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Sample records for predisposed subjects effects

  1. Experimental inhalation of fragrance allergens in predisposed subjects: effects on skin and airways.

    PubMed

    Schnuch, A; Oppel, E; Oppel, T; Römmelt, H; Kramer, M; Riu, E; Darsow, U; Przybilla, B; Nowak, D; Jörres, R A

    2010-03-01

    Exposure to fragrances is increasingly encountered in the environment. Some fragrances are known to be important skin and potential airway sensitizers. We investigated whether patients with contact allergy to isoeugenol (ISO) or hydroxyisohexyl-3-carboxaldehyde (HICC) would react to inhalation exposure at the level of the airways and skin. Eleven patients sensitized to ISO and 10 patients sensitized to HICC were exposed for 60 min to 1000 microg m(-3) of these compounds in an exposure chamber at rest, and to geraniol 1000 microg m(-3) as a control. Patients wore protective clothing to prevent skin exposure. Assessments were performed prior to exposure, and immediately, 2, 5, 24 and 72 h afterwards. There were no significant changes in lung function but a tendency towards an increased bronchial hyper-responsiveness after exposure to any of the compounds. Laboratory parameters of inflammation did not indicate responses. Single patients reported respiratory symptoms unrelated to objective measures. In contrast, the observed skin symptoms corresponded to the patients' specific sensitization. Four patients reported symptoms compatible with delayed-type hypersensitivity, and two demonstrated a flare after ISO. On re-exposure they did not respond to a lower, more realistic level of ISO. Inhalation of high concentrations of fragrance contact allergens apparently poses a risk for some patients of developing manifest haematogenic contact dermatitis, while the changes in the respiratory tract are limited to symptoms in some subjects without objective changes.

  2. Comparison of lesions predisposing to rhegmatogenous retinal detachment by race of subjects.

    PubMed

    Foos, R Y; Simons, K B; Wheeler, N C

    1983-11-01

    Because rhegmatogenous retinal detachments are thought to be much less common in blacks than in whites, we compared the incidence of various lesions known to cause or predispose to this condition (synchysis senilis, posterior vitreous detachment, breaks, tears, and holes of the peripheral fundus, and lattice degeneration of the retina) in a series of postmortem eyes on the basis of race. Our statistical analysis also included trauma, myopia, and chorioretinitis. The series included 322 black subjects and 2,012 white subjects. The subjects ranged in age from 20 to 93 years at the time of death. Although the initial data showed a racial difference in the incidence of synchysis senilis of grade 3 (50% destruction) or higher and posterior vitreous detachment (P = .033 and P = .021, respectively), we found no difference when the data were age-corrected.

  3. Prevalence of Radiographic Parameters Predisposing to Femoroacetabular Impingement in Young Asymptomatic Chinese and White Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Van Houcke, Jan; Yau, Wan Pan; Yan, Chun Hoi; Huysse, Wouter; Dechamps, Hannes; Lau, Wing Hang; Wong, Chun Sing; Pattyn, Christophe; Audenaert, Emmanuel Albert

    2015-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis of the hip is five to ten times more common in white people than in Chinese people. Little is known about the true prevalence of femoroacetabular impingement or its role in the development of osteoarthritis in the Chinese population. A cross-sectional study of both white and Chinese asymptomatic individuals was conducted to compare the prevalences of radiographic features posing a risk for femoroacetabular impingement in the two groups. It was hypothesized that that there would be proportional differences in hip anatomy between the white and Asian populations. Methods: Pelvic computed tomography scans of 201 subjects (ninety-nine white Belgians and 102 Chinese; 105 men and ninety-six women) without hip pain who were eighteen to forty years of age were assessed. The original axial images were reformatted to three-dimensional pelvic models simulating standardized radiographic views. Ten radiographic parameters predisposing to femoroacetabular impingement were measured: alpha angle, anterior offset ratio, and caput-collum-diaphyseal angle on the femoral side and crossover sign, ischial spine projection, acetabular anteversion angle, center-edge angle, acetabular angle of Sharp, Tönnis angle, and anterior acetabular head index on the acetabular side. Results: The white subjects had a less spherical femoral head than the Chinese subjects (average alpha angle, 56° compared with 50°; p < 0.001). The Chinese subjects had less lateral acetabular coverage than the white subjects, with average center-edge angles of 35° and 39° (p < 0.001) and acetabular angles of Sharp of 38° and 36° (p < 0.001), respectively. A shallower acetabular configuration was predominantly present in Chinese women. Conclusions: Significant differences in hip anatomy were demonstrated between young asymptomatic Chinese and white subjects. However, the absolute size of the observed differences appears to contrast with the reported low prevalence of femoroacetabular

  4. Modeling tumor predisposing FH mutations in yeast: effects on fumarase activity, growth phenotype and gene expression profile.

    PubMed

    Kokko, Antti; Ylisaukko-Oja, Sanna S K; Kiuru, Maija; Takatalo, Maarit S; Salmikangas, Paula; Tuimala, Jarno; Arango, Diego; Karhu, Auli; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Jäntti, Jussi

    2006-03-15

    Heterozygous mutations in the fumarase (FH) gene cause the tumor predisposition syndrome hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (MIM 605839). While most families segregate a benign phenotype of multiple leiomyomas, others display a phenotype with early-onset renal cancer and leiomyosarcoma. Modifier genes may play a role in this, but an alternative explanation is simple genotype-phenotype association. FH mutations predisposing to cancer appear to be truncating or in fully conserved amino acids, suggesting that mutations severely affecting FH activity might predispose to malignancy. In the present study, we analyzed 2 conserved fumarase mutations in yeast. H153R has been described in 3 cancer predisposition families; whereas all 3 reported K187R families have displayed the benign phenotype. Examining H153R and K187R should clarify whether cancer-related FH mutations differ from their benign phenotype-associated counterparts. Yeast strains containing the 2 mutations, and knockout and wild type (WT) references, were created and the growth phenotypes studied on selected carbon sources to assess mitochondrial function. Additionally, Fum1 protein production and activity were measured, and the strains were subjected to transcriptional profiling. On nonfermentable lactate medium, the fumarase knockout strains did not grow, whereas the mutants showed no differences, as compared to WT yeast. Although both mutant strains produced fumarase, a considerable decrease in enzyme activity was seen in mutants with respect to WT. Transcription of the majority of Krebs cycle enzymes was downregulated in response to mutations in fumarase. In conclusion, both mutants displayed some, albeit greatly reduced, fumarase activity. This activity was sufficient to support normal growth on nonfermentable carbon source, unlike the deletion phenotype, demonstrating the significance of the residual activity. The findings support the hypothesis that modifier gene(s), rather than phenotype

  5. Factors Predisposing Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Carl D.; Phelps, Brady J.

    The exact nature of the events which may predispose a person to substance abuse is not known. This paper provides a theoretical discussion and review which emphasizes three contexts which have been shown to predispose on individual to drug abuse: (1) prenatal exposure to a given substance; (2) environmental conditions present upon first exposure…

  6. Long-lasting subjective effects of LSD in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Yasmin; Liechti, Matthias E

    2017-09-16

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and other serotonergic hallucinogens can induce profound alterations of consciousness and mystical-type experiences, with reportedly long-lasting effects on subjective well-being and personality. We investigated the lasting effects of a single dose of LSD (200 μg) that was administered in a laboratory setting in 16 healthy participants. The following outcome measures were assessed before and 1 and 12 months after LSD administration: Persisting Effects Questionnaire (PEQ), Mysticism Scale (MS), Death Transcendence Scale (DTS), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). On the PEQ, positive attitudes about life and/or self, positive mood changes, altruistic/positive social effects, positive behavioral changes, and well-being/life satisfaction significantly increased at 1 and 12 months and were subjectively attributed by the subjects to the LSD experience. Five-Dimensions of Altered States of Consciousness (5D-ASC) total scores, reflecting acutely induced alterations in consciousness, and Mystical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ30) total scores correlated with changes in well-being/life satisfaction 12 months after LSD administration. No changes in negative attitudes, negative mood, antisocial/negative social effects, or negative behavior were attributed to the LSD experience. After 12 months, 10 of 14 participants rated their LSD experience as among the top 10 most meaningful experiences in their lives. Five participants rated the LSD experience among the five most spiritually meaningful experiences in their lives. On the MS and DTS, ratings of mystical experiences significantly increased 1 and 12 months after LSD administration compared with the pre-LSD screening. No relevant changes in personality measures were found. In healthy research subjects, the administration of a single dose of LSD (200 μg) in a safe setting was subjectively considered a personally meaningful experience that had

  7. The effects of joint legal custody on mothers, fathers, and children controlling for factors that predispose a sole maternal versus joint legal award.

    PubMed

    Gunnoe, M L; Braver, S L

    2001-02-01

    Findings from comparisons of joint and sole custody families that do not control for predivorce differences in demographic and family process variables (factors that may predispose families to choose or be awarded joint custody) are of limited generalizability, since obtained group differences may be attributable to predisposing (self-selection) factors, custody, or both. This study compared a random sample of 254 recently separated, not-yet-divorced families on 71 predivorce variables that might plausibly differentiate between families awarded joint legal versus sole maternal custody. Twenty such factors were identified and controlled for in subsequent comparisons of 52 sole maternal and 26 joint legal custody families 2 years postdivorce. Families with joint custody had more frequent father-child visitation, lower maternal satisfaction with custody arrangements, more rapid maternal repartnering, and fewer child adjustment problems (net of predivorce selection factors). Moreover, these effects did not appear to be moderated by level of predecree parental conflict. No association between custody and fathers' compliance with child support orders was obtained.

  8. Subjective effects of Salvia divinorum.

    PubMed

    Dalgarno, Phil

    2007-06-01

    Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogenic plant native to Mexico, where the Mazatec Indians use it in divinatory rituals as a facilitator for contacting the spirits of the dead. A number of traditions surrounding the ritualistic use of Salvia are still observed. Generally the leaves are chewed for the visionary effects. Salvia has recently been embraced by Western drug cultures, where the traditional methods of ingestion are generally eschewed for the more immediately effective technique of smoking the dried leaves. This article discusses the history and indigenous cultural uses of Salvia before outlining its rediscovery in the 1960s and its subsequent introduction to the Western drug scenes (particularly Britain) since the mid 1990s. Qualitative data from 10 Salvia users were collected by means of email interviews. The participants were asked to provide as in-depth responses as possible. No time or space limit on answers was imposed. Their responses to each question are presented verbatim. The effects of Salvia appear to vary between users and seem sensitive to situational factors. Users who understand something of the ritualistic setting for traditional use would appear to have a fuller experience than those who do not.

  9. Depressive behavior induced by social isolation of predisposed female rats.

    PubMed

    Zanier-Gomes, Patrícia Helena; de Abreu Silva, Tomaz Eugênio; Zanetti, Guilherme Cia; Benati, Évelyn Raquel; Pinheiro, Nanci Mendes; Murta, Beatriz Martins Tavares; Crema, Virgínia Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Depression is a mood disorder that is more prevalent in women and has been closely associated with chronic stress. Many models of depression have been suggested that consider different forms of stress. In fact, stress is present in the life of every human being, but only a few develop depression. Accordingly, it seems wrong to consider all stressed animals to be depressed, emphasizing the importance of predisposition for this mood disorder. Based on this finding, we evaluated a predisposition to depressive behavior of female rats on the forced swim test (FST), and the more immobile the animal was during the FST, the more predisposed to depression it was considered to be. Then, animals were subjected to the stress of social isolation for 21 days and were re-evaluated by the FST. The Predisposed/Isolated rats presented higher immobility times. Once all the rats had prior experience in the FST, we calculated an Index of Increase by Isolation, confirming the previous results. Based on this result, we considered the Predisposed/Isolated group as presenting depressive behavior ('Depressed') and the Nonpredisposed/Nonisolated group as the control group ('Nondepressed'). The animals were distributed into 4 new groups: Nondepressed/Vehicle, Nondepressed/Amitriptyline, Depressed/Vehicle, Depressed/Amitriptyline. After 21 days of treatment, only the Depressed/Vehicle group differed from the other 3 groups, demonstrating the efficacy of amitriptyline in treating the depressive behavior of the Depressed animals, validating the model. This study shows that conducting an FST prior to any manipulation can predict predisposition to depressive behavior in female rats and that the social isolation of predisposed animals for 21 days is effective in inducing depressive behavior. This behavior can be considered real depressive behavior because it takes into account predisposition, chronic mild stress, and the prevalent gender.

  10. Effects of predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors on self-care behaviors of the patients with diabetes mellitus in the Minoodasht city, Iran.

    PubMed

    Borhani, Mahboobeh; Rastgarimehr, Babak; Shafieyan, Zahra; Mansourian, Morteza; Hoseini, Seyed Mojtaba; Arzaghi, Seyed Masoud; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rezapoor, Aziz; Asayesh, Hamid; Charkazi, Abdurrahman; Ansari, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    To control diabetes mellitus (DM) it is necessary to make overall changes in the life style of the patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors on self-care behaviors of the patients with DM in the Minoodasht city, Iran in 2012. In this quasi-experimental study, 78 people with DM were selected by convenience sampling method. In the first stage of study, the educational program was compiled and executed on six information sessions. To present the informative content, a video projector and different lecturing methods including questions and answers, dynamic group discussion and different educational materials such as pamphlets and CDs were employed. After one month, the efficiency of the educational program was determined by using the same questioner. Data were analyzed using paired sample T-test and McNemar test. The mean age of participants was 49 (SD: 3.27.) years old, 87.2% were married, and 19.2% were illiterate. The results showed that the enabling factors like adopting to go on a diet and the educational classes facilitated by the staff had significant effects on health care behavior of the patients. Furthermore 69.2% of the participants adopted to go on a diet before the educational sessions; that figure increased to 94.9% after the educational sessions. According to the results the mean scores for the knowledge, attitude, and behavior, reinforcement factors and enabling factors increased significantly after of the educational intervention (p- value >0.001). Predisposing, enabling and reinforcement factors affected in taking self-care behavior in the patient with DM.

  11. Why to Treat Subjects as Fixed Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, James S.; Estes, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R2 targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an…

  12. Why to Treat Subjects as Fixed Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, James S.; Estes, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R2 targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an…

  13. Why to treat subjects as fixed effects.

    PubMed

    Adelman, James S; Estes, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R² targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an interaction involving subjects, they broke down the interaction into individual subject data. Courrieu and Rey's (2015) commentary argues that (a) single-subject data need not be more reliable than subject-average data, and (b) anyway, treating groups of subjects as random samples leads to valid conclusions about general mechanisms of reading. Point (a) was not part of Adelman et al.'s claim. In this reply, we examine the consequences of using the fixed-effect assumption. It (a) produces the correct target to check if by-items regression models contain all necessary variables, (b) more accurately constrains cognitive models, (c) more accurately reveals general mechanisms, and (d) can offer more powerful tests of effects. Even when individual differences are not the primary focus of a study, the fixed-effect analysis is often preferable to the random-effects analysis.

  14. Recruiting phobic research subjects: effectiveness and cost.

    PubMed

    Kaakko, T; Murtomaa, H; Milgrom, P; Getz, T; Ramsay, D S; Coldwell, S E

    2001-01-01

    Efficiently enrolling subjects is one of the most important and difficult aspects of a clinical trial. This prospective study evaluated strategies used in the recruitment of 144 dental injection phobics for a clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of combining alprazolam with exposure therapy. Three types of recruitment strategies were evaluated: paid advertising, free publicity, and professional referral. Sixty-three percent of subjects were enrolled using paid advertising (the majority of them from bus advertisements [27.0%], posters on the University of Washington campus [20.1%], and newspaper advertisements [13.2%]). Free publicity (eg, television coverage, word of mouth) yielded 18.8% of enrolled subjects and professionaL referrals 14.6% of subjects. The average cost (1996 dollars) of enrolling 1 subject was $79. Bus and poster advertising attracted more initial contacts and yielded the greatest enrollment.

  15. Recruiting phobic research subjects: effectiveness and cost.

    PubMed Central

    Kaakko, T.; Murtomaa, H.; Milgrom, P.; Getz, T.; Ramsay, D. S.; Coldwell, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    Efficiently enrolling subjects is one of the most important and difficult aspects of a clinical trial. This prospective study evaluated strategies used in the recruitment of 144 dental injection phobics for a clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of combining alprazolam with exposure therapy. Three types of recruitment strategies were evaluated: paid advertising, free publicity, and professional referral. Sixty-three percent of subjects were enrolled using paid advertising (the majority of them from bus advertisements [27.0%], posters on the University of Washington campus [20.1%], and newspaper advertisements [13.2%]). Free publicity (eg, television coverage, word of mouth) yielded 18.8% of enrolled subjects and professionaL referrals 14.6% of subjects. The average cost (1996 dollars) of enrolling 1 subject was $79. Bus and poster advertising attracted more initial contacts and yielded the greatest enrollment. PMID:11495403

  16. Subject expectancy effects in frontal EMG conditioning.

    PubMed

    Kotses, H; Segreto-Bures, J

    1983-01-01

    The influence of subject expectancies on performance has been examined extensively within the framework of behavior therapy but has received little attention within the context of EMG training. This study assessed the effects of subject expectancy on acquisition during frontal EMG conditioning. Prior to conditioning, subjects were either given no expectancy or instructed that learning to control the feedback stimulus would be either easy (high expectancy) or difficult (low expectancy). Subjects in the three expectancy conditions then underwent 20 min of contingent reinforcement for frontal EMG decreases. Three similar groups of no, low, or high expectancy subjects received noncontingent reinforcement. Differential EMG behavior was exhibited between the two no-expectancy groups, with the contingent group reliably lower in EMG activity than that noncontingent. However, differences were not observed between contingent and noncontingent subjects given either low or high expectancy sets. None of the groups could be differentiated on the basis of subjective variables such as anxiety, relaxation, or frustration. These findings suggest that subject expectancies, either positive or negative, interfere with the acquisition of conditioned EMG behavior.

  17. Effect of GDNF on depressive-like behavior, spatial learning and key genes of the brain dopamine system in genetically predisposed to behavioral disorders mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Naumenko, Vladimir S; Kondaurova, Elena M; Bazovkina, Daria V; Tsybko, Anton S; Ilchibaeva, Tatyana V; Khotskin, Nikita V; Semenova, Alina A; Popova, Nina K

    2014-11-01

    The effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on behavior and brain dopamine system in predisposed to depressive-like behavior ASC (Antidepressant Sensitive Cataleptics) mice in comparison with the parental "nondepressive" CBA mice was studied. In 7days after administration (800ng, i.c.v.) GDNF decreased escape latency time and the path traveled to reach hidden platform in Morris water maze in ASC mice. GDNF enhanced depressive-like behavioral traits in both "nondepressive" CBA and "depressive" ASC mice. In CBA mice, GDNF decreased functional response to agonists of D1 (chloro-APB hydrobromide) and D2 (sumanirole maleate) receptors in tail suspension test, reduced D2 receptor gene expression in the substantia nigra and increased monoamine oxydase A (MAO A) gene expression in the striatum. GDNF increased D1 and D2 receptor genes expression in the nucleus accumbens of ASC mice but failed to alter expression of catechol-O-methyltransferase, dopamine transporter, MAO B and tyrosine hydroxylase genes in both investigated mouse strains. Thus, GDNF produced long-term genotype-dependent effect on behavior and the brain dopamine system. GDNF pretreatment (1) reduced D1 and D2 receptors functional responses and D2 receptor gene expression in s. nigra of CBA mice; (2) increased D1 and D2 receptor genes expression in n. accumbens of ASC mice and (3) improved spatial learning in ASC mice. GDNF enhanced depressive-like behavior both in CBA and ASC mice. The data suggest that genetically defined variance in the cross-talk between GDNF and brain dopamine system contributes to the variability of GDNF-induced responses and might be responsible for controversial GDNF effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Subjective effects of transdermal nicotine among nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Ashare, Rebecca L; Baschnagel, Joseph S; Hawk, Larry W

    2010-04-01

    The subjective experience of nicotine, which may be influenced by personality traits as well as environmental factors, may be important for understanding the factors associated with the initiation and maintenance of nicotine dependence. The present study examined the effects of 7 mg transdermal nicotine among a relatively large sample (n = 91; 44 women) of college-aged nonsmokers. Using a placebo controlled, double-blind, within-subjects design, nicotine's effects were examined at rest and again after participants completed a sustained attention task. Sex and personality factors (Behavioral Inhibition and Behavioral Approach; BIS/BAS Scales; Carver & White, 1994) were examined as potential moderators. Overall, the effects of nicotine were generally modest and unpleasant. In the context of the cognitive task, nicotine increased nausea and negative affect but reduced fatigue, relative to placebo. In contrast, effects of nicotine during the initial 4 hr of patch administration, in which participants were in their natural environments, were moderated by individual differences in behavioral approach. Neither behavioral inhibition nor gender reliably moderated any subjective effects of nicotine. The present work suggests transdermal nicotine exerts only modest, mostly negative effects among nonsmokers. Future work should examine both contextual and personality moderators in large samples of participants who are exposed to nicotine through multiple routes of administration.

  19. Effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on behavior and key members of the brain serotonin system in mouse strains genetically predisposed to behavioral disorders.

    PubMed

    Naumenko, Vladimir S; Bazovkina, Daria V; Semenova, Alina A; Tsybko, Anton S; Il'chibaeva, Tatyana V; Kondaurova, Elena M; Popova, Nina K

    2013-12-01

    The effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on behavior and on the serotonin (5-HT) system of a mouse strain predisposed to depressive-like behavior, ASC/Icg (Antidepressant Sensitive Cataleptics), in comparison with the parental "nondepressive" CBA/Lac mice was studied. Within 7 days after acute administration, GDNF (800 ng, i.c.v.) decreased cataleptic immobility but increased depressive-like behavioral traits in both investigated mouse strains and produced anxiolytic effects in ASC mice. The expression of the gene encoding the key enzyme for 5-HT biosynthesis in the brain, tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph-2), and 5-HT1A receptor gene in the midbrain as well as 5-HT2A receptor gene in the frontal cortex were increased in GDNF-treated ASC mice. At the same time, GDNF decreased 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor gene expression in the hippocampus of ASC mice. GDNF failed to change Tph2, 5-HT1A , or 5-HT2A receptor mRNA levels in CBA mice as well as 5-HT transporter gene expression and 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor functional activity in both investigated mouse strains. The results show 1) a GDNF-induced increase in the expression of key genes of the brain 5-HT system, Tph2, 5-HT1A , and 5-HT2A receptors, and 2) significant genotype-dependent differences in the 5-HT system response to GDNF treatment. The data suggest that genetically defined cross-talk between neurotrophic factors and the brain 5-HT system underlies the variability in behavioral response to GDNF. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Mediating effect of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Akin, Ahmet

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the mediating effects of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness. 297 university students (157 women, 140 men; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.3) were administered the Facebook Addiction Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that Facebook addiction partially mediated the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

  1. Emphysematous pancreatitis predisposed by Olanzapine

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Sukhen; Samanta, Sujay; Banik, Krishanu; Baronia, Arvind Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A 32-year-old male presented to our intensive care unit with severe abdominal pain and was diagnosed as acute pancreatitis after 2 months of olanzapine therapy for bipolar disorder. His serum lipase was 900 u/L, serum triglyceride 560 mg/dL, and blood sugar, fasting and postprandial were 230 and 478 mg/dL, respectively on admission. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of abdomen was suggestive of acute pancreatitis. Repeat CECT showed gas inside pancreas and collection in peripancreatic area and patient underwent percutaneous drainage and antibiotics irrigation through the drain into pancreas. We describe the rare case of emphysematous pancreatitis due to development of diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and immunosuppression predisposed by short duration olanzapine therapy. PMID:25024479

  2. Does anticipation of back pain predispose to back trouble?

    PubMed

    Moseley, G Lorimer; Nicholas, Michael K; Hodges, Paul W

    2004-10-01

    Limb movement imparts a perturbation to the body. The impact of that perturbation is limited via anticipatory postural adjustments. The strategy by which the CNS controls anticipatory postural adjustments of the trunk muscles during limb movement is altered during acute back pain and in people with recurrent back pain, even when they are pain free. The altered postural strategy probably serves to protect the spine in the short term, but it is associated with a cost and is thought to predispose spinal structures to injury in the long term. It is not known why this protective strategy might occur even when people are pain free, but one possibility is that it is caused by the anticipation of back pain. In eight healthy subjects, recordings of intramuscular EMG were made from the trunk muscles during single and repetitive arm movements. Anticipation of experimental back pain and anticipation of experimental elbow pain were elicited by the threat of painful cutaneous stimulation. There was no effect of anticipated experimental elbow pain on postural adjustments. During anticipated experimental back pain, for single arm movements there was delayed activation of the deep trunk muscles and augmentation of at least one superficial trunk muscle. For repetitive arm movements, there was decreased activity and a shift from biphasic to monophasic activation of the deep trunk muscles and increased activity of superficial trunk muscles during anticipation of back pain. In both instances, the changes were consistent with adoption of an altered strategy for postural control and were similar to those observed in patients with recurrent back pain. We conclude that anticipation of experimental back pain evokes a protective postural strategy that stiffens the spine. This protective strategy is associated with compressive cost and is thought to predispose to spinal injury if maintained long term.

  3. Antidepressant-like effects of ecstasy in subjects with a predisposition to depression.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Irina; White, Jason M; Irvine, Rodney J

    2012-10-01

    Positive effects of ecstasy on mood and self-esteem due to increased synaptic serotonin levels may indicate a potential antidepressant-like action. This effect may be more prominent in subjects with a pre-existing mood disturbance who may use ecstasy more frequently as a 'self-medication'. This study compared depressive symptoms and the immediate effects of ecstasy on mood in subjects with (WP) and without (NP) a predisposition to depression. Current ecstasy users were assessed using the profile of mood states (POMS) and beck depression inventory (BDI) when drug-free, and during social gathering, when 20 subjects voluntarily consumed ecstasy (ecstasy group) and 20 abstained from ecstasy (control group). Predisposition to depression was determined using the Brief Symptom Inventory. During social gathering, POMS and BDI were administered 60 min after ecstasy consumption, or at matched time for controls. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) exposure was confirmed using saliva samples collected 60 min after pill ingestion. There was no difference in ecstasy use patterns between the groups. When drug-free, the WP subjects had greater mood disturbance and depressive symptoms than the NP group (POMS: NP 5.85±1.63, WP 14.5±2.81, p<0.05, BDI: NP 4.9±0.86, WP 11.2±1.65, p<0.01). During social gathering, WP subjects who consumed ecstasy reported a significant decrease in depressive symptoms (F(1,35)=5.47, p<0.05). A decrease in depressive symptoms was observed in subjects predisposed to depression. This antidepressant-like action of MDMA may contribute to its use, particularly among people with an existing or latent depressive disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Markedly blunted metabolic effects of fructose in healthy young female subjects compared with male subjects.

    PubMed

    Couchepin, Caroline; Lê, Kim-Anne; Bortolotti, Murielle; da Encarnaçao, Joana Amarante; Oboni, Jean-Baptiste; Tran, Christel; Schneiter, Philippe; Tappy, Luc

    2008-06-01

    To compare the metabolic effects of fructose in healthy male and female subjects. Fasting metabolic profile and hepatic insulin sensitivity were assessed by means of a hyperglycemic clamp in 16 healthy young male and female subjects after a 6-day fructose overfeeding. Fructose overfeeding increased fasting triglyceride concentrations by 71 vs. 16% in male vs. female subjects, respectively (P < 0.05). Endogenous glucose production was increased by 12%, alanine aminotransferase concentration was increased by 38%, and fasting insulin concentrations were increased by 14% after fructose overfeeding in male subjects (all P < 0.05) but were not significantly altered in female subjects. Fasting plasma free fatty acids and lipid oxidation were inhibited by fructose in male but not in female subjects. Short-term fructose overfeeding produces hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic insulin resistance in men, but these effects are markedly blunted in healthy young women.

  5. The effect of varying task difficulty on subjective workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Y.-Y.; Wickens, C. D.; Hart, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of different difficulty distribution patterns on subjective workload, and the presence of a primacy/recency effect in subjective ratings are examined. Eight subjects performed the perceptual central processing required for response selection and manual target acquisition for response execution. The reaction time, movement time, and the percent of correct pattern matching and arithmetic equations are analyzed. The data reveal that subjective rating is unaffected by different task difficulty and no primacy/recency effects are observed in subjective ratings. It is concluded that subjective workload reflects the experience of an ongoing integration process.

  6. Learning Styles, Subject Matter, and Effectiveness in Undergraduate Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Darren C.

    2014-01-01

    Are potential relationships among students' learning styles and effectiveness in online education moderated by subject matter for undergraduate students at a private higher education institution? This causal relationship correlational study evaluated the effects of subject matter as a moderating variable between students learning styles and…

  7. Learning Styles, Subject Matter, and Effectiveness in Undergraduate Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Darren C.

    2014-01-01

    Are potential relationships among students' learning styles and effectiveness in online education moderated by subject matter for undergraduate students at a private higher education institution? This causal relationship correlational study evaluated the effects of subject matter as a moderating variable between students learning styles and…

  8. Item Effects as Indicators of Subjective Organization in Serial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Louis G.

    1974-01-01

    Whereas Martin (1973) examined item effects for individual subjects as indicators of their idiosyncratic organization of the middle of a lengthy, constant sequence of unrelated nouns, the present study examined the constancy of item effects across groups of subjects learning a short list of moderately difficult CVCs. (Author/RK)

  9. Prior Subject Interest, Students' Evaluations, And Instructional Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Marsh, H W; Cooper, T L

    1981-01-01

    Students' Prior Subject Interest in a course showed similar correlations with student ratings of instructional effectiveness in two university settings (N = 1102 classes). Correlations between Prior Subject Interest and different dimensions of instructional effectiveness varied from approximately zero to .44. Though these correlations were not high, Prior Subject Interest predicted student ratings better than any of 15 other student/course/instructor characteristics considered (e.g., Expected Grade, Class Size, Workload/Difficulty, Teacher Rank). Instructor self-evaluations of their own teaching effectiveness (N = 329 classes) were also positively correlated with both their own and their students' perceptions of Prior Subject Interest; the dimensions that were most highly correlated -- particularly Learning/Value -- were the same as observed with student ratings. Since both student and instructor self evaluations were similarly related to Prior Subject Interest, it appears that this variable actually affects instructional effectiveness in a way that is accurately reflected in the student ratings.

  10. 32 CFR 644.391 - Predisposal conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the predisposal conference should provide for: (1) Determinations on maintenance guidelines based on... advisability of transferring custody and maintenance responsibilities to GSA at an early date. (4) Planning for... operations are phased out. This will do much to lessen the impact of the installation's closing on the...

  11. 32 CFR 644.391 - Predisposal conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the predisposal conference should provide for: (1) Determinations on maintenance guidelines based on... advisability of transferring custody and maintenance responsibilities to GSA at an early date. (4) Planning for... operations are phased out. This will do much to lessen the impact of the installation's closing on the...

  12. 32 CFR 644.391 - Predisposal conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the predisposal conference should provide for: (1) Determinations on maintenance guidelines based on... advisability of transferring custody and maintenance responsibilities to GSA at an early date. (4) Planning for... operations are phased out. This will do much to lessen the impact of the installation's closing on the...

  13. 32 CFR 644.391 - Predisposal conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the predisposal conference should provide for: (1) Determinations on maintenance guidelines based on... advisability of transferring custody and maintenance responsibilities to GSA at an early date. (4) Planning for... operations are phased out. This will do much to lessen the impact of the installation's closing on the...

  14. 32 CFR 644.391 - Predisposal conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the predisposal conference should provide for: (1) Determinations on maintenance guidelines based on... advisability of transferring custody and maintenance responsibilities to GSA at an early date. (4) Planning for... operations are phased out. This will do much to lessen the impact of the installation's closing on the...

  15. Effects of subject-area degree and classroom experience on new chemistry teachers' subject matter knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Ryan S.; Campbell, Benjamin K.; Luft, Julie A.

    2016-07-01

    Science teachers need to understand the subject matter they teach. While subject matter knowledge (SMK) can improve with classroom teaching experience, it is problematic that many secondary science teachers leave the profession before garnering extensive classroom experience. Furthermore, many new science teachers are assigned to teach science subjects for which they do not hold a degree. This study investigates the SMK of new secondary science teachers assigned to teach chemistry in their first three years of teaching. These new teachers do not have the advantage of years of experience to develop their SMK and half hold a degree in biology rather than chemistry. This qualitative study explores the effects of holding a degree in the subject area one teaches as well as classroom teaching experience on teachers' SMK for two chemistry topics, conservation of mass and chemical equilibrium. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews indicated that the SMK of teachers who had a chemistry degree and more extensive classroom experience was more coherent, chemistry-focused, and sophisticated than that of teachers who lacked this preparation and experience. This study provides evidence that new science teachers' SMK is influenced by both holding a degree in the subject area and having classroom experience.

  16. Effect of Daytime Exercise on Sleep Eeg and Subjective Sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage of total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), time in bed (TIB), sleep time (ST), total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), waking from sleep, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, number of stage shifts, number of spindles, and percentages of α and δ waves, all of which were determined by an automatic computer analysis system. The OSA questionnaire was used to investigate subjective sleep. The five scales of the OSA used were sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling, and sleep initiation. Each sleep parameter was compared in the exercise and the non-exercise groups. Two-way analysis of variance was applied using subject factor and exercise factor. The main effect of the subject was significant in all parameters and the main effect of exercise in %S(3+4), SOL and sleep efficiency, among the objective sleep parameters. The main effects of the subject, except sleepiness, were significant, as was the main effect of exercise on sleep initiation, among the subjective sleep parameters. These findings suggest that daytime exercise shortened sleep latency and prolonged slow-wave sleep, and that the subjects fell asleep more easily on exercise days. There were also significant individual differences in both the objective and subjective sleep parameters.

  17. Effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on behavior and key members of the brain serotonin system in genetically predisposed to behavioral disorders mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Naumenko, V S; Kondaurova, E M; Bazovkina, D V; Tsybko, A S; Tikhonova, M A; Kulikov, A V; Popova, N K

    2012-07-12

    The effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on depressive-like behavior and serotonin (5-HT) system in the brain of antidepressant sensitive cataleptics (ASC)/Icg mouse strain, characterized by depressive-like behavior, in comparison with the parental nondepressive CBA/Lac mouse strain was examined. Significant decrease of catalepsy and tail suspension test (TST) immobility was shown 17days after acute central BDNF administration (300ng i.c.v.) in ASC mice. In CBA mouse strain, BDNF moderately decreased catalepsy without any effect on TST immobility time. Significant difference between ASC and CBA mice in the effect of BDNF on 5-HT system was revealed. It was shown that central administration of BDNF led to increase of 5-HT(1A) receptor gene expression but not 5-HT(1A) functional activity in ASC mice. Increased tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph-2) and 5-HT(2A) receptor genes expression accompanied by 5-HT(2A) receptor sensitization was shown in BDNF-treated ASC but not in CBA mouse strain, suggesting BDNF-induced increase of the brain 5-HT system functional activity and activation of neurogenesis in "depressive" ASC mice. There were no changes found in the 5-HT transporter mRNA level in BDNF-treated ASC and CBA mice. In conclusion, central administration of BDNF produced prolonged ameliorative effect on depressive-like behavior accompanied by increase of the Tph-2, 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) genes expression and 5-HT(2A) receptor functional activity in animal model of hereditary behavior disorders. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Beneficial effects of ketogenic diet in obese diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Dashti, Hussein M; Mathew, Thazhumpal C; Khadada, Mousa; Al-Mousawi, Mahdi; Talib, Husain; Asfar, Sami K; Behbahani, Abdulla I; Al-Zaid, Naji S

    2007-08-01

    Obesity is closely linked to the incidence of type II diabetes. It is found that effective management of body weight and changes to nutritional habits especially with regard to the carbohydrate content and glycemic index of the diet have beneficial effects in obese subjects with glucose intolerance. Previously we have shown that ketogenic diet is quite effective in reducing body weight. Furthermore, it favorably alters the cardiac risk factors even in hyperlipidemic obese subjects. In this study the effect of ketogenic diet in obese subjects with high blood glucose level is compared to those with normal blood glucose level for a period of 56 weeks. A total of 64 healthy obese subjects with body mass index (BMI) greater than 30, having high blood glucose level and those subjects with normal blood glucose level were selected in this study. The body weight, body mass index, blood glucose level, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, urea and creatinine were determined before and at 8, 16, 24, 48, and 56 weeks after the administration of the ketogenic diet. The body weight, body mass index, the level of blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea showed a significant decrease from week 1 to week 56 (P < 0.0001), whereas the level of HDL-cholesterol increased significantly (P < 0.0001). Interestingly these changes were more significant in subjects with high blood glucose level as compared to those with normal blood glucose level. The changes in the level of creatinine were not statistically significant. This study shows the beneficial effects of ketogenic diet in obese diabetic subjects following its long-term administration. Furthermore, it demonstrates that in addition to its therapeutic value, low carbohydrate diet is safe to use for a longer period of time in obese diabetic subjects.

  19. Male and female rats differ in brain cannabinoid CB1 receptor density and function and in behavioural traits predisposing to drug addiction: effect of ovarian hormones.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Maria Paola; Fadda, Paola; Casu, Angelo; Spano, Maria Sabrina; Casti, Alberto; Fratta, Walter; Fattore, Liana

    2014-01-01

    Sex-dependent differences are frequently observed in the biological and behavioural effects of substances of abuse, including cannabis. We recently demonstrated a modulating effect of sex and oestrous cycle on cannabinoid-taking and seeking behaviours. Here, we investigated the influence of sex and oestrogen in the regulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptor density and function, measured by [(3)H]CP55940 and CP55940-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding autoradiography, respectively, in the prefrontal cortex (Cg1 and Cg3), caudate- putamen, nucleus accumbens, amygdala and hippocampus of male and cycling female rats, as well as ovariectomised (OVX) rats and OVX rats primed with oestradiol (10 µg/rat) (OVX+E). CB1 receptor density was significantly lower in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of cycling females than in males and in OVX females, a difference that appeared to be oestradiol-dependent, because it was no more evident in the OVX+E group. CP55940-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding was significantly higher in the Cg3 of OVX rats relative to cycling and OVX+E rats. No difference was observed in CB1 receptor density or function in any of the other brain areas analysed. Finally, sex and oestradiol were also found to affect motor activity, social behaviour and sensorimotor gating in rats tested in locomotor activity boxes, social interaction and prepulse inhibition tasks, respectively. Our findings provide biochemical evidence for sex- and hormone- dependent differences in the density and function of CB1 receptors in selected brain regions, and in behaviours associated with greater vulnerability to drug addiction, revealing a more vulnerable behavioural phenotype in female than in male rats.

  20. Predisposing factors and prevention of frostbite.

    PubMed

    Rintamäki, H

    2000-04-01

    This review focuses on the physiological, behavioural and environmental factors which predispose to frostbite. Also prevention of frostbite is summarised. Predisposing factors may increase heat loss, decrease heat production, decrease the insulation of the clothing, make people especially susceptible to cold or make them to behave inadequately. Marked increase in convective or conductive heat loss is often the immediate reason for frostbite. Wind (as described by wind chill index) increases convective heat loss and touching of metal objects increases conductive cooling. Poor insulation of the clothing is also a common reason of frostbite. The insulation can be insufficient when clothing is wet, tight, permeable to wind or does not cover the cold sensitive body parts. Individual factors predisposing to frostbite are inadequate behaviour, low physical fitness, fatigue, dehydration, earlier cold injuries, sickness or poor circulation in peripheral parts of the body. Frostbite is often associated with the use of alcohol. To prevent frostbite, it is necessary to recognise cold risks, practise tasks in the cold, eat and drink well, have physical exercise, have sufficient clothing (also spare clothing), change into dry clothing if necessary and take care of companions. In the cold it is not advisable to get fatigued until exhaustion, sweat excessively, use tight and/or wet clothing, drink alcohol, smoke and expose oneself unnecessarily to wind, metals or fluids.

  1. Effect of capsular release in the treatment of shoulder stiffness concomitant with rotator cuff repair: diabetes as a predisposing factor associated with treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Young; Chung, Seok Won; Hassan, Zulkifli; Bang, Jin-Young; Oh, Kyung-Soo

    2014-04-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of shoulder stiffness during rotator cuff repair, optimal management remains unclear. To identify the effect of capsular release during rotator cuff repair on the outcomes of patients with both shoulder stiffness and a rotator cuff tear, based on subgroup analyses. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Forty-nine consecutive patients (mean age, 61.5 ± 8.3 years) were enrolled who underwent arthroscopic repair of a small- to large-sized full-thickness rotator cuff tear and manipulation for concomitant shoulder stiffness (passive forward flexion ≤120°, external rotation at the side ≤45°). The first 21 consecutive patients underwent manipulation alone to treat stiffness; the second 28 consecutive patients underwent capsular release with manipulation. Among the 49 patients, 25 showed severe stiffness (forward flexion ≤100°, external rotation at the side ≤30°; 11 in the first series and 14 in the second series), and 15 had diabetes mellitus (30.6%; 6 in the first series and 9 in the second series). Shoulder range of motion was measured 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively and at final follow-up visit. Simultaneously, functional outcome was evaluated by visual analog scale for pain, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Constant score, and muscle strength ratio (involved/uninvolved), and cuff integrity was assessed ultrasonographically at least 1 year postoperatively. All range of motion measurements, functional scores, and muscle strength ratios significantly improved postoperatively regardless of the treatment method of stiffness. No outcome measure differed significantly between patients who did and did not undergo capsular release, regardless of the severity of stiffness, except for a temporary improvement in external rotation at side 3 months postoperatively in favor of those who underwent capsular release in cases with severe stiffness. Among patients with diabetes mellitus however, those who

  2. Individual predictors of the subjective effects of intravenous cocaine.

    PubMed

    Grasing, Kenneth; Mathur, Deepan; Newton, Thomas F; Desouza, Cherilyn

    2013-08-15

    The subjective and reinforcing effects of addictive substances can vary greatly between individuals. This study compared the relative contributions of baseline drug use, craving, stressful life events, and social factors in determining the subjective effects of cocaine in individual participants. Twelve veterans meeting criteria for cocaine dependence were evaluated in a laboratory setting. Self-report of the subjective effects of intravenous cocaine was recorded following single- and double-blind, placebo-controlled injections. Increased positive subjective effects of cocaine, including drug-induced 'good' effects and the value of intravenous injections, were most strongly correlated with greater family and social dysfunction measured through the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). Social dysfunction was the strongest predictor of cocaine-induced euphoria, accounting for approximately one-half of its variability. Participants who were dissatisfied with their current marital status reported almost no 'bad' effects of cocaine but instead reported increased drug-induced 'high', euphoria, and injection value. Although further research is required to determine the generalizability of this association, our findings are parallel to recent preclinical results showing that social interaction can attenuate psychostimulant reward. Effects of substance abuse treatment that rely on improved social function may be mediated through changes in the brain's reinforcement system that modify the rewarding effects of cocaine.

  3. Vent configurations on subjective and objective occlusion effect.

    PubMed

    Kuk, Francis; Keenan, Denise; Lau, Chi-chuen

    2005-10-01

    The current study reexamined the effect of vent diameters on objective and subjective occlusion effect (OE) while minimizing two possible sources of variability. Nine hearing-impaired participants with primarily a high-frequency hearing loss were evaluated. Laser shell-making technology was used to make ear inserts of completely-in-the-canal (CIC) hearing aids for the study. This was to minimize any potential slit leakage from the inserts. The vent dimensions were systematically altered during the study. Participants sustained /i/ for 5 sec, and the real-ear occluded response was measured with a custom-made program that performed frequency averaging to reduce response variability. Participants also repeated the phrase "Baby Jeannie is teeny tiny" and rated their own voice. The results showed a systematic change in the objective OE and subjective ratings of OE as the vent diameter was modified. Furthermore, a significant correlation was seen between subjective rating and objective occlusion effect.

  4. Effect of hydration on nitrogen washout in human subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, J.; Horrigan, D. J., Jr.; Conkin, J.

    1983-01-01

    Five subjects were tested to assess the influence of drinking hypotonic water (distilled water) on whole body tissue nitrogen washout. During the test, the subjects breathed aviators' oxygen for three hours. Each subject performed two baseline nitrogen washouts in a two-week period. The third washout, in the third week, was done under a transient hydrated condition. This was accomplished by having the subjects drink 1.5 liters of hypotonic water 30 minutes before the washout. Five-minute plots of tissue nitrogen removal from the three separate washouts were analyzed to ascertain if the hydration technique had any effect. Our results clearly indicate that the hydration technique did not alter the tissue nitrogen washout characteristics to any degree over three hours. An increase in tissue nitrogen washout under a transient hydrated condition using hypotonic fluid was not demonstrated to be the mechanism responsible for the reported benefit of this technique in preventing Type I altitude decompression pain in man.

  5. Effects of Prism Eyeglasses on Objective and Subjective Fixation Disparity.

    PubMed

    Schroth, Volkhard; Joos, Roland; Jaschinski, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In optometry of binocular vision, the question may arise whether prisms should be included in eyeglasses to compensate an oculomotor and/or sensory imbalance between the two eyes. The corresponding measures of objective and subjective fixation disparity may be reduced by the prisms, or the adaptability of the binocular vergence system may diminish effects of the prisms over time. This study investigates effects of wearing prisms constantly for about 5 weeks in daily life. Two groups of 12 participants received eyeglasses with prisms having either a base-in direction or a base-out direction with an amount up to 8 prism diopters. Prisms were prescribed based on clinical fixation disparity test plates at 6 m. Two dependent variables were used: (1) subjective fixation disparity was indicated by a perceived offset of dichoptic nonius lines that were superimposed on the fusion stimuli and (2) objective fixation disparity was measured with a video based eye tracker relative to monocular calibration. Stimuli were presented at 6 m and included either central or more peripheral fusion stimuli. Repeated measurements were made without the prisms and with the prisms after about 5 weeks of wearing these prisms. Objective and subjective fixation disparity were correlated, but the type of fusion stimulus and the direction of the required prism may play a role. The prisms did not reduce the fixation disparity to zero, but induced significant changes in fixation disparity with large effect sizes. Participants receiving base-out prisms showed hypothesized effects, which were concurrent in both types of fixation disparity. In participants receiving base-in prisms, the individual effects of subjective and objective effects were negatively correlated: the larger the subjective (sensory) effect, the smaller the objective (motor) effect. This response pattern was related to the vergence adaptability, i.e. the individual fusional vergence reserves.

  6. Effects of Prism Eyeglasses on Objective and Subjective Fixation Disparity

    PubMed Central

    Schroth, Volkhard; Joos, Roland; Jaschinski, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In optometry of binocular vision, the question may arise whether prisms should be included in eyeglasses to compensate an oculomotor and/or sensory imbalance between the two eyes. The corresponding measures of objective and subjective fixation disparity may be reduced by the prisms, or the adaptability of the binocular vergence system may diminish effects of the prisms over time. This study investigates effects of wearing prisms constantly for about 5 weeks in daily life. Two groups of 12 participants received eyeglasses with prisms having either a base-in direction or a base-out direction with an amount up to 8 prism diopters. Prisms were prescribed based on clinical fixation disparity test plates at 6 m. Two dependent variables were used: (1) subjective fixation disparity was indicated by a perceived offset of dichoptic nonius lines that were superimposed on the fusion stimuli and (2) objective fixation disparity was measured with a video based eye tracker relative to monocular calibration. Stimuli were presented at 6 m and included either central or more peripheral fusion stimuli. Repeated measurements were made without the prisms and with the prisms after about 5 weeks of wearing these prisms. Objective and subjective fixation disparity were correlated, but the type of fusion stimulus and the direction of the required prism may play a role. The prisms did not reduce the fixation disparity to zero, but induced significant changes in fixation disparity with large effect sizes. Participants receiving base-out prisms showed hypothesized effects, which were concurrent in both types of fixation disparity. In participants receiving base-in prisms, the individual effects of subjective and objective effects were negatively correlated: the larger the subjective (sensory) effect, the smaller the objective (motor) effect. This response pattern was related to the vergence adaptability, i.e. the individual fusional vergence reserves. PMID:26431525

  7. Plasma protein concentrations in hypertriglyceridaemic subjects. Effect of clofibrate and comparison with normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, F C; Morrison, B A; Ballantyne, D; Dryburgh, F J; Epenetos, A A

    1978-07-01

    Clofibrate, a widely used hypolipidaemic agent was given for twelve weeks to ten subjects with hypertriglyceridaemia. Its effect on lipoprotein-lipids and caeruloplasmin, IgA, IgM, alpha2-microglobulin and transferrin was assessed by comparing analyses at 4, 8 and 12 weeks on therapy with the means of values at two weeks before and at the start of treatment. The normal variation in plasma proteins was assessed in six healthy volunteers during the same period of time. On clofibrate, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations fell, but the concentrations of cholesterol in low density (LDL) and high density (HDL) lipoproteins showed no consistent change. Caeruloplasmin and IgM concentrations decreased significantly, IgA showed a limited falls (significant only at 8 weeks) and alpha2-macroglobulin did not change. The concentration of transferrin increased on therapy. No relationships were found between the falls in VLDL-lipid concentrations and the alterations in other plasma proteins. No significant variation occurred in the concentrations of lipids or proteins in the normal subjects during the period of study. The results indicate that clofibrate exerts general effects on protein metabolism.

  8. Subjective and objective effects of coffee consumption - caffeine or expectations?

    PubMed

    Dömötör, Zs; Szemerszky, R; Köteles, F

    2015-03-01

    Impact of 5 mg/kg caffeine, chance of receiving caffeine (stimulus expectancies), and expectations of effects of caffeine (response expectancies) on objective (heart rate (HR), systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP), measures of heart rate variability (HRV), and reaction time (RT)) and subjective variables were investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment with a no-treatment group. Participants were 107 undergraduate university students (mean age 22.3 ± 3.96 years). Consumption of 5 mg/kg caffeine had an impact on participants' SBP, standard deviation of normal heartbeat intervals, HR (decrease), and subjective experience 40 minutes later even after controlling for respective baseline values, stimulus and response expectancies, and habitual caffeine consumption. No effects on DBP, high frequency component of HRV, the ratio of low- and high-frequency, and RT were found. Beyond actual caffeine intake, response expectancy score was also a determinant of subjective experience which refers to a placebo component in the total effect. Actual autonomic (SBP, HR) changes and somatosensory amplification tendency, however, had no significant impact on subjective experience. Placebo reaction plays a role in the subjective changes caused by caffeine consumption but it has no impact on objective variables. Conditional vs deceptive administration of caffeine (i.e. stimulus expectancies) had no impact on any assessed variable.

  9. [The effect of coffee on blood pressure at healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Bielesz, Katarzyna; Strzelczyk, Wojciech; Poniewaz, Marta; Sokołowski, Filip; Welsyng, Daria; Rucińska, Monika; Nawrocki, Sergiusz

    2013-09-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular beverages. Its stimulatory effects comes from the natural alkaloid- caffeine. Caffeine is the antagonist of the adenosine receptors A1 and A2. Caffeine acts chronotropic positive and increases heart action; inotropic positive and increases cardiac contraction; tronotropic positive and increases hearts muscular ton, brain's vascular stenosis, vasodilatation of coronal vessels, renal vessels, muscular vessels and skin vessels. The aim of the study was determination of coffee effect on blood pressure in healthy subjects. 17 healthy subjects (age 22-44 years; median 22 years) was included. There were two experiments. Experiment 1: examined persons drank instant coffee with or without caffeine. Experiment 2: examined persons drank natural coffee with or without caffeine. The blood pressure and pulse were examined before coffee drinking and 15 and 30 minutes after (in experiment 1) and only 30 minutes after (in experiment 2). The blood pressure was increased on 10 mmHg or more in 9-40% of examined subjects in all groups, but there were no significant difference between groups. The pulse increased (10 or more per minute) was observed only in one person and decrease was observed in three who drank natural coffee with caffeine. In healthy subjects the blood pressure does not increased significantly after caffeine consumption. The consumption of caffeine in large doses may be harmful to some hypertensive or hypertension-prone subjects.

  10. Minocycline attenuates subjective-rewarding effects of dextroamphetamine in humans

    PubMed Central

    Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Mooney, Marc; Kosten, Thomas; Waters, Andrew; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Minocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic, interacts with brain glutamate and dopamine neurotransmission. In preclinical studies, minocycline attenuated amphetamine-induced acute dopamine release and subsequent behavioral sensitization. The goal of this study was to determine minocycline’s effects on the acute physiological, behavioral, and subjective responses to dextroamphetamine (DAMP) in healthy volunteers. Methods Ten healthy volunteers participated in an outpatient double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Subjects had a 5-day treatment period with either minocycline (200 mg/day) or placebo and then were crossed over for 5-days of the other treatment. After two days of taking the study medication, on days 3 and 4, subjects were randomly assigned to double-blind acute challenge with either 20 mg/70 kg DAMP or placebo DAMP (randomly labeled as drug A or B) and then crossed-over to the other challenge. On Day 5 (Experimental Session 3), subjects had the opportunity to self-administer either placebo or DAMP capsules by working on a progressive ratio computer task. Results Minocycline attenuated DAMP-induced subjective-rewarding effects but did not change DAMP choice behavior. Minocycline treatment speeded reaction times on a Go No-Go task and reduced plasma cortisol levels. Conclusions These findings warrant further studies examining the potential use of minocycline for stimulant addiction. PMID:20838775

  11. Electronic cigarettes: abuse liability, topography and subjective effects.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sarah E; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-05-01

    To review the available evidence evaluating the abuse liability, topography, subjective effects, craving and withdrawal suppression associated with e-cigarette use in order to identify information gaps and provide recommendations for future research. Literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and January 2014 using five electronic databases. Studies were included in this review if they were peer-reviewed scientific journal articles evaluating clinical laboratory studies, national surveys or content analyses. A total of 15 peer-reviewed articles regarding behavioural use and effects of e-cigarettes published between 2010 and 2014 were included in this review. Abuse liability studies are limited in their generalisability. Topography (consumption behaviour) studies found that, compared with traditional cigarettes, e-cigarette average puff duration was significantly longer, and e-cigarette use required stronger suction. Data on e-cigarette subjective effects (such as anxiety, restlessness, concentration, alertness and satisfaction) and withdrawal suppression are limited and inconsistent. In general, study data should be interpreted with caution, given limitations associated with comparisons of novel and usual products, as well as the possible effects associated with subjects' previous experience/inexperience with e-cigarettes. Currently, very limited information is available on abuse liability, topography and subjective effects of e-cigarettes. Opportunities to examine extended e-cigarette use in a variety of settings with experienced e-cigarette users would help to more fully assess topography as well as behavioural and subjective outcomes. In addition, assessment of 'real-world' use, including amount and timing of use and responses to use, would clarify behavioural profiles and potential adverse health effects.

  12. Effect Size for Single-Subject Design in Phonological Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.; Dickinson, Stephanie L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document, validate, and corroborate effect size (ES) for single­-subject design in treatment of children with functional phonological disorders; to evaluate potential child-­specific contributing variables relative to ES; and to establish benchmarks for interpretation of ES for the population. Method: Data…

  13. Effect Size Measure and Analysis of Single Subject Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaminathan, Hariharan; Horner, Robert H.; Rogers, H. Jane; Sugai, George

    2012-01-01

    This study is aimed at addressing the criticisms that have been leveled at the currently available statistical procedures for analyzing single subject designs (SSD). One of the vexing problems in the analysis of SSD is in the assessment of the effect of intervention. Serial dependence notwithstanding, the linear model approach that has been…

  14. Influence of "Halo" and "Demon" Effects in Subjective Grading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Gerald D.

    1983-01-01

    The phenomenon of "halo" effects in subjective grading was investigated. Two groups of three raters evaluated 20 term papers in introductory psychology. Term paper grades correlated significantly with course grades when information about previous academic performance was made available. When this information was not available, the…

  15. Influence of "Halo" and "Demon" Effects in Subjective Grading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Gerald D.

    1983-01-01

    The phenomenon of "halo" effects in subjective grading was investigated. Two groups of three raters evaluated 20 term papers in introductory psychology. Term paper grades correlated significantly with course grades when information about previous academic performance was made available. When this information was not available, the…

  16. Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Yasmin; Enzler, Florian; Gasser, Peter; Grouzmann, Eric; Preller, Katrin H; Vollenweider, Franz X; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Müller, Felix; Borgwardt, Stefan; Liechti, Matthias E

    2015-10-15

    After no research in humans for >40 years, there is renewed interest in using lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in clinical psychiatric research and practice. There are no modern studies on the subjective and autonomic effects of LSD, and its endocrine effects are unknown. In animals, LSD disrupts prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response, and patients with schizophrenia exhibit similar impairments in PPI. However, no data are available on the effects of LSD on PPI in humans. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study, LSD (200 μg) and placebo were administered to 16 healthy subjects (8 women, 8 men). Outcome measures included psychometric scales; investigator ratings; PPI of the acoustic startle response; and autonomic, endocrine, and adverse effects. Administration of LSD to healthy subjects produced pronounced alterations in waking consciousness that lasted 12 hours. The predominant effects induced by LSD included visual hallucinations, audiovisual synesthesia, and positively experienced derealization and depersonalization phenomena. Subjective well-being, happiness, closeness to others, openness, and trust were increased by LSD. Compared with placebo, LSD decreased PPI. LSD significantly increased blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, pupil size, plasma cortisol, prolactin, oxytocin, and epinephrine. Adverse effects produced by LSD completely subsided within 72 hours. No severe acute adverse effects were observed. In addition to marked hallucinogenic effects, LSD exerts methylenedioxymethamphetamine-like empathogenic mood effects that may be useful in psychotherapy. LSD altered sensorimotor gating in a human model of psychosis, supporting the use of LSD in translational psychiatric research. In a controlled clinical setting, LSD can be used safely, but it produces significant sympathomimetic stimulation. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Determining the subjective effects of TFMPP in human males.

    PubMed

    Jan, Reem K; Lin, Joanne C; Lee, Heeseung; Sheridan, Janie L; Kydd, Rob R; Kirk, Ian J; Russell, Bruce R

    2010-08-01

    Trifluoromethylphenyl piperazine (TFMPP) is an active constituent of a relatively new group of recreational drugs known as 'party pills'. TFMPP has been anecdotally reported to induce mild psychedelic effects similar to lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin. There has been no research about the subjective effects of TFMPP in humans. This study aimed to investigate the subjective effects of TFMPP in human males. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial design was used to investigate the subjective effects of TFMPP in 30 healthy, non-smoking male volunteers (mean age 24 +/- 4 years). Participants were randomised into two groups and given either TFMPP 60 mg (n = 15) or placebo (n = 15). Each participant completed three rating scales, the Addiction Research Centre Inventory (ARCI), the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and the Visual Analogue Scales (VAS), both before and 120 min after drug administration. Results from the ARCI indicated that TFMPP produced increases in 'dysphoria' and 'dexamphetamine-like effects'. TFMPP also increased ratings of 'tension/anxiety' and 'confusion/bewilderment' as rated on the POMS. Results from the VAS indicated increases in 'drug liking', 'high' and 'stimulated' ratings relevant to placebo. Increased ratings of 'dexamphetamine-like effects', 'tension/anxiety', 'stimulated' and 'high' following TFMPP administration resemble the subjective effects of common amphetamine-type stimulants. However, increases in 'dysphoria' and 'confusion/bewilderment' ratings following TFMPP are more commonly associated with drugs that have greater effects on serotonin release, binding and reuptake such as 1-[3-chlorophenyl]-piperazine, fenfluramine and lysergic acid diethylamide.

  18. What aspects of autism predispose to talent?

    PubMed Central

    Happé, Francesca; Vital, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the question, why are striking special skills so much more common in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) than in other groups? Current cognitive accounts of ASC are briefly reviewed in relation to special skills. Difficulties in ‘theory of mind’ may contribute to originality in ASC, since individuals who do not automatically ‘read other minds’ may be better able to think outside prevailing fashions and popular theories. However, originality alone does not confer talent. Executive dysfunction has been suggested as the ‘releasing’ mechanism for special skills in ASC, but other groups with executive difficulties do not show raised incidence of talents. Detail-focused processing bias (‘weak coherence’, ‘enhanced perceptual functioning’) appears to be the most promising predisposing characteristic, or ‘starting engine’, for talent development. In support of this notion, we summarize data from a population-based twin study in which parents reported on their 8-year-olds' talents and their ASC-like traits. Across the whole sample, ASC-like traits, and specifically ‘restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests’ related to detail focus, were more pronounced in children reported to have talents outstripping older children. We suggest that detail-focused cognitive style predisposes to talent in savant domains in, and beyond, autism spectrum disorders. PMID:19528019

  19. Adrenomedullin Haploinsufficiency Predisposes to Secondary Lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Nikitenko, Leonid L; Shimosawa, Tatsuo; Henderson, Stephen; Mäkinen, Taija; Shimosawa, Hiromi; Qureshi, Uzma; Pedley, R Barbara; Rees, Margaret C P; Fujita, Toshiro; Boshoff, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Secondary lymphedema is a debilitating condition, and genetic factors predisposing to its development remain largely unknown. Adrenomedullin (AM) is peptide encoded, together with proadrenomedullin N-terminal peptide (PAMP), by the Adm gene (adrenomedullin gene). AM and its putative receptor calcitonin receptor–like receptor (CLR) are implicated in angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis during embryogenesis and wound healing, suggesting their possible involvement in secondary lymphedema. To investigate whether AM deficiency predisposes to secondary lymphedema, we used heterozygous adult mice with Adm gene-knockin stop mutation, which selectively abrogated AM, but preserved PAMP, expression (AdmAM+/Δ animals). After hind limb skin incision, Adm messenger RNA expression was upregulated in wounded tissue of both AdmAM+/+ and AdmAM+/Δ mice. However, only AdmAM+/Δ animals developed limb swelling and histopathological lymphedematous changes, including epidermal thickening, elevated collagen fiber density, and increased microvessel diameter. Secondary lymphedema was prevented when circulating AM levels in AdmAM+/Δ mice were restored by systemic peptide delivery. In human skin, CLR was expressed in tissue components affected by lymphedema, including epidermis, lymphatics, and blood vessels. Our study identified a previously unrecognized role for endogenous AM as a key factor in secondary lymphedema pathogenesis and provided experimental in vivo evidence of an underlying germ-line genetic predisposition to developing this disorder. PMID:23364478

  20. What aspects of autism predispose to talent?

    PubMed

    Happé, Francesca; Vital, Pedro

    2009-05-27

    In this paper, we explore the question, why are striking special skills so much more common in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) than in other groups? Current cognitive accounts of ASC are briefly reviewed in relation to special skills. Difficulties in 'theory of mind' may contribute to originality in ASC, since individuals who do not automatically 'read other minds' may be better able to think outside prevailing fashions and popular theories. However, originality alone does not confer talent. Executive dysfunction has been suggested as the 'releasing' mechanism for special skills in ASC, but other groups with executive difficulties do not show raised incidence of talents. Detail-focused processing bias ('weak coherence', 'enhanced perceptual functioning') appears to be the most promising predisposing characteristic, or 'starting engine', for talent development. In support of this notion, we summarize data from a population-based twin study in which parents reported on their 8-year-olds' talents and their ASC-like traits. Across the whole sample, ASC-like traits, and specifically 'restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests' related to detail focus, were more pronounced in children reported to have talents outstripping older children. We suggest that detail-focused cognitive style predisposes to talent in savant domains in, and beyond, autism spectrum disorders.

  1. Effect Size for Single-Subject Design in Phonological Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Morrisette, Michele L.; Dickinson, Stephanie L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to document, validate, and corroborate effect size (ES) for single-subject design in treatment of children with functional phonological disorders; to evaluate potential child-specific contributing variables relative to ES; and to establish benchmarks for interpretation of ES for the population. Method Data were extracted from the Developmental Phonologies Archive for 135 preschool children with phonological disorders who previously participated in single-subject experimental treatment studies. Standard mean differenceall with correction for continuity was computed to gauge the magnitude of generalization gain that accrued longitudinally from treatment for each child with the data aggregated for purposes of statistical analyses. Results ES ranged from 0.09 to 27.83 for the study population. ES was positively correlated with conventional measures of phonological learning and visual inspection of learning data on the basis of procedures standard to single-subject design. ES was linked to children's performance on diagnostic assessments of phonology but not other demographic characteristics or related linguistic skills and nonlinguistic skills. Benchmarks for interpretation of ES were estimated as 1.4, 3.6, and 10.1 for small, medium, and large learning effects, respectively. Conclusion Findings have utility for single-subject research and translation of research to evidence-based practice for children with phonological disorders. PMID:26184118

  2. Effects of inulin on faecal bifidobacteria in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Kruse, H P; Kleessen, B; Blaut, M

    1999-11-01

    A controlled study with eight healthy free-living subjects was carried out, in which energy intake was adjusted to the individual energy requirements. On administration of inulin, blood lipids, the faecal microflora, short-chain fatty acids and accompanying gastrointestinal symptoms were characterized in order to investigate the long-term effect of inulin. During the run-in phase (8 d), subjects received a typical Western diet providing 45% energy as fat and 40% energy as carbohydrate. Subsequently, the subjects consumed a fat-reduced diet which provided 30% energy as fat and 55% energy as carbohydrate for a period of 64 d using inulin as a fat replacer. The amounts of inulin consumed by the subjects (up to 34 g/d) were based on individual energy requirements with the aim to keep the diet isoenergetic with that used in the run-in period. To assess the effects of inulin administration, a control study (run-in and intervention) was carried out in which subjects consumed the same diet but devoid of inulin during the whole course of the study. To investigate the effect of inulin on faecal flora composition total bacteria and bifidobacteria in the faeces were enumerated by in situ hybridization with 16S rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes. Inulin significantly increased bifidobacteria from 9.8 to 11.0 log10/g dry faeces and caused a moderate increase in gastrointestinal symptoms such as flatulence and bloatedness, whereas blood lipids and short-chain fatty acids remained essentially unaffected.

  3. Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Animals: Incidence, Economics, and Predisposing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Mukesh Kr.; Thombare, N. N.; Mondal, Biswajit

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the incidence and economics of subclinical form of bovine mastitis in Central Region of India. Daily milk records of 187 animals during three seasons were collected and subjected to analysis. The economic loss due to reduction in yield, clinical expenses, and additional resources used were quantified and aggregated. The losses due to mastitis in monetary terms were estimated to be INR1390 per lactation, among which around 49% was owing to loss of value from milk and 37% on account of veterinary expenses. Higher losses were observed in crossbred cows due to their high production potential that was affected during mastitis period. The cost of treating an animal was estimated to be INR509 which includes cost of medicine (31.10%) and services (5.47%). Inadequate sanitation, hygiene, and veterinary services were the main predisposing factors for incidence and spread of mastitis as perceived by the respondents. PMID:25093203

  4. Subclinical mastitis in dairy animals: incidence, economics, and predisposing factors.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Mukesh Kr; Thombare, N N; Mondal, Biswajit

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the incidence and economics of subclinical form of bovine mastitis in Central Region of India. Daily milk records of 187 animals during three seasons were collected and subjected to analysis. The economic loss due to reduction in yield, clinical expenses, and additional resources used were quantified and aggregated. The losses due to mastitis in monetary terms were estimated to be INR1390 per lactation, among which around 49% was owing to loss of value from milk and 37% on account of veterinary expenses. Higher losses were observed in crossbred cows due to their high production potential that was affected during mastitis period. The cost of treating an animal was estimated to be INR509 which includes cost of medicine (31.10%) and services (5.47%). Inadequate sanitation, hygiene, and veterinary services were the main predisposing factors for incidence and spread of mastitis as perceived by the respondents.

  5. Caffeine expectancies influence the subjective and behavioral effects of caffeine.

    PubMed

    Harrell, Paul T; Juliano, Laura M

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the independent and interactive effects of caffeine pharmacology and expected effects of caffeine on performance and subjective outcomes. Abstinent coffee drinkers (n = 60) consumed decaffeinated coffee with either 280 mg or 0 mg added caffeine. Caffeine dose was crossed with varying instructions that the coffee would either enhance or impair performance in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Performance, mood, caffeine withdrawal, and negative somatic effects were assessed. Relative to placebo, caffeine improved reaction time and accuracy on the rapid visual information processing task, a measure of vigilance. However, there was a significant dose by expectancy interaction that revealed that among participants given placebo coffee, "impair" instructions produced better performance than "enhance" instructions. Caffeine also improved psychomotor performance as indicated by a finger tapping task with no main effects of expectancy or interactions. Impair instructions produced greater reports of negative somatic effects than enhance instructions, but only when caffeine was administered. Manipulating the expected effects of caffeine altered the behavioral and subjective effects of caffeine. A significant dose by expectancy interaction revealed a somewhat paradoxical outcome in the placebo conditions whereby those told "impair" performed better than those told "enhance." This may reflect compensatory responding as has been observed in similar studies using alcohol (Fillmore et al. Psychopharmacology 115:383-388, 1994). Impair instructions led to greater negative somatic effects only when caffeine was administered supporting the active placebo hypothesis.

  6. Otomycosis in Turkey: predisposing factors, aetiology and therapy.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, K Murat; Ozcan, Muge; Karaarslan, Aydin; Karaarslan, Filiz

    2003-01-01

    Otomycosis usually requires long-term treatment and tends to recur. This study was performed on 87 patients with the clinical diagnosis of otomycosis and 20 controls in order to determine the pathogenic agents, predisposing factors and a cost-effective treatment. The predisposing factors included wearing head clothes (74.7 per cent), presence of dermatomycoses (34.5 per cent) and swimming (27.6 per cent). The most common pathogenic fungus was Aspergillus niger (44.8 per cent) in the otomycosis group. The only isolate was Candida albicans in the control group (2.5 per cent). We concluded that administration of four per cent boric acid solution in alcohol and frequent suction cleaning of the ear canal might be a cost-effective treatment for otomycosis since 77 per cent of the patients were treated effectively this way. Eighty per cent of the resistant cases had mixed fungal-bacterial infections, and 50 per cent of them had dermatomycoses. These resistant cases were treated by administration of tioconazole ointment.

  7. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Ventilatory Efficiency and Respiratory Drive in Obese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Chlif, Mehdi; Chaouachi, Anis; Ahmaidi, Said

    2017-07-01

    Obese patients show a decline in exercise capacity and diverse degrees of dyspnea in association with mechanical abnormalities, increased ventilatory requirements secondary to the increased metabolic load, and a greater work of breathing. Consequently, obese patients may be particularly predisposed to the development of respiratory muscle fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study was to assess inspiratory muscle performance during incremental exercise in 19 obese male subjects (body mass index 41 ± 6 kg/m(2)) after aerobic exercise training using the noninvasive, inspiratory muscle tension-time index (TT0.1). Measurements performed included anthropometric parameters, lung function assessed by spirometry, rate of perceived breathlessness with the modified Borg dyspnea scale (0-10), breathing pattern, maximal exercise capacity, and inspiratory muscle performance with a breath-by-breath automated exercise metabolic system during an incremental exercise test. TT0.1 was calculated using the equation, TT0.1 = P0.1/PImax × TI/Ttot (where P0.1 represents mouth occlusion pressure, PImax is maximal inspiratory pressure, and TI/Ttot is the duty cycle). At rest, there was no statistically significant difference for spirometric parameters and cardiorespiratory parameters between pre- and post-training. At maximal exercise, the minute ventilation, the rate of exchange ratio, the rate of perceived breathlessness, and the respiratory muscle performance parameters were not significantly different pre- and post-training; in contrast, tidal volume (P = .037, effect size = 1.51), breathing frequency (P = .049, effect size = 0.97), power output (P = .048, effect size = 0.79), peak oxygen uptake (P = .02, effect size = 0.92) were significantly higher after training. At comparable work load, training induces lower minute ventilation, mouth occlusion pressure, ratio of occlusion pressure to maximal inspiratory pressure, TT0.1, and rate of perceived breathlessness. Aerobic exercise

  8. GABRA2 markers moderate the subjective effects of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Uhart, Magdalena; Weerts, Elise M; McCaul, Mary E; Guo, Xiuqing; Yan, Xiaofei; Kranzler, Henry R; Li, Ning; Wand, Gary S

    2013-03-01

    Individual differences in subjective responses (SRs) to alcohol are moderated by genetic variants and may be risk factors for the development of alcohol use disorders. Variation in the GABA(A) α2 receptor subunit gene (GABRA2) has been associated with alcohol dependence (AD). Therefore, we examined whether individual differences in SRs, which reflect sensitivity to the effects of alcohol, are associated with variation in GABRA2. Sixty-nine healthy subjects (21-30 years) underwent a laboratory-based within-session cumulative oral alcohol dosing procedure, achieving a mean peak blood alcohol level of 100.4 mg/dl (standard error = 2.5). Subjective assessments were obtained throughout the session, including ascending and descending limbs of the alcohol curve. We genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the chromosome 4 region spanning GABRA2 and analyzed the effect of genotype and haplotypes on subjective responses to alcohol. Population substructure was characterized through the use of ancestry informative markers. Individual SNP analysis demonstrated that carriers of the minor alleles for SNPs rs279858, rs279844, rs279845, rs279826, rs279828 and rs279836 had lower 'Negative' alcohol effects scores than individuals homozygous for the common allele at each SNP (P = 0.0060, P = 0.0035, P = 0.0045, P = 0.0043, P = 0.0037 and P = 0.0061, respectively). Haplotype effects of block 1 showed concordant results with SNPs in this block (P = 0.0492 and P = 0.0150 for haplotypes 1 and 4, respectively). The minor alleles for several of these SNPs have previously been associated with AD. Our findings provide further evidence that variation within GABRA2 is associated with attenuated negative responses to alcohol, a known risk factor for vulnerability to alcohol use disorders.

  9. GABRA2 MARKERS MODERATE THE SUBJECTIVE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL

    PubMed Central

    Uhart, Magdalena; Weerts, Elise M; McCaul, Mary E; Guo, Xiuqing; Yan, Xiaofei; Kranzler, Henry R; Li, Ning; Wand, Gary S

    2012-01-01

    Background Individual differences in subjective responses to alcohol (SR) are moderated by genetic variants and may be risk factors for the development of alcohol use disorders. Variation in the GABAA α2 receptor subunit gene (GABRA2) has been associated with alcohol dependence (AD). Therefore, we examined whether individual differences in SR, which reflect sensitivity to the effects of alcohol, are associated with variation in GABRA2. Methods Sixty-nine healthy subjects (21–30 yr) underwent a laboratory-based within-session, cumulative oral alcohol dosing procedure, achieving a mean peak blood alcohol level of 100.4 mg/dL (SE =2.5). Subjective assessments were obtained throughout the session, including ascending and descending limbs of the alcohol curve. We genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the chromosome 4 region spanning GABRA2 and analyzed the effect of genotype and haplotypes on subjective responses to alcohol. Population substructure was characterized through the use of ancestry informative markers. Results Individual SNP analysis demonstrated that carriers of the minor alleles for SNPs rs279858, rs279844, rs279845, rs279826, rs279828 and rs279836 had lower “Negative” alcohol effects scores than individuals homozygous for the common allele at each SNP (p=0.0060, p=0.0035, p=0.0045, p=0.0043, p=0.0037, p=0.0061, respectively). Haplotype effects of block 1 showed concordant results with SNPs in this block (p=0.0492 and p=0.0150 for haplotypes 1 and 4, respectively). The minor alleles for several of these SNPs have previously been associated with AD. Conclusions Our findings provide further evidence that variation within GABRA2 is associated with attenuated negative responses to alcohol, a known risk factor for vulnerability to alcohol use disorders. PMID:22501025

  10. [Subjective and objective effects of music use during mental effort].

    PubMed

    Liptak, V; Egger, J

    1981-05-15

    The subjective and objective effects of music consumption during intellectual work were assessed by a special questionnaire and the concentration paper-pencil-test (Brickencamp). Three different styles of music (pop-music, classical music and folk-music) were presented in a standardized way. It appeared that pop-music was experienced to be less conscious, less irritable and more pleasant than classical music. Although there was a subjective preference for pop- and folk-music an adequate increase of the concentration-test-scores could not be ascertained. On the contrary a significant discrepancy was found between subjective recorded music-effect and objective measured task-performance. Under the condition of classical music which was least preferred there was a significant greater variance of false responses than under the condition of no music. Nevertheless the total output of the discrimination-task was relatively the highest during classical music. The results are interpreted primarily as an enhanced psycho-physiological activation and a different selective concentration on music-presentation and task-demands. In accordance with empirical findings on psychological and physiological effects of music the results of this study reinforce the statement that also i mental activities music per se does not principally increase or lower the task output.

  11. Effect of ozone on respiratory responses in subjects with asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, J.Q.

    1995-03-01

    In the process of understanding the respiratory effects of individual air pollutants, it is useful to consider which populations seem to be most susceptible to the exposures. Ozone is the most ubiquitous air pollutant in the United States, and there is great interest in the extent of susceptibility to this air pollutant. This review presents evidence that individuals with asthma are more susceptible to adverse respiratory effects from ozone exposure than are nonasthmatic individuals under similar circumstances. In studies comparing patients with asthma to nonasthmatic subjects, research has shown increased pulmonary-function decrements, an increased frequency of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in ozone responders, increased signs of upper airway inflammation after ozone exposure, and an increased response to inhaled sulfur dioxide or allergen in the subjects with asthma. Subjects with asthma are indeed a population susceptible to the inhaled effects of ozone. These data need to be considered by regulators who are charged with setting air quality standards to protect even the most susceptible members of the population. They also underline the importance of strategies to reduce human exposure to ambient ozone. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Effect of ozone on respiratory responses in subjects with asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, J Q

    1995-01-01

    In the process of understanding the respiratory effects of individual air pollutants, it is useful to consider which populations seem to be most susceptible to the exposures. Ozone is the most ubiquitous air pollutant in the United States, and there is great interest in the extent of susceptibility to this air pollutant. This review presents evidence that individuals with asthma are more susceptible to adverse respiratory effects from ozone exposure than are nonasthmatic individuals under similar circumstances. In studies comparing patients with asthma to nonasthmatic subjects, research has shown increased pulmonary-function decrements, an increased frequency of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in ozone responders, increased signs of upper airway inflammation after ozone exposure, and an increased response to inhaled sulfur dioxide or allergen in the subjects with asthma. Subjects with asthma are indeed a population susceptible to the inhaled effects of ozone. These data need to be considered by regulators who are charged with setting air quality standards to protect even the most susceptible members of the population. They also underline the importance of strategies to reduce human exposure to ambient ozone. PMID:7614933

  13. Effect of atmospheric pressure on hearing in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, M; Ozawa, H; Kodama, A; Izukura, H; Inoue, S; Uchida, K

    1994-01-01

    Hearing is assumed to be altered during or immediately after a change in atmospheric pressure, although this has not been tested experimentally. We used a soundproof pressure chamber to examine the effect of alterations in atmospheric pressure on hearing in 26 normal healthy subjects. The subjects were placed in the soundproof pressure chamber in a supine position and instructed to actively equilibrate middle ear pressure or to abstain from doing so. When the pressure was changed to +/- 500 mmH2O at 33 mmH2O/s the results were as follows: When subjects did not equilibrate middle ear pressure, air conduction at low frequency tones increased more than bone conduction. The degree of deterioration in hearing was greater when the chamber pressure was increased (descent) than where pressure was decreased (ascent). When the subjects equilibrated middle ear pressure, little change in the levels of air or bone conduction was observed. Most of the deterioration in bone conduction was considered to reflect functional loss due to increased stiffness and damping of the sound transmission mechanism.

  14. Effects of Subject-Area Degree and Classroom Experience on New Chemistry Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Ryan S.; Campbell, Benjamin K.; Luft, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Science teachers need to understand the subject matter they teach. While subject matter knowledge (SMK) can improve with classroom teaching experience, it is problematic that many secondary science teachers leave the profession before garnering extensive classroom experience. Furthermore, many new science teachers are assigned to teach science…

  15. Effects of Subject-Area Degree and Classroom Experience on New Chemistry Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Ryan S.; Campbell, Benjamin K.; Luft, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Science teachers need to understand the subject matter they teach. While subject matter knowledge (SMK) can improve with classroom teaching experience, it is problematic that many secondary science teachers leave the profession before garnering extensive classroom experience. Furthermore, many new science teachers are assigned to teach science…

  16. Otomycosis in Jos: Predisposing factors and Management

    PubMed Central

    Adoga, A, S; Iduh, A, A

    2015-01-01

    Background Otomycosis is a challenging and frustrating common Otologic condition to both patients and managing clinician. This fungal infection most often involves the squamous epithelium of the external auditory canal and is; characterized by pruritus, occasional otalgia and hypoacusis. Objectives To highlight the predisposing factors and management of Otomycosis in our center. Study design Retrospective review of 35 patients with a clinical diagnosis of otomycosis treated from January 2012 to March 2013. Setting The study was carried out at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, in the outpatient clinic of the department of Ear Nose Throat & Head Participants Thirty-five patients diagnosed with otomycosis had their medical data analyzed for this study. Intervention Antifungal eardrop was used for dressing the ears. Result 35 patients were seen within 15 months period (Jan. 2012– Mar. 2013). There were 11 males: 24 females given a gender ratio of 1:2.1. The commonest age group involved was 41–50(25.71%). There were 13, 10 and 6 cases of right, left and bilateral cases of Otomycosis m respectively. 16 cases were seen during the wet season and 19 cases during the dry season. In terms of occupation, house wives and civil servants constitute 28.60 and 17.15 % respectively. Diabetic mellitus was noted in1 (2.86%) patient. Conclusion The predisposing conditions for Otomycosis are present in Jos environment and can usually be diagnosed by clinical examination. This study suggested that otomycosis found are predominantly unilateral, more common in older age group, in female mainly housewives, civil servants and Candida species is the most common causative organism implicated in causation of otomycosis and treated with clotimazole containing drugs. Discontinuation of antifungal agent is most appropriate in antibiotic induced otomycosis. PMID:26690089

  17. Canagliflozin: Effects in overweight and obese subjects without diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Bays, Harold E; Weinstein, Richard; Law, Gordon; Canovatchel, William

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, on body weight in overweight and obese subjects (body mass index [BMI] ≥27 and <50 kg/m2). Methods This 12-week, Phase 2b, randomized, double-blind study enrolled 376 subjects without diabetes mellitus who received canagliflozin 50, 100, or 300 mg or placebo once daily. The primary endpoint was the percent change in body weight from baseline through Week 12. Results Canagliflozin increased urinary glucose excretion in a dose-dependent manner and produced statistically significant reductions in body weight compared with placebo (least squares mean percent changes from baseline of −2.2%, −2.9%, −2.7%, and −1.3% with canagliflozin 50, 100, and 300 mg and placebo; P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Overall adverse event (AE) rates were similar across groups. Canagliflozin was associated with higher rates of genital mycotic infections in women, which were generally mild and led to few study discontinuations. Osmotic diuresis-related AE rates were low and similar across groups. Conclusions In overweight and obese subjects without diabetes mellitus, canagliflozin significantly reduced body weight compared with placebo and was generally well tolerated. PMID:24227660

  18. The effect of walking sticks on balance in geriatric subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dogru, Esra; Kizilci, Harun; Balci, Nilay Comuk; Korkmaz, Nilufer Cetisli; Canbay, Ozden; Katayifci, Nihan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Guidelines and clarity regarding the information for deciding the need for walking sticks and the suitability of these sticks is insufficient. This study aimed to evaluate the suitability of walking stick and its effects on the balance in the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 39 elderly subjects aged between 65–95 years (mean age, 76.15 ± 8.35 years) and living in the Residential Aged Care and Rehabilitation Center were included. Sociodemographic data of the individuals, the material of the walking stick, who made the decision of usage and length of walking sticks were questioned. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) scores were used to evaluate balance. [Results] Subjects’ BBS scores while using the walking stick were higher than that without the walking stick. A significant difference was observed in BBS scores obtained with the stick and without the stick, according to body mass index parameters. Majority of the subjects also started to use walking sticks by themselves. No significant difference was observed between the ideal length and actual length of the walking stick was used. [Conclusion] Our study demonstrated that the elderly generally decide to use walking stick by themselves and chose the appropriate materials; which improves their balance. PMID:28174431

  19. Osteonecrosis of the jaw induced by orally administered bisphosphonates: incidence, clinical features, predisposing factors and treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Yarom, N; Yahalom, R; Shoshani, Y; Hamed, W; Regev, E; Elad, S

    2007-10-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a well-known devastating side effect of bisphosphonate therapy for cancer. Several ONJ cases of patients using oral bisphosphonates have been reported in the literature. The present study analyzed the clinical features, predisposing factors, and treatment outcome of 11 patients with oral bisphosphonates-related ONJ. Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a well-known side effect of parenteral bisphosphonates therapy. Although ONJ has been reported in patients using oral bisphosphonates, documentation of this entity is sparse. It was hypothesized that the clinical features, predisposing factors, and treatment outcome of this population are different from those of oncologic patients. This retrospective bi-central study involved 98 ONJ patients, 13 of whom were treated with oral bisphosphonates. Two patients were excluded because of previous use of intravenous bisphosphonates. The profiles of 11 patients were analyzed. The mean duration of alendronate use before developing ONJ was 4.1 years. ONJ was triggered by dental surgery in 9 patients and by ill-fitted dentures in 2. Heavy smokers were the most recalcitrant subjects. Among the nine patients with at least 6 months of follow-up, ONJ healed completely in three, partially in four, and not at all in two. ONJ is a rare devastating side effect of oral bisphosphonates associated with patient morbidity and high financial burden. Clinicians must be aware of this entity and inform patients of the risks of dental surgery. The synergistic effect of smoking in the pathogenesis of ONJ should be further investigated.

  20. Effect of activated charcoal on apixaban pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Mondal, Sabiha; Wang, Jessie; Tirucherai, Giridhar; Zhang, Donglu; Boyd, Rebecca A; Frost, Charles

    2014-04-01

    Activated charcoal is commonly used to manage overdose or accidental ingestion of medicines. This study evaluated the effect of activated charcoal on apixaban exposure in human subjects. This was an open-label, three-treatment, three-period, randomized, crossover study of single-dose apixaban (20 mg) administered alone and with activated charcoal given at 2 or 6 h post-dose to healthy subjects. Blood samples for assay of plasma apixaban concentration were collected up to 72 h post-dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including peak plasma concentration (Cmax), time to Cmax (Tmax), area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUCINF), and terminal half-life (T½), were derived from apixaban plasma concentration-time data. A general linear mixed-effect model analysis of Cmax and AUCINF was performed to estimate the effect of activated charcoal on apixaban exposure. A total of 18 subjects were treated and completed the study. AUCINF for apixaban without activated charcoal decreased by 50 and 28%, respectively, when charcoal was administered at 2 and 6 h post-dose. Apixaban Cmax and Tmax were similar across treatments. The mean T½ for apixaban alone (13.4 h) decreased to ~5 h when activated charcoal was administered at 2 or 6 h post-dose. Overall, apixaban was well tolerated in this healthy population, and most adverse events were consistent with the known profile of activated charcoal. Administration of activated charcoal up to 6 h after apixaban reduced apixaban exposure and facilitated the elimination of apixaban. These results suggest that activated charcoal may be useful in the management of apixaban overdose or accidental ingestion.

  1. Effects of chronic smoking on color vision in young subjects

    PubMed Central

    Arda, Hatice; Mirza, G Ertugrul; Polat, Osman A; Karakucuk, Sarper; Oner, Ayse; Gumus, Koray

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effects of chronic smoking on color vision in young subjects. METHODS This study included 91 smokers and 88 non-smokers (a total of 179 volunteers) without any ophthalmologic and systemical disorders. The subjects were between 18-40 years of age with a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/20, normal anterior and posterior segment examinations and normal intraocular pressure. The color vision of the subjects were evaluated with Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test (FMHT). The total error scores and axis calculation were performed for each subject and the results correlated. RESULTS Mean age and the standard deviation was 28±5y in the smokers group, and 26.7±5.5y in the control group (P=0.101). Sex distribution was similar in the two groups (P=0.365). There was no significant correlation between age and FMHT total error scores (P=0.069). Median of FMHT total error scores of smokers and non-smokers were 65 and 50.50, respectively. FMHT total error scores was found significantly higher in smokers than non-smokers (P=0.004). There was no statisticaly significant difference between smoker and non-smoker groups with respect to axis ratio calculation (P=0.611). There was no significant correlation with FMHT total error scores with neither smoking duration nor number of cigarettes smoked per day (P=0.405, P=0.454, respectively). CONCLUSION This study suggested that chronic smoking affects the color vision of young smokers but this may not be sector selective. PMID:25709912

  2. Supraorbital transcutaneous neurostimulation has sedative effects in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Piquet, Maxime; Balestra, Costantino; Sava, Simona L; Schoenen, Jean E

    2011-10-28

    Transcutaneous neurostimulation (TNS) at extracephalic sites is a well known treatment of pain. Thanks to recent technical progress, the Cefaly® device now also allows supraorbital TNS. During observational clinical studies, several patients reported decreased vigilance or even sleepiness during a session of supraorbital TNS. We decided therefore to explore in more detail the potential sedative effect of supraorbital TNS, using standardized psychophysical tests in healthy volunteers. We performed a double-blind cross-over sham-controlled study on 30 healthy subjects. They underwent a series of 4 vigilance tests (Psychomotor Vigilance Task, Critical Flicker Fusion Frequency, Fatigue Visual Numeric Scale, d2 test). Each subject was tested under 4 different experimental conditions: without the neurostimulation device, with sham supraorbital TNS, with low frequency supraorbital TNS and with high frequency supraorbital TNS. As judged by the results of three tests (Psychomotor Vigilance Task, Critical Flicker Fusion Frequency, Fatigue Visual Numeric Scale) there was a statistically significant (p < 0.001) decrease in vigilance and attention during high frequency TNS, while there were no changes during the other experimental conditions. Similarly, performance on the d2 test was impaired during high frequency TNS, but this change was not statistically significant. Supraorbital high frequency TNS applied with the Cefaly® device decreases vigilance in healthy volunteers. Additional studies are needed to determine the duration of this effect, the underlying mechanisms and the possible relation with the stimulation parameters. Meanwhile, this effect opens interesting perspectives for the treatment of hyperarousal states and, possibly, insomnia.

  3. Effect of Cabotegravir on Cardiac Repolarization in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yu; Buchanan, Ann M.; Chen, Shuguang; Ford, Susan L.; Gould, Elizabeth; Margolis, David; Spreen, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A randomized, partial‐blind, repeat‐dose, 3‐period crossover study (NCT02027454) assessed the effect of cabotegravir on QT interval in healthy subjects. To achieve a supratherapeutic dose, each subject received cabotegravir 150 mg (30 mg × 5 tablets) every 12 hours for a total of 3 doses over 2 days, matching placebo (every 12 hours) over 2 days, or a single open‐label 400‐mg dose of the positive control moxifloxacin, with a 21‐day washout between treatments. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analyses were collected up to 24 hours after the third dose on day 2. QT interval data were obtained by continuous Holter monitoring for approximately 24 hours at baseline (day ‐1) and from 2 hours before to 24 hours after the third dose on day 2. Plasma cabotegravir exposure was approximately 3‐fold above clinically relevant doses. After 3 doses of 150 mg of cabotegravir administered every 12 hours, all upper limits of 2‐sided 90% confidence intervals for ΔΔQTcF (difference in time‐matched change from baseline for QTcF between cabotegravir and placebo) were <10 milliseconds. There was no relationship between cabotegravir plasma concentrations and ΔΔQTcF. No subject receiving cabotegravir had a QTcF value > 450 milliseconds. There were no serious or grade 3 or 4 adverse events or clinically significant changes in laboratory values, vital signs, or electrocardiogram results. These data demonstrate that cabotegravir at a supratherapeutic dose had no effect on cardiac repolarization. PMID:27162089

  4. Effective balance equations for elastic composites subject to inhomogeneous potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penta, Raimondo; Ramírez-Torres, Ariel; Merodio, José; Rodríguez-Ramos, Reinaldo

    2017-08-01

    We derive the new effective governing equations for linear elastic composites subject to a body force that admits a Helmholtz decomposition into inhomogeneous scalar and vector potentials. We assume that the microscale, representing the distance between the inclusions (or fibers) in the composite, and its size (the macroscale) are well separated. We decouple spatial variations and assume microscale periodicity of every field. Microscale variations of the potentials induce a locally unbounded body force. The problem is homogenizable, as the results, obtained via the asymptotic homogenization technique, read as a well-defined linear elastic model for composites subject to a regular effective body force. The latter comprises both macroscale variations of the potentials, and nonstandard contributions which are to be computed solving a well-posed elastic cell problem which is solely driven by microscale variations of the potentials. We compare our approach with an existing model for locally unbounded forces and provide a simplified formulation of the model which serves as a starting point for its numerical implementation. Our formulation is relevant to the study of active composites, such as electrosensitive and magnetosensitive elastomers.

  5. Subjective effects of Salvia divinorum: LSD- or marijuana-like?

    PubMed

    Albertson, Dawn N; Grubbs, Laura E

    2009-09-01

    Salvia divinorum is a naturally occurring psychedelic considered to be one of the most potent hallucinogens found to date. The few behavioral studies conducted conclude that Salvia's effects may be similar to traditional psychedelics, which is noteworthy because Salvia acts via a unique molecular mechanism as a kappa opioid receptor agonist. One hundred and ninety-three participants, including 34 Salvia users, were asked to fill out a series of questionnaires related to general drug use, personality characteristics, demographics and their experiences with Salvia. Salvia users were found to differ from nonusers on personality characteristics and reported consuming significantly more alcohol than nonusers. In addition, although Salvia users rated their hallucinogenic experiences as similar to those seen in previously published reports, the majority likened their experiences as most similar to marijuana instead of more traditional psychedelics. Low scores on the ARCI LSD subscale confirmed this finding and call into question the reigning theory of LSD-like subjective effects elicited by Salvia.

  6. Genomic scan for genes predisposing to schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, H.; Jensen. S.; Holik, J.

    1994-03-15

    We initiated a genome-wide search for genes predisposing to schizophrenia by ascertaining 9 families, each containing three to five cases of schizophrenia. The 9 pedigrees were initially genotyped with 329 polymorphic DNA loci distributed throughout the genome. Assuming either autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance, 254 DNA loci yielded lod scores less than -2.0 at {theta} = 0.0, 101 DNA markers gave lod scores less than -2.0 at {theta} = 0.05, while 5 DNA loci produced maximum lod scores greater than 1: D4S35, D14S17, D15S1, D22S84, and D22S55. Of the DNA markers yielding lod scores greater than 1, D4S35 and D22S55 also were suggestive of linkage when the Affected-Pedigree-Member method was used. The families were then genotyped with four highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers; possible linkage diminished with DNA markers mapping nearby D4S35, while suggestive evidence of linkage remained with loci in the region of D22S55. Although follow-up investigation of these chromosomal regions may be warranted, our linkage results should be viewed as preliminary observations, as 35 unaffected persons are not past the age of risk. 90 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Study of Temporal Effects on Subjective Video Quality of Experience.

    PubMed

    Bampis, Christos George; Li, Zhi; Moorthy, Anush Krishna; Katsavounidis, Ioannis; Aaron, Anne; Bovik, Alan Conrad

    2017-11-01

    HTTP adaptive streaming is being increasingly deployed by network content providers, such as Netflix and YouTube. By dividing video content into data chunks encoded at different bitrates, a client is able to request the appropriate bitrate for the segment to be played next based on the estimated network conditions. However, this can introduce a number of impairments, including compression artifacts and rebuffering events, which can severely impact an end-user's quality of experience (QoE). We have recently created a new video quality database, which simulates a typical video streaming application, using long video sequences and interesting Netflix content. Going beyond previous efforts, the new database contains highly diverse and contemporary content, and it includes the subjective opinions of a sizable number of human subjects regarding the effects on QoE of both rebuffering and compression distortions. We observed that rebuffering is always obvious and unpleasant to subjects, while bitrate changes may be less obvious due to content-related dependencies. Transient bitrate drops were preferable over rebuffering only on low complexity video content, while consistently low bitrates were poorly tolerated. We evaluated different objective video quality assessment algorithms on our database and found that objective video quality models are unreliable for QoE prediction on videos suffering from both rebuffering events and bitrate changes. This implies the need for more general QoE models that take into account objective quality models, rebuffering-aware information, and memory. The publicly available video content as well as metadata for all of the videos in the new database can be found at http://live.ece.utexas.edu/research/LIVE_NFLXStudy/nflx_index.html.

  8. Supraorbital transcutaneous neurostimulation has sedative effects in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Transcutaneous neurostimulation (TNS) at extracephalic sites is a well known treatment of pain. Thanks to recent technical progress, the Cefaly® device now also allows supraorbital TNS. During observational clinical studies, several patients reported decreased vigilance or even sleepiness during a session of supraorbital TNS. We decided therefore to explore in more detail the potential sedative effect of supraorbital TNS, using standardized psychophysical tests in healthy volunteers. Methods We performed a double-blind cross-over sham-controlled study on 30 healthy subjects. They underwent a series of 4 vigilance tests (Psychomotor Vigilance Task, Critical Flicker Fusion Frequency, Fatigue Visual Numeric Scale, d2 test). Each subject was tested under 4 different experimental conditions: without the neurostimulation device, with sham supraorbital TNS, with low frequency supraorbital TNS and with high frequency supraorbital TNS. Results As judged by the results of three tests (Psychomotor Vigilance Task, Critical Flicker Fusion Frequency, Fatigue Visual Numeric Scale) there was a statistically significant (p < 0.001) decrease in vigilance and attention during high frequency TNS, while there were no changes during the other experimental conditions. Similarly, performance on the d2 test was impaired during high frequency TNS, but this change was not statistically significant. Conclusion Supraorbital high frequency TNS applied with the Cefaly® device decreases vigilance in healthy volunteers. Additional studies are needed to determine the duration of this effect, the underlying mechanisms and the possible relation with the stimulation parameters. Meanwhile, this effect opens interesting perspectives for the treatment of hyperarousal states and, possibly, insomnia. PMID:22035386

  9. Measures for Assessing Subjective Effects of Potential Reduced Exposure Products

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Karen; O’Connor, Richard; Hatsukami, Dorothy

    2009-01-01

    Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) may reduce toxicant exposure and thereby may possibly reduce health risks associated with conventional tobacco use. However, lessened health risk to the individual or harm to the population through use of PREPs is unknown. Research is being conducted to evaluate the possible health effects associated with PREP use. As part of this evaluation, it is critical to provide sound measures of subjective responses to PREPs to determine the use and the abuse potential of a product, that is the likelihood that this product will lead to addiction. The goal of this paper is to conduct a systematic review of scales that have been used to measure the subjective responses to PREPs and examine their characteristics. In this paper, scales are identified and the items on the scales are described. Scales are also examined to determine whether they are sensitive in testing PREPs. Furthermore, scales to assess PREPs are recommended to investigators. Where no scales exist, items that may be critical for the development and validation of new scales are identified. PMID:19959674

  10. Perceptual effects of the mirror box training in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Romano, Daniele; Bottini, Gabriella; Maravita, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    The mirror box (MB) was developed in the early 1990 s to relieve phantom limb sensations and chronic pain. Although its efficacy has been shown in several clinical populations, the mechanisms underpinning effects still have to be fully understood. 48 healthy subjects participated in 4 behavioral experiments where kinesthetic sensitivity of the hand inside the MB was tested during the observation of mirror-reflected finger movements, executed with the hand outside the MB. We identified two effects on the hand hidden inside the MB: diminished kinesthetic sensitivity for passive movements, and the occurrence of unconscious, involuntary movements with the finger inside the box, suggesting reduced motor awareness. Such sensory-motor effects were somatotopically specific to the finger moved, were influenced by the contextual presence of the whole hand in the mirror, and occurred for both active and passive movements of the hand outside the MB. The present results suggest that the MB induce a somatotopically and contextually specific overriding of kinesthetic control by vision, compatible with a process of embodiment of the mirror-reflected hand image and provide novel clues to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying MB effects.

  11. Chronological and Subjective Age in Emerging Adulthood: The Crossover Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Turner, Pamela K.; Tilton-Weaver, Lauree C.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between chronological age and subjective age in emerging adulthood. Predictors of variability in subjective age were also examined. A sample of 190 university students (140 females, 50 males) ages 17 to 29 completed questionnaires assessing their subjective age, psychosocial maturity, number of role…

  12. Effect of Subject Control and Graduated Exposure on Snake Phobias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepner, Alain; Cauthen, Nelson R.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of two of the variables in Leitenberg's graduated exposure technique for treating phobias, graduated exposure and subject control of the exposure time, was investigated using 15 snake-phobic subjects. Subjective fear significantly decreased from pretesting to posttesting. (Author)

  13. Acute effects of coffee on QT interval in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The coronary endothelial function is recognized to have an important role in the physiology of the diastolic ventricular relaxation, a phase of the heart cycle that influences the electrocardiographic QT interval. Endothelial function is investigated in vivo by flow mediated dilation (FMD) in the brachial artery and has proven to be a strong predictor of both coronary endothelial function and cardiovascular events. It has been reported that coffee acutely induces FMD changes. In particular, the brachial artery FMD seems to decrease after caffeinated coffee (CC) and to increase after decaffeinated coffee (DC) ingestion. Since the cardiovascular effects of coffee are still a debated matter, this study aimed at investigating with a randomized, double-blind crossover design, if the QT interval of adult healthy subjects (19 males and 21 females) changes in the hour following CC or DC ingestion. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher in the hour following the ingestion of CC; the heart rate significantly increased 30 minutes after CC ingestion. A significant increase of the QT duration was observed one hour after DC ingestion (398.9 ± 3.8 vs 405.3 ± 3.7 msec; P < 0.05), not after CC. The QT interval corrected for heart rate did not significantly change following CC or DC ingestion. In conclusion, despite CC and DC previously demonstrated to influence the FMD they do not seem to induce a significant unfavourable acute change of the left ventricular repolarization. Further investigations are required to elucidate the effects of coffee in subjects with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21288364

  14. A comparison of the CNS effects of enprofylline and theophylline in healthy subjects assessed by performance testing and subjective measures.

    PubMed Central

    Tiplady, B; Fagan, D; Lamont, M; Brockway, M; Scott, D B

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of intravenous infusions of enprofylline, theophylline, and placebo on subjective ratings and on psychological test performance were studied in a double-blind crossover experiment in 12 healthy subjects who abstained from caffeine throughout the experimental procedures. 2. Mean plasma concentrations of enprofylline were: mean 2.9 mg l-1 (range 1.9-3.4). Those for theophylline were: mean 12.1 mg l-1 (range 9.0-14.4). 3. Performance on the auditory vigilance task showed a significant improvement with theophylline compared with both enprofylline and placebo. The correct detection rates (out of 90) were 50.3, 43.4 and 39.1 respectively. A similar effect was seen with finger tapping rates: 404, 394 and 390 taps min-1 respectively. Other measures showed no significant effects, although choice reaction time showed a trend towards faster responses with theophylline. 4. Subjective ratings showed that subjects were significantly more alert with theophylline than with enprofylline. Subjects reported themselves as significantly more dizzy and ill with both active drugs compared with placebo. 5. These results suggest that emprofylline largely lacks the CNS stimulant effects of theophylline, but that the incidence of other unwanted effects of the drugs may be similar. PMID:1975198

  15. Predisposing factors and surgical outcome of complicated liver hydatid cysts

    PubMed Central

    Akcan, Alper; Sozuer, Erdogan; Akyildiz, Hizir; Ozturk, Ahmet; Atalay, Altay; Yilmaz, Zeki

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the predisposing factors for peritoneal perforation and intrabiliary rupture and the effects of these complications on surgical outcome in liver hydatid disease. METHODS: A total of 372 patients with liver hydatid cysts who had undergone surgical treatment were evaluated retrospectively. Twenty eight patients with peritoneal perforation, 93 patients with spontaneous intrabiliary perforation, and 251 patients with noncomplicated hydatid cysts were treated in our clinics. RESULTS: When the predisposing factors for complications were evaluated, younger age, superficial position, and larger cyst dimensions (P < 0.05; range, 0.001-0.017) increased peritoneal perforation rates. It was shown that older age increased cyst dimensions, and presence of multiple and bilobar cysts increased intrabiliary rupture rates (P < 0.05; range, 0.001-0.028). Partial pericystectomy and drainage was the most frequent surgical procedure in all groups (71.6%). The incidence of post-operative complications in the peritoneal perforated group, in the intrabiliary ruptured group, and in the noncomplicated group was 25%, 16.1% and 5.5%, respectively. When compared, complication rates were significantly different (P = 0.002). When length of hospital stay was compared, there was no significant difference between the groups (P > 0.05). The overall recurrence rate was 3.8% (14 patients), but there was not any statistical difference among the patient groups (P = 0.13). The early postoperative mortality rate was 1.1%. CONCLUSION: In peritoneally perforated and intrabiliary ruptured cases, the most important steps are irrigation of the peritoneal cavity and clearance of the cystic material from the biliary tree. PMID:20572308

  16. Otomycosis; clinical features, predisposing factors and treatment implications

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Khurshid; Gohar, Muhammad Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Objectives : The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of otomycosis, the clinical presentation, predisposing factors and treatment outcomes. Methods: This observational study was conducted at ENT department of Combined Military Hospital Attock, from October, 2010 to September, 2012. Convenient sample comprising 180 patients of both sexes and all age groups were selected from ENT OPD. The frequency, predisposing factors and most common symptoms of otomycosis were recorded. The response to different antifungal agents was also observed. Results were recorded in percentages. Results: There were 180 patients with documented diagnosis of otomycosis. There were 107 (59%) males and 73 (41%) females. The age of patients ranged from 1½ years to 75 years with a mean age of 38.5 years. Mean follow up time was 2 years. Most common presenting symptom was hearing loss (77.7%) followed by pruritis (68.8%) and otalgia (40%). We prescribed 1% clotrimazole drops or lotion in 58% patients and 2% salicylic acid in 31% cases. Both of these agents are effective. Topical 1% clotrimazole drops yielded highest resolution rate with lowest recurrent rate. Overall 149 (83%) patients were improved with initial treatment and 31 (17%) did not respond to initial treatment. Eight (4.4%) patients had a history of otological procedures. Four (2.2%) patients had canal wall down procedures that resulted in mastoid cavity. To analyse the efficacy of 1% clotrimazole and 2% salicylic acid we applied Z-Test to calculate the difference between 2 proportions of patients before treatment with those patients who remained uncured after treatment. Conclusion: Otomycosisis commonly presented with decreased hearing, pruritis, otalgia & otorrhoea. It usually resolves with local toilet of ear and instillation of antifungal agents. Eradication of disease is difficult in presence of a mastoid cavity and metabolic diseases like diabetes mellitus. PMID:24948980

  17. Acyclovir prophylaxis predisposes to antiviral-resistant recurrent herpetic keratitis.

    PubMed

    van Velzen, Monique; van de Vijver, David A M C; van Loenen, Freek B; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Remeijer, Lies; Verjans, Georges M G M

    2013-11-01

    Long-term acyclovir (ACV) prophylaxis, recommended to prevent recurrent herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ocular disorders, may pose a risk for ACV-refractory disease due to ACV resistance. We determined the effect of ACV prophylaxis on the prevalence of corneal ACV-resistant (ACV(R)) HSV-1 and clinical consequences thereof in patients with recurrent HSV-1 keratitis (rHK). Frequencies of ACV(R) viruses were determined in 169 corneal HSV-1 isolates from 78 rHK patients with a history of stromal disease. The isolates' ACV susceptibility profiles were correlated with clinical parameters to identify risk factors predisposing to ACV(R) rHK. Corneal HSV-1 isolates with >28% ACV(R) viruses were defined as ACV(R) isolates. Forty-four isolates (26%) were ACV-resistant. Multivariate analyses identified long-term ACV prophylaxis (≥12 months) (odds ratio [OR] 3.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-8.87) and recurrence duration of ≥45 days (OR 2.23; 95% CI, 1.02-4.87), indicative of ACV-refractory disease, as independent risk factors for ACV(R) isolates. Moreover, a corneal ACV(R) isolate was a risk factor for ACV-refractory disease (OR 2.28; 95% CI, 1.06-4.89). The data suggest that long-term ACV prophylaxis predisposes to ACV-refractory disease due to the emergence of corneal ACV(R) HSV-1. ACV-susceptibility testing is warranted during follow-up of rHK patients.

  18. Effect of calorie restriction on subjective ratings of appetite

    PubMed Central

    Anton, S. D.; Han, H.; York, E.; Martin, C. K.; Ravussin, E.; Williamson, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Energy or calorie restriction (CR) has consistently been shown to produce weight loss and have beneficial health effects in numerous species, including primates and humans. Most individuals, however, are unable to sustain weight losses induced through reductions in energy intake, potentially due to increased hunger levels. The effects that prolonged CR has on subjective aspects of appetite have not been well studied. Thus, the present study tested the effect of 6 months of caloric restriction on appetite in healthy, overweight men and women. Methods Forty-eight overweight men and women with a body mass index (BMI; kg m−2) between 25–29.9 took part in a 6-month study and were randomised into one of four groups: healthy diet (control); 25% CR; 12.5% CR plus exercise (12.5% increased energy expenditure; CR + EX); low-calorie diet [LCD; 3724 kJ day−1 (890 kcal day−1) until 15% of initial body weight was lost, then maintenance]. Appetite markers (i.e. hunger, fullness, desire to eat, etc.) were assessed weekly during a fasting state. Results Body weight was significantly reduced in all three energy-restricted groups (CR = −10.4 ± 0.9%; CR + EX = −10.0 ± 0.8%; and LCD = −13.9 ± 0.7%), indicating that participants were adherent to their energy restriction regimen, whereas the healthy diet control group remained weight stable (control = −1.0 ± 1.1%). Despite these significant weight losses, appetite ratings of participants in the three energy-restricted groups at month 6 were similar to the weight stable control group. Conclusions CR regimens with low fat diets producing significant weight losses have similar effects on appetite markers over a 6-month time period compared to a weight stable control group. PMID:19302119

  19. Predisposing factors for primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

    PubMed

    Ohtomo, Kazuyoshi; Ueta, Takashi; Toyama, Taku; Nagahara, Miyuki

    2013-07-01

    Pathological origin of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO) is considered as inflammation of unknown causes; however, specific predisposing factors have not been fully addressed to date. In an institutional setting, background factors of 45 patients with PANDO were compared to those in 67 control subjects. The control subjects were persons with senile cataract, representing the non-pathological general population. The evaluated background factors were inflammatory medical histories (infectious conjunctivitis and allergic conjunctivitis and/or rhinitis), previously reported factors (POAG and topical timolol), and a novel factor proposed in the current study (exposure to swimming pool). Data were extracted from the patients through interview based on a standardized questionnaire as well as from their clinical records. After adjustment for age and gender, a history of infectious conjunctivitis was more common in the PANDO group than in the control group (55.6 % vs 32.8 %, P = 0.0027), and regular attendance to indoor swimming pools was also more common in the PANDO group (33.3 % vs 0 %, P < 0.0001). Furthermore, when age- and gender- matched subjects were selected, a history of conjunctivitis and swimming pool exposure were independently associated with the development of PANDO (P = 0.022 and P < 0.0001 respectively). On the other hand, the frequencies of histories of POAG, topical timolol, and allergic conjunctivitis and/or rhinitis were similar between the two groups. Histories of infectious conjunctivitis and swimming pool exposure could be associated with the development of PANDO, although the pathogenesis of this condition has been considered as inflammation of unknown causes.

  20. Subject Expression in Brazilian Portuguese: Construction and Frequency Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silveira Neto, Agripino De Souza

    2012-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese (henceforth BP) has for long been considered as a Null-subject language due to its variability in regards to subject expression (e.g. "Era bom porque eu diminuia de peso...era muito gordinha" "That was good because then I could lose some weight...(I) was a bit chubby." C33:179). Such variability has been…

  1. Subject Expression in Brazilian Portuguese: Construction and Frequency Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silveira Neto, Agripino De Souza

    2012-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese (henceforth BP) has for long been considered as a Null-subject language due to its variability in regards to subject expression (e.g. "Era bom porque eu diminuia de peso...era muito gordinha" "That was good because then I could lose some weight...(I) was a bit chubby." C33:179). Such variability has been…

  2. The Influence of Predisposing, Enabling and Need Factors on Condom Use in Ivory Coast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngamini Ngui, Andre

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify key determinants of condom use in Ivory Coast. Data stem from Ivory Coast Demographic Health Survey (DHS) conducted by ORC Macro in 2005 among a representative sample of 9,686 persons aged 15 - 49. Following the behavioral model, we use logistic regression to assess the effect of predisposing,…

  3. Mixed-Effects Modeling with Crossed Random Effects for Subjects and Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baayen, R. H.; Davidson, D. J.; Bates, D. M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to mixed-effects models for the analysis of repeated measurement data with subjects and items as crossed random effects. A worked-out example of how to use recent software for mixed-effects modeling is provided. Simulation studies illustrate the advantages offered by mixed-effects analyses compared to…

  4. Predisposing and precipitating factors for delirium in hospitalized older patients.

    PubMed

    Inouye, S K

    1999-01-01

    Delirium is a common and serious problem for older hospitalized patients. This investigation proposes a multifactorial model of delirium etiology, involving a complex interrelationship of predisposing (vulnerability) factors and precipitating factors (acute insults). An overview of risk factors for delirium identified in 14 studies published since 1980 is provided. Although these studies identify key risk factors for delirium, they do not allow the examination of the interrelationship of predisposing and precipitating factors. Thus, we present two prospective cohort studies by our group which empirically examine: (1) predisposing (vulnerability) factors, (2) precipitating factors, and (3) the interrelationship of predisposing and precipitating factors. Understanding these risk factors is the key to developing appropriate preventive strategies and to target intermediate and high risk patients for intervention efforts.

  5. Evaluating for suspected child abuse: conditions that predispose to bleeding.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Shannon L; Abshire, Thomas C; Anderst, James D

    2013-04-01

    Child abuse might be suspected when children present with cutaneous bruising, intracranial hemorrhage, or other manifestations of bleeding. In these cases, it is necessary to consider medical conditions that predispose to easy bleeding/bruising. When evaluating for the possibility of bleeding disorders and other conditions that predispose to hemorrhage, the pediatrician must consider the child's presenting history, medical history, and physical examination findings before initiating a laboratory investigation. Many medical conditions can predispose to easy bleeding. Before ordering laboratory tests for a disease, it is useful to understand the biochemical basis and clinical presentation of the disorder, condition prevalence, and test characteristics. This technical report reviews the major medical conditions that predispose to bruising/bleeding and should be considered when evaluating for abusive injury.

  6. 47 CFR 76.905 - Standards for identification of cable systems subject to effective competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... subject to effective competition. 76.905 Section 76.905 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Regulation § 76.905 Standards for identification of cable systems subject to effective competition. (a) Only the rates of cable systems that are not subject to effective competition may be regulated. (b) A...

  7. 47 CFR 76.905 - Standards for identification of cable systems subject to effective competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... subject to effective competition. 76.905 Section 76.905 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Regulation § 76.905 Standards for identification of cable systems subject to effective competition. (a) Only the rates of cable systems that are not subject to effective competition may be regulated. (b) A...

  8. 47 CFR 76.905 - Standards for identification of cable systems subject to effective competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... subject to effective competition. 76.905 Section 76.905 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Regulation § 76.905 Standards for identification of cable systems subject to effective competition. (a) Only the rates of cable systems that are not subject to effective competition may be regulated. (b) A...

  9. The subject as cause and effect of evolution.

    PubMed

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter

    2017-10-06

    A family of arguments often presented in opposition to mainstream neo-Darwinian views of evolution assert an 'active' role for organisms in determining the course of their evolution and other kinds of biological change. I assess several of these arguments, beginning with an early treatment by Lewontin and moving to more recent discussions. I then look at a subset of these phenomena, those in which organisms are efficacious in virtue of features and capacities related to subjectivity. In the history of the Earth from the Cambrian onwards, subjectivity has been an increasingly important causal factor.

  10. Subjective and objective learning effects dissociate in space and in time.

    PubMed

    Schwiedrzik, Caspar M; Singer, Wolf; Melloni, Lucia

    2011-03-15

    Perceptual learning not only improves sensitivity, but it also changes our subjective experience. However, the question of how these two learning effects relate is largely unexplored. Here we investigate how subjects learn to see initially indiscriminable metacontrast-masked shapes. We find that sensitivity and subjective awareness increase with training. However, sensitivity and subjective awareness dissociate in space: Learning effects on performance are lost when the task is performed at an untrained location in another quadrant, whereas learning effects on subjective awareness are maintained. This finding indicates that improvements in shape sensitivity involve visual areas up to V4, whereas changes in subjective awareness involve other brain regions. Furthermore, subjective awareness dissociates from sensitivity in time: In an early phase of perceptual learning, subjects perform above chance on trials that they rate as subjectively invisible. Later, this phenomenon disappears. Subjective awareness is thus neither necessary nor sufficient for achieving above-chance objective performance.

  11. Inverse Association between Obesity Predisposing FTO Genotype and Completed Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Chojnicka, Izabela; Fudalej, Sylwia; Walczak, Anna; Wasilewska, Krystyna; Fudalej, Marcin; Stawiński, Piotr; Strawa, Katarzyna; Pawlak, Aleksandra; Wojnar, Marcin; Krajewski, Paweł; Płoski, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    The A allele of rs9939609 in the FTO gene predisposes to increased body mass index (BMI) and obesity. Recently we showed an inverse association between the obesity related A allele of rs9939609 and alcohol dependence which was replicated by others. Since this finding raises a possibility that FTO may be associated with other psychiatric phenotypes, we aimed to examine association of rs9939609 with completed suicide. We genotyped rs9939609 in 912 suicide victims and 733 controls using TaqMan approach. We observed an inverse association between suicide and the rs9939609 A allele (OR = 0.80, P = 0.002, Pcor = 0.006) with genotype distribution suggesting a co-dominant effect. Given the link between alcoholism and suicide under influence of alcohol reported in Polish population, confounding by alcohol addiction was unlikely due to apparently similar effect size among cases who were under influence of ethanol at the time of death (OR = 0.76, P = 0.003, N = 361) and those who were not (OR = 0.80, P = 0.007, N = 469). The search for genotype-phenotype correlations did not show significant results. In conclusion, our study proves that there is an inverse association between rs9939609 polymorphism in FTO gene and completed suicide which is independent from association between FTO and alcohol addiction. PMID:25265168

  12. Does compensatory hyperparathyroidism predispose to ischemic stroke?

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Kaji, M; Metoki, N; Satoh, K; Iwamoto, J

    2003-02-25

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is vasoactive, and the endothelium is one of the target tissues of this hormone. Hyperparathyroidism is frequently associated with hypertension. To determine if hyperparathyroidism, which develops particularly in elderly women as a compensatory mechanism to osteoporosis, may be a risk factor for ischemic stroke. Serum PTH levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in 107 elderly patients with ischemic stroke (>or=65 years old) were assessed on the day of onset. The control group consisted of 107 healthy volunteers matched for age and sex. BMD was significantly lower and serum PTH higher in female stroke patients than in control subjects; there was a negative correlation between these two measurements. One-third of the female stroke patients had a serum PTH level higher than the mean + 2 SD of the control subjects (high PTH group), and the interval between menopause and the stroke was significantly longer in the high PTH group than in the normal PTH group. Multiple logistic analyses revealed hypertension and ischemic heart disease were more prevalent in the high PTH group. BMD and PTH were normal in male stroke patients. High serum PTH level may be associated with high incidence of ischemic stroke in women, possibly through the increased incidence of hypertension.

  13. Effects of a single dose of baclofen on self-reported subjective effects and tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Cousins, M S; Stamat, H M; de Wit, H

    2001-05-01

    Baclofen has been reported in uncontrolled clinical studies to reduce craving for abused drugs and reduce their rewarding effects. The objective of the present study was to measure the acute effects of a single dose of baclofen on cigarette smoking, craving for nicotine, cigarette taste, and smoking satisfaction. Tobacco smokers (n = 16) who were not trying to quit received baclofen (20 mg) or placebo after overnight abstinence during two laboratory sessions in a within-subjects design. We measured the subjective effects of baclofen on mood and self-reported ratings of craving for nicotine, and on the number of cigarettes smoked of the subjects' preferred brand during a 3-h ad libitum smoking period. Baclofen did not change the number of cigarettes smoked by the subjects nor did it change ratings of nicotine craving. However, baclofen altered the sensory properties of smoked cigarettes (e.g., increasing ratings of 'harsh' and decreasing ratings of 'like cigarette's effects'). It also produced mild sedative-like subjective effects, such as increases in feeling 'relaxed'. Thus, although baclofen did not reduce cigarette craving or smoking in the present study, it did produce some mood-altering effects and changes in sensory aspects of smoking that may facilitate smoking cessation.

  14. Ankle sprain: pathophysiology, predisposing factors, and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Tricia J; Wikstrom, Erik A

    2010-07-16

    With the high percentage (up to 75%) of initial lateral ankle sprains (LAS) leading to repetitive sprains and chronic symptoms, it is imperative to better understand how best to treat and rehabilitate LAS events. The purpose of this paper is to review LAS pathophysiology, predisposing factors, and the current evidence regarding therapeutic modalities and exercises used in the treatment of LAS. Functional rehabilitation, early mobilization with support, is the current standard of care for LAS. However, the high percentage of reinjury occurrence and development of chronic symptoms (up to 75%) after a LAS, suggests the current standard of care may not be effective. Recent evidence has shown the need for more stringent immobilization to facilitate ligament healing and restoration of joint stability and function after a LAS. Additionally, the importance of adding adjunctive therapies, specifically joint mobilizations and balance training have been shown to improve function and decrease the incidence of reinjury after a LAS. Modifying current rehabilitation protocols to include protecting the ankle joint with stringent immobilization, and including joint mobilizations and balance training may be the first step to decreasing the incidence of short and long term ankle joint dysfunction.

  15. Sleep deprivation predisposes gujarati Indian adolescents to obesity.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Wasim A; Patel, Minal; Singh, Sk

    2009-07-01

    Recent studies on various populations indicate that lack of sleep is one of the potential risk factors predisposing the youth to obesity. Since there is a significant rise in obesity among Indian youth and because research indicating the role of sleep in development of obesity among Indian population is scant, the current study was undertaken to assess the effect of sleep duration on adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents. A randomized cross-sectional study was done on 489 voluntarily participating Indian adolescents in the age group of 16-19 years. Participants were grouped into two categories 1). Adequate Sleep Duration at Night (more than seven hours, ASDN) and 2) Inadequate Sleep Duration at Night (less than seven hours, IASDN) as reported by the participants. The participants were later assessed for adiposity in terms of BMI, BF %, FM, FMI and waist circumference, meal frequency per day and physical activity status. In both boys as well as girls, the BMI, BF%, FM and FMI were significantly lower in the ASDN group than the IASDN group. However, there was an insignificant difference in the meal frequency and physical activity status between the ASDN and IASDN group. Inadequate sleep duration increases adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents but further studies are required to find out the mechanisms through which sleep affects adiposity in this population.

  16. Sleep Deprivation Predisposes Gujarati Indian Adolescents to Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Wasim A; Patel, Minal; Singh, SK

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aim: Recent studies on various populations indicate that lack of sleep is one of the potential risk factors predisposing the youth to obesity. Since there is a significant rise in obesity among Indian youth and because research indicating the role of sleep in development of obesity among Indian population is scant, the current study was undertaken to assess the effect of sleep duration on adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents. Materials and Methods: A randomized cross-sectional study was done on 489 voluntarily participating Indian adolescents in the age group of 16-19 years. Participants were grouped into two categories 1). Adequate Sleep Duration at Night (more than seven hours, ASDN) and 2) Inadequate Sleep Duration at Night (less than seven hours, IASDN) as reported by the participants. The participants were later assessed for adiposity in terms of BMI, BF %, FM, FMI and waist circumference, meal frequency per day and physical activity status. Results: In both boys as well as girls, the BMI, BF%, FM and FMI were significantly lower in the ASDN group than the IASDN group. However, there was an insignificant difference in the meal frequency and physical activity status between the ASDN and IASDN group. Conclusion: Inadequate sleep duration increases adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents but further studies are required to find out the mechanisms through which sleep affects adiposity in this population. PMID:20049294

  17. The Effects of Sex of Subject, Sex and Attractiveness of Photo on Facial Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroo, Agatha W.; Mozingo, R.

    1989-01-01

    Assessed effect of sex of subject, and sex and attractiveness of photo on facial recognition with 25 male and 25 female college students. Found male subjects performed better with male faces with d' prime scores. (Author/ABL)

  18. Why Do Undergraduates Smoke? Subjective Effects of Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Jilda; Srebro, Karen; Authier, Charlene; Chambliss, Catherine

    Several personal and social factors thought to influence college students' smoking were investigated by surveying a sample of college students who smoke (n=56) and do not smoke (n=160). Personal motivating factors examined were relaxation effects, image effects, competence effects, and stimulant effects. These personal reasons for smoking were…

  19. A new simulator for assessing subjective effects of sonic booms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leatherwood, Jack D.; Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    1991-09-01

    A man rated and computer driven sonic boom simulator which has been constructed and placed in operational use at NASA-Langley is described. The simulator is used to study human subjective reactions to sonic booms and has the capability of producing a wide range of signatures under controlled conditions. Results are presented to illustrate the capability of the simulator to generate user specified N-wave and shaped booms having rise times as low as 0.5 milliseconds and peak overpressures up to 191 Pa (4 psf). The validity of the simulator as a lab research tool for studying human subjective response to sonic booms was demonstrated by successful completion of a preliminary test designed to compare loudness of N-wave sonic booms with results obtained by other investigators. Excellent agreement of the preliminary test data with existing data was observed. This provided confidence in the experimental methodology and established the simulator as a viable tool for performing detailed evaluations of sonic boom loudness and acceptability within the lab. environment.

  20. Physiological effects of vibration in subjects with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    McCarren, B; Alison, J A

    2006-06-01

    The physiological mechanisms by which vibration and other physiotherapy interventions may clear secretions in subjects with cystic fibrosis are unknown. The main aim of this study was to compare the expiratory flow rates and frequencies of airflow oscillation of vibration to those of Acapella(R), Flutter(R), positive expiratory pressure and percussion. Respiratory flow rates were measured during interventions, the order of which was randomised. The oscillation of the airflow of the interventions was determined by frequency spectral analysis. In 18 young adult subjects with cystic fibrosis, the mean peak expiratory flow rate of vibration was greater than Flutter(R), percussion, Acapella(R) and positive expiratory pressure. The mean+/-sd of the oscillation of the airflow of vibration (8.4+/-0.4 Hz) was lower than Acapella(R) (13.5+/-1.7 Hz) and Flutter(R) (11.3+/-1.5 Hz) but similar to percussion (7.3+/-0.3 Hz). Theoretically, the higher peak expiratory flow rate of vibration compared to the other physiotherapy interventions may promote secretion clearance. In addition, the frequency of oscillation of vibration was within the range demonstrated to increase mucus transport. This study has provided some evidence for the physiological rationale for the use of vibration to aid secretion clearance.

  1. Ozone and Survival in Four Cohorts with Potentially Predisposing Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Time series studies have reported associations between ozone and daily deaths. Only one cohort study has reported the effect of long-term exposures on deaths, and little is known about effects of chronic ozone exposure on survival in susceptible populations. Objectives: We investigated whether ozone was associated with survival in four cohorts of persons with specific diseases in 105 United States cities, treating ozone as a time varying exposure. Methods: We used Medicare data (1985–2006), and constructed cohorts of persons hospitalized with chronic conditions that might predispose to ozone effects: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, congestive heart failure, and myocardial infarction. Yearly warm-season average ozone was merged to the individual follow-up in each city. We applied Cox proportional hazard model for each cohort within each city, adjusting for individual risk factors, temperature, and city-specific long-term trends. Measurements and Main Results: We found significant associations with a hazard ratio for mortality of 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.08) per 5-ppb increase in summer average ozone for persons with congestive heart failure; of 1.09 (95% CI, 1.06–1.12) with myocardial infarction; of 1.07 (95% CI, 1.04–1.09) with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and of 1.07 (95% CI, 1.05–1.10) for diabetics. We also found that the effect varied by region, but that this was mostly explained by mean temperature, which is likely a surrogate of air conditioning use, and hence exposure. Conclusions: This is the first study that follows persons with specific chronic conditions, and shows that long-term ozone exposure is associated with increased risk of death in these groups. PMID:21700916

  2. Effects of repeated oxycodone administration on its analgesic and subjective effects in normal, healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ziva D; Sullivan, Maria A; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Manubay, Jeanne M; Haney, Margaret; Foltin, Richard W; Evans, Suzette M; Kowalczyk, William J; Saccone, Phillip A; Comer, Sandra D

    2012-01-01

    Tolerance to the analgesic effects of opioids has been demonstrated in laboratory animals after repeated drug administration, yet this effect has been studied less frequently under controlled laboratory conditions in humans. This within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to determine if tolerance developed to the analgesic, subjective, and physiological effects of the commonly prescribed opioid oxycodone when it was administered daily for 5 days. The effects of oxycodone’s (0, 5, and 20 mg/70 kg, p.o.) were compared, using a within-session cumulative dosing procedure, on the 1st and 5th days of the ‘daily’ dosing phase to assess for tolerance; active oxycodone was administered on the 2nd-4th days of the daily dosing phase. Changes in the effects of oxycodone were also compared when the medication was only administered on the 1st and 5th day of a 5-day ‘intermittent’ dosing phase; placebo medication was administered on the 2nd–4th days of the intermittent dosing phase. A 9-day ‘washout’ period occurred between phases when no medication was administered. Healthy volunteers (N=10) with no history of drug dependence or current drug use participated in this outpatient study. Analgesia was assessed using the Cold-Pressor Test (CPT), pain and drug effects were measured using a variety of questionnaires, and pupil diameter was monitored as an index of physiological effects. When administered daily, no differences were observed in oxycodone-induced analgesia between the 1st and 5th days, but tolerance did develop to some of the positive subjective effects of oxycodone. In contrast, oxycodone-induced analgesia and participant ratings of some positive subjective drug effects were greater on the 5th day compared to the 1st day of the intermittent dosing phase. No differences in the miotic effects of oxycodone between the 1st and 5th days of either dosing phase were detected. Though obtained under limited experimental conditions, these

  3. Detecting disease-predisposing variants: The haplotype method

    SciTech Connect

    Valdes, A.M.; Thomson, G.

    1997-03-01

    For many HLA-associated diseases, multiple alleles - and, in some cases, multiple loci - have been suggested as the causative agents. The haplotype method for identifying disease-predisposing amino acids in a genetic region is a stratification analysis. We show that, for each haplotype combination containing all the amino acid sites involved in the disease process, the relative frequencies of amino acid variants at sites not involved in disease but in linkage disequilibrium with the disease-predisposing sites are expected to be the same in patients and controls. The haplotype method is robust to mode of inheritance and penetrance of the disease and can be used to determine unequivocally whether all amino acid sites involved in the disease have not been identified. Using a resampling technique, we developed a statistical test that takes account of the nonindependence of the sites sampled. Further, when multiple sites in the genetic region are involved in disease, the test statistic gives a closer fit to the null expectation when some - compared with none - of the true predisposing factors are included in the haplotype analysis. Although the haplotype method cannot distinguish between very highly correlated sites in one population, ethnic comparisons may help identify the true predisposing factors. The haplotype method was applied to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) HLA class II DQA1-DQB1 data from Caucasian, African, and Japanese populations. Our results indicate that the combination DQA1 No. 52 (Arg predisposing) DQB1 No. 57 (Asp protective), which has been proposed as an important IDDM agent, does not include all the predisposing elements. With rheumatoid arthritis HLA class H DRB1 data, the results were consistent with the shared-epitope hypothesis. 35 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Treatment of fear of flying: behavioral, subjective, and cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed

    Trimmel, Michael; Burger, Margit; Langer, Gabriela; Trimmel, Karin

    2014-05-01

    Nonaviator fear of flying is a common problem usually managed with behaviorally oriented treatment. The unknown time courses of aspects of anxiety and of physiological response were investigated during a 3-d treatment including flights. Ratings, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV; pNN10, pNN50) of 15 Moderate-Anxious and 9 High-Anxious subjects at critical epochs of treatment and on 2 actual flights, on which 9 Controls participated, were compared. All subjects took the flights and displayed a remarkably reduced fear when comparing pre- vs. post-treatment ratings. Repeated ratings showed an increase in relaxation and drops in general somatic and cognitive aspects of anxiety during flights. However, cognitive aspects in High-Anxious did not drop to the level of Controls. Level of anxiety was related to cardiovascular activity almost always during treatment and flights, in particular during takeoffs (average maximum HR of 137 bpm in High-Anxious compared to 118 bpm in Moderate-Anxious and 98 bpm in Controls in the first flight). Moderate-Anxious showed no obvious relationship of cardiovascular response to critical flight epochs, but had the lowest HRV on flights. Results indicate that anxiety in Moderate-Anxious is related to flight, but not to single critical epochs of flying, contrary to High-Anxious, for which higher ratings on cognitive aspects of anxiety associated with more physiological load at critical epochs were observed. However, HR and ratings showed a remarkable drop in both treatment groups, in particular in perceived physiological symptoms, indicating that the treatment facilitates coping of fear of flying.

  5. Reinforcing and subjective effects of methylphenidate in adults with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    English, Joseph; Robinson, Rachel; Hallyburton, Matt; Chrisman, Allan K.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale There has been controversy over the abuse potential of methylphenidate (MPH) in the context of treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective The objective of this study was to compare the reinforcing and subjective effects of oral MPH in adults with and without ADHD. Materials and methods Following screening, 33 adults (n= 16 with ADHD; n=17 free from psychiatric diagnoses) completed four pairs of experimental sessions, each of which included a sampling session and a self-administration session. During sampling sessions, subjects received in randomized order 0 (placebo), 20, 40, and 60 mg MPH. During self-administration sessions, subjects completed a progressive ratio (PR) task to earn portions of the dose received on the corresponding sampling session. Subjective effects were recorded throughout all sessions. The main outcome measure for the study was the number of ratios completed on the PR task. Secondary measures included peak subjective effects and area-under-the-curve values for subjective effects. Results Compared to the control group, the ADHD group completed more ratios on the PR task. Both groups showed robust effects of methylphenidate on subjective endpoints. Main effects of group were noted on subjective effects involving concentration and arousal. Conclusions Compared to placebo, MPH produced reinforcing effects only for the ADHD group and not for the control group. Increases in stimulant-related subjective effects in non-ADHD subjects were not associated with drug reinforcement. PMID:19104775

  6. Effects of Source Prestige on Subjects' Acceptance of the Barnum Effect: Psychologist versus Astrologer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Gerald M.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects' willingness to endorse "universally valid" statements as accurate and meaningful has been demonstrated on repeated occasions. This study investigates whether this "Barnum" effect is best attributed to the prestige of psychologists or to the nature of the statements themselves. (Author)

  7. An Economical Multifactor within-Subject Design Robust against Trend and Carryover Effects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-17

    Bakan , 1966). Nor can we assume that a between-subject design is devoid of sequence effects. Those created by the equipment and the environment can still...CT) trends. within-subject design Design in which a subject is tested serially on all the conditions of an experiment. 50 ;&- N _P REFERENCES Bakan

  8. Antioxidant effects of a cinnamon extract on overweight subjects with impaired fasting glucose

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To determine the effects of an aqueous extract of cinnamon on antioxidant status of obese subjects. Methods: Twenty-two obese subjects with elevated blood glucose were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Subjects were given either a placebo or 250 mg of an aqueous extract...

  9. The Role of the Effective Subject Leader: Perspectives from Practitioners in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poultney, Val

    2007-01-01

    In a report by Bennett et al. for the National College for School Leadership on the role and purpose of middle leaders (Subject Leaders) in secondary schools, two areas were identified for further research. First was the nature of effective subject leadership and second, the Subject Leader's "pivotal role in leading and managing cultural change…

  10. Ocular hemodynamic effects of nitrovasodilators in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Schmidl, D; Polska, E; Kiss, B; Sacu, S; Garhofer, G; Schmetterer, L

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role in the regulation of ocular blood flow and may be an interesting therapeutic target in ocular ischemic disease. In the present study, we hypothesized that NO-releasing drugs may increase blood flow to the head of the optic nerve and also in the choroid. The study employed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, four-way crossover design. On separate study days, 12 healthy subjects received infusions of nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate, sodium nitroprusside, or placebo. All three study drugs reduced the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) (P < 0.001). None of the administered drugs increased the ocular hemodynamic variables. By contrast, vascular resistance decreased dose dependently during administration of the study drugs (P < 0.001). These results indicate that systemic administration of NO-donor drugs is associated with a decrease in vascular resistance in the ocular vasculature. However, because these drugs also reduce blood pressure, they do not improve perfusion to the posterior eye pole.

  11. Effectiveness of dietary supplements in spinal cord injury subjects.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Opazo, Angela; Cuitiño, Pilar; Salas, Inés

    2017-04-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) consume more dietary supplements than the general population. However, there is limited information regarding the clinical effectiveness of dietary supplements in SCI population. To systematically review the effectiveness of dietary supplements for the prevention or treatment of health-related conditions associated with SCI. Randomized or non-randomized controlled clinical trials were selected, comparing the effect of any dose and form of a dietary supplement (defined by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act), with either no treatment, placebo, or other medication. Data Sources included the Cochrane Database, DARE, LILACS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, OTSeeker, PEDro, PsycINFO, SpeechBITE, ScienceDirect, Scopus, clinicaltrials.gov, Google Scholar, and OpenGrey. Two reviewers independently classified articles from January 1970 through October 2015, and 18 articles were selected. Due to the heterogeneity of outcome measures across studies, a meta-analysis was not conducted. However, high-quality evidence showed that cranberry supplementation is not effective for prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in SCI. Moderate-quality evidence supported a beneficial effect of vitamin D, alpha-lipoic acid, and omega-3 supplementation, although replication of results is needed. There were conflicting results for the effect of creatine supplementation on improvement of motor outcomes. Low-quality evidence does not permit assessment of the effectiveness of melatonin, whey protein, vitamin C, and Chinese herb in SCI. There is sufficient data suggesting that cranberry supplementation is ineffective for prevention of UTIs in individuals with SCI. There is insufficient data to support or refute the use of any other dietary supplement in individuals with SCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Iron deficiency: an overlooked predisposing factor in angular cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Murphy, N C; Bissada, N F

    1979-10-01

    Clinicians who recommend the use of antifungal agents for angular cheilitis may be treating the symptoms and not the predisposing cause of the disease. Iron deficiency should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis whenever angular cheilitis is encountered, especially in women of child-bearing age.

  13. Effects of fenfluramine on plasma homovanillic acid in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hollander, E; Stein, D J; Saoud, J B; DeCaria, C M; Cooper, T B; Islam, M N; Liebowitz, M R; Stanley, M

    1992-01-01

    The specificity of fenfluramine as a pharmacological probe of the serotonin system has been questioned, since animal studies with high dose l-fenfluramine show increases in striatal levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid. To test the specificity of fenfluramine in humans with clinical doses, we compared plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentration in healthy volunteers after administration of fenfluramine (60 mg) and placebo. There were no significant effects on pHVA, which supports previous findings that at doses used in pharmacological challenge paradigms, the effect of fenfluramine on the dopamine system is insufficient to alter measures of its change.

  14. Association of the C2-CFB locus with non-infectious uveitis, specifically predisposed to Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingming; Fan, Jiao-jie; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Yan; Teng, Yan; Liu, Ping

    2016-04-01

    Complement component 2 (C2) and factor B (CFB) are regulators of complement system and involved in the alternative pathway, which have been identified to be associated with multiple immune-related diseases. This study aimed to investigate the association of these genes with non-infectious intermediate and posterior uveitis. A total of 260 Chinese non-infectious uveitis patients were recruited, including 97 patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH), 70 patients with intermediate uveitis (IU) and 93 patients with Behçet's disease (BD). Two hundred and ninety-three normal control subjects were also recruited. Five SNPs across the C2/CFB region were selected and genotyped using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. Association analysis was adjusted for gender and stratified by different subtypes. The CFB SNP rs1048709 was significantly associated with non-infectious uveitis [P corr = 0.01, OR 1.49 (allele model) and P corr = 0.04, OR 1.58 (dominant model), respectively], and similar association was also detected between rs1048709 and female uveitis patients (P corr = 0.01, OR 1.70 and P corr = 0.049, OR 184, respectively). Moreover, subgroup analyses showed that CFB-rs1048709 was specifically associated with VKH, where significantly higher frequencies of A allele and AA homozygosity were observed in VKH patients compared with controls (P corr = 0.025 and P corr = 0.035, respectively), whereas none of these five SNPs was associated with IU or BD. In addition, a haplotype block across CFB (GTG) was significantly predisposed to uveitis with protective effect (OR 0.66, P corr = 0.048). Our results revealed a significant association of CFB with non-infectious uveitis, particularly predisposed to VKH disease. Genetic differences for uveitis could be gender-specific.

  15. Effect Size Measure and Analysis of Single Subject Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, 2013

    2013-01-01

    One of the vexing problems in the analysis of SSD is in the assessment of the effect of intervention. Serial dependence notwithstanding, the linear model approach that has been advanced involves, in general, the fitting of regression lines (or curves) to the set of observations within each phase of the design and comparing the parameters of these…

  16. Are Course Evaluations Subject to a Halo Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Jenny A.

    2007-01-01

    Many course evaluations, including those used in schools by OfStEd, colleges and universities, employ a number of scales as a means of evaluating various aspects of the educational experience of the student. It tends to be assumed that students consider the scales independently. This article argues that students are influenced by a "halo effect"…

  17. Are Course Evaluations Subject to a Halo Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Jenny A.

    2007-01-01

    Many course evaluations, including those used in schools by OfStEd, colleges and universities, employ a number of scales as a means of evaluating various aspects of the educational experience of the student. It tends to be assumed that students consider the scales independently. This article argues that students are influenced by a "halo effect"…

  18. Subjective visual vertical in erect/supine subjects and under microgravity: effects of lower body negative pressure.

    PubMed

    Lucertini, Marco; De Angelis, Claudio; Martelli, Marialuisa; Zolesi, Valfredo; Tomao, Enrico

    2011-07-01

    Perception of the subjective visual vertical (SVV) is mainly based on the contributions from the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems, and participates to the process of spatial orientation in relation to the surrounding environment and to the gravito-inertial force. The SVV can be significantly influenced by the presence of a displaced visual field, as in the case of the rod and frame test (RFT). A series of studies showed the effects of haematic mass shifts to and from the lower limbs on SVV, due to visceral mechanoreceptors (VM) located at the level of the kidneys and of the thorax. These sensors may be artificially activated with a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) device. In this study, the role of visual and VM cues to orientation perception have been evaluated using the RFT and the LBNP devices under a microgravity environment. A preliminary investigation was conducted in a sample of military pilots to develop a RFT protocol to be used in microgravity environments. This protocol was adopted to evaluate the contribution of VM to the SVV in a cosmonaut before, during and after a 10 day space flight, with and without concurrent activation of LBNP. The same test sequence, including LBNP exposure, was repeated a few months later on Earth on the same subject. As expected, the influence of the frame on rod positioning was statistically significant in all test conditions. During the in-flight experimental step, a substantial lack of significant changes compared to the pre-flight condition was observed. Moreover, substantially no effects due to LBNP were observed. A mild rod displacement from the body axis was detected under microgravity compared to the pre-flight recording. Such a finding was in part reduced during LBNP. The same findings were observed during the post-flight repetition of the experiment. Our results showed an absence in this subject of significant effects on the RFT due to microgravity. In conclusion, no effects from his VM on the RFT

  19. Hypoglycemic effect of guava juice in mice and human subjects.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J T; Yang, R S

    1983-01-01

    Guava is a plentiful fruit in Taiwan and it was taken from the plants of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae). According to the folklore in Chinese Medicine, gauva was useful in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, acute i.p. treatment with 1 g/kg guava juice produced a marked hypoglycemic action in normal and alloxan-treated diabetic mice. Although effective duration of guava is more transient and it is less potent than chlorpropamide and metformin, blood glucose lowering effect of guava also can be obtained by oral administration in maturity-onset diabetic and healthy volunteers. Thus, it is suggested that guava may be employed to improve and/or prevent the disease of diabetes mellitus.

  20. Inhalation of diethylamine--acute nasal effects and subjective response

    SciTech Connect

    Lundqvist, G.R.; Yamagiwa, M.; Pedersen, O.F.; Nielsen, G.D. )

    1992-03-01

    Adult volunteers were exposed to 25 ppm (75 mg/m3) diethylamine in a climate chamber for 15 min in order to study the acute nasal reactions to an exposure equivalent to the present threshold limit value-short-term exposure limit. Changes in nasal volume and nasal resistance were measured by acoustic rhinometry and by rhinomanometry. Acute change in nasal volume, usually seen as acute nasal mucosa response to thermal stimuli, was not observed, nor was an acute change in nasal airway resistance. In a subsequent experiment, the aim was to measure acute sensory effects. Exposure to a concentration increasing from 0 to 12 ppm took place for 60 min, equal to an average concentration of 10 ppm (30 mg/m3). A moderate to strong olfactory response and distinct nasal and eye irritation were observed. In spite of considerable individual variation, the results were in agreement with sensory effect estimates obtained from animal studies.

  1. Predisposing factors for early retirement in patients with schizophrenia in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Reinhard; Friedel, Heiko; Erfurth, Andreas; Angermayer, Matthias; Clouth, Johannes; Eichmann, Florian

    2008-08-01

    Although early retirement causes major changes in the life of schizophrenic patients and is among the major cost factors to be covered by payers, the causes leading to early retirement of schizophrenic patients have not been investigated in detail. Therefore, the objective of this retrospective non-interventional case-control study was to generate hypotheses on predisposing factors for early retirement in schizophrenia. Logistic regression was used to explore potential predisposing parameters with regard to their effect on the outcome early retirement. As the study results indicate, schizophrenia severity, assistance or care in the patient's everyday life, age and antipsychotic treatment with typical antipsychotics are linked to the occurrence of early retirement. Further research should be planned to confirm or refute the hypotheses determined in this retrospective analysis and to determine whether atypical antipsychotics could help to avoid early retirement and to improve the situation of schizophrenic patients.

  2. [Assessment of the predisposing risk factors of the complicated postoperative course after combined operations].

    PubMed

    Federov, A V; Kolygin, A V; Berelavichus, S V; Kriger, A G; Chernova, T G; Goncharova, N N; Solodkiĭ, A V

    2013-01-01

    Results of 335 combined operations were analyzed. Men were 89 (27%), women - 246 (73%), the majority of patients were of middle age. 285 (85%) operations included cholecystectomy. 195 (58%) patients had hernioplasty. The third place belonged to vascular operations - 76 (23%). Certain predisposing factors, correlating with the risk of the complicated postoperative course, were marked out. Indications and contraindications to the combined operation were assigned, based on the number of predisposing factors in a patient. Considering the increased risk of intraoperative complications during the combined operation (increased duration, blood loss), participation of highly experienced surgeons and use of modern high-tech equipment seem to be reasonable. The general results of the analysis prove that combined operations are effective, safe and economically beneficial.

  3. Effects of ibudilast on oxycodone-induced analgesia and subjective effects in opioid-dependent volunteers.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Z D; Johnson, K W; Vosburg, S K; Sullivan, M A; Manubay, J; Martinez, D; Jones, J D; Saccone, P A; Comer, S D

    2017-09-01

    Opioid-induced glial activation is hypothesized to contribute to the development of tolerance to opioid-induced analgesia. This inpatient, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject and between-groups pilot study investigated the dose-dependent effects of ibudilast, a glial cell modulator, on oxycodone-induced analgesia. Opioid-dependent volunteers were maintained on morphine (30mg, PO, QID) for two weeks and received placebo ibudilast (0mg, PO, BID) during the 1st week (days 1-7). On day 8, participants (N=10/group) were randomized to receive ibudilast (20 or 40mg, PO, BID) or placebo for the remainder of the study. On days 4 (week 1) and 11 (week 2), the analgesic, subjective, and physiological effects of oxycodone (0, 25, 50mg/70kg, PO) were determined. Analgesia was measured using the cold pressor test; participants immersed their hand in cold water (4°C) and pain threshold and pain tolerability were recorded. Oxycodone decreased pain threshold and tolerability in all groups during week 1. During week 2, the placebo group exhibited a blunted analgesic response to oxycodone for pain threshold and subjective pain ratings, whereas the 40mg BID ibudilast group exhibited greater analgesia as measured by subjective pain ratings (p≤0.05). Oxycodone also increased subjective drug effect ratings associated with abuse liability in all groups during week 1 (p≤0.05); ibudilast did not consistently affect these ratings. These findings suggest that ibudilast may enhance opioid-induced analgesia. Investigating higher ibudilast doses may establish the utility of pharmacological modulation of glial activity to maximize the clinical use of opioids. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Multiplicative correction of subject effect as preprocessing for analysis of variance.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Iku; Abe, Masaya; Kotani, Makoto

    2008-03-01

    The procedure of repeated-measures ANOVA assumes the linear model in which effects of both subjects and experimental conditions are additive. However, in electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography, there may be situations where subject effects should be considered to be multiplicative in amplitude. We propose a simple method to normalize such data by multiplying each subject's response by a subject-specific constant. This paper derives ANOVA tables for such normalized data. Present simulations show that this method performs ANOVA effectively including multiple comparisons provided that the data follows the multiplicative model.

  5. Subjective qualities of memories associated with the picture superiority effect in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Huron, Caroline; Danion, Jean-Marie; Rizzo, Lydia; Killofer, Valérie; Damiens, Annabelle

    2003-02-01

    Patients with schizophrenia (n = 24) matched with 24 normal subjects were presented with both words and pictures. On a recognition memory task, they were asked to give remember, know, or guess responses to items that were recognized on the basis of conscious recollection, familiarity, or guessing, respectively. Compared with normal subjects, patients exhibited a lower picture superiority effect selectively related to remember responses. Unlike normal subjects, they did not exhibit any word superiority effect in relation to guess responses; this explains why the overall picture superiority effect appeared to be intact. These results emphasize the need to take into account the subjective states of awareness when analyzing memory impairments in schizophrenia.

  6. [Effects of nifuroxazide on fecal flora in healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Buisson, Y; Larribaud, J

    1989-01-01

    Effect of nifuroxazide on fecal flora was studied in 12 healthy volunteers receiving, in hazardous order and double-blind procedure, three six-days courses of treatment separated by eight-days spaces of time: the conventional dosage of 400 mg twice a day, a dosage of 1200 mg once a day, and placebo. Among six settled bacteriological index (wealth of the fecal flora, percentage of gram-negative bacteria, numbers of E. coli, Enterococcus, Clostridium and Bacteroides), no significant variation was found by means of statistical study between D0, D2 and D7, nor between the three courses of treatment. Therefore nifuroxazide, even in high dosage, does not injure integrity of microbial intestinal ecosystem under so defined experimental conditions, similar with clinical conditions.

  7. End effects on elbows subjected to moment loadings. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Rodabaugh, E.C.; Moore, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    So-called end effects for moment loadings on short-radius and long-radius butt welding elbows of various arc lengths are investigated with a view toward providing more accurate design formulas for critical piping systems. Data developed in this study, along with published information, were used to develop relatively simple design equations for elbows attached at both ends to long sections of straight pipe. These formulas are the basis for an alternate ASME Code procedure for evaluating the bending moment stresses in Class 1 nuclear piping (ASME Code Case N-319). The more complicated problems of elbows with other end conditions, e.g., flanges at one or both ends, are also considered. Comparisons of recently published experimental and theoretical studies with current industrial code design rules for these situations indicate that these rules also need to be improved.

  8. Effect of grapefruit juice on pharmacokinetics of microemulsion cyclosporine in African American subjects compared with Caucasian subjects: does ethnic difference matter?

    PubMed

    Lee, M; Min, D I; Ku, Y M; Flanigan, M

    2001-03-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of grapefruit juice (GJ) on microemulsion cyclosporine (CsA) in 11 African American subjects, and it was compared to those in 11 Caucasian subjects. Each subject received two oral doses of CsA with water (W) or GI as well as i.v. CsA. Regardless of race, GJ significantly increased the peak concentration (Cmax) and area under the time-curve (AUC) of CsA; however, the magnitude of GJ effects was different between African American subjects and Caucasian subjects (p = 0.0003). GJ increased peak concentration of CsA by 39% in African American subjects, while the difference in Caucasian subjects was only 8% (p > 0.05). GJ also increased AUC of CsA in African American subjects by 60%, while GJ increased that in Caucasian subjects by 44% (p = 0.0001). The absolute bioavailability of CsA was 21% lower in African American subjects compared with Caucasian subjects when it was given with water (p = 0.048), but these differences disappeared when it was given with GJ (p = 0.6). These findings suggest that concurrent administration of GJ increases the bioavailability of CsA in African American subjects in greater magnitude compared with Caucasian subjects.

  9. The Effects of Different Sets of Disclosure Instructions on Subject Productivity and Rated Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Sheldon Norman

    1978-01-01

    Investigated the effects of different sets of instructions (feeling disclosure, logical disclosure, placebo control, and control) to discuss personal concerns on subject productivity and subject satisfaction ratings. Analyses indicated the instructional manipulation was effective in producing different kinds and amounts of talk by condition.…

  10. Nonlocal Intuition: Replication and Paired-subjects Enhancement Effects

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Maryam; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study of repeat entrepreneurs in Tehran, Iran, in which nonlocal intuition was investigated in a replication and extension of experiment using measures of heart rate variability (HRV). Nonlocal intuition is the perception of information about a distant or future event by the body's psychophysiological systems, which is not based on reason or memories of prior experience. This study follows up on the McCraty, Radin, and Bradley studies, which found evidence of nonlocal intuition. We used Radin's experimental protocol, with the addition of HRV measures as in the McCraty studies involving computer administration of a random sequence of calm and emotional pictures as the stimulus, and conducted two experiments on mutually exclusive samples—the first on a group of single participants (N=15) and the second on a group of co-participant pairs (N=30)—to investigate the question of the “amplification” of intuition effects by social connection. Each experiment was conducted over 45 trials while heart rate rhythm activity was recorded continuously. Results, using random permutation analysis, a statistically conservative procedure, show significant pre-stimulus results—that is, for the period before the computer had randomly selected the picture stimulus—for both experiments. Moreover, while significant separation between the emotional and calm HRV curves was observed in the single-participant experiment, an even larger separation was apparent for the experiment on co-participant pairs; the difference between the two groups was also significant. Overall, the results of the single-participant experiment confirm previous finding: that electrophysiological measures, especially changes in the heart rhythm, can detect intuitive foreknowledge. This result is notable because it constitutes cross-cultural corroboration in a non-Western context—namely, Iran. In addition, the results for co-participant pairs offer new evidence on the

  11. Neurochemical and psychotropic effects of bupropion in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Gabriella; Slater, Susan; Boucher, Nathalie; Debonnel, Guy; Blier, Pierre

    2003-06-01

    Bupropion is a weak inhibitor of noradrenaline (NE) and dopamine (DA) reuptake and has no direct action on serotonin (5-HT) neuronal elements. In the rat brain, bupropion suppresses NE neuron firing activity via the activation of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors and increases that of 5-HT neurons through an indirect action on NE neurons. Twenty-five healthy young male volunteers, with no previous history of psychiatric disorders, were randomized to one of four 7-day regimens: placebo, bupropion (150 mg) once daily, bupropion (150 mg) twice a day, and methylphenidate SR (20 mg daily). To assess the activity of the NE reuptake process, the blood pressure response to intravenous tyramine was determined. A decrease in the systolic pressure response to tyramine was considered evidence of NE reuptake inhibition. Effects on 5-HT reuptake were assessed by measuring whole blood 5-HT concentration, with a decrease serving as an index of 5-HT reuptake blockade. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) scale was used to assess behavioral and psychological changes. Neither bupropion nor methylphenidate altered the tyramine pressor response, in contrast to previous data that demonstrated decreases were obtained with NE reuptake inhibitors. Neither drug modified 5-HT concentrations. However, POMS scores revealed that bupropion at a dosage of 150 mg/day increased composedness, agreeability, and energy, whereas 300 mg/day improved only attention. In contrast, methylphenidate improved only energy. These data provide no evidence that bupropion acts as an inhibitor of NE or 5-HT reuptake in healthy humans. Presumably it enhances synaptic availability of NE by increasing release. Yet, because its behavioral profile is different from that of methylphenidate, it may not share all the biochemical properties of psychostimulants.

  12. Previous burn injury predisposes mice to lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Carter, Edward A; Paul, Kasie W; Barrow, Sandra A; Fischman, Alan J; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    In mice, it has been demonstrated that at 7 days after burn injury, injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is more lethal than the same dose at 1 day after injury. In the present study, we examined the effect of LPS injection to mice burned 7 days previously on glucose metabolism ([(18)F] 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose [(18)FDG] uptake) in vivo. CD-1 male mice (25-28 g, Charles River Breeding Laboratories, Wilmington, MA) were anesthetized, backs shaven, and subjected to dorsal full thickness burn on 25% TBSA. Sham-treated animals were used as controls. Six days after burn injury, all mice were fasted overnight. One half of the burned and sham controls were subsequently injected IP with LPS (10 mg/kg; Escherichia coli). The remaining animals were injected with saline IP. Two hours later, all mice were injected IV with 50 μCi of (18)F FDG. One hour later, the animals were euthanized, and biodistribution was measured. Tissues were weighed, and radioactivity was measured with a well-type γ counter. Results were expressed as %dose/g tissue, mean ± SEM. The combination of burn 7 days previously and LPS significantly increased mortality compared to animals with burn alone, LPS alone, or sham controls. Burn injury 7 days previously caused a significant decrease in (18)FDG uptake by the brain compared to sham controls. The combination of LPS and burn injury 7 days previously produced a significant increase in (18)FDG uptake by brown adipose tissue and heart compared with either treatment separately. LPS produced a significant increase in (18)FDG uptake by lung, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract of the sham animals, changes that were different in mice burned 7 days previously and injected with LPS. The present results suggest that burn injury 7 days previously predisposes mice to alterations in (18)FDG uptake produced by LPS. These changes may relate, in part, to the increased lethality of LPS injection in previously burned mice.

  13. Effects of manual lymph drainage for abdomen on the brain activity of subjects with psychological stress

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jung-Myo; Yeun, Young-Ran; Kim, Hye-Young; Kim, Sung-Joong

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the effects of manual lymph drainage for abdomen on electroencephalography in subjects with psychological stress. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight subjects were randomly allocated to undergo a 20-min session of either manual lymph drainage or abdominal massage on a bed. [Results] Analysis of electroencephalograms from the manual lymph drainage group showed a significant increase in relaxation, manifested as an increase in average absolute, relative alpha activity and a decrease in relative gamma activity. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that the application of manual lymph drainage from the abdomen provides acute neural effects that increase relaxation in subjects with psychological stress. PMID:28356638

  14. Predisposing factors and prevention of Clostridium perfringens-associated enteritis.

    PubMed

    Allaart, Janneke G; van Asten, Alphons J A M; Gröne, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Clostridium perfringens is one of the major causes of intestinal disease in humans and animals. Its pathogenicity is contributed to by the production of a variety of toxins. In addition, predisposing environmental factors are important for the induction of C. perfringens-associated enteritis as shown by infection models. Environmental contamination, gastric and intestinal pH, intestinal microflora, nutrition, concurrent infections, and medical interventions may influence the intestinal colonization, growth, and toxin production by C. perfringens. Prevention of C. perfringens-associated enteritis may be mediated by the use of feed additives like probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids, essential oils, bacteriophages, lysozymes, bacteriocins, and antimicrobial peptides. Here we summarize and discuss published data on the influence of different environmental predisposing factors and preventive measures. Further research should focus on feed composition and feed additives in order to prevent C. perfringens-associated enteritis.

  15. NOD2 prevents emergence of disease-predisposing microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Secher, Thomas; Normand, Sylvain; Chamaillard, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    The gut flora is composed of a huge number of diverse, well-adapted symbionts that interact with epithelial lining throughout the host's entire life. Not all commensals have the same ability to maintain quiescent, protective inflammation. Importantly, instability in the composition of gut microbial communities (referred to as dysbiosis) has been linked to loss of gut barrier in the context of common human illnesses with increasing socio-economic impacts, such as Crohn disease and colorectal cancer. Our recent findings suggest that disease-predisposing dysbiosis can now be intentionally manipulated by targeting the major Crohn disease-predisposing NOD2 gene. That knowledge will not only add a new dimension to the often overlooked microbiology of Crohn disease and colorectal cancer, but will also have a broad impact on biomedical sciences worldwide. PMID:23778641

  16. In-group identification mediates the effects of subjective in-group status on mental health.

    PubMed

    Sani, Fabio; Magrin, Maria Elena; Scrignaro, Marta; McCollum, Rachel

    2010-12-01

    We present two studies exploring the effects of the relative standing of one's in-group in the social hierarchy, which we conceptualize as 'subjective in-group status', on mental health and well-being. Study 1 focuses on the subjective status of a professional in-group (prison guards) while Study 2 concerns the subjective status of the family in-group. Results show that higher subjective in-group status predicts better mental health (e.g., less depression) and greater well-being (e.g., higher satisfaction with life). Also, results demonstrate that the effects of subjective in-group status on mental health are mediated by the extent to which one subjectively identifies with the in-group.

  17. Controlled vaporized cannabis, with and without alcohol: subjective effects and oral fluid-blood cannabinoid relationships.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Rebecca L; Brown, Timothy L; Milavetz, Gary; Spurgin, Andrew; Gorelick, David A; Gaffney, Gary; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-07-01

    Vaporized cannabis and concurrent cannabis and alcohol intake are commonplace. We evaluated the subjective effects of cannabis, with and without alcohol, relative to blood and oral fluid (OF, advantageous for cannabis exposure screening) cannabinoid concentrations and OF/blood and OF/plasma vaporized-cannabinoid relationships. Healthy adult occasional-to-moderate cannabis smokers received a vaporized placebo or active cannabis (2.9% and 6.7% Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) with or without oral low-dose alcohol (~0.065g/210L peak breath alcohol concentration [BrAC]) in a within-subjects design. Blood and OF were collected up to 8.3 h post-dose and subjective effects measured at matched time points with visual-analogue scales and 5-point Likert scales. Linear mixed models evaluated subjective effects by THC concentration, BrAC, and interactions. Effects by time point were evaluated by dose-wise analysis of variance (ANOVA). OF versus blood or plasma cannabinoid ratios and correlations were evaluated in paired-positive specimens. Nineteen participants (13 men) completed the study. Blood THC concentration or BrAC significantly associated with subjective effects including 'high', while OF contamination prevented significant OF concentration associations <1.4 h post-dose. Subjective effects persisted through 3.3-4.3 h, with alcohol potentiating the duration of the cannabis effects. Effect-versus-THC concentration and effect-versus-alcohol concentration hystereses were counterclockwise and clockwise, respectively. OF/blood and OF/plasma THC significantly correlated (all Spearman r≥0.71), but variability was high. Vaporized cannabis subjective effects were similar to those previously reported after smoking, with duration extended by concurrent alcohol. Cannabis intake was identified by OF testing, but OF concentration variability limited interpretation. Blood THC concentrations were more consistent across subjects and more accurate at predicting cannabis' subjective

  18. POLE mutations in families predisposed to cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Aoude, Lauren G; Heitzer, Ellen; Johansson, Peter; Gartside, Michael; Wadt, Karin; Pritchard, Antonia L; Palmer, Jane M; Symmons, Judith; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Tomlinson, Ian; Kearsey, Stephen; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-12-01

    Germline mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE have been shown to predispose to colorectal cancers and adenomas. POLE is an enzyme involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. In order to assess whether such mutations might also predispose to cutaneous melanoma, we interrogated whole-genome and exome data from probands of 34 melanoma families lacking pathogenic mutations in known high penetrance melanoma susceptibility genes: CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, TERT, POT1, ACD and TERF2IP. We found a novel germline mutation, POLE p.(Trp347Cys), in a 7-case cutaneous melanoma family. Functional assays in S. pombe showed that this mutation led to an increased DNA mutation rate comparable to that seen with a Pol ε mutant with no exonuclease activity. We then performed targeted sequencing of POLE in 1243 cutaneous melanoma cases and found that a further ten probands had novel or rare variants in the exonuclease domain of POLE. Although this frequency is not significantly higher than that in unselected Caucasian controls, we observed multiple cancer types in the melanoma families, suggesting that some germline POLE mutations may predispose to a broad spectrum of cancers, including melanoma. In addition, we found the first mutation outside the exonuclease domain, p.(Gln520Arg), in a family with an extensive history of colorectal cancer.

  19. Native language influence on the distributive effect in producing second language subject-verb agreement.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoyan; Chen, Baoguo; Liang, Lijuan; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the distributive effect when producing subject-verb agreement in English as a second language (L2) when the participant's first language either does or does not require subject-verb agreement. Both Chinese-English and Uygur-English bilinguals were included in Experiment 1. Chinese has no required subject-verb agreement, whereas Uygur does. Results showed that the distributive effect was observed in Uygur-English bilinguals but not in Chinese-English bilinguals, indicating that this particular first language (L1) syntactic feature is one significant factor affecting the distributive effect in the production of subject-verb agreement in L2. Experiment 2 further investigated the matter by choosing Chinese-English participants with higher L2 proficiency. Still, no distributive effect was observed, suggesting that the absence of distributive effect in Chinese-English bilinguals in Experiment 1 was not due to low proficiency in the target language. Experiment 3 changed the way the stimuli were presented, highlighting the singular or distributive nature of the subject noun phrases, and the distributive effect was observed in Chinese-English bilinguals. Altogether, the results show that the L1 syntactic feature of subject-verb agreement is one significant factor affecting the distributive effect in the production of subject-verb agreement in L2. More specifically, distributive effects rarely occur in L2 when L1 has no requirement on subject-verb agreement, whereas distributive effects are more likely to occur in L2 when the L1 also has required subject-verb agreement.

  20. The predisposing factors of pericoronitis of mandibular third molars in a Jordanian population.

    PubMed

    Bataineh, Anwar B; Al, Qudah Mansour A

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the most frequently encountered predisposing factors in relation to the etiology of pericoronitis in young adults and to compare these findings with similar studies. The patients included in this prospective study were those presenting for treatment of signs and symptoms of pericoronitis in the mandibular third molar area during an 8-year period from 1994 to 2001. A standard check sheet of subjective and objective observations was completed, and female patients were asked about menstruation or pregnancy. Each patient with a diagnosis of pericoronitis was interviewed and observations were recorded. Patients were asked about the symptoms relating to the pericoronitis. Patients were divided into five 5-year age groups ranging from 16 to 40 years. During the 8-year period, 2,151 patients presented diagnosed cases of pericoronitis; 932 (43.3%) patients were male and 1,219 (56.7%) were female. The peak age of occurrence of pericoronitis varied from 21 to 25 years (55.2% of the patients). The incidence of pericoronitis was highest in September (207 [9.6%]), followed by April (181 [8.4%]); for subacute pericoronitis, the highest was in February (128 [5.95%]) and April (112 [5.2%]), followed by October (97 [4.5%]). The most frequently seen predisposing factor was upper respiratory tract infection in 815 (37.9%) patients, followed by stress in 473 (22%) patients. It was concluded that the upper respiratory tract infection was the most frequently predisposing factor, which could precipitate pericoronitis.

  1. The Effects of Directional Processing on Objective and Subjective Listening Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, Erin M.; Moore, Travis M.; Ricketts, Todd A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this investigation were (a) to evaluate the effects of hearing aid directional processing on subjective and objective listening effort and (b) to investigate the potential relationships between subjective and objective measures of effort. Method: Sixteen adults with mild to severe hearing loss were tested with study…

  2. The Effectiveness of Oral Presentation Assessment in a Finance Subject: An Empirical Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhati, Shyam S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the effectiveness of oral presentation as an assessment tool in a Finance subject. Assessment data collected from a postgraduate Finance subject in an Australian university over a period of five years from 2005 to 2009 was analysed statistically to determine the relation between students' performance in oral…

  3. The Effects of Directional Processing on Objective and Subjective Listening Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, Erin M.; Moore, Travis M.; Ricketts, Todd A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this investigation were (a) to evaluate the effects of hearing aid directional processing on subjective and objective listening effort and (b) to investigate the potential relationships between subjective and objective measures of effort. Method: Sixteen adults with mild to severe hearing loss were tested with study…

  4. Effects of Local and Global Context on Processing Sentences with Subject and Object Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Fang; Mo, Lun; Louwerse, Max M.

    2013-01-01

    An eye tracking study investigated the effects of local and global discourse context on the processing of subject and object relative clauses, whereby the contexts favored either a subject relative clause interpretation or an object relative clause interpretation. The fixation data replicated previous studies showing that object relative clause…

  5. A Value-Added Study of Teacher Spillover Effects across Four Core Subjects in Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Kun

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the existence, magnitude, and impact of teacher spillover effects (TSEs) across teachers of four subject areas (i.e., mathematics, English language arts [ELA], science, and social studies) on student achievement in each of the four subjects at the middle school level. The author conducted a series of value-added (VA) analyses,…

  6. Reinforcing, subjective, and psychomotor effects of sevoflurane and nitrous oxide in moderate-drinking healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Zacny, J P; Janiszewski, D; Sadeghi, P; Black, M L

    1999-12-01

    To characterize the reinforcing, subjective and psychomotor effects of sevoflurane, a volatile anesthetic, across a range of subanesthetic concentrations in non-drug-abusing humans. In addition, a concentration of nitrous oxide was included in the design in order to compare and contrast behavioral effects of a gaseous to a volatile anesthesic. Repeated measures, double-blind, placebo control experiment. Human psychopharmacology laboratory. Fourteen moderate-drinking healthy volunteers. In each of four sessions, subjects first sampled placebo-oxygen and an active drug (end-tidal concentrations of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6% sevoflurane and 30% nitrous oxide in oxygen) and then chose between the two Mood and psychomotor performance during the sampling trials, and choice of drug or placebo-oxygen during choice trial. Nitrous oxide was chosen by 71% of the subjects, and 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% sevoflurane were chosen by 50%, 57% and 50% of the subjects, respectively. Neither drug was chosen at levels that exceeded that of chance. Sevoflurane and nitrous oxide both impaired psychomotor performance and produced changes in mood. There were several differences in subjective effects between sevoflurane and nitrous oxide at concentrations which were considered to be equivalent in anesthetic effect. Finally, although sevoflurane did not function as a reinforcer in the majority of individuals tested, there was evidence that sevoflurane functioned as a reinforcer in some volunteers: subjects who chose to inhale sevoflurane over placebo-oxygen tended to report a positive spectrum of subjective effects during the sevoflurane sampling trial, relative to those subjects who chose placebo-oxygen over sevoflurane. Although sevoflurane did not function as a reinforcer in the majority of subjects tested, the correspondence between positive subjective effects of sevoflurane and subsequent sevoflurane choice suggests that the volatile anesthetic drug can function as a reinforcer in some moderate drinkers.

  7. Subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects of pregabalin alone and in combination with oxycodone in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Zacny, James P; Paice, Judith A; Coalson, Dennis W

    2012-01-01

    Pregabalin is an anticonvulsant drug indicated for neuropathic disorders and fibromyalgia. Some chronic pain patients suffering from these disorders take both this drug and an opioid for pain relief. Pregabalin is a scheduled drug under the Controlled Substances Act. The subjective effects of this drug have not been well-characterized, and the extent to which it alters the subjective effects of opioids has not been studied to the best of our knowledge. Using a double-blind, randomized, crossover design, 16 healthy volunteers were administered (in separate sessions) capsules containing placebo, 75 mg pregabalin, 150 mg pregabalin, 10 mg oxycodone, and 75 mg pregabalin combined with 10 mg oxycodone. Subjective, psychomotor, and physiological measures were assessed during each of the five sessions. Pregabalin produced dose-related increases in some subjective effects and decreased respiration rate, but did not impact on psychomotor performance. Abuse liability-related subjective effects such as drug liking and desire to take the drug again were not increased by either pregabalin dose. Oxycodone produced increases in several subjective effects, including ratings of drug liking. When 75 mg pregabalin was combined with oxycodone some subjective effects were altered relative to placebo, in contrast to when each drug was tested alone. Liking of oxycodone was not increased by 75 mg pregabalin. However, recent studies have suggested that this drug is abused, and we would recommend that further psychopharmacological studies with pregabalin are warranted, including a study assessing its abuse liability across a range of doses in sedative abusers.

  8. Subjective, Psychomotor, and Physiological Effects of Pregabalin Alone and in Combination With Oxycodone in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Zacny, James P.; Paice, Judith A.; Coalson, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    Pregabalin is an anticonvulsant drug indicated for neuropathic disorders and fibromyalgia. Some chronic pain patients suffering from these disorders take both this drug and an opioid for pain relief. Pregabalin is a scheduled drug under the Controlled Substance Act. The subjective effects of this drug have not been well-characterized, and the extent to which it alters the subjective effects of opioids has not been studied to the best of our knowledge. Using a double-blind, randomized, crossover design, 16 healthy volunteers were administered (in separate sessions) capsules containing placebo, 75 mg pregabalin, 150 mg pregabalin, 10 mg oxycodone, and 75 mg pregabalin combined with 10 mg oxycodone. Subjective, psychomotor, and physiological measures were assessed during each of the five sessions. Pregabalin produced dose-related increases in some subjective effects and decreased respiration rate, but did not impact on psychomotor performance. Abuse liability-related subjective effects such as drug liking and desire to take the drug again were not increased by either pregabalin dose. Oxycodone produced increases in several subjective effects, including ratings of drug liking. When 75 mg pregabalin was combined with oxycodone some subjective effects were altered relative to placebo, in contrast to when each drug was tested alone. Liking of oxycodone was not increased by 75 mg pregabalin. However, recent studies have suggested that this drug is abused, and we would recommend that further psychopharmacological studies with pregabalin are warranted, including a study assessing its abuse liability across a range of doses in sedative abusers. PMID:22085697

  9. Familiarity, but not Recollection, Supports the Between-Subject Production Effect in Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Five experiments explored the basis of the between-subjects production effect in recognition memory as represented by differences in the recollection and familiarity of produced (read aloud) and nonproduced (read silently) words. Using remember-know judgments (Experiment 1b) and a dual-process signal-detection approach applied to confidence ratings (Experiments 2b and 3), we observed that production influences familiarity but not recollection when manipulated between-subjects. This is in contrast to within-subject designs, which reveal a clear effect of production on both recollection and familiarity (Experiments 1a and 2a). Our findings resolve contention concerning apparent design effects: Whereas the within-subject production effect is subserved by separable recollective- and familiarity-based components, the between-subjects production effect is subserved by the familiarity-based component alone. Our findings support a role for the relative distinctiveness of production as a means of guiding recognition judgments (at least when manipulated within-subjects), but we also propose that production influences the strength of produced items, explaining the persistence of the effect in between-subjects designs. PMID:27244352

  10. Subjective Quality Information: Effects of Patient Experience Outcomes and Display Formats on Evaluation and Choice Intentions.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Martin; Renner, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the impact of subjective quality information in the form of aggregate patient experience outcomes on respondent evaluation and intended choice of hospitals. We compared clinical performance-based quality measures (i.e., wound infection rates) with participant evaluations and choice intentions when they were additionally provided with subjective quality information (i.e., patient experience outcomes in different display formats). Results suggest that patient experience outcomes significantly affected the evaluations and choice intentions. Additionally, we found significant effects of subjective information display formats. Limitations, directions for future research, and implications for publishing subjective quality information in health care markets are discussed.

  11. Effect of subject types on the production of auxiliary is in young English-speaking children.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ling-Yu; Owen, Amanda J; Tomblin, J Bruce

    2010-12-01

    In this study, the authors tested the unique checking constraint (UCC) hypothesis and the usage-based approach concerning why young children variably use tense and agreement morphemes in obligatory contexts by examining the effect of subject types on the production of auxiliary is. Twenty typically developing 3-year-olds were included in this study. The children's production of auxiliary is was elicited in sentences with pronominal subjects, high-frequency lexical noun phrase (NP) subjects (e.g., the dog), and low-frequency lexical NP subjects (e.g., the deer). As a group, children did not use auxiliary is more accurately with pronominal subjects than with lexical NP subjects. Furthermore, individual data revealed that although some children used auxiliary is more accurately with pronominal subjects than with lexical NP subjects, the majority of children did not show this trend. The symmetry observed between lexical and pronominal subjects supports the predictions of the UCC hypothesis, although additional mechanisms may be needed to account for the asymmetry between subject types in some individual children. Discrepant results between the present study and previous studies were attributed to differences in task formats and children's developmental levels.

  12. The effect of cognitive testing and feedback on older adults' subjective age.

    PubMed

    Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross; Hughes, Matthew; Saenz, Gabriel; Tirso, Robert

    2017-03-10

    Subjective age, or how old a person feels, is an important measure of self-perception that is associated with consequential cognitive and health outcomes. Recent research suggests that subjective age is affected by certain situations, including cognitive testing contexts. The current study examined whether cognitive testing and positive performance feedback affect subjective age and subsequent cognitive performance. Older adults took a series of neuropsychological and cognitive tests and subjective age was measured at various time points. Participants also either received positive or no feedback on an initial cognitive task, an analogies task. Results showed that participants felt older over the course of the testing session, particularly after taking a working memory test, relative to baseline. Positive feedback did not significantly mitigate this subjective aging effect. Results suggest that subjective age is malleable and that it can be affected by standard cognitive and neuropsychological test conditions.

  13. Short-term metabolic effects of prednisone administration in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kauh, E A; Mixson, L A; Shankar, S; McCarthy, J; Maridakis, V; Morrow, L; Heinemann, L; Ruddy, M K; Herman, G A; Kelley, D E; Hompesch, M

    2011-11-01

    Supraphysiologic glucocorticoid activity is well established to cause impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, yet no study has evaluated dose-dependent effects of low-dose prednisone during short-term oral administration. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of daily 10 or 25 mg prednisone administration for one week on insulin sensitivity by employing a two-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp (Step 1: insulin infusion = 20 mU/m²/min; Step 2: insulin infusion = 80 mU/m²/min) in healthy, lean males. The amount of glucose infused at steady-state to maintain stable blood glucose [90 mg/dl (4.95 mmol/l)] was used to calculate several indices of insulin sensitivity. During Step 1 of the clamp, whole body glucose disposal (M) was reduced by 35% (p = 0.003) and M/I was reduced by 29% (p = 0.025) for 25 mg prednisone compared to placebo. No appreciable effect of 10 mg prednisone was observed. During Step 2, M was reduced by 33% (p = 0.001) and 15% (p = 0.006) for 25 and 10 mg prednisone compared to placebo; and M/I ratio was reduced by 31% (p < 0.001) and 13% (p = 0.026), respectively. The insulin sensitivity index, Si, calculated as the quotient of augmentation of M/I between Step 1 and 2, was reduced by 35.3% (p < 0.01) and 23.5% (p < 0.05) for 25 and 10 mg prednisone, respectively. Administration of relatively low pharmacological doses of prednisone for one week impaired insulin sensitivity in a dose-dependent manner in healthy males. These observed changes in insulin sensitivity are likely to be clinically relevant, especially in individuals predisposed to develop glucose intolerance. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Effect of inhaled H1 and H2 receptor antagonist in normal and asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, N C; Kerr, J W

    1980-01-01

    The effects on airflow resistance of an inhaled H1 receptor antagonist, clemastine, and an H2 receptor antagonist, cimetidine, have been investigated in normal and asthmatic subjects. No significant changes in specific conductance (sGaw) were seen in six normal subjects. In eight asthmatic subjects a significant increase in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) occurred at 60 min (< 0.02), and 120 (< 0.05) after the inhalation of clemastine, whereas inhaled cimetidine had no effect on airflow resistance. Clemastine and cimetidine were tested on histamine-induced bronchoconstriction in eight normal and eight asthmatic subjects. Clemastine significantly reduced the fall in sGaw in normal subjects and the fall in FEV1 in asthmatic subjects, whereas cimetidine had no protective effect. Clemastine and ipratropium bromide were tested on methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction in eight normal subjects. Ipratropium bromide, but not clemastine, significantly reduced the fall in sGaw after methacholine. These results suggest that in normal and asthmatic subjects histamine-induced bronchoconstriction is mediated predominantly via H1 rather than H2 receptors in the airways. PMID:6449094

  15. Acute buspirone dosing enhances abuse-related subjective effects of oral methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Pike, Erika; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R

    There is not an approved pharmacotherapy for treating methamphetamine use disorder. This study sought to determine the effects of acute buspirone treatment on the subjective and cardiovascular effects of oral methamphetamine in order to provide an initial assessment of the utility, safety, and tolerability of buspirone for managing methamphetamine use disorder. We predicted that acute buspirone administration would reduce the subjective effects of methamphetamine. We also predicted that the combination of buspirone and methamphetamine would be safe and well tolerated. Ten subjects completed the protocol, which tested three methamphetamine doses (0, 15, and 30mg) in combination with two buspirone doses (0 and 30mg) across 6 experimental sessions. Subjective effects and physiological measures were collected at regular intervals prior to and after dose administration. Methamphetamine produced prototypical subjective and cardiovascular effects. Acute buspirone administration increased some of the abuse-related subjective effects of methamphetamine and also attenuated some cardiovascular effects. The combination of oral methamphetamine and buspirone was safe and well tolerated. Acute buspirone administration may increase the abuse liability of oral methamphetamine. Chronic buspirone dosing studies remain to be conducted, but given preclinical findings and the outcomes of this work, the utility of buspirone for treating methamphetamine use disorder appears limited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Generalized Beddington model with the host subject to the Allee Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ufuktepe, U.; Kapcak, S.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the stability and invariant manifolds of generalized Beddington model with the host population subject to the Allee effect.We obtain the condition for the existence of the fixed points and investigate the stability of the system.

  17. The Role of Negative Statements on the Subjective Effects of Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves Vera, M.; Vila, J.; Godoy, J. F.

    1995-12-01

    This study assesses subjective effects of traffic noise and the mediator role that negative statements about the noise and about oneself play. Eighty-four students underwent two 15-minute presentations of high intensity traffic noise, with and without negative statements. The potential effect of the negative statements was enhanced by the use of instructions concerning the expectation of negative noise effects and the credibility of the statements in half the subjects. Level of anxiety, subjective noise aversion and time estimation of the noise were taken. The State Anxiety Inventory and the Profile of Mood States Questionnaire were used as pre- and post-tests. Noise increased anxiety levels, these levels being higher during the Statements condition than during the Noise alone condition. Instructions further increased the effects of these negative statements. Subjects did not adapt to noise. Scores in the questionnaires were significantly higher in the post-test than in the pre-test. Implications of these results are discussed.

  18. Melatonin Production, Sleep Patterns and Modeled Performance Effectiveness in Subjects in the High Arctic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Melatonin production, sleep patterns and modeled performance effectiveness in subjects in the high Arctic Michel A. Paul Ryan...months and difficulty obtaining sufficient sleep in the summer months. The goal of the work reported here was to study the circadian rhythms of...measure ambient light as well as motion. Sleep data obtained from the Actigraphs was used to model the cognitive effectiveness of each subject

  19. Effects of manual lymph drainage of the neck on EEG in subjects with psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jung-Myo; Kim, Sung-Joong

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the effect of manual lymph drainage (MLD) of the neck on electroencephalography (EEG) in subjects with psychological stress. [Methods] Twenty-six subjects were randomly allocated to receive one 15-min session of either MLD or resting on a bed (control). [Results] Analysis of EEG in the MLD group showed a significant increase in relaxation, manifested as an increase in average absolute and relative delta and alpha activity. [Conclusion] It is suggested that MLD provides acute neural effects that increase relaxation in subjects with psychological stress.

  20. Effect of a cane on sit-to-stand transfer in subjects with hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Po-Ting; Lin, Kwan-Hwa; Lu, Tung-Wu; Tang, Pei-Fang; Hu, Ming-Hsia; Lai, Jin-Shin

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of using a cane on movement time, joint moment, weight symmetry, and muscle activation patterns during sit-to-stand (STS) transfer in healthy subjects and subjects who have had a stroke. Nine subjects with hemiparesis (mean [SD] age, 61.11 [12.83] yrs) and nine healthy adults (mean [SD] age, 63.11 [10.54] yrs) were included. The subjects with hemiparesis performed STS transfer in two randomly assigned conditions: (1) without a cane and (2) with a cane. The healthy subjects performed only STS transfer without a cane. A three-dimensional motion system, force plates, and eletromyography were used to examine STS transfer. The symmetry index between the two limbs was calculated. The movement time of the subjects with hemiparesis in both conditions without a cane and with a cane was longer than that of the healthy subjects without a cane (P < 0.025). However, STS transfer with a cane in the subjects with hemiparesis resulted in shorter movement time, greater knee extensor moment of the paretic limb, and more symmetry of weight bearing than in those without a cane (P < 0.05). The sequence of muscle onset tended to improve with a cane in the subjects with hemiparesis. Cane use may promote more symmetrical STS transfers rather than compensation by the unaffected limb.

  1. Effect of visual input on normalized standing stability in subjects with recurrent low back pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongchul C; Ham, Yong Woon; Sung, Paul S

    2012-07-01

    Although a number of studies have evaluated kinematic stability changes in subjects with low back pain (LBP), the combined sensitivity of normalized standing stability from the ground force and kinematic rotational angle of the body segment were not carefully examined for postural responses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate normalized standing stability in subjects with and without recurrent LBP while they stood quietly with the tested foot parallel to the other lower extremity at hip width. The subjects were then instructed to stand freely on one leg for 25 s with the contra lateral hip flexed 90° based on dominance side (dominant leg vs. non-dominant lower extremity) and visual condition (eyes open vs. eyes closed). A total of 42 subjects (27 subjects without LBP and 15 subjects with LBP) participated in the study. The dominant leg standing stability was significantly different during the eyes closed condition (0.68±0.30 for control vs. 0.37±0.32 for LBP, T=-3.23, p=0.002) compared to the eyes open condition. The standing kinematic stability, especially of the dominant thigh, was greater in the control subjects than in the subjects with LBP (T=-2.43, p=0.02). This sensitive detection of kinematic imbalance with postural stability is important for effective rehabilitation strategies and to understanding compensatory mechanisms in subjects with recurrent LBP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of light fingertip touch on postural responses in subjects with diabetic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Dickstein, R; Peterka, R; Horak, F

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the potential benefits from lightly touching an external supporting device on automatic postural responses to support surface translations, in subjects with profound sensory neuropathy in the feet due to diabetes mellitus (DM-PN). Methods: Eight subjects with DM-PN and 10 age matched controls were tested under randomly ordered conditions of no fingertip touch (NT), light touch (LT; <1 N), and heavy touch (HT, as needed) of a stationary touch plate, during three backward translation velocities of the support surface at 10, 20, and 30 cm/s. Dependent variables included response latencies, CoP velocity, and the slope of the relation between centre of pressure (CoP) velocity and translation velocity as a measure of response scaling. Results: Postural response latencies were significantly longer and scaling of initial response magnitude in proportion to translation velocity was significantly smaller in the DM-PN subjects compared to the control subjects. LT had no significant effect on response latencies of the DM-PN patients. Fingertip touch increased the slope of the scaling of postural response magnitude in both groups. However, DM-PN subjects had to use HT to improve response scaling, whereas control subjects improved scaling with LT as well as HT. LT significantly increased rightward CoP velocity towards the touch plate in all subjects. Conclusions: LT did not reduce the latency or improve the scaling of automatic postural responses in subjects with peripheral neuropathy. The major effect of LT on the automatic postural responses of the DM-PN subjects was in increasing CoP velocity towards the side of the supporting device. HT in neuropathy subjects and LT in age matched control subjects increased the sensitivity of initial postural response scaling, suggesting that somatosensory substitution from a cane in the hand could be used to improve the magnitude of medium latency postural responses to slips and trips. PMID:12700305

  3. Effects of light fingertip touch on postural responses in subjects with diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Dickstein, R; Peterka, R J; Horak, F B

    2003-05-01

    To investigate the potential benefits from lightly touching an external supporting device on automatic postural responses to support surface translations, in subjects with profound sensory neuropathy in the feet due to diabetes mellitus (DM-PN). Eight subjects with DM-PN and 10 age matched controls were tested under randomly ordered conditions of no fingertip touch (NT), light touch (LT; <1 N), and heavy touch (HT, as needed) of a stationary touch plate, during three backward translation velocities of the support surface at 10, 20, and 30 cm/s. Dependent variables included response latencies, CoP velocity, and the slope of the relation between centre of pressure (CoP) velocity and translation velocity as a measure of response scaling. Postural response latencies were significantly longer and scaling of initial response magnitude in proportion to translation velocity was significantly smaller in the DM-PN subjects compared to the control subjects. LT had no significant effect on response latencies of the DM-PN patients. Fingertip touch increased the slope of the scaling of postural response magnitude in both groups. However, DM-PN subjects had to use HT to improve response scaling, whereas control subjects improved scaling with LT as well as HT. LT significantly increased rightward CoP velocity towards the touch plate in all subjects. LT did not reduce the latency or improve the scaling of automatic postural responses in subjects with peripheral neuropathy. The major effect of LT on the automatic postural responses of the DM-PN subjects was in increasing CoP velocity towards the side of the supporting device. HT in neuropathy subjects and LT in age matched control subjects increased the sensitivity of initial postural response scaling, suggesting that somatosensory substitution from a cane in the hand could be used to improve the magnitude of medium latency postural responses to slips and trips.

  4. Intravenous nicotine and caffeine: subjective and physiological effects in cocaine abusers.

    PubMed

    Garrett, B E; Griffiths, R R

    2001-02-01

    The subjective and physiological effects of intravenously administered caffeine and nicotine were compared in nine subjects with histories of using caffeine, tobacco, and cocaine. Subjects abstained from tobacco cigarette smoking for at least 8 h before each session. Dietary caffeine was eliminated throughout the study; however, to maintain consistency with the nicotine intake, subjects were administered caffeine (150 mg/70 kg b.i.d.) in capsules, with the last dose administered 15 to 18 h before each session. Under double-blind conditions, subjects received placebo, caffeine (100, 200, and 400 mg/70 kg), and nicotine (0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/70 kg) in mixed order. Physiological and subjective data were collected before and repeatedly after drug or placebo administration. Compared with the highest dose of caffeine, the highest dose of nicotine produced greater subjective ratings on a number of scales. At doses that produced comparable ratings of drug effect (1.5 mg/70 kg of nicotine and 400 mg/70 kg of caffeine), both drugs produced similar increases in ratings of good effect, liking, high, stimulated, and bad effect. Nicotine showed a somewhat faster time to peak subjective effects than caffeine (2 versus 4 min). Subjective ratings that differentiated caffeine and nicotine were ratings of rush, blurry vision, and stimulant identification (elevated by nicotine) and ratings of unusual smell and/or taste (elevated by caffeine). Both caffeine and nicotine decreased skin temperature and increased diastolic blood pressure; however, caffeine decreased whereas nicotine increased heart rate. The study documents both striking similarities and some notable differences between caffeine and nicotine, which are among the most widely used mood-altering drugs.

  5. Effects of radiation emitted by WCDMA mobile phones on electromagnetic hypersensitive subjects.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Min Kyung; Choi, Joon Yul; Kim, Sung Kean; Yoo, Tae Keun; Kim, Deok Won

    2012-09-21

    With the use of the third generation (3 G) mobile phones on the rise, social concerns have arisen concerning the possible health effects of radio frequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) emitted by wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) mobile phones in humans. The number of people with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS), who complain of various subjective symptoms such as headache, dizziness and fatigue, has also increased. However, the origins of EHS remain unclear. In this double-blind study, two volunteer groups of 17 EHS and 20 non-EHS subjects were simultaneously investigated for physiological changes (heart rate, heart rate variability, and respiration rate), eight subjective symptoms, and perception of RF-EMFs during real and sham exposure sessions. Experiments were conducted using a dummy phone containing a WCDMA module (average power, 24 dBm at 1950 MHz; specific absorption rate, 1.57 W/kg) within a headset placed on the head for 32 min. WCDMA RF-EMFs generated no physiological changes or subjective symptoms in either group. There was no evidence that EHS subjects perceived RF-EMFs better than non-EHS subjects. Considering the analyzed physiological data, the subjective symptoms surveyed, and the percentages of those who believed they were being exposed, 32 min of RF radiation emitted by WCDMA mobile phones demonstrated no effects in either EHS or non-EHS subjects.

  6. MAT2A mutations predispose individuals to thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dong-chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S; Santos-Cortez, Regie L; Zhao, Ren; Cai, Bo; Veeraraghavan, Sudha; Prakash, Siddharth K; Johnson, Ralph J; Muilenburg, Ann; Willing, Marcia; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine; Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Moran, Rocio; Debacker, Julie; Bamshad, Michael J; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A; Leal, Suzanne M; Raman, C S; Swindell, Eric C; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2015-01-08

    Up to 20% of individuals who have thoracic aortic aneurysms or acute aortic dissections but who do not have syndromic features have a family history of thoracic aortic disease. Significant genetic heterogeneity is established for this familial condition. Whole-genome linkage analysis and exome sequencing of distant relatives from a large family with autosomal-dominant inheritance of thoracic aortic aneurysms variably associated with the bicuspid aortic valve was used for identification of additional genes predisposing individuals to this condition. A rare variant, c.1031A>C (p.Glu344Ala), was identified in MAT2A, which encodes methionine adenosyltransferase II alpha (MAT IIα). This variant segregated with disease in the family, and Sanger sequencing of DNA from affected probands from unrelated families with thoracic aortic disease identified another MAT2A rare variant, c.1067G>A (p.Arg356His). Evidence that these variants predispose individuals to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections includes the following: there is a paucity of rare variants in MAT2A in the population; amino acids Glu344 and Arg356 are conserved from humans to zebrafish; and substitutions of these amino acids in MAT Iα are found in individuals with hypermethioninemia. Structural analysis suggested that p.Glu344Ala and p.Arg356His disrupt MAT IIα enzyme function. Knockdown of mat2aa in zebrafish via morpholino oligomers disrupted cardiovascular development. Co-transfected wild-type human MAT2A mRNA rescued defects of zebrafish cardiovascular development at significantly higher levels than mRNA edited to express either the Glu344 or Arg356 mutants, providing further evidence that the p.Glu344Ala and p.Arg356His substitutions impair MAT IIα function. The data presented here support the conclusion that rare genetic variants in MAT2A predispose individuals to thoracic aortic disease.

  7. MAT2A Mutations Predispose Individuals to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong-chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S.; Santos-Cortez, Regie L.; Zhao, Ren; Cai, Bo; Veeraraghavan, Sudha; Prakash, Siddharth K.; Johnson, Ralph J.; Muilenburg, Ann; Willing, Marcia; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine; Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Moran, Rocio; Debacker, Julie; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Leal, Suzanne M.; Raman, C.S.; Swindell, Eric C.; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2015-01-01

    Up to 20% of individuals who have thoracic aortic aneurysms or acute aortic dissections but who do not have syndromic features have a family history of thoracic aortic disease. Significant genetic heterogeneity is established for this familial condition. Whole-genome linkage analysis and exome sequencing of distant relatives from a large family with autosomal-dominant inheritance of thoracic aortic aneurysms variably associated with the bicuspid aortic valve was used for identification of additional genes predisposing individuals to this condition. A rare variant, c.1031A>C (p.Glu344Ala), was identified in MAT2A, which encodes methionine adenosyltransferase II alpha (MAT IIα). This variant segregated with disease in the family, and Sanger sequencing of DNA from affected probands from unrelated families with thoracic aortic disease identified another MAT2A rare variant, c.1067G>A (p.Arg356His). Evidence that these variants predispose individuals to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections includes the following: there is a paucity of rare variants in MAT2A in the population; amino acids Glu344 and Arg356 are conserved from humans to zebrafish; and substitutions of these amino acids in MAT Iα are found in individuals with hypermethioninemia. Structural analysis suggested that p.Glu344Ala and p.Arg356His disrupt MAT IIα enzyme function. Knockdown of mat2aa in zebrafish via morpholino oligomers disrupted cardiovascular development. Co-transfected wild-type human MAT2A mRNA rescued defects of zebrafish cardiovascular development at significantly higher levels than mRNA edited to express either the Glu344 or Arg356 mutants, providing further evidence that the p.Glu344Ala and p.Arg356His substitutions impair MAT IIα function. The data presented here support the conclusion that rare genetic variants in MAT2A predispose individuals to thoracic aortic disease. PMID:25557781

  8. The incremental effect of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on right and left ventricular myocardial performance in newly diagnosed essential hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Hua, Qi; Li, Jing; Wang, Cai-Rong

    2009-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) may predispose patients to congestive heart failure, suggesting a deleterious effect of OSAS on myocardial contractility. We investigated whether essential hypertensive individuals with OSAS are characterized by decreased right and left ventricular myocardial performance. Our study population consisted of 45 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed untreated stage I-II essential hypertension suffering from OSAS (35 men, aged 49+/-8 years) and 48 hypertensives without OSAS, matched for age, sex, level of blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index and smoking status. All subjects underwent polysomnography and echocardiography. Right and left ventricular functions were evaluated using the myocardial performance index (MPI). Right and left ventricular functions were altered in hypertensives with OSAS. The mean right MPI was 0.26+/-0.11 in hypertensives without OSAS and 0.51+/-0.16 in hypertensives with OSAS (P<0.01). The mean left MPI values were 0.29+/-0.07 and 0.44+/-0.13, respectively (P<0.01). Right and left MPI correlated positively and significantly with apnea-hypopnea index (rho=0.40, P=0.002).OSAS is associated with impaired right and left ventricular function. These phenomena were independent of hypertension.

  9. The production effect benefits performance in between-subject designs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Producing (e.g., saying, mouthing) some items and silently reading others has been shown to result in a reliable advantage favoring retention of the produced compared to non-produced items at test. However, evidence has been mixed as to whether the benefits of production are limited to within- as opposed to between-subject designs. It has even been suggested that the within-subjects nature of the production effect may be one of its defining characteristics. Meta-analytic techniques were applied to evaluate this claim. Findings indicated a moderate effect of production on recognition memory when varied between-subjects (g=0.37). This outcome suggests that the production effect is not defined as an exclusively within-subject occurrence.

  10. Oblique Bile Duct Predisposes to the Recurrence of Bile Duct Stones

    PubMed Central

    Strnad, Pavel; von Figura, Guido; Gruss, Regina; Jareis, Katja-Marlen; Stiehl, Adolf; Kulaksiz, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Study Aims Bile stones represent a highly prevalent condition and abnormalities of the biliary tree predispose to stone recurrence due to development of biliary stasis. In our study, we assessed the importance of an altered bile duct course for stone formation. Patients and Methods 1,307 patients with choledocholithiasis in the absence of any associated hepatobiliary disease who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) between 2002 and 2009 were analysed. The angle enclosed between the horizontal portion of the common bile duct (CBD) and the horizontal plane was measured (angle α). Oblique common bile duct (OCBD) was defined as a CBD with angle α<45°. Results 103 patients (7.9%) were found to harbour OCBD and these were compared to 104 randomly selected control subjects. Compared to controls, OCBD patients were (i) significantly older (72±13 vs. 67±13, p<0.00001); (ii) more frequently underwent a cholecystectomy (p = 0.02) and biliary surgery (p = 0.003) prior to the diagnosis and (iii) more often developed chronic pancreatitis (p = 0.04) as well as biliary fistulae (p = 0.03). Prior to and after ERCP, OCBD subjects displayed significantly elevated cholestatic parameters and angle α negatively correlated with common bile duct diameter (r = -0.29, p = 0.003). OCBD subjects more often required multiple back-to-back ERCP sessions to remove bile stones (p = 0.005) as well as more ERCPs later on due to recurrent stone formation (p<0.05). Conclusion OCBD defines a novel variant of the biliary tree, which is associated with chronic cholestasis, hampers an efficient stone removal and predisposes to recurrence of bile duct stones. PMID:23365676

  11. Predisposing Risk Factors for Non-Contact ACL Injuries in Military Subjects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to document the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears and possible risk factors for these injuries in a...III. Keywords Knee ACL Notch width Notch width index BMI Introduction Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are extremely common in...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Purpose The goal of this study was to document the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears and possible risk factors

  12. Human Subject Effects on Torsion Pendulum Oscillations: Further Evidence of Mediation by Convection Currents.

    PubMed

    Hammerschlag, Richard; Linda Baldwin, Ann; Schwartz, Gary E

    When a human subject sits beneath a wire mesh, hemispheric torsion pendulum (TP) a rapid-onset series of oscillations at frequencies both higher and lower than the fundamental frequency of the TP have been consistently observed. This study was designed to replicate and extend prior findings that suggest the human subject effect on TP behavior is due to subject-generated, heat-induced convection currents. Effects on pendulum behavior were tested after draping an aluminized "space blanket" over the subject and by replacing the subject with a thermal mattress pad shaped to approximate the human form. Experiments were performed in a basic science university research laboratory. Real-time recordings and Fast Fourier Transform frequency spectra of pendulum oscillatory movement. The space blanket blocked, while the mattress pad mimicked, the human subject induced complex array of pendulum oscillations. Our findings support and strengthen previous results that suggest the effects of human subjects on behavior of a torsion pendulum are mediated by body-heat-induced air convection rather than an unknown type of biofield. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of short duration morning bright light in healthy elderly subjects. I: subjective feeling and ophthalmological examinations.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, N; Kohsaka, M; Sasamoto, Y; Koyama, E; Kobayashi, R; Honma, H; Matsubara, H; Nakano, T; Sakakibara, S

    1998-04-01

    Seven aged subjects aged 61-78 years were exposed to 6000 lx bright light for 30 min during morning hours at their homes for 1 week. Visual analog scale was recorded before bedtime and after rising to assess subjective feelings. Ophthalmological examinations were made before and after light exposure, to exclude pre-existing ocular disorders and to detect ocular damage. Furthermore, ocular fatigue was self-evaluated immediately before and after exposure. Visual analog scale results indicated that alertness reduced significantly before bedtime. Ophthalmological abnormalities were not found after exposure. These findings suggest that short duration morning bright light exposure reduces night-time vigilance.

  14. Anti-oxidants show an anti-hypertensive effect in diabetic and hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Giugliano, D; Quatraro, A; Lefebvre, P J

    1991-12-01

    1. In this study an acute anti-hypertensive effect of three anti-oxidant agents (vitamin C, thiopronine and glutathione) in hypertensive subjects and in both hypertensive and non-hypertensive diabetic patients is reported. 2. The anti-oxidants had no effect on blood pressure in healthy normal subjects at a dose of 6 mmol, but thiopronine and glutathione produced a significant hypotensive effect at a dose of 12 mmol. 3. These data suggest that anti-oxidants might have a dilatatory effect and that an imbalance of the nitric oxide-free radical interaction might facilitate the development of hypertension in humans.

  15. Fixed and random effect analysis of multi-subject fMRI data using wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Soleymani, Mohammad; Hossein-Zadeh, Gholam-Ali; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2009-01-30

    We propose a new method to estimate the random effect variance in group analysis of fMRI data. In the first level of analysis, general linear model (GLM) is used to estimate a parameter map ("effect") for each subject. After applying discrete wavelet transform to the "effect" maps, noise is reduced through a vertical energy thresholding (VET). The fixed effect component in each coefficient is derived by averaging the wavelet coefficients along all subjects. Then, the wavelet coefficients containing significant random effect are identified by their higher sample variance along the subjects. Wavelet coefficients containing random effect component in each subject are used to reconstruct the random effect maps through an inverse wavelet transform. Random effect variance is obtained from random effect maps for use in random effect analysis. The proposed method and other methods like GLM group analysis and variance ratio smoothing are applied to both experimental and artificial fMRI data. ROC curves, obtained from the simulated data, show improved group activation detection compared to existing random effect analysis methods. For the experimental data, the proposed method shows its high sensitivity by detecting multiple activation regions, namely visual cortex, cuneus, precuneus, thalamus, and cerebellum. From these regions, precuneus and cerebellum are not detected by majority of the previously published methods.

  16. Cox4i2, Ifit2, and Prdm11 Mutant Mice: Effective Selection of Genes Predisposing to an Altered Airway Inflammatory Response from a Large Compendium of Mutant Mouse Lines.

    PubMed

    Horsch, Marion; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Bönisch, Clemens; Côme, Christophe; Kolster-Fog, Cathrine; Jensen, Klaus T; Lund, Anders H; Lee, Icksoo; Grossman, Lawrence I; Sinkler, Christopher; Hüttemann, Maik; Bohn, Erwin; Fuchs, Helmut; Ollert, Markus; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; de Angelis, Martin Hrabĕ; Beckers, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    We established a selection strategy to identify new models for an altered airway inflammatory response from a large compendium of mutant mouse lines that were systemically phenotyped in the German Mouse Clinic (GMC). As selection criteria we included published gene functional data, as well as immunological and transcriptome data from GMC phenotyping screens under standard conditions. Applying these criteria we identified a few from several hundred mutant mouse lines and further characterized the Cox4i2tm1Hutt, Ifit2tm1.1Ebsb, and Prdm11tm1.1ahl lines following ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and repeated OVA airway challenge. Challenged Prdm11tm1.1ahl mice exhibited changes in B cell counts, CD4+ T cell counts, and in the number of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavages, whereas challenged Ifit2tm1.1Ebsb mice displayed alterations in plasma IgE, IgG1, IgG3, and IgM levels compared to the challenged wild type littermates. In contrast, challenged Cox4i2tm1Hutt mutant mice did not show alterations in the humoral or cellular immune response compared to challenged wild type mice. Transcriptome analyses from lungs of the challenged mutant mouse lines showed extensive changes in gene expression in Prdm11tm1.1ahl mice. Functional annotations of regulated genes of all three mutant mouse lines were primarily related to inflammation and airway smooth muscle (ASM) remodeling. We were thus able to define an effective selection strategy to identify new candidate genes for the predisposition to an altered airway inflammatory response under OVA challenge conditions. Similar selection strategies may be used for the analysis of additional genotype-envirotype interactions for other diseases.

  17. Cox4i2, Ifit2, and Prdm11 Mutant Mice: Effective Selection of Genes Predisposing to an Altered Airway Inflammatory Response from a Large Compendium of Mutant Mouse Lines

    PubMed Central

    Bönisch, Clemens; Côme, Christophe; Kolster-Fog, Cathrine; Jensen, Klaus T.; Lund, Anders H.; Lee, Icksoo; Grossman, Lawrence I.; Sinkler, Christopher; Hüttemann, Maik; Bohn, Erwin; Fuchs, Helmut; Ollert, Markus; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Hrabĕ de Angelis, Martin; Beckers, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    We established a selection strategy to identify new models for an altered airway inflammatory response from a large compendium of mutant mouse lines that were systemically phenotyped in the German Mouse Clinic (GMC). As selection criteria we included published gene functional data, as well as immunological and transcriptome data from GMC phenotyping screens under standard conditions. Applying these criteria we identified a few from several hundred mutant mouse lines and further characterized the Cox4i2tm1Hutt, Ifit2tm1.1Ebsb, and Prdm11tm1.1ahl lines following ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and repeated OVA airway challenge. Challenged Prdm11tm1.1ahl mice exhibited changes in B cell counts, CD4+ T cell counts, and in the number of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavages, whereas challenged Ifit2tm1.1Ebsb mice displayed alterations in plasma IgE, IgG1, IgG3, and IgM levels compared to the challenged wild type littermates. In contrast, challenged Cox4i2tm1Hutt mutant mice did not show alterations in the humoral or cellular immune response compared to challenged wild type mice. Transcriptome analyses from lungs of the challenged mutant mouse lines showed extensive changes in gene expression in Prdm11tm1.1ahl mice. Functional annotations of regulated genes of all three mutant mouse lines were primarily related to inflammation and airway smooth muscle (ASM) remodeling. We were thus able to define an effective selection strategy to identify new candidate genes for the predisposition to an altered airway inflammatory response under OVA challenge conditions. Similar selection strategies may be used for the analysis of additional genotype – envirotype interactions for other diseases. PMID:26263558

  18. Acute effects of various whole body vibration frequencies on 1RM in trained and untrained subjects.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, Bent R

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of whole body vibration (WBV) at different vibration frequencies on 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in recreationally strength trained subjects and untrained subjects. While performing a 1RM test in half squat, trained (8 men) and untrained (5 men and 3 women) subjects were randomly exposed to WBV with a frequency of 20 Hz, 35 Hz, 50 Hz (amplitude, 3 mm), or control conditions with no vibration. 1RM in half squat was assessed in a Smith Machine while subjects were standing on a vibration platform. Both untrained and recreationally strength trained subjects increased their 1RM at a vibration frequency of 50 Hz compared with no vibration (p < 0.05), and untrained subjects increased their 1RM to a larger extent than recreationally trained subjects (8.7% vs. 4.9%; p < 0.05). However, there was no difference in 1RM while vibrating at a frequency of 20 Hz and 35 Hz compared with no vibrations in either of the groups. In conclusion, WBV with a frequency of 50 Hz increases 1RM in both recreationally strength trained and untrained subjects, whereas vibration frequencies of 20 Hz and 35 Hz do not have this effect. Untrained subjects increased their 1RM at WBV at 50 Hz to a larger extent than recreationally strength trained subjects. Therefore, if the purpose is to increase the stimulus to the neuromuscular system to a greater extent than traditional strength training, the WBV frequency should be 50 Hz and the exercises should be heavily loaded (as in traditional strength training).

  19. How Pre-Service Teachers Observe Teaching on Video: Effects of Viewers' Teaching Subjects and the Subject of the Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomberg, Geraldine; Sturmer, Kathleen; Seidel, Tina

    2011-01-01

    As critical component of teachers' expertise, professional vision should be developed during teacher education. Professional vision draws on subject specific and generic knowledge, however, little is known about the knowledge interplay. This study systematically investigated pre-service teachers' (n = 32 majoring in mathematics/science; n = 56 in…

  20. How Pre-Service Teachers Observe Teaching on Video: Effects of Viewers' Teaching Subjects and the Subject of the Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomberg, Geraldine; Sturmer, Kathleen; Seidel, Tina

    2011-01-01

    As critical component of teachers' expertise, professional vision should be developed during teacher education. Professional vision draws on subject specific and generic knowledge, however, little is known about the knowledge interplay. This study systematically investigated pre-service teachers' (n = 32 majoring in mathematics/science; n = 56 in…

  1. Effects of THC on driving performance, physiological state and subjective feelings relative to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Ronen, Adi; Gershon, Pnina; Drobiner, Hanan; Rabinovich, Alex; Bar-Hamburger, Rachel; Mechoulam, Raphael; Cassuto, Yair; Shinar, David

    2008-05-01

    The effects of marijuana or THC on driving has been tested in several studies, but usually not in conjunction with physiological and subjective responses and not in comparison to alcohol effects on all three types of measures. To assess the effects of two dosages of THC relative to alcohol on driving performance, physiological strain, and subjective feelings. We tested the subjective feelings and driving abilities after placebo, smoking two dosages of THC (13 mg and 17 mg), drinking (0.05% BAC) and 24 h after smoking the high dose THC cigarette, while monitoring physiological activity of the drugs by heart rate. Fourteen healthy students, all recreational marijuana users, participated in the study. Both levels of THC cigarettes significantly affected the subjects in a dose-dependent manner. The moderate dose of alcohol and the low THC dose were equally detrimental to some of the driving abilities, with some differences between the two drugs. THC primarily caused elevation in physical effort and physical discomfort during the drive while alcohol tended to affect sleepiness level. After THC administration, subjects drove significantly slower than in the control condition, while after alcohol ingestion, subjects drove significantly faster than in the control condition. No THC effects were observed after 24 h on any of the measures.

  2. Caffeine choice prospectively predicts positive subjective effects of caffeine and d-amphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Sigmon, Stacey C.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Individuals vary in their subjective and behavioral response to psychomotor stimulants and these differences may be associated with the likelihood of developing problematic use of these drugs. The present study sought to determine whether individual differences in caffeine choice prospectively predict subjective response to acute doses of caffeine and d-amphetamine. Methods In Phase 1, Choosers and Nonchoosers of caffeine were identified using 10 independent choice trials in which subjects repeatedly chose between caffeine (200 mg/70kg) or placebo. Choosers were defined as those who chose caffeine over placebo on ≥ 7 of the 10 trials; Nonchoosers were those who chose placebo on ≥ 7 trials. In Phase 2, Choosers and Nonchoosers were compared in their subjective response to caffeine (100, 200, 400 mg/70kg) and d-amphetamine (5, 10, 20 mg/70kg). Results Of the 22 participants completing the study, 11 met criteria for being a caffeine Chooser and 8 were Nonchoosers. In Phase 1, Choosers reported higher ratings of positive (i.e., pleasant) and lower ratings of negative (i.e., unpleasant) effects of caffeine during the sampling sessions. In Phase 2, caffeine Choosers reported more positive subjective effects and fewer negative effects of caffeine and d-amphetamine, particularly at the highest doses examined. Conclusions Individual differences in caffeine reinforcement predicted subsequent subjective response to both d-amphetamine and caffeine. This observation may have clinical utility for identifying individuals who are vulnerable to the reinforcing effects of abused psychomotor stimulants. PMID:21600707

  3. Effects of acute exercise on pancreatic endocrine function in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, S H; Karstoft, K; Winding, K; Holst, J J; Pedersen, B K; Solomon, T P J

    2015-02-01

    We determined the effects of exercise on pancreatic endocrine responses to metabolic stimuli in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and examined the influence of subjects' diabetic status. Fourteen subjects underwent a hyperglycaemic clamp with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) infusion and arginine injection, the morning after a 1-h walk or no exercise. Subjects were stratified by high and low fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and by glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, as well as by current use/non-use of antidiabetic medication. In the entire cohort, exercise did not alter insulin secretion, while glucagon levels were increased in all clamp phases (p < 0.05 to <0.01). In subjects with low FPG levels, exercise increased GLP-1-stimulated insulin secretion (p < 0.05), with the same trend being observed for arginine (p = 0.08). The same trends were seen for subjects with low HbA1c levels. Furthermore, exercise increased GLP-1- and arginine-stimulated insulin secretion (p < 0.05) in subjects who were antidiabetic drug-naïve. Exercise-induced increases in insulin secretion are blunted in subjects with T2D with high rates of hyperglycaemia and in those using antidiabetic drugs.

  4. The Effects of Directional Processing on Objective and Subjective Listening Effort.

    PubMed

    Picou, Erin M; Moore, Travis M; Ricketts, Todd A

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this investigation were (a) to evaluate the effects of hearing aid directional processing on subjective and objective listening effort and (b) to investigate the potential relationships between subjective and objective measures of effort. Sixteen adults with mild to severe hearing loss were tested with study hearing aids programmed with 3 settings: omnidirectional, fixed directional, and bilateral beamformer. A dual-task paradigm and subjective ratings were used to assess objective and subjective listening effort, respectively, in 2 signal-to-noise ratios. Testing occurred in rooms with either low or moderate reverberation. Directional processing improved subjective and objective listening effort, although benefit for objective effort was found only in moderate reverberation. Subjective reports of work and tiredness were more highly correlated with word recognition performance than objective listening effort. However, subjective ratings about control were significantly correlated with objective listening effort. Directional microphone technology in hearing aids has the potential to improve listening effort in moderately reverberant environments. In addition, subjective questions that probe a listener's desire to exercise control may be a viable method for eliciting ratings that are significantly related to objective listening effort.

  5. Germline mutations predisposing to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Leeksma, O C; de Miranda, N F; Veelken, H

    2017-01-01

    Genetic studies of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) in humans have revealed numerous targets of somatic mutations and an increasing number of potentially relevant germline alterations. The latter often affect genes involved in DNA repair and/or immune function. In general, defects in these genes also predispose to other conditions. Knowledge of these mutations can lead to disease-preventing measures in the patient and relatives thereof. Conceivably, these germline mutations will be taken into account in future therapy of the lymphoma. In other hematological malignancies, mutations originally found as somatic aberrations have also been shown to confer predisposition to these diseases, when occurring in the germline. Further interrogations of the genome in DLBCL patients are therefore expected to reveal additional hereditary predisposition genes. Our review shows that germline mutations have already been described in over one-third of the genes that are somatically mutated in DLBCL. Whether such germline mutations predispose carriers to DLBCL is an open question. Symptoms of the inherited syndromes associated with these genes range from anatomical malformations to intellectual disability, immunodeficiencies and malignancies other than DLBCL. Inherited or de novo alterations in protein-coding and non-coding genes are envisioned to underlie this lymphoma. PMID:28211887

  6. Cervicofacial Botryomycosis: Is Atopic Dermatitis a Predisposing Factor?

    PubMed Central

    Heppt, Markus Vincent; Kamarashev, Jivko

    2014-01-01

    Background Botryomycosis is a rare infectious disease which usually affects the skin. The low virulence of the bacteria tending to form grains and the immune status of the host are important factors in the development of the disease. Methods We report a case of cervicofacial botryomycosis and review the current literature. Results A 47-year-old male with a long history of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis presented with painful and suppurative nodules of the head and neck. A skin biopsy revealed granules consisting of Gram-positive bacterial colonies in a blossom-like assembly in the center and an eosinophilic rim in the periphery, which are pathognomonic features of botryomycosis. The lesions responded well to systemic antibiotics; however, they rapidly relapsed upon cessation of the treatment. Conclusions We highlight the well-defined histologic features and recall an almost forgotten disease. We review common predisposing conditions and present evidence that atopic dermatitis might be an additional predisposing factor. PMID:27047926

  7. Allergy as a possible predisposing factor for hypodontia.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Tomoyasu, Yoko; Nakadate, Toshio; Oguchi, Katsuji; Maki, Koutaro

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to identify general health problems as potential predisposing factors for hypodontia in a population of Japanese orthodontic patients. The study included 3683 individuals (1312 males and 2371 females, 13-42 years of age; mean, 23 years 7 months). Dental pantomograms (DPTs) were used to diagnose hypodontia. Health histories were obtained through a questionnaire administered by the dentist in charge. The Mantel-Haenszel test was used to determine the significance of the differences in the prevalence of health problems. The overall frequency of hypodontia was 5.8 per cent. The average number of missing teeth per patient was 1.7. There was a high prevalence of systemic complications, which included allergy, asthma, atopy, and enlarged adenoids associated with hypodontia. Only allergy showed a significant relationship with hypodontia (P < 0.01). The environmental aetiology of hypodontia is not yet fully understood. However, based on the results of this retrospective study, predisposing general health problems, especially allergy, seem to be involved.

  8. The prevalence of predisposing deformity in osteoarthritic hip joints.

    PubMed

    Klit, Jakob; Gosvig, Kasper; Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Troelsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that hip joint deformities may be major contributors to the development of osteoarthritis, and the term 'idiopathic osteoarthritis' may be inappropriate in many cases. Our study cohort was derived from the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Sub-study, a cross sectional population-based database of 4151 individuals, all of whom had a standard anteroposterior weight-bearing pelvic radiograph taken. Hip joints were classified according to type and degree of deformity. We defined hip osteoarthritis by a minimum joint space width of < or = 2 mm. This cut-off has a significant relationship in both sexes with the clinical presentation. The study cohort which fulfilled these inclusion criteria consisted of 322 females (149 right hips and 173 left hips) and 162 males (77 right hips and 85 left hips) with osteoarthritis. We found an overall prevalence of predisposing hip deformities in females of 62.4% and in males of 78.9%. Minor and major deformities showed the same prevalence. Both sexes had a comparable prevalence of minor and major hip joint deformity, except for pistol grip deformity, which was more prevalent in men. We concluded that 'idiopathic osteoarthritis' is uncommon, and that even minor predisposing deformities are associated with hip osteoarthritis.

  9. The effects of quetiapine on sleep in recovering alcohol-dependent subjects: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Subhajit; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Kuna, Samuel T; Ross, Richard J; Kampman, Kyle M; Witte, Lauren M; Perlis, Michael L; Oslin, David W

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this hypothesis-generating pilot study was to assess prospectively the objective and subjective effects of treatment with quetiapine XR on sleep during early recovery from alcohol dependence (AD). Recovering subjects with AD and sleep disturbance complaints were treated with quetiapine XR (n = 10) or matching placebo pills (n = 10) for 8 weeks. Polysomnography was used to assess sleep objectively, and the Insomnia Severity Index and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were used to measure subjective insomnia. Other assessment measures included the 10-minute psychomotor vigilance task (for neurobehavioral functioning), the time-line follow-back measure (for alcohol consumption), the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (for alcohol craving), the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 item scale (for depressive symptoms), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (for anxiety symptoms). Although there was no effect of quetiapine XR on sleep efficiency (time spent asleep/total recording time), there was a pre-to-post reduction in wake after sleep onset time (P = 0.03) and nonsignificant trends for increases in sleep onset latency (SOL) and stage 2 sleep time. A time × drug interaction was seen for the subjective insomnia, such that quetiapine XR-treated subjects reported greater initial improvement in their subjective insomnia, but the difference was not sustained. There were no differences between treatment groups on other measures or medication compliance. Quetiapine XR improves objective sleep continuity and transiently improves subjective insomnia early in recovery from AD.

  10. Fechner-Benham subjective colors do not induce McCollough after-effects.

    PubMed

    Billock, Vincent A; Ditzinger, Thomas; Scott Kelso, J A; Tsou, Brian H

    2006-01-01

    Fechner-Benham subjective color is widely believed to be governed by local interactions in early (probably retinal) mechanisms. Here we report three lines of phenomenological evidence that suggest otherwise: subjective colors seen in spatially extended stimuli (a) are dependent on global aspects of the stimuli; (b) can become multistable in position; and (c) even after being stabilized do not support the creation of McCollough's colored after-effects--a cortically based phenomenon generally thought to be more central than Fechner-Benham color. These phenomena suggest a central locus that controls perception of subjective color, characterized by pattern dependent interactions among cortical mechanisms that draw their inputs from peripheral units.

  11. The effects of energy drink in combination with alcohol on performance and subjective awareness.

    PubMed

    Alford, Chris; Hamilton-Morris, Jennifer; Verster, Joris C

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the coadministration of an energy drink with alcohol to study the effects on subjective intoxication and objective performance. This study aims to evaluate the objective and subjective effects of alcohol versus placebo at two alcohol doses, alone and in combination with an energy drink, in a balanced order, placebo-controlled, double-blind design. Two groups of ten healthy volunteers, mean (SD) age of 24 (6.5), participated in the study. One group consumed energy drink containing 80 mg of caffeine and the other consumed a placebo drink, with both receiving two alcohol doses (0.046 and 0.087% breathalyser alcohol concentration). Tests included breath alcohol assessment, objective measures of performance (reaction time, word memory and Stroop task) and subjective visual analogue mood scales. Participants showed significantly impaired reaction time and memory after alcohol compared to the no alcohol condition and had poorer memory after the higher alcohol dose. Stroop performance was improved with the energy drink plus alcohol combination compared to the placebo drink plus alcohol combination. Participants felt significant subjective dose-related impairment after alcohol compared to no alcohol. Neither breath alcohol concentration nor the subjective measures showed a significant difference between the energy drink and the placebo energy drink when combined with alcohol. Subjective effects reflected awareness of alcohol intoxication and sensitivity to increasing alcohol dose. There were no overall significant group differences for subjective measures between energy drink and placebo groups in the presence of alcohol and no evidence that the energy drink masked the subjective effects of alcohol at either dose.

  12. Characterizing the subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects of oral oxycodone in non-drug-abusing volunteers.

    PubMed

    Zacny, James P; Gutierrez, Sandra

    2003-11-01

    The subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects of a widely prescribed and abused prescription opioid, oxycodone, have not been studied in a population of non-drug-abusing people. To characterize the effects of oxycodone in non-drug-abusing volunteers. Eighteen volunteers participated in a crossover, randomized, double-blind study in which they received, all p.o., placebo, 10 mg oxycodone, 20 mg oxycodone, 30 mg oxycodone, 40 mg morphine, and 2 mg lorazepam. Measures were assessed before and for 300 min after drug administration. End-of-session and 24-h post-session measures were taken to assess residual drug effects and overall subjects' assessments of the drug effects. Subjective effects of oxycodone were dose related, with the majority of statistically significant effects limited to the two higher doses tested. Oxycodone produced a profile of subjective effects that included both pleasant and unpleasant effects. Morphine in general produced effects similar in magnitude to those of 10 mg and 20 mg oxycodone. Peak liking and drug-wanting ratings were increased by all doses of oxycodone and by morphine, and trough ratings of liking (dislike) were lower in the 20-mg and 30-mg oxycodone conditions, relative to the placebo condition. Post-session ratings of overall liking and drug wanting were not statistically significant, either at the end of the session or 24 h later. Cognitive and psychomotor impairment were obtained with the higher doses of oxycodone, but to a much lesser degree than that of lorazepam. Miosis and exophoria were increased in a dose-related manner by oxycodone. Oxycodone produced effects similar to those of other mu opioid agonists. Although oxycodone produced abuse liability-related subjective effects, it also produced unpleasant effects, a phenomenon we have observed in other opioid studies in non-drug-abusing volunteers.

  13. Effect of tape on dynamic postural stability in subjects with chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    De Ridder, R; Willems, T M; Vanrenterghem, J; Roosen, P

    2015-04-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of taping on the dynamic postural stability during a jump landing protocol in subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI). For this purpose, 28 subjects with CAI performed a sagittal and frontal plane landing task in a non-taped and taped condition. As main outcome measure, the dynamic postural stability index (DPSI) was calculated. In addition, subjective feelings of instability and perceived difficulty level were assessed. Furthermore, mechanical effectiveness of the tape on the ankle joint was determined by registering 3D kinematics. 3 subjects were excluded based on discomfort during the landing protocol. Study results indicated that the tape reduced plantar flexion and inversion at the ankle at touchdown and range of motion in the landing phase. There was, however, no effect on the DPSI or on its directional subcomponents. Subjective feelings of stability with tape improved significantly, whereas perceived difficulty did not change. In conclusion, our taping procedure did not improve postural control during a sagittal and frontal plane landing task in subjects with CAI. Perceived instability did improve and is considered an important treatment outcome, which suggests that taping could be considered as a treatment modality by clinicians.

  14. The role of estradiol and progesterone in modulating the subjective effects of stimulants in humans.

    PubMed

    Evans, Suzette M

    2007-10-01

    Although stimulant abuse is a growing problem among women, few studies have focused on factors that may be implicated in potential sex differences. Numerous preclinical studies have indicated that female rodents are more sensitive than male rodents to the behavioral effects of stimulants and that the hormone estradiol is involved in these sex differences. In humans, the subjective response to stimulants is greater in the follicular phase (characterized by moderate estradiol levels and minimal progesterone levels) than in the luteal phase (characterized by elevated estradiol levels and elevated progesterone levels). Differences between men and women emerge only when men are compared with women in the luteal phase; the subjective response to stimulants is similar in men and women in the follicular phase. In contrast to rodents, there is minimal evidence that estradiol enhances the subjective response to stimulants in humans. Rather, the hormone progesterone has been shown to attenuate the subjective response to stimulants, particularly in women. Recent preclinical data confirm that progesterone reduces the behavioral response to stimulants. In summary, there is converging evidence from studies in humans that (a) men and women do differ in their subjective response to stimulants; (b) these sex differences are evident when women are in the luteal phase, when progesterone levels are elevated; and (c) progesterone administration attenuates the subjective response to stimulants. Therefore, the menstrual cycle should be addressed in mixed-gender studies. Moreover, the modulatory effects of progesterone on reducing the positive effects of cocaine may have some clinical utility in treating stimulant abusers.

  15. Effect of Acute Exercise on AMPK Signaling in Skeletal Muscle of Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Coletta, Dawn K.; Wajcberg, Estela; Balbontin, Gabriela B.; Reyna, Sara M.; Barrientes, John; Eagan, Phyllis A.; Jenkinson, Christopher P.; Cersosimo, Eugenio; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Sakamoto, Kei; Musi, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by exercise induces several cellular processes in muscle. Exercise activation of AMPK is unaffected in lean (BMI ~25 kg/m2) subjects with type 2 diabetes. However, most type 2 diabetic subjects are obese (BMI >30 kg/m2), and exercise stimulation of AMPK is blunted in obese rodents. We examined whether obese type 2 diabetic subjects have impaired exercise stimulation of AMPK, at different signaling levels, spanning from the upstream kinase, LKB1, to the putative AMPK targets, AS160 and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor coactivator (PGC)-1α, involved in glucose transport regulation and mitochondrial biogenesis, respectively. Twelve type 2 diabetic, eight obese, and eight lean subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer for 40 min. Muscle biopsies were done before, during, and after exercise. Subjects underwent this protocol on two occasions, at low (50% VO2max) and moderate (70% VO2max) intensities, with a 4–6 week interval. Exercise had no effect on LKB1 activity. Exercise had a time- and intensity-dependent effect to increase AMPK activity and AS160 phosphorylation. Obese and type 2 diabetic subjects had attenuated exercise-stimulated AMPK activity and AS160 phosphorylation. Type 2 diabetic subjects had reduced basal PGC-1 gene expression but normal exercise-induced increases in PGC-1 expression. Our findings suggest that obese type 2 diabetic subjects may need to exercise at higher intensity to stimulate the AMPK-AS160 axis to the same level as lean subjects. PMID:17327455

  16. Mu Opioid Mediated Discriminative-Stimulus Effects of Tramadol: An Individual Subjects Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Justin C.; Rush, Craig R.; Stoops, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Drug discrimination procedures use dose-dependent generalization, substitution, and pretreatment with selective agonists and antagonists to evaluate receptor systems mediating interoceptive effects of drugs. Despite the extensive use of these techniques in the nonhuman animal literature, few studies have used human subjects. Specifically, human studies have not routinely used antagonist administration as a pharmacological tool to elucidate the mechanisms mediating the discriminative stimulus effects of drugs. This study evaluated the discriminative-stimulus effects of tramadol, an atypical analgesic with monoamine and mu opioid activity. Three human subjects first learned to discriminate 100 mg tramadol from placebo. A range of tramadol doses (25 to 150 mg) and hydromorphone (4 mg) with and without naltrexone pretreatment (50 mg) were then administered to subjects after acquiring the discrimination. Tramadol produced dose-dependent increases in drug-appropriate responding and hydromorphone partially or fully substituted for tramadol in all subjects. These effects were attenuated by naltrexone. Individual subject records indicated a relationship between mu opioid activity (i.e., miosis) and drug discrimination performance. Our findings indicate that mu opioid activity may mediate the discriminative-stimulus effects of tramadol in humans. The correspondence of generalization, substitution, and pretreatment findings with the animal literature supports the neuropharmacological specificity of the drug discrimination procedure. PMID:25664525

  17. Evaluation of tilidine for morphine-like subjective effects and euphoria.

    PubMed

    Jasinski, D R; Preston, K L

    1986-11-01

    Tilidine is an opioid analgesic that has been abused predominantly by the oral route. Studies of parenterally administered tilidine in animals did not clearly indicate a dependence potential of the morphine type. In this study we examined the abuse potential of orally and parenterally administered tilidine in humans. Both orally and intramuscularly given tilidine produced miosis and morphine-like subjective effects in non-dependent subjects. Oral tilidine was 1/8-1/10 as potent and intramuscular tilidine was 1/22 as potent as parenteral morphine in producing morphine-like subjective and miotic effects. Intramuscular tilidine suppressed and did not precipitate signs of abstinence in morphine-dependent subjects. However, intramuscularly given tilidine produced toxic effects not seen with morphine. Meperidine, codeine and d-propoxyphene produced morphine-like subjective and miotic effects, but also produced toxic effects at the highest doses tested. The results suggest that tilidine has a potential to be abused, that this potential is less than that of parenteral morphine and that tilidine is more likely to be abused orally than by the intramuscular route.

  18. Physiological and subjective effects of acute intranasal methamphetamine during atomoxetine maintenance.

    PubMed

    Rush, Craig R; Stoops, William W; Lile, Joshua A; Glaser, Paul E A; Hays, Lon R

    2011-11-01

    Methamphetamine abuse and dependence are significant public-health concerns. Behavioral therapies are effective for reducing methamphetamine use. However, many patients enrolled in behavioral therapies are unable to achieve significant periods of abstinence suggesting other strategies like pharmacotherapy are needed. This experiment determined the physiological and subjective effects of acutely administered intranasal methamphetamine during atomoxetine maintenance in seven non-treatment seeking stimulant-dependent participants. Atomoxetine was chosen for study because it blocks reuptake at the norepinephrine transporter and increases extracellular dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex. In this way, atomoxetine might function as an agonist replacement therapy for stimulant-dependent patients. After at least 7 days of maintenance on atomoxetine (0 and 80 mg/day), participants were administered ascending doses of intranasal methamphetamine (0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg) across two experimental sessions. Intranasal methamphetamine doses were separated by 90 min. Intranasal methamphetamine produced prototypical physiological and subjective effects (e.g., increased heart rate, blood pressure, temperature and subjective ratings of Good Effects). Atomoxetine maintenance augmented the heart rate-increasing effects of methamphetamine, but attenuated the pressor effects. The subjective effects of intranasal methamphetamine were similar during atomoxetine and placebo maintenance. These results suggest that methamphetamine can be safely administered to participants maintained on atomoxetine, but whether it might be an effective pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine dependence remains to be determined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bias Corrections for Standardized Effect Size Estimates Used with Single-Subject Experimental Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugille, Maaike; Moeyaert, Mariola; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Ferron, John M.; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-01-01

    A multilevel meta-analysis can combine the results of several single-subject experimental design studies. However, the estimated effects are biased if the effect sizes are standardized and the number of measurement occasions is small. In this study, the authors investigated 4 approaches to correct for this bias. First, the standardized effect…

  20. The Effects of CLIL Education on the Subject Matter (Mathematics) and the Target Language (English)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouazizi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of Content and Language Integrated Learning, CLIL for short, on both the attainment of the subject matter, mathematics in our case, hence the content aspect of CLIL. The second axes of research focuses on the effect of CLIL on the learners' proficiency vis-à-vis the language of instruction, epitomized here by…

  1. Bias Corrections for Standardized Effect Size Estimates Used with Single-Subject Experimental Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugille, Maaike; Moeyaert, Mariola; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Ferron, John M.; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-01-01

    A multilevel meta-analysis can combine the results of several single-subject experimental design studies. However, the estimated effects are biased if the effect sizes are standardized and the number of measurement occasions is small. In this study, the authors investigated 4 approaches to correct for this bias. First, the standardized effect…

  2. Physiological and Subjective Effects of Acute Intranasal Methamphetamine During Atomoxetine Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Rush, Craig R.; Stoops, William W.; Lile, Joshua A.; Glaser, Paul E.A.; Hays, Lon R.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Methamphetamine abuse and dependence are significant public-health concerns. Behavioral therapies are effective for reducing methamphetamine use. However, many patients enrolled in behavioral therapies are unable to achieve significant periods of abstinence suggesting other strategies like pharmacotherapy are needed. Objectives This experiment determined the physiological and subjective effects of acutely administered intranasal methamphetamine during atomoxetine maintenance in seven non-treatment seeking stimulant-dependent participants. Atomoxetine was chosen for study because it blocks reuptake at the norepinephrine transporter and increases extracellular dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex. In this way, atomoxetine might function as an agonist replacement therapy for stimulant-dependent patients Methods After at least 7 days of maintenance on atomoxetine (0 and 80 mg/day), participants were administered ascending doses of intranasal methamphetamine (0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg) across two experimental sessions. Intranasal methamphetamine doses were separated by 90 minutes. Results Intranasal methamphetamine produced prototypical physiological and subjective effects (e.g., increased heart rate, blood pressure, temperature and subjective ratings of Good Effects). Atomoxetine maintenance augmented the heart rate-increasing effects of methamphetamine, but attenuated the pressor effects. The subjective effects of intranasal methamphetamine were similar during atomoxetine and placebo maintenance. Conclusions These results suggest that methamphetamine can be safely administered to participants maintained on atomoxetine, but whether it might be an effective pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine dependence remains to be determined. PMID:21802442

  3. Assessment of the effects of lacosamide on sleep parameters in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hudson, J Douglas; Guptill, Jeffrey T; Byrnes, William; Yates, Stephen L; Williams, Paulette; D'Cruz, O'Neill

    2015-02-01

    Seizures and antiepileptic drugs (AED) may disrupt sleep patterns in patients with epilepsy, thus evaluation of lacosamide effects on objective and subjective sleep measures is warranted. A multicenter, interventional, open-label study (NCT01530386) was conducted in healthy subjects without confounding effects of concomitant AED use, co-morbidities, or disease state to determine whether lacosamide impacts sleep parameters after 22 days of lacosamide exposure. After overnight polysomnography (PSG) to assess baseline parameters, lacosamide was initiated at 100mg/day (50mg twice daily) and increased by 100mg/day weekly to 300 mg/day (the mid-range maintenance dose for adjunctive therapy). The primary variable was change from baseline to post-treatment in wake after sleep onset (WASO). Secondary variables included additional objective sleep measures, subject-reported measures of sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and tolerability. Change from baseline in WASO was analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. A total of 27 subjects received ≥1 dose of lacosamide and 25 subjects completed the study. For WASO, median change from baseline was a 6-min reduction (95% confidence interval: -38, 77.5; p=0.1074) after lacosamide treatment; this was considered not clinically relevant. No clinically relevant changes were observed in any secondary variables. Thirteen subjects (48%) reported a treatment-emergent adverse event, none of which was severe or led to study discontinuation. Lacosamide 300 mg/day had no effect on objective or subjective sleep parameters in healthy subjects and was generally well tolerated. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of expectancies on subjective responses to oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Kirk, J M; Doty, P; De Wit, H

    1998-02-01

    The effects of expectancies on subjective responses to oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) were examined. Thirty-five regular marijuana users were assigned to one of two groups: one group was told that they may receive a cannabinoid or placebo and a second group was told that they may receive a drug from one of several classes of drugs (e.g., stimulant, sedative, antiemetic) or placebo. Regardless of the group to which they were assigned, subjects received each of two oral doses of delta9-THC (7.5 and 15 mg) and placebo, one dose per session, for a total of three sessions. Measures of subjective effects, including visual analog scales and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI), were administered at 0.5-h intervals throughout each session. Consistent with previous research using other drugs, subjects in the current experiment who expected to receive a cannabinoid reported greater pleasurable effects than subjects who did not have this expectancy. The results have implications for understanding the effects of cannabinoids when used in both recreational and clinical settings.

  5. Effects of cutouts on the behavior of symmetric composite laminates subjected to bending and twisting loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, C. B.; Shuart, M. J.; Bains, N. J.; Rouse, M.

    1993-01-01

    Composite structures are used for a wide variety of aerospace applications. Practical structures contain cutouts and these structures are subjected to in-plane and out-of-plane loading conditions. Structurally efficient designs for composite structures require a thorough understanding of the effects of cutouts on the response of composite plates subjected to inplane or out-of-plane loadings. Most investigations of the behavior of composite plates with cutouts have considered in-plane loadings only. Out-of-plane loadings suchas bending or twisting have received very limited attention. The response of homogeneous plates (e.g., isotropic or orthotropic plates) subjected to bending or twisting moments has been studied analytically. These analyses are for infinite plates and neglect finite-plate effects. Recently, analytical and experimental studies were conducted to determine the effects of cutouts on the response of laminated composite plates subjected to bending moments. No analytical or experimental results are currently available for the effects of cutouts on the response of composite laminates subjected to twisting moments.

  6. Predisposing conditions for retrograde peri-implantitis, and treatment suggestions.

    PubMed

    Quirynen, Marc; Vogels, Roel; Alsaadi, Ghada; Naert, Ignace; Jacobs, Reinhilde; van Steenberghe, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    Recent case reports introduced the term retrograde peri-implantitis as a lesion (radiolucency) around the most apical part of an osseointegrated implant. It develops within the first months after insertion. This retrospective study aimed to find predisposing conditions for such peri-apical lesions and to evaluate treatment strategies. All single implants (426 in the upper, 113 in the lower jaw, all Brånemark system type) placed at the department of Periodontology of the University Hospital (Catholic University Leuven) were included in this retrospective evaluation to check the incidence of retrograde peri-implantitis. Eventual predisposing factors such as patient characteristics (age, medical history), recipient site (local bone quality and quantity, cause of tooth loss), periodontal and endodontic conditions of neighboring teeth, implant characteristics (length, surface characteristics), and surgical aspects (guided bone regeneration, osseous fenestration, or dehiscency) were considered. Moreover, implants with retrograde peri-implantitis were followed longitudinally to verify their treatment outcome by means of different parameters (Periotest values (PTV), marginal bone level, radiological size of peri-apical defect). Seven implants in the upper (1.6%) and 3 in the lower jaw (2.7%) showed retrograde peri-implantitis, before or at abutment connection. In comparison with successful implants, such peri-apical lesions occurred preferably at sites with a history of an obvious endodontic pathology of the extracted tooth to be replaced. The incidence of retrograde peri-implantitis was significantly higher (P<0.0001) for TiUnite implants when compared with the machined implants (8/80 vs. 2/459). The machined implant surface, however, showed a higher failure rate (6.8%) than the TiUnite implants (2.5%). Failures with machined surfaces preferably occurred at extraction sites of teeth with a history of endodontic pathology or sites adjacent to teeth with an obvious

  7. The influence of caffeine on nicotine's discriminative stimulus, subjective, and reinforcing effects.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Fonte, Carolyn; Stolinski, Amy; Blakesley-Ball, Richard; Wilson, Annette S

    2005-11-01

    Caffeine may acutely alter the discriminative stimulus and subjective effects of nicotine, perhaps explaining the association of coffee intake with smoking status. In this study, smokers were initially trained to discriminate 20 microg/kg nicotine by nasal spray from placebo (0). Then, generalization of nicotine discrimination was tested, using both 2- and 3-choice ("novel" option) procedures, across a range of doses (0-20 microg/kg) following pretreatment with 0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg caffeine p.o. Nicotine reinforcement was assessed after the end of generalization testing using a choice procedure. Caffeine pretreatment did not alter nicotine discrimination and self-administration. Caffeine and nicotine influenced some subjective and cardiovascular responses, but there were no interaction effects except for diastolic blood pressure. These results do not support the notion that caffeine acutely alters nicotine's discriminative stimulus, subjective, or reinforcing effects.

  8. The effect of simulated hamstring shortening on gait in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, C L; Hillman, S J; Richardson, A M; Hazlewood, M E; Robb, J E

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of simulated hamstring shortening on gait in normal subjects. Six normal subjects wore an adjustable brace to simulate three different hamstring lengths. Evaluation of the physiological cost index (PCI) and gait analysis revealed that simulated hamstring shortening produced adverse affects in the gait of normal subjects. Significant effects were only observed when the popliteal angle exceeded 85 degrees (p<0.001) and included increased effort of walking (PCI), decreased speed, stride and step length; decreased hip flexion and increased knee flexion in stance, increased posterior pelvic tilt, decreased pelvic obliquity and rotation and premature ankle dorsi- and plantar-flexion in stance. These results emphasise the need to consider the effects of changing the length of the hamstrings on joints other than the hip and knee when assessing patients for hamstring lengthening.

  9. [Effect of family cohesion, subjective happiness and other factors on death anxiety in Korean elders].

    PubMed

    Jo, Kae Hwa; Song, Byung Sook

    2012-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to explore the effects of family cohesion and subjective happiness on death anxiety of Korean elders and to identify other factors contributing to death anxiety. The participants were 280 elders who lived in P metropolitan city. Data were collected between November 5, 2011 and January 12, 2012 using the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), Family Cohesion Evaluation Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale, and Fear of Death Scale (FODS). Data were analyzed using the SPSS/WIN 19.0 program. Family cohesion, marital status, religious activity, perceived health status, and subjective happiness were included in the factors affecting death anxiety of Korean elders. These variables explained 50.1% of death anxiety. The results of the study indicate that these variables should be considered in developing nursing intervention programs to decrease death anxiety and increase family cohesion and subjective happiness for life integration in Korean elders.

  10. Effects of local and global context on processing sentences with subject and object relative clauses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Mo, Lun; Louwerse, Max M

    2013-06-01

    An eye tracking study investigated the effects of local and global discourse context on the processing of subject and object relative clauses, whereby the contexts favored either a subject relative clause interpretation or an object relative clause interpretation. The fixation data replicated previous studies showing that object relative clause sentences were more difficult to process than subject relative sentences. Crucially, however, the reading difficulty asymmetry between subject and object relative clause sentences disappeared when the sentences were presented with a local or a global discourse context that favored the objects in the object relative clauses. These findings demonstrate that the evidence for a syntax-based account of sentence processing is found when sentences are presented in isolation. However, if sentences are placed more naturally, in context, discourse factors outweigh the initial structural assignment.

  11. Effect of Metaboreflex on Cardiovascular System in Subjects of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Pramita; Tiwari, Sunita; Bajpai, Manish; Singh, Kalpana; Jha, Praveen

    2017-07-01

    Metaboreflex is a reflex in which muscle receptors send signals regarding metabolic (metabolites accumulation like lactic acid, potassium, adenosine) conditions of the muscles to nucleus tractus solitarius via afferent III and IV fibres to cause haemodynamic adjustments in order to regulate blood flow on the basis of the status of contracting muscle. Dysregulation in its mechanism in metabolic syndrome is demonstrated. To study the effect of metaboreflex by both isometric and rhythmic handgrip exercise on CVS parameters {Blood Pressure (BP), Cardiac Output (CO) and Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)} in subjects of metabolic syndrome. In this study, 27 subjects aged 25 to 45 years were enrolled after ethical clearance and proper consent. They were divided into: a) subjects without metabolic syndrome; and b) subjects with metabolic syndrome. Impedance cardiovasography was done to assess cardiac parameters (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance). Pre-exercise parameters were assessed followed by isometric exercise and post-isometric exercise parameter measurement. Again after rest, rhythmic exercise was followed. Finally post exercise parameters were assessed. Student paired t-test for comparison between pre and post exercise parameters were done. Changes in diastolic BP following exercise were statistically significant in subjects without metabolic syndrome (p-value 0.01 and 0.001 following isometric and rhythmic exercise respectively). In subjects with metabolic syndrome also these changes were significant, but to a lesser extent (p-value 0.1 and 0.01 respectively for isometric and rhythmic exercise). Changes in systolic BP following exercise were statistically significant in subjects without metabolic syndrome (p-value 0.001 and 0.001 following isometric and rhythmic exercise respectively). In subjects with metabolic syndrome also these changes were significant (p-value 0.01 and 0.001 respectively for isometric and

  12. Effect of hyperhydration on bone mineralization in physically healthy subjects after prolonged restriction of motor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Federenko, Youri F.; Naexu, Konstantin A.

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of a daily intake of fluid and salt supplementation (FSS) on bone mineralization in physically healthy male volunteers after exposure to hypokinesia (decreased number of steps taken/day) over a period of 364 days. The studies were performed after exposure to 364 days of hypokinesia (HK) on 18 physically healthy male volunteers who had an average VO2max of 65 ml/kg/min and were aged between 19 and 24 years. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect the volunteers were kept under an average of 1000 steps/day. The subjects were divided into three equal groups of 6: 6 underwent a normal ambulatory life (control group), 6 were placed under HK (hypokinetic group) and the remaining 6 were subjected to HK and consumed a daily FSS (water 26 ml/kg body wt and NaCl 0.10 mg/kg body wt) (hyperhydrated group). The density of the ulnar, radius, tibia, fibular, lumbar vertebrae and calcenous was measured. Calcium and phosphorus changes, plasma volume, blood pressure and body weight were determined. Calcium content in the examined skeletal bones decreased more in the hypokinetic subjects than in the hyperhydrated subjects. Urinary calcium and phosphorus losses were more pronounced in hypokinetic than hyperhydrated subjects. Plasma volume and body weight increased in hyperhydrated subjects, while it decreased in hypokinetic subjects. It was concluded that a daily intake of FSS may be used to neutralize bone demineralization in physically healthy subjects during prolonged restriction of motor activity.

  13. Macrolide antibiotics allosterically predispose the ribosome for translation arrest

    PubMed Central

    Sothiselvam, Shanmugapriya; Liu, Bo; Han, Wei; Ramu, Haripriya; Klepacki, Dorota; Atkinson, Gemma Catherine; Brauer, Age; Remm, Maido; Tenson, Tanel; Schulten, Klaus; Vázquez-Laslop, Nora; Mankin, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Translation arrest directed by nascent peptides and small cofactors controls expression of important bacterial and eukaryotic genes, including antibiotic resistance genes, activated by binding of macrolide drugs to the ribosome. Previous studies suggested that specific interactions between the nascent peptide and the antibiotic in the ribosomal exit tunnel play a central role in triggering ribosome stalling. However, here we show that macrolides arrest translation of the truncated ErmDL regulatory peptide when the nascent chain is only three amino acids and therefore is too short to be juxtaposed with the antibiotic. Biochemical probing and molecular dynamics simulations of erythromycin-bound ribosomes showed that the antibiotic in the tunnel allosterically alters the properties of the catalytic center, thereby predisposing the ribosome for halting translation of specific sequences. Our findings offer a new view on the role of small cofactors in the mechanism of translation arrest and reveal an allosteric link between the tunnel and the catalytic center of the ribosome. PMID:24961372

  14. Genetic skin diseases predisposing to basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco; Morrone, Aldo; Kanitakis, Jean; Grammatico, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest cancer in humans. Predisposing factors reflect common genetic variations and environmental influences in most cases. However, an underlying Mendelian disorder should be suspected in a specific subset of patients, namely those with multiple, early onset lesions. Some specific conditions, including Gorlin, Bazex-Dupré-Christol and Rombo syndromes, and Xeroderma Pigmentosum, show BCC as a prominent feature. In addition, BCC may represent a relatively common, although less specific, finding in many other genodermatoses. These include disorders of DNA replication/repair functions (Bloom, Werner, Rothmund-Thomson and Muir-Torre syndromes), genodermatoses affecting the folliculo-sebaceus unit (Brooke-Spiegler, Schöpf-Schulz-Passarge and Cowden syndromes), immune response (cartilage-hair hypoplasia and epidermodysplasia verruciformis) and melanin biosynthesis (oculocutaneous albinism and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome), and some epidermal nevus syndromes. Further conditions occasionally associated with BCCs exist, but the significance of the association remains to be proven.

  15. Effects of Beraprost Sodium on Subjective Symptoms in Diabetic Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hang Seob; Choi, Woo Jin; Sung, Il Hoon; Lee, Ho Seong; Chung, Hyung Jin

    2013-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the effects of Beraprost sodium (Berasil) on subjective leg symptoms in patients with peripheral arterial disease caused by diabetes mellitus. Methods Ninety-four diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease were treated with Beraprost in a fixed-dose, prospective, multicenter, cohort study. Beraprost (40 µg) was administered orally 3 times daily (120 µg/day) for 12 weeks. We developed a new disease-specific symptom questionnaire, which evaluated the effect of peripheral arterial disease on leg discomfort in daily life and assessed therapeutic responses to treatment. Patients were asked for their subjective assessment of symptoms on a written questionnaire before treatment and after 12 weeks of therapy. Results There was significant improvement in all estimated subjective symptoms (burning, coldness, edema, exertional pain, stabbing, and paresthesias) in the lower extremities at 12 weeks (p < 0.001). There were 18 patients with neuropathy in whom significant improvement was noted for 6 subjective symptoms at 12 weeks (p < 0.05). Adverse events considered to be drug-related were observed in 4 patients (4.3%), all of which were mild and resolved with discontinuation of the medication. Conclusions Beraprost is effective as a treatment for improving various subjective symptoms in the lower extremities, such as burning, coldness, edema, exertional pain, stabbing, and paresthesias, in diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease. PMID:23730480

  16. Attitudes Toward Alzheimer's Care-Seeking Among Korean Americans: Effects of Knowledge, Stigma, and Subjective Norm.

    PubMed

    Casado, Banghwa Lee; Hong, Michin; Lee, Sang E

    2017-03-10

    Early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) ensures that affected individuals and their caregivers can make appropriate plans for health care needs, yet many ethnic minorities delay seeking care for AD until the disease has progressed. This study examined attitudes toward care-seeking for AD among Korean Americans (KAs) and identified factors affecting their attitudes. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data from 234 KA adults. We conducted hierarchical regression analyses to examine the effects of sociocultural background (age, gender, education, cultural orientation), AD knowledge and exposure to AD, and beliefs about AD (stigma of pity, shame, and public avoidance) and AD care (subjective norm) on KAs' attitudes toward seeking AD care from primary care physicians (PCPs) and AD specialists. We also tested whether knowledge of AD moderated the impact of beliefs about AD and AD care on KAs' attitudes toward seeking AD care. For both PCPs and AD specialists, the subjective norm had the strongest effect on KAs' attitudes toward care seeking (β = 0.557 for PCPs, β = 0.360 for specialists). Effects of stigma beliefs disappeared in the presence of the subjective norm. AD knowledge moderated the impact of the subjective norm on the attitudes toward both PCPs (β = -1.653) and specialists (β = -1.742). The significance of the subjective norm in KAs' attitudes toward AD care-seeking underscores the importance of public education, and our study suggests that increasing AD knowledge could facilitate a change in public attitudes toward seeking AD care.

  17. Physiological and subjective effects of traffic noise: the role of negative self-statements.

    PubMed

    Vera, M N; Vila, J; Godoy, J F

    1992-05-01

    This study assesses physiological and subjective effects of traffic noise and the mediator role that negative self-statements play. 84 female students underwent a Physiological Reaction Test to two 15 min presentations of high intensity traffic noise (85-95 dB) under two Noise conditions--with and without negative self-statements. Half of the subjects were given specific instructions to increase the credibility of the self-statements. Dependent variables were frontal EMG, electrodermal variables (conductance level and number of responses) and subjective tension. Traffic noise provoked subjective tension and physiological responses. Only the number of electrodermal responses habituated between noise presentations, the rest of the physiological variables did not habituate. Negative self-statements had the greatest effect on frontal EMG. In fact, only the noise with negative self-statements condition produced a significant EMG increase in the first part of the Test. Instructions increased subjective tension and also increased the effect of the self-statements on the electrodermal variables. The implications of these results for psychosomatic problems and the importance of negative self-statements are discussed.

  18. Estimating intervention effects across different types of single-subject experimental designs: empirical illustration.

    PubMed

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M; Onghena, Patrick; Heyvaert, Mieke; Beretvas, S Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the multilevel meta-analysis of results from single-subject experimental designs of different types, including AB phase designs, multiple-baseline designs, ABAB reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs. Current methodological work on the meta-analysis of single-subject experimental designs often focuses on combining simple AB phase designs or multiple-baseline designs. We discuss the estimation of the average intervention effect estimate across different types of single-subject experimental designs using several multilevel meta-analytic models. We illustrate the different models using a reanalysis of a meta-analysis of single-subject experimental designs (Heyvaert, Saenen, Maes, & Onghena, in press). The intervention effect estimates using univariate 3-level models differ from those obtained using a multivariate 3-level model that takes the dependence between effect sizes into account. Because different results are obtained and the multivariate model has multiple advantages, including more information and smaller standard errors, we recommend researchers to use the multivariate multilevel model to meta-analyze studies that utilize different single-subject designs.

  19. [Inadequate doses of hemodialysis. Predisposing factors, causes and prevention].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Pehuén; Núñez, Silvana; De Arteaga, Javier; Chiurchiu, Carlos; Douthat, Walter; De La Fuente, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Patients receiving sub-optimal dose of hemodialysis have increased morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to identify predisposing factors and causes of inadequate dialysis, and to design a practical algorithm for the management of these patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Ninety patients in chronic hemodialysis at Hospital Privado Universitario de Córdoba were included, during September 2015. Twenty two received sub-optimal dose of hemodialysis. Those with urea distribution volume (V) greater than 40 l (72 kg body weight approximately) are 11 times more likely (OR = 11.6; CI 95% = 3.2 to 51.7, p < 0.0001) to receive an inadequate dose of hemodialysis, than those with a smaller V. This situation is more frequent in men (OR = 3.5; 95% CI 1.01-15.8; p = 0.0292). V greater than 40 l was the only independent predictor of sub-dialysis in the multivariate analysis (OR = 10.3; 95% CI 2.8-37; p < 0.0004). The main cause of suboptimal dialysis was receiving a lower blood flow (Qb) than the prescribed (336.4 ± 45.8 ml/min vs. 402.3 ± 28.8 ml/min respectively, p < 0.0001) (n = 18). Other causes were identified: shorter duration of the session (n = 2), vascular access recirculation (n = 1), and error in the samples (n = 1). In conclusion, the only independent predisposing factor found in this study for sub-optimal dialysis is V greater than 40 l. The main cause was receiving a slower Qb than prescribed. From these findings, an algorithm for the management of these patients was developed.

  20. Dopamine D3 receptor-preferring agonist enhances the subjective effects of cocaine in humans

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Thomas F.; Haile, Colin N.; Mahoney, James J.; Shah, Ravi; Verrico, Christopher D.; De La Garza, Richard; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Pramipexole is a D3 dopamine receptor-preferring agonist indicated for the treatment of Parkinson disease. Studies associate pramipexole with pathological gambling and impulse control disorders suggesting a role for D3 receptors in reinforcement processes. Clinical studies showed pramipexole decreased cocaine craving and reversed central deficits in individuals with cocaine use disorder. Preclinical studies have shown acute administration of pramipexole increases cocaine’s reinforcing effects whereas other reports suggest chronic pramipexole produces tolerance to cocaine. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study we examined the impact of pramipexole treatment on the subjective effects produced by cocaine in volunteers with cocaine use disorder. Volunteers received pramipexole titrated up to 3.0 mg/d or placebo over 15 days. Participants then received intravenous cocaine (0, 20 and 40 mg) on day 15. Cardiovascular and subjective effects were obtained with visual analog scales at time points across the session. Pramipexole alone increased peak heart rate following saline and diastolic blood pressure following cocaine. Pramipexole produced upwards of two-fold increases in positive subjective effects ratings following cocaine. These results indicate that chronic D3 receptor activation increases the subjective effects of cocaine in humans. Caution should be used when prescribing pramipexole to patients that may also use cocaine. PMID:26239766

  1. Dopamine D3 receptor-preferring agonist enhances the subjective effects of cocaine in humans.

    PubMed

    Newton, Thomas F; Haile, Colin N; Mahoney, James J; Shah, Ravi; Verrico, Christopher D; De La Garza, Richard; Kosten, Thomas R

    2015-11-30

    Pramipexole is a D3 dopamine receptor-preferring agonist indicated for the treatment of Parkinson disease. Studies associate pramipexole with pathological gambling and impulse control disorders suggesting a role for D3 receptors in reinforcement processes. Clinical studies showed pramipexole decreased cocaine craving and reversed central deficits in individuals with cocaine use disorder. Preclinical studies have shown acute administration of pramipexole increases cocaine's reinforcing effects whereas other reports suggest chronic pramipexole produces tolerance to cocaine. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study we examined the impact of pramipexole treatment on the subjective effects produced by cocaine in volunteers with cocaine use disorder. Volunteers received pramipexole titrated up to 3.0mg/d or placebo over 15 days. Participants then received intravenous cocaine (0, 20 and 40mg) on day 15. Cardiovascular and subjective effects were obtained with visual analog scales at time points across the session. Pramipexole alone increased peak heart rate following saline and diastolic blood pressure following cocaine. Pramipexole produced upwards of two-fold increases in positive subjective effects ratings following cocaine. These results indicate that chronic D3 receptor activation increases the subjective effects of cocaine in humans. Caution should be used when prescribing pramipexole to patients that may also use cocaine.

  2. The psychopharmacological effects of premazepam, diazepam and placebo in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, S; Lader, M

    1984-01-01

    Pharmacological studies of premazepam in animals predicted antianxiety activity without sedation and, in combination with diazepam, a reduction in the sedative effects of the latter. The effects of single doses of premazepam (25 and 50 mg), diazepam (10 mg), premazepam (25 mg) plus diazepam (10 mg), and a placebo on subjective feelings, psychological tests and the EEG were studied in a double-blind cross-over study in 10 healthy subjects. In a repeated dose study in eight subjects, the effects on subjective feelings, psychological tests and the EEG of premazepam (5 and 10 mg twice-daily), diazepam (5mg twice-daily) and a placebo were compared. Premazepam had a different EEG profile from diazepam, producing more slow and less fast wave activity. In the single dose study its effects were similar to diazepam for sedative action and most of the psychological tests, with a tendency towards greater psychomotor impairment. In the repeated dose study, however, premazepam caused less sedation and also tended to produce less psychomotor impairment. The combination dose of premazepam (25 mg) plus diazepam (10 mg) in the single dose study indicated an additive effect rather than an antagonistic one. PMID:6148956

  3. Effect of visual stimulus using central and peripheral visual field on postural control of normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Park, Du-Jin

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of visual stimulus using central and peripheral vision fields on postural control. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects consisted of 40 young adult volunteers (15 males, 25 females) who had been informed of the study purpose and procedure. The subjects were randomly divided into four groups of differing visual stimulus. Each group was given visual intervention in a standing position for 3 minutes. Postural control was evaluated before and after visual intervention. [Results] The results of the functional reach test and body sway test showed significant differences among the four groups. [Conclusion] The two-way peripheral vision-field group showed significantly more body sway after visual intervention than the other three groups. This finding may suggest two-way peripheral vision field is a more effective visual stimulus for training postural control and balance.

  4. [EFFECTS OF MUSIC-ACOUSTIC SIGNALS, ONLINE CONTROLLED BY EEG OSCILLATORS OF THE SUBJECT].

    PubMed

    Fedotchev, A I; Bondar, A T; Bakhchina, A V; Parin, S B; Polevaya, S A; Radchenko, G S

    2015-08-01

    The effects of 2 variants of the method of musical EEG neurofeedback, in which the dominant spectral components of subject's EEG (EEG oscillators) are online converted to music-like signals similar by timbre to flute sounds, have been studied. In the first case, these music-like signals were smoothly varying by the pitch and intensity in accordance with the current amplitude of the EEG oscillator. In the second case, the same variations of flute-like sound were accompanied by such musical element as rhythm. After the single exposure, the modifications of subject's brain activity and positive changes in psycho-physiological state of the subject have been found. Particularly pronounced effects were observed under rhythmically organized music-like stimuli.

  5. The effect of graphic organizers on subjective and objective comprehension of a health education text.

    PubMed

    Kools, Marieke; van de Wiel, Margaretha W J; Ruiter, Robert A C; Crüts, Anica; Kok, Gerjo

    2006-12-01

    This study examined the effect of graphic organizers on the comprehension of a health education brochure text and compared subjective with objective comprehension measures. Graphic organizers are graphical depictions of relations among concepts in a text. Participants read a brochure text about asthma with and without these organizers, and subjective and objective text comprehension was measured. It was found that graphic organizers had effects on four levels of objective comprehension as indicated by open comprehension questions. However, on the subjective comprehension measure using Likert-type scales, the groups with and without graphic organizers did not differ from each other. It is concluded that health education texts could benefit from relatively simple techniques to increase comprehension. Furthermore, in developing health education materials, comprehension should be measured objectively.

  6. Effectiveness evaluation of objective and subjective weighting methods for aquifer vulnerability assessment in urban context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Madhumita; Sahoo, Satiprasad; Dhar, Anirban; Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2016-10-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessment has been an accepted practice to identify the zones with relatively increased potential for groundwater contamination. DRASTIC is the most popular secondary information-based vulnerability assessment approach. Original DRASTIC approach considers relative importance of features/sub-features based on subjective weighting/rating values. However variability of features at a smaller scale is not reflected in this subjective vulnerability assessment process. In contrast to the subjective approach, the objective weighting-based methods provide flexibility in weight assignment depending on the variation of the local system. However experts' opinion is not directly considered in the objective weighting-based methods. Thus effectiveness of both subjective and objective weighting-based approaches needs to be evaluated. In the present study, three methods - Entropy information method (E-DRASTIC), Fuzzy pattern recognition method (F-DRASTIC) and Single parameter sensitivity analysis (SA-DRASTIC), were used to modify the weights of the original DRASTIC features to include local variability. Moreover, a grey incidence analysis was used to evaluate the relative performance of subjective (DRASTIC and SA-DRASTIC) and objective (E-DRASTIC and F-DRASTIC) weighting-based methods. The performance of the developed methodology was tested in an urban area of Kanpur City, India. Relative performance of the subjective and objective methods varies with the choice of water quality parameters. This methodology can be applied without/with suitable modification. These evaluations establish the potential applicability of the methodology for general vulnerability assessment in urban context.

  7. Long-term effects of mild exercise on intraocular pressure in athletes and sedentary subjects.

    PubMed

    Dane, Senol; Koçer, Ibrahim; Demirel, Havva; Uçok, Kağan; Tan, Uner

    2006-10-01

    The long-term effects of acute submaximal exercise on intraocular pressures (IOPs) of right-and left-eyes and recovery times to basement levels of IOP in postexercise periods in sedentary and physically fit subjects were investigated. Twenty-five sedentary and 24 physically fit subjects, ranging in age 17 to 22 years, participated. Intraocular pressures were measured by a pneumotonometer. Measurements were taken in the morning at about nine (at rest) and immediately, 30 min and 2 h after acute submaximal exercise. In sedentary subjects, IOPs of both right- and left-eyes decreased immediate after exercise, but, these decreases in both eyes continued 30 min and 2 h after exercise. In physically fit subjects, IOPs of both right- and left-eyes increased immediate after exercise, but decreased after 30 min exercise compared to basement levels, and this decrease continued 2 h after exercise. Acute submaximal exercise decreased IOPs of right and left eyes over a period 2 h in sedentary and physically fit subjects. IOP reducing after exercise was different between right- and left-eyes in sedentary subjects. These results suggest that exercise can be used in ocular hypertension treatment.

  8. Interaction between mode of learning and subjective experience: translation effects in long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Rackie, James M; Brandt, Karen R; Eysenck, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that writing auditorily presented words at encoding involves distinctive translation processes between visual and auditory domains, leading to the formation of distinctive memory traces at retrieval. This translation effect leads to higher levels of recognition than the writing of visually presented words, a non-translation effect. The present research investigated whether writing and the other translation effect of vocalisation (vocalising visually presented words) would be present in tests of recall, recognition memory and whether these effects are based on the subjective experience of remembering or knowing. Experiment 1 found a translation effect in the auditory domain in recall, as the translation effect of writing yielded higher recall than both non-translation effects of vocalisation and silently hearing. Experiment 2 found a translation effect in the visual domain in recognition, as the translation effect of vocalisation yielded higher recognition than both non-translation effects of writing and silently reading. This translation effect was attributable to the subjective experience of remembering rather than knowing. The present research therefore demonstrates the beneficial effect of translation in both recall and recognition, with the effect of vocalisation in recognition being based on rich episodic remembering.

  9. Nipple candidiasis among breastfeeding mothers. Case-control study of predisposing factors.

    PubMed Central

    Tanguay, K. E.; McBean, M. R.; Jain, E.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors that predispose breastfeeding mothers to nipple candidiasis. DESIGN: A retrospective case-control study of women attending the Calgary Breastfeeding Clinic. SETTING: Ambulatory breastfeeding referral centre. PARTICIPANTS: All women (105) who attended the clinic during a 3.5-month study period. All were referred for problems with breastfeeding; 27 (the case group) had positive diagnostic criteria for nipple candidiasis. The other 78 formed a control group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: A patient information sheet, completed while taking a medical history, recorded the presence or absence of four possible predisposing factors. Two infant variables were also noted on physical examination. Patients were diagnosed as having or not having nipple candidiasis on the basis of specific clinical criteria, and statistics on other variables were compared for those with positive and with negative diagnoses. RESULTS: A statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05) was found between nipple candidiasis and three factors: vaginal candidiasis (P = 0.001), previous antibiotic use (P = 0.036), and nipple trauma (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Further research is required to establish clear causality. However, we recommend that physicians be suspicious of nipple candidiasis; avoid antibiotics or use the shortest effective course; treat yeast vaginitis during the third trimester and after delivery aggressively; and treat mothers for nipple yeast if babies have oral or diaper candidiasis. Breastfeeding mothers can also be counseled in preventive measures. PMID:8081120

  10. Bayesian analysis of uncertainty in predisposing and triggering factors for landslides hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandric, I.; Petropoulos, Y.; Chitu, Z.; Mihai, B.

    2012-04-01

    The landslide hazard analysis models takes into consideration both predisposing and triggering factors combined into a Bayesian temporal network with uncertainty propagation. The model uses as predisposing factors the first and second derivatives from DEM, the effective precipitations, runoff, lithology and land use. The latter is expressed not as land use classes, as for example CORINE, but as leaf area index. The LAI offers the advantage of modelling not just the changes from different time periods expressed in years, but also the seasonal changes in land use throughout a year. The LAI index was derived from Landsat time series images, starting from 1984 and up to 2011. All the images available for the Panatau administrative unit in Buzau County, Romania, have been downloaded from http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov, including the images with cloud cover. The model is run in a monthly time step and for each time step all the parameters values, a-priory, conditional and posterior probability are obtained and stored in a log file. The validation process uses landslides that have occurred during the period up to the active time step and checks the records of the probabilities and parameters values for those times steps with the values of the active time step. Each time a landslide has been positive identified new a-priory probabilities are recorded for each parameter. A complete log for the entire model is saved and used for statistical analysis and a NETCDF file is created

  11. Effect of kinesiotaping, non-elastic taping and bracing on segmental foot kinematics during drop landing in healthy subjects and subjects with chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Kuni, B; Mussler, J; Kalkum, E; Schmitt, H; Wolf, S I

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of kinesiotape, non-elastic tape, and soft brace on segmental foot kinematics during drop landing in subjects with chronic ankle instability and healthy subjects. Controlled study with repeated measurements. Three-dimensional motion analysis laboratory. Twenty participants with chronic ankle instability and 20 healthy subjects. The subjects performed drop landings with 17 retroreflective markers on the foot and lower leg in four conditions: barefoot, with kinesiotape, with non-elastic tape and with a soft brace. Ranges of motion of foot segments using a foot measurement method. In participants with chronic ankle instability, midfoot movement in the frontal plane (inclination of the medial arch) was reduced significantly by non-elastic taping, but kinesiotaping and bracing had no effect. In healthy subjects, both non-elastic taping and bracing reduced that movement. In both groups, non-elastic taping and bracing reduced rearfoot excursion in inversion/eversion significantly, which indicates a stabilisation effect. No such effect was found with kinesiotaping. All three methods reduced maximum plantar flexion significantly. Non-elastic taping stabilised the midfoot best in patients with chronic ankle instability, while kinesiotaping did not influence foot kinematics other than to stabilise the rearfoot in the sagittal plane. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01810471. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A comparison of the central nervous system effects of caffeine and theophylline in elderly subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, G; Maskray, V; Jackson, S H; Swift, C G; Tiplady, B

    1991-01-01

    1. The effects of oral administration of 250 mg caffeine or theophylline and placebo on subjective ratings and psychological test performance were studied in a double-blind crossover experiment in 20 healthy elderly subjects. 2. Performance on the continuous attention task showed a significant improvement compared with placebo with both active treatments. Performance with caffeine was significantly better than with theophylline. Mean error index scores (normalised AUCs) were: placebo--0.130; caffeine--0.083; theophylline--0.093. No other objective measure shows significant treatment effects. 3. Subjective ratings showed that subjects felt significantly more alert on caffeine than on either theophylline or placebo. Subjects also rated themselves as more energetic and interested on caffeine than on placebo. 4. Plasma concentrations of caffeine were lower than those of theophylline (mean 5.76 and 8.72 mg l-1 respectively at 2 h post-drug. 5. These results suggest that caffeine is a more potent CNS stimulant than theophylline. PMID:1777371

  13. Beginning Teachers' Conceptual Understandings of Effective History Teaching: Examining the Change from "Subject Knowers" to "Subject Teachers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitano, Paul; Green, Nicole C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the investigation of change in preservice teachers' conceptions of effective history teaching across a secondary history methods course in a postgraduate diploma of education program. Using concept mapping to plot shifts in their expressed reflections, data were obtained that indicate personal constructs of effective history…

  14. Beginning Teachers' Conceptual Understandings of Effective History Teaching: Examining the Change from "Subject Knowers" to "Subject Teachers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitano, Paul; Green, Nicole C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the investigation of change in preservice teachers' conceptions of effective history teaching across a secondary history methods course in a postgraduate diploma of education program. Using concept mapping to plot shifts in their expressed reflections, data were obtained that indicate personal constructs of effective history…

  15. The Effects of Objective Career Success on Subsequent Subjective Career Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumpf, Stephen A.; Tymon, Walter G., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We use a sample of working adults (N = 638) to explore the effects of past objective career success (mobility, promotions, and salary change) on current subjective success (human capital assessments by one's managers, core self evaluations, satisfaction with one's career) by gender, across an economic cycle (2004-2011), controlling for career…

  16. A Study of the Stability of School Effectiveness Measures across Grades and Subject Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Garrett K.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    School effectiveness indices (SEIs), based on regressing test performance onto earlier test performance and a socioeconomic status measure, were obtained for eight subject-grade combinations from 485 South Carolina elementary schools. The analysis involved school means based on longitudinally matched student data. Reading and mathematics…

  17. Effect of Subject Types on the Production of Auxiliary "Is" in Young English-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ling-Yu; Owen, Amanda J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors tested the unique checking constraint (UCC) hypothesis and the usage-based approach concerning why young children variably use tense and agreement morphemes in obligatory contexts by examining the effect of subject types on the production of auxiliary "is". Method: Twenty typically developing 3-year-olds were…

  18. Effect of Subject Types on the Production of Auxiliary "Is" in Young English-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ling-Yu; Owen, Amanda J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors tested the unique checking constraint (UCC) hypothesis and the usage-based approach concerning why young children variably use tense and agreement morphemes in obligatory contexts by examining the effect of subject types on the production of auxiliary "is". Method: Twenty typically developing 3-year-olds were…

  19. Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats Authors: Gary E. Hatch, John McKee, James Brown, Bill McDonnell, Elston Seal, Joleen Soukup, Ralph Slade, Kay Crissman and Robert Devlin, National Health and Environmental...

  20. The Effect of Students' Subject Discipline on Their m-Learning Application Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delialioglu, Ömer; Alioon, Yasaman

    2016-01-01

    The effect of students' subject discipline on their preferences toward m-learning applications was investigated by using a mixed-method research design. A questionnaire on students' preferences of m-learning application features was used to collect data from 181 undergraduate students. One-way analysis of variance found a significant difference…

  1. Applying Generalizability Theory To Evaluate Treatment Effect in Single-Subject Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefebvre, Daniel J.; Suen, Hoi K.

    An empirical investigation of methodological issues associated with evaluating treatment effect in single-subject research (SSR) designs is presented. This investigation: (1) conducted a generalizability (G) study to identify the sources of systematic and random measurement error (SRME); (2) used an analytic approach based on G theory to integrate…

  2. The Effect of Students' Subject Discipline on Their m-Learning Application Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delialioglu, Ömer; Alioon, Yasaman

    2016-01-01

    The effect of students' subject discipline on their preferences toward m-learning applications was investigated by using a mixed-method research design. A questionnaire on students' preferences of m-learning application features was used to collect data from 181 undergraduate students. One-way analysis of variance found a significant difference…

  3. Characterizing the Subjective and Psychomotor Effects of Carisoprodol in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Zacny, James P.; Paice, Judith A.; Coalson, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    Carisoprodol is a centrally acting drug used to relieve skeletal muscle spasms and associated pain in acute musculoskeletal conditions. There is evidence from different sources that this oral muscle relaxant is abused and that it is associated with impairment leading to arrests for “driving under the influence” as well as increased risk of automobile accidents. Its subjective and psychomotor effects in healthy volunteers at therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses have not been well-characterized, and form the basis of this report. Fifteen healthy volunteers (8 males, 7 females) were administered 0, 350, and 700 mg of carisoprodol in separate sessions and for 6 h afterwards they completed a battery of tests at fixed time intervals so as to assess the subjective and psychomotor effects of the drug. The supratherapeutic dose, 700 mg, increased visual analog scale ratings of terms that were more reflective of sedation (e.g., “sleepy,” “heavy, sluggish feeling”) than those of abuse liability, and produced impaired performance on several psychomotor tests. The therapeutic dose, 350 mg, while producing few and mild subjective effects, still produced psychomotor impairment. The fact that the therapeutic dose of carisoprodol produced minimal subjective effects while adversely affecting performance is of concern in that patients prescribed this drug may feel relatively normal and engage in tasks (driving) that could put themselves and others at risk. PMID:21884720

  4. Effects of Religiosity and Racial Socialization on Subjective Stigmatization in African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brega, Angela G.; Coleman, Lerita M.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the direct effects of religiosity and racial socialization on subjective stigmatization among African American adolescents (N=50). Participants who showed strong commitment to the church were more destigmatized as were those who received racial socialization messages stemming from a single primary category. The more racial socialization…

  5. 47 CFR 76.905 - Standards for identification of cable systems subject to effective competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for identification of cable systems... Regulation § 76.905 Standards for identification of cable systems subject to effective competition. (a) Only... interest in both entities. Attributable interest shall be defined by reference to the criteria set forth in...

  6. Habit Strength Differences in Motor Behavior: The Effects of Social Facilitation Paradigms and Subject Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landers, Daniel M.; And Others

    This document reports on research on the effects which the presence of other individuals have on another individual's performance. The experiment was conducted as follows: Selected male and female subjects were given the task of following a blind maze with a stylus. They were tested in performance under three different circumstances, alone, with a…

  7. Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats Authors: Gary E. Hatch, John McKee, James Brown, Bill McDonnell, Elston Seal, Joleen Soukup, Ralph Slade, Kay Crissman and Robert Devlin, National Health and Environmental...

  8. Comparison of Nonoverlap Methods for Identifying Treatment Effect in Single-Subject Experimental Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakap, Salih; Snyder, Patricia; Pasia, Cathleen

    2014-01-01

    Debate is occurring about which result interpretation aides focused on examining the experimental effect should be used in single-subject experimental research. In this study, we examined seven nonoverlap methods and compared results using each method to judgments of two visual analysts. The data sources for the present study were 36 studies…

  9. Protective effect of adonitol on lactic acid bacteria subjected to freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    de Valdéz, G F; de Giori, G S; de Ruiz Holgado, A A; Oliver, G

    1983-01-01

    The protective effects of glycerol, adonitol, and four other related polyhydric alcohols on lactic acid bacteria subjected to freeze-drying were examined. The presence of adonitol in the suspending medium markedly protected the viabilities of the 12 stains tested. Dulcitol, mannitol, m-inositol, and sorbitol were found to provide little or no protection.

  10. Protective Effect of Adonitol on Lactic Acid Bacteria Subjected to Freeze-Drying

    PubMed Central

    de Valdéz, Graciela F.; de Giori, Graciela S.; de Ruiz Holgado, Aída A. P.; Oliver, Guillermo

    1983-01-01

    The protective effects of glycerol, adonitol, and four other related polyhydric alcohols on lactic acid bacteria subjected to freeze-drying were examined. The presence of adonitol in the suspending medium markedly protected the viabilities of the 12 stains tested. Dulcitol, mannitol, m-inositol, and sorbitol were found to provide little or no protection. PMID:6824318

  11. Effects of inhaled rosemary oil on subjective feelings and activities of the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Sayorwan, Winai; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Piriyapunyporn, Teerut; Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich; Siripornpanich, Vorasith

    2013-01-01

    Rosemary oil is one of the more famous essential oils widely used in aroma-therapy. However, the effects of rosemary oil on the human body, in particular the nervous system, have not been sufficiently studied. This study investigates the effects of the inhalation of rosemary oil on test subjects' feelings, as well as its effects on various physiological parameters of the nervous system. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. All subjects underwent autonomic nervous system (ANS) recording. This consisted of measurements of skin temperature; heart rate; respiratory rate; blood pressure; evaluations of the subjects' mood states; and electroencephalography (EEG) recordings in the pre-, during treatment, and post-rosemary inhalation periods as compared with control conditions. Our results showed significant increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate after rosemary oil inhalation. After the inhalation treatments, subjects were found to have become more active and stated that they felt "fresher". The analysis of EEGs showed a reduction in the power of alpha1 (8-10.99 Hz) and alpha2 (11-12.99 Hz) waves. Moreover, an increment in the beta wave (13-30 Hz) power was observed in the anterior region of the brain. These results confirm the stimulatory effects of rosemary oil and provide supporting evidence that brain wave activity, autonomic nervous system activity, as well as mood states are all affected by the inhalation of the rosemary oil.

  12. The Effectiveness of a Peer-Helping Programme That Increases Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a peer-helping programme in increasing the subjective well-being of a group of university students compared with a control group with the same characteristics who did not receive the intervention. The intervention recipients consisted of 13 male and 17 female participants. The peer helpers…

  13. The Effect of an End-of-Clerkship Review Session on NBME Psychiatry Subject Exam Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Shawn S.; Chandra, Rohit M.; Wang, Lei; Gollan, Jacqueline K.; Rasminsky, Sonya; Brar, Simerjeet K.; Anzia, Joan M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The NBME Psychiatry Subject Examination (PSE) is used throughout North America to test MS-III end-of-clerkship knowledge; yet, literature on PSE preparatory methods remains sparse. This study assesses the effect of a curriculum intervention on NBME PSE scores. Method: An optional 1.5-hour review session and accompanying…

  14. The Effects of Objective Career Success on Subsequent Subjective Career Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumpf, Stephen A.; Tymon, Walter G., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We use a sample of working adults (N = 638) to explore the effects of past objective career success (mobility, promotions, and salary change) on current subjective success (human capital assessments by one's managers, core self evaluations, satisfaction with one's career) by gender, across an economic cycle (2004-2011), controlling for career…

  15. Comparison of Nonoverlap Methods for Identifying Treatment Effect in Single-Subject Experimental Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakap, Salih; Snyder, Patricia; Pasia, Cathleen

    2014-01-01

    Debate is occurring about which result interpretation aides focused on examining the experimental effect should be used in single-subject experimental research. In this study, we examined seven nonoverlap methods and compared results using each method to judgments of two visual analysts. The data sources for the present study were 36 studies…

  16. Assessing the Effects of Older Adult Education on Subjective Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okun, Morris A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reviews research on the effects of educational programs on the subjective well-being of older adults. Describes the constructs of happiness, morale, and life satisfaction by specifying their location on temporal, cognitive, and affective dimensions. Recommends outcome measures and research designs for assessing and upgrading educational…

  17. Habit Strength Differences in Motor Behavior: The Effects of Social Facilitation Paradigms and Subject Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landers, Daniel M.; And Others

    This document reports on research on the effects which the presence of other individuals have on another individual's performance. The experiment was conducted as follows: Selected male and female subjects were given the task of following a blind maze with a stylus. They were tested in performance under three different circumstances, alone, with a…

  18. Effects of isradipine, a dihydropyridine-class calcium-channel antagonist, on d-methamphetamine's subjective and reinforcing effects.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Bankole A; Roache, John D; Ait-Daoud, Nassima; Wallace, Christopher; Wells, Lynda; Dawes, Michael; Wang, Yanmei

    2005-06-01

    In healthy human volunteers, we have previously shown that isradipine, a dihydropyridine-class calcium-channel antagonist, reduces some methamphetamine-induced positive subjective effects associated with its abuse liability, presumably by antagonizing cortico-mesolimbic dopamine pathways. In the present study, we combined acute immediate-release (IR) isradipine with repeated sustained-release (SR) isradipine pretreatment to determine whether isradipine could antagonize methamphetamine's positive subjective and reinforcing effects in methamphetamine-dependent research subjects. We included 18 non-treatment-seeking, methamphetamine-dependent subjects aged between 18 and 51 years in this double-blind, within-subject, cross-over study, which was done in a human laboratory. Intravenous methamphetamine (0, 15 and 30 mg) was administered on three different days after 5 days of double-blind cross-over treatment with either isradipine or matching placebo. Subjects received oral isradipine 30 mg SR at bedtime, plus 15 mg IR administered 2 h before methamphetamine infusion. Self-report questionnaires measured drug liking, euphoria, craving, stimulation, and methamphetamine preference. Methamphetamine reinforcement was measured by a behavioural procedure involving choices between methamphetamine and money. For those who received isradipine second and placebo first as the pretreatment paradigm but not vice versa, methamphetamine-induced drug liking, elation, and preference were reduced significantly by isradipine. Depending upon conditioning status, isradipine can reduce some methamphetamine-induced positive subjective and reinforcing effects associated with its abuse liability in methamphetamine addicts.

  19. Cognitive and subjective acute dose effects of intramuscular ketamine in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Lofwall, Michelle R; Griffiths, Roland R; Mintzer, Miriam Z

    2006-11-01

    Ketamine is a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist. Given the purported role of the NMDA receptor in long-term potentiation, the primary purpose of the present study was to further understand the dose-related effects of ketamine on memory. The study was also designed to provide information about the relative effects of ketamine on memory versus nonmemory effects and to more fully characterize ketamine's overall pattern and time course of effects. Single intramuscular injections of ketamine (0.2 mg/kg, 0.4 mg/kg) were administered to 18 healthy adult volunteers using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Word lists were used to evaluate episodic memory (free recall, recognition memory, source memory) and metamemory. Working memory, time estimation, psychomotor performance, and subjective effects were assessed repeatedly for 5 hours after drug administration. Ketamine selectively impaired encoding (as measured by free recall) while sparing retrieval, working memory while sparing attention, and digit symbol substitution task speed while sparing accuracy. Ketamine did not significantly impair recognition or source memory, metamemory, or time estimation. There were no hallucinations or increases in mystical experiences with ketamine. Memory measures were less sensitive to ketamine effects than subjective or psychomotor measures. Subjective effects lasted longer than memory and most psychomotor impairments. Ketamine produces selective, transient, dose- and time-related effects. In conjunction with previous studies of drugs with different mechanisms of actions, the observed selectivity of effects enhances the understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms underlying memory, attention, psychomotor performance, and subjective experience.

  20. Deletions of NRXN1 (Neurexin-1) Predispose to a Wide Spectrum of Developmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Michael SL; Shen, Yiping; Tan, Wen-Hann; Jeste, Shafali S; Morrow, Eric M; Chen, Xiaoli; Mukaddes, Nahit M; Yoo, Seung-Yun; Hanson, Ellen; Hundley, Rachel; Austin, Christina; Becker, Ronald E; Berry, Gerard T; Driscoll, Katherine; Engle, Elizabeth C; Friedman, Sandra; Gusella, James F; Hisama, Fuki M; Irons, Mira B; Lafiosca, Tina; LeClair, Elaine; Miller, David T; Neessen, Michael; Picker, Jonathan D; Rappaport, Leonard; Rooney, Cynthia M; Sarco, Dean P; Stoler, Joan M; Walsh, Christopher A; Wolff, Robert R; Zhang, Ting; Nasir, Ramzi H; Wu, Bai-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Research has implicated mutations in the gene for neurexin-1 (NRXN1) in a variety of conditions including autism, schizophrenia, and nicotine dependence. To our knowledge, there have been no published reports describing the breadth of the phenotype associated with mutations in NRXN1. We present a medical record review of subjects with deletions involving exonic sequences of NRXN1. We ascertained cases from 3,540 individuals referred clinically for comparative genomic hybridization testing from March 2007 to January 2009. Twelve subjects were identified with exonic deletions. The phenotype of individuals with NRXN1 deletion is variable and includes autism spectrum disorders, mental retardation, language delays, and hypotonia. There was a statistically significant increase in NRXN1 deletion in our clinical sample compared to control populations described in the literature (P = 8.9 × 10−7). Three additional subjects with NRXN1 deletions and autism were identified through the Homozygosity Mapping Collaborative for Autism, and this deletion segregated with the phenotype. Our study indicates that deletions of NRXN1 predispose to a wide spectrum of developmental disorders. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20468056

  1. [COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE SUBJECTIVE EFFECTS OF DEXTROAMPHETAMINE, METHYLPHENIDATE AND PLACEBO].

    PubMed

    TETREAULT, L

    1964-07-11

    The subjective effects of dextroamphetamine, methylphenidate and placebo were evaluated in 16 medical students during the period just prior to their final oral examinations. The subjects served as their own controls. The order of administration of the three medications for each student was randomized, and a double-blind technique was used throughout. A questionnaire method was employed for the collection of results, which proved to be a useful and effective means. It demonstrated that dextroamphetamine, methylphenidate and placebo were statistically different from one another with regard to their effect on efficiency of studying, fatigue, duration of sleep and appetite. There were also significant differences in the number of side effects caused by the three medications. The stimulants, however, did not increase the number of study hours, nor was their use recommended by the students when preparing for important examinations.

  2. The effects of backpack load and carrying method on the balance of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis subjects.

    PubMed

    Sahli, Sonia; Rebai, Haithem; Ghroubi, Sameh; Yahia, Abdelmonem; Guermazi, Mohamed; Elleuch, Mohamed Habib

    2013-12-01

    Concerns have been raised about the effect of backpack carrying on adolescent balance. For adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) subjects, the effect of backpack carrying method on their balance has not been determined. Our aim is to examine the effects of backpack load and carrying method on AIS subjects' balance. Paired sample matched for age and sex. Twelve healthy adolescents matched for age and sex with 14 adolescents with mild AIS participated in this study. A test battery including clinical examination, radiological assessment, and stabilometric measurements of the postural sways in the upright standing posture were conducted. Center of pressure excursions of our subjects were recorded with a stabilometric platform during the upright standing posture without a backpack and while carrying a backpack symmetrically and asymmetrically on each shoulder. For each carrying method, the backpack is loaded at 10% and 15% of body weight (BW). Our results indicated that postural sways increased with increasing backpack load. These postural sways were observed when normal adolescents carried a backpack loaded with 15% BW load, whereas, for age- and sex-matched AIS subjects, these postural responses were observed for the 10% BW load. The symmetrical backpack carrying induced better balance compared with the asymmetrical one. Asymmetrical carrying on the convex side of the scoliotic curve affects AIS subjects' balance more than carrying it on the concave side. Load carriage of 10% BW seems to alter AIS subjects' balance. Asymmetrical carrying should be avoided especially on the convex side of the scoliotic curve because it causes balance impairments that may increase spinal pain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 as a predisposing risk factor for the development of angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Annie; Dubuc, Isabelle; Morissette, Guillaume; Sedlak, Ruth H; Jerome, Keith R; Flamand, Louis

    2015-06-30

    Inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus-6 (iciHHV-6) results in the germ-line transmission of the HHV-6 genome. Every somatic cell of iciHHV-6+ individuals contains the HHV-6 genome integrated in the telomere of chromosomes. Whether having iciHHV-6 predisposes humans to diseases remains undefined. DNA from 19,597 participants between 40 and 69 years of age were analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the presence of iciHHV-6. Telomere lengths were determined by qPCR. Medical records, hematological, biochemical, and anthropometric measurements and telomere lengths were compared between iciHHV-6+ and iciHHV-6- subjects. The prevalence of iciHHV-6 was 0.58%. Two-way ANOVA with a Holm-Bonferroni correction was used to determine the effects of iciHHV6, sex, and their interaction on continuous outcomes. Two-way logistic regression with a Holm-Bonferroni correction was used to determine the effects of iciHHV6, sex, and their interaction on disease prevalence. Of 50 diseases monitored, a single one, angina pectoris, is significantly elevated (3.3×) in iciHHV-6+ individuals relative to iciHHV-6- subjects (P = 0.017; 95% CI, 1.73-6.35). When adjusted for potential confounding factors (age, body mass index, percent body fat, and systolic blood pressure), the prevalence of angina remained three times greater in iciHHV-6+ subjects (P = 0.015; 95%CI, 1.23-7.15). Analyses of telomere lengths between iciHHV-6- without angina, iciHHV-6- with angina, and iciHHV-6+ with angina indicate that iciHHV-6+ with angina have shorter telomeres than age-matched iciHHV-6- subjects (P = 0.006). Our study represents, to our knowledge, the first large-scale analysis of disease association with iciHHV-6. Our results are consistent with iciHHV-6 representing a risk factor for the development of angina.

  4. Nicotine pharmacokinetics and subjective effects of three potential reduced exposure products, moist snuff and nicotine lozenge

    PubMed Central

    Kotlyar, Michael; Mendoza‐Baumgart, M Irene; Li, Zhong‐ze; Pentel, Paul R; Barnett, Brianne C; Feuer, Rachel M; Smith, Erin A; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare nicotine pharmacokinetics and subjective effects of three new smokeless tobacco potential reduced exposure products (PREPs; Ariva, Revel and Stonewall) with moist snuff (Copenhagen) and medicinal nicotine (Commit lozenge). Methods 10 subjects completed a randomised, within‐subject, crossover study. Subjects used one product for 30 min at each of the five laboratory sessions. Maximal nicotine concentration (Cmax) was determined and area under the concentration time curve (AUC) was calculated for a 90‐min period (during use and 60 min after use). Nicotine craving, withdrawal symptoms and ratings of product effects and liking were measured during product use. Results Nicotine AUC and Cmax were higher for Copenhagen than for any other product (p<0.002) and higher for Commit than for either Ariva or Revel (p<0.001). Cmax for Commit was also higher than for Stonewall (p = 0.03). Craving was lowest during use of Copenhagen (p<0.03). Craving during use of Stonewall, Ariva and Commit was lower than during use of Revel (p<0.05). Withdrawal symptom score during use of Copenhagen was lower than during use of Revel (p = 0.009). Copenhagen scores were higher (p<0.005) than all other products in several measures of drug effects and liking (feel good effects, satisfaction, liking and desire for product, and strength of product). Conclusion The new smokeless tobacco PREPs result in lower nicotine concentrations and equivalent or lower reductions in subjective measures compared with medicinal nicotine. Since health effects of PREPs are largely unknown, medicinal nicotine should be preferentially encouraged for smokers or smokeless tobacco users wishing to switch to lower‐risk products. PMID:17400953

  5. Oral Cannabidiol does not Alter the Subjective, Reinforcing or Cardiovascular Effects of Smoked Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Haney, Margaret; Malcolm, Robert J; Babalonis, Shanna; Nuzzo, Paul A; Cooper, Ziva D; Bedi, Gillinder; Gray, Kevin M; McRae-Clark, Aimee; Lofwall, Michelle R; Sparenborg, Steven; Walsh, Sharon L

    2016-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a constituent of cannabis with few psychoactive effects, has been reported in some studies to attenuate certain aspects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) intoxication. However, most studies have tested only one dose of CBD in combination with one dose of oral THC, making it difficult to assess the nature of this interaction. Further, the effect of oral CBD on smoked cannabis administration is unknown. The objective of this multi-site, randomized, double-blind, within-subject laboratory study was to assess the influence of CBD (0, 200, 400, 800 mg, p.o.) pretreatment on the reinforcing, subjective, cognitive, and physiological effects of smoked cannabis (0.01 (inactive), 5.30–5.80% THC). Non-treatment-seeking, healthy cannabis smokers (n=31; 17M, 14 F) completed eight outpatient sessions. CBD was administered 90 min prior to cannabis administration. The behavioral and cardiovascular effects of cannabis were measured at baseline and repeatedly throughout the session. A subset of participants (n=8) completed an additional session to measure plasma CBD concentrations after administration of the highest CBD dose (800 mg). Under placebo CBD conditions, active cannabis (1) was self-administered by significantly more participants than placebo cannabis and (2) produced significant, time-dependent increases in ratings of ‘High', ‘Good Effect', ratings of the cannabis cigarette (eg, strength, liking), and heart rate relative to inactive cannabis. CBD, which alone produced no significant psychoactive or cardiovascular effects, did not significantly alter any of these outcomes. Cannabis self-administration, subjective effects, and cannabis ratings did not vary as a function of CBD dose relative to placebo capsules. These findings suggest that oral CBD does not reduce the reinforcing, physiological, or positive subjective effects of smoked cannabis. PMID:26708108

  6. Oral Cannabidiol does not Alter the Subjective, Reinforcing or Cardiovascular Effects of Smoked Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Haney, Margaret; Malcolm, Robert J; Babalonis, Shanna; Nuzzo, Paul A; Cooper, Ziva D; Bedi, Gillinder; Gray, Kevin M; McRae-Clark, Aimee; Lofwall, Michelle R; Sparenborg, Steven; Walsh, Sharon L

    2016-07-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a constituent of cannabis with few psychoactive effects, has been reported in some studies to attenuate certain aspects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) intoxication. However, most studies have tested only one dose of CBD in combination with one dose of oral THC, making it difficult to assess the nature of this interaction. Further, the effect of oral CBD on smoked cannabis administration is unknown. The objective of this multi-site, randomized, double-blind, within-subject laboratory study was to assess the influence of CBD (0, 200, 400, 800 mg, p.o.) pretreatment on the reinforcing, subjective, cognitive, and physiological effects of smoked cannabis (0.01 (inactive), 5.30-5.80% THC). Non-treatment-seeking, healthy cannabis smokers (n=31; 17M, 14 F) completed eight outpatient sessions. CBD was administered 90 min prior to cannabis administration. The behavioral and cardiovascular effects of cannabis were measured at baseline and repeatedly throughout the session. A subset of participants (n=8) completed an additional session to measure plasma CBD concentrations after administration of the highest CBD dose (800 mg). Under placebo CBD conditions, active cannabis (1) was self-administered by significantly more participants than placebo cannabis and (2) produced significant, time-dependent increases in ratings of 'High', 'Good Effect', ratings of the cannabis cigarette (eg, strength, liking), and heart rate relative to inactive cannabis. CBD, which alone produced no significant psychoactive or cardiovascular effects, did not significantly alter any of these outcomes. Cannabis self-administration, subjective effects, and cannabis ratings did not vary as a function of CBD dose relative to placebo capsules. These findings suggest that oral CBD does not reduce the reinforcing, physiological, or positive subjective effects of smoked cannabis.

  7. Cognition and the Placebo Effect--Dissociating Subjective Perception and Actual Performance.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Katharina A; Büchel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The influence of positive or negative expectations on clinical outcomes such as pain relief or motor performance in patients and healthy participants has been extensively investigated for years. Such research promises potential benefit for patient treatment by deliberately using expectations as means to stimulate endogenous regulation processes. Especially regarding recent interest and controversies revolving around cognitive enhancement, the question remains whether mere expectancies might also yield enhancing or impairing effects in the cognitive domain, i.e., can we improve or impair cognitive performance simply by creating a strong expectancy in participants about their performance? Moreover, previous literature suggests that especially subjective perception is highly susceptible to expectancy effects, whereas objective measures can be affected in certain domains, but not in others. Does such a dissociation of objective measures and subjective perception also apply to cognitive placebo and nocebo effects? In this study, we sought to investigate whether placebo and nocebo effects can be evoked in cognitive tasks, and whether these effects influence objective and subjective measures alike. To this end, we instructed participants about alleged effects of different tone frequencies (high, intermediate, low) on brain activity and cognitive functions. We paired each tone with specific success rates in a Flanker task paradigm as a preliminary conditioning procedure, adapted from research on placebo hypoalgesia. In a subsequent test phase, we measured reaction times and success rates in different expectancy conditions (placebo, nocebo, and control) and then asked participants how the different tone frequencies affected their performance. Interestingly, we found no effects of expectation on objective measures, but a strong effect on subjective perception, i.e., although actual performance was not affected by expectancy, participants strongly believed that the placebo

  8. Cognition and the Placebo Effect – Dissociating Subjective Perception and Actual Performance

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Katharina A.; Büchel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The influence of positive or negative expectations on clinical outcomes such as pain relief or motor performance in patients and healthy participants has been extensively investigated for years. Such research promises potential benefit for patient treatment by deliberately using expectations as means to stimulate endogenous regulation processes. Especially regarding recent interest and controversies revolving around cognitive enhancement, the question remains whether mere expectancies might also yield enhancing or impairing effects in the cognitive domain, i.e., can we improve or impair cognitive performance simply by creating a strong expectancy in participants about their performance? Moreover, previous literature suggests that especially subjective perception is highly susceptible to expectancy effects, whereas objective measures can be affected in certain domains, but not in others. Does such a dissociation of objective measures and subjective perception also apply to cognitive placebo and nocebo effects? In this study, we sought to investigate whether placebo and nocebo effects can be evoked in cognitive tasks, and whether these effects influence objective and subjective measures alike. To this end, we instructed participants about alleged effects of different tone frequencies (high, intermediate, low) on brain activity and cognitive functions. We paired each tone with specific success rates in a Flanker task paradigm as a preliminary conditioning procedure, adapted from research on placebo hypoalgesia. In a subsequent test phase, we measured reaction times and success rates in different expectancy conditions (placebo, nocebo, and control) and then asked participants how the different tone frequencies affected their performance. Interestingly, we found no effects of expectation on objective measures, but a strong effect on subjective perception, i.e., although actual performance was not affected by expectancy, participants strongly believed that the placebo

  9. Surfactant effect on interaction of rising bubble and particle in a liquid subjected to vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimov, D. V.; Klimenko, L. S.; Lyubimova, T. P.; Filippov, L. O.

    2017-07-01

    The paper investigates the surfactant effect on the interaction of solid particle and gas bubble in a liquid subjected to vibrations. Surfactant transport between the bubble surface and the surrounding liquid is limited by the adsorption-desorption process. The particle is subjected to the Stokes, Basset and buoyancy forces, and average force related to the inhomogeneity of the pulsational field. The problem is solved numerically. It is found that in the presence of surfactant, the impact of vibrations on the particle-bubble collision is weaker than in the absence of surfactant. Thus, higher vibrations intensity is needed for increasing the collision efficiency, together with a higher consumption in energy.

  10. Filial responses as predisposed and learned preferences: Early attachment in chicks and babies.

    PubMed

    Di Giorgio, Elisa; Loveland, Jasmine L; Mayer, Uwe; Rosa-Salva, Orsola; Versace, Elisabetta; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-09-08

    To what extent are filial responses the outcome of spontaneous or acquired preferences? The case of domestic chicks illustrates the connection between predisposed and learned knowledge in early social responses. In the absence of specific experience, chicks prefer to approach objects that are more similar to natural social partners (e.g. they prefer face-like configurations, biological motion, self-propelled objects and those that move at variable speed). Spontaneous preferences are complemented by filial imprinting, a powerful learning mechanism that enables chicks to quickly learn the features of specific social partners. While neurobiological studies have clarified that the substrates of spontaneous and learned preferences are at least partially distinct in chicks, evidence shows that spontaneous preferences might orient and facilitate imprinting on animate stimuli, such as the mother hen, and that hormones facilitate and strengthen preferences for predisposed stimuli. Preferences towards animate stimuli are observed in human neonates as well. The remarkable consistency between the perceptual cues attended to by newborn babies and naïve chicks suggests that the attentional biases observed in babies are unlikely to result from very rapid post-natal learning, and confirms that research on precocial species can inform and guide human infant research with regards to both typical and atypical development. This has potentially important biomedical implications, opening new possibilities for the early detection of subjects at risk for autism spectrum disorders. We show how the parallel investigation of predispositions in naïve chicks and human infants, both benefiting from contact with social partners since the beginning of life, has greatly improved our understanding of early responses to social stimuli at the behavioural and neurobiological level.

  11. The effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on fibrin and thrombin generation in healthy subjects and subjects with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Bradley J; Morel-Kopp, Marie-Christine; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Ward, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    Hypercoagulability plays a key role in the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake has been inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular events, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of omega-3 on novel markers of global coagulation. The generation of fibrin and thrombin, measured via overall hemostasis potential (OHP) assay and calibrated automated thrombography, respectively, was determined in 40 healthy subjects and 16 patients with CVD at baseline and after 4 weeks of 640 mg/day omega-3 PUFA. In healthy subjects, fibrin generation was significantly reduced, as measured by overall coagulation potential (p = 0.013), OHP (p < 0.001), velocity of fibrin polymerization (p = 0.002), and significant increase in delay to fibrin generation (p = 0.002). The peak of generated thrombin was significantly reduced (p = 0.043). In subjects with CVD, omega-3 PUFA significantly reduced OHP and significantly increased the lag time to thrombin generation (both p < 0.001). Treatment with omega-3 PUFA had no effect on other fibrin and thrombin generation parameters in CVD patients. Four-week omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduced thrombotic potential in healthy subjects, as shown by reduced fibrin generation and peak thrombin. There was a greater effect on fibrin generation in healthy subjects compared with those with CVD.

  12. Effects of passive pedaling exercise on the intracortical inhibition in subjects with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Langthaler, Patrick B; Bathke, Arne C; Höller, Yvonne; Brigo, Francesco; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Christova, Monica; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-06-01

    Cortical reorganization can be induced by exercise below the level of the lesion after spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of passive and active pedaling exercise on leg motor cortical area excitability of subjects with traumatic SCI. Ten subjects with chronic cervical or thoracic SCI were enrolled in the study. We found a significant effect of pedaling on short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), which did not interact with the experimental condition (active vs. passive). This corresponded to a significant reduction of SICI in the subjects with SCI, together with no evidence that this pattern differed for passive vs. active pedaling. We found no significant effect of pedaling on intracortical facilitation. Our results showed that also passive cycling may be beneficial in activating motor cortical regions and possibly also facilitating motor recovery after SCI. The present study confirms and extends the findings of previous studies that have observed task-specific cortical activation during passive pedaling. Therefore passive exercise therapies when applied below the level of the lesion in subjects with SCI could promote cortical neuroplastic reorganization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Subjectively Evaluated Effects of Domestic Violence on Well-Being in Clinical Populations

    PubMed Central

    Poutiainen, Marika; Holma, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Effects of domestic violence are reflected in victims' physical, psychological, and sexual health as well as in victims' subjective evaluations of health or subjective well-being. The principal aim of this study was to study the extent to which the consequences of domestic violence are reflected in patients' subjectively evaluated well-being, life management, and sense of security in an emergency department, a maternity department, and a reception unit of a psychiatric hospital. A questionnaire on the effects of domestic violence was administered to 530 patients. 61 patients reported either current or previous domestic violence that affected their current well-being and life management. Domestic violence was reported to have an effect on subjective well-being and sense of security: the more recent or frequent the experience of violence was, the greater was considered its impact on well-being and sense of security. Routine inquiry can uncover hidden cases of abuse and hence would be of great benefit in the healthcare context. Early identification of abuse victims can prevent further harm caused by violence. PMID:23476806

  14. Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on mood in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Moulier, Virginie; Gaudeau-Bosma, Christian; Isaac, Clémence; Allard, Anne-Camille; Bouaziz, Noomane; Sidhoumi, Djedia; Braha-Zeitoun, Sonia; Benadhira, René; Thomas, Fanny; Januel, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Background High frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has shown significant efficiency in the treatment of resistant depression. However in healthy subjects, the effects of rTMS remain unclear. Objective Our aim was to determine the impact of 10 sessions of rTMS applied to the DLPFC on mood and emotion recognition in healthy subjects. Design In a randomised double-blind study, 20 subjects received 10 daily sessions of active (10 Hz frequency) or sham rTMS. The TMS coil was positioned on the left DLPFC through neuronavigation. Several dimensions of mood and emotion processing were assessed at baseline and after rTMS with clinical scales, visual analogue scales (VASs), and the Ekman 60 faces test. Results The 10 rTMS sessions targeting the DLPFC were well tolerated. No significant difference was found between the active group and the control group for clinical scales and the Ekman 60 faces test. Compared to the control group, the active rTMS group presented a significant improvement in their adaptation to daily life, which was assessed through VAS. Conclusion This study did not show any deleterious effect on mood and emotion recognition of 10 sessions of rTMS applied on the DLPFC in healthy subjects. This study also suggested a positive effect of rTMS on quality of life. PMID:26993786

  15. The effect of supragingival plaque control on the subgingival microbiota in subjects with periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Dahlén, G; Lindhe, J; Sato, K; Hanamura, H; Okamoto, H

    1992-11-01

    The present investigation was performed to study the effect on the subgingival microbiota, of a plaque control program which included meticulous oral hygiene instruction, supragingival scaling and professional monitoring during a 2 year period. 300 subjects were examined for periodontal disease and monitored for 2 years without treatment. After the 2 year examination, 80 subjects were invited to participate in a treatment program intended to improve the standard of their self-performed plaque control. 40 of the invitees had a gingivitis and only minor attachment loss, while 40 subjects had moderate signs of periodontitis. 62 subjects volunteered for this treatment. 23 of the volunteers (Group AB) had several sites with deep pockets (> 4 mm). 39 of the volunteers had gingivitis but shallow pockets only (Group C). Group AB contributed 31 shallow pocket sites (A-sites) and 40 deep pocket sites (B-sites), while Group C contributed 63 shallow sites (C-sites). After the clinical examination, samples of the subgingival microbiota were harvested from the 134 A, B and C sites. The 62 subjects were enrolled in a supervised oral hygiene program. Supragingival scaling was carried out. Oral hygiene instruction was provided and repeated on an individual need basis so that all subjects reached and maintained a supragingival plaque score which was < 20%. 24 months after the year 2 examination, the 62 subjects were examined again using both clinical and microbiological examination procedures. The findings demonstrated that carefully performed supragingival plaque control changed the quantity and the composition of the supragingival microbiota.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. The Effect of Hepatic Impairment on Outcomes in Phase I Clinical Trials in Cancer Subjects.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Aaron S; Rudek, Michelle A; Vulih, Diana; Smith, Gary L; Harris, Pamela Jo; Ivy, S Percy

    2016-11-15

    The NCI Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program sponsors hepatic dysfunction phase I clinical trials (HDCT) and phase 1 clinical trials (P1CT) to determine safe doses and schedules of antineoplastic therapeutics. We sought to compare clinical outcomes between these trial types while stratifying by hepatotoxic agents. Individual subject data were extracted from the records of 51 NCI-sponsored HDCT and P1CT. The NCI's Organ Dysfunction Working Group's hepatic impairment categorization and two drug-induced liver injury (DILI) scales (FDA R ratio and Hy's law) were used to classify subjects. The number of cycles administered and treatment discontinuation reason were also evaluated and compared between groups. There were 513 and 1,328 subjects treated on HDCT (n = 9) and P1CT (n = 42), respectively. There were differing patterns of DILI with significant worsening of total bilirubin in subjects on HDCT, and worsening of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in subjects on P1CT. Cholestatic peak patterns of liver impairment (predominant increases in alkaline phosphatase rather than transaminases) were more frequent in HDCT. Criteria for Hy's law were met by 11 subjects on P1CT, but not by any subjects on HDCT. Disease progression was the most common reason for treatment discontinuation, followed by adverse events at similar frequencies in both HDCT and P1CT. The differential effects on hepatotoxicity suggest that underlying hepatic function may affect susceptibility to and patterns of DILI. The incorporation of additional measures of hepatic function may help identify those at highest risk of hepatotoxicity in future trials because baseline liver tests did not. Clin Cancer Res; 22(22); 5472-9. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Decreased effective connectivity from cortices to the right parahippocampal gyrus in Alzheimer's disease subjects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guangyu; Ward, B Douglas; Chen, Gang; Li, Shi-Jiang

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect effective connectivity (EC) changes in the default mode network and hippocampus network in 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 20 cognitively normal (CN) subjects, using multivariate Granger causality. The authors used the maximum coefficients in the multivariate autoregression model to quantitatively measure the different EC strength levels between the CN and AD groups. It was demonstrated that the EC strength difference can classify AD from CN subjects. Further, the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHP_R) showed imbalanced bidirectional EC connections. The PHP_R received weaker input connections from the neocortices, but its output connections were significantly increased in AD. These findings may provide neural physiological mechanisms for interpreting AD subjects' memory deficits during the encoding processes.

  18. Effects of varied doses of psilocybin on time interval reproduction in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Wackermann, Jirí; Wittmann, Marc; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2008-04-11

    Action of a hallucinogenic substance, psilocybin, on internal time representation was investigated in two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies: Experiment 1 with 12 subjects and graded doses, and Experiment 2 with 9 subjects and a very low dose. The task consisted in repeated reproductions of time intervals in the range from 1.5 to 5s. The effects were assessed by parameter kappa of the 'dual klepsydra' model of internal time representation, fitted to individual response data and intra-individually normalized with respect to initial values. The estimates kappa were in the same order of magnitude as in earlier studies. In both experiments, kappa was significantly increased by psilocybin at 90 min from the drug intake, indicating a higher loss rate of the internal duration representation. These findings are tentatively linked to qualitative alterations of subjective time in altered states of consciousness.

  19. Neurobehavioral functioning in obstructive sleep apnea: differential effects of sleep quality, hypoxemia and subjective sleepiness.

    PubMed

    Naismith, S; Winter, V; Gotsopoulos, H; Hickie, I; Cistulli, P

    2004-02-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between neuropsychological and affective functioning, subjective sleepiness and sleep-disordered breathing in 100 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Using principal components analysis, three indices of sleep-disordered breathing were identified from polysomnography: sleep disturbance, extent of nocturnal hypoxemia, and sleep quality. Poorer sleep quality was related to slower processing speed, somatic symptomatology and tension-anxiety levels. Nocturnal hypoxemia was related to visuconstructional abilities, processing speed and mental flexibility. Patients who had high levels of subjective sleepiness had poorer performances on a complex task of executive functioning and higher levels of tension-anxiety. These results imply a differential effect of sleep-disordered breathing on domains of neuropsychological functioning. Additionally, they suggest that a patient's subjective level of sleepiness is a good predictor of certain aspects of neurobehavioral functioning.

  20. Effects of exposure time during flight maneuvers on passenger subjective comfort rating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, V. J.

    1975-01-01

    The effects were investigated of length of exposure time to a flight maneuver environment on subjective passenger evaluation of ride comfort. Four statistical analysis tests were performed on ride comfort ratings obtained during one two-hour test flight wherein eleven test subjects were exposed to two identical programmed sequences of twenty four flight segments which covered a wide range of maneuver conditions. The results of the analysis indicate that, for over ninety five percent of the segments, there is no significant change in the test subjects comfort ratings of identical segments spaced one hour apart. These results are in contrast to those found in previous studies involving a vibration environment, rather than flight maneuver environment, where increased exposure-time was found to cause a degradation of ride comfort ratings.

  1. Effects of major depression on the cognitive function of younger and older subjects.

    PubMed

    Tarbuck, A F; Paykel, E S

    1995-03-01

    The effects of age and depression on cognitive function were investigated in two groups of in-patient major depressives aged under and over 60 years who were tested when depressed and after recovery. The majority of the tests showed impaired performance during depression with improvement after recovery, and also differences between the two age-groups in both the depressed and recovered phases. However, the older subjects were not more severely affected by depression than the younger subjects. The pattern of impairment associated with depression was different to that associated with older age: depression affected performance on more 'complex tasks', whereas age was associated particularly with slowing on timed tests. This study did not suggest that the impairment from baseline due to the depression is greater in the elderly than in younger subjects.

  2. Effect of ergonomic design changes in hand tools on physiological cost and subjective ratings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byungjoon B J

    2012-01-01

    Users of hand tools expect that tools after ergonomic changes in design will require less muscular activity and cause fewer musculoskeletal disorders than conventional tools. Reports on evaluation of ergonomic design changes in hand tools are controversial. In this study, we measured the effect of changes in tool design with physiological cost of performance and subjective ratings in a simulated setting. We determined physiological cost of performance by measuring muscle activity of the right and left forearm (flexor carpi ulnaris) with electromyography. We collected a questionnaire with subjective ratings before and after each experimental task. Before the tests, ergonomically reconfigured hacksaws received better rating scores than original hacksaws. However, we found no differences in subjective ratings of the hacksaws after the tests. In addition, electromyographic activity did not show any significant differences between the original and modified tools.

  3. Anticipating risk for human subjects participating in clinical research: application of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cody, Robert J

    2006-03-01

    Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a method applied in various industries to anticipate and mitigate risk. This methodology can be more systematically applied to the protection of human subjects in research. The purpose of FMEA is simple: prevent problems before they occur. By applying FMEA process analysis to the elements of a specific research protocol, the failure severity, occurrence, and detection rates can be estimated for calculation of a "risk priority number" (RPN). Methods can then be identified to reduce the RPN to levels where the risk/benefit ratio favors human subject benefit, to a greater magnitude than existed in the pre-analysis risk profile. At the very least, the approach provides a checklist of issues that can be individualized for specific research protocols or human subject populations.

  4. Inhaled vs. oral alprazolam: subjective, behavioral and cognitive effects, and modestly increased abuse potential

    PubMed Central

    Reissig, Chad J.; Harrison, Joseph A.; Carter, Lawrence P.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Infrahuman and human studies suggest that a determinant of the abuse potential of a drug is rate of onset of subjective effects. Objectives This study sought to determine if the rate of onset of subjective effects and abuse potential of alprazolam would be increased when administered via inhalation vs. the oral route. Methods Placebo, inhaled alprazolam (0.5, 1, 2 mg), and oral alprazolam (1, 2, 4 mg) were administered under double-blind, double-dummy conditions using a cross-over design in 14 healthy participants with histories of drug abuse. Participant and observer ratings, and behavioral and cognitive performance measures were assessed repeatedly during 9 hour sessions. Results Both routes of administration produced orderly dose and time-related effects, with higher doses producing greater and longer lasting effects. Onset of subjective effects following inhaled alprazolam was very rapid (e.g., 2 vs. 49 minutes after 2 mg inhaled vs. oral). On measures of abuse potential (e.g., liking and good effects), inhaled alprazolam was more potent, as evidenced by a leftward shift in the dose response curve. Despite the potency difference, at the highest doses, peak ratings of subjective effects related to abuse potential (e.g., “drug liking”) were similar across the two routes. On other measures (e.g., sedation and performance) the routes were equipotent. Conclusions The inhaled route of administration modestly increased the abuse potential of alprazolam despite significantly increasing its rate of onset. If marketed, the reduced availability and increased cost of inhaled alprazolam may render the societal risk of increased abuse to be low. PMID:25199955

  5. Inhaled vs. oral alprazolam: subjective, behavioral and cognitive effects, and modestly increased abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Reissig, Chad J; Harrison, Joseph A; Carter, Lawrence P; Griffiths, Roland R

    2015-03-01

    Infrahuman and human studies suggest that a determinant of the abuse potential of a drug is rate of onset of subjective effects. This study sought to determine if the rate of onset of subjective effects and abuse potential of alprazolam would be increased when administered via inhalation vs. the oral route. Placebo, inhaled alprazolam (0.5, 1, and 2 mg), and oral alprazolam (1, 2, and 4 mg) were administered under double-blind, double-dummy conditions using a crossover design in 14 healthy participants with histories of drug abuse. Participant and observer ratings and behavioral and cognitive performance measures were assessed repeatedly during 9-h sessions. Both routes of administration produced orderly dose and time-related effects, with higher doses producing greater and longer-lasting effects. Onset of subjective effects following inhaled alprazolam was very rapid (e.g., 2 vs. 49 min after 2 mg inhaled vs. oral). On measures of abuse potential (e.g., liking and good effects), inhaled alprazolam was more potent, as evidenced by a leftward shift in the dose-response curve. Despite the potency difference, at the highest doses, peak ratings of subjective effects related to abuse potential (e.g., "drug liking") were similar across the two routes. On other measures (e.g., sedation and performance), the routes were equipotent. The inhaled route of administration modestly increased the abuse potential of alprazolam despite significantly increasing its rate of onset. If marketed, the reduced availability and increased cost of inhaled alprazolam may render the societal risk of increased abuse to be low.

  6. Donepezil treatment and the subjective effects of intravenous cocaine in dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Grasing, Kenneth; Mathur, Deepan; Newton, Thomas F; DeSouza, Cherilyn

    2010-02-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors increase synaptic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) by inhibiting its breakdown. Donepezil is a reversible AChE inhibitor that is clinically available and relatively selective for inhibiting AChE but not other cholinesterases. Because AChE inhibitors have been shown to decrease the reinforcing effects of cocaine in animals, our hypothesis was that pretreatment with donepezil would attenuate the perceived value and other positive subjective effects of cocaine. We conducted a within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled, laboratory-based evaluation of the subjective effects produced by intravenous cocaine in human subjects receiving oral donepezil. Following three days of daily treatment with 5mg of donepezil or oral placebo, participants received intravenous placebo or cocaine (0.18 and 0.36 mg/kg). After a three-day washout period, participants were crossed over to the opposite oral treatment, which was followed by identical intravenous infusions. Donepezil was well-tolerated with only two drug-related adverse events reported that were mild and self-limiting. Treatment with donepezil increased ratings of 'any' and 'good' drug effect produced by low-dose cocaine, without modifying the response to high-dose cocaine. When collapsed across intravenous dose, treatment with donepezil decreased dysphoric effects and somatic symptoms, but did not modify the value of cocaine injections as determined by the Multiple Choice Questionnaire (MCQ). In summary, pretreatment with donepezil potentiated some measures for nonspecific and positive effects of low-dose cocaine. Across all intravenous treatments, participants receiving donepezil reported fewer somatic-dysphoric effects. Neither of these actions support the value of donepezil as a treatment for cocaine dependence.

  7. Sex differences in the subjective effects of oral Δ(9)-THC in cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Jessica S; Kelly, Thomas H; Westgate, Philip M; Lile, Joshua A

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that there are sex differences in endocannabinoid function and the response to exogenous cannabinoids, though data from clinical studies comparing acute cannabinoid effects in men and women under controlled laboratory conditions are limited. To further explore these potential differences, data from 30 cannabis users (N=18 M, 12 F) who completed previous Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) discrimination studies were combined for this retrospective analysis. In each study, subjects learned to discriminate between oral Δ(9)-THC and placebo and then received a range of Δ(9)-THC doses (0, 5, 15 and a "high" dose of either 25 or 30mg). Responses on a drug-discrimination task, subjective effects questionnaire, psychomotor performance tasks, and physiological measures were assessed. Δ(9)-THC dose-dependently increased drug-appropriate responding, ratings on "positive" Visual Analog Scale (VAS) items (e.g., good effects, like drug, take again), and items related to intoxication (e.g., high, stoned). Δ(9)-THC also dose-dependently impaired performance on psychomotor tasks and elevated heart rate. Sex differences on VAS items emerged as a function of dose. Women exhibited significantly greater subjective responses to oral drug administration than men at the 5mg Δ(9)-THC dose, whereas men were more sensitive to the subjective effects of the 15mg dose of Δ(9)-THC than women. These results demonstrate dose-dependent separation in the subjective response to oral Δ(9)-THC administration by sex, which might contribute to the differential development of problematic cannabis use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Discriminative-Stimulus, Subject-rated and Physiological Effects of Methamphetamine in Humans Pretreated with Aripiprazole

    PubMed Central

    Sevak, Rajkumar J.; Vansickel, Andrea R.; Stoops, William W.; Glaser, Paul E. A.; Hays, Lon R.; Rush, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine is thought to produce its behavioral effects by releasing dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine. Results from animal studies support this notion, while results from human laboratory studies have not consistently demonstrated the importance of monoamine systems in the behavioral effects of methamphetamine. Human laboratory procedures of drug-discrimination are well suited to assess neuropharmacological mechanisms of the training drug by studying pharmacological manipulation. In this human laboratory study, six participants with a history of recreational stimulant use learned to discriminate 10 mg oral methamphetamine. After acquiring the discrimination (i.e., ≥80% correct responding on 4 consecutive sessions), the effects of a range of doses of methamphetamine (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 mg), alone and in combination with 0 and 20 mg aripiprazole (a partial agonist at D2 and 5-HT1A receptors), were assessed. Methamphetamine alone functioned as a discriminative stimulus, produced prototypical stimulant-like subject-rated drug effects (e.g., increased ratings of Good Effects, Talkative-Friendly, and Willing to Pay For) and elevated cardiovascular indices. These effects were generally a function of dose. Aripiprazole alone did not occasion methamphetamine-appropriate responding or produce subject-rated effects, but modestly impaired performance. Administration of aripiprazole significantly attenuated the discriminative-stimulus and cardiovascular effects of methamphetamine, as well as some of the subject-rated drug effects. These results indicate that monoamine systems likely play a role in the behavioral effects of methamphetamine in humans. Moreover, given the concordance between past results with d-amphetamine and the present findings, d-amphetamine can likely serve as a model for the pharmacological effects of methamphetamine. PMID:21694622

  9. Discriminative-stimulus, subject-rated, and physiological effects of methamphetamine in humans pretreated with aripiprazole.

    PubMed

    Sevak, Rajkumar J; Vansickel, Andrea R; Stoops, William W; Glaser, Paul E A; Hays, Lon R; Rush, Craig R

    2011-08-01

    Methamphetamine is thought to produce its behavioral effects by facilitating release of dopamine, serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine. Results from animal studies support this notion, whereas results from human laboratory studies have not consistently demonstrated the importance of monoamine systems in the behavioral effects of methamphetamine. Human drug-discrimination procedures are well suited to assess neuropharmacological mechanisms of the training drug by studying pharmacological manipulation. In this human laboratory study, 6 participants with a history of recreational stimulant use learned to discriminate 10 mg oral methamphetamine. After acquiring the discrimination (ie, ≥ 80% correct responding on 4 consecutive sessions), the effects of a range of doses of methamphetamine (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 mg), alone and in combination with 0 and 20 mg aripiprazole (a partial agonist at D2 and 5-HT1A receptors), were assessed. Methamphetamine alone functioned as a discriminative stimulus, produced prototypical stimulant-like subject-rated drug effects (eg, increased ratings of Good Effects, Talkative-Friendly, and Willing to Pay For) and elevated cardiovascular indices. These effects were generally a function of dose. Aripiprazole alone did not occasion methamphetamine-appropriate responding or produce subject-rated effects but modestly impaired performance. Administration of aripiprazole significantly attenuated the discriminative-stimulus and cardiovascular effects of methamphetamine, as well as some of the subject-rated drug effects. These results indicate that monoamine systems likely play a role in the behavioral effects of methamphetamine in humans. Moreover, given the concordance between past results with d-amphetamine and the present findings, d-amphetamine can likely serve as a model for the pharmacological effects of methamphetamine.

  10. Subjective utility moderates bidirectional effects of conflicting motivations on pain perception.

    PubMed

    Becker, Susanne; Gandhi, Wiebke; Chen, Yan Jun; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2017-08-10

    Minimizing pain and maximizing pleasure are conflicting motivations when pain and reward co-occur. Decisions to prioritize reward consumption or pain avoidance are assumed to lead to pain inhibition or facilitation, respectively. Such decisions are a function of the subjective utility of the stimuli involved, i.e. the relative value assigned to the stimuli to compare the potential outcomes of a decision. To test perceptual pain modulation by varying degrees of motivational conflicts and the role of subjective utility, we implemented a task in which healthy volunteers had to decide between accepting a reward at the cost of receiving a nociceptive electrocutaneous stimulus or rejecting both. Subjective utility of the stimuli was assessed by a matching task between the stimuli. Accepting reward coupled to a nociceptive stimulus resulted in decreased perceived intensity, while rejecting the reward to avoid pain resulted in increased perceived intensity, but in both cases only if a high motivational conflict was present. Subjective utility of the stimuli involved moderated these bidirectional perceptual effects: the more a person valued money over pain, the more perceived intensity increased or decreased. These findings demonstrate pain modulation when pain and reward are simultaneously present and highlight the importance of subjective utility for such modulation.

  11. The effects of horse riding simulation exercise with blindfolding on healthy subjects' balance and gait.

    PubMed

    Cha, Hyun Gyu; Lee, Byung Joon; Lee, Wan Hee

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The study was conducted to determine the effect of horse riding simulation combined with blindfolding on healthy individuals' balance and gait. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). The subjects in the experimental group covered their eyes using a blindfold, climbed onto a horse riding simulator, and performed the horse riding simulation exercise. The control group took part in the horse riding exercises without a blindfold. All of the subjects performed the 20 minutes long exercise once a day, five times a week, over a four-week period. [Results] The experimental group showed significant improvement in static balance, dynamic balance, velocity, and cadence compared to pre-intervention measurements. In addition, the control group showed significant improvement in static balance, dynamic balance, single support, and cadence compared to pre-intervention measurements. Significant differences in post-training gains in static balance, dynamic balance, and cadence were observed between the experimental group and the control group. [Conclusion] Subjects that performed horse riding simulation exercise after blindfolding showed significant improvements in balance and cadence compared to the control group.

  12. Evaluation of the effects of subject thickness on the exposure index in digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Takeshi; Takeda, Kazuki; Murakami, Seiichi; Ogawa, Haruhisa; Ogawa, Masato; Sakamoto, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    The exposure index (EI) was proposed as a new X-ray dose index by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and has since been implemented as an international standard. The EI is calculated by use of an approximation equation under IEC-specified calibration conditions. However, several factors encountered in clinical practice, including the patient's body thickness and the tube voltage, differ with regard to these calibration conditions. We, therefore, require a solid water phantom-based function that can incorporate the IEC-specified conditions and different subject thicknesses to evaluate the effects of subject thickness on the EI. Here, we assumed average thicknesses of 10 cm for a child, 15 cm for slender patients, and 21 cm for an average adult abdomen and we evaluated errors, that are included in the EI, which were calculated by use of the function. Our results suggested that the EI depends on the subject thickness. At the 21-cm thickness (average adult abdomen), the display EI exhibited a small error level. In contrast, EI values calculated from the calibration conditions exhibited maximum errors that were as high as 34 % at the lower subject thicknesses (10 and 15 cm), suggesting a significant influence of the subject thickness on the EI. In conclusion, the EI should be used cautiously during the examination of children and thin patients, with a complete understanding of the discrepancy revealed by our study results.

  13. Effect of triclosan on the subgingival microbiota of periodontitis-susceptible subjects.

    PubMed

    Rosling, B; Dahlén, G; Volpe, A; Furuichi, Y; Ramberg, P; Lindhe, J

    1997-12-01

    The present study evaluated the long-term effect of (i) meticulous self-performed, supragingival plaque control and (ii) the use of a triclosan/copolymer containing dentifrice in adult subjects susceptible to destructive periodontitis. 40 individuals were recruited into the trial. 3-5 years prior to the baseline examination, they had all been treated by nonsurgical means- for advanced periodontal disease. During the subsequent maintenance phase, all subjects had at different time intervals exhibited sites with recurrent periodontitis. At a baseline examination, 6 surfaces per tooth were examined regarding bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, and probing attachment level. The deepest pocket site in each quadrant (i.e. 4 sites per subject) was selected and samples of the subgingival bacteria were taken. At baseline, all volunteers received detailed information on proper oral hygiene techniques. This information was repeated on an individual need basis during the course of the subsequent 36-months. No professional subgingival therapy was delivered between the baseline and the 36-month examinations. The subjects were randomly distributed into 2 equal groups of 20 individuals each, 1 test and 1 control group. The members of the test group were supplied with a fluoridated dentifrice containing triclosan/copolymer (Total, Colgate), while the controls received a corresponding dentifrice but without triclosan/copolymer. The findings demonstrated that in subjects with advanced and recurrent periodontitis, carefully practiced supragingival plaque control had some effects on the subgingival microbiota, but also that this was insufficient to prevent disease progression. In a corresponding group of subjects, however, who used a triclosan/copolymer dentifrice, the subgingival microbiota was reduced in both quantitative and qualitative terms and recurrent periodontitis was almost entirely prevented.

  14. Effect of ozone exposure on airway responses to inhaled allergen in asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lisa L; Tager, Ira B; Peden, David B; Christian, Dorothy L; Ferrando, Ronald E; Welch, Barbara S; Balmes, John R

    2004-06-01

    Controlled human exposure studies have produced conflicting results regarding the effect of ozone on the early bronchoconstrictor response to inhaled allergen in specifically sensitized asthmatic subjects. Spirometric parameters do not necessarily reflect the airway inflammatory effects of inhaled ozone or allergen. This study was designed to investigate whether exposure to ozone enhances the late airway inflammatory response, as well as the early bronchoconstrictor response, to inhaled house dust mite allergen in sensitized asthmatic subjects. Randomized, counter-balanced, cross-over study. Human exposure laboratory. Fourteen subjects were exposed to 0.2 ppm O(3) or filtered air, on separate days, for 1 h during exercise. After each exposure, the subjects were challenged with doubling doses of Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) allergen (provocative concentration of DF causing a 15% decrease in FEV(1) [PC(15)]). At 6 h after allergen challenge, bronchoscopy with BAL, proximal airway lavage (PAL), and endobronchial biopsy were performed. The second exposure/allergen challenge/bronchoscopy sequence was performed at least 4 weeks after the first sequence. No significant difference in cellular or biochemical markers of the late inflammatory response after allergen was found between the ozone and air exposures (although a trend toward increased neutrophils was noted after ozone exposure in the PAL fluid, p = 0.06). For the group as a whole, no significant difference in PC(15) was demonstrated after ozone exposure compared to air exposure. However, subjects with the greatest ozone-induced decrements in FEV(1) tended to have lower PC(15) values after ozone exposure. Exposure to a relatively low-level concentration of ozone does not enhance the late inflammatory or early bronchoconstrictor response to inhaled antigen in most allergic asthmatic subjects. Our results do suggest, however, that a subgroup of asthmatics may acquire increased sensitivity to aeroallergens after

  15. Subjective Report of Side Effects of Prescribed and Nonprescribed Psychostimulant Use in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tess E; Martel, Michelle M; DeSantis, Alan D

    2017-03-21

    Side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use are understudied. The study examined side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use in a college sample with attention to possible gender differences. 2716 undergraduates (1448 male) between the ages of 17 and 57 years (M = 19.43 years, SD = 1.7 years) completed an online survey that included questions about the subjective side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use. Results suggested that prescribed users more frequently reported side effects, compared to nonprescribed users. For prescribed users, females more frequently reported appetite, somatic, and anxiety-related side effects compared to males. For nonprescribed users, while females reported more somatic and anxiety-related side effects, males more frequently reported loss of sex drive and sweating as side effects. Conclusions/Importance: These findings suggest prescribed users of psychostimulants more frequently report side effects with prominent gender differences in line with gender roles.

  16. NALTREXONE EFFECT ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SUBJECTIVE RESPONSE TO A COLD PRESSOR TASK

    PubMed Central

    Kotlyar, Michael; al’Absi, Mustafa; Brauer, Lisa H.; Grant, Jon E.; Fong, Erine; Kim, Suck Won

    2009-01-01

    In this double-blind, cross-over study physiological (i.e. blood pressure, heart rate, plasma catecholamine concentrations, plasma cortisol concentrations) and subjective (i.e. McGill Pain Questionnaire, positive affect, distress) response to a cold pressor task was assessed in 19 subjects one hour after the administration of 50 mg naltrexone and after placebo. Significant differences in plasma catecholamine concentrations were found. Plasma epinephrine concentrations increased during the one hour period after naltrexone administration but remained largely unchanged after placebo administration. A significant treatment × period effect was also found for plasma norepinephrine concentrations. No significant differences were found for other measures assessed. Further research is necessary to determine the subpopulations in which these effects are of greatest magnitude and the long term safety implications of these effects. PMID:18053632

  17. Effects of acceptance-based coping on task performance and subjective stress.

    PubMed

    Kishita, Naoko; Shimada, Hironori

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines the interactive effects of acceptance-based coping and job control on task performance, subjective stress, and perceived control. Forty-eight undergraduate and graduate students first participated in brief educational programs based on either acceptance or control coping strategies. They then participated in a 30-min high workload task under either high or low job control conditions. The results demonstrated a significant interactive effect of acceptance-based coping and job control on perceived control and task performance. No such effect was found for subjective stress. We conclude that to improve employees' perceived control and job performance, there should be an increase not only in job control through work redesign, but also in psychological acceptance.

  18. Dose-dependent effects of decaffeinated coffee on endothelial function in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, S; Verga, S; Batsis, J A; Tranchina, M R; Belmonte, S; Mattina, A; Re, A; Rizzo, R; Cerasola, G

    2009-10-01

    Coffee is known to contain antioxidant substances whose effects may be blunted because of caffeine that may unfavorably affect the cardiovascular system. This study was designed to investigate the acute dose-dependent effects of decaffeinated coffee (DC) on endothelial function measured by the brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). A total of 15 (8 men and 7 women) healthy nonobese subjects underwent a single-blind, crossover study. Subjects ingested one and two cups of decaffeinated Italian espresso coffee in random order at 5- to 7-day intervals. In the hour following the ingestion of two cups of DC, FMD increased (mean+/-s.e.m.): 0 min, 7.4+/-0.7%; 30 min, 8.0+/-0.6%; 60 min, 10.8+/-0.8%; P<0.001) as compared to consumption of one cup of DC (0 min, 6.9+/-0.7%; 30 min, 8.4+/-1.2%; 60 min, 8.5+/-1.1%; 3 x 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance: P=0.037 for time x treatment effect). Blood pressure did not differ between groups, and basal heart rate was lower in the two-cup group at baseline and 60 min. The present study demonstrated a significant acute favorable dose-dependent effect of decaffeinated espresso coffee on endothelial function. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects of chronic use of DC especially with respect to caffeinated coffee and in subjects with cardiovascular diseases.

  19. The reinforcing and subjective effects of intravenous and intranasal buprenorphine in heroin users.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jermaine D; Madera, Gabriela; Comer, Sandra D

    2014-07-01

    Abuse of buprenorphine (BUP) by the intravenous (IV) route has been documented in several studies, and reports of intranasal (IN) abuse are increasing. However, no studies have directly compared the effects of BUP when it is administered intranasally and intravenously. The present secondary analysis used data from two separate studies to compare the reinforcing and subjective effects of IV and IN buprenorphine. One study evaluated IV buprenorphine (N=13) and the other evaluated IN buprenorphine (N=12). Participants were maintained on 2 mg sublingual (SL) BUP and tested with each intranasal or intravenous buprenorphine test dose (0 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg, 8 mg, and 16 mg). During morning laboratory sessions, participants received money (US $20) and sample doses of IN or IV BUP, and then completed subjective effects questionnaires. Later that day, they completed a self-administration task to receive 10% portions of the drug and/or money they previously sampled. In general, positive subjective ratings for both IV and IN BUP were significantly greater than placebo, with IV BUP having a greater effect than IN BUP. All active BUP doses (IV and IN) maintained significantly higher progressive ratio breakpoint values than placebo, but breakpoint values for IV BUP were greater than for IN BUP. Buprenorphine is an effective maintenance treatment for opioid dependence, valued for its ability to reduce the positive subjective effects of other opioids. Nevertheless, the present data demonstrate that in participants maintained on a low dose of SL BUP, the medication itself has abuse liability when used intravenously or intranasally. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Reinforcing and Subjective Effects of Intravenous and Intranasal Buprenorphine in Heroin Users

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jermaine D.; Madera, Gabriela; Comer, Sandra D.

    2014-01-01

    Abuse of buprenorphine (BUP) by the intravenous (IV) route has been documented in several studies, and reports of intranasal (IN) abuse are increasing. However, no studies have directly compared the effects of BUP when it is administered intranasally and intravenously. The present secondary analysis used data from two separate studies to compare the reinforcing and subjective effects of IV and IN buprenorphine. One study evaluated IV buprenorphine (N=13) and the other evaluated IN buprenorphine (N=12). Participants were maintained on 2 mg sublingual (SL) BUP and tested with each intranasal or intravenous buprenorphine test dose (0 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg, 8 mg, and 16 mg). During morning laboratory sessions, participants received money (US $20) and sample doses of IN or IV BUP, and then completed subjective effects questionnaires. Later that day, they completed a self-administration task to receive 10% portions of the drug and/or money they previously sampled. In general, positive subjective ratings for both IV and IN BUP were significantly greater than placebo, with IV BUP having a greater effect than IN BUP. All active BUP doses (IV and IN) maintained significantly higher progressive ratio breakpoint values than placebo, but breakpoint values for IV BUP were greater than for IN BUP. Buprenorphine is an effective maintenance treatment for opioid dependence, valued for its ability to reduce the positive subjective effects of other opioids. Nevertheless, the present data demonstrate that in participants maintained on a low dose of SL BUP, the medication itself has abuse liability when used intravenously or intranasally. PMID:24793093

  1. Subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects of cumulative doses of opioid mu agonists in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Walker, D J; Zacny, J P

    1999-06-01

    The subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects of three opioid mu-receptor agonists were studied in healthy volunteers using a cumulative-dosing procedure. Sixteen volunteers with no history of drug abuse received i.v. injections of saline (SAL), morphine (MOR), hydromorphone (HM), or meperidine (MEP) in a randomized double-blind crossover design. Subjects received 1 injection/h for the first 4 h, and a 3-h recovery period followed. SAL was injected first during each session, then SAL or increasing doses of each drug were administered every hour for the next 3 h. The absolute doses per injection were MOR: 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/70 kg; HM: 0.33, 0.65, and 1.3 mg/70 kg; and MEP: 17.5, 35, and 70 mg/70 kg. These injections resulted in cumulative doses of MOR: 2.5, 7.5, and 17.5; HM: 0.33, 0.98, and 2.28; and MEP: 17.5, 52.5, and 122.5 mg/70 kg. Subjects completed mood forms and psychomotor tests, and physiological measures were recorded at various times after each injection and during recovery. MEP tended to produce the most intense effects immediately after drug injection, which dissipated rapidly. MOR produced the mildest effects but was associated with unpleasant side effects during recovery and after the session. HM's effects were stronger than MOR's, and the recovery from HM was slower than with MEP. None of the opioids produced consistent effects that are typically associated with abuse liability. Orderly dose-response functions suggested that our cumulative-dosing procedure is an efficient way of determining dose-response functions for multiple opioids within the same subjects within the same study.

  2. Effects of slanted ergonomic mice on task performance and subjective responses.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kihyo

    2014-05-01

    The biomechanical benefits (e.g., muscular activity) of slanted ergonomic mice have been comprehensively identified; however, their effects on task performance and subjective responses have not been fully investigated. The present study examined the effects of two slanted mice (slant angle = 30° and 50°) in comparison with a conventional mouse (slant angle = 0°) in terms of task performance (task completion time and error rate) and subjective responses (perceived discomfort score and overall satisfaction score). Experimental results showed that all of the task and subjective measures worsened as the slant angle of the target mice increases. For example, the task completion time (unit: ms) and overall satisfaction score (unit: point) of the 30° slanted mouse (time = 0.71, satisfaction = -0.09) and 50° slanted mouse (time = 0.73, satisfaction = -0.79) significantly deteriorated than the conventional mouse (time = 0.65, satisfaction = 1.21). The slanted mice seem to compromise biomechanical benefits with task performance and subjective responses.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and electrocardiographic effect of ebastine in young versus elderly healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Huang, M Y; Argenti, D; Wilson, J; Garcia, J; Heald, D

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and electrocardiographic effect of a 10-mg oral dose of ebastine in elderly (ages, 65-85 years) and young (ages, 18-35 years) healthy volunteers. Thirty-seven subjects completed this randomized, double-blind, multiple-dose, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. The elderly group consisted of 18 subjects, with 13 subjects receiving 10 mg ebastine and 5 receiving matching placebo. The young group consisted of 19 subjects, with 13 subjects receiving 10 mg ebastine and 6 receiving matching placebo. On study days 1 and 3 through 10, each subject received a single 10-mg dose of ebastine or matching placebo in the morning with a standard breakfast. No drug was administered on study day 2 because of pharmacokinetic sampling. Blood samples were collected at selected times postdose on study days 1, 2, and 10. Plasma samples were analyzed for ebastine and its active metabolite, carebastine, using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. No plasma ebastine concentrations were detected, suggesting essentially complete metabolic conversion of ebastine to its metabolites. Analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences between young and elderly single- and multiple-dose carebastine pharmacokinetics with respect to area under the plasma concentration-time curve, maximum concentration (Cmax ), terminal elimination rate constant, apparent oral clearance, or apparent volume of distribution. The mean time of maximum concentration value for young subjects was 1 hour longer than that for elderly subjects after single-dose administration but was comparable after multiple-dose administration. Within-group comparisons of both the young and elderly showed that pharmacokinetics between single dose and steady state were not statistically different. However, the mean steady-state carebastine Cmax values were approximately twofold greater than the mean Cmax values

  4. Naltrexone Maintenance Decreases Cannabis Self-Administration and Subjective Effects in Daily Cannabis Smokers.

    PubMed

    Haney, Margaret; Ramesh, Divya; Glass, Andrew; Pavlicova, Martina; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D

    2015-10-01

    Given that cannabis use is increasing in the United States, pharmacological treatment options to treat cannabis use disorder are needed. Opioid antagonists modulate cannabinoid effects and may offer a potential approach to reducing cannabis use. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study, we assessed the effects of naltrexone maintenance on the reinforcing, subjective, psychomotor, and cardiovascular effects of active and inactive cannabis. Nontreatment-seeking, daily cannabis smokers were randomized to receive naltrexone (50 mg: n=18 M and 5 F) or placebo (0 mg; n=26 M and 2 F) capsules for 16 days. Before, during, and after medication maintenance, participants completed 10 laboratory sessions over 4-6 weeks, assessing cannabis' behavioral and cardiovascular effects. Medication compliance was verified by observed capsule administration, plasma naltrexone, and urinary riboflavin. Relative to placebo, maintenance on naltrexone significantly reduced both active cannabis self-administration and its positive subjective effects ('good effect'). Participants in the placebo group had 7.6 times (95% CI: 1.1-51.8) the odds of self-administering active cannabis compared with the naltrexone group. This attenuation of reinforcing and positive subjective effects also influenced cannabis use in the natural ecology. Naltrexone had intrinsic effects: decreasing ratings of friendliness, food intake, and systolic blood pressure, and increasing spontaneous reports of stomach upset and headache, yet dropout rates were comparable between groups. In summary, we show for the first time that maintenance on naltrexone decreased cannabis self-administration and ratings of 'good effect' in nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers. Clinical studies in patients motivated to reduce their cannabis use are warranted to evaluate naltrexone's efficacy as a treatment for cannabis use disorder.

  5. Naltrexone Maintenance Decreases Cannabis Self-Administration and Subjective Effects in Daily Cannabis Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Haney, Margaret; Ramesh, Divya; Glass, Andrew; Pavlicova, Martina; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D

    2015-01-01

    Given that cannabis use is increasing in the United States, pharmacological treatment options to treat cannabis use disorder are needed. Opioid antagonists modulate cannabinoid effects and may offer a potential approach to reducing cannabis use. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study, we assessed the effects of naltrexone maintenance on the reinforcing, subjective, psychomotor, and cardiovascular effects of active and inactive cannabis. Nontreatment-seeking, daily cannabis smokers were randomized to receive naltrexone (50 mg: n=18 M and 5 F) or placebo (0 mg; n=26 M and 2 F) capsules for 16 days. Before, during, and after medication maintenance, participants completed 10 laboratory sessions over 4–6 weeks, assessing cannabis' behavioral and cardiovascular effects. Medication compliance was verified by observed capsule administration, plasma naltrexone, and urinary riboflavin. Relative to placebo, maintenance on naltrexone significantly reduced both active cannabis self-administration and its positive subjective effects (‘good effect'). Participants in the placebo group had 7.6 times (95% CI: 1.1–51.8) the odds of self-administering active cannabis compared with the naltrexone group. This attenuation of reinforcing and positive subjective effects also influenced cannabis use in the natural ecology. Naltrexone had intrinsic effects: decreasing ratings of friendliness, food intake, and systolic blood pressure, and increasing spontaneous reports of stomach upset and headache, yet dropout rates were comparable between groups. In summary, we show for the first time that maintenance on naltrexone decreased cannabis self-administration and ratings of ‘good effect' in nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers. Clinical studies in patients motivated to reduce their cannabis use are warranted to evaluate naltrexone's efficacy as a treatment for cannabis use disorder. PMID:25881117

  6. Cholesterol-lowering effect of spreads enriched with microcrystalline plant sterols in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, L I; Lähteenmäki, P L; Mannelin, M R; Seppänen-Laakso, T E; Hiltunen, R V; Yliruusi, J K

    2001-04-01

    Plant sterols have been shown to reduce serum lipid concentrations. The effectiveness is highly dependent on the physical state of the plant sterols. By means of a new crystallizing method, plant sterols can be added into dietary fats and oils homogeneously. In this fat ingredient, plant sterols are in a microcrystalline form. We investigated the cholesterol-lowering effect and possible side effects of vegetable oil-based spreads fortified with two different doses of microcrystalline plant sterols. This double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled study consisted of a 6-wk run-in and a 6-month experimental period. During the run-in period, all 155 hypercholesterolemic subjects received rapeseed oil-based control spread. In the beginning of the experimental period subjects were randomly assigned into one of three experimental groups. The control group continued to use control spread, and the two test groups used spreads with added plant sterols of either 1.5 g/d or 3.0 g/d. The subjects consumed test spreads as a part of their normal diet without any restrictions in lifestyle and diet. Plasma total- and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly reduced by 7.5-11.6% (0.46-0.62 mmol/1) in groups consuming margarine enriched with free plant sterols, compared with the control group. The effects were similar between the two groups consuming either 1.5g or 3.0 g plant sterols per day. No effect on HDL-cholesterol or triacylglycerol concentrations occurred. The test spreads did not induce any adverse effects in blood clinical chemistry, hematology or decreases in serum concentrations of lipid soluble vitamins. Microcrystalline plant sterols are effective in lowering serum total- and LDL-cholesterol concentrations without obvious side effects. The daily dose of 1.5 g plant sterols is enough to reach the maximum effect.

  7. Therapeutic satisfaction and subjective effects of different strains of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Tibor M; van Genugten, Marianne; Höner-Snoeken, Kathrin; van de Velde, Marco J; Niesink, Raymond J M

    2014-06-01

    In The Netherlands, pharmaceutical-grade cultivated cannabis is distributed for medicinal purposes as commissioned by the Ministry of Health. Few studies have thus far described its therapeutic efficacy or subjective (adverse) effects in patients. The aims of this study are to assess the therapeutic satisfaction within a group of patients using prescribed pharmaceutical-grade cannabis and to compare the subjective effects among the available strains with special focus on their delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol content. In a cross-sectional and natural design, users of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis were investigated with questionnaires. Medical background of the patients was asked as well as experienced therapeutic effects and characteristics of cannabis use. Subjective effects were measured with psychometric scales and used to compare among the strains of cannabis used across this group of patients. One hundred two patients were included; their average age was 53 years and 76% used it for more than a year preceding this study. Chronic pain (53%; n = 54) was the most common medical indication for using cannabis followed by multiple sclerosis (23%; n = 23), and 86% (n = 88) of patients (almost) always experienced therapeutic satisfaction when using pharmaceutical cannabis. Dejection, anxiety, and appetite stimulation were found to differ among the 3 strains of cannabis. These results show that patients report therapeutic satisfaction with pharmaceutical cannabis, mainly pain alleviation. Some subjective effects were found to differ among the available strains of cannabis, which is discussed in relation to their different tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol content. These results may aid in further research and critical appraisal for medicinally prescribed cannabis products.

  8. Effects of alcohol mixed with energy drink and alcohol alone on subjective intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Andrea; Hemberger, Sophie Helene; Loidl, Alexandra; Dufek, Stephanie; Pablik, Eleonore; Fodor, Sugarka; Herle, Marion; Aufricht, Christoph

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that the combination of caffeine-containing drinks together with alcohol might reduce the subjective feelings of alcohol intoxication-the so-called "masking effect". In this study, we aimed to review the effects of alcohol in combination with caffeine or energy drink with special focus on the "masking effect". Fifty-two healthy male volunteers were analysed concerning breath alcohol concentration and subjective sensations of intoxication using a 18 item Visual Analogue Scale in a randomised, double-blinded, controlled, four treatments cross-over trial after consumption of (A) placebo, (B) alcohol (vodka 37.5% at a dose of 46.5 g ethanol), (C) alcohol in combination with caffeine at a dose of 80 mg (equivalent to one 250 ml can of energy drink) and (D) alcohol in combination with energy drink at a dose of 250 ml (one can). Primary variables were headache, weakness, salivation and motor coordination. Out of four primary variables, weakness and motor coordination showed a statistically significant difference between alcohol and non-alcohol group, out of 14 secondary variables, five more variables (dizziness, alterations in sight, alterations in walking, agitation and alterations in speech) also showed significant differences due mainly to contrasts with the non-alcohol group. In none of these end points, could a statistically significant effect be found for the additional ingestion of energy drink or caffeine on the subjective feelings of alcohol intoxication. This within-subjects study does not confirm the presence of a "masking effect" when combining caffeine or energy drink with alcohol.

  9. FOXE3 mutations predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Shao-Qing; Medina-Martinez, Olga; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S; Reynolds, Corey L; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Prakash, Siddharth K; Kwartler, Callie S; Zhu, Lawrence Yang; Peters, Andrew M; Duan, Xue-Yan; Bamshad, Michael J; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Debbie A; Santos-Cortez, Regie L; Dong, Xiurong; Leal, Suzanne M; Majesky, Mark W; Swindell, Eric C; Jamrich, Milan; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2016-03-01

    The ascending thoracic aorta is designed to withstand biomechanical forces from pulsatile blood. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections (TAADs) occur as a result of genetically triggered defects in aortic structure and a dysfunctional response to these forces. Here, we describe mutations in the forkhead transcription factor FOXE3 that predispose mutation-bearing individuals to TAAD. We performed exome sequencing of a large family with multiple members with TAADs and identified a rare variant in FOXE3 with an altered amino acid in the DNA-binding domain (p.Asp153His) that segregated with disease in this family. Additional pathogenic FOXE3 variants were identified in unrelated TAAD families. In mice, Foxe3 deficiency reduced smooth muscle cell (SMC) density and impaired SMC differentiation in the ascending aorta. Foxe3 expression was induced in aortic SMCs after transverse aortic constriction, and Foxe3 deficiency increased SMC apoptosis and ascending aortic rupture with increased aortic pressure. These phenotypes were rescued by inhibiting p53 activity, either by administration of a p53 inhibitor (pifithrin-α), or by crossing Foxe3-/- mice with p53-/- mice. Our data demonstrate that FOXE3 mutations lead to a reduced number of aortic SMCs during development and increased SMC apoptosis in the ascending aorta in response to increased biomechanical forces, thus defining an additional molecular pathway that leads to familial thoracic aortic disease.

  10. FOXE3 mutations predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Shao-Qing; Medina-Martinez, Olga; Guo, Dong-chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S.; Reynolds, Corey L.; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Prakash, Siddharth K.; Kwartler, Callie S.; Zhu, Lawrence Yang; Peters, Andrew M.; Duan, Xue-Yan; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Debbie A.; Santos-Cortez, Regie L.; Dong, Xiurong; Leal, Suzanne M.; Majesky, Mark W.; Swindell, Eric C.; Jamrich, Milan; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2016-01-01

    The ascending thoracic aorta is designed to withstand biomechanical forces from pulsatile blood. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections (TAADs) occur as a result of genetically triggered defects in aortic structure and a dysfunctional response to these forces. Here, we describe mutations in the forkhead transcription factor FOXE3 that predispose mutation-bearing individuals to TAAD. We performed exome sequencing of a large family with multiple members with TAADs and identified a rare variant in FOXE3 with an altered amino acid in the DNA-binding domain (p.Asp153His) that segregated with disease in this family. Additional pathogenic FOXE3 variants were identified in unrelated TAAD families. In mice, Foxe3 deficiency reduced smooth muscle cell (SMC) density and impaired SMC differentiation in the ascending aorta. Foxe3 expression was induced in aortic SMCs after transverse aortic constriction, and Foxe3 deficiency increased SMC apoptosis and ascending aortic rupture with increased aortic pressure. These phenotypes were rescued by inhibiting p53 activity, either by administration of a p53 inhibitor (pifithrin-α), or by crossing Foxe3–/– mice with p53–/– mice. Our data demonstrate that FOXE3 mutations lead to a reduced number of aortic SMCs during development and increased SMC apoptosis in the ascending aorta in response to increased biomechanical forces, thus defining an additional molecular pathway that leads to familial thoracic aortic disease. PMID:26854927

  11. Predisposing factors leading to depression in the British Army.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Alan; Finnegan, Sara; McGee, Paula; Srinivasan, Mike; Simpson, Robin

    Few studies have explored the predisposing factors leading to depression within the British Army, and this qualitative investigation provides a novel approach to advance knowledge in this poorly researched area. Information was provided by army mental health (MH) clinicians, with results aligned to theoretical groupings under the headings of: occupational stressors; macho culture, stigma and bullying; unhappy young soldier; relationships and gender. These issues were influenced by peacetime and operational settings; the support offered by the Army Medical Services and unit command. The results indicate that Army personnel are exposed to multi-factorial stressors that are incremental/accumulative in nature. Soldiers can cope with extreme pressures, often in hostile environments, but often cannot cope with a failing relationship. Officers were worried about the occupational implications of reporting ill, and the negative impact on their career, and might seek support from private civilian agencies, which have potentially dangerous ramifications as they may still deploy. GPs refer female soldiers more frequently for a mental health assessment because women express their emotions more openly then men. Young disillusioned soldiers who want to leave the Army form the main group of personnel accessing mental health support, although often they are not clinically depressed.

  12. [Predisposing factors to breast cancer in the Region Langunera (Mexico)].

    PubMed

    Martínez Abundis, Guadalupe; Cano Ríos, Pedro; González Hernández, Sergio; Rosales Hernández, Francisco Javier

    2004-10-01

    To identify the presence and frequency of various predispose factors of breast cancer in the Region Lagunera (Mexico). 38 women with breast cancer (Group A, cases) and 24 women without breast pathology (Group B, controls) were analyzed; throughout a questionnaire the variables that have been described as predisposition factors were researched. Group A included patients from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Speciality Hospital # 71, Oncology Department in Torreon, Coahuila, from May 1st to October 31st of 1999. At the same time 24 women (Group B), who attended to have an ultrasound and/or a mammography practice in a private clinic in the same city, were polled having a normal result. The means of the two treatments were compared using the SAS program version 6.3. The following variables showed significant difference: mother and father family background with cancer p=0.032; previous breast pathology p=0.0032; hormone consumption p=0.0289; lactation p=0.038 and time of lactation p=0.036. Overweight, obesity, mother and father family background with cancer, previous breast pathology background, period of consuming hormone, lactation and lactation period had significance in this study.

  13. Dog obesity--the need for identifying predisposing genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Switonski, M; Mankowska, M

    2013-12-01

    Incidence of overweight and obesity in dogs exceeds 30%, and several breeds are predisposed to this heritable phenotype. Rapid progress of canine genomics and advanced knowledge on the genetic background of human obesity bring a unique opportunity to perform such studies in dogs. Natural candidate genes for obesity are these encoding adipokines. Extended studies in humans indicated that polymorphisms of three of them, i.e. ADIPOQ, IL1 and TNF, are associated with predisposition to obesity. On the other hand, the use of genome-wide association studies revealed an association between human obesity and polymorphism of more than 50 other genes. Until now only few preliminary reports on polymorphism of canine FTO, MC4R, MC3R and PPARG genes have been published. Since the dog is a valuable model organism for human diseases one can foresee that such studies may also contribute to an in-depth understanding of human obesity pathogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Predisposing factors for traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian preschool children.

    PubMed

    Viegas, C M; Scarpelli, A C; Carvalho, A C; Ferreira, F M; Pordeus, I A; Paiva, S M

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of traumatic dental injury (TDI) in primary teeth and determine predisposing factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 388 male and female Brazilian preschool children between 60 and 71 months of age. A questionnaire addressing demographic data and history of TDI was sent to parents/caregivers. Socioeconomic status was determined using the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), family income, number of people in the household and parents/caregivers' schooling. The chi-square test was used for the statistical analysis. The prevalence of TDI was 62.1%; 61.7% of the teeth were affected by enamel fracture. Statistically significant associations were found between TDI and increased overjet [OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.11- 4.55] and anterior crossbite [OR = 0.38, 95% CI=0.17-0.87]. No statistically significant associations were found between TDI and number of people in the household, family income, social vulnerability, parents/caregivers' schooling, lip competence, overbite, anterior open bite and dental caries (p>0.05). The prevalence of TDI was high and enamel fracture was the most common sign of TDI. Children with an increased overjet suffer more TDIs. Socioeconomic factors had no influence over the prevalence of TDI.

  15. Runx1 deficiency predisposes mice to T-lymphoblastic lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Mondira; Compton, Sheila; Garrett-Beal, Lisa; Stacy, Terryl; Starost, Matthew F.; Eckhaus, Michael; Speck, Nancy A.; Liu, P. Paul

    2005-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements affecting RUNX1 and CBFB are common in acute leukemias. These mutations result in the expression of fusion proteins that act dominant-negatively to suppress the normal function of the Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX)/core binding factor β (CBFβ) complexes. In addition, loss-of-function mutations in Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) have been identified in sporadic cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and in association with the familial platelet disorder with propensity to develop AML (FPD/AML). In order to examine the hypothesis that decreased gene dosage of RUNX1 may be a critical event in the development of leukemia, we treated chimeric mice generated from Runx1lacZ/lacZ embryonic stem (ES) cells that have homozygous disruption of the Runx1 gene with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). We observed an increased incidence of T-lymphoblastic lymphoma in Runx1lacZ/lacZ compared with wild-type chimeras and confirmed that the tumors were of ES-cell origin. Our results therefore suggest that deficiency of Runx1 can indeed predispose mice to hematopoietic malignancies. PMID:16051740

  16. Mutations in LRRC50 Predispose Zebrafish and Humans to Seminomas

    PubMed Central

    Basten, Sander G.; van Rooijen, Ellen; Stoop, Hans; Babala, Nikolina; Logister, Ive; Heath, Zachary G.; Jonges, Trudy N.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Voest, Emile E.; van Eeden, Freek J.; Medema, Rene H.; Ketting, René F.; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Looijenga, Leendert H. J.; Giles, Rachel H.

    2013-01-01

    Seminoma is a subclass of human testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), the most frequently observed cancer in young men with a rising incidence. Here we describe the identification of a novel gene predisposing specifically to seminoma formation in a vertebrate model organism. Zebrafish carrying a heterozygous nonsense mutation in Leucine-Rich Repeat Containing protein 50 (lrrc50 also called dnaaf1), associated previously with ciliary function, are found to be highly susceptible to the formation of seminomas. Genotyping of these zebrafish tumors shows loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the wild-type lrrc50 allele in 44.4% of tumor samples, correlating with tumor progression. In humans we identified heterozygous germline LRRC50 mutations in two different pedigrees with a family history of seminomas, resulting in a nonsense Arg488* change and a missense Thr590Met change, which show reduced expression of the wild-type allele in seminomas. Zebrafish in vivo complementation studies indicate the Thr590Met to be a loss-of-function mutation. Moreover, we show that a pathogenic Gln307Glu change is significantly enriched in individuals with seminoma tumors (13% of our cohort). Together, our study introduces an animal model for seminoma and suggests LRRC50 to be a novel tumor suppressor implicated in human seminoma pathogenesis. PMID:23599692

  17. Predisposing factors of restless legs syndrome in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tunç, Tuğba; Karadağ, Yeşim Sücüllü; Doğulu, Funda; Inan, Levent E

    2007-04-15

    The occurrence of restless legs syndrome in pregnancy is well known. However, the mechanism of this association is unclear. In this study, we aimed to identify the factors that predispose women to have restless legs syndrome during pregnancy. A total of 146 pregnant women were included in the study. Patients were asked questions regarding demographic characteristics, complications of pregnancy, medical therapy (vitamin and iron intake), sleep disorders, muscle cramps, and excessive daytime sleepiness. Electroneurography, routine blood biochemistry tests, complete blood count, and thyroid function tests were performed and vitamin B12, folic acid, serum iron, iron-binding capacity, ferritin, iron saturation, prolactin, estradiol, and progesterone were measured. Of the participants, 38 were diagnosed as having restless legs syndrome. In women with restless legs syndrome, additional medical problems, night cramps, and excessive daytime sleepiness were more frequent. In women without restless legs syndrome, serum hemoglobin levels were significantly higher and the use of supplemental iron or vitamins was greater. Among the women with restless legs syndrome, progesterone levels were slightly higher but this difference was not statistically significant. In summary, in this study, lower hemoglobin levels and supplementation deficits of iron and vitamins were found be the risk factors for restless legs syndrome in pregnancy.

  18. Mutations in the transcriptional repressor REST predispose to Wilms tumor.

    PubMed

    Mahamdallie, Shazia S; Hanks, Sandra; Karlin, Kristen L; Zachariou, Anna; Perdeaux, Elizabeth R; Ruark, Elise; Shaw, Chad A; Renwick, Alexander; Ramsay, Emma; Yost, Shawn; Elliott, Anna; Birch, Jillian; Capra, Michael; Gray, Juliet; Hale, Juliet; Kingston, Judith; Levitt, Gill; McLean, Thomas; Sheridan, Eamonn; Renwick, Anthony; Seal, Sheila; Stiller, Charles; Sebire, Neil; Westbrook, Thomas F; Rahman, Nazneen

    2015-12-01

    Wilms tumor is the most common childhood renal cancer. To identify mutations that predispose to Wilms tumor, we are conducting exome sequencing studies. Here we describe 11 different inactivating mutations in the REST gene (encoding RE1-silencing transcription factor) in four familial Wilms tumor pedigrees and nine non-familial cases. Notably, no similar mutations were identified in the ICR1000 control series (13/558 versus 0/993; P < 0.0001) or in the ExAC series (13/558 versus 0/61,312; P < 0.0001). We identified a second mutational event in two tumors, suggesting that REST may act as a tumor-suppressor gene in Wilms tumor pathogenesis. REST is a zinc-finger transcription factor that functions in cellular differentiation and embryonic development. Notably, ten of 11 mutations clustered within the portion of REST encoding the DNA-binding domain, and functional analyses showed that these mutations compromise REST transcriptional repression. These data establish REST as a Wilms tumor predisposition gene accounting for ∼2% of Wilms tumor.

  19. Systemic and renal effects of an ETA receptor subtype-specific antagonist in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Schmetterer, Leopold; Dallinger, Susanne; Bobr, Barbara; Selenko, Nicole; Eichler, Hans-Georg; Wolzt, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Endothelins (ETs) might play a pathophysiological role in a variety of vascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of BQ-123, a specific ETA receptor antagonist on systemic and renal haemodynamics in healthy subjects. This was done at baseline and during infusion of exogenous ET-1.The study was performed in a balanced, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind 4 way cross-over design in 10 healthy male subjects. Subjects received co-infusions of ET-1 (2.5 ng kg−1 min−1 for 120 min) or placebo and BQ-123 (15 μg min−1 for 60 min and subsequently 60 μg min−1 for 60 min) or placebo. Renal plasma flow (RPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were assessed by the para-aminohippurate (PAH) and the inulin plasma clearance method, respectively.BQ-123 alone had no renal or systemic haemodynamic effect. ET-1 significantly reduced RPF (−24%, P<0.001) and GFR (−12%, P=0.034). These effects were abolished by co-infusion of either dose of BQ-123 (RPF: P=0.0012; GFR: P=0.020).BQ-123 reversed the renal haemodynamic effects induced by exogenous ET-1 in vivo. This indicates that vasoconstriction in the kidney provoked by ET-1 is predominantly mediated by the ETA receptor subtype. PMID:9692778

  20. Hypoglycemic effect of Lupinus mutabilis in healthy volunteers and subjects with dysglycemia.

    PubMed

    Fornasini, M; Castro, J; Villacrés, E; Narváez, L; Villamar, M P; Baldeón, M E

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes are increasing health problems that negatively affect health care systems worldwide. There is a constant urge to develop new therapies with better effects, lower side effects at lower prices to treat these diseases. Lupinus species and their derivates are good candidates to be used as hypoglycaemic agents. A phase II clinical trial was conducted to assess the role of raw Lupinus mutabilis on blood glucose and insulin in normoglycemic and dysglycemic subjects. Results show that consumption of L. mutabilis by normal weight healthy young individuals did not change importantly blood glucose and insulin levels. On the other hand, consumption of similar doses of lupinus by dysglycemic individuals (fasting glucose > 100 mg/dL) decreased significantly blood glucose. Lupinus effects were greater in those subjects with higher basal glucose levels. Glucose lowering effects of lupinus were not observed after soy intake that was used as control. A statistically significant reduction in insulin levels was also observed in the lupinus group compared with the soy group after 60 minutes of treatment. Furthermore, only treatment with lupinus improved insulin resistance in dysglycemic subjects. These data demonstrate that lupinus consumption could be a feasible and low cost alternative to treat chronic hyperglycemic diseases.

  1. A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Frayling, Timothy M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Weedon, Michael N; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Freathy, Rachel M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Perry, John R B; Elliott, Katherine S; Lango, Hana; Rayner, Nigel W; Shields, Beverley; Harries, Lorna W; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Ellard, Sian; Groves, Christopher J; Knight, Bridget; Patch, Ann-Marie; Ness, Andrew R; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A; Ring, Susan M; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Sovio, Ulla; Bennett, Amanda J; Melzer, David; Ferrucci, Luigi; Loos, Ruth J F; Barroso, Inês; Wareham, Nicholas J; Karpe, Fredrik; Owen, Katharine R; Cardon, Lon R; Walker, Mark; Hitman, Graham A; Palmer, Colin N A; Doney, Alex S F; Morris, Andrew D; Smith, George Davey; Hattersley, Andrew T; McCarthy, Mark I

    2007-05-11

    Obesity is a serious international health problem that increases the risk of several common diseases. The genetic factors predisposing to obesity are poorly understood. A genome-wide search for type 2 diabetes-susceptibility genes identified a common variant in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene that predisposes to diabetes through an effect on body mass index (BMI). An additive association of the variant with BMI was replicated in 13 cohorts with 38,759 participants. The 16% of adults who are homozygous for the risk allele weighed about 3 kilograms more and had 1.67-fold increased odds of obesity when compared with those not inheriting a risk allele. This association was observed from age 7 years upward and reflects a specific increase in fat mass.

  2. Comparison of Caffeine and d-amphetamine in Cocaine-Dependent Subjects: Differential Outcomes on Subjective and Cardiovascular Effects, Reward Learning, and Salivary Paraxanthine

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Scott D; Green, Charles E; Schmitz, Joy M; Rathnayaka, Nuvan; Fang, Wendy B; Ferré, Sergi; Moeller, F Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Due to indirect modulation of dopamine transmission, adenosine receptor antagonists may be useful in either treating cocaine use or improving disrupted cognitive-behavioral functions associated with chronic cocaine use. To compare and contrast the stimulant effects of adenosine antagonism to direct dopamine stimulation, we administered 150 mg and 300 mg caffeine, 20 mg amphetamine, and placebo to cocaine-dependent vs. healthy control subjects, matched on moderate caffeine use. Data were obtained on measures of cardiovascular effects, subjective drug effects (ARCI, VAS, DEQ), and a probabilistic reward-learning task sensitive to dopamine modulation. Levels of salivary caffeine and the primary caffeine metabolite paraxanthine were obtained on placebo and caffeine dosing days. Cardiovascular results revealed main effects of dose for diastolic blood pressure and heart rate; follow up tests showed that controls were most sensitive to 300 mg caffeine and 20 mg amphetamine; cocaine-dependent subjects were sensitive only to 300 mg caffeine. Subjective effects results revealed dose × time and dose × group interactions on the ARCI A, ARCI LSD, and VAS ‘elated’ scales; follow up tests did not show systematic differences between groups with regard to caffeine or d-amphetamine. Large between-group differences in salivary paraxanthine (but not salivary caffeine) levels were obtained under both caffeine doses. The cocaine-dependent group expressed significantly higher paraxanthine levels than controls under 150 mg and 3–4 fold greater levels under 300 mg at 90 min and 150 min post caffeine dose. However, these differences also covaried with cigarette smoking status (not balanced between groups), and nicotine smoking is known to alter caffeine/paraxanthine metabolism via cytochrome P450 enzymes. These preliminary data raise the possibility that adenosine antagonists may affect cocaine-dependent and non-dependent subjects differently. In conjunction with previous

  3. Subjective, cognitive and cardiovascular dose-effect profile of nabilone and dronabinol in marijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D; Haney, Margaret

    2013-09-01

    Marijuana dependence is a substantial public health problem, with existing treatments showing limited efficacy. In laboratory and clinical studies, the cannabinoid receptor 1 agonist oral Δ9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol) has been shown to decrease marijuana withdrawal but not relapse. Dronabinol has poor bioavailability, potentially contributing to its failure to decrease relapse. The synthetic THC analogue, nabilone, has better bioavailability than dronabinol. We therefore aimed to characterize nabilone's behavioral and physiological effects across a range of acute doses in current marijuana smokers and compare these with dronabinol's effects. Participants (4 female; 10 male) smoking marijuana 6.6 (standard deviation = 0.7) days/week completed this outpatient, within-subjects, double-blind, randomized protocol. Over seven sessions, the time-dependent subjective, cognitive and cardiovascular effects of nabilone (2, 4, 6, 8 mg), dronabinol (10, 20 mg) and placebo were assessed. Nabilone (4, 6, 8 mg) and dronabinol (10, 20 mg) increased ratings of feeling a good effect, a strong effect and/or 'high' relative to placebo; nabilone had a slower onset of peak subjective effects than dronabinol. Nabilone (6, 8 mg) modestly lowered psychomotor speed relative to placebo and dronabinol. There were dose-dependent increases in heart rate after nabilone, and nabilone (2 mg) and dronabinol (10 mg) decreased systolic blood pressure. Thus, nabilone produced sustained, dose-related increases in positive mood, few cognitive decrements and lawful cardiovascular alterations. It had a longer time to peak effects than dronabinol, and effects were more dose-related, suggesting improved bioavailability. Nabilone was well tolerated by marijuana smokers, supporting further testing as a potential medication for marijuana dependence.

  4. A comparison of the cardiovascular effects and subjective tolerability of binedaline and amitriptylene in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Joubert, P H; Starke, D D; Van Reenen, O; Venter, C P

    1985-01-01

    Binedaline is a new antidepressant drug which is not a tricyclic compound. In animal investigations it showed a greater therapeutic index than imipramine and amitriptylene and a smaller ED50. It also showed less anticholinergic and antihistaminic activity. In this study the effects of 100 mg (females) and 150 mg (males) of binedaline was compared with 50 mg and 75 mg of amitriptylene and placebo in healthy volunteers. Binedaline was better tolerated than amitriptylene and produced less sedation and fewer instances of dry mouth. Binedaline was devoid of the marked postural hypotension produced by amitriptylene but caused the same degree of tachycardia as amitriptylene at rest, when subjects were tilted and when subjected to ergometry. It was concluded that binedaline causes less alpha-adrenergic blockade than amitriptylene but that the sympathomimetic effects were similar. At the doses employed no major changes in electrocardiogram or systolic time intervals occurred.

  5. Nourkrin: objective and subjective effects and tolerability in persons with hair loss.

    PubMed

    Thom, E

    2006-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of Nourkrin, a new natural agent for the treatment of hair loss based on marine proteins, and minerals and vitamins. Fifty-five subjects with hair loss of different aetiologies participated in the 6-month blinded phase of the study. Objective assessments showed a significant positive effect of treatment on hair growth. Intake of the active preparation for a further 6 months in an open phase indicated a subjective further improvement in hair growth. Exposure of the patients previously treated with placebo to the active preparation for 12 months gave similar results. Tolerability was good and no side-effects were reported. Nourkrin may provide an alternative to pharmacotherapy for the treatment of hair-loss problems in individuals with androgenetic alopecia.

  6. The effect of ice water ingestion on autonomic modulation in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chen-Te; Chiu, Tsan-Wan; Jong, Yu-Siung; Chen, Gau-Yang; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2010-12-01

    Drinking ice water is a common daily activity. The safety of ice water ingestion has been questioned due to its possible deleterious effect on heart rate or cardiac rhythm, especially in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Thus, we investigated the heart rate variability (HRV) before and after ice water ingestion in normal subjects to delineate the possible effect of ice water ingestion on autonomic nervous modulation. Subjects were volunteers who came to the hospital to receive routine health examination. They were randomly assigned to drinking 250 ml of ice water or room temperature water. Twenty-eight subjects in the room temperature water ingestion group and 25 subjects in the ice water ingestion group were studied. The relationships between the change in HRV measures before and after water ingestion and clinical parameters were assessed by correlation analysis. After ice water ingestion, the percentage change in mean RR intervals (RRIs) (4 ± 4 vs. -1 ± 4, P < 0.001), standard deviation of RRIs (19 ± 35 vs. 0 ± 21, P = 0.018), high-frequency power (64 ± 90 vs. -3 ± 41, P < 0.001), and normalized high-frequency power (39 ± 99 vs. -5 ± 31, P = 0.038) were higher, while the percentage change in low-/high-frequency power ratio (3 ± 92 vs. 44 ± 97, P = 0.017) was lower, when compared with those after the room temperature water ingestion. Ice water ingestion can decrease heart rate through temperature stimulus-mediated vagal enhancement in healthy subjects.

  7. Effect of RAAS blockers on adverse clinical outcomes in high CVD risk subjects with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Chaugai, Sandip; Sherpa, Lhamo Yanchang; Sepehry, Amir A.; Arima, Hisatomi; Wang, Dao Wen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have demonstrated that atrial fibrillation significantly increases the risk of adverse clinical outcomes in high cardiovascular disease risk subjects. Application of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system blockers for prevention of recurrence of atrial fibrillation and adverse clinical outcomes in subjects with atrial fibrillation is a theoretically appealing concept. However, results of clinical trials evaluating the effect of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone blockers on adverse clinical outcomes in high cardiovascular disease risk subjects with atrial fibrillation remain inconclusive. A pooled study of 6 randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone blockers on subjects with atrial fibrillation was performed. A total of 6 randomized controlled trials enrolled a total of 53,510 patients followed for 1 to 5 years. RAAS blockade therapy was associated with 14% reduction in the incidence of heart failure (OR: 0.86, [95%CI: 0.76– 0.97], P=0.018) and 17% reduction in the incidence of CVE (OR: 0.83, [95%CI: 0.70–0.99], P = 0.038). The corresponding decline in absolute risk against heart failure (ARR: 1.4%, [95%CI: 0.2–2.6%], P = 0.018) and CVE (ARR: 3.5%, [95%CI: 0.0–6.9%], P = 0.045) in the AF group was much higher than the non-AF group for heart failure (ARR: 0.4%, [95%CI: 0.0–0.7%], P = 0.057) and CVE (ARR: 1.6%, [95%CI: –0.1% to 3.3%], P = 0.071). No significant effect was noted on all-cause or cardiovascular mortality, stroke, or myocardial infarction. This study suggests that RAAS blockade offers protection against heart failure and cardiovascular events in high cardiovascular disease risk subjects with atrial fibrillation. PMID:27368043

  8. Effects of practicing tandem gait with and without vibrotactile biofeedback in subjects with unilateral vestibular loss

    PubMed Central

    Dozza, Marco; Wall, Conrad; Peterka, Robert J.; Chiari, Lorenzo; Horak, Fay B.

    2008-01-01

    Subjects with unilateral vestibular loss exhibit motor control impairments as shown by body and limb deviation during gait. Biofeedback devices have been shown to improve stance postural control, especially when sensory information is limited by environmental conditions or pathologies such as unilateral vestibular loss. However, the extent to which biofeedback could improve motor performance or learning while practicing a dynamic task such as narrow gait is still unknown. In this cross-over design study, 9 unilateral vestibular loss subjects practiced narrow gait with and without wearing a trunk-tilt, biofeedback device in 2 practice sessions. The biofeedback device informed the subjects of their medial-lateral angular tilt and tilt velocity during gait via vibration of the trunk. From motion analysis and tilt data, the performance of the subjects practicing tandem gait were compared over time with and without biofeedback. By practicing tandem gait, subjects reduced their trunk-tilt, center of mass displacement, medial-lateral feet distance, and frequency of stepping error. In both groups, use of tactile biofeedback consistently increased postural stability during tandem gait, beyond the effects of practice alone. However, one single session of practice with biofeedback did not result in conclusive short-term after-effects consistent with short-term retention of motor performance without this additional biofeedback. Results from this study support the hypothesis that tactile biofeedback acts similar to natural sensory feedback to improve dynamic motor performance but does not facilitate a recalibration of motor performance to improve function after short-term use. PMID:18525145

  9. Strain Rate Effects for Concrete and Fiber Reinforced Concrete Subjected to Impact Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    S. Mindess and S. P. Shah) MRS Symposia Proceedings, V67. 64, pp. 21-37, 1986. 9. Shah, S. P., "Concrete and Fiber Reinforced Concrete Subjected to...Impact Loading," in Cement Based Composites: Strain Rate Effects on Fracture (eds. S. Mindess and S. P. Shah) MRS Symposia Proceedings, Vol. 64, pp... Mindess (11), Sierakowski (12), aAd Reinhardt (13). Many investigators (see for example Ref. 6) have studied the rate sensitivity of fracture strength

  10. Parameters Affecting Loads on Buried Structures Subjected to Localized Blast Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    Structures Laboratory DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY Waterways Experiment Station, Corps of Engineers 3909 Halls Ferry Road, Vicksburg, Mississippi 39180-6199...ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Structures Laboratory, Technical Report SL-92-9...Loads on Buried Structures Subjected to Localized Blast Effects." These analyses were performed in the Structures Laboratory (SL), U.S. Army Engineer

  11. Can an inert sleeping pill affect sleep? Effects on polysomnographic, behavioral and subjective measures.

    PubMed

    Fratello, Fabiana; Curcio, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Michele; Marzano, Cristina; Couyoumdjian, Alessandro; Petrillo, Giovanna; Bertini, Mario; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2005-10-01

    Since two recent meta-analyses on sleep changes associated with placebo in clinical trials suggested a beneficial effect of placebo treatments, pointing to a dissociation between subjective and objective measures of sleep, the current experiment was directly aimed to assess the effects of an inert compound, administered with the suggestion that it was a hypnotic substance in subjects with mild sleep complaints. The aim of this study was to compare subjective, behavioral, polysomnographic (PSG), and quantitative electroencephalographic (EEG) changes during a night preceded or not by the intake of two 50-mg lactose capsules. Ten female students, selected by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, slept for three consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory, with the experimental (EXP) night defined by the administration of two 50-mg lactose pills. Self-ratings of sleep quality and performance were assessed upon morning awakening of baseline (BSL) and EXP nights. The EXP nights were self-rated as more restful and characterized by a decreased number of nocturnal awakenings than the BSL nights. PSG measures showed that wakefulness after sleep onset significantly decreased during the EXP night as compared to the BSL night. The EXP nights also showed an increase of 0.5-4.0 Hz power during nonrapid eye movement sleep and a decrease of EEG activity in the beta frequency range during rapid eye movement sleep only at central brain sites. A specific improvement of behavioral measures was also found upon morning awakening after the EXP night compared to the BSL night. The administration of an inert pill improves both the subjective and objective quality of sleep. The reduced sleep fragmentation and the effects on some quantitative EEG markers of sleep homeostasis suggest that the experimental manipulation induced coherent changes in the subsequent sleep, resembling an enhancement of sleep pressure. The regional differences of EEG activity suggest the involvement of a specific

  12. STUDY OF TRAINING EQUIPMENT AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES. THE EFFECTS OF SUBJECT MATTER VARIABLES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    variables. The results of this study strongly supported the existence of learning styles and suggest that multi-track instruction based on learning ...subject matters were all non-cognitive in nature. It would be expected, therefore, that learning styles too might be independent of specific aptitude or ability traits. (Author)... styles might be a cost-effective way of enhancing learning. Those individual difference measures which interacted with instructional methods and

  13. THE EFFECT OF MENTHOL ON CIGARETTE SMOKING BEHAVIORS, BIOMARKERS AND SUBJECTIVE RESPONSES

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Andrew A.; Ashare, Rebecca L.; Kaufman, Madeline; Tang, Kathy Z.; Mesaros, A. Clementina; Blair, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    Background As part of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the United States Food and Drug Administration charged the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee with developing a report and recommendations regarding the effect of menthol in cigarettes on the public health. The purpose of this study was to examine smoking behaviors, biomarkers of exposure and subjective responses when switching from a novel menthol cigarette to a non-menthol cigarette to isolate the effect of menthol and to approximate the effect a menthol ban might have on smokers. Methods Thirty two adult smokers completed this 35-day randomized, open-label, laboratory study. After a 5-day baseline period, participants were randomized to the experimental group (n=22) where they would smoke menthol Camel Crush for 15 days followed by 15 days of non-menthol Camel Crush, or the control group (n=10) where they smoked their own brand cigarette across all periods. Participants attended study visits every five days and completed measures of smoking rate, smoking topography, biomarkers of exposure, and subjective responses. Results Although total puff volume tended to increase when the experimental group switched from menthol to non-menthol (p=0.06), there were no corresponding increases in cigarette consumption or biomarkers of exposure (ps>0.1). Subjective ratings related to taste and smell decreased during the non-menthol period (ps<0.01), compared to the menthol. Conclusions Results suggest menthol has minimal impact on smoking behaviors, biomarkers of exposure and subjective ratings. Impact When controlling for all other cigarette design features, menthol in cigarettes had minimal effect on outcome measures. PMID:23334588

  14. Interactive Effects of Music Tempi and Intensities on Grip Strength and Subjective Affect.

    PubMed

    Karageorghis, Costas I; Cheek, Peter; Simpson, Stuart D; Bigliassi, Marcelo

    2017-09-16

    Pretask music is widely used by athletes albeit there is scant empirical evidence to support its use. The present study extended a line of work into pretask music by examining the interactive effects of music tempo and intensity (volume) on the performance of a simple motor skill and subjective affect. A 2 × 2 within-subjects factorial design was employed with an additional no-music control, the scores from which were used as a covariate. A sample of 52 male athletes (age = 26.1 ± 4.8 years) was exposed to five conditions: fast/loud (126 bpm/80 dBA), fast/quiet (126 bpm/70 dBA), slow/loud (87 bpm/80 dBA), slow/quiet (87 bpm/70 dBA) music, and a no-music control. Dependent variables were grip strength, measured with a handgrip dynamometer, and subjective affect, assessed by use of the Affect Grid. The tempo and intensity components of music had interactive effects for grip strength but only main effects for subjective affect. Fast-tempo music played at a high intensity yielded the highest grip strength, while fast-tempo music played at a low intensity resulted in much lower grip strength (M diff. = -1.11 Force kg). For affective valence, there were main effects of tempo and intensity, with fast and loud music yielding the highest scores. For affective arousal, there was no difference between tempi although there was between intensities, with the high-intensity condition yielding higher scores. The present findings indicate the utility of fast/loud pre-task music in enhancing affective valence and arousal in preparation for a simple or gross motor task. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Gender Differences in the Effect of Tobacco Use on Brain Phosphocreatine Levels in Methamphetamine Dependent Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Young-Hoon; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.; Kondo, Douglas G.; Shi, Xian-Feng; Lundberg, Kelly J.; Hellem, Tracy L.; Huber, Rebekah S.; McGlade, Erin C.; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    Background A high prevalence of tobacco smoking has been observed in methamphetamine users, but there have been no in vivo brain neurochemistry studies addressing gender effects of tobacco smoking in methamphetamine users. Methamphetamine addiction is associated with increased risk of depression and anxiety in females. There is increasing evidence that selective analogues of nicotine, a principal active component of tobacco smoking, may improve depression and cognitive performance in animals and humans. Objectives To investigate the effects of tobacco smoking and gender on brain phosphocreatine (PCr) levels, a marker of brain energy metabolism reported to be reduced in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Methods Thirty female and twenty-seven male methamphetamine-dependent subjects were evaluated with phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) to measure PCr levels within the pregenual anterior cingulate, which has been implicated in methamphetamine neurotoxicity. Results Analysis of covariance revealed that there were statistically significant slope (PCr versus lifetime amount of tobacco smoking) differences between female and male methamphetamine-dependent subjects (p=0.03). In females, there was also a statistically significant interaction between lifetime amounts of tobacco smoking and methamphetamine in regard to PCr levels (p=0.01), which suggests that tobacco smoking may have a more significant positive impact on brain PCr levels in heavy, as opposed to light to moderate, methamphetamine-dependent females. Conclusion These results indicate that tobacco smoking has gender-specific effects in terms of increased anterior cingulate high energy PCr levels in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Cigarette smoking in methamphetamine-dependent women, particularly those with heavy methamphetamine use, may have a potentially protective effect upon neuronal metabolism. PMID:25871447

  16. CHRM2 gene predisposes to alcohol dependence, drug dependence and affective disorders: results from an extended case-control structured association study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xingguang; Kranzler, Henry R; Zuo, Lingjun; Wang, Shuang; Blumberg, Hilary P; Gelernter, Joel

    2005-08-15

    Cholinergic muscarinic 2 receptor (CHRM2) is implicated in memory and cognition, functions impaired in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Wang et al. [Wang, J.C., Hinrichs, A.L., Stock, H., Budde, J., Allen, R., Bertelsen, S., Kwon, J.M., Wu, W., Dick, D.M., Rice, J. et al. (2004) Evidence of common and specific genetic effects: association of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) gene with alcohol dependence and major depressive syndrome. Hum. Mol. Genet., 13, 1903-1911] reported that variation in CHRM2 gene predisposed to alcohol dependence (AD) and major depressive syndrome. We examined the relationships between variation in CHRM2 and AD, drug dependence (DD) and affective disorders, using a novel extended case-control structured association (SA) method. Six markers at CHRM2 and 38 ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) were genotyped in a sample of 871 subjects, including 333 healthy controls [287 European-Americans (EAs) and 46 African-Americans (AAs)] and 538 AD and/or DD subjects (415 with AD and 346 with DD and 382 EAs and 156 AAs). The same CHRM2 markers were genotyped in a sample of 137 EA subjects with affective disorders. All of the six markers were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in controls, but SNP3 (rs1824024) was in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium in the AD and DD groups. Using conventional case-control comparisons, some markers were nominally significantly or suggestively associated with phenotypes before or after controlling for population stratification and admixture effects, but these associations were not significant after multiple test correction. However, regression analysis identified specific alleles, genotypes, haplotypes and diplotypes that were significantly associated with risk for each disorder. We conclude that variation in CHRM2 predisposes to AD, DD and affective disorders. One haplotype block within the 5'-UTR of CHRM2 may be more important for the development of these disorders than other regions. Interaction between two

  17. Subjective and physiological effects of acute intranasal methamphetamine during d-amphetamine maintenance.

    PubMed

    Rush, Craig R; Stoops, William W; Lile, Joshua A; Glaser, Paul E A; Hays, Lon R

    2011-04-01

    Methamphetamine abuse and dependence are significant public-health concerns. Behavioral therapies are effective for reducing methamphetamine use. However, many patients enrolled in behavioral therapies are unable to achieve significant periods of abstinence, suggesting other strategies like pharmacotherapy are needed. This experiment determined the subjective and physiological effects of intranasal methamphetamine during D: -amphetamine maintenance in eight non-treatment-seeking stimulant-dependent participants. We predicted D: -amphetamine maintenance would attenuate the acute subjective effects of intranasal methamphetamine. We also predicted intranasal methamphetamine would be well tolerated during D: -amphetamine maintenance. After at least 7 days of maintenance on sustained-release D: -amphetamine (0 and 45 mg/day), participants were administered ascending doses of intranasal methamphetamine (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg) across two experimental sessions. Intranasal methamphetamine doses were separated by 90 min. Intranasal methamphetamine produced prototypical subjective and physiological effects (e.g., increased ratings of Like Drug; increased heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature). The acute effects of intranasal methamphetamine were significantly diminished during D: -amphetamine maintenance relative to placebo maintenance. These results are concordant with those of clinical trials and provide further support for the use of agonist replacement therapy to manage methamphetamine dependence. Additional research in humans is needed to determine the effectiveness of D: -amphetamine under different experimental conditions that more closely reflect use in the natural environment (e.g., higher methamphetamine doses) and behavioral arrangements that are predictive of pharmacotherapy effectiveness (e.g., drug self-administration).

  18. Acute effects of LSD on amygdala activity during processing of fearful stimuli in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, F; Lenz, C; Dolder, P C; Harder, S; Schmid, Y; Lang, U E; Liechti, M E; Borgwardt, S

    2017-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) induces profound changes in various mental domains, including perception, self-awareness and emotions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the acute effects of LSD on the neural substrate of emotional processing in humans. Using a double-blind, randomised, cross-over study design, placebo or 100 μg LSD were orally administered to 20 healthy subjects before the fMRI scan, taking into account the subjective and pharmacological peak effects of LSD. The plasma levels of LSD were determined immediately before and after the scan. The study (including the a priori-defined study end point) was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov before study start (NCT02308969). The administration of LSD reduced reactivity of the left amygdala and the right medial prefrontal cortex relative to placebo during the presentation of fearful faces (P<0.05, family-wise error). Notably, there was a significant negative correlation between LSD-induced amygdala response to fearful stimuli and the LSD-induced subjective drug effects (P<0.05). These data suggest that acute administration of LSD modulates the engagement of brain regions that mediate emotional processing. PMID:28375205

  19. Effect of tone-based sound stimulation on balance performance of normal subjects: preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Pagnacco, Guido; Klotzek, Adam S; Carrick, Frederick R; Wright, Cameron H G; Oggero, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Sound is known to affect the human brain, hence sound or music therapy is sometimes used to improve a subject's physicaland mental health. In this study, the effects sound stimulation has on balance were investigated by means of computerizeddynamic posturography tests performed with eyes closed on an unstable surface using a CAPS® system, exceeding theInternational Society for Posture and Gait Research (ISPGR) recommended metrological performance standards. Subjectswere tested without listening to any music (baseline), listening to “pure music”, and listening to the same music with differenttones embedded into it (one for each key). We found that different subjects react differently to different tones. Music alonedid not have a statistically significant effect on balance compared to the baseline, but the “best” tone significantly improvedbalance compared to the baseline or the “pure music” conditions. Furthermore, the “worst” tone reduced the balancecompared to “pure music”, but the reduction was not statistically significant relative to the baseline. The results thereforeindicate that, at least relative to balance performance, the tone-based sound stimulation we investigated is effective andinherently safe, but that tone selection depends on the individual subject.

  20. Internalizing and externalizing personality and subjective effects in a sample of adolescent cannabis users.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Sara; Matalí, Josep Lluís; Martín-Fernández, María; Pardo, Marta; Lleras, Maria; Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina; Haro, Josep Maria

    2016-10-06

    Cannabis is the illicit substance most widely used by adolescents. Certain personality traits such as impulsivity and sensation seeking, and the subjective effects experienced after substance use (e.g. euphoria or relaxation) have been identified as some of the main etiological factors of consumption. This study aims to categorize a sample of adolescent cannabis users based on their most dominant personality traits (internalizing and externalizing profile). Then, to make a comparison of both profiles considering a set of variables related to consumption, clinical severity and subjective effects experienced. From a cross-sectional design, 173 adolescents (104 men and 69 women) aged 13 to 18 asking for treatment for cannabis use disorder in an Addictive Behavior Unit (UCAD) from the hospital were recruited. For the assessment, an ad hoc protocol was employed to register consumption, the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) 49-item short form were also administered. Factor analysis suggested a two-profile solution: Introverted, Inhibited, Doleful, Dramatizing (-), Egotistic (-), Self-demeaning and Borderline tendency scales composed the internalizing profile, and Submissive (-), Unruly, Forceful, Conforming (-) and Oppositional scales composed the externalizing profile. The comparative analysis showed that the internalizing profile has higher levels of clinical severity and more subjective effects reported than the externalizing profile. These results suggest the need to design specific intervention strategies for each profile.

  1. Effect of inspiratory flow rate on bronchomotor tone in normal and asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Hida, W; Arai, M; Shindoh, C; Liu, Y N; Sasaki, H; Takishima, T

    1984-01-01

    The effect of the inspiratory flow rate during deep inspiration on the regulation of bronchomotor tone was studied in nine normal and 22 asthmatic subjects. Changes in bronchial tone were assessed by respiratory resistance measured by an oscillation method. In normal subjects with bronchoconstriction induced by methacholine a rapid deep inspiration reduced respiratory resistance more than a slow deep inspiration. Asthmatic subjects with spontaneous airway narrowing showed an increase in respiratory resistance after deep inspiration that was greater after rapid than after slow deep inspiration. On the other hand, in asthmatics with methacholine induced bronchoconstriction, bronchodilatation occurred after deep inspiration and this was also greater after rapid than after slow deep inspiration. Lignocaine inhalation attenuated both bronchoconstriction and bronchodilatation induced by both slow and rapid deep inspiration. These results suggest that the effects of deep inspiration are mediated at least in part via receptors in the airways. It is suggested that in asthmatic patients with spontaneous bronchoconstriction irritant receptor activity will be increased in proportion to the speed of inspiration. After methacholine induced bronchoconstriction stretch receptor activity is likely to behave in a similar fashion, leading to an opposite effect. PMID:6367130

  2. Interactive effects of subjective memory complaints and hypertension on learning and memory performance in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Lauren A; Haws, Kari A; Fitzhugh, Megan C; Torre, Gabrielle A; Hishaw, Georg A; Alexander, Gene E

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the relation between subjective memory complaints and cognitive performance is influenced by the presence of hypertension in the elderly. One hundred and five healthy older adults, 70-89 years of age, with and without hypertension treatment or diagnosis, completed a scale of subjective memory complaints. Participants were divided into those with mild memory concerns and those with minimal or no complaints. All participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests including measures of verbal and nonverbal memory. After controlling for differences in age, gender, education, and overall intellectual ability, there were significant main effects for memory concerns and significant interactions for memory complaints and hypertension on several measures of memory performance. There were no main effects for hypertension on memory performance. Simple effects analyses of the interactions showed that the hypertensive complainers demonstrated poorer performance on measures of long-term memory and greater reliance on short-term recall than the hypertensive non-complainers. There were no differences in memory performance for the non-hypertensive groups. Among healthy elderly community-dwelling adults, those with mild subjective memory complaints in the context of hypertension demonstrated greater objective cognitive difficulties than those without hypertension as well as a greater reliance on a less efficient learning strategy. These findings suggest that memory concerns in the presence of hypertension may be important when evaluating treatment efficacy in these individuals and for identifying differences in cognitive aging.

  3. Interactive effects of subjective memory complaints and hypertension on learning and memory performance in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Lauren A.; Haws, Kari A.; Fitzhugh, Megan C.; Torre, Gabrielle A.; Hishaw, Georg A.; Alexander, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the relation between subjective memory complaints and cognitive performance is influenced by the presence of hypertension in the elderly. One hundred and five healthy older adults, 70-89 years of age, with and without hypertension treatment or diagnosis, completed a scale of subjective memory complaints. Participants were divided into those with mild memory concerns and those with minimal or no complaints. All participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests including measures of verbal and non-verbal memory. After controlling for differences in age, gender, education, and overall intellectual ability, there were significant main effects for memory concerns and significant interactions for memory complaints and hypertension on several measures of memory performance. There were no main effects for hypertension on memory performance. Simple effects analyses of the interactions showed that the hypertensive complainers demonstrated poorer performance on measures of long-term memory and greater reliance on short-term recall than the hypertensive non-complainers. There were no differences in memory performance for the non-hypertensive groups. Among healthy elderly community-dwelling adults, those with mild subjective memory complaints in the context of hypertension demonstrated greater objective cognitive difficulties than those without hypertension as well as a greater reliance on a less efficient learning strategy. These findings suggest that memory concerns in the presence of hypertension may be important when evaluating treatment efficacy in these individuals and for identifying differences in cognitive aging. PMID:26185923

  4. Pattern of use and subjective effects of Salvia divinorum among recreational users.

    PubMed

    González, Débora; Riba, Jordi; Bouso, José Carlos; Gómez-Jarabo, Gregorio; Barbanoj, Manel J

    2006-11-08

    Salvia divinorum is a member of the Lamiaceae family and contains the psychotropic diterpene and kappa-opioid receptor agonist salvinorin-A. Originally a shamanic inebriant used by the Mexican Mazatec Indians, the plant and its preparations are becoming increasingly popular among non-traditional users. Demographic data and information on pattern of use and subjective effects were obtained by means of self-report questionnaires from a sample of 32 recreational users of salvia and other psychedelics. Involvement with salvia appeared to be a recent phenomenon. Smoking the extract was the preferred form of administration. Subjective effects were described as intense but short-lived, appearing in less than 1 min and lasting 15 min or less. They included psychedelic-like changes in visual perception, mood and somatic sensations, and importantly, a highly modified perception of external reality and the self, leading to a decreased ability to interact with oneself or with one's surroundings. Although some aspects of the subjective effects reported were similar to high doses of classical psychedelics with serotonin-2A receptor agonist activity, the intense derealization and impairment reported appear to be a characteristic of salvia. The observed simultaneous high scores on the LSD and PCAG subscales of the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) have been previously reported for other kappa-opioid agonists, and support kappa receptor activation as the probable pharmacologic mechanism underlying the modified state of awareness induced by salvia.

  5. Effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric) on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Ingemansson, Sandra Lindstedt; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2010-10-12

    Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma (C.) longa lowers plasma glucose. C. longa may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the study is to study the effect of C. longa on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin levels and glycemic index (GI) in healthy subjects. Fourteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with capsules containing a placebo or C. longa. Finger-prick capillary and venous blood samples were collected before, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the OGTT to measure the glucose and insulin levels, respectively. The ingestion of 6 g C. longa had no significant effect on the glucose response. The change in insulin was significantly higher 30 min (P = 0.03) and 60 min (P = 0.041) after the OGTT including C. longa. The insulin AUCs were also significantly higher after the ingestion of C. longa, 15 (P = 0.048), 30 (P = 0.035), 90 (P = 0.03), and 120 (P = 0.02) minutes after the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. longa increased postprandial serum insulin levels, but did not seem to affect plasma glucose levels or GI, in healthy subjects. The results indicate that C. longa may have an effect on insulin secretion.

  6. Effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric) on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma (C.) longa lowers plasma glucose. C. longa may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the study is to study the effect of C. longa on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin levels and glycemic index (GI) in healthy subjects. Methods Fourteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with capsules containing a placebo or C. longa. Finger-prick capillary and venous blood samples were collected before, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the OGTT to measure the glucose and insulin levels, respectively. Results The ingestion of 6 g C. longa had no significant effect on the glucose response. The change in insulin was significantly higher 30 min (P = 0.03) and 60 min (P = 0.041) after the OGTT including C. longa. The insulin AUCs were also significantly higher after the ingestion of C. longa, 15 (P = 0.048), 30 (P = 0.035), 90 (P = 0.03), and 120 (P = 0.02) minutes after the OGTT. Conclusions The ingestion of 6 g C. longa increased postprandial serum insulin levels, but did not seem to affect plasma glucose levels or GI, in healthy subjects. The results indicate that C. longa may have an effect on insulin secretion. Trial registration number NCT01029327 PMID:20937162

  7. Gratitude mediates the effect of emotional intelligence on subjective well-being: A structural equation modeling analysis.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yuan

    2016-11-03

    This study investigated the relationship among emotional intelligence, gratitude, and subjective well-being in a sample of university students. A total of 365 undergraduates completed the emotional intelligence scale, the gratitude questionnaire, and the subjective well-being measures. The results of the structural equation model showed that emotional intelligence is positively associated with gratitude and subjective well-being, that gratitude is positively associated with subjective well-being, and that gratitude partially mediates the positive relationship between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being. Bootstrap test results also revealed that emotional intelligence has a significant indirect effect on subjective well-being through gratitude.

  8. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil K.

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance. PMID:26869974

  9. [Effect of frequency compression in hearing aids on speech intelligibility and subjective sound quality].

    PubMed

    Leifholz, M; Margolf-Hackl, S; Kreikemeier, S; Kiessling, J

    2013-04-01

    The acceptance of hearing aids by users with high frequency hearing loss still represents a problem. Processing algorithms that shift high frequency signal components into an audible frequency range are proposed as a solution. We looked into the issue of whether frequency compression becomes more beneficial with increasing high frequency hearing loss or/and for users with cochlear dead regions (DR). A total of 20 hearing aid candidates were assessed audiometrically and classified into two test groups in terms of their hearing loss and the presence of DR. The subjects then evaluated four hearing aid settings that differed solely in the degree of frequency compression. Speech recognition threshold measurements and subjective sound quality ratings were carried out for all four settings. Data showed that 15 of the 20 test subjects understood fricatives with a high frequency spectrum component better, since they were able to distinguish between the two logatomes "Afa" and "Asa". No correlation was found between the beneficial effect of frequency compression and the degree of high frequency hearing loss or the presence of DR. Subjective sound quality ratings indicated no clear preference, but excessive frequency compression was generally deemed counterproductive. Frequency compression may be appropriate for hearing aid users with high frequency hearing loss and can improve speech recognition. The degree of frequency compression required to achieve maximal benefit varies from case to case and has to be optimized on an individual basis.

  10. Effect of chronic intermittent hypoxia on exercise adaptations in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Tonini, Julia; Michallet, Anne-Sophie; Flore, Patrice; Nespoulet, Hugo; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Wuyam, Bernard; Levy, Patrick; Tamisier, Renaud

    2011-12-15

    Reduced exercise tolerance has been reported in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients, although the associated hypertension, obesity and/or metabolic disorder may underlie this reduction. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in 12 healthy subjects on exercise capacity, cardio-respiratory responses, and substrate oxidation during maximal and sub-maximal exercise. Subjects were exposed to 30 cycles of hypoxia-reoxygenation per hour for 14 nights. Although exercise capacity was unaltered PETCO(2) was reduced and V˙E/V˙CO(2) increased during both maximal and submaximal exercise tests, indicating a hyperventilatory response. Maximal heart rate was lower and diastolic arterial blood pressure (DBP) was higher in the 1st min of recovery after submaximal exercise. Subjects reached maximal lipid oxidation at a higher power output and had decreased blood lactate for a given power output. This suggests that although the metabolic adaptations to CIH in healthy subjects may improve exercise performance, the cardio-pulmonary modifications are similar to those observed in OSAS patients and could limit exercise capacity.

  11. Effects of Daily Centrifugation on Segmental Fluid Distribution in Bed-rested Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diedrich, Andre; Moore, S. T.; Stenger, M.; Arya, T. M.; Newby, N.; Tucker, J. M.; Milstead, L.; Acock, K.; Knapp, C.; Jevans, J.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The effect of daily centrifugation on segmental fluid distribution have been studied during 21 days of 6 degree head down bedrest. One group (N=7) underwent no countermeasure while the other (N=8) received a daily, one hour, dose (2.5 gz at the foot, decreasing to 1.0 gz at the heart) of artificial gravity (AG) training on the Johnson Space Center short radius centrifuge. Fluid shifts of thoracic(VTO), abdominal (VAB), thigh (VTH), and calf (VCA) regions were measured by the tetrapolar segmental body impedance technique. Untrained subjects reduced their total volume from 18.9 plus or minus 0.5L to 17.9 plus or minus 0.9L (MN plus or minus SE, P less than 0.05) while trained subjects maintained their total volume. In untrained, control, subjects after bed rest, there was a trend toward reduced volume in all segments, with significant reductions in thigh and calf (fig, P less than 0.05). Trained subjects maintained volume in all segments. Our data indicate that artificial gravity treatment counteracts bed rest-induced hypovolemia.

  12. Studies on pyrazinoylguanidine. 7. Effects of single oral doses in normal human subjects.

    PubMed

    Vesell, E S; Beyer, K H

    1999-03-01

    In a three-phase study, single oral doses of placebo, followed in 1 week by pyrazinoylguanidine (PZG; 900 mg), followed in 3 weeks by pyrazinoic acid (PZA; 300 mg) were given to 8 normal male subjects. Blood analyses performed 0, 2 and 4 h after administration of placebo or drug revealed that compared to mean 0 h values, PZG and also PZA, but not placebo, decreased mean values for serum glucose, insulin, C-peptide, triglycerides and free fatty acids. In all groups, serum potassium, urea, fibrinogen, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein were unchanged. PZA, but not PZG, increased serum uric acid. PZG significantly reduced very-low-density lipoprotein whereas PZA only tended to do so. PZG was well tolerated and without any side effect, but in 7 of the 8 normal volunteers, PZA produced a variable vasomotor response over the blush area of the face and neck lasting from 30 min in 3 subjects to 4 h in 1 subject. Collectively, these results suggest generally similar metabolic responses of normal subjects to PZG and PZA after only a single oral dose of each. Previously, it was unrecognized that acute administration of PZG and PZA could produce such rapid metabolic changes.

  13. Effects of random subject rotation on optimised diffusion gradient sampling schemes in diffusion tensor MRI.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Bastin, Mark E; Armitage, Paul A

    2008-05-01

    The choice of the number (N) and orientation of diffusion sampling gradients required to measure accurately the water diffusion tensor remains contentious. Monte Carlo studies have suggested that between 20 and 30 uniformly distributed sampling orientations are required to provide robust estimates of water diffusions parameters. These simulations have not, however, taken into account what effect random subject motion, specifically rotation, might have on optimised gradient schemes, a problem which is especially relevant to clinical diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI). Here this question is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations of icosahedral sampling schemes and in vivo data. These polyhedra-based schemes, which have the advantage that large N can be created from optimised subsets of smaller N, appear to be ideal for the study of restless subjects since if scanning needs to be prematurely terminated it should be possible to identify a subset of images that have been acquired with a near optimised sampling scheme. The simulations and in vivo data show that as N increases, the rotational variance of fractional anisotropy (FA) estimates becomes progressively less dependent on the magnitude of subject rotation (alpha), while higher FA values are progressively underestimated as alpha increases. These data indicate that for large subject rotations the B-matrix should be recalculated to provide accurate diffusion anisotropy information.

  14. Effect of yoga on cardiovascular system in subjects above 40 years.

    PubMed

    Bharshankar, Jyotsana R; Bharshankar, Rajay N; Deshpande, Vijaykumar N; Kaore, Shoba B; Gosavi, Geeta B

    2003-04-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of yoga on cardiovascular function in subjects above 40 yrs of age. Pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and Valsalva ratio were studied in 50 control subjects (not doing any type of physical exercise) and 50 study subjects who had been practicing yoga for 5 years. From the study it was observed that significant reduction in the pulse rate occurs in subjects practicing yoga (P<0.001). The difference in the mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure between study group and control group was also statistically significant (P<0.01 and P<0.001 respectively). The systolic and diastolic blood pressure showed significant positive correlation with age in the study group (r1 systolic= 0.631 and r1 diastolic = 0.610) as well as in the control group (r2 systolic = 0.981 and r2 diastolic = 0.864). The significance of difference between correlation coefficient of both the groups was also tested with the use of Z transformation and the difference was significant (Z systolic= 4.041 and Z diastolic= 2.901). Valsalva ratio was also found to be significantly higher in yoga practitioners than in controls (P<0.001). Our results indicate that yoga reduces the age related deterioration in cardiovascular functions.

  15. Immediate effects of bilateral manipulation of talocrural joints on standing stability in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Santos-del-Rey, Miguel; Martín-Vallejo, Francisco Javier

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of bilateral talocrural joint manipulation on standing stability in healthy subjects. Sixty-two healthy subjects, 16 males and 46 females, aged from 18 to 32 years old (mean: 21+/-3 years old) participated in the study. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: an intervention group (n=32), who received manipulation of bilateral talocrural joints and a control group (n=30) which did not receive any intervention. Baropodometric and stabilometric evaluations were assessed pre- and 5 min post-intervention by an assessor blinded to the treatment allocation. Intra-group and inter-group comparisons were analysed using appropriate parametric tests. The results indicated that changes on the X coordinate range, length of motion, and mean speed approximated to statistical significance (P=0.06), and changes on the Y coordinate range reached statistical significance (P=0.02). Average X and Y motions, and anterior-posterior or lateral velocities did not show significant differences. Our results showed that bilateral thrust manipulation of the talocrural joint did not modify standing stability, that is, the behavioural pattern of the projection of the centre of pressure, in healthy subjects.

  16. Implicit Theories of Change and Stability Moderate Effects of Subjective Distance on the Remembered Self.

    PubMed

    Ward, Cindy L P; Wilson, Anne E

    2015-09-01

    Temporal self-appraisal theory suggests that people can regulate current self-view by recalling former selves in ways that flatter present identity. People critique their subjectively distant (but not recent) former selves, creating the illusion of improvement over time. However, this revisionist strategy might not apply to everyone: People with fixed (entity) beliefs may not benefit from critiquing even distant selves. In three studies, we found that implicit theories of change and stability moderate the effects of subjective distance on the remembered self. In all studies, participants rated past selves portrayed as subjectively close or distant (controlling calendar time). Incremental theorists (but not entity theorists) were more critical of their subjectively distant (but not recent) past attributes. We found the same pattern when measuring existing implicit theories (Studies 1, 2) or manipulating them (Study 3). The present research is the first to integrate temporal self-appraisal theory and the implicit theories literature. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  17. Within-subject effects of number of trials in rat conditioning procedures.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Daniel A; Rescorla, Robert A

    2010-04-01

    D. A. Gottlieb (2008) reported finding no effects of number of conditioning trials in a series of between-subjects magazine approach experiments, when number of sessions and total training time were held constant. This article reports 7 comparable within-subject experiments that looked for effects of number of trials in a variety of conditioning preparations. Experiments 1-3 detected effects of multiplying the number of trials by factors of 4 and 8 in a conditioned magazine approach procedure in which visual and auditory stimuli were paired with food. Experiments 4A and 4B detected effects of a factor of 4 trials in a conditioned flavor preference procedure in which flavors were paired with polycose. Experiments 5 and 6 detected an effect of a factor of 3 trials in a conditioned taste aversion procedure and in a fear conditioning procedure, respectively. Results suggest that variables other than number of trials might play important roles in determining the acquisition of conditioned responding, but effects of number of trials can be detected with sensitive enough procedures.

  18. Comparison of the subjective effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and marijuana in humans.

    PubMed

    Wachtel, S R; ElSohly, M A; Ross, S A; Ambre, J; de Wit, H

    2002-06-01

    There has been controversy about whether the subjective, behavioral or therapeutic effects of whole plant marijuana differ from the effects of its primary active ingredient, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, few studies have directly compared the effects of marijuana and THC using matched doses administered either by the smoked or the oral form. Two studies were conducted to compare the subjective effects of pure THC to whole-plant marijuana containing an equivalent amount of THC in normal healthy volunteers. In one study the drugs were administered orally and in the other they were administered by smoking. In each study, marijuana users (oral study: n=12, smoking study: n=13) participated in a double-blind, crossover design with five experimental conditions: a low and a high dose of THC-only, a low and a high dose of whole-plant marijuana, and placebo. In the oral study, the drugs were administered in brownies, in the smoking study the drugs were smoked. Dependent measures included the Addiction Research Center Inventory, the Profile of Mood States, visual analog items, vital signs, and plasma levels of THC and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC. In both studies, the active drug conditions resulted in dose-dependent increases in plasma THC levels, and the levels of THC were similar in THC-only and marijuana conditions (except that at the higher oral dose THC-only produced slightly higher levels than marijuana). In both the oral study and the smoking study, THC-only and whole plant marijuana produced similar subjective effects, with only minor differences. These results support the idea that the psychoactive effects of marijuana in healthy volunteers are due primarily to THC.

  19. Effects of caffeine on alcohol reinforcement: beverage choice, self-administration, and subjective ratings.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Mary M; Meredith, Steven E; Evatt, Daniel P; Griffiths, Roland R

    2017-03-01

    Combining alcohol and caffeine is associated with increased alcohol consumption, but no prospective experimental studies have examined whether added caffeine increases alcohol consumption. This study examined how caffeine alters alcohol self-administration and subjective reinforcing effects in healthy adults. Thirty-one participants completed six double-blind alcohol self-administration sessions: three sessions with alcohol only (e.g., beverage A) and three sessions with alcohol and caffeine (e.g., beverage B). Participants chose which beverage to consume on a subsequent session (e.g., beverage A or B). The effects of caffeine on overall beverage choice, number of self-administered drinks, subjective ratings (e.g., Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale), and psychomotor performance were examined. A majority of participants (65%) chose to drink the alcohol beverage containing caffeine on their final self-administration session. Caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks. Caffeine significantly increased stimulant effects, decreased sedative effects, and attenuated decreases in psychomotor performance attributable to alcohol. Relative to nonchoosers, caffeine choosers reported overall lower stimulant ratings and reported greater drinking behavior prior to the study. Although caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks, most participants chose the alcohol beverage containing caffeine. Given the differences in subjective ratings and pre-existing differences in self-reported alcohol consumption for caffeine choosers and nonchoosers, these data suggest that decreased stimulant effects of alcohol and heavier self-reported drinking may predict subsequent choice of combined caffeine and alcohol beverages. These predictors may identify individuals who would benefit from efforts to reduce risk behaviors associated with combining alcohol and caffeine.

  20. The epidemiology of bovine respiratory disease: What is the evidence for predisposing factors?

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jared D.; Fulton, Robert W.; Lehenbauer, Terry W.; Step, Douglas L.; Confer, Anthony W.

    2010-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most costly disease of beef cattle in North America. It is multi-factorial, with a variety of physical and physiological stressors combining to predispose cattle to pneumonia. However, efforts to discern which factors are most important have frequently failed to establish definitive answers. Calves are at highest risk shortly after transport. Risk factors include purchasing from sale barns and commingling. It is unclear whether or not these practices increase susceptibility, increase exposure, or are proxies for poor management. Lighter-weight calves appear to be at greater risk, although this has not been consistent. Persistent infection (PI) with bovine virus diarrhea virus increases BRD occurrence, but it is unclear if PI calves affect other cattle in the feedlot. The complexity of BRD has made it difficult to define involvement of individual factors. Stressors may play a role as “necessary but not sufficient” components, requiring additive effects to cause disease. PMID:21197200

  1. Effects of Inspiratory Muscle Training in Subjects With Sarcoidosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Karadallı, Müşerrefe Nur; Boşnak-Güçlü, Meral; Camcıoğlu, Burcu; Kokturk, Nurdan; Türktaş, Haluk

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory muscle weakness occurs in sarcoidosis and is related to decreased exercise capacity, greater fatigue, dyspnea, and lower quality of life in sarcoidosis patients. The effects of inspiratory muscle training in this population have not been comprehensively investigated so far. This study was planned to investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity, respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, pulmonary function and diffusing capacity, fatigue, dyspnea, depression, and quality of life in subjects with sarcoidosis. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, and double blind study. Fifteen sarcoidosis subjects (treatment group) received inspiratory muscle training at 40% of maximal inspiratory pressure (P(Imax)), and 15 subjects (control group) received sham therapy (5% of P(Imax)) for 6 weeks. Functional and maximal exercise capacity, respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, pulmonary function and diffusing capacity, fatigue, dyspnea, depression, and quality of life were evaluated. Functional (P < .001) and maximal exercise capacity (P = .038), respiratory muscle strength (P(Imax) [P < .001] and P(Emax) [P = .001]), severe fatigue (P = .002), and dyspnea perception (P = .02) were statistically significantly improved in the treatment group compared with controls; no significant improvements were observed in pulmonary function and diffusing capacity, peripheral muscle strength, fatigue, depression, and quality of life between groups after inspiratory muscle training. Inspiratory muscle training improves functional and maximal exercise capacity and respiratory muscle strength and decreases severe fatigue and dyspnea perception in subjects with early stages of sarcoidosis. Inspiratory muscle training can be safely and effectively included in rehabilitation programs. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT02270333.). Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  2. Effects of Mirtogenol® on ocular blood flow and intraocular hypertension in asymptomatic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Steigerwalt, Robert D.; Gianni, Belcaro; Paolo, Morazzoni; Bombardelli, Ezio; Burki, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The most important variable risk factor for developing glaucoma is intraocular hypertension. Timely lowering of high intraocular pressure (IOP) significantly lowers the likelihood of developing glaucoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the food supplement Mirtogenol® (Mirtoselect® and Pycnogenol®) on IOP and ocular blood flow in a product evaluation study. Methods Thirty-eight asymptomatic subjects with intraocular hypertension were either given Mirtogenol® (20 subjects) or were not treated (18 subjects). The visual acuity, IOP, and ocular blood flow were measured at two, three, and six months. Results After two months of supplementation with Mirtogenol®, the mean IOP decreased from a baseline of 25.2 mmHg to 22.2 mmHg. After three months of treatment with Mirtogenol®, the IOP was significantly lowered compared to that of untreated controls (p<0.05) to 22.0 mmHg. No further improvement was found after six months. Nineteen of the twenty patients taking Mirtogenol had a decreased IOP after three months. Only marginal effects on the IOP were found in the 18 control subjects. No side effects were observed. Ocular blood flow (central retinal, ophthalmic, and posterior ciliary arteries) improved both in the systolic and diastolic components as measured by Color Doppler imaging. After three months of treatment, the improvement of ocular blood flow was significant as compared to both baseline and control group (p<0.05). Conclusions An improved ocular blood flow may contribute to the prevention of glaucoma. The results of this study indicate that Mirtogenol® may represent a safe preventative intervention for lowering the risk for developing symptomatic glaucoma by controlling IOP and improving ocular blood flow. PMID:18618008

  3. The effectiveness and practicality of occupational stress management interventions: a survey of subject matter expert opinions.

    PubMed

    Bellarosa, C; Chen, P Y

    1997-07-01

    Stress management (SM) subject matter experts (SMEs) evaluated 6 widely used occupational SM interventions (relaxation, physical fitness, cognitive restructuring, meditation, assertiveness training, and stress inoculation) on the basis of 10 practicality criteria and 7 effectiveness objectives. Relaxation was evaluated overall as the most practical intervention, while meditation and stress inoculation were judged as the least practical. Physical fitness was chosen to be the most effective intervention, while both meditation and assertiveness training were rated overall as the least effective. The findings also revealed that the SMEs considered history of success and duration of effect, rather than "relevance to program objectives," as the most important factors when selecting SM interventions. Incongruence between effectiveness ratings and actual choices of interventions are discussed.

  4. Effects of manual lymph drainage on cardiac autonomic tone in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Joong; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Yi, Chung-Hwi

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of manual lymph drainage on the cardiac autonomic tone. Thirty-two healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to manual lymph drainage (MLD) (experimental) and rest (control) groups. Electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters were recorded with bipolar electrocardiography using standard limb lead positions. The pressure-pain threshold (PPT) was quantitatively measured using an algometer. Heart rate variability differed significantly between the experimental and control groups (p < 0.05), but the PPT in the upper trapezius muscle did not (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that the application of MLD was effective in reducing the activity of the sympathetic nervous system.

  5. Protective effects of bacterial osmoprotectant ectoine on bovine erythrocytes subjected to staphylococcal alpha-haemolysin.

    PubMed

    Bownik, Adam; Stępniewska, Zofia

    2015-06-01

    Ectoine (ECT) is a bacterial compatible solute with documented protective action however no data are available on its effects on various cells against bacterial toxins. Therefore, we determined the in vitro influence of ECT on bovine erythrocytes subjected to staphylococcal α-haemolysin (HlyA). The cells exposed to HlyA alone showed a distinct haemolysis and reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidised glutathione (GSSG) level, however the toxic effects were attenuated in the combinations of HlyA + ECT suggesting ECT-induced protection of erythrocytes from HlyA.

  6. The effects of hypnosis on an elite senior European tour golfer: a single-subject design.

    PubMed

    Pates, John

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a hypnosis intervention on the performance and flow-state experiences of an elite senior European Tour golf professional. The experimental effect was assessed during 11 Senior European Tour golf events. Performance and flow data were analyzed using a single-subject design combined with a procedure to monitor the player's internal experience. The results indicated that the player's mean stroke average and mean flow scores increased from baseline to intervention. There were no overlapping data points between baseline and intervention conditions for both performance and flow-state scores. The qualitative data revealed hypnosis may positively control emotions, thoughts, feelings, and perceptions.

  7. The effect of histamine iontophoresis on the heart rate and blood pressure of female subjects.

    PubMed

    Adedoyin, R A; Olaogun, M O B; Ukponmwan, O E; Orafidiya, O O

    2004-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of histamine iontophoresis on the Blood Pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) of female subjects. Twenty apparently healthy female undergraduates of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (average age 24.2 +/- 2.9) participated in the study. An automated electronic sphygmo-manometer that monitors both BP and HR was used to measure the Systolic Blood Pressure(SBP) and diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) over the left brachial artery. The histamine gel used in this study contained 1 percent histamine dihydro-chloride. The gel was applied to the right biceps brachii and active was applied below the cubital fossa. The current intensity Interrupted Direct Current (IDC) was gradually increased and subjects were instructed to indicate immediately they experienced tingling sensation under the electrode. The same procedure was carried out the second time on the subjects with the same intensity of IDC current but without histamine for each subject. The treatments were administered on different days but within a two-week interval. The cardiovascular response was monitored five minutes before the administration, twenty minutes during the administration and five minutes after the termination of each treatment. Blood Pressure and heart rate did not change significantly from the baseline during the histamine iontophoresis and direct currents treatments (P > 0.05). The findings suggest that the subjects' BP and HR were not affected by histamine iontophoresis during the twenty minutes treatment. It was concluded that local administration of 1 percent histamine dihydrochloride into the subcutaneous tissue of females' right upper arm with the aid of direct current did not appreciably affect the blood pressure and heart rate after 20 minutes of treatment.

  8. Effect of ozone inhalation on the response to nasal challenge with antigen of allergic subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Bascom, R.; Naclerio, R.M.; Fitzgerald, T.K.; Kagey-Sobotka, A.; Proud, D. )

    1990-09-01

    The effect of oxidant inhalation on allergic illness is of interest because allergic patients often report increased respiratory symptoms during episodes of poor air quality, and epidemiologic studies demonstrate an association between increased levels of the air pollutant ozone and exacerbations of asthma. The purpose of this study was to characterize the upper respiratory response to ozone inhalation in asymptomatic, allergic subjects and to determine whether ozone pre-exposure increased the acute response to nasal challenge with antigen in these subjects. A group of 12 asymptomatic subjects with a history of allergic rhinitis were exposed in a randomized, cross-over design, at rest, on each of 2 days, separated by 2 wk, to 4 h of clean air or 0.5 ppm ozone in an environmental chamber. Following the exposure period, subjects underwent nasal challenge with four doses of antigen (1 to 1,000 PNU ragweed or grass). Symptoms were rated and nasal lavage performed after each dose. Measurement of histamine and albumin concentration and TAME-esterase activity and determination of cell counts and differentials were performed. Exposure to ozone caused significant increases in upper and lower respiratory symptoms, a mixed inflammatory cell influx with a sevenfold increase in naval lavage neutrophils, a 20-fold increase in eosinophils, and a tenfold increase in mononuclear cells, as well as an apparent sloughing of epithelial cells. There was a significant increase in nasal lavage albumin concentration on the ozone exposure day and a small increase in nasal lavage histamine concentration on both the ozone and clean air exposure days. TAME-esterase activity showed no significant increase overall, but increased at least twofold in 5 of 12 subjects.

  9. LOX Mutations Predispose to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong-chuan; Regalado, Ellen S.; Gong, Limin; Duan, Xueyan; Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P.; Arnaud, Pauline; Ren, Zhao; Cai, Bo; Hostetler, Ellen M.; Moran, Rocio; Liang, David; Estrera, Anthony; Safi, Hazim J; Leal, Suzanne M.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Mutations in several genes have been identified that are responsible for approximately 25% of families with familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD). However, the causative gene remains unknown in 75% of families. Objectives To identify the causative mutation in families with autosomal dominant inheritance of TAAD. Methods and Results Exome sequencing was used to identify the mutation responsible for a large family with TAAD. A heterozygous rare variant, c.839G>T (p.Ser280Arg), was identified in LOX, encoding a lysyl oxidase, that segregated with disease in the family. Sanger and exome sequencing was performed to investigate mutations in candidate genes in an additional 410 probands from unrelated families. Additional LOX rare variants that segregated with disease in families were identified, including c.125G>A (p.Trp42*), c.604G>T (p.Gly202*), c.743C>T (p.Thr248Ile), c.800A>C (p.Gln267Pro), and c.1044T>A (p.Ser348Arg). The altered amino acids cause haploinsufficiency for LOX or are located at a highly conserved LOX catalytic domain, which is relatively invariant in the population. Expression of the LOX variants p.Ser280Arg and p.Ser348Arg had significantly lower lysyl oxidase activity when compared with the wild type protein. Individuals with LOX variants had fusiform enlargement of the root and ascending thoracic aorta, leading to ascending aortic dissections. Conclusions These data, along with previous studies showing the deficiency of LOX in mice or inhibition of lysyl oxidases in turkeys and rats causes aortic dissections, support the conclusion that rare genetic variants in LOX predispose to thoracic aortic disease. PMID:26838787

  10. [Round Table: Severe asthma in pediatrics. Concepts and predisposing factors].

    PubMed

    Sierra Martínez, J I

    1999-01-01

    Given the clinical and functional characteristics of severe asthma, we will look at the factors that predispose to potentially fatal asthma. They can be divided into three groups: a) factors related to medical care: error of diagnosis of asthma and severity, deficiencies in the treatment prescribed, lack of control of treatment, frequent changes of doctor, lack of diagnostic tools; b) factors related to the patient and the environment: denial of the disease, failure to comply with or abandonment of treatment, underrating the severity of attacks, age (adolescence), coexistence of psychiatric disorder (depression); c) disease-dependent factors: admissions to hospital, need for mechanical ventilation on occasion, increase of symptoms during the last year, need for substantial medication. Adolescence is a critical stage of life in asthma. It implicitly involves a number of risk factors, all of which are age-dependent: refusal to acknowledge the illness, resistance to treatment (in particular as regards continuity and frequency of doses) lack of self-esteem, lack of confidence in the doctor, the beginning of the smoking habit. Another key factor is the coexistence of depression and asthma. In addition to the low self-esteem due to the affective disorder (which will in itself influence any form of treatment) depression is associated with a higher incidence of illnesses --especially infectious illnesses-- which can also aggravate asthma. Anxiety and stressful circumstances in general are factors that negatively affect the illness. Factors that influence the evolution of the illness are the following: factors that influence asthma severity: patient-dependent, sensitivization-dependent, environment-dependent, treatment-dependent, illness-dependent, dependent on respiratory function exploration.

  11. Predisposing factors and management of complications in acute tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Gahleitner, Constanze; Hofauer, Benedikt; Stark, Thomas; Knopf, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    RPA and NF was diagnosed with a sensitivity/specificity of 100%/94% in patients with acute tonsillitis and without suspicion for disease complication after ENT examination, but an age >35 years and serum CRP >15.5mg/dl. Acute tonsillitis represents a frequent disease in the otorhinolaryngology. Some patients exhibit disease aggravations resulting in (descending) peritonsillar abscess (PTA, dPTA), para-/retropharyngeal abscess (PPA, RPA), or necrotising fasciitis (NF). The study analyses the underlying predisposing factors. The retrospective cohort study includes a total of 1636 patients comprising 852 outpatients with acute bacterial tonsillitis, 279 in-patients with acute bacterial tonsillitis, 452 patients with PTA, 31 patients with dPTA/PPA, 12 patients with RPA, and 10 patients with NF. Patients were analysed for disease-related data. While leucocytes do not distinguish the sub-groups, C-reactive protein demonstrated a significant increase resulting in the highest level for RPA and NF (p < 0.0001). PTA and RPA are usually caused by streptococcus, dPTA/PPA by anaerobic bacterias, and NF mixed infections (p < 0.0001). Patients with PTA were younger than dPTA/PPA (p = 0.002) or RPA/NF (p < 0.0001). Subsequently, the rate of internistic comorbidities was significantly increased in RPA/NF (p < 0.0001). ROC-analysis identified cut-offs for age <36 years and CRP <15.5mg/dl to distinguish acute bacterial tonsillitis from RPA.

  12. Somatic Overgrowth Predisposes to Seizures in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brachini, Francesca; Apicella, Fabio; Cosenza, Angela; Ferrari, Anna Rita; Guerrini, Renzo; Muratori, Filippo; Romano, Maria Francesca; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Tancredi, Raffaella; Sicca, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Background Comorbidity of Autism Spectrum Disorders with seizures or abnormal EEG (Autism-Epilepsy Phenotype) suggests shared pathomechanisms, and might be a starting point to identify distinct populations within the clinical complexity of the autistic spectrum. In this study, we tried to assess whether distinct subgroups, having distinctive clinical hallmarks, emerge from this comorbid condition. Methods Two-hundred and six individuals with idiopathic Autism Spectrum Disorders were subgrouped into three experimental classes depending on the presence of seizures and EEG abnormalities. Neurobehavioral, electroclinical and auxological parameters were investigated to identify differences among groups and features which increase the risk of seizures. Our statistical analyses used ANOVA, post-hoc multiple comparisons, and the Chi-squared test to analyze continuous and categorical variables. A correspondence analysis was also used to decompose significant Chi-squared and reduce variables dimensions. Results The high percentage of children with seizures (28.2% of our whole cohort) and EEG abnormalities (64.1%) confirmed that the prevalence of epilepsy in Autism Spectrum Disorders exceeds that of the general population. Seizures were associated with severe intellectual disability, and not with autism severity. Interestingly, tall stature (without macrocephaly) was significantly associated with EEG abnormalities or later onset seizures. However, isolated macrocephaly was equally distributed among groups or associated with early onset seizures when accompanied by tall stature. Conclusions Tall stature seems to be a phenotypic “biomarker” of susceptibility to EEG abnormalities or late epilepsy in Autism Spectrum Disorders and, when concurring with macrocephaly, predisposes to early onset seizures. Growth pattern might act as an endophenotypic marker in Autism-Epilepsy comorbidity, delineating distinct pathophysiological subtypes and addressing personalized diagnostic work

  13. Variation in Telangiectasia Predisposing Genes Is Associated With Overall Radiation Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Tanteles, George A.; Murray, Robert J.S.; Mills, Jamie; Barwell, Julian; Chakraborti, Prabir; Chan, Steve; Cheung, Kwok-Leung; Ennis, Dawn; Khurshid, Nazish; Lambert, Kelly; Machhar, Rohan; Meisuria, Mitul; Osman, Ahmed; Peat, Irene; Sahota, Harjinder; Woodings, Pamela; Talbot, Christopher J.; and others

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: In patients receiving radiotherapy for breast cancer where the heart is within the radiation field, cutaneous telangiectasiae could be a marker of potential radiation-induced heart disease. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes known to cause heritable telangiectasia-associated disorders could predispose to such late, normal tissue vascular damage. Methods and Materials: The relationship between cutaneous telangiectasia as a late normal tissue radiation injury phenotype in 633 breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy was examined. Patients were clinically assessed for the presence of cutaneous telangiectasia and genotyped at nine SNPs in three candidate genes. Candidate SNPs were within the endoglin (ENG) and activin A receptor, type II-like 1 (ACVRL1) genes, mutations in which cause hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene associated with ataxia-telangiectasia. Results: A total of 121 (19.1%) patients exhibited a degree of cutaneous telangiectasiae on clinical examination. Regression was used to examine the associations between the presence of telangiectasiae in patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery, controlling for the effects of boost and known brassiere size (n=388), and individual geno- or haplotypes. Inheritance of ACVRL1 SNPs marginally contributed to the risk of cutaneous telangiectasiae. Haplotypic analysis revealed a stronger association between inheritance of a ATM haplotype and the presence of cutaneous telangiectasiae, fibrosis and overall toxicity. No significant association was observed between telangiectasiae and the coinheritance of the candidate ENG SNPs. Conclusions: Genetic variation in the ATM gene influences reaction to radiotherapy through both vascular damage and increased fibrosis. The predisposing variation in the ATM gene will need to be better defined to optimize it as a predictive marker for assessing radiotherapy late effects.

  14. High stocking density as a predisposing factor for necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Batzios, C; Pappaioannou, N; Ducatelle, R; Fortomaris, P

    2015-01-01

    Stocking density is a management factor which has critical implications for the poultry industry. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of high stocking density as a predisposing factor in an experimental model of necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. The experimental challenge model included an oral inoculation with 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens. Two hundred and forty as hatched day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four treatment groups according to the following experimental design: group N, with normal stocking density (15 birds/m(2)) and no challenge; group D, with high stocking density (30 birds/m(2)) and no challenge; group P, with normal stocking density and positive challenge; and group DP, with high stocking density and positive challenge. From each bird, the intestine, gizzard and liver were collected and scored for gross lesions. The intestinal digesta was collected for pH and viscosity determination. One caecum from each bird was taken for microbiological analysis. The statistical analysis and evaluation of the experimental data revealed significant interaction effects between "stocking density" and "challenge", regarding gross lesion scores in intestine and liver, pH values in jejunum, ileum and caeca as well as C. perfringens counts in the caeca (P ≤ 0.05). High stocking density in challenged birds increased the gross lesion score in the intestine (P ≤ 0.05), contrary to unchallenged birds. It can be concluded that high stocking density affects unfavourably the welfare and gut health of broiler chicks, predisposes to necrotic enteritis in a subclinical experimental model and increases further its importance as a management factor for the poultry industry.

  15. Predisposing, enabling and pregnancy-related determinants of late initiation of prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Beeckman, Katrien; Louckx, Fred; Putman, Koen

    2011-10-01

    Prenatal care is important for the health and wellbeing of women and their babies. There is international consensus that prenatal care should begin in the first trimester. This study aims to analyze the effects of predisposing, enabling and pregnancy-related determinants of late prenatal care initiation. In this prospective observational study, 333 women were recruited consecutively at the beginning of their prenatal care trajectory. Data was collected on the timing of the first prenatal visit and on socio-demographic and pregnancy-related characteristics, using a semi-structured interview. A multivariate binominal logistic regression was applied to analyze independent effects on late initiation of prenatal care. Bivariately late initiation of care was associated with being inactive on the labor market, non-European origin, not having lived in Belgium since birth, low income, receiving welfare benefits, not having a regular obstetrician and experiencing difficulties getting a first appointment. When adjusting for all determinants, our multivariate analyses showed that late initiation was associated with non-European origin, low income and not having a regular obstetrician. This study shows that late initiation of prenatal care is associated with predisposing and enabling determinants. In order to ensure timely initiation of care, policy-makers should focus on encouraging women to have a regular prenatal care provider before pregnancy and taking steps in lowering out-of-pocket fees for low-income women. Future research is needed to examine whether these determinants are associated with initiation of care only or whether they play a role in the pregnancy follow-up as well.

  16. Effect of antiorthostatic BedRest (BR) on GastroIntestinal Motility (GIM) of normal subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, L.; Hunter, R. P.; Tietze, K. J.; Cintron, N. M.

    1992-01-01

    The combined effects of postural changes, fluid shifts and diuresis associated with the absence of the gravity vector may decrease gastrointestinal motility (GIM) during space flight. GIM can be estimated from the mouth to cecum transit time (MCTT) of orally administered lactulose (LAC); this test is used to assess changes in GIM in normal subjects and in patients with GI pathology and related disease conditions. Since bedrest (BR) mimics some of the physiological changes that occur during space flight, the effect of ten days of BR on GIM was evaluated from the MCTT of LAC. Methods: Subjects were 12 nonsmoking males between the ages of 35 and 50. After an 8-10 hour fast, subjects ingested Cephulac (registered) (20 g solution) with a low-fiber breakfast on four different days (45, 30, 25, and 20) before BR and on three separate days (4, 7, and 10) during BR. Breath-H2 concentrations were measured before and at 10 minute intervals for 4 hours after breakfast using a Quintron breathalyzer and MCTT was determined from these data. Results: MCTT ranged between 10 and 122 minutes during ambulation and 80 to 120 minutes during BR with means of 79 minutes and 122 minutes respectively. Conclusion: Mean MCTT during BR was 54 percent longer than during ambulation, suggesting that absorption and availability of orally administered medications and nutrients may be delayed or impaired as a result of decreased GIM during bedrest.

  17. The contrasting physiological and subjective effects of chewing gum on social stress.

    PubMed

    Gray, Gemma; Miles, Christopher; Wilson, Nigel; Jenks, Rebecca; Cox, Martin; Johnson, Andrew J

    2012-04-01

    Uncertainty exists with respect to the extent to which chewing gum may attenuate stress-induced rises in cortisol secretion (Johnson, Jenks, Miles, Albert, & Cox, 2011; Scholey et al., 2009; Smith, 2010). The present study used the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST: Kirschbaum, Pirke, & Hellhammer, 1993), a task known to elevate cortisol secretion (Kudielka, Schommer, Hellhammer, & Kirschbaum, 2004), in order to examine the moderating physiological and subjective effects of chewing gum on social stress. Forty participants completed the TSST either with or without chewing gum. As expected, completion of the TSST elevated both cortisol and subjective stress levels, whilst impairing mood. Although gum moderated the perception of stress, cortisol concentrations were higher following the chewing of gum. The findings are consistent with Smith (2010) who argued that elevations in cortisol following the chewing of gum reflect heightened arousal. The findings suggest that chewing gum only benefits subjective measures of stress. The mechanism remains unclear; however, this may reflect increased cerebral blood flow, cognitive distraction, and/or effects secondary to task facilitation.

  18. Potential Subjective Effectiveness of Active Interior Noise Control in Propeller Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2000-01-01

    Active noise control technology offers the potential for weight-efficient aircraft interior noise reduction, particularly for propeller aircraft. However, there is little information on how passengers respond to this type of interior noise control. This paper presents results of two experiments that use sound quality engineering practices to determine the subjective effectiveness of hypothetical active noise control (ANC) systems in a range of propeller aircraft. The two experiments differed by the type of judgments made by the subjects: pair comparisons based on preference in the first and numerical category scaling of noisiness in the second. Although the results of the two experiments were in general agreement that the hypothetical active control measures improved the interior noise environments, the pair comparison method appears to be more sensitive to subtle changes in the characteristics of the sounds which are related to passenger preference. The reductions in subjective response due to the ANC conditions were predicted with reasonable accuracy by reductions in measured loudness level. Inclusion of corrections for the sound quality characteristics of tonality and fluctuation strength in multiple regression models improved the prediction of the ANC effects.

  19. Effects of apple consumption on plasma and erythrocyte antioxidant parameters in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Avci, Aslihan; Atli, Teslime; Ergüder, Imge B; Varli, Murat; Devrim, Erdinç; Turgay, Sevgi Aras Murat; Durak, Ilker

    2007-01-01

    The effects of apple consumption on plasma and erythrocyte antioxidant parameters of elderly subjects were investigated in this study. Fifteen elderly subjects (mean age 71.86 +/- 4.17) participated in the study. They consumed an apple a day for 1 month. Before and after this period, fasting blood samples were obtained, and oxidant (malondialdehyde [MDA]) and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px], catalase [CAT], and antioxidant potential [AOP]) parameters were studied. MDA and AOP levels were studied in plasma, and SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT activities and MDA levels were measured in the erythrocytes. In the erythrocytes, GSH-Px and SOD activities were found to be higher (p < .001 and p < .01), but MDA levels were lower in the second samples relative to the first ones. In the plasma, AOP value was found to be higher in the second samples relative to first ones (p < .001). No differences were found, however, between the routine blood parameters such as total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. The results show that consumption of apple leads to significant increases in the activities of some antioxidant enzymes and in the antioxidant potential values of the blood, and that decreases oxidation reactions in the body in significant amount. It is quite possible that reduced peroxidation processes owing to consumption of this fruit may play a part in some of their beneficial effects in the elderly subjects.

  20. Effects of Incentive Spirometry on Respiratory Motion in Healthy Subjects Using Cine Breathing Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Akazawa, Tsutomu; Sakuma, Tsuyoshi; Nagaya, Shigeyuki; Sonoda, Masaru; Tanaka, Yuji; Katogi, Takehide; Nemoto, Tetsuharu; Minami, Shohei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness of incentive spirometry on respiratory motion in healthy subjects using cine breathing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Ten non-smoking healthy subjects without any history of respiratory disease were studied. Subjects were asked to perform pulmonary training using incentive spirometry every day for two weeks. To assess the effectiveness of this training, pulmonary function tests and cine breathing MRI were performed before starting pulmonary training and two weeks after its completion. Results After training, there were significant improvements in vital capacity (VC) from 3.58±0.8 L to 3.74±0.8 L and in %VC from 107.4±10.8 to 112.1±8.2. Significant changes were observed in the right diaphragm motion, right chest wall motion, and left chest wall motion, which were increased from 55.7±9.6 mm to 63.4±10.2 mm, from 15.6±6.1 mm to 23.4±10.4 mm, and from 16.3±7.6 mm to 22.0±9.8 mm, respectively. Conclusion Two weeks of training using incentive spirometry provided improvements in pulmonary function and respiratory motion, which suggested that incentive spirometry may be a useful preoperative modality for improving pulmonary function during the perioperative period. PMID:26161341

  1. Absence of respiratory effects in subjects exposed to low concentrations of TDI and MDI

    SciTech Connect

    Musk, A.W.; Peters, J.M.; DiBerardinis, L.; Murphy, R.L.

    1982-10-01

    One hundred seven subjects from a polyurethane plastic manufacturing plant have been followed over a five-year period with measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), and questionnaires on respiratory symptoms and smoking habits. Environmental concentrations of toluene diisocyanate and diphenyl methyl diisocyanate were extensively monitored to provide accurate estimates of the upper-limits of exposure of the subjects. Current mean levels of FEV1 in this population were higher than those predicted for healthy subjects. The five-year change in FEV1 did not exceed that expected from aging. No acute change in FEV1 could be demonstrated over the course of a Monday either before or after a two-week vacation. No improvement in ventilatory function was observed over the vacation period. The presence of cough or sputum was related to smoking but was not related to isocyanate exposure. The results indicate that exposure of workers to extremely low levels of isocyanates (time-weighted average concentrations of the order of 0.001 parts per million (ppm)) is not associated with chronic respiratory symptoms or effects on ventilatory capacity. The results suggest that isocyanates can be controlled to the point of eliminating effects as measured by these techniques.

  2. Personality and the acute subjective effects of d-amphetamine in humans

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that subjective responses to psychoactive drugs are related to personality traits. Here, we extend previous findings by examining personality measures in relation to acute responses to d-amphetamine (AMPH) in a large sample of healthy volunteers. Healthy adults (n=286) completed the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Brief Form (MPQ-BF) and participated in four sessions during which they received oral AMPH (0, 5,10, 20 mg), under double-blind conditions. Subjective responses to the drug were measured using the Profile of Mood States, Addiction Research Center Inventory, and Drug Effects Questionnaire. Drug responses were reduced via principal components analysis to three higher-order factors (‘Euphoria’, ‘Arousal’, ‘Dysphoria’). Participants were rank ordered on selected MPQ-BF scales; the top and bottom third on each trait were compared on the drug response factors. High trait physical fearlessness was significantly associated with greater amphetamine-related Arousal, and high trait reward sensitivity was significantly associated with greater Euphoria. In addition, high trait impulsivity was significantly associated with greater Arousal and Euphoria. These results provide further evidence that individual differences in the subjective effects of AMPH are partially explained by differences in personality, and are consistent with the idea that both personality and responses to stimulants depend upon shared neurochemical systems. PMID:23343596

  3. [Music therapy in adults with cochlear implants : Effects on music perception and subjective sound quality].

    PubMed

    Hutter, E; Grapp, M; Argstatter, H

    2016-12-01

    People with severe hearing impairments and deafness can achieve good speech comprehension using a cochlear implant (CI), although music perception often remains impaired. A novel concept of music therapy for adults with CI was developed and evaluated in this study. This study included 30 adults with a unilateral CI following postlingual deafness. The subjective sound quality of the CI was rated using the hearing implant sound quality index (HISQUI) and musical tests for pitch discrimination, melody recognition and timbre identification were applied. As a control 55 normally hearing persons also completed the musical tests. In comparison to normally hearing subjects CI users showed deficits in the perception of pitch, melody and timbre. Specific effects of therapy were observed in the subjective sound quality of the CI, in pitch discrimination into a high and low pitch range and in timbre identification, while general learning effects were found in melody recognition. Music perception shows deficits in CI users compared to normally hearing persons. After individual music therapy in the rehabilitation process, improvements in this delicate area could be achieved.

  4. Prebiotic Effects of Xylooligosaccharides on the Improvement of Microbiota Balance in Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Liang-Mao; Chang, Jung-Su

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that probiotics can be nourished by consuming prebiotics in order to function more efficiently, allowing the bacteria to stay within a healthy balance. In this study, we investigated the effects of xylooligosaccharides- (XOS-) enriched rice porridge consumption on the ecosystem in the intestinal tract of human subjects. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this 6-week trial, in which 10 subjects received XOS-enriched rice porridge while the others received placebo rice porridge. Fecal samples were collected at the end of weeks 0, 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 for microorganism examination. The results showed that 6-week daily ingestion of the XOS-enriched rice porridge induced significant increases in fecal bacterial counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp., as well as decreases in Clostridium perfringens without changing the total anaerobic bacterial counts, compared to that of placebo rice porridge. However, fluctuations in the counts of coliforms were observed in both groups during the 6-week intervention. In conclusion, the intestinal microbiota balance was improved after daily consumption of 150 g of rice porridge containing XOS for 6 weeks, demonstrating the prebiotic potential of XOS incorporated into foods. This also indicates the effectiveness of XOS as a functional ingredient in relation to its role as a prebiotic compound. PMID:27651791

  5. Psychological effects of MDE in normal subjects. Are entactogens a new class of psychoactive agents?

    PubMed

    Hermle, L; Spitzer, M; Borchardt, D; Kovar, K A; Gouzoulis, E

    1993-02-01

    The so-called entactogens 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ([MDMA] also known as "Ecstasy," or "Adam") and its analog 3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine ([MDE] also known as "Eve") exert similar psychotropic effects in humans. Two double-blind placebo-controlled psychometric studies with normal control subjects were conducted. Placebo or MDE (140 mg) was administered orally to eight male volunteers at 1:30 P.M. and to six subjects (3 male, 3 female) at 11 P.M. Psychologic tests and clinical ratings were performed 1 hour before the administration of the drugs, as well as 2, 5, and 24 hours after drug intake and 7 days thereafter in the first study. In the second study, measures were taken at times -1, +8.5, +24 hours, and +7 days. The majority of the psychotropic effects resembled those that have already been described in anecdotal reports. The substance produced a partially controllable state of enhanced insight, empathy, and peaceful feelings. All subjects displayed a general stimulation with increased psychomotor drive, logorrhea, and facilitation of communication. One of the fourteen volunteers developed a toxic psychosis. One volunteer displayed a dysphoric reaction, one suffered from episodes of anxiety for some days after the experiment. The findings support the hypothesis that MDMA and MDE represent a novel pharmacologic class.

  6. Prebiotic Effects of Xylooligosaccharides on the Improvement of Microbiota Balance in Human Subjects.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shyh-Hsiang; Chou, Liang-Mao; Chien, Yi-Wen; Chang, Jung-Su; Lin, Ching-I

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that probiotics can be nourished by consuming prebiotics in order to function more efficiently, allowing the bacteria to stay within a healthy balance. In this study, we investigated the effects of xylooligosaccharides- (XOS-) enriched rice porridge consumption on the ecosystem in the intestinal tract of human subjects. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this 6-week trial, in which 10 subjects received XOS-enriched rice porridge while the others received placebo rice porridge. Fecal samples were collected at the end of weeks 0, 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 for microorganism examination. The results showed that 6-week daily ingestion of the XOS-enriched rice porridge induced significant increases in fecal bacterial counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp., as well as decreases in Clostridium perfringens without changing the total anaerobic bacterial counts, compared to that of placebo rice porridge. However, fluctuations in the counts of coliforms were observed in both groups during the 6-week intervention. In conclusion, the intestinal microbiota balance was improved after daily consumption of 150 g of rice porridge containing XOS for 6 weeks, demonstrating the prebiotic potential of XOS incorporated into foods. This also indicates the effectiveness of XOS as a functional ingredient in relation to its role as a prebiotic compound.

  7. Clenching and grinding: effect on masseter and sternocleidomastoid electromyographic activity in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Venegas, Macarena; Valdivia, José; Fresno, María Javiera; Miralles, Rodolfo; Gutiérrez, Mario Felipe; Valenzuela, Saúl; Fuentes, Aler

    2009-07-01

    This study compares the effect of clenching and grinding on masseter and sternocleidomastoid electromyographic (EMG) activity during different jaw posture tasks in the sagittal plane. The study included 34 healthy subjects with natural dentition, Class I bilateral molar Angle relationship, and absence of posterior occlusal contacts during mandibular protrusion. An inclusion criterion was that subjects had to be free of signs and symptoms of any dysfunction of the masticatory system. Bipolar surface electrodes were located on the right masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles. EMG activity was recorded while the subjects were in standing position, during the following jaw posture tasks: A. maximal clenching in the intercuspal position; B. grinding from intercuspal position to edge-to-edge protrusive contact position; C. maximal clenching in the edge-to-edge protrusive contact position; D. grinding from edge-to-edge protrusive contact position to intercuspal position; E. grinding from retrusive contact position to intercuspal position. EMG activities in tasks B, C, D, and E were significantly lower than in task A in both muscles (mixed model with unstructured covariance matrix). EMG activity among tasks B, C, D, and E did not show significant differences in both muscles, except between tasks D and E in the masseter muscle. A higher effect was observed on the masseter than on the sternocleidomastoid muscle to avoid excessive muscular activity during clenching and grinding. The EMG patterns observed could be of clinical importance in the presence of parafunctional habits, i.e., clenching and/or grinding.

  8. Effect of food or antacid on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of febuxostat in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Khosravan, Reza; Grabowski, Brian; Wu, Jing-Tao; Joseph-Ridge, Nancy; Vernillet, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the effects of food or antacid on the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of febuxostat. Methods Four Phase I, two-period, crossover studies were performed in healthy male and female subjects. Subjects either received single 40-mg (n = 24), multiple 80-mg (n = 24) and single 120-mg (n = 20) doses of febuxostat in fasting and nonfasting conditions, or received single 80-mg (n = 24) doses alone or with antacid. Results Food caused a decrease in Cmax (38–49%) and AUC (16–19%) of febuxostat at different dose levels following single or multiple oral dosing with febuxostat. However, a slightly greater percent decrease in serum uric acid concentrations (58% vs. 51%) after multiple dosing with 80 mg of febuxostat under nonfasting conditions was observed, which was statistically (P < 0.05) but not clinically significant. Antacid caused a decrease in Cmax (32%), but had no effect on AUC of febuxostat. Febuxostat was safe and well tolerated in all studies. Conclusions Even though food caused a decrease in the rate and extent of absorption of febuxostat, this decrease was not associated with a clinically significant change in febuxostat pharmacodynamic effect. Despite a decrease in the absorption rate of febuxostat, antacid had no effect on the extent of febuxostat absorption. Therefore, febuxostat can be administered regardless of food or antacid intake. What is already known about this subject Febuxostat is a novel nonpurine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. What this study adds This is the first manuscript to address the effect of food and antacid on the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of febuxostat.The study will determine whether the drug can be administered regardless of food or antacid.It will therefore influence how the drug should be administered. PMID:17953718

  9. Effects of acute topiramate dosing on methamphetamine-induced subjective mood.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Bankole A; Roache, John D; Ait-Daoud, Nassima; Wells, Lynda T; Wallace, Christopher L; Dawes, Michael A; Liu, Lei; Wang, Xin-Qun

    2007-02-01

    Clinical studies have shown that topiramate, a sulphamate-substituted fructopyranose derivative, might be an efficacious treatment for alcohol dependence, smoking cessation within an alcohol-dependent population, and cocaine dependence. Mechanistically, topiramate's therapeutic effects have been hypothesized to be due to inhibition of cortico-mesolimbic dopamine function, the primary substrate that governs the acquisition, maintenance, and reinstatement of goal-directed behaviour towards seeking abused drugs. Predicated on this hypothesis, we tested in 10 methamphetamine-dependent individuals (three females) whether low- or high-dose (15 or 30 mg i.v.) methamphetamine-induced positive subjective effects and reinforcement can be antagonized by low- or high-dose (100 or 200 mg orally) topiramate using a placebo-controlled, cross-over, factorial design. Methamphetamine administration was associated with orderly, prototypical, and significant increases on measures of stimulation, euphoria, craving, and reinforcement; however, some dysphoric symptoms also emerged. Topiramate alone showed a non-significant trend towards mild reductions in positive mood and reinforcement; yet topiramate appeared to accentuate the appreciation of methamphetamine-induced stimulation and euphoria significantly, but not craving or reinforcement. The experimental combination of topiramate and methamphetamine appeared to be safe and well tolerated, with few adverse events. Acute dosing with up to 200 mg topiramate appears to enhance, rather than attenuate, the positive subjective effects of methamphetamine. Perhaps this indicates a partial inhibition of methamphetamine's reinforcing effects. Thus, testing chronically administered or higher doses, or both, of topiramate would be necessary to determine conclusively whether or not it can attenuate the positive subjective and reinforcing effects of methamphetamine.

  10. Effect of Painful and Non-Painful Sensorimotor Manipulations on Subjective Body Midline

    PubMed Central

    Bouffard, Jason; Gagné, Martin; Mercier, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain often show disturbances in their body perception. Understanding the exact role played by pain is however complex, as confounding factors can contribute to the observed deficits in these clinical populations. To address this question, acute experimental pain was used to test the effect of lateralized pain on body perception in healthy subjects. Subjects were asked to indicate the position of their body midline (subjective body midline, SBM) by stopping a moving luminescent dot projected on a screen placed in front of them, in a completely dark environment. The effect of other non-painful sensorimotor manipulations was also tested to assess the potential unspecific attentional effects of stimulating one side of the body. SBM judgment was made in 17 volunteers under control and three experimental conditions: (1) painful (heat) stimulation; (2) non-painful vibrotactile stimulation; and (3) muscle contraction. The effects of the stimulated side and the type of trial (control vs. experimental condition), were tested separately for each condition with a 2 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA. The analyses revealed a significant interaction in both pain (p = 0.05) and vibration conditions (p = 0.04). Post hoc tests showed opposite effects of pain and vibration. Pain applied on the right arm deviated the SBM toward the right (stimulated) side (p = 0.03) while vibration applied on the left arm deviated the SBM toward the right (not stimulated) side (p = 0.01). These opposite patterns suggest that the shift in SBM is likely to be specifically linked to the stimulation modality. It is concluded that acute experimental pain can induce an SBM shift toward the stimulated side, which might be functionally beneficial to protect the painful area of the body. Interestingly, it appears to be easier to bias SBM toward the right side, regardless of the modality and of the stimulated side. PMID:23504448

  11. The effect of apixaban on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin and atenolol in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Charles; Song, Yan; Yu, Zhigang; Wang, Jessie; Lee, Lois S; Schuster, Alan; Pollack, Allyson; LaCreta, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Apixaban is often coadministered with treatments for cardiovascular comorbidities, which may lead to unintended drug–drug interactions (DDIs). The effects of apixaban on pharmacokinetics (PK) of multidose Lanoxin® (digoxin) and single-dose Tenormin® (atenolol) and the effects of single-dose atenolol on apixaban PK in healthy subjects were investigated in two Phase 1 studies. Patients and methods The digoxin DDI study was an open-label, multidose, two-treatment, single-sequence study in which subjects received digoxin 0.25 mg q6h on day 1, then once daily on days 2–10, followed by apixaban 20 mg and digoxin 0.25 mg once daily on days 11–20. The atenolol DDI study was an open-label, single-dose, randomized, three-period, three-treatment, crossover study in which subjects received a single oral dose of apixaban 10 mg, atenolol 100 mg, or apixaban 10 mg plus atenolol 100 mg. The 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the ratios of geometric means of peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration–time curve (AUCtau), with and without apixaban were calculated. Absence of effect was concluded if the point estimates and 90% CI were within the equivalence interval of 80%–125% (digoxin) or 70%–143% (atenolol). A similar analysis was performed to assess the effect of atenolol on apixaban. Results Apixaban had no clinically relevant effect on the PK of either atenolol or digoxin: point estimates and 90% CI for both digoxin and atenolol Cmax and AUC were entirely within their respective no-effect intervals. Apixaban Cmax and AUCinf were slightly decreased (ie, 18% and 15% lower, respectively) following atenolol coadministration. No serious or major bleeding-related adverse events were reported during either study. Conclusion Apixaban had no effect on the PK of digoxin and there was no clinically relevant interaction between apixaban and atenolol. Coadministration of digoxin or atenolol with apixaban in healthy subjects was generally well

  12. Effect of weightlessness and centrifugation on red cell survival in rats subjected to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. A.; Serova, L. V.; Landaw, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    Rats were flown aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 936 for 18.5 d during August, 1977. Five rats were subjected to near-weightless space flight, as with Cosmos 782, and five rats were subjected to a 1-G force via an on-board centrifuge. These rats and three control groups were injected with 2-(C-14) glycine 19 d preflight. The flight rats were recovered from orbit after 18.5 d of space flight. Erythrocyte hemolysis and lifespan were evaluated in the five groups of rats by quantitation of radioactive carbon monoxide exhaled in the breath which arises from the breakdown of the previously labeled hemoglobin. The results support the previous findings wherein hemolysis was found to increase as a result of weightless space flight. A comparison to the centrifuged animals indicates that artificial gravity attenuates the effect of weightlessness on hemolysis and appears to normalize the hemolytic rate in the early postflight period.

  13. Effect of repeated US stimulation on adiponectin secretion by adipocytes of obese human subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yasutomo; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Satoh, Masaaki; Irie, Takasuke; Itoh, Kouichi

    2006-05-01

    To clarify the effect of the repeated sonication on the adiponectin secretion by adipocytes obtained from obese subjects. Using 1-MHz continuous-wave ultrasound at an intensity of 0.50 or 2.1 W/cm2, we sonicated culture flasks of subcutaneous adipocytes obtained from obese human subjects, in a series of 3 sessions of US stimulation applied for a daily total of 15 min. For the measurement of adiponectin secretion, 50 μl of the culture medium was collected from each flask every 24 h after the 1st stimulation. Quantification of adiponectin protein levels in cell culture supernatants was performed with a commercially available ELISA kit recommended by the manufacturer. The adiponectin concentrations in the culture medium of the US stimulation groups rose significantly (p<0.05). Repeated US stimulation may accelerate adiponectin secretion in obese human adipocytes.

  14. Effects of religiosity and racial socialization on subjective stigmatization in African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brega, A G; Coleman, L M

    1999-04-01

    The direct effects of religiosity and racial socialization on subjective stigmatization among 50 African-American adolescents were investigated. A stigma is a characteristic about which others hold negative attitudes and stereotypes. Subjective stigmatization measures the degree to which an individual internalizes such negative attitudes and stereotypes toward a social group of which he or she is a member. Participants who showed strong commitment to the church were more destigmatized than were participants who did not. Further, participants who received racial socialization messages stemming from a single "primary" category were more destigmatized than those who did not. Unexpectedly, the more racial socialization messages participants received, the more self-stigmatized they were. The importance of religiosity and racial socialization in the lives of African-American adolescents are discussed.

  15. Performance, subjective, and physiological effects of nicotine in non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Heishman, S J; Snyder, F R; Henningfield, J E

    1993-12-01

    Sixteen human volunteers with little or no experience using tobacco participated in one 4.5-h experimental session in which they were administered three doses of nicotine polacrilex gum (0, 2 and 4 mg) in ascending order at 90-min intervals. Physiological, subjective, and cognitive performance measures were assessed before and after each dose. Nicotine produced dose-related increases in heart rate and blood pressure and decreases in skin temperature. Nicotine also increased subjective ratings of dose strength and negative effects and decreased ratings of desire to repeat the same dose. There were dose-related trends toward decreased accuracy and increased response time on 3 of the 4 cognitive tests. These data do not support the hypothesis that nicotine enhances cognitive functioning in non-smokers.

  16. Effects of nitrogen dioxide on allergic airway responses in subjects with asthma.

    PubMed

    Witten, Allyson; Solomon, Colin; Abbritti, Emilio; Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Zhai, Wenwu; Kleinman, Michael; Balmes, John

    2005-12-01

    We sought to determine whether nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can enhance airway inflammation after allergen challenge in asthmatic subjects. Fifteen house-dust-mite (HDM)-sensitive asthmatic subjects were exposed for 3 hours to filtered air or 0.4 ppm NO2, followed by inhalational challenge with HDM allergen. Markers of inflammation were measured in sputum at 6 hours and 26 hours after allergen challenge. After exposure to NO2, eosinophil concentration decreased significantly in the 6-hour postallergen sputum. No significant NO2-related difference was observed for other variables. Our results suggest that, in most asthmatic individuals, multi-hour exposure to a high ambient concentration of NO2 does not enhance the inflammatory response to subsequent inhaled allergen as assessed by cell distribution in induced sputum. Because the decrease in airway eosinophils has been reported in previous animal studies, future research should be directed toward the mechanism of this effect.

  17. Effects of covert subject actions on percent body fat by air-displacement plethsymography.

    PubMed

    Tegenkamp, Michelle H; Clark, R Randall; Schoeller, Dale A; Landry, Greg L

    2011-07-01

    Air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) is used for estimation of body composition, however, some individuals, such as athletes in weight classification sports, may use covert methods during ADP testing to alter their apparent percent body fat. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of covert subject actions on percent body fat measured by ADP. Subjects underwent body composition analysis in the Bod Pod following the standard procedure using the manufacturer's guidelines. The subjects then underwent 8 more measurements while performing the following intentional manipulations: 4 breathing patterns altering lung volume, foot movement to disrupt air, hand cupping to trap air, and heat and cold exposure before entering the chamber. Increasing and decreasing lung volume during thoracic volume measurement and during body density measurement altered the percent body fat assessment (p < 0.001). High lung volume during thoracic gas measures overestimated fat by 3.7 ± 2.1 percentage points. Lowered lung volume during body volume measures overestimated body fat by an additional 2.2 ± 2.1 percentage points. The heat and cold exposure, tapping, and cupping treatments provided similar estimates of percent body fat when compared with the standard condition. These results demonstrate the subjects were able to covertly change their estimated ADP body composition value by altering breathing when compared with the standard condition. We recommend that sports conditioning coaches, athletic trainers, and technicians administering ADP should be aware of the potential effects of these covert actions. The individual responsible for administering ADP should remain vigilant during testing to detect deliberate altered breathing patterns by athletes in an effort to gain a competitive advantage by manipulating their body composition assessment.

  18. Effect of Atorvastatin on Glycaemic Parameters in Normoglycaemic and Prediabetic Subjects: A Prospective, Panel Study

    PubMed Central

    Parida, Sansita; Swain, Trupti Rekha; Routray, Satya Narayan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Type 2 diabetes is associated with obesity and dyslipidemia, which are risk factor for cardiovascular disease. With recent FDA approved indications for statins being widened because of its lipid lowering and pleiotropic effects, statins are currently amongst the most widely used drugs in patients with or without diabetes. Although cardiovascular risk is reduced by statin therapy, its association with the development of diabetes is disputed. Aim This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Atorvastatin on glycaemic status of normoglycaemic and prediabetic individuals. Materials and Methods An observational, prospective panel study was conducted on 75 subjects who were on Atorvastatin therapy. After baseline data collection and investigations, subjects were recruited depending on their glycaemic status into three groups: normoglycaemic, Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) group. Atorvastatin therapy was continued and the subjects were followed every 6 months up to 18 months. At every follow up all glycaemic parameters were evaluated and subjects were assessed for continuation of statin therapy, dosing schedule and possible adverse drug reactions. Result All three groups as a whole, irrespective of dose of Atrovastatin therapy, showed a statistically significant (p<0.0001) increase in all glycaemic parameters. In normoglycaemic group with low dose Atorvastatin, there was no significant change in 2-hour Post Prandial Blood Sugar (PPBS) but change in HbA1c% (p=0.0004) and FBS (p<0.0001) was significant, whereas, with high dose, changes in 2-hr PPBS and HbA1c % were significant from 6 months onwards. In IFG group, both with low and high dose of Atorvastatin, there was significant change in all glycaemic parameters from 12 months onwards. In case of IGT, especially with high dose Atorvastatin, significant changes were evident from 6 months onwards. Conclusion Atorvastatin therapy especially with higher dose was found to

  19. Effect of indomethacin on the metabolic and hormonal response to a standardized breakfast in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, A S; Guerten, D; Scheen, A; Delporte, J P; Lefebvre, P J; Jaminet, F

    1981-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of a single oral administration of indomethacin on blood glucose, plasma free fatty acids (FFA), alpha-amino-nitrogen, insulin and glucagon concentrations in young healthy subjects. Two groups of 6 subjects were studied, the first received a standardized 500 kcal mixed meal without any previous drug administration (controls) whereas the second group received 50 mg indomethacin 2 h before ingesting an identical meal. Plasma indomethacin concentration reached its maximum (2.36 +/- 0.36 micro g/ml) 15 min after administration and declined to 0.45 +/- 0.04 micro g/ml after 2 h. Indomethacin ingestion was followed by a significant increase in blood glucose and plasma FFA reaching their maximum value at 45 min and returning to basal levels at 120 min. No simultaneous changes in plasma alpha-amino-nitrogen, insulin or glucagon levels were detected during this period. The meal was followed by a rise in blood glucose and plasma insulin as well as by a decrease in plasma FFA concentration. No significant differences were detected between the controls and the subjects receiving indomethacin. In controls, the meal was followed by a rise in plasma alpha-amino-nitrogen and a modest although significant increase in glucagon levels. In indomethacin-treated subjects, the increment of alpha-amino-nitrogen was less marked and the increase in plasma glucagon was not observed. Thus, indomethacin by itself can exert several metabolic effects; however, it does not deteriorate the blood glucose or insulin profile after a regular meal. The present work is the first to demonstrate that an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis inhibits the plasma glucagon rise occurring after a physiological stimulus such as a normal meal. On the basis of previous in vitro experiments, we suggest that this effect results from an inhibition of glucagon secretion by the PG synthesis inhibitor.

  20. Candidiasis: predisposing factors, prevention, diagnosis and alternative treatment.

    PubMed

    Martins, Natália; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Barros, Lillian; Silva, Sónia; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-06-01

    Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic yeast infection. Candida species and other microorganisms are involved in this complicated fungal infection, but Candida albicans continues to be the most prevalent. In the past two decades, it has been observed an abnormal overgrowth in the gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory tracts, not only in immunocompromised patients, but also related to nosocomial infections and even in healthy individuals. There is a widely variety of causal factors that contribute to yeast infection which means that candidiasis is a good example of a multifactorial syndrome. Due to rapid increase in the incidence in these infections, this is the subject of numerous studies. Recently, the focus of attention is the treatment and, above all, the prevention of those complications. The diagnosis of candidiasis could become quite complicated. Prevention is the most effective "treatment," much more than eradication of the yeast with antifungal agents. There are several aspects to consider in the daily routine that can provide a strength protection. However, a therapeutic approach is necessary when the infection is established, and therefore, other alternatives should be explored. This review provides an overview on predisposition factors, prevention and diagnosis of candidiasis, highlighting alternative approaches for candidiasis treatment.

  1. Effects of Opioid Peptides on Changes in Lipid Metabolism in Rats Subjected to Swimming Stress.

    PubMed

    Solin, A V; Lyashev, A Yu; Lyashev, Yu D

    2017-01-01

    Blood levels of nonesterified fatty acids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL increased in rats subjected to forced swimming stress. Administration of opioid peptides dynorphin A(1-13), DSLET, or DAGO reduced stress-induced disturbances in lipid metabolism. Dynorphin A(1-13) and DAGO produced the most pronounced effects and prevented an increase in concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL as soon as 39 h after treatment. Only DSLET increased HDL content in the plasma of stressed rats. The observed effects can be explained by the stress-limiting effects of opioids, e.g. attenuation of the effect of catecholamines on the adipose tissue and inhibition of the generation LPO products suppressing activity of the cholesterol metabolizing enzyme.

  2. The Subjective Effects of Alcohol Scale: development and psychometric evaluation of a novel assessment tool for measuring subjective response to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Morean, Meghan E; Corbin, William R; Treat, Teresa A

    2013-09-01

    Three decades of research demonstrate that individual differences in subjective response (SR) to acute alcohol effects predict heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, the SR patterns conferring the greatest risk remain under debate. Morean and Corbin (2010) highlighted that extant SR measures commonly have limitations within the following areas: assessment of a comprehensive range of effects, assessment of effects over the complete course of a drinking episode, and/or psychometric validation. Furthermore, the consistent pairing of certain SR measures and theoretical models has made integration of findings difficult. To address these issues, we developed the Subjective Effects of Alcohol Scale (SEAS), a novel, psychometrically sound SR measure for use in alcohol administration studies. Pilot data ensured that the SEAS comprised a comprehensive range of effects that varied in terms of valence and arousal and were perceived as plausible effects of drinking. For validation purposes, the SEAS was included in a 2-site, placebo-controlled, alcohol administration study (N = 215). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified a 14-item, 4-factor model categorizing effects into affective quadrants (high/low arousal positive; high/low arousal negative). SEAS scores evidenced the following: (a) scalar measurement invariance by limb of the blood alcohol curve (BAC) and beverage condition; (b) good internal consistency; (c) convergence/divergence with extant SR measures, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use; and (d) concurrent/incremental utility in accounting for alcohol-related outcomes, highlighting the novel high arousal negative and low arousal.

  3. Abuse potential assessment of propofol by its subjective effects after sedation.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, Aysu Hayriye; Ornek, Dilsen Hatice; Ozlu, Onur; Baydar, Mustafa; Yavuz, Nurcan; Ozaslan, Nihal Gokbulut; Dilek, Kevser; Keske, Aylin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the euphoric effect of propofol and its high satisfaction ratio regarding its liability to be abused, particularly in painless procedures, such as colonoscopy. Fifty subjects aged between 18 and 65 years who fulfilled the criteria for ASA 1-2 and were prepared for colonoscopy were enrolled into this study. For intravenous sedation induction, 2 mg/kg propofol was used, and additional injections were administered according to BIS values. After colonoscopy, the subjects were taken to a recovery room and observed for 30 minutes. Patients were interviewed with the modified Brice questionnare regarding the incidence and the content of dreams. A 5-point Likert scale was used to classify their dreams, and the content of the dreams was also recorded. To assess the subjective effects of propofol, the patients were asked to use the Hall and Van der Castle emotion scale; their biological states were also assessed. The patients' feelings regarding propofol were each rated as absent or present. We used the Morphine-Benzedrine Group scale to measure the euphoric effects of propofol. At the end of the study, subjects scored their satisfaction on a five-point scale. There were no statistically significant differences in sex age, weight, propofol dose, or satisfaction ratio (p>0.05) in the groups, although male patients received a higher dose of propofol and had higher satisfaction ratio. Patients reported no residual after-effects. The incidence of dreaming was 42%. There was no statistically significant difference in dreaming between the sexes, but male patients had a higher dreaming ratio. Dreamers received higher propofol doses and had a higher satisfaction ratio (p>0.05). All dreamers reported happy dreams regarding daily life, and their mean MBG score was 10.5. There was no correlation between MBG scores and propofol doses (r= -0.044, p= 0.761). We conclude that propofol functions as a reward; that patients enjoy its acute effects; and that no

  4. Abuse potential assessment of propofol by its subjective effects after sedation

    PubMed Central

    Tezcan, Aysu Hayriye; Ornek, Dilsen Hatice; Ozlu, Onur; Baydar, Mustafa; Yavuz, Nurcan; Ozaslan, Nihal Gokbulut; Dilek, Kevser; Keske, Aylin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we examined the euphoric effect of propofol and its high satisfaction ratio regarding its liability to be abused, particularly in painless procedures, such as colonoscopy. Methods: Fifty subjects aged between 18 and 65 years who fulfilled the criteria for ASA 1-2 and were prepared for colonoscopy were enrolled into this study. For intravenous sedation induction, 2 mg/kg propofol was used, and additional injections were administered according to BIS values. After colonoscopy, the subjects were taken to a recovery room and observed for 30 minutes. Patients were interviewed with the modified Brice questionnare regarding the incidence and the content of dreams. A 5-point Likert scale was used to classify their dreams, and the content of the dreams was also recorded. To assess the subjective effects of propofol, the patients were asked to use the Hall and Van der Castle emotion scale; their biological states were also assessed. The patients’ feelings regarding propofol were each rated as absent or present. We used the Morphine-Benzedrine Group scale to measure the euphoric effects of propofol. At the end of the study, subjects scored their satisfaction on a five-point scale. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in sex age, weight, propofol dose, or satisfaction ratio (p>0.05) in the groups, although male patients received a higher dose of propofol and had higher satisfaction ratio. Patients reported no residual after-effects. The incidence of dreaming was 42%. There was no statistically significant difference in dreaming between the sexes, but male patients had a higher dreaming ratio. Dreamers received higher propofol doses and had a higher satisfaction ratio (p>0.05). All dreamers reported happy dreams regarding daily life, and their mean MBG score was 10.5. There was no correlation between MBG scores and propofol doses (r= -0.044, p= 0.761). Conclusions: We conclude that propofol functions as a reward; that patients

  5. The effect of local cryotherapy on subjective and objective recovery characteristics following an exhaustive jump protocol

    PubMed Central

    Hohenauer, Erich; Clarys, Peter; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Clijsen, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this controlled trial was to investigate the effects of a single local cryotherapy session on the recovery characteristics over a period of 72 hours. Twenty-two young and healthy female (n=17; mean age: 21.9±1.1 years) and male (n=5;mean age: 25.4±2.8 years) adults participated in this study. Following an exhaustive jump protocol (3×30 countermovement jumps), half of the participants received either a single local cryotherapy application (+8°C) or a single local thermoneutral application (+32°C) of 20-minute duration using two thigh cuffs. Subjective measures of recovery (delayed-onset muscle soreness and ratings of perceived exertion) and objective measures of recovery (vertical jump performance and peak power output) were assessed immediately following the postexercise applications (0 hours) and at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after the jump protocol. Local cryotherapy failed to significantly affect any subjective recovery variable during the 72-hour recovery period (P>0.05). After 72 hours, the ratings of perceived exertion were significantly lower in the thermoneutral group compared to that in the cryotherapy group (P=0.002). No significant differences were observed between the cryotherapy and the thermoneutral groups with respect to any of the objective recovery variables. In this experimental study, a 20-minute cryotherapy cuff application failed to demonstrate a positive effect on any objective measures of recovery. The effects of local thermoneutral application on subjective recovery characteristics were superior when compared to the effects of local cryotherapy application at 72 hours postapplication. PMID:27579000

  6. Human pharmacology of ayahuasca: subjective and cardiovascular effects, monoamine metabolite excretion, and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Riba, Jordi; Valle, Marta; Urbano, Gloria; Yritia, Mercedes; Morte, Adelaida; Barbanoj, Manel J

    2003-07-01

    The effects of the South American psychotropic beverage ayahuasca on subjective and cardiovascular variables and urine monoamine metabolite excretion were evaluated, together with the drug's pharmacokinetic profile, in a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. This pharmacologically complex tea, commonly obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, combines N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), an orally labile psychedelic agent showing 5-hydroxytryptamine2A agonist activity, with monoamine oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting beta-carboline alkaloids (harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine). Eighteen volunteers with prior experience in the use of psychedelics received single oral doses of encapsulated freeze-dried ayahuasca (0.6 and 0.85 mg of DMT/kg of body weight) and placebo. Ayahuasca produced significant subjective effects, peaking between 1.5 and 2 h, involving perceptual modifications and increases in ratings of positive mood and activation. Diastolic blood pressure showed a significant increase at the high dose (9 mm Hg at 75 min), whereas systolic blood pressure and heart rate were moderately and nonsignificantly increased. Cmax values for DMT after the low and high ayahuasca doses were 12.14 ng/ml and 17.44 ng/ml, respectively. Tmax (median) was observed at 1.5 h after both doses. The Tmax for DMT coincided with the peak of subjective effects. Drug administration increased urinary normetanephrine excretion, but, contrary to the typical MAO-inhibitor effect profile, deaminated monoamine metabolite levels were not decreased. This and the negligible harmine plasma levels found suggest a predominantly peripheral (gastrointestinal and liver) site of action for harmine. MAO inhibition at this level would suffice to prevent first-pass metabolism of DMT and allow its access to systemic circulation and the central nervous system.

  7. The effect of local cryotherapy on subjective and objective recovery characteristics following an exhaustive jump protocol.

    PubMed

    Hohenauer, Erich; Clarys, Peter; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Clijsen, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this controlled trial was to investigate the effects of a single local cryotherapy session on the recovery characteristics over a period of 72 hours. Twenty-two young and healthy female (n=17; mean age: 21.9±1.1 years) and male (n=5;mean age: 25.4±2.8 years) adults participated in this study. Following an exhaustive jump protocol (3×30 countermovement jumps), half of the participants received either a single local cryotherapy application (+8°C) or a single local thermoneutral application (+32°C) of 20-minute duration using two thigh cuffs. Subjective measures of recovery (delayed-onset muscle soreness and ratings of perceived exertion) and objective measures of recovery (vertical jump performance and peak power output) were assessed immediately following the postexercise applications (0 hours) and at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after the jump protocol. Local cryotherapy failed to significantly affect any subjective recovery variable during the 72-hour recovery period (P>0.05). After 72 hours, the ratings of perceived exertion were significantly lower in the thermoneutral group compared to that in the cryotherapy group (P=0.002). No significant differences were observed between the cryotherapy and the thermoneutral groups with respect to any of the objective recovery variables. In this experimental study, a 20-minute cryotherapy cuff application failed to demonstrate a positive effect on any objective measures of recovery. The effects of local thermoneutral application on subjective recovery characteristics were superior when compared to the effects of local cryotherapy application at 72 hours postapplication.

  8. Indentation Size Effect (ISE) in Copper Subjected to Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, Joshua D.; Achuthan, Ajit; Morrison, David J.

    2014-05-01

    The characteristic length scale of deformation in copper specimens subjected to severe plastic deformation (SPD) through surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) was studied with indentation experiments. Annealed copper disks were shot peened with 6-mm diameter tungsten carbide spheres with an average velocity of 2.3 m/s for 15 minutes in a vibrating chamber. The SMAT-treated specimens were cross-sectioned, and the exposed face was studied under nanoindentation in order to determine the effect of dislocation density on surface hardness and indentation size effect (ISE). Since the specimen preparation of the exposed face involved mechanical polishing, which in turn introduced additional SPD on the indenting face, the effect of mechanical polishing on hardness measurement was investigated first. To this end, the mechanically polished specimens were subjected to various durations of electrochemical polishing. Hardness measurements on these specimens showed that the effect of mechanical polishing was substantial for both microindentation and nanoindentation, the impact being significantly larger for nanoindentation. Consequently, the measured depth of influence of the SMAT process, determined on specimens subjected to longer durations of electrochemical polishing, shows larger values compared to those previously reported in the literature. The ISE shows a bilinear relationship between the square of hardness and the reciprocal of indentation depth. The slope of this behavior, corresponding to smaller indentation loads, which is a measure of the ISE associated with a strain gradient, shows a power-law relationship with an increase in the distance away from the SMAT surface, instead of the constant value expected with the Nix-Gao type model.

  9. Effects of a single, oral 60 mg caffeine dose on attention in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmus, Micha Mm; Hay, Justin L; Zuiker, Rob Gja; Okkerse, Pieter; Perdrieu, Christelle; Sauser, Julien; Beaumont, Maurice; Schmitt, Jeroen; van Gerven, Joop Ma; Silber, Beata Y

    2017-02-01

    Caffeine induces positive effects on sustained attention, although studies assessing the acute effects of low caffeine dose (<75 mg) on sustained attention are limited and use short-term tests. Therefore, we investigated the acute effects of a 60 mg dose of caffeine on sustained attention in tests lasting up to 45 minutes using 82 low or non-caffeine-consuming healthy male ( n=41) and female ( n=41) adults aged between 40 and 60 years. Vigilance was measured using Mackworth Clock test, Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, adaptive tracking test, saccadic eye movement and attention switch test. Effects on mood and fatigue were analysed using Bond and Lader and Caffeine Research visual analogue scales, and Samn-Perelli questionnaire. Saliva sampling was performed for both compliance and caffeine pharmacokinetic analysis. Administration of a 60 mg caffeine dose resulted in a significant improvement in sustained attention compared with the placebo. Also a significantly improved peak saccadic velocity and reaction time performance was found, and decreased error rate. Significantly increased feelings of alertness, contentment and overall mood after caffeine treatment compared with placebo were observed. This study demonstrated that in healthy adult subjects oral administration of a single 60 mg caffeine dose elicited a clear enhancement of sustained attention and alertness, measured both in multiple objective performances and in subjective scales.

  10. The cardiopulmonary effects of physical restraint in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Carolyn; Taslaq, Samer; Kon, Onn Min; Henry, John

    2005-06-01

    Police officers commonly encounter violent individuals in their line of duty, with the use of physical restraint sometimes being necessary. A major criticism of previous studies of the effect of restraint on cardiac and pulmonary function has been that they have only recruited young healthy adults. This study aims to assess the cardiopulmonary effects of restraint positioning in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Eight patients with stable COPD were recruited. Subjects were randomly allocated to the following five positions: Wrist restraint behind the body whilst seated; wrist restraint in front of the body whilst seated; lying prone with wrists restrained behind back; lying prone with arms free; lying supine with wrists restrained in front. The outcomes measures studied were pulmonary function at 10 min. There was no significant difference in FEV1 or FVC between groups, (one way ANOVA p=0.94 and 0.99, respectively). The difference in FEV1 between the seated position and seated position with wrists restrained behind the back were also compared (p=0.8) as was the effect of wrist restraint in the prone position compared to no restraint prone (p=0.69). However, three subjects could not tolerate the prone position due to a clinical deterioration in symptoms. The response to the prone position with or without wrist restraint appears highly individual, with some individuals tolerating the prone position with no measurable clinical effects and others suffering a clinical deterioration in symptoms. The reasons for this individual variation remain unclear.

  11. Effect of Frustration on Brain Activation Pattern in Subjects with Different Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Bierzynska, Maria; Bielecki, Maksymilian; Marchewka, Artur; Debowska, Weronika; Duszyk, Anna; Zajkowski, Wojciech; Falkiewicz, Marcel; Nowicka, Anna; Strelau, Jan; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the prevalence of frustration in everyday life, very few neuroimaging studies were focused on this emotional state. In the current study we aimed to examine effects of frustration on brain activity while performing a well-learned task in participants with low and high tolerance for arousal. Prior to the functional magnetic resonance imaging session, the subjects underwent 2 weeks of Braille reading training. Frustration induction was obtained by using a novel highly difficult tactile task based on discrimination of Braille-like raised dots patterns and negative feedback. Effectiveness of this procedure has been confirmed in a pilot study using galvanic skin response and questionnaires. Brain activation pattern during tactile discrimination task before and after frustration were compared directly. Results revealed changes in brain activity in structures mostly reported in acute stress studies: striatum, cingulate cortex, insula, middle frontal gyrus and precuneus and in structures engaged in tactile Braille discrimination: SI and SII. Temperament type affected activation pattern. Subjects with low tolerance for arousal showed higher activation in the posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule than high reactivity group. Even though performance in the discrimination trials following frustration was unaltered, we observed increased activity of primary and secondary somatosensory cortex processing the tactile information. We interpret this effect as an indicator of additional involvement required to counteract the effects of frustration. PMID:26793136

  12. Effect of Grewia asiatica fruit on glycemic index and phagocytosis tested in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Mesaik, Muhammad Ahmed; Ahmed, Asif; Khalid, Ahmed Shukralla; Jan, Saleem; Siddiqui, Afaq Ahmed; Perveen, Shahida; Azim, Muhammad Kamran

    2013-01-01

    The Grewia asiatica (commonly known as Phalsa or Fasla) is a shrub or small tree found in southern Asia. It produces purple to black color fruit when ripe. In folk medicine the edible Grewia asiatica fruit is used in a number of pathological conditions. The current study described the effects of Grewia asiatica fruit on glycemic index (GI) and phagocytosis in healthy non-diabetic human subjects. The results showed that Grewia asiatica fruit has low GI value of 5.34 with modest hypoglycemic activity. Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay was carried out to determine the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the oxidative burst activity of whole blood. ROS production was found to be significantly affected, having the 78.3, 58.6 and 30.8% when the subjects were fed with D-glucose, mixture of D-glucose and Grewia asiatica fruit and Grewia asiatica fruit alone respectively as compared to the control. The aqueous, methanolic and butanolic extracts of Grewia asiatica fruits were found to produce a stimulatory effect on ROS production however; the chloroform, hexane and ethanol-acetate extracted exerted significant inhibitory effect. These results demonstrated that Grewia asiatica fruit has desirable effects on blood glucose metabolism manifested as low glycemic response and modulation of ROS production.

  13. Relationship between cocaine-induced subjective effects and dopamine transporter occupancy

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Fischman, M.; Wang, G.J.

    1997-05-01

    The ability of cocaine to occupy the dopamine transporter has been linked to its reinforcing properties. However, such a relationship has not been demonstrated in humans. Methods: Positron Emission Tomography and [C-11]cocaine were used to estimate dopamine transporter occupancies after different doses of cocaine in 18 active cocaine abusers. The ratio of the distribution volume of [C-11]cocaine in striatum to that in cerebellum, which corresponds to Bmax/Kd +1 and is insensitive to changes in cerebral blood flow, was our measure of dopamine transporter availability. In parallel subjective effects were measured to assess the relationship between dopamine transporter occupancy and cocaines behavioral effects. Intravenous cocaine produced a significant dose,-dependent blockade of dopamine transporters: 73 % for 0.6 mg/kg; 601/6 for 0.3 mg/kg; 48 % for 0.1 mg/kg iv and 40 % for 0.05 mg/kg. In addition, dopamine transporter occupancies were significantly correlated with cocaine plasma concentration (r = 0.55 p < 0.001). Cocaine also produced dose-dependent increases in self-reported ratings of {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} which were significantly correlated with the levels of dopamine transporter blockade. Discussion: These results provide the first documentation in humans that dopamine transporter occupancy is associated with cocaine induced subjective effects. They also suggest that dopamine transporter occupancies equal to or greater than 60% are required to produce significant effects on ratings of {open_quotes}high{close_quotes}.

  14. Causal effects of retirement timing on subjective physical and emotional health.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Esteban; Sarkisian, Natalia; Tamborini, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the effects of the timing of retirement on subjective physical and emotional health. Using panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), we test 4 theory-based hypotheses about these effects-that retirements maximize health when they happen earlier, later, anytime, or on time. We employ fixed and random effects regression models with instrumental variables to estimate the short- and long-term causal effects of retirement timing on self-reported health and depressive symptoms. Early retirements--those occurring prior to traditional and legal retirement age--dampen health. Workers who begin their retirement transition before cultural and institutional timetables experience the worst health outcomes; this finding offers partial support to the psychosocial-materialist approach that emphasizes the benefits of retiring later. Continued employment after traditionally expected retirement age, however, offers no health benefits. In combination, these findings offer some support for the cultural-institutional approach but suggest that we need to modify our understanding of how cultural-institutional forces operate. Retiring too early can be problematic but no disadvantages are associated with late retirements. Raising the retirement age, therefore, could potentially reduce subjective health of retirees by expanding the group of those whose retirements would be considered early.

  15. Auditory and Subjective Effects of Airborne Noise from Industrial Ultrasonic Sources

    PubMed Central

    Acton, W. I.; Carson, M. B.

    1967-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken primarily to examine the possibility of hearing damage from industrial ultrasonic equipment. In the factory concerned, ultrasonic washers and drills were used at a number of different locations, and girls working 12 ft (3·6 m.) away from one bank of three small washers complained of unpleasant subjective effects which included fatigue, persistent headaches, nausea, and tinnitus. As personnel working in the vicinity of similar washers in other parts of the factory did not complain of these effects, it seemed possible that the noise had been transmitted along a column of air in a bank of dryboxes. Enclosure of these washers by a sliding screen of Perspex had completely abated the trouble. Sound pressure level measurements taken in the positions occupied by the operators indicated that, when the effects occur, they are probably caused by high sound levels at the upper audio-frequencies present with the ultrasonic noise, and this was supported by a limited laboratory investigation. Audiometric investigation showed that hearing damage due to noise from these industrial ultrasonic devices is unlikely. However, extrapolations of currently accepted hearing damage risk criteria may be valid in predicting the occurrence of these subjective effects. Images PMID:6073088

  16. The Effect of Sodium Alginate on the Absorption of Strontium and Calcium in Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Joan; McNeill, K. G.; Phil, D.; Janiga, A.

    1966-01-01

    The effect of sodium alginate on the gastrointestinal absorption of the tracers strontium-85 and calcium-47 was investigated in 19 human subjects. The tracers were administered orally with 100 mg. of a calcium carrier—calcium chloride. At the same time, sodium alginate was given in a commercial jelly. The sevenday per cent retentions of tracers were measured with a whole-body counter. After one month, the experiments were repeated without alginate so that each subject acted as his own control. Fifteen volunteers were given 1.5 g. of alginate, two were given 3.0 g. and two 0.3 g. 1.5 g. of alginate reduced the absorption of strontium by a factor of two with no significant effect on calcium absorption. The smaller dose of alginate (0.3 g.) appeared to have no effect on strontium or calcium absorption and the larger dose (3.0 g.) had no greater effect than the 1.5 g. dose. PMID:5955715

  17. Effect of age, decentration, aberrations and pupil size on subjective image quality with concentric bifocal optics.

    PubMed

    Rio, David; Woog, Kelly; Legras, Richard

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the impact of lens centration, wearer aberrations, pupil size and age on the optics of two bifocal contact lenses using image simulation. Fourteen conditions (i.e. two optical profiles with two and eight concentric zones; two conditions of centration: centred and 0.77 mm decentred; and three conditions of aberrations: 0, 0.15 and 0.35 μm RMS; three pupil sizes: 3, 4.5 and 6 mm) were tested on two populations (i.e. 20-40 and 40-60 years old) using a numerical simulation method. For each condition, images were calculated for proximities ranging from -4D to + 2D with steps of 0.25D. Subjects graded the quality of each simulated image (i.e. a target 'HEV' of 0.4 logMAR) on a continuous scale from 0 to 5. To limit the effect of the observer's own aberrations, subjects viewed the displayed images through a 3-mm pupil and their optimal correction. Both populations reported similar image quality (i.e. average absolute difference of 0.23) except for sharp and low contrast images, which obtained slightly higher grades with younger subjects, probably due to a better contrast sensitivity in this population. Typical decentration had no effect on bifocal contact lenses wearers' vision, as the ratio between areas dedicated to near and distance vision did not change. Aberrations (i.e. mainly 0.24 μm of spherical aberration on a 4.5-mm pupil) reduced the addition of the two radial zones bifocal optics and introduced a hyperopic shift (i.e. 0.50D) of the through-focus image quality for the eight radial zone bifocal lens. The combination of typical aberrations with typical decentration created the same effect as typical aberrations alone, meaning that aberration impact was stronger than decentration impact. The two radial zone bifocal lens was dependent on the pupil whereas the eight radial zone lens was not. When fitting new bifocal optics, the aberrations of the patients, as well as their pupil diameter, are the main subject dependent parameters influencing

  18. Biomarkers for the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, G J H; de Visser, S J; Cohen, A F; van Gerven, J M A

    2005-01-01

    Aims Studies of novel centrally acting drugs in healthy volunteers are traditionally concerned with kinetics and tolerability, but useful information may also be obtained from biomarkers of clinical endpoints. This paper provides a systematic overview of CNS-tests used with SSRIs in healthy subjects. A useful biomarker should meet the following requirements: a consistent response across studies and drugs; a clear response of the biomarker to a therapeutic dose; a dose–response relationship; a plausible relationship between biomarker, pharmacology and pathogenesis. Methods These criteria were applied to all individual tests found in studies of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), performed in healthy subjects since 1966, identified with a systematic MedLine search. Separate databases were created to evaluate the effects of single or multiple dose SSRI-studies, and for amitriptyline whenever the original report included this antidepressant as a positive control. Doses of the antidepressant were divided into high- and low-dose ranges, relative to a medium range of therapeutic doses. For each test, the drug effects were scored as statistically significant impairment/decrease (−), improvement/increase (+) or no change (=) relative to placebo. Results 56 single dose studies and 22 multiple dose studies were identified, investigating the effects of 13 different SSRIs on 171 variants of neuropsychological tests, which could be clustered into seven neuropsychological domains. Low single doses of SSRIs generally stimulated tests of attention and memory. High doses tended to impair visual/auditory and visuomotor systems and subjective performance, while showing an acceleration in motor function. The most pronounced effects were observed using tests that measure flicker discrimination (improvement at low doses: 75%, medium doses: 40%, high doses: 43% of studies); REM sleep (inconsistent decrease after medium doses, decrease in 83% of studies after high doses

  19. Environmental disruption of circadian rhythm predisposes mice to osteoarthritis-like changes in knee joint.

    PubMed

    Kc, Ranjan; Li, Xin; Voigt, Robin M; Ellman, Michael B; Summa, Keith C; Vitaterna, Martha Hotz; Keshavarizian, Ali; Turek, Fred W; Meng, Qing-Jun; Stein, Gary S; van Wijnen, Andre J; Chen, Di; Forsyth, Christopher B; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2015-09-01

    Circadian rhythm dysfunction is linked to many diseases, yet pathophysiological roles in articular cartilage homeostasis and degenerative joint disease including osteoarthritis (OA) remains to be investigated in vivo. Here, we tested whether environmental or genetic disruption of circadian homeostasis predisposes to OA-like pathological changes. Male mice were examined for circadian locomotor activity upon changes in the light:dark (LD) cycle or genetic disruption of circadian rhythms. Wild-type (WT) mice were maintained on a constant 12 h:12 h LD cycle (12:12 LD) or exposed to weekly 12 h phase shifts. Alternatively, male circadian mutant mice (Clock(Δ19) or Csnk1e(tau) mutants) were compared with age-matched WT littermates that were maintained on a constant 12:12 LD cycle. Disruption of circadian rhythms promoted osteoarthritic changes by suppressing proteoglycan accumulation, upregulating matrix-degrading enzymes and downregulating anabolic mediators in the mouse knee joint. Mechanistically, these effects involved activation of the PKCδ-ERK-RUNX2/NFκB and β-catenin signaling pathways, stimulation of MMP-13 and ADAMTS-5, as well as suppression of the anabolic mediators SOX9 and TIMP-3 in articular chondrocytes of phase-shifted mice. Genetic disruption of circadian homeostasis does not predispose to OA-like pathological changes in joints. Our results, for the first time, provide compelling in vivo evidence that environmental disruption of circadian rhythms is a risk factor for the development of OA-like pathological changes in the mouse knee joint.

  20. Black/white differences in prenatal care utilization: an assessment of predisposing and enabling factors.

    PubMed Central

    LaVeist, T A; Keith, V M; Gutierrez, M L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This article reports on analysis of the predisposing and enabling factors that affect black/white differences in utilization of prenatal care services. DATA SOURCES. We use a secondary data source from a survey conducted by the Michigan Department of Public Health. STUDY DESIGN. The study uses multivariate analysis methods to examine black/white differences in (1) total number of prenatal care visits, (2) timing of start of prenatal care, and (3) adequacy of care received. We use the model advanced by Aday, Andersen, and Fleming (1980) to examine the effect of enabling and predisposing factors on black/white differences in prenatal care utilization. DATA COLLECTION. A questionnaire was administered to all women who delivered in Michigan hospitals with an obstetrical unit. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Enabling factors fully accounted for black/white differences in timing of start of prenatal care; however, the model could not fully account for black/white differences in the total number or the adequacy of prenatal care received. CONCLUSION. Although there are no black/white differences in the initiation of prenatal care, black women are still less likely to receive adequate care as measured by the Kessner index, or to have as many total prenatal care contacts as white women. It is possible that barriers within the health care system that could not be assessed in this study may account for the differences we observed. Future research should consider the characteristics of the health care system that may account for the unwillingness or inability of black women to continue to receive care once they initiate prenatal care. PMID:7721584

  1. Estrogen treatment predisposes to severe and persistent vaginal candidiasis in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased levels of estrogen and diabetes mellitus separately predispose to vaginal candidiasis (VC). However, the compounding effect of estrogen on the severity and persistence of VC in diabetic females is not clear. Methods To address this issue, a diabetic mouse model with estrogen-maintained VC was developed and evaluated for vaginal fungal burden (VFB) and immune competence at different time points throughout the study period. Results Blood glucose levels in estrogen-treated diabetic mice were consistently lower than that in untreated counterparts. Estrogen-treated C. albicans-infected non-diabetic mice experienced persistent episodes of VC as compared with naïve controls (P < 0.01). However, severity and persistence of VC in estrogen-treated C. albicans-infected diabetic mice was significantly greater than that in non-diabetic counterparts (P < 0.05). Mortality rates among estrogen-treated C. albicans-infected diabetic mice were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that in non-diabetic counterparts. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) and persistent suppression of the delayed hypersensitivity response (DTH) was evident in estrogen-treated C. albicans-infected diabetic and non-diabetic mice as compared with controls. Levels of expression of the inhibitory molecule CD152 on vaginal and splenic T cells isolated from estrogen-treated C. albicans infected mice was significantly higher than that in naive untreated controls (P < 0.01). Conclusions These findings suggest that estrogen treatment in diabetic females may protect against the progression of DM on the one hand and predispose to severe and persistent VC on the other. The later outcome could be related to the immunosuppressed status of the host. PMID:24401317

  2. Environmental Disruption of Circadian Rhythm Predisposes Mice to Osteoarthritis-Like Changes in Knee Joint

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Robin M; Ellman, Michael B; Summa, Keith C; Vitaterna, Martha Hotz; Keshavarizian, Ali; Turek, Fred W; Meng, Qing-Jun; Stein, Gary S.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Chen, Di; Forsyth, Christopher B; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythm dysfunction is linked to many diseases, yet pathophysiological roles in articular cartilage homeostasis and degenerative joint disease including osteoarthritis (OA) remains to be investigated in vivo. Here, we tested whether environmental or genetic disruption of circadian homeostasis predisposes to OA-like pathological changes. Male mice were examined for circadian locomotor activity upon changes in the light:dark (LD) cycle or genetic disruption of circadian rhythms. Wild-type (WT) mice were maintained on a constant 12 hour:12 hour LD cycle (12:12 LD) or exposed to weekly 12 hour phase shifts. Alternatively, male circadian mutant mice (ClockΔ19 or Csnk1etau mutants) were compared with age-matched WT littermates that were maintained on a constant 12:12 LD cycle. Disruption of circadian rhythms promoted osteoarthritic changes by suppressing proteoglycan accumulation, upregulating matrix-degrading enzymes and downregulating anabolic mediators in the mouse knee joint. Mechanistically, these effects involved activation of the PKCδ-ERK-RUNX2/NFκB and β-catenin signaling pathways, stimulation of MMP-13 and ADAMTS-5, as well as suppression of the anabolic mediators SOX9 and TIMP-3 in articular chondrocytes of phase-shifted mice. Genetic disruption of circadian homeostasis does not predispose to OA-like pathological changes in joints. Our results, for the first time, provide compelling in vivo evidence that environmental disruption of circadian rhythms is a risk factor for the development of OA-like pathological changes in the mouse knee joint. PMID:25655021

  3. Effect of isokinetic training on quadriceps peak torgue in healthy subjects and patients with burn injury.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Emad Tawfik; Abdel-aziem, Amr Almaz; Ebid, Anwar Abdelgayed

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the improvement rate of quadriceps muscle peak torque in healthy subjects and patients with burn injuries after an isokinetic training programme. Thirty male volunteers, 15 healthy and 15 subjects with burn injury after complete healing, participated in the study. Concentric and eccentric torque of quadriceps was measured for both groups using an isokinetic dynamometer before and after 6 weeks of isokinetic training. The tests were performed at angular velocities of 30°/s and 90°/s. There was a significant increase in the quadricep speak torque for both groups at both angular velocities after isokinetic training. During eccentric contraction at angular velocities of 30°/s and 90°/s the percentage improvement in the burned group was higher than in the healthy group(p = 0.003 and p = 0.0008, respectively). During concentric contraction at an angular velocity of 30°/s the percentage improvement in the burned group was higher than the healthy group (p = 0.020). However, during concentric contraction at an angular velocity of 90°/s there was no significant difference between the groups (p = 0.742). The isokinetic training programme was effective in increasing the concentric and eccentric peak torque of the quadriceps muscle for healthy subjects and patients with burn injuries.

  4. Effect of elective surgery on subjective health in veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Ken; Hertzberg, Michael; Silva, Susan; Vacchiano, Charles

    2014-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common, is often chronic, and has been associated with greater risk of postoperative mortality in veterans. The purpose of this study was to determine if elective outpatient surgery had a persistent effect on the physical or mental health of veterans with chronic PTSD. A longitudinal, quasi-experimental study was conducted that followed up 60 veterans with chronic PTSD over 12 weeks. Self-reported physical and mental health, depressive symptom severity, and posttraumatic symptom severity were measured in 29 veterans undergoing outpatient elective surgery and 31 veterans not having elective surgery (controls). Data collection was performed at baseline and repeated 1, 4, and 12 weeks after surgery or enrollment. At baseline, both surgical and control subjects reported poor physical and mental subjective health status. After surgery, surgical group subjects reported mean age- and gender-adjusted reductions of 3.9 points on the Physical Component Summary score and 2.9 points on the Mental Component Summary score of the Veterans Rand 36-item Health Survey, which resolved by 4 weeks after surgery. These findings suggest that veterans with PTSD were at greater risk of mortality because of poor baseline health, but did not demonstrate persistent decline in health following common elective surgical procedures.

  5. The effects of UCP-1 polymorphisms on obesity phenotypes among Korean female subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Hyoung Doo; Kim, Kil Soo; Cha, Min Ho; Yoon, Yoosik . E-mail: ysyoon66@naver.com

    2005-09-23

    Three SNPs of UCP-1 including A-3826G, A-1766G, and Ala64Thr (G+1068A) were genotyped among 453 overweight Korean female subjects recruited from an obesity clinic. Four common haplotypes with frequency greater than 0.04 were constructed with three SNPs. For an accurate evaluation of the effects of UCP-1 polymorphism on body fat accumulation, all subjects were tested using computerized tomography to measure the cross-sectional fat tissue areas at abdominal and distal part of the body. By statistical analyses, ht4[GAA] showed a significant association with decreased abdominal fat tissue area (P = 0.02, dominant model), fat tissue area at thigh (P = 0.008, dominant model), body fat mass (P = 0.002, dominant model), and waist-to-hip ratio (P = 0.01, dominant model). In addition, ht3[GAG] was associated with the accelerated reduction of waist-to-hip ratio and body fat mass by very low calorie diet among subjects who finished one-month-weight control program (P = 0.05-0.006)

  6. Sulfur dioxide and ammonium sulfate effects on pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Kulle, T J; Sauder, L R; Shanty, F; Kerr, H D; Farrell, B P; Miller, W R; Milman, J H

    1984-03-01

    The effect of exposures to 1 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO2) and 500 micrograms/m3 respirable ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4] was studied in 20 nonsmoking subjects to determine if a response can be measured at these atmospheric levels and if the response is additive or synergistic. Four-hour separate and combined exposures were employed. Each subject acted as his or her own control and performed two light-to-moderate exercise stints (612 kg-m/min) for 15 minutes on each day's confinement in the environmental chamber. Pulmonary function tests (body plethysmography and spirometry) and bronchial reactivity to methacholine were performed to assess the response of these exposures. No significant changes in pulmonary function or bronchial reactivity were observed in the individual exposures [(NH4)2SO4 or SO2], the combined exposure [(NH4)2SO4 and SO2], or 24 hours post-exposure. This study design and the observed results did not demonstrate any readily apparent risk to healthy subjects with these exposures. Since no significant changes were measured, it was not possible to conclude if these two pollutants in combination produce an additive or synergistic response.

  7. The subjective effect of low frequency content in road traffic noise.

    PubMed

    Torija, Antonio J; Flindell, Ian H

    2015-01-01

    Based on subjective listening trials, Torija and Flindell [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 135, 1-4 (2014)] observed that low frequency content in typical urban main road traffic noise appeared to make a smaller contribution to reported annoyance than might be inferred from its objective or physical dominance. This paper reports a more detailed study which was aimed at (i) identifying the difference in sound levels at which low frequency content becomes subjectively dominant over mid and high frequency content and (ii) investigating the relationship between loudness and annoyance under conditions where low frequency content is relatively more dominant, such as indoors where mid and high frequency content is reduced. The results suggested that differences of at least +30 dB between the low frequency and the mid/high frequency content are needed for changes in low frequency content to have as much subjective effect as equivalent changes in mid and high frequency content. This suggests that common criticisms of the A-frequency weighting based on a hypothesized excessive downweighting of the low frequency content may be relatively unfounded in this application area.

  8. Metabolic effects of dietary fructose and surcose in types I and II diabetic subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Bantle, J.P.; Laine, D.C.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-12-19

    To learn more about the metabolic effects of dietary fructose and sucrose, 12 type 1 and 12 type II diabetic subjects were fed three isocaloric (or isoenergic) diets for eight days each according to a randomized, crossover design. The three diets provided, respectively, 21% of the energy as fructose, 23% of the energy as sucrose, and almost all carbohydrate energy as starch. The fructose diet resulted in significantly lower one- and two-hour postprandial plasma glucose levels, overall mean plasma glucose levels, and urinary glucose excretion in both type I and type II subjects than did the starch diet. There were no significant differences between the sucrose and starch diets in any of the measures of glycemic control in either subject group. The fructose and sucrose diets did not significantly increase serum triglyceride values when compared with the starch diet, but both increased postprandial serum lactate levels. The authors conclude that short-term replacement of other carbohydrate sources in the diabetic diet with fructose will improve glycemic control, whereas replacement with sucrose will not aggravate glycemic control.

  9. Laboratory study of effects of sonic boom shaping on subjective loudness and acceptability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, Jack D.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to determine the effects of sonic boom signature shaping on subjective loudness and acceptability. The study utilized the sonic boom simulator at the Langley Research Center. A wide range of symmetrical, front-shock-minimized signature shapes were investigated together with a limited number of asymmetrical signatures. Subjective loudness judgments were obtained from 60 test subjects by using an 11-point numerical category scale. Acceptability judgments were obtained using the method of constant stimuli. Results were used to assess the relative predictive ability of several noise metrics, determine the loudness benefits of detailed boom shaping, and derive laboratory sonic boom acceptability criteria. These results indicated that the A-weighted sound exposure level, the Stevens Mark 7 Perceived Level, and the Zwicker Loudness Level metrics all performed well. Significant reductions in loudness were obtained by increasing front-shock rise time and/or decreasing front-shock overpressure of the front-shock minimized signatures. In addition, the asymmetrical signatures were rated to be slightly quieter than the symmetrical front-shock-minimized signatures of equal A-weighted sound exposure level. However, this result was based on a limited number of asymmetric signatures. The comparison of laboratory acceptability results with acceptability data obtained in more realistic situations also indicated good agreement.

  10. Oral glucose tolerance test effects on endothelial inflammation markers in healthy subjects and diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Derosa, G; D'Angelo, A; Salvadeo, S A T; Ferrari, I; Fogari, E; Gravina, A; Mereu, R; Palumbo, I; Maffioli, P; Randazzo, S; Cicero, A F G

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on the level of endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation markers in healthy subjects (H) and diabetic overweight patients (D). We enrolled 256 healthy subjects and 274 type 2 diabetic patients. We evaluated blood glucose (BG), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) at baseline and after OGTT. We observed that BG, sICAM-1, IL-6, hs-CRP, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin, and TNF-alpha values were higher in D group than in H group. In a large sample of adult healthy subjects and type 2 diabetics we observed that both answer to an OGTT with a significant increase in biomarkers of systemic low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction such as hsCRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and sE-selectin. Type 2 diabetics experienced, however, a more significant increase in TNF-alpha, and sE-selectin.

  11. Effects of a very low-fat, vegan diet in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    McDougall, John; Bruce, Bonnie; Spiller, Gene; Westerdahl, John; McDougall, Mary

    2002-02-01

    To demonstrate the effects of a very low-fat, vegan diet on patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Single-blind dietary intervention study. SUBJECTS AND STUDY INTERVENTIONS: This study evaluated the influence of a 4-week, very low-fat (approximately 10%), vegan diet on 24 free-living subjects with RA, average age, 56 +/- 11 years old. Prestudy and poststudy assessment of RA symptomatology was performed by a rheumatologist blind to the study design. Biochemical measures and 4-day diet data were also collected. Subjects met weekly for diet instruction, compliance monitoring, and progress assessments. There were significant (p < 0.001) decreases in fat (69%), protein (24%), and energy (22%), and a significant increase in carbohydrate (55%) intake. All measures of RA symptomatology decreased significantly (p < 0.05), except for duration of morning stiffness (p > 0.05). Weight also decreased significantly (p < 0.001). At 4 weeks, C-reactive protein decreased 16% (ns, p > 0.05), RA factor decreased 10% (ns, p > 0.05), while erythrocyte sedimentation rate was unchanged (p > 0.05). This study showed that patients with moderate-to-severe RA, who switch to a very low-fat, vegan diet can experience significant reductions in RA symptoms.

  12. Body position effects on EMG activity of sternocleidomastoid and masseter muscles in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Miralles, R; Palazzi, C; Ormeño, G; Giannini, R; Verdugo, F; Valenzuela, S; Santander, H

    1998-04-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine the effects of body position on integrated electromyographic (IEMG) activity of sternocleidomastoid and masseter muscles in 20 healthy subjects. EMG recordings at rest and during swallowing of saliva and maximal voluntary clenching were performed by placing surface electrodes on the sternocleidomastoid and masseter muscles (contralateral to the habitual side of sleeping of each subject), in the following body positions: standing, seated, supine, and lateral decubitus position. Significant higher EMG activities were recorded in the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the lateral decubitus position, whereas significant lower EMG activities were recorded in the masseter muscle in the supine position. This finding supports the idea that there may exist a differential modulation of the motor neuron pools of the sternocleidomastoid and masseter muscles of peripheral and/or central origin. Significant differences in the EMG pattern as well as in the levels of EMG activities upon variations in body positions were observed between healthy subjects and patients with myogenic craniomandibular dysfunction reported by Palazzi, et al.

  13. Effects of age of serotonin 5-HT2 receptors in cocaine abusers and normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Logan, J.

    1995-05-01

    We measured the effect of age on serotonin 5-HT2 receptor availability and compared it with the effects on dopamine D2 receptors on 19 chronic cocaine abusers (35.2{plus_minus}9.8 years, range 18-54 years old) and 19 age matched normal controls using positron emission tomography (PET) and F-18 N-methylspiperone (NMS). 5-HT2 Receptor availability was measure din frontal (FR), occipital (OC), cingulate (CI) and orbitofrontal (OF) cortices using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest to that in the cerebelium (CB) which is a function of Bmax/Kd. D2 receptor availability in the basal ganglia was measured using the {open_quotes}ratio index{close_quotes} (slope of striatum/CB versus time over 180 min of the scan) which is a function of Bmax. 5-HT2 Receptor availability differed among regions and were as follows: CI>OF>OC>FC.5-HT2 Receptor availability decreased significantly with age. This effect was more accentuated for 5-HT2 receptor availability in FR than in OC(df=1, p<0.025). Striatal dopamine D2 receptors were also found to decrease significantly with age (r=0.63, p<0.007). In a given subject, D2 receptor availability was significantly correlated with 5-HT2 receptor availability in FR (r=0.51, p<0.035) but not in OC. The values for 5-HT2 receptor availability were not different in normal subjects and cocaine abusers. These results document a decline in 5-HT2 and D2 receptors with age and document an association between frontal 5-HT2 and striatal D2 receptor availability. These results did not show any changes in 5-HT2 receptor availability in cocaine abusers as compared to control subjects.

  14. Beneficial Effects of an 8-Week, Very Low Carbohydrate Diet Intervention on Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yunjuan; Yu, Haoyong; Li, Yuehua; Ma, Xiaojing; Lu, Junxi; Yu, Weihui; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effects of weight loss during an 8-week very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) on improvement of metabolic parameters, adipose distribution and body composition, and insulin resistance and sensitivity in Chinese obese subjects. Methods. Fifty-three healthy obese volunteers were given an 8-week VLCD. The outcomes were changes in anthropometry, body composition, metabolic profile, abdominal fat distribution, liver fat percent (LFP), and insulin resistance and sensitivity. Results. A total of 46 (86.8%) obese subjects completed the study. The VLCD caused a weight loss of −8.7 ± 0.6 kg (mean ± standard error (SE), P < 0.0001) combined with a significant improvement of metabolic profile. In both male and female, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) significantly decreased (−166.2 ± 47.6 μmol/L, P = 0.001) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHA) increased (0.15 ± 0.06 mmol/L, P = 0.004) after eight weeks of VLCD intervention. The significant reductions in subcutaneous fat area (SFA), visceral fat area (VFA), and LFP were −66.5 ± 7.9 cm2, −35.3 ± 3.9 cm2, and −16.4 ± 2.4%, respectively (all P values P < 0.0001). HOMA IR and HOMA β significantly decreased while whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) increased (all P values P < 0.001). Conclusion. Eight weeks of VLCD was an effective intervention in obese subjects. These beneficial effects may be associated with enhanced hepatic and whole-body lipolysis and oxidation. PMID:23573151

  15. The effect of sunlight exposure on interleukin-6 levels in depressive and non-depressive subjects.

    PubMed

    Levandovski, Rosa; Pfaffenseller, Bianca; Carissimi, Alicia; Gama, Clarissa S; Hidalgo, Maria Paz Loayza

    2013-03-05

    The objective of this epidemiological study was to evaluate the effect of length of sunlight exposure on interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels in depressive and non-depressive subjects. This was a cross-sectional study with 154 subjects (54 males, mean age: 43.5 ± 12.8 years) who were living in a rural area in south Brazil. Chronobiological and light parameters were assessed using the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. Sleep quality was evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. Plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon) were collected during the daytime and measured. IL-6 levels showed a positive correlation with light exposure (r = 0.257; p < 0.001) and a negative correlation with the mid-sleep phase on work-free days (r = -0.177; p = 0.028). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only the length of light exposure was an independent factor for predicting IL-6 levels (ß = 0.26; p = 0.002). In non-depressed subjects, exposure to a different intensity of light did not affect IL-6 levels (t = -1.6; p = 0.1). However, when the two depressive groups with low and high light exposure were compared, the low light exposure group had lower levels of IL-6 compared with the high light exposure group (t = -2.19 and p = 0.0037). The amount of time that participants are exposed to sunlight is directly related to their IL-6 levels. Additionally, depressed subjects differ in their IL-6 levels if they are exposed to light for differing amounts of time.

  16. Associations between Health Effects and Particulate Matter and Black Carbon in Subjects with Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Karen L.; Larson, Timothy V.; Koenig, Jane Q.; Mar, Therese F.; Fields, Carrie; Stewart, Jim; Lippmann, Morton

    2005-01-01

    We measured fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), spirometry, blood pressure, oxygen saturation of the blood (SaO2), and pulse rate in 16 older subjects with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Seattle, Washington. Data were collected daily for 12 days. We simultaneously collected PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤10 μm or ≤2.5 μm, respectively) filter samples at a central outdoor site, as well as outside and inside the subjects’ homes. Personal PM10 filter samples were also collected. All filters were analyzed for mass and light absorbance. We analyzed within-subject associations between health outcomes and air pollution metrics using a linear mixed-effects model with random intercept, controlling for age, ambient relative humidity, and ambient temperature. For the 7 subjects with asthma, a 10 μg/m3 increase in 24-hr average outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 was associated with a 5.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.9–8.9] and 4.2 ppb (95% CI, 1.3–7.1) increase in FENO, respectively. A 1 μg/m3 increase in outdoor, indoor, and personal black carbon (BC) was associated with increases in FENO of 2.3 ppb (95% CI, 1.1–3.6), 4.0 ppb (95% CI, 2.0–5.9), and 1.2 ppb (95% CI, 0.2–2.2), respectively. No significant association was found between PM or BC measures and changes in spirometry, blood pressure, pulse rate, or SaO2 in these subjects. Results from this study indicate that FENO may be a more sensitive marker of PM exposure than traditional health outcomes and that particle-associated BC is useful for examining associations between primary combustion constituents of PM and health outcomes. PMID:16330357

  17. The effect of sunlight exposure on interleukin-6 levels in depressive and non-depressive subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this epidemiological study was to evaluate the effect of length of sunlight exposure on interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels in depressive and non-depressive subjects. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with 154 subjects (54 males, mean age: 43.5 ± 12.8 years) who were living in a rural area in south Brazil. Chronobiological and light parameters were assessed using the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. Sleep quality was evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. Plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon) were collected during the daytime and measured. Results IL-6 levels showed a positive correlation with light exposure (r = 0.257; p < 0.001) and a negative correlation with the mid-sleep phase on work-free days (r = -0.177; p = 0.028). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only the length of light exposure was an independent factor for predicting IL-6 levels (ß = 0.26; p = 0.002). In non-depressed subjects, exposure to a different intensity of light did not affect IL-6 levels (t = -1.6; p = 0.1). However, when the two depressive groups with low and high light exposure were compared, the low light exposure group had lower levels of IL-6 compared with the high light exposure group (t = -2.19 and p = 0.0037). Conclusions The amount of time that participants are exposed to sunlight is directly related to their IL-6 levels. Additionally, depressed subjects differ in their IL-6 levels if they are exposed to light for differing amounts of time. PMID:23497121

  18. [Analysis of predisposing factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy].

    PubMed

    Chen, You-yi; Sun, Bei; Jiang, Hong-chi

    2013-08-01

    To analyze the predisposing factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy. The clinical data of 323 patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy from January 2007 to March 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. There were 185 male and 138 female patients, aging from 27 to 82 years. All the patients were devided into pancreatic fistula group (n = 52) and non-pancreatic fistula group (n = 271). Twenty variables, such as age, sex, primary disease, alcohol abuse, cholangitis, bilirubin, albumin, hemoglobin, operating time, blood loss, transfusion, texture of the remnant pancreas, diameter of wirsung, drainages of pancreatic duct, specialized group which potentially affect the incidence, were analyzed by t test for continuous variables and χ(2) test for discrete variables. The variables with significance (P < 0.05) were then analyzed with Logistic regression model. Of all the 323 patients, the overall morbidity rate was 30.3% (98/323), and the mortality was 3.7% (12/323). Pancreatic fistula rate was 16.1% (52/323), 7 patients died for pancreatic fistula PF. In univariate analysis, primary disease, preoperative high bilirubin level, intraoperative blood loss and transfusion, texture of the remnant pancreas, diameter of wirsung, drainages of pancreatic duct, specialized group had significant difference between two groups (χ(2) = 4.072 to 9.008, P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that primary disease (OR = 2.091, P = 0.001), texture of the remnant pancreas (OR = 7.715, P = 0.040), diameter of wirsung (OR = 5.405, P = 0.006), pancreatic duct stent (OR = 4.313, P = 0.001) and specialized group (OR = 6.404, P = 0.006) were independent risk factors in pancreatic fistula. Primary disease, texture of the remnant pancreas, diameter of wirsung, pancreatic duct stent and specialized group are independent risk factors in pancreatic fistula. With the purpose of decreasing pancreatic fistula rate after PD, it is necessary to operate meticulously

  19. Lateral Atrial Tunnel Fontan Operation Predisposes to the Junctional Rhythm.

    PubMed

    Januszewska, Katarzyna; Schuh, Anna; Lehner, Anja; Dalla-Pozza, Robert; Malec, Edward

    2017-02-10

    The goal of the study was to compare the early postoperative course after fenestrated lateral atrial tunnel (LT) and non-fenestrated extracardiac conduit (EC) Fontan operation (FO) in a single center where both techniques were parallelly used. Between 2004 and 2012, 56(32.7%) children underwent LT and 113(66.1%) EC FO. The mean age was 3.7 ± 2.9 years and mean weight was 14.6 ± 7.3 kg. The most common malformation was hypoplastic left heart syndrome (50.9%). The general approach was to perform LT in children after hemi-Fontan operation and EC in patients after Glenn anastomosis. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed. The hospital survival was 100%. In EC group, cardiopulmonary bypass time (CPB) was shorter (p = 0.004) and less patients needed aortic cross-clamping (p < 0.001). Children after EC stayed longer in the hospital (p = 0.016) and manifested more often prolonged effusions (p = 0.038). The incidence of all forms of junctional rhythm was higher in the LT group, early postoperatively (p < 0.001), during hospitalization (p = 0.004) and at discharge (p < 0.001). Children after LT required more often temporary pacemaker stimulation (p < 0.001). Patients without postoperative normofrequent sinus rhythm had longer CPB time (p = 0.008) and were more often operated on with aortic cross-clamping (p = 0.028). Lateral atrial tunnel Fontan operation with fenestration facilitates early adaptation to the total passive pulmonary flow, but predisposes the patients to the loss of sinus rhythm. The crucial role in the preservation of sinus rhythm plays the last step of the multistage surgery of the single ventricle malformations, probably not only the surgical technique but also factors associated with the cardiopulmonary bypass.

  20. Effect of acetaldehyde on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis subjected to environmental shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, G.A.; Hobley, T.J.; Pamment, N.B.

    1997-01-05

    The lag phase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to a step increase in temperature or ethanol concentration was reduced by as much as 60% when acetaldehyde was added to the medium at concentrations less than 0.1 g/L. Maximum specific growth rates were also substantially increased. Even greater proportional reductions in lag time due to acetaldehyde addition were observed for ethanol-shocked cultures of Zymomonas mobilis. Acetaldehyde had no effect on S. cerevisiae cultures started from stationary phase inocula in the absence of environmental shock and its lag-reducing effects were greater in complex medium than in a defined synthetic medium. Acetaldehyde reacted strongly with the ingredients of complex culture media. It is proposed that the effect of added acetaldehyde may be to compensate for the inability of cells to maintain transmembrane acetaldehyde gradients following an environmental shock.

  1. Effects of surface features on word-fragment completion in amnesic subjects.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, S; Wayland, S V

    1993-01-01

    Patients with amnesia resulting from alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome and elderly control patients studied a list of words in two typographies (typed and handwritten) and then received a word-fragment completion test (e.g., -ys-e-y for mystery) in which the test cues also varied in typography. Unlike the elderly control patients, the amnesic patients did not show greater priming effect when the typography at test matched that at study. The amount of typography-dependent priming was positively correlated with the score on the Wechsler Memory Scale. These results suggest that the effects of typography change on repetition priming in word-fragment completion reflect explicit recollection, and that the representation that supports repetition priming effects observed with amnesic subjects in the word-fragment completion task does not code typography information.

  2. On board electronic devices safety subject to high frequency electromagnetic radiation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, V. F.; Smirnov, N. N.; Smirnova, M. N.; Tyurenkova, V. V.

    2017-06-01

    Spacecraft on board electronic devices are subjected to the effects of Space environment, in particular, electromagnetic radiation. The weight limitations for spacecraft pose an important material and structures problem: developing effective protection for on board electronic devices from high frequency electromagnetic radiation. In the present paper the problem of the effect of external high frequency electromagnetic field on electronic devices shielding located on orbital platforms is investigated theoretically. It is demonstrated that the characteristic time for the unsteady stage of the process is negligibly small as compared with characteristic time of electromagnetic field diffusion into a conductor for the studied range of governing parameters. A system of governing material parameters is distinguished, which contribute to protecting electronic devices from induced electrical currents.

  3. The effects of diet and physical activity on plasma homovanillic acid in normal human subjects.

    PubMed

    Kendler, K S; Mohs, R C; Davis, K L

    1983-03-01

    This study examines the effect of diet and moderate physical activity on plasma levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) in healthy young males. At weekly intervals, subjects were fed four isocaloric meals: polycose (pure carbohydrate), sustecal, low monoamine, and high monoamine. Moderate physical activity consisted of 30 minutes of exercise on a bicycle ergometer. The effect of diet on plasma HVA (pHVA) was highly significant. Compared to the polycose meal, the high monoamine meal significantly increased pHVA. Moderate physical activity also significantly increased pHVA. Future clinical studies using pHVA in man as an index of brain dopamine function should control for the effects of both diet and physical activity.

  4. Subjective effects of caffeine among introverts and extraverts in the morning and evening.

    PubMed

    Liguori, A; Grass, J A; Hughes, J R

    1999-08-01

    In previous studies of psychomotor performance, the stimulant effects of caffeine differed by personality characteristics. For example, caffeine improved the task performance of extraverts but overaroused introverts and thus impaired their performance. The present study compared the effects of caffeine on subjective arousal among introverts and extraverts. Seventeen introverts and 19 extraverts drank coffee that contained doses of 0, 2, and 4 mg/kg caffeine during morning and evening sessions in a within-subjects, randomized, double-blind, crossover design. At 30-min intervals for 180 min after drinking, participants completed the Profile of Mood States, a battery of self-report visual analog scales, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). Caffeine effects on mood and task performance did not significantly interact with extraversion, except for nonsignificant trends for caffeine to increase happiness and vigor more among extraverts than introverts. No 3-way interactions of group, time, and dose were found on any scales or on the DSST. Results do not support the hypothesis that caffeine differentially affects extraverts and introverts, particularly at different times of the day.

  5. Voclosporin food effect and single oral ascending dose pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Patrick R; Huizinga, Robert B; Ling, Spencer Y; Freitag, Derrick G; Aspeslet, Launa J; Foster, Robert T

    2013-08-01

    Voclosporin (VCS) is a novel calcineurin (CN) inhibitor intended for prevention of organ graft rejection and treatment of lupus nephritis. These studies evaluated the single ascending dose pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD, CN activity) of VCS and the effect of food. VCS was administered orally in single doses of 0.25 through 4.5 mg/kg in 62 subjects in the single ascending dose study and as a single oral 1.5 mg/kg dose to 18 subjects after fasting, consumption of a low-fat and high-fat meal. Non-compartmental PK, PD, and PKPD correlation were evaluated. Following single oral doses, systemic exposure increased in a linear manner and demonstrated 1:1 dose-proportional, first-order linear PK above 1.5 mg/kg. VCS inhibited CN activity in a dose-related fashion with maximal inhibition peaking at 3.0 mg/kg. PKPD correlation indicated an EC50 of 78.3 ± 6.8 ng/mL. Administration of VCS with a low-fat and high-fat meal decreased C(max) by 29% and 53%, respectively, and AUC(inf) by 15% and 25%, respectively. Following ascending single doses of VCS, exposure increased in a linear fashion. A food effect on exposure was demonstrated, with a more pronounced effect following a high-fat meal. VCS concentrations were also found to correlate with CN activity.

  6. Evaluation of the reinforcing and subjective effects of heroin in combination with dextromethorphan and quinidine

    PubMed Central

    Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Sullivan, Maria A.; Comer, Sandra D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Studies have suggested that the N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist dextromethorphan may be useful in the treatment of opioid dependence. Design This double-blinded, placebo-controlled inpatient study evaluated the effects of 0, 30, and 60 mg of dextromethorphan and quinidine (DMQ) on the reinforcing and subjective effects of heroin in recently detoxified heroin abusers. Participants Nine heroin-dependent participants were admitted and then detoxified from heroin over the course of several days. Interventions Participants were subsequently stabilized on 0, 30, or 60 mg of DMQ. Each dose of DMQ was administered for two consecutive weeks, and the effects of heroin (0, 12.5, and 50 mg) were studied under each DMQ maintenance dose condition. DMQ and heroin dose were administered in random order both within and between participants. Results Planned comparisons revealed statistically significant increases in progressive ratio breakpoint values and positive subjective ratings as a function of heroin dose. There were no consistent changes in any of the responses as a function of DMQ maintenance dose, other than a modest reduction in craving. Conclusions In summary, results from this study suggest that maintenance on dextromethorphan in combination with quinidine has a limited role in the treatment of opioid dependence. PMID:22320027

  7. Evaluation of the reinforcing and subjective effects of heroin in combination with dextromethorphan and quinidine.

    PubMed

    Vosburg, Suzanne K; Sullivan, Maria A; Comer, Sandra D

    2011-01-01

    Studies have suggested that the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist dextromethorphan may be useful in the treatment of opioid dependence. This double-blinded, placebo-controlled inpatient study evaluated the effects of 0, 30, and 60 mg of dextromethorphan and quinidine (DMQ) on the reinforcing and subjective effects of heroin in recently detoxified heroin abusers. Nine heroin-dependent participants were admitted and then detoxified from heroin over the course of several days. Participants were subsequently stabilized on 0, 30, or 60 mg of DMQ. Each dose of DMQ was administered for two consecutive weeks, and the effects of heroin (0, 12.5, and 50 mg) were studied under each DMQ maintenance dose condition. DMQ and heroin dose were administered in random order both within and between participants. Planned comparisons revealed statistically significant increases in progressive ratio breakpoint values and positive subjective ratings as a function of heroin dose. There were no consistent changes in any of the responses as a function of DMQ maintenance dose, other than a modest reduction in craving. In summary, results from this study suggest that maintenance on dextromethorphan in combination with quinidine has a limited role in the treatment of opioid dependence.

  8. A single-subject design of ergonomic intervention effectiveness for university employees in a new facility.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom-Hazel, Debra

    2008-01-01

    As clinicians are searching for evidence to support their practice interventions, it is sometimes hard to find the "real-world" studies that incorporate the complexities of actual practice. Following calls in the public health, nursing and medical literature for clinicians to participate in practice-based evidence, this pilot study explores the effectiveness of a single-subject design for practice-based evidence. Twenty-five "well" university employees participated in an ergonomic intervention over the course of one academic semester that consisted of a 15 min ergonomic intake session, a 45 min group hands-on ergonomic educational session and a 15 min individual ergonomic consult in their offices. Participants were sent postural comfort surveys weekly and their subjective ratings were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the intervention to decrease their perceived postural discomfort at a computer work station. Twenty-one of the twenty-five participants reported an improvement in postural comfort over the course of the study. This pilot study suggests that further investigation needs to be conducted to determine the effectiveness of hands-on ergonomic education and consultation for well populations working at computer workstations.

  9. Cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamic effects induced by nimodipine in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Canova, Daniela; Roatta, Silvestro; Micieli, Giuseppe; Bosone, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    Summary The cerebrovascular effects of nimodipine are still poorly understood even in the healthy condition; in particular, its effects on tissue oxygenation have never been investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in cerebral oxygenation and blood volume upon oral administration of nimodipine (90 mg) in the healthy condition. In eight subjects, changes in cerebral tissue oxygenation and blood volume were determined simultaneously with changes in blood velocity of the middle cerebral artery (VMCA) by using, respectively, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD). The subjects also underwent non-invasive assessment of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and end-tidal CO2. TCD and NIRS CO2 reactivity indices were also extracted. Nimodipine significantly reduced ABP (11±13%) and increased heart rate, as well as NIRS oxygenation (6.0±4.8%) and blood volume indices (9.4±10.1%), while VMCA was not significantly decreased (2.0±3.5%). Nimodipine slightly but significantly reduced the VMCA response to changes in pCO2 whereas the CO2 reactivity of NIRS parameters was improved. The observed changes in cerebral tissue oxygenation and blood volume indicate nimodipine-induced cerebrovascular dilation and increased perfusion, while the effect on VMCA possibly results from dilation of the insonated artery. The present results cast doubt on the putative nimodipine-induced impairment of CO2 reactivity. PMID:23402678

  10. Cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamic effects induced by nimodipine in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Canova, Daniela; Roatta, Silvestro; Micieli, Giuseppe; Bosone, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The cerebrovascular effects of nimodipine are still poorly understood even in the healthy condition; in particular, its effects on tissue oxygenation have never been investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in cerebral oxygenation and blood volume upon oral administration of nimodipine (90 mg) in the healthy condition. In eight subjects, changes in cerebral tissue oxygenation and blood volume were determined simultaneously with changes in blood velocity of the middle cerebral artery (VMCA) by using, respectively, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD). The subjects also underwent noninvasive assessment of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and end-tidal CO2. TCD and NIRS CO2 reactivity indices were al-so extracted. Nimodipine significantly reduced ABP (11±13%) and increased heart rate, as well as NIRS oxygenation(6.0±4.8%) and blood volume indices (9.4±10.1%), while V(MCA) was not significantly decreased (2.0±3.5%). Nimodipine slightly but significantly reduced the V(MCA) response to changes in pCO2 whereas the CO2 reactivity of NIRS parameters was improved. The observed changes in cerebral tissue oxygenation and blood volume indicate nimodipine-induced cerebrovascular dilation and increased perfusion, while the effect on V(MCA)possibly results from dilation of the insonated artery. The present results cast doubt on the putative nimodipine-induced impairment of CO2 reactivity.

  11. The psychopharmacological and electrophysiological effects of single doses of caffeine in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, M; Scott, N; Lader, M; Marks, V

    1986-01-01

    The effects of single doses of anhydrous caffeine (250 mg and 500 mg) and placebo on physiological, psychological measures and subjective feelings were studied in a double-blind, cross-over study in nine healthy subjects who had abstained from caffeine-containing beverages for 24 h before each occasion. Caffeine and caffeine metabolites in plasma and urine were assayed. Peak plasma concentrations were observed at 1 to 2 h with an approximate half-life of 5 h. The concentrations of the metabolite 1,7-dimethylxanthine increased during the 5 h. The major urine metabolite was 1-methyluric acid. The EEG showed a dose-related decrease in log 'theta' power and a decrease in log 'alpha' power. Other dose-related effects were an increase in skin conductance level (sweat-gland activity) and self rating of alertness. Ratings of headache and tiredness were decreased by the caffeine. The study illustrates the complexities of studying a drug which is widely taken and which is often associated with withdrawal effects. PMID:3741730

  12. Effects of haloperidol on the behavioral, subjective, cognitive, motor, and neuroendocrine effects of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Deepak Cyril; Braley, Gabriel; Blaise, Rebecca; Vendetti, Michael; Oliver, Stephen; Pittman, Brian; Ranganathan, Mohini; Bhakta, Savita; Zimolo, Zoran; Cooper, Thomas; Perry, Edward

    2008-07-01

    Cannabinoids produce a spectrum of effects in humans including euphoria, cognitive impairments, psychotomimetic effects<