and stage, characteristic histologic lesions of HCV infection. Epidemiological and analytical parameters were also evaluated. The rate of patient's sustained response to IFN treatment was 16%. None of the histological parameters was useful to predict this response. By univariate analysis, age, disease evolution time, mode of viral transmission, GGT, ferritin and viral genotype were associated with a sustained response. The most powerful, and only independent predictive factor, however, was the genotype (the response odds ratio was 8.6). Histological parameters do not predict the response to IFN treatment. Other factors (mainly the viral genotype) are associated with a higher response percentage, although no one is useful to decide which patients are going to respond.

  19. Loss of passive external rotation at 90 degrees abduction is predictive of a medially healed Bankart lesion.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Allen; Ramsey, Matthew L; Williams, Gerald R

    2006-07-01

    This prospective study correlates passive range of external rotation with arthroscopic findings in patients with anterior instability for the purpose of defining criteria that can be used to detect a medially healed Bankart lesion. External rotation at 90 degrees abduction (ER90) was assessed on examination with the patient under anesthesia in bilateral shoulders of 46 consecutive patients with unidirectional, anterior glenohumeral instability. Arthroscopy was used to identify 22 patients with a detached Bankart lesion (group I) and 24 patients with a medially healed Bankart lesion (group II). Differences in ER90 between symptomatic and asymptomatic shoulders for both groups were compared. The t test and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test measured significance. In group I, mean ER90 in the symptomatic shoulder was 5 degrees greater than in the asymptomatic shoulder; in group II, mean ER90 in the symptomatic shoulder was 7.4 degrees less than in the asymptomatic shoulder (P < .001). Loss of ER90 was highly sensitive (92%) and specific (95%), with a positive predictive value of 96% for detection of a medially healed Bankart lesion. If a loss of 5 degrees or more of ER90 in the affected shoulder is found on examination under anesthesia, one should have a high degree of suspicion for the presence of a medially healed Bankart lesion. Level II, development of diagnostic criteria on basis of consecutive patients.

  20. Inclusion of renal vascular lesions in the 2003 ISN/RPS system for classifying lupus nephritis improves renal outcome predictions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Hua; Yu, Feng; Tan, Ying; Qu, Zhen; Chen, Meng-Hua; Wang, Su-Xia; Liu, Gang; Zhao, Ming-Hui

    2013-04-01

    The 2003 International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS) pathological classification system of lupus nephritis specified the importance of vascular damage and indicated this should be included in the diagnostic summary. Few pathological studies of lupus nephritis, however, focus on the patterns of renal vascular involvement. Here we assessed renal vascular lesions in lupus nephritis based on the 2003 ISN/RPS classification system and evaluated their association with clinical and pathological data in a large cohort from a single center in China. Among 341 patients with lupus nephritis, 279 were diagnosed with single or multiple renal vascular lesions that included 253 with vascular immune complex deposits, 82 with atherosclerosis, 60 with thrombotic microangiopathy, 13 with noninflammatory necrotizing vasculopathy, and 2 with true renal vasculitis. Patients with thrombotic microangiopathy had the poorest renal outcome. In multivariate Cox hazard analysis after inclusion of renal vascular lesions, the new chronicity index score became a significantly better independent risk factor for renal outcome (hazard ratio 2.32). Thus, renal vascular lesions are common in lupus nephritis and closely correlate with clinical disease activity and renal outcome. Inclusion of a detailed description of renal vascular lesions in the ISN/RPS classification of lupus nephritis may strengthen its predictive value for renal outcome.

  1. Low-field magnetic resonance imaging of early subchondral cyst-like lesions in induced cranial cruciate ligament deficient dogs.

    PubMed

    Baird, D K; Hathcock, J T; Kincaid, S A; Rumph, P F; Kammermann, J; Widmer, W R; Visco, D; Sweet, D

    1998-01-01

    Six healthy adult male mongrel dogs underwent cranial cruciate ligament transection in the left stifle. Survey radiography of both stifles and low-field (0.064 T) MRI of the left stifle were performed preoperatively and at 2, 6, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Focal changes in signal intensity were seen with MRI in the subchondral bone of the medial tibial condyle at 2 and 6 weeks postoperatively. At 12 weeks postoperative, a cyst-like lesion was detected using MRI in the subchondral bone of the medial tibial condyle in 4 of 6 dogs and a less defined lesion at this site in the remaining 2 dogs. The cyst-like lesion was spherical in shape and showed typical characteristics of fluid with low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and high signal intensity on inversion recovery images. The lesion was seen in the subchondral bone of the caudal medial and/or middle region of the tibial plateau slightly cranial to the insertion of the caudal cruciate ligament. No subchondral cysts were seen in the tibia on radiographs. Histopathologically, the tibia was characterized by a loose myxomatous phase of early subchondral cyst formation.

  2. Spatial perception errors do not predict pointing errors by individuals with brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Darling, Warren G; Bartelt, Robert; Pizzimenti, Marc A; Rizzo, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    We examined the relationship between errors in sensorimotor transformations (SMT) for reaching to external targets and visual and kinesthetic spatial perception of those targets by participants with damage to the posterior parietal lobule (PPL) and adjacent areas. A total of 12 participants had focal PPL lesions, 7 had with brain lesions outside the PPL, and 10 had no brain lesions. Brain lesions were due to stroke (12) or surgical resection (7). Participants made visually and kinesthetically guided pointing movements to 16 targets with the ipsilesional hand (to minimize effects of motor deficits). Head and eye movements were unrestricted. When full vision was allowed, all participants pointed accurately to visually specified targets. However, participants with PPL lesions made larger vertical plane errors than did neurologically intact control participants in visual and kinesthetic perceptual tasks and in SMT tasks (in which participants reached without vision to targets that had been visually presented). However, across all 29 participants, the size and direction of SMT errors showed low correlation with visual and kinesthetic perceptual errors. Moreover, participants with PPL lesions who made large visual and/or kinesthetic perceptual errors to individual targets also showed weak correlations with SMT errors to those targets. The results are compatible with theories that different neural pathways support perception and action for both the visual and the kinesthetic systems.

  3. The negative predictive value of breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging in noncalcified BIRADS 3 lesions.

    PubMed

    Dorrius, M D; Pijnappel, R M; Sijens, P E; van der Weide, M C Jansen; Oudkerk, M

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether breast MRI can provide a sufficient NPV to safely rule out malignancy in mammographic BIRADS 3 lesions. In a 3-year consecutive mammographic examination study 176 out of 4391 patients had a lesion classified as BIRADS 3. 76 out of 176 patients underwent breast MRI as diagnostic work-up. Lesions which MRI classified as BIRADS 1 or 2 were considered negative for malignancy. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were calculated. In 27 out of 76 (35.5%) patients MRI showed no enhancement and was classified as BIRADS 1. In 25 (32.9%) patients MRI showed focal or mass enhancement classified as BIRADS 2. In these 52 (68.4%) patients no malignancy was found during at least 2 years study follow-up. The other 24 (31.6%) patients had a lesion classified as BIRADS ≥ 3. Thirteen of these 24 lesions were malignant by pathology. MRI had a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 75-100%), specificity of 82.5% (95% CI: 71-91%), PPV of 54.2% (95% CI: 33-74%) and NPV of 100% (95% CI: 93-100%). Breast MRI should be used in a diagnostic strategy for the work-up of noncalcified BIRADS 3 lesions. Malignancy is ruled out with a very high level of confidence in the majority of patients (68%), herewith avoiding invasive diagnostic procedures. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Early L-dopa, but not pramipexole, restores basal ganglia activity in partially 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Marin, C; Bonastre, M; Mengod, G; Cortés, R; Giralt, A; Obeso, J A; Schapira, A H

    2014-04-01

    The most appropriate time for the initiation of dopaminergic symptomatic therapy in Parkinson's disease remains debatable. It has been suggested that early correction of basal ganglia pathophysiological abnormalities may have long-term beneficial effects. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the early and delayed actions of L-dopa and pramipexole, using a delayed-start protocol of treatment. The effects of early and delayed administration of these drugs on motor response, development of dyskinesias, neurogenesis and molecular markers in basal ganglia were studied in rats with a unilateral and partial 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostriatal lesion. Ten days after lesioning, rats received treatment with: a) L-dopa methyl ester (25mg/kg with 6.25mg/kg of benserazide, i.p., twice a day); b) pramipexole (0.5mg/kg, sc, twice a day) or c) saline for 4weeks. Four weeks after treatment initiation, rats from the saline group were distributed in three groups that then received the following treatments: d) L-dopa, e) pramipexole or f) saline, for 4weeks more. Three animals in each treatment arm received 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine injections (200mg/kg) 3days before starting treatment. When compared with delayed-start L-dopa, early-start L-dopa treatment induced a lower rotational response (p<0.01), an improvement in limb akinesia (p<0.05), a lower level of dyskinesia (p<0.01) and a normalization of lesion-induced molecular changes in basal ganglia. When compared with delayed-start pramipexole, early-start pramipexole induced a higher rotational response (p<0.01), but did not improve limb akinesia, induce dyskinesia nor normalize lesion-induced molecular changes. Neither significant modifications of striatal dopamine D1-D3 receptor heteromerization nor subventricular zone neurogenesis was found after any L-dopa or pramipexole treatments. Our data support a possible restoration of basal ganglia physiological mechanisms by early-start L-dopa therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc

  5. Predictivity of Early Depressive Symptoms for Post-Stroke Depression.

    PubMed

    Lewin-Richter, A; Volz, M; Jöbges, M; Werheid, K

    2015-08-01

    Depression is a frequent complication after stroke. However, little is known about the predictive value of early self-reported depressive symptoms (DS) for later development of post-stroke depression (PSD) 6 months after discharge. Using a prospective longitudinal design, we investigated the prevalence of DS and examined their predictive value for depressive disorders 6 months after stroke while statistically controlling major established PSD risk factors. During inpatient rehabilitation, 96 stroke patients were screened for DS. After 6 months, 71 patients were attainable for a follow-up. DS was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). At follow-up a telephone interview that included the Structured Clinical Interview for Psychiatric Disorders (SCID), which is based on DSM-IV criteria, and the GDS-15 was conducted. Patients with major depression (MD) at the follow-up were considered to have PSD. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the influence of early DS on PSD after 6 months while controlling for age, premorbid depression, and functional and cognitive impairments. The percentage of patients who scored above the GDS-15 cut-off for clinically relevant DS increased significantly, from 37% to 44%, after 6 months. According to the SCID, 27% of stroke patients fulfilled the criteria for MD, and another 16% fulfilled those for minor depression. Logistic regression showed that DS at baseline significantly predicted PSD at follow-up (odds ratio: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.15-1.8). Self-reported DS during inpatient rehabilitation are predictive for PSD 6 months after discharge. Assessment of early DS contributes to identifying stroke patients at risk for PSD, thereby facilitating prevention and treatment.

  6. Innovation in early breast cancer surgery: radio-guided occult lesion localization and sentinel node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Paganelli, G; Veronesi, U

    2002-07-01

    The surgical management of non-palpable breast lesions remains controversial. At the European Institute of Oncology we have introduced a new technique, radio-guided occult lesion localization (ROLL) to replace standard methods and overcome their disadvantages. Regarding axillary dissection, probe-guided biopsy of the sentinel node (SN) is easy to apply, and the whole procedure is associated to a low risk of false negatives. We suggest that the SN technique should be widely adopted to stage the axilla in patients with breast cancer with clinically negative lymph nodes. Large-scale implementation of the sentinel node technique will reduce the cost of treatment as a result of shorter hospitalization times.

  7. Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predicts Early Neurological Deterioration in Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Minor Stroke.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dezhi; Sun, Wen; Scalzo, Fabien; Xiong, Yunyun; Zhang, Xiaohao; Qiu, Zhongming; Zhu, Wusheng; Ma, Minmin; Liu, Wenhua; Xu, Gelin; Lu, Guangming; Liebeskind, David S; Liu, Xinfeng

    2016-02-01

    Early neurological deterioration (END) is an important factor associated with worse clinical outcome in minor strokes. Early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings can provide better sensitivity to delineate stroke pathophysiology and have diagnostic value associated with causative mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between early MRI finding and the presence of END in minor stroke patients with lesions in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Consecutive MCA minor stroke patients who were admitted to our center within 24 hours of symptom onset were included in this study. All patients underwent MRI within 24 hours of admission. We analyzed baseline characteristics, infarction patterns, and treatment algorithms. The correlation between early MRI findings and END, defined as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score increasing more than 2 points during 72 hours after admission, was also determined. Across 211 patients meeting entry criteria between January 2010 and December 2013, internal border-zone (IBZ) infarcts on early MRI scan were observed in 23 of 65 patients with END (35.4%) and in 18 of 146 patients without END (12.3%, P < .001). Patients with IBZ infarcts were found to have more hyperlipidemia, less perforating artery infarcts, more pial artery infarcts, more cortical border-zone infarcts and more ipsilateral large arterial stenosis. Logistic regression analysis revealed that IBZ infarct was independently associated with END after adjustment for other factors (odds ratio, 2.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-5.74; P = .031). Early MRI patterns of IBZ infarction are associated with END in minor stroke patients with acute infarcts of the MCA territory. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ability of laser fluorescence device associated with fluorescent dyes in detecting and quantifying early smooth surface caries lesions.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; de Oliveira, Elisabeth; de Faria, Dalva Lúcia Araújo; Nicolau, José

    2006-01-01

    A laser fluorescence (LF) device is a portable tool, but it does not measure minor mineral changes. Our in vitro study aim is to propose the association of an LF with two fluorescent dyes and to evaluate the performance in detecting and quantifying early demineralization. Artificial caries lesions are created in 40 primary canine teeth using a demineralizing solution (pH=4.8) for 12, 24, 48, and 96 h. LF measurements are performed with DIAGNOdent after demineralization in these samples and in 20 sound primary teeth. Measurements with LF with 0.2-mM tetrakis(N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin (LF TMPyP) and with 4-mM protoporphyrin IX (LF PPIX) are made. The amount of calcium loss is determined by atomic emission spectrometry. A correlation between LF and LF with dyes and mineral loss and receiver operating characteristics analysis are performed, as well as comparisons of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values. Significant correlation is obtained with LF TMPyP and mineral loss of lesions demineralized for 24, 48, and 96 h. Better performance is achieved with LF TMPyP for all parameters than with LF alone. LF PPIX does not present good results. In conclusion, LF TMPyP provides good performance in detecting and quantifying very early enamel caries lesions.

  9. Early orientation of attention toward the half space ipsilateral to the lesion in patients with unilateral brain damage.

    PubMed Central

    Gainotti, G; D'Erme, P; Bartolomeo, P

    1991-01-01

    Posner has suggested that unilateral spatial neglect could be due to a difficulty in disengaging attention from its current focus to orient it toward the neglected half space. Clinical and experimental data suggest, however, that this disengaging difficulty could be only one aspect of a more complex disturbance also characterized by an early automatic orienting of attention toward the half space ipsilateral to the lesion. To test this hypothesis, two different investigations in unselected groups of patients with right and left brain-damage were carried out. The first investigation, to evaluate forms of lateral orienting of attention severe enough to provoke an overt gaze deviation, consisted of the systematic assessment of the phenomenon of "magnetic gaze attraction". The second investigation, to detect milder forms of automatic orienting of attention, analysed the temporal sequence followed in identifying the pictures represented in an "Overlapping Figures task", to see if patients tended to identify first figures lying in the half space ipsilateral to the lesion. In both investigations results consistently showed: a) that patients with right brain damage tend to orient attention automatically toward the ipsilateral half space more than patients with left brain damage; b) that this tendency is tightly linked to the presence of behavioural manifestations of hemi-neglect. These results are therefore consistent with the hypothesis that hemi-neglect is a multi-component syndrome with an early orienting of attention toward the half space ipsilateral to the lesion as the first of these components. Images PMID:1783922

  10. Large-volume low apparent diffusion coefficient lesions predict poor survival in bevacizumab-treated glioblastoma patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Myron; Gulotta, Bryanna; Thomas, Alissa; Kaley, Thomas; Karimi, Sasan; Gavrilovic, Igor; Woo, Kaitlin M; Zhang, Zhigang; Arevalo-Perez, Julio; Holodny, Andrei I; Rosenblum, Marc; Young, Robert J

    2016-05-01

    Glioblastomas treated with bevacizumab may develop low-signal apparent diffusion coefficient (low-ADC) lesions, which may reflect increased tumor cellularity or atypical necrosis. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between low-ADC lesions and overall survival (OS). We hypothesized that growing low-ADC lesions would be associated with shorter OS. We retrospectively identified 52 patients treated with bevacizumab for the first (n = 42, 81%) or later recurrence of primary glioblastoma, who had low-ADC lesions and 2 post-bevacizumab scans ≤90 days apart. Low-ADC lesion volumes were measured, and normalized 5th percentile histogram low-ADC values were recorded. Using OS as the primary endpoint, semiparametric Cox models were fitted to ascertain univariate and multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) with significance at P = .05. Median OS was 9.1 months (95% CI = 7.2-14.3). At the second post-bevacizumab scan, the volume of the low-ADC lesion (median: 12.94 cm(3)) was inversely associated with OS, with larger volumes predicting shorter OS (HR = 1.014 [95% CI = 1.003-1.025], P = .009). The percent change in low-ADC volume (median: 6.8%) trended toward increased risk of death with growing volumes (P = .08). Normalized 5th percentile low-ADC value and its percent change were not associated with OS (P > .51). Also correlated with shorter OS were the pre-bevacizumab nonenhancing volume (P = .025), the first post-bevacizumab enhancing volume (P = .040), and the second post-bevacizumab enhancing volume (P = .004). The volume of low-ADC lesions at the second post-bevacizumab scan predicted shorter OS. This suggests that low-ADC lesions may be considered important imaging markers and included in treatment decision algorithms. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A new graphic method for estimation of distribution volume in chronic ischemic brain lesions on I-123 IMP SPECT; in prediction of regional CBF increase by bypass surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Odano, I.; Ohkubo, M.; Takahashi, N.

    1994-05-01

    The estimate the distribution volume (Vd) of Iodine-123 IMP brain SPECT, we developed a new graphic plot, the rate constant square method, which was useful to predict an increase of rCBF in the ischemic lesions caused by bypass surgery. The tracer kinetics of IMP was assumed to be a 2-compartment model as follows: dCb(t)/dt=K1Ca(t)-k2Cb(t), where K1 is rCBF(ml/g/min), k2 is the washout constant(/min), and K1/k2 is defined as distribution volume (Vd:ml/g). When input function Ca(t) is prepared, we can determine the relationship between K1, Delayed/Early ratio and Vd on the graph. The method was applied to 13 patients with chronic cerebral infarction. Regional CBF was measured by the microsphere model and early and delayed scans were performed. In the normal area, K1 and Delayed/Early ratio were 0.5 ml/g/min and 1.0, respectively, then Vd (=31.5 ml/g) was obtained on the graph. 30.0 ml/g, the value in the infarct area was reduced. After bypass surgery undertaken on five patients, we observed a significant relationship between % increase of rCBF in the lesions and values of Vd. Since Vd reflects the extent of IMP retention in the brain tissue, we can predict an increase of rCBF by the bypass operation using this method.

  12. Usefulness of Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio in Prediction of Coronary Artery Lesions in Patients with Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Demir, Fikri; Karadeniz, Cem; Özdemir, Rahmi; Yozgat, Yılmaz; Çelegen, Kübra; Karaaslan, Utku; Demirol, Mustafa; Meşe, Timur; Ünal, Nurettin

    2015-10-01

    Kawasaki disease is an inflammatory condition. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio is a marker reflecting inflammation. The aim of the study is to evaluate usefulness of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in diagnosis of Kawasaki disease and in prediction of coronary artery lesions. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Seventy-five children with Kawasaki disease and 66 controls were retrospectively enrolled. Their leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were recorded. Abnormally distributed data were shown as median (interquartile range). Cases having coronary artery diameter two standard deviation above mean were diagnosed to have coronary artery lesions. Median age of Kawasaki disease patients was 34 months. Twentyfive of those (33.33%) had incomplete Kawasaki disease and twenty-six (34.66%) had coronary artery lesions. Leukocyte [12.61 (6.09)×10(3)/µL vs. 8.48 (5.58)×10(3)/µL], neutrophil [6.73 (4.10) ×10(3)/µL vs. 4.62 (5.47)×10(3)/µL], and lymphocyte [4.04 (2.91)×10(3)/µL vs. 3.02 (2.57) ×10(3)/µL] counts were significantly higher in Kawasaki disease patients compared to controls (all p values <0.01). However, there was not significant difference between patients and controls regarding neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio [1.72 (1.22) vs. 1.71 (1.88)]. Findings of Kawasaki disease and incomplete Kawasaki disease cases did not differ, while comparison of patients with and without coronary artery lesions revealed significantly higher neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio values in former group [2.02 (1.63) vs. 1.50 (1.28), p=0.01]. The cut-off neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio value for prediction of coronary artery lesions was determined as 1.32. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio values in Kawasaki patients with coronary lesions were significantly higher than the ones without and values greater than 1.32 were useful in prediction of coronary lesions.

  13. Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in kidney transplantation and early renal function prediction.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Aurélien; Abbas, Samia; Semoun, Oren; Bourgeois, Éric; Marie, Olivier; Bonnet, Francine; Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; Abboud, Imad; Losser, Marie-Reine; Jacob, Laurent

    2011-11-15

    This prospective observational study aimed to assess the relevance of serial postoperative plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) measurements on prediction of early renal transplant function. Plasma NGAL (pNGAL) was measured (Triage NGAL Test; Biosite Inc., Inverness Medical) in 41 patients scheduled for kidney transplantation from deceased or living donors, immediately before and after surgery, and at 12 hr, day 1, day 3, and day 7. A delayed graft function (DGF) was defined as the need for dialysis during the first week. The results were expressed as median (Q1, Q3). Of the 41 consecutive patients enrolled, all had a high preoperative pNGAL level: 453 ng/mL (382, 595). Fifteen (36.6%) presented a DGF. In patients with DGF, pNGAL was significantly higher at 12 hr (571 [467, 634] vs. 242 [158, 299] ng/mL, P<0.0001) and at day 1 (466 [356, 627] vs. 165 [91, 248] ng/mL, P<0.0001). A pNGAL higher than 400 ng/mL 12 hr after transplantation predicted DGF with a sensitivity of 93.3%, a specificity of 88.5%, and an odds ratio of 63.2 (P=0.0004). This predictive performance was higher than for plasma creatinine. pNGAL level early and accurately predicted DGF after renal transplantation. pNGAL measurements allowed monitoring of the renal function in this striking situation of ischemia-reperfusion aggression. Early identification of patients at risk of DGF, before graft lesions are consolidated, opens the field of a precise monitoring of renal injury and the impact of future protective therapeutics.

  14. Site and size of multiple sclerosis lesions predict enhanced or decreased female orgasmic function.

    PubMed

    Winder, Klemens; Seifert, Frank; Koehn, Julia; Deutsch, Martina; Engelhorn, Tobias; Dörfler, Arnd; Lee, De-Hyung; Linker, Ralf A; Hilz, Max J

    2015-12-01

    Neuroimaging identified brain areas involved in female orgasm. In women with multiple sclerosis (MS), associations between orgasmic function and the site and size of MS-related magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes are undetermined. This study intended to correlate MS-associated cerebral lesion load and location with clinical scores of female orgasmic function. In 50 women with MS (mean age 37.0 ± 9.9 years), we assessed Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) scores for orgasmic frequency, difficulty and satisfaction. We determined disease duration, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores, and cerebral MS-lesion load and location using T2-weighed 1.5 T MRIs. We correlated FSFI scores for orgasm with patient age, disease duration, EDSS scores, and cerebral MS-lesion load (Spearman rank correlation; significance: p < 0.05). FSFI scores for orgasm correlated inversely with MS-lesion load in the left temporal periventricular white matter and right middle-inferior occipital area, but directly with MS-lesion load in the right frontal primary motor cortex, left prefrontal/inferior frontal cortex, right amygdala, left temporal middle-inferior and fusiform areas, and midbrain. FSFI scores for orgasm did not correlate with patient age, disease duration and EDSS scores (p > 0.05). In conclusion, our results indicate that MS-lesions in left temporal periventricular and right visual association areas deteriorate orgasmic function. In contrast, direct correlations between frontotemporal or midbrain lesions and higher FSFI scores, indicating enhanced or disinhibited orgasmic function, suggest that these brain regions normally buffer orgasmic responses. Moreover, our results indicate that orgasmic dysfunction in women with MS evolves independently of disease duration and physical disability.

  15. Predicting early nonelective hospital readmission in nutritionally compromised older adults.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, J M; Jensen, G L; Smiciklas-Wright, H; McCamish, M A

    1997-06-01

    This study determined predictors of early nonelective hospital readmission in 92 (49 women and 43 men) nutritionally compromised Medicare patients. Subjects ranged in age from 65 to 92 y and represented patients hospitalized previously for medical or surgical services. The study used a repeated-measures design of multiple variables representing demographics, anthropometric and clinical values, and functional status. Data were collected during hospitalization and during home visits at 1 and 3 mo postdischarge. There were 26 readmissions, making the 4-mo nonelective readmission rate 26%. Subjects who were readmitted nonelectively were compared with those not readmitted. Univariate analyses suggested strong relations between readmission outcome and serum albumin, total lymphocyte count, change in weight, and change in white blood cell count. Sociodemographic variables were less useful in predicting readmission than were measurements of patients' clinical status. Measurements of change in clinical variables were generally more predictive of readmission than was any one single measurement. Multivariate-logistic-regression analyses suggested a model consisting of change in weight and change in serum albumin from hospitalization to 1 mo after discharge as being highly predictive of early nonelective readmission. Individuals with any amount of weight loss and no improvement in albumin concentrations during the first month after hospitalization were at a much higher risk of readmission than were those who maintained or increased their postdischarge weight and had repleted their serum albumin concentrations. More study is warranted to clarify whether routine monitoring of changes in weight and serum albumin after hospitalization is appropriate in older adults.

  16. Fluorides for the prevention of early tooth decay (demineralised white lesions) during fixed brace treatment.

    PubMed

    Benson, Philip E; Parkin, Nicola; Dyer, Fiona; Millett, Declan T; Furness, Susan; Germain, Peter

    2013-12-12

    Demineralised white lesions (DWLs) can appear on teeth during fixed brace treatment because of early decay around the brackets that attach the braces to the teeth. Fluoride is effective in reducing decay in susceptible individuals in the general population. Individuals receiving orthodontic treatment may be prescribed various forms of fluoride treatment. This review compares the effects of various forms of fluoride used during orthodontic treatment on the development of DWLs. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004. The primary objective of this review was to evaluate the effects of fluoride in reducing the incidence of DWLs on the teeth during orthodontic treatment.The secondary objectives were to examine the effectiveness of different modes of fluoride delivery in reducing the incidence of DWLs, as well as the size of lesions. Participant-assessed outcomes, such as perception of DWLs, and oral health-related quality of life data were to be included, as would reports of adverse effects. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 31 January 2013); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 12); MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 31 January 2013); and EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 31 January 2013). We included trials if they met the following criteria: (1) parallel-group randomised clinical trials comparing the use of a fluoride-containing product versus placebo, no treatment or a different type of fluoride treatment, in which (2) the outcome of enamel demineralisation was assessed at the start and at the end of orthodontic treatment. At least two review authors independently, in duplicate, conducted risk of bias assessments and extracted data. Authors of trials were contacted to obtain missing data or to ask for clarification of aspects of trial methodology. The Cochrane Collaboration's statistical guidelines were followed. For the 2013 update of this review, three changes were made

  17. Early Childhood Behavioral Inhibition Predicts Cortical Thickness in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Sylvester, Chad M.; Barch, Deanna M.; Harms, Michael P.; Belden, Andy C.; Oakberg, Timothy J.; Gold, Andrea L.; White, Lauren K.; Benson, Brenda E.; Troller-Renfree, Sonya; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Henderson, Heather A.; Luby, Joan L.; Fox, Nathan A.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Behavioral inhibition (BI) during early childhood predicts risk for anxiety disorders and altered cognitive control in adolescence. Although BI has been linked to variation in brain function through adulthood, few studies have examined relations between early childhood BI and adult brain structure. Method The relation between early childhood BI and cortical thickness in adulthood was examined in a cohort of individuals followed since early childhood (N=53, mean age 20.5 years). Analyses tested whether anxiety and/or cognitive control during adolescence moderated relations between BI and cortical thickness. Cognitive control was measured with the Eriksen Flanker task. Initial analyses examined cortical thickness in regions of interest previously implicated in BI, anxiety disorders, and cognitive control: dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC), anterior insula (aI), and subgenual anterior cingulate (sgACC); and volumes of the amygdala and hippocampus. Exploratory analyses examined relations across the prefrontal cortex. Results BI during early childhood related to thinner dACC in adulthood. Neither anxiety nor cognitive control moderated this relation. A stronger congruency effect on the Flanker task during adolescence independently related to thinner dACC in adulthood. Higher anxiety during adolescence related to thicker cortex in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) in adulthood among those with low BI as children. Conclusion Temperament in early childhood and the interaction between temperament and later anxiety relate to adult brain structure. These results are consistent with prior work associating BI and anxiety with functional brain variability in the dACC and VLPFC. PMID:26802779

  18. Abnormal early cleavage events predict early embryo demise: sperm oxidative stress and early abnormal cleavage.

    PubMed

    Burruel, Victoria; Klooster, Katie; Barker, Christopher M; Pera, Renee Reijo; Meyers, Stuart

    2014-10-13

    Human embryos resulting from abnormal early cleavage can result in aneuploidy and failure to develop normally to the blastocyst stage. The nature of paternal influence on early embryo development has not been directly demonstrated although many studies have suggested effects from spermatozoal chromatin packaging, DNA damage, centriolar and mitotic spindle integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. The goal of this study was to determine whether early developmental events were affected by oxidative damage to the fertilizing sperm. Survival analysis was used to compare patterns of blastocyst formation based on P2 duration. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrate that relatively few embryos with short (<1 hr) P2 times reached blastocysts, and the two curves diverged beginning on day 4, with nearly all of the embryos with longer P2 times reaching blastocysts by day 6 (p < .01). We determined that duration of the 2nd to 3rd mitoses were sensitive periods in the presence of spermatozoal oxidative stress. Embryos that displayed either too long or too short cytokineses demonstrated an increased failure to reach blastocyst stage and therefore survive for further development. Although paternal-derived gene expression occurs later in development, this study suggests a specific role in early mitosis that is highly influenced by paternal factors.

  19. Effect of GPE-AGT nanoparticle shRNA transfection system mediated RNAi on early atherosclerotic lesion.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Yuan, Lifen; Wang, Yuqiang; Du, Qin; Sheng, Jing

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of RNA interference targeting AGT on early atherosclerotic lesion in the hypertensive state. Hypertension and atherosclerosis rats were treated with GPE nanoparticles carrying AGT shRNA. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured for 2 consecutive weeks. Three days after treatment, the mRNA and protein expressions of AGT in the liver were measured by PCR and western blot assay, respectively. The blood levels of AGT and Ang II were determined by ELISA. H&E staining and electron microscopy were performed. Three days after AGT shRNA treatment, the mRNA and protein expressions of AGT in the liver were markedly reduced and the blood levels of AGT and Ang II dramatically decreased as compared to the remaining 3 groups (P < 0.05). Three days after AGT shRNA treatment, the blood pressure was reduced by 27 ± 4 mmHg when compared with that at baseline (P < 0.05). About 11 days after AGT shRNA treatment, the blood pressure began to increase. The blood pressure remained unchanged in the remaining 3 groups. Microscopy showed the atherosclerotic lesions were markedly attenuated in AGT shRNA treated rats but the liver and kidney functions remained stable (P > 0.05) when compared with the remaining 3 groups. Transfection with GPE nanoparticle carrying AGT shRNA can stably lower the blood pressure and improve the atherosclerotic lesions which lead to the delayed development of early atherosclerotic lesions in hypertension rats with concomitant atherosclerosis.

  20. Effect of GPE-AGT nanoparticle shRNA transfection system mediated RNAi on early atherosclerotic lesion

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ping; Yuan, Lifen; Wang, Yuqiang; Du, Qin; Sheng, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of RNA interference targeting AGT on early atherosclerotic lesion in the hypertensive state. Methods Hypertension and atherosclerosis rats were treated with GPE nanoparticles carrying AGT shRNA. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured for 2 consecutive weeks. Three days after treatment, the mRNA and protein expressions of AGT in the liver were measured by PCR and western blot assay, respectively. The blood levels of AGT and Ang II were determined by ELISA. H&E staining and electron microscopy were performed. Results Three days after AGT shRNA treatment, the mRNA and protein expressions of AGT in the liver were markedly reduced and the blood levels of AGT and Ang II dramatically decreased as compared to the remaining 3 groups (P < 0.05). Three days after AGT shRNA treatment, the blood pressure was reduced by 27 ± 4mmHg when compared with that at baseline (P < 0.05). About 11 days after AGT shRNA treatment, the blood pressure began to increase. The blood pressure remained unchanged in the remaining 3 groups. Microscopy showed the atherosclerotic lesions were markedly attenuated in AGT shRNA treated rats but the liver and kidney functions remained stable (P > 0.05) when compared with the remaining 3 groups. Conclusion Transfection with GPE nanoparticle carrying AGT shRNA can stably lower the blood pressure and improve the atherosclerotic lesions which lead to the delayed development of early atherosclerotic lesions in hypertension rats with concomitant atherosclerosis. PMID:22977667

  1. Salivary peptidome profiling analysis for occurrence of new carious lesions in patients with severe early childhood caries.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chang; Sun, Xiangyu; Liu, Xiaochen; Huang, Xin; Chen, Feng; Zheng, Shuguo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify differences of peptide profiles in stimulated whole saliva among children with and without occurrence of new carious lesions, and to provide a simple way for early diagnosis and prevention of the relapse of severe early childhood caries (s-ECC). Overall, 26 children aged 3-4 years were selected out from all the children in the kindergarten to be involved in the present study, among them 13 were diagnosed as s-ECC and underwent dental treatment, whilst the other 13 were matched by age and sex as control. Stimulated whole saliva samples were collected before treatment, and at 10 days and 4 months after treatment. During follow-up, 7 of the 13 children with s-ECC showed a relapse, and the new carious lesions were then treated. Salivary peptides were detected using the technique of magnetic beads combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Fifteen peptides showed significant differences in the group without occurrence of new carious lesions (CH group). On comparing the CH group and the other group with occurrence of new carious lesions (CR group), no significant differences were observed before treatment, whereas certain peptides showed significant differences at both 10 days and 4 months after treatment. Two peptides (experimental m/z values: 3162.0 Da and 3290.4 Da) exhibited a consistent tendency in cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons among these groups; these may be associated with recurrence of s-ECC. Based on our findings, it is concluded that different saliva peptide peaks can be detected in s-ECC using MALDI-TOF MS combined with magnetic beads. Moreover, 2 specific peptides with m/z values 3162.0 Da and 3290.4 Da could be promising salivary protein biomarkers for diagnosis of recurrence of s-ECC.

  2. Early cyclosporine a withdrawal in kidney-transplant recipients receiving sirolimus prevents progression of chronic pathologic allograft lesions.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Juan C; Campistol, Josep M; Grinyó, Josep M; Mota, Alfredo; Prats, Dolores; Gutiérrez, Jose A; Henriques, Antonio C; Pinto, Jose R; García, Javier; Morales, Jose M; Gómez, Jose M; Arias, Manuel

    2004-11-15

    Nephrotoxicity of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) is partially responsible for the development of chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN). Sirolimus has demonstrated its potential to substitute for CNIs because it lacks significant nephrotoxicity and shows a short-term immunosuppressive capacity comparable with that of cyclosporine. This results in the maintenance of better renal function when cyclosporine is eliminated, but it has not been demonstrated whether this benefit is associated with an improvement in the pathologic substrate and a reduction in CAN. We analyzed pretransplant and 1-year renal-allograft biopsies from 64 patients enrolled in a multicenter trial. Patients received cyclosporine and sirolimus during the first 3 months after transplant and were then randomly assigned to continue with cyclosporine or have it withdrawn. Histologic chronic allograft lesions were compared between groups. The percentage of patients in whom chronic pathologic lesions progressed was lower in the group of cyclosporine elimination. Significant differences were observed in chronic interstitial and tubular lesions (70% vs. 40.9% [P<0.05] and 70% vs. 47.8% [P<0.05], respectively), whereas no differences were observed in acute lesions (subclinical rejection). Prevalence of CAN at 1 year was lower in this group, as was the severity and incidence of new cases (P<0.05). Early cyclosporine withdrawal associated with sirolimus administration is followed by an improvement in renal function, a reduction in the progression of chronic pathologic allograft lesions, and a lower incidence of new cases and severity of CAN during the first year after transplantation. This benefit may result in better long-term graft outcome.

  3. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind's Parenting Styles.

    PubMed

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-06-01

    Families play an essential role in maintaining children's mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind's parenting styles (root development). A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 2014. The students were assessed using the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF) and the Baumrind's parenting styles inventories. The result of regression analysis showed that Baumrind's parenting styles are significant predictors of early maladaptive schemas (P < 0.001). The authoritative parenting style has some features such as showing high levels of warmth or encouraging kids to express their own possibly divergent opinions. The authoritarian parenting style, however, possesses traits such as heartlessness, impassiveness, strictness, and lack of attention to the children's developmental needs, which is not acceptable.

  4. Contingency Table Browser − prediction of early stage protein structure

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowska, Barbara; Krzykalski, Artur; Roterman, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The Early Stage (ES) intermediate represents the starting structure in protein folding simulations based on the Fuzzy Oil Drop (FOD) model. The accuracy of FOD predictions is greatly dependent on the accuracy of the chosen intermediate. A suitable intermediate can be constructed using the sequence-structure relationship information contained in the so-called contingency table − this table expresses the likelihood of encountering various structural motifs for each tetrapeptide fragment in the amino acid sequence. The limited accuracy with which such structures could previously be predicted provided the motivation for a more indepth study of the contingency table itself. The Contingency Table Browser is a tool which can visualize, search and analyze the table. Our work presents possible applications of Contingency Table Browser, among them − analysis of specific protein sequences from the point of view of their structural ambiguity. PMID:26664034

  5. Contingency Table Browser - prediction of early stage protein structure.

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, Barbara; Krzykalski, Artur; Roterman, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The Early Stage (ES) intermediate represents the starting structure in protein folding simulations based on the Fuzzy Oil Drop (FOD) model. The accuracy of FOD predictions is greatly dependent on the accuracy of the chosen intermediate. A suitable intermediate can be constructed using the sequence-structure relationship information contained in the so-called contingency table - this table expresses the likelihood of encountering various structural motifs for each tetrapeptide fragment in the amino acid sequence. The limited accuracy with which such structures could previously be predicted provided the motivation for a more indepth study of the contingency table itself. The Contingency Table Browser is a tool which can visualize, search and analyze the table. Our work presents possible applications of Contingency Table Browser, among them - analysis of specific protein sequences from the point of view of their structural ambiguity.

  6. Risk Prediction for Early CKD in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peggy; Lee, Shun Fu; Heinze, Georg; Clase, Catherine M.; Tobe, Sheldon; Teo, Koon K.; Gerstein, Hertzel; Mann, Johannes F.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Quantitative data for prediction of incidence and progression of early CKD are scarce in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, two risk prediction models were developed for incidence and progression of CKD after 5.5 years and the relative effect of predictors were ascertained. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Baseline and prospective follow-up data of two randomized clinical trials, ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) and Outcome Reduction with Initial Glargine Intervention (ORIGIN), were used as development and independent validation cohorts, respectively. Individuals aged ≥55 years with type 2 diabetes and normo- or microalbuminuria at baseline were included. Incidence or progression of CKD after 5.5 years was defined as new micro- or macroalbuminuria, doubling of creatinine, or ESRD. The competing risk of death was considered as an additional outcome state in the multinomial logistic models. Results Of the 6766 ONTARGET participants with diabetes, 1079 (15.9%) experienced incidence or progression of CKD, and 1032 (15.3%) died. The well calibrated, parsimonious laboratory prediction model incorporating only baseline albuminuria, eGFR, sex, and age exhibited an externally validated c-statistic of 0.68 and an R2 value of 10.6%. Albuminuria, modeled to depict the difference between baseline urinary albumin/creatinine ratio and the threshold for micro- or macroalbuminuria, was mostly responsible for the predictive performance. Inclusion of clinical predictors, such as glucose control, diabetes duration, number of prescribed antihypertensive drugs, previous vascular events, or vascular comorbidities, increased the externally validated c-statistic and R2 value only to 0.69 and 12.1%, respectively. Explained variation was largely driven by renal and not clinical predictors. Conclusions Albuminuria and eGFR were the most important factors to predict onset and

  7. Inflammatory and vascular placental lesions are associated with neonatal amplitude integrated EEG recording in early premature neonates

    PubMed Central

    Goshen, Sharon; Richardson, Justin; Drunov, VIadimir; Staretz Chacham, Orna; Shany, Eilon

    2017-01-01

    the first 3 days of life (P = 0.007). Conclusions Depressed neonatal aEEG patterns are associated with placental lesions consistent with maternal under perfusion, and amniotic fluid infection of fetal type, but not with fetal thrombo-oclusive vascular disease of inflammatory type. Our findings highlight the association between the intrauterine mechanisms leading to preterm parturition and subsequent depressed neonatal cerebral function early after birth, which eventually may put premature infants at risk for abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:28644831

  8. A Retrospective Comparative Study of Image-Guided Excisional Biopsy in High-Risk Non-Palpable Breast Lesions: Predictive Factors for Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    İflazoğlu, Nidal; Üreyen, Orhan; Atahan, Murat Kemal; Meral, Ulvi Mehmet; Sezgin, Gülten; Tarcan, Ercüment

    2015-01-01

    Objective The use of mammography (MM) in breast cancer screening programs has been increasing in recent years. Thus, increasing the number of detected nonpalpable breast cancer patients, through early diagnosis and treatment also increased survival rates. In our study, we wanted to share the factors about imaging-guided exicional biopsies for non-palpable breast lesions in postoperative proven breast carcinoma patients. Materials and Methods The surgical data were reviewed for 83 patients with non-palpabl high-risk breast lesions undergoing imaging-guided surgery in our department between January, 2006 and May, 2011. Histopathologic results and age, ultrasound(US) results, MM image results, BI-RADS categorization, localization of lesion(quadrant) were assessed and factors for predicting malignity were detected. Results Median age was 52 (age range 32–80 years). 29 (34,9%) of patients were malign in histopathologic results. In four patient, re-excision performed because of positive surgical margins. Axillary examination results were normal in 24 (82,7%) of malignant patients. In MM examination; microcalcifications and nodular opasity were diagnosed in 74,6% of patients before surgery. There were no differance about malignity in these groups after surgery (p:0,428). 59% and 32,7% of patients were BI-RADS 4 and 3, respectively. Postoperative diagnosed malignancies in BI-RADS 4 group were significantly higher than BI-RADS 3 group (p:<0,001). Conclusion In our study; we concluded that, preoperative BI-RADS categorization (US and MM) is correlated with histopathologic findings after surgery and imaging-guided breast surgery is effective for diagnosis of early-stage breast carcinoma.

  9. Specific Dysphoric Symptoms Are Predicted by Early Maladaptive Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Couyoumdjian, Alessandro; Tenore, Katia; Spitoni, Grazia; Mancini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) are cognitive patterns resulting from unmet core emotional needs in childhood that have been linked to the development of psychopathology. As depression is a multifaceted phenomenon, we hypothesized that specific dysphoric symptoms would be predicted by different EMSs. Four hundred and fifty-six participants completed a measure of EMSs (Young Schema Questionnaire) and reported on the severity of the symptoms of criterion A for major depression in DSM-IV during the occurrence of a dysphoric episode in the previous 12 months. A series of stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate the predictive power of the EMSs for the severity of each specific depressive symptom. When controlling for gender and current levels of depression, specific symptoms were predicted by different EMSs: sadness by Negativity/Pessimism; anhedonia by Failure; self-harm by Emotional Deprivation and Vulnerability to Harm or Illness; worthlessness by Failure and Negativity/Pessimism; psychomotor retardation/restlessness by Vulnerability to Harm or Illness and Entitlement/Grandiosity; and poor concentration by Insufficient Self-Control/Self-Discipline. The more physical symptoms of fatigue, insomnia/hypersomnia, and appetite loss/appetite gain were not predicted by any of the EMSs. Although the cross-sectional design of the study does not allow for conclusions about the direction of effects, results suggest that depression is not a unitary phenomenon and provide a possible explanation for previous inconsistent findings. PMID:24511281

  10. Specific dysphoric symptoms are predicted by early maladaptive schemas.

    PubMed

    Trincas, Roberta; Ottaviani, Cristina; Couyoumdjian, Alessandro; Tenore, Katia; Spitoni, Grazia; Mancini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) are cognitive patterns resulting from unmet core emotional needs in childhood that have been linked to the development of psychopathology. As depression is a multifaceted phenomenon, we hypothesized that specific dysphoric symptoms would be predicted by different EMSs. Four hundred and fifty-six participants completed a measure of EMSs (Young Schema Questionnaire) and reported on the severity of the symptoms of criterion A for major depression in DSM-IV during the occurrence of a dysphoric episode in the previous 12 months. A series of stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate the predictive power of the EMSs for the severity of each specific depressive symptom. When controlling for gender and current levels of depression, specific symptoms were predicted by different EMSs: sadness by Negativity/Pessimism; anhedonia by Failure; self-harm by Emotional Deprivation and Vulnerability to Harm or Illness; worthlessness by Failure and Negativity/Pessimism; psychomotor retardation/restlessness by Vulnerability to Harm or Illness and Entitlement/Grandiosity; and poor concentration by Insufficient Self-Control/Self-Discipline. The more physical symptoms of fatigue, insomnia/hypersomnia, and appetite loss/appetite gain were not predicted by any of the EMSs. Although the cross-sectional design of the study does not allow for conclusions about the direction of effects, results suggest that depression is not a unitary phenomenon and provide a possible explanation for previous inconsistent findings.

  11. Data Assimilation and Uncertainties in Early Solar Cycle Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitiashvili, Irina

    2017-08-01

    Stochastic nature of solar activity variations together with our limited knowledge of the dynamo mechanism and subsurface dynamics causes uncertainty in predictions of the solar cycle. For improving the physics-based predictions we can take advantage of the mathematical data assimilation approach that allows us to take into account both, observational errors and model uncertainties, and provide estimates of the next solar cycle along with prediction uncertainties. In this study we use the Parker's migratory dynamo model together with the equation of magnetic helicity balance, which reproduces main properties of the sunspot cycles and allow us to minimize discrepancies between the observed global activity variations and the model solution. The test simulation runs show that a reliable prediction can be obtained for two phases of preceding solar cycle: 1) if the polar field reversals shortly after the solar maxima (strong toroidal field and weak poloidal field), and 2) during the solar minima (strongest poloidal and weak toroidal fields). The early estimate of Cycle 25 obtained by this method shows that this cycle will start in 2019 - 2020, reach the maximum in 2023 - 2024, and that the mean sunspot number at the maximum will be about 90 (for the v2.0 sunspot number series).

  12. Vision after early-onset lesions of the occipital cortex: I. Neuropsychological and psychophysical studies.

    PubMed

    Kiper, D C; Zesiger, P; Maeder, P; Deonna, T; Innocenti, G M

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed the visual functions of two patients (MS, FJ) with bilateral lesion of the primary visual cortex, which occurred at gestational age 33 wk in MS and at postnatal month 7 in FJ. In both patients basic visual functions--visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color, form, motion perception-are similarly preserved or modestly impaired. Functions requiring higher visual processing, particularly figure-ground segregation based on textural cues, are severely impaired. In MS, studied longitudinally, the deficits attenuated between the ages of 4.5 and 8 y, suggesting that the developing visual system can display a considerable degree of adaptive plasticity several years after the occurrence of a lesion. In FJ (age 18:9 to 20:6 y), who is more impaired, the recovery, if any, was less.

  13. Presupposition and implication of truth: linguistic deficits following early brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Eisele, J A; Lust, B; Aram, D M

    1998-02-15

    Twenty-four children (4-17 years) with unilateral left (N = 14) or right (N = 10) hemisphere damage and 24 age-matched controls were tested on their ability to presuppose the truth of factive sentences e.g., "Max knew that he locked the door," and to infer the truth or falsity of implicative sentences "Max remembered to lock the door." Experimental sentence types varied according to the type of inference, the semantic features of the verb (factive vs. implicative), the presence and type of negation (lexical or syntactic), and the syntax of the complement (tensed or infinitive). Relative to age-matched controls, left lesion subjects were deficient in both their presupposition and implication performance, particularly when such inferences required the computation of negation scope. Right lesion subjects exhibited a somewhat more selective deficit; one limited to implication, but not presupposition, and one limited to lexical but not syntactic forms of negation.

  14. Vision After Early-Onset Lesions of the Occipital Cortex: I. Neuropsychological and Psychophysical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kiper, D. C.; Zesiger, P.; Maeder, P.; Deonna, T.; Innocenti, G. M.

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed the visual functions of two patients (MS, FJ) with bilateral lesion of the primary visual cortex, which occurred at gestational age 33 wk in MS and at postnatal month 7 in FJ. In both patients basic visual functions— visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color, form, motion perception—are similarly preserved or modestly impaired. Functions requiring higher visual processing, particularly figure-ground segregation based on textural cues, are severely impaired. In MS, studied longitudinally, the deficits attenuated between the ages of 4.5 and 8 y, suggesting that the developing visual system can display a considerable degree of adaptive plasticity several years after the occurrence of a lesion. In FJ (age 18:9 to 20:6 y), who is more impaired, the recovery, if any, was less. PMID:12458786

  15. Early Parenteral Nutrition in Patients with Biliopancreatic Mass Lesions, a Prospective, Randomized Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Janine; Meffert, Peter J.; Vogt, Lena J.; Gärtner, Simone; Steveling, Antje; Kraft, Matthias; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.; Aghdassi, Ali A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Patients with biliopancreatic tumors frequently suffer from weight loss and cachexia. The in-hospital work-up to differentiate between benign and malignant biliopancreatic lesions requires repeated pre-interventional fasting periods that can aggravate this problem. We conducted a randomized intervention study to test whether routine in-hospital peripheral intravenous nutrition on fasting days (1000 ml/24 h, 700 kcal) has a beneficial effect on body weight and body composition. Material and Methods 168 patients were screened and 100 enrolled in the trial, all undergoing in-hospital work-up for biliopancreatic mass lesions and randomized to either intravenous nutrition or control. Primary endpoint was weight loss at time of hospital discharge; secondary endpoints were parameters determined by bioelectric impedance analysis and quality of life recorded by the EORTC questionnaire. Results Within three months prior to hospital admission patients had a median self-reported loss of 4.0 kg (25*th: -10.0 kg and 75*th* percentile: 0.0kg) of body weight. On a multivariate analysis nutritional intervention increased body weight by 1.7 kg (95% CI: 0.204; 3.210, p = 0.027), particularly in patients with malignant lesions (2.7 kg (95% CI: 0.71; 4.76, p < 0.01). Conclusions In a hospital setting, patients with suspected biliopancreatic mass lesions stabilized their body weight when receiving parenteral nutrition in fasting periods even when no total parenteral nutrition was required. Analysis showed that this effect was greatest in patients with malignant tumors. Further studies will be necessary to see whether patient outcome is affected as well. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02670265 PMID:27861546

  16. On the stability of lung parenchymal lesions with applications to early pneumothorax diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Bhandarkar, Archis R; Banerjee, Rohan; Seshaiyer, Padmanabhan

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax, a prevalent medical challenge in most trauma cases, is a form of sudden lung collapse closely associated with risk factors such as lung cancer and emphysema. Our work seeks to explore and quantify the currently unknown pathological factors underlying lesion rupture in pneumothorax through biomechanical modeling. We hypothesized that lesion instability is closely associated with elastodynamic strain of the pleural membrane from pulsatile air flow and collagen-elastin dynamics. Based on the principles of continuum mechanics and fluid-structure interaction, our proposed model coupled isotropic tissue deformation with pressure from pulsatile air motion and the pleural fluid. Next, we derived mathematical instability criteria for our ordinary differential equation system and then translated these mathematical instabilities to physically relevant structural instabilities via the incorporation of a finite energy limiter. The introduction of novel biomechanical descriptions for collagen-elastin dynamics allowed us to demonstrate that changes in the protein structure can lead to a transition from stable to unstable domains in the material parameter space for a general lesion. This result allowed us to create a novel streamlined algorithm for detecting material instabilities in transient lung CT scan data via analyzing deformations in a local tissue boundary.

  17. FIBTEM provides early prediction of massive transfusion in trauma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Prediction of massive transfusion (MT) among trauma patients is difficult in the early phase of trauma management. Whole-blood thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) tests provide immediate information about the coagulation status of acute bleeding trauma patients. We investigated their value for early prediction of MT. Methods This retrospective study included patients admitted to the AUVA Trauma Centre, Salzburg, Austria, with an injury severity score ≥16, from whom blood samples were taken immediately upon admission to the emergency room (ER). ROTEM® analyses (extrinsically-activated test with tissue factor (EXTEM), intrinsically-activated test using ellagic acid (INTEM) and fibrin-based extrinsically activated test with tissue factor and the platelet inhibitor cytochalasin D (FIBTEM) tests) were performed. We divided patients into two groups: massive transfusion (MT, those who received ≥10 units red blood cell concentrate within 24 hours of admission) and non-MT (those who received 0 to 9 units). Results Of 323 patients included in this study (78.9% male; median age 44 years), 78 were included in the MT group and 245 in the non-MT group. The median injury severity score upon admission to the ER was significantly higher in the MT group than in the non-MT group (42 vs 27, P < 0.0001). EXTEM and INTEM clotting time and clot formation time were significantly prolonged and maximum clot firmness (MCF) was significantly lower in the MT group versus the non-MT group (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Of patients admitted with FIBTEM MCF 0 to 3 mm, 85% received MT. The best predictive values for MT were provided by hemoglobin and Quick value (area under receiver operating curve: 0.87 for both parameters). Similarly high predictive values were observed for FIBTEM MCF (0.84) and FIBTEM A10 (clot amplitude at 10 minutes; 0.83). Conclusions FIBTEM A10 and FIBTEM MCF provided similar predictive values for massive transfusion in trauma patients to the most predictive

  18. Adolescent Expectations of Early Death Predict Young Adult Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quynh C.; Hussey, Jon M.; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Villaveces, Andres; Marshall, Stephen W.; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Poole, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Among adolescents, expectations of early death have been linked to future risk behaviors. These expectations may also reduce personal investment in education and training, thereby lowering adult socioeconomic status attainment. The importance of socioeconomic status is highlighted by pervasive health inequities and dramatic differences in life expectancy among education and income groups. The objectives of this study were to investigate patterns of change in perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations; PSE), predictors of PSE, and associations between PSE and future socioeconomic status attainment. We utilized the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994-95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001-02 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32). At Wave I, 14% reported ≤ 50% chance of living to age 35 and older adolescents reported lower PSE than younger adolescents. At Wave III, PSE were similar across age. Changes in PSE from Wave I to III were moderate, with 89% of respondents reporting no change (56%), one level higher (22%) or one level lower (10%) in a 5-level PSE variable. Higher block group poverty rate, perceptions that the neighborhood is unsafe, and less time in the U.S. (among the foreign-born) were related to low PSE at Waves I and III. Low PSE at Waves I and III predicted lower education attainment and personal earnings at Wave IV in multinomial logistic regression models controlling for confounding factors such as previous family socioeconomic status, individual demographic characteristics, and depressive symptoms. Anticipation of an early death is prevalent among adolescents and predictive of lower future socioeconomic status. Low PSE reported early in life may be a marker for worse health trajectories. PMID:22405687

  19. Predictability and Prediction of Early- and Peak-summer East Asian rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, S. Y.; Wang, B.; Xing, W.; Kim, H. K.

    2015-12-01

    East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall has a profound influence on the lives of billions of people. The seasonal prediction of the EASM rainfall, however, has long been an outstanding challenge in climate science. Traditional seasonal forecast of EASM deals with JJA mean rainfall anomalies, which may not be the best strategy because the EASM rainy season is typically from May to August and pronounced differences exist between early summer (May-June, MJ) and peak summer (July-August, JA): both climatological mean states and the principal modes of interannual variability exhibit distinct spatial and temporal structures. The present study explores the sources and limit of the predictability of the early and peak summer rainfall over the East Asian (EA) region. Since the climate models' seasonal forecasts have rather limited skills, it is important to find the causes of the low skills, to improve seasonal prediction, and to better estimate the predictability of EASM rainfall. We address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method. Four empirical modes of variability for peak summer rainfall are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific-EA teleconnection mode, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high-dipole feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-ENSO mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train mode. These modes are named according to the major sources of predictability. Based on the understanding of predictability sources for each mode, a suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading principal components (PCs). All four modes can be predicted with significant cross-validated correlation skills(0.59-0.65). Using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns, a 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the EA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill is 0.37, which is higher than the MME hind cast skill (0.13). The estimated potential attainable pattern correlation coefficient skill averaged over the entire domain is

  20. In vitro transcriptomic prediction of hepatotoxicity for early drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Feng; Theodorescu, Dan; Schulman, Ira G.; Lee, Jae K.

    2012-01-01

    Liver toxicity (hepatotoxicity) is a critical issue in drug discovery and development. Standard preclinical evaluation of drug hepatotoxicity is generally performed using in vivo animal systems. However, only a small number of preselected compounds can be examined in vivo due to high experimental costs. A more efficient yet accurate screening technique which can identify potentially hepatotoxic compounds in the early stages of drug development would thus be valuable. Here, we develop and apply a novel genomic prediction technique for screening hepatotoxic compounds based on in vitro human liver cell tests. Using a training set of in vivo rodent experiments for drug hepatotoxicity evaluation, we discovered common biomarkers of drug-induced liver toxicity among six heterogeneous compounds. This gene set was further triaged to a subset of 32 genes that can be used as a multi-gene expression signature to predict hepatotoxicity. This multi-gene predictor was independently validated and showed consistently high prediction performance on five test sets of in vitro human liver cell and in vivo animal toxicity experiments. The predictor also demonstrated utility in evaluating different degrees of toxicity in response to drug concentrations which may be useful not only for discerning a compound’s general hepatotoxicity but also for determining its toxic concentration. PMID:21884709

  1. Coherent corticomuscular oscillations originate from primary motor cortex: evidence from patients with early brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Gerloff, Christian; Braun, Christoph; Staudt, Martin; Hegner, Yiwen Li; Dichgans, Johannes; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg

    2006-10-01

    Coherent oscillations of neurons in the primary motor cortex (M1) have been shown to be involved in the corticospinal control of muscle activity. This interaction between M1 and muscle can be measured by the analysis of corticomuscular coherence in the beta-frequency range (beta-CMCoh; 14-30 Hz). Largely based on magnetoencephalographic (MEG) source-modeling data, it is widely assumed that beta-CMCoh reflects direct coupling between M1 and muscle. Deafferentation is capable of modulating beta-CMCoh, however, and therefore the influence of reafferent somatosensory signaling and corresponding neuronal activity in the somatosensory cortex (S1) has been unclear. We present transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and MEG data from three adult patients suffering from congenital hemiparesis due to pre- and perinatally acquired lesions of the pyramidal tract. In these patients, interhemispheric reorganization had resulted in relocation of M1 to the contralesional hemisphere, ipsilateral to the paretic hand, whereas S1 had remained in the lesioned hemisphere. This topographic dichotomy allowed for an unequivocal topographic differentiation of M1 and S1 with MEG (which is not possible if M1 and S1 are directly adjacent within one hemisphere). In all patients, beta-CMCoh originated from the contralesional M1, in accordance with the TMS-evoked motor responses, and in contrast to the somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) for which the sources (N20m) were localized in S1 of the lesioned hemisphere. These data provide direct evidence for the concept that beta-CMCoh reflects the motorcortical efferent drive from M1 to the spinal motoneuron pool and muscle. No evidence was found for a relevant contribution of neuronal activity in S1 to beta-CMCoh.

  2. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is markedly expressed in active and early-stage endometriotic lesions.

    PubMed

    Kats, Rouslan; Metz, Christine N; Akoum, Ali

    2002-02-01

    The establishment of a new vascular supply is essential for the survival of endometrial tissue and its development in ectopic locations. We have previously shown that ectopic endometrial cells release an important mitogenic activity for human endothelial cells and identified macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) as one of the principal bioactive molecules involved in endothelial cell proliferation. In the present study, immunohistochemical and dual immunofluorescence analyses showed that MIF is effectively expressed by endometriotic tissue, particularly in the glands, and identified endothelial cells, macrophages, and T lymphocytes as cells markedly expressing MIF in the stroma. Western blot analysis showed a single 12.5-kDa band corresponding to the known mol wt of the molecule. The highest concentrations of MIF protein in endometriotic tissue, as measured by ELISA, were found in flame-like red endometriotic lesions, compared with typical black-bluish (P < 0.01) or with white lesions (P < 0.01). Interestingly, MIF displayed a marked expression in lesions from the initial stage of endometriosis (stage I). Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis of MIF mRNA levels in the same endometriotic tissues showed a pattern of expression comparable with that of the protein. In view of its potent proinflammatory and angiogenic properties, local production of MIF within endometrial implants, particularly in those that are highly vascularized and representing the earliest and most active forms of the disease, make plausible the involvement of this factor in the local immunoinflammatory process observed in endometriosis and the initial steps of endometriotic tissue growth and development.

  3. Early neurodevelopmental outcome of infants with high-risk fetal lung lesions.

    PubMed

    Danzer, Enrico; Siegle, Jennifer; D'Agostino, Jo Ann; Gerdes, Marsha; Hoffman, Casey; Bernbaum, Judy; Rintoul, Natalie E; Flake, Alan W; Adzick, N Scott; Hedrick, Holly L

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the neurodevelopmental outcome of infants with high-risk fetal lung lesions defined as (1) requiring fetal intervention and/or ex utero intrapartum therapy (EXIT), or (2) acute respiratory decompensation postnatally necessitating emergent resection within 48 h of life. We reviewed the medical records of 13 consecutive patients with high-risk fetal lung lesions who were enrolled in our prospective interdisciplinary follow-up program. Neurodevelopmental status was evaluated using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III (children ≤3 years, n = 12), or the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III (children ≥4 years, n = 1). Eight children (62%) underwent prenatal intervention (EXIT, n = 6; fetal resection, n = 1; intrauterine shunt placement, n = 1), and 5 (38%) required emergent resection postnatally. Median age at evaluation was 25 months (range: 5-80). Average scores for cognitive development were found in all children assessed under 3 years of age. The one child who was tested for cognitive ability at 6 years of age scored in the borderline range of intellectual functioning. For language outcome, 15% scored above average, 54% scored within the average range, and 31% had mild deficits. Overall, 77% scored within the average range for neuromotor outcome, while 23% scored within the mildly delayed range. None of the children had severe delays. Cognitive, language, and psychomotor scores were similar between both groups. Hypotonicity was found in 23%. Autism was suspected in one child who underwent an EXIT procedure and was postnatally diagnosed with mosaic trisomy 18. The majority of children with high-risk fetal lung lesions have age-appropriate neurodevelopmental scores. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Early Activation of Th2/Th22 Inflammatory and Pruritogenic Pathways in Acute Canine Atopic Dermatitis Skin Lesions.

    PubMed

    Olivry, Thierry; Mayhew, David; Paps, Judy S; Linder, Keith E; Peredo, Carlos; Rajpal, Deepak; Hofland, Hans; Cote-Sierra, Javier

    2016-10-01

    Determining inflammation and itch pathway activation in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) is fraught with the inability to precisely assess the age of skin lesions, thus affecting the analysis of time-dependent mediators. To characterize inflammatory events occurring during early experimental acute AD lesions, biopsy samples were collected 6, 24, and 48 hours after epicutaneous application of Dermatophagoides farinae house dust mites to sensitized atopic dogs. The skin transcriptome was assessed using a dog-specific microarray and quantitative PCR. Acute canine AD skin lesions had a significant up-regulation of genes encoding T helper (Th) 2 (e.g., IL4, IL5, IL13, IL31, and IL33), Th9 (IL9), and Th22 (IL22) cytokines as well as Th2-promoting chemokines such as CCL5 and CCL17. Proinflammatory (e.g., IL6, LTB, and IL18) cytokines were also up-regulated. Other known pruritogenic pathways were also activated: there was significant up-regulation of genes encoding proteases cathepsin S (CTSS), mast cell chymase (CMA1), tryptase (TPS1) and mastin, neuromedin-B (NMB), nerve growth factor (NGF), and leukotriene-synthesis enzymes (ALOX5, ALOX5AP, and LTA4H). Experimental acute canine house dust mite-induced AD lesions exhibit an activation of innate and adaptive immune responses and pruritogenic pathways similar to those seen in humans with acute AD, thereby validating this model to test innovative therapeutics modalities for this disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of 18F-FDG uptake time on lesion detectability in PET imaging of early stage breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wangerin, Kristen A.; Muzi, Mark; Peterson, Lanell M.; Linden, Hannah M.; Novakova, Alena; O'Sullivan, Finbarr; Kurland, Brenda F.; Mankoff, David A.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Prior reports have suggested that delayed FDG-PET oncology imaging can improve the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for known lesions. Our goal was to estimate realistic bounds for lesion detectability for static measurements with one to four hours between FDG injection and image acquisition. Tumor and normal tissue kinetic model parameters were estimated from dynamic PET studies of patients with early stage breast cancer. These were used to generate time-activity curves (TACs) out to four hours, for which we assumed both nonreversible and reversible models with different rates of FDG dephosphorylation (k4). For each pair of tumor and normal tissue TACs, 600 PET sinogram realizations were generated, and images were reconstructed using OSEM. Test statistics for each tumor and normal tissue region of interest were output from the computer model observers and evaluated using an ROC analysis with the calculated AUC providing a measure of lesion detectability. For the nonreversible model (k4 = 0), the AUC increased in 11/23 (48%) of patients for one to two hours after the current standard post-radiotracer injection imaging window of one hour. This improvement was driven by increased tumor/normal tissue contrast before the impact of increased noise due to radiotracer decay began to dominate the imaging signal. As k4 was increased from 0 to 0.01 min−1, the time of maximum detectability shifted earlier, as the decreasing FDG concentration in the tumor lowered the CNR. These results imply that delayed PET imaging may reveal low-conspicuity lesions that would have otherwise gone undetected. PMID:26807443

  6. Early increase in DcR2 expression and late activation of caspases in the platelet storage lesion.

    PubMed

    Plenchette, S; Moutet, M; Benguella, M; N'Gondara, J P; Guigner, F; Coffe, C; Corcos, L; Bettaieb, A; Solary, E

    2001-10-01

    Platelet transfusion is widely used to prevent bleeding in patients with severe thrombocytopenia. The maximal storage duration of platelet concentrates is usually 5 days, due to the platelet storage lesion that impairs their functions when stored for longer times. Some of the morphological and biochemical changes that characterize this storage lesion are reminiscent of cell death by apoptosis. The present study analyzed whether proteins involved in nucleated cell apoptosis could play a role in the platelet storage lesion. Storage of leukocyte-depleted platelets obtained by apheresis is associated with a late and limited activation of caspases, mainly caspase-3. This event correlates with an increased expression of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim in the particulate fraction and a slight and late release of the pro-apoptotic mitochondrial protein Diablo/Smac in the cytosol. Platelets do not express the death receptors Fas, DR4 and DR5 on their plasma membrane, while the expression of the decoy receptor DcR2 increases progressively during platelet storage. Addition of low concentrations of the cryoprotector dimethylsulfoxide accelerates platelet caspase activation during storage, an effect that is partially prevented by the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Altogether, DcR2 expression on the plasma membrane is an early event while caspase activation is a late event during platelet storage. These observations suggest that caspases are unlikely to account for the platelet storage lesion. As a consequence, addition of caspase inhibitors may not improve the quality of platelet concentrates stored in standard conditions.

  7. A comparative evaluation of remineralizing ability of bioactive glass and amorphous calcium phosphate casein phosphopeptide on early enamel lesion

    PubMed Central

    Palaniswamy, Udaya Kumar; Prashar, Neha; Kaushik, Mamta; Lakkam, Surender Ram; Arya, Shikha; Pebbeti, Swetha

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was done to evaluate remineralizing potential of bioactive glasses (BAGs) and amorphous calcium phosphate-casein phosphopeptide (ACP-CPP) on early enamel lesion. Materials and Methods: Twenty freshly extracted mandibular premolars were sectioned sagittally. The buccal half was impregnated in acrylic resin blocks and treated with 37% phosphoric acid in liquid form, to demineralize enamel surface to simulate early enamel lesion. The samples were divided into two groups. The samples in Group I were treated with ACP-CPP (GC Tooth Mousse) and in Group II with BAG (Sensodyne Repair and Protect) and stored in saliva to prevent dehydration. The samples were tested for microhardness. The data obtained was analyzed using ANOVA post hoc multiple comparison and independent sample t- test and presented as a mean and standard deviation. Results: All the samples showed a decrease in the microhardness after demineralization. After application of remineralizing agents, Group II showed a highly significant increase in the microhardness (P < 0.05) after 10 days, while Group I showed a significant increase in microhardness after 15 days (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Both the remineralizing agents tested in this study can be considered effective in repair and prevention of demineralization. BAG showed better results initially, but eventually both have similar remineralizing potential. PMID:27605985

  8. Best clinical practice guidance for management of early caries lesions in children and young adults: an EAPD policy document.

    PubMed

    Kühnisch, J; Ekstrand, K R; Pretty, I; Twetman, S; van Loveren, C; Gizani, S; Spyridonos Loizidou, M

    2016-02-01

    The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) encourages prevention and arrest of active dental caries. Therefore, the present guidance provides evidence- and clinically-based recommendations for detecting and diagnosing early/non-cavitated caries lesions, risk assessment and disease management. A search of different databases was conducted using all terms related to the subject. Relevant papers were identified after a review of their titles, abstracts or full texts. Three workshops were held during the corresponding EAPD interim seminar in Brussels in 2015. Several statements were agreed upon and, furthermore, gaps in our knowledge were identified. Following the systematic reviews and outcomes of the seminars, it was concluded that visual and radiographic caries detection should be utilised as a basic diagnostic approach to locate, assess and monitor non-cavitated caries lesions in primary and permanent teeth. As another important evaluation step, a caries risk assessment should be performed at a child's first dental visit, and reassessments should be performed on a regular basis. It is widely accepted that non-cavitated caries lesions can be managed non-invasively in the majority of cases. The spectrum of measures includes a low cariogenicity tooth-friendly diet, daily and appropriate management of the biofilm, home and within the dental office/surgery usage of fluorides as well as sealing techniques. The detection and management of non-cavitated caries is an essential aspect of preventive dentistry. Therefore, the EAPD encourages oral health care providers and caregivers to implement preventive practices that can arrest early caries and improve individual and public dental health.

  9. Blood Pressure Control in Aging Predicts Cerebral Atrophy Related to Small-Vessel White Matter Lesions.

    PubMed

    Kern, Kyle C; Wright, Clinton B; Bergfield, Kaitlin L; Fitzhugh, Megan C; Chen, Kewei; Moeller, James R; Nabizadeh, Nooshin; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L; Stern, Yaakov; DeCarli, Charles S; Alexander, Gene E

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral small-vessel damage manifests as white matter hyperintensities and cerebral atrophy on brain MRI and is associated with aging, cognitive decline and dementia. We sought to examine the interrelationship of these imaging biomarkers and the influence of hypertension in older individuals. We used a multivariate spatial covariance neuroimaging technique to localize the effects of white matter lesion load on regional gray matter volume and assessed the role of blood pressure control, age and education on this relationship. Using a case-control design matching for age, gender, and educational attainment we selected 64 participants with normal blood pressure, controlled hypertension or uncontrolled hypertension from the Northern Manhattan Study cohort. We applied gray matter voxel-based morphometry with the scaled subprofile model to (1) identify regional covariance patterns of gray matter volume differences associated with white matter lesion load, (2) compare this relationship across blood pressure groups, and (3) relate it to cognitive performance. In this group of participants aged 60-86 years, we identified a pattern of reduced gray matter volume associated with white matter lesion load in bilateral temporal-parietal regions with relative preservation of volume in the basal forebrain, thalami and cingulate cortex. This pattern was expressed most in the uncontrolled hypertension group and least in the normotensives, but was also more evident in older and more educated individuals. Expression of this pattern was associated with worse performance in executive function and memory. In summary, white matter lesions from small-vessel disease are associated with a regional pattern of gray matter atrophy that is mitigated by blood pressure control, exacerbated by aging, and associated with cognitive performance.

  10. Valuation of exfoliative cytology as prediction factor in oral mucosa lesions.

    PubMed

    Brunotto, Mabel; Zárate, Ana María; Cismondi, Adriana; Fernández, María del Carmen; Noher de Halac, Rita Inés

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was immunolabeling oncoproteins Ck14, p53, p21 and Bcl-2 in order to evaluate their expression in premalignant and malignant stomatological lesions in oral epithelial, and to compare this expression with exfoliative cytology alterations in the same patients. It was studied biopsies and cytologies of 13 subjects with oral lichen planus, with or without Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma clinically diagnosed and confirmed by anatomopathological studies. The oral lichen planus lesion presented binuclei orange cells; and in leukoplakia lesions only orange stained was observed; meanwhile koilocytes, inflammatory cells, enlarge nuclear volume and pathogenic microorganisms were observed in the HPV infections and squamous cells carcinoma (SCC). The Ck14, p53, p21 and Bcl-2 proteins were found modified in the leukoplakia, oral lichen planus and cancer. Cytological alterations and positive immunolabeling or over-expression of Ck14 cytokeratine in the upper epithelial stratus should be indicator of malignant transformations as doing subsequence exams.

  11. Simple Mathematical Models Do Not Accurately Predict Early SIV Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Noecker, Cecilia; Schaefer, Krista; Zaccheo, Kelly; Yang, Yiding; Day, Judy; Ganusov, Vitaly V.

    2015-01-01

    Upon infection of a new host, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replicates in the mucosal tissues and is generally undetectable in circulation for 1–2 weeks post-infection. Several interventions against HIV including vaccines and antiretroviral prophylaxis target virus replication at this earliest stage of infection. Mathematical models have been used to understand how HIV spreads from mucosal tissues systemically and what impact vaccination and/or antiretroviral prophylaxis has on viral eradication. Because predictions of such models have been rarely compared to experimental data, it remains unclear which processes included in these models are critical for predicting early HIV dynamics. Here we modified the “standard” mathematical model of HIV infection to include two populations of infected cells: cells that are actively producing the virus and cells that are transitioning into virus production mode. We evaluated the effects of several poorly known parameters on infection outcomes in this model and compared model predictions to experimental data on infection of non-human primates with variable doses of simian immunodifficiency virus (SIV). First, we found that the mode of virus production by infected cells (budding vs. bursting) has a minimal impact on the early virus dynamics for a wide range of model parameters, as long as the parameters are constrained to provide the observed rate of SIV load increase in the blood of infected animals. Interestingly and in contrast with previous results, we found that the bursting mode of virus production generally results in a higher probability of viral extinction than the budding mode of virus production. Second, this mathematical model was not able to accurately describe the change in experimentally determined probability of host infection with increasing viral doses. Third and finally, the model was also unable to accurately explain the decline in the time to virus detection with increasing viral dose. These results

  12. Depth of lesion model in children and adolescents with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury: use of SPGR MRI to predict severity and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Grados, M; Slomine, B; Gerring, J; Vasa, R; Bryan, N; Denckla, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The utility of a depth of lesion classification using an SPGR MRI sequence in children with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) was examined. Clinical and depth of lesion classification measures of TBI severity were used to predict neurological and functional outcome after TBI.
METHODS—One hundred and six children, aged 4 to 19, with moderate to severe TBI admitted to a rehabilitation unit had an SPGR MRI sequence obtained 3 months afterTBI. Acquired images were analyzed for location, number, and size of lesions. The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) was the clinical indicator of severity. The deepest lesion present was used for depth of lesion classification. Speed of injury was inferred from the type of injury. The disability rating scale at the time of discharge from the rehabilitation unit (DRS1) and at 1 year follow up (DRS2) were functional outcome measures.
RESULTS—The depth of lesion classification was significantly correlated with GCS severity, number of lesions, and both functional measures, DRS1 and DRS2. This result was more robust for time 1, probably due to the greater number of psychosocial factors impacting on functioning at time 2. Lesion volume was not correlated with the depth of lesion model. In multivariate models, depth of lesion was most predictive of DRS1, whereas GCS was most predictive of DRS2.
CONCLUSIONS—A depth of lesion classification of TBI severity may have clinical utility in predicting functional outcome in children and adolescents with moderate to severe TBI.

 PMID:11181858

  13. Prediction (early recognition) of emerging flu strain clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Phillips, J. C.

    2017-08-01

    Early detection of incipient dominant influenza strains is one of the key steps in the design and manufacture of an effective annual influenza vaccine. Here we report the most current results for pandemic H3N2 flu vaccine design. A 2006 model of dimensional reduction (compaction) of viral mutational complexity derives two-dimensional Cartesian mutational maps (2DMM) that exhibit an emergent dominant strain as a small and distinct cluster of as few as 10 strains. We show that recent extensions of this model can detect incipient strains one year or more in advance of their dominance in the human population. Our structural interpretation of our unexpectedly rich 2DMM involves sialic acid, and is based on nearly 6000 strains in a series of recent 3-year time windows. Vaccine effectiveness is predicted best by analyzing dominant mutational epitopes.

  14. Early experiences building a software quality prediction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, W. W.; Evanco, W. M.; Smith, M. C.

    1990-01-01

    Early experiences building a software quality prediction model are discussed. The overall research objective is to establish a capability to project a software system's quality from an analysis of its design. The technical approach is to build multivariate models for estimating reliability and maintainability. Data from 21 Ada subsystems were analyzed to test hypotheses about various design structures leading to failure-prone or unmaintainable systems. Current design variables highlight the interconnectivity and visibility of compilation units. Other model variables provide for the effects of reusability and software changes. Reported results are preliminary because additional project data is being obtained and new hypotheses are being developed and tested. Current multivariate regression models are encouraging, explaining 60 to 80 percent of the variation in error density of the subsystems.

  15. Prediction models for early risk detection of cardiovascular event.

    PubMed

    Purwanto; Eswaran, Chikkannan; Logeswaran, Rajasvaran; Abdul Rahman, Abdul Rashid

    2012-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of death globally. More people die of CVDs each year than from any other disease. Over 80% of CVD deaths occur in low and middle income countries and occur almost equally in male and female. In this paper, different computational models based on Bayesian Networks, Multilayer Perceptron,Radial Basis Function and Logistic Regression methods are presented to predict early risk detection of the cardiovascular event. A total of 929 (626 male and 303 female) heart attack data are used to construct the models.The models are tested using combined as well as separate male and female data. Among the models used, it is found that the Multilayer Perceptron model yields the best accuracy result.

  16. Ptaquiloside-induced, B-cell lymphoproliferative and early-stage urothelial lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Gil da Costa, Rui M; Oliveira, Paula A; Vilanova, Manuel; Bastos, Margarida M S M; Lopes, Célia C; Lopes, Carlos

    2011-11-01

    Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) has long been known to cause cancer in farm and laboratory animals. Ptaquiloside, a norsesquiterpene glycoside found in bracken, is considered its main carcinogenic toxin and is capable of inducing tumours in a variety of organ systems, but especially in the urinary bladder, depending on the animal species, the administration route employed and the duration of exposure. In the present study, 12 male CD-1 mice were intraperitoneally administered with 0.5 mg ptaquiloside weekly for 15 weeks, followed by 15 weeks without any treatment. Twelve animals used as controls were administered the vehicle solution (phosphate buffered saline). Two exposed animals died during the experimental work. On necropsy, blood and tissue samples (brain, eyes, thymus, heart, lungs, liver, digestive system, spleen, bladder, kidney, adrenal gland, urinary bladder, sexual accessory glands, testes, muscle, skin and femur) were collected for histological analysis. Leukograms were prepared from blood smears and total WBC counts obtained with a Neubauer chamber. Flow cytometry was used to assess blood T-(CD3(+)) and B-(CD19(+))-lymphocytes, medullary granulocytic (CD11b(+)/Ly-6G(-), CD11b(+)/Ly-6G(+)) and lymphocytic (CD19(+)/IgM(-), CD19+/IgM(+)) populations and thymic lymphoid (CD4(+), CD8(+), CD4(+)/CD8(+)) populations. Lymphoproliferative lesions were analysed immunohistochemically using antibodies against CD45R and CD3. All of the 10 surviving mice developed a lymphoproliferative malignancy. Lymphoproliferative disease was characterized by multifocal B-(CD45(+)/CD3(-))-lymphocytic renal (10/10 animals) and hepatic (2/10 animals) invasion, splenic white pulp hyperplasia (10/10) together with a significant increase in circulating B-(CD19(+))-lymphocytes and the appearance of circulating dysplastic lymphoid cells. Eight out of 10 ptaquiloside-exposed animals developed urothelial dysplasia (six low-grade dysplasia and two high-grade dysplasia). No lesions were

  17. Predicting fate from early connectivity in a social network.

    PubMed

    McDonald, David B

    2007-06-26

    In the long-tailed manakin (Chiroxiphia linearis), a long-lived tropical bird, early connectivity within a social network predicts male success an average of 4.8 years later. Long-tailed manakins have an unusual lek mating system in which pairs of unrelated males, at the top of complex overlapping teams of as many as 15 males, cooperate for obligate dual-male song and dance courtship displays. For as long as 8 years before forming stable "alpha-beta" partnerships, males interact with many other males in complex, temporally dynamic social networks. "Information centrality" is a network connectivity metric that accounts for indirect as well as shortest (geodesic) paths among interactors. The odds that males would rise socially rose by a factor of five for each one-unit increase in their early information centrality. Connectivity of males destined to rise did not change over time but increased in males that failed to rise socially. The results suggest that network connectivity is important for young males (ages 1-6) but less so for older males of high status (ages 10-15) and that it is difficult to explain present success without reference to social history.

  18. Breastfeeding and maternal sensitivity predict early infant temperament.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Wibke; Atkinson, Leslie; Steiner, Meir; Meaney, Michael J; Wazana, Ashley; Fleming, Alison S

    2015-07-01

    Research findings are inconclusive when it comes to whether breastfeeding is associated with the mother-infant relationship or infant temperament. We examined the association between breastfeeding at three months postpartum and infant temperament at 18 months postpartum and whether this link was affected by the mothers' anxiety and mediated by her sensitivity. We assessed 170 mothers for breastfeeding and anxiety using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at three months postpartum, maternal sensitivity using the Ainsworth Sensitivity Scale at six months postpartum and infant temperament using the Early Childhood Behaviour Questionnaire at 18 months postpartum. Mothers who breastfed at three months postpartum were more sensitive in their interactions with their infants at six months postpartum, and elevated sensitivity, in turn, predicted reduced levels of negative affectivity in infant temperament at 18 months postpartum. This indirect mediation persisted after controlling for confounders (effect ab = -0.0312 [0.0208], 95% CI = -0.0884 to -0.0031). A subsequent analysis showed that the mediation through sensitivity only occurred in women experiencing higher anxiety, with a STAI score ≥33.56 at three months (ab = -0.0250 [0.0179], 95% CI = -0.0759 to -0.0013). Our results suggest that breastfeeding and maternal sensitivity may have a positive impact on the early development of infant temperament. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind’s Parenting Styles

    PubMed Central

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-01-01

    Background: Families play an essential role in maintaining children’s mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. Objectives: The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind’s parenting styles (root development). Patients and Methods: A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 2014. The students were assessed using the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF) and the Baumrind’s parenting styles inventories. Results: The result of regression analysis showed that Baumrind’s parenting styles are significant predictors of early maladaptive schemas (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The authoritative parenting style has some features such as showing high levels of warmth or encouraging kids to express their own possibly divergent opinions. The authoritarian parenting style, however, possesses traits such as heartlessness, impassiveness, strictness, and lack of attention to the children’s developmental needs, which is not acceptable. PMID:26288648

  20. Early warning score predicts acute mortality in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Liljehult, J; Christensen, T

    2016-04-01

    Clinical deterioration and death among patients with acute stroke are often preceded by detrimental changes in physiological parameters. Systematic and effective tools to identify patients at risk of deterioration early enough to intervene are therefore needed. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the aggregate weighted track and trigger system early warning score (EWS) can be used as a simple observational tool to identify patients at risk and predict mortality in a population of patients with acute stroke. Patients admitted with acute stroke at the Copenhagen University Hospital, Nordsjaellands Hospital, Denmark, from May to September 2012 were enrolled in a retrospective cohort study (n = 274). Vital signs were measured immediately after admission and consistently during the hospitalization period. Based on the vital signs, a single composite EWS was calculated. Death within 30 days was used as outcome. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) and a Kaplan-Meier curve were computed to examine the prognostic validity of EWS. A total of 24 patients (8.8%) died within 30 days. The prognostic performance was high for both the EWS at admission (AUROC 0.856; 95% CI 0.760-0.951; P-value < 0.001) and the maximal EWS measured (AUROC 0.949; 95% CI 0.919-0.980; P-value < 0.001). Mortality rates were lowest for admission EWS 0-1 (2%) and highest for admission EWS ≥ 5 (63%). Early warning score is a simple and valid tool for identifying patients at risk of dying after acute stroke. Readily available physiological parameters are converted to a single score, which can guide both nurses and physicians in clinical decision making and resource allocation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. BRCA1-IRIS overexpression promotes and maintains the tumor initiating phenotype: implications for triple negative breast cancer early lesions.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Abhilasha; Paul, Bibbin T; Sullivan, Lisa M; Sims, Hillary; El Bastawisy, Ahmed; Yousef, Hend F; Zekri, Abdel-Rahman N; Bahnassy, Abeer A; ElShamy, Wael M

    2017-02-07

    Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are cancer cells endowed with self-renewal, multi-lineage differentiation, increased chemo-resistance, and in breast cancers the CD44+/CD24-/ALDH1+ phenotype. Triple negative breast cancers show lack of BRCA1 expression in addition to enhanced basal, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and TIC phenotypes. BRCA1-IRIS (hereafter IRIS) is an oncogene produced by the alternative usage of the BRCA1 locus. IRIS is involved in induction of replication, transcription of selected oncogenes, and promoting breast cancer cells aggressiveness. Here, we demonstrate that IRIS overexpression (IRISOE) promotes TNBCs through suppressing BRCA1 expression, enhancing basal-biomarkers, EMT-inducers, and stemness-enforcers expression. IRISOE also activates the TIC phenotype in TNBC cells through elevating CD44 and ALDH1 expression/activity and preventing CD24 surface presentation by activating the internalization pathway EGFR→c-Src→cortactin. We show that the intrinsic sensitivity to an anti-CD24 cross-linking antibody-induced cell death in membranous CD24 expressing/luminal A cells could be acquired in cytoplasmic CD24 expressing IRISOE TNBC/TIC cells through IRIS silencing or inactivation. We show that fewer IRISOE TNBC/TICs cells form large tumors composed of TICs, resembling TNBCs early lesions in patients that contain metastatic precursors capable of disseminating and metastasizing at an early stage of the disease. IRIS-inhibitory peptide killed these IRISOE TNBC/TICs, in vivo and prevented their dissemination and metastasis. We propose IRIS inactivation could be pursued to prevent dissemination and metastasis from early TNBC tumor lesions in patients.

  2. Early Clinical Experience and Outcome of Helical Tomotherapy for Multiple Metastatic Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ik Jae; Seong, Jinsil; Lee, Chang Geol; Kim, Yong Bae; Keum, Ki Chang; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Gwi Eon; Cho, Jaeho

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of synchronous treatment of multiple metastatic lesions by helical tomotherapy. Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients with multiple metastatic lesions were treated by helical tomotherapy from April 2006 to February 2007. Among these patients, 21 had metastatic bone disease. Subjective pain response was assessed using the visual analogue scales, and morbidity was evaluated by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0. The correlation between the percentage of red bone marrow in the radiation field and the severity of leukocytopenia was analyzed. Results: The median age was 57 years. Radiation dose to the gross tumor volume was 30-84 Gy, with a median fractional size of 3 Gy. Mean treatment time was 16 min and 1 sec. Treatment time and fraction size were modified because of poor performance status or hematologic toxicity in two patients. With regard to palliative effects for bone metastasis, 16 patients (76.2%) experienced positive pain relief. Four patients had Grade III leukocytopenia, and three had Grade IV leukocytopenia. In the multivariate logistic regression, red marrow percentage was the independent risk factor most associated with Grade III/IV leukocytopenia (p = 0.014). The tolerance cutoff point of red bone marrow was 26.8%, with a sensitivity and specificity of 85.7% and 85.7%, respectively. Conclusions: Helical tomotherapy was effective for symptom palliation and was feasible for patients with multiple metastatic diseases. The volume of red bone marrow, as well as performance status, must be taken into account to determine optimal treatment.

  3. Proteoglycan depletion and size reduction in lesions of early grade chondromalacia of the patella.

    PubMed Central

    Väätäinen, U; Häkkinen, T; Kiviranta, I; Jaroma, H; Inkinen, R; Tammi, M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the content and molecular size of proteoglycans (PGs) in patellar chondromalacia (CM) and control cartilages as a first step in investigating the role of matrix alterations in the pathogenesis of this disease. METHODS--Chondromalacia tissue from 10 patients was removed with a surgical knife. Using identical techniques, apparently healthy cartilage of the same site was obtained from 10 age matched cadavers (mean age 31 years in both groups). Additional pathological cartilage was collected from 67 patients with grades II-IV CM (classified according to Outerbridge) using a motorised shaver under arthroscopic control. The shaved cartilage chips were collected with a dense net from the irrigation fluid of the shaver. The content of tissue PGs was determined by Safranin O precipitation or uronic acid content, and the molecular size by mobility on agarose gel electrophoresis. RESULTS--The mean PG content of the CM tissue samples with a knife was dramatically reduced, being only 15% of that in controls. The cartilage chips collected from shaving operations of grades II, III, and IV CM showed a decreasing PG content: 9%, 5%, and 1% of controls, respectively. Electrophoretic analysis of PGs extracted with guanidium chloride from the shaved tissue samples suggested a significantly reduced size of aggrecans in the mild (grade II) lesions. CONCLUSION--These data show that there is already a dramatic and progressive depletion of PGs in CM grade II lesions. This explains the softening of cartilage, a typical finding in the arthroscopic examination of CM. The PG size reduction observed in grade II implicates proteolytic attack as a factor in the pathogenesis of CM. Images PMID:7492223

  4. Positive and Negative Predictive Value of PET-CT in Skull Base Lesions: Case Series and Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hines, John Peyton; Howard, Brittany E; Hoxworth, Joseph M; Lal, Devyani

    2016-03-01

    Objectives To study positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET-CT) scans in determining malignancy in skull base lesions and perform a systematic literature review for optimal PET-CT interpretation. Design Retrospective case series and systematic literature review of the current English literature. Setting Tertiary referral academic medical center. Participants All patients with skull base lesions that underwent PET-CT and tissue biopsy from 2010 to 2013. Main Outcome Measures PPV and NPV of radiologist's report and standardized uptake value (SUV) cutoff of 2.5 and 3, biopsy with pathologic interpretation, clinical follow-up. Results A total of 31 PET-CT scans of 16 patients were studied; 10 PET-CT were performed upfront for diagnostic purposes and 21 were post-treatment surveillance scans. The PPV of radiologist's interpretation, SUV cutoff of 2.5, and SUV cutoff of 3.0 was 80%, 60%, and 68.4%, with a NPV of 100%, 83.3%, and 75%, respectively. Literature search yielded 500 abstracts; 7 studies met inclusion criteria for detailed review. No consensus or guidelines for optimal SUV cutoff value was found. Conclusions PET-CT based on SUV cutoff criteria alone has high NPV but low PPV in determining malignancy in skull base lesions. Interpretation by a radiologist experienced in nuclear medicine and neuroradiology, synthesizing clinical, SUV, and radiologic data are of superior value.

  5. Serum Proteome Analysis for Profiling Predictive Protein Markers Associated with the Severity of Skin Lesions Induced by Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Chaze, Thibault; Hornez, Louis; Chambon, Christophe; Haddad, Iman; Vinh, Joelle; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Benderitter, Marc; Guipaud, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The finding of new diagnostic and prognostic markers of local radiation injury, and particularly of the cutaneous radiation syndrome, is crucial for its medical management, in the case of both accidental exposure and radiotherapy side effects. Especially, a fast high-throughput method is still needed for triage of people accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation. In this study, we investigated the impact of localized irradiation of the skin on the early alteration of the serum proteome of mice in an effort to discover markers associated with the exposure and severity of impending damage. Using two different large-scale quantitative proteomic approaches, 2D-DIGE-MS and SELDI-TOF-MS, we performed global analyses of serum proteins collected in the clinical latency phase (days 3 and 7) from non-irradiated and locally irradiated mice exposed to high doses of 20, 40 and 80 Gy which will develop respectively erythema, moist desquamation and necrosis. Unsupervised and supervised multivariate statistical analyses (principal component analysis, partial-least square discriminant analysis and Random Forest analysis) using 2D-DIGE quantitative protein data allowed us to discriminate early between non-irradiated and irradiated animals, and between uninjured/slightly injured animals and animals that will develop severe lesions. On the other hand, despite a high number of animal replicates, PLS-DA and Random Forest analyses of SELDI-TOF-MS data failed to reveal sets of MS peaks able to discriminate between the different groups of animals. Our results show that, unlike SELDI-TOF-MS, the 2D-DIGE approach remains a powerful and promising method for the discovery of sets of proteins that could be used for the development of clinical tests for triage and the prognosis of the severity of radiation-induced skin lesions. We propose a list of 15 proteins which constitutes a set of candidate proteins for triage and prognosis of skin lesion outcomes. PMID:28250398

  6. Early prediction of lung cancer recurrence after stereotactic radiotherapy using second order texture statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattonen, Sarah A.; Palma, David A.; Haasbeek, Cornelis J. A.; Senan, Suresh; Ward, Aaron D.

    2014-03-01

    Benign radiation-induced lung injury is a common finding following stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for lung cancer, and is often difficult to differentiate from a recurring tumour due to the ablative doses and highly conformal treatment with SABR. Current approaches to treatment response assessment have shown limited ability to predict recurrence within 6 months of treatment. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the accuracy of second order texture statistics for prediction of eventual recurrence based on computed tomography (CT) images acquired within 6 months of treatment, and compare with the performance of first order appearance and lesion size measures. Consolidative and ground-glass opacity (GGO) regions were manually delineated on post-SABR CT images. Automatic consolidation expansion was also investigated to act as a surrogate for GGO position. The top features for prediction of recurrence were all texture features within the GGO and included energy, entropy, correlation, inertia, and first order texture (standard deviation of density). These predicted recurrence with 2-fold cross validation (CV) accuracies of 70-77% at 2- 5 months post-SABR, with energy, entropy, and first order texture having leave-one-out CV accuracies greater than 80%. Our results also suggest that automatic expansion of the consolidation region could eliminate the need for manual delineation, and produced reproducible results when compared to manually delineated GGO. If validated on a larger data set, this could lead to a clinically useful computer-aided diagnosis system for prediction of recurrence within 6 months of SABR and allow for early salvage therapy for patients with recurrence.

  7. Video-based early cerebral palsy prediction using motion segmentation.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Hodjat; Aamo, Ole Morten; Stavdahl, Øyvind; Dragon, Ralf; Adde, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Analysing distinct motion patterns that occur during infancy can be a way through early prediction of cerebral palsy. This analysis can only be performed by well-trained expert clinicians, and hence can not be widespread, specially in poor countries. In order to decrease the need for experts, computer-based methods can be applied. If individual motions of different body parts are available, these methods could achieve more accurate results with better clinical insight. Thus far, motion capture systems or the like were needed in order to provide such data. However, these systems not only need laboratory and experts to set up the experiment, but they could be intrusive for the infant's motions. In this paper we build up our prediction method on a solution based on a single video camera, that is far less intrusive and a lot cheaper. First, the motions of different body parts are separated, then, motion features are extracted and used to classify infants to healthy or affected. Our experimental results show that visually obtained motion data allows cerebral palsy detection as accurate as state-of-the-art electromagnetic sensor data.

  8. Early Environment and Neurobehavioral Development Predict Adult Temperament Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Congdon, Eliza; Service, Susan; Wessman, Jaana; Seppänen, Jouni K.; Schönauer, Stefan; Miettunen, Jouko; Turunen, Hannu; Koiranen, Markku; Joukamaa, Matti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Veijola, Juha; Mannila, Heikki; Paunio, Tiina; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Investigation of the environmental influences on human behavioral phenotypes is important for our understanding of the causation of psychiatric disorders. However, there are complexities associated with the assessment of environmental influences on behavior. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a series of analyses using a prospective, longitudinal study of a nationally representative birth cohort from Finland (the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort). Participants included a total of 3,761 male and female cohort members who were living in Finland at the age of 16 years and who had complete temperament scores. Our initial analyses (Wessman et al., in press) provide evidence in support of four stable and robust temperament clusters. Using these temperament clusters, as well as independent temperament dimensions for comparison, we conducted a data-driven analysis to assess the influence of a broad set of life course measures, assessed pre-natally, in infancy, and during adolescence, on adult temperament. Results Measures of early environment, neurobehavioral development, and adolescent behavior significantly predict adult temperament, classified by both cluster membership and temperament dimensions. Specifically, our results suggest that a relatively consistent set of life course measures are associated with adult temperament profiles, including maternal education, characteristics of the family’s location and residence, adolescent academic performance, and adolescent smoking. Conclusions Our finding that a consistent set of life course measures predict temperament clusters indicate that these clusters represent distinct developmental temperament trajectories and that information about a subset of life course measures has implications for adult health outcomes. PMID:22815688

  9. [Early pregnancy risk: development and validation of a predictive instrument].

    PubMed

    Burrows, R; Rosales, M E; Díaz, M; Muzzo, S

    1994-06-01

    An early pregnancy risk scale, with scores ranging from 11 to 66 points from lower to higher risk, was constructed using variables associated with teenager's pregnancy. This scale was applied to 3000 female teenagers, coming from Metropolitan Santiago public schools. The sample was divided in three risk groups: group A (high risk) with scores equal or over 35 points, group B (low risk) with scores equal or below 20 points and group B (intermediate risk) with scores between 20.1 and 34.9 points. These girls were followed during 2 years. During this period, 84 girls became pregnant, 24 of 184 (13%) in group A, 60 of 2332 (2.6%) in group C and none of 307 in group B. There were 104 school desertions in group A and 37 in group B. To study associations and analyze risk, the sample was divided in two risk groups: high, with scores over 27 and low, with scores below 27. There was a high association between pregnancy risk score and the occurrence of pregnancy (RR 5.25 p < 0.0001) and school desertion (RR 3.32 p < 0.0001). Pregnancy was predicted with a 78% sensitivity and 55.6% specificity. School desertion was predicted with a 74% sensitivity and 56% specificity. The importance variable weighing using multiple regression models, to improve the predictor's sensitivity and specificity, is discussed.

  10. Orthopedic Lesions in Tethered Cord Syndrome: The Importance of Early Diagnosis and Treatment on Patient Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Gharedaghi, Mohammad; Samini, Fariborz; Mashhadinejad, Hosein; Khajavi, Mahdi; Samini, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many of the patients with tethered cord syndrome (TCS) are admitted because of neurological symptoms, while some are admitted because of their orthopedic, urologic, anorectal, and dermatologic manifestations. Consequently, this study aimed to evaluate the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of tethered cord syndrome on patient outcome. Methods: Fourty-three patients who underwent surgery because of tethered cord syndrome from 2006 to 2010 were studied. Many of these cases were referred by orthopedic surgeons. All of the findings were recorded and follow up was done twice (1 and 3 years after surgery). Results: Thirty-seven patients were less than 7 years old and 6 were between 17 to 33 years old. According to clinical and neurological exams, satisfactory results were achieved in both groups. Those with early surgical intervention, especially in their early follow up assessment, had the best results. Seventeen cases were referred by an orthopedic surgeon because of manifestations such as leg weakness and numbness, leg pain and spasticity, pes cavus, claw toes, and leg or foot length discrepancy. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred in 3 cases after surgery and 1 showed pseudomeningocele formation. Conclusions: After one year of follow up, initially the results of the treatment were better in early operated cases, but in later follow up assessment (after 3 years) the results were almost the same in both of the groups. PMID:25207325

  11. The Cerebellum Generates Motor-to-Auditory Predictions: ERP Lesion Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knolle, Franziska; Schroger, Erich; Baess, Pamela; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2012-01-01

    Forward predictions are crucial in motor action (e.g., catching a ball, or being tickled) but may also apply to sensory or cognitive processes (e.g., listening to distorted speech or to a foreign accent). According to the "internal forward model," the cerebellum generates predictions about somatosensory consequences of movements. These predictions…

  12. The Cerebellum Generates Motor-to-Auditory Predictions: ERP Lesion Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knolle, Franziska; Schroger, Erich; Baess, Pamela; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2012-01-01

    Forward predictions are crucial in motor action (e.g., catching a ball, or being tickled) but may also apply to sensory or cognitive processes (e.g., listening to distorted speech or to a foreign accent). According to the "internal forward model," the cerebellum generates predictions about somatosensory consequences of movements. These predictions…

  13. Adolescent expectations of early death predict adult risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quynh C; Villaveces, Andres; Marshall, Stephen W; Hussey, Jon M; Halpern, Carolyn T; Poole, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Only a handful of public health studies have investigated expectations of early death among adolescents. Associations have been found between these expectations and risk behaviors in adolescence. However, these beliefs may not only predict worse adolescent outcomes, but worse trajectories in health with ties to negative outcomes that endure into young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to investigate perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations, PSE) as a predictor of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and substance use in young adulthood. We examined the predictive capacity of PSE on future suicidal ideation/attempt after accounting for sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and history of suicide among family and friends to more fully assess its unique contribution to suicide risk. We investigated the influence of PSE on legal and illegal substance use and varying levels of substance use. We utilized the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994-95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001-02 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32). Compared to those who were almost certain of living to age 35, perceiving a 50-50 or less chance of living to age 35 at Waves I or III predicted suicide attempt and ideation as well as regular substance use (i.e., exceeding daily limits for moderate drinking; smoking ≥ a pack/day; and using illicit substances other than marijuana at least weekly) at Wave IV. Associations between PSE and detrimental adult outcomes were particularly strong for those reporting persistently low PSE at both Waves I and III. Low PSE at Wave I or Wave III was also related to a doubling and tripling, respectively, of death rates in young adulthood. Long-term and wide-ranging ties between PSE and detrimental outcomes suggest these expectations may contribute to identifying at-risk youth.

  14. Adolescent Expectations of Early Death Predict Adult Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quynh C.; Villaveces, Andres; Marshall, Stephen W.; Hussey, Jon M.; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Poole, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Only a handful of public health studies have investigated expectations of early death among adolescents. Associations have been found between these expectations and risk behaviors in adolescence. However, these beliefs may not only predict worse adolescent outcomes, but worse trajectories in health with ties to negative outcomes that endure into young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to investigate perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations, PSE) as a predictor of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and substance use in young adulthood. We examined the predictive capacity of PSE on future suicidal ideation/attempt after accounting for sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and history of suicide among family and friends to more fully assess its unique contribution to suicide risk. We investigated the influence of PSE on legal and illegal substance use and varying levels of substance use. We utilized the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994–95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7–12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001–02 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24–32). Compared to those who were almost certain of living to age 35, perceiving a 50–50 or less chance of living to age 35 at Waves I or III predicted suicide attempt and ideation as well as regular substance use (i.e., exceeding daily limits for moderate drinking; smoking ≥ a pack/day; and using illicit substances other than marijuana at least weekly) at Wave IV. Associations between PSE and detrimental adult outcomes were particularly strong for those reporting persistently low PSE at both Waves I and III. Low PSE at Wave I or Wave III was also related to a doubling and tripling, respectively, of death rates in young adulthood. Long-term and wide-ranging ties between PSE and detrimental outcomes suggest these expectations may contribute to identifying at-risk youth. PMID:22870260

  15. Expert system supporting an early prediction of the bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Ochab, Marcin; Wajs, Wiesław

    2016-02-01

    This work presents a decision support system which uses machine learning to support early prediction of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) for extremely premature infants after their first week of life. For that purpose a knowledge database was created based on the historical data gathered including data on 109 patients with birth weight less than or equal to 1500g. The core of the database consists of support vector machine and logit regression classification results calculated specifically for that system, and obtained by considering 2(14) different combinations of 14 risk factors. Based on the results obtained and user demands, the system recommends the best methods and the most suitable parameter subset among those currently available to the user. The program is also able to estimate the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity together with their standard deviations. The user is also given information on which additional parameter it is worth adding to his measurement system most and what an increase in prediction efficiency it is expected to trigger. The BPD can be predicted by the system with the accuracy reaching up to 83.25% in the best-case scenario, i.e. higher than for most of the models presented in the literature. This work presents a set of examples illustrating the difficulties in obtaining one single model that can be widely used, and thus explaining why an expert system approach is much more useful in day-to-day clinical practice. In addition, the work discusses the significance of the parameters used and the impact of a chosen method on the sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Decreasing body temperature predicts early rehospitalization in congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Amany; Aboshady, Ibrahim; Munir, Shahzeb M; Gondi, Sreedevi; Brewer, Alan; Gertz, S David; Lai, Dejian; Shaik, Naushad A; Shankar, K J; Deswal, Anita; Casscells, S Ward

    2008-08-01

    In congestive heart failure (CHF), a low body temperature at hospital admission predicts in-hospital mortality. We hypothesized that a postdischarge reduction in body temperature predicts early CHF rehospitalization and death. We reviewed the records of 198 patients discharged after CHF hospitalization. We categorized the patients as hypothermic or normothermic (cutoff point, 36.3 degrees C/97.4 degrees F) according to body temperature at discharge. We classified the 2 groups according to the direction of temperature change between discharge and the first follow-up visit: normothermic/non-decreasing temperature (N+), normothermic/decreasing temperature (N-), hypothermic/non-decreasing temperature (H+), and hypothermic/decreasing temperature (H-). Ninety-three patients (47%) had decreasing temperatures, and 105 patients (53%) had non-decreasing temperatures. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significant intergroup difference in survival (P = .01) and rehospitalization time (P = .005). On logistic regression, a decreasing temperature was significantly associated with rehospitalization within 180 days (odds ratio, 4.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.63-10.02; P = .003). On Cox regression, the hazard ratios for death were 3.19 (P = .07), 6.49 (P = .004), and 5.17 (P = .07), for the N-, H+, and H- groups, respectively, versus the N+ group. For rehospitalization time, the hazard ratios were 7.02 (P = .01), 4.24 (P = .08), and 13.43 (P = .005) for the N-, H+, and H- groups, respectively, versus the N+ group. Decreasing body temperatures can predict readmission, decreased time to rehospitalization, and (in combination with hypothermia) decreased survival.

  17. Repeat left atrial catheter ablation: cardiac magnetic resonance prediction of endocardial voltage and gaps in ablation lesion sets.

    PubMed

    Harrison, James L; Sohns, Christian; Linton, Nick W; Karim, Rashed; Williams, Steven E; Rhode, Kawal S; Gill, Jaswinder; Cooklin, Michael; Rinaldi, C Aldo; Wright, Matthew; Schaeffter, Tobias; Razavi, Reza S; O'Neill, Mark D

    2015-04-01

    Studies have reported an inverse relationship between late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) signal intensity and left atrial (LA) endocardial voltage after LA ablation. However, there is controversy regarding the reproducibility of atrial LGE CMR and its ability to identify gaps in ablation lesions. Using systematic and objective techniques, this study examines the correlation between atrial CMR and endocardial voltage. Twenty patients who had previous ablation for atrial fibrillation and represented with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation or atrial tachycardia underwent preablation LGE CMR. During the ablation procedure, high-density point-by-point Carto voltage maps were acquired. Three-dimensional CMR reconstructions were registered with the Carto anatomies to allow comparison of voltage and LGE signal intensity. Signal intensities around the left and right pulmonary vein antra and along the LA roof and mitral lines on the CMR-segmented LA shells were extracted to examine differences between electrically isolated and reconnected lesions. There were a total of 6767 data points across the 20 patients. Only 119 (1.8%) of the points were ≤ 0.05 mV. There was only a weak inverse correlation between either unipolar (r = -0.18) or bipolar (r = -0.17) voltage and LGE CMR signal intensities with low voltage occurring across a large range of signal intensities. Signal intensities were not statistically different for electrically isolated and reconnected lesions. This study demonstrates that there is only a weak point-by-point relationship between LGE CMR and endocardial voltage in patients undergoing repeat LA ablation. Using an objective method of assessing gaps in ablation lesions, LGE CMR is unable to reliably predict sites of electrical conduction. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Early Life Growth Predicts Pubertal Development in South African Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Norris, Shane A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Suchdev, Parminder S; Mehta, Neil K; Richter, Linda M; Stein, Aryeh D

    2016-03-01

    Given global trends toward earlier onset of puberty and the adverse psychosocial consequences of early puberty, it is important to understand the childhood predictors of pubertal timing and tempo. We examined the association between early growth and the timing and tempo of puberty in adolescents in South Africa. We analyzed prospectively collected data from 1060 boys and 1135 girls participating in the Birth-to-Twenty cohort in Soweto, South Africa. Height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and body mass index-for-age z scores (BMIZs) were calculated based on height (centimeters) and body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) at ages 5 y and 8 y. The development of genitals, breasts, and pubic hair was recorded annually from 9 to 16 y of age with the use of the Tanner sexual maturation scale (SMS). We used latent class growth analysis to identify pubertal trajectory classes and also characterized children as fast or slow developers based on the SMS score at 12 y of age. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate associations of HAZ and BMIZ at ages 5 and 8 y with pubertal development. We identified 3 classes for pubic hair development (for both girls and boys) and 4 classes for breast (for girls) and genital (for boys) development. In girls, both HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development [relative risk ratio (RRR): 1.57, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.51, P < 0.01, respectively], as was BMI at age 8 y (RRR: 2.06, P = 0.03); similar findings were observed for breast development. In boys, HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development (RRR: 1.78, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.43, P < 0.01, respectively); HAZ at age 5 y was associated with development of genitals (RRR: 2.19, P < 0.01). In boys and girls, both height and body mass index in early childhood predicted the trajectory of pubertal development. This may provide a tool to identify children at risk of early pubertal onset.

  19. Is the Site of Back Pain Related to the Location of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Lesions in Patients With Chronic Back Pain? Results From the Spondyloarthritis Caught Early Cohort.

    PubMed

    de Hooge, Manouk; de Bruin, Freek; de Beer, Lieke; Bakker, Pauline; van den Berg, Rosaline; Ramiro, Sofia; van Gaalen, Floris; Fagerli, Karen; Landewé, Robert; van Oosterhout, Maikel; Ramonda, Roberta; Huizinga, Tom; Bloem, Hans; Reijnierse, Monique; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2017-05-01

    To determine associations between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions originating from either axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) or from degeneration and pain in patients with chronic back pain of <2 years duration. Patients from the Spondyloarthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort identified the sites of pain (thoracic, lumbar, buttock). The average MRI scores from 2 readers for axial SpA lesions and from 2 different readers for degenerative lesions were used. Associations between sacroiliac (SI) joint lesions and buttock pain were investigated by logistic regression analysis, and associations between axial SpA or degenerative lesions and pain in the spine (thoracic and lumbar) were investigated using generalized estimating equations. Interactions with sex, age, HLA-B27, and fulfillment of Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) criteria were tested. In 348 patients (126 males, 127 fulfilling ASAS criteria, mean age 29.4 years), spinal MRI (and SI joint images in 342) were available. Pain was localized in the thoracic spine (35.9%), the lumbar spine (82.5%), or in the buttock(s) (57.8%). Inflammatory lesions of the SI joint (odds ratio [OR] 1.06; P = 0.04) and erosions of the SI joint in patients <25 years (OR 1.16; P = 0.04) were associated with buttock pain. Axial SpA spinal lesions were not associated with pain. Modic type 1 lesions in patients >35 years (OR 5.19; P = 0.001), high-intensity zone lesions in females not fulfilling ASAS criteria (OR 5.09; P = 0.001), and herniation in various subgroups (OR range 2.07-4.66) were associated with pain. Specific degenerative lesions, but not typical axial SpA lesions, of the spine are associated with pain at the same location in some subgroups. Inflammatory lesions in the SI joint are associated with buttock pain. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  20. Blood Based Biomarkers for Lung Cancer Early Detection and Evaluation of CT Based Lesions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    miRNA ), methylation and gene expression profiles of tumor and matched non-malignant tissues to identify differentially expressed miRNAs and...from the Pan-Canadian Early Lung Cancer Detection Study. Candidate miRNA that accurately discriminate between tumor and non-malignant samples are...generate miRNA , methylation and gene expression profiles of tumor and normal tissues . Status: Completed Work accomplished: Histological confirmation was

  1. Tibial nerve SEPs localized the lesion site in a patient with early tabes dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Sonoo, M; Katayama, A; Miura, T; Shimizu, T; Inoue, K

    2005-04-26

    There is controversy regarding the initial pathology of tabes dorsalis. In a patient with early tabes dorsalis, tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials elicited normal P15, a delayed traveling peak in the lumbar bipolar leads, and absent subsequent components. Based on the comparison with normative data and stimulation at different intensities, the authors conclude that only the slower conducting antidromic motor volleys are preserved, whereas the dorsal root is damaged at its distal end.

  2. Clinical evaluation of an enhanced white light and fluorescence device for early detection of caries lesions.

    PubMed

    Amaechi, B T; Chedjieu, I; Lozano-Pineda, Juanita

    2013-01-01

    Sensitivity of a device based on Fluorescence Imaging with Reflectance Enhancement (FIRE) in detecting a potential incipient lesion (PIL) was compared with visual examination to demonstrate non-inferiority to it. Visual examination (VE) and an investigational device (ID) were used to detect PIL (actual incipient caries [AIC] and hypomineralization). Seventeen subjects satisfied data analysis criteria. Two-hundred and seventy-seven AIC and 367 hypomineralizations reached VE consensus. Ground truth was generated from consensus VE results and image information from enhanced white light (eWL) and FIRE images. Data from VE and ID in Still Image (IDSM) and Video (IDVM) modes were evaluated against ground truth. Overall sensitivity of VE, IDSM, and IDVM evaluated against ground truth were 0.94, 0.884, and 0.848, respectively, for Actual Incipient Caries (AIC) detection, and 0.95, 0.916, and 0.883, respectively, for PIL detection. Sensitivity of ID in both modes was > 90% that of VE, thus demonstrating non-inferiority of IDSM and IDVM to VE. The investigated eWL and fluorescence device is clinically effective and at least as good as expert VE in detecting PIL. An enhanced white light device with FIRE technology can be used, in Video or Still Image Detection modes, as an aid to caries diagnosis.

  3. Prevalence of Primary HPV in Djibouti: Feasibility of Screening for Early Diagnosis of Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions.

    PubMed

    Petrelli, Alessio; Di Napoli, Anteo; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Rossi, Alessandra; Luccini, Daniele; Di Marco, Ilaria; Traoré, Amadou Laico; Gillio Tos, Anna; Trevisan, Morena; Mirisola, Concetta; Costanzo, Gianfranco

    2016-10-01

    In many African Sub-Saharan countries, human papilloma virus (HPV) prevalence data are not available. The current study estimated the prevalence of HPV virus in the female population of Djibouti. Approximately 1000 asymptomatic women 16 to 64 years old were enrolled from 3 of the main health structures of Djibouti in 2014 and 2015; 998 cervical samples were tested for HPV-DNA of high risk types, 499 during the first year, and 499 during the second. Positive samples were typed with an HPV genotyping kit. The women were an average age of 38.8 years (SD, 10.2); 54 women tested positive for HPV (prevalence rate, 5.4% [95% confidence interval, 4.0-6.8]). The highest prevalence was observed among the women younger than 35 years. HPV66 was the most prevalent (15.4% of the infections), followed by HPV31 and HPV52 (10.8% both) and HPV16 (9.2%). All 54 women who tested HPV-positive underwent a Pap test, which was positive in 8 cases (14.8%): 2 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 6 low-grade (LSIL). The HPV prevalence shows a curve by age similar to that of other African countries. The proportion of HPV16 is among the lowest ever seen in similar studies. The findings suggest to Djibouti the choice of a strategy of screening that includes forms of cytological triage, thus limiting recourse to colposcopy.

  4. A Novel Role For Nanog As An Early Cancer Risk Marker In Patients With Laryngeal Precancerous Lesions.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Juan P; Villaronga, M Ángeles; Menéndez, Sofía T; Hermida-Prado, Francisco; Quer, Miquel; Vilaseca, Isabel; Allonca, Eva; Pedregal Mallo, Daniel; Astudillo, Aurora; García-Pedrero, Juana M

    2017-09-11

    NANOG is a master regulator of embryonic stem cell pluripotency, found to be frequently aberrantly expressed in a variety of cancers, including laryngeal carcinomas. This study investigates for the first time the role of NANOG expression in early stages of laryngeal tumourigenesis and its potential utility as cancer risk marker. NANOG protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using two large independent cohorts of patients with laryngeal precancerous lesions, and correlated with clinicopathological parameters and laryngeal cancer risk. NANOG expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 49 (60%) of 82 laryngeal dysplasias, whereas expression was negligible in patient-matched normal epithelia. Strong NANOG expression was found in 22 (27%) lesions and was established as cut-off point, showing the most robust association with laryngeal cancer risk (P = 0.003) superior to the histological classification (P = 0.320) the current gold standard in the clinical practice. Similar trends were obtained using a multicenter validation cohort of 86 patients with laryngeal dysplasia. Our findings uncover a novel role for NANOG expression in laryngeal tumourigenesis, and its unprecedented application as biomarker for cancer risk assessment.

  5. A functional lesion in developmental dyslexia: left angular gyral blood flow predicts severity.

    PubMed

    Rumsey, J M; Horwitz, B; Donohue, B C; Nace, K L; Maisog, J M; Andreason, P

    1999-11-01

    Functional imaging studies have shown reduced regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in temporal and inferior parietal regions in dyslexia. To relate such abnormalities to the severity of dyslexia, correlations between reading skill and rCBF during a series of reading tasks and visual fixation were mapped for 17 right-handed dyslexic men, ages 18-40, and 14 matched controls. These correlations uniquely identified the left angular gyrus as the most probable site of a functional lesion in dyslexia: Here, higher rCBF was associated with better reading skill in controls (p <.01), but with worse reading skill in dyslexia (p <.01). This suggests that greater reliance on this region normally facilitates reading, but impairs reading in dyslexia. Thus, developmental dyslexia may share a common localization with alexia. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  6. Electrical injuries. Biological values measurements as a prediction factor of local evolution in electrocutions lesions

    PubMed Central

    Teodoreanu, R; Popescu, SA; Lascar, I

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Rationale. Taking into account the incidence and the severity of electrocutions, we consider it extremely necessary to find effective, appropriate and particularized therapeutic solutions aimed at improving the survival, decreasing the mortality, ensuring a superior functional and aesthetic effect and facilitating the social reintegration. Given the severity of the general condition of the electrically injured patient and the fact that any worsening of the lesions has a systemic echo, the selection of the timing for re-excision is very important. The postponement of the surgical timing can break the precarious metabolic equilibrium and can hasten the installation of the multisystem organ failure (MSOF). Objective. The study is intended to establish a possible connection between the clinical evolution of the electrically injured patient and the dynamics of three important biological parameters, able to provide data concerning the therapeutic attitude to be followed. The patients with a diagnostic of high-voltage electrocution, who will be admitted to the Clinic, will be followed for a period of 2 years. The parameters to be followed daily will be: - Creatin-kinase, as a marker of muscular damage - Hemoglobin, as a marker of tissue oxygenation - Leukocytes, as an indicator of a possible septic evolution. The therapeutic alternatives, including the administration of antiplatelet drugs will be studied. Methods and Results. In the period October 2010-June 2013 a total of 12 cases of high-voltage electrocution were admitted in our clinic. Among these, some could be placed in the study of 7 cases, as the remaining patients died within the first 24 hours of hospitalization due to the endured lesions. All the patients were admitted to the ICU ward that supported the treatment and monitoring until their stabilization, at which time they were transferred to the ward. All the patients received anti-thromboxane treatment from their admission (injectable NSAIDs

  7. Predicting drug susceptibility of non–small cell lung cancers based on genetic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sos, Martin L.; Michel, Kathrin; Zander, Thomas; Weiss, Jonathan; Frommolt, Peter; Peifer, Martin; Li, Danan; Ullrich, Roland; Koker, Mirjam; Fischer, Florian; Shimamura, Takeshi; Rauh, Daniel; Mermel, Craig; Fischer, Stefanie; Stückrath, Isabel; Heynck, Stefanie; Beroukhim, Rameen; Lin, William; Winckler, Wendy; Shah, Kinjal; LaFramboise, Thomas; Moriarty, Whei F.; Hanna, Megan; Tolosi, Laura; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Verhaak, Roel; Chiang, Derek; Getz, Gad; Hellmich, Martin; Wolf, Jürgen; Girard, Luc; Peyton, Michael; Weir, Barbara A.; Chen, Tzu-Hsiu; Greulich, Heidi; Barretina, Jordi; Shapiro, Geoffrey I.; Garraway, Levi A.; Gazdar, Adi F.; Minna, John D.; Meyerson, Matthew; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Thomas, Roman K.

    2009-01-01

    Somatic genetic alterations in cancers have been linked with response to targeted therapeutics by creation of specific dependency on activated oncogenic signaling pathways. However, no tools currently exist to systematically connect such genetic lesions to therapeutic vulnerability. We have therefore developed a genomics approach to identify lesions associated with therapeutically relevant oncogene dependency. Using integrated genomic profiling, we have demonstrated that the genomes of a large panel of human non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines are highly representative of those of primary NSCLC tumors. Using cell-based compound screening coupled with diverse computational approaches to integrate orthogonal genomic and biochemical data sets, we identified molecular and genomic predictors of therapeutic response to clinically relevant compounds. Using this approach, we showed that v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations confer enhanced Hsp90 dependency and validated this finding in mice with KRAS-driven lung adenocarcinoma, as these mice exhibited dramatic tumor regression when treated with an Hsp90 inhibitor. In addition, we found that cells with copy number enhancement of v-abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (ABL2) and ephrin receptor kinase and v-src sarcoma (Schmidt-Ruppin A-2) viral oncogene homolog (avian) (SRC) kinase family genes were exquisitely sensitive to treatment with the SRC/ABL inhibitor dasatinib, both in vitro and when it xenografted into mice. Thus, genomically annotated cell-line collections may help translate cancer genomics information into clinical practice by defining critical pathway dependencies amenable to therapeutic inhibition. PMID:19451690

  8. Prevalence of candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesion of early childhood caries (ECC) according to sampling site

    PubMed Central

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Sefidgar, Seyed Ali Asghar; Eyzadian, Haniyeh; Gharakhani, Samaneh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans may have cariogenic potential but its role in caries etiology has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine candida albicans in supragingival dental plaque and infected dentine of cervical and proximal in early childhood caries (ECC). Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 6o children aged 2-5 years, which were divided into 3 groups: children with at least one cervical caries; children with at least one proximal caries and caries-free. The infected dentine was collected from cervical and proximal caries lesions and plaque samples were collected from the three groups in order to compare the frequency of candida albicans in the collected sites. All samples were cultured in Sabouraud and CHROMagar medium and the cases that were positive for candida albicans were cultured in germ tube. Data were collected and analyzed. Results: The mean age of the children was 3.9 years. From 100 samples, candida albicans samples were isolated in 55%, mold fungi were found in 29% cases and there was no fungal growth in 16% of the samples. In plaque samples, candida albicans were found in 15% of caries-free samples, 20% of the proximal and 80% of the cervical caries. In samples extracted from the caries, candida albicans were found in 60% of the proximal and 100% of the cervical caries. Mothers with university educational level had children with more cervical decays, caries free and proximal caries, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that prevalence of Candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesions of children with early childhood caries were relatively high and the prevalence was higher in cervical caries group. PMID:24551436

  9. SIV encephalitis lesions are composed of CD163(+) macrophages present in the central nervous system during early SIV infection and SIV-positive macrophages recruited terminally with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Nowlin, Brian T; Burdo, Tricia H; Midkiff, Cecily C; Salemi, Marco; Alvarez, Xavier; Williams, Kenneth C

    2015-06-01

    Macrophage recruitment to the central nervous system (CNS) during AIDS pathogenesis is poorly understood. We measured the accumulation of brain perivascular (CD163(+)) and inflammatory (MAC387(+)) macrophages in SIV-infected monkeys. Monocyte progenitors were 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeled in bone marrow, and CNS macrophages were labeled serially with fluorescent dextrans injected into the cisterna magna. MAC387(+) macrophages accumulated in the meninges and choroid plexus in early inflammation and in the perivascular space and SIV encephalitis (SIVE) lesions late. CD163(+) macrophages accumulated in the perivascular space and SIVE lesions with late inflammation. Most of the BrdU(+) cells were MAC387(+); however, CD163(+)BrdU(+) macrophages were present in the meninges and choroid plexus with AIDS. Most (81.6% ± 1.8%) of macrophages in SIVE lesions were present in the CNS before SIVE lesion formation. There was a 2.9-fold increase in SIVp28(+) macrophages entering the CNS late compared with those entering early (P < 0.05). The rate of CD163(+) macrophage recruitment to the CNS inversely correlated with time to death (P < 0.03) and increased with SIVE. In SIVE animals, soluble CD163 correlated with CD163(+) macrophage recruitment (P = 0.02). Most perivascular macrophages that comprise SIVE lesions and multinucleated giant cells are present in the CNS early, before SIVE lesions are formed. Most SIV-infected macrophages traffic to the CNS terminally with AIDS.

  10. Role of α1 and α2 chains of type IV collagen in early fibrotic lesions of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias and migration of lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Urushiyama, Hirokazu; Terasaki, Yasuhiro; Nagasaka, Shinya; Terasaki, Mika; Kunugi, Shinobu; Nagase, Takahide; Fukuda, Yuh; Shimizu, Akira

    2015-08-01

    Early fibrotic lesions are thought to be the initial findings of fibrogenesis in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, but little is known about their properties. Type IV collagen comprises six gene products, α1-α6, and although it is known as a major basement membrane component, its abnormal deposition is seen in fibrotic lesions of certain organs. We studied the expression of type I and III collagen and all α chains of type IV collagen in lung specimens from patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) or organizing pneumonia (OP) via immunohistochemistry. With cultured lung fibroblasts, we analyzed the expression and function of all α chains of type IV collagen via immunohistochemistry, western blotting, real-time quantitative PCR, and a Boyden chamber migration assay after the knockdown of α1 and α2 chains. Although we observed type I and III collagens in early fibrotic lesions of both UIP and OP, we found type IV collagen, especially α1 and α2 chains, in early fibrotic lesions of UIP but not OP. Fibroblasts enhanced the expression of α1 and α2 chains of type IV collagen after transforming growth factor-β1 stimulation. Small interfering RNA against α1 and α2 chains increased fibroblast migration, with upregulated phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and adding medium containing fibroblast-produced α1 and α2 chains reduced the increased levels of fibroblast migration and phosphorylation of FAK. Fibroblasts in OP were positive for phosphorylated FAK but fibroblasts in UIP were not. These results suggest that fibroblasts in UIP with type IV collagen deposition, especially α1 and α2 chains, have less ability to migrate from early fibrotic lesions than fibroblasts in OP without type IV collagen deposition. Thus, type IV collagen deposition in early fibrotic lesions of UIP may be implicated in refractory pathophysiology including migration of lesion fibroblasts via a FAK pathway.

  11. Management of lesion nematodes and potato early dying with rotation crops.

    PubMed

    Lamondia, J A

    2006-12-01

    Soil-incorporated rotation/green manure crops were evaluated for management of potato early dying caused by Verticillium dahliae and Pratylenchus penetrans. After two years of rotation/green manure and a subsequent potato crop, P. penetrans numbers were less after 'Saia' oat/'Polynema' marigold, 'Triple S' sorghum-sudangrass, or 'Garry' oat than 'Superior' potato or 'Humus' rapeseed. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) for early dying was lowest after Saia oat/marigold, and tuber yields were greater than continuous potato after all crops except sorghum-sudangrass. Saia oat/marigold crops resulted in the greatest tuber yields. After one year of rotation/green manure, a marigold crop increased tuber yields and reduced AUDPC and P. penetrans. In the second potato crop after a single year of rotation, plots previously planted to marigolds had reduced P. penetrans densities and AUDPC and increased tuber yield. Rapeseed supported more P. penetrans than potato, but had greater yields. After two years of rotation/green manure crops and a subsequent potato crop, continuous potato had the highest AUDPC and lowest tuber weight. Rotation with Saia oats (2 yr) and Rudbeckia hirta (1 yr) reduced P. penetrans and increased tuber yields. AUDPC was lowest after R. hirta. Two years of sorghum-sudangrass did not affect P. penetrans, tuber yield or AUDPC. These results demonstrate that P. penetrans may be reduced by one or two years of rotation to non-host or antagonistic plants such as Saia oat, Polynema marigold, or R. hirta and that nematode control may reduce the severity of potato early dying.

  12. Early prediction of renal parenchymal injury with serum procalcitonin

    PubMed Central

    Barati, Leila; Safaeian, Baranak; Mehrjerdian, Mahshid; Vakili, Mohammad-Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in children that can be associated with renal parenchymal injuries and late scars. Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan is known as golden standard for detecting acute pyelonephritis (APN) that has a lot of difficulties and limitations. Objectives: we designed this study the accuracy of one inflammatory marker, serum procalcitonin (PCT) to identify as an early predictor of renal injuries. Patients and Methods: A prospective study was carried out in 95 patients who admitted in the hospital with the first febrile UTI. Serum PCT of all patients was measured; sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV) of this marker was analyzed compared to DMSA scan. P value <0.05 was taken as significant. Results: In total, 79 females and 16 males were investigated. There are 42 cases in group 1 with normal DMSA scan and 53 patients in group two with renal parenchymal injuries in their scans. Mann-Whitney test showed a meaningful relation between the two groups regarding PCT level (P<0.0001). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of PCT reported in optimum cut off were 70%, 88.1%, 88.1% and 70%, respectively. The positive likelihood ratio (PLR) of PCT test was 5.8. Conclusion: In the current survey, PCT was the eligible inflammatory marker to predict renal parenchymal injuries in children with proper sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV that play also a pivotal role in the children aged less than 24 months, although, more studies should be undertaken to confirm. PMID:27689104

  13. The GRK2 Overexpression Is a Primary Hallmark of Mitochondrial Lesions during Early Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Obrenovich, Mark E.; Palacios, Hector H.; Gasimov, Eldar; Leszek, Jerzy; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2009-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to vascular damage as an early contributor to the development of two leading causes of age-associated dementia, namely Alzheimer disease (AD) and AD-like pathology such as stroke. This review focuses on the role of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) as they relate to dementia and how the cardio and cerebrovasculature is involved in AD pathogenesis. The exploration of GRKs in AD pathogenesis may help bridge gaps in our understanding of the heart-brain connection in relation to neurovisceral damage and vascular complications of AD. The a priori basis for this inquiry stems from the fact that kinases of this family regulate numerous receptor functions in the brain, myocardium and elsewhere. The aim of this review is to discuss the finding of GRK2 overexpression in the context of early AD pathogenesis. Also, we consider the consequences for this overexpression as a loss of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) regulation, as well as suggest a potential role for GPCRs and GRKs in a unifying theory of AD pathogenesis through the cerebrovasculature. Finally, we synthesize this newer information in an attempt to put it into context with GRKs as regulators of cellular function, which makes these proteins potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for future pharmacological intervention. PMID:20204079

  14. Randomised Clinical Trial on Resin Infiltration and Fluoride Varnish vs Fluoride Varnish Treatment Only of Smooth-surface Early Caries Lesions in Deciduous Teeth.

    PubMed

    Turska-Szybka, Anna; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta; Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    To clinically evaluate the effectiveness of resin infiltration in conjunction with fluoride varnish treatment vs fluoride varnish treatment alone on facial smooth-surface caries lesions in deciduous teeth. This randomised clinical trial was conducted in 419 children aged 18-71 months with at least two active smooth-surface caries lesions in deciduous teeth (ICDAS II score 2). Eighty-one participants met the inclusion criteria and were allocated to one of the two treatment groups: resin infiltration and fluoride varnish (RI+FV) (n = 41) and fluoride varnish only (FV) (n = 40). The prevalence of treated white spot lesions (WSL) was scored. Fluoride varnish was applied in both groups every 3 months for a year. The mean baseline age of children was 3.8 ± 1.3 years. The effectiveness of resin infiltration measured as the percentage of children who did not present any progression of the treated lesions amounted to 43.1%. After one year, 92.1% of the infiltrated lesions (RI+FV) and 70.6% of the FV lesions had not progressed (p < 0.001). Resin infiltration in conjunction with fluoride varnish treatment of early facial smooth-surface caries lesions in deciduous teeth is superior to fluoride varnish treatment alone for reducing lesion progression.

  15. Early prediction of urinary tract infection in neonates with hyperbilirubinemia

    PubMed Central

    Nickavar, Azar; Khosravi, Nastaran; Doaei, Mahdiye

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Hyperbilirubinemia is a common manifestation of infectious disorders during the neonatal period. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the serious bacterial infections with hyperbilirubinemia among newborn infants. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the early predictive risk factors of UTI in neonates with hyperbilirubinemia, to prevent its long-term complications. Patients and Methods: A total of 95 neonatal hyperbilirubinemia were evaluated in 2 groups with (n = 40) and without UTI (n = 55). Results: Mean age at diagnosis of UTI was 16.37 ± 8.86 days. Hyperbilirubinemia was detected in 70% of patients during the first week of life. There was a significant difference regarding the age at admission, duration of hyperbilirubinemia, serum bilirubin and creatinine, white blood cells (WBC) , and also Hgb levels between the 2 groups in univariate analysis. However, prolonged jaundice (OR = 10.3, P = 0.001) and serum bilirubin concentration (OR = 5.15, P = 0.001) were statistically associated with a positive urine culture in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Screening of UTI is recommended in neonates with prolonged unexplained jaundice, leukocytosis, and increased serum creatinine. PMID:26468481

  16. Tumour thickness predicts cervical nodal metastases and survival in early oral tongue cancer.

    PubMed

    O-charoenrat, P; Pillai, G; Patel, S; Fisher, C; Archer, D; Eccles, S; Rhys-Evans, P

    2003-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral tongue is characterized by a high propensity for cervical nodal metastasis, which affects the probability of regional control and survival. Until now, elective treatment of the clinically negative neck in early lesions (T(1-2)) of the oral tongue cancer remains controversial. This study attempted to identify predictive factor(s) for cervical nodal metastasis and treatment outcomes in patients with early stage SCC of the oral tongue treated primarily by surgery. Fifty patients with previously untreated Stage I/II primary tongue carcinomas with available archival specimens treated at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1981 and 1998 were reviewed. Clinico-pathological features including age, gender, alcohol and tobacco consumption, tumour location, histological grade, tumour-stromal border, growth pattern, tumour thickness, and clinical stage were evaluated and the correlations with cervical metastases and outcome analysis were determined. The overall occult nodal metastatic rate was 40% (20/50). Tumour thickness exceeding 5 mm was statistically significantly correlated with cervical metastases (P = 0.003; relative risk = 2.429). No statistical correlation was observed between other clinico-pathological parameters and nodal metastasis. With a median follow-up of 98 months, 5-year actuarial overall, disease-specific (DSS), and relapse-free survival were 65.71, 67.77, and 68.18%, respectively. Univariate analysis for DSS showed poorer outcomes for patients with age > 60 years (P = 0.0423) and tumour thickness > 5 mm (P = 0.0067). The effect of tumour thickness was maintained (P = 0.005) on multivariate analysis. The present study indicates that the thickness of primary tumour has a strong predictive value for occult cervical metastasis and poor outcomes in patients with Stage I/II oral tongue SCC. Thus, elective neck treatment (surgery or irradiation) is indicated for tumours exceeding 5 mm thickness. Copyright 2003 Elsevier

  17. Early Antenatal Prediction of Gestational Diabetes in Obese Women: Development of Prediction Tools for Targeted Intervention

    PubMed Central

    White, Sara L.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Briley, Annette L.; Nelson, Scott M.; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Sattar, Naveed; Seed, Paul T.; Welsh, Paul; Whitworth, Melissa; Poston, Lucilla; Pasupathy, Dharmintra

    2016-01-01

    All obese women are categorised as being of equally high risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) whereas the majority do not develop the disorder. Lifestyle and pharmacological interventions in unselected obese pregnant women have been unsuccessful in preventing GDM. Our aim was to develop a prediction tool for early identification of obese women at high risk of GDM to facilitate targeted interventions in those most likely to benefit. Clinical and anthropometric data and non-fasting blood samples were obtained at 15+0–18+6 weeks’ gestation in 1303 obese pregnant women from UPBEAT, a randomised controlled trial of a behavioural intervention. Twenty one candidate biomarkers associated with insulin resistance, and a targeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolome were measured. Prediction models were constructed using stepwise logistic regression. Twenty six percent of women (n = 337) developed GDM (International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria). A model based on clinical and anthropometric variables (age, previous GDM, family history of type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure, sum of skinfold thicknesses, waist:height and neck:thigh ratios) provided an area under the curve of 0.71 (95%CI 0.68–0.74). This increased to 0.77 (95%CI 0.73–0.80) with addition of candidate biomarkers (random glucose, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fructosamine, adiponectin, sex hormone binding globulin, triglycerides), but was not improved by addition of NMR metabolites (0.77; 95%CI 0.74–0.81). Clinically translatable models for GDM prediction including readily measurable variables e.g. mid-arm circumference, age, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c and adiponectin are described. Using a ≥35% risk threshold, all models identified a group of high risk obese women of whom approximately 50% (positive predictive value) later developed GDM, with a negative predictive value of 80%. Tools for early pregnancy identification of obese women at risk of GDM are described

  18. Early Antenatal Prediction of Gestational Diabetes in Obese Women: Development of Prediction Tools for Targeted Intervention.

    PubMed

    White, Sara L; Lawlor, Debbie A; Briley, Annette L; Godfrey, Keith M; Nelson, Scott M; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Robson, Stephen C; Sattar, Naveed; Seed, Paul T; Vieira, Matias C; Welsh, Paul; Whitworth, Melissa; Poston, Lucilla; Pasupathy, Dharmintra

    2016-01-01

    All obese women are categorised as being of equally high risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) whereas the majority do not develop the disorder. Lifestyle and pharmacological interventions in unselected obese pregnant women have been unsuccessful in preventing GDM. Our aim was to develop a prediction tool for early identification of obese women at high risk of GDM to facilitate targeted interventions in those most likely to benefit. Clinical and anthropometric data and non-fasting blood samples were obtained at 15+0-18+6 weeks' gestation in 1303 obese pregnant women from UPBEAT, a randomised controlled trial of a behavioural intervention. Twenty one candidate biomarkers associated with insulin resistance, and a targeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolome were measured. Prediction models were constructed using stepwise logistic regression. Twenty six percent of women (n = 337) developed GDM (International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria). A model based on clinical and anthropometric variables (age, previous GDM, family history of type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure, sum of skinfold thicknesses, waist:height and neck:thigh ratios) provided an area under the curve of 0.71 (95%CI 0.68-0.74). This increased to 0.77 (95%CI 0.73-0.80) with addition of candidate biomarkers (random glucose, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fructosamine, adiponectin, sex hormone binding globulin, triglycerides), but was not improved by addition of NMR metabolites (0.77; 95%CI 0.74-0.81). Clinically translatable models for GDM prediction including readily measurable variables e.g. mid-arm circumference, age, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c and adiponectin are described. Using a ≥35% risk threshold, all models identified a group of high risk obese women of whom approximately 50% (positive predictive value) later developed GDM, with a negative predictive value of 80%. Tools for early pregnancy identification of obese women at risk of GDM are described which could

  19. What is the fate of erosions in early rheumatoid arthritis? Tracking individual lesions using x rays and magnetic resonance imaging over the first two years of disease

    PubMed Central

    McQueen, F; Benton, N; Crabbe, J; Robinson, E; Yeoman, S; McLean, L; Stewart, N

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate the progression of erosions at sites within the carpus, in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and plain radiology over a two year period.
METHODS—Gadolinium enhanced MRI scans of the dominant wrist were performed in 42 patients with RA at baseline (within six months of symptom onset) and one year. Plain wrist radiographs (x rays) and clinical data were obtained at baseline, one year, and two years. Erosions were scored by two musculoskeletal radiologists on MRI and x ray at 15 sites in the wrist. A patient centred analysis was used to evaluate the prognostic value of a baseline MRI scan. A lesion centred analysis was used to track the progression of individual erosions over two years.
RESULTS—The baseline MRI erosion score was predictive of x ray erosion score at two years (p=0.004). Patients with a "total MRI score" (erosion, bone oedema, synovitis, and tendonitis) ⩾13 at baseline were significantly more likely to develop erosions on x ray at two years (odds ratio 13.4, 95% CI 2.65 to 60.5, p=0.002). Baseline wrist MRI has a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 76%, a positive predictive value of 67%, and a high negative predictive value of 86% for the prediction of wrist x ray erosions at two years. A lesion centred analysis, which included erosions scored by one or both radiologists, showed that 84% of baseline MRI erosions were still present at one year. When a more stringent analysis was used which required complete concordance between radiologists, all baseline lesions persisted at one year. The number of MRI erosion sites in each patient increased from 2.1 (SD 2.7) to 5.0 (4.6) (p<0.0001) over the first year of disease. When MRI erosion sites were tracked, 21% and 26% were observed on x ray, one and two years later. A high baseline MRI synovitis score, Ritchie score, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were predictive of progression of MRI erosions to x ray

  20. Prediction of motor outcome by shoulder subluxation at early stage of stroke

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung Ho; Yi, Ji Hyun; Chang, Chul Hoon; Jung, Young Jin; Kim, Seong Ho; Lee, Jun; Seo, Jeong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We attempted to determine whether shoulder subluxation at the early stage of stroke can predict motor outcome in relation to the corticospinal tract (CST) state on diffusion tensor tractography. Fifty-nine stroke patients with severe hemiparesis were recruited. The patients were classified according to the distance of shoulder subluxation (group A: ≥2 cm, group B: <2 cm) and the affected CST on diffusion tensor tractography at the first evaluation (CST type A—the CST was discontinued at the stroke lesion; CST type B—the integrity of the CST was preserved). Motor function of the patients was evaluated twice (first: beginning of rehabilitation—24.1 ± 16.6 days; second: discharge after first rehabilitation—58.5 ± 24.1 days) using the Medical Research Council score, Motricity Index, and Modified Brunnstrom Classification. Regarding the improvement of the Medical Research Council for the finger extensor and upper Motricity Index, the order in terms of better recovery was as follows: group B–type B, group A–type B, group B–type A, and group A–type A (P < 0.05). The distance of shoulder subluxation showed significant correlation with improvement of the finger extensor (moderate negative correlation, r = −0.37) and improvement of the Modified Brunnstrom Classification (weak negative correlation, r = −0.29) (P < 0.05). The presence of shoulder subluxation at the early stage of stroke can be a predictor of motor outcome of the affected upper extremity and the degree of shoulder subluxation can be a predictor of the motor function of the affected hand. Therefore, our results suggest that shoulder subluxation in relation to the affected CST state at the early stage of stroke can be a prognostic factor for motor outcome. PMID:27512873

  1. Prediction of motor outcome by shoulder subluxation at early stage of stroke.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung Ho; Yi, Ji Hyun; Chang, Chul Hoon; Jung, Young Jin; Kim, Seong Ho; Lee, Jun; Seo, Jeong Pyo

    2016-08-01

    We attempted to determine whether shoulder subluxation at the early stage of stroke can predict motor outcome in relation to the corticospinal tract (CST) state on diffusion tensor tractography.Fifty-nine stroke patients with severe hemiparesis were recruited. The patients were classified according to the distance of shoulder subluxation (group A: ≥2 cm, group B: <2 cm) and the affected CST on diffusion tensor tractography at the first evaluation (CST type A-the CST was discontinued at the stroke lesion; CST type B-the integrity of the CST was preserved). Motor function of the patients was evaluated twice (first: beginning of rehabilitation-24.1 ± 16.6 days; second: discharge after first rehabilitation-58.5 ± 24.1 days) using the Medical Research Council score, Motricity Index, and Modified Brunnstrom Classification.Regarding the improvement of the Medical Research Council for the finger extensor and upper Motricity Index, the order in terms of better recovery was as follows: group B-type B, group A-type B, group B-type A, and group A-type A (P < 0.05). The distance of shoulder subluxation showed significant correlation with improvement of the finger extensor (moderate negative correlation, r = -0.37) and improvement of the Modified Brunnstrom Classification (weak negative correlation, r = -0.29) (P < 0.05).The presence of shoulder subluxation at the early stage of stroke can be a predictor of motor outcome of the affected upper extremity and the degree of shoulder subluxation can be a predictor of the motor function of the affected hand. Therefore, our results suggest that shoulder subluxation in relation to the affected CST state at the early stage of stroke can be a prognostic factor for motor outcome.

  2. [The effect of certain pro-inflammatory mediators on the pathogenesis of acute gastric mucosal lesion in early burn stage].

    PubMed

    Gao, W; Guo, Z; Sun, S

    1998-05-01

    To appraise the effect of certain pro-inflammatory mediators on the pathogenesis of acute gastric mucosal lesion in early burn stage. 21 patients with burn injuries of over 30% TBSA were divided into A and B groups according to the main clinical indexes during shock resuscitation and hemodynamic parameters. Fiberoptic endoscopic examination, determination of intramucosal pH (pHi) and measurement of some mediators were done immediately after admission to the hospital and 4 and 7 days after burn injury. It was demonstrated that the level of LPS in plasma, the content of TNF-alpha, IL-8 and ET in group B at 4 and 7 days postburn were significantly higher than those of group A, while the value of pHi in group B was markedly lower than that of group A. Damaging index of gastric mucosa was negatively correlated with pHi (r = -0.89, P < 0.05), but positively with ET (r = 0.91, P = 0.05). These findings suggest that the inflammatory mediators and cytokines promoted secondary damage to gastric mucosa during early postburn. It was believed that pHi was a sensitive index, and it played an important role in the development of stress ulceration.

  3. Developmental Coordination Disorder: Is Clumsy Motor Behavior Caused by a Lesion of the Brain at Early Age?

    PubMed Central

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2003-01-01

    Children presenting with Developmental Coordination Disorder or clumsiness often exhibit signs of minor neurological dysfunction (MND). The data of the Groningen Perinatal Project, a long-term follow-up project .on the relations between prenatal and perinatal adversities and neurological, behavioral, and cognitive development revealed that two basic forms of MND can be distinguished: simple and complex MND. During school age children with simple MND are characterized by the presence of one or two dysfunctional clusters of MND, in adolescence by the presence of choreiform dyskinesia or hypotonia. Probably the major sources of origin of simple MND are genetic constitution and stress during early life. Simple MND might reflect the lower tail of the normal distribution of the quality of non-pathological brain function. In line with this hypothesis is the finding that simple MND is associated with only a moderately increased risk for learning and behavioral problems. Children with complex MND present at school age with at least three dysfunctional clusters of MND, in adolescence with problems in fine manipulation or coordination. Perinatal adversities play an evident etiological role in the development of complex MND, suggesting that it might be attributed to a lesion of the brain at early age. In line with this idea is the finding that complex MND shows .a strong correlation with attention and learning problems. PMID:14640306

  4. Loss of heterozygosity at the FLCN locus in early renal cystic lesions in dogs with renal cystadenocarcinoma and nodular dermatofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bønsdorff, Tina B; Jansen, Johan H; Thomassen, Ragnar F; Lingaas, Frode

    2009-05-01

    Small, macroscopically visible cysts on the surface of the kidneys were observed in eight 6-8-week-old puppies diagnosed with renal cystadenocarcinoma and nodular dermatofibrosis (RCND). Histologic examination of the renal cortices in these puppies reveals numerous small cystic tubular changes. Hyperplastic change of the epithelial lining of cysts is frequently observed. By laser-capture microdissection we have sampled epithelial cells from such early renal cystic lesions in eight paternal half-sibs diagnosed with RCND. DNA was obtained from the laser-captured material, and all coding exons of the germline-mutated FLCN gene were sequenced to detect putative second hits. Samples from 31 independent hyperplastic epithelial cell sections of tubular microcysts of the RCND siblings were examined as well as normal control samples of the tissue sections. Loss of heterozygosity was detected in 35% of the transformed samples. The frequently observed loss of heterozygosity at the FLCN locus in atypical epithelial cells lining the cysts suggests that loss of heterozygosity/function of the FLCN gene may contribute to neoplastic transformation of renal epithelial cells at a very early age of RCND-affected dogs. The transformed renal epithelial cells seem to grow slowly in young puppies, which indicates that other mutational events are required for the development of tumors in adult dogs.

  5. The effects of neurochemical lesioning of dopaminergic terminals in early ontogenesis on behavior in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Shabanov, P D; Lebedev, A A; Meshcherov, Sh K; Strel'tsov, V F

    2005-06-01

    6-Hydroxydopamine, which induces selective degeneration of the dopaminergic system of the brain, was given intraamniotically to rats on days 13 and 17 of intrauterine development at a dose of 75 microg/fetus. Similar experiments were performed with 6-hydroxydopamine on days 4 and 10 of neonatal life. Rats were subsequently reared and motor and emotional (dopamine-dependent) types of behavior were studied in adulthood, addressing behavior in the open field test, rotatory behavior, anxiety in an elevated cross maze, a place-preference conditioned response, acquisition of the ability to differentiate new and old arms in a Y maze, aggressivity in the "foreigner-resident" test, and self-stimulation in a Skinner box. Prenatal exposure, to a lesser extent than postnatal exposure, initiated rotatory and stereotypical behavior, decreased the level of anxiety (fear) in the elevated maze, and reinforced the effects of phenamine in the conditioned place-preference test, impaired the differentiation of old and new Y-maze arms, impaired aggressivity in the "foreigner-resident" test, and impaired self-stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus. It is concluded that the early postnatal period of development is more sensitive to the action of this neurotoxin than the prenatal period. This is associated with the critical periods of the formation of the dopaminergic system during ontogenesis, which depend on synaptogenesis.

  6. Cytoplasmic Drosha Is Aberrant in Precancerous Lesions of Gastric Carcinoma and Its Loss Predicts Worse Outcome for Gastric Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hailong; Hou, Yixuan; Xu, Liyun; Zeng, Zongyue; Wen, Siyang; Du, Yan-E; Sun, Kexin; Yin, Jiali; Lang, Lei; Tang, Xiaoli; Liu, Manran

    2016-04-01

    The nuclear localization of Drosha is critical for its function as a microRNA maturation regulator. Dephosphorylation of Drosha at serine 300 and serine 302 disrupts its nuclear localization, and aberrant distribution of Drosha has been detected in some tumors. The purpose of the present study was to assess cytoplasmic/nuclear Drosha expression in gastric cancer carcinogenesis and progression. Drosha expression and its subcellular location was investigated by immunohistochemical staining of a set of tissue microarrays composed of normal adjacent tissues (374), chronic gastritis (137), precancerous lesions (94), and gastric adenocarcinoma (829) samples, and in gastric cancer cell lines with varying differentiation by immunofluorescence and western blot assay. Gradual loss of cytoplasmic Drosha was accompanied by tumor progression in both gastric cancer tissues and cell lines, and was inversely associated with tumor volume (P = 0.002), tumor grade (P < 0.001), tumor stage (P = 0.018), and distant metastasis (P = 0.026). Aberrant high levels of cytoplasmic Drosha were apparent in intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia tissues. The levels of nuclear Drosha were sharply decreased in chronic gastritis and maintained through precancerous lesions to gastric cancer. High levels of cytoplasmic Drosha predicted longer survival (LR = 7.088, P = 0.008) in gastric cancer patients. Our data provide novel insights into gastric cancer that cytoplasmic Drosha potentially plays a role in preventing carcinogenesis and tumor progression, and may be an independent predictor of patient outcome.

  7. Predictive factors of early distant brain failure after gamma knife radiosurgery alone in patients with brain metastases of non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Na, Young Cheol; Jung, Hyun Ho; Kim, Hye Ryun; Cho, Byoung Chul; Chang, Jin Woo; Park, Yong Gou; Chang, Won Seok

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the predictive factors for early distant brain failure in patients with brain metastases of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were treated with gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) without previous whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) or surgery. We retrospectively reviewed clinical and imaging data of 459 patients with brain metastases of NSCLC who underwent GKRS from June 2008 to December 2013. The primary end-point was early distant brain failure, defined as the detection of newly developed metastatic lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 3 months after GKRS. Factors such as tumor pathology subtype, concurrent systemic chemotherapy, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status, use of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), systemic disease status, presence of a metastatic lesion only in delayed MRI, and volume and number of metastases were analyzed. There were no statistically significant differences with respect to pathologic subtype, concurrent systemic chemotherapy, EGFR mutation, and early distant brain failure. Patients treated with EGFR-TKIs (p = 0.004), with a stable systemic disease status (p = 0.028) and 3 or fewer brain lesions (p = 0.000) experienced a significantly lower incidence of early distant brain failure. This study suggests that GKRS alone could be considered for patients treated with EGFR-TKIs who have a stable systemic disease status and 3 or fewer brain lesions. WBRT should be considered for other patients.

  8. Predictive algorithms for early detection of retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Piermarocchi, Stefano; Bini, Silvia; Martini, Ferdinando; Berton, Marianna; Lavini, Anna; Gusson, Elena; Marchini, Giorgio; Padovani, Ezio Maria; Macor, Sara; Pignatto, Silvia; Lanzetta, Paolo; Cattarossi, Luigi; Baraldi, Eugenio; Lago, Paola

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate sensitivity, specificity and the safest cut-offs of three predictive algorithms (WINROP, ROPScore and CHOP ROP) for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A retrospective study was conducted in three centres from 2012 to 2014; 445 preterms with gestational age (GA) ≤ 30 weeks and/or birthweight (BW) ≤ 1500 g, and additional unstable cases, were included. No-ROP, mild and type 1 ROP were categorized. The algorithms were analysed for infants with all parameters (GA, BW, weight gain, oxygen therapy, blood transfusion) needed for calculation (399 babies). Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was identified in both eyes in 116 patients (26.1%), and 44 (9.9%) had type 1 ROP. Gestational age and BW were significantly lower in ROP group compared with no-ROP subjects (GA: 26.7 ± 2.2 and 30.2 ± 1.9, respectively, p < 0.0001; BW: 839.8 ± 287.0 and 1288.1 ± 321.5 g, respectively, p = 0.0016). Customized alarms of ROPScore and CHOP ROP correctly identified all infants having any ROP or type 1 ROP. WINROP missed 19 cases of ROP, including three type 1 ROP. ROPScore and CHOP ROP provided the best performances with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the detection of severe ROP of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.90-0.96, and 95% CI, 0.89-0.96, respectively), and WINROP obtained 0.83 (95% CI, 0.77-0.87). Median time from alarm to treatment was 11.1, 5.1 and 9.1 weeks, for WINROP, ROPScore and CHOP ROP, respectively. ROPScore and CHOP ROP showed 100% sensitivity to identify sight-threatening ROP. Predictive algorithms are a reliable tool for early identification of infants requiring referral to an ophthalmologist, for reorganizing resources and reducing stressful procedures to preterm babies. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Medial amygdala lesions modify aggressive behavior and immediate early gene expression in oxytocin and vasopressin neurons during intermale exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; He, Zhiyi; Zhao, Chuansheng; Li, Lei

    2013-05-15

    The medial amygdala and neuropeptides oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (VSP) have been associated aggressive behavior regulation. However, the specific mechanism involved in OXT and VSP modulation in distinct brain regions during hostile intermale aggressive behavior is undetermined. A retrograde tracer mouse model was employed using male C57BL/6 mice injected with rhodamine-conjugated latex microsphere suspensions in the right hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Adult male C57BL/6 mice (aged 14-16 weeks) were subjected to resident-intruder testing using juvenile intruder mice (aged 3 weeks) or adult intruder mice (aged 8 weeks). Following exposure, Fos protein expression was increased in the medial amygdala neurons of resident mice receiving the retrograde tracer. Thus, medial amygdala neurons projecting to or localized in the vicinity of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus showed immediate early gene (IEG) expression following resident-intruder testing that was considered an indirect marker of activation. Additionally, intermale aggression-related behaviors were inhibited or modified by exposure to juvenile or adult intruders, respectively, in mice that underwent medial amygdala lesioning. Furthermore, Fos protein expression in OXT-positive neurons was attenuated. Thus, ablation of medial amygdala neurons prevented immediate early gene expression in OXT- and VSP-positive neurons in the hypothalamus, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, and medial preoptic area during intermale exposure. These findings indicate that the medial amygdala likely modulates hostile aggressive behavior associated with immediate early gene expression in OXT and VSP neurons in specific brain areas, which may actually be instrumental in beneficial social interaction-related aggressive responses associated with mating, territorial defense, and offspring protection.

  10. Enzyme replacement therapy in newborn mucopolysaccharidosis IVA mice: early treatment rescues bone lesions?

    PubMed

    Tomatsu, Shunji; Montaño, Adriana M; Oikawa, Hirotaka; Dung, Vu Chi; Hashimoto, Amiko; Oguma, Toshihiro; Gutiérrez, Monica L; Takahashi, Tatsuo; Shimada, Tsutomu; Orii, Tadao; Sly, William S

    2015-02-01

    We treated mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) mice to assess the effects of long-term enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) initiated at birth, since adult mice treated by ERT showed little improvement in bone pathology [1]. To conduct ERT in newborn mice, we used recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) produced in a CHO cell line. First, to observe the tissue distribution pattern, a dose of 250units/g body weight was administered intravenously in MPS IVA mice at day 2 or 3. The infused enzyme was primarily recovered in the liver and spleen, with detectable activity in the bone and brain. Second, newborn ERT was conducted after a tissue distribution study. The first injection of newborn ERT was performed intravenously, the second to fourth weekly injections were intraperitoneal, and the remaining injections from 5th to 14th weeks were intravenous into the tail vein. MPS IVA mice treated with GALNS showed clearance of lysosomal storage in the liver and spleen, and sinus lining cells in bone marrow. The column structure of the growth plate was organized better than that in adult mice treated with ERT; however, hyaline and fibrous cartilage cells in the femur, spine, ligaments, discs, synovium, and periosteum still had storage materials to some extent. Heart valves were refractory to the treatment. Levels of serum keratan sulfate were kept normal in newborn ERT mice. In conclusion, the enzyme, which enters the cartilage before the cartilage cell layer becomes mature, prevents disorganization of column structure. Early treatment from birth leads to partial remission of bone pathology in MPS IVA mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Enzyme replacement therapy in newborn mucopolysaccharidosis IVA mice: early treatment rescues bone lesions?

    PubMed Central

    Tomatsu, Shunji; Montaño, Adriana M.; Oikawa, Hirotaka; Dung, Vu Chi; Hashimoto, Amiko; Oguma, Toshihiro; Takahashi, Tatsuo; Shimada, Tsutomu; Orii, Tadao; Sly, William S.

    2014-01-01

    We treated mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) mice to assess the effects of long-term enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) initiated at birth, since adult mice treated by ERT showed little improvement in bone pathology (1). To conduct ERT in newborn mice, we used recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) produced in a CHO cell line. First, to observe the tissue distribution pattern, a dose of 250 units/g body weight was administered intravenously in MPS IVA mice at day 2 or 3. The infused enzyme was primarily recovered in liver and spleen, with detectable activity in bone and brain. Second, newborn ERT was conducted after tissue distribution study. The first injection of newborn ERT was performed intravenously, the second to fourth weekly injections were intraperitoneal, and the remaining injections from 5th to 14th week were intravenous into the tail vein. MPS IVA mice treated with GALNS showed clearance of lysosomal storage in liver, spleen, and sinus lining cells in bone marrow. The column structure of the growth plate was organized better than adult mice treated with ERT; however, hyaline and fibrous cartilage cells in femur, spine, ligaments, discs, synovium, and periosteum still had storage materials to some extent. Heart valves were refractory to the treatment. Levels of serum keratan sulfate were kept normal in newborn ERT mice. In conclusion, the enzyme, which enters the cartilage before the cartilage cell layer becomes mature, prevents disorganization of column structure. Early treatment from birth leads to partial remission of bone pathology in MPS IVA mouse. PMID:24953405

  12. Pink lesions.

    PubMed

    Giacomel, Jason; Zalaudek, Iris

    2013-10-01

    Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy or surface microscopy) is an ancillary dermatologic tool that in experienced hands can improve the accuracy of diagnosis of a variety of benign and malignant pigmented skin tumors. The early and more accurate diagnosis of nonpigmented, or pink, tumors can also be assisted by dermoscopy. This review focuses on the dermoscopic diagnosis of pink lesions, with emphasis on blood vessel morphology and pattern. A 3-step algorithm is presented, which facilitates the timely and more accurate diagnosis of pink tumors and subsequently guides the management for such lesions.

  13. FRONTIER FIELDS: HIGH-REDSHIFT PREDICTIONS AND EARLY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, Dan; Bradley, Larry; Zitrin, Adi

    2015-02-20

    The Frontier Fields program is obtaining deep Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope images of new ''blank'' fields and nearby fields gravitationally lensed by massive galaxy clusters. The Hubble images of the lensed fields are revealing nJy sources (AB mag > 31), the faintest galaxies yet observed. The full program will transform our understanding of galaxy evolution in the first 600 million years (z > 9). Previous programs have yielded a dozen or so z > 9 candidates, including perhaps fewer than expected in the Ultra Deep Field and more than expected in shallower Hubble images. In this paper, we present high-redshift (z > 6) number count predictions for the Frontier Fields and candidates in three of the first Hubble images. We show the full Frontier Fields program may yield up to ∼70 z > 9 candidates (∼6 per field). We base this estimate on an extrapolation of luminosity functions observed between 4 < z < 8 and gravitational lensing models submitted by the community. However, in the first two deep infrared Hubble images obtained to date, we find z ∼ 8 candidates but no strong candidates at z > 9. We defer quantitative analysis of the z > 9 deficit (including detection completeness estimates) to future work including additional data. At these redshifts, cosmic variance (field-to-field variation) is expected to be significant (greater than ±50%) and include clustering of early galaxies formed in overdensities. The full Frontier Fields program will significantly mitigate this uncertainty by observing six independent sightlines each with a lensing cluster and nearby blank field.

  14. Linear lesions may assist early diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, two subtypes of NMOSD.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wei; Tan, Sha; Zhang, Lei; Shan, Yilong; Wang, Yanqiang; Lin, Yinyao; Zhou, Fangjing; Zhang, Bingjun; Chen, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Li; Wang, Yuge; Huang, Xuehong; Men, Xuejiao; Li, Haiyan; Qiu, Wei; Hu, Xueqiang; Lu, Zhengqi

    2016-01-15

    To investigate the relationship between linear lesions (LL) and the development of longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions (LESCL) in Chinese patients with neuromyelitis optica or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. The clinical records of 143 patients with these conditions were reviewed. Forty-one patients with LL were divided into three groups according to the order of appearance of LL and LESCL (simultaneously [n=10], LL first [n=26], or LESCL first [n=5]). The remaining 102 patients without LL were used as a control group. Patients who developed LL first demonstrated a lower annualized relapse rate than those in the simultaneous group (1.00 [0.23-10.00] vs. 4.38 [0.60-6.67], p=0.017) and the control group (1.00 [0.23-10.00] vs. 2.00 [0.24-10.00], p=0.007). Among all patients with LL, there were significantly more who developed them before LESCL than those who developed them after LESCL (p<0.001) or at the same time (p=0.008). The mean time before the appearance of LESCL was 9.0months (2-35months) in the 'LL-first' group, which was shorter than that in the control group (12months [1-60months], p=0.010). The rate of positivity for anti-aquaporin 4 IgG antibodies was higher in patients with LL compared with controls (90.24% vs. 64.71%, p=0.002). LL may be a precursor to LESCL and assist early diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preventive Screening for Early Readers: Predictive Validity of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffreda, Catherine T.; Diperna, James Clyde; Pedersen, Jason A.

    2009-01-01

    Current empirical evidence indicates poor learning trajectories for students with early literacy skill deficits. As such, reliable and valid detection of at-risk students through regular screening and progress monitoring is imperative. This study investigated the predictive validity of scores on the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy…

  16. Preventive Screening for Early Readers: Predictive Validity of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffreda, Catherine T.; Diperna, James Clyde; Pedersen, Jason A.

    2009-01-01

    Current empirical evidence indicates poor learning trajectories for students with early literacy skill deficits. As such, reliable and valid detection of at-risk students through regular screening and progress monitoring is imperative. This study investigated the predictive validity of scores on the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy…

  17. Prospective, Tissue-Specific Optimization of Ablation for Multiwavelet Reentry: Predicting the Required Amount, Location, and Configuration of Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carrick, Richard T; Benson, Bryce E; Bates, Jason H T; Spector, Peter S

    2016-03-01

    Treatment of multiwavelet reentry (MWR) remains difficult. We previously developed a metric, the fibrillogenicity index, to assess the propensity of homogeneous, 2-dimensional tissues to support MWR. In this study, we demonstrate a method by which fibrillogenicity index can be generalized to heterogeneous tissues and validate an algorithm for prospective, tissue-specific optimization of ablation to reduce MWR burden. We used a computational model to simulate and measure the duration of MWR in tissues with heterogeneously distributed action potential durations and then assessed the relative efficacy of a variety of ablation strategies for reducing tissues' ability to support MWR. We then derived and tested a strategy in which multiple linear lesions partially divided a fibrillogenic tissue into functionally equivalent subsections. The composite action potential duration of heterogeneous tissue was well approximated by an inverse sum of cellular action potential durations (R(2)=0.82). Linear ablation more efficiently reduced MWR duration than branching ablation patterns and optimally reduced disease burden when positioned at a tissue's functional (rather than geometric) center. The duration of MWR after application of prospective, individually optimized ablation sets fell within 4.4% (95% confidence interval, 3-5.8) of the predicted target. We think that this study presents a novel approach for (1) quantifying the extent of a tissue's electric derangement, (2) prospectively determining the amount of ablation required to minimize the burden of MWR, and (3) predicting the most efficient distribution of these ablation lesions in tissue refractory to standard ablation strategies. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Baseline increased 18F-fluoride uptake lesions at vertebral corners on positron emission tomography predict new syndesmophyte development in ankylosing spondylitis: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Kyoung; Pak, Kyoungjune; Park, Ji-Heh; Kim, Keunyoung; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, In-Joo; Kim, Geun-Tae; Lee, Seung-Geun

    2017-02-02

    The goal of this study was to demonstrate whether increased 18F-fluoride uptake lesions on positron emission tomography (PET) scan can predict new syndesmophyte development in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). In 12 AS patients, 18F-fluoride PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at baseline, and radiography was performed at baseline and the 2-year follow-up. The following data were recorded: the presence of increased 18F-fluoride uptake lesions on PET defined as an uptake greater than the uptake in the adjacent normal vertebral body; acute (type A) and advanced (type B) corner inflammatory lesions (CILs) and fat lesions on MRI; and syndesmophytes on radiography. Of 231 anterior vertebral corners without syndesmophyte at baseline, 13 type A CILs (5.5%), 2 type B CILs (0.9%), and 20 fat lesions (8.7%) on MRI and six increased fluoride uptake lesions (2.6%) on PET were observed. At the 2-year follow-up, 16 new syndesmophytes (6.9%) in eight AS patients (66.7%) occurred. New syndesmophytes developed significantly more frequently in anterior vertebral corners with increased 18F-fluoride uptake lesions (50%) or fat lesions (25%) at baseline than in those without such lesions (5.8 and 5.2%; p = 0.005 and p = 0.007, respectively). After adjusting confounding factors, baseline increased 18F-fluoride uptake lesions was independently associated with new syndesmophytes development (OR 13.8, 95% CI 1.5-124.3, p = 0.019). Fat lesions were also associated with new syndesmophytes formation. Our data suggest that 18F-fluoride PET may be applied to identify AS patients with high risk of future syndesmophyte formation.

  19. Predictive Modeling of Human Perception Subjectivity: Feasibility Study of Mammographic Lesion Similarity

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Songhua; Tourassi, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    The majority of clinical content-based image retrieval (CBIR) studies disregard human perception subjectivity, aiming to duplicate the consensus expert assessment of the visual similarity on example cases. The purpose of our study is twofold: (i) discern better the extent of human perception subjectivity when assessing the visual similarity of two images with similar semantic content, and (ii) explore the feasibility of personalized predictive modeling of visual similarity. We conducted a human observer study in which five observers of various expertise were shown ninety-nine triplets of mammographic masses with similar BI-RADS descriptors and were asked to select the two masses with the highest visual relevance. Pairwise agreement ranged between poor and fair among the five observers, as assessed by the kappa statistic. The observers' self-consistency rate was remarkably low, based on repeated questions where either the orientation or the presentation order of a mass was changed. Various machine learning algorithms were explored to determine whether they can predict each observer's personalized selection using textural features. Many algorithms performed with accuracy that exceeded each observer's self-consistency rate, as determined using a cross-validation scheme. This accuracy was statistically significantly higher than would be expected by chance alone (two-tailed p-value ranged between 0.001 and 0.01 for all five personalized models). The study confirmed that human perception subjectivity should be taken into account when developing CBIR-based medical applications.

  20. Predictive modeling of human perception subjectivity: feasibility study of mammographic lesion similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Songhua; Hudson, Kathleen; Bradley, Yong; Daley, Brian J.; Frederick-Dyer, Katherine; Tourassi, Georgia

    2012-02-01

    The majority of clinical content-based image retrieval (CBIR) studies disregard human perception subjectivity, aiming to duplicate the consensus expert assessment of the visual similarity on example cases. The purpose of our study is twofold: i) discern better the extent of human perception subjectivity when assessing the visual similarity of two images with similar semantic content, and (ii) explore the feasibility of personalized predictive modeling of visual similarity. We conducted a human observer study in which five observers of various expertise were shown ninety-nine triplets of mammographic masses with similar BI-RADS descriptors and were asked to select the two masses with the highest visual relevance. Pairwise agreement ranged between poor and fair among the five observers, as assessed by the kappa statistic. The observers' self-consistency rate was remarkably low, based on repeated questions where either the orientation or the presentation order of a mass was changed. Various machine learning algorithms were explored to determine whether they can predict each observer's personalized selection using textural features. Many algorithms performed with accuracy that exceeded each observer's self-consistency rate, as determined using a cross-validation scheme. This accuracy was statistically significantly higher than would be expected by chance alone (two-tailed p-value ranged between 0.001 and 0.01 for all five personalized models). The study confirmed that human perception subjectivity should be taken into account when developing CBIR-based medical applications.

  1. The performance of human papillomavirus biomarkers in predicting anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fengyi; Roberts, Jennifer M; Grulich, Andrew E; Poynten, Isobel M; Machalek, Dorothy A; Cornall, Alyssa; Phillips, Samuel; Ekman, Deborah; McDonald, Ross L; Hillman, Richard J; Templeton, David J; Farnsworth, Annabelle; Garland, Suzanne M; Fairley, Christopher K; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2017-06-01

    We evaluate the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) biomarkers in prediction of anal histological high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Sydney, Australia. Baseline analysis of a 3-year cohort study. The Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer is natural history study of anal HPV infection in GBM aged at least 35 years. All participants completed cytological and histological assessments. Stored ThinPrep PreservCyt residua were tested for HPV genotyping (Linear Array and Cobas 4800) and viral load, E6/E7 mRNA expression (NucliSENS easyQ HPV v1) and dual cytology staining of p16/Ki 67 antibodies (CINtecPLUS). Performance of each biomarker was compared with liquid-based anal cytology. The hypothetical referral rates were defined as the proportion of men who had abnormal cytology or tested positive to each of the biomarkers. The median age of the 617 participants was 49 years (range: 35-79), and 35.7% were HIV-positive. All biomarkers were strongly associated with the grade of HPV-associated anal lesions (P < 0.001 for all). High-risk HPV (HR-HPV) viral load with a 33% cut-off and HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA had similar sensitivity to anal cytology (78.4 and 75.4 vs. 83.2%, respectively), improved specificity (68.0 and 69.4 vs. 52.4%, respectively) and lower referral rates (47.0 and 45.0 vs. 59.2%, respectively). Specificity was significantly higher in the HIV-negative for HR-HPV viral load (72.3 vs. 58.2%, P = 0.005). HR-HPV viral load and E6/E7 mRNA had similar sensitivity and higher specificity in predicting histological anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion with lower referrals in GBM than anal cytology.

  2. Plastic changes at corticostriatal synapses predict improved motor function in a partial lesion model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bentea, Eduard; Moore, Cynthia; Deneyer, Lauren; Verbruggen, Lise; Churchill, Madeline J; Hood, Rebecca L; Meshul, Charles K; Massie, Ann

    2017-02-19

    In Parkinson's disease, striatal dopamine depletion leads to plastic changes at excitatory corticostriatal and thalamostriatal synapses. The functional consequences of these responses on the expression of behavioral deficits are incompletely understood. In addition, most of the information on striatal synaptic plasticity has been obtained in models with severe striatal dopamine depletion, and less is known regarding changes during early stages of striatal denervation. Using a partial model of nigral cell loss based on intranigral injection of the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin, we demonstrate ultrastructural changes at corticostriatal synapses with a 15% increase in the length and 30% increase in the area of the postsynaptic densities at corticostriatal synapses 1 week following toxin administration. This increase was positively correlated with the performance of lactacystin-lesioned mice on the rotarod task, such that mice with a greater increase in the size of the postsynaptic density performed better on the rotarod task. We therefore propose that lengthening of the postsynaptic density at corticostriatal synapses acts as a compensatory mechanism to maintain motor function under conditions of partial dopamine depletion. The ultrastructure of thalamostriatal synapses remained unchanged following lactacystin administration. Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity and behavioral compensation following partial loss of substantia nigra pars compacta neurons, such as those occurring during the early stages of Parkinson's disease.

  3. A supplementary grading scale combining lesion-to-eloquence distance for predicting surgical outcomes of patients with brain arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yuming; Lin, Fuxin; Wu, Jun; Li, Hao; Wang, Lijun; Jin, Zhen; Wang, Shuo; Cao, Yong

    2017-03-31

    OBJECTIVE Case selection for the surgical treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) remains challenging. This study aimed to construct a predictive grading system combining lesion-to-eloquence distance (LED) for selecting patients with BAVMs for surgery. METHODS Between September 2012 and September 2015, the authors retrospectively studied 201 consecutive patients with BAVMs. All patients had undergone preoperative functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), followed by resection. Both angioarchitectural factors and LED were analyzed with respect to the change between preoperative and final postoperative modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores. LED refers to the distance between the lesion and the nearest eloquent area (eloquent cortex or eloquent fiber tracts) measured on preoperative fMRI and DTI. Based on logistic regression analysis, the authors constructed 3 new grading systems. The HDVL grading system includes the independent predictors of mRS change (hemorrhagic presentation, diffuseness, deep venous drainage, and LED). Full Score combines the variables in the Spetzler-Martin (S-M) grading system (nidus size, eloquence of adjacent brain, and venous drainage) and the HDVL. For the third grading system, the fS-M grading system, the authors added information regarding eloquent fiber tracts to the S-M grading system. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves was compared with those of the S-M grading system and the supplementary S-M grading system of Lawton et al. RESULTS LED was significantly correlated with a change in mRS score (p < 0.001). An LED of 4.95 mm was the cutoff point for the worsened mRS score. Hemorrhagic presentation, diffuseness, deep venous drainage, and LED were independent predictors of a change in mRS score. Predictive accuracy was highest for the HDVL grading system (area under the ROC curve 0.82), followed by the Full Score grading system (0.80), the fS-M grading system (0.79), the supplementary S

  4. Small lesion size measured by colposcopy may predict absence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in a large loop excision of the transformation zone specimen.

    PubMed

    Munmany, M; Marimon, L; Cardona, M; Nonell, R; Juiz, M; Astudillo, R; Ordi, J; Torné, A; Del Pino, M

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate whether colposcopic measurement of the lesion size at diagnosis and/or human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping can predict the absence of dysplasia in a large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) specimen in women treated for squamous intraepithelial lesions/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (SIL/CIN). Prospective observational study. Tertiary university hospital. A cohort of 116 women who underwent LLETZ because of biopsy-proven low-grade SIL/CIN that had persisted for 2 years, or because of a high-grade SIL/CIN diagnosed in the referral visit and squamocolumnar junction completely visible (types 1 or 2, according to the International Federation of Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy, IFCPC). After LLETZ the women were classified by histology into the study group (absence of SIL/CIN in the surgical specimen, 28/116, 24.1%) and the control group (SIL/CIN in the LLETZ specimen, 88/116, 75.9%). The size of the lesion determined in the diagnostic colposcopy and the HPV genotype were evaluated in all women. The lesion size was significantly smaller in the study group (25.7 ± 37.8 versus 84.5 ± 81.7 mm(2) ; P < 0.001). A lesion size of ≤12 mm(2) and HPV types other than 16 or 18 were associated with an absence of SIL/CIN in the LLETZ specimen (P < 0.001 and P = 0.016, respectively). On multivariate analysis only a lesion size of ≤12 mm(2) predicted the absence of SIL/CIN (odds ratio, OR 10.6; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 3.6-30.6; P < 0.001). A lesion size of ≤12 mm(2) had a specificity of 90.9% (95% CI 83.0-95.3%) and a negative predictive value of 86.0% (95% CI 77.5-91.6%) to predict the absence of SIL/CIN in the surgical specimen. Small lesion size in diagnostic colposcopy could predict the absence of SIL/CIN in the LLETZ specimen. Colposcopy measurement of lesion size prior to LLETZ may avoid unnecessary treatment. Small lesion size in colposcopic evaluation might predict the absence of SIL/CIN in an LLETZ specimen. © 2016 Royal

  5. A Review of Instruments Used to Predict Early Breastfeeding Attrition

    PubMed Central

    Lewallen, Lynne Porter

    2006-01-01

    Few women breastfeed for 6 months or longer, and many who stop breastfeeding do so in the early postpartum period. To increase the number of breastfeeding mothers, health-care providers need to identify women at greatest risk for early breastfeeding attrition. This integrative review describes instruments used to assess breastfeeding in the early postpartum period and reports the results of studies using these tools. The instruments are then evaluated for similarities in variables and usefulness for clinical practice. PMID:17322942

  6. Chromosome 11 aneusomy in esophageal cancers and precancerous lesions- an early event in neoplastic transformation: An interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization study from south India

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vasavi; Ponnala, Shivani; Reddy, Hemakumar M; Sistla, Radha; Jesudasan, Rachel A; Ahuja, Yog Raj; Hasan, Qurratulain

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To detect aneusomic changes with respect to chromosome 11 copy number in esophageal precancers and cancers wherein the generation of cancer-specific phenotypes is believed to be associated with specific chromosomal aneuploidies. METHODS: We performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on esophageal tissue paraffin sections to analyze changes in chromosome 11 copy number using apotome-generated images by optical sectioning microscopy. Sections were prepared from esophageal tumor tissue, tissues showing preneoplastic changes and histologically normal tissues (control) obtained from patients referred to the clinic for endoscopic evaluation. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that aneusomy was seen in all the cancers and preneoplastic tissues, while none of the controls showed aneusomic cells. There was no increase in aneusomy from precancers to cancers. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that evaluation of chromosome 11 aneusomy in esophageal tissue using FISH with an appropriate signal capture-analysis system, can be used as an ancillary molecular marker predictive of early neoplastic changes. Future studies can be directed towards the genes on chromosome 11, which may play a role in the neoplastic transformation of esophageal precancerous lesions to cancers. PMID:17278214

  7. Early neurological stability predicts adverse outcome after acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Hannah J; Battey, Thomas Wk; Ostwaldt, Ann-Christin; Campbell, Bruce Cv; Davis, Stephen M; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Sheth, Kevin N; Kimberly, W Taylor

    2016-10-01

    Background Deterioration in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) in the early days after stroke is associated with progressive infarction, brain edema, and/or hemorrhage, leading to worse outcome. Aims We sought to determine whether a stable NIHSS score represents an adverse or favorable course. Methods Brain magnetic resonance images from a research cohort of acute ischemic stroke patients were analyzed. Using NIHSS scores at baseline and follow-up (day 3-5), patients were categorized into early neurological deterioration (ΔNIHSS ≥ 4), early neurological recovery (ΔNIHSS ≤ -4) or early neurological stability (ΔNIHSS between -3 and 3). The association between these categories and volume of infarct growth, volume of swelling, parenchymal hemorrhage, and 3-month modified Rankin Scale score were evaluated. Results Patients with early neurological deterioration or early neurological stability were less likely to be independent (modified Rankin Scale = 0-2) at 3 months compared to those with early neurological recovery ( P < 0.001). Patients with early neurological deterioration or early neurological stability were observed to have significantly greater infarct growth and swelling volumes than those with early neurological recovery ( P = 0.03; P < 0.001, respectively). Brain edema was more common than the other imaging markers investigated and was independently associated with a stable or worsening NIHSS score after adjustment for age, baseline stroke volume, infarct growth volume, presence of parenchymal hemorrhage, and reperfusion ( P < 0.0001). Conclusions Stable NIHSS score in the subacute period after ischemic stroke may not be benign and is associated with tissue injury, including infarct growth and brain edema. Early improvement is considerably more likely to occur in the absence of these factors.

  8. Predicting High School Graduation and College Enrollment: Comparing Early Warning Indicator Data and Teacher Intuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soland, James

    2013-01-01

    Each year, more districts implement early warning systems (EWS). These EWS predict negative student outcomes, such as dropping out, before they occur. Predictions are then used to match at-risk students to appropriate supports and interventions. Research suggests that these systems are useful in ensuring educators respond to student needs early,…

  9. Predicting High School Graduation and College Enrollment: Comparing Early Warning Indicator Data and Teacher Intuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soland, James

    2013-01-01

    Each year, more districts implement early warning systems (EWS). These EWS predict negative student outcomes, such as dropping out, before they occur. Predictions are then used to match at-risk students to appropriate supports and interventions. Research suggests that these systems are useful in ensuring educators respond to student needs early,…

  10. Immunohistochemical cellular distribution of proteins related to M phase regulation in early proliferative lesions induced by tumor promotion in rat two-stage carcinogenesis models.

    PubMed

    Yafune, Atsunori; Taniai, Eriko; Morita, Reiko; Akane, Hirotoshi; Kimura, Masayuki; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported that 28-day treatment with hepatocarcinogens increases liver cells expressing p21(Cip1), a G1/S checkpoint protein, and M phase proteins, i.e., nuclear Cdc2, Aurora B, phosphorylated-Histone H3 (p-Histone H3) and heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α), in rats. To examine the roles of these markers in the early stages of carcinogenesis, we investigated their cellular distribution in several carcinogenic target organs using rat two-stage carcinogenesis models. Promoting agents targeting the liver (piperonyl butoxide and methapyrilene hydrochloride), thyroid (sulfadimethoxine), urinary bladder (phenylethyl isothiocyanate), and forestomach and glandular stomach (catechol) were administered to rats after initiation treatment for the liver with N-diethylnitrosamine, thyroid with N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine, urinary bladder with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine, and forestomach and glandular stomach with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Numbers of cells positive for nuclear Cdc2, Aurora B, p-Histone H3 and HP1α increased within preneoplastic lesions as determined by glutathione S-transferase placental form in the liver or phosphorylated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the thyroid, and hyperplastic lesions having no known preneoplastic markers in the urinary bladder, forestomach and glandular stomach. Immunoreactive cells for p21(Cip1) were decreased within thyroid preneoplastic lesions; however, they were increased within liver preneoplastic lesions and hyperplastic lesions in other organs. These results suggest that M phase disruption commonly occur during the formation of preneoplastic lesions and hyperplastic lesions. Differences in the expression patterns of p21(Cip1) between thyroid preneoplastic and proliferative lesions in other organs may reflect differences in cell cycle regulation involving G1/S checkpoint function between proliferative lesions in each organ.

  11. Value of the ViziLite Plus System as a diagnostic aid in the early detection of oral cancer/premalignant epithelial lesions.

    PubMed

    Mojsa, Izabela; Kaczmarzyk, Tomasz; Zaleska, Malgorzata; Stypulkowska, Jadwiga; Zapala-Pospiech, Agnieszka; Sadecki, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the value of the chemiluminescent light and 1% tolonium chloride as a diagnostic aid in the early detection of oral cancer/premalignant epithelial lesions. Thirty consecutive patients with 41 visually identified oral lesions suggestive of being premalignant underwent chemiluminescence and tolonium chloride examination followed by incisional biopsy with histopathologic evaluation. The biopsies of 34 lesions (82.92%) revealed no dysplasia, 3 lesions (7.32%) revealed mild dysplasia, 3 lesions (7.32%) demonstrated severe dysplasia, and 1 lesion (2.44%) was malignant (squamous cell carcinoma). The chemiluminescent examination improved the brightness (58.54% of the cases), sharpness (56.1% of the cases), texture (60.98% of the cases), and size of the lesion (53.66% of the cases). With references to serious pathologies, 7 cases (100.0%) were brighter, and size was more visualized in 6 cases (85.71%) when using chemiluminescence examination than under incandescent light. Twenty-five (73.53%) of nonserious pathology and 7 (100.0%) of serious pathology (6 dysplasias, 1 squamous cell carcinoma) were positively stained by toluidine blue. Three (8.82%) of nonserious pathology and 0 (0.0%) of serious pathology lesions were identified as true negatives when toluidine blue staining was used. The overall toluidine blue sensitivity and specificity were 81.8% and 37.5%, respectively. Chemiluminescent light demonstrates better visualization (brightness, size) of serious pathology lesions in comparison with conventional clinical oral examination under incandescent light. Toluidine blue demonstrates 100% sensitivity in staining serious pathology. The ViziLite Plus system may help the practitioner to visualize oral pathologies that are not readily detectable with conventional incandescent lighting.

  12. Prediction of Early Recurrence After Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Arsava, E Murat; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Oliveira-Filho, Jamary; Gungor, Levent; Noh, Hyun Jin; Lordelo, Morgana de Jesus; Avery, Ross; Maier, Ilko L; Ay, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    Approximately half of recurrent strokes occur within days and weeks of an ischemic stroke. It is imperative to identify patients at imminent risk of recurrent stroke because recurrent events lead to prolonged hospitalization, worsened functional outcome, and increased mortality. To test the validity of a prognostic score that was exclusively developed to predict early risk of stroke recurrence in a multicenter setting. This hospital-based cohort study examined patients with and without magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed recurrent stroke within 90 days after an ischemic stroke. The study was performed at 3 teaching hospitals in the United States, Brazil, and South Korea and comprised adult patients admitted within 72 hours of symptom onset with a magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke. Recruitment to the US cohort was performed from June 1, 2009, through April 30, 2011. Recruitment to the Korean and Brazilian cohorts was performed from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2011. Data analysis was performed from June 1, 2013, to December 31, 2014. The primary outcome was recurrent ischemic stroke as defined by a clinical incident that was clearly attributable to a new area of brain infarction occurring within the 90 days of index infarction. An investigator who was masked to the patient's recurrence status calculated the Recurrence Risk Estimator (RRE) score for each patient based on information available after initial line of testing in the emergency department. We assessed the predictive performance of the RRE by computing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The study included 1468 consecutive patients with 59 recurrent ischemic stroke events. The median age of the patients was 69 (interquartile range, 58-79) years, and 633 (43.1%) were female. The cumulative 90-day recurrence rate was 4.2% (95% CI, 3.2%-5.2%). The mean RRE score was 2.2 (95% CI, 1.9-2.5) in patients with recurrence and 1.0 (95% CI, 1

  13. Disruption of Smad-dependent signaling for growth of GST-P-positive lesions from the early stage in a rat two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model

    SciTech Connect

    Ichimura, Ryohei; Mizukami, Sayaka; Takahashi, Miwa; Taniai, Eriko; Kemmochi, Sayaka; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2010-08-01

    To clarify the involvement of signaling of transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} during the hepatocarcinogenesis, the immunohistochemical distribution of related molecules was analyzed in relation with liver cell lesions expressing glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) during liver tumor promotion by fenbendazole, phenobarbital, piperonyl butoxide, or thioacetamide, using rats. Our study focused on early-stage promotion (6 weeks after starting promotion) and late-stage promotion (57 weeks after starting promotion). With regard to Smad-dependent signaling, cytoplasmic accumulation of phosphorylated Smad (phospho-Smad)-2/3 - identified as Smad3 by later immunoblot analysis - increased in the subpopulation of GST-P{sup +} foci, while Smad4, a nuclear transporter of Smad2/3, decreased during early-stage promotion. By late-stage promotion, GST-P{sup +} lesions lacking phospho-Smad2/3 had increased in accordance with lesion development from foci to carcinomas, while Smad4 largely disappeared in most proliferative lesions. With regard to Smad-independent mitogen-activated protein kinases, GST-P{sup +} foci that co-expressed phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase increased during early-stage promotion; however, p38-downstream phospho-activating transcriptional factor (ATF)-2, ATF3, and phospho-c-Myc, were inversely downregulated without relation to promotion. By late-stage promotion, proliferative lesions downregulated phospho-ATF2 and phospho-c-Myc along with lesion development, as with downregulation of phospho-p38 in all lesions. These results suggest that from the early stages, carcinogenic processes were facilitated by disruption of tumor suppressor functions of Smad-dependent signaling, while Smad-independent activation of p38 was an early-stage phenomenon. GST-P{sup -} foci induced by promotion with agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} did not change Smad expression, suggesting an aberration in the Smad

  14. Evaluation of the strain identity between isolates from caries lesions and root canals in early childhood caries cases.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Dana; Svec, Pavel; Kukletová, Martina; Záčková, Lenka; Sedláček, Ivo

    2013-11-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) has become a serious medical problem worldwide in the last decade. Bacterial microflora of the dental plaque and oral cavity is considered an important factor in the formation and progression of dental caries. The aim of this study was strain typing and comparison of bacterial isolates retrieved from caries lesions and root canal contents of the same teeth. In total, 18 pairs of presumptive streptococci and lactobacilli retrieved from dental caries and root canals isolated from ECC-affected children, were selected on the basis of biotyping results and rep-PCR fingerprinting with (GTG)5 primer. Strain typing was further done using the RiboPrinter microbial characterization system (DuPont Qualicon). The automated ribotyping determined 14 pairs of the strains (77.8 %) to be identical. The results obtained confirmed that identical bacterial strains colonized both the decayed dental surface and the necrotic content of the dental pulp cavity during the cariogenesis. Our finding supports the assumption that bacteria could penetrate through the damaged dental surface to the inner parts of the teeth.

  15. Early Marriage as a Career Contingency: The Prediction of Educational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, George D.; Witt, David D.

    1984-01-01

    Proposed a new definition of early marriage, tested against age at first marriage for ability to predict educational attainment. Using a national probability sample (N=5,601), the index of early marriage was found to be the superior measure. Generally reduced educational attainment was a consequence of early marriage. (JAC)

  16. DNA Copy Number Signature to Predict Recurrence in Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0194 TITLE: DNA Copy Number Signature to Predict Recurrence in Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER DNA Copy Number Signature to Predict Recurrence in Early Stage Ovarian Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0194 5c...tasks Major Task 1: Obtain DNA samples from consortium specimens • Subtask 1 Pathological review of 592 early-stage high-grade ovarian cancer specimens

  17. Bone marrow lesions predict site-specific cartilage defect development and volume loss: a prospective study in older adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Recent evidence suggests that bone marrow lesions (BMLs) play a pivotal role in knee osteoarthritis (OA). The aims of this study were to determine: 1) whether baseline BML presence and/or severity predict site-specific cartilage defect progression and cartilage volume loss; and 2) whether baseline cartilage defects predict site-specific BML progression. Methods A total of 405 subjects (mean age 63 years, range 52 to 79) were measured at baseline and approximately 2.7 years later. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the right knee was performed to measure knee cartilage volume, cartilage defects (0 to 4), and BMLs (0 to 3) at the medial tibial (MT), medial femoral (MF), lateral tibial (LT), and lateral femoral (LF) sites. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations were used to examine the relationship between BMLs and cartilage defects and cartilage volume loss. Results At all four sites, baseline BML presence predicted defect progression (odds ratio (OR) 2.4 to 6.4, all P < 0.05), and cartilage volume loss (-0.9 to -2.9% difference per annum, all P < 0.05) at the same site. In multivariable analysis, there was a significant relationship between BML severity and defect progression at all four sites (OR 1.8 to 3.2, all P < 0.05) and BML severity and cartilage volume loss at the MF, LT, and LF sites (β -22.1 to -42.0, all P < 0.05). Additionally, baseline defect severity predicted BML progression at the MT and LF sites (OR 3.3 to 3.7, all P < 0.01). Lastly, there was a greater increase in cartilage volume loss at the MT and LT sites when both larger defects and BMLs were present at baseline (all P < 0.05). Conclusions Baseline BMLs predicted site-specific defect progression and cartilage volume loss in a dose-response manner suggesting BMLs may have a local effect on cartilage homeostasis. Baseline defects predicted site-specific BML progression, which may represent increased bone loading adjacent to defects. These results suggest BMLs and

  18. Comparison of spatula and cytobrush cytological techniques in early detection of oral malignant and premalignant lesions: a prospective and blinded study.

    PubMed

    Nanayakkara, P G C L; Dissanayaka, W L; Nanayakkara, B G; Amaratunga, E A P D; Tilakaratne, W M

    2016-04-01

    The use of oral cytology to diagnose malignant and premalignant lesions at an early stage is considered crucial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnoses of the spatula and the cytobrush techniques compared with the gold standard histopathological findings, analysed according to different diagnostic criteria. Cytological smears were obtained from 76 suspicious oral malignant lesions and 116 oral leukoplakia lesions using two techniques: cytobrush plus cell collector and metal spatula. Subsequently, a surgical biopsy was performed on each lesion to achieve a histopathological diagnosis. Evaluation was conducted with respect to three different diagnostic criteria. The sensitivity for diagnosing carcinoma in clinically malignant cases was 89.58% and 60.42% for cytobrush and spatula techniques, respectively. Inclusion of severe dysplastic cases for 'high-risk' lesions increased the sensitivity up to 96.36% and 78.18% for two techniques, respectively. In leukoplakia lesions, malignant and severely dysplastic cells were diagnosed at a sensitivity of 88.89% in the cytobrush and 55.56% in the spatula techniques. Extending the criteria by defining malignant or any dysplastic findings as positive, sensitivity was increased to 98.02% and 89.11% for the spatula and the cytobrush techniques, respectively. Specificity for both techniques increased to 100%. The difference between the diagnoses of histopathology and the spatula cytology was statistically significant (P < 0.01), while no such difference was found with the cytobrush technique (P > 0.1). The cytobrush, unlike the spatula, is a useful screening instrument for early diagnosis of suspicious oral lesions and could therefore contribute to improved oral cancer prognosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. SIV Encephalitis Lesions Are Composed of CD163+ Macrophages Present in the Central Nervous System during Early SIV Infection and SIV-Positive Macrophages Recruited Terminally with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Nowlin, Brian T.; Burdo, Tricia H.; Midkiff, Cecily C.; Salemi, Marco; Alvarez, Xavier; Williams, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage recruitment to the central nervous system (CNS) during AIDS pathogenesis is poorly understood. We measured the accumulation of brain perivascular (CD163+) and inflammatory (MAC387+) macrophages in SIV-infected monkeys. Monocyte progenitors were 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeled in bone marrow, and CNS macrophages were labeled serially with fluorescent dextrans injected into the cisterna magna. MAC387+ macrophages accumulated in the meninges and choroid plexus in early inflammation and in the perivascular space and SIV encephalitis (SIVE) lesions late. CD163+ macrophages accumulated in the perivascular space and SIVE lesions with late inflammation. Most of the BrdU+ cells were MAC387+; however, CD163+BrdU+ macrophages were present in the meninges and choroid plexus with AIDS. Most (81.6% ± 1.8%) of macrophages in SIVE lesions were present in the CNS before SIVE lesion formation. There was a 2.9-fold increase in SIVp28+ macrophages entering the CNS late compared with those entering early (P < 0.05). The rate of CD163+ macrophage recruitment to the CNS inversely correlated with time to death (P < 0.03) and increased with SIVE. In SIVE animals, soluble CD163 correlated with CD163+ macrophage recruitment (P = 0.02). Most perivascular macrophages that comprise SIVE lesions and multinucleated giant cells are present in the CNS early, before SIVE lesions are formed. Most SIV-infected macrophages traffic to the CNS terminally with AIDS. PMID:25963554

  20. The value of ST-segment elevation in lead aVR for predicting left main coronary artery lesion in patients suspected of acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nough, H; Jorat, M V; Varasteravan, H R; Ahmadieh, M H; Tavakkolian, N; Sheikhvatan, M

    2012-01-01

    The use of lead aVR for predicting appearance of left main coronary artery (LMCA) lesion has been recently a subject of great interest. This study evaluates the predictive value of ST-segment elevation in lead aVR on electrocardiogram in the diagnosis of significant LMCA lesions. The study population consisted of 400 consecutive patients admitted within 6 hours from the onset of typical chest pain to coronary care unit (CCU). Electrocardiogram was recorded after the admission to emergency ward. ST segment elevation in aVR lead was measured and coronary angiography was performed within 48 hours admission to CCU. Overall, 31% of suspected patients had ST segment elevation in aVR lead that elevation more than 0.1 mv was observed in 34.7% of all subjects. High incidence of ST segment elevation > 0.1 mv was seen in the group with left main lesion so that 40.7% of men and 43.8% of women with (LMCA) lesion had ST segment elevation > 0.1 mv. There was a significant relationship between the incidence of ST segment elevation > 0.1 mv and the number of diseased coronary vessels in men. However, this relation was not observed in women. Different risk profile of ACS did not influence the incidence of the ST-segment elevation in aVR lead. Compared with coronary angiography, ST-segment elevation in lead aVR in ECG had a sensitivity of 62.7%, a specificity of 73.6%, a positive predictive value of 25.8%, and a negative predictive value of 93.1% in predicting LMCA disease. ST-elevation of lead aVR is a valuable indicator for predicting LMCA lesion with acceptable accuracy and predictive value.

  1. Segmentation, Not Rhyming, Predicts Early Progress in Learning to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muter, Valerie; Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret; Taylor, Sara

    1998-01-01

    Examined phonological skills of children during their first two years of learning to read. Found that segmentation was strongly correlated with reading and spelling attainment at the end of the first year of school; letter-name knowledge predicted reading and spelling skill and interacted with segmentation skills. Rhyming predicted spelling skills…

  2. Predictive model for early math skills based on structural equations.

    PubMed

    Aragón, Estíbaliz; Navarro, José I; Aguilar, Manuel; Cerda, Gamal; García-Sedeño, Manuel

    2016-12-01

    Early math skills are determined by higher cognitive processes that are particularly important for acquiring and developing skills during a child's early education. Such processes could be a critical target for identifying students at risk for math learning difficulties. Few studies have considered the use of a structural equation method to rationalize these relations. Participating in this study were 207 preschool students ages 59 to 72 months, 108 boys and 99 girls. Performance with respect to early math skills, early literacy, general intelligence, working memory, and short-term memory was assessed. A structural equation model explaining 64.3% of the variance in early math skills was applied. Early literacy exhibited the highest statistical significance (β = 0.443, p < 0.05), followed by intelligence (β = 0.286, p < 0.05), working memory (β = 0.220, p < 0.05), and short-term memory (β = 0.213, p < 0.05). Correlations between the independent variables were also significant (p < 0.05). According to the results, cognitive variables should be included in remedial intervention programs. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Value of Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) Endoscopy in the Early Diagnosis of Laryngeal Cancer and Precancerous Lesions

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-07

    Chronic Inflammation of Hypopharynx; Hoarseness; Macroscopic Laryngeal Lesions; Histological Confirmation of Dysplasia; Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Carcinoma of Larynx; Invasive Carcinoma of Hypo Pharynx; Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

  4. Needle electromyography at 1 month predicts paralysis of elbow flexion at 3 months in obstetric brachial plexus lesions.

    PubMed

    Van Dijk, J Gert; Pondaag, Willem; Buitenhuis, Sonja M; Van Zwet, Erik W; Malessy, Martijn J A

    2012-08-01

    Treatment decisions in obstetric brachial plexus lesions are often based on clinical paralysis of elbow flexion at 3 months of age, when electromyography (EMG) is misleading because motor unit potentials (MUPs) occur in clinically paralytic muscles. We investigated whether EMG at 1 week or 1 month identifies infants with flexion paralysis at 3 months, allowing early referral. Forty-eight infants (27 females, 21 males) were prospectively studied. The presence or absence of flexion paralysis at around 1 week (median 9 d; range 5-17d), 1 month (median 31 d; range 24-53 d), and 3 months of age (median 87 d; range 77-106 d) was noted for clinical (shoulder external rotation, elbow flexion, extension, and supination) and EMG parameters (denervation activity, MUPs and polyphasic MUPs in the deltoid, biceps, and triceps muscles). At 1 month, the absence of biceps MUPs had a sensitivity of 95% for later flexion paralysis, and absence of deltoid MUPs had a sensitivity of 100% for flexion paralysis; the false-positive rates for the same findings were 21% and 33% respectively. EMG at 3 months was highly misleading as MUPs were seen in 19 of 20 clinically paralytic biceps muscles. EMG at 1 month can identify severe cases of flexion paralysis for early referral EMG of the biceps at 3 months is highly misleading; the discrepancy between the EMG and clinical testing may be due to abnormal axonal branching and aberrant central motor control. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  5. Does T wave inversion in lead aVL predict mid-segment left anterior descending lesions in acute coronary syndrome? A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Nobuto; Goto, Tadahiro; Ikeda, Tomoya; Kasai, Atsunobu

    2016-02-01

    Limited data are available regarding the predictive value of electrocardiographic T wave inversion in lead aVL for mid-segment left anterior descending (MLAD) lesions among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Retrospective single-centre study, using a prospectively-collected coronary angiography database from January 2012 to December 2013. We included consecutive adult patients with ACS who underwent urgent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within 24 h after arriving at the hospital. We excluded patients who did not undergo an ECG before PCI, patients with proximal MLAD occlusion and patients diagnosed with vasospastic angina. The primary outcome was MLAD lesion >50%. The other outcome of interest was MLAD lesion as a cause of ACS. First, we evaluated the diagnostic values of T wave inversion in lead aVL regardless of other T wave changes for each outcome. Second, we evaluated the diagnostic values of isolated T wave inversion in lead aVL. Overall, 219 patients were eligible for the analysis. T wave inversion in lead aVL regardless of other T wave changes had a sensitivity of 32.9%, specificity of 48.2%, positive predictive value of 27.6% and negative predictive value of 54.5% for predicting MLAD lesions. Isolated T wave inversion in lead aVL had a sensitivity of 9.8%, specificity of 86.9%, positive predictive value of 30.8% and negative predictive value of 61.7% for predicting MLAD lesions. These diagnostic values did not change materially when focusing on patients with MLAD lesion as the cause. While T wave inversion in lead aVL regardless of other T wave changes had low diagnostic values for predicting MLAD lesions, isolated T wave inversion in lead aVL had a high specificity. Our inferences underscore the importance of a cautious interpretation of T wave inversion in lead aVL among patients with ACS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Efficacy of sealing proximal early active lesions: an 18-month clinical study evaluated by conventional and subtraction radiography.

    PubMed

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Ellwood, R

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of sealing proximal lesions on adult patients using a split-mouth design. Eighty-two 15- to 39-year-olds from the Dental Faculties in Copenhagen and Bogotá participated, each having 2 or more proximal lesions in the following radiographic stages: (1) lesion restricted to the outer half of enamel; (2) lesion from the inner half of enamel including the enamel dentine junction, and (3) lesion restricted to the outer third of dentine. Standardized geometrically aligned baseline and follow-up radiographs were obtained. One randomly selected lesion (test) in each patient was sealed with 1 of 2 resins. The patients were instructed to floss all the proximal lesions 3 times per week. The baseline to 18 months difference in caries lesion progression status was assessed using 3 methods: (1) radiographs were independently assessed visually; (2) radiographs were read in pairs, and (3) using subtraction radiography of digitized images. A total of 72 subjects finished the study (12.2% dropout). The compliance concerning flossing was poor (15%). For the repeated examinations kappa was 0.84 for the visual examination, 0.44 for the paired readings and 0.84 for the subtraction examination. Two test lesions and 1 control lesion were restored. For the independent radiograph assessment method 10 and 26% progressed in the test and control group, respectively (p > 0.05); with the paired radiograph method the corresponding data were 22% in the test and 47% in the control groups (p < 0.01). By subtraction radiography 44% of the test group and 84% of the control were judged to have progressed (p < 0.001). The sealing technique was superior to instructing patients to floss, and subtraction radiography appeared to be the most sensitive method for assessing lesion progression. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Application of array backprojection to tsunami prediction and early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Chao; Meng, Lingsen

    2016-04-01

    Teleseismic and static geodetic data have weak constraints on the offshore slip while tsunami data are limited by their availability, so predictions of tsunami waves in the near-field remain challenging. In this study, we develop a near-field tsunami prediction approach based on seismic array backprojections (BP). In this approach, the rupture area is first estimated by enclosing the BP radiators. Then slip models with uniform slip are constructed based on statistical scaling relations between rupture area and seismic moment to predict the near-field tsunami waveforms. The method is applied to the 2011 Tohoku, 2014 Iquique, and 2015 Illapel tsunami events, and the model predictions are compared with tsunami recordings at 57 tidal gauges and nine DART stations. Results show that the average error of arrival time and amplitude nearshore is approximately -15 to +5 min and 0.5 m, respectively, which are sufficiently small for tsunami warning purposes.

  8. Maternal estriol concentrations in early gestation predict infant telomere length.

    PubMed

    Entringer, Sonja; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Buss, Claudia; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Wadhwa, Pathik D

    2015-01-01

    Telomere biology plays a fundamental role in genomic integrity, cellular regeneration, physiology, aging, disease risk, and mortality. The initial setting of telomere length (TL) in early life has important implications for telomere maintenance and related disorders throughout the life span. However, little is known about the predictors of this initial setting. Given the established role of estrogen on adult TL and the role of estriol (E3) in the context of fetal development, the goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that higher maternal E3 concentration during early pregnancy is associated with longer infant telomere length. Study participants comprised a cohort of N = 100 infants followed prospectively from intrauterine life and birth through early childhood from a population-based, representative sample of pregnant mothers recruited in early pregnancy at university-based obstetric clinics in Southern California. Maternal unconjugated E3 concentrations were assessed in plasma in early gestation (around wk 15). Infant TL was assessed in buccal cells at approximately 15 months of age. After accounting for the effects of potential confounding maternal and infant variables, there was a significant, independent effect of maternal E3 concentration on infant TL (unstandardized β = 0.297; P = .001; 95% Cl, 0.121-0.473). Specifically, a one-multiple-of-the-median (MoM) increase in maternal E3 concentration during early pregnancy was associated with a 14.42% increase in infant TL. This study supports the concept of developmental plasticity of the telomere biology system and highlights specifically the role of a potentially modifiable intrauterine factor for additional mechanistic and clinical investigation.

  9. Early skin toxicity predicts better outcomes, and early tumor shrinkage predicts better response after cetuximab treatment in advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kogawa, T; Doi, A; Shimokawa, M; Fouad, T M; Osuga, T; Tamura, F; Mizushima, T; Kimura, T; Abe, S; Ihara, H; Kukitsu, T; Sumiyoshi, T; Yoshizaki, N; Hirayama, M; Sasaki, T; Kawarada, Y; Kitashiro, S; Okushiba, S; Kondo, H; Tsuji, Y

    2015-03-01

    Cetuximab-containing treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer have been shown to have higher overall response rates and longer progression-free and overall survival than other systemic therapies. Cetuximab-related manifestations, including severe skin toxicity and early tumor shrinkage, have been shown to be predictors of response to cetuximab. We hypothesized that early skin toxicity is a predictor of response and better outcomes in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. We retrospectively evaluated 62 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma who had unresectable tumors and were treated with cetuximab in our institution. Skin toxicity grade was evaluated on each treatment day. Tumor size was evaluated using computed tomography prior to treatment and 4-8 weeks after the start of treatment with cetuximab.Patients with early tumor shrinkage after starting treatment with cetuximab had a significantly higher overall response rate (P = 0.0001). Patients with early skin toxicity showed significantly longer overall survival (P = 0.0305), and patients with higher skin toxicity grades had longer progression-free survival (P = 0.0168).We have shown that early tumor shrinkage, early onset of skin toxicity, and high skin toxicity grade are predictors of treatment efficacy and/or outcome in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma treated with cetuximab.

  10. Complex porcine model of atherosclerosis: induction of early coronary lesions after long-term hyperlipidemia without sustained hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Artinger, Sandra; Deiner, Carolin; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Schwimmbeck, Peter L; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Pels, Klaus

    2009-04-01

    The incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) is still increasing in industrialized countries and it is even higher in diabetic patients. For experimental studies investigating the pathophysiology of CAD, the use of an animal model comparable with the pathological situation in patients is crucial. To develop a model of advanced coronary atherosclerosis with induction of hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in domestic pigs. Six pigs were fed a standard pig chow (controls), two were fed a 2% cholesterol and 17% coconut fat diet (Chol group), and two pigs received a 4% cholesterol and 17% coconut fat diet combined with streptozotocin (STZ) injections to induce diabetes (High Chol+STZ group). Serum lipid and plasma glucose values were analyzed, and histochemical staining for morphometric analysis and immunohistochemistry were performed. Pigs on the hyperlipidemic diet had elevated mean (+/- SD) serum lipid levels (total cholesterol 5.05+/-1.45 mmol/L [Chol] and 5.03+/-2.41 mmol/L [High Chol+STZ] versus 2.09+/-0.23 mmol/L [controls]). Histopathological evaluation revealed an initial stage of coronary atherosclerosis. None of the STZ-treated pigs showed a sustained elevation of plasma glucose (mean glucose before STZ injection was 5.11+/-0.94 mmol/L and thereafter was 6.03+/-2.39 mmol/L) or a decline in pancreatic beta cells. The current data suggest that the domestic porcine model is not suitable to create severe CAD using an atherogenic diet in combination with STZ injections for experimental interventional vascular research. This may be due to different STZ sensitivities among species. However, hyperlipidemia induced early pathological lesions in coronary arteries resembling initial stages of atherosclerosis without severe luminal narrowing.

  11. Association between the number of early carious lesions and diet in children with a high prevalence of caries.

    PubMed

    Llena, C; Leyda, A; Forner, L; Garcet, S

    2015-03-01

    An investigation was conducted in a population of paediatric patients with a high risk of caries in order to assess the association between caries history (CH) and the number of early carious lesions (ECLs) and the frequency and timing of cariogenic food and beverage intake, sugar-containing medication, the frequency and efficacy of tooth brushing, and the use of topical fluorides. Study design: descriptive study. One hundred children aged 6-15 years with≥ ECL of a permanent tooth and not enrolled in any dental health educational or preventive programme were selected. For diagnosis it was used an explorer according to the ICDAS II criteria. The participants completed a closed-list questionnaire on the frequency and timing of cariogenic food intake. There was a nonsignificant tendency to present more ECLs and a greater CH among patients who consumed cariogenic foods and beverages. A significant relationship (p<0.05) was observed between cariogenic beverages and the number of ECL or CH. Using the number of ECLs as dependent variable, regular fluoridated rinses (p=0.003), frequent sugar-containing medication (p=0.007), and cariogenic beverage consumption (p=0.024) were identified as explanatory parameters in the linear regression model. The Student t-test was used to compare ECL and CH with dietetic factors, fluoridated rinses, sugar- containing medicines, and the frequency and efficacy of tooth brushing. Linear regression analysis correlated the number of ECLs to the mentioned explanatory variables. The frequent consumption of sugary beverages and medications, and failure to regularly use fluoridated rinses, were positively correlated to an increased number of ECLs in patients with a high prevalence of caries.

  12. Predicting the Risk of New Cerebral Lesions After Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) for Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dziggel, Liesa; Dahlke, Markus; Janssen, Stefan; Hornung, Dagmar; Blanck, Oliver; Khoa, Mai Trong; Schild, Steven E; Rades, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    To generate a tool that estimates the probability of developing new cerebral metastases after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in breast cancer patients. SRS dose plus seven characteristics (age, performance score, number of cerebral metastases, maximum diameter of all metastases, location of metastases, extra-cerebral spread and time from breast cancer diagnosis until SRS) were analyzed regarding their ability to predict the probability of new cerebral metastases development following SRS. For those characteristics deemed significant, points of 0 (higher risk of new lesions) or 1 (lower risk) were given. Scores were generated by adding the points of significant characteristics. Performance score (p=0.013) and maximum diameter of all metastases (p=0.022) were associated with development of subsequent brain metastases. Two groups were created, 0-1 and 2 points. Freedom from new cerebral metastases rates were 27% and 92%, respectively, at 15 months (p=0.003). This tool helps select breast cancer with few cerebral metastases receiving SRS who may benefit from additional whole-brain irradiation. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. Mothers' Prenatal Activities Predict Adjustment to Pregnancy and Early Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Ronalda; Turner, Nita

    This study examined the activities of pregnant women and how these activities facilitated a positive adjustment to pregnancy and early parenting. Subjects were 49 expectant first-time mothers ranging in age from 20 to 41 and attending a childhood preparation class. Eighty-two percent of the women were married. Subjects completed two questionnaires…

  14. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  15. Predicting Reading Disability: Early Cognitive Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eklund, Kenneth Mikael; Torppa, Minna; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined early cognitive risk and protective factors for Grade 2 reading disability (RD). We first examined the reading outcome of 198 children in four developmental cognitive subgroups that were identified in our previous analysis: dysfluent trajectory, declining trajectory, unexpected trajectory and typical trajectory. We…

  16. Frequent Daytime Naps Predict Vocabulary Growth in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horváth, Klára; Plunkett, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The facilitating role of sleep for language learning is well-attested in adults and to a lesser extent in infants and toddlers. However, the longitudinal relationship between sleep patterns and early vocabulary development is not well understood. Methods: This study investigates how measures of sleep are related to the development of…

  17. Frequent Daytime Naps Predict Vocabulary Growth in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horváth, Klára; Plunkett, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The facilitating role of sleep for language learning is well-attested in adults and to a lesser extent in infants and toddlers. However, the longitudinal relationship between sleep patterns and early vocabulary development is not well understood. Methods: This study investigates how measures of sleep are related to the development of…

  18. Predicting Reading Disability: Early Cognitive Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eklund, Kenneth Mikael; Torppa, Minna; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined early cognitive risk and protective factors for Grade 2 reading disability (RD). We first examined the reading outcome of 198 children in four developmental cognitive subgroups that were identified in our previous analysis: dysfluent trajectory, declining trajectory, unexpected trajectory and typical trajectory. We…

  19. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  20. Elevated tibiofemoral articular contact stress predicts risk for bone marrow lesions and cartilage damage at 30 months

    PubMed Central

    Segal, NA; Kern, A; Anderson, DD; Niu, J; Lynch, J; Guermazi, A; Torner, JC; Brown, TD; Nevitt, M

    2012-01-01

    Objective As cartilage loss and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) are associated with knee joint pain and structural worsening, this study assessed whether non-invasive estimates of articular contact stress may longitudinally predict risk for worsening of knee cartilage morphology and BMLs. Design This was a longitudinal cohort study of adults aged 50-79 years with risk factors for knee osteoarthritis. Baseline and follow-up measures included WORMS classification of knee cartilage morphology and BMLs. Tibiofemoral geometry was manually segmented on baseline MRI, and 3D tibiofemoral point clouds were registered into subject-specific loaded apposition using fixed-flexion knee radiographs. Discrete element analysis (DEA) was used to estimate mean and peak contact stresses for the medial and lateral compartments. The association of baseline contact stress with worsening cartilage and BMLs in the same sub-region over 30 months was assessed using conditional logistic regression. Results Subjects (N=38, 60.5% female) had a mean±SD age and BMI of 63.5±8.4 years and 30.5±3.7 kg/m2 respectively. Elevated mean articular contact stress at baseline was associated with worsening cartilage morphology and worsening BMLs by 30-months, with OR (95%CI) of 4.0 (2.5, 6.4) and 6.6 (2.7, 16.5) respectively. Peak contact stress also was significantly associated with worsening cartilage morphology and BMLs {1.9 (1.5, 2.3) and 2.3 (1.5, 3.6)}(all p<0.0001). Conclusions Detection of higher contact stress 30 months prior to structural worsening suggests an etiological role for mechanical loading. Estimation of articular contact stress with DEA is an efficient and accurate means of predicting sub-region-specific knee joint worsening and may be useful in guiding prognosis and treatment. PMID:22698440

  1. Early neurological stability predicts adverse outcome after acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Hannah J.; Battey, Thomas W.K.; Ostwaldt, Ann-Christin; Campbell, Bruce C.V.; Davis, Stephen M.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Sheth, Kevin N.; Kimberly, W. Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Background Deterioration in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) in the early days after stroke is associated with progressive infarction, brain edema and/or hemorrhage, leading to worse outcome. Aims We sought to determine whether a stable NIHSS score represents an adverse or favorable course. Methods Brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) from a research cohort of acute ischemic stroke patients were analyzed. Using NIHSS scores at baseline and follow-up (day 3-5), patients were categorized into early neurological deterioration (END, ΔNIHSS ≥4), early neurological recovery (ENR, ΔNIHSS, ≥−4) or early neurological stability (ENS, ΔNIHSS between −3 and 3). The association between these categories and the volume of infarct growth, volume of swelling, parenchymal hematoma (PH) and 3 month modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score were evaluated. Results Patients with END or ENS were less likely to be independent (mRS 0-2) at 3 months compared to those with ENR (P<0.001). Patients with END or ENS were observed to have significantly greater infarct growth and swelling volumes than those with ENR (P=0.03; P<0.001, respectively). Brain edema was more common than the other imaging markers investigated and was independently associated with a stable or worsening NIHSS score after adjustment for age, baseline stroke volume, infarct growth volume, presence of PH, and reperfusion (P<0.0001). Conclusions Stable NIHSS score in the subacute period after ischemic stroke may not be benign, and is associated with tissue injury including infarct growth and brain edema. Early improvement is considerably more likely to occur in the absence of these factors. PMID:27334760

  2. Is aortic atherothrombotic disease detected using multidetector-row CT associated with an increased risk of early ischemic lesion recurrence after acute ischemic stroke?

    PubMed

    Ko, Youngchai; Kim, Wook-Joo; Jang, Myung Suk; Yang, Mi Hwa; Park, Jung Hyun; Choi, Sang Il; Chun, Eun Ju; Lee, Soo Joo; Han, Moon-Ku; Bae, Hee-Joon

    2012-03-01

    Multidetector-row CT (MDCT) is emerging as a new tool for diagnosing aortic atherothrombotic disease (AAD). We elucidated whether MDCT-detected AAD is associated with an increased risk of early ischemic lesion recurrence on diffusion-weighted MRI after ischemic stroke. A consecutive series of patients with acute ischemic stroke confirmed using diffusion-weighted MRI who were hospitalized within 48 hours after symptom onset and underwent MDCT were identified in a prospective stroke registry database. AAD on MDCT was defined as the presence of plaque formation that was noncalcified and ≥4 mm thick, ulcerative, or soft and thrombosed (vulnerable) in the proximal aortic arch. Ischemic lesion recurrence on diffusion-weighted MRI was defined as the occurrence of any new lesion separate from the index lesion on follow-up diffusion-weighted MRI performed within 14 days after symptom onset. A total of 138 patients was selected. MDCT detected AAD in 24 of 138 (17.4%); ≥4 mm thickness in 17 of 138 (12.3%); ulcerated plaque in 20 of 138 (14.5%); and vulnerable plaque in 16 of 138 (11.6%). With respect to diffusion-weighted MRI lesion recurrence, the crude ORs (95% CIs) were as follows: AAD, 3.56 (1.43-8.89); vulnerable plaque, 3.21 (1.11-9.30); ulcerated plaque, 3.37 (1.27-8.95); and ≥4 mm thickness of the noncalcified plaque, 4.23 (1.11-16.19). These results remained significant after adjustments for potential confounders were made. This study shows that AAD detected by MDCT increases the risk of early ischemic lesion recurrence after acute ischemic stroke, thus supporting the role of MDCT in diagnosing AAD and assessing its contribution to recurrence.

  3. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch early cancer lesions: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Liu, Kuang-Ting; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent cancer disease in recent years in Taiwan. The reason is the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people results in oral cancer becomes the fastest growth incident cancer amongst other major cancer diseases. In previous studies showed that photosan, haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), has demonstrated effective PDT results on human head and neck disease studies. To avoid the systemic phototoxic effect of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when photosan reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan gel. We found that photosan reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical photosan-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 600 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 200 J/cm2) using the portable Lumacare 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that topical photosan-mediated PDT was an applicable treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions.

  4. The mouse atherosclerosis locus at chromosome 10 (Ath11) acts early in lesion formation with subcongenic strains delineating two narrowed regions

    PubMed Central

    Wolfrum, Susanne; Rodríguez, José M.; Tan, Marietta; Chen, Kwan Y.; Teupser, Daniel; Breslow, Jan L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Ath11, an atherosclerosis susceptibility locus on proximal chromosome 10 (0–21cM) revealed in a cross between apolipoprotein E deficient C57BL/6 (B6) and FVB mice, was recently confirmed in congenic mice. The objectives of this study were to assess how Ath11 affects lesion development and morphology, to determine aortic gene expression in congenics, and to narrow the congenic interval. Methods and Results Assessing lesion area over time in congenic mice showed that homozygosity for the FVB allele increased lesion area at 6 weeks persisting through to 24 weeks of age. Staining of aortic root sections at 16 weeks did not reveal obvious differences between congenics. Aortic expression-array analysis at 6 weeks revealed 97 >2 fold regulated genes, including one gene in the QTL interval, Aldh8a1, and two gene clusters regulated by Hnf4α and Esr1. Analysis of lesion area in 11 subcongenic strains revealed two narrowed regions, 10a (21 genes) acting in females and 10b (7 genes) acting in both genders. Conclusions Ath11 appears to act early in lesion formation with significant effects on aortic gene expression. This QTL is genetically complex containing a female specific region 10a from 0 to 7.3 Mb, and a gender independent region 10b from 20.1 to 21.9 Mb. PMID:20466976

  5. Machine Learning Techniques for Prediction of Early Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Dugan, T M; Mukhopadhyay, S; Carroll, A; Downs, S

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to predict childhood obesity after age two, using only data collected prior to the second birthday by a clinical decision support system called CHICA. Analyses of six different machine learning methods: RandomTree, RandomForest, J48, ID3, Naïve Bayes, and Bayes trained on CHICA data show that an accurate, sensitive model can be created. Of the methods analyzed, the ID3 model trained on the CHICA dataset proved the best overall performance with accuracy of 85% and sensitivity of 89%. Additionally, the ID3 model had a positive predictive value of 84% and a negative predictive value of 88%. The structure of the tree also gives insight into the strongest predictors of future obesity in children. Many of the strongest predictors seen in the ID3 modeling of the CHICA dataset have been independently validated in the literature as correlated with obesity, thereby supporting the validity of the model. This study demonstrated that data from a production clinical decision support system can be used to build an accurate machine learning model to predict obesity in children after age two.

  6. Predicting reading disability: early cognitive risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Kenneth Mikael; Torppa, Minna; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2013-02-01

    This longitudinal study examined early cognitive risk and protective factors for Grade 2 reading disability (RD). We first examined the reading outcome of 198 children in four developmental cognitive subgroups that were identified in our previous analysis: dysfluent trajectory, declining trajectory, unexpected trajectory and typical trajectory. We found that RD was unevenly distributed among the subgroups, although children with RD were found in all subgroups. A majority of the children with RD had familial risk for dyslexia. Second, we examined in what respect children with similar early cognitive development but different RD outcome differ from each other in cognitive skills, task-focused behaviour and print exposure. The comparison of the groups with high cognitive risk but different RD outcome showed significant differences in phonological skills, in the amount of shared reading and in task-focused behaviour. Children who ended up with RD despite low early cognitive risk had poorer cognitive skills, more task avoidance and they were reading less than children without RD and low cognitive risk. In summary, lack of task avoidance seemed to act as a protective factor, which underlines the importance of keeping children interested in school work and reading.

  7. Atypical early histories predict lower extraversion in captive chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Hani D; Weiss, Alexander; Ross, Stephen R

    2016-05-01

    Although much research has been conducted to understand personality development in humans, there remain substantial gaps in our understanding of these processes, particularly in relation to social influences. As such, investigations into personality development in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, may provide useful insight. We evaluated the impact of early social exposure (to both humans and conspecifics) on personality development by studying 88 chimpanzees, including former pets and entertainers, living in accredited zoos and sanctuaries. During infancy, subjects varied in the amount of time spent with conspecifics compared with humans. Caregivers familiar with the chimpanzees rated them using a modified version of the Hominoid Personality Questionnaire (HPQ) and the ratings were found to have strong inter-rater reliability. We used the published structure of the HPQ to evaluate our results in relation to differences in early life experience. Chimpanzees who as infants spent less time with conspecifics were rated as lower in Extraversion later in life in comparison with chimpanzees who as infants spent more time with conspecifics. These results suggest that a broad range of social influences should be considered when evaluating the impact of early social environment on later personality expression.

  8. Early diagnosis and outcome prediction of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with color Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Guan, B; Dai, C; Zhang, Y; Zhu, L; He, X; Wang, N; Liu, H

    2017-06-01

    To describe the ultrasound presentation of the brain and cerebral hemodynamics in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) by comparison with control subjects. During June 2012 to April 2013, full term neonates who had clinical evidence of HIE were enrolled. Healthy newborns without HIE were used as a control group. Cerebral parenchyma, size of lateral ventricles and hemodynamic parameters of cerebral arteries were studied using two-dimensional duplex and color Doppler ultrasound. Neonates with moderate and severe HIE were followed-up with ultrasound for at least 3 months. A total of 158 consecutive neonates (82 boys and 76 girls), including 54 with mild HIE, 60 with moderate HIE and 44 with severe HIE were included. One hundred and twenty healthy newborns were randomly selected as a control group. Abnormal ultrasound findings of brain parenchyma were found in 25/54 (46.3%) neonates with mild HIE whereas they were found in 58/60 (96.7%) neonates with moderate HIE and 44/44 (100%) neonates with severe HIE. Almost all neonates with severe HIE had decreased cerebral artery blood flow velocity and increased resistance index of cerebral arteries. Of the 104 neonates with moderate or severe HIE, follow-up ultrasound examination revealed cystic parenchymal lesions in 12/104 (11.5%), progressive ventricular dilatation and brain atrophy in 12/104 (11.5%), mild ventricular dilatation in 15/104 (14.4%) and leukoencephalomalacia in 2/104 (1.9%) neonates. Ultrasound features such as the size of lateral ventricles, altered brain parenchymal echogenicity and cerebral blood flow parameters are useful for the early diagnosis of HIE and help predict outcome. Copyright © 2016 Editions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. The use of early summer mosquito surveillance to predict late summer West Nile virus activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Rochlin, Ilia; Campbell, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Utility of early-season mosquito surveillance to predict West Nile virus activity in late summer was assessed in Suffolk County, NY. Dry ice-baited CDC miniature light traps paired with gravid traps were set weekly. Maximum-likelihood estimates of WNV positivity, minimum infection rates, and % positive pools were generally well correlated. However, positivity in gravid traps was not correlated with positivity in CDC light traps. The best early-season predictors of WNV activity in late summer (estimated using maximum-likelihood estimates of Culex positivity in August and September) were early date of first positive pool, low numbers of mosquitoes in July, and low numbers of mosquito species in July. These results suggest that early-season entomological samples can be used to predict WNV activity later in the summer, when most human cases are acquired. Additional research is needed to establish which surveillance variables are most predictive and to characterize the reliability of the predictions.

  10. Early Brain changes May Help Predict Autism Among High-Risk Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Media Resources Interviews & Selected Staff Profiles Multimedia Early brain changes may help predict autism among high-risk ... Share this: Page Content NIH-funded researchers link brain changes at 6 and 12 months of age ...

  11. Predicting Early Sexual Activity with Behavior Problems Exhibited at School Entry and in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Hannah-Lise T.; Bierman, Karen L.; Heinrichs, Brenda; Nix, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Youth who initiate sexual intercourse in early adolescence (age 11-14) experience multiple risks, including concurrent adjustment problems and unsafe sexual practices. The current study tested two models describing the links between childhood precursors, early adolescent risk factors, and adolescent sexual activity: a cumulative model and a…

  12. Predicting Early Spelling: The Contribution of Children's Early Literacy, Private Speech during Spelling, Behavioral Regulation, and Parental Spelling Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aram, Dorit; Abiri, Shimrit; Elad, Lili

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to extend understanding of preschoolers' early spelling using the Vygotskian ("Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes," Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1978) paradigm of child development. We assessed the contribution of maternal spelling support in predicting children's word…

  13. Predicting Early Spelling: The Contribution of Children's Early Literacy, Private Speech during Spelling, Behavioral Regulation, and Parental Spelling Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aram, Dorit; Abiri, Shimrit; Elad, Lili

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to extend understanding of preschoolers' early spelling using the Vygotskian ("Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes," Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1978) paradigm of child development. We assessed the contribution of maternal spelling support in predicting children's word…

  14. Identification of a Genomic Signature Predicting for Recurrence in Early Stage Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    0521 TITLE: Identification of a genomic signature predicting for recurrence in early stage ovarian cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michael...Identification of a genomic signature predicting for recurrence in early stage ovarian 5b. GRANT NUMBER cancer 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...obtained IRB approval for using these cancer FFPE samples to identify molecular features that distinguish recurrent and non-recurrent tumors through RNA

  15. Early, Isolated Duodenal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Presenting without Symptoms or Grossly Apparent Endoscopic Lesions and Diagnosed by Random Duodenal Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Gjeorgjievski, Mihajlo; Makki, Issa; Khanal, Pradeep; Amin, Mitual B.; Blenc, Ann Marie; Desai, Tusar; Cappell, Mitchell S.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical data regarding mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma) solely involving the duodenum are sparse because of the relative rarity of the disease. A comprehensive literature review revealed only 17 cases reported until 2004, and only a moderate number of cases have been reported since. MALToma can be asymptomatic in its very early stages but frequently produces localized or nonspecific symptoms, including early satiety, abdominal pain, vomiting, and involuntary weight loss in later stages. While gastric MALToma is strongly associated with gastric Helicobactor pylori infection, duodenal MALToma is often unassociated with H. pylori infection. A 74-year-old female presented with only dysphagia (without symptoms referable to a duodenal lesion), without systemic ‘B’ symptoms, and with no evident duodenal lesions at esophagogastroduodenoscopy; however, she was diagnosed with duodenal MALToma by pathologic examination of random duodenal biopsies performed to exclude celiac disease. An important clinical feature of this case is that duodenal MALToma was diagnosed by pathologic analysis of duodenal biopsies despite (1) no endoscopically apparent duodenal lesions; (2) duodenal involvement without gastric involvement; (3) lack of symptoms attributable to duodenal MALToma, and (4) absence of evident H. pylori infection. This work shows that early duodenal MALToma can be difficult to diagnose because of absent symptoms, absence of gastric involvement, absence of endoscopic abnormalities, and absence of H. pylori infection; it may require random duodenal biopsies for diagnosis. PMID:27482191

  16. Early Prediction of Lupus Nephritis Using Advanced Proteomics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    nephritis from non inflammatory nephropathies with similar urinary findings. 1.2: Validation of NGAL as a biomarker for predicting SLE disease...R01-DK-069749, R01-DK-53289, P50-DK-52612, and R21-DK-070163 from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) and by the...significant, and P values less than 0.1 were reported to show trends. RESULTS Baseline patient characteristics and treatments . Table 1 summarizes the

  17. Infarct Volume Prediction by Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Murine Stroke Model Depends on Ischemia Duration and Time of Imaging.

    PubMed

    Leithner, Christoph; Füchtemeier, Martina; Jorks, Devi; Mueller, Susanne; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Royl, Georg

    2015-11-01

    Despite standardization of experimental stroke models, final infarct sizes after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) vary considerably. This introduces uncertainties in the evaluation of drug effects on stroke. Magnetic resonance imaging may detect variability of surgically induced ischemia before treatment and thus improve treatment effect evaluation. MCAO of 45 and 90 minutes induced brain infarcts in 83 mice. During, and 3 and 6 hours after MCAO, we performed multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. We evaluated time courses of cerebral blood flow, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), T1, T2, accuracy of infarct prediction strategies, and impact on statistical evaluation of experimental stroke studies. ADC decreased during MCAO but recovered completely on reperfusion after 45 and partially after 90-minute MCAO, followed by a secondary decline. ADC lesion volumes during MCAO or at 6 hours after MCAO largely determined final infarct volumes for 90 but not for 45 minutes MCAO. The majority of chance findings of final infarct volume differences in random group allocations of animals were associated with significant differences in early ADC lesion volumes for 90, but not for 45-minute MCAO. The prediction accuracy of early magnetic resonance imaging for infarct volumes depends on timing of magnetic resonance imaging and MCAO duration. Variability of the posterior communicating artery in C57Bl6 mice contributes to differences in prediction accuracy between short and long MCAO. Early ADC imaging may be used to reduce errors in the interpretation of post MCAO treatment effects on stroke volumes. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Validation of an acute ischemic stroke model: does diffusion-weighted imaging lesion volume offer a clinically significant improvement in prediction of outcome?

    PubMed

    Johnston, Karen C; Wagner, Douglas P; Wang, Xin-Qun; Newman, George C; Thijs, Vincent; Sen, Souvik; Warach, Steven

    2007-06-01

    Prediction models for ischemic stroke outcome have the potential to contribute prognostic information in the clinical and/or research setting. The importance of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in the prediction of clinical outcome, however, is unclear. The purpose of this study was to combine acute clinical data and DWI lesion volume for ischemic stroke patients to determine whether DWI improves the prediction of clinical outcome. Patients (N=382) with baseline DWI data from the Glycine Antagonist In Neuroprotection and citicoline (010 and 018) trials were used to develop the prediction models by multivariable logistic regression. Data from prospectively collected patients (N=266) from the Acute Stroke Accurate Prediction Study were used to externally validate the model equations. The models predicted either full recovery or nursing home-level disability/death, as defined by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Barthel Index, or modified Rankin Scale. The full-recovery models with DWI lesion volume had areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) of 0.799 to 0.821, and those without DWI lesion volume had AUCs of 0.758 to 0.798. The nursing home-level disability/death models with DWI had AUCs of 0.832 to 0.882, and those without DWI had AUCs of 0.827 to 0.867. All models had mean absolute errors < or =0.4 for calibration. All 12 models had excellent discrimination and calibration, with 8 of 12 meeting prespecified performance criteria (AUC > or =0.8, mean absolute error < or =0.4). Although DWI lesion volume significantly increased model explanatory power, the magnitude of increase was not large enough to be clinically important.

  19. How Homes Influence Schools: Early Parenting Predicts African American Children's Classroom Social-Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Claire E.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2014-01-01

    Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort were used to examine the extent to which early parenting predicted African American children's kindergarten social-emotional functioning. Teachers rated children's classroom social-emotional functioning in four areas (i.e., approaches to learning, self-control, interpersonal…

  20. Frequency Effects or Context Effects in Second Language Word Learning: What Predicts Early Lexical Production?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Subtirelu, Nicholas; Salsbury, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This study examines frequency, contextual diversity, and contextual distinctiveness effects in predicting produced versus not-produced frequent nouns and verbs by early second language (L2) learners of English. The study analyzes whether word frequency is the strongest predictor of early L2 word production independent of contextual diversity and…

  1. Feature Biases in Early Word Learning: Network Distinctiveness Predicts Age of Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelthaler, Tomas; Hills, Thomas T.

    2017-01-01

    Do properties of a word's features influence the order of its acquisition in early word learning? Combining the principles of mutual exclusivity and shape bias, the present work takes a network analysis approach to understanding how feature distinctiveness predicts the order of early word learning. Distance networks were built from nouns with edge…

  2. Feature Biases in Early Word Learning: Network Distinctiveness Predicts Age of Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelthaler, Tomas; Hills, Thomas T.

    2017-01-01

    Do properties of a word's features influence the order of its acquisition in early word learning? Combining the principles of mutual exclusivity and shape bias, the present work takes a network analysis approach to understanding how feature distinctiveness predicts the order of early word learning. Distance networks were built from nouns with edge…

  3. Ability of Early Literacy Measures to Predict Future State Assessment Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utchell, Lynn A.; Schmitt, Ara J.; McCallum, Elizabeth; McGoey, Kara E.; Piselli, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which early literacy measures administered in kindergarten and Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) measures administered in Grade 1 are related to and predict future state reading assessment performances up to 7 years later. Results indicated that early literacy and ORF performances were…

  4. The Design and Analysis of an Expectancy Theory Model for Predicting Early Retirement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    and early retirement , and to determine, based upon self-report measures whether objectively identifiable differences exist between subjects who have...modified as suggested by this research holds promise for practical applications involving the prediction of early retirement and other forms of turnover. (Author)

  5. Maternal Psychopathology and Early Child Temperament Predict Young Children's Salivary Cortisol 3 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Smith, Victoria C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males)…

  6. How Homes Influence Schools: Early Parenting Predicts African American Children's Classroom Social-Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Claire E.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2014-01-01

    Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort were used to examine the extent to which early parenting predicted African American children's kindergarten social-emotional functioning. Teachers rated children's classroom social-emotional functioning in four areas (i.e., approaches to learning, self-control, interpersonal…

  7. Predicting Academic Achievement and Attainment: The Contribution of Early Academic Skills, Attention Difficulties, and Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabiner, David L.; Godwin, Jennifer; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    Research predicting academic achievement from early academic, attention, and socioemotional skills has largely focused on elementary school outcomes and rarely included peer assessments of social competence. We examined associations between these early child characteristics and academic outcomes into young adulthood using the Fast Track normative…

  8. Ability of Early Literacy Measures to Predict Future State Assessment Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utchell, Lynn A.; Schmitt, Ara J.; McCallum, Elizabeth; McGoey, Kara E.; Piselli, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which early literacy measures administered in kindergarten and Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) measures administered in Grade 1 are related to and predict future state reading assessment performances up to 7 years later. Results indicated that early literacy and ORF performances were…

  9. Predictive Validity of Early Literacy Measures for Korean English Language Learners in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jeanie Nam; Vanderwood, Michael L.; Lee, Catherine Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of early literacy measures with first-grade Korean English language learners (ELLs) in the United States at varying levels of English proficiency. Participants were screened using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF), DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency…

  10. Frequency Effects or Context Effects in Second Language Word Learning: What Predicts Early Lexical Production?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Subtirelu, Nicholas; Salsbury, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This study examines frequency, contextual diversity, and contextual distinctiveness effects in predicting produced versus not-produced frequent nouns and verbs by early second language (L2) learners of English. The study analyzes whether word frequency is the strongest predictor of early L2 word production independent of contextual diversity and…

  11. Maternal Psychopathology and Early Child Temperament Predict Young Children's Salivary Cortisol 3 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Smith, Victoria C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males)…

  12. Early improvement in positive rather than negative emotion predicts remission from depression after pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Geschwind, Nicole; Nicolson, Nancy A; Peeters, Frenk; van Os, Jim; Barge-Schaapveld, Daniela; Wichers, Marieke

    2011-03-01

    Knowledge on mechanisms involved in early prediction of response to antidepressant medication may help optimize clinical decision making. Recent studies regarding response to pharmacotherapy implicate resilience-like mechanisms and involvement of positive, rather than negative emotions. The aim of the current study is to examine the contribution of early change in positive affect to the prediction of response to pharmacotherapy. Positive and negative emotions were measured at baseline and during the first week of pharmacotherapy, using experience sampling techniques. The association between early change in positive and negative emotions and severity of depressive symptoms at week six was examined in a sample of 49 depressed patients. The added benefits of measuring early change in positive emotions compared to early Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) change alone were evaluated through model comparisons. Early improvement in positive affect during the first week of treatment predicted the continuous HDRS score (β=-0.64, p<0.001), response (50% reduction; OR=4.32, p<0.01), and remission (HDRS≤7; OR=9.29, p<0.001) at week six with moderate to large effect sizes. Effects of early change in negative emotions were only half as large and disappeared when evaluated simultaneously with early change in positive emotions. When early change in positive emotions was added to the models including early HDRS change only, all three models improved significantly. In conclusion, early change in positive rather than negative emotions best predicted response to treatment, supporting the notion that antidepressants activate resilience-like mechanisms. Moreover, monitoring of positive emotions in early stages of treatment may improve clinical decision making. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  13. Microscopy image analysis of p63 immunohistochemically stained laryngeal cancer lesions for predicting patient 5-year survival.

    PubMed

    Ninos, Konstantinos; Kostopoulos, Spiros; Kalatzis, Ioannis; Sidiropoulos, Konstantinos; Ravazoula, Panagiota; Sakellaropoulos, George; Panayiotakis, George; Economou, George; Cavouras, Dionisis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design a microscopy image analysis (MIA) system for predicting the 5-year survival of patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, employing histopathology images of lesions, which had been immunohistochemically (IHC) stained for p63 expression. Biopsy materials from 42 patients, with verified laryngeal cancer and follow-up, were selected from the archives of the University Hospital of Patras, Greece. Twenty six patients had survived more than 5 years and 16 less than 5 years after the first diagnosis. Histopathology images were IHC stained for p63 expression. Images were first processed by a segmentation method for isolating the p63-expressed nuclei. Seventy-seven features were evaluated regarding texture, shape, and physical topology of nuclei, p63 staining, and patient-specific data. Those features, the probabilistic neural network classifier, the leave-one-out (LOO), and the bootstrap cross-validation methods, were used to design the MIA-system for assessing the 5-year survival of patients with laryngeal cancer. MIA-system accuracy was about 90 % and 85 %, employing the LOO and the Bootstrap methods, respectively. The image texture of p63-expressed nuclei appeared coarser and contained more edges in the 5-year non-survivor group. These differences were at a statistically significant level (p < 0.05). In conclusion, this study has proposed an MIA-system that may be of assistance to physicians, as a second opinion tool in assessing the 5-year survival of patients with laryngeal cancer, and it has revealed useful information regarding differences in nuclei texture between 5-year survivors and non-survivors.

  14. High Kellgren-Lawrence Grade and Bone Marrow Lesions Predict Worsening Rates of Radiographic Joint Space Narrowing; The SEKOIA Study.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Mark H; Parsons, Camille; Bruyère, Olivier; Petit Dop, Forence; Chapurlat, Roland; Roemer, Frank W; Guermazi, Ali; Zaim, Souhil; Genant, Harry; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Dennison, Elaine M; Cooper, Cyrus

    2016-03-01

    Determinants of radiographic progression in osteoarthritis (OA) are poorly understood. We investigated which features on baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acted as predictors of change in joint space width (JSW). A total of 559 men and women over the age of 50 years with clinical knee OA [Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade 2-3] were recruited to the placebo arm of the SEKOIA study (98 centers; 18 countries). Minimal tibiofemoral joint space and KL grade on plain radiograph of the knee were assessed at baseline and at yearly followup up to 3 years. In a subset, serial knee MRI examinations were performed. Individuals with a bone marrow lesion (BML) ≥ grade 2 at the tibiofemoral joint at baseline were classified as BML-positive. Relationships between change in JSW and risk factors were assessed using linear regression. The mean age of study participants was 62.8 (SD 7.5) years and 73% were female; 38.6% had BML. Mean baseline JSW was 3.65 mm. This reduced by 0.18 (0.30) mm/year in men and 0.13 (0.23) mm/year in women. Those with BML had a significantly higher rate of annualized change in JSW; this relationship remained robust after adjustment for age, sex, and baseline KL grade [β = -0.10 (95% CI -0.18, -0.02) mm/yr]. Age, sex, baseline KL grade, and other MRI findings did not influence the rate of change in JSW. The rate of change in JSW was similar in men and women. BML on knee MRI predicted the rate of radiographic change in JSW. This relationship was independent of age, sex, and baseline KL grade.

  15. Invited Commentary: Use of Arsenical Skin Lesions to Predict Risk of Internal Cancer—Implications for Prevention and Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan, Habibul; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic exposure affects millions of people worldwide, causing substantial mortality and morbidity from cancers and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. An article in the current issue (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(3):202–212) reports that classic dermatological manifestations, typically associated with chronic arsenic exposure, are predictive of internal cancers among Taiwanese decades after the cessation of exposure. Specifically, the risk of lung and urothelial cancers was elevated, which was evident regardless of arsenic dose, smoking, and age. There was also an unexpected elevated risk of prostate cancer. Despite some methodological limitations, these findings underscore the need for assessing whether dermatological manifestations are also predictive of cardiovascular, respiratory, and other arsenic-related, long-term health consequences. Given the emerging evidence of arsenic exposure from dietary sources beyond contaminated drinking water and occupational and environmental settings, and also because the vast majority of diseases and deaths among exposed populations do not show classic dermatological manifestations, larger and more comprehensive investigations of the health effects of arsenic exposure, especially at lower doses, are needed. In parallel, because the risk of known arsenic-related health outcomes remains elevated decades after exposure cessation, research toward identification of early clinical and biological markers of long-term risk as well as avenues for prevention, in addition to policy actions for exposure reductions, is warranted. PMID:23299696

  16. Invited commentary: use of arsenical skin lesions to predict risk of internal cancer: implications for prevention and future research.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Habibul; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-02-01

    Arsenic exposure affects millions of people worldwide, causing substantial mortality and morbidity from cancers and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. An article in the current issue (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(3):202-212) reports that classic dermatological manifestations, typically associated with chronic arsenic exposure, are predictive of internal cancers among Taiwanese decades after the cessation of exposure. Specifically, the risk of lung and urothelial cancers was elevated, which was evident regardless of arsenic dose, smoking, and age. There was also an unexpected elevated risk of prostate cancer. Despite some methodological limitations, these findings underscore the need for assessing whether dermatological manifestations are also predictive of cardiovascular, respiratory, and other arsenic-related, long-term health consequences. Given the emerging evidence of arsenic exposure from dietary sources beyond contaminated drinking water and occupational and environmental settings, and also because the vast majority of diseases and deaths among exposed populations do not show classic dermatological manifestations, larger and more comprehensive investigations of the health effects of arsenic exposure, especially at lower doses, are needed. In parallel, because the risk of known arsenic-related health outcomes remains elevated decades after exposure cessation, research toward identification of early clinical and biological markers of long-term risk as well as avenues for prevention, in addition to policy actions for exposure reductions, is warranted.

  17. Predicting Early Sexual Activity with Behavior Problems Exhibited at School Entry and in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Hannah-Lise T.; Heinrichs, Brenda; Nix, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Youth who initiate sexual intercourse in early adolescence (age 11–14) experience multiple risks, including concurrent adjustment problems and unsafe sexual practices, The current study tested two models describing the links between childhood precursors, early adolescent risk factors, and adolescent sexual activity: a cumulative model and a meditational model, A longitudinal sample of 694 boys and girls from four geographical locations was utilized, with data collected from kindergarten through high school. Structural equation models revealed that, irrespective of gender or race, high rates of aggressive disruptive behaviors and attention problems at school entry increased risk for a constellation of problem behaviors in middle school (school maladjustment, antisocial activity, and substance use) which, in turn, promoted the early initiation of sexual activity. Implications are discussed for developmental models of early sexual activity and for prevention programming. PMID:18607716

  18. Diagnosis of HIV-Associated Oral Lesions in Relation to Early versus Delayed Antiretroviral Therapy: Results from the CIPRA HT001 Trial.

    PubMed

    Batavia, Ashita S; Secours, Rode; Espinosa, Patrice; Jean Juste, Marc Antoine; Severe, Patrice; Pape, Jean William; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

    2016-01-01

    Oral mucosal lesions that are associated with HIV infection can play an important role in guiding the decision to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART). The incidence of these lesions relative to the timing of ART initiation has not been well characterized. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted at the GHESKIO Center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti between 2004 and 2009. 816 HIV-infected ART-naïve participants with CD4 T cell counts between 200 and 350 cells/mm3 were randomized to either immediate ART initiation (early group; N = 408), or initiation when CD4 T cell count was less than or equal 200 cells/mm3 or with the development of an AIDS-defining condition (delayed group; N = 408). Every 3 months, all participants underwent an oral examination. The incidence of oral lesions was 4.10 in the early group and 17.85 in the delayed group (p-value <0.01). In comparison to the early group, there was a significantly higher incidence of candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, herpes labialis, and recurrent herpes simplex in the delayed group. The incidence of oral warts in delayed group was 0.97 before therapy and 4.27 post-ART initiation (p-value <0.01). In the delayed group the incidence of oral warts post-ART initiation was significantly higher than that seen in the early group (4.27 versus 1.09; p-value <0.01). The incidence of oral warts increased after ART was initiated, and relative to the early group there was a four-fold increase in oral warts if ART was initiated following an AIDS diagnosis. Based upon our findings, candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, herpes labialis, and recurrent herpes simplex indicate immune suppression and the need to start ART. In contrast, oral warts are a sign of immune reconstitution following ART initiation.

  19. Diagnosis of HIV-Associated Oral Lesions in Relation to Early versus Delayed Antiretroviral Therapy: Results from the CIPRA HT001 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Batavia, Ashita S.; Secours, Rode; Espinosa, Patrice; Jean Juste, Marc Antoine; Severe, Patrice; Pape, Jean William; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.

    2016-01-01

    Oral mucosal lesions that are associated with HIV infection can play an important role in guiding the decision to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART). The incidence of these lesions relative to the timing of ART initiation has not been well characterized. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted at the GHESKIO Center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti between 2004 and 2009. 816 HIV-infected ART-naïve participants with CD4 T cell counts between 200 and 350 cells/mm3 were randomized to either immediate ART initiation (early group; N = 408), or initiation when CD4 T cell count was less than or equal 200 cells/mm3 or with the development of an AIDS-defining condition (delayed group; N = 408). Every 3 months, all participants underwent an oral examination. The incidence of oral lesions was 4.10 in the early group and 17.85 in the delayed group (p-value <0.01). In comparison to the early group, there was a significantly higher incidence of candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, herpes labialis, and recurrent herpes simplex in the delayed group. The incidence of oral warts in delayed group was 0.97 before therapy and 4.27 post-ART initiation (p-value <0.01). In the delayed group the incidence of oral warts post-ART initiation was significantly higher than that seen in the early group (4.27 versus 1.09; p-value <0.01). The incidence of oral warts increased after ART was initiated, and relative to the early group there was a four-fold increase in oral warts if ART was initiated following an AIDS diagnosis. Based upon our findings, candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, herpes labialis, and recurrent herpes simplex indicate immune suppression and the need to start ART. In contrast, oral warts are a sign of immune reconstitution following ART initiation. PMID:26930571

  20. Troponin T in Prediction of Culprit Lesion Coronary Artery Disease and 1-Year Major Adverse Cerebral and Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Zeus, Tobias; Ketterer, Ulrike; Leuf, Daniela; Dannenberg, Lisa; Wagstaff, Rabea; Bönner, Florian; Gliem, Michael; Jander, Sebastian; Kelm, Malte; Polzin, Amin

    2016-06-01

    Troponin T (TnT) elevation above the 99th percentile upper reference limit (URL) is considered diagnostic of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Non-specific increases of TnT are frequent in acute stroke patients. However, in these patients, correct diagnosis of MI is crucial because the antithrombotic medications used to treat acute MI might be harmful and produce intracranial bleeding. In this study, we aimed to associate enhanced TnT levels defined by different cutoff values with occurrence of culprit lesion coronary artery disease (CAD) as well as 1-year major adverse cerebral and cardiovascular events (MACCEs). In this cohort study, we investigated 84 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and concomitant MI. TnT levels were measured using a fourth-generation TnT assay. The incidence of culprit lesion CAD was determined by coronary angiography. MACCEs were recorded during 1-year follow-up. Culprit lesion CAD occurred in 55 % of patients, and 1-year MACCE in 37 %. TnT levels above the manufacturers' provided 99th URL (TnT > 0.01) were not associated with culprit lesion CAD (relative risk [RR], 1.3; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.96-1.8; P = 0.09). Slightly increased cutoff level (TnT > 0.03) increased specificity and was associated with culprit lesion CAD without decreasing sensitivity (RR, 1.5; 95 % CI 1.1-2.2; P = 0.021) and 1-year MACCE (RR, 1.7; 95 % CI 1.3-2.3; P < 0.001). Slightly increasement of the TnT cutoff level predicted MACCEs and is superior in prediction of culprit lesion CAD in stroke patients without being less sensitive. This finding has to be confirmed in large-scale clinical trials.

  1. Parental corporal punishment predicts behavior problems in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Mulvaney, Matthew K; Mebert, Carolyn J

    2007-09-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (Research Triangle Institute, 2002), this study examined the impact of corporal punishment (CP) on children's behavior problems. Longitudinal analyses were specified that controlled for covarying contextual and parenting variables and that partialed child effects. The results indicate that parental CP uniquely contributes to negative behavioral adjustment in children at both 36 months and at 1st grade, with the effects at the earlier age more pronounced in children with difficult temperaments. Parents and mental health professionals who work to modify children's negative behavior should be aware of the unique impact that CP likely plays in triggering and maintaining children's behavior problems. Broad-based family policies that reduce the use of this parenting behavior would potentially increase children's mental health and decrease the incidence of children's behavior problems.

  2. Early dynamic imaging in (68)Ga- PSMA-11 PET/CT allows discrimination of urinary bladder activity and prostate cancer lesions.

    PubMed

    Uprimny, Christian; Kroiss, Alexander Stephan; Decristoforo, Clemens; Fritz, Josef; Warwitz, Boris; Scarpa, Lorenza; Roig, Llanos Geraldo; Kendler, Dorota; von Guggenberg, Elisabeth; Bektic, Jasmin; Horninger, Wolfgang; Virgolini, Irene Johanna

    2017-05-01

    PET/CT with (68)Ga-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-ligands has been proven to establish a promising imaging modality in the work-up of prostate cancer (PC) patients with biochemical relapse. Despite a high overall detection rate, the visualisation of local recurrence may be hampered by high physiologic tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder on whole body imaging, usually starting 60 min after injection. This study sought to verify whether early dynamic (68)Ga-PSMA-11 (HBED-CC)PET/CT can differentiate pathologic PC-related tracer uptake from physiologic tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder. Eighty consecutive PC patients referred to (68)Ga -PSMA-11 PET/CT were included in this retrospective analysis (biochemical relapse: n = 64; primary staging: n = 8; evaluation of therapy response/restaging: n = 8). In addition to whole-body PET/CT acquisition 60 min post injection early dynamic imaging of the pelvis in the first 8 min after tracer injection was performed. SUVmax of pathologic lesions was calculated and time-activity curves were generated and compared to those of urinary bladder and areas of physiologic tracer uptake. A total of 55 lesions consistent with malignancy on 60 min whole body imaging exhibited also pathologic (68)Ga-PSMA-11 uptake during early dynamic imaging (prostatic bed/prostate gland: n = 27; lymph nodes: n = 12; bone: n = 16). All pathologic lesions showed tracer uptake within the first 3 min, whereas urinary bladder activity was absent within the first 3 min of dynamic imaging in all patients. Suvmax was significantly higher in PC lesions in the first 6 min compared to urinary bladder accumulation (p < 0.001). In the subgroup of PC patients with biochemical relapse the detection rate of local recurrence could be increased from 20.3 to 29.7%. Early dynamic imaging in (68)Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT reliably enables the differentiation of pathologic tracer uptake in PC lesions from physiologic

  3. Predicting Early Awakening from Coma after Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Diana; Kasner, Scott E.; Park, Soojin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Given the high morbidity and mortality associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), family members, and healthcare providers base early supportive management decisions, at least in part, on expected prognosis. In the comatose patient with ICH, this short-term prognosis is most overtly characterized by regaining of consciousness. Design: A retrospective consecutive cohort of 51 patients admitted to a neuroICU with ICH and admission Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤8 was identified. Logistic regression was performed to assess the association of baseline characteristics and treatment parameters associated with awakening. Results: Awakening from coma was observed in 53% of ICH patients: 83% with an initial GCS score of 7–8, 43% with an initial score of 5–6, and 20% with an initial score of 3–4. Awakening from coma in the cohort of 27 patients who regained consciousness occurred in 59% of patients by day 2, 89% by day 7, and 96% by day 9. In multivariable analysis, only higher admission GCS score was associated with a greater likelihood of awakening from coma [OR 4.9 (95% CI 1.9–13) per two-point category, p = 0.001]. DNR status during the first 24 h was not associated with awakening but was at later time points. Conclusion: GCS score is the predominant initial predictor of early awakening in patients who present in coma after ICH. Patients who regained consciousness typically did so within the first 9 days of hospital admission. PMID:24137155

  4. White light, autofluorescence and narrow-band imaging bronchoscopy for diagnosing airway pre-cancerous and early cancer lesions: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianrong; Wu, Jieyu; Yang, Yujing; Liao, Hua; Xu, Zhiheng; Hamblin, Lindsey Tristine; Jiang, Long; Depypere, Lieven; Ang, Keng Leong; He, Jiaxi; Liang, Ziyan; Huang, Jun; Li, Jingpei; He, Qihua

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to summarize the diagnostic accuracy of white light bronchoscopy (WLB) and advanced techniques for airway pre-cancerous lesions and early cancer, such as autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB), AFB combined with WLB (AFB + WLB) and narrow-band imaging (NBI) bronchoscopy. Methods We searched for eligible studies in seven electronic databases from their date of inception to Mar 20, 2015. In eligible studies, detected lesions should be confirmed by histopathology. We extracted and calculated the 2×2 data based on the pathological criteria of lung tumor, including high-grade lesions from moderate dysplasia (MOD) to invasive carcinoma (INV). Random-effect model was used to pool sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results In 53 eligible studies (39 WLB, 39 AFB, 17 AFB + WLB, 6 NBI), diagnostic performance for high-grade lesions was analyzed based on twelve studies (10 WLB, 7 AFB, 7 AFB + WLB, 1 NBI), involving with totally 2,880 patients and 8,830 biopsy specimens. The sensitivity, specificity, DOR and AUC of WLB were 51% (95% CI, 34–68%), 86% (95% CI, 73–84%), 6 (95% CI, 3–13) and 77% (95% CI, 73–81%). Those of AFB and AFB + WLB were 93% (95% CI, 77–98%) and 86% (95% CI, 75–97%), 52% (95% CI, 37–67%) and 71% (95% CI, 56–87%), 15 (95% CI, 4–57) and 16 (95% CI, 6–41), and 76% (95% CI, 72–79%) and 82% (95% CI, 78–85%), respectively. NBI presented 100% sensitivity and 43% specificity. Conclusions With higher sensitivity, advanced bronchoscopy could be valuable to avoid missed diagnosis. Combining strategy of AFB and WLB may contribute preferable diagnosis rather than their alone use for high-grade lesions. Studies of NBI warrants further investigation for precancerous lesions. PMID:28066600

  5. Early Prediction of Student Dropout and Performance in MOOCSs Using Higher Granularity Temporal Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Cheng; Biswas, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Our project is motivated by the early dropout and low completion rate problem in MOOCs. We have extended traditional features for MOOC analysis with richer and higher granularity information to make more accurate predictions of dropout and performance. The results show that finer-grained temporal information increases the predictive power in the…

  6. Early Prediction of Ongoing Hemorrhage in Severe Trauma: Presentation of the Existing Scoring Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tonglet, Martin L

    2016-01-01

    Early prediction of ongoing hemorrhage may reduce mortality via the earlier delivery of blood products, adequate orientation of the patient in a dedicated highly specialized and trained infrastructure, and by earlier correction of acute traumatic coagulopathy. We identified 14 scores or algorithms developed for the prediction of ongoing hemorrhage and the need for massive transfusion in severe trauma patients. PMID:28144603

  7. Antisocial Behavior of Adoptees and Nonadoptees: Prediction from Early History and Adolescent Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotevant, Harold D.; Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Dunbar, Nora; Nelson-Christinedaughter, Justine; Christensen, Mathew; Fan, Xitao; Miller, Brent C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of demographic characteristics, early maltreatment, and peer and family relationships during adolescence to the prediction of aggressive and nonaggressive antisocial behavior (AASB and NAASB, respectively) during young adulthood; and determined whether adoption status has additional ability to predict ASB, once…

  8. Antisocial Behavior of Adoptees and Nonadoptees: Prediction from Early History and Adolescent Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotevant, Harold D.; Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Dunbar, Nora; Nelson-Christinedaughter, Justine; Christensen, Mathew; Fan, Xitao; Miller, Brent C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of demographic characteristics, early maltreatment, and peer and family relationships during adolescence to the prediction of aggressive and nonaggressive antisocial behavior (AASB and NAASB, respectively) during young adulthood; and determined whether adoption status has additional ability to predict ASB, once…

  9. Brain Lesions among Orally Fed and Gastrostomy-Fed Dysphagic Preterm Infants: Can Routine Qualitative or Volumetric Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predict Feeding Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Kashou, Nasser H; Dar, Irfaan A; El-Mahdy, Mohamed A; Pluto, Charles; Smith, Mark; Gulati, Ish K; Lo, Warren; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R

    2017-01-01

    The usefulness of qualitative or quantitative volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in early detection of brain structural changes and prediction of adverse outcomes in neonatal illnesses warrants further investigation. Our aim was to correlate certain brain injuries and the brain volume of feeding-related cortical and subcortical regions with feeding method at discharge among preterm dysphagic infants. Using a retrospective observational study design, we examined MRI data among 43 (22 male; born at 31.5 ± 0.8 week gestation) infants who went home on oral feeding or gastrostomy feeding (G-tube). MRI scans were segmented, and volumes of brainstem, cerebellum, cerebrum, basal ganglia, thalamus, and vermis were quantified, and correlations were made with discharge feeding outcomes. Chi-squared tests were used to evaluate MRI findings vs. feeding outcomes. ANCOVA was performed on the regression model to measure the association of maturity and brain volume between groups. Out of 43 infants, 44% were oral-fed and 56% were G-tube fed at hospital discharge (but not at time of the study). There was no relationship between qualitative brain lesions and feeding outcomes. Volumetric analysis revealed that cerebellum was greater (p < 0.05) in G-tube fed infants, whereas cerebrum volume was greater (p < 0.05) in oral-fed infants. Other brain regions did not show volumetric differences between groups. This study concludes that neither qualitative nor quantitative volumetric MRI findings correlate with feeding outcomes. Understanding the complexity of swallowing and feeding difficulties in infants warrants a comprehensive and in-depth functional neurological assessment.

  10. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158met polymorphism interacts with early experience to predict executive functions in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Blair, Clancy; Sulik, Michael; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Petrill, Stephen; Bartlett, Christopher; Greenberg, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that the Methionine variant of the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism, which confers less efficient catabolism of catecholamines, is associated with increased focal activation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and higher levels of executive function abilities. By and large, however, studies of COMT Val158Met have been conducted with adult samples and do not account for the context in which development is occurring. Effects of early adversity on stress response physiology and the inverted U shape relating catecholamine levels to neural activity in PFC indicate the need to take into account early experience when considering relations between genes such as COMT and executive cognitive ability. Consistent with this neurobiology, we find in a prospective longitudinal sample of children and families (N = 1292) that COMT Val158Met interacts with early experience to predict executive function abilities in early childhood. Specifically, the Valine variant of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, which confers more rather than less efficient catabolism of catecholamines is associated with higher executive function abilities at child ages 48 and 60 months and with faster growth of executive function for children experiencing early adversity, as indexed by cumulative risk factors in the home at child ages 7, 15, 24, and 36 months. Findings indicate the importance of the early environment for the relation between catecholamine genes and developmental outcomes and demonstrate that the genetic moderation of environmental risk is detectable in early childhood.

  11. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158met Polymorphism Interacts With Early Experience to Predict Executive Functions in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Clancy; Sulik, Michael; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Petrill, Stephen; Bartlett, Christopher; Greenberg, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that the Methionine variant of the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism, which confers less efficient catabolism of catecholamines, is associated with increased focal activation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and higher levels of executive function abilities. By and large, however, studies of COMT Val158Met have been conducted with adult samples and do not account for the context in which development is occurring. Effects of early adversity on stress response physiology and the inverted U shape relating catecholamine levels to neural activity in PFC indicate the need to take into account early experience when considering relations between genes such as COMT and executive cognitive ability. Consistent with this neurobiology, we find in a prospective longitudinal sample of children and families (N=1292) that COMT Val158Met interacts with early experience to predict executive function abilities in early childhood. Specifically, the Valine variant of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, which confers more rather than less efficient catabolism of catecholamines is associated with higher executive function abilities at child ages 48 and 60 months and with faster growth of executive function for children experiencing early adversity, as indexed by cumulative risk factors in the home at child ages 7, 15, 24, and 36 months. Findings indicate the importance of the early environment for the relation between catecholamine genes and developmental outcomes and demonstrate that the genetic moderation of environmental risk is detectable in early childhood. PMID:26251232

  12. Concurrent and predictive validity of an early language screening program.

    PubMed

    Klee, T; Carson, D K; Gavin, W J; Hall, L; Kent, A; Reece, S

    1998-06-01

    The efficacy of screening 2-year-old children for language delay using a parent-report questionnaire was investigated in three studies. The Language Development Survey (Rescorla, 1989) was mailed to 650 families at the time of their child's second birthday. Fifty-three percent of the surveys received by parents were completed and returned. Screening outcomes were then compared, in double-blind fashion, with the results of comprehensive clinical evaluations at ages 2 (N = 64) and 3 (N = 36). Parents' report of the size of their children's expressive vocabularies was highly correlated with clinical language measures at age 2. Children who screened positive performed significantly poorer than children who screened negative on standardized language tests and on measures taken from spontaneous conversation. The screening program demonstrated excellent sensitivity and specificity for identifying language delay at age 2 but somewhat lower levels for predicting developmental status one year later.

  13. Children's visuospatial memory predicts mathematics achievement through early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C

    2017-01-01

    A previous study showed that gains in visuospatial memory from first to fifth grade predicted end-of-fifth grade mathematics but not reading achievement, controlling other factors. In this follow up study, these relations were assessed from sixth to ninth grade, inclusive (n = 145). The results showed that growth in visuospatial memory across the elementary school years was related to growth in mathematics achievement after fifth grade, controlling intelligence, the central executive and phonological memory components of working memory, in-class attentive behavior, parental education, and fifth grade mathematics achievement. As found for fifth grade, this relation was not found for reading achievement after fifth grade. In total, the results suggest that visuospatial memory has a unique influence on ease of learning some types of mathematics and that this influence becomes more important across successive grades.

  14. Early improvement predicts outcome of major depressive patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Hua; Chen, Ming-Chao; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether early symptom improvement predicts final response and remission for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). MDD inpatients (N=130) requiring ECT were recruited. ECT was generally performed for a maximum of 12 sessions. Symptom severity was assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) before ECT, after every 3 ECT sessions, and after the last ECT. Early improvement was defined as a reduction in the HAMD-17 score by at least 20%, 25%, or 30% after 3 and 6 ECT sessions. Response was defined as 60% HAMD-17 score reduction, while remission was defined as an end point HAMD-17 score of ≦7. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine whether 3 or 6 ECT sessions had better discriminative capacity. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated for the different definitions of early improvement. Of the 105 patients entering the analysis, 85.7% (n=90) and 70.5% (n=74) were classified as responders and remitters, respectively. Early improvement after 6 ECT sessions showed better discriminative capacity, with areas under the ROC curve at least 0.8. It had high sensitivity and high negative predictive value for all cutoffs in predicting response and remission. High response and remission rates were observed. Final response and remission could be predicted by early improvement after 6 ECT sessions. Patients without early improvement were unlikely to reach response and remission.

  15. Early symptom burden predicts recovery after sport-related concussion

    PubMed Central

    Mannix, Rebekah; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Stein, Cynthia J.; Bachur, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify independent predictors of and use recursive partitioning to develop a multivariate regression tree predicting symptom duration greater than 28 days after a sport-related concussion. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients in a sports concussion clinic. Participants completed questionnaires that included the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Participants were asked to record the date on which they last experienced symptoms. Potential predictor variables included age, sex, score on symptom inventories, history of prior concussions, performance on computerized neurocognitive assessments, loss of consciousness and amnesia at the time of injury, history of prior medical treatment for headaches, history of migraines, and family history of concussion. We used recursive partitioning analysis to develop a multivariate prediction model for identifying athletes at risk for a prolonged recovery from concussion. Results: A total of 531 patients ranged in age from 7 to 26 years (mean 14.6 ± 2.9 years). The mean PCSS score at the initial visit was 26 ± 26; mean time to presentation was 12 ± 5 days. Only total score on symptom inventory was independently associated with symptoms lasting longer than 28 days (adjusted odds ratio 1.044; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.034, 1.054 for PCSS). No other potential predictor variables were independently associated with symptom duration or useful in developing the optimal regression decision tree. Most participants (86%; 95% CI 80%, 90%) with an initial PCSS score of <13 had resolution of their symptoms within 28 days of injury. Conclusions: The only independent predictor of prolonged symptoms after sport-related concussion is overall symptom burden. PMID:25381296

  16. Early symptom burden predicts recovery after sport-related concussion.

    PubMed

    Meehan, William P; Mannix, Rebekah; Monuteaux, Michael C; Stein, Cynthia J; Bachur, Richard G

    2014-12-09

    To identify independent predictors of and use recursive partitioning to develop a multivariate regression tree predicting symptom duration greater than 28 days after a sport-related concussion. We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients in a sports concussion clinic. Participants completed questionnaires that included the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Participants were asked to record the date on which they last experienced symptoms. Potential predictor variables included age, sex, score on symptom inventories, history of prior concussions, performance on computerized neurocognitive assessments, loss of consciousness and amnesia at the time of injury, history of prior medical treatment for headaches, history of migraines, and family history of concussion. We used recursive partitioning analysis to develop a multivariate prediction model for identifying athletes at risk for a prolonged recovery from concussion. A total of 531 patients ranged in age from 7 to 26 years (mean 14.6 ± 2.9 years). The mean PCSS score at the initial visit was 26 ± 26; mean time to presentation was 12 ± 5 days. Only total score on symptom inventory was independently associated with symptoms lasting longer than 28 days (adjusted odds ratio 1.044; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.034, 1.054 for PCSS). No other potential predictor variables were independently associated with symptom duration or useful in developing the optimal regression decision tree. Most participants (86%; 95% CI 80%, 90%) with an initial PCSS score of <13 had resolution of their symptoms within 28 days of injury. The only independent predictor of prolonged symptoms after sport-related concussion is overall symptom burden. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. E-nose based rapid prediction of early mouldy grain using probabilistic neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Xiaoguo; Liu, Wei; Hui, Guohua; Fu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, early mouldy grain rapid prediction method using probabilistic neural network (PNN) and electronic nose (e-nose) was studied. E-nose responses to rice, red bean, and oat samples with different qualities were measured and recorded. E-nose data was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), back propagation (BP) network, and PNN, respectively. Results indicated that PCA and BP network could not clearly discriminate grain samples with different mouldy status and showed poor predicting accuracy. PNN showed satisfying discriminating abilities to grain samples with an accuracy of 93.75%. E-nose combined with PNN is effective for early mouldy grain prediction. PMID:25714125

  18. Early visceral pain predicts chronic pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Blichfeldt-Eckhardt, Morten Rune; Ording, Helle; Andersen, Claus; Licht, Peter B; Toft, Palle

    2014-11-01

    Chronic pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is related to postoperative pain during the first postoperative week, but it is unknown which components of the early pain response is important. In this prospective study, 100 consecutive patients were examined preoperatively, 1 week postoperatively, and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively for pain, psychological factors, and signs of hypersensitivity. Overall pain, incisional pain (somatic pain component), deep abdominal pain (visceral pain component), and shoulder pain (referred pain component) were registered on a 100-mm visual analogue scale during the first postoperative week. Nine patients developed chronic unexplained pain 12 months postoperatively. In a multivariate analysis model, cumulated visceral pain during the first week and number of preoperative biliary pain attacks were identified as independent risk factors for unexplained chronic pain 12 months postoperatively. There were no consistent signs of hypersensitivity in the referred pain area either pre- or postoperatively. There were no significant associations to any other variables examined. The risk of chronic pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is relatively low, but significantly related to the visceral pain response during the first postoperative week. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Early anxious/withdrawn behaviours predict later internalising disorders.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Renee D; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John

    2004-05-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the association between anxious/withdrawn behaviours at age 8 and the development of internalising disorders in adolescence and young adulthood (ages 16-21). Data were gathered over the course of a 21-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of over 1,000 New-Zealand-born young people. Over the course of the study, data were gathered on: (a) anxious/withdrawn behaviour at age 8; (b) anxiety disorders and major depression at ages 16-18 and 18-21; (c) a range of potential confounding factors, including measures of adversity and family factors during childhood. Increasing anxious/withdrawn behaviour at age 8 was associated with increasing risks of social phobia; specific phobia; panic/agoraphobia; and major depression during adolescence and young adulthood. These associations persisted after adjustment for a series of confounding social, childhood, and family factors. Anxious/withdrawn behaviour in childhood is associated with elevated rates of anxiety disorders and major depression during adolescence and young adulthood. These data are consistent with, and extend, previous clinical and epidemiologic findings, by showing consistent linkages between childhood anxious/withdrawn behaviours at age 8 and increased risk for anxiety disorders and depression at ages 16-18 and 18-21 among young persons in the community. These results may point to the need to provide support and possibly intervention to children showing early anxious or withdrawn behaviours.

  20. Lesion development and replication kinetics during early infection in cattle inoculated with Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus via scarification and black fly (Simulium vittatum) bite.

    PubMed

    Reis, J L; Rodriguez, L L; Mead, D G; Smoliga, G; Brown, C C

    2011-05-01

    Vesicular stomatitis viruses are the causative agents of vesicular stomatitis, an economically important contagious disease of livestock that occurs in North, Central, and South America. Little is known regarding the early stages of infection in natural hosts. Twelve adult Holstein steers were inoculated with Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) on the coronary bands (CB) of the feet via scarification (SC) or by VSNJV-infected black fly (Simulium vittatum) bite (FB). Three additional animals were inoculated on the neck skin using FB. Clinical disease and lesion development were assessed daily, and animals were euthanatized from 12 hours post inoculation (HPI) through 120 HPI. The animals inoculated in the neck failed to develop any clinical signs or gross lesions, and VSNJV was detected neither by in situ hybridization (ISH) nor by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Lesions on the CB were more severe in the animals infected by FB than by SC. In both groups, peak VSNJV replication occurred between 24 and 48 HPI in keratinocytes of the CB, as evidenced by ISH and IHC. There was evidence of viral replication limited to the first 24 HPI in the local draining lymph nodes, as seen through ISH. Successful infection via FB required logarithmically less virus than with the SC technique, suggesting that components in black fly saliva may facilitate VSNJV transmission and infection in cattle. The lack of lesion development in the neck with the same method of inoculation used in the CB suggests that specific characteristics of the CB epithelium may facilitate VSNJV infection.

  1. [The relationship between placental lesions and early hemorrhagic-ischemic cerebral injury in very low birth weight infants].

    PubMed

    Vaihinger, Mara; Mazzitelli, Nancy; Balanian, Nora; Grandi, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El examen histopatológico de la placenta es trascendente para evidenciar desordenes relacionados con el embarazo que se asocian a lesiones isquémico hemorrágicas cerebrales (LIHC) en recién nacidos prematuros (RNPT). Objetivo: Estudiar la asociación entre lesiones placentarias y LIHC precoces detectadas con ecografía en RNPT ≤ 1500 g y 32 semanas. Material y Métodos: diseño caso – control. Criterios de inclusión: RNPT ≥ 24 y ≤ 32 semanas, ≥ 500 y ≤ 1500 g, nacidos en la Maternidad Sardá entre años 2006 y 2012. Criterios de exclusión: RNPT gemelares, con malformaciones o infecciones intrauterinas específicas y los fallecidos antes de las 24 horas de vida. Resultados: fueron incluidos 198 RNPT, 49 con LIHC (casos) y 149 sin LIHC (controles). No se encontraron diferencias en las lesiones histopatológicas placentarias entre los dos grupos, aunque se apreció una clara tendencia de lesiones inflamatorias en los casos (67.3%) en comparación con los controles (48 %, p = 0.018). La ruptura prematura de las membranas (p = 0.027) y la corioamnionitis clínica fueron más frecuentes en los casos. Complicaciones fuertemente asociadas a prematurez fueron estadísticamente más evidentes entre los casos. La hemorragia intraventricular fue la lesión cerebral más hallada. El 50% de los casos persistieron con LIHC a las 36-40 semanas, mientras que a mayor edad gestacional el riesgo de LIHC fue menor . Conclusiones: las lesiones histopatológicas placentarias no estuvieron asociadas independientemente a mayor riesgo de LIHC, aunque se observó un predominio de lesiones inflamatorias en los casos.

  2. Prediction of early and late preeclampsia by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery*

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Augusto Henriques Fulgêncio; Evangelista, Aline Aarão; Martins, Raphaela Menin Franco; Leite, Henrique Vítor; Cabral, Antônio Carlos Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the accuracy in the prediction of both early and late preeclampsia by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery (FMD), a biophysical marker for endothelial dysfunction. Materials and Methods A total of 91 patients, considered at high risk for development of preeclampsia were submitted to brachial artery FMD between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. Results Nineteen out of the selected patients developed preeclampsia, 8 in its early form and 11 in the late form. With a cut-off value of 6.5%, the FMD sensitivity for early preeclampsia prediction was 75.0%, with specificity of 73.3%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 32.4% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 91.9%. For the prediction of late preeclampsia, sensitivity = 83.3%, specificity = 73.2%, PPV = 34.4% and NPV = 96.2% were observed. And for the prediction of all associated forms of preeclampsia, sensitivity = 84.2%, specificity = 73.6%, PPV = 45.7% and NPV = 94.6% were observed. Conclusion FMD of the brachial artery is a test with good accuracy in the prediction of both early and late preeclampsia, which may represent a positive impact on the follow-up of pregnant women at high risk for developing this syndrome. PMID:25741086

  3. Substance Use in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Which Best Predicts Violence in Early Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Robert F.; Jamison, Eric G., II

    2013-01-01

    Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used to test the contributions of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, LSD, PCP, and other illicit drugs to violence in early adulthood (e.g., took part in a gang fight, pulled a knife or gun, used a weapon in a fight, used a weapon to get something). The…

  4. Substance Use in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Which Best Predicts Violence in Early Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Robert F.; Jamison, Eric G., II

    2013-01-01

    Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used to test the contributions of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, LSD, PCP, and other illicit drugs to violence in early adulthood (e.g., took part in a gang fight, pulled a knife or gun, used a weapon in a fight, used a weapon to get something). The…

  5. ERPs Recorded During Early Second Language Exposure Predict Syntactic Learning

    PubMed Central

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    Millions of adults worldwide are faced with the task of learning a second language (L2). Understanding the neural mechanisms that support this learning process is an important area of scientific inquiry. However, most previous studies on the neural mechanisms underlying L2 acquisition have focused on characterizing the results of learning, relying upon end-state outcome measures in which learning is assessed after it has occurred, rather than on the learning process itself. In the present study, we adopted a novel and more direct approach to investigate neural mechanisms engaged during L2 learning, in which we recorded ERPs from beginning adult learners as they were exposed to an unfamiliar L2 for the first time. Learners’ proficiency in the L2 was then assessed behaviorally using a grammaticality judgment task, and ERP data acquired during initial L2 exposure were sorted as a function of performance on this task. High proficiency learners showed a larger N100 effect to open-class content words compared to closed-class function words, while low proficiency learners did not show a significant N100 difference between open- and closed-class words. In contrast, amplitude of the N400 word category effect correlated with learners’ L2 comprehension, rather than predicting syntactic learning. Taken together, these results indicate that learners who spontaneously direct greater attention to open- rather than closed-class words when processing L2 input show better syntactic learning, suggesting a link between selective attention to open-class content words and acquisition of basic morphosyntactic rules. These findings highlight the importance of selective attention mechanisms for L2 acquisition. PMID:24666165

  6. ERPs recorded during early second language exposure predict syntactic learning.

    PubMed

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen J

    2014-09-01

    Millions of adults worldwide are faced with the task of learning a second language (L2). Understanding the neural mechanisms that support this learning process is an important area of scientific inquiry. However, most previous studies on the neural mechanisms underlying L2 acquisition have focused on characterizing the results of learning, relying upon end-state outcome measures in which learning is assessed after it has occurred, rather than on the learning process itself. In this study, we adopted a novel and more direct approach to investigate neural mechanisms engaged during L2 learning, in which we recorded ERPs from beginning adult learners as they were exposed to an unfamiliar L2 for the first time. Learners' proficiency in the L2 was then assessed behaviorally using a grammaticality judgment task, and ERP data acquired during initial L2 exposure were sorted as a function of performance on this task. High-proficiency learners showed a larger N100 effect to open-class content words compared with closed-class function words, whereas low-proficiency learners did not show a significant N100 difference between open- and closed-class words. In contrast, amplitude of the N400 word category effect correlated with learners' L2 comprehension, rather than predicting syntactic learning. Taken together, these results indicate that learners who spontaneously direct greater attention to open- rather than closed-class words when processing L2 input show better syntactic learning, suggesting a link between selective attention to open-class content words and acquisition of basic morphosyntactic rules. These findings highlight the importance of selective attention mechanisms for L2 acquisition.

  7. Usefulness of thallium-201 SPECT for prediction of early progression in low-grade astrocytomas diagnosed by stereotactic biopsy.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Jae; Kang, Shin-Hyuk; Park, Dong-Hyuk; Cho, Tai-Hyoung; Choe, Jae Gol; Chung, Yong-Gu

    2012-04-01

    To establish the value of thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography ((201)Tl-SPECT) as a predictor of early progression in low-grade astrocytomas (LGAs). We studied 57 consecutive patients who underwent 201 Tl-SPECT before stereotactic biopsy (n=33) or surgical resection (n=24). The value of radiologic and histopathological variables ((201)Tl index and MIB-1 index) in predicting progression free survival (PFS) was examined in each group of patients. During a median follow up of 55 months (range, 11-101), progression of the primary lesion was identified in 46 patients (80.7%). Based on Cox's proportional hazards model, the increased thallium uptake was associated with a short PFS in both biopsy and resection groups, whereas the MIB-1 index was significant only in the resection group. Considering the cut-off value, (201)Tl index>1.7 was statistically significant for reduced PFS in the biopsy group; however, MIB-1 index was not directly related to the PFS at any level. For the surgical resection group, both a (201)Tl index>1.9 and a MIB-1 index>6% were associated with short PFS. (201)Tl SPECT may play a role in prediction of early tumor progression not only in resected LGAs, but also in biopsy-proven LGAs. Therefore, we suggest that patients with LGAs established from biopsy should be considered as high-risk groups for early progression if the tumor shows a high (201)Tl uptake, even if the tumor demonstrates low proliferative activity on histopathologic examination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Stable early maternal report of behavioral inhibition predicts lifetime social anxiety disorder in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Pine, Daniel S; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Henderson, Heather A; Diaz, Yamalis; Raggi, Veronica L; Fox, Nathan A

    2009-09-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperamental style identifiable in early childhood, is considered a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders, particularly social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, few studies examining this question have evaluated the stability of BI across multiple developmental time points and followed participants into adolescence-the developmental period during which risk for SAD onset is at its peak. The current study used a prospective longitudinal design to determine whether stable early BI predicted the presence of psychiatric disorders and continuous levels of social anxiety in adolescents. It was hypothesized that stable BI would predict the presence of adolescent psychiatric diagnoses, specifically SAD. Participants included 126 adolescents aged 14 to 16 years who were first recruited at 4 months of age from hospital birth records. Temperament was measured at multiple time points between the ages of 14 months and 7 years. In adolescence, diagnostic interviews were conducted with parents and adolescents, and continuous measures of adolescent- and parent-reported social anxiety were collected. Stable maternal-reported early BI was associated with 3.79 times increased odds of a lifetime SAD diagnosis, but not other diagnoses, during adolescence (95% confidence interval 1.18-12.12). Stable maternal-reported early BI also predicted independent adolescent and parent ratings of ongoing social anxiety symptoms. Findings suggesting that stable maternal-reported early BI predicts lifetime SAD have important implications for the early identification and prevention of SAD.

  9. Combining acute diffusion-weighted imaging and mean transmit time lesion volumes with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale Score improves the prediction of acute stroke outcome.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Albert J; Barak, Elizabeth R; Copen, William A; Kamalian, Shahmir; Gharai, Leila Rezai; Pervez, Muhammad A; Schwamm, Lee H; González, R Gilberto; Schaefer, Pamela W

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and mean transit time (MTT) lesion volumes and presenting National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) can identify patients with acute ischemic stroke who will have a high probability of good and poor outcomes. Fifty-four patients with acute ischemic stroke who had MRI within 9 hours of symptom onset and 3-month follow-up with modified Rankin scale were evaluated. Acute DWI and MTT lesion volumes and baseline NIHSS scores were calculated. Clinical outcomes were considered good if the modified Rankin Scale was 0 to 2. The 33 of 54 (61%) patients with good outcomes had significantly smaller DWI lesion volumes (P=0.0001), smaller MTT lesion volumes (P<0.0001), and lower NIHSS scores (P<0.0001) compared with those with poor outcomes. Receiver operating characteristic curves for DWI, MTT, and NIHSS relative to poor outcome had areas under the curve of 0.889, 0.854, and 0.930, respectively, which were not significantly different. DWI and MTT lesion volumes predicted outcome better than mismatch volume or percentage mismatch. All patients with a DWI volume >72 mL (13 of 54) and an NIHSS score >20 (6 of 54) had poor outcomes. All patients with an MTT volume of <47 mL (16 of 54) and an NIHSS score <8 (17 of 54) had good outcomes. Combining clinical and imaging thresholds improved prognostic yield (70%) over clinical (43%) or imaging (54%) thresholds alone (P=0.01). Combining quantitative DWI and MTT with NIHSS predicts good and poor outcomes with high probability and is superior to NIHSS alone.

  10. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years.

    PubMed

    Pitchford, Nicola J; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.

  11. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years

    PubMed Central

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A.; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills. PMID:27303342

  12. Early Recurrence After Hepatectomy for Colorectal Liver Metastases: What Optimal Definition and What Predictive Factors?

    PubMed

    Imai, Katsunori; Allard, Marc-Antoine; Benitez, Carlos Castro; Vibert, Eric; Sa Cunha, Antonio; Cherqui, Daniel; Castaing, Denis; Bismuth, Henri; Baba, Hideo; Adam, René

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal definition and elucidate the predictive factors of early recurrence after surgery for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Among 987 patients who underwent curative surgery for CRLM from 1990 to 2012, 846 with a minimum follow-up period of 24 months were eligible for this study. The minimum p value approach of survival after initial recurrence was used to determine the optimal cutoff for the definition of early recurrence. The predictive factors of early recurrence and prognostic factors of survival were analyzed. For 667 patients (79%) who developed recurrence, the optimal cutoff point of early recurrence was determined to be 8 months after surgery. The impact of early recurrence on survival was demonstrated mainly in patients who received preoperative chemotherapy. Among the 691 patients who received preoperative chemotherapy, recurrence was observed in 562 (81%), and survival in patients with early recurrence was significantly worse than in those with late recurrence (5-year survival 18.5% vs. 53.4%, p < .0001). Multivariate logistic analysis identified age ≤57 years (p = .0022), >1 chemotherapy line (p = .03), disease progression during last-line chemotherapy (p = .024), >3 tumors (p = .0014), and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 >60 U/mL (p = .0003) as independent predictors of early recurrence. Salvage surgery for recurrence significantly improved survival, even in patients with early recurrence. The optimal cutoff point of early recurrence was determined to be 8 months. The preoperative prediction of early recurrence is possible and crucial for designing effective perioperative chemotherapy regimens. In this study, the optimal cutoff point of early recurrence was determined to be 8 months after surgery based on the minimum p value approach, and its prognostic impact was demonstrated mainly in patients who received preoperative chemotherapy. Five factors, including age, number of preoperative chemotherapy lines

  13. [Effect of nano carbon tattooing on the lesion localization in the early colon cancer for additional surgical procedure after endoscopic resection].

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen; Zhang, Zaizhong; Wang, Lie; Lin, Nan; Yang, Weijin; Wu, Weihang; Wang, Wen; Wang, Rong; Wang, Yu

    2017-08-25

    To explore the effect of nano carbon tattooing on the lesion localization in the early colon cancer for additional surgical procedure after endoscopic resection. Thirty-five patients with early colon cancer accepted additional surgical procedures after endoscopic resection in Fuzhou General Hospital of PLA from May 2014 to November 2016. All the patients underwent nano carbon tattooing before the end of endoscopic resection: 0.1 ml carbon nanoparticles suspension was respectively injected into the normal intestinal submucosa from 1 cm outside the 4 sites (upper, lower, left and right) of the lesion border by colonoscopy, marking the original lesion location and guiding the subsequent additional surgery. Data of these 35 cases were summarized. All the 35 cases, including 22 males and 13 females, with a mean age of 46.5 years(range 35-70), completed the endoscopic disposable carbon nano marking, and the mean operative time was 7.5 minutes(range 5-10). No bleeding, no perforation and no adverse reaction occurred. Four to 21(10±3.5) days after endoscopic resection, the patients received the additional surgery as a result of pathological specimens of endoscopic resection in 10 cases of vascular invasion, 7 cases of severe submucosal infiltration, 7 cases of more than grade G2 in tumor budding, 6 cases of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma, and 5 cases of positive margin. All the patients underwent laparoscopic surgery. The mean time of intraoperative detection and lesion location was 3.0 minutes(range 1-5). All tattooings were clearly visible under the naked eye. The colon wedge resection were performed in 5 cases, colon segment resection in 14 cases, and radical resection of colon cancer in 16 cases. The operative time was 45 to 180(120±30) min, and the blood loss was 50 ~ 200(50±15) ml. There was no intraoperative complications. The first gas passage time was 12 to 48(24±8) h. The postoperative hospital stay was 10 to 3(6.5±2.5) d

  14. Bilingual language processing after a lesion in the left thalamic and temporal regions. A case report with early childhood onset

    SciTech Connect

    van Lieshout, P.; Renier, W.; Eling, P.; de Bot, K.; Slis, I. )

    1990-02-01

    This case study concerns an 18-year-old bilingual girl who suffered a radiation lesion in the left (dominant) thalamic and temporal region when she was 4 years old. Language and memory assessment revealed deficits in auditory short-term memory, auditory word comprehension, nonword repetition, syntactic processing, word fluency, and confrontation naming tasks. Both languages (English and Dutch) were found to be affected in a similar manner, despite the fact that one language (English) was acquired before and the other (Dutch) after the period of lesion onset. Most of the deficits appear to be related to verbal (short-term) memory dysfunction. Several hypotheses of subcortical involvement in memory processes are discussed with reference to existing theories in this area.

  15. Identification of a Genomic Signature Predicting for Recurrence in Early Stage Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    RNAseq of 400 training specimens (Months 12-18) 2. Import raw data into public databases (Months 12-18) 3. Generate preliminary gene signature through...This included sequencing a sample test of 10 tumors and comparing the sequencing results of these early stage samples with publicly available RNAseq ...addressed and fulfill an important unmet need. KEYWORDS: Early Stage Ovarian Cancer, genomic predictive signature, recurrence, RNAseq Research

  16. Early Posttransplant Isolated v1 Lesion Does Not Need to Be Treated and Does Not Lead to Increased Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Moinuddin, Irfan; Thajudeen, Bijin; Sussman, Amy; Madhrira, Machaiah; Bracamonte, Erika; Popovtzer, Mordecai; Kadambi, Pradeep V.

    2016-01-01

    Acute vascular rejection (AVR) is characterized by intimal arteritis in addition to tubulitis and interstitial inflammation. It is associated with a poorer prognosis compared to tubulointerstitial rejection (AIR) and AVR is associated with a higher rate of graft loss than AIR. The prognosis and treatment of arteritis without tubulitis and interstitial inflammation (isolated v1 lesion) are still controversial. We report a case of a patient who had a biopsy of the kidney allograft for evaluation of slow graft function. The biopsy revealed an isolated v1 lesion. However, we chose not to augment immunosuppression. The patient's kidney allograft function improved over time with close monitoring. Repeat biopsy a year later showed no evidence of endothelialitis and relatively unchanged fibrosis and no other abnormalities. Although it is suggested that most cases of isolated v1 lesions will respond to corticosteroids or T cell depleting therapies, some cases will improve with conservative management. Further studies are needed to determine which cases could be managed conservatively. PMID:27293950

  17. Which behavioral, emotional and school problems in middle-childhood predict early sexual behavior?

    PubMed

    Parkes, Alison; Waylen, Andrea; Sayal, Kapil; Heron, Jon; Henderson, Marion; Wight, Daniel; Macleod, John

    2014-04-01

    Mental health and school adjustment problems are thought to distinguish early sexual behavior from normative timing (16-18 years), but little is known about how early sexual behavior originates from these problems in middle-childhood. Existing studies do not allow for co-occurring problems, differences in onset and persistence, and there is no information on middle-childhood school adjustment in relationship to early sexual activity. This study examined associations between several middle-childhood problems and early sexual behavior, using a subsample (N = 4,739, 53 % female, 98 % white, mean age 15 years 6 months) from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Adolescents provided information at age 15 on early sexual behavior (oral sex and/or intercourse) and sexual risk-taking, and at age 13 on prior risk involvement (sexual behavior, antisocial behavior and substance use). Information on hyperactivity/inattention, conduct problems, depressive symptoms, peer relationship problems, school dislike and school performance was collected in middle-childhood at Time 1 (6-8 years) and Time 2 (10-11 years). In agreement with previous research, conduct problems predicted early sexual behavior, although this was found only for persistent early problems. In addition, Time 2 school dislike predicted early sexual behavior, while peer relationship problems were protective. Persistent early school dislike further characterized higher-risk groups (early sexual behavior preceded by age 13 risk, or accompanied by higher sexual risk-taking). The study establishes middle-childhood school dislike as a novel risk factor for early sexual behavior and higher-risk groups, and the importance of persistent conduct problems. Implications for the identification of children at risk and targeted intervention are discussed, as well as suggestions for further research.

  18. [Predictive value of early lactate area for mortality in elderly patients with septic shock].

    PubMed

    Zhang, J X; Yin, M; Chen, X M; Li, C; Wu, D W; Ding, S F; Du, B F; Guo, H P; Qin, W D; Yang, H N; Wang, H

    2016-09-06

    Objective: To investigate the predictive value of early lactate area for mortality in elderly patients with septic shock. Methods: From January 2012 to December 2013, a prospective study was conducted in the Department of Critical Care Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University. A total of 115 septic shock patients with age ≥65 years were included in the study. Serum lactate was measured every 6 hours, the lactate indicators, including early lactate area, APACHE Ⅱ score etc were recorded. Results: The overall 28-day mortality rate was 67.0%. The top three primary infection sources were lung, abdominal cavity and bloodstream. When compared to survivors, non-survivors had significantly elevated early lactate area and APACHE Ⅱ score and lowered lactate clearance[(27.4±7.6) vs ( 20.3±6.5)], they were significantly more likely to have undergone mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy and inotropic or vasopressor support for ≥3 d, and more frequently displayed signs of cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal and hepatic dysfunction (all P<0.05) .Receiver Operating Characteristic curves indicated the lactate area score displayed a strong predictive power for 28 day mortality as indicated by an AUC of 0.758 (P<0.01) and had significantly greater predictive power when compared to the initial lactate or lactate clearance (all P<0.05). Conclusions: In geriatric patients with septic shock, the early lactate area is a useful predictor for early death and showed better predictive value than other lactate indicators.

  19. Novel contact force sensor incorporated in irrigated radiofrequency ablation catheter predicts lesion size and incidence of steam pop and thrombus.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Katsuaki; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Shah, Dipen C; Lambert, Hendrik; Leo, Giovanni; Aeby, Nicolas; Ikeda, Atsushi; Pitha, Jan V; Sharma, Tushar; Lazzara, Ralph; Jackman, Warren M

    2008-12-01

    An open-irrigated radiofrequency (RF) ablation catheter was developed to measure contact force (CF). Three optical fibers measure microdeformation of the catheter tip. The purpose of this study was to (1) validate the accuracy of CF sensor (CFS) (bench test); and (2) determine the relationship between CF and tissue temperatures, lesion size, steam pop, and thrombus during RF ablation using a canine thigh muscle preparation. CFS measurements (total 1409) from 2 catheters in 3 angles (perpendicular, parallel, and 45 degrees ) were compared with a certified balance (range, 0 to 50 g). CFS measurements correlated highly (R(2) > or =0.988; mean error, < or =1.0 g). In 10 anesthetized dogs, a skin cradle over the thigh muscle was superfused with heparinized blood at 37 degrees C. A 7F catheter with 3.5-mm saline-irrigated electrode and CFS (Endosense) was held perpendicular to the muscle at CF of 2, 10, 20, 30, and 40 g. RF was delivered (n=100) for 60 seconds at 30 or 50 W (irrigation 17 or 30 mL/min). Tissue temperature (3 and 7 mm depths), lesion size, thrombus, and steam pop increased significantly with increasing CF at each RF power. Lesion size was greater with applications of lower power (30 W) and greater CF (30 to 40 g) than at high power (50 W) with lower CF (2 to 10 g). This novel ablation catheter, which accurately measures CF, confirmed CF is a major determinant of RF lesion size. Steam pop and thrombus incidence also increases with CF. CFS in an open-irrigated ablation catheter that may optimize the selection of RF power and application time to maximize lesion formation and reduce the risk of steam pop and thrombus.

  20. Methylated Host Cell Gene Promoters and Human Papillomavirus Type 16 and 18 Predicting Cervical Lesions and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Milutin Gašperov, Nina; Sabol, Ivan; Planinić, Pavao; Grubišić, Goran; Fistonić, Ivan; Ćorušić, Ante; Grce, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Change in the host and/or human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA methylation profile is probably one of the main factors responsible for the malignant progression of cervical lesions to cancer. To investigate those changes we studied 173 cervical samples with different grades of cervical lesion, from normal to cervical cancer. The methylation status of nine cellular gene promoters, CCNA1, CDH1, C13ORF18, DAPK1, HIC1, RARβ2, hTERT1, hTERT2 and TWIST1, was investigated by Methylation Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (MSP). The methylation of HPV18 L1-gene was also investigated by MSP, while the methylated cytosines within four regions, L1, 5’LCR, enhancer, and promoter of the HPV16 genome covering 19 CpG sites were evaluated by bisulfite sequencing. Statistically significant methylation biomarkers distinguishing between cervical precursor lesions from normal cervix were primarily C13ORF18 and secondly CCNA1, and those distinguishing cervical cancer from normal or cervical precursor lesions were CCNA1, C13ORF18, hTERT1, hTERT2 and TWIST1. In addition, the methylation analysis of individual CpG sites of the HPV16 genome in different sample groups, notably the 7455 and 7694 sites, proved to be more important than the overall methylation frequency. The majority of HPV18 positive samples contained both methylated and unmethylated L1 gene, and samples with L1-gene methylated forms alone had better prognosis when correlated with the host cell gene promoters’ methylation profiles. In conclusion, both cellular and viral methylation biomarkers should be used for monitoring cervical lesion progression to prevent invasive cervical cancer. PMID:26057381

  1. Predictive model for contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the breast: Is it feasible in malignant risk assessment of breast imaging reporting and data system 4 lesions?

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jun; Chen, Ji-Dong; Chen, Qing; Yue, Lin-Xian; Zhou, Guo; Lan, Cheng; Li, Yi; Wu, Chi-Hua; Lu, Jing-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To build and evaluate predictive models for contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) of the breast to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions. METHODS: A total of 235 breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) 4 solid breast lesions were imaged via CEUS before core needle biopsy or surgical resection. CEUS results were analyzed on 10 enhancing patterns to evaluate diagnostic performance of three benign and three malignant CEUS models, with pathological results used as the gold standard. A logistic regression model was developed basing on the CEUS results, and then evaluated with receiver operating curve (ROC). RESULTS: Except in cases of enhanced homogeneity, the rest of the 9 enhancement appearances were statistically significant (P < 0.05). These 9 enhancement patterns were selected in the final step of the logistic regression analysis, with diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 84.4% and 82.7%, respectively, and the area under the ROC curve of 0.911. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the malignant vs benign CEUS models were 84.38%, 87.77%, 86.38% and 86.46%, 81.29% and 83.40%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The breast CEUS models can predict risk of malignant breast lesions more accurately, decrease false-positive biopsy, and provide accurate BI-RADS classification. PMID:27358688

  2. Novel features of early burst suppression predict outcome after birth asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Kartik K; Roberts, James A; Metsäranta, Marjo; Finnigan, Simon; Breakspear, Michael; Vanhatalo, Sampsa

    2014-01-01

    Burst suppression patterns in the electroencephalogram are a reliable marker of recent severe brain insult. Here we analyze statistical properties of bursts occurring in 20 electroencephalographic recordings acquired from hypothermic asphyxic newborns in the hours immediately following birth. We show that the distributions of burst area and duration in these acute data predict later clinical outcome in both structural neuroimaging and neurodevelopment. Our findings indicate the first early electroencephalographic metrics that offer outcome prediction in asphyxic neonates undergoing hypothermia treatment. PMID:25356399

  3. Prediction of early stroke risk in transient symptoms with infarction: relevance to the new tissue-based definition.

    PubMed

    Arsava, E Murat; Furie, Karen L; Schwamm, Lee H; Sorensen, A Gregory; Ay, Hakan

    2011-08-01

    The risk of stroke shortly after transient ischemic attack with infarction on diffusion-weighted images, also known as transient symptoms with infarction (TSI), is substantially higher than is the risk after imaging-normal transient ischemic attack. We sought to assess the utility of a Web-based recurrence risk estimator (RRE; http://www.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/RRE/) originally developed for use in patients with ischemic stroke for predicting 7-day risk of stroke in patients with TSI. We calculated RRE and ABCD² scores in a retrospective series of 257 consecutive patients with TSI diagnosed by diffusion-weighted images within 24 hours of symptom onset. We defined subsequent stroke as clinical deterioration associated with new infarction spatially distinct from the index lesion. We assessed the predictive performance of each model by computing the area under receiver-operating characteristics curve. Over 7-day follow-up, 16 patients developed a recurrent stroke (6.2%). The sensitivity and specificity of an RRE score of ≥ 2 for predicting 7-day stroke risk were 87% and 73%, respectively. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.78-0.92) for RRE and 0.57 (95% CI, 0.45-0.69) for ABCD² score (z-test; P<0.001). The RRE score seems to predict 7-day risk of stroke after a TSI. If further validated in larger data sets, the RRE score could be useful in identifying high-risk patients with TSI who may benefit from early intervention with targeted stroke prevention strategies.

  4. Short communication: Markers of oxidant status and inflammation relative to the development of claw lesions associated with lameness in early lactation cows.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, A; Gandy, J C; Neuder, L; Brester, J; Sordillo, L M

    2016-07-01

    Lameness is a major health disorder of dairy cattle and evidence suggests that it may be associated with oxidative stress (OS) during the transition period. Some debate exists, however, as to whether OS precedes the development of lameness or if OS occurs as a consequence of lameness. The purpose of this study was to test whether cows showing claw lesions during early lactation had a greater pro-oxidant and inflammatory status throughout the dry period or at the start of the lactation. Blood samples were taken from 30 cows from the same herd at dry off, movement to the close-up pen, and between 3 and 7 d in milk. Sera were analyzed for concentrations of haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and antioxidant potential. Blood samples also were subjected to total and differential white blood cell counts. Animals were monitored through 120 d in milk and grouped ex post into the following health categories: (1) exclusively hoof lesions; (2) other production diseases; or (3) nondiseased. Changes in oxidant status and inflammatory markers were significantly different with respect to metabolic and physiologic adaptations to calving and lactation. No differences in oxidant status, acute phase protein concentrations, or leukocyte populations were observed between the hoof lesions and the nondiseased categories. Thus, any associations between OS and lameness likely occurs closer to the onset of clinical signs or as a consequence of inflammatory responses due to localized tissue injury. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bone marrow abnormalities and early bone lesions in multiple myeloma and its precursor disease: a prospective study using functional and morphologic imaging.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Manisha; Turkbey, Baris; Tan, Esther; Korde, Neha; Kwok, Mary; Manasanch, Elisabet E; Tageja, Nishant; Mailankody, Sham; Roschewski, Mark; Mulquin, Marcia; Carpenter, Ashley; Lamping, Elizabeth; Minter, Alex R; Weiss, Brendan M; Mena, Esther; Lindenberg, Liza; Calvo, Katherine R; Maric, Irina; Usmani, Saad Z; Choyke, Peter L; Kurdziel, Karen; Landgren, Ola

    2016-05-01

    The incidence and importance of bone marrow involvement and/or early bone lesions in multiple myeloma (MM) precursor diseases is largely unknown. This study prospectively compared the sensitivity of several imaging modalities in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) and MM. Thirty patients (10 each with MGUS, SMM and MM) were evaluated with skeletal survey, [18F]FDG-PET/CT, [18F]NaF-PET/CT and morphologic dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI. An additional 16 SMM patients had