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Sample records for predisposed subjects effects

  1. Comparison of lesions predisposing to rhegmatogenous retinal detachment by race of subjects.

    PubMed

    Foos, R Y; Simons, K B; Wheeler, N C

    1983-11-01

    Because rhegmatogenous retinal detachments are thought to be much less common in blacks than in whites, we compared the incidence of various lesions known to cause or predispose to this condition (synchysis senilis, posterior vitreous detachment, breaks, tears, and holes of the peripheral fundus, and lattice degeneration of the retina) in a series of postmortem eyes on the basis of race. Our statistical analysis also included trauma, myopia, and chorioretinitis. The series included 322 black subjects and 2,012 white subjects. The subjects ranged in age from 20 to 93 years at the time of death. Although the initial data showed a racial difference in the incidence of synchysis senilis of grade 3 (50% destruction) or higher and posterior vitreous detachment (P = .033 and P = .021, respectively), we found no difference when the data were age-corrected.

  2. Prevalence of Radiographic Parameters Predisposing to Femoroacetabular Impingement in Young Asymptomatic Chinese and White Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Van Houcke, Jan; Yau, Wan Pan; Yan, Chun Hoi; Huysse, Wouter; Dechamps, Hannes; Lau, Wing Hang; Wong, Chun Sing; Pattyn, Christophe; Audenaert, Emmanuel Albert

    2015-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis of the hip is five to ten times more common in white people than in Chinese people. Little is known about the true prevalence of femoroacetabular impingement or its role in the development of osteoarthritis in the Chinese population. A cross-sectional study of both white and Chinese asymptomatic individuals was conducted to compare the prevalences of radiographic features posing a risk for femoroacetabular impingement in the two groups. It was hypothesized that that there would be proportional differences in hip anatomy between the white and Asian populations. Methods: Pelvic computed tomography scans of 201 subjects (ninety-nine white Belgians and 102 Chinese; 105 men and ninety-six women) without hip pain who were eighteen to forty years of age were assessed. The original axial images were reformatted to three-dimensional pelvic models simulating standardized radiographic views. Ten radiographic parameters predisposing to femoroacetabular impingement were measured: alpha angle, anterior offset ratio, and caput-collum-diaphyseal angle on the femoral side and crossover sign, ischial spine projection, acetabular anteversion angle, center-edge angle, acetabular angle of Sharp, Tönnis angle, and anterior acetabular head index on the acetabular side. Results: The white subjects had a less spherical femoral head than the Chinese subjects (average alpha angle, 56° compared with 50°; p < 0.001). The Chinese subjects had less lateral acetabular coverage than the white subjects, with average center-edge angles of 35° and 39° (p < 0.001) and acetabular angles of Sharp of 38° and 36° (p < 0.001), respectively. A shallower acetabular configuration was predominantly present in Chinese women. Conclusions: Significant differences in hip anatomy were demonstrated between young asymptomatic Chinese and white subjects. However, the absolute size of the observed differences appears to contrast with the reported low prevalence of femoroacetabular

  3. The effects of joint legal custody on mothers, fathers, and children controlling for factors that predispose a sole maternal versus joint legal award.

    PubMed

    Gunnoe, M L; Braver, S L

    2001-02-01

    Findings from comparisons of joint and sole custody families that do not control for predivorce differences in demographic and family process variables (factors that may predispose families to choose or be awarded joint custody) are of limited generalizability, since obtained group differences may be attributable to predisposing (self-selection) factors, custody, or both. This study compared a random sample of 254 recently separated, not-yet-divorced families on 71 predivorce variables that might plausibly differentiate between families awarded joint legal versus sole maternal custody. Twenty such factors were identified and controlled for in subsequent comparisons of 52 sole maternal and 26 joint legal custody families 2 years postdivorce. Families with joint custody had more frequent father-child visitation, lower maternal satisfaction with custody arrangements, more rapid maternal repartnering, and fewer child adjustment problems (net of predivorce selection factors). Moreover, these effects did not appear to be moderated by level of predecree parental conflict. No association between custody and fathers' compliance with child support orders was obtained.

  4. Depressive behavior induced by social isolation of predisposed female rats.

    PubMed

    Zanier-Gomes, Patrícia Helena; de Abreu Silva, Tomaz Eugênio; Zanetti, Guilherme Cia; Benati, Évelyn Raquel; Pinheiro, Nanci Mendes; Murta, Beatriz Martins Tavares; Crema, Virgínia Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Depression is a mood disorder that is more prevalent in women and has been closely associated with chronic stress. Many models of depression have been suggested that consider different forms of stress. In fact, stress is present in the life of every human being, but only a few develop depression. Accordingly, it seems wrong to consider all stressed animals to be depressed, emphasizing the importance of predisposition for this mood disorder. Based on this finding, we evaluated a predisposition to depressive behavior of female rats on the forced swim test (FST), and the more immobile the animal was during the FST, the more predisposed to depression it was considered to be. Then, animals were subjected to the stress of social isolation for 21 days and were re-evaluated by the FST. The Predisposed/Isolated rats presented higher immobility times. Once all the rats had prior experience in the FST, we calculated an Index of Increase by Isolation, confirming the previous results. Based on this result, we considered the Predisposed/Isolated group as presenting depressive behavior ('Depressed') and the Nonpredisposed/Nonisolated group as the control group ('Nondepressed'). The animals were distributed into 4 new groups: Nondepressed/Vehicle, Nondepressed/Amitriptyline, Depressed/Vehicle, Depressed/Amitriptyline. After 21 days of treatment, only the Depressed/Vehicle group differed from the other 3 groups, demonstrating the efficacy of amitriptyline in treating the depressive behavior of the Depressed animals, validating the model. This study shows that conducting an FST prior to any manipulation can predict predisposition to depressive behavior in female rats and that the social isolation of predisposed animals for 21 days is effective in inducing depressive behavior. This behavior can be considered real depressive behavior because it takes into account predisposition, chronic mild stress, and the prevalent gender.

  5. Subjective effects of Salvia divinorum.

    PubMed

    Dalgarno, Phil

    2007-06-01

    Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogenic plant native to Mexico, where the Mazatec Indians use it in divinatory rituals as a facilitator for contacting the spirits of the dead. A number of traditions surrounding the ritualistic use of Salvia are still observed. Generally the leaves are chewed for the visionary effects. Salvia has recently been embraced by Western drug cultures, where the traditional methods of ingestion are generally eschewed for the more immediately effective technique of smoking the dried leaves. This article discusses the history and indigenous cultural uses of Salvia before outlining its rediscovery in the 1960s and its subsequent introduction to the Western drug scenes (particularly Britain) since the mid 1990s. Qualitative data from 10 Salvia users were collected by means of email interviews. The participants were asked to provide as in-depth responses as possible. No time or space limit on answers was imposed. Their responses to each question are presented verbatim. The effects of Salvia appear to vary between users and seem sensitive to situational factors. Users who understand something of the ritualistic setting for traditional use would appear to have a fuller experience than those who do not.

  6. Why to Treat Subjects as Fixed Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, James S.; Estes, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R2 targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an…

  7. Why to treat subjects as fixed effects.

    PubMed

    Adelman, James S; Estes, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R² targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an interaction involving subjects, they broke down the interaction into individual subject data. Courrieu and Rey's (2015) commentary argues that (a) single-subject data need not be more reliable than subject-average data, and (b) anyway, treating groups of subjects as random samples leads to valid conclusions about general mechanisms of reading. Point (a) was not part of Adelman et al.'s claim. In this reply, we examine the consequences of using the fixed-effect assumption. It (a) produces the correct target to check if by-items regression models contain all necessary variables, (b) more accurately constrains cognitive models, (c) more accurately reveals general mechanisms, and (d) can offer more powerful tests of effects. Even when individual differences are not the primary focus of a study, the fixed-effect analysis is often preferable to the random-effects analysis.

  8. 32 CFR 644.391 - Predisposal conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Predisposal conference. 644.391 Section 644.391... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Predisposal Action § 644.391 Predisposal conference. (a) Where a substantial Army installation, or portion thereof, is involved, the DE will convene a predisposal conference...

  9. Recruiting phobic research subjects: effectiveness and cost.

    PubMed Central

    Kaakko, T.; Murtomaa, H.; Milgrom, P.; Getz, T.; Ramsay, D. S.; Coldwell, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    Efficiently enrolling subjects is one of the most important and difficult aspects of a clinical trial. This prospective study evaluated strategies used in the recruitment of 144 dental injection phobics for a clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of combining alprazolam with exposure therapy. Three types of recruitment strategies were evaluated: paid advertising, free publicity, and professional referral. Sixty-three percent of subjects were enrolled using paid advertising (the majority of them from bus advertisements [27.0%], posters on the University of Washington campus [20.1%], and newspaper advertisements [13.2%]). Free publicity (eg, television coverage, word of mouth) yielded 18.8% of enrolled subjects and professionaL referrals 14.6% of subjects. The average cost (1996 dollars) of enrolling 1 subject was $79. Bus and poster advertising attracted more initial contacts and yielded the greatest enrollment. PMID:11495403

  10. Recruiting phobic research subjects: effectiveness and cost.

    PubMed

    Kaakko, T; Murtomaa, H; Milgrom, P; Getz, T; Ramsay, D S; Coldwell, S E

    2001-01-01

    Efficiently enrolling subjects is one of the most important and difficult aspects of a clinical trial. This prospective study evaluated strategies used in the recruitment of 144 dental injection phobics for a clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of combining alprazolam with exposure therapy. Three types of recruitment strategies were evaluated: paid advertising, free publicity, and professional referral. Sixty-three percent of subjects were enrolled using paid advertising (the majority of them from bus advertisements [27.0%], posters on the University of Washington campus [20.1%], and newspaper advertisements [13.2%]). Free publicity (eg, television coverage, word of mouth) yielded 18.8% of enrolled subjects and professionaL referrals 14.6% of subjects. The average cost (1996 dollars) of enrolling 1 subject was $79. Bus and poster advertising attracted more initial contacts and yielded the greatest enrollment.

  11. Effect of GDNF on depressive-like behavior, spatial learning and key genes of the brain dopamine system in genetically predisposed to behavioral disorders mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Naumenko, Vladimir S; Kondaurova, Elena M; Bazovkina, Daria V; Tsybko, Anton S; Ilchibaeva, Tatyana V; Khotskin, Nikita V; Semenova, Alina A; Popova, Nina K

    2014-11-01

    The effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on behavior and brain dopamine system in predisposed to depressive-like behavior ASC (Antidepressant Sensitive Cataleptics) mice in comparison with the parental "nondepressive" CBA mice was studied. In 7days after administration (800ng, i.c.v.) GDNF decreased escape latency time and the path traveled to reach hidden platform in Morris water maze in ASC mice. GDNF enhanced depressive-like behavioral traits in both "nondepressive" CBA and "depressive" ASC mice. In CBA mice, GDNF decreased functional response to agonists of D1 (chloro-APB hydrobromide) and D2 (sumanirole maleate) receptors in tail suspension test, reduced D2 receptor gene expression in the substantia nigra and increased monoamine oxydase A (MAO A) gene expression in the striatum. GDNF increased D1 and D2 receptor genes expression in the nucleus accumbens of ASC mice but failed to alter expression of catechol-O-methyltransferase, dopamine transporter, MAO B and tyrosine hydroxylase genes in both investigated mouse strains. Thus, GDNF produced long-term genotype-dependent effect on behavior and the brain dopamine system. GDNF pretreatment (1) reduced D1 and D2 receptors functional responses and D2 receptor gene expression in s. nigra of CBA mice; (2) increased D1 and D2 receptor genes expression in n. accumbens of ASC mice and (3) improved spatial learning in ASC mice. GDNF enhanced depressive-like behavior both in CBA and ASC mice. The data suggest that genetically defined variance in the cross-talk between GDNF and brain dopamine system contributes to the variability of GDNF-induced responses and might be responsible for controversial GDNF effects.

  12. Effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on behavior and key members of the brain serotonin system in mouse strains genetically predisposed to behavioral disorders.

    PubMed

    Naumenko, Vladimir S; Bazovkina, Daria V; Semenova, Alina A; Tsybko, Anton S; Il'chibaeva, Tatyana V; Kondaurova, Elena M; Popova, Nina K

    2013-12-01

    The effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on behavior and on the serotonin (5-HT) system of a mouse strain predisposed to depressive-like behavior, ASC/Icg (Antidepressant Sensitive Cataleptics), in comparison with the parental "nondepressive" CBA/Lac mice was studied. Within 7 days after acute administration, GDNF (800 ng, i.c.v.) decreased cataleptic immobility but increased depressive-like behavioral traits in both investigated mouse strains and produced anxiolytic effects in ASC mice. The expression of the gene encoding the key enzyme for 5-HT biosynthesis in the brain, tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph-2), and 5-HT1A receptor gene in the midbrain as well as 5-HT2A receptor gene in the frontal cortex were increased in GDNF-treated ASC mice. At the same time, GDNF decreased 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor gene expression in the hippocampus of ASC mice. GDNF failed to change Tph2, 5-HT1A , or 5-HT2A receptor mRNA levels in CBA mice as well as 5-HT transporter gene expression and 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor functional activity in both investigated mouse strains. The results show 1) a GDNF-induced increase in the expression of key genes of the brain 5-HT system, Tph2, 5-HT1A , and 5-HT2A receptors, and 2) significant genotype-dependent differences in the 5-HT system response to GDNF treatment. The data suggest that genetically defined cross-talk between neurotrophic factors and the brain 5-HT system underlies the variability in behavioral response to GDNF.

  13. Subjective effects of transdermal nicotine among nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Ashare, Rebecca L; Baschnagel, Joseph S; Hawk, Larry W

    2010-04-01

    The subjective experience of nicotine, which may be influenced by personality traits as well as environmental factors, may be important for understanding the factors associated with the initiation and maintenance of nicotine dependence. The present study examined the effects of 7 mg transdermal nicotine among a relatively large sample (n = 91; 44 women) of college-aged nonsmokers. Using a placebo controlled, double-blind, within-subjects design, nicotine's effects were examined at rest and again after participants completed a sustained attention task. Sex and personality factors (Behavioral Inhibition and Behavioral Approach; BIS/BAS Scales; Carver & White, 1994) were examined as potential moderators. Overall, the effects of nicotine were generally modest and unpleasant. In the context of the cognitive task, nicotine increased nausea and negative affect but reduced fatigue, relative to placebo. In contrast, effects of nicotine during the initial 4 hr of patch administration, in which participants were in their natural environments, were moderated by individual differences in behavioral approach. Neither behavioral inhibition nor gender reliably moderated any subjective effects of nicotine. The present work suggests transdermal nicotine exerts only modest, mostly negative effects among nonsmokers. Future work should examine both contextual and personality moderators in large samples of participants who are exposed to nicotine through multiple routes of administration.

  14. Mediating effect of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Akin, Ahmet

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the mediating effects of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness. 297 university students (157 women, 140 men; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.3) were administered the Facebook Addiction Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that Facebook addiction partially mediated the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

  15. Emphysematous pancreatitis predisposed by Olanzapine

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Sukhen; Samanta, Sujay; Banik, Krishanu; Baronia, Arvind Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A 32-year-old male presented to our intensive care unit with severe abdominal pain and was diagnosed as acute pancreatitis after 2 months of olanzapine therapy for bipolar disorder. His serum lipase was 900 u/L, serum triglyceride 560 mg/dL, and blood sugar, fasting and postprandial were 230 and 478 mg/dL, respectively on admission. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of abdomen was suggestive of acute pancreatitis. Repeat CECT showed gas inside pancreas and collection in peripancreatic area and patient underwent percutaneous drainage and antibiotics irrigation through the drain into pancreas. We describe the rare case of emphysematous pancreatitis due to development of diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and immunosuppression predisposed by short duration olanzapine therapy. PMID:25024479

  16. Learning Styles, Subject Matter, and Effectiveness in Undergraduate Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Darren C.

    2014-01-01

    Are potential relationships among students' learning styles and effectiveness in online education moderated by subject matter for undergraduate students at a private higher education institution? This causal relationship correlational study evaluated the effects of subject matter as a moderating variable between students learning styles and…

  17. Item Effects as Indicators of Subjective Organization in Serial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Louis G.

    1974-01-01

    Whereas Martin (1973) examined item effects for individual subjects as indicators of their idiosyncratic organization of the middle of a lengthy, constant sequence of unrelated nouns, the present study examined the constancy of item effects across groups of subjects learning a short list of moderately difficult CVCs. (Author/RK)

  18. Effects of subject-area degree and classroom experience on new chemistry teachers' subject matter knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Ryan S.; Campbell, Benjamin K.; Luft, Julie A.

    2016-07-01

    Science teachers need to understand the subject matter they teach. While subject matter knowledge (SMK) can improve with classroom teaching experience, it is problematic that many secondary science teachers leave the profession before garnering extensive classroom experience. Furthermore, many new science teachers are assigned to teach science subjects for which they do not hold a degree. This study investigates the SMK of new secondary science teachers assigned to teach chemistry in their first three years of teaching. These new teachers do not have the advantage of years of experience to develop their SMK and half hold a degree in biology rather than chemistry. This qualitative study explores the effects of holding a degree in the subject area one teaches as well as classroom teaching experience on teachers' SMK for two chemistry topics, conservation of mass and chemical equilibrium. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews indicated that the SMK of teachers who had a chemistry degree and more extensive classroom experience was more coherent, chemistry-focused, and sophisticated than that of teachers who lacked this preparation and experience. This study provides evidence that new science teachers' SMK is influenced by both holding a degree in the subject area and having classroom experience.

  19. Effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on behavior and key members of the brain serotonin system in genetically predisposed to behavioral disorders mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Naumenko, V S; Kondaurova, E M; Bazovkina, D V; Tsybko, A S; Tikhonova, M A; Kulikov, A V; Popova, N K

    2012-07-12

    The effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on depressive-like behavior and serotonin (5-HT) system in the brain of antidepressant sensitive cataleptics (ASC)/Icg mouse strain, characterized by depressive-like behavior, in comparison with the parental nondepressive CBA/Lac mouse strain was examined. Significant decrease of catalepsy and tail suspension test (TST) immobility was shown 17days after acute central BDNF administration (300ng i.c.v.) in ASC mice. In CBA mouse strain, BDNF moderately decreased catalepsy without any effect on TST immobility time. Significant difference between ASC and CBA mice in the effect of BDNF on 5-HT system was revealed. It was shown that central administration of BDNF led to increase of 5-HT(1A) receptor gene expression but not 5-HT(1A) functional activity in ASC mice. Increased tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph-2) and 5-HT(2A) receptor genes expression accompanied by 5-HT(2A) receptor sensitization was shown in BDNF-treated ASC but not in CBA mouse strain, suggesting BDNF-induced increase of the brain 5-HT system functional activity and activation of neurogenesis in "depressive" ASC mice. There were no changes found in the 5-HT transporter mRNA level in BDNF-treated ASC and CBA mice. In conclusion, central administration of BDNF produced prolonged ameliorative effect on depressive-like behavior accompanied by increase of the Tph-2, 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) genes expression and 5-HT(2A) receptor functional activity in animal model of hereditary behavior disorders.

  20. Effect of Daytime Exercise on Sleep Eeg and Subjective Sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage of total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), time in bed (TIB), sleep time (ST), total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), waking from sleep, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, number of stage shifts, number of spindles, and percentages of α and δ waves, all of which were determined by an automatic computer analysis system. The OSA questionnaire was used to investigate subjective sleep. The five scales of the OSA used were sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling, and sleep initiation. Each sleep parameter was compared in the exercise and the non-exercise groups. Two-way analysis of variance was applied using subject factor and exercise factor. The main effect of the subject was significant in all parameters and the main effect of exercise in %S(3+4), SOL and sleep efficiency, among the objective sleep parameters. The main effects of the subject, except sleepiness, were significant, as was the main effect of exercise on sleep initiation, among the subjective sleep parameters. These findings suggest that daytime exercise shortened sleep latency and prolonged slow-wave sleep, and that the subjects fell asleep more easily on exercise days. There were also significant individual differences in both the objective and subjective sleep parameters.

  1. Male and female rats differ in brain cannabinoid CB1 receptor density and function and in behavioural traits predisposing to drug addiction: effect of ovarian hormones.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Maria Paola; Fadda, Paola; Casu, Angelo; Spano, Maria Sabrina; Casti, Alberto; Fratta, Walter; Fattore, Liana

    2014-01-01

    Sex-dependent differences are frequently observed in the biological and behavioural effects of substances of abuse, including cannabis. We recently demonstrated a modulating effect of sex and oestrous cycle on cannabinoid-taking and seeking behaviours. Here, we investigated the influence of sex and oestrogen in the regulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptor density and function, measured by [(3)H]CP55940 and CP55940-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding autoradiography, respectively, in the prefrontal cortex (Cg1 and Cg3), caudate- putamen, nucleus accumbens, amygdala and hippocampus of male and cycling female rats, as well as ovariectomised (OVX) rats and OVX rats primed with oestradiol (10 µg/rat) (OVX+E). CB1 receptor density was significantly lower in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of cycling females than in males and in OVX females, a difference that appeared to be oestradiol-dependent, because it was no more evident in the OVX+E group. CP55940-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding was significantly higher in the Cg3 of OVX rats relative to cycling and OVX+E rats. No difference was observed in CB1 receptor density or function in any of the other brain areas analysed. Finally, sex and oestradiol were also found to affect motor activity, social behaviour and sensorimotor gating in rats tested in locomotor activity boxes, social interaction and prepulse inhibition tasks, respectively. Our findings provide biochemical evidence for sex- and hormone- dependent differences in the density and function of CB1 receptors in selected brain regions, and in behaviours associated with greater vulnerability to drug addiction, revealing a more vulnerable behavioural phenotype in female than in male rats.

  2. Predisposing factors and prevention of frostbite.

    PubMed

    Rintamäki, H

    2000-04-01

    This review focuses on the physiological, behavioural and environmental factors which predispose to frostbite. Also prevention of frostbite is summarised. Predisposing factors may increase heat loss, decrease heat production, decrease the insulation of the clothing, make people especially susceptible to cold or make them to behave inadequately. Marked increase in convective or conductive heat loss is often the immediate reason for frostbite. Wind (as described by wind chill index) increases convective heat loss and touching of metal objects increases conductive cooling. Poor insulation of the clothing is also a common reason of frostbite. The insulation can be insufficient when clothing is wet, tight, permeable to wind or does not cover the cold sensitive body parts. Individual factors predisposing to frostbite are inadequate behaviour, low physical fitness, fatigue, dehydration, earlier cold injuries, sickness or poor circulation in peripheral parts of the body. Frostbite is often associated with the use of alcohol. To prevent frostbite, it is necessary to recognise cold risks, practise tasks in the cold, eat and drink well, have physical exercise, have sufficient clothing (also spare clothing), change into dry clothing if necessary and take care of companions. In the cold it is not advisable to get fatigued until exhaustion, sweat excessively, use tight and/or wet clothing, drink alcohol, smoke and expose oneself unnecessarily to wind, metals or fluids.

  3. Individual predictors of the subjective effects of intravenous cocaine.

    PubMed

    Grasing, Kenneth; Mathur, Deepan; Newton, Thomas F; Desouza, Cherilyn

    2013-08-15

    The subjective and reinforcing effects of addictive substances can vary greatly between individuals. This study compared the relative contributions of baseline drug use, craving, stressful life events, and social factors in determining the subjective effects of cocaine in individual participants. Twelve veterans meeting criteria for cocaine dependence were evaluated in a laboratory setting. Self-report of the subjective effects of intravenous cocaine was recorded following single- and double-blind, placebo-controlled injections. Increased positive subjective effects of cocaine, including drug-induced 'good' effects and the value of intravenous injections, were most strongly correlated with greater family and social dysfunction measured through the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). Social dysfunction was the strongest predictor of cocaine-induced euphoria, accounting for approximately one-half of its variability. Participants who were dissatisfied with their current marital status reported almost no 'bad' effects of cocaine but instead reported increased drug-induced 'high', euphoria, and injection value. Although further research is required to determine the generalizability of this association, our findings are parallel to recent preclinical results showing that social interaction can attenuate psychostimulant reward. Effects of substance abuse treatment that rely on improved social function may be mediated through changes in the brain's reinforcement system that modify the rewarding effects of cocaine.

  4. Effect of hydration on nitrogen washout in human subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, J.; Horrigan, D. J., Jr.; Conkin, J.

    1983-01-01

    Five subjects were tested to assess the influence of drinking hypotonic water (distilled water) on whole body tissue nitrogen washout. During the test, the subjects breathed aviators' oxygen for three hours. Each subject performed two baseline nitrogen washouts in a two-week period. The third washout, in the third week, was done under a transient hydrated condition. This was accomplished by having the subjects drink 1.5 liters of hypotonic water 30 minutes before the washout. Five-minute plots of tissue nitrogen removal from the three separate washouts were analyzed to ascertain if the hydration technique had any effect. Our results clearly indicate that the hydration technique did not alter the tissue nitrogen washout characteristics to any degree over three hours. An increase in tissue nitrogen washout under a transient hydrated condition using hypotonic fluid was not demonstrated to be the mechanism responsible for the reported benefit of this technique in preventing Type I altitude decompression pain in man.

  5. Subjective and objective effects of coffee consumption - caffeine or expectations?

    PubMed

    Dömötör, Zs; Szemerszky, R; Köteles, F

    2015-03-01

    Impact of 5 mg/kg caffeine, chance of receiving caffeine (stimulus expectancies), and expectations of effects of caffeine (response expectancies) on objective (heart rate (HR), systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP), measures of heart rate variability (HRV), and reaction time (RT)) and subjective variables were investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment with a no-treatment group. Participants were 107 undergraduate university students (mean age 22.3 ± 3.96 years). Consumption of 5 mg/kg caffeine had an impact on participants' SBP, standard deviation of normal heartbeat intervals, HR (decrease), and subjective experience 40 minutes later even after controlling for respective baseline values, stimulus and response expectancies, and habitual caffeine consumption. No effects on DBP, high frequency component of HRV, the ratio of low- and high-frequency, and RT were found. Beyond actual caffeine intake, response expectancy score was also a determinant of subjective experience which refers to a placebo component in the total effect. Actual autonomic (SBP, HR) changes and somatosensory amplification tendency, however, had no significant impact on subjective experience. Placebo reaction plays a role in the subjective changes caused by caffeine consumption but it has no impact on objective variables. Conditional vs deceptive administration of caffeine (i.e. stimulus expectancies) had no impact on any assessed variable.

  6. Effects of Prism Eyeglasses on Objective and Subjective Fixation Disparity.

    PubMed

    Schroth, Volkhard; Joos, Roland; Jaschinski, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In optometry of binocular vision, the question may arise whether prisms should be included in eyeglasses to compensate an oculomotor and/or sensory imbalance between the two eyes. The corresponding measures of objective and subjective fixation disparity may be reduced by the prisms, or the adaptability of the binocular vergence system may diminish effects of the prisms over time. This study investigates effects of wearing prisms constantly for about 5 weeks in daily life. Two groups of 12 participants received eyeglasses with prisms having either a base-in direction or a base-out direction with an amount up to 8 prism diopters. Prisms were prescribed based on clinical fixation disparity test plates at 6 m. Two dependent variables were used: (1) subjective fixation disparity was indicated by a perceived offset of dichoptic nonius lines that were superimposed on the fusion stimuli and (2) objective fixation disparity was measured with a video based eye tracker relative to monocular calibration. Stimuli were presented at 6 m and included either central or more peripheral fusion stimuli. Repeated measurements were made without the prisms and with the prisms after about 5 weeks of wearing these prisms. Objective and subjective fixation disparity were correlated, but the type of fusion stimulus and the direction of the required prism may play a role. The prisms did not reduce the fixation disparity to zero, but induced significant changes in fixation disparity with large effect sizes. Participants receiving base-out prisms showed hypothesized effects, which were concurrent in both types of fixation disparity. In participants receiving base-in prisms, the individual effects of subjective and objective effects were negatively correlated: the larger the subjective (sensory) effect, the smaller the objective (motor) effect. This response pattern was related to the vergence adaptability, i.e. the individual fusional vergence reserves.

  7. Minocycline attenuates subjective-rewarding effects of dextroamphetamine in humans

    PubMed Central

    Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Mooney, Marc; Kosten, Thomas; Waters, Andrew; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Minocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic, interacts with brain glutamate and dopamine neurotransmission. In preclinical studies, minocycline attenuated amphetamine-induced acute dopamine release and subsequent behavioral sensitization. The goal of this study was to determine minocycline’s effects on the acute physiological, behavioral, and subjective responses to dextroamphetamine (DAMP) in healthy volunteers. Methods Ten healthy volunteers participated in an outpatient double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Subjects had a 5-day treatment period with either minocycline (200 mg/day) or placebo and then were crossed over for 5-days of the other treatment. After two days of taking the study medication, on days 3 and 4, subjects were randomly assigned to double-blind acute challenge with either 20 mg/70 kg DAMP or placebo DAMP (randomly labeled as drug A or B) and then crossed-over to the other challenge. On Day 5 (Experimental Session 3), subjects had the opportunity to self-administer either placebo or DAMP capsules by working on a progressive ratio computer task. Results Minocycline attenuated DAMP-induced subjective-rewarding effects but did not change DAMP choice behavior. Minocycline treatment speeded reaction times on a Go No-Go task and reduced plasma cortisol levels. Conclusions These findings warrant further studies examining the potential use of minocycline for stimulant addiction. PMID:20838775

  8. Adrenomedullin Haploinsufficiency Predisposes to Secondary Lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Nikitenko, Leonid L; Shimosawa, Tatsuo; Henderson, Stephen; Mäkinen, Taija; Shimosawa, Hiromi; Qureshi, Uzma; Pedley, R Barbara; Rees, Margaret C P; Fujita, Toshiro; Boshoff, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Secondary lymphedema is a debilitating condition, and genetic factors predisposing to its development remain largely unknown. Adrenomedullin (AM) is peptide encoded, together with proadrenomedullin N-terminal peptide (PAMP), by the Adm gene (adrenomedullin gene). AM and its putative receptor calcitonin receptor–like receptor (CLR) are implicated in angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis during embryogenesis and wound healing, suggesting their possible involvement in secondary lymphedema. To investigate whether AM deficiency predisposes to secondary lymphedema, we used heterozygous adult mice with Adm gene-knockin stop mutation, which selectively abrogated AM, but preserved PAMP, expression (AdmAM+/Δ animals). After hind limb skin incision, Adm messenger RNA expression was upregulated in wounded tissue of both AdmAM+/+ and AdmAM+/Δ mice. However, only AdmAM+/Δ animals developed limb swelling and histopathological lymphedematous changes, including epidermal thickening, elevated collagen fiber density, and increased microvessel diameter. Secondary lymphedema was prevented when circulating AM levels in AdmAM+/Δ mice were restored by systemic peptide delivery. In human skin, CLR was expressed in tissue components affected by lymphedema, including epidermis, lymphatics, and blood vessels. Our study identified a previously unrecognized role for endogenous AM as a key factor in secondary lymphedema pathogenesis and provided experimental in vivo evidence of an underlying germ-line genetic predisposition to developing this disorder. PMID:23364478

  9. What aspects of autism predispose to talent?

    PubMed

    Happé, Francesca; Vital, Pedro

    2009-05-27

    In this paper, we explore the question, why are striking special skills so much more common in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) than in other groups? Current cognitive accounts of ASC are briefly reviewed in relation to special skills. Difficulties in 'theory of mind' may contribute to originality in ASC, since individuals who do not automatically 'read other minds' may be better able to think outside prevailing fashions and popular theories. However, originality alone does not confer talent. Executive dysfunction has been suggested as the 'releasing' mechanism for special skills in ASC, but other groups with executive difficulties do not show raised incidence of talents. Detail-focused processing bias ('weak coherence', 'enhanced perceptual functioning') appears to be the most promising predisposing characteristic, or 'starting engine', for talent development. In support of this notion, we summarize data from a population-based twin study in which parents reported on their 8-year-olds' talents and their ASC-like traits. Across the whole sample, ASC-like traits, and specifically 'restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests' related to detail focus, were more pronounced in children reported to have talents outstripping older children. We suggest that detail-focused cognitive style predisposes to talent in savant domains in, and beyond, autism spectrum disorders.

  10. Influence of "Halo" and "Demon" Effects in Subjective Grading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Gerald D.

    1983-01-01

    The phenomenon of "halo" effects in subjective grading was investigated. Two groups of three raters evaluated 20 term papers in introductory psychology. Term paper grades correlated significantly with course grades when information about previous academic performance was made available. When this information was not available, the…

  11. Effect Size Measure and Analysis of Single Subject Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaminathan, Hariharan; Horner, Robert H.; Rogers, H. Jane; Sugai, George

    2012-01-01

    This study is aimed at addressing the criticisms that have been leveled at the currently available statistical procedures for analyzing single subject designs (SSD). One of the vexing problems in the analysis of SSD is in the assessment of the effect of intervention. Serial dependence notwithstanding, the linear model approach that has been…

  12. Otomycosis in Turkey: predisposing factors, aetiology and therapy.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, K Murat; Ozcan, Muge; Karaarslan, Aydin; Karaarslan, Filiz

    2003-01-01

    Otomycosis usually requires long-term treatment and tends to recur. This study was performed on 87 patients with the clinical diagnosis of otomycosis and 20 controls in order to determine the pathogenic agents, predisposing factors and a cost-effective treatment. The predisposing factors included wearing head clothes (74.7 per cent), presence of dermatomycoses (34.5 per cent) and swimming (27.6 per cent). The most common pathogenic fungus was Aspergillus niger (44.8 per cent) in the otomycosis group. The only isolate was Candida albicans in the control group (2.5 per cent). We concluded that administration of four per cent boric acid solution in alcohol and frequent suction cleaning of the ear canal might be a cost-effective treatment for otomycosis since 77 per cent of the patients were treated effectively this way. Eighty per cent of the resistant cases had mixed fungal-bacterial infections, and 50 per cent of them had dermatomycoses. These resistant cases were treated by administration of tioconazole ointment.

  13. Effect Size for Single-Subject Design in Phonological Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Morrisette, Michele L.; Dickinson, Stephanie L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to document, validate, and corroborate effect size (ES) for single-subject design in treatment of children with functional phonological disorders; to evaluate potential child-specific contributing variables relative to ES; and to establish benchmarks for interpretation of ES for the population. Method Data were extracted from the Developmental Phonologies Archive for 135 preschool children with phonological disorders who previously participated in single-subject experimental treatment studies. Standard mean differenceall with correction for continuity was computed to gauge the magnitude of generalization gain that accrued longitudinally from treatment for each child with the data aggregated for purposes of statistical analyses. Results ES ranged from 0.09 to 27.83 for the study population. ES was positively correlated with conventional measures of phonological learning and visual inspection of learning data on the basis of procedures standard to single-subject design. ES was linked to children's performance on diagnostic assessments of phonology but not other demographic characteristics or related linguistic skills and nonlinguistic skills. Benchmarks for interpretation of ES were estimated as 1.4, 3.6, and 10.1 for small, medium, and large learning effects, respectively. Conclusion Findings have utility for single-subject research and translation of research to evidence-based practice for children with phonological disorders. PMID:26184118

  14. Otomycosis in Jos: Predisposing factors and Management

    PubMed Central

    Adoga, A, S; Iduh, A, A

    2015-01-01

    Background Otomycosis is a challenging and frustrating common Otologic condition to both patients and managing clinician. This fungal infection most often involves the squamous epithelium of the external auditory canal and is; characterized by pruritus, occasional otalgia and hypoacusis. Objectives To highlight the predisposing factors and management of Otomycosis in our center. Study design Retrospective review of 35 patients with a clinical diagnosis of otomycosis treated from January 2012 to March 2013. Setting The study was carried out at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, in the outpatient clinic of the department of Ear Nose Throat & Head Participants Thirty-five patients diagnosed with otomycosis had their medical data analyzed for this study. Intervention Antifungal eardrop was used for dressing the ears. Result 35 patients were seen within 15 months period (Jan. 2012– Mar. 2013). There were 11 males: 24 females given a gender ratio of 1:2.1. The commonest age group involved was 41–50(25.71%). There were 13, 10 and 6 cases of right, left and bilateral cases of Otomycosis m respectively. 16 cases were seen during the wet season and 19 cases during the dry season. In terms of occupation, house wives and civil servants constitute 28.60 and 17.15 % respectively. Diabetic mellitus was noted in1 (2.86%) patient. Conclusion The predisposing conditions for Otomycosis are present in Jos environment and can usually be diagnosed by clinical examination. This study suggested that otomycosis found are predominantly unilateral, more common in older age group, in female mainly housewives, civil servants and Candida species is the most common causative organism implicated in causation of otomycosis and treated with clotimazole containing drugs. Discontinuation of antifungal agent is most appropriate in antibiotic induced otomycosis. PMID:26690089

  15. GABRA2 markers moderate the subjective effects of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Uhart, Magdalena; Weerts, Elise M; McCaul, Mary E; Guo, Xiuqing; Yan, Xiaofei; Kranzler, Henry R; Li, Ning; Wand, Gary S

    2013-03-01

    Individual differences in subjective responses (SRs) to alcohol are moderated by genetic variants and may be risk factors for the development of alcohol use disorders. Variation in the GABA(A) α2 receptor subunit gene (GABRA2) has been associated with alcohol dependence (AD). Therefore, we examined whether individual differences in SRs, which reflect sensitivity to the effects of alcohol, are associated with variation in GABRA2. Sixty-nine healthy subjects (21-30 years) underwent a laboratory-based within-session cumulative oral alcohol dosing procedure, achieving a mean peak blood alcohol level of 100.4 mg/dl (standard error = 2.5). Subjective assessments were obtained throughout the session, including ascending and descending limbs of the alcohol curve. We genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the chromosome 4 region spanning GABRA2 and analyzed the effect of genotype and haplotypes on subjective responses to alcohol. Population substructure was characterized through the use of ancestry informative markers. Individual SNP analysis demonstrated that carriers of the minor alleles for SNPs rs279858, rs279844, rs279845, rs279826, rs279828 and rs279836 had lower 'Negative' alcohol effects scores than individuals homozygous for the common allele at each SNP (P = 0.0060, P = 0.0035, P = 0.0045, P = 0.0043, P = 0.0037 and P = 0.0061, respectively). Haplotype effects of block 1 showed concordant results with SNPs in this block (P = 0.0492 and P = 0.0150 for haplotypes 1 and 4, respectively). The minor alleles for several of these SNPs have previously been associated with AD. Our findings provide further evidence that variation within GABRA2 is associated with attenuated negative responses to alcohol, a known risk factor for vulnerability to alcohol use disorders.

  16. Effect of ozone on respiratory responses in subjects with asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, J Q

    1995-01-01

    In the process of understanding the respiratory effects of individual air pollutants, it is useful to consider which populations seem to be most susceptible to the exposures. Ozone is the most ubiquitous air pollutant in the United States, and there is great interest in the extent of susceptibility to this air pollutant. This review presents evidence that individuals with asthma are more susceptible to adverse respiratory effects from ozone exposure than are nonasthmatic individuals under similar circumstances. In studies comparing patients with asthma to nonasthmatic subjects, research has shown increased pulmonary-function decrements, an increased frequency of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in ozone responders, increased signs of upper airway inflammation after ozone exposure, and an increased response to inhaled sulfur dioxide or allergen in the subjects with asthma. Subjects with asthma are indeed a population susceptible to the inhaled effects of ozone. These data need to be considered by regulators who are charged with setting air quality standards to protect even the most susceptible members of the population. They also underline the importance of strategies to reduce human exposure to ambient ozone. PMID:7614933

  17. Effect of ozone on respiratory responses in subjects with asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, J.Q.

    1995-03-01

    In the process of understanding the respiratory effects of individual air pollutants, it is useful to consider which populations seem to be most susceptible to the exposures. Ozone is the most ubiquitous air pollutant in the United States, and there is great interest in the extent of susceptibility to this air pollutant. This review presents evidence that individuals with asthma are more susceptible to adverse respiratory effects from ozone exposure than are nonasthmatic individuals under similar circumstances. In studies comparing patients with asthma to nonasthmatic subjects, research has shown increased pulmonary-function decrements, an increased frequency of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in ozone responders, increased signs of upper airway inflammation after ozone exposure, and an increased response to inhaled sulfur dioxide or allergen in the subjects with asthma. Subjects with asthma are indeed a population susceptible to the inhaled effects of ozone. These data need to be considered by regulators who are charged with setting air quality standards to protect even the most susceptible members of the population. They also underline the importance of strategies to reduce human exposure to ambient ozone. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Effect of atmospheric pressure on hearing in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, M; Ozawa, H; Kodama, A; Izukura, H; Inoue, S; Uchida, K

    1994-01-01

    Hearing is assumed to be altered during or immediately after a change in atmospheric pressure, although this has not been tested experimentally. We used a soundproof pressure chamber to examine the effect of alterations in atmospheric pressure on hearing in 26 normal healthy subjects. The subjects were placed in the soundproof pressure chamber in a supine position and instructed to actively equilibrate middle ear pressure or to abstain from doing so. When the pressure was changed to +/- 500 mmH2O at 33 mmH2O/s the results were as follows: When subjects did not equilibrate middle ear pressure, air conduction at low frequency tones increased more than bone conduction. The degree of deterioration in hearing was greater when the chamber pressure was increased (descent) than where pressure was decreased (ascent). When the subjects equilibrated middle ear pressure, little change in the levels of air or bone conduction was observed. Most of the deterioration in bone conduction was considered to reflect functional loss due to increased stiffness and damping of the sound transmission mechanism.

  19. Effects of Subject-Area Degree and Classroom Experience on New Chemistry Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Ryan S.; Campbell, Benjamin K.; Luft, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Science teachers need to understand the subject matter they teach. While subject matter knowledge (SMK) can improve with classroom teaching experience, it is problematic that many secondary science teachers leave the profession before garnering extensive classroom experience. Furthermore, many new science teachers are assigned to teach science…

  20. Canagliflozin: Effects in overweight and obese subjects without diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Bays, Harold E; Weinstein, Richard; Law, Gordon; Canovatchel, William

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, on body weight in overweight and obese subjects (body mass index [BMI] ≥27 and <50 kg/m2). Methods This 12-week, Phase 2b, randomized, double-blind study enrolled 376 subjects without diabetes mellitus who received canagliflozin 50, 100, or 300 mg or placebo once daily. The primary endpoint was the percent change in body weight from baseline through Week 12. Results Canagliflozin increased urinary glucose excretion in a dose-dependent manner and produced statistically significant reductions in body weight compared with placebo (least squares mean percent changes from baseline of −2.2%, −2.9%, −2.7%, and −1.3% with canagliflozin 50, 100, and 300 mg and placebo; P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Overall adverse event (AE) rates were similar across groups. Canagliflozin was associated with higher rates of genital mycotic infections in women, which were generally mild and led to few study discontinuations. Osmotic diuresis-related AE rates were low and similar across groups. Conclusions In overweight and obese subjects without diabetes mellitus, canagliflozin significantly reduced body weight compared with placebo and was generally well tolerated. PMID:24227660

  1. The effect of walking sticks on balance in geriatric subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dogru, Esra; Kizilci, Harun; Balci, Nilay Comuk; Korkmaz, Nilufer Cetisli; Canbay, Ozden; Katayifci, Nihan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Guidelines and clarity regarding the information for deciding the need for walking sticks and the suitability of these sticks is insufficient. This study aimed to evaluate the suitability of walking stick and its effects on the balance in the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 39 elderly subjects aged between 65–95 years (mean age, 76.15 ± 8.35 years) and living in the Residential Aged Care and Rehabilitation Center were included. Sociodemographic data of the individuals, the material of the walking stick, who made the decision of usage and length of walking sticks were questioned. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) scores were used to evaluate balance. [Results] Subjects’ BBS scores while using the walking stick were higher than that without the walking stick. A significant difference was observed in BBS scores obtained with the stick and without the stick, according to body mass index parameters. Majority of the subjects also started to use walking sticks by themselves. No significant difference was observed between the ideal length and actual length of the walking stick was used. [Conclusion] Our study demonstrated that the elderly generally decide to use walking stick by themselves and chose the appropriate materials; which improves their balance. PMID:28174431

  2. Effects of chronic smoking on color vision in young subjects

    PubMed Central

    Arda, Hatice; Mirza, G Ertugrul; Polat, Osman A; Karakucuk, Sarper; Oner, Ayse; Gumus, Koray

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effects of chronic smoking on color vision in young subjects. METHODS This study included 91 smokers and 88 non-smokers (a total of 179 volunteers) without any ophthalmologic and systemical disorders. The subjects were between 18-40 years of age with a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/20, normal anterior and posterior segment examinations and normal intraocular pressure. The color vision of the subjects were evaluated with Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test (FMHT). The total error scores and axis calculation were performed for each subject and the results correlated. RESULTS Mean age and the standard deviation was 28±5y in the smokers group, and 26.7±5.5y in the control group (P=0.101). Sex distribution was similar in the two groups (P=0.365). There was no significant correlation between age and FMHT total error scores (P=0.069). Median of FMHT total error scores of smokers and non-smokers were 65 and 50.50, respectively. FMHT total error scores was found significantly higher in smokers than non-smokers (P=0.004). There was no statisticaly significant difference between smoker and non-smoker groups with respect to axis ratio calculation (P=0.611). There was no significant correlation with FMHT total error scores with neither smoking duration nor number of cigarettes smoked per day (P=0.405, P=0.454, respectively). CONCLUSION This study suggested that chronic smoking affects the color vision of young smokers but this may not be sector selective. PMID:25709912

  3. Genomic scan for genes predisposing to schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, H.; Jensen. S.; Holik, J.

    1994-03-15

    We initiated a genome-wide search for genes predisposing to schizophrenia by ascertaining 9 families, each containing three to five cases of schizophrenia. The 9 pedigrees were initially genotyped with 329 polymorphic DNA loci distributed throughout the genome. Assuming either autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance, 254 DNA loci yielded lod scores less than -2.0 at {theta} = 0.0, 101 DNA markers gave lod scores less than -2.0 at {theta} = 0.05, while 5 DNA loci produced maximum lod scores greater than 1: D4S35, D14S17, D15S1, D22S84, and D22S55. Of the DNA markers yielding lod scores greater than 1, D4S35 and D22S55 also were suggestive of linkage when the Affected-Pedigree-Member method was used. The families were then genotyped with four highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers; possible linkage diminished with DNA markers mapping nearby D4S35, while suggestive evidence of linkage remained with loci in the region of D22S55. Although follow-up investigation of these chromosomal regions may be warranted, our linkage results should be viewed as preliminary observations, as 35 unaffected persons are not past the age of risk. 90 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Effect of Cabotegravir on Cardiac Repolarization in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yu; Buchanan, Ann M.; Chen, Shuguang; Ford, Susan L.; Gould, Elizabeth; Margolis, David; Spreen, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A randomized, partial‐blind, repeat‐dose, 3‐period crossover study (NCT02027454) assessed the effect of cabotegravir on QT interval in healthy subjects. To achieve a supratherapeutic dose, each subject received cabotegravir 150 mg (30 mg × 5 tablets) every 12 hours for a total of 3 doses over 2 days, matching placebo (every 12 hours) over 2 days, or a single open‐label 400‐mg dose of the positive control moxifloxacin, with a 21‐day washout between treatments. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analyses were collected up to 24 hours after the third dose on day 2. QT interval data were obtained by continuous Holter monitoring for approximately 24 hours at baseline (day ‐1) and from 2 hours before to 24 hours after the third dose on day 2. Plasma cabotegravir exposure was approximately 3‐fold above clinically relevant doses. After 3 doses of 150 mg of cabotegravir administered every 12 hours, all upper limits of 2‐sided 90% confidence intervals for ΔΔQTcF (difference in time‐matched change from baseline for QTcF between cabotegravir and placebo) were <10 milliseconds. There was no relationship between cabotegravir plasma concentrations and ΔΔQTcF. No subject receiving cabotegravir had a QTcF value > 450 milliseconds. There were no serious or grade 3 or 4 adverse events or clinically significant changes in laboratory values, vital signs, or electrocardiogram results. These data demonstrate that cabotegravir at a supratherapeutic dose had no effect on cardiac repolarization. PMID:27162089

  5. Subjective effects of Salvia divinorum: LSD- or marijuana-like?

    PubMed

    Albertson, Dawn N; Grubbs, Laura E

    2009-09-01

    Salvia divinorum is a naturally occurring psychedelic considered to be one of the most potent hallucinogens found to date. The few behavioral studies conducted conclude that Salvia's effects may be similar to traditional psychedelics, which is noteworthy because Salvia acts via a unique molecular mechanism as a kappa opioid receptor agonist. One hundred and ninety-three participants, including 34 Salvia users, were asked to fill out a series of questionnaires related to general drug use, personality characteristics, demographics and their experiences with Salvia. Salvia users were found to differ from nonusers on personality characteristics and reported consuming significantly more alcohol than nonusers. In addition, although Salvia users rated their hallucinogenic experiences as similar to those seen in previously published reports, the majority likened their experiences as most similar to marijuana instead of more traditional psychedelics. Low scores on the ARCI LSD subscale confirmed this finding and call into question the reigning theory of LSD-like subjective effects elicited by Salvia.

  6. Measures for Assessing Subjective Effects of Potential Reduced Exposure Products

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Karen; O’Connor, Richard; Hatsukami, Dorothy

    2009-01-01

    Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) may reduce toxicant exposure and thereby may possibly reduce health risks associated with conventional tobacco use. However, lessened health risk to the individual or harm to the population through use of PREPs is unknown. Research is being conducted to evaluate the possible health effects associated with PREP use. As part of this evaluation, it is critical to provide sound measures of subjective responses to PREPs to determine the use and the abuse potential of a product, that is the likelihood that this product will lead to addiction. The goal of this paper is to conduct a systematic review of scales that have been used to measure the subjective responses to PREPs and examine their characteristics. In this paper, scales are identified and the items on the scales are described. Scales are also examined to determine whether they are sensitive in testing PREPs. Furthermore, scales to assess PREPs are recommended to investigators. Where no scales exist, items that may be critical for the development and validation of new scales are identified. PMID:19959674

  7. Effect of Subject Control and Graduated Exposure on Snake Phobias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepner, Alain; Cauthen, Nelson R.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of two of the variables in Leitenberg's graduated exposure technique for treating phobias, graduated exposure and subject control of the exposure time, was investigated using 15 snake-phobic subjects. Subjective fear significantly decreased from pretesting to posttesting. (Author)

  8. Otomycosis; clinical features, predisposing factors and treatment implications

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Khurshid; Gohar, Muhammad Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Objectives : The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of otomycosis, the clinical presentation, predisposing factors and treatment outcomes. Methods: This observational study was conducted at ENT department of Combined Military Hospital Attock, from October, 2010 to September, 2012. Convenient sample comprising 180 patients of both sexes and all age groups were selected from ENT OPD. The frequency, predisposing factors and most common symptoms of otomycosis were recorded. The response to different antifungal agents was also observed. Results were recorded in percentages. Results: There were 180 patients with documented diagnosis of otomycosis. There were 107 (59%) males and 73 (41%) females. The age of patients ranged from 1½ years to 75 years with a mean age of 38.5 years. Mean follow up time was 2 years. Most common presenting symptom was hearing loss (77.7%) followed by pruritis (68.8%) and otalgia (40%). We prescribed 1% clotrimazole drops or lotion in 58% patients and 2% salicylic acid in 31% cases. Both of these agents are effective. Topical 1% clotrimazole drops yielded highest resolution rate with lowest recurrent rate. Overall 149 (83%) patients were improved with initial treatment and 31 (17%) did not respond to initial treatment. Eight (4.4%) patients had a history of otological procedures. Four (2.2%) patients had canal wall down procedures that resulted in mastoid cavity. To analyse the efficacy of 1% clotrimazole and 2% salicylic acid we applied Z-Test to calculate the difference between 2 proportions of patients before treatment with those patients who remained uncured after treatment. Conclusion: Otomycosisis commonly presented with decreased hearing, pruritis, otalgia & otorrhoea. It usually resolves with local toilet of ear and instillation of antifungal agents. Eradication of disease is difficult in presence of a mastoid cavity and metabolic diseases like diabetes mellitus. PMID:24948980

  9. Acute effects of coffee on QT interval in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The coronary endothelial function is recognized to have an important role in the physiology of the diastolic ventricular relaxation, a phase of the heart cycle that influences the electrocardiographic QT interval. Endothelial function is investigated in vivo by flow mediated dilation (FMD) in the brachial artery and has proven to be a strong predictor of both coronary endothelial function and cardiovascular events. It has been reported that coffee acutely induces FMD changes. In particular, the brachial artery FMD seems to decrease after caffeinated coffee (CC) and to increase after decaffeinated coffee (DC) ingestion. Since the cardiovascular effects of coffee are still a debated matter, this study aimed at investigating with a randomized, double-blind crossover design, if the QT interval of adult healthy subjects (19 males and 21 females) changes in the hour following CC or DC ingestion. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher in the hour following the ingestion of CC; the heart rate significantly increased 30 minutes after CC ingestion. A significant increase of the QT duration was observed one hour after DC ingestion (398.9 ± 3.8 vs 405.3 ± 3.7 msec; P < 0.05), not after CC. The QT interval corrected for heart rate did not significantly change following CC or DC ingestion. In conclusion, despite CC and DC previously demonstrated to influence the FMD they do not seem to induce a significant unfavourable acute change of the left ventricular repolarization. Further investigations are required to elucidate the effects of coffee in subjects with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21288364

  10. The Influence of Predisposing, Enabling and Need Factors on Condom Use in Ivory Coast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngamini Ngui, Andre

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify key determinants of condom use in Ivory Coast. Data stem from Ivory Coast Demographic Health Survey (DHS) conducted by ORC Macro in 2005 among a representative sample of 9,686 persons aged 15 - 49. Following the behavioral model, we use logistic regression to assess the effect of predisposing,…

  11. Evaluating for suspected child abuse: conditions that predispose to bleeding.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Shannon L; Abshire, Thomas C; Anderst, James D

    2013-04-01

    Child abuse might be suspected when children present with cutaneous bruising, intracranial hemorrhage, or other manifestations of bleeding. In these cases, it is necessary to consider medical conditions that predispose to easy bleeding/bruising. When evaluating for the possibility of bleeding disorders and other conditions that predispose to hemorrhage, the pediatrician must consider the child's presenting history, medical history, and physical examination findings before initiating a laboratory investigation. Many medical conditions can predispose to easy bleeding. Before ordering laboratory tests for a disease, it is useful to understand the biochemical basis and clinical presentation of the disorder, condition prevalence, and test characteristics. This technical report reviews the major medical conditions that predispose to bruising/bleeding and should be considered when evaluating for abusive injury.

  12. Subject Expression in Brazilian Portuguese: Construction and Frequency Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silveira Neto, Agripino De Souza

    2012-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese (henceforth BP) has for long been considered as a Null-subject language due to its variability in regards to subject expression (e.g. "Era bom porque eu diminuia de peso...era muito gordinha" "That was good because then I could lose some weight...(I) was a bit chubby." C33:179). Such variability has been…

  13. Mixed-Effects Modeling with Crossed Random Effects for Subjects and Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baayen, R. H.; Davidson, D. J.; Bates, D. M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to mixed-effects models for the analysis of repeated measurement data with subjects and items as crossed random effects. A worked-out example of how to use recent software for mixed-effects modeling is provided. Simulation studies illustrate the advantages offered by mixed-effects analyses compared to…

  14. Subjective and objective learning effects dissociate in space and in time.

    PubMed

    Schwiedrzik, Caspar M; Singer, Wolf; Melloni, Lucia

    2011-03-15

    Perceptual learning not only improves sensitivity, but it also changes our subjective experience. However, the question of how these two learning effects relate is largely unexplored. Here we investigate how subjects learn to see initially indiscriminable metacontrast-masked shapes. We find that sensitivity and subjective awareness increase with training. However, sensitivity and subjective awareness dissociate in space: Learning effects on performance are lost when the task is performed at an untrained location in another quadrant, whereas learning effects on subjective awareness are maintained. This finding indicates that improvements in shape sensitivity involve visual areas up to V4, whereas changes in subjective awareness involve other brain regions. Furthermore, subjective awareness dissociates from sensitivity in time: In an early phase of perceptual learning, subjects perform above chance on trials that they rate as subjectively invisible. Later, this phenomenon disappears. Subjective awareness is thus neither necessary nor sufficient for achieving above-chance objective performance.

  15. 47 CFR 76.905 - Standards for identification of cable systems subject to effective competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... subject to effective competition. 76.905 Section 76.905 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Regulation § 76.905 Standards for identification of cable systems subject to effective competition. (a) Only the rates of cable systems that are not subject to effective competition may be regulated. (b) A...

  16. 47 CFR 76.905 - Standards for identification of cable systems subject to effective competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... subject to effective competition. 76.905 Section 76.905 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Regulation § 76.905 Standards for identification of cable systems subject to effective competition. (a) Only the rates of cable systems that are not subject to effective competition may be regulated. (b) A...

  17. 47 CFR 76.905 - Standards for identification of cable systems subject to effective competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... subject to effective competition. 76.905 Section 76.905 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Regulation § 76.905 Standards for identification of cable systems subject to effective competition. (a) Only the rates of cable systems that are not subject to effective competition may be regulated. (b) A...

  18. 47 CFR 76.905 - Standards for identification of cable systems subject to effective competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... subject to effective competition. 76.905 Section 76.905 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Regulation § 76.905 Standards for identification of cable systems subject to effective competition. (a) Only the rates of cable systems that are not subject to effective competition may be regulated. (b) A...

  19. Maternal Nutrient Restriction Predisposes Ventricular Remodeling in Adult Sheep Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Wei; Hu, Nan; George, Lindsey A.; Ford, Stephen P.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Wang, Xiaoming; Ren, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy is associated with the development of a “thrifty phenotype” in offspring, conferring increased prevalence of metabolic diseases in adulthood. To explore the possible mechanisms behind heart diseases in adulthood following maternal nutrient restriction, dams were fed a nutrient restricted (NR: 50%) or control (100%) diet from 28 to 78 d of gestation. Both groups were then fed 100% of requirements to lambing. At 6 yrs of age, female offspring of NR and control ewes of similar weight and body condition were subject to ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable diet for 12 wks. Cardiac geometry, post-insulin receptor signaling, autophagy and pro-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated in hearts from adult offspring. Our results indicated that maternal nutrient restriction overtly increased body weight gain and triggered cardiac remodeling in offspring following the 12-week ad libitum feeding. Phosphorylation of IRS1 was increased in left but not right ventricles from NR offspring. Levels of STAT3 were upregulated in left ventricles whereas expression of TNFα and TLR4 was enhanced in right ventricles in adult offspring of maternal nutrition restricted ewes. No significant differences were found in pan IRS-1, pan AMPK, pan Akt, pAMPK, pAkt, GLUT4, phosphorylated mTOR, Beclin-1 and LC3 II proteins in left and right ventricle between the control and NR offspring. These data revealed that maternal nutrient restriction during early to mid gestation may predispose adult offspring to cardiac remodeling possibly associated with phosphorylation of IRS1 as well as proinflammatory cytokines but not autophagy. PMID:23333094

  20. Effects of a single dose of baclofen on self-reported subjective effects and tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Cousins, M S; Stamat, H M; de Wit, H

    2001-05-01

    Baclofen has been reported in uncontrolled clinical studies to reduce craving for abused drugs and reduce their rewarding effects. The objective of the present study was to measure the acute effects of a single dose of baclofen on cigarette smoking, craving for nicotine, cigarette taste, and smoking satisfaction. Tobacco smokers (n = 16) who were not trying to quit received baclofen (20 mg) or placebo after overnight abstinence during two laboratory sessions in a within-subjects design. We measured the subjective effects of baclofen on mood and self-reported ratings of craving for nicotine, and on the number of cigarettes smoked of the subjects' preferred brand during a 3-h ad libitum smoking period. Baclofen did not change the number of cigarettes smoked by the subjects nor did it change ratings of nicotine craving. However, baclofen altered the sensory properties of smoked cigarettes (e.g., increasing ratings of 'harsh' and decreasing ratings of 'like cigarette's effects'). It also produced mild sedative-like subjective effects, such as increases in feeling 'relaxed'. Thus, although baclofen did not reduce cigarette craving or smoking in the present study, it did produce some mood-altering effects and changes in sensory aspects of smoking that may facilitate smoking cessation.

  1. Detecting disease-predisposing variants: The haplotype method

    SciTech Connect

    Valdes, A.M.; Thomson, G.

    1997-03-01

    For many HLA-associated diseases, multiple alleles - and, in some cases, multiple loci - have been suggested as the causative agents. The haplotype method for identifying disease-predisposing amino acids in a genetic region is a stratification analysis. We show that, for each haplotype combination containing all the amino acid sites involved in the disease process, the relative frequencies of amino acid variants at sites not involved in disease but in linkage disequilibrium with the disease-predisposing sites are expected to be the same in patients and controls. The haplotype method is robust to mode of inheritance and penetrance of the disease and can be used to determine unequivocally whether all amino acid sites involved in the disease have not been identified. Using a resampling technique, we developed a statistical test that takes account of the nonindependence of the sites sampled. Further, when multiple sites in the genetic region are involved in disease, the test statistic gives a closer fit to the null expectation when some - compared with none - of the true predisposing factors are included in the haplotype analysis. Although the haplotype method cannot distinguish between very highly correlated sites in one population, ethnic comparisons may help identify the true predisposing factors. The haplotype method was applied to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) HLA class II DQA1-DQB1 data from Caucasian, African, and Japanese populations. Our results indicate that the combination DQA1 No. 52 (Arg predisposing) DQB1 No. 57 (Asp protective), which has been proposed as an important IDDM agent, does not include all the predisposing elements. With rheumatoid arthritis HLA class H DRB1 data, the results were consistent with the shared-epitope hypothesis. 35 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. The Effects of Sex of Subject, Sex and Attractiveness of Photo on Facial Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroo, Agatha W.; Mozingo, R.

    1989-01-01

    Assessed effect of sex of subject, and sex and attractiveness of photo on facial recognition with 25 male and 25 female college students. Found male subjects performed better with male faces with d' prime scores. (Author/ABL)

  3. A new simulator for assessing subjective effects of sonic booms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leatherwood, Jack D.; Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    1991-09-01

    A man rated and computer driven sonic boom simulator which has been constructed and placed in operational use at NASA-Langley is described. The simulator is used to study human subjective reactions to sonic booms and has the capability of producing a wide range of signatures under controlled conditions. Results are presented to illustrate the capability of the simulator to generate user specified N-wave and shaped booms having rise times as low as 0.5 milliseconds and peak overpressures up to 191 Pa (4 psf). The validity of the simulator as a lab research tool for studying human subjective response to sonic booms was demonstrated by successful completion of a preliminary test designed to compare loudness of N-wave sonic booms with results obtained by other investigators. Excellent agreement of the preliminary test data with existing data was observed. This provided confidence in the experimental methodology and established the simulator as a viable tool for performing detailed evaluations of sonic boom loudness and acceptability within the lab. environment.

  4. Iron deficiency: an overlooked predisposing factor in angular cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Murphy, N C; Bissada, N F

    1979-10-01

    Clinicians who recommend the use of antifungal agents for angular cheilitis may be treating the symptoms and not the predisposing cause of the disease. Iron deficiency should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis whenever angular cheilitis is encountered, especially in women of child-bearing age.

  5. Antioxidant effects of a cinnamon extract on overweight subjects with impaired fasting glucose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To determine the effects of an aqueous extract of cinnamon on antioxidant status of obese subjects. Methods: Twenty-two obese subjects with elevated blood glucose were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Subjects were given either a placebo or 250 mg of an aqueous extract...

  6. Effects of Source Prestige on Subjects' Acceptance of the Barnum Effect: Psychologist versus Astrologer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Gerald M.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects' willingness to endorse "universally valid" statements as accurate and meaningful has been demonstrated on repeated occasions. This study investigates whether this "Barnum" effect is best attributed to the prestige of psychologists or to the nature of the statements themselves. (Author)

  7. Ocular hemodynamic effects of nitrovasodilators in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Schmidl, D; Polska, E; Kiss, B; Sacu, S; Garhofer, G; Schmetterer, L

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role in the regulation of ocular blood flow and may be an interesting therapeutic target in ocular ischemic disease. In the present study, we hypothesized that NO-releasing drugs may increase blood flow to the head of the optic nerve and also in the choroid. The study employed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, four-way crossover design. On separate study days, 12 healthy subjects received infusions of nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate, sodium nitroprusside, or placebo. All three study drugs reduced the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) (P < 0.001). None of the administered drugs increased the ocular hemodynamic variables. By contrast, vascular resistance decreased dose dependently during administration of the study drugs (P < 0.001). These results indicate that systemic administration of NO-donor drugs is associated with a decrease in vascular resistance in the ocular vasculature. However, because these drugs also reduce blood pressure, they do not improve perfusion to the posterior eye pole.

  8. Predisposing factors for early retirement in patients with schizophrenia in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Reinhard; Friedel, Heiko; Erfurth, Andreas; Angermayer, Matthias; Clouth, Johannes; Eichmann, Florian

    2008-08-01

    Although early retirement causes major changes in the life of schizophrenic patients and is among the major cost factors to be covered by payers, the causes leading to early retirement of schizophrenic patients have not been investigated in detail. Therefore, the objective of this retrospective non-interventional case-control study was to generate hypotheses on predisposing factors for early retirement in schizophrenia. Logistic regression was used to explore potential predisposing parameters with regard to their effect on the outcome early retirement. As the study results indicate, schizophrenia severity, assistance or care in the patient's everyday life, age and antipsychotic treatment with typical antipsychotics are linked to the occurrence of early retirement. Further research should be planned to confirm or refute the hypotheses determined in this retrospective analysis and to determine whether atypical antipsychotics could help to avoid early retirement and to improve the situation of schizophrenic patients.

  9. [Assessment of the predisposing risk factors of the complicated postoperative course after combined operations].

    PubMed

    Federov, A V; Kolygin, A V; Berelavichus, S V; Kriger, A G; Chernova, T G; Goncharova, N N; Solodkiĭ, A V

    2013-01-01

    Results of 335 combined operations were analyzed. Men were 89 (27%), women - 246 (73%), the majority of patients were of middle age. 285 (85%) operations included cholecystectomy. 195 (58%) patients had hernioplasty. The third place belonged to vascular operations - 76 (23%). Certain predisposing factors, correlating with the risk of the complicated postoperative course, were marked out. Indications and contraindications to the combined operation were assigned, based on the number of predisposing factors in a patient. Considering the increased risk of intraoperative complications during the combined operation (increased duration, blood loss), participation of highly experienced surgeons and use of modern high-tech equipment seem to be reasonable. The general results of the analysis prove that combined operations are effective, safe and economically beneficial.

  10. Subjective visual vertical in erect/supine subjects and under microgravity: effects of lower body negative pressure.

    PubMed

    Lucertini, Marco; De Angelis, Claudio; Martelli, Marialuisa; Zolesi, Valfredo; Tomao, Enrico

    2011-07-01

    Perception of the subjective visual vertical (SVV) is mainly based on the contributions from the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems, and participates to the process of spatial orientation in relation to the surrounding environment and to the gravito-inertial force. The SVV can be significantly influenced by the presence of a displaced visual field, as in the case of the rod and frame test (RFT). A series of studies showed the effects of haematic mass shifts to and from the lower limbs on SVV, due to visceral mechanoreceptors (VM) located at the level of the kidneys and of the thorax. These sensors may be artificially activated with a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) device. In this study, the role of visual and VM cues to orientation perception have been evaluated using the RFT and the LBNP devices under a microgravity environment. A preliminary investigation was conducted in a sample of military pilots to develop a RFT protocol to be used in microgravity environments. This protocol was adopted to evaluate the contribution of VM to the SVV in a cosmonaut before, during and after a 10 day space flight, with and without concurrent activation of LBNP. The same test sequence, including LBNP exposure, was repeated a few months later on Earth on the same subject. As expected, the influence of the frame on rod positioning was statistically significant in all test conditions. During the in-flight experimental step, a substantial lack of significant changes compared to the pre-flight condition was observed. Moreover, substantially no effects due to LBNP were observed. A mild rod displacement from the body axis was detected under microgravity compared to the pre-flight recording. Such a finding was in part reduced during LBNP. The same findings were observed during the post-flight repetition of the experiment. Our results showed an absence in this subject of significant effects on the RFT due to microgravity. In conclusion, no effects from his VM on the RFT

  11. Are Course Evaluations Subject to a Halo Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Jenny A.

    2007-01-01

    Many course evaluations, including those used in schools by OfStEd, colleges and universities, employ a number of scales as a means of evaluating various aspects of the educational experience of the student. It tends to be assumed that students consider the scales independently. This article argues that students are influenced by a "halo effect"…

  12. Effect Size Measure and Analysis of Single Subject Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, 2013

    2013-01-01

    One of the vexing problems in the analysis of SSD is in the assessment of the effect of intervention. Serial dependence notwithstanding, the linear model approach that has been advanced involves, in general, the fitting of regression lines (or curves) to the set of observations within each phase of the design and comparing the parameters of these…

  13. Inhalation of diethylamine--acute nasal effects and subjective response

    SciTech Connect

    Lundqvist, G.R.; Yamagiwa, M.; Pedersen, O.F.; Nielsen, G.D. )

    1992-03-01

    Adult volunteers were exposed to 25 ppm (75 mg/m3) diethylamine in a climate chamber for 15 min in order to study the acute nasal reactions to an exposure equivalent to the present threshold limit value-short-term exposure limit. Changes in nasal volume and nasal resistance were measured by acoustic rhinometry and by rhinomanometry. Acute change in nasal volume, usually seen as acute nasal mucosa response to thermal stimuli, was not observed, nor was an acute change in nasal airway resistance. In a subsequent experiment, the aim was to measure acute sensory effects. Exposure to a concentration increasing from 0 to 12 ppm took place for 60 min, equal to an average concentration of 10 ppm (30 mg/m3). A moderate to strong olfactory response and distinct nasal and eye irritation were observed. In spite of considerable individual variation, the results were in agreement with sensory effect estimates obtained from animal studies.

  14. Hypoglycemic effect of guava juice in mice and human subjects.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J T; Yang, R S

    1983-01-01

    Guava is a plentiful fruit in Taiwan and it was taken from the plants of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae). According to the folklore in Chinese Medicine, gauva was useful in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, acute i.p. treatment with 1 g/kg guava juice produced a marked hypoglycemic action in normal and alloxan-treated diabetic mice. Although effective duration of guava is more transient and it is less potent than chlorpropamide and metformin, blood glucose lowering effect of guava also can be obtained by oral administration in maturity-onset diabetic and healthy volunteers. Thus, it is suggested that guava may be employed to improve and/or prevent the disease of diabetes mellitus.

  15. Previous burn injury predisposes mice to lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Carter, Edward A; Paul, Kasie W; Barrow, Sandra A; Fischman, Alan J; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    In mice, it has been demonstrated that at 7 days after burn injury, injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is more lethal than the same dose at 1 day after injury. In the present study, we examined the effect of LPS injection to mice burned 7 days previously on glucose metabolism ([(18)F] 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose [(18)FDG] uptake) in vivo. CD-1 male mice (25-28 g, Charles River Breeding Laboratories, Wilmington, MA) were anesthetized, backs shaven, and subjected to dorsal full thickness burn on 25% TBSA. Sham-treated animals were used as controls. Six days after burn injury, all mice were fasted overnight. One half of the burned and sham controls were subsequently injected IP with LPS (10 mg/kg; Escherichia coli). The remaining animals were injected with saline IP. Two hours later, all mice were injected IV with 50 μCi of (18)F FDG. One hour later, the animals were euthanized, and biodistribution was measured. Tissues were weighed, and radioactivity was measured with a well-type γ counter. Results were expressed as %dose/g tissue, mean ± SEM. The combination of burn 7 days previously and LPS significantly increased mortality compared to animals with burn alone, LPS alone, or sham controls. Burn injury 7 days previously caused a significant decrease in (18)FDG uptake by the brain compared to sham controls. The combination of LPS and burn injury 7 days previously produced a significant increase in (18)FDG uptake by brown adipose tissue and heart compared with either treatment separately. LPS produced a significant increase in (18)FDG uptake by lung, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract of the sham animals, changes that were different in mice burned 7 days previously and injected with LPS. The present results suggest that burn injury 7 days previously predisposes mice to alterations in (18)FDG uptake produced by LPS. These changes may relate, in part, to the increased lethality of LPS injection in previously burned mice.

  16. Multiplicative correction of subject effect as preprocessing for analysis of variance.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Iku; Abe, Masaya; Kotani, Makoto

    2008-03-01

    The procedure of repeated-measures ANOVA assumes the linear model in which effects of both subjects and experimental conditions are additive. However, in electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography, there may be situations where subject effects should be considered to be multiplicative in amplitude. We propose a simple method to normalize such data by multiplying each subject's response by a subject-specific constant. This paper derives ANOVA tables for such normalized data. Present simulations show that this method performs ANOVA effectively including multiple comparisons provided that the data follows the multiplicative model.

  17. Subjective qualities of memories associated with the picture superiority effect in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Huron, Caroline; Danion, Jean-Marie; Rizzo, Lydia; Killofer, Valérie; Damiens, Annabelle

    2003-02-01

    Patients with schizophrenia (n = 24) matched with 24 normal subjects were presented with both words and pictures. On a recognition memory task, they were asked to give remember, know, or guess responses to items that were recognized on the basis of conscious recollection, familiarity, or guessing, respectively. Compared with normal subjects, patients exhibited a lower picture superiority effect selectively related to remember responses. Unlike normal subjects, they did not exhibit any word superiority effect in relation to guess responses; this explains why the overall picture superiority effect appeared to be intact. These results emphasize the need to take into account the subjective states of awareness when analyzing memory impairments in schizophrenia.

  18. [Effects of nifuroxazide on fecal flora in healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Buisson, Y; Larribaud, J

    1989-01-01

    Effect of nifuroxazide on fecal flora was studied in 12 healthy volunteers receiving, in hazardous order and double-blind procedure, three six-days courses of treatment separated by eight-days spaces of time: the conventional dosage of 400 mg twice a day, a dosage of 1200 mg once a day, and placebo. Among six settled bacteriological index (wealth of the fecal flora, percentage of gram-negative bacteria, numbers of E. coli, Enterococcus, Clostridium and Bacteroides), no significant variation was found by means of statistical study between D0, D2 and D7, nor between the three courses of treatment. Therefore nifuroxazide, even in high dosage, does not injure integrity of microbial intestinal ecosystem under so defined experimental conditions, similar with clinical conditions.

  19. The Effects of Different Sets of Disclosure Instructions on Subject Productivity and Rated Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Sheldon Norman

    1978-01-01

    Investigated the effects of different sets of instructions (feeling disclosure, logical disclosure, placebo control, and control) to discuss personal concerns on subject productivity and subject satisfaction ratings. Analyses indicated the instructional manipulation was effective in producing different kinds and amounts of talk by condition.…

  20. NOD2 prevents emergence of disease-predisposing microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Secher, Thomas; Normand, Sylvain; Chamaillard, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    The gut flora is composed of a huge number of diverse, well-adapted symbionts that interact with epithelial lining throughout the host's entire life. Not all commensals have the same ability to maintain quiescent, protective inflammation. Importantly, instability in the composition of gut microbial communities (referred to as dysbiosis) has been linked to loss of gut barrier in the context of common human illnesses with increasing socio-economic impacts, such as Crohn disease and colorectal cancer. Our recent findings suggest that disease-predisposing dysbiosis can now be intentionally manipulated by targeting the major Crohn disease-predisposing NOD2 gene. That knowledge will not only add a new dimension to the often overlooked microbiology of Crohn disease and colorectal cancer, but will also have a broad impact on biomedical sciences worldwide. PMID:23778641

  1. Predisposing factors and prevention of Clostridium perfringens-associated enteritis.

    PubMed

    Allaart, Janneke G; van Asten, Alphons J A M; Gröne, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Clostridium perfringens is one of the major causes of intestinal disease in humans and animals. Its pathogenicity is contributed to by the production of a variety of toxins. In addition, predisposing environmental factors are important for the induction of C. perfringens-associated enteritis as shown by infection models. Environmental contamination, gastric and intestinal pH, intestinal microflora, nutrition, concurrent infections, and medical interventions may influence the intestinal colonization, growth, and toxin production by C. perfringens. Prevention of C. perfringens-associated enteritis may be mediated by the use of feed additives like probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids, essential oils, bacteriophages, lysozymes, bacteriocins, and antimicrobial peptides. Here we summarize and discuss published data on the influence of different environmental predisposing factors and preventive measures. Further research should focus on feed composition and feed additives in order to prevent C. perfringens-associated enteritis.

  2. Neurochemical and psychotropic effects of bupropion in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Gabriella; Slater, Susan; Boucher, Nathalie; Debonnel, Guy; Blier, Pierre

    2003-06-01

    Bupropion is a weak inhibitor of noradrenaline (NE) and dopamine (DA) reuptake and has no direct action on serotonin (5-HT) neuronal elements. In the rat brain, bupropion suppresses NE neuron firing activity via the activation of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors and increases that of 5-HT neurons through an indirect action on NE neurons. Twenty-five healthy young male volunteers, with no previous history of psychiatric disorders, were randomized to one of four 7-day regimens: placebo, bupropion (150 mg) once daily, bupropion (150 mg) twice a day, and methylphenidate SR (20 mg daily). To assess the activity of the NE reuptake process, the blood pressure response to intravenous tyramine was determined. A decrease in the systolic pressure response to tyramine was considered evidence of NE reuptake inhibition. Effects on 5-HT reuptake were assessed by measuring whole blood 5-HT concentration, with a decrease serving as an index of 5-HT reuptake blockade. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) scale was used to assess behavioral and psychological changes. Neither bupropion nor methylphenidate altered the tyramine pressor response, in contrast to previous data that demonstrated decreases were obtained with NE reuptake inhibitors. Neither drug modified 5-HT concentrations. However, POMS scores revealed that bupropion at a dosage of 150 mg/day increased composedness, agreeability, and energy, whereas 300 mg/day improved only attention. In contrast, methylphenidate improved only energy. These data provide no evidence that bupropion acts as an inhibitor of NE or 5-HT reuptake in healthy humans. Presumably it enhances synaptic availability of NE by increasing release. Yet, because its behavioral profile is different from that of methylphenidate, it may not share all the biochemical properties of psychostimulants.

  3. Nonlocal Intuition: Replication and Paired-subjects Enhancement Effects

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Maryam; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study of repeat entrepreneurs in Tehran, Iran, in which nonlocal intuition was investigated in a replication and extension of experiment using measures of heart rate variability (HRV). Nonlocal intuition is the perception of information about a distant or future event by the body's psychophysiological systems, which is not based on reason or memories of prior experience. This study follows up on the McCraty, Radin, and Bradley studies, which found evidence of nonlocal intuition. We used Radin's experimental protocol, with the addition of HRV measures as in the McCraty studies involving computer administration of a random sequence of calm and emotional pictures as the stimulus, and conducted two experiments on mutually exclusive samples—the first on a group of single participants (N=15) and the second on a group of co-participant pairs (N=30)—to investigate the question of the “amplification” of intuition effects by social connection. Each experiment was conducted over 45 trials while heart rate rhythm activity was recorded continuously. Results, using random permutation analysis, a statistically conservative procedure, show significant pre-stimulus results—that is, for the period before the computer had randomly selected the picture stimulus—for both experiments. Moreover, while significant separation between the emotional and calm HRV curves was observed in the single-participant experiment, an even larger separation was apparent for the experiment on co-participant pairs; the difference between the two groups was also significant. Overall, the results of the single-participant experiment confirm previous finding: that electrophysiological measures, especially changes in the heart rhythm, can detect intuitive foreknowledge. This result is notable because it constitutes cross-cultural corroboration in a non-Western context—namely, Iran. In addition, the results for co-participant pairs offer new evidence on the

  4. POLE mutations in families predisposed to cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Aoude, Lauren G; Heitzer, Ellen; Johansson, Peter; Gartside, Michael; Wadt, Karin; Pritchard, Antonia L; Palmer, Jane M; Symmons, Judith; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Tomlinson, Ian; Kearsey, Stephen; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-12-01

    Germline mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE have been shown to predispose to colorectal cancers and adenomas. POLE is an enzyme involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. In order to assess whether such mutations might also predispose to cutaneous melanoma, we interrogated whole-genome and exome data from probands of 34 melanoma families lacking pathogenic mutations in known high penetrance melanoma susceptibility genes: CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, TERT, POT1, ACD and TERF2IP. We found a novel germline mutation, POLE p.(Trp347Cys), in a 7-case cutaneous melanoma family. Functional assays in S. pombe showed that this mutation led to an increased DNA mutation rate comparable to that seen with a Pol ε mutant with no exonuclease activity. We then performed targeted sequencing of POLE in 1243 cutaneous melanoma cases and found that a further ten probands had novel or rare variants in the exonuclease domain of POLE. Although this frequency is not significantly higher than that in unselected Caucasian controls, we observed multiple cancer types in the melanoma families, suggesting that some germline POLE mutations may predispose to a broad spectrum of cancers, including melanoma. In addition, we found the first mutation outside the exonuclease domain, p.(Gln520Arg), in a family with an extensive history of colorectal cancer.

  5. Effects of manual lymph drainage for abdomen on the brain activity of subjects with psychological stress

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jung-Myo; Yeun, Young-Ran; Kim, Hye-Young; Kim, Sung-Joong

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the effects of manual lymph drainage for abdomen on electroencephalography in subjects with psychological stress. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight subjects were randomly allocated to undergo a 20-min session of either manual lymph drainage or abdominal massage on a bed. [Results] Analysis of electroencephalograms from the manual lymph drainage group showed a significant increase in relaxation, manifested as an increase in average absolute, relative alpha activity and a decrease in relative gamma activity. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that the application of manual lymph drainage from the abdomen provides acute neural effects that increase relaxation in subjects with psychological stress. PMID:28356638

  6. In-group identification mediates the effects of subjective in-group status on mental health.

    PubMed

    Sani, Fabio; Magrin, Maria Elena; Scrignaro, Marta; McCollum, Rachel

    2010-12-01

    We present two studies exploring the effects of the relative standing of one's in-group in the social hierarchy, which we conceptualize as 'subjective in-group status', on mental health and well-being. Study 1 focuses on the subjective status of a professional in-group (prison guards) while Study 2 concerns the subjective status of the family in-group. Results show that higher subjective in-group status predicts better mental health (e.g., less depression) and greater well-being (e.g., higher satisfaction with life). Also, results demonstrate that the effects of subjective in-group status on mental health are mediated by the extent to which one subjectively identifies with the in-group.

  7. Controlled vaporized cannabis, with and without alcohol: subjective effects and oral fluid-blood cannabinoid relationships.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Rebecca L; Brown, Timothy L; Milavetz, Gary; Spurgin, Andrew; Gorelick, David A; Gaffney, Gary; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-07-01

    Vaporized cannabis and concurrent cannabis and alcohol intake are commonplace. We evaluated the subjective effects of cannabis, with and without alcohol, relative to blood and oral fluid (OF, advantageous for cannabis exposure screening) cannabinoid concentrations and OF/blood and OF/plasma vaporized-cannabinoid relationships. Healthy adult occasional-to-moderate cannabis smokers received a vaporized placebo or active cannabis (2.9% and 6.7% Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) with or without oral low-dose alcohol (~0.065g/210L peak breath alcohol concentration [BrAC]) in a within-subjects design. Blood and OF were collected up to 8.3 h post-dose and subjective effects measured at matched time points with visual-analogue scales and 5-point Likert scales. Linear mixed models evaluated subjective effects by THC concentration, BrAC, and interactions. Effects by time point were evaluated by dose-wise analysis of variance (ANOVA). OF versus blood or plasma cannabinoid ratios and correlations were evaluated in paired-positive specimens. Nineteen participants (13 men) completed the study. Blood THC concentration or BrAC significantly associated with subjective effects including 'high', while OF contamination prevented significant OF concentration associations <1.4 h post-dose. Subjective effects persisted through 3.3-4.3 h, with alcohol potentiating the duration of the cannabis effects. Effect-versus-THC concentration and effect-versus-alcohol concentration hystereses were counterclockwise and clockwise, respectively. OF/blood and OF/plasma THC significantly correlated (all Spearman r≥0.71), but variability was high. Vaporized cannabis subjective effects were similar to those previously reported after smoking, with duration extended by concurrent alcohol. Cannabis intake was identified by OF testing, but OF concentration variability limited interpretation. Blood THC concentrations were more consistent across subjects and more accurate at predicting cannabis' subjective

  8. Native language influence on the distributive effect in producing second language subject-verb agreement.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoyan; Chen, Baoguo; Liang, Lijuan; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the distributive effect when producing subject-verb agreement in English as a second language (L2) when the participant's first language either does or does not require subject-verb agreement. Both Chinese-English and Uygur-English bilinguals were included in Experiment 1. Chinese has no required subject-verb agreement, whereas Uygur does. Results showed that the distributive effect was observed in Uygur-English bilinguals but not in Chinese-English bilinguals, indicating that this particular first language (L1) syntactic feature is one significant factor affecting the distributive effect in the production of subject-verb agreement in L2. Experiment 2 further investigated the matter by choosing Chinese-English participants with higher L2 proficiency. Still, no distributive effect was observed, suggesting that the absence of distributive effect in Chinese-English bilinguals in Experiment 1 was not due to low proficiency in the target language. Experiment 3 changed the way the stimuli were presented, highlighting the singular or distributive nature of the subject noun phrases, and the distributive effect was observed in Chinese-English bilinguals. Altogether, the results show that the L1 syntactic feature of subject-verb agreement is one significant factor affecting the distributive effect in the production of subject-verb agreement in L2. More specifically, distributive effects rarely occur in L2 when L1 has no requirement on subject-verb agreement, whereas distributive effects are more likely to occur in L2 when the L1 also has required subject-verb agreement.

  9. Effects of Local and Global Context on Processing Sentences with Subject and Object Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Fang; Mo, Lun; Louwerse, Max M.

    2013-01-01

    An eye tracking study investigated the effects of local and global discourse context on the processing of subject and object relative clauses, whereby the contexts favored either a subject relative clause interpretation or an object relative clause interpretation. The fixation data replicated previous studies showing that object relative clause…

  10. SSRI Effects on Psychomotor Performance: Assessment of Citalopram and Escitalopram on Normal Subjects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    RESEARCH ARTICLE SSRI Effects on Pyschomotor Performance: Assessment of Citalopram and Escitalopram on Normal Subjects MICHEL A. PAUL, GARY W... escitalopram 011 nomral subjects. Aviat Space Environ Med 2007; 78:693-7. Introduction: Standard aeromedical doctrine dictates that aircrew...noradrenaline and dopamine reuptake inhibi- tor). This study was undertaken to determine whether or not cita lopram or escitalopram affect psychomotor

  11. A Value-Added Study of Teacher Spillover Effects across Four Core Subjects in Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Kun

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the existence, magnitude, and impact of teacher spillover effects (TSEs) across teachers of four subject areas (i.e., mathematics, English language arts [ELA], science, and social studies) on student achievement in each of the four subjects at the middle school level. The author conducted a series of value-added (VA) analyses,…

  12. The Effects of Directional Processing on Objective and Subjective Listening Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, Erin M.; Moore, Travis M.; Ricketts, Todd A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this investigation were (a) to evaluate the effects of hearing aid directional processing on subjective and objective listening effort and (b) to investigate the potential relationships between subjective and objective measures of effort. Method: Sixteen adults with mild to severe hearing loss were tested with study…

  13. The Effectiveness of Oral Presentation Assessment in a Finance Subject: An Empirical Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhati, Shyam S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the effectiveness of oral presentation as an assessment tool in a Finance subject. Assessment data collected from a postgraduate Finance subject in an Australian university over a period of five years from 2005 to 2009 was analysed statistically to determine the relation between students' performance in oral…

  14. Familiarity, but not Recollection, Supports the Between-Subject Production Effect in Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Five experiments explored the basis of the between-subjects production effect in recognition memory as represented by differences in the recollection and familiarity of produced (read aloud) and nonproduced (read silently) words. Using remember-know judgments (Experiment 1b) and a dual-process signal-detection approach applied to confidence ratings (Experiments 2b and 3), we observed that production influences familiarity but not recollection when manipulated between-subjects. This is in contrast to within-subject designs, which reveal a clear effect of production on both recollection and familiarity (Experiments 1a and 2a). Our findings resolve contention concerning apparent design effects: Whereas the within-subject production effect is subserved by separable recollective- and familiarity-based components, the between-subjects production effect is subserved by the familiarity-based component alone. Our findings support a role for the relative distinctiveness of production as a means of guiding recognition judgments (at least when manipulated within-subjects), but we also propose that production influences the strength of produced items, explaining the persistence of the effect in between-subjects designs. PMID:27244352

  15. Subjective, Psychomotor, and Physiological Effects of Pregabalin Alone and in Combination With Oxycodone in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Zacny, James P.; Paice, Judith A.; Coalson, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    Pregabalin is an anticonvulsant drug indicated for neuropathic disorders and fibromyalgia. Some chronic pain patients suffering from these disorders take both this drug and an opioid for pain relief. Pregabalin is a scheduled drug under the Controlled Substance Act. The subjective effects of this drug have not been well-characterized, and the extent to which it alters the subjective effects of opioids has not been studied to the best of our knowledge. Using a double-blind, randomized, crossover design, 16 healthy volunteers were administered (in separate sessions) capsules containing placebo, 75 mg pregabalin, 150 mg pregabalin, 10 mg oxycodone, and 75 mg pregabalin combined with 10 mg oxycodone. Subjective, psychomotor, and physiological measures were assessed during each of the five sessions. Pregabalin produced dose-related increases in some subjective effects and decreased respiration rate, but did not impact on psychomotor performance. Abuse liability-related subjective effects such as drug liking and desire to take the drug again were not increased by either pregabalin dose. Oxycodone produced increases in several subjective effects, including ratings of drug liking. When 75 mg pregabalin was combined with oxycodone some subjective effects were altered relative to placebo, in contrast to when each drug was tested alone. Liking of oxycodone was not increased by 75 mg pregabalin. However, recent studies have suggested that this drug is abused, and we would recommend that further psychopharmacological studies with pregabalin are warranted, including a study assessing its abuse liability across a range of doses in sedative abusers. PMID:22085697

  16. Subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects of pregabalin alone and in combination with oxycodone in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Zacny, James P; Paice, Judith A; Coalson, Dennis W

    2012-01-01

    Pregabalin is an anticonvulsant drug indicated for neuropathic disorders and fibromyalgia. Some chronic pain patients suffering from these disorders take both this drug and an opioid for pain relief. Pregabalin is a scheduled drug under the Controlled Substances Act. The subjective effects of this drug have not been well-characterized, and the extent to which it alters the subjective effects of opioids has not been studied to the best of our knowledge. Using a double-blind, randomized, crossover design, 16 healthy volunteers were administered (in separate sessions) capsules containing placebo, 75 mg pregabalin, 150 mg pregabalin, 10 mg oxycodone, and 75 mg pregabalin combined with 10 mg oxycodone. Subjective, psychomotor, and physiological measures were assessed during each of the five sessions. Pregabalin produced dose-related increases in some subjective effects and decreased respiration rate, but did not impact on psychomotor performance. Abuse liability-related subjective effects such as drug liking and desire to take the drug again were not increased by either pregabalin dose. Oxycodone produced increases in several subjective effects, including ratings of drug liking. When 75 mg pregabalin was combined with oxycodone some subjective effects were altered relative to placebo, in contrast to when each drug was tested alone. Liking of oxycodone was not increased by 75 mg pregabalin. However, recent studies have suggested that this drug is abused, and we would recommend that further psychopharmacological studies with pregabalin are warranted, including a study assessing its abuse liability across a range of doses in sedative abusers.

  17. Subjective Quality Information: Effects of Patient Experience Outcomes and Display Formats on Evaluation and Choice Intentions.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Martin; Renner, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the impact of subjective quality information in the form of aggregate patient experience outcomes on respondent evaluation and intended choice of hospitals. We compared clinical performance-based quality measures (i.e., wound infection rates) with participant evaluations and choice intentions when they were additionally provided with subjective quality information (i.e., patient experience outcomes in different display formats). Results suggest that patient experience outcomes significantly affected the evaluations and choice intentions. Additionally, we found significant effects of subjective information display formats. Limitations, directions for future research, and implications for publishing subjective quality information in health care markets are discussed.

  18. The effect of cognitive testing and feedback on older adults' subjective age.

    PubMed

    Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross; Hughes, Matthew; Saenz, Gabriel; Tirso, Robert

    2017-03-10

    Subjective age, or how old a person feels, is an important measure of self-perception that is associated with consequential cognitive and health outcomes. Recent research suggests that subjective age is affected by certain situations, including cognitive testing contexts. The current study examined whether cognitive testing and positive performance feedback affect subjective age and subsequent cognitive performance. Older adults took a series of neuropsychological and cognitive tests and subjective age was measured at various time points. Participants also either received positive or no feedback on an initial cognitive task, an analogies task. Results showed that participants felt older over the course of the testing session, particularly after taking a working memory test, relative to baseline. Positive feedback did not significantly mitigate this subjective aging effect. Results suggest that subjective age is malleable and that it can be affected by standard cognitive and neuropsychological test conditions.

  19. Effect of inhaled H1 and H2 receptor antagonist in normal and asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, N C; Kerr, J W

    1980-01-01

    The effects on airflow resistance of an inhaled H1 receptor antagonist, clemastine, and an H2 receptor antagonist, cimetidine, have been investigated in normal and asthmatic subjects. No significant changes in specific conductance (sGaw) were seen in six normal subjects. In eight asthmatic subjects a significant increase in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) occurred at 60 min (< 0.02), and 120 (< 0.05) after the inhalation of clemastine, whereas inhaled cimetidine had no effect on airflow resistance. Clemastine and cimetidine were tested on histamine-induced bronchoconstriction in eight normal and eight asthmatic subjects. Clemastine significantly reduced the fall in sGaw in normal subjects and the fall in FEV1 in asthmatic subjects, whereas cimetidine had no protective effect. Clemastine and ipratropium bromide were tested on methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction in eight normal subjects. Ipratropium bromide, but not clemastine, significantly reduced the fall in sGaw after methacholine. These results suggest that in normal and asthmatic subjects histamine-induced bronchoconstriction is mediated predominantly via H1 rather than H2 receptors in the airways. PMID:6449094

  20. MAT2A mutations predispose individuals to thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dong-chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S; Santos-Cortez, Regie L; Zhao, Ren; Cai, Bo; Veeraraghavan, Sudha; Prakash, Siddharth K; Johnson, Ralph J; Muilenburg, Ann; Willing, Marcia; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine; Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Moran, Rocio; Debacker, Julie; Bamshad, Michael J; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A; Leal, Suzanne M; Raman, C S; Swindell, Eric C; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2015-01-08

    Up to 20% of individuals who have thoracic aortic aneurysms or acute aortic dissections but who do not have syndromic features have a family history of thoracic aortic disease. Significant genetic heterogeneity is established for this familial condition. Whole-genome linkage analysis and exome sequencing of distant relatives from a large family with autosomal-dominant inheritance of thoracic aortic aneurysms variably associated with the bicuspid aortic valve was used for identification of additional genes predisposing individuals to this condition. A rare variant, c.1031A>C (p.Glu344Ala), was identified in MAT2A, which encodes methionine adenosyltransferase II alpha (MAT IIα). This variant segregated with disease in the family, and Sanger sequencing of DNA from affected probands from unrelated families with thoracic aortic disease identified another MAT2A rare variant, c.1067G>A (p.Arg356His). Evidence that these variants predispose individuals to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections includes the following: there is a paucity of rare variants in MAT2A in the population; amino acids Glu344 and Arg356 are conserved from humans to zebrafish; and substitutions of these amino acids in MAT Iα are found in individuals with hypermethioninemia. Structural analysis suggested that p.Glu344Ala and p.Arg356His disrupt MAT IIα enzyme function. Knockdown of mat2aa in zebrafish via morpholino oligomers disrupted cardiovascular development. Co-transfected wild-type human MAT2A mRNA rescued defects of zebrafish cardiovascular development at significantly higher levels than mRNA edited to express either the Glu344 or Arg356 mutants, providing further evidence that the p.Glu344Ala and p.Arg356His substitutions impair MAT IIα function. The data presented here support the conclusion that rare genetic variants in MAT2A predispose individuals to thoracic aortic disease.

  1. MAT2A Mutations Predispose Individuals to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong-chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S.; Santos-Cortez, Regie L.; Zhao, Ren; Cai, Bo; Veeraraghavan, Sudha; Prakash, Siddharth K.; Johnson, Ralph J.; Muilenburg, Ann; Willing, Marcia; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine; Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Moran, Rocio; Debacker, Julie; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Leal, Suzanne M.; Raman, C.S.; Swindell, Eric C.; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2015-01-01

    Up to 20% of individuals who have thoracic aortic aneurysms or acute aortic dissections but who do not have syndromic features have a family history of thoracic aortic disease. Significant genetic heterogeneity is established for this familial condition. Whole-genome linkage analysis and exome sequencing of distant relatives from a large family with autosomal-dominant inheritance of thoracic aortic aneurysms variably associated with the bicuspid aortic valve was used for identification of additional genes predisposing individuals to this condition. A rare variant, c.1031A>C (p.Glu344Ala), was identified in MAT2A, which encodes methionine adenosyltransferase II alpha (MAT IIα). This variant segregated with disease in the family, and Sanger sequencing of DNA from affected probands from unrelated families with thoracic aortic disease identified another MAT2A rare variant, c.1067G>A (p.Arg356His). Evidence that these variants predispose individuals to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections includes the following: there is a paucity of rare variants in MAT2A in the population; amino acids Glu344 and Arg356 are conserved from humans to zebrafish; and substitutions of these amino acids in MAT Iα are found in individuals with hypermethioninemia. Structural analysis suggested that p.Glu344Ala and p.Arg356His disrupt MAT IIα enzyme function. Knockdown of mat2aa in zebrafish via morpholino oligomers disrupted cardiovascular development. Co-transfected wild-type human MAT2A mRNA rescued defects of zebrafish cardiovascular development at significantly higher levels than mRNA edited to express either the Glu344 or Arg356 mutants, providing further evidence that the p.Glu344Ala and p.Arg356His substitutions impair MAT IIα function. The data presented here support the conclusion that rare genetic variants in MAT2A predispose individuals to thoracic aortic disease. PMID:25557781

  2. Acute buspirone dosing enhances abuse-related subjective effects of oral methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Pike, Erika; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R

    There is not an approved pharmacotherapy for treating methamphetamine use disorder. This study sought to determine the effects of acute buspirone treatment on the subjective and cardiovascular effects of oral methamphetamine in order to provide an initial assessment of the utility, safety, and tolerability of buspirone for managing methamphetamine use disorder. We predicted that acute buspirone administration would reduce the subjective effects of methamphetamine. We also predicted that the combination of buspirone and methamphetamine would be safe and well tolerated. Ten subjects completed the protocol, which tested three methamphetamine doses (0, 15, and 30mg) in combination with two buspirone doses (0 and 30mg) across 6 experimental sessions. Subjective effects and physiological measures were collected at regular intervals prior to and after dose administration. Methamphetamine produced prototypical subjective and cardiovascular effects. Acute buspirone administration increased some of the abuse-related subjective effects of methamphetamine and also attenuated some cardiovascular effects. The combination of oral methamphetamine and buspirone was safe and well tolerated. Acute buspirone administration may increase the abuse liability of oral methamphetamine. Chronic buspirone dosing studies remain to be conducted, but given preclinical findings and the outcomes of this work, the utility of buspirone for treating methamphetamine use disorder appears limited.

  3. Generalized Beddington model with the host subject to the Allee Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ufuktepe, U.; Kapcak, S.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the stability and invariant manifolds of generalized Beddington model with the host population subject to the Allee effect.We obtain the condition for the existence of the fixed points and investigate the stability of the system.

  4. The Role of Negative Statements on the Subjective Effects of Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves Vera, M.; Vila, J.; Godoy, J. F.

    1995-12-01

    This study assesses subjective effects of traffic noise and the mediator role that negative statements about the noise and about oneself play. Eighty-four students underwent two 15-minute presentations of high intensity traffic noise, with and without negative statements. The potential effect of the negative statements was enhanced by the use of instructions concerning the expectation of negative noise effects and the credibility of the statements in half the subjects. Level of anxiety, subjective noise aversion and time estimation of the noise were taken. The State Anxiety Inventory and the Profile of Mood States Questionnaire were used as pre- and post-tests. Noise increased anxiety levels, these levels being higher during the Statements condition than during the Noise alone condition. Instructions further increased the effects of these negative statements. Subjects did not adapt to noise. Scores in the questionnaires were significantly higher in the post-test than in the pre-test. Implications of these results are discussed.

  5. Effects of manual lymph drainage of the neck on EEG in subjects with psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jung-Myo; Kim, Sung-Joong

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the effect of manual lymph drainage (MLD) of the neck on electroencephalography (EEG) in subjects with psychological stress. [Methods] Twenty-six subjects were randomly allocated to receive one 15-min session of either MLD or resting on a bed (control). [Results] Analysis of EEG in the MLD group showed a significant increase in relaxation, manifested as an increase in average absolute and relative delta and alpha activity. [Conclusion] It is suggested that MLD provides acute neural effects that increase relaxation in subjects with psychological stress.

  6. Predisposing Risk Factors for Non-Contact ACL Injuries in Military Subjects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    316 10. Griffin LY, Agel J, Albohm MJ, Arendt EA, Dick RW, Garrett WE, Garrick JG, Hewett TE, Huston L , Ireland ML, Johnson RJ, Kibler WB, Lephart S...J. F. Dickens J. Giuliani D . Gwinn Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA e-mail: ehenze1@jhmi.edu J.-P. Rue Naval...Harris JM, Vaughan L (1991) Preseason strength and flexibility imbalances associated with athletic injuries in female collegiate athletes. Am J Sports

  7. The incremental effect of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on right and left ventricular myocardial performance in newly diagnosed essential hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Hua, Qi; Li, Jing; Wang, Cai-Rong

    2009-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) may predispose patients to congestive heart failure, suggesting a deleterious effect of OSAS on myocardial contractility. We investigated whether essential hypertensive individuals with OSAS are characterized by decreased right and left ventricular myocardial performance. Our study population consisted of 45 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed untreated stage I-II essential hypertension suffering from OSAS (35 men, aged 49+/-8 years) and 48 hypertensives without OSAS, matched for age, sex, level of blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index and smoking status. All subjects underwent polysomnography and echocardiography. Right and left ventricular functions were evaluated using the myocardial performance index (MPI). Right and left ventricular functions were altered in hypertensives with OSAS. The mean right MPI was 0.26+/-0.11 in hypertensives without OSAS and 0.51+/-0.16 in hypertensives with OSAS (P<0.01). The mean left MPI values were 0.29+/-0.07 and 0.44+/-0.13, respectively (P<0.01). Right and left MPI correlated positively and significantly with apnea-hypopnea index (rho=0.40, P=0.002).OSAS is associated with impaired right and left ventricular function. These phenomena were independent of hypertension.

  8. Intravenous nicotine and caffeine: subjective and physiological effects in cocaine abusers.

    PubMed

    Garrett, B E; Griffiths, R R

    2001-02-01

    The subjective and physiological effects of intravenously administered caffeine and nicotine were compared in nine subjects with histories of using caffeine, tobacco, and cocaine. Subjects abstained from tobacco cigarette smoking for at least 8 h before each session. Dietary caffeine was eliminated throughout the study; however, to maintain consistency with the nicotine intake, subjects were administered caffeine (150 mg/70 kg b.i.d.) in capsules, with the last dose administered 15 to 18 h before each session. Under double-blind conditions, subjects received placebo, caffeine (100, 200, and 400 mg/70 kg), and nicotine (0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/70 kg) in mixed order. Physiological and subjective data were collected before and repeatedly after drug or placebo administration. Compared with the highest dose of caffeine, the highest dose of nicotine produced greater subjective ratings on a number of scales. At doses that produced comparable ratings of drug effect (1.5 mg/70 kg of nicotine and 400 mg/70 kg of caffeine), both drugs produced similar increases in ratings of good effect, liking, high, stimulated, and bad effect. Nicotine showed a somewhat faster time to peak subjective effects than caffeine (2 versus 4 min). Subjective ratings that differentiated caffeine and nicotine were ratings of rush, blurry vision, and stimulant identification (elevated by nicotine) and ratings of unusual smell and/or taste (elevated by caffeine). Both caffeine and nicotine decreased skin temperature and increased diastolic blood pressure; however, caffeine decreased whereas nicotine increased heart rate. The study documents both striking similarities and some notable differences between caffeine and nicotine, which are among the most widely used mood-altering drugs.

  9. Cox4i2, Ifit2, and Prdm11 Mutant Mice: Effective Selection of Genes Predisposing to an Altered Airway Inflammatory Response from a Large Compendium of Mutant Mouse Lines.

    PubMed

    Horsch, Marion; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Bönisch, Clemens; Côme, Christophe; Kolster-Fog, Cathrine; Jensen, Klaus T; Lund, Anders H; Lee, Icksoo; Grossman, Lawrence I; Sinkler, Christopher; Hüttemann, Maik; Bohn, Erwin; Fuchs, Helmut; Ollert, Markus; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; de Angelis, Martin Hrabĕ; Beckers, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    We established a selection strategy to identify new models for an altered airway inflammatory response from a large compendium of mutant mouse lines that were systemically phenotyped in the German Mouse Clinic (GMC). As selection criteria we included published gene functional data, as well as immunological and transcriptome data from GMC phenotyping screens under standard conditions. Applying these criteria we identified a few from several hundred mutant mouse lines and further characterized the Cox4i2tm1Hutt, Ifit2tm1.1Ebsb, and Prdm11tm1.1ahl lines following ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and repeated OVA airway challenge. Challenged Prdm11tm1.1ahl mice exhibited changes in B cell counts, CD4+ T cell counts, and in the number of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavages, whereas challenged Ifit2tm1.1Ebsb mice displayed alterations in plasma IgE, IgG1, IgG3, and IgM levels compared to the challenged wild type littermates. In contrast, challenged Cox4i2tm1Hutt mutant mice did not show alterations in the humoral or cellular immune response compared to challenged wild type mice. Transcriptome analyses from lungs of the challenged mutant mouse lines showed extensive changes in gene expression in Prdm11tm1.1ahl mice. Functional annotations of regulated genes of all three mutant mouse lines were primarily related to inflammation and airway smooth muscle (ASM) remodeling. We were thus able to define an effective selection strategy to identify new candidate genes for the predisposition to an altered airway inflammatory response under OVA challenge conditions. Similar selection strategies may be used for the analysis of additional genotype-envirotype interactions for other diseases.

  10. The production effect benefits performance in between-subject designs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Producing (e.g., saying, mouthing) some items and silently reading others has been shown to result in a reliable advantage favoring retention of the produced compared to non-produced items at test. However, evidence has been mixed as to whether the benefits of production are limited to within- as opposed to between-subject designs. It has even been suggested that the within-subjects nature of the production effect may be one of its defining characteristics. Meta-analytic techniques were applied to evaluate this claim. Findings indicated a moderate effect of production on recognition memory when varied between-subjects (g=0.37). This outcome suggests that the production effect is not defined as an exclusively within-subject occurrence.

  11. Cervicofacial Botryomycosis: Is Atopic Dermatitis a Predisposing Factor?

    PubMed Central

    Heppt, Markus Vincent; Kamarashev, Jivko

    2014-01-01

    Background Botryomycosis is a rare infectious disease which usually affects the skin. The low virulence of the bacteria tending to form grains and the immune status of the host are important factors in the development of the disease. Methods We report a case of cervicofacial botryomycosis and review the current literature. Results A 47-year-old male with a long history of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis presented with painful and suppurative nodules of the head and neck. A skin biopsy revealed granules consisting of Gram-positive bacterial colonies in a blossom-like assembly in the center and an eosinophilic rim in the periphery, which are pathognomonic features of botryomycosis. The lesions responded well to systemic antibiotics; however, they rapidly relapsed upon cessation of the treatment. Conclusions We highlight the well-defined histologic features and recall an almost forgotten disease. We review common predisposing conditions and present evidence that atopic dermatitis might be an additional predisposing factor. PMID:27047926

  12. The prevalence of predisposing deformity in osteoarthritic hip joints.

    PubMed

    Klit, Jakob; Gosvig, Kasper; Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Troelsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that hip joint deformities may be major contributors to the development of osteoarthritis, and the term 'idiopathic osteoarthritis' may be inappropriate in many cases. Our study cohort was derived from the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Sub-study, a cross sectional population-based database of 4151 individuals, all of whom had a standard anteroposterior weight-bearing pelvic radiograph taken. Hip joints were classified according to type and degree of deformity. We defined hip osteoarthritis by a minimum joint space width of < or = 2 mm. This cut-off has a significant relationship in both sexes with the clinical presentation. The study cohort which fulfilled these inclusion criteria consisted of 322 females (149 right hips and 173 left hips) and 162 males (77 right hips and 85 left hips) with osteoarthritis. We found an overall prevalence of predisposing hip deformities in females of 62.4% and in males of 78.9%. Minor and major deformities showed the same prevalence. Both sexes had a comparable prevalence of minor and major hip joint deformity, except for pistol grip deformity, which was more prevalent in men. We concluded that 'idiopathic osteoarthritis' is uncommon, and that even minor predisposing deformities are associated with hip osteoarthritis.

  13. Anti-oxidants show an anti-hypertensive effect in diabetic and hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Giugliano, D; Quatraro, A; Lefebvre, P J

    1991-12-01

    1. In this study an acute anti-hypertensive effect of three anti-oxidant agents (vitamin C, thiopronine and glutathione) in hypertensive subjects and in both hypertensive and non-hypertensive diabetic patients is reported. 2. The anti-oxidants had no effect on blood pressure in healthy normal subjects at a dose of 6 mmol, but thiopronine and glutathione produced a significant hypotensive effect at a dose of 12 mmol. 3. These data suggest that anti-oxidants might have a dilatatory effect and that an imbalance of the nitric oxide-free radical interaction might facilitate the development of hypertension in humans.

  14. Effects of acute exercise on pancreatic endocrine function in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, S H; Karstoft, K; Winding, K; Holst, J J; Pedersen, B K; Solomon, T P J

    2015-02-01

    We determined the effects of exercise on pancreatic endocrine responses to metabolic stimuli in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and examined the influence of subjects' diabetic status. Fourteen subjects underwent a hyperglycaemic clamp with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) infusion and arginine injection, the morning after a 1-h walk or no exercise. Subjects were stratified by high and low fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and by glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, as well as by current use/non-use of antidiabetic medication. In the entire cohort, exercise did not alter insulin secretion, while glucagon levels were increased in all clamp phases (p < 0.05 to <0.01). In subjects with low FPG levels, exercise increased GLP-1-stimulated insulin secretion (p < 0.05), with the same trend being observed for arginine (p = 0.08). The same trends were seen for subjects with low HbA1c levels. Furthermore, exercise increased GLP-1- and arginine-stimulated insulin secretion (p < 0.05) in subjects who were antidiabetic drug-naïve. Exercise-induced increases in insulin secretion are blunted in subjects with T2D with high rates of hyperglycaemia and in those using antidiabetic drugs.

  15. How Pre-Service Teachers Observe Teaching on Video: Effects of Viewers' Teaching Subjects and the Subject of the Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomberg, Geraldine; Sturmer, Kathleen; Seidel, Tina

    2011-01-01

    As critical component of teachers' expertise, professional vision should be developed during teacher education. Professional vision draws on subject specific and generic knowledge, however, little is known about the knowledge interplay. This study systematically investigated pre-service teachers' (n = 32 majoring in mathematics/science; n = 56 in…

  16. The role of estradiol and progesterone in modulating the subjective effects of stimulants in humans.

    PubMed

    Evans, Suzette M

    2007-10-01

    Although stimulant abuse is a growing problem among women, few studies have focused on factors that may be implicated in potential sex differences. Numerous preclinical studies have indicated that female rodents are more sensitive than male rodents to the behavioral effects of stimulants and that the hormone estradiol is involved in these sex differences. In humans, the subjective response to stimulants is greater in the follicular phase (characterized by moderate estradiol levels and minimal progesterone levels) than in the luteal phase (characterized by elevated estradiol levels and elevated progesterone levels). Differences between men and women emerge only when men are compared with women in the luteal phase; the subjective response to stimulants is similar in men and women in the follicular phase. In contrast to rodents, there is minimal evidence that estradiol enhances the subjective response to stimulants in humans. Rather, the hormone progesterone has been shown to attenuate the subjective response to stimulants, particularly in women. Recent preclinical data confirm that progesterone reduces the behavioral response to stimulants. In summary, there is converging evidence from studies in humans that (a) men and women do differ in their subjective response to stimulants; (b) these sex differences are evident when women are in the luteal phase, when progesterone levels are elevated; and (c) progesterone administration attenuates the subjective response to stimulants. Therefore, the menstrual cycle should be addressed in mixed-gender studies. Moreover, the modulatory effects of progesterone on reducing the positive effects of cocaine may have some clinical utility in treating stimulant abusers.

  17. Effect of tape on dynamic postural stability in subjects with chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    De Ridder, R; Willems, T M; Vanrenterghem, J; Roosen, P

    2015-04-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of taping on the dynamic postural stability during a jump landing protocol in subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI). For this purpose, 28 subjects with CAI performed a sagittal and frontal plane landing task in a non-taped and taped condition. As main outcome measure, the dynamic postural stability index (DPSI) was calculated. In addition, subjective feelings of instability and perceived difficulty level were assessed. Furthermore, mechanical effectiveness of the tape on the ankle joint was determined by registering 3D kinematics. 3 subjects were excluded based on discomfort during the landing protocol. Study results indicated that the tape reduced plantar flexion and inversion at the ankle at touchdown and range of motion in the landing phase. There was, however, no effect on the DPSI or on its directional subcomponents. Subjective feelings of stability with tape improved significantly, whereas perceived difficulty did not change. In conclusion, our taping procedure did not improve postural control during a sagittal and frontal plane landing task in subjects with CAI. Perceived instability did improve and is considered an important treatment outcome, which suggests that taping could be considered as a treatment modality by clinicians.

  18. Effect of Acute Exercise on AMPK Signaling in Skeletal Muscle of Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Coletta, Dawn K.; Wajcberg, Estela; Balbontin, Gabriela B.; Reyna, Sara M.; Barrientes, John; Eagan, Phyllis A.; Jenkinson, Christopher P.; Cersosimo, Eugenio; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Sakamoto, Kei; Musi, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by exercise induces several cellular processes in muscle. Exercise activation of AMPK is unaffected in lean (BMI ~25 kg/m2) subjects with type 2 diabetes. However, most type 2 diabetic subjects are obese (BMI >30 kg/m2), and exercise stimulation of AMPK is blunted in obese rodents. We examined whether obese type 2 diabetic subjects have impaired exercise stimulation of AMPK, at different signaling levels, spanning from the upstream kinase, LKB1, to the putative AMPK targets, AS160 and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor coactivator (PGC)-1α, involved in glucose transport regulation and mitochondrial biogenesis, respectively. Twelve type 2 diabetic, eight obese, and eight lean subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer for 40 min. Muscle biopsies were done before, during, and after exercise. Subjects underwent this protocol on two occasions, at low (50% VO2max) and moderate (70% VO2max) intensities, with a 4–6 week interval. Exercise had no effect on LKB1 activity. Exercise had a time- and intensity-dependent effect to increase AMPK activity and AS160 phosphorylation. Obese and type 2 diabetic subjects had attenuated exercise-stimulated AMPK activity and AS160 phosphorylation. Type 2 diabetic subjects had reduced basal PGC-1 gene expression but normal exercise-induced increases in PGC-1 expression. Our findings suggest that obese type 2 diabetic subjects may need to exercise at higher intensity to stimulate the AMPK-AS160 axis to the same level as lean subjects. PMID:17327455

  19. Evaluation of tilidine for morphine-like subjective effects and euphoria.

    PubMed

    Jasinski, D R; Preston, K L

    1986-11-01

    Tilidine is an opioid analgesic that has been abused predominantly by the oral route. Studies of parenterally administered tilidine in animals did not clearly indicate a dependence potential of the morphine type. In this study we examined the abuse potential of orally and parenterally administered tilidine in humans. Both orally and intramuscularly given tilidine produced miosis and morphine-like subjective effects in non-dependent subjects. Oral tilidine was 1/8-1/10 as potent and intramuscular tilidine was 1/22 as potent as parenteral morphine in producing morphine-like subjective and miotic effects. Intramuscular tilidine suppressed and did not precipitate signs of abstinence in morphine-dependent subjects. However, intramuscularly given tilidine produced toxic effects not seen with morphine. Meperidine, codeine and d-propoxyphene produced morphine-like subjective and miotic effects, but also produced toxic effects at the highest doses tested. The results suggest that tilidine has a potential to be abused, that this potential is less than that of parenteral morphine and that tilidine is more likely to be abused orally than by the intramuscular route.

  20. Mu Opioid Mediated Discriminative-Stimulus Effects of Tramadol: An Individual Subjects Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Justin C.; Rush, Craig R.; Stoops, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Drug discrimination procedures use dose-dependent generalization, substitution, and pretreatment with selective agonists and antagonists to evaluate receptor systems mediating interoceptive effects of drugs. Despite the extensive use of these techniques in the nonhuman animal literature, few studies have used human subjects. Specifically, human studies have not routinely used antagonist administration as a pharmacological tool to elucidate the mechanisms mediating the discriminative stimulus effects of drugs. This study evaluated the discriminative-stimulus effects of tramadol, an atypical analgesic with monoamine and mu opioid activity. Three human subjects first learned to discriminate 100 mg tramadol from placebo. A range of tramadol doses (25 to 150 mg) and hydromorphone (4 mg) with and without naltrexone pretreatment (50 mg) were then administered to subjects after acquiring the discrimination. Tramadol produced dose-dependent increases in drug-appropriate responding and hydromorphone partially or fully substituted for tramadol in all subjects. These effects were attenuated by naltrexone. Individual subject records indicated a relationship between mu opioid activity (i.e., miosis) and drug discrimination performance. Our findings indicate that mu opioid activity may mediate the discriminative-stimulus effects of tramadol in humans. The correspondence of generalization, substitution, and pretreatment findings with the animal literature supports the neuropharmacological specificity of the drug discrimination procedure. PMID:25664525

  1. Bias Corrections for Standardized Effect Size Estimates Used with Single-Subject Experimental Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugille, Maaike; Moeyaert, Mariola; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Ferron, John M.; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-01-01

    A multilevel meta-analysis can combine the results of several single-subject experimental design studies. However, the estimated effects are biased if the effect sizes are standardized and the number of measurement occasions is small. In this study, the authors investigated 4 approaches to correct for this bias. First, the standardized effect…

  2. Effects of expectancies on subjective responses to oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Kirk, J M; Doty, P; De Wit, H

    1998-02-01

    The effects of expectancies on subjective responses to oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) were examined. Thirty-five regular marijuana users were assigned to one of two groups: one group was told that they may receive a cannabinoid or placebo and a second group was told that they may receive a drug from one of several classes of drugs (e.g., stimulant, sedative, antiemetic) or placebo. Regardless of the group to which they were assigned, subjects received each of two oral doses of delta9-THC (7.5 and 15 mg) and placebo, one dose per session, for a total of three sessions. Measures of subjective effects, including visual analog scales and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI), were administered at 0.5-h intervals throughout each session. Consistent with previous research using other drugs, subjects in the current experiment who expected to receive a cannabinoid reported greater pleasurable effects than subjects who did not have this expectancy. The results have implications for understanding the effects of cannabinoids when used in both recreational and clinical settings.

  3. The effect of simulated hamstring shortening on gait in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, C L; Hillman, S J; Richardson, A M; Hazlewood, M E; Robb, J E

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of simulated hamstring shortening on gait in normal subjects. Six normal subjects wore an adjustable brace to simulate three different hamstring lengths. Evaluation of the physiological cost index (PCI) and gait analysis revealed that simulated hamstring shortening produced adverse affects in the gait of normal subjects. Significant effects were only observed when the popliteal angle exceeded 85 degrees (p<0.001) and included increased effort of walking (PCI), decreased speed, stride and step length; decreased hip flexion and increased knee flexion in stance, increased posterior pelvic tilt, decreased pelvic obliquity and rotation and premature ankle dorsi- and plantar-flexion in stance. These results emphasise the need to consider the effects of changing the length of the hamstrings on joints other than the hip and knee when assessing patients for hamstring lengthening.

  4. The influence of caffeine on nicotine's discriminative stimulus, subjective, and reinforcing effects.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Fonte, Carolyn; Stolinski, Amy; Blakesley-Ball, Richard; Wilson, Annette S

    2005-11-01

    Caffeine may acutely alter the discriminative stimulus and subjective effects of nicotine, perhaps explaining the association of coffee intake with smoking status. In this study, smokers were initially trained to discriminate 20 microg/kg nicotine by nasal spray from placebo (0). Then, generalization of nicotine discrimination was tested, using both 2- and 3-choice ("novel" option) procedures, across a range of doses (0-20 microg/kg) following pretreatment with 0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg caffeine p.o. Nicotine reinforcement was assessed after the end of generalization testing using a choice procedure. Caffeine pretreatment did not alter nicotine discrimination and self-administration. Caffeine and nicotine influenced some subjective and cardiovascular responses, but there were no interaction effects except for diastolic blood pressure. These results do not support the notion that caffeine acutely alters nicotine's discriminative stimulus, subjective, or reinforcing effects.

  5. Effects of local and global context on processing sentences with subject and object relative clauses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Mo, Lun; Louwerse, Max M

    2013-06-01

    An eye tracking study investigated the effects of local and global discourse context on the processing of subject and object relative clauses, whereby the contexts favored either a subject relative clause interpretation or an object relative clause interpretation. The fixation data replicated previous studies showing that object relative clause sentences were more difficult to process than subject relative sentences. Crucially, however, the reading difficulty asymmetry between subject and object relative clause sentences disappeared when the sentences were presented with a local or a global discourse context that favored the objects in the object relative clauses. These findings demonstrate that the evidence for a syntax-based account of sentence processing is found when sentences are presented in isolation. However, if sentences are placed more naturally, in context, discourse factors outweigh the initial structural assignment.

  6. Effect of hyperhydration on bone mineralization in physically healthy subjects after prolonged restriction of motor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Federenko, Youri F.; Naexu, Konstantin A.

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of a daily intake of fluid and salt supplementation (FSS) on bone mineralization in physically healthy male volunteers after exposure to hypokinesia (decreased number of steps taken/day) over a period of 364 days. The studies were performed after exposure to 364 days of hypokinesia (HK) on 18 physically healthy male volunteers who had an average VO2max of 65 ml/kg/min and were aged between 19 and 24 years. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect the volunteers were kept under an average of 1000 steps/day. The subjects were divided into three equal groups of 6: 6 underwent a normal ambulatory life (control group), 6 were placed under HK (hypokinetic group) and the remaining 6 were subjected to HK and consumed a daily FSS (water 26 ml/kg body wt and NaCl 0.10 mg/kg body wt) (hyperhydrated group). The density of the ulnar, radius, tibia, fibular, lumbar vertebrae and calcenous was measured. Calcium and phosphorus changes, plasma volume, blood pressure and body weight were determined. Calcium content in the examined skeletal bones decreased more in the hypokinetic subjects than in the hyperhydrated subjects. Urinary calcium and phosphorus losses were more pronounced in hypokinetic than hyperhydrated subjects. Plasma volume and body weight increased in hyperhydrated subjects, while it decreased in hypokinetic subjects. It was concluded that a daily intake of FSS may be used to neutralize bone demineralization in physically healthy subjects during prolonged restriction of motor activity.

  7. Physiological and subjective effects of traffic noise: the role of negative self-statements.

    PubMed

    Vera, M N; Vila, J; Godoy, J F

    1992-05-01

    This study assesses physiological and subjective effects of traffic noise and the mediator role that negative self-statements play. 84 female students underwent a Physiological Reaction Test to two 15 min presentations of high intensity traffic noise (85-95 dB) under two Noise conditions--with and without negative self-statements. Half of the subjects were given specific instructions to increase the credibility of the self-statements. Dependent variables were frontal EMG, electrodermal variables (conductance level and number of responses) and subjective tension. Traffic noise provoked subjective tension and physiological responses. Only the number of electrodermal responses habituated between noise presentations, the rest of the physiological variables did not habituate. Negative self-statements had the greatest effect on frontal EMG. In fact, only the noise with negative self-statements condition produced a significant EMG increase in the first part of the Test. Instructions increased subjective tension and also increased the effect of the self-statements on the electrodermal variables. The implications of these results for psychosomatic problems and the importance of negative self-statements are discussed.

  8. Effects of Beraprost Sodium on Subjective Symptoms in Diabetic Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hang Seob; Choi, Woo Jin; Sung, Il Hoon; Lee, Ho Seong; Chung, Hyung Jin

    2013-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the effects of Beraprost sodium (Berasil) on subjective leg symptoms in patients with peripheral arterial disease caused by diabetes mellitus. Methods Ninety-four diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease were treated with Beraprost in a fixed-dose, prospective, multicenter, cohort study. Beraprost (40 µg) was administered orally 3 times daily (120 µg/day) for 12 weeks. We developed a new disease-specific symptom questionnaire, which evaluated the effect of peripheral arterial disease on leg discomfort in daily life and assessed therapeutic responses to treatment. Patients were asked for their subjective assessment of symptoms on a written questionnaire before treatment and after 12 weeks of therapy. Results There was significant improvement in all estimated subjective symptoms (burning, coldness, edema, exertional pain, stabbing, and paresthesias) in the lower extremities at 12 weeks (p < 0.001). There were 18 patients with neuropathy in whom significant improvement was noted for 6 subjective symptoms at 12 weeks (p < 0.05). Adverse events considered to be drug-related were observed in 4 patients (4.3%), all of which were mild and resolved with discontinuation of the medication. Conclusions Beraprost is effective as a treatment for improving various subjective symptoms in the lower extremities, such as burning, coldness, edema, exertional pain, stabbing, and paresthesias, in diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease. PMID:23730480

  9. Deletions of NRXN1 (Neurexin-1) Predispose to a Wide Spectrum of Developmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Michael SL; Shen, Yiping; Tan, Wen-Hann; Jeste, Shafali S; Morrow, Eric M; Chen, Xiaoli; Mukaddes, Nahit M; Yoo, Seung-Yun; Hanson, Ellen; Hundley, Rachel; Austin, Christina; Becker, Ronald E; Berry, Gerard T; Driscoll, Katherine; Engle, Elizabeth C; Friedman, Sandra; Gusella, James F; Hisama, Fuki M; Irons, Mira B; Lafiosca, Tina; LeClair, Elaine; Miller, David T; Neessen, Michael; Picker, Jonathan D; Rappaport, Leonard; Rooney, Cynthia M; Sarco, Dean P; Stoler, Joan M; Walsh, Christopher A; Wolff, Robert R; Zhang, Ting; Nasir, Ramzi H; Wu, Bai-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Research has implicated mutations in the gene for neurexin-1 (NRXN1) in a variety of conditions including autism, schizophrenia, and nicotine dependence. To our knowledge, there have been no published reports describing the breadth of the phenotype associated with mutations in NRXN1. We present a medical record review of subjects with deletions involving exonic sequences of NRXN1. We ascertained cases from 3,540 individuals referred clinically for comparative genomic hybridization testing from March 2007 to January 2009. Twelve subjects were identified with exonic deletions. The phenotype of individuals with NRXN1 deletion is variable and includes autism spectrum disorders, mental retardation, language delays, and hypotonia. There was a statistically significant increase in NRXN1 deletion in our clinical sample compared to control populations described in the literature (P = 8.9 × 10−7). Three additional subjects with NRXN1 deletions and autism were identified through the Homozygosity Mapping Collaborative for Autism, and this deletion segregated with the phenotype. Our study indicates that deletions of NRXN1 predispose to a wide spectrum of developmental disorders. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20468056

  10. Inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 as a predisposing risk factor for the development of angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Annie; Dubuc, Isabelle; Morissette, Guillaume; Sedlak, Ruth H; Jerome, Keith R; Flamand, Louis

    2015-06-30

    Inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus-6 (iciHHV-6) results in the germ-line transmission of the HHV-6 genome. Every somatic cell of iciHHV-6+ individuals contains the HHV-6 genome integrated in the telomere of chromosomes. Whether having iciHHV-6 predisposes humans to diseases remains undefined. DNA from 19,597 participants between 40 and 69 years of age were analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the presence of iciHHV-6. Telomere lengths were determined by qPCR. Medical records, hematological, biochemical, and anthropometric measurements and telomere lengths were compared between iciHHV-6+ and iciHHV-6- subjects. The prevalence of iciHHV-6 was 0.58%. Two-way ANOVA with a Holm-Bonferroni correction was used to determine the effects of iciHHV6, sex, and their interaction on continuous outcomes. Two-way logistic regression with a Holm-Bonferroni correction was used to determine the effects of iciHHV6, sex, and their interaction on disease prevalence. Of 50 diseases monitored, a single one, angina pectoris, is significantly elevated (3.3×) in iciHHV-6+ individuals relative to iciHHV-6- subjects (P = 0.017; 95% CI, 1.73-6.35). When adjusted for potential confounding factors (age, body mass index, percent body fat, and systolic blood pressure), the prevalence of angina remained three times greater in iciHHV-6+ subjects (P = 0.015; 95%CI, 1.23-7.15). Analyses of telomere lengths between iciHHV-6- without angina, iciHHV-6- with angina, and iciHHV-6+ with angina indicate that iciHHV-6+ with angina have shorter telomeres than age-matched iciHHV-6- subjects (P = 0.006). Our study represents, to our knowledge, the first large-scale analysis of disease association with iciHHV-6. Our results are consistent with iciHHV-6 representing a risk factor for the development of angina.

  11. Dopamine D3 receptor-preferring agonist enhances the subjective effects of cocaine in humans.

    PubMed

    Newton, Thomas F; Haile, Colin N; Mahoney, James J; Shah, Ravi; Verrico, Christopher D; De La Garza, Richard; Kosten, Thomas R

    2015-11-30

    Pramipexole is a D3 dopamine receptor-preferring agonist indicated for the treatment of Parkinson disease. Studies associate pramipexole with pathological gambling and impulse control disorders suggesting a role for D3 receptors in reinforcement processes. Clinical studies showed pramipexole decreased cocaine craving and reversed central deficits in individuals with cocaine use disorder. Preclinical studies have shown acute administration of pramipexole increases cocaine's reinforcing effects whereas other reports suggest chronic pramipexole produces tolerance to cocaine. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study we examined the impact of pramipexole treatment on the subjective effects produced by cocaine in volunteers with cocaine use disorder. Volunteers received pramipexole titrated up to 3.0mg/d or placebo over 15 days. Participants then received intravenous cocaine (0, 20 and 40mg) on day 15. Cardiovascular and subjective effects were obtained with visual analog scales at time points across the session. Pramipexole alone increased peak heart rate following saline and diastolic blood pressure following cocaine. Pramipexole produced upwards of two-fold increases in positive subjective effects ratings following cocaine. These results indicate that chronic D3 receptor activation increases the subjective effects of cocaine in humans. Caution should be used when prescribing pramipexole to patients that may also use cocaine.

  12. Effect of visual stimulus using central and peripheral visual field on postural control of normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Park, Du-Jin

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of visual stimulus using central and peripheral vision fields on postural control. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects consisted of 40 young adult volunteers (15 males, 25 females) who had been informed of the study purpose and procedure. The subjects were randomly divided into four groups of differing visual stimulus. Each group was given visual intervention in a standing position for 3 minutes. Postural control was evaluated before and after visual intervention. [Results] The results of the functional reach test and body sway test showed significant differences among the four groups. [Conclusion] The two-way peripheral vision-field group showed significantly more body sway after visual intervention than the other three groups. This finding may suggest two-way peripheral vision field is a more effective visual stimulus for training postural control and balance.

  13. [EFFECTS OF MUSIC-ACOUSTIC SIGNALS, ONLINE CONTROLLED BY EEG OSCILLATORS OF THE SUBJECT].

    PubMed

    Fedotchev, A I; Bondar, A T; Bakhchina, A V; Parin, S B; Polevaya, S A; Radchenko, G S

    2015-08-01

    The effects of 2 variants of the method of musical EEG neurofeedback, in which the dominant spectral components of subject's EEG (EEG oscillators) are online converted to music-like signals similar by timbre to flute sounds, have been studied. In the first case, these music-like signals were smoothly varying by the pitch and intensity in accordance with the current amplitude of the EEG oscillator. In the second case, the same variations of flute-like sound were accompanied by such musical element as rhythm. After the single exposure, the modifications of subject's brain activity and positive changes in psycho-physiological state of the subject have been found. Particularly pronounced effects were observed under rhythmically organized music-like stimuli.

  14. Effectiveness evaluation of objective and subjective weighting methods for aquifer vulnerability assessment in urban context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Madhumita; Sahoo, Satiprasad; Dhar, Anirban; Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2016-10-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessment has been an accepted practice to identify the zones with relatively increased potential for groundwater contamination. DRASTIC is the most popular secondary information-based vulnerability assessment approach. Original DRASTIC approach considers relative importance of features/sub-features based on subjective weighting/rating values. However variability of features at a smaller scale is not reflected in this subjective vulnerability assessment process. In contrast to the subjective approach, the objective weighting-based methods provide flexibility in weight assignment depending on the variation of the local system. However experts' opinion is not directly considered in the objective weighting-based methods. Thus effectiveness of both subjective and objective weighting-based approaches needs to be evaluated. In the present study, three methods - Entropy information method (E-DRASTIC), Fuzzy pattern recognition method (F-DRASTIC) and Single parameter sensitivity analysis (SA-DRASTIC), were used to modify the weights of the original DRASTIC features to include local variability. Moreover, a grey incidence analysis was used to evaluate the relative performance of subjective (DRASTIC and SA-DRASTIC) and objective (E-DRASTIC and F-DRASTIC) weighting-based methods. The performance of the developed methodology was tested in an urban area of Kanpur City, India. Relative performance of the subjective and objective methods varies with the choice of water quality parameters. This methodology can be applied without/with suitable modification. These evaluations establish the potential applicability of the methodology for general vulnerability assessment in urban context.

  15. Long-term effects of mild exercise on intraocular pressure in athletes and sedentary subjects.

    PubMed

    Dane, Senol; Koçer, Ibrahim; Demirel, Havva; Uçok, Kağan; Tan, Uner

    2006-10-01

    The long-term effects of acute submaximal exercise on intraocular pressures (IOPs) of right-and left-eyes and recovery times to basement levels of IOP in postexercise periods in sedentary and physically fit subjects were investigated. Twenty-five sedentary and 24 physically fit subjects, ranging in age 17 to 22 years, participated. Intraocular pressures were measured by a pneumotonometer. Measurements were taken in the morning at about nine (at rest) and immediately, 30 min and 2 h after acute submaximal exercise. In sedentary subjects, IOPs of both right- and left-eyes decreased immediate after exercise, but, these decreases in both eyes continued 30 min and 2 h after exercise. In physically fit subjects, IOPs of both right- and left-eyes increased immediate after exercise, but decreased after 30 min exercise compared to basement levels, and this decrease continued 2 h after exercise. Acute submaximal exercise decreased IOPs of right and left eyes over a period 2 h in sedentary and physically fit subjects. IOP reducing after exercise was different between right- and left-eyes in sedentary subjects. These results suggest that exercise can be used in ocular hypertension treatment.

  16. A comparison of the central nervous system effects of caffeine and theophylline in elderly subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, G; Maskray, V; Jackson, S H; Swift, C G; Tiplady, B

    1991-01-01

    1. The effects of oral administration of 250 mg caffeine or theophylline and placebo on subjective ratings and psychological test performance were studied in a double-blind crossover experiment in 20 healthy elderly subjects. 2. Performance on the continuous attention task showed a significant improvement compared with placebo with both active treatments. Performance with caffeine was significantly better than with theophylline. Mean error index scores (normalised AUCs) were: placebo--0.130; caffeine--0.083; theophylline--0.093. No other objective measure shows significant treatment effects. 3. Subjective ratings showed that subjects felt significantly more alert on caffeine than on either theophylline or placebo. Subjects also rated themselves as more energetic and interested on caffeine than on placebo. 4. Plasma concentrations of caffeine were lower than those of theophylline (mean 5.76 and 8.72 mg l-1 respectively at 2 h post-drug. 5. These results suggest that caffeine is a more potent CNS stimulant than theophylline. PMID:1777371

  17. Interaction between mode of learning and subjective experience: translation effects in long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Rackie, James M; Brandt, Karen R; Eysenck, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that writing auditorily presented words at encoding involves distinctive translation processes between visual and auditory domains, leading to the formation of distinctive memory traces at retrieval. This translation effect leads to higher levels of recognition than the writing of visually presented words, a non-translation effect. The present research investigated whether writing and the other translation effect of vocalisation (vocalising visually presented words) would be present in tests of recall, recognition memory and whether these effects are based on the subjective experience of remembering or knowing. Experiment 1 found a translation effect in the auditory domain in recall, as the translation effect of writing yielded higher recall than both non-translation effects of vocalisation and silently hearing. Experiment 2 found a translation effect in the visual domain in recognition, as the translation effect of vocalisation yielded higher recognition than both non-translation effects of writing and silently reading. This translation effect was attributable to the subjective experience of remembering rather than knowing. The present research therefore demonstrates the beneficial effect of translation in both recall and recognition, with the effect of vocalisation in recognition being based on rich episodic remembering.

  18. Comparison of Nonoverlap Methods for Identifying Treatment Effect in Single-Subject Experimental Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakap, Salih; Snyder, Patricia; Pasia, Cathleen

    2014-01-01

    Debate is occurring about which result interpretation aides focused on examining the experimental effect should be used in single-subject experimental research. In this study, we examined seven nonoverlap methods and compared results using each method to judgments of two visual analysts. The data sources for the present study were 36 studies…

  19. Effects of Religiosity and Racial Socialization on Subjective Stigmatization in African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brega, Angela G.; Coleman, Lerita M.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the direct effects of religiosity and racial socialization on subjective stigmatization among African American adolescents (N=50). Participants who showed strong commitment to the church were more destigmatized as were those who received racial socialization messages stemming from a single primary category. The more racial socialization…

  20. The Effects of Objective Career Success on Subsequent Subjective Career Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumpf, Stephen A.; Tymon, Walter G., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We use a sample of working adults (N = 638) to explore the effects of past objective career success (mobility, promotions, and salary change) on current subjective success (human capital assessments by one's managers, core self evaluations, satisfaction with one's career) by gender, across an economic cycle (2004-2011), controlling for career…

  1. The Effect of an End-of-Clerkship Review Session on NBME Psychiatry Subject Exam Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Shawn S.; Chandra, Rohit M.; Wang, Lei; Gollan, Jacqueline K.; Rasminsky, Sonya; Brar, Simerjeet K.; Anzia, Joan M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The NBME Psychiatry Subject Examination (PSE) is used throughout North America to test MS-III end-of-clerkship knowledge; yet, literature on PSE preparatory methods remains sparse. This study assesses the effect of a curriculum intervention on NBME PSE scores. Method: An optional 1.5-hour review session and accompanying…

  2. Habit Strength Differences in Motor Behavior: The Effects of Social Facilitation Paradigms and Subject Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landers, Daniel M.; And Others

    This document reports on research on the effects which the presence of other individuals have on another individual's performance. The experiment was conducted as follows: Selected male and female subjects were given the task of following a blind maze with a stylus. They were tested in performance under three different circumstances, alone, with a…

  3. The Effect of Students' Subject Discipline on Their m-Learning Application Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delialioglu, Ömer; Alioon, Yasaman

    2016-01-01

    The effect of students' subject discipline on their preferences toward m-learning applications was investigated by using a mixed-method research design. A questionnaire on students' preferences of m-learning application features was used to collect data from 181 undergraduate students. One-way analysis of variance found a significant difference…

  4. Effects of inhaled rosemary oil on subjective feelings and activities of the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Sayorwan, Winai; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Piriyapunyporn, Teerut; Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich; Siripornpanich, Vorasith

    2013-01-01

    Rosemary oil is one of the more famous essential oils widely used in aroma-therapy. However, the effects of rosemary oil on the human body, in particular the nervous system, have not been sufficiently studied. This study investigates the effects of the inhalation of rosemary oil on test subjects' feelings, as well as its effects on various physiological parameters of the nervous system. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. All subjects underwent autonomic nervous system (ANS) recording. This consisted of measurements of skin temperature; heart rate; respiratory rate; blood pressure; evaluations of the subjects' mood states; and electroencephalography (EEG) recordings in the pre-, during treatment, and post-rosemary inhalation periods as compared with control conditions. Our results showed significant increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate after rosemary oil inhalation. After the inhalation treatments, subjects were found to have become more active and stated that they felt "fresher". The analysis of EEGs showed a reduction in the power of alpha1 (8-10.99 Hz) and alpha2 (11-12.99 Hz) waves. Moreover, an increment in the beta wave (13-30 Hz) power was observed in the anterior region of the brain. These results confirm the stimulatory effects of rosemary oil and provide supporting evidence that brain wave activity, autonomic nervous system activity, as well as mood states are all affected by the inhalation of the rosemary oil.

  5. Characterizing the Subjective and Psychomotor Effects of Carisoprodol in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Zacny, James P.; Paice, Judith A.; Coalson, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    Carisoprodol is a centrally acting drug used to relieve skeletal muscle spasms and associated pain in acute musculoskeletal conditions. There is evidence from different sources that this oral muscle relaxant is abused and that it is associated with impairment leading to arrests for “driving under the influence” as well as increased risk of automobile accidents. Its subjective and psychomotor effects in healthy volunteers at therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses have not been well-characterized, and form the basis of this report. Fifteen healthy volunteers (8 males, 7 females) were administered 0, 350, and 700 mg of carisoprodol in separate sessions and for 6 h afterwards they completed a battery of tests at fixed time intervals so as to assess the subjective and psychomotor effects of the drug. The supratherapeutic dose, 700 mg, increased visual analog scale ratings of terms that were more reflective of sedation (e.g., “sleepy,” “heavy, sluggish feeling”) than those of abuse liability, and produced impaired performance on several psychomotor tests. The therapeutic dose, 350 mg, while producing few and mild subjective effects, still produced psychomotor impairment. The fact that the therapeutic dose of carisoprodol produced minimal subjective effects while adversely affecting performance is of concern in that patients prescribed this drug may feel relatively normal and engage in tasks (driving) that could put themselves and others at risk. PMID:21884720

  6. Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats Authors: Gary E. Hatch, John McKee, James Brown, Bill McDonnell, Elston Seal, Joleen Soukup, Ralph Slade, Kay Crissman and Robert Devlin, National Health and Environmental...

  7. Effect of Subject Types on the Production of Auxiliary "Is" in Young English-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ling-Yu; Owen, Amanda J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors tested the unique checking constraint (UCC) hypothesis and the usage-based approach concerning why young children variably use tense and agreement morphemes in obligatory contexts by examining the effect of subject types on the production of auxiliary "is". Method: Twenty typically developing 3-year-olds were…

  8. A Study of the Stability of School Effectiveness Measures across Grades and Subject Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Garrett K.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    School effectiveness indices (SEIs), based on regressing test performance onto earlier test performance and a socioeconomic status measure, were obtained for eight subject-grade combinations from 485 South Carolina elementary schools. The analysis involved school means based on longitudinally matched student data. Reading and mathematics…

  9. Beginning Teachers' Conceptual Understandings of Effective History Teaching: Examining the Change from "Subject Knowers" to "Subject Teachers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitano, Paul; Green, Nicole C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the investigation of change in preservice teachers' conceptions of effective history teaching across a secondary history methods course in a postgraduate diploma of education program. Using concept mapping to plot shifts in their expressed reflections, data were obtained that indicate personal constructs of effective history…

  10. Cognition and the Placebo Effect – Dissociating Subjective Perception and Actual Performance

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Katharina A.; Büchel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The influence of positive or negative expectations on clinical outcomes such as pain relief or motor performance in patients and healthy participants has been extensively investigated for years. Such research promises potential benefit for patient treatment by deliberately using expectations as means to stimulate endogenous regulation processes. Especially regarding recent interest and controversies revolving around cognitive enhancement, the question remains whether mere expectancies might also yield enhancing or impairing effects in the cognitive domain, i.e., can we improve or impair cognitive performance simply by creating a strong expectancy in participants about their performance? Moreover, previous literature suggests that especially subjective perception is highly susceptible to expectancy effects, whereas objective measures can be affected in certain domains, but not in others. Does such a dissociation of objective measures and subjective perception also apply to cognitive placebo and nocebo effects? In this study, we sought to investigate whether placebo and nocebo effects can be evoked in cognitive tasks, and whether these effects influence objective and subjective measures alike. To this end, we instructed participants about alleged effects of different tone frequencies (high, intermediate, low) on brain activity and cognitive functions. We paired each tone with specific success rates in a Flanker task paradigm as a preliminary conditioning procedure, adapted from research on placebo hypoalgesia. In a subsequent test phase, we measured reaction times and success rates in different expectancy conditions (placebo, nocebo, and control) and then asked participants how the different tone frequencies affected their performance. Interestingly, we found no effects of expectation on objective measures, but a strong effect on subjective perception, i.e., although actual performance was not affected by expectancy, participants strongly believed that the placebo

  11. Cognition and the Placebo Effect--Dissociating Subjective Perception and Actual Performance.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Katharina A; Büchel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The influence of positive or negative expectations on clinical outcomes such as pain relief or motor performance in patients and healthy participants has been extensively investigated for years. Such research promises potential benefit for patient treatment by deliberately using expectations as means to stimulate endogenous regulation processes. Especially regarding recent interest and controversies revolving around cognitive enhancement, the question remains whether mere expectancies might also yield enhancing or impairing effects in the cognitive domain, i.e., can we improve or impair cognitive performance simply by creating a strong expectancy in participants about their performance? Moreover, previous literature suggests that especially subjective perception is highly susceptible to expectancy effects, whereas objective measures can be affected in certain domains, but not in others. Does such a dissociation of objective measures and subjective perception also apply to cognitive placebo and nocebo effects? In this study, we sought to investigate whether placebo and nocebo effects can be evoked in cognitive tasks, and whether these effects influence objective and subjective measures alike. To this end, we instructed participants about alleged effects of different tone frequencies (high, intermediate, low) on brain activity and cognitive functions. We paired each tone with specific success rates in a Flanker task paradigm as a preliminary conditioning procedure, adapted from research on placebo hypoalgesia. In a subsequent test phase, we measured reaction times and success rates in different expectancy conditions (placebo, nocebo, and control) and then asked participants how the different tone frequencies affected their performance. Interestingly, we found no effects of expectation on objective measures, but a strong effect on subjective perception, i.e., although actual performance was not affected by expectancy, participants strongly believed that the placebo

  12. The effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on fibrin and thrombin generation in healthy subjects and subjects with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Bradley J; Morel-Kopp, Marie-Christine; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Ward, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    Hypercoagulability plays a key role in the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake has been inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular events, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of omega-3 on novel markers of global coagulation. The generation of fibrin and thrombin, measured via overall hemostasis potential (OHP) assay and calibrated automated thrombography, respectively, was determined in 40 healthy subjects and 16 patients with CVD at baseline and after 4 weeks of 640 mg/day omega-3 PUFA. In healthy subjects, fibrin generation was significantly reduced, as measured by overall coagulation potential (p = 0.013), OHP (p < 0.001), velocity of fibrin polymerization (p = 0.002), and significant increase in delay to fibrin generation (p = 0.002). The peak of generated thrombin was significantly reduced (p = 0.043). In subjects with CVD, omega-3 PUFA significantly reduced OHP and significantly increased the lag time to thrombin generation (both p < 0.001). Treatment with omega-3 PUFA had no effect on other fibrin and thrombin generation parameters in CVD patients. Four-week omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduced thrombotic potential in healthy subjects, as shown by reduced fibrin generation and peak thrombin. There was a greater effect on fibrin generation in healthy subjects compared with those with CVD.

  13. Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on mood in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Moulier, Virginie; Gaudeau-Bosma, Christian; Isaac, Clémence; Allard, Anne-Camille; Bouaziz, Noomane; Sidhoumi, Djedia; Braha-Zeitoun, Sonia; Benadhira, René; Thomas, Fanny; Januel, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Background High frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has shown significant efficiency in the treatment of resistant depression. However in healthy subjects, the effects of rTMS remain unclear. Objective Our aim was to determine the impact of 10 sessions of rTMS applied to the DLPFC on mood and emotion recognition in healthy subjects. Design In a randomised double-blind study, 20 subjects received 10 daily sessions of active (10 Hz frequency) or sham rTMS. The TMS coil was positioned on the left DLPFC through neuronavigation. Several dimensions of mood and emotion processing were assessed at baseline and after rTMS with clinical scales, visual analogue scales (VASs), and the Ekman 60 faces test. Results The 10 rTMS sessions targeting the DLPFC were well tolerated. No significant difference was found between the active group and the control group for clinical scales and the Ekman 60 faces test. Compared to the control group, the active rTMS group presented a significant improvement in their adaptation to daily life, which was assessed through VAS. Conclusion This study did not show any deleterious effect on mood and emotion recognition of 10 sessions of rTMS applied on the DLPFC in healthy subjects. This study also suggested a positive effect of rTMS on quality of life. PMID:26993786

  14. Subjectively Evaluated Effects of Domestic Violence on Well-Being in Clinical Populations

    PubMed Central

    Poutiainen, Marika; Holma, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Effects of domestic violence are reflected in victims' physical, psychological, and sexual health as well as in victims' subjective evaluations of health or subjective well-being. The principal aim of this study was to study the extent to which the consequences of domestic violence are reflected in patients' subjectively evaluated well-being, life management, and sense of security in an emergency department, a maternity department, and a reception unit of a psychiatric hospital. A questionnaire on the effects of domestic violence was administered to 530 patients. 61 patients reported either current or previous domestic violence that affected their current well-being and life management. Domestic violence was reported to have an effect on subjective well-being and sense of security: the more recent or frequent the experience of violence was, the greater was considered its impact on well-being and sense of security. Routine inquiry can uncover hidden cases of abuse and hence would be of great benefit in the healthcare context. Early identification of abuse victims can prevent further harm caused by violence. PMID:23476806

  15. Effects of passive pedaling exercise on the intracortical inhibition in subjects with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Langthaler, Patrick B; Bathke, Arne C; Höller, Yvonne; Brigo, Francesco; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Christova, Monica; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-06-01

    Cortical reorganization can be induced by exercise below the level of the lesion after spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of passive and active pedaling exercise on leg motor cortical area excitability of subjects with traumatic SCI. Ten subjects with chronic cervical or thoracic SCI were enrolled in the study. We found a significant effect of pedaling on short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), which did not interact with the experimental condition (active vs. passive). This corresponded to a significant reduction of SICI in the subjects with SCI, together with no evidence that this pattern differed for passive vs. active pedaling. We found no significant effect of pedaling on intracortical facilitation. Our results showed that also passive cycling may be beneficial in activating motor cortical regions and possibly also facilitating motor recovery after SCI. The present study confirms and extends the findings of previous studies that have observed task-specific cortical activation during passive pedaling. Therefore passive exercise therapies when applied below the level of the lesion in subjects with SCI could promote cortical neuroplastic reorganization.

  16. Effects of varied doses of psilocybin on time interval reproduction in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Wackermann, Jirí; Wittmann, Marc; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2008-04-11

    Action of a hallucinogenic substance, psilocybin, on internal time representation was investigated in two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies: Experiment 1 with 12 subjects and graded doses, and Experiment 2 with 9 subjects and a very low dose. The task consisted in repeated reproductions of time intervals in the range from 1.5 to 5s. The effects were assessed by parameter kappa of the 'dual klepsydra' model of internal time representation, fitted to individual response data and intra-individually normalized with respect to initial values. The estimates kappa were in the same order of magnitude as in earlier studies. In both experiments, kappa was significantly increased by psilocybin at 90 min from the drug intake, indicating a higher loss rate of the internal duration representation. These findings are tentatively linked to qualitative alterations of subjective time in altered states of consciousness.

  17. Effects of exposure time during flight maneuvers on passenger subjective comfort rating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, V. J.

    1975-01-01

    The effects were investigated of length of exposure time to a flight maneuver environment on subjective passenger evaluation of ride comfort. Four statistical analysis tests were performed on ride comfort ratings obtained during one two-hour test flight wherein eleven test subjects were exposed to two identical programmed sequences of twenty four flight segments which covered a wide range of maneuver conditions. The results of the analysis indicate that, for over ninety five percent of the segments, there is no significant change in the test subjects comfort ratings of identical segments spaced one hour apart. These results are in contrast to those found in previous studies involving a vibration environment, rather than flight maneuver environment, where increased exposure-time was found to cause a degradation of ride comfort ratings.

  18. Anticipating risk for human subjects participating in clinical research: application of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cody, Robert J

    2006-03-01

    Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a method applied in various industries to anticipate and mitigate risk. This methodology can be more systematically applied to the protection of human subjects in research. The purpose of FMEA is simple: prevent problems before they occur. By applying FMEA process analysis to the elements of a specific research protocol, the failure severity, occurrence, and detection rates can be estimated for calculation of a "risk priority number" (RPN). Methods can then be identified to reduce the RPN to levels where the risk/benefit ratio favors human subject benefit, to a greater magnitude than existed in the pre-analysis risk profile. At the very least, the approach provides a checklist of issues that can be individualized for specific research protocols or human subject populations.

  19. Effects of major depression on the cognitive function of younger and older subjects.

    PubMed

    Tarbuck, A F; Paykel, E S

    1995-03-01

    The effects of age and depression on cognitive function were investigated in two groups of in-patient major depressives aged under and over 60 years who were tested when depressed and after recovery. The majority of the tests showed impaired performance during depression with improvement after recovery, and also differences between the two age-groups in both the depressed and recovered phases. However, the older subjects were not more severely affected by depression than the younger subjects. The pattern of impairment associated with depression was different to that associated with older age: depression affected performance on more 'complex tasks', whereas age was associated particularly with slowing on timed tests. This study did not suggest that the impairment from baseline due to the depression is greater in the elderly than in younger subjects.

  20. Decreased effective connectivity from cortices to the right parahippocampal gyrus in Alzheimer's disease subjects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guangyu; Ward, B Douglas; Chen, Gang; Li, Shi-Jiang

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect effective connectivity (EC) changes in the default mode network and hippocampus network in 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 20 cognitively normal (CN) subjects, using multivariate Granger causality. The authors used the maximum coefficients in the multivariate autoregression model to quantitatively measure the different EC strength levels between the CN and AD groups. It was demonstrated that the EC strength difference can classify AD from CN subjects. Further, the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHP_R) showed imbalanced bidirectional EC connections. The PHP_R received weaker input connections from the neocortices, but its output connections were significantly increased in AD. These findings may provide neural physiological mechanisms for interpreting AD subjects' memory deficits during the encoding processes.

  1. Neurobehavioral functioning in obstructive sleep apnea: differential effects of sleep quality, hypoxemia and subjective sleepiness.

    PubMed

    Naismith, S; Winter, V; Gotsopoulos, H; Hickie, I; Cistulli, P

    2004-02-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between neuropsychological and affective functioning, subjective sleepiness and sleep-disordered breathing in 100 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Using principal components analysis, three indices of sleep-disordered breathing were identified from polysomnography: sleep disturbance, extent of nocturnal hypoxemia, and sleep quality. Poorer sleep quality was related to slower processing speed, somatic symptomatology and tension-anxiety levels. Nocturnal hypoxemia was related to visuconstructional abilities, processing speed and mental flexibility. Patients who had high levels of subjective sleepiness had poorer performances on a complex task of executive functioning and higher levels of tension-anxiety. These results imply a differential effect of sleep-disordered breathing on domains of neuropsychological functioning. Additionally, they suggest that a patient's subjective level of sleepiness is a good predictor of certain aspects of neurobehavioral functioning.

  2. Donepezil treatment and the subjective effects of intravenous cocaine in dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Grasing, Kenneth; Mathur, Deepan; Newton, Thomas F; DeSouza, Cherilyn

    2010-02-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors increase synaptic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) by inhibiting its breakdown. Donepezil is a reversible AChE inhibitor that is clinically available and relatively selective for inhibiting AChE but not other cholinesterases. Because AChE inhibitors have been shown to decrease the reinforcing effects of cocaine in animals, our hypothesis was that pretreatment with donepezil would attenuate the perceived value and other positive subjective effects of cocaine. We conducted a within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled, laboratory-based evaluation of the subjective effects produced by intravenous cocaine in human subjects receiving oral donepezil. Following three days of daily treatment with 5mg of donepezil or oral placebo, participants received intravenous placebo or cocaine (0.18 and 0.36 mg/kg). After a three-day washout period, participants were crossed over to the opposite oral treatment, which was followed by identical intravenous infusions. Donepezil was well-tolerated with only two drug-related adverse events reported that were mild and self-limiting. Treatment with donepezil increased ratings of 'any' and 'good' drug effect produced by low-dose cocaine, without modifying the response to high-dose cocaine. When collapsed across intravenous dose, treatment with donepezil decreased dysphoric effects and somatic symptoms, but did not modify the value of cocaine injections as determined by the Multiple Choice Questionnaire (MCQ). In summary, pretreatment with donepezil potentiated some measures for nonspecific and positive effects of low-dose cocaine. Across all intravenous treatments, participants receiving donepezil reported fewer somatic-dysphoric effects. Neither of these actions support the value of donepezil as a treatment for cocaine dependence.

  3. The effects of horse riding simulation exercise with blindfolding on healthy subjects' balance and gait.

    PubMed

    Cha, Hyun Gyu; Lee, Byung Joon; Lee, Wan Hee

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The study was conducted to determine the effect of horse riding simulation combined with blindfolding on healthy individuals' balance and gait. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). The subjects in the experimental group covered their eyes using a blindfold, climbed onto a horse riding simulator, and performed the horse riding simulation exercise. The control group took part in the horse riding exercises without a blindfold. All of the subjects performed the 20 minutes long exercise once a day, five times a week, over a four-week period. [Results] The experimental group showed significant improvement in static balance, dynamic balance, velocity, and cadence compared to pre-intervention measurements. In addition, the control group showed significant improvement in static balance, dynamic balance, single support, and cadence compared to pre-intervention measurements. Significant differences in post-training gains in static balance, dynamic balance, and cadence were observed between the experimental group and the control group. [Conclusion] Subjects that performed horse riding simulation exercise after blindfolding showed significant improvements in balance and cadence compared to the control group.

  4. Inflammatory effects of ozone in the upper airways of subjects with asthma.

    PubMed

    McBride, D E; Koenig, J Q; Luchtel, D L; Williams, P V; Henderson, W R

    1994-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether exposure to ozone causes inflammatory or functional changes in the upper or lower airways of asthmatic and nonasthmatic individuals. Ten asthmatic and eight nonasthmatic subjects were exposed to clean air, 120 ppb ozone, or 240 ppb ozone for 90 min during intermittent moderate exercise using a head dome exposure system. Pulmonary function tests, posterior rhinomanometry, and nasal lavage were performed before and after exposure. Leukocyte counts and chemotactic factors leukotriene B4 (LTB4), platelet-activating factor (PAF), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were analyzed from nasal lavage fluid. In subjects with asthma, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the number of white blood cells in lavage fluid was detected both immediately and 24 h after exposure to 240 ppb ozone, as was a significant increase in epithelial cells immediately after exposure (p < 0.05). No significant cellular changes were seen in nonasthmatic subjects. A significant correlation was observed between IL-8 and white blood cells counts after exposure to 240 ppb ozone (r = 0.76) in asthmatic subjects. No significant changes in pulmonary or nasal function or biochemical mediators were found in either the asthmatic or nonasthmatic subjects. These data indicate that asthmatic individuals are more sensitive to the acute inflammatory effects of ozone than nonasthmatic individuals.

  5. FOXE3 mutations predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Shao-Qing; Medina-Martinez, Olga; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S; Reynolds, Corey L; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Prakash, Siddharth K; Kwartler, Callie S; Zhu, Lawrence Yang; Peters, Andrew M; Duan, Xue-Yan; Bamshad, Michael J; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Debbie A; Santos-Cortez, Regie L; Dong, Xiurong; Leal, Suzanne M; Majesky, Mark W; Swindell, Eric C; Jamrich, Milan; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2016-03-01

    The ascending thoracic aorta is designed to withstand biomechanical forces from pulsatile blood. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections (TAADs) occur as a result of genetically triggered defects in aortic structure and a dysfunctional response to these forces. Here, we describe mutations in the forkhead transcription factor FOXE3 that predispose mutation-bearing individuals to TAAD. We performed exome sequencing of a large family with multiple members with TAADs and identified a rare variant in FOXE3 with an altered amino acid in the DNA-binding domain (p.Asp153His) that segregated with disease in this family. Additional pathogenic FOXE3 variants were identified in unrelated TAAD families. In mice, Foxe3 deficiency reduced smooth muscle cell (SMC) density and impaired SMC differentiation in the ascending aorta. Foxe3 expression was induced in aortic SMCs after transverse aortic constriction, and Foxe3 deficiency increased SMC apoptosis and ascending aortic rupture with increased aortic pressure. These phenotypes were rescued by inhibiting p53 activity, either by administration of a p53 inhibitor (pifithrin-α), or by crossing Foxe3-/- mice with p53-/- mice. Our data demonstrate that FOXE3 mutations lead to a reduced number of aortic SMCs during development and increased SMC apoptosis in the ascending aorta in response to increased biomechanical forces, thus defining an additional molecular pathway that leads to familial thoracic aortic disease.

  6. FOXE3 mutations predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Shao-Qing; Medina-Martinez, Olga; Guo, Dong-chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S.; Reynolds, Corey L.; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Prakash, Siddharth K.; Kwartler, Callie S.; Zhu, Lawrence Yang; Peters, Andrew M.; Duan, Xue-Yan; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Debbie A.; Santos-Cortez, Regie L.; Dong, Xiurong; Leal, Suzanne M.; Majesky, Mark W.; Swindell, Eric C.; Jamrich, Milan; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2016-01-01

    The ascending thoracic aorta is designed to withstand biomechanical forces from pulsatile blood. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections (TAADs) occur as a result of genetically triggered defects in aortic structure and a dysfunctional response to these forces. Here, we describe mutations in the forkhead transcription factor FOXE3 that predispose mutation-bearing individuals to TAAD. We performed exome sequencing of a large family with multiple members with TAADs and identified a rare variant in FOXE3 with an altered amino acid in the DNA-binding domain (p.Asp153His) that segregated with disease in this family. Additional pathogenic FOXE3 variants were identified in unrelated TAAD families. In mice, Foxe3 deficiency reduced smooth muscle cell (SMC) density and impaired SMC differentiation in the ascending aorta. Foxe3 expression was induced in aortic SMCs after transverse aortic constriction, and Foxe3 deficiency increased SMC apoptosis and ascending aortic rupture with increased aortic pressure. These phenotypes were rescued by inhibiting p53 activity, either by administration of a p53 inhibitor (pifithrin-α), or by crossing Foxe3–/– mice with p53–/– mice. Our data demonstrate that FOXE3 mutations lead to a reduced number of aortic SMCs during development and increased SMC apoptosis in the ascending aorta in response to increased biomechanical forces, thus defining an additional molecular pathway that leads to familial thoracic aortic disease. PMID:26854927

  7. Predisposing factors leading to depression in the British Army.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Alan; Finnegan, Sara; McGee, Paula; Srinivasan, Mike; Simpson, Robin

    Few studies have explored the predisposing factors leading to depression within the British Army, and this qualitative investigation provides a novel approach to advance knowledge in this poorly researched area. Information was provided by army mental health (MH) clinicians, with results aligned to theoretical groupings under the headings of: occupational stressors; macho culture, stigma and bullying; unhappy young soldier; relationships and gender. These issues were influenced by peacetime and operational settings; the support offered by the Army Medical Services and unit command. The results indicate that Army personnel are exposed to multi-factorial stressors that are incremental/accumulative in nature. Soldiers can cope with extreme pressures, often in hostile environments, but often cannot cope with a failing relationship. Officers were worried about the occupational implications of reporting ill, and the negative impact on their career, and might seek support from private civilian agencies, which have potentially dangerous ramifications as they may still deploy. GPs refer female soldiers more frequently for a mental health assessment because women express their emotions more openly then men. Young disillusioned soldiers who want to leave the Army form the main group of personnel accessing mental health support, although often they are not clinically depressed.

  8. Mutations in the transcriptional repressor REST predispose to Wilms tumor.

    PubMed

    Mahamdallie, Shazia S; Hanks, Sandra; Karlin, Kristen L; Zachariou, Anna; Perdeaux, Elizabeth R; Ruark, Elise; Shaw, Chad A; Renwick, Alexander; Ramsay, Emma; Yost, Shawn; Elliott, Anna; Birch, Jillian; Capra, Michael; Gray, Juliet; Hale, Juliet; Kingston, Judith; Levitt, Gill; McLean, Thomas; Sheridan, Eamonn; Renwick, Anthony; Seal, Sheila; Stiller, Charles; Sebire, Neil; Westbrook, Thomas F; Rahman, Nazneen

    2015-12-01

    Wilms tumor is the most common childhood renal cancer. To identify mutations that predispose to Wilms tumor, we are conducting exome sequencing studies. Here we describe 11 different inactivating mutations in the REST gene (encoding RE1-silencing transcription factor) in four familial Wilms tumor pedigrees and nine non-familial cases. Notably, no similar mutations were identified in the ICR1000 control series (13/558 versus 0/993; P < 0.0001) or in the ExAC series (13/558 versus 0/61,312; P < 0.0001). We identified a second mutational event in two tumors, suggesting that REST may act as a tumor-suppressor gene in Wilms tumor pathogenesis. REST is a zinc-finger transcription factor that functions in cellular differentiation and embryonic development. Notably, ten of 11 mutations clustered within the portion of REST encoding the DNA-binding domain, and functional analyses showed that these mutations compromise REST transcriptional repression. These data establish REST as a Wilms tumor predisposition gene accounting for ∼2% of Wilms tumor.

  9. A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Frayling, Timothy M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Weedon, Michael N; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Freathy, Rachel M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Perry, John R B; Elliott, Katherine S; Lango, Hana; Rayner, Nigel W; Shields, Beverley; Harries, Lorna W; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Ellard, Sian; Groves, Christopher J; Knight, Bridget; Patch, Ann-Marie; Ness, Andrew R; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A; Ring, Susan M; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Sovio, Ulla; Bennett, Amanda J; Melzer, David; Ferrucci, Luigi; Loos, Ruth J F; Barroso, Inês; Wareham, Nicholas J; Karpe, Fredrik; Owen, Katharine R; Cardon, Lon R; Walker, Mark; Hitman, Graham A; Palmer, Colin N A; Doney, Alex S F; Morris, Andrew D; Smith, George Davey; Hattersley, Andrew T; McCarthy, Mark I

    2007-05-11

    Obesity is a serious international health problem that increases the risk of several common diseases. The genetic factors predisposing to obesity are poorly understood. A genome-wide search for type 2 diabetes-susceptibility genes identified a common variant in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene that predisposes to diabetes through an effect on body mass index (BMI). An additive association of the variant with BMI was replicated in 13 cohorts with 38,759 participants. The 16% of adults who are homozygous for the risk allele weighed about 3 kilograms more and had 1.67-fold increased odds of obesity when compared with those not inheriting a risk allele. This association was observed from age 7 years upward and reflects a specific increase in fat mass.

  10. NALTREXONE EFFECT ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SUBJECTIVE RESPONSE TO A COLD PRESSOR TASK

    PubMed Central

    Kotlyar, Michael; al’Absi, Mustafa; Brauer, Lisa H.; Grant, Jon E.; Fong, Erine; Kim, Suck Won

    2009-01-01

    In this double-blind, cross-over study physiological (i.e. blood pressure, heart rate, plasma catecholamine concentrations, plasma cortisol concentrations) and subjective (i.e. McGill Pain Questionnaire, positive affect, distress) response to a cold pressor task was assessed in 19 subjects one hour after the administration of 50 mg naltrexone and after placebo. Significant differences in plasma catecholamine concentrations were found. Plasma epinephrine concentrations increased during the one hour period after naltrexone administration but remained largely unchanged after placebo administration. A significant treatment × period effect was also found for plasma norepinephrine concentrations. No significant differences were found for other measures assessed. Further research is necessary to determine the subpopulations in which these effects are of greatest magnitude and the long term safety implications of these effects. PMID:18053632

  11. The reinforcing and subjective effects of intravenous and intranasal buprenorphine in heroin users.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jermaine D; Madera, Gabriela; Comer, Sandra D

    2014-07-01

    Abuse of buprenorphine (BUP) by the intravenous (IV) route has been documented in several studies, and reports of intranasal (IN) abuse are increasing. However, no studies have directly compared the effects of BUP when it is administered intranasally and intravenously. The present secondary analysis used data from two separate studies to compare the reinforcing and subjective effects of IV and IN buprenorphine. One study evaluated IV buprenorphine (N=13) and the other evaluated IN buprenorphine (N=12). Participants were maintained on 2 mg sublingual (SL) BUP and tested with each intranasal or intravenous buprenorphine test dose (0 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg, 8 mg, and 16 mg). During morning laboratory sessions, participants received money (US $20) and sample doses of IN or IV BUP, and then completed subjective effects questionnaires. Later that day, they completed a self-administration task to receive 10% portions of the drug and/or money they previously sampled. In general, positive subjective ratings for both IV and IN BUP were significantly greater than placebo, with IV BUP having a greater effect than IN BUP. All active BUP doses (IV and IN) maintained significantly higher progressive ratio breakpoint values than placebo, but breakpoint values for IV BUP were greater than for IN BUP. Buprenorphine is an effective maintenance treatment for opioid dependence, valued for its ability to reduce the positive subjective effects of other opioids. Nevertheless, the present data demonstrate that in participants maintained on a low dose of SL BUP, the medication itself has abuse liability when used intravenously or intranasally.

  12. Subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects of cumulative doses of opioid mu agonists in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Walker, D J; Zacny, J P

    1999-06-01

    The subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects of three opioid mu-receptor agonists were studied in healthy volunteers using a cumulative-dosing procedure. Sixteen volunteers with no history of drug abuse received i.v. injections of saline (SAL), morphine (MOR), hydromorphone (HM), or meperidine (MEP) in a randomized double-blind crossover design. Subjects received 1 injection/h for the first 4 h, and a 3-h recovery period followed. SAL was injected first during each session, then SAL or increasing doses of each drug were administered every hour for the next 3 h. The absolute doses per injection were MOR: 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/70 kg; HM: 0.33, 0.65, and 1.3 mg/70 kg; and MEP: 17.5, 35, and 70 mg/70 kg. These injections resulted in cumulative doses of MOR: 2.5, 7.5, and 17.5; HM: 0.33, 0.98, and 2.28; and MEP: 17.5, 52.5, and 122.5 mg/70 kg. Subjects completed mood forms and psychomotor tests, and physiological measures were recorded at various times after each injection and during recovery. MEP tended to produce the most intense effects immediately after drug injection, which dissipated rapidly. MOR produced the mildest effects but was associated with unpleasant side effects during recovery and after the session. HM's effects were stronger than MOR's, and the recovery from HM was slower than with MEP. None of the opioids produced consistent effects that are typically associated with abuse liability. Orderly dose-response functions suggested that our cumulative-dosing procedure is an efficient way of determining dose-response functions for multiple opioids within the same subjects within the same study.

  13. Pharmacokinetics and electrocardiographic effect of ebastine in young versus elderly healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Huang, M Y; Argenti, D; Wilson, J; Garcia, J; Heald, D

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and electrocardiographic effect of a 10-mg oral dose of ebastine in elderly (ages, 65-85 years) and young (ages, 18-35 years) healthy volunteers. Thirty-seven subjects completed this randomized, double-blind, multiple-dose, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. The elderly group consisted of 18 subjects, with 13 subjects receiving 10 mg ebastine and 5 receiving matching placebo. The young group consisted of 19 subjects, with 13 subjects receiving 10 mg ebastine and 6 receiving matching placebo. On study days 1 and 3 through 10, each subject received a single 10-mg dose of ebastine or matching placebo in the morning with a standard breakfast. No drug was administered on study day 2 because of pharmacokinetic sampling. Blood samples were collected at selected times postdose on study days 1, 2, and 10. Plasma samples were analyzed for ebastine and its active metabolite, carebastine, using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. No plasma ebastine concentrations were detected, suggesting essentially complete metabolic conversion of ebastine to its metabolites. Analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences between young and elderly single- and multiple-dose carebastine pharmacokinetics with respect to area under the plasma concentration-time curve, maximum concentration (Cmax ), terminal elimination rate constant, apparent oral clearance, or apparent volume of distribution. The mean time of maximum concentration value for young subjects was 1 hour longer than that for elderly subjects after single-dose administration but was comparable after multiple-dose administration. Within-group comparisons of both the young and elderly showed that pharmacokinetics between single dose and steady state were not statistically different. However, the mean steady-state carebastine Cmax values were approximately twofold greater than the mean Cmax values

  14. Effects of slanted ergonomic mice on task performance and subjective responses.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kihyo

    2014-05-01

    The biomechanical benefits (e.g., muscular activity) of slanted ergonomic mice have been comprehensively identified; however, their effects on task performance and subjective responses have not been fully investigated. The present study examined the effects of two slanted mice (slant angle = 30° and 50°) in comparison with a conventional mouse (slant angle = 0°) in terms of task performance (task completion time and error rate) and subjective responses (perceived discomfort score and overall satisfaction score). Experimental results showed that all of the task and subjective measures worsened as the slant angle of the target mice increases. For example, the task completion time (unit: ms) and overall satisfaction score (unit: point) of the 30° slanted mouse (time = 0.71, satisfaction = -0.09) and 50° slanted mouse (time = 0.73, satisfaction = -0.79) significantly deteriorated than the conventional mouse (time = 0.65, satisfaction = 1.21). The slanted mice seem to compromise biomechanical benefits with task performance and subjective responses.

  15. CHRM2 gene predisposes to alcohol dependence, drug dependence and affective disorders: results from an extended case-control structured association study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xingguang; Kranzler, Henry R; Zuo, Lingjun; Wang, Shuang; Blumberg, Hilary P; Gelernter, Joel

    2005-08-15

    Cholinergic muscarinic 2 receptor (CHRM2) is implicated in memory and cognition, functions impaired in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Wang et al. [Wang, J.C., Hinrichs, A.L., Stock, H., Budde, J., Allen, R., Bertelsen, S., Kwon, J.M., Wu, W., Dick, D.M., Rice, J. et al. (2004) Evidence of common and specific genetic effects: association of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) gene with alcohol dependence and major depressive syndrome. Hum. Mol. Genet., 13, 1903-1911] reported that variation in CHRM2 gene predisposed to alcohol dependence (AD) and major depressive syndrome. We examined the relationships between variation in CHRM2 and AD, drug dependence (DD) and affective disorders, using a novel extended case-control structured association (SA) method. Six markers at CHRM2 and 38 ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) were genotyped in a sample of 871 subjects, including 333 healthy controls [287 European-Americans (EAs) and 46 African-Americans (AAs)] and 538 AD and/or DD subjects (415 with AD and 346 with DD and 382 EAs and 156 AAs). The same CHRM2 markers were genotyped in a sample of 137 EA subjects with affective disorders. All of the six markers were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in controls, but SNP3 (rs1824024) was in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium in the AD and DD groups. Using conventional case-control comparisons, some markers were nominally significantly or suggestively associated with phenotypes before or after controlling for population stratification and admixture effects, but these associations were not significant after multiple test correction. However, regression analysis identified specific alleles, genotypes, haplotypes and diplotypes that were significantly associated with risk for each disorder. We conclude that variation in CHRM2 predisposes to AD, DD and affective disorders. One haplotype block within the 5'-UTR of CHRM2 may be more important for the development of these disorders than other regions. Interaction between two

  16. Naltrexone Maintenance Decreases Cannabis Self-Administration and Subjective Effects in Daily Cannabis Smokers.

    PubMed

    Haney, Margaret; Ramesh, Divya; Glass, Andrew; Pavlicova, Martina; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D

    2015-10-01

    Given that cannabis use is increasing in the United States, pharmacological treatment options to treat cannabis use disorder are needed. Opioid antagonists modulate cannabinoid effects and may offer a potential approach to reducing cannabis use. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study, we assessed the effects of naltrexone maintenance on the reinforcing, subjective, psychomotor, and cardiovascular effects of active and inactive cannabis. Nontreatment-seeking, daily cannabis smokers were randomized to receive naltrexone (50 mg: n=18 M and 5 F) or placebo (0 mg; n=26 M and 2 F) capsules for 16 days. Before, during, and after medication maintenance, participants completed 10 laboratory sessions over 4-6 weeks, assessing cannabis' behavioral and cardiovascular effects. Medication compliance was verified by observed capsule administration, plasma naltrexone, and urinary riboflavin. Relative to placebo, maintenance on naltrexone significantly reduced both active cannabis self-administration and its positive subjective effects ('good effect'). Participants in the placebo group had 7.6 times (95% CI: 1.1-51.8) the odds of self-administering active cannabis compared with the naltrexone group. This attenuation of reinforcing and positive subjective effects also influenced cannabis use in the natural ecology. Naltrexone had intrinsic effects: decreasing ratings of friendliness, food intake, and systolic blood pressure, and increasing spontaneous reports of stomach upset and headache, yet dropout rates were comparable between groups. In summary, we show for the first time that maintenance on naltrexone decreased cannabis self-administration and ratings of 'good effect' in nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers. Clinical studies in patients motivated to reduce their cannabis use are warranted to evaluate naltrexone's efficacy as a treatment for cannabis use disorder.

  17. Naltrexone Maintenance Decreases Cannabis Self-Administration and Subjective Effects in Daily Cannabis Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Haney, Margaret; Ramesh, Divya; Glass, Andrew; Pavlicova, Martina; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D

    2015-01-01

    Given that cannabis use is increasing in the United States, pharmacological treatment options to treat cannabis use disorder are needed. Opioid antagonists modulate cannabinoid effects and may offer a potential approach to reducing cannabis use. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study, we assessed the effects of naltrexone maintenance on the reinforcing, subjective, psychomotor, and cardiovascular effects of active and inactive cannabis. Nontreatment-seeking, daily cannabis smokers were randomized to receive naltrexone (50 mg: n=18 M and 5 F) or placebo (0 mg; n=26 M and 2 F) capsules for 16 days. Before, during, and after medication maintenance, participants completed 10 laboratory sessions over 4–6 weeks, assessing cannabis' behavioral and cardiovascular effects. Medication compliance was verified by observed capsule administration, plasma naltrexone, and urinary riboflavin. Relative to placebo, maintenance on naltrexone significantly reduced both active cannabis self-administration and its positive subjective effects (‘good effect'). Participants in the placebo group had 7.6 times (95% CI: 1.1–51.8) the odds of self-administering active cannabis compared with the naltrexone group. This attenuation of reinforcing and positive subjective effects also influenced cannabis use in the natural ecology. Naltrexone had intrinsic effects: decreasing ratings of friendliness, food intake, and systolic blood pressure, and increasing spontaneous reports of stomach upset and headache, yet dropout rates were comparable between groups. In summary, we show for the first time that maintenance on naltrexone decreased cannabis self-administration and ratings of ‘good effect' in nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers. Clinical studies in patients motivated to reduce their cannabis use are warranted to evaluate naltrexone's efficacy as a treatment for cannabis use disorder. PMID:25881117

  18. Therapeutic satisfaction and subjective effects of different strains of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Tibor M; van Genugten, Marianne; Höner-Snoeken, Kathrin; van de Velde, Marco J; Niesink, Raymond J M

    2014-06-01

    In The Netherlands, pharmaceutical-grade cultivated cannabis is distributed for medicinal purposes as commissioned by the Ministry of Health. Few studies have thus far described its therapeutic efficacy or subjective (adverse) effects in patients. The aims of this study are to assess the therapeutic satisfaction within a group of patients using prescribed pharmaceutical-grade cannabis and to compare the subjective effects among the available strains with special focus on their delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol content. In a cross-sectional and natural design, users of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis were investigated with questionnaires. Medical background of the patients was asked as well as experienced therapeutic effects and characteristics of cannabis use. Subjective effects were measured with psychometric scales and used to compare among the strains of cannabis used across this group of patients. One hundred two patients were included; their average age was 53 years and 76% used it for more than a year preceding this study. Chronic pain (53%; n = 54) was the most common medical indication for using cannabis followed by multiple sclerosis (23%; n = 23), and 86% (n = 88) of patients (almost) always experienced therapeutic satisfaction when using pharmaceutical cannabis. Dejection, anxiety, and appetite stimulation were found to differ among the 3 strains of cannabis. These results show that patients report therapeutic satisfaction with pharmaceutical cannabis, mainly pain alleviation. Some subjective effects were found to differ among the available strains of cannabis, which is discussed in relation to their different tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol content. These results may aid in further research and critical appraisal for medicinally prescribed cannabis products.

  19. Effects of alcohol mixed with energy drink and alcohol alone on subjective intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Andrea; Hemberger, Sophie Helene; Loidl, Alexandra; Dufek, Stephanie; Pablik, Eleonore; Fodor, Sugarka; Herle, Marion; Aufricht, Christoph

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that the combination of caffeine-containing drinks together with alcohol might reduce the subjective feelings of alcohol intoxication-the so-called "masking effect". In this study, we aimed to review the effects of alcohol in combination with caffeine or energy drink with special focus on the "masking effect". Fifty-two healthy male volunteers were analysed concerning breath alcohol concentration and subjective sensations of intoxication using a 18 item Visual Analogue Scale in a randomised, double-blinded, controlled, four treatments cross-over trial after consumption of (A) placebo, (B) alcohol (vodka 37.5% at a dose of 46.5 g ethanol), (C) alcohol in combination with caffeine at a dose of 80 mg (equivalent to one 250 ml can of energy drink) and (D) alcohol in combination with energy drink at a dose of 250 ml (one can). Primary variables were headache, weakness, salivation and motor coordination. Out of four primary variables, weakness and motor coordination showed a statistically significant difference between alcohol and non-alcohol group, out of 14 secondary variables, five more variables (dizziness, alterations in sight, alterations in walking, agitation and alterations in speech) also showed significant differences due mainly to contrasts with the non-alcohol group. In none of these end points, could a statistically significant effect be found for the additional ingestion of energy drink or caffeine on the subjective feelings of alcohol intoxication. This within-subjects study does not confirm the presence of a "masking effect" when combining caffeine or energy drink with alcohol.

  20. Hypoglycemic effect of Lupinus mutabilis in healthy volunteers and subjects with dysglycemia.

    PubMed

    Fornasini, M; Castro, J; Villacrés, E; Narváez, L; Villamar, M P; Baldeón, M E

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes are increasing health problems that negatively affect health care systems worldwide. There is a constant urge to develop new therapies with better effects, lower side effects at lower prices to treat these diseases. Lupinus species and their derivates are good candidates to be used as hypoglycaemic agents. A phase II clinical trial was conducted to assess the role of raw Lupinus mutabilis on blood glucose and insulin in normoglycemic and dysglycemic subjects. Results show that consumption of L. mutabilis by normal weight healthy young individuals did not change importantly blood glucose and insulin levels. On the other hand, consumption of similar doses of lupinus by dysglycemic individuals (fasting glucose > 100 mg/dL) decreased significantly blood glucose. Lupinus effects were greater in those subjects with higher basal glucose levels. Glucose lowering effects of lupinus were not observed after soy intake that was used as control. A statistically significant reduction in insulin levels was also observed in the lupinus group compared with the soy group after 60 minutes of treatment. Furthermore, only treatment with lupinus improved insulin resistance in dysglycemic subjects. These data demonstrate that lupinus consumption could be a feasible and low cost alternative to treat chronic hyperglycemic diseases.

  1. Systemic and renal effects of an ETA receptor subtype-specific antagonist in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Schmetterer, Leopold; Dallinger, Susanne; Bobr, Barbara; Selenko, Nicole; Eichler, Hans-Georg; Wolzt, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Endothelins (ETs) might play a pathophysiological role in a variety of vascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of BQ-123, a specific ETA receptor antagonist on systemic and renal haemodynamics in healthy subjects. This was done at baseline and during infusion of exogenous ET-1.The study was performed in a balanced, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind 4 way cross-over design in 10 healthy male subjects. Subjects received co-infusions of ET-1 (2.5 ng kg−1 min−1 for 120 min) or placebo and BQ-123 (15 μg min−1 for 60 min and subsequently 60 μg min−1 for 60 min) or placebo. Renal plasma flow (RPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were assessed by the para-aminohippurate (PAH) and the inulin plasma clearance method, respectively.BQ-123 alone had no renal or systemic haemodynamic effect. ET-1 significantly reduced RPF (−24%, P<0.001) and GFR (−12%, P=0.034). These effects were abolished by co-infusion of either dose of BQ-123 (RPF: P=0.0012; GFR: P=0.020).BQ-123 reversed the renal haemodynamic effects induced by exogenous ET-1 in vivo. This indicates that vasoconstriction in the kidney provoked by ET-1 is predominantly mediated by the ETA receptor subtype. PMID:9692778

  2. The effects of sleep on circulating catecholamines and aqueous flow in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Maus, T L; McLaren, J W; Shepard, J W; Brubaker, R F

    1996-04-01

    We measured the rate of aqueous flow and analysed its relation to the time of day, the state of wakefulness and the urinary excretion of catecholamines. Two groups of subjects were studied. One group comprised 20 normal subjects who were studied over two 22-hr periods. During one period, the subjects were permitted to sleep during their customary hours of sleep; during the other, they were not permitted to sleep, but remained active for all 22 hr. The other group comprised ten subjects with obstructive sleep apnea who were studied over a 22-hr period and slept during their customary hours of sleep but without the aid of any respiratory device. Aqueous flow was measured with fluorophotometry. Motion of the wrist was monitored by a seismograph (wrist Actigraph) and served as a surrogate of activity and wakefulness. Urinary catecholamine excretion was measured during different periods of the wake/sleep cycle. Both groups exhibited the normal nocturnal suppression of flow (59% lower compared to morning in the normal group; 56% lower compared to morning in the apneic group). During sleep deprivation, the rate of flow at night in normal subjects was 30% lower than during the morning (P < 0.001) and 60% higher than during sleep (P < 0.001). Lid closure during sleep deprivation had no effect on the results. Aqueous flow correlated with a 'catecholamine index', derived from the combined excretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine. Flow also correlated with an 'activity index', and 'sleep efficiency', indices derived from motion of the wrist. We conclude that the day-night difference of aqueous humor flow as measured by clearance of fluorescein from the human eye is driven partly by a factor that has a circadian rhythm and partly by a factor that depends on the activity of the subject. We hypothesize that these factors are the catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine.

  3. Subjective, cognitive and cardiovascular dose-effect profile of nabilone and dronabinol in marijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D; Haney, Margaret

    2013-09-01

    Marijuana dependence is a substantial public health problem, with existing treatments showing limited efficacy. In laboratory and clinical studies, the cannabinoid receptor 1 agonist oral Δ9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol) has been shown to decrease marijuana withdrawal but not relapse. Dronabinol has poor bioavailability, potentially contributing to its failure to decrease relapse. The synthetic THC analogue, nabilone, has better bioavailability than dronabinol. We therefore aimed to characterize nabilone's behavioral and physiological effects across a range of acute doses in current marijuana smokers and compare these with dronabinol's effects. Participants (4 female; 10 male) smoking marijuana 6.6 (standard deviation = 0.7) days/week completed this outpatient, within-subjects, double-blind, randomized protocol. Over seven sessions, the time-dependent subjective, cognitive and cardiovascular effects of nabilone (2, 4, 6, 8 mg), dronabinol (10, 20 mg) and placebo were assessed. Nabilone (4, 6, 8 mg) and dronabinol (10, 20 mg) increased ratings of feeling a good effect, a strong effect and/or 'high' relative to placebo; nabilone had a slower onset of peak subjective effects than dronabinol. Nabilone (6, 8 mg) modestly lowered psychomotor speed relative to placebo and dronabinol. There were dose-dependent increases in heart rate after nabilone, and nabilone (2 mg) and dronabinol (10 mg) decreased systolic blood pressure. Thus, nabilone produced sustained, dose-related increases in positive mood, few cognitive decrements and lawful cardiovascular alterations. It had a longer time to peak effects than dronabinol, and effects were more dose-related, suggesting improved bioavailability. Nabilone was well tolerated by marijuana smokers, supporting further testing as a potential medication for marijuana dependence.

  4. The epidemiology of bovine respiratory disease: What is the evidence for predisposing factors?

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jared D.; Fulton, Robert W.; Lehenbauer, Terry W.; Step, Douglas L.; Confer, Anthony W.

    2010-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most costly disease of beef cattle in North America. It is multi-factorial, with a variety of physical and physiological stressors combining to predispose cattle to pneumonia. However, efforts to discern which factors are most important have frequently failed to establish definitive answers. Calves are at highest risk shortly after transport. Risk factors include purchasing from sale barns and commingling. It is unclear whether or not these practices increase susceptibility, increase exposure, or are proxies for poor management. Lighter-weight calves appear to be at greater risk, although this has not been consistent. Persistent infection (PI) with bovine virus diarrhea virus increases BRD occurrence, but it is unclear if PI calves affect other cattle in the feedlot. The complexity of BRD has made it difficult to define involvement of individual factors. Stressors may play a role as “necessary but not sufficient” components, requiring additive effects to cause disease. PMID:21197200

  5. Nourkrin: objective and subjective effects and tolerability in persons with hair loss.

    PubMed

    Thom, E

    2006-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of Nourkrin, a new natural agent for the treatment of hair loss based on marine proteins, and minerals and vitamins. Fifty-five subjects with hair loss of different aetiologies participated in the 6-month blinded phase of the study. Objective assessments showed a significant positive effect of treatment on hair growth. Intake of the active preparation for a further 6 months in an open phase indicated a subjective further improvement in hair growth. Exposure of the patients previously treated with placebo to the active preparation for 12 months gave similar results. Tolerability was good and no side-effects were reported. Nourkrin may provide an alternative to pharmacotherapy for the treatment of hair-loss problems in individuals with androgenetic alopecia.

  6. A comparison of the cardiovascular effects and subjective tolerability of binedaline and amitriptylene in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Joubert, P H; Starke, D D; Van Reenen, O; Venter, C P

    1985-01-01

    Binedaline is a new antidepressant drug which is not a tricyclic compound. In animal investigations it showed a greater therapeutic index than imipramine and amitriptylene and a smaller ED50. It also showed less anticholinergic and antihistaminic activity. In this study the effects of 100 mg (females) and 150 mg (males) of binedaline was compared with 50 mg and 75 mg of amitriptylene and placebo in healthy volunteers. Binedaline was better tolerated than amitriptylene and produced less sedation and fewer instances of dry mouth. Binedaline was devoid of the marked postural hypotension produced by amitriptylene but caused the same degree of tachycardia as amitriptylene at rest, when subjects were tilted and when subjected to ergometry. It was concluded that binedaline causes less alpha-adrenergic blockade than amitriptylene but that the sympathomimetic effects were similar. At the doses employed no major changes in electrocardiogram or systolic time intervals occurred.

  7. Effect of RAAS blockers on adverse clinical outcomes in high CVD risk subjects with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Chaugai, Sandip; Sherpa, Lhamo Yanchang; Sepehry, Amir A.; Arima, Hisatomi; Wang, Dao Wen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have demonstrated that atrial fibrillation significantly increases the risk of adverse clinical outcomes in high cardiovascular disease risk subjects. Application of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system blockers for prevention of recurrence of atrial fibrillation and adverse clinical outcomes in subjects with atrial fibrillation is a theoretically appealing concept. However, results of clinical trials evaluating the effect of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone blockers on adverse clinical outcomes in high cardiovascular disease risk subjects with atrial fibrillation remain inconclusive. A pooled study of 6 randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone blockers on subjects with atrial fibrillation was performed. A total of 6 randomized controlled trials enrolled a total of 53,510 patients followed for 1 to 5 years. RAAS blockade therapy was associated with 14% reduction in the incidence of heart failure (OR: 0.86, [95%CI: 0.76– 0.97], P=0.018) and 17% reduction in the incidence of CVE (OR: 0.83, [95%CI: 0.70–0.99], P = 0.038). The corresponding decline in absolute risk against heart failure (ARR: 1.4%, [95%CI: 0.2–2.6%], P = 0.018) and CVE (ARR: 3.5%, [95%CI: 0.0–6.9%], P = 0.045) in the AF group was much higher than the non-AF group for heart failure (ARR: 0.4%, [95%CI: 0.0–0.7%], P = 0.057) and CVE (ARR: 1.6%, [95%CI: –0.1% to 3.3%], P = 0.071). No significant effect was noted on all-cause or cardiovascular mortality, stroke, or myocardial infarction. This study suggests that RAAS blockade offers protection against heart failure and cardiovascular events in high cardiovascular disease risk subjects with atrial fibrillation. PMID:27368043

  8. Effects of practicing tandem gait with and without vibrotactile biofeedback in subjects with unilateral vestibular loss

    PubMed Central

    Dozza, Marco; Wall, Conrad; Peterka, Robert J.; Chiari, Lorenzo; Horak, Fay B.

    2008-01-01

    Subjects with unilateral vestibular loss exhibit motor control impairments as shown by body and limb deviation during gait. Biofeedback devices have been shown to improve stance postural control, especially when sensory information is limited by environmental conditions or pathologies such as unilateral vestibular loss. However, the extent to which biofeedback could improve motor performance or learning while practicing a dynamic task such as narrow gait is still unknown. In this cross-over design study, 9 unilateral vestibular loss subjects practiced narrow gait with and without wearing a trunk-tilt, biofeedback device in 2 practice sessions. The biofeedback device informed the subjects of their medial-lateral angular tilt and tilt velocity during gait via vibration of the trunk. From motion analysis and tilt data, the performance of the subjects practicing tandem gait were compared over time with and without biofeedback. By practicing tandem gait, subjects reduced their trunk-tilt, center of mass displacement, medial-lateral feet distance, and frequency of stepping error. In both groups, use of tactile biofeedback consistently increased postural stability during tandem gait, beyond the effects of practice alone. However, one single session of practice with biofeedback did not result in conclusive short-term after-effects consistent with short-term retention of motor performance without this additional biofeedback. Results from this study support the hypothesis that tactile biofeedback acts similar to natural sensory feedback to improve dynamic motor performance but does not facilitate a recalibration of motor performance to improve function after short-term use. PMID:18525145

  9. Gratitude mediates the effect of emotional intelligence on subjective well-being: A structural equation modeling analysis.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yuan

    2016-11-03

    This study investigated the relationship among emotional intelligence, gratitude, and subjective well-being in a sample of university students. A total of 365 undergraduates completed the emotional intelligence scale, the gratitude questionnaire, and the subjective well-being measures. The results of the structural equation model showed that emotional intelligence is positively associated with gratitude and subjective well-being, that gratitude is positively associated with subjective well-being, and that gratitude partially mediates the positive relationship between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being. Bootstrap test results also revealed that emotional intelligence has a significant indirect effect on subjective well-being through gratitude.

  10. Gender Differences in the Effect of Tobacco Use on Brain Phosphocreatine Levels in Methamphetamine Dependent Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Young-Hoon; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.; Kondo, Douglas G.; Shi, Xian-Feng; Lundberg, Kelly J.; Hellem, Tracy L.; Huber, Rebekah S.; McGlade, Erin C.; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    Background A high prevalence of tobacco smoking has been observed in methamphetamine users, but there have been no in vivo brain neurochemistry studies addressing gender effects of tobacco smoking in methamphetamine users. Methamphetamine addiction is associated with increased risk of depression and anxiety in females. There is increasing evidence that selective analogues of nicotine, a principal active component of tobacco smoking, may improve depression and cognitive performance in animals and humans. Objectives To investigate the effects of tobacco smoking and gender on brain phosphocreatine (PCr) levels, a marker of brain energy metabolism reported to be reduced in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Methods Thirty female and twenty-seven male methamphetamine-dependent subjects were evaluated with phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) to measure PCr levels within the pregenual anterior cingulate, which has been implicated in methamphetamine neurotoxicity. Results Analysis of covariance revealed that there were statistically significant slope (PCr versus lifetime amount of tobacco smoking) differences between female and male methamphetamine-dependent subjects (p=0.03). In females, there was also a statistically significant interaction between lifetime amounts of tobacco smoking and methamphetamine in regard to PCr levels (p=0.01), which suggests that tobacco smoking may have a more significant positive impact on brain PCr levels in heavy, as opposed to light to moderate, methamphetamine-dependent females. Conclusion These results indicate that tobacco smoking has gender-specific effects in terms of increased anterior cingulate high energy PCr levels in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Cigarette smoking in methamphetamine-dependent women, particularly those with heavy methamphetamine use, may have a potentially protective effect upon neuronal metabolism. PMID:25871447

  11. STUDY OF TRAINING EQUIPMENT AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES. THE EFFECTS OF SUBJECT MATTER VARIABLES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    variables. The results of this study strongly supported the existence of learning styles and suggest that multi-track instruction based on learning ...subject matters were all non-cognitive in nature. It would be expected, therefore, that learning styles too might be independent of specific aptitude or ability traits. (Author)... styles might be a cost-effective way of enhancing learning. Those individual difference measures which interacted with instructional methods and

  12. Parameters Affecting Loads on Buried Structures Subjected to Localized Blast Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    Structures Laboratory DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY Waterways Experiment Station, Corps of Engineers 3909 Halls Ferry Road, Vicksburg, Mississippi 39180-6199...ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Structures Laboratory, Technical Report SL-92-9...Loads on Buried Structures Subjected to Localized Blast Effects." These analyses were performed in the Structures Laboratory (SL), U.S. Army Engineer

  13. THE EFFECT OF MENTHOL ON CIGARETTE SMOKING BEHAVIORS, BIOMARKERS AND SUBJECTIVE RESPONSES

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Andrew A.; Ashare, Rebecca L.; Kaufman, Madeline; Tang, Kathy Z.; Mesaros, A. Clementina; Blair, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    Background As part of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the United States Food and Drug Administration charged the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee with developing a report and recommendations regarding the effect of menthol in cigarettes on the public health. The purpose of this study was to examine smoking behaviors, biomarkers of exposure and subjective responses when switching from a novel menthol cigarette to a non-menthol cigarette to isolate the effect of menthol and to approximate the effect a menthol ban might have on smokers. Methods Thirty two adult smokers completed this 35-day randomized, open-label, laboratory study. After a 5-day baseline period, participants were randomized to the experimental group (n=22) where they would smoke menthol Camel Crush for 15 days followed by 15 days of non-menthol Camel Crush, or the control group (n=10) where they smoked their own brand cigarette across all periods. Participants attended study visits every five days and completed measures of smoking rate, smoking topography, biomarkers of exposure, and subjective responses. Results Although total puff volume tended to increase when the experimental group switched from menthol to non-menthol (p=0.06), there were no corresponding increases in cigarette consumption or biomarkers of exposure (ps>0.1). Subjective ratings related to taste and smell decreased during the non-menthol period (ps<0.01), compared to the menthol. Conclusions Results suggest menthol has minimal impact on smoking behaviors, biomarkers of exposure and subjective ratings. Impact When controlling for all other cigarette design features, menthol in cigarettes had minimal effect on outcome measures. PMID:23334588

  14. Strain Rate Effects for Concrete and Fiber Reinforced Concrete Subjected to Impact Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    S. Mindess and S. P. Shah) MRS Symposia Proceedings, V67. 64, pp. 21-37, 1986. 9. Shah, S. P., "Concrete and Fiber Reinforced Concrete Subjected to...Impact Loading," in Cement Based Composites: Strain Rate Effects on Fracture (eds. S. Mindess and S. P. Shah) MRS Symposia Proceedings, Vol. 64, pp... Mindess (11), Sierakowski (12), aAd Reinhardt (13). Many investigators (see for example Ref. 6) have studied the rate sensitivity of fracture strength

  15. LOX Mutations Predispose to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong-chuan; Regalado, Ellen S.; Gong, Limin; Duan, Xueyan; Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P.; Arnaud, Pauline; Ren, Zhao; Cai, Bo; Hostetler, Ellen M.; Moran, Rocio; Liang, David; Estrera, Anthony; Safi, Hazim J; Leal, Suzanne M.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Mutations in several genes have been identified that are responsible for approximately 25% of families with familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD). However, the causative gene remains unknown in 75% of families. Objectives To identify the causative mutation in families with autosomal dominant inheritance of TAAD. Methods and Results Exome sequencing was used to identify the mutation responsible for a large family with TAAD. A heterozygous rare variant, c.839G>T (p.Ser280Arg), was identified in LOX, encoding a lysyl oxidase, that segregated with disease in the family. Sanger and exome sequencing was performed to investigate mutations in candidate genes in an additional 410 probands from unrelated families. Additional LOX rare variants that segregated with disease in families were identified, including c.125G>A (p.Trp42*), c.604G>T (p.Gly202*), c.743C>T (p.Thr248Ile), c.800A>C (p.Gln267Pro), and c.1044T>A (p.Ser348Arg). The altered amino acids cause haploinsufficiency for LOX or are located at a highly conserved LOX catalytic domain, which is relatively invariant in the population. Expression of the LOX variants p.Ser280Arg and p.Ser348Arg had significantly lower lysyl oxidase activity when compared with the wild type protein. Individuals with LOX variants had fusiform enlargement of the root and ascending thoracic aorta, leading to ascending aortic dissections. Conclusions These data, along with previous studies showing the deficiency of LOX in mice or inhibition of lysyl oxidases in turkeys and rats causes aortic dissections, support the conclusion that rare genetic variants in LOX predispose to thoracic aortic disease. PMID:26838787

  16. Variation in Telangiectasia Predisposing Genes Is Associated With Overall Radiation Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Tanteles, George A.; Murray, Robert J.S.; Mills, Jamie; Barwell, Julian; Chakraborti, Prabir; Chan, Steve; Cheung, Kwok-Leung; Ennis, Dawn; Khurshid, Nazish; Lambert, Kelly; Machhar, Rohan; Meisuria, Mitul; Osman, Ahmed; Peat, Irene; Sahota, Harjinder; Woodings, Pamela; Talbot, Christopher J.; and others

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: In patients receiving radiotherapy for breast cancer where the heart is within the radiation field, cutaneous telangiectasiae could be a marker of potential radiation-induced heart disease. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes known to cause heritable telangiectasia-associated disorders could predispose to such late, normal tissue vascular damage. Methods and Materials: The relationship between cutaneous telangiectasia as a late normal tissue radiation injury phenotype in 633 breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy was examined. Patients were clinically assessed for the presence of cutaneous telangiectasia and genotyped at nine SNPs in three candidate genes. Candidate SNPs were within the endoglin (ENG) and activin A receptor, type II-like 1 (ACVRL1) genes, mutations in which cause hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene associated with ataxia-telangiectasia. Results: A total of 121 (19.1%) patients exhibited a degree of cutaneous telangiectasiae on clinical examination. Regression was used to examine the associations between the presence of telangiectasiae in patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery, controlling for the effects of boost and known brassiere size (n=388), and individual geno- or haplotypes. Inheritance of ACVRL1 SNPs marginally contributed to the risk of cutaneous telangiectasiae. Haplotypic analysis revealed a stronger association between inheritance of a ATM haplotype and the presence of cutaneous telangiectasiae, fibrosis and overall toxicity. No significant association was observed between telangiectasiae and the coinheritance of the candidate ENG SNPs. Conclusions: Genetic variation in the ATM gene influences reaction to radiotherapy through both vascular damage and increased fibrosis. The predisposing variation in the ATM gene will need to be better defined to optimize it as a predictive marker for assessing radiotherapy late effects.

  17. High stocking density as a predisposing factor for necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Batzios, C; Pappaioannou, N; Ducatelle, R; Fortomaris, P

    2015-01-01

    Stocking density is a management factor which has critical implications for the poultry industry. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of high stocking density as a predisposing factor in an experimental model of necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. The experimental challenge model included an oral inoculation with 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens. Two hundred and forty as hatched day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four treatment groups according to the following experimental design: group N, with normal stocking density (15 birds/m(2)) and no challenge; group D, with high stocking density (30 birds/m(2)) and no challenge; group P, with normal stocking density and positive challenge; and group DP, with high stocking density and positive challenge. From each bird, the intestine, gizzard and liver were collected and scored for gross lesions. The intestinal digesta was collected for pH and viscosity determination. One caecum from each bird was taken for microbiological analysis. The statistical analysis and evaluation of the experimental data revealed significant interaction effects between "stocking density" and "challenge", regarding gross lesion scores in intestine and liver, pH values in jejunum, ileum and caeca as well as C. perfringens counts in the caeca (P ≤ 0.05). High stocking density in challenged birds increased the gross lesion score in the intestine (P ≤ 0.05), contrary to unchallenged birds. It can be concluded that high stocking density affects unfavourably the welfare and gut health of broiler chicks, predisposes to necrotic enteritis in a subclinical experimental model and increases further its importance as a management factor for the poultry industry.

  18. Effect of inspiratory flow rate on bronchomotor tone in normal and asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Hida, W; Arai, M; Shindoh, C; Liu, Y N; Sasaki, H; Takishima, T

    1984-01-01

    The effect of the inspiratory flow rate during deep inspiration on the regulation of bronchomotor tone was studied in nine normal and 22 asthmatic subjects. Changes in bronchial tone were assessed by respiratory resistance measured by an oscillation method. In normal subjects with bronchoconstriction induced by methacholine a rapid deep inspiration reduced respiratory resistance more than a slow deep inspiration. Asthmatic subjects with spontaneous airway narrowing showed an increase in respiratory resistance after deep inspiration that was greater after rapid than after slow deep inspiration. On the other hand, in asthmatics with methacholine induced bronchoconstriction, bronchodilatation occurred after deep inspiration and this was also greater after rapid than after slow deep inspiration. Lignocaine inhalation attenuated both bronchoconstriction and bronchodilatation induced by both slow and rapid deep inspiration. These results suggest that the effects of deep inspiration are mediated at least in part via receptors in the airways. It is suggested that in asthmatic patients with spontaneous bronchoconstriction irritant receptor activity will be increased in proportion to the speed of inspiration. After methacholine induced bronchoconstriction stretch receptor activity is likely to behave in a similar fashion, leading to an opposite effect. PMID:6367130

  19. Internalizing and externalizing personality and subjective effects in a sample of adolescent cannabis users.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Sara; Matalí, Josep Lluís; Martín-Fernández, María; Pardo, Marta; Lleras, Maria; Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina; Haro, Josep Maria

    2016-10-06

    Cannabis is the illicit substance most widely used by adolescents. Certain personality traits such as impulsivity and sensation seeking, and the subjective effects experienced after substance use (e.g. euphoria or relaxation) have been identified as some of the main etiological factors of consumption. This study aims to categorize a sample of adolescent cannabis users based on their most dominant personality traits (internalizing and externalizing profile). Then, to make a comparison of both profiles considering a set of variables related to consumption, clinical severity and subjective effects experienced. From a cross-sectional design, 173 adolescents (104 men and 69 women) aged 13 to 18 asking for treatment for cannabis use disorder in an Addictive Behavior Unit (UCAD) from the hospital were recruited. For the assessment, an ad hoc protocol was employed to register consumption, the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) 49-item short form were also administered. Factor analysis suggested a two-profile solution: Introverted, Inhibited, Doleful, Dramatizing (-), Egotistic (-), Self-demeaning and Borderline tendency scales composed the internalizing profile, and Submissive (-), Unruly, Forceful, Conforming (-) and Oppositional scales composed the externalizing profile. The comparative analysis showed that the internalizing profile has higher levels of clinical severity and more subjective effects reported than the externalizing profile. These results suggest the need to design specific intervention strategies for each profile.

  20. Interactive effects of subjective memory complaints and hypertension on learning and memory performance in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Lauren A.; Haws, Kari A.; Fitzhugh, Megan C.; Torre, Gabrielle A.; Hishaw, Georg A.; Alexander, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the relation between subjective memory complaints and cognitive performance is influenced by the presence of hypertension in the elderly. One hundred and five healthy older adults, 70-89 years of age, with and without hypertension treatment or diagnosis, completed a scale of subjective memory complaints. Participants were divided into those with mild memory concerns and those with minimal or no complaints. All participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests including measures of verbal and non-verbal memory. After controlling for differences in age, gender, education, and overall intellectual ability, there were significant main effects for memory concerns and significant interactions for memory complaints and hypertension on several measures of memory performance. There were no main effects for hypertension on memory performance. Simple effects analyses of the interactions showed that the hypertensive complainers demonstrated poorer performance on measures of long-term memory and greater reliance on short-term recall than the hypertensive non-complainers. There were no differences in memory performance for the non-hypertensive groups. Among healthy elderly community-dwelling adults, those with mild subjective memory complaints in the context of hypertension demonstrated greater objective cognitive difficulties than those without hypertension as well as a greater reliance on a less efficient learning strategy. These findings suggest that memory concerns in the presence of hypertension may be important when evaluating treatment efficacy in these individuals and for identifying differences in cognitive aging. PMID:26185923

  1. Interactive effects of subjective memory complaints and hypertension on learning and memory performance in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Lauren A; Haws, Kari A; Fitzhugh, Megan C; Torre, Gabrielle A; Hishaw, Georg A; Alexander, Gene E

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the relation between subjective memory complaints and cognitive performance is influenced by the presence of hypertension in the elderly. One hundred and five healthy older adults, 70-89 years of age, with and without hypertension treatment or diagnosis, completed a scale of subjective memory complaints. Participants were divided into those with mild memory concerns and those with minimal or no complaints. All participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests including measures of verbal and nonverbal memory. After controlling for differences in age, gender, education, and overall intellectual ability, there were significant main effects for memory concerns and significant interactions for memory complaints and hypertension on several measures of memory performance. There were no main effects for hypertension on memory performance. Simple effects analyses of the interactions showed that the hypertensive complainers demonstrated poorer performance on measures of long-term memory and greater reliance on short-term recall than the hypertensive non-complainers. There were no differences in memory performance for the non-hypertensive groups. Among healthy elderly community-dwelling adults, those with mild subjective memory complaints in the context of hypertension demonstrated greater objective cognitive difficulties than those without hypertension as well as a greater reliance on a less efficient learning strategy. These findings suggest that memory concerns in the presence of hypertension may be important when evaluating treatment efficacy in these individuals and for identifying differences in cognitive aging.

  2. Effect of tone-based sound stimulation on balance performance of normal subjects: preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Pagnacco, Guido; Klotzek, Adam S; Carrick, Frederick R; Wright, Cameron H G; Oggero, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Sound is known to affect the human brain, hence sound or music therapy is sometimes used to improve a subject's physicaland mental health. In this study, the effects sound stimulation has on balance were investigated by means of computerizeddynamic posturography tests performed with eyes closed on an unstable surface using a CAPS® system, exceeding theInternational Society for Posture and Gait Research (ISPGR) recommended metrological performance standards. Subjectswere tested without listening to any music (baseline), listening to “pure music”, and listening to the same music with differenttones embedded into it (one for each key). We found that different subjects react differently to different tones. Music alonedid not have a statistically significant effect on balance compared to the baseline, but the “best” tone significantly improvedbalance compared to the baseline or the “pure music” conditions. Furthermore, the “worst” tone reduced the balancecompared to “pure music”, but the reduction was not statistically significant relative to the baseline. The results thereforeindicate that, at least relative to balance performance, the tone-based sound stimulation we investigated is effective andinherently safe, but that tone selection depends on the individual subject.

  3. Effects of Daily Centrifugation on Segmental Fluid Distribution in Bed-rested Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diedrich, Andre; Moore, S. T.; Stenger, M.; Arya, T. M.; Newby, N.; Tucker, J. M.; Milstead, L.; Acock, K.; Knapp, C.; Jevans, J.; Paloski, W.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of daily centrifugation on segmental fluid distribution have been studied during 21 days of 6 degree head down bedrest. One group (N=7) underwent no countermeasure while the other (N=8) received a daily, one hour, dose (2.5 gz at the foot, decreasing to 1.0 gz at the heart) of artificial gravity (AG) training on the Johnson Space Center short radius centrifuge. Fluid shifts of thoracic(VTO), abdominal (VAB), thigh (VTH), and calf (VCA) regions were measured by the tetrapolar segmental body impedance technique. Untrained subjects reduced their total volume from 18.9 plus or minus 0.5L to 17.9 plus or minus 0.9L (MN plus or minus SE, P less than 0.05) while trained subjects maintained their total volume. In untrained, control, subjects after bed rest, there was a trend toward reduced volume in all segments, with significant reductions in thigh and calf (fig, P less than 0.05). Trained subjects maintained volume in all segments. Our data indicate that artificial gravity treatment counteracts bed rest-induced hypovolemia.

  4. Studies on pyrazinoylguanidine. 7. Effects of single oral doses in normal human subjects.

    PubMed

    Vesell, E S; Beyer, K H

    1999-03-01

    In a three-phase study, single oral doses of placebo, followed in 1 week by pyrazinoylguanidine (PZG; 900 mg), followed in 3 weeks by pyrazinoic acid (PZA; 300 mg) were given to 8 normal male subjects. Blood analyses performed 0, 2 and 4 h after administration of placebo or drug revealed that compared to mean 0 h values, PZG and also PZA, but not placebo, decreased mean values for serum glucose, insulin, C-peptide, triglycerides and free fatty acids. In all groups, serum potassium, urea, fibrinogen, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein were unchanged. PZA, but not PZG, increased serum uric acid. PZG significantly reduced very-low-density lipoprotein whereas PZA only tended to do so. PZG was well tolerated and without any side effect, but in 7 of the 8 normal volunteers, PZA produced a variable vasomotor response over the blush area of the face and neck lasting from 30 min in 3 subjects to 4 h in 1 subject. Collectively, these results suggest generally similar metabolic responses of normal subjects to PZG and PZA after only a single oral dose of each. Previously, it was unrecognized that acute administration of PZG and PZA could produce such rapid metabolic changes.

  5. Immediate effects of bilateral manipulation of talocrural joints on standing stability in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Santos-del-Rey, Miguel; Martín-Vallejo, Francisco Javier

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of bilateral talocrural joint manipulation on standing stability in healthy subjects. Sixty-two healthy subjects, 16 males and 46 females, aged from 18 to 32 years old (mean: 21+/-3 years old) participated in the study. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: an intervention group (n=32), who received manipulation of bilateral talocrural joints and a control group (n=30) which did not receive any intervention. Baropodometric and stabilometric evaluations were assessed pre- and 5 min post-intervention by an assessor blinded to the treatment allocation. Intra-group and inter-group comparisons were analysed using appropriate parametric tests. The results indicated that changes on the X coordinate range, length of motion, and mean speed approximated to statistical significance (P=0.06), and changes on the Y coordinate range reached statistical significance (P=0.02). Average X and Y motions, and anterior-posterior or lateral velocities did not show significant differences. Our results showed that bilateral thrust manipulation of the talocrural joint did not modify standing stability, that is, the behavioural pattern of the projection of the centre of pressure, in healthy subjects.

  6. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil K.

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance. PMID:26869974

  7. Effect of chronic intermittent hypoxia on exercise adaptations in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Tonini, Julia; Michallet, Anne-Sophie; Flore, Patrice; Nespoulet, Hugo; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Wuyam, Bernard; Levy, Patrick; Tamisier, Renaud

    2011-12-15

    Reduced exercise tolerance has been reported in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients, although the associated hypertension, obesity and/or metabolic disorder may underlie this reduction. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in 12 healthy subjects on exercise capacity, cardio-respiratory responses, and substrate oxidation during maximal and sub-maximal exercise. Subjects were exposed to 30 cycles of hypoxia-reoxygenation per hour for 14 nights. Although exercise capacity was unaltered PETCO(2) was reduced and V˙E/V˙CO(2) increased during both maximal and submaximal exercise tests, indicating a hyperventilatory response. Maximal heart rate was lower and diastolic arterial blood pressure (DBP) was higher in the 1st min of recovery after submaximal exercise. Subjects reached maximal lipid oxidation at a higher power output and had decreased blood lactate for a given power output. This suggests that although the metabolic adaptations to CIH in healthy subjects may improve exercise performance, the cardio-pulmonary modifications are similar to those observed in OSAS patients and could limit exercise capacity.

  8. Within-subject effects of number of trials in rat conditioning procedures.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Daniel A; Rescorla, Robert A

    2010-04-01

    D. A. Gottlieb (2008) reported finding no effects of number of conditioning trials in a series of between-subjects magazine approach experiments, when number of sessions and total training time were held constant. This article reports 7 comparable within-subject experiments that looked for effects of number of trials in a variety of conditioning preparations. Experiments 1-3 detected effects of multiplying the number of trials by factors of 4 and 8 in a conditioned magazine approach procedure in which visual and auditory stimuli were paired with food. Experiments 4A and 4B detected effects of a factor of 4 trials in a conditioned flavor preference procedure in which flavors were paired with polycose. Experiments 5 and 6 detected an effect of a factor of 3 trials in a conditioned taste aversion procedure and in a fear conditioning procedure, respectively. Results suggest that variables other than number of trials might play important roles in determining the acquisition of conditioned responding, but effects of number of trials can be detected with sensitive enough procedures.

  9. Candidiasis: predisposing factors, prevention, diagnosis and alternative treatment.

    PubMed

    Martins, Natália; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Barros, Lillian; Silva, Sónia; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-06-01

    Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic yeast infection. Candida species and other microorganisms are involved in this complicated fungal infection, but Candida albicans continues to be the most prevalent. In the past two decades, it has been observed an abnormal overgrowth in the gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory tracts, not only in immunocompromised patients, but also related to nosocomial infections and even in healthy individuals. There is a widely variety of causal factors that contribute to yeast infection which means that candidiasis is a good example of a multifactorial syndrome. Due to rapid increase in the incidence in these infections, this is the subject of numerous studies. Recently, the focus of attention is the treatment and, above all, the prevention of those complications. The diagnosis of candidiasis could become quite complicated. Prevention is the most effective "treatment," much more than eradication of the yeast with antifungal agents. There are several aspects to consider in the daily routine that can provide a strength protection. However, a therapeutic approach is necessary when the infection is established, and therefore, other alternatives should be explored. This review provides an overview on predisposition factors, prevention and diagnosis of candidiasis, highlighting alternative approaches for candidiasis treatment.

  10. Central effects of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. I--Performance and subjective assessments of mood.

    PubMed Central

    Currie, D; Lewis, R V; McDevitt, D G; Nicholson, A N; Wright, N A

    1988-01-01

    1. Central effects of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, propranolol (40, 80 and 160 mg) and atenolol (50 and 100 mg) were studied in 12 healthy male subjects. Two placebo ingestions and an active control (oxazepam 15 mg) were included. Single doses were administered double-blind at 11.00 h, and assessments of performance and subjective feelings were made before, 2 h and 4 h after ingestion. 2. Performance was measured using letter cancellation, digit symbol substitution, continuous attention, choice reaction time, finger tapping, short term and immediate memory, critical flicker fusion and two flash fusion. Subjective feelings were assessed using twelve visual-analogue scales. 3. Oxazepam impaired performance at letter cancellation (P less than 0.001), digit symbol substitution (P less than 0.05), continuous attention (P less than 0.001), immediate recall (P less than 0.05) and finger tapping (P less than 0.05), but neither of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists affected these measures. Propranolol (40 and 160 mg) also impaired short term memory (P less than 0.05), though it was not possible to establish this effect with atenolol. 4. Subjective alertness was reduced by oxazepam (P less than 0.01) and atenolol (P less than 0.05), while propranolol (40 mg) reduced anxiety (P less than 0.01) and propranolol (80 mg) impaired ability to concentrate (P less than 0.05). 5. The results suggest that both lipophilic and hydrophilic antagonists modify the central nervous system, though impairment may be difficult to establish with conventional tests. The observations on memory and alertness suggest that the central effect of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists may be subtle. PMID:2905148

  11. Protective effects of bacterial osmoprotectant ectoine on bovine erythrocytes subjected to staphylococcal alpha-haemolysin.

    PubMed

    Bownik, Adam; Stępniewska, Zofia

    2015-06-01

    Ectoine (ECT) is a bacterial compatible solute with documented protective action however no data are available on its effects on various cells against bacterial toxins. Therefore, we determined the in vitro influence of ECT on bovine erythrocytes subjected to staphylococcal α-haemolysin (HlyA). The cells exposed to HlyA alone showed a distinct haemolysis and reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidised glutathione (GSSG) level, however the toxic effects were attenuated in the combinations of HlyA + ECT suggesting ECT-induced protection of erythrocytes from HlyA.

  12. Effects of manual lymph drainage on cardiac autonomic tone in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Joong; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Yi, Chung-Hwi

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of manual lymph drainage on the cardiac autonomic tone. Thirty-two healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to manual lymph drainage (MLD) (experimental) and rest (control) groups. Electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters were recorded with bipolar electrocardiography using standard limb lead positions. The pressure-pain threshold (PPT) was quantitatively measured using an algometer. Heart rate variability differed significantly between the experimental and control groups (p < 0.05), but the PPT in the upper trapezius muscle did not (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that the application of MLD was effective in reducing the activity of the sympathetic nervous system.

  13. Effect of ozone inhalation on the response to nasal challenge with antigen of allergic subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Bascom, R.; Naclerio, R.M.; Fitzgerald, T.K.; Kagey-Sobotka, A.; Proud, D. )

    1990-09-01

    The effect of oxidant inhalation on allergic illness is of interest because allergic patients often report increased respiratory symptoms during episodes of poor air quality, and epidemiologic studies demonstrate an association between increased levels of the air pollutant ozone and exacerbations of asthma. The purpose of this study was to characterize the upper respiratory response to ozone inhalation in asymptomatic, allergic subjects and to determine whether ozone pre-exposure increased the acute response to nasal challenge with antigen in these subjects. A group of 12 asymptomatic subjects with a history of allergic rhinitis were exposed in a randomized, cross-over design, at rest, on each of 2 days, separated by 2 wk, to 4 h of clean air or 0.5 ppm ozone in an environmental chamber. Following the exposure period, subjects underwent nasal challenge with four doses of antigen (1 to 1,000 PNU ragweed or grass). Symptoms were rated and nasal lavage performed after each dose. Measurement of histamine and albumin concentration and TAME-esterase activity and determination of cell counts and differentials were performed. Exposure to ozone caused significant increases in upper and lower respiratory symptoms, a mixed inflammatory cell influx with a sevenfold increase in naval lavage neutrophils, a 20-fold increase in eosinophils, and a tenfold increase in mononuclear cells, as well as an apparent sloughing of epithelial cells. There was a significant increase in nasal lavage albumin concentration on the ozone exposure day and a small increase in nasal lavage histamine concentration on both the ozone and clean air exposure days. TAME-esterase activity showed no significant increase overall, but increased at least twofold in 5 of 12 subjects.

  14. The effect of histamine iontophoresis on the heart rate and blood pressure of female subjects.

    PubMed

    Adedoyin, R A; Olaogun, M O B; Ukponmwan, O E; Orafidiya, O O

    2004-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of histamine iontophoresis on the Blood Pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) of female subjects. Twenty apparently healthy female undergraduates of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (average age 24.2 +/- 2.9) participated in the study. An automated electronic sphygmo-manometer that monitors both BP and HR was used to measure the Systolic Blood Pressure(SBP) and diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) over the left brachial artery. The histamine gel used in this study contained 1 percent histamine dihydro-chloride. The gel was applied to the right biceps brachii and active was applied below the cubital fossa. The current intensity Interrupted Direct Current (IDC) was gradually increased and subjects were instructed to indicate immediately they experienced tingling sensation under the electrode. The same procedure was carried out the second time on the subjects with the same intensity of IDC current but without histamine for each subject. The treatments were administered on different days but within a two-week interval. The cardiovascular response was monitored five minutes before the administration, twenty minutes during the administration and five minutes after the termination of each treatment. Blood Pressure and heart rate did not change significantly from the baseline during the histamine iontophoresis and direct currents treatments (P > 0.05). The findings suggest that the subjects' BP and HR were not affected by histamine iontophoresis during the twenty minutes treatment. It was concluded that local administration of 1 percent histamine dihydrochloride into the subcutaneous tissue of females' right upper arm with the aid of direct current did not appreciably affect the blood pressure and heart rate after 20 minutes of treatment.

  15. Potential Subjective Effectiveness of Active Interior Noise Control in Propeller Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2000-01-01

    Active noise control technology offers the potential for weight-efficient aircraft interior noise reduction, particularly for propeller aircraft. However, there is little information on how passengers respond to this type of interior noise control. This paper presents results of two experiments that use sound quality engineering practices to determine the subjective effectiveness of hypothetical active noise control (ANC) systems in a range of propeller aircraft. The two experiments differed by the type of judgments made by the subjects: pair comparisons based on preference in the first and numerical category scaling of noisiness in the second. Although the results of the two experiments were in general agreement that the hypothetical active control measures improved the interior noise environments, the pair comparison method appears to be more sensitive to subtle changes in the characteristics of the sounds which are related to passenger preference. The reductions in subjective response due to the ANC conditions were predicted with reasonable accuracy by reductions in measured loudness level. Inclusion of corrections for the sound quality characteristics of tonality and fluctuation strength in multiple regression models improved the prediction of the ANC effects.

  16. The contrasting physiological and subjective effects of chewing gum on social stress.

    PubMed

    Gray, Gemma; Miles, Christopher; Wilson, Nigel; Jenks, Rebecca; Cox, Martin; Johnson, Andrew J

    2012-04-01

    Uncertainty exists with respect to the extent to which chewing gum may attenuate stress-induced rises in cortisol secretion (Johnson, Jenks, Miles, Albert, & Cox, 2011; Scholey et al., 2009; Smith, 2010). The present study used the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST: Kirschbaum, Pirke, & Hellhammer, 1993), a task known to elevate cortisol secretion (Kudielka, Schommer, Hellhammer, & Kirschbaum, 2004), in order to examine the moderating physiological and subjective effects of chewing gum on social stress. Forty participants completed the TSST either with or without chewing gum. As expected, completion of the TSST elevated both cortisol and subjective stress levels, whilst impairing mood. Although gum moderated the perception of stress, cortisol concentrations were higher following the chewing of gum. The findings are consistent with Smith (2010) who argued that elevations in cortisol following the chewing of gum reflect heightened arousal. The findings suggest that chewing gum only benefits subjective measures of stress. The mechanism remains unclear; however, this may reflect increased cerebral blood flow, cognitive distraction, and/or effects secondary to task facilitation.

  17. Effect of antiorthostatic BedRest (BR) on GastroIntestinal Motility (GIM) of normal subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, L.; Hunter, R. P.; Tietze, K. J.; Cintron, N. M.

    1992-01-01

    The combined effects of postural changes, fluid shifts and diuresis associated with the absence of the gravity vector may decrease gastrointestinal motility (GIM) during space flight. GIM can be estimated from the mouth to cecum transit time (MCTT) of orally administered lactulose (LAC); this test is used to assess changes in GIM in normal subjects and in patients with GI pathology and related disease conditions. Since bedrest (BR) mimics some of the physiological changes that occur during space flight, the effect of ten days of BR on GIM was evaluated from the MCTT of LAC. Methods: Subjects were 12 nonsmoking males between the ages of 35 and 50. After an 8-10 hour fast, subjects ingested Cephulac (registered) (20 g solution) with a low-fiber breakfast on four different days (45, 30, 25, and 20) before BR and on three separate days (4, 7, and 10) during BR. Breath-H2 concentrations were measured before and at 10 minute intervals for 4 hours after breakfast using a Quintron breathalyzer and MCTT was determined from these data. Results: MCTT ranged between 10 and 122 minutes during ambulation and 80 to 120 minutes during BR with means of 79 minutes and 122 minutes respectively. Conclusion: Mean MCTT during BR was 54 percent longer than during ambulation, suggesting that absorption and availability of orally administered medications and nutrients may be delayed or impaired as a result of decreased GIM during bedrest.

  18. Prebiotic Effects of Xylooligosaccharides on the Improvement of Microbiota Balance in Human Subjects.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shyh-Hsiang; Chou, Liang-Mao; Chien, Yi-Wen; Chang, Jung-Su; Lin, Ching-I

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that probiotics can be nourished by consuming prebiotics in order to function more efficiently, allowing the bacteria to stay within a healthy balance. In this study, we investigated the effects of xylooligosaccharides- (XOS-) enriched rice porridge consumption on the ecosystem in the intestinal tract of human subjects. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this 6-week trial, in which 10 subjects received XOS-enriched rice porridge while the others received placebo rice porridge. Fecal samples were collected at the end of weeks 0, 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 for microorganism examination. The results showed that 6-week daily ingestion of the XOS-enriched rice porridge induced significant increases in fecal bacterial counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp., as well as decreases in Clostridium perfringens without changing the total anaerobic bacterial counts, compared to that of placebo rice porridge. However, fluctuations in the counts of coliforms were observed in both groups during the 6-week intervention. In conclusion, the intestinal microbiota balance was improved after daily consumption of 150 g of rice porridge containing XOS for 6 weeks, demonstrating the prebiotic potential of XOS incorporated into foods. This also indicates the effectiveness of XOS as a functional ingredient in relation to its role as a prebiotic compound.

  19. Prebiotic Effects of Xylooligosaccharides on the Improvement of Microbiota Balance in Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Liang-Mao; Chang, Jung-Su

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that probiotics can be nourished by consuming prebiotics in order to function more efficiently, allowing the bacteria to stay within a healthy balance. In this study, we investigated the effects of xylooligosaccharides- (XOS-) enriched rice porridge consumption on the ecosystem in the intestinal tract of human subjects. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this 6-week trial, in which 10 subjects received XOS-enriched rice porridge while the others received placebo rice porridge. Fecal samples were collected at the end of weeks 0, 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 for microorganism examination. The results showed that 6-week daily ingestion of the XOS-enriched rice porridge induced significant increases in fecal bacterial counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp., as well as decreases in Clostridium perfringens without changing the total anaerobic bacterial counts, compared to that of placebo rice porridge. However, fluctuations in the counts of coliforms were observed in both groups during the 6-week intervention. In conclusion, the intestinal microbiota balance was improved after daily consumption of 150 g of rice porridge containing XOS for 6 weeks, demonstrating the prebiotic potential of XOS incorporated into foods. This also indicates the effectiveness of XOS as a functional ingredient in relation to its role as a prebiotic compound. PMID:27651791

  20. Clenching and grinding: effect on masseter and sternocleidomastoid electromyographic activity in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Venegas, Macarena; Valdivia, José; Fresno, María Javiera; Miralles, Rodolfo; Gutiérrez, Mario Felipe; Valenzuela, Saúl; Fuentes, Aler

    2009-07-01

    This study compares the effect of clenching and grinding on masseter and sternocleidomastoid electromyographic (EMG) activity during different jaw posture tasks in the sagittal plane. The study included 34 healthy subjects with natural dentition, Class I bilateral molar Angle relationship, and absence of posterior occlusal contacts during mandibular protrusion. An inclusion criterion was that subjects had to be free of signs and symptoms of any dysfunction of the masticatory system. Bipolar surface electrodes were located on the right masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles. EMG activity was recorded while the subjects were in standing position, during the following jaw posture tasks: A. maximal clenching in the intercuspal position; B. grinding from intercuspal position to edge-to-edge protrusive contact position; C. maximal clenching in the edge-to-edge protrusive contact position; D. grinding from edge-to-edge protrusive contact position to intercuspal position; E. grinding from retrusive contact position to intercuspal position. EMG activities in tasks B, C, D, and E were significantly lower than in task A in both muscles (mixed model with unstructured covariance matrix). EMG activity among tasks B, C, D, and E did not show significant differences in both muscles, except between tasks D and E in the masseter muscle. A higher effect was observed on the masseter than on the sternocleidomastoid muscle to avoid excessive muscular activity during clenching and grinding. The EMG patterns observed could be of clinical importance in the presence of parafunctional habits, i.e., clenching and/or grinding.

  1. Effects of Incentive Spirometry on Respiratory Motion in Healthy Subjects Using Cine Breathing Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Akazawa, Tsutomu; Sakuma, Tsuyoshi; Nagaya, Shigeyuki; Sonoda, Masaru; Tanaka, Yuji; Katogi, Takehide; Nemoto, Tetsuharu; Minami, Shohei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness of incentive spirometry on respiratory motion in healthy subjects using cine breathing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Ten non-smoking healthy subjects without any history of respiratory disease were studied. Subjects were asked to perform pulmonary training using incentive spirometry every day for two weeks. To assess the effectiveness of this training, pulmonary function tests and cine breathing MRI were performed before starting pulmonary training and two weeks after its completion. Results After training, there were significant improvements in vital capacity (VC) from 3.58±0.8 L to 3.74±0.8 L and in %VC from 107.4±10.8 to 112.1±8.2. Significant changes were observed in the right diaphragm motion, right chest wall motion, and left chest wall motion, which were increased from 55.7±9.6 mm to 63.4±10.2 mm, from 15.6±6.1 mm to 23.4±10.4 mm, and from 16.3±7.6 mm to 22.0±9.8 mm, respectively. Conclusion Two weeks of training using incentive spirometry provided improvements in pulmonary function and respiratory motion, which suggested that incentive spirometry may be a useful preoperative modality for improving pulmonary function during the perioperative period. PMID:26161341

  2. Estrogen treatment predisposes to severe and persistent vaginal candidiasis in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased levels of estrogen and diabetes mellitus separately predispose to vaginal candidiasis (VC). However, the compounding effect of estrogen on the severity and persistence of VC in diabetic females is not clear. Methods To address this issue, a diabetic mouse model with estrogen-maintained VC was developed and evaluated for vaginal fungal burden (VFB) and immune competence at different time points throughout the study period. Results Blood glucose levels in estrogen-treated diabetic mice were consistently lower than that in untreated counterparts. Estrogen-treated C. albicans-infected non-diabetic mice experienced persistent episodes of VC as compared with naïve controls (P < 0.01). However, severity and persistence of VC in estrogen-treated C. albicans-infected diabetic mice was significantly greater than that in non-diabetic counterparts (P < 0.05). Mortality rates among estrogen-treated C. albicans-infected diabetic mice were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that in non-diabetic counterparts. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) and persistent suppression of the delayed hypersensitivity response (DTH) was evident in estrogen-treated C. albicans-infected diabetic and non-diabetic mice as compared with controls. Levels of expression of the inhibitory molecule CD152 on vaginal and splenic T cells isolated from estrogen-treated C. albicans infected mice was significantly higher than that in naive untreated controls (P < 0.01). Conclusions These findings suggest that estrogen treatment in diabetic females may protect against the progression of DM on the one hand and predispose to severe and persistent VC on the other. The later outcome could be related to the immunosuppressed status of the host. PMID:24401317

  3. Environmental disruption of circadian rhythm predisposes mice to osteoarthritis-like changes in knee joint.

    PubMed

    Kc, Ranjan; Li, Xin; Voigt, Robin M; Ellman, Michael B; Summa, Keith C; Vitaterna, Martha Hotz; Keshavarizian, Ali; Turek, Fred W; Meng, Qing-Jun; Stein, Gary S; van Wijnen, Andre J; Chen, Di; Forsyth, Christopher B; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2015-09-01

    Circadian rhythm dysfunction is linked to many diseases, yet pathophysiological roles in articular cartilage homeostasis and degenerative joint disease including osteoarthritis (OA) remains to be investigated in vivo. Here, we tested whether environmental or genetic disruption of circadian homeostasis predisposes to OA-like pathological changes. Male mice were examined for circadian locomotor activity upon changes in the light:dark (LD) cycle or genetic disruption of circadian rhythms. Wild-type (WT) mice were maintained on a constant 12 h:12 h LD cycle (12:12 LD) or exposed to weekly 12 h phase shifts. Alternatively, male circadian mutant mice (Clock(Δ19) or Csnk1e(tau) mutants) were compared with age-matched WT littermates that were maintained on a constant 12:12 LD cycle. Disruption of circadian rhythms promoted osteoarthritic changes by suppressing proteoglycan accumulation, upregulating matrix-degrading enzymes and downregulating anabolic mediators in the mouse knee joint. Mechanistically, these effects involved activation of the PKCδ-ERK-RUNX2/NFκB and β-catenin signaling pathways, stimulation of MMP-13 and ADAMTS-5, as well as suppression of the anabolic mediators SOX9 and TIMP-3 in articular chondrocytes of phase-shifted mice. Genetic disruption of circadian homeostasis does not predispose to OA-like pathological changes in joints. Our results, for the first time, provide compelling in vivo evidence that environmental disruption of circadian rhythms is a risk factor for the development of OA-like pathological changes in the mouse knee joint.

  4. Black/white differences in prenatal care utilization: an assessment of predisposing and enabling factors.

    PubMed Central

    LaVeist, T A; Keith, V M; Gutierrez, M L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This article reports on analysis of the predisposing and enabling factors that affect black/white differences in utilization of prenatal care services. DATA SOURCES. We use a secondary data source from a survey conducted by the Michigan Department of Public Health. STUDY DESIGN. The study uses multivariate analysis methods to examine black/white differences in (1) total number of prenatal care visits, (2) timing of start of prenatal care, and (3) adequacy of care received. We use the model advanced by Aday, Andersen, and Fleming (1980) to examine the effect of enabling and predisposing factors on black/white differences in prenatal care utilization. DATA COLLECTION. A questionnaire was administered to all women who delivered in Michigan hospitals with an obstetrical unit. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Enabling factors fully accounted for black/white differences in timing of start of prenatal care; however, the model could not fully account for black/white differences in the total number or the adequacy of prenatal care received. CONCLUSION. Although there are no black/white differences in the initiation of prenatal care, black women are still less likely to receive adequate care as measured by the Kessner index, or to have as many total prenatal care contacts as white women. It is possible that barriers within the health care system that could not be assessed in this study may account for the differences we observed. Future research should consider the characteristics of the health care system that may account for the unwillingness or inability of black women to continue to receive care once they initiate prenatal care. PMID:7721584

  5. Effect of Painful and Non-Painful Sensorimotor Manipulations on Subjective Body Midline

    PubMed Central

    Bouffard, Jason; Gagné, Martin; Mercier, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain often show disturbances in their body perception. Understanding the exact role played by pain is however complex, as confounding factors can contribute to the observed deficits in these clinical populations. To address this question, acute experimental pain was used to test the effect of lateralized pain on body perception in healthy subjects. Subjects were asked to indicate the position of their body midline (subjective body midline, SBM) by stopping a moving luminescent dot projected on a screen placed in front of them, in a completely dark environment. The effect of other non-painful sensorimotor manipulations was also tested to assess the potential unspecific attentional effects of stimulating one side of the body. SBM judgment was made in 17 volunteers under control and three experimental conditions: (1) painful (heat) stimulation; (2) non-painful vibrotactile stimulation; and (3) muscle contraction. The effects of the stimulated side and the type of trial (control vs. experimental condition), were tested separately for each condition with a 2 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA. The analyses revealed a significant interaction in both pain (p = 0.05) and vibration conditions (p = 0.04). Post hoc tests showed opposite effects of pain and vibration. Pain applied on the right arm deviated the SBM toward the right (stimulated) side (p = 0.03) while vibration applied on the left arm deviated the SBM toward the right (not stimulated) side (p = 0.01). These opposite patterns suggest that the shift in SBM is likely to be specifically linked to the stimulation modality. It is concluded that acute experimental pain can induce an SBM shift toward the stimulated side, which might be functionally beneficial to protect the painful area of the body. Interestingly, it appears to be easier to bias SBM toward the right side, regardless of the modality and of the stimulated side. PMID:23504448

  6. The effect of apixaban on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin and atenolol in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Charles; Song, Yan; Yu, Zhigang; Wang, Jessie; Lee, Lois S; Schuster, Alan; Pollack, Allyson; LaCreta, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Apixaban is often coadministered with treatments for cardiovascular comorbidities, which may lead to unintended drug–drug interactions (DDIs). The effects of apixaban on pharmacokinetics (PK) of multidose Lanoxin® (digoxin) and single-dose Tenormin® (atenolol) and the effects of single-dose atenolol on apixaban PK in healthy subjects were investigated in two Phase 1 studies. Patients and methods The digoxin DDI study was an open-label, multidose, two-treatment, single-sequence study in which subjects received digoxin 0.25 mg q6h on day 1, then once daily on days 2–10, followed by apixaban 20 mg and digoxin 0.25 mg once daily on days 11–20. The atenolol DDI study was an open-label, single-dose, randomized, three-period, three-treatment, crossover study in which subjects received a single oral dose of apixaban 10 mg, atenolol 100 mg, or apixaban 10 mg plus atenolol 100 mg. The 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the ratios of geometric means of peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration–time curve (AUCtau), with and without apixaban were calculated. Absence of effect was concluded if the point estimates and 90% CI were within the equivalence interval of 80%–125% (digoxin) or 70%–143% (atenolol). A similar analysis was performed to assess the effect of atenolol on apixaban. Results Apixaban had no clinically relevant effect on the PK of either atenolol or digoxin: point estimates and 90% CI for both digoxin and atenolol Cmax and AUC were entirely within their respective no-effect intervals. Apixaban Cmax and AUCinf were slightly decreased (ie, 18% and 15% lower, respectively) following atenolol coadministration. No serious or major bleeding-related adverse events were reported during either study. Conclusion Apixaban had no effect on the PK of digoxin and there was no clinically relevant interaction between apixaban and atenolol. Coadministration of digoxin or atenolol with apixaban in healthy subjects was generally well

  7. Effects of religiosity and racial socialization on subjective stigmatization in African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brega, A G; Coleman, L M

    1999-04-01

    The direct effects of religiosity and racial socialization on subjective stigmatization among 50 African-American adolescents were investigated. A stigma is a characteristic about which others hold negative attitudes and stereotypes. Subjective stigmatization measures the degree to which an individual internalizes such negative attitudes and stereotypes toward a social group of which he or she is a member. Participants who showed strong commitment to the church were more destigmatized than were participants who did not. Further, participants who received racial socialization messages stemming from a single "primary" category were more destigmatized than those who did not. Unexpectedly, the more racial socialization messages participants received, the more self-stigmatized they were. The importance of religiosity and racial socialization in the lives of African-American adolescents are discussed.

  8. Effect of weightlessness and centrifugation on red cell survival in rats subjected to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. A.; Serova, L. V.; Landaw, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    Rats were flown aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 936 for 18.5 d during August, 1977. Five rats were subjected to near-weightless space flight, as with Cosmos 782, and five rats were subjected to a 1-G force via an on-board centrifuge. These rats and three control groups were injected with 2-(C-14) glycine 19 d preflight. The flight rats were recovered from orbit after 18.5 d of space flight. Erythrocyte hemolysis and lifespan were evaluated in the five groups of rats by quantitation of radioactive carbon monoxide exhaled in the breath which arises from the breakdown of the previously labeled hemoglobin. The results support the previous findings wherein hemolysis was found to increase as a result of weightless space flight. A comparison to the centrifuged animals indicates that artificial gravity attenuates the effect of weightlessness on hemolysis and appears to normalize the hemolytic rate in the early postflight period.

  9. Effect of indomethacin on the metabolic and hormonal response to a standardized breakfast in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, A S; Guerten, D; Scheen, A; Delporte, J P; Lefebvre, P J; Jaminet, F

    1981-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of a single oral administration of indomethacin on blood glucose, plasma free fatty acids (FFA), alpha-amino-nitrogen, insulin and glucagon concentrations in young healthy subjects. Two groups of 6 subjects were studied, the first received a standardized 500 kcal mixed meal without any previous drug administration (controls) whereas the second group received 50 mg indomethacin 2 h before ingesting an identical meal. Plasma indomethacin concentration reached its maximum (2.36 +/- 0.36 micro g/ml) 15 min after administration and declined to 0.45 +/- 0.04 micro g/ml after 2 h. Indomethacin ingestion was followed by a significant increase in blood glucose and plasma FFA reaching their maximum value at 45 min and returning to basal levels at 120 min. No simultaneous changes in plasma alpha-amino-nitrogen, insulin or glucagon levels were detected during this period. The meal was followed by a rise in blood glucose and plasma insulin as well as by a decrease in plasma FFA concentration. No significant differences were detected between the controls and the subjects receiving indomethacin. In controls, the meal was followed by a rise in plasma alpha-amino-nitrogen and a modest although significant increase in glucagon levels. In indomethacin-treated subjects, the increment of alpha-amino-nitrogen was less marked and the increase in plasma glucagon was not observed. Thus, indomethacin by itself can exert several metabolic effects; however, it does not deteriorate the blood glucose or insulin profile after a regular meal. The present work is the first to demonstrate that an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis inhibits the plasma glucagon rise occurring after a physiological stimulus such as a normal meal. On the basis of previous in vitro experiments, we suggest that this effect results from an inhibition of glucagon secretion by the PG synthesis inhibitor.

  10. Effect of Atorvastatin on Glycaemic Parameters in Normoglycaemic and Prediabetic Subjects: A Prospective, Panel Study

    PubMed Central

    Parida, Sansita; Swain, Trupti Rekha; Routray, Satya Narayan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Type 2 diabetes is associated with obesity and dyslipidemia, which are risk factor for cardiovascular disease. With recent FDA approved indications for statins being widened because of its lipid lowering and pleiotropic effects, statins are currently amongst the most widely used drugs in patients with or without diabetes. Although cardiovascular risk is reduced by statin therapy, its association with the development of diabetes is disputed. Aim This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Atorvastatin on glycaemic status of normoglycaemic and prediabetic individuals. Materials and Methods An observational, prospective panel study was conducted on 75 subjects who were on Atorvastatin therapy. After baseline data collection and investigations, subjects were recruited depending on their glycaemic status into three groups: normoglycaemic, Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) group. Atorvastatin therapy was continued and the subjects were followed every 6 months up to 18 months. At every follow up all glycaemic parameters were evaluated and subjects were assessed for continuation of statin therapy, dosing schedule and possible adverse drug reactions. Result All three groups as a whole, irrespective of dose of Atrovastatin therapy, showed a statistically significant (p<0.0001) increase in all glycaemic parameters. In normoglycaemic group with low dose Atorvastatin, there was no significant change in 2-hour Post Prandial Blood Sugar (PPBS) but change in HbA1c% (p=0.0004) and FBS (p<0.0001) was significant, whereas, with high dose, changes in 2-hr PPBS and HbA1c % were significant from 6 months onwards. In IFG group, both with low and high dose of Atorvastatin, there was significant change in all glycaemic parameters from 12 months onwards. In case of IGT, especially with high dose Atorvastatin, significant changes were evident from 6 months onwards. Conclusion Atorvastatin therapy especially with higher dose was found to

  11. Effects of covert subject actions on percent body fat by air-displacement plethsymography.

    PubMed

    Tegenkamp, Michelle H; Clark, R Randall; Schoeller, Dale A; Landry, Greg L

    2011-07-01

    Air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) is used for estimation of body composition, however, some individuals, such as athletes in weight classification sports, may use covert methods during ADP testing to alter their apparent percent body fat. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of covert subject actions on percent body fat measured by ADP. Subjects underwent body composition analysis in the Bod Pod following the standard procedure using the manufacturer's guidelines. The subjects then underwent 8 more measurements while performing the following intentional manipulations: 4 breathing patterns altering lung volume, foot movement to disrupt air, hand cupping to trap air, and heat and cold exposure before entering the chamber. Increasing and decreasing lung volume during thoracic volume measurement and during body density measurement altered the percent body fat assessment (p < 0.001). High lung volume during thoracic gas measures overestimated fat by 3.7 ± 2.1 percentage points. Lowered lung volume during body volume measures overestimated body fat by an additional 2.2 ± 2.1 percentage points. The heat and cold exposure, tapping, and cupping treatments provided similar estimates of percent body fat when compared with the standard condition. These results demonstrate the subjects were able to covertly change their estimated ADP body composition value by altering breathing when compared with the standard condition. We recommend that sports conditioning coaches, athletic trainers, and technicians administering ADP should be aware of the potential effects of these covert actions. The individual responsible for administering ADP should remain vigilant during testing to detect deliberate altered breathing patterns by athletes in an effort to gain a competitive advantage by manipulating their body composition assessment.

  12. The Subjective Effects of Alcohol Scale: development and psychometric evaluation of a novel assessment tool for measuring subjective response to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Morean, Meghan E; Corbin, William R; Treat, Teresa A

    2013-09-01

    Three decades of research demonstrate that individual differences in subjective response (SR) to acute alcohol effects predict heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, the SR patterns conferring the greatest risk remain under debate. Morean and Corbin (2010) highlighted that extant SR measures commonly have limitations within the following areas: assessment of a comprehensive range of effects, assessment of effects over the complete course of a drinking episode, and/or psychometric validation. Furthermore, the consistent pairing of certain SR measures and theoretical models has made integration of findings difficult. To address these issues, we developed the Subjective Effects of Alcohol Scale (SEAS), a novel, psychometrically sound SR measure for use in alcohol administration studies. Pilot data ensured that the SEAS comprised a comprehensive range of effects that varied in terms of valence and arousal and were perceived as plausible effects of drinking. For validation purposes, the SEAS was included in a 2-site, placebo-controlled, alcohol administration study (N = 215). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified a 14-item, 4-factor model categorizing effects into affective quadrants (high/low arousal positive; high/low arousal negative). SEAS scores evidenced the following: (a) scalar measurement invariance by limb of the blood alcohol curve (BAC) and beverage condition; (b) good internal consistency; (c) convergence/divergence with extant SR measures, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use; and (d) concurrent/incremental utility in accounting for alcohol-related outcomes, highlighting the novel high arousal negative and low arousal.

  13. Lateral Atrial Tunnel Fontan Operation Predisposes to the Junctional Rhythm.

    PubMed

    Januszewska, Katarzyna; Schuh, Anna; Lehner, Anja; Dalla-Pozza, Robert; Malec, Edward

    2017-02-10

    The goal of the study was to compare the early postoperative course after fenestrated lateral atrial tunnel (LT) and non-fenestrated extracardiac conduit (EC) Fontan operation (FO) in a single center where both techniques were parallelly used. Between 2004 and 2012, 56(32.7%) children underwent LT and 113(66.1%) EC FO. The mean age was 3.7 ± 2.9 years and mean weight was 14.6 ± 7.3 kg. The most common malformation was hypoplastic left heart syndrome (50.9%). The general approach was to perform LT in children after hemi-Fontan operation and EC in patients after Glenn anastomosis. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed. The hospital survival was 100%. In EC group, cardiopulmonary bypass time (CPB) was shorter (p = 0.004) and less patients needed aortic cross-clamping (p < 0.001). Children after EC stayed longer in the hospital (p = 0.016) and manifested more often prolonged effusions (p = 0.038). The incidence of all forms of junctional rhythm was higher in the LT group, early postoperatively (p < 0.001), during hospitalization (p = 0.004) and at discharge (p < 0.001). Children after LT required more often temporary pacemaker stimulation (p < 0.001). Patients without postoperative normofrequent sinus rhythm had longer CPB time (p = 0.008) and were more often operated on with aortic cross-clamping (p = 0.028). Lateral atrial tunnel Fontan operation with fenestration facilitates early adaptation to the total passive pulmonary flow, but predisposes the patients to the loss of sinus rhythm. The crucial role in the preservation of sinus rhythm plays the last step of the multistage surgery of the single ventricle malformations, probably not only the surgical technique but also factors associated with the cardiopulmonary bypass.

  14. Effects of Opioid Peptides on Changes in Lipid Metabolism in Rats Subjected to Swimming Stress.

    PubMed

    Solin, A V; Lyashev, A Yu; Lyashev, Yu D

    2017-01-01

    Blood levels of nonesterified fatty acids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL increased in rats subjected to forced swimming stress. Administration of opioid peptides dynorphin A(1-13), DSLET, or DAGO reduced stress-induced disturbances in lipid metabolism. Dynorphin A(1-13) and DAGO produced the most pronounced effects and prevented an increase in concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL as soon as 39 h after treatment. Only DSLET increased HDL content in the plasma of stressed rats. The observed effects can be explained by the stress-limiting effects of opioids, e.g. attenuation of the effect of catecholamines on the adipose tissue and inhibition of the generation LPO products suppressing activity of the cholesterol metabolizing enzyme.

  15. The effect of local cryotherapy on subjective and objective recovery characteristics following an exhaustive jump protocol.

    PubMed

    Hohenauer, Erich; Clarys, Peter; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Clijsen, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this controlled trial was to investigate the effects of a single local cryotherapy session on the recovery characteristics over a period of 72 hours. Twenty-two young and healthy female (n=17; mean age: 21.9±1.1 years) and male (n=5;mean age: 25.4±2.8 years) adults participated in this study. Following an exhaustive jump protocol (3×30 countermovement jumps), half of the participants received either a single local cryotherapy application (+8°C) or a single local thermoneutral application (+32°C) of 20-minute duration using two thigh cuffs. Subjective measures of recovery (delayed-onset muscle soreness and ratings of perceived exertion) and objective measures of recovery (vertical jump performance and peak power output) were assessed immediately following the postexercise applications (0 hours) and at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after the jump protocol. Local cryotherapy failed to significantly affect any subjective recovery variable during the 72-hour recovery period (P>0.05). After 72 hours, the ratings of perceived exertion were significantly lower in the thermoneutral group compared to that in the cryotherapy group (P=0.002). No significant differences were observed between the cryotherapy and the thermoneutral groups with respect to any of the objective recovery variables. In this experimental study, a 20-minute cryotherapy cuff application failed to demonstrate a positive effect on any objective measures of recovery. The effects of local thermoneutral application on subjective recovery characteristics were superior when compared to the effects of local cryotherapy application at 72 hours postapplication.

  16. Human pharmacology of ayahuasca: subjective and cardiovascular effects, monoamine metabolite excretion, and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Riba, Jordi; Valle, Marta; Urbano, Gloria; Yritia, Mercedes; Morte, Adelaida; Barbanoj, Manel J

    2003-07-01

    The effects of the South American psychotropic beverage ayahuasca on subjective and cardiovascular variables and urine monoamine metabolite excretion were evaluated, together with the drug's pharmacokinetic profile, in a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. This pharmacologically complex tea, commonly obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, combines N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), an orally labile psychedelic agent showing 5-hydroxytryptamine2A agonist activity, with monoamine oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting beta-carboline alkaloids (harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine). Eighteen volunteers with prior experience in the use of psychedelics received single oral doses of encapsulated freeze-dried ayahuasca (0.6 and 0.85 mg of DMT/kg of body weight) and placebo. Ayahuasca produced significant subjective effects, peaking between 1.5 and 2 h, involving perceptual modifications and increases in ratings of positive mood and activation. Diastolic blood pressure showed a significant increase at the high dose (9 mm Hg at 75 min), whereas systolic blood pressure and heart rate were moderately and nonsignificantly increased. Cmax values for DMT after the low and high ayahuasca doses were 12.14 ng/ml and 17.44 ng/ml, respectively. Tmax (median) was observed at 1.5 h after both doses. The Tmax for DMT coincided with the peak of subjective effects. Drug administration increased urinary normetanephrine excretion, but, contrary to the typical MAO-inhibitor effect profile, deaminated monoamine metabolite levels were not decreased. This and the negligible harmine plasma levels found suggest a predominantly peripheral (gastrointestinal and liver) site of action for harmine. MAO inhibition at this level would suffice to prevent first-pass metabolism of DMT and allow its access to systemic circulation and the central nervous system.

  17. Indentation Size Effect (ISE) in Copper Subjected to Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, Joshua D.; Achuthan, Ajit; Morrison, David J.

    2014-05-01

    The characteristic length scale of deformation in copper specimens subjected to severe plastic deformation (SPD) through surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) was studied with indentation experiments. Annealed copper disks were shot peened with 6-mm diameter tungsten carbide spheres with an average velocity of 2.3 m/s for 15 minutes in a vibrating chamber. The SMAT-treated specimens were cross-sectioned, and the exposed face was studied under nanoindentation in order to determine the effect of dislocation density on surface hardness and indentation size effect (ISE). Since the specimen preparation of the exposed face involved mechanical polishing, which in turn introduced additional SPD on the indenting face, the effect of mechanical polishing on hardness measurement was investigated first. To this end, the mechanically polished specimens were subjected to various durations of electrochemical polishing. Hardness measurements on these specimens showed that the effect of mechanical polishing was substantial for both microindentation and nanoindentation, the impact being significantly larger for nanoindentation. Consequently, the measured depth of influence of the SMAT process, determined on specimens subjected to longer durations of electrochemical polishing, shows larger values compared to those previously reported in the literature. The ISE shows a bilinear relationship between the square of hardness and the reciprocal of indentation depth. The slope of this behavior, corresponding to smaller indentation loads, which is a measure of the ISE associated with a strain gradient, shows a power-law relationship with an increase in the distance away from the SMAT surface, instead of the constant value expected with the Nix-Gao type model.

  18. The effect of local cryotherapy on subjective and objective recovery characteristics following an exhaustive jump protocol

    PubMed Central

    Hohenauer, Erich; Clarys, Peter; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Clijsen, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this controlled trial was to investigate the effects of a single local cryotherapy session on the recovery characteristics over a period of 72 hours. Twenty-two young and healthy female (n=17; mean age: 21.9±1.1 years) and male (n=5;mean age: 25.4±2.8 years) adults participated in this study. Following an exhaustive jump protocol (3×30 countermovement jumps), half of the participants received either a single local cryotherapy application (+8°C) or a single local thermoneutral application (+32°C) of 20-minute duration using two thigh cuffs. Subjective measures of recovery (delayed-onset muscle soreness and ratings of perceived exertion) and objective measures of recovery (vertical jump performance and peak power output) were assessed immediately following the postexercise applications (0 hours) and at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after the jump protocol. Local cryotherapy failed to significantly affect any subjective recovery variable during the 72-hour recovery period (P>0.05). After 72 hours, the ratings of perceived exertion were significantly lower in the thermoneutral group compared to that in the cryotherapy group (P=0.002). No significant differences were observed between the cryotherapy and the thermoneutral groups with respect to any of the objective recovery variables. In this experimental study, a 20-minute cryotherapy cuff application failed to demonstrate a positive effect on any objective measures of recovery. The effects of local thermoneutral application on subjective recovery characteristics were superior when compared to the effects of local cryotherapy application at 72 hours postapplication. PMID:27579000

  19. Effects of Inhaled Rosemary Oil on Subjective Feelings and Activities of the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Sayorwan, Winai; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Piriyapunyporn, Teerut; Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich; Siripornpanich, Vorasith

    2013-01-01

    Rosemary oil is one of the more famous essential oils widely used in aroma-therapy. However, the effects of rosemary oil on the human body, in particular the nervous system, have not been sufficiently studied. This study investigates the effects of the inhalation of rosemary oil on test subjects’ feelings, as well as its effects on various physiological parameters of the nervous system. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. All subjects underwent autonomic nervous system (ANS) recording. This consisted of measurements of skin temperature; heart rate; respiratory rate; blood pressure; evaluations of the subjects’ mood states; and electroencephalography (EEG) recordings in the pre-, during treatment, and post-rosemary inhalation periods as compared with control conditions. Our results showed significant increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate after rosemary oil inhalation. After the inhalation treatments, subjects were found to have become more active and stated that they felt “fresher”. The analysis of EEGs showed a reduction in the power of alpha1 (8–10.99 Hz) and alpha2 (11–12.99 Hz) waves. Moreover, an increment in the beta wave (13–30 Hz) power was observed in the anterior region of the brain. These results confirm the stimulatory effects of rosemary oil and provide supporting evidence that brain wave activity, autonomic nervous system activity, as well as mood states are all affected by the inhalation of the rosemary oil. PMID:23833718

  20. The cardiopulmonary effects of physical restraint in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Carolyn; Taslaq, Samer; Kon, Onn Min; Henry, John

    2005-06-01

    Police officers commonly encounter violent individuals in their line of duty, with the use of physical restraint sometimes being necessary. A major criticism of previous studies of the effect of restraint on cardiac and pulmonary function has been that they have only recruited young healthy adults. This study aims to assess the cardiopulmonary effects of restraint positioning in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Eight patients with stable COPD were recruited. Subjects were randomly allocated to the following five positions: Wrist restraint behind the body whilst seated; wrist restraint in front of the body whilst seated; lying prone with wrists restrained behind back; lying prone with arms free; lying supine with wrists restrained in front. The outcomes measures studied were pulmonary function at 10 min. There was no significant difference in FEV1 or FVC between groups, (one way ANOVA p=0.94 and 0.99, respectively). The difference in FEV1 between the seated position and seated position with wrists restrained behind the back were also compared (p=0.8) as was the effect of wrist restraint in the prone position compared to no restraint prone (p=0.69). However, three subjects could not tolerate the prone position due to a clinical deterioration in symptoms. The response to the prone position with or without wrist restraint appears highly individual, with some individuals tolerating the prone position with no measurable clinical effects and others suffering a clinical deterioration in symptoms. The reasons for this individual variation remain unclear.

  1. Auditory and Subjective Effects of Airborne Noise from Industrial Ultrasonic Sources

    PubMed Central

    Acton, W. I.; Carson, M. B.

    1967-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken primarily to examine the possibility of hearing damage from industrial ultrasonic equipment. In the factory concerned, ultrasonic washers and drills were used at a number of different locations, and girls working 12 ft (3·6 m.) away from one bank of three small washers complained of unpleasant subjective effects which included fatigue, persistent headaches, nausea, and tinnitus. As personnel working in the vicinity of similar washers in other parts of the factory did not complain of these effects, it seemed possible that the noise had been transmitted along a column of air in a bank of dryboxes. Enclosure of these washers by a sliding screen of Perspex had completely abated the trouble. Sound pressure level measurements taken in the positions occupied by the operators indicated that, when the effects occur, they are probably caused by high sound levels at the upper audio-frequencies present with the ultrasonic noise, and this was supported by a limited laboratory investigation. Audiometric investigation showed that hearing damage due to noise from these industrial ultrasonic devices is unlikely. However, extrapolations of currently accepted hearing damage risk criteria may be valid in predicting the occurrence of these subjective effects. Images PMID:6073088

  2. Relationship between cocaine-induced subjective effects and dopamine transporter occupancy

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Fischman, M.; Wang, G.J.

    1997-05-01

    The ability of cocaine to occupy the dopamine transporter has been linked to its reinforcing properties. However, such a relationship has not been demonstrated in humans. Methods: Positron Emission Tomography and [C-11]cocaine were used to estimate dopamine transporter occupancies after different doses of cocaine in 18 active cocaine abusers. The ratio of the distribution volume of [C-11]cocaine in striatum to that in cerebellum, which corresponds to Bmax/Kd +1 and is insensitive to changes in cerebral blood flow, was our measure of dopamine transporter availability. In parallel subjective effects were measured to assess the relationship between dopamine transporter occupancy and cocaines behavioral effects. Intravenous cocaine produced a significant dose,-dependent blockade of dopamine transporters: 73 % for 0.6 mg/kg; 601/6 for 0.3 mg/kg; 48 % for 0.1 mg/kg iv and 40 % for 0.05 mg/kg. In addition, dopamine transporter occupancies were significantly correlated with cocaine plasma concentration (r = 0.55 p < 0.001). Cocaine also produced dose-dependent increases in self-reported ratings of {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} which were significantly correlated with the levels of dopamine transporter blockade. Discussion: These results provide the first documentation in humans that dopamine transporter occupancy is associated with cocaine induced subjective effects. They also suggest that dopamine transporter occupancies equal to or greater than 60% are required to produce significant effects on ratings of {open_quotes}high{close_quotes}.

  3. Effects of a single, oral 60 mg caffeine dose on attention in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmus, Micha Mm; Hay, Justin L; Zuiker, Rob Gja; Okkerse, Pieter; Perdrieu, Christelle; Sauser, Julien; Beaumont, Maurice; Schmitt, Jeroen; van Gerven, Joop Ma; Silber, Beata Y

    2017-02-01

    Caffeine induces positive effects on sustained attention, although studies assessing the acute effects of low caffeine dose (<75 mg) on sustained attention are limited and use short-term tests. Therefore, we investigated the acute effects of a 60 mg dose of caffeine on sustained attention in tests lasting up to 45 minutes using 82 low or non-caffeine-consuming healthy male ( n=41) and female ( n=41) adults aged between 40 and 60 years. Vigilance was measured using Mackworth Clock test, Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, adaptive tracking test, saccadic eye movement and attention switch test. Effects on mood and fatigue were analysed using Bond and Lader and Caffeine Research visual analogue scales, and Samn-Perelli questionnaire. Saliva sampling was performed for both compliance and caffeine pharmacokinetic analysis. Administration of a 60 mg caffeine dose resulted in a significant improvement in sustained attention compared with the placebo. Also a significantly improved peak saccadic velocity and reaction time performance was found, and decreased error rate. Significantly increased feelings of alertness, contentment and overall mood after caffeine treatment compared with placebo were observed. This study demonstrated that in healthy adult subjects oral administration of a single 60 mg caffeine dose elicited a clear enhancement of sustained attention and alertness, measured both in multiple objective performances and in subjective scales.

  4. Effect of Frustration on Brain Activation Pattern in Subjects with Different Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Bierzynska, Maria; Bielecki, Maksymilian; Marchewka, Artur; Debowska, Weronika; Duszyk, Anna; Zajkowski, Wojciech; Falkiewicz, Marcel; Nowicka, Anna; Strelau, Jan; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the prevalence of frustration in everyday life, very few neuroimaging studies were focused on this emotional state. In the current study we aimed to examine effects of frustration on brain activity while performing a well-learned task in participants with low and high tolerance for arousal. Prior to the functional magnetic resonance imaging session, the subjects underwent 2 weeks of Braille reading training. Frustration induction was obtained by using a novel highly difficult tactile task based on discrimination of Braille-like raised dots patterns and negative feedback. Effectiveness of this procedure has been confirmed in a pilot study using galvanic skin response and questionnaires. Brain activation pattern during tactile discrimination task before and after frustration were compared directly. Results revealed changes in brain activity in structures mostly reported in acute stress studies: striatum, cingulate cortex, insula, middle frontal gyrus and precuneus and in structures engaged in tactile Braille discrimination: SI and SII. Temperament type affected activation pattern. Subjects with low tolerance for arousal showed higher activation in the posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule than high reactivity group. Even though performance in the discrimination trials following frustration was unaltered, we observed increased activity of primary and secondary somatosensory cortex processing the tactile information. We interpret this effect as an indicator of additional involvement required to counteract the effects of frustration. PMID:26793136

  5. The Effect of Sodium Alginate on the Absorption of Strontium and Calcium in Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Joan; McNeill, K. G.; Phil, D.; Janiga, A.

    1966-01-01

    The effect of sodium alginate on the gastrointestinal absorption of the tracers strontium-85 and calcium-47 was investigated in 19 human subjects. The tracers were administered orally with 100 mg. of a calcium carrier—calcium chloride. At the same time, sodium alginate was given in a commercial jelly. The sevenday per cent retentions of tracers were measured with a whole-body counter. After one month, the experiments were repeated without alginate so that each subject acted as his own control. Fifteen volunteers were given 1.5 g. of alginate, two were given 3.0 g. and two 0.3 g. 1.5 g. of alginate reduced the absorption of strontium by a factor of two with no significant effect on calcium absorption. The smaller dose of alginate (0.3 g.) appeared to have no effect on strontium or calcium absorption and the larger dose (3.0 g.) had no greater effect than the 1.5 g. dose. PMID:5955715

  6. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ gene mutation predisposes to respiratory infection and airway damage

    PubMed Central

    Angulo, Ivan; Vadas, Oscar; Garçon, Fabien; Banham-Hall, Edward; Plagnol, Vincent; Leahy, Timothy R.; Baxendale, Helen; Coulter, Tanya; Curtis, James; Wu, Changxin; Blake-Palmer, Katherine; Perisic, Olga; Smyth, Deborah; Maes, Mailis; Fiddler, Christine; Juss, Jatinder; Cilliers, Deirdre; Markelj, Gašper; Chandra, Anita; Farmer, George; Kielkowska, Anna; Clark, Jonathan; Kracker, Sven; Debré, Marianne; Picard, Capucine; Pellier, Isabelle; Jabado, Nada; Morris, James A.; Barcenas-Morales, Gabriela; Fischer, Alain; Stephens, Len; Hawkins, Phillip; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Abinun, Mario; Clatworthy, Menna; Durandy, Anne; Doffinger, Rainer; Chilvers, Edwin; Cant, Andrew J.; Kumararatne, Dinakantha; Okkenhaug, Klaus; Williams, Roger L.; Condliffe, Alison; Nejentsev, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Genetic mutations cause primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), which predispose to infections. Here we describe Activated PI3K-δ Syndrome (APDS), a PID associated with a dominant gain-of-function mutation E1021K in the p110δ protein, the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ), encoded by the PIK3CD gene. We found E1021K in 17 patients from seven unrelated families, but not among 3,346 healthy subjects. APDS was characterized by recurrent respiratory infections, progressive airway damage, lymphopenia, increased circulating transitional B cells, increased IgM and reduced IgG2 levels in serum and impaired vaccine responses. The E1021K mutation enhanced membrane association and kinase activity of p110δ. Patient-derived lymphocytes had increased levels of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and phosphorylated AKT protein and were prone to activation-induced cell death. Selective p110δ inhibitors IC87114 and GS-1101 reduced the activity of the mutant enzyme in vitro, suggesting a therapeutic approach for patients with APDS. PMID:24136356

  7. Sex differences in soleus strength may predispose middle age women to falls.

    PubMed

    Chimera, Nicole J; Manal, Kurt T

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated middle age healthy adults to elucidate if plantar flexion (PF) strength differences exist because of the triceps surae or the soleus when comparing between sexes. A random population sample was stratified by sex and included 25 healthy (12 women and 13 men) subjects who volunteered for participation. Dorsiflexion range of motion was measured using a biplane goniometer. Self-reported function was assessed using the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure. Ankle PF strength was assessed using the Biodex System 3. To determine triceps surae vs. soleus strength, testing positions included (1) full ankle dorsiflexion with the knee in full extension and (2) full ankle dorsiflexion with 90° of knee flexion. Results indicated that women were significantly weaker than men in absolute PF strength for both triceps surae and soleus testing positions. Furthermore, even with normalizing PF strength to body mass PF strength deficits persisted. Additionally, when the contribution of the soleus was accounted for in the full knee extended position (triceps surae), normalized strength differences no longer existed between sexes. Therefore, these results indicate that what appeared as triceps surae complex strength deficits in middle age women compared with men was actually soleus weakness. This may suggest that middle age women are predisposed to increased falls at an early age than previously reported. Additionally, this may indicate that the soleus muscle should be a focus of strength training for women during middle age.

  8. Biomarkers for the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, G J H; de Visser, S J; Cohen, A F; van Gerven, J M A

    2005-01-01

    Aims Studies of novel centrally acting drugs in healthy volunteers are traditionally concerned with kinetics and tolerability, but useful information may also be obtained from biomarkers of clinical endpoints. This paper provides a systematic overview of CNS-tests used with SSRIs in healthy subjects. A useful biomarker should meet the following requirements: a consistent response across studies and drugs; a clear response of the biomarker to a therapeutic dose; a dose–response relationship; a plausible relationship between biomarker, pharmacology and pathogenesis. Methods These criteria were applied to all individual tests found in studies of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), performed in healthy subjects since 1966, identified with a systematic MedLine search. Separate databases were created to evaluate the effects of single or multiple dose SSRI-studies, and for amitriptyline whenever the original report included this antidepressant as a positive control. Doses of the antidepressant were divided into high- and low-dose ranges, relative to a medium range of therapeutic doses. For each test, the drug effects were scored as statistically significant impairment/decrease (−), improvement/increase (+) or no change (=) relative to placebo. Results 56 single dose studies and 22 multiple dose studies were identified, investigating the effects of 13 different SSRIs on 171 variants of neuropsychological tests, which could be clustered into seven neuropsychological domains. Low single doses of SSRIs generally stimulated tests of attention and memory. High doses tended to impair visual/auditory and visuomotor systems and subjective performance, while showing an acceleration in motor function. The most pronounced effects were observed using tests that measure flicker discrimination (improvement at low doses: 75%, medium doses: 40%, high doses: 43% of studies); REM sleep (inconsistent decrease after medium doses, decrease in 83% of studies after high doses

  9. Metabolic effects of dietary fructose and surcose in types I and II diabetic subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Bantle, J.P.; Laine, D.C.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-12-19

    To learn more about the metabolic effects of dietary fructose and sucrose, 12 type 1 and 12 type II diabetic subjects were fed three isocaloric (or isoenergic) diets for eight days each according to a randomized, crossover design. The three diets provided, respectively, 21% of the energy as fructose, 23% of the energy as sucrose, and almost all carbohydrate energy as starch. The fructose diet resulted in significantly lower one- and two-hour postprandial plasma glucose levels, overall mean plasma glucose levels, and urinary glucose excretion in both type I and type II subjects than did the starch diet. There were no significant differences between the sucrose and starch diets in any of the measures of glycemic control in either subject group. The fructose and sucrose diets did not significantly increase serum triglyceride values when compared with the starch diet, but both increased postprandial serum lactate levels. The authors conclude that short-term replacement of other carbohydrate sources in the diabetic diet with fructose will improve glycemic control, whereas replacement with sucrose will not aggravate glycemic control.

  10. Sulfur dioxide and ammonium sulfate effects on pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Kulle, T J; Sauder, L R; Shanty, F; Kerr, H D; Farrell, B P; Miller, W R; Milman, J H

    1984-03-01

    The effect of exposures to 1 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO2) and 500 micrograms/m3 respirable ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4] was studied in 20 nonsmoking subjects to determine if a response can be measured at these atmospheric levels and if the response is additive or synergistic. Four-hour separate and combined exposures were employed. Each subject acted as his or her own control and performed two light-to-moderate exercise stints (612 kg-m/min) for 15 minutes on each day's confinement in the environmental chamber. Pulmonary function tests (body plethysmography and spirometry) and bronchial reactivity to methacholine were performed to assess the response of these exposures. No significant changes in pulmonary function or bronchial reactivity were observed in the individual exposures [(NH4)2SO4 or SO2], the combined exposure [(NH4)2SO4 and SO2], or 24 hours post-exposure. This study design and the observed results did not demonstrate any readily apparent risk to healthy subjects with these exposures. Since no significant changes were measured, it was not possible to conclude if these two pollutants in combination produce an additive or synergistic response.

  11. Effect of elective surgery on subjective health in veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Ken; Hertzberg, Michael; Silva, Susan; Vacchiano, Charles

    2014-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common, is often chronic, and has been associated with greater risk of postoperative mortality in veterans. The purpose of this study was to determine if elective outpatient surgery had a persistent effect on the physical or mental health of veterans with chronic PTSD. A longitudinal, quasi-experimental study was conducted that followed up 60 veterans with chronic PTSD over 12 weeks. Self-reported physical and mental health, depressive symptom severity, and posttraumatic symptom severity were measured in 29 veterans undergoing outpatient elective surgery and 31 veterans not having elective surgery (controls). Data collection was performed at baseline and repeated 1, 4, and 12 weeks after surgery or enrollment. At baseline, both surgical and control subjects reported poor physical and mental subjective health status. After surgery, surgical group subjects reported mean age- and gender-adjusted reductions of 3.9 points on the Physical Component Summary score and 2.9 points on the Mental Component Summary score of the Veterans Rand 36-item Health Survey, which resolved by 4 weeks after surgery. These findings suggest that veterans with PTSD were at greater risk of mortality because of poor baseline health, but did not demonstrate persistent decline in health following common elective surgical procedures.

  12. The effects of UCP-1 polymorphisms on obesity phenotypes among Korean female subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Hyoung Doo; Kim, Kil Soo; Cha, Min Ho; Yoon, Yoosik . E-mail: ysyoon66@naver.com

    2005-09-23

    Three SNPs of UCP-1 including A-3826G, A-1766G, and Ala64Thr (G+1068A) were genotyped among 453 overweight Korean female subjects recruited from an obesity clinic. Four common haplotypes with frequency greater than 0.04 were constructed with three SNPs. For an accurate evaluation of the effects of UCP-1 polymorphism on body fat accumulation, all subjects were tested using computerized tomography to measure the cross-sectional fat tissue areas at abdominal and distal part of the body. By statistical analyses, ht4[GAA] showed a significant association with decreased abdominal fat tissue area (P = 0.02, dominant model), fat tissue area at thigh (P = 0.008, dominant model), body fat mass (P = 0.002, dominant model), and waist-to-hip ratio (P = 0.01, dominant model). In addition, ht3[GAG] was associated with the accelerated reduction of waist-to-hip ratio and body fat mass by very low calorie diet among subjects who finished one-month-weight control program (P = 0.05-0.006)

  13. The subjective effect of low frequency content in road traffic noise.

    PubMed

    Torija, Antonio J; Flindell, Ian H

    2015-01-01

    Based on subjective listening trials, Torija and Flindell [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 135, 1-4 (2014)] observed that low frequency content in typical urban main road traffic noise appeared to make a smaller contribution to reported annoyance than might be inferred from its objective or physical dominance. This paper reports a more detailed study which was aimed at (i) identifying the difference in sound levels at which low frequency content becomes subjectively dominant over mid and high frequency content and (ii) investigating the relationship between loudness and annoyance under conditions where low frequency content is relatively more dominant, such as indoors where mid and high frequency content is reduced. The results suggested that differences of at least +30 dB between the low frequency and the mid/high frequency content are needed for changes in low frequency content to have as much subjective effect as equivalent changes in mid and high frequency content. This suggests that common criticisms of the A-frequency weighting based on a hypothesized excessive downweighting of the low frequency content may be relatively unfounded in this application area.

  14. Laboratory study of effects of sonic boom shaping on subjective loudness and acceptability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, Jack D.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to determine the effects of sonic boom signature shaping on subjective loudness and acceptability. The study utilized the sonic boom simulator at the Langley Research Center. A wide range of symmetrical, front-shock-minimized signature shapes were investigated together with a limited number of asymmetrical signatures. Subjective loudness judgments were obtained from 60 test subjects by using an 11-point numerical category scale. Acceptability judgments were obtained using the method of constant stimuli. Results were used to assess the relative predictive ability of several noise metrics, determine the loudness benefits of detailed boom shaping, and derive laboratory sonic boom acceptability criteria. These results indicated that the A-weighted sound exposure level, the Stevens Mark 7 Perceived Level, and the Zwicker Loudness Level metrics all performed well. Significant reductions in loudness were obtained by increasing front-shock rise time and/or decreasing front-shock overpressure of the front-shock minimized signatures. In addition, the asymmetrical signatures were rated to be slightly quieter than the symmetrical front-shock-minimized signatures of equal A-weighted sound exposure level. However, this result was based on a limited number of asymmetric signatures. The comparison of laboratory acceptability results with acceptability data obtained in more realistic situations also indicated good agreement.

  15. Oral glucose tolerance test effects on endothelial inflammation markers in healthy subjects and diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Derosa, G; D'Angelo, A; Salvadeo, S A T; Ferrari, I; Fogari, E; Gravina, A; Mereu, R; Palumbo, I; Maffioli, P; Randazzo, S; Cicero, A F G

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on the level of endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation markers in healthy subjects (H) and diabetic overweight patients (D). We enrolled 256 healthy subjects and 274 type 2 diabetic patients. We evaluated blood glucose (BG), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) at baseline and after OGTT. We observed that BG, sICAM-1, IL-6, hs-CRP, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin, and TNF-alpha values were higher in D group than in H group. In a large sample of adult healthy subjects and type 2 diabetics we observed that both answer to an OGTT with a significant increase in biomarkers of systemic low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction such as hsCRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and sE-selectin. Type 2 diabetics experienced, however, a more significant increase in TNF-alpha, and sE-selectin.

  16. Beneficial Effects of an 8-Week, Very Low Carbohydrate Diet Intervention on Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yunjuan; Yu, Haoyong; Li, Yuehua; Ma, Xiaojing; Lu, Junxi; Yu, Weihui; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effects of weight loss during an 8-week very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) on improvement of metabolic parameters, adipose distribution and body composition, and insulin resistance and sensitivity in Chinese obese subjects. Methods. Fifty-three healthy obese volunteers were given an 8-week VLCD. The outcomes were changes in anthropometry, body composition, metabolic profile, abdominal fat distribution, liver fat percent (LFP), and insulin resistance and sensitivity. Results. A total of 46 (86.8%) obese subjects completed the study. The VLCD caused a weight loss of −8.7 ± 0.6 kg (mean ± standard error (SE), P < 0.0001) combined with a significant improvement of metabolic profile. In both male and female, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) significantly decreased (−166.2 ± 47.6 μmol/L, P = 0.001) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHA) increased (0.15 ± 0.06 mmol/L, P = 0.004) after eight weeks of VLCD intervention. The significant reductions in subcutaneous fat area (SFA), visceral fat area (VFA), and LFP were −66.5 ± 7.9 cm2, −35.3 ± 3.9 cm2, and −16.4 ± 2.4%, respectively (all P values P < 0.0001). HOMA IR and HOMA β significantly decreased while whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) increased (all P values P < 0.001). Conclusion. Eight weeks of VLCD was an effective intervention in obese subjects. These beneficial effects may be associated with enhanced hepatic and whole-body lipolysis and oxidation. PMID:23573151

  17. Effects of age of serotonin 5-HT2 receptors in cocaine abusers and normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Logan, J.

    1995-05-01

    We measured the effect of age on serotonin 5-HT2 receptor availability and compared it with the effects on dopamine D2 receptors on 19 chronic cocaine abusers (35.2{plus_minus}9.8 years, range 18-54 years old) and 19 age matched normal controls using positron emission tomography (PET) and F-18 N-methylspiperone (NMS). 5-HT2 Receptor availability was measure din frontal (FR), occipital (OC), cingulate (CI) and orbitofrontal (OF) cortices using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest to that in the cerebelium (CB) which is a function of Bmax/Kd. D2 receptor availability in the basal ganglia was measured using the {open_quotes}ratio index{close_quotes} (slope of striatum/CB versus time over 180 min of the scan) which is a function of Bmax. 5-HT2 Receptor availability differed among regions and were as follows: CI>OF>OC>FC.5-HT2 Receptor availability decreased significantly with age. This effect was more accentuated for 5-HT2 receptor availability in FR than in OC(df=1, p<0.025). Striatal dopamine D2 receptors were also found to decrease significantly with age (r=0.63, p<0.007). In a given subject, D2 receptor availability was significantly correlated with 5-HT2 receptor availability in FR (r=0.51, p<0.035) but not in OC. The values for 5-HT2 receptor availability were not different in normal subjects and cocaine abusers. These results document a decline in 5-HT2 and D2 receptors with age and document an association between frontal 5-HT2 and striatal D2 receptor availability. These results did not show any changes in 5-HT2 receptor availability in cocaine abusers as compared to control subjects.

  18. Cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamic effects induced by nimodipine in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Canova, Daniela; Roatta, Silvestro; Micieli, Giuseppe; Bosone, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    Summary The cerebrovascular effects of nimodipine are still poorly understood even in the healthy condition; in particular, its effects on tissue oxygenation have never been investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in cerebral oxygenation and blood volume upon oral administration of nimodipine (90 mg) in the healthy condition. In eight subjects, changes in cerebral tissue oxygenation and blood volume were determined simultaneously with changes in blood velocity of the middle cerebral artery (VMCA) by using, respectively, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD). The subjects also underwent non-invasive assessment of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and end-tidal CO2. TCD and NIRS CO2 reactivity indices were also extracted. Nimodipine significantly reduced ABP (11±13%) and increased heart rate, as well as NIRS oxygenation (6.0±4.8%) and blood volume indices (9.4±10.1%), while VMCA was not significantly decreased (2.0±3.5%). Nimodipine slightly but significantly reduced the VMCA response to changes in pCO2 whereas the CO2 reactivity of NIRS parameters was improved. The observed changes in cerebral tissue oxygenation and blood volume indicate nimodipine-induced cerebrovascular dilation and increased perfusion, while the effect on VMCA possibly results from dilation of the insonated artery. The present results cast doubt on the putative nimodipine-induced impairment of CO2 reactivity. PMID:23402678

  19. Cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamic effects induced by nimodipine in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Canova, Daniela; Roatta, Silvestro; Micieli, Giuseppe; Bosone, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The cerebrovascular effects of nimodipine are still poorly understood even in the healthy condition; in particular, its effects on tissue oxygenation have never been investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in cerebral oxygenation and blood volume upon oral administration of nimodipine (90 mg) in the healthy condition. In eight subjects, changes in cerebral tissue oxygenation and blood volume were determined simultaneously with changes in blood velocity of the middle cerebral artery (VMCA) by using, respectively, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD). The subjects also underwent noninvasive assessment of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and end-tidal CO2. TCD and NIRS CO2 reactivity indices were al-so extracted. Nimodipine significantly reduced ABP (11±13%) and increased heart rate, as well as NIRS oxygenation(6.0±4.8%) and blood volume indices (9.4±10.1%), while V(MCA) was not significantly decreased (2.0±3.5%). Nimodipine slightly but significantly reduced the V(MCA) response to changes in pCO2 whereas the CO2 reactivity of NIRS parameters was improved. The observed changes in cerebral tissue oxygenation and blood volume indicate nimodipine-induced cerebrovascular dilation and increased perfusion, while the effect on V(MCA)possibly results from dilation of the insonated artery. The present results cast doubt on the putative nimodipine-induced impairment of CO2 reactivity.

  20. Voclosporin food effect and single oral ascending dose pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Patrick R; Huizinga, Robert B; Ling, Spencer Y; Freitag, Derrick G; Aspeslet, Launa J; Foster, Robert T

    2013-08-01

    Voclosporin (VCS) is a novel calcineurin (CN) inhibitor intended for prevention of organ graft rejection and treatment of lupus nephritis. These studies evaluated the single ascending dose pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD, CN activity) of VCS and the effect of food. VCS was administered orally in single doses of 0.25 through 4.5 mg/kg in 62 subjects in the single ascending dose study and as a single oral 1.5 mg/kg dose to 18 subjects after fasting, consumption of a low-fat and high-fat meal. Non-compartmental PK, PD, and PKPD correlation were evaluated. Following single oral doses, systemic exposure increased in a linear manner and demonstrated 1:1 dose-proportional, first-order linear PK above 1.5 mg/kg. VCS inhibited CN activity in a dose-related fashion with maximal inhibition peaking at 3.0 mg/kg. PKPD correlation indicated an EC50 of 78.3 ± 6.8 ng/mL. Administration of VCS with a low-fat and high-fat meal decreased C(max) by 29% and 53%, respectively, and AUC(inf) by 15% and 25%, respectively. Following ascending single doses of VCS, exposure increased in a linear fashion. A food effect on exposure was demonstrated, with a more pronounced effect following a high-fat meal. VCS concentrations were also found to correlate with CN activity.

  1. Subjective effects of caffeine among introverts and extraverts in the morning and evening.

    PubMed

    Liguori, A; Grass, J A; Hughes, J R

    1999-08-01

    In previous studies of psychomotor performance, the stimulant effects of caffeine differed by personality characteristics. For example, caffeine improved the task performance of extraverts but overaroused introverts and thus impaired their performance. The present study compared the effects of caffeine on subjective arousal among introverts and extraverts. Seventeen introverts and 19 extraverts drank coffee that contained doses of 0, 2, and 4 mg/kg caffeine during morning and evening sessions in a within-subjects, randomized, double-blind, crossover design. At 30-min intervals for 180 min after drinking, participants completed the Profile of Mood States, a battery of self-report visual analog scales, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). Caffeine effects on mood and task performance did not significantly interact with extraversion, except for nonsignificant trends for caffeine to increase happiness and vigor more among extraverts than introverts. No 3-way interactions of group, time, and dose were found on any scales or on the DSST. Results do not support the hypothesis that caffeine differentially affects extraverts and introverts, particularly at different times of the day.

  2. The psychopharmacological and electrophysiological effects of single doses of caffeine in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, M; Scott, N; Lader, M; Marks, V

    1986-01-01

    The effects of single doses of anhydrous caffeine (250 mg and 500 mg) and placebo on physiological, psychological measures and subjective feelings were studied in a double-blind, cross-over study in nine healthy subjects who had abstained from caffeine-containing beverages for 24 h before each occasion. Caffeine and caffeine metabolites in plasma and urine were assayed. Peak plasma concentrations were observed at 1 to 2 h with an approximate half-life of 5 h. The concentrations of the metabolite 1,7-dimethylxanthine increased during the 5 h. The major urine metabolite was 1-methyluric acid. The EEG showed a dose-related decrease in log 'theta' power and a decrease in log 'alpha' power. Other dose-related effects were an increase in skin conductance level (sweat-gland activity) and self rating of alertness. Ratings of headache and tiredness were decreased by the caffeine. The study illustrates the complexities of studying a drug which is widely taken and which is often associated with withdrawal effects. PMID:3741730

  3. Effects of surface features on word-fragment completion in amnesic subjects.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, S; Wayland, S V

    1993-01-01

    Patients with amnesia resulting from alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome and elderly control patients studied a list of words in two typographies (typed and handwritten) and then received a word-fragment completion test (e.g., -ys-e-y for mystery) in which the test cues also varied in typography. Unlike the elderly control patients, the amnesic patients did not show greater priming effect when the typography at test matched that at study. The amount of typography-dependent priming was positively correlated with the score on the Wechsler Memory Scale. These results suggest that the effects of typography change on repetition priming in word-fragment completion reflect explicit recollection, and that the representation that supports repetition priming effects observed with amnesic subjects in the word-fragment completion task does not code typography information.

  4. The effects of diet and physical activity on plasma homovanillic acid in normal human subjects.

    PubMed

    Kendler, K S; Mohs, R C; Davis, K L

    1983-03-01

    This study examines the effect of diet and moderate physical activity on plasma levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) in healthy young males. At weekly intervals, subjects were fed four isocaloric meals: polycose (pure carbohydrate), sustecal, low monoamine, and high monoamine. Moderate physical activity consisted of 30 minutes of exercise on a bicycle ergometer. The effect of diet on plasma HVA (pHVA) was highly significant. Compared to the polycose meal, the high monoamine meal significantly increased pHVA. Moderate physical activity also significantly increased pHVA. Future clinical studies using pHVA in man as an index of brain dopamine function should control for the effects of both diet and physical activity.

  5. Aging 5 years in 5 minutes: the effect of taking a memory test on older adults' subjective age.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Matthew L; Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross L

    2013-12-01

    How old one feels-one's subjective age-has been shown to predict important psychological and health outcomes. The current studies examined the effect of taking a standard memory test on older adults' subjective age. Study 1 showed that older adults felt older after taking a standard neuropsychological screening test and participating in a free-recall experiment than they felt at baseline. Study 2 showed that the effect was selective to older adults: Younger adults' subjective age was not affected by participating in the memory experiment. Study 3 showed that the subjective-aging effect was specific to memory, as taking a vocabulary test for a similar amount of time did not affect older adults' subjective age. Finally, Study 4 showed that simply expecting to take a memory test subjectively aged older adults. The results indicate that being in a memory-testing context affects older adults' self-perception by making them feel older.

  6. [Genetic factors predisposing to the development of papillary thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Puzianowska-Kuźnicka, Monika; Pietrzak, Maciej

    2005-01-01

    According to classic theory of neogenesis, cancer arises from well-differentiated cell that in response to variety of factors de-differentiates, becomes able to proliferate without control and/or loses its ability to undergo apoptosis. According to another theory, cancers (at least cancers of some organs) originate from stem cells, which "by definition" are poorly differentiated and able to proliferate indefinitely. Therefore a lower number of abnormal events is necessary for these cells to escape proliferation-controlling mechanisms. With regard to papillary thyroid cancers it is still thought that it arises from well-differentiated thyreocyte. One of the characteristic features of cancer cell is chromosomal instability. Lowest number of such abnormalities is observed in well-differentiated thyroid cancers (including papillary cancer), intermediate - in poorly-differentiated cancers, while highest - in anaplastic cancers. Microarray analysis shows that despite of clinical heterogeneity, gene expression profiles of papillary cancers are very similar. Genetic anomalies predisposing to the development of papillary cancer most commonly regard proteins that possess kinase activity. Kinases phosphorylate other proteins, and play an extremely important role in signal transduction from outside the cell as well as inside the cell. Constitutive activation of some kinases may lead to the excessive and/or permanent activation of some transduction pathways specific for mitogens or growth factors. This results in excessive proliferation. The best known protein of such type which function is altered in papillary thyroid cancers is RET - a membrane-located growth factor-receptor with kinase activity. RET gene undergoes different rearrangements in this type of cancer. There are approximately 10 RET rearrangements known, with RET/PTC3 and RET/PTC1 being most common. In this anomaly kinase domain-encoding 3' end of RET gene is aberrantly bound to 5' end of another gene. Fusion

  7. Subjective evaluation of the effectiveness of whole-body cryotherapy in patients with osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives One of the treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) is whole-body cryotherapy (WBC). The aim of this study is to assess the effect of whole-body cryotherapy on the clinical status of patients with osteoarthritis (OA), according to their subjective feelings before and after the application of a 10-day cold treatment cycle. The aim is also to assess the reduction of intensity and frequency of pain, the reduction of the painkiller medication used, and to assess the possible impact on physical activity. Material and methods The study involved 50 people, including 30 women (60%) and 20 men (40%). Thirty-one patients had spondyloarthritis (62% of respondents), 10 had knee osteoarthritis (20%), and 9 hip osteoarthritis (18%). The overall average age was 50.1 ±10.9 years; the youngest patient was 29 years old and the oldest 73 years old. The average age of the women was 6 years higher. The study used a questionnaire completed by patients, and consisted of three basic parts. The modified Laitinen pain questionnaire contained questions concerning the intensity and frequency of pain, frequency of painkiller use and the degree of limited mobility. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used in order to subjectively evaluate the therapy after applying the ten-day treatment cycle. Results According to the subjective assessment of respondents, after the whole-body cryotherapy treatments, a significant improvement occurred in 39 patients (78%), an improvement in 9 patients (18%), and no improvement was only declared by 2 patients (4%). Conclusions Whole-body cryotherapy resulted in a reduction in the frequency and degree of pain perception in patients with osteoarthritis. WBC reduced the number of analgesic medications in these patients. It improved the range of physical activity and had a positive effect on the well-being of patients. PMID:28115779

  8. A candidate probiotic with unfavourable effects in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Some probiotics have shown efficacy for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum MF1298 was found to have the best in vitro probiotic properties of 22 strains of lactobacilli. The aim of this study was to investigate the symptomatic effect of L. plantarum MF1298 in subjects with IBS. Primary outcome was treatment preference and secondary outcomes were number of weeks with satisfactory relief of symptoms and IBS sum score. Methods The design was a randomised double blind placebo-controlled crossover trial. 16 subjects with IBS underwent two three-week periods of daily intake of one capsule of 1010 CFU L. plantarum MF 1298 or placebo separated by a four-week washout period. Results Thirteen participants (81%; 95% CI 57% to 93%; P = 0.012) preferred placebo to L. plantarum MF1298 treatment. The mean (SD) number of weeks with satisfactory relief of symptoms in the periods with L. plantarum MF1298 and placebo were 0.50 (0.89) and 1.44 (1.26), respectively (P = 0.006). IBS sum score was 6.44 (1.81) in the period with L. plantarum MF1298 treatment compared with 5.35 (1.77) in the period with placebo (P = 0.010). With a clinically significant difference in the IBS sum score of 2 in disfavour of active treatment, the number needed to harm was 3.7, 95% CI 2.3 to 10.9. Conclusions This trial shows for the first time an unfavourable effect on symptoms in subjects with IBS after intake of a potential probiotic. The trial registration number Clinical trials NCT00355810. PMID:20144246

  9. The Effect of Patellar Taping on Some Landing Characteristics During Counter Movement Jumps in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Cámara, Jesús; Díaz, Francisco; Anza, María Soledad; Mejuto, Gaizka; Puente, Asier; Iturriaga, Gorka; Fernández, Juan-Ramón

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of patellar taping (PT) on landing characteristics of the vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) and on flight time during a counter movement jump (CMJ). Eleven healthy male subjects (age: 31.1 ± 4.2 years) volunteered for the study. Each subject performed six CMJs under two different jumping conditions: with PT and without PT (WPT). The order of the two conditions was randomized. All of the measured variables had fair-to-good reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient > 0.75). When we compared the PT and WPT groups, we did not find a significant difference in the magnitude of the first (F1) and second (F2) peaks of the VGRF. We also did not find a significant difference in the time to production of these peaks (T1 and T2), and the time to stabilization (TTS) (p < 0. 05). Furthermore, the flight time was similar in the two groups (0.475 ± 0.046 and 0.474 ± 0.056 s, respectively, for PT and WPT). These results suggest that PT does not jeopardize performance during CMJ. Furthermore, it also does not soften the VGRF generated during the landing, indicating that PT may be of limited utility in preventing injuries associated with this type of movement. Key points We investigated whether patellar taping interferes with athletic performance, as has been suggested by previous studies. We also explored the effect of patellar taping on the forces generated during the landing phase of counter movement jumps. Patellar taping had no effect on the flight time during counter movement jumps. Patellar taping also had no effect on the vertical ground reaction force variables measured during the landing phase of counter movement jumps. This information may be relevant to athletes and trainers who are concerned about the effects of patellar taping on performance. PMID:24149562

  10. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD) IN GENETICALLY PREDISPOSED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent CVD models are increasingly used for understanding individual differences in susceptibility to environmental stressors such as air pollution. We characterized pathologies and a number of known human risk factors of CVD in genetically predisposed, male young adult Spontaneo...

  11. Investigation of Control Inceptor Dynamics and Effect on Human Subject Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanco, Anthony A.; Cardullo, Frank M.; Houck, Jacob A.; Grube, Richard C.; Kelly, Lon C.

    2013-01-01

    The control inceptor used in a vehicle simulation is an important part of adequately representing the dynamics of the vehicle. The inceptor characteristics are typically based on a second order spring mass damper system with damping, force gradient, breakout force, and natural frequency parameters. Changing these parameters can have a great effect on pilot control of the vehicle. A quasi transfer of training experiment was performed employing a high fidelity and a low fidelity control inceptor. A disturbance compensatory task was employed which involved a simple horizon line disturbed in roll by a sum of sinusoids presented in an out-the-window display. Vehicle dynamics were modeled as 1/s and 1/s2. The task was to maintain level flight. Twenty subjects were divided between the high and the low fidelity training groups. Each group was trained to a performance asymptote, and then transferred to the high fidelity simulation. RMS tracking error, a PSD analysis, and a workload analysis were performed to quantify the transfer of training effect. Quantitative results of the experiments show that there is no significant difference between the high and low fidelity training groups for 1/s plant dynamics. For 1/s2 plant dynamics there is a greater difference in tracking performance and PSD; and the subjects are less correlated with the input disturbance function

  12. Effects of Background Music on Objective and Subjective Performance Measures in an Auditory BCI

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Sijie; Allison, Brendan Z.; Kübler, Andrea; Cichocki, Andrzej; Wang, Xingyu; Jin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have explored brain computer interface (BCI) systems based on auditory stimuli, which could help patients with visual impairments. Usability and user satisfaction are important considerations in any BCI. Although background music can influence emotion and performance in other task environments, and many users may wish to listen to music while using a BCI, auditory, and other BCIs are typically studied without background music. Some work has explored the possibility of using polyphonic music in auditory BCI systems. However, this approach requires users with good musical skills, and has not been explored in online experiments. Our hypothesis was that an auditory BCI with background music would be preferred by subjects over a similar BCI without background music, without any difference in BCI performance. We introduce a simple paradigm (which does not require musical skill) using percussion instrument sound stimuli and background music, and evaluated it in both offline and online experiments. The result showed that subjects preferred the auditory BCI with background music. Different performance measures did not reveal any significant performance effect when comparing background music vs. no background. Since the addition of background music does not impair BCI performance but is preferred by users, auditory (and perhaps other) BCIs should consider including it. Our study also indicates that auditory BCIs can be effective even if the auditory channel is simultaneously otherwise engaged. PMID:27790111

  13. Effects of Background Music on Objective and Subjective Performance Measures in an Auditory BCI.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sijie; Allison, Brendan Z; Kübler, Andrea; Cichocki, Andrzej; Wang, Xingyu; Jin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have explored brain computer interface (BCI) systems based on auditory stimuli, which could help patients with visual impairments. Usability and user satisfaction are important considerations in any BCI. Although background music can influence emotion and performance in other task environments, and many users may wish to listen to music while using a BCI, auditory, and other BCIs are typically studied without background music. Some work has explored the possibility of using polyphonic music in auditory BCI systems. However, this approach requires users with good musical skills, and has not been explored in online experiments. Our hypothesis was that an auditory BCI with background music would be preferred by subjects over a similar BCI without background music, without any difference in BCI performance. We introduce a simple paradigm (which does not require musical skill) using percussion instrument sound stimuli and background music, and evaluated it in both offline and online experiments. The result showed that subjects preferred the auditory BCI with background music. Different performance measures did not reveal any significant performance effect when comparing background music vs. no background. Since the addition of background music does not impair BCI performance but is preferred by users, auditory (and perhaps other) BCIs should consider including it. Our study also indicates that auditory BCIs can be effective even if the auditory channel is simultaneously otherwise engaged.

  14. Effects of elastic band exercise on subjects with rounded shoulder posture and forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Woon; An, Da-In; Lee, Hye-Yun; Jeong, Ho-Young; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Sung, Yun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study performed to investigate the effect of elastic band exercise program on the posture of subjects with rounded shoulder and forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] The body length, forward shoulder angle, craniovertebral angle, and cranial rotation angle of participants (n=12) were measured before and after the exercise program. Furthermore, the thicknesses of the pectoralis major, rhomboid major, and upper trapezius were measured using an ultrasonographic imaging device. The exercises program was conducted with elastic bands, with 15 repetitions per set and 3 sets in total. [Results] The length of the pectoralis major, forward shoulder angle, and craniovertebral angle showed significant changes between before and after the exercise program, whereas the changes in the other measurements were not significant. The thickness of the upper trapezius showed a significant increase between before and after the elastic band exercise. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that the elastic band exercise program used in the study is effective for lengthening the pectoralis major and correcting rounded shoulder and forward head posture. PMID:27390405

  15. The effect of dietary glycemic index on weight maintenance in overweight subjects: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Philippou, Elena; Neary, Nicola M; Chaudhri, Owais; Brynes, Audrey E; Dornhorst, Anne; Leeds, Anthony R; Hickson, Mary; Frost, Gary S

    2009-02-01

    Evidence suggests that a low-glycemic index (LGI) diet has a satiating effect and thus may enhance weight maintenance following weight loss. This study was conducted at Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK, and assessed the effect of altering diet GI on weight-loss maintenance. It consisted of a weight-loss phase and a 4-month randomized weight maintenance phase. Subjects were seen monthly to assess dietary compliance and anthropometrics. Appetite was assessed bimonthly by visual analogue scales while meal challenge postprandial insulin and glucose concentrations were assessed before and after the intervention. Following a median weight loss of 6.1 (interquartile range: 5.2-7.1) % body weight, subjects were randomized to a high-glycemic index (HGI) (n = 19) or LGI (n = 23) diet. Dietary composition differed only in GI (HGI group: 63.7 +/- 9.4; LGI group: 49.7 +/- 5.7, P < 0.001) and glycemic load (HGI group: 136.8 +/- 56.3; LGI group: 89.7 +/- 27.5, P < 0.001). Groups did not differ in body weight (weight change over 4 months, HGI group: 0.3 +/- 1.9 kg; LGI group: -0.7 +/- 2.9 kg, P = 0.3) or other anthropometric measurements. This pilot study suggests that in the setting of healthy eating, changing the diet GI does not appear to significantly affect weight maintenance.

  16. Antioxidant effects of chromium supplementation with type 2 diabetes mellitus and euglycemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsing-Hsien; Lai, Ming-Hoang; Hou, Wen-Chi; Huang, Chen-Ling

    2004-03-10

    To determine the effects of chromium (Cr) supplementations on oxidative stress of type 2 diabetes and euglycemic (EU) subjects, adult having HbA(1C) values of <6.0% (EU), 6.8-8.5% (mildly hyperglycemic, MH), and >8.5% (severely hyperglycemic, SH) were supplemented for 6 months with 1000 microg/day of Cr (as Cr yeast) or with a placebo. In the beginning, the levels of the plasma Cr in the MH and SH groups were 25-30% lower than those of the EU subjects. The values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidative status (TAS) of the MH and SH groups were significantly higher than those of the EU ones. Following supplementations, the levels of plasma TBARS in the Cr groups of MH and SH groups were significantly decreased (the inverse was found in the EU) and showed no significant changes in the placebo group. The levels of plasma TAS in the Cr groups of EU and MH were significantly decreased (the inverse was found in the SH) and showed no significant changes in the placebo group. No significant difference was found in the antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase) activities during supplementations. These data suggest that Cr supplementation was an effective treatment strategy to minimize increased oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients whose HbA(1C) level was >8.5%, and the Cr in EU groups might act as a prooxidant.

  17. On the effect of subliminal priming on subjective perception of images: a machine learning approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Parmod; Mahmood, Faisal; Mohan, Dhanya Menoth; Wong, Ken; Agrawal, Abhishek; Elgendi, Mohamed; Shukla, Rohit; Dauwels, Justin; Chan, Alice H D

    2014-01-01

    The research presented in this article investigates the influence of subliminal prime words on peoples' judgment about images, through electroencephalograms (EEGs). In this cross domain priming paradigm, the participants are asked to rate how much they like the stimulus images, on a 7-point Likert scale, after being subliminally exposed to masked lexical prime words, with EEG recorded simultaneously. Statistical analysis tools are used to analyze the effect of priming on behavior, and machine learning techniques to infer the primes from EEGs. The experiment reveals strong effects of subliminal priming on the participants' explicit rating of images. The subjective judgment affected by the priming makes visible change in event-related potentials (ERPs); results show larger ERP amplitude for the negative primes compared with positive and neutral primes. In addition, Support Vector Machine (SVM) based classifiers are proposed to infer the prime types from the average ERPs, which yields a classification rate of 70%.

  18. Effects of spiral taping on proprioception in subjects with unilateral functional ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-Sook

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The Purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of spiral taping on proprioception in functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-five participants in this study had discomfort in only one ankle and Cumberland ankle instability score of ≤23. ST was applied to the unstable ankle, and proprioception was measured baseline and 30 min later. Proprioception was measured using the active joint angle reproduction test. [Results] Plantar flexions of 10° (ES, 0.303) and 20° (ES, 1.369) and inversion 20° (ES, 0.998) showed a significant improvement. [Conclusion] Spiral taping improved on proprioception. Therefore, spiral taping may be an effective method for functional ankle instability. PMID:28210052

  19. Effects of spiral taping on proprioception in subjects with unilateral functional ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Bae, Young-Sook

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The Purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of spiral taping on proprioception in functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-five participants in this study had discomfort in only one ankle and Cumberland ankle instability score of ≤23. ST was applied to the unstable ankle, and proprioception was measured baseline and 30 min later. Proprioception was measured using the active joint angle reproduction test. [Results] Plantar flexions of 10° (ES, 0.303) and 20° (ES, 1.369) and inversion 20° (ES, 0.998) showed a significant improvement. [Conclusion] Spiral taping improved on proprioception. Therefore, spiral taping may be an effective method for functional ankle instability.

  20. The "subjective" pupil old/new effect: is the truth plain to see?

    PubMed

    Montefinese, Maria; Ambrosini, Ettore; Fairfield, Beth; Mammarella, Nicola

    2013-07-01

    Human memory is an imperfect process, prone to distortion and errors that range from minor disturbances to major errors that can have serious consequences on everyday life. In this study, we investigated false remembering of manipulatory verbs using an explicit recognition task and pupillometry. Our results replicated the "classical" pupil old/new effect as well as data in false remembering literature that show how items must be recognize as old in order for the pupil size to increase (e.g., "subjective" pupil old/new effect), even though these items do not necessarily have to be truly old. These findings support the strength-of-memory trace account that affirms that pupil dilation is related to experience rather than to the accuracy of recognition. Moreover, behavioral results showed higher rates of true and false recognitions for manipulatory verbs and a consequent larger pupil diameter, supporting the embodied view of language.

  1. Dichotomous effect of caffeine, curcumin, and naringenin on genomic DNA of normal and diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Somaiah, Ashok; Raghunathan, Divya; Thirumurugan, Kavitha

    2014-01-01

    Nutraceutical compounds show antioxidant and prooxidant properties under stress conditions like cancer, diabetes, and other diseases. The objective of this study is to find the dichotomic behavior of caffeine, curcumin, and naringenin on DNA of diabetic and normal subjects in the presence and absence of copper, hydrogen peroxide, and complex of copper-hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide releases hydroxyl free radicals ((•)OH) on oxidation of Cu (I) to Cu (II) through Fenton-type reaction to cause DNA damage. In the results, agarose gel electrophoretic pattern speculates the prooxidant effect of caffeine and antioxidant effect of curcumin on DNA in the presence of copper and hydrogen peroxide. UV-Vis spectral analysis shows hyperchromism on addition of DNA to caffeine, hypochromism with curcumin, and subtle changes with naringenin. The chosen nutraceuticals act as inducers and quenchers of oxidative free radicals arising from diabetes.

  2. Subjective evaluation of experimental dyspnoea – Effects of isocapnia and repeated exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hayen, Anja; Herigstad, Mari; Wiech, Katja; Pattinson, Kyle T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Resistive respiratory loading is an established stimulus for the induction of experimental dyspnoea. In comparison to unloaded breathing, resistive loaded breathing alters end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2), which has independent physiological effects (e.g. upon cerebral blood flow). We investigated the subjective effects of resistive loaded breathing with stabilized PETCO2 (isocapnia) during manual control of inspired gases on varying baseline levels of mild hypercapnia (increased PETCO2). Furthermore, to investigate whether perceptual habituation to dyspnoea stimuli occurs, the study was repeated over four experimental sessions. Isocapnic hypercapnia did not affect dyspnoea unpleasantness during resistive loading. A post hoc analysis revealed a small increase of respiratory unpleasantness during unloaded breathing at +0.6 kPa, the level that reliably induced isocapnia. We did not observe perceptual habituation over the four sessions. We conclude that isocapnic respiratory loading allows stable induction of respiratory unpleasantness, making it a good stimulus for multi-session studies of dyspnoea. PMID:25578628

  3. Calculation of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields and Their Effects in MRI of Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Christopher M.; Wang, Zhangwei

    2011-01-01

    Radiofrequency magnetic fields are critical to nuclear excitation and signal reception in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The interactions between these fields and human tissues in anatomical geometries results in a variety of effects regarding image integrity and safety of the human subject. In recent decades numerical methods of calculation have been used increasingly to understand the effects of these interactions and aid in engineering better, faster, and safer equipment and methods. As MRI techniques and technology have evolved through the years, so too have the requirements for meaningful interpretation of calculation results. Here we review the basic physics of RF electromagnetics in MRI and discuss a variety of ways RF field calculations are used in MRI in engineering and safety assurance from simple systems and sequences through advanced methods of development for the future. PMID:21381106

  4. The lipid lowering effect of plant sterol ester capsules in hypercholesterolemic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Acuff, Robert V; Cai, David J; Dong, Zhi-Ping; Bell, Doris

    2007-01-01

    Background Foods enriched with phytosterols have been proven to be an effective therapy to improve blood lipid profiles. However, none of the studies have investigated the efficacy in lipid lowering of plant sterol esters (PSE) in capsule form. The objective of this study is to determine if the plant sterol esters (PSE) in capsule form (1.3 grams of PSE/day) lowered plasma cholesterol levels and lipid ratios in free-living hypercholesterolemic subjects during a 4-week intervention period. Methods Sixteen subjects participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, sequential study with a 4-week placebo phase followed by a 2-week wash-out period and a 4-week treatment phase. Subjects were instructed to maintain stable diet pattern and physical activities. Blood samples were collected at 7, 21 and 28 days of each phase. The primary measurements were change in plasma total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL) between phases and within each phase. The secondary measurements were change in triglycerides, lipoprotein ratios (TC/HDL, LDL/HDL) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Results In comparison to placebo, LDL-cholesterol was significantly reduced by 7% and 4% (P < 0.05) at both week 3 and week 4; HDL at week 3 of the treatment was significantly increased by 9% (P < 0.01), but not at week 4 (4%); total cholesterol was not significantly different from placebo throughout the period, TC/HDL and LDL/HDL were significantly reduced by (8%, 8%, 6%, 10%, respectively) (P < 0.01) at both week 3 and week 4. CRP and triglycerides did not differ either between the two phases or during the treatment phase. Conclusion In conclusion, plant sterol ester capsule is effective in improving lipid profiles among hypercholesterolemic subjects in a free-living setting at the minimum dosage recommended by FDA. The significant improved lipid profiles were reached after three weeks of administration. To achieve better lipid lowering results, higher dosages and

  5. Topiramate's effects on cocaine-induced subjective mood, craving and preference for money over drug taking.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Bankole A; Roache, John D; Ait-Daoud, Nassima; Gunderson, Erik W; Haughey, Heather M; Wang, Xin-Qun; Liu, Lei

    2013-05-01

    Topiramate, presumably through antagonism of excitatory glutaminergic pathways and facilitation of inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid neurons in the cortico-mesolimbic system, might reduce cocaine's abuse liability. We tested whether topiramate (100 mg twice daily) would reduce the euphoria, subjective mood, craving and preference for cocaine over money induced by low and high doses (0.325 and 0.65 mg/kg i.v., respectively) of experimentally administered cocaine in 24 male and female, cocaine-dependent, non-treatment-seeking research volunteers in a university in-patient laboratory. We utilized a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject, Latin-square cross-over design in which three experimental challenge doses of low-dose cocaine, high-dose cocaine and placebo were administered in counterbalanced order after 5 days of topiramate or matching placebo pre-treatments separated by a 1-week washout period (2006-2009). After placebo pre-treatments, cocaine produced dose-related increases in euphoria, stimulant effects, craving for more cocaine and monetary value of cocaine in a behavioral preference test of cocaine versus money choice. Topiramate pre-treatment reduced the cocaine-related craving and monetary value of high-dose cocaine while increasing the monetary value, euphoria and stimulant effects of low-dose cocaine. Validated and standardized human experimental methods evaluating the potential for topiramate to alter cocaine's abuse liability suggest that topiramate may reduce the reinforcing effects and craving induced by higher cocaine doses. Low-dose cocaine might appear to have some enhancement of its stimulant properties in the presence of topiramate's prominent sedative effects.

  6. Acute effects of caffeine and cigarette smoking on ventricular long-axis function in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Giacomin, Elisa; Palmerini, Elisabetta; Ballo, Piercarlo; Zacà, Valerio; Bova, Giovanni; Mondillo, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Background Few data exist regarding the direct effects of caffeine and smoking on cardiac function. We sought to explore the acute effects of caffeine assumption, cigarette smoking, or both on left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) function in a population of young normal subjects. Methods Forty-five healthy subjects aged 25 ± 2 years underwent echocardiography. Fifteen of them were non-smokers and habitual coffee consumers (group 1), 15 were smokers and not habitual coffee consumers (group 2), and 15 were smokers and habitual coffee consumers (group 3). Peak systolic (Sa), early diastolic Ea, and late diastolic (Aa) velocity of mitral annulus were measured by pulsed Tissue Doppler, and left atrioventricular plane displacement was determined by M-mode. Tricuspid annular velocities and systolic excursion (TAPSE) were also determined. Measurements were performed at baseline and after oral assumption of caffeine 100 mg in group 1, one cigarette smoking in group 2, and both in group 3. Results No changes in ventricular function were observed in group 1 after caffeine administration. In group 2, cigarette smoking yielded an acute increase in mitral Aa (+12.1%, p = 0.0026), tricuspid Sa (+9.8%, p = 0.012) and TAPSE (+7.9%, p = 0.017), and a decrease in the mitral Ea/Aa ratio (-8.5%, p = 0.0084). Sequential caffeine assumption and cigarette smoking in group 3 was associated with an acute increase in mitral Aa (+13.0%, p = 0.015) and tricuspid Aa (+11.6%, p < 0.0001) and a reduction in mitral Ea/Aa ratio (-8.5%, p = 0.0084) tricuspid Ea (-6.6%, p = 0.048) and tricuspid Ea/Aa ratio (-9.6%, p = 0.0003). In a two-way ANOVA model controlling for hemodynamic confounding factors, changes in the overall population remained significant for mitral Aa and Ea/Aa ratio, and for tricuspid Aa and Ea/Aa ratio. Conclusion In young healthy subjects, one cigarette smoking is associated to an acute impairment in LV diastolic function and a hyperdynamic RV systolic response

  7. Aging Effects on Cardiac and Respiratory Dynamics in Healthy Subjects across Sleep Stages

    PubMed Central

    Schumann, Aicko Y.; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Penzel, Thomas; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Kantelhardt, Jan W.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Respiratory and heart rate variability exhibit fractal scaling behavior on certain time scales. We studied the short-term and long-term correlation properties of heartbeat and breathing-interval data from disease-free subjects focusing on the age-dependent fractal organization. We also studied differences across sleep stages and night-time wake and investigated quasi-periodic variations associated with cardiac risk. Design: Full-night polysomnograms were recorded during 2 nights, including electrocardiogram and oronasal airflow. Setting: Data were collected in 7 laboratories in 5 European countries. Participants: 180 subjects without health complaints (85 males, 95 females) aged from 20 to 89 years. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Short-term correlations in heartbeat intervals measured by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) exponent α1 show characteristic age dependence with a maximum around 50–60 years disregarding the dependence on sleep and wake states. Long-term correlations measured by α2 differ in NREM sleep when compared with REM sleep and wake, besides weak age dependence. Results for respiratory intervals are similar to those for α2 of heartbeat intervals. Deceleration capacity (DC) decreases with age; it is lower during REM and deep sleep (compared with light sleep and wake). Conclusion: The age dependence of α1 should be considered when using this value for diagnostic purposes in post-infarction patients. Pronounced long-term correlations (larger α2) for heartbeat and respiration during REM sleep and wake indicate an enhanced control of higher brain regions, which is absent during NREM sleep. Reduced DC possibly indicates an increased cardiovascular risk with aging and during REM and deep sleep. Citation: Schumann AY; Bartsch RP; Penzel T; Ivanov PC; Kantelhardt JW. Aging effects on cardiac and respiratory dynamics in healthy subjects across sleep stages. SLEEP 2010;33(7):943-955. PMID:20614854

  8. Dietary fish oil effects on seasonal hay fever and asthma in pollen-sensitive subjects.

    PubMed

    Thien, F C; Mencia-Huerta, J M; Lee, T H

    1993-05-01

    The effects of taking 18 capsules a day of Max-EPA (3.2 g/day eicosapentaenoic acid) on clinical symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness were studied in pollen-sensitive subjects over a pollen season in a parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled (olive oil) fashion. The study was conducted over the 1990 and 1991 pollen seasons in London, England. A total of 37 nonsmoking pollen-sensitive asthmatic subjects were entered into the trial, and 25 completed the 6-month study period over the 2 yr. The preseasonal geometric mean PD35 SGaw of histamine for the fish oil (n = 12) and placebo (n = 9) groups were 0.62 and 0.42 mumol, respectively. During the middle of the pollen season, histamine PD35 SGaw fell significantly for both the fish oil (0.11 mumol, p < 0.0001) and placebo groups (0.10 mumol, p < 0.007), indicating increased bronchial reactivity compared with preseasonal values, but there was no significant difference between the groups. Similarly, morning and evening peak expiratory flow (PEF), diurnal variability in PEF, nocturnal cough and wheeze, daytime wheeze, and activity, as well as nasal symptoms and increased usage of medication, were not significantly different between the groups. Compliance was confirmed by neutrophil and plasma phospholipid analysis, which showed significant rises in eicosapentaenoic acid content in the fish oil group but not in the placebo group. We conclude that dietary fish oil supplementation does not prevent seasonal hay fever and asthma in pollen-sensitive subjects during the pollen season.

  9. Effects of inhalation of acidic compounds on pulmonary function in allergic adolescent subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, J Q; Covert, D S; Pierson, W E

    1989-01-01

    There is concern about the human health effects of inhalation of acid compounds found in urban air pollution. It was the purpose of this study to investigate three of these acid compounds, sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and nitric acid (HNO3) in a group of allergic adolescent subjects. Subjects were exposed during rest and moderate exercise to 0.7 mumole/m3 (68 micrograms/m3) H2SO4, 4.0 mumole/m3 (0.1 ppm) SO2, or 2.0 mumole/m3 (0.05 ppm) HNO3. Pulmonary functions (FEV1, total respiratory resistance, and maximal flow) were measured before and after exposure. Preliminary analysis based on nine subjects indicates that exposure to 0.7 mumole/m3 H2SO4 alone and in combination with SO2 caused significant changes in pulmonary function, whereas exposure to air or SO2 alone did not. FEV1 decreased an average of 6% after exposure to H2SO4 alone and 4% when the aerosol was combined with SO2. The FEV1 decrease was 2% after both air and SO2 exposures. Total respiratory resistance (RT) increased 15% after the combined H2SO4 exposures, 12% after H2SO4 alone, and 7% after exposure to air. After exposures to HNO3 alone, FEV1 decreased by 4%, and RT increased by 23%. These results are preliminary; final conclusions must wait for completion of the study. PMID:2539990

  10. Effects of spatial smoothing on inter-subject correlation based analysis of FMRI.

    PubMed

    Pajula, Juha; Tohka, Jussi

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluates the effects of spatial smoothing on inter-subject correlation (ISC) analysis for FMRI data using the traditional model based analysis as a reference. So far within ISC analysis the effects of smoothing have not been studied systematically and linear Gaussian filters with varying kernel widths have been used without better knowledge about the effects of filtering. Instead, with the traditional general linear model (GLM) based analysis, the effects of smoothing have been studied extensively. In this study, ISC and GLM analyses were computed with two experimental and one simulated block-design datasets. The test statistics and the detected activation areas were compared numerically with correlation and Dice similarity measures, respectively. The study verified that (1) the choice of the filter substantially affected the activations detected by ISC analysis, (2) the detected activations according to ISC and GLM methods were highly similar regardless of the smoothing kernel and (3) the effect of spatial smoothing was mildly smaller on ISC than GLM analysis. Our results indicated that a good selection of the full width at half maximum of the Gaussian smoothing kernel for ISC was slightly larger than double the original voxel size.

  11. Effects of expectation on the brain metabolic responses to methylphenidate and to its placebo in non-drug abusing subjects.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Ma, Yeming; Fowler, Joanna S; Wong, Christopher; Jayne, Millard; Telang, Frank; Swanson, James M

    2006-10-01

    The response to drugs is affected by expectation, which in turn is sensitive to prior drug experiences. Here, we evaluate the effects of expectation on the responses to intravenous methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg) in fifteen subjects who had minimal experience with stimulant drugs. We used positron emission tomography to measure brain glucose metabolism, which we used as a marker of brain function and tested them under four randomized conditions (1) expecting placebo and receiving placebo; (2) expecting placebo and receiving methylphenidate; (3) expecting methylphenidate and receiving methylphenidate; (4) expecting methylphenidate and receiving placebo. We show that methylphenidate-induced decreases in striatum were greater when subjects expected to receive methylphenidate than when they were not expecting it. We also show that the subjects' expectations affected their responses to placebo. That is, when subjects expected to receive methylphenidate but received placebo there were significant increases in ventral cingulate gyrus (BA 25) and nucleus accumbens (regions involved with emotional reactivity and reward). The effect was largest in subjects who, because of experimental randomization, had not experienced methylphenidate. Because subjects were told that methylphenidate could be experienced as pleasant, unpleasant or devoid of subjective effects these results suggest the involvement of the ventral cingulate and of the nucleus accumbens in processing expectation for "uncertain drug effects". Thus, the state of expectation needs to be considered as a variable modulating the reinforcing and therapeutic effects of drugs even in subjects who have no prior experience with the drug.

  12. Effects of duloxetine on norepinephrine and serotonin transporter activity in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Jill C; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Owens, Michael J; Haber, Harry; Lachno, D Richard; Dean, Robert A; Knadler, Mary Pat; Nemeroff, Charles B; Mitchell, Malcolm I; Detke, Michael J; Iyengar, Smriti; Pangallo, Beth; Lobo, Evelyn D

    2014-02-01

    Duloxetine selectively inhibits the serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) transporters (5-HTT and NET, respectively), as demonstrated in vitro and in preclinical studies; however, transporter inhibition has not been fully assessed in vivo at the approved dose of 60 mg/d. Here, the in vivo effects of dosing with duloxetine 60 mg once daily for 11 days in healthy subjects were assessed in 2 studies: (1) centrally (n = 11), by measuring concentrations of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), and NE in cerebrospinal fluid, and (2) versus escitalopram 20 mg/d (n = 32) in a 2-period crossover study by assessing the ΔDHPG/ΔNE ratio in plasma during orthostatic testing and by pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling of reuptake inhibition using subjects' serum in cell lines expressing cloned human 5-HTT or NET. At steady state, duloxetine significantly reduced concentrations of DHPG and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (P < 0.05), but not NE, in cerebrospinal fluid; DHPG was also decreased in plasma and urine. The ΔDHPG/ΔNE ratio in plasma decreased significantly more with duloxetine than escitalopram (65% and 21%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Ex vivo reuptake inhibition of 5-HTT was comparable (EC50 = 44.5 nM) for duloxetine and escitalopram, but duloxetine inhibited NET more potently (EC50 = 116 nM and 1044 nM, respectively). Maximal predicted reuptake inhibition for 5-HTT was 84% for duloxetine and 80% for escitalopram, and that for NET was 67% and 14%, respectively. In summary, duloxetine significantly affected 5-HT and NE turnover in the central nervous system and periphery; these effects presumably occurred via inhibition of reuptake by the 5-HTT and NET, as indicated by effects on functional reuptake inhibition ex vivo.

  13. Effects of cholinergic and beta-adrenergic blockade on orthostatic tolerance in healthy subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Sather, T. M.

    2000-01-01

    Cardiovascular responses during a graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) protocol were compared before and after atropine and propranolol administration to test the hypothesis that both sympathetic and parasympathetic control of cardio-acceleration are associated with syncopal predisposition to orthostatic stress in healthy subjects. Eleven men were categorized into two groups having high (HT, N = 6) or low (LT, N = 5) tolerance based on their total time before the onset of presyncopal symptoms. HT and LT groups were similar in physical characteristics, fitness, and baseline cardiovascular measurements. Atropine treatment had no effect on LBNP tolerance or mean arterial pressure at presyncope, despite an atropine-induced increase in heart rate. Propranolol treatment reduced (p<0.05) LBNP tolerance in both groups. Diminished LBNP tolerance after propranolol administration was associated with reductions in cardiac output, whereas increase in systemic peripheral resistance from baseline to presyncope was unaffected by propranolol. Reduction in cardiac output and LBNP tolerance after beta blockade reflected a chronotropic effect because lower LBNP tolerance for the HT (-50%) and LT (-39%) groups was associated with dramatic reductions (p <0.05) in the magnitude of LBNP-induced tachycardia without significant effects on stroke volume at presyncope. Absence of an atropine-induced difference in cardiac output and systemic peripheral resistance between HT and LT groups failed to support the notion that cardiac vagal withdrawal represents a predominant mechanism that could account for differences in orthostatic tolerance. Because a reduction in LBNP tolerance in both HT and LT groups after propranolol treatment was most closely associated with reduced tachycardia, the data suggest that a primary autonomically mediated mechanism for maintenance of mean arterial pressure and orthostatic tolerance in healthy subjects is beta adrenergic-induced tachycardia.

  14. Acute effects of inspiratory muscle warm-up on pulmonary function in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Özdal, Mustafa

    2016-06-15

    The acute effects of inspiratory muscle warm-up on pulmonary functions were examined in 26 healthy male subjects using the pulmonary function test (PFT) in three different trials. The control trial (CON) did not involve inspiratory muscle warm-up, while the placebo (IMWp) and experimental (IMW) trials involved inspiratory muscle warm-up. There were no significant changes between the IMWp and CON trials (p>0.05). All the PFT measurements, including slow vital capacity, inspiratory vital capacity, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, maximal voluntary ventilation, and maximal inspiratory pressure were significantly increased by 3.55%, 12.52%, 5.00%, 2.75%, 2.66%, and 7.03% respectively, in the subjects in the IMW trial than those in the CON trial (p<0.05). These results show that inspiratory muscle warm-up improved the pulmonary functions. The mechanisms responsible for these improvements are probably associated with the concomitant increase in the inspiratory muscle strength, and the cooperation of the upper thorax, neck, and respiratory muscles, and increased level of reactive O2 species in muscle tissue, and potentially improvement of muscle O2 delivery-to-utilization. However, further investigation is required to determine the precise mechanisms responsible from among these candidates.

  15. Effect of non-alcoholic beer on Subjective Sleep Quality in a university stressed population.

    PubMed

    Franco, L; Bravo, R; Galán, C; Rodríguez, A B; Barriga, C; Cubero, Javier

    2014-09-01

    Sleep deprivation affects the homeostasis of the physiological functions in the human organism. Beer is the only beverage that contains hops, a plant which has a sedative effect. Our objective is to determine the improvement of subjective sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The sample was conducted among a population of 30 university students. The study took place during a period of 3 weeks, the first 7 days were used for the Control, and during the following 14 days the students ingested beer (were asked to drink non-alcoholic beer) while having dinner. The results revealed that Subjective Sleep Quality improved in the case of those students who drank one beer during dinner compared to the Control, this is corroborated by the fact that Sleep Latency decreased (p < 0.05) compared to their Control. The overall rating Global Score of Quality of Sleep also improved significantly (p < 0.05). These results confirm that the consumption of non-alcoholic beer at dinner time helps to improve the quality of sleep at night.

  16. Effectiveness of a heat and moisture exchanger in preventing hyperpnoea induced bronchoconstriction in subjects with asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Gravelyn, T R; Capper, M; Eschenbacher, W L

    1987-01-01

    The effect of a heat and moisture exchanger, a device with hygroscopic material for conditioning inspired air, on hyperpnoea induced bronchoconstriction was studied in nine non-smoking volunteers with asthma, aged 19-32 years. Each had previously shown an increase of at least 100% in specific airways resistance (sRaw) to isocapnic hyperpnoea with dry air. On two separate days the subject performed isocapnic hyperpnoea with dry air at 60-70 l min-1 for five minutes. Before, immediately after, and five minutes after completion of a test sRaw measurements were made. Heat and moisture exchangers were placed in the breathing circuit on one of the two days. All subjects had an increase in sRaw of 100% or more without the heat and moisture exchangers (average increase 300%) but were protected from bronchoconstriction with the devices in place (average increase 7%) (p less than 0.005). The exchanger's resistance to airflow was less than 1 cm H2O for flow rates of 100 l min-1. A heat and moisture exchanger designed as a facemask or mouthpiece may allow a person with asthma to exercise without the need for prophylactic drugs. PMID:3424269

  17. Effect of Ondansetron on Metformin Pharmacokinetics and Response in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Yang, Hong; Guo, Dong; Zhang, Taolan; Polli, James E; Zhou, Honghao; Shu, Yan

    2016-04-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists such as ondansetron have been used to prevent and treat nausea and vomiting for over 2 decades. This study was to determine whether ondansetron could serve as a perpetrator drug causing transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions in humans. Twelve unrelated male healthy Chinese volunteers were enrolled into a prospective, randomized, double-blind, crossover study to investigate the effects of ondansetron or placebo on the pharmacokinetics of and the response to metformin, a well-characterized substrate of organic cation transporters and multidrug and toxin extrusions (MATEs). Ondansetron treatment caused a statistically significantly higher Cmax of metformin compared with placebo (18.3 ± 5.05 versus 15.2 ± 3.23; P = 0.006) and apparently decreased the renal clearance of metformin by 37% as compared with placebo (P = 0.001). Interestingly, ondansetron treatment also statistically significantly improved glucose tolerance in subjects, as indicated by the smaller glucose area under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test (10.4 ± 1.43) as compared with placebo (11.5 ± 2.29 mmol∙mg/l) (P = 0.020). It remains possible that ondansetron itself may affect glucose homeostasis in human subjects, but our clinical study, coupled with our previous findings in cells and in animal models, indicates that ondansetron can cause a drug-drug interaction via its potent inhibition of MATE transporters in humans.

  18. Effects of Visual Cortex Activation on the Nociceptive Blink Reflex in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Sava, Simona L.; de Pasqua, Victor; Magis, Delphine; Schoenen, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Bright light can cause excessive visual discomfort, referred to as photophobia. The precise mechanisms linking luminance to the trigeminal nociceptive system supposed to mediate this discomfort are not known. To address this issue in healthy human subjects we modulated differentially visual cortex activity by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or flash light stimulation, and studied the effect on supraorbital pain thresholds and the nociceptive-specific blink reflex (nBR). Low frequency rTMS that inhibits the underlying cortex, significantly decreased pain thresholds, increased the 1st nBR block ipsi- and contralaterally and potentiated habituation contralaterally. After high frequency or sham rTMS over the visual cortex, and rMS over the right greater occipital nerve we found no significant change. By contrast, excitatory flash light stimulation increased pain thresholds, decreased the 1st nBR block of ipsi- and contralaterally and increased habituation contralaterally. Our data demonstrate in healthy subjects a functional relation between the visual cortex and the trigeminal nociceptive system, as assessed by the nociceptive blink reflex. The results argue in favour of a top-down inhibitory pathway from the visual areas to trigemino-cervical nociceptors. We postulate that in normal conditions this visuo-trigeminal inhibitory pathway may avoid disturbance of vision by too frequent blinking and that hypoactivity of the visual cortex for pathological reasons may promote headache and photophobia. PMID:24936654

  19. The effect of chromium picolinate on serum cholesterol and apolipoprotein fractions in human subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Press, R. I.; Geller, J.; Evans, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    Chromium has been implicated as a cofactor in the maintenance of normal lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. A deficiency of chromium results from diets low in biologically available chromium. Picolinic acid, a metabolite of tryptophan, forms stable complexes with transitional metal ions, which results in an improved bioavailability of the metal ion chromium. To determine whether or not chromium picolinate is effective in humans, 28 volunteer subjects were given either chromium tripicolinate (3.8 micromol [200 micrograms] chromium) or a placebo daily for 42 days in a double-blind crossover study. A 14-day period off capsules was used between treatments. Levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B, the principal protein of the LDL fraction, decreased significantly while the subjects were ingesting chromium picolinate. The concentration of apolipoprotein A-I, the principal protein of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction, increased substantially during treatment with chromium picolinate. The HDL-cholesterol level was elevated slightly but not significantly during ingestion of chromium picolinate. Only apolipoprotein B, of the variables measured, was altered significantly during supplementation with the placebo. These observations show that chromium picolinate is efficacious in lowering blood lipids in humans. PMID:2408233

  20. The effects of scraping therapy on local temperature and blood perfusion volume in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qin-Yan; Yang, Jin-Sheng; Zhu, Bing; Yang, Li; Wang, Ying-Ying; Gao, Xin-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Objective. We aim to study the therapeutic effects of scraping by investigating the changes of temperature and local blood perfusion volume in healthy subjects after scraping stimulation, and to explore the mechanism of scraping stimulation from the points of microcirculation and energy metabolism. Methods. Twenty-three health subjects were included in this study. Local blood perfusion volume and body surface temperature was detected at 5 min before scraping stimulation, 0, 15, 30, 60 and 90 min after scraping using Laser Doppler imager and infrared thermograph. Results. Significant increase was noted in the blood perfusion volume in the scraping area within 90 minutes compared to the baseline level and non-scraping area (P < 0.001). Compared with non-scraping area, an increase of body temperature with an average of 1°C was observed after scraping stimulation (P < 0.01). Conclusion. Scraping can significantly improve the blood perfusion volume and increase the temperature in the scraping area, promoting the local blood circulation and energy metabolism.

  1. Long-term effectiveness of unboosted atazanavir plus abacavir/lamivudine in subjects with virological suppression

    PubMed Central

    Llibre, Josep M.; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Pedersen, Court; Ristola, Matti; Losso, Marcelo; Mocroft, Amanda; Mitsura, Viktar; Falconer, Karolin; Maltez, Fernando; Beniowski, Marek; Vullo, Vincenzo; Hassoun, Gamal; Kuzovatova, Elena; Szlavik, János; Kuznetsova, Anastasiia; Stellbrink, Hans-Jürgen; Duvivier, Claudine; Edwards, Simon; Laut, Kamilla; Paredes, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Effectiveness data of an unboosted atazanavir (ATV) with abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) switch strategy in clinical routine are scant. We evaluated treatment outcomes of ATV + ABC/3TC in pretreated subjects in the EuroSIDA cohort when started with undetectable plasma HIV-1 viral load (pVL), performing a time to loss of virological response (TLOVR <50 copies/mL) and a snapshot analysis at 48, 96, and 144 weeks. Virological failure (VF) was defined as confirmed pVL >50 copies/mL. We included 285 subjects, 67% male, with median baseline CD4 530 cells, and 44 months with pVL ≤50 copies/mL. The third drug in the previous regimen was ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) in 79 (28%), and another ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) in 29 (10%). Ninety (32%) had previously failed with a PI. Proportions of people with virological success at 48/96/144 weeks were 90%/87%/88% (TLOVR) and 74%/67%/59% (snapshot analysis), respectively. The rates of VF were 8%/8%/6%. Rates of adverse events leading to study discontinuation were 0.4%/1%/2%. The multivariable adjusted analysis showed an association between VF and nadir CD4+ (hazard ratio [HR] 0.63 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42–0.93] per 100 cells higher), time with pVL ≤50 copies/mL (HR 0.87 [95% CI: 0.79–0.96] per 6 months longer), and previous failure with a PI (HR 2.78 [95% CI: 1.28–6.04]). Resistance selection at failure was uncommon. A switch to ATV + ABC/3TC in selected subjects with suppressed viremia was associated with low rates of VF and discontinuation due to adverse events, even in subjects not receiving ATV/r. The strategy might be considered in those with long-term suppression and no prior PI failure. PMID:27749561

  2. Two necrotic enteritis predisposing factors, dietary fishmeal and Eimeria infection, induce large changes in the caecal microbiota of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Biao; Stanley, Dragana; Rodgers, Nicholas; Swick, Robert A; Moore, Robert J

    2014-03-14

    It is widely established that a high-protein fishmeal supplemented starter diet and Eimeria infection can predispose birds to the development of clinical necrotic enteritis symptoms following Clostridium perfringens infection. However, it has not been clearly established what changes these treatments cause to predispose birds to succumb to necrotic enteritis. We analysed caecal microbiota of 4 groups of broilers (n=12) using deep pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons: (1) control chicks fed a control diet, (2) Eimeria infected chicks fed control diet, (3) chicks fed fishmeal supplemented diet and lastly (4) both fishmeal fed and Eimeria infected chicks. We found that the high-protein fishmeal diet had a strong effect on the intestinal microbiota similar to the previously reported effect of C. perfringens infection. We noted major changes in the prevalence of various lactobacilli while the total culturable Lactobacillus counts remained stable. The Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, unknown Clostridiales and Lactobacillaceae families were most affected by fishmeal with increases in a number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that had previously been linked to Crohn's disease and reductions in OTUs known to be butyrate producers. Eimeria induced very different changes in microbiota; Ruminococcaceae groups were reduced in number and three unknown Clostridium species were increased in abundance. Additionally, Eimeria did not significantly influence changes in pH, formic, propionic or isobutyric acid while fishmeal induced dramatic changes in all these measures. Both fishmeal feeding and Eimeria infection induced significant changes in the gut microbiota; these changes may play an important role in predisposing birds to necrotic enteritis.

  3. An eco-epidemiological system with infected prey and predator subject to the weak Allee effect.

    PubMed

    Sasmal, Sourav Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we propose a general prey–predator model with disease in prey and predator subject to the weak Allee effects. We make the following assumptions: (i) infected prey competes for resources but does not contribute to reproduction; and (ii) in comparison to the consumption of the susceptible prey, consumption of infected prey would contribute less or negatively to the growth of predator. Based on these assumptions, we provide basic dynamic properties for the full model and corresponding submodels with and without the Allee effects. By comparing the disease free submodels (susceptible prey–predator model) with and without the Allee effects, we conclude that the Allee effects can create or destroy the interior attractors. This enables us to obtain the complete dynamics of the full model and conclude that the model has only one attractor (only susceptible prey survives or susceptible-infected coexist), or two attractors (bi-stability with only susceptible prey and susceptible prey–predator coexist or susceptible prey-infected prey coexists and susceptible prey–predator coexist). This model does not support the coexistence of susceptible-infected-predator, which is caused by the assumption that infected population contributes less or are harmful to the growth of predator in comparison to the consumption of susceptible prey.

  4. An Eco-epidemiological System with Infected Prey and Predator subject to the weak Allee effect.

    PubMed

    Sasmal, Sourav Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2013-10-24

    In this article, we propose a general prey-predator model with disease in prey and predator subject to the weak Allee effects. We make the following assumptions: (i) infected prey competes for resources but does not contribute to reproduction; and (ii) in comparison to the consumption of the susceptible prey, consumption of infected prey would contribute less or negatively to the growth of predator. Based on these assumptions, we provide basic dynamic properties for the full model and corresponding submodels with and without the Allee effects. By comparing the disease free submodels (susceptible prey-predator model) with and without the Allee effects, we conclude that the Allee effects can create or destroy the interior attractors. This enables us to obtain the complete dynamics of the full model and conclude that the model has only one attractor (only susceptible prey survives or susceptible-infected coexist), or two attractors (bi-stability with only susceptible prey and susceptible prey-predator coexist or susceptible prey-infected prey coexists and susceptible prey-predator coexist). This model does not support the coexistence of susceptible-infected-predator, which is caused by the assumption that infected population contributes less or are harmful to the growth of predator in comparison to the consumption of susceptible prey.

  5. Effects of short and prolonged transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation on heart rate variability in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    De Couck, M; Cserjesi, R; Caers, R; Zijlstra, W P; Widjaja, D; Wolf, N; Luminet, O; Ellrich, J; Gidron, Y

    2017-03-01

    The vagus nerve is strategically located in the body, and has multiple homeostatic and health-promoting effects. Low vagal activity predicts onset and progression of diseases. These are the reasons to activate this nerve. This study examined the effects of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (t-VNS) on a main index of vagal activity, namely heart rate variability (HRV). In Study 1, we compared short (10min) left versus right ear t-VNS versus sham (no stimulation) in a within-subjects experimental design. Results revealed significant increases in only one HRV parameter (standard deviation of the RR intervals (SDNN)) following right-ear t-VNS. Study 2 examined the prolonged effects of t-VNS (1h) in the right ear. Compared to baseline, right-t-VNS significantly increased the LF and LF/HF components of HRV, and SDNN in women, but not in men. These results show limited effects of t-VNS on HRV, and are discussed in light of neuroanatomical and statistical considerations and future directions are proposed.

  6. A Single-Subject Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Time-Out in Reducing Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vegas, Kristopher C.; Jenson, William R.; Kircher, John C.

    2007-01-01

    One current area of dispute in the psychological literature is the inclusion of and proper meta-analytic data analysis procedures for single-subject designs. The current single-subject meta-analysis (N = 25) investigated the effect of time-out for the reduction of disruptive classroom behaviors in nondevelopmentally delayed children. Two separate…

  7. Biomarkers of Dose and Effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Human controlled exposure studies have generally focused on subjects exposed to ozone (O3) while exercising while exposures in rats have been done at rest. We exposed resting subjects to labeled O3 (18O3, 0.4 ppm, for 2 hr) and compared O3 dose and effects with our...

  8. Effects of consuming various foods and nutrients on objective and subjective aspects of human performance and behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtman, R. J.; Lieberman, H. R.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of behavioral tests were established and studies performed on young healthy subjects who received tryptophan, tyrosine or placeboes and on young and old subjects receiving protein and carbohydrate meals. The behavioral effect of the homone melatonin on human circadian rhythms was examined. The results are discussed.

  9. Effect Sizes as Result Interpretation Aids in Single-Subject Experimental Research: Description and Application of Four Nonoverlap Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakap, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Single-subject experimental research (SSER), one of the most commonly used research methods in special education and applied behaviour analysis, is a scientific, rigorous and valid method to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioural, educational and psychological treatments. However, studies using single-subject experimental research designs are…

  10. Effects of grapefruit juice on cortisol metabolism in healthy male Chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ya-Jie; Hu, Miao; Tomlinson, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Grapefruit juice (GFJ) inhibits intestinal CYP3A4 activity and it has been suggested that GFJ may also inhibit renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2), which converts cortisol to cortisone. This study examined the effect of GFJ on the urinary excretion of cortisol, cortisone and 6β-hydroxycortisol (6β-OHC) and their ratios to asses these effects. Healthy male Chinese subjects took single doses of GFJ (200, 400, and 600 mL, respectively) at weekly intervals. Urine was collected over 24 h the day before and following GFJ intake. Subsequently, volunteers drank 400 mL GFJ for 7 days and urine was collected from 0 to 4 h daily. GFJ had dose-dependent effects on increasing cortisol excretion (P <0.05) and the ratio of cortisol to cortisone (P <0.005) and reducing 6β-OHC excretion (P <0.05) and the ratio of 6β-OHC to cortisol (P <0.005). There was no significant effect on cortisone excretion. Maximal effects were observed within 4 h after GFJ ingestion. Repeated doses had persistent but no cumulative effects. GFJ significantly reduced the ratio of 6β-OHC to cortisol. It increased the ratio of cortisol to cortisone and this appeared largely due to increased cortisol excretion related to impaired CYP3A4-mediated cortisol metabolism although a true inhibitory effect on 11β-HSD2 in the kidney cannot be excluded.

  11. Effects of Grade Level and Subject on Student Test Score Predictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Jerrold E.; Hixon, Jon E.

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with elementary students before and after tests in three subjects investigated how grade level and subject affected students' ability to predict test scores. Results found a significant grade-subject area interaction for predictions prior to testing. Posttest predictions differed only slightly from pretest. Prediction accuracy was…

  12. Immediate effects of acupuncture on biceps brachii muscle function in healthy and post-stroke subjects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The effects of acupuncture on muscle function in healthy subjects are contradictory and cannot be extrapolated to post-stroke patients. This study evaluated the immediate effects of manual acupuncture on myoelectric activity and isometric force in healthy and post-stroke patients. Methods A randomized clinical trial, with parallel groups, single-blinded study design, was conducted with 32 healthy subjects and 15 post-stroke patients with chronic hemiparesis. Surface electromyography from biceps brachii during maximal isometric voluntary tests was performed before and after 20-min intermittent, and manual stimulation of acupoints Quchi (LI11) or Tianquan (PC2). Pattern differentiation was performed by an automated method based on logistic regression equations. Results Healthy subjects showed a decrease in the root mean-squared (RMS) values after the stimulation of LI11 (pre: 1.392 ± 0.826 V; post: 0.612 ± 0.0.320 V; P = 0.002) and PC2 (pre: 1.494 ± 0.826 V; post: 0.623 ± 0.320 V; P = 0.001). Elbow flexion maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC) was not significantly different after acupuncture stimulation of LI11 (pre: 22.2 ± 10.7 kg; post: 21.7 ± 9.5 kg; P = 0.288) or PC2 (pre: 18.8 ± 4.6 kg; post: 18.7 ± 6.0 kg; P = 0.468). Post-stroke patients did not exhibit any significant decrease in the RMS values after the stimulation of LI11 (pre: 0.627 ± 0.335 V; post: 0.530 ± 0.272 V; P = 0.187) and PC2 (pre: 0.601 ± 0.258 V; post: 0.591 ± 0.326 V; P = 0.398). Also, no significant decrease in the MIVC value was observed after the stimulation of LI11 (pre: 9.6 ± 3.9 kg; post: 9.6 ± 4.7 kg; P = 0.499) or PC2 (pre: 10.7 ± 5.6 kg; post: 10.2 ± 5.3 kg; P = 0.251). Different frequency of patterns was observed among healthy subjects and post-stroke patients groups (χ2 = 9.759; P = 0.021). Conclusion Manual acupuncture provides sufficient neuromuscular stimuli to promote immediate changes in motor unit gross recruitment without repercussion in

  13. Effects of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum sex hormones in overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Tomi, Hironori; Kaneko, Izuru; Shen, Manzhen; Soni, Madhu G; Yoshino, Gen

    2008-06-01

    (-) Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), an active ingredient extracted from the Garcinia cambogia fruit rind, has been commonly used as a dietary supplement for weight management. Given the controversy over HCA related testicular toxicity in animal studies, we investigated changes in serum sex hormones levels as an extension of our previous double-blind placebo-controlled trial in human subjects, in which 44 participants received either G. cambogia extract (1667.3 mg/day equivalent to 1000 mg HCA/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Compared to the placebo group, administration of the extract did not significantly alter the serum testosterone, estrone, and estradiol levels. Similarly, hematology, serum triacylglycerol and serum clinical pathology parameters did not reveal any significant adverse effects. The results of this preliminary investigation indicate that ingestion of G. cambogia extract at dose levels commonly recommended for human use does not affect serum sex hormone levels and blood parameters.

  14. Memory effects in schematic models of glasses subjected to oscillatory deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiocco, Davide; Foffi, Giuseppe; Sastry, Srikanth

    2015-05-01

    We consider two schematic models of glasses subjected to oscillatory shear deformation, motivated by the observations, in computer simulations of a model glass, of a nonequilibrium transition from a localized to a diffusive regime as the shear amplitude is increased, and of persistent memory effects in the localized regime. The first of these schematic models is the NK model, a spin model with disordered multi-spin interactions previously studied as a model for sheared amorphous solids. The second model, a transition matrix model, is an abstract formulation of the manner in which occupancy of local energy minima evolves under oscillatory deformation cycles. In both of these models, we find a behavior similar to that of an atomic model glass studied earlier. We discuss possible further extensions of the approaches outlined.

  15. Lateralized direct and indirect semantic priming effects in subjects with paranormal experiences and beliefs.

    PubMed

    Pizzagalli, D; Lehmann, D; Brugger, P

    2001-01-01

    The present investigation tested the hypothesis that, as an aspect of schizotypal thinking, the formation of paranormal beliefs was related to spreading activation characteristics within semantic networks. From a larger student population (n = 117) prescreened for paranormal belief, 12 strong believers and 12 strong disbelievers (all women) were invited for a lateralized semantic priming task with directly and indirectly related prime-target pairs. Believers showed stronger indirect (but not direct) semantic priming effects than disbelievers after left (but not right) visual field stimulation, indicating faster appreciation of distant semantic relations specifically by the right hemisphere, reportedly specialized in coarse rather than focused semantic processing. These results are discussed in the light of recent findings in schizophrenic patients with thought disorders. They suggest that a disinhibition with semantic networks may underlie the formation of paranormal belief. The potential usefulness of work with healthy subjects for neuropsychiatric research is stressed.

  16. On the effect of bias on the behavior of MOS structures subjected to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, O. V.

    2015-06-15

    Using a quantitative model [6], the analysis of published data on the effect of the gate bias on the behavior of MOS structure subjected to ionizing radiation is performed. It is shown that, along with hydrogen-containing traps, there are hydrogen-free hole traps in samples with a low content of hydrogen; traps of both types are distributed inhomogeneously over the thickness of the gate insulator. In addition to ionized hydrogen, neutral hydrogen is involved in the formation of surface states and provides the main contribution to this process at negative gate bias. A decrease in the shift of the threshold voltage in the case of high fields is caused by an increase in the drift component of the hole drain to the electrodes.

  17. Effect of Piezoelectric Implant on the Structural Integrity of Composite Laminates Subjected to Tensile Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masmoudi, Sahir; El Mahi, Abderrahim; Turki, Saïd

    2016-07-01

    The embedment of sensors within composite structures gives the opportunity to develop smart materials for health and usage monitoring systems. This study investigates the use of acoustic emission monitoring with embedded piezoelectric sensor during mechanical tests in order to identify the effects of introducing the sensor into the composite materials. The composite specimen with and without embedded sensor were subject to tensile static and fatigue loading. The analysis and observation of AE signals show that the integration of a sensor presents advantage of the detection of the acoustic events and also show the presence of three or four types of damage during tests. The incorporation of piezoelectric sensor has a negligible influence on the mechanical properties of materials.

  18. Effect of Piezoelectric Implant on the Structural Integrity of Composite Laminates Subjected to Tensile Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masmoudi, Sahir; El Mahi, Abderrahim; Turki, Saïd

    2017-02-01

    The embedment of sensors within composite structures gives the opportunity to develop smart materials for health and usage monitoring systems. This study investigates the use of acoustic emission monitoring with embedded piezoelectric sensor during mechanical tests in order to identify the effects of introducing the sensor into the composite materials. The composite specimen with and without embedded sensor were subject to tensile static and fatigue loading. The analysis and observation of AE signals show that the integration of a sensor presents advantage of the detection of the acoustic events and also show the presence of three or four types of damage during tests. The incorporation of piezoelectric sensor has a negligible influence on the mechanical properties of materials.

  19. Dichotic ear effects with digits and tones: a within-subject comparison.

    PubMed

    Teng, E L

    1979-10-01

    56 right-handed adults (23 men, 33 women) with IQs ranging from 79 to 140 on the Quick Test each performed on two dichotic tests, one with digital input, one with tonal input. The average magnitude of the right-ear advantage for digits was comparable to that of the left-ear advantage for tones, but there was greater between-subject variability with tonal input than with digital input. Ear advantage with digits was unrelated with ear advantage with tones, and high intelligence was not associated with clearly opposite directions of ear advantage for the two types of test material. The results were discussed in terms of hemispheric specializations, as well as the reliability and validity of the dichotic ear effects.

  20. Effects of active hexose correlated compound on the seasonal variations of immune competence in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Takanari, Jun; Hirayama, Yosuke; Homma, Kohei; Miura, Takehito; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Maeda, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of active hexose correlated compound intake on the immune competence in healthy volunteers. Thirty-four subjects were randomized to receive placebo or active hexose correlated compound at 1.0 g/d for 4 weeks in early winter. Natural killer cell activity was significantly increased in both groups during the study period, the natural killer cell number, however, was not altered in the active hexose correlated compound group while placebo group showed remarkable decline. In addition, the score of immunological vigor, an index of total immune competence, was maintained in the active hexose correlated compound group although that of placebo group lowered during the test period. These results suggested that the continuous active hexose correlated compound intake maintained the immune competence against the seasonal change.

  1. Orientation effects in high-order harmonic generation of H2^+ subject to strong laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, Shih-I.

    2008-05-01

    We present ab initio 3D calculations of the orientation-dependent high-order harmonic generation (HHG) of the hydrogen molecular ion H2^+ subject to intense linearly polarized laser pulses with the wavelength 800nm [1]. The nuclei are kept at the equilibrium separation of 2 a.u., and the initial electronic state can be either 1σg (ground) or 1σu (first excited) state. Split-operator technique in the energy represenation and generalized pseudospectral discretization in prolate spheroidal coordinates are used to solve the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation. HHG power spectra show strong dependence on the orientation angle between the molecular axis and the polarization direction of the laser field. Particularly, orientation-selected resonances with other electronic states are well pronounced. Two-center interference effects in the HHG spectra are also analyzed.1. D. A. Telnov and S. I. Chu, Phys. Rev. A 76, 043412 (2007).

  2. Hope, friends, and subjective well-being: a social network approach to peer group contextual effects.

    PubMed

    Parker, Philip D; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick; Marshall, Sarah; Sahdra, Baljinder; Kiuru, Noona

    2015-01-01

    Research on adolescence has previously shown that factors like depression and burnout are influenced by friendship groups. Little research, however, has considered whether similar effects are present for variables such as hope and subjective well-being. Furthermore, there is no research that considers whether the degree of hope of an adolescent's friends is associated with well-being over the individual's level of hope. Data were collected in 2012 from a sample of 15-year-olds (N = 1,972; 62% Caucasian; 46% identified as Catholic; 25% had professional parents) from the East Coast of Australia. Findings suggest that individuals from the same friendship group were somewhat similar in hope and well-being. Multilevel structural equation modeling indicated that friendship group hope was significantly related to psychological and social well-being.

  3. Effect of high altitude and exercise on microvascular parameters in acclimatized subjects.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Andreas; Demetz, Florian; Bruegger, Dirk; Schmoelz, Martin; Schroepfer, Sebastian; Martignoni, André; Baschnegger, Heiko; Hoelzl, Josef; Thiel, Manfred; Choukér, Alexander; Peter, Klaus; Gamble, John; Christ, Frank

    2006-02-01

    The role of microvascular fluid shifts in the adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia and its contribution to the pathophysiology of AMS (acute mountain sickness) is unresolved. In a systematic prospective study, we investigated the effects of hypobaric hypoxia and physical exercise alone, and in combination, on microvascular fluid exchange and related factors. We used computer-assisted VCP (venous congestion plethysmography) on the calves of ten altitude-acclimatized volunteers. We investigated the effects of: (i) actively climbing to an altitude of 3196 m, (ii) airlifting these subjects to the same altitude, and (iii) exercise at low altitude. CFC (capillary filtration capacity), Pvi (isovolumetric venous pressure) and Qa (calf blood flow) were assessed before and after each procedure and then repeated after an overnight rest. Measurements of CFC showed no evidence of increased microvascular permeability after any of the procedures. Pvi was significantly decreased (P<0.001) from 20.3+/-4.4 to 8.9+/-4.3 mmHg after active ascent, and was still significantly lower (P=0.009) after overnight rest at high altitude (13.6+/-5.9 mmHg). No such changes were observed after the passive ascent (16.7+/-4.0 mmHg at baseline; 17.3+/-4.5 mmHg after passive ascent; and 19.9+/-5.3 mmHg after overnight rest) or after exercise at low altitude. After the active ascent, Qa was significantly increased. We also found a significant correlation between Qa, Pvi and the number of circulating white blood cells. In conclusion, we found evidence to support the hypothesis that increased microvascular permeability associated with AMS does not occur in acclimatized subjects. We also observed that the microvascular equilibrium pressure (Pvi) fell in inverse relation to the increase in Qa, especially in hypoxic exercise. We hypothesize that this inverse relationship reflects the haemodynamic changes at the microvascular interface, possibly attributable to the flow-induced increases in endothelial surface

  4. Vascular effects of intravenous intralipid and dextrose infusions in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Gosmanov, Aidar R; Smiley, Dawn D; Peng, Limin; Siquiera, Joselita; Robalino, Gonzalo; Newton, Christopher; Umpierrez, Guillermo E

    2012-10-01

    Hyperglycemia and elevated free fatty acids (FFA) are implicated in the development of endothelial dysfunction. Infusion of soy-bean oil-based lipid emulsion (Intralipid®) increases FFA levels and results in elevation of blood pressure (BP) and endothelial dysfunction in obese healthy subjects. The effects of combined hyperglycemia and high FFA on BP, endothelial function and carbohydrate metabolism are not known. Twelve obese healthy subjects received four random, 8-h IV infusions of saline, Intralipid 40 mL/h, Dextrose 10% 40 mL/h, or combined Intralipid and dextrose. Plasma levels of FFA increased by 1.03±0.34 mmol/L (p=0.009) after Intralipid, but FFAs remained unchanged during saline, dextrose, and combined Intralipid and dextrose infusion. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations significantly increased after dextrose and combined Intralipid and dextrose (all, p<0.05) and were not different from baseline during saline and lipid infusion. Intralipid increased systolic BP by 12±9 mmHg (p<0.001) and diastolic BP by 5±6 mmHg (p=0.022),and decreased flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) from baseline by 3.2%±1.4% (p<0.001). Saline and dextrose infusion had neutral effects on BP and FMD. The co-administration of lipid and dextrose decreased FMD by 2.4%±2.1% (p=0.002) from baseline, but did not significantly increase systolic or diastolic BP. Short-term Intralipid infusion significantly increased FFA and BP; in contrast, FFA and BP were unchanged during combined infusion of Intralipid and dextrose. Combined Intralipid and dextrose infusion resulted in endothelial dysfunction similar to Intralipid alone.

  5. Effect of blood donation-mediated volume reduction on regional right ventricular deformation in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Açar, Göksel; Alizade, Elnur; Avci, Anıl; Cakir, Hakan; Efe, Suleyman Cagan; Kalkan, Mehmet Emin; Tabakci, Mehmet Mustafa; Toprak, Cuneyt; Tanboğa, Ibrahim Halil; Esen, Ali Metin

    2014-03-01

    Strain (S) and strain rate (SR) are known to be altered in diseases associated with right ventricular (RV) pressure/volume overload and RV myocardial dysfunction; however determinants of S/SR are incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of blood donation-mediated volume reduction on regional RV deformation in healthy young adults. Study population was composed of 61 consecutive healthy subjects who were volunteers for blood donation. All underwent standard echocardiography and two-dimensional S and SR imaging by speckle tracking before and after 450 mL blood donation. We found no change in RV lateral wall SR in all three segments. However, the S in the apical and mid segments of the RV lateral wall immediately decreased after blood donation [-26.2 ± 3.3 vs. -23.2 ± 3.3 % (p < 0.0001) and -28.2 ± 3.4 vs. -27.1 ± 3.2 % (p = 0.009), respectively], whereas no change was observed in the basal segment. Moreover, changes in systolic S on the apical segment of the RV lateral wall before and after blood donation were significantly correlated with the changes in the RV size [end-diastolic area index, r = - 0.369 (p = 0.003) and end-systolic area index, r = - 0.319 (p = 0.012)] and changes in the stroke volume index [r = - 0.436 (p < 0.001)]. Blood donation-mediated volume reduction in healthy subjects caused a regional difference in RV longitudinal deformation with the lower mid and apical S that was related to parameters of volume load severity. However, RV systolic SR was found to be resistant to the effects of volume depletion.

  6. Effects of biological variations on platelet count in healthy subjects in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liming; Yang, Jing; Lu, Xiaojun; Okada, Tokuhiro; Kondo, Tamiaki; Ruan, Changgeng; Wu, Yun; Xin, Xiaomin

    2004-02-01

    The effects of biological variations on platelet counts were investigated in 694 healthy subjects aged 18 to 60 years living in three cities including Chengdu (Sichuan Province), Suzhou (Jiangsu Province) and Harbin (Heilongjang Province) in China. Platelet counts in healthy subjects were significantly lower in Chengdu (52-202 x 10(9)/L) and Suzhou (60-259 x 10(9)/L) than in Harbin (154-348 x 10(9)/L) (p <0.0001), but the mean platelet volume (MPV) determined concurrently was negatively correlated with platelet count, the MPV values were significantly higher in Chengdu (11.8-15.6 fl) and Suzhou (10.9-15.8 fl) than in Harbin (9.5 approximately 12.9 fl) (p < 0.0001). Platelet counts were significantly higher in summer (73-289 x 10(9)/L) than in winter (52-202 x 10(9)/L) (p <0.0001), but the MPV values were lower in summer (11.2-14.7 fl) than in winter (11.8-15.6 fl) (p <0.05) in Chengdu. Platelet associated immunoglobulin (PA-IgG) in Chengdu was revealed to be significantly higher in the low platelet count group (<150 x 10(9)/L, 13.5 +/- 7.1 ng/10(7) PLT) than in the normal platelet count group (> or =150 x 10(9)/L, 8.3 +/- 2.7 ng/10(7) PLT) (p <0.0001). Similar results were observed in Suzhou for the reticulated platelet ratio, which was significantly higher in the low platelet count group (19.5 +/- 7.1%) than in the normal platelet count group (11.6 +/- 2.7%) (p <0.01). The bleeding time in Chengdu showed a significantly longer time in the low platelet count group (8.6 +/- 2.3 min) than in the normal platelet count group (6.0 +/- 1.2 min)(p <0.01). With regard to the effects of lipids on platelet counts, the HDL values were significantly higher in the normal platelet count group (1.60 +/- 0.76 mmol/L) than the low platelet count group (1.23 +/- 0.31 mmol/L) (p <0.01); but no significant differences in cholesterol and triglycerides values between the normal and low platelet count groups (p >0.05) were recorded. These findings suggest that the platelet counts could

  7. Effects of recreational soccer on physical fitness and health indices in sedentary healthy and unhealthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chamari, K; Slimani, M; Shephard, RJ; Yousfi, N; Tabka, Z; Bouhlel, E

    2016-01-01

    Recreational soccer (RS) is becoming a popular alternative to the classical continuous exercise mode used for the improvement of cardiovascular and metabolic fitness in untrained people. The objective of this paper was to conduct a detailed systematic review of the literature, identifying the physiological responses to RS and the training effects of RS on aerobic fitness and health in untrained healthy individuals and clinical patients. PubMed, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect databases were searched using terms related to recreational soccer. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCT) that assessed acute physiological responses to RS or the training effects of RS on physical fitness and health in sedentary, untrained subjects of any age or health status. All studies were assessed for methodological quality using the PEDro scale. Thirty-five articles met the inclusion criteria; seven examined the acute response to RS, and 28 assessed training effects. Clear evidence was found that RS had positive effects on many health-related indices and variables, including VO2max (gains of 7-16%), blood pressure (reductions of 6-13 mmHg), body composition (decreased fat mass and improved indices of bone health), and metabolic and cardiac function. These positive effects were observed in both healthy individuals and clinical patients, irrespective of age or sex. Although this review provides clear evidence of the positive effects of RS on health, most studies had limitations of methodology (an average PEDro score < 6). Furthermore, many of the training studies were from a small number of research groups. Future studies should be extended to other countries and institutions to ensure generality of the results. Regular RS training leads to significant cardiovascular and muscular adaptations and gains of health both in sedentary individuals and clinical patients at all ages, suggesting that RS is a potentially highly motivational method to enhance population health

  8. Effect of the stringency of conditions on caloric test results in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Krstulovic, Claudio; Tulsidas Mahtani, Bharti; Atrache Al Attrache, Nabil; Pérez-Garrigues, Herminio

    The caloric test is widely used to assess vestibular function, but the conditions in which it is performed can vary. Caloric nystagmus obtained in 57 healthy subjects were compared: 24 subjects studied in ideal conditions and 33 subjects in non-ideal conditions. A statistically significant decrease in the slow phase velocity of the 4 irrigations performed on the subjects in non-ideal conditions was observed. This must be considered, especially in subjects with suspected bilateral involvement. Stringent conditions reduce the risk of misdiagnosis with bilateral deficit.

  9. Is type 2 diabetes mellitus a predisposal cause for developing hepatocellular carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Biswajit; Bhattacharya, Sanchari; Chakraborty, Samrat; Satapathy, Bhabani Sankar; Dey, Niladri Shekhar; Shaw, Tapan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic cancer stands as one of the frontier causes of cancer related mortality worldwide. Among the several risk factors already established, type 2 diabetes is now considered as one of the important risks in progression of liver cancer. Studies have shown that likelihood of occurrence of liver cancer is many folds higher in patients diagnosed with type II diabetes compared to patients without diabetes. Liver plays an important role in metabolism of glucose in our body, so may be type II diabetes as it is an important epiphenomenon of hepatic diseases such as liver cirrhosis, liver failure, fatty liver, chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Some reports suggested that extensive change in enzyme structures in molecular level in diabetic patients may lead to liver function damage and hence accelerate hepatic cancer. Other strong links between these two diseases are "non alcoholic fatty liver diseases" and "nonalcoholic steatohepatitis" which are metabolic disorders caused by type II diabetes and eventually develops hepatocellular carcinoma. However, it still remains unanswered whether prevention of diabetes would effectively lower the chances of developing liver cancer or eliminating diabetes from the population would effectively reduce the liver cancer incidence. In this review, we will primarily focus on the molecular link between type2 diabetes and hepatic cancer and investigate underlying mechanism to establish type II diabetes as predisposed cause of hepatic cancer.

  10. Dietary zinc deficiency predisposes mice to the development of preneoplastic lesions in chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Romualdo, Guilherme Ribeiro; Goto, Renata Leme; Henrique Fernandes, Ana Angélica; Cogliati, Bruno; Barbisan, Luis Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Although there is a concomitance of zinc deficiency and high incidence/mortality for hepatocellular carcinoma in certain human populations, there are no experimental studies investigating the modifying effects of zinc on hepatocarcinogenesis. Thus, we evaluated whether dietary zinc deficiency or supplementation alter the development of hepatocellular preneoplastic lesions (PNL). Therefore, neonatal male Balb/C mice were submitted to a diethylnitrosamine/2-acetylaminefluorene-induced hepatocarcinogenesis model. Moreover, mice were fed adequate (35 mg/kg diet), deficient (3 mg/kg) or supplemented (180 mg/kg) zinc diets. Mice were euthanized at 12 (early time-point) or 24 weeks (late time-point) after introducing the diets. At the early time-point, zinc deficiency decreased Nrf2 protein expression and GSH levels while increased p65 and p53 protein expression and the number of PNL/area. At the late time-point, zinc deficiency also decreased GSH levels while increased liver genotoxicity, cell proliferation into PNL and PNL size. In contrast, zinc supplementation increased antioxidant defense at both time-points but not altered PNL development. Our findings are the first to suggest that zinc deficiency predisposes mice to the PNL development in chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. The decrease of Nrf2/GSH pathway and increase of liver genotoxicity, as well as the increase of p65/cell proliferation, are potential mechanisms to this zinc deficiency-mediated effect.

  11. Genome-wide association study identifies novel loci predisposing to cutaneous melanoma†

    PubMed Central

    Amos, Christopher I.; Wang, Li-E; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Chen, Wei V.; Fang, Shenying; Kosoy, Roman; Zhang, Mingfeng; Qureshi, Abrar A.; Vattathil, Selina; Schacherer, Christopher W.; Gardner, Julie M.; Wang, Yuling; Tim Bishop, D.; Barrett, Jennifer H.; MacGregor, Stuart; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Duffy, David L.; Mann, Graham J.; Cust, Anne; Hopper, John; Brown, Kevin M.; Grimm, Elizabeth A.; Xu, Yaji; Han, Younghun; Jing, Kaiyan; McHugh, Caitlin; Laurie, Cathy C.; Doheny, Kim F.; Pugh, Elizabeth W.; Seldin, Michael F.; Han, Jiali; Wei, Qingyi

    2011-01-01

    We performed a multistage genome-wide association study of melanoma. In a discovery cohort of 1804 melanoma cases and 1026 controls, we identified loci at chromosomes 15q13.1 (HERC2/OCA2 region) and 16q24.3 (MC1R) regions that reached genome-wide significance within this study and also found strong evidence for genetic effects on susceptibility to melanoma from markers on chromosome 9p21.3 in the p16/ARF region and on chromosome 1q21.3 (ARNT/LASS2/ANXA9 region). The most significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 15q13.1 locus (rs1129038 and rs12913832) lie within a genomic region that has profound effects on eye and skin color; notably, 50% of variability in eye color is associated with variation in the SNP rs12913832. Because eye and skin colors vary across European populations, we further evaluated the associations of the significant SNPs after carefully adjusting for European substructure. We also evaluated the top 10 most significant SNPs by using data from three other genome-wide scans. Additional in silico data provided replication of the findings from the most significant region on chromosome 1q21.3 rs7412746 (P = 6 × 10−10). Together, these data identified several candidate genes for additional studies to identify causal variants predisposing to increased risk for developing melanoma. PMID:21926416

  12. Vasodilatory effect of nitroglycerin in Japanese subjects with different aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Miura, Takeshi; Nishinaka, Toru; Terada, Tomoyuki; Yonezawa, Kazuya

    2017-03-23

    The functional genetic polymorphism of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) influences the enzymatic activities of its wild type (Glu504 encoded by ALDH2*1) and mutant type (Lys504 encoded by ALDH2*2) proteins. The enzymatic activities of mutant-type ALDH2 are limited compared with those of the wild type. ALDH2 has been suggested as a critical factor for nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilation by some human studies and in vitro studies. Currently, there is no research on direct observations of the vasodilatory effect of nitroglycerin sublingual tablets, which is the generally used dosage form. In the present study, the contribution of ALDH2 to the vasodilatory effect of nitroglycerin sublingual tablets was investigated among three genotype groups (ALDH2*1/*1, ALDH2*1/*2, and ALDH2*2/*2) in Japanese. The results by direct assessments of in vivo nitroglycerin-mediated dilation showed no apparent difference in vasodilation among all genotypes of ALDH2. Furthermore, to analyze the effect of other factors (age and flow-mediated dilation), multiple regression analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis were carried out. These analyses also indicated that the genotypes of ALDH2 were not related to the degree of vasodilation. These results suggest the existence of other predominant pathway(s) for nitroglycerin biotransformation, at least with regard to clinical nitroglycerin (e.g., a sublingual tablet) in Japanese subjects.

  13. Dimethyltryptamine (DMT): subjective effects and patterns of use among Australian recreational users.

    PubMed

    Cakic, Vince; Potkonyak, Jacob; Marshall, Alex

    2010-09-01

    Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is an endogenous hallucinogen with traditional use as a sacrament in the orally active preparation of ayahuasca. Although the religious use of ayahuasca has been examined extensively, very little is known about the recreational use of DMT. In this study, Australian participants (n=121) reporting at least one lifetime use of DMT completed an online questionnaire recording patterns of use, subjective effects and attitudes towards their DMT use. Smoking DMT was by far the most common route of administration (98.3%) with a comparatively smaller proportion reporting use of ayahuasca (30.6%). The reasons for first trying DMT were out of a general interest in hallucinogenic drugs (46.6%) or curiosity about DMT's effects (41.7%), while almost one-third (31.1%) cited possible psychotherapeutic benefits of the drug. An increase in psychospiritual insight was the most commonly reported positive effect of both smoked DMT (75.5%) and ayahuasca (46.7%), a finding that is consistent with other studies examining the ritualised use of ayahuasca in a religious context. Although previous studies of DMT use have examined ayahuasca use exclusively, the present study demonstrates the ubiquity of smoking as the most prevalent route of administration among recreational DMT users.

  14. Skilled musicians are not subject to the McGurk effect

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Alice M.; Massetti, Gemma; Rizzi, Ezia; Zani, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The McGurk effect is a compelling illusion in which humans auditorily perceive mismatched audiovisual speech as a completely different syllable. In this study evidences are provided that professional musicians are not subject to this illusion, possibly because of their finer auditory or attentional abilities. 80 healthy age-matched graduate students volunteered to the study. 40 were musicians of Brescia Luca Marenzio Conservatory of Music with at least 8–13 years of musical academic studies. /la/, /da/, /ta/, /ga/, /ka/, /na/, /ba/, /pa/ phonemes were presented to participants in audiovisual congruent and incongruent conditions, or in unimodal (only visual or only auditory) conditions while engaged in syllable recognition tasks. Overall musicians showed no significant McGurk effect for any of the phonemes. Controls showed a marked McGurk effect for several phonemes (including alveolar-nasal, velar-occlusive and bilabial ones). The results indicate that the early and intensive musical training might affect the way the auditory cortex process phonetic information. PMID:27453363

  15. D-dimer levels in maintenance hemodialysis patients: High prevalence of positive values also in the group without predisposing diseases.

    PubMed

    Gubensek, Jakob; Lolic, Matea; Ponikvar, Rafael; Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of elevated D-dimer levels in all chronic hemodialysis patients and those without additional disease, and to identify factors associated with increased D-dimer. In 167 chronic hemodialysis patients from our center, D-dimer was measured before dialysis. The effects of age, C-reactive protein (CRP), recent acute illness, vascular access, anticoagulation type, dialysis vintage, and chronic diseases, considered to predispose for increased D-dimer levels, were analyzed. The median D-dimer in the whole group was 966 (inter-quartile range [IQR] 524-1947) μg/L and was positive (>500 μg/L) in 75% of cases. D-dimer was positive in 91% of patients with acute illness, 76% of those with predisposing chronic diseases, but was still positive in 52% of patients without additional disease (i.e., acute illness or predisposing chronic diseases) - median D-dimer was 538.5 (IQR 359-966) μg/L. D-dimer was correlated to patients' age, but not dialysis vintage. In univariate analysis, the D-dimer levels were significantly higher in patients with atrial fibrillation, ischemic heart disease, recent acute illness, increased CRP, dialyzed over a catheter, and on citrate anticoagulation. Multivariate logistic regression showed that only age >65 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.93), catheter (OR 4.86), and positive CRP (OR 4.07) were independently associated with positive D-dimer at 500 μg/L cut-off, while the significance of age disappeared at 2000 μg/L cut-off. To conclude, the high prevalence of positive D-dimer values even in hemodialysis patients without additional disease limits the use of D-dimer for exclusion of thromboembolic diseases in hemodialysis patients.

  16. Ethical Aspects of Participating in Psychology Experiments: Effects of Anonymity on Evaluation, and Complaints of Distressed Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Bruce K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Distressed research participants were identified and contacted to investigate their experiences. Anxiety due to physical discomfort was the primary complaint. However, the experiments had very mild distress effects on the subjects. Anonymity did not influence responses. (CS)

  17. Effect of dietary restriction on peripheral monoamines and anxiety symptoms in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Ramírez, María J; Zulet, M Ángeles; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2014-09-01

    Reduced circulating monoamines may have a role in the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is becoming a major health problem worldwide. Moreover, an association between anxiety disorder and MetS has been reported; however, it is not clear whether weight loss can diminish anxiety. This investigation is aimed to examine the effects of a weight loss intervention on peripheral monoamines levels and anxiety symptoms in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The study population encompassed subjects with MetS (age: 50±10 y.o. and BMI: 35.8±4.3 kg/m2) selected from the RESMENA study after they had completed the 6-month weight loss intervention (-30% energy). Anthropometric measurements, dietary records, anxiety symptoms, and blood monoamines levels were analysed before and after the intervention. Dopamine (DA) (+18.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI): -51.2 to -0.5) and serotonin (5-HT) (+16.1%; 95% CI: -26.3 to -2.2) blood levels were significantly increased after the intervention. Higher DA blood concentrations at the end of the study were inversely related with the carbohydrate intake during the study (B=-3.3; 95% CI: -8.4 to -0.4) and basal DA levels predicted a greater decrease in body weight and anthropometric parameters. Subjects with higher 5-HT concentrations after the weight loss intervention also showed a lower energy intake during the intervention (B=-0.04; 95% CI: -0.07 to -0.01). Additionally, anxiety symptoms decreased after the weight loss treatment (-28.3%; 95% CI: 6.2-20.4), which was parallel to a greater decrease in body weight and anthropometric markers, being related to lower 5-HT basal levels. Dietary restriction in patients with MetS may help in reducing anxiety symptoms, and also in increasing 5-HT and DA blood levels. These results provide further insights regarding emotional and neurological factors behind weight loss.

  18. The effect of hyperoxia on central blood pressure in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Siński, Maciej; Dobosiewicz, Anna; Przybylski, Jacek; Abramczyk, Piotr; Gaciong, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hyperoxia increases total peripheral resistance by acting locally but also inhibits the activity of carotid body chemoreceptors. We studied the effect of hyperoxia on central pressure in normotensive subjects. Material and methods Medical air followed by 100% oxygen was provided to 19 subjects (12/7 female/male, age 28.2 ±1.1 years) for 15 min through a non-rebreather mask. Central blood pressure was then measured using applanation tonometry. Results After the first 2 min of hyperoxia, heart rate decreased significantly (65 ±2.6 beats/min vs. 61 ±2.1 beats/min, p = 0.0002). Peripheral and central blood pressure remained unchanged, while hemoglobin oxygen saturation and subendocardial viability ratio index increased (97 ±0.4% vs. 99 ±0.2%, p = 0.03; 168 ±8.4% vs. 180 ±8.2%, p = 0.009). After 15 min of 100% oxygen ventilation, heart rate and peripheral and central blood pressures remained unchanged from the first 2 min. The augmentation index, augmentation pressure and ejection duration increased as compared to baseline values and those obtained at 2 min (–5.1 ±2.9% vs. –1.2 ±2.6%, p = 0.005 and –4.6 ±2.7% vs. –1.2 ±2.6%, p = 0.0015; –1.3 ±0.7 mm Hg vs. –0.2 ±1.2 mm Hg, p = 0.003 and –1.1 ±0.7 mm Hg vs. –0.2 ±1.2 mm Hg, p = 0.012; 323 ±3.6 ms vs. 330 ±3.5 ms, p = 0.0002 and 326 ±3.5 ms vs. 330 ±3.5 ms, p = 0.021, respectively). Conclusions The present study shows that hyperoxia does not affect central blood pressure in young healthy subjects and may improve myocardial blood supply estimated indirectly from applanation tonometry. PMID:27695489

  19. Ansa pancreatica as a predisposing factor for recurrent acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takana Yamakawa; Gonoi, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the non-biased prevalence and clinical significance of ansa pancreatica in patients with acute pancreatitis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS Our institutional review board approved this cross-sectional study, which consisted of a community-based cohort of 587 consecutive participants in a whole-body health-check program, and 73 subjects with episode of acute pancreatitis (55 patients with a single episode of acute pancreatitis, and 18 patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis). All of the subjects underwent abdominal MRI including magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, medical examinations, and blood tests. Two board-certified, diagnostic, abdominal radiologists evaluated the images, and ansa pancreatica was diagnosed based on its characteristic anatomy on MRI. RESULTS Compared with the community group [5/587 (0.85%)], patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis had a significantly higher frequency of ansa pancreatica [2/18 (11.1%)] (P = 0.016; OR = 14.3; 95%CI: 1.27-96.1), but not compared with patients with single-episode acute pancreatitis [1/55 (1.8%)] (P = 0.42; OR = 2.1; 95%CI: 0.44-19.7). Multiple logistic regression analysis using age, alcohol intake, presence of ansa pancreatica, and presence of autoimmune disease as independent covariates, revealed a significant relationship between the presence of ansa pancreatica and recurrent acute pancreatitis. The presence of autoimmune disease was also significantly associated with the onset of recurrent acute pancreatitis. On the other hand, neither age nor alcohol intake were significantly related to the onset of recurrent acute pancreatitis. CONCLUSION The present study is the first to provide robust evidence that the presence of ansa pancreatica is significantly associated with recurrent acute pancreatitis. PMID:27833385

  20. The effect of ozone exposure on the dispersion of inhaled aerosol boluses in healthy human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, M.J.; Bennett, W.D.; DeWitt, P.; Seal, E.; Strong, A.A.; Gerrity, T.R. )

    1991-07-01

    Acute exposure of humans to low levels of ozone are known to cause decreases in FVC and increases in SRaw. These alterations in lung function do not, however, elucidate the potential for acute small airway responses. In this study we employed a test of aerosol dispersion to examine the potential effects of ozone on small airways in humans. Twenty-two healthy nonsmoking male volunteers were exposed to 0.4 ppm ozone for 1 h while exercising at 20 L/min/m2 body surface area. Before and immediately after exposure, tests of spirometry (FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75) and plethysmography (Raw and SRaw) were performed. Subjects also performed an aerosol dispersion test before and after exposure. Each test involved a subject inhaling five to seven breaths of a 300-ml bolus of a 0.5 micron triphenyl phosphate aerosol injected into a 2-L tidal volume. The bolus was injected into the tidal breath at three different depths: at Depth A the bolus was injected after 1.6 L of clean air were inhaled from FRC, at Depth B after 1.2 L, and at Depth C after 1.2 L but with inhalation beginning from RV. The primary measure of bolus dispersion was the expired half-width (HW). Secondary measures were the ratio (expressed as percent) of peak exhaled aerosol concentration to peak inhaled concentration (PR), shift in the median bolus volume between inspiration and expiration (VS), and percent of total aerosol recovered (RC). Changes in pulmonary function after ozone exposure were consistent with previous findings.

  1. Water- versus land-based exercise in elderly subjects: effects on physical performance and body composition.

    PubMed

    Bergamin, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea; Tolomio, Silvia; Berton, Linda; Sergi, Giuseppe; Zaccaria, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 24-week exercise protocol carried out in geothermal spring water to improve overall physical function and muscle mass in a group of healthy elderly subjects. A further aim was to compare this water-based protocol with a land-based protocol and a control group. For this purpose, 59 subjects were recruited and randomly allocated to three groups: aquatic group (AG), land group (LG), and control group (CG). AG and LG followed a 6-month, twice-weekly, multimodality exercise intervention. AG underwent the protocol in hot-spring water (36°C) while LG did it in a land-based environment. After the intervention, knee-extension strength was maintained in AG and LG. The 8-foot up-and-go test showed a reduction in both exercise groups (AG -19.3%, P < 0.05; LG -12.6%, P < 0.05), with a significantly greater decrease in AG. The back-scratch test revealed an improvement only in AG (25.8%; P < 0.05), while the sit-and-reach test improved in all groups. Finally, AG reduced fat mass by 4% (P < 0.05), and dominant forearm fat decreased by 9.2% (P < 0.05). In addition, calf muscle density increased by 1.8% (P < 0.05). In summary, both water- and land-based activities were beneficial in maintaining strength and in improving lower-body flexibility. Aquatic exercise appeared a better activity to improve dynamic balance. Thermal swimming pools and the use of rating of perceived exertion as a method of exercise monitoring should be considered potentially useful tools to enhance physical performance and body composition in healthy elderly.

  2. Preserving Subjective Wellbeing in the Face of Psychopathology: Buffering Effects of Personal Strengths and Resources

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Elisabeth H.; Snippe, Evelien; de Jonge, Peter; Jeronimus, Bertus F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many studies on resilience have shown that people can succeed in preserving mental health after a traumatic event. Less is known about whether and how people can preserve subjective wellbeing in the presence of psychopathology. We examined to what extent psychopathology can co-exist with acceptable levels of subjective wellbeing and which personal strengths and resources moderate the association between psychopathology and wellbeing. Methods Questionnaire data on wellbeing (Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life/Happiness Index), psychological symptoms (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales), and personal strengths and resources (humor, Humor Style questionnaire; empathy, Empathy Quotient questionnaire; social company; religion; daytime activities, Living situation questionnaire) were collected in a population-based internet study (HowNutsAreTheDutch; N = 12,503). Data of the subset of participants who completed the above questionnaires (n = 2411) were used for the present study. Regression analyses were performed to predict wellbeing from symptoms, resources, and their interactions. Results Satisfactory levels of wellbeing (happiness score 6 or higher) were found in a substantial proportion of the participants with psychological symptoms (58% and 30% of those with moderate and severe symptom levels, respectively). The association between symptoms and wellbeing was large and negative (-0.67, P < .001), but less so in persons with high levels of self-defeating humor and in those with a partner and/or pet. Several of the personal strengths and resources had a positive main effect on wellbeing, especially self-enhancing humor, having a partner, and daytime activities. Conclusions Cultivating personal strengths and resources, like humor, social/animal company, and daily occupations, may help people preserve acceptable levels of wellbeing despite the presence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. PMID:26963923

  3. The effect of low light intensity on the maintenance of circadian synchrony in human subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Lyman, J.; Beljan, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The light-intensity threshold for humans is not known. In past space flights owing to power restrictions, light intensities have been minimal and reported to be as low as 15 ft. c. This study was conducted to determine whether the light (L)/dark (D) environment of 16L : 8D at the relatively low light intensity of 15 ft. c. was adequate for the maintenance of circadian synchrony in human subjects. Six healthy male subjects aged 20-23 years were exposed for 21 days to a 16L : 8D photoperiod. During the first 7 days the light intensity was 100 ft. c.; it was reduced to 15 ft. c. during the next 7 days and increased again to 100 ft. c. during the last 7 days of the study. Rectal temperature (RT) and heart rate (HR) were recorded continuously throughout the 21 days of the study. In the 100 ft. c. 16L : 8D the RT and HR rhythms remained stable and circadian throughout. When the light intensity was decreased to 15 ft. c. the periodicity of the HR rhythm was significantly decreased and this rhythm showed marked instability. In contrast the period of the RT rhythm did not change but a consistent phase delay occurred due to a delay in the lights-on associated rise in RT. These divergent effects on these two rhythms in internal desynchronization and performance decrement during the 15 ft. c. exposure. The data emphasize the need for establishing accurately the minimal lighting requirements for the maintenance of circadian rhythms of humans in confined environments.

  4. Effect of Daily Supine LBNP Exercise on Gastrointestinal Motility During Antiorthostatic Bedrest in Normal Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; DeKerlegand, D.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Space flight alters gastrointestinal (GI) function in general, and GI motility, in particular. This can decrease appetite, affect the body's ability to absorb nutrients, fluids and electrolytes, and contribute to a negative energy balance. Antiorthostatic bed rest (ABR) has been used to simulate microgravity-induced physiological changes in human subjects. The objective of this investigation is to determine if daily supine lower body negative pressure (LBNP) exercise will maintain GI motility at near normal levels during ABR. Eight subjects participated in the study protocol consisting of an ambulatory phase scheduled before bedrest periods and two 14 day bed rest (6 deg head-down tilt) periods, once with and another time without exercise. Supine treadmill running in an LBNP chamber was used for exercise. Mouth-to-cecum transit time (MCTT) of lactulose was measured indirectly using the rise in breath hydrogen level after oral administration of lactulose (20 g) following a standard low-fiber breakfast. GI motility during ambulatory and ABR periods was assessed using MCTT data. Results of this Study indicate that GI motility during ABR without exercise decreased by 45% [MCTT +/- S.E.M. 56.2 +/- 6.0 (Ambulatory); 87.3 +/- 8.3 (ABR)]. Supine LBNP exercise did not significantly alter this reduction in GI motility during ABR [MCTT +/- S.E.M. 81.3 +/- 4.2 (Exercise); 87.3 +/- 8.3 (No Exercise)]. These results suggest that supine LBNP exercise may not be an effective countermeasure for microgravity-induced decrements in GI motility and function.

  5. Effects of walking speed and age on the muscle forces of unimpaired gait subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fliger, Carlos G.; Crespo, Marcos J.; Braidot, Ariel A.; Ravera, Emiliano P.

    2016-04-01

    Clinical gait analysis provides great contributions to the understanding of gait disorders and also provides a mean for a more comprehensive treatment plan. However, direct measures of muscle forces are difficult to obtain in clinical settings because it generally requires invasive techniques. Techniques of musculoskeletal modeling have been used for several decades to improve the benefits of clinical gait analysis, but many of the previous studies were focused on analyzing separately the muscle forces distribution of children or adult subjects with only one condition of walking speed. For these reason, the present study aims to enhance the current literature by describing the age and speed gait effects on muscle forces during walking. We used a musculoskeletal model with 23 degrees of freedom and 92 musculotendon actuators to represent 76 muscles in the lower extremities and torso. The computed muscle control algorithm was used to estimate the muscle forces from the kinematics and to adjust the model obtained in the residual reduction algorithm. We find that hamstrings has an important peak in the mid-stance phase in the adult group but this peak disappears in the children group with the same walking speed condition. Furthermore, the rectus femoris presents an increase in the muscle force during the pre- and mid-swing in concordance with the increment in the walking speed of subjects. This behavior could be associated with the role that the rectus femoris has in the acceleration of the knee joint. Finally, we show that the soleus is the muscle that perform the major force throughout the gait cycle regardless of age and walking speed.

  6. The effect of huffing and directed coughing on energy expenditure in young asymptomatic subjects.

    PubMed

    Pontifex, Edward; Williams, Marie T; Lunn, Rebecca; Parsons, David

    2002-01-01

    Coughing and huffing have been shown to be effective airway clearance techniques and some authors have anecdotally reported that a huff requires less energy than a series of coughs commencing and finishing at the same lung volume. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in the energy expenditure between periods of huffing and directed voluntary coughing commencing from the same initial lung volume in young asymptomatic subjects. Energy expenditure was measured using open-circuit indirect calorimetry equipment. Twenty-four non-smoking asymptomatic subjects (12 male, 12 female, aged 18-24 years), without any form of disease and within 10% of their predicted pulmonary function, completed the study. Energy expenditure was measured over three 10min, randomly ordered sessions of huffing, directed coughing and rest. The forced expiratory sessions comprised a single huff or double-barrel cough (both starting at total lung capacity) at the end of every two minutes. Each session was separated by a 5min washout period. No significant difference in energy expenditure was found between the huffing and directed coughing periods (mean difference 0.003 mL/kg/min (95% CI -0.160 to 0.114) and both produced significantly greater energy expenditure than rest (rest and huff mean difference 0.309 mL/kg/min (95% CI 0.080 to 0.549) and rest and cough mean difference 0.306 mL/kg/min (95% CI 0.074 to 0.508)). The suggested benefits of huffing versus coughing in terms of energy conservation are yet to be shown.

  7. The Effect of Physical Therapy Treatment in Patients with Subjective Tinnitus: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Michiels, Sarah; Naessens, Sebastiaan; Van de Heyning, Paul; Braem, Marc; Visscher, Corine M.; Gilles, Annick; De Hertogh, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tinnitus is a very common symptom that often causes distress and decreases the patient's quality of life. Apart from the well-known causes, tinnitus can in some cases be elicited by dysfunctions of the cervical spine or the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). To date however, it is unclear whether alleviation of these dysfunctions, by physical therapy treatment, also decreases the tinnitus complaints. Such physical therapy could be an interesting treatment option for patients that are now often left without treatment. Objectives: The aim of this review was to investigate the current evidence regarding physical therapy treatment in patients with tinnitus. Data sources: The online databases Pubmed, Web of Science, Cochrane, and Embase were searched up to March 2016. Two independent reviewers conducted the data extraction and methodological quality assessment. Study eligibility criteria: Only randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental trials were included in the review. Studies had to be written in English, French, Dutch, or German. Participants and interventions: The included studies investigated the effect of physical therapy treatment modalities on tinnitus severity in patients suffering from subjective tinnitus. Results: Six studies were included in this review, four investigating cervical spine treatment and two investigating TMJ treatment. These studies show positive effects of cervical spine treatment (manipulations, exercises, triggerpoint treatment) on tinnitus severity. Additionally, decrease in tinnitus severity and intensity was demonstrated after TMJ treatment, following splints, occlusal adjustments as well as jaw exercises. Limitations: The risk of bias in the included studies was high, mainly due to lack of randomization, lack of blinding of subjects, therapists, and/or investigators. Additionally, risk of bias is present due to incomplete presentation of the data and selective reporting. A major issue of the reviewed papers is the

  8. Quantification of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Predisposal Stage of Municipal Solid Waste Management.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuanbin; Jiang, Daqian; Zhao, Zhilan

    2017-01-03

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal represents one of the largest sources of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, the biogenic GHG emissions in the predisposal stage of MSW management (i.e., the time from waste being dropped off in community or household garbage bins to being transported to disposal sites) are excluded from the IPCC inventory methodology and rarely discussed in academic literature. Herein, we quantify the effluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) from garbage bins in five communities along the urban-rural gradient in Beijing in four seasons. We find that the annual average CO2, CH4, and N2O effluxes in the predisposal stage were (1.6 ± 0.9)10(3), 0.049 ± 0.016, and 0.94 ± 0.54 mg kg(-1)h(-1) (dry matter basis) and had significant seasonal differences (24- to 159-fold) that were strongly correlated with temperature. According to our estimate, the N2O emission in the MSW predisposal stage amounts to 20% of that in the disposal stage in Beijing, making the predisposal stage a nontrivial source of waste-induced N2O emissions. Furthermore, the CO2 and CH4 emissions in the MSW predisposal account for 5% (maximum 10% in summer) of the total carbon contents in a Beijing's household food waste stream, which has significance in the assessment of MSW-related renewable energy potential and urban carbon cycles.

  9. Antihypertensive effect of green coffee bean extract on mildly hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Kozuma, Kazuya; Tsuchiya, Shigemi; Kohori, Jun; Hase, Tadashi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro

    2005-09-01

    A water-soluble green coffee bean extract (GCE) has been shown to be effective against hypertension in both spontaneously hypertensive rats and humans. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study evaluated the dose-response relationship of GCE in 117 male volunteers with mild hypertension. Subjects were randomized into four groups: a placebo and three drug groups that received 46 mg, 93 mg, or 185 mg of GCE once a day. After 28 days, systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the placebo, 46 mg, 93 mg, and 185 mg groups was reduced by -1.3+/-3.0 mmHg, -3.2+/-4.6 mmHg, -4.7+/-4.5 mmHg, and -5.6+/-4.2 mmHg from the baseline, respectively. The decreases in SBP in the 93 mg group (p<0.05) and the 185 mg group (p<0.01) were statistically significant compared with the placebo group. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in the placebo, 46 mg, 93 mg, and 185 mg groups was reduced by -0.8+/-3.1 mmHg, -2.9+/-2.9 mmHg, -3.2+/-3.2 mmHg, and -3.9+/-2.8 mmHg from the baseline, respectively, and significant effects were observed in the 93 mg group (p<0.05) and the 185 mg group (p<0.01) compared with the placebo group. Both blood pressures were significantly reduced in a dose-related manner by GCE (p<0.001). Adverse effects caused by GCE were not observed. The results suggested that daily use of GCE has a blood pressure-lowering effect in patients with mild hypertension.

  10. Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide on Circulating Steroid Levels in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Strajhar, P; Schmid, Y; Liakoni, E; Dolder, P C; Rentsch, K M; Kratschmar, D V; Odermatt, A; Liechti, M E

    2016-03-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A (5-HT2A ) receptor agonist that is used recreationally worldwide. Interest in LSD research in humans waned after the 1970s, although the use of LSD in psychiatric research and practice has recently gained increasing attention. LSD produces pronounced acute psychedelic effects, although its influence on plasma steroid levels over time has not yet been characterised in humans. The effects of LSD (200 μg) or placebo on plasma steroid levels were investigated in 16 healthy subjects using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study design. Plasma concentration-time profiles were determined for 15 steroids using liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry. LSD increased plasma concentrations of the glucocorticoids cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone compared to placebo. The mean maximum concentration of LSD was reached at 1.7 h. Mean peak psychedelic effects were reached at 2.4 h, with significant alterations in mental state from 0.5 h to > 10 h. Mean maximal concentrations of cortisol and corticosterone were reached at 2.5 h and 1.9 h, and significant elevations were observed 1.5-6 h and 1-3 h after drug administration, respectively. LSD also significantly increased plasma concentrations of the androgen dehydroepiandrosterone but not other androgens, progestogens or mineralocorticoids compared to placebo. A close relationship was found between plasma LSD concentrations and changes in plasma cortisol and corticosterone and the psychotropic response to LSD, and no clockwise hysteresis was observed. In conclusion, LSD produces significant acute effects on circulating steroids, especially glucocorticoids. LSD-induced changes in circulating glucocorticoids were associated with plasma LSD concentrations over time and showed no acute pharmacological tolerance.

  11. Acute Effects of Modafinil on Brain Resting State Networks in Young Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Pieramico, Valentina; Ferretti, Antonio; Macchia, Antonella; Tommasi, Marco; Saggino, Aristide; Ciavardelli, Domenico; Manna, Antonietta; Navarra, Riccardo; Cieri, Filippo; Stuppia, Liborio; Tartaro, Armando; Sensi, Stefano L.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing debate on the use of drugs that promote cognitive enhancement. Amphetamine-like drugs have been employed as cognitive enhancers, but they show important side effects and induce addiction. In this study, we investigated the use of modafinil which appears to have less side effects compared to other amphetamine-like drugs. We analyzed effects on cognitive performances and brain resting state network activity of 26 healthy young subjects. Methodology A single dose (100 mg) of modafinil was administered in a double-blind and placebo-controlled study. Both groups were tested for neuropsychological performances with the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices II set (APM) before and three hours after administration of drug or placebo. Resting state functional magnetic resonance (rs-FMRI) was also used, before and after three hours, to investigate changes in the activity of resting state brain networks. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was employed to evaluate differences in structural connectivity between the two groups. Protocol ID: Modrest_2011; NCT01684306; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01684306. Principal Findings Results indicate that a single dose of modafinil improves cognitive performance as assessed by APM. Rs-fMRI showed that the drug produces a statistically significant increased activation of Frontal Parietal Control (FPC; p<0.04) and Dorsal Attention (DAN; p<0.04) networks. No modifications in structural connectivity were observed. Conclusions and Significance Overall, our findings support the notion that modafinil has cognitive enhancing properties and provide functional connectivity data to support these effects. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01684306 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01684306. PMID:23935959

  12. Effects of Cremophor EL on the absorption of orally administered saquinavir and fexofenadine in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Tomaru, Atsuko; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko; Maeda, Kazuya; Banba, Hirokazu; Takayama, Kozo; Kumagai, Yuji; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    Modulation of CYP3A and/or P-gp function by several excipients has been reported. However, relatively few studies have investigated their effects in humans. Therefore, the aim of this clinical study was to clarify the effects of Cremophor EL on the inhibition of CYP3A and P-gp in the human small intestine. Eight healthy Japanese subjects received an oral dose of saquinavir (2 mg, substrate of P-gp/CYP3A) or fexofenadine (50 μg, substrate of P-gp) without or with Cremophor EL (720 mg and 1440 mg). Significant increases in Cmax (1.3-fold) and AUC0-24 (1.6-fold) were observed for fexofenadine when administered with 1440 mg of Cremophor EL. In contrast, a significant decrease was observed for saquinavir when administered with 720 mg of Cremophor EL. The equilibrium dialysis experiment was performed to investigate the micellar interaction between Cremophor EL and drugs. The equilibrium dialysis study showed that saquinavir was far extensively entrapped into the micelles. The reduced concentration of free saquinavir by entrapping in micelles was considered to cause the reduction of systemic exposure for saquinavir. In conclusion, this clinical study suggests that Cremophor EL at least inhibits P-gp in the human small intestine.

  13. Effect of Tongkat Ali on stress hormones and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Eurycoma longifolia is a medicinal plant commonly called tongkat ali (TA) and “Malaysian ginseng.” TA roots are a traditional “anti-aging” remedy and modern supplements are intended to improve libido, energy, sports performance and weight loss. Previous studies have shown properly-standardized TA to stimulate release of free testosterone, improve sex drive, reduce fatigue, and improve well-being. Methods We assessed stress hormones and mood state in 63 subjects (32 men and 31 women) screened for moderate stress and supplemented with a standardized hot-water extract of TA root (TA) or Placebo (PL) for 4 weeks. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with significance set at p < 0.05 was used to determine differences between groups. Results Significant improvements were found in the TA group for Tension (−11%), Anger (−12%), and Confusion (−15%). Stress hormone profile (salivary cortisol and testosterone) was significantly improved by TA supplementation, with reduced cortisol exposure (−16%) and increased testosterone status (+37%). Conclusion These results indicate that daily supplementation with tongkat ali root extract improves stress hormone profile and certain mood state parameters, suggesting that this “ancient” remedy may be an effective approach to shielding the body from the detrimental effects of “modern” chronic stress, which may include general day-to-day stress, as well as the stress of dieting, sleep deprivation, and exercise training. PMID:23705671

  14. Beneficial effects of exogenous selenium in cucumber seedlings subjected to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Hawrylak-Nowak, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    The study was conducted in order to determine the effects of exogenous selenium (Se) supply (5, 10, or 20 μM) on the resistance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. Polan F1 seedlings to salt stress (50 mM NaCl). Plant growth was negatively affected by excessive salinity and dry mass production as well as photosynthetic pigments accumulation severely decreased. Se treatments at 5 and 10 μM significantly improved the growth rate and increased the photosynthetic pigments and proline contents in cucumber leaves subjected to salt stress. Moreover, it is concluded that Se enhanced the salt tolerance of seedlings by protecting the cell membrane against lipid peroxidation. The growth-promoting effect of low Se concentrations (5 and 10 μM) under saline conditions could be due to the antioxidative activity of Se, increase in proline accumulation and/or decrease in content of chloride ions in the shoots tissues. Thus, optimal Se supplementation presents a promising potential for use in conditions of relatively high levels of NaCl in the medium.

  15. Strength capabilities and subjective limits in repetitive manual exertions: task and hand dominance effects.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Hope E; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2003-01-01

    Strength and subjectively determined exertion limits are used widely for ergonomic evaluation. Although compilations of such data for the hand and finger exist, several important limitations include the use of inexperienced participants and constrained postures. In this study both strength and maximum acceptable limits (MAL, 2-hour duration) were obtained from both industrial workers and inexperienced volunteers in 10 simulated hand-intensive automotive assembly tasks. To expand the applicability of the results, the effects of hand-dominance were also determined. Results were compared with existing recommendations (by Kodak and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value for hand-intensive activities), and showed that across the diverse tasks the former yields values slightly below the 1st percentile of MAL, whereas the latter values are slightly higher than the 25th percentile. MALs were found to be approximately 50% of strength, consistent with earlier reports, and suggesting that acceptable limits are strongly influenced by physical capacity. Substantial differences ( approximately 30%) in strength and MALs were found between the two participant groups, emphasizing that participants should resemble the target population. Hand-dominance effects were statistically significant though of moderate size ( approximately 5%). Strength and MAL distributions are provided that can be used for evaluation and design of a variety of hand-intensive occupational tasks.

  16. Beyond intensity: Spectral features effectively predict music-induced subjective arousal.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Bruno; Marin, Manuela M; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2014-01-01

    Emotions in music are conveyed by a variety of acoustic cues. Notably, the positive association between sound intensity and arousal has particular biological relevance. However, although amplitude normalization is a common procedure used to control for intensity in music psychology research, direct comparisons between emotional ratings of original and amplitude-normalized musical excerpts are lacking. In this study, 30 nonmusicians retrospectively rated the subjective arousal and pleasantness induced by 84 six-second classical music excerpts, and an additional 30 nonmusicians rated the same excerpts normalized for amplitude. Following the cue-redundancy and Brunswik lens models of acoustic communication, we hypothesized that arousal and pleasantness ratings would be similar for both versions of the excerpts, and that arousal could be predicted effectively by other acoustic cues besides intensity. Although the difference in mean arousal and pleasantness ratings between original and amplitude-normalized excerpts correlated significantly with the amplitude adjustment, ratings for both sets of excerpts were highly correlated and shared a similar range of values, thus validating the use of amplitude normalization in music emotion research. Two acoustic parameters, spectral flux and spectral entropy, accounted for 65% of the variance in arousal ratings for both sets, indicating that spectral features can effectively predict arousal. Additionally, we confirmed that amplitude-normalized excerpts were adequately matched for loudness. Overall, the results corroborate our hypotheses and support the cue-redundancy and Brunswik lens models.

  17. Acute effect of caffeine intake on hemodynamics after resistance exercise in young non-hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Souza, Diego; Casonatto, Juliano; Poton, Roberto; Willardson, Jeffrey; Polito, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of caffeine on hemodynamics after a resistance exercise session. Fifteen subjects completed two randomly ordered experimental resistance exercise sessions 45 min after the ingestion of either caffeine (4 mg.kg(-1)) or placebo. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean (MAP) blood pressures were measured before consuming caffeine; SBP, DBP, MAP, heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) were measured immediately before and after each of the sessions; SBP, DBP and MAP were measured for 9 hours after sessions. Caffeine increased (p < 0.05) pre-exercise DBP and MAP. In caffeine and placebo conditions significant decreases (p < 0.05) were noted in SBP, MAP, and PVR between the pre- and post-exercise time points. Notwithstanding, the mean values for SBP, DBP and MAP during the 9 h of post-exercise monitoring were increased (p < 0.05) for the caffeine. In conclusion, the cardiovascular effects of caffeine are different over the post-exercise period after resistance exercise in normotensive young adults.

  18. Effects of regional anesthesia with ropivacaine on arterial pressure and heart rate in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Nilton E; Lima Filho, Nelson S; Lima, Eliudem G; Vasquez, Elisardo C

    2006-02-01

    The anesthetic, ropivacaine, has been used extensively in clinical practice, but few studies have evaluated this long-acting local anesthetic in dentistry. In this study we evaluated the effects of ropivacaine alone and ropivacaine + vasoconstrictor on the cardiovascular system when used as a dental anesthetic in volunteers. Thirty-two healthy subjects received two consecutive infiltrations of 1.8 ml of either 0.75% ropivacaine or ropivacaine + epinephrine into the pterygomandibular region. Pain sensation, numbness of the lip, arterial pressure, heart rate, and electrocardiogram changes were monitored for 2 h. The onset of anesthesia was 10 min after the injection and lasted for more than 2 h, and numbness of the lip lasted for approximately 8 h. Ropivacaine alone did not cause significant changes in the cardiovascular parameters, but ropivacaine + epinephrine caused a transient increase in arterial pressure and heart rate 2 min postinjection. We conclude that ropivacaine alone injected into the pterygomandibular region does not affect the cardiovascular system and that the addition of epinephrine has no beneficial effect. This finding may be relevant to dentists endeavoring to find an anesthetic of minimal cardiovascular risk to produce regional anesthesia for long-lasting procedures without the need of a vasoconstrictor.

  19. Effect of a Home-based Balance Training Protocol on Dynamic Postural Control in Subjects with Chronic Ankle Instability.

    PubMed

    De Ridder, R; Willems, T M; Vanrenterghem, J; Roosen, P

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the presence of postural deficits in subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI) and to assess the effect of an 8-week balance training program on dynamic postural control. A total of 43 subjects with CAI and 31 controls participated in this case-control study. Participants with CAI performed an 8-week home-based balance training, including 3 sessions a week. As main outcome measure, postural control was quantified after a vertical drop by means of the dynamic postural stability index (DPSI). Perceptual outcomes were documented using the FADI, FADI-Sport and VAS scales. At baseline, subjects with CAI displayed higher anterior/posterior and vertical postural instability, a poorer DPSI, and lower subjective stability scores compared to the control group. After balance training, all subjective stability scores improved significantly, although no changes were noted for the stability indices. In conclusion, subjects with CAI have an impaired postural control. As a treatment modality, balance training exhibits the capability of improving the subjective feeling of instability in subjects with CAI. However, there was no effect on dynamic postural control. Further research on the explanatory mechanisms of balance training is warranted, and other training modalities should be considered.

  20. A cancer-predisposing "hot spot" mutation of the fumarase gene creates a dominant negative protein.

    PubMed

    Lorenzato, Annalisa; Olivero, Martina; Perro, Mario; Brière, Jean Jacques; Rustin, Pierre; Di Renzo, Maria Flavia

    2008-02-15

    The Fumarase (Fumarate Hydratase, FH) is a tumor suppressor gene whose germline heterozygous mutations predispose to hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC). The FH gene encodes an enzyme of the Krebs cycle, functioning as a homotetramer and catalyzing the hydration of fumarate to malate. Among the numerous FH mutations reported so far, the R190H missense mutation is the most frequent in HLRCC patients. Here we show the functional analyses of the R190H, in comparison to the better characterized E319Q mutation. We first expressed wild-type and mutated proteins in FH deficient human skin fibroblasts, using lentiviral vectors. The wild-type transgene was able to restore the FH enzymatic activity in cells, while the R190H- and E319Q-FH were not. More interestingly, when the same transgenes were expressed in normal, FH-proficient cells, only the R190H-FH reduced the endogenous FH enzymatic activity. By enforcing the expression of equal amount of wild-type and R190H-FH in the same cell, we showed that the mutated FH protein directly inhibited enzymatic activity by nearly abrogating the FH homotetramer formation. These data demonstrate the dominant negative effect of the R190H missense mutation in the FH gene and suggest that the FH tumor-suppressing activity might be impaired in cells carrying a heterozygous mutation.

  1. Evaluation of “Subject Advocate” Procedures in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Schizophrenia Study

    PubMed Central

    Stroup, T Scott; Appelbaum, Paul S

    2006-01-01

    Because the decision-making capacity of individuals with schizophrenia may fluctuate, additional protections for such persons who enroll in long-term research studies may be needed. For the NIMH-sponsored Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia study, new procedures were developed to help ensure an objective assessment of a patient's continued participation in the study if decision-making capacity lapsed. Each research participant had a subject advocate who could recommend that the subject be withdrawn from the study if capacity lapsed and continued participation was not in the subject's best interest. The main goals of the procedures were to protect the interests of subjects and to prevent unnecessary dropouts. We surveyed research personnel regarding the effectiveness and implementation of the procedures. Responses were received from 73 personnel at 49 research sites, representing 70% of possible respondents and 91% of eligible sites. A majority of respondents were favorably disposed toward subject advocates, and though most reported that the procedures had no discernible effect on study recruitment, subject autonomy, or subject retention, for those who reported an impact, it was almost always positive. Some respondents reported that the procedures helped by engaging family members and promoting a positive view of schizophrenia research. A majority thought that similar arrangements would be useful in future longitudinal research studies. Nonspecific benefits included good public relations and engagement of family members. Improved training regarding the procedures may be needed to achieve specific goals of enhanced patient autonomy and retention in the study. PMID:16282635

  2. Effects of moderate physical training on blood pressure variability and hemodynamic pattern in mildly hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Izdebska, E; Cybulska, I; Izdebskir, J; Makowiecka-Ciesla, M; Trzebski, A

    2004-12-01

    The objective of our study was to compare the cardiovascular effects of moderate exercise training in healthy young (NTS, n=18, 22.9+/-0.44 years) and in hypertensive human subjects (HTS, n=30, 23+/-1.1). The VO(2max) did not significantly differ between groups. HTS of systolic blood pressure (SBP) 148+/-3.6 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure(DBP) 88+/-2.2 mmHg, and NTS of SBP: 128.8 +/- 4 mmHg and DBP: 72 +/- 2.9 mmHg were submitted to moderate dynamic exercise training, at about 50% VO(2max) 3 times per week for one hour, over 3 months. VO(2max) was measured by Astrand's test. Arterial blood pressure was measured with Finapres technique, the stroke volume, cardiac output and arm blood flow were assessed by impedance reography. Variability of SBP and pulse interval values (PI) were estimated by computing the variance and power spectra according to FFT algorithm. After training period significant improvements in VO(2max) were observed in NTS- by 1.92 +/-0.76 and in HTS by 3+/-0.68 ml/kg/min). In HTS significantly decreased: SBP by 19 +/-2.9 mmHg, in DBP by 10.7+/-2 mmHg total peripheral resistance (TPR) by 0.28 +/-0.05 TPR units. The pretraining value of low frequency component power spectra SBP (LF(SPB)) was significantly greater in HTS, compared to NTS. PI variance was lower in HTS, compared to NTS. After physical training, in HTS PI variance increased suggesting a decrease in frequency modulated sympathetic activity and increase in vagal modulation of heart rate in mild hypertension. A major finding of the study is the significant decrease of resting low frequency component SBP power spectrum after training in HTS. The value of LF(SPB) in trained hypertensive subjects normalized to the resting level of LF(SPB) in NTS. Our findings suggest that antihypertensive hemodynamic effects of moderate dynamic physical training are associated with readjustment of the autonomic cardiovascular control system.

  3. Effects of pH and dose on nasal absorption of scopolamine hydrobromide in human subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, S.; Sileno, A. P.; deMeireles, J. C.; Dua, R.; Pimplaskar, H. K.; Xia, W. J.; Marinaro, J.; Langenback, E.; Matos, F. J.; Putcha, L.; Romeo, V. D.; Behl, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of formulation pH and dose on nasal absorption of scopolamine hydrobromide, the single most effective drug available for the prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by motion sickness. METHODS: Human subjects received scopolamine nasally at a dose of 0.2 mg/0.05 mL or 0.4 mg/0.10 mL, blood samples were collected at different time points, and plasma scopolamine concentrations were determined by LC-MS/MS. RESULTS: Following administration of a 0.2 mg dose, the average Cmax values were found to be 262+/-118, 419+/-161, and 488+/-331 pg/ mL for pH 4.0, 7.0, and 9.0 formulations, respectively. At the 0.4 mg dose the average Cmax values were found to be 503+/-199, 933+/-449, and 1,308+/-473 pg/mL for pH 4.0, 7.0, and 9.0 formulations, respectively. At a 0.2 mg dose, the AUC values were found to be 23,208+/-6,824, 29,145+/-9,225, and 25,721+/-5,294 pg x min/mL for formulation pH 4.0, 7.0, and 9.0, respectively. At a 0.4 mg dose, the average AUC value was found to be high for pH 9.0 formulation (70,740+/-29,381 pg x min/mL) as compared to those of pH 4.0 (59,573+/-13,700 pg x min/mL) and pH 7.0 (55,298+/-17,305 pg x min/mL) formulations. Both the Cmax and AUC values were almost doubled with doubling the dose. On the other hand, the average Tmax, values decreased linearly with a decrease in formulation pH at both doses. For example, at a 0.4 mg dose, the average Tmax values were 26.7+/-5.8, 15.0+/-10.0, and 8.8+/-2.5 minutes at formulation pH 4.0, 7.0, and 9.0, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Nasal absorption of scopolamine hydrobromide in human subjects increased substantially with increases in formulation pH and dose.

  4. The Combined Effects of Alcohol, Caffeine and Expectancies on Subjective Experience, Impulsivity and Risk-Taking

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Adrienne J.; de Wit, Harriet; Lilje, Todd C.; Kassel, Jon D.

    2013-01-01

    Caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) consumption is a rapidly growing phenomenon among young adults and is associated with a variety of health-risk behaviors. The current study examined whether either caffeinated alcohol or the expectation of receiving caffeinated alcohol altered affective, cognitive and behavioral outcomes hypothesized to contribute to risk behavior. Young adult social drinkers (N=146) participated in a single session where they received alcohol (peak Breath Alcohol Content = .088 g/dL, SD = .019; equivalent to about 4 standard drinks) and were randomly assigned to one of four further conditions 1) no caffeine, no caffeine expectancy, 2) caffeine and caffeine expectancy, 3) no caffeine but caffeine expectancy, 4) caffeine but no caffeine expectancy. Participants’ habitual CAB consumption was positively correlated with measures of impulsivity and risky behavior, independently of study drugs. Administration of caffeine (mean dose = 220 mg, SD = 38; equivalent to about 2.75 Red Bulls) in the study reduced subjective ratings of intoxication and reversed the decrease in desire to continue drinking, regardless of expectancy. Caffeine also reduced the effect of alcohol on inhibitory reaction time (faster incorrect responses). Participants not expecting caffeine were less attentive after alcohol, whereas participants expecting caffeine were not, regardless of caffeine administration. Alcohol decreased response accuracy in all participants except those who both expected and received caffeine. Findings suggest that CABs may elevate risk for continued drinking by reducing perceived intoxication, and by maintaining the desire to continue drinking. Simply expecting to consume caffeine may reduce the effects of alcohol on inattention, and either expecting or consuming caffeine may protect against other alcohol-related performance decrements. Caffeine, when combined with alcohol, has both beneficial and detrimental effects on mechanisms known to contribute to

  5. Short-Term Effect of Gabapentin on Subjective Tinnitus in Acoustic Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Goljanian Tabrizi, Ali; Safavi Naini, Abbas; Baradaran, Nima

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Although several treatment approaches have been proposed for tinnitus, there are currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved agents available to treat this condition. In this study, we evaluated the effect of gabapentin on the sensation of subjective tinnitus in patients with acoustic trauma referring to the ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinic of Taleghani Hospital during 2014. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial, 103 patients with tinnitus due to acoustic trauma who were referred to the ENT clinic of Taleghani Hospital during 2014 were randomized to the gabapentin (300 mg bid, n=55) or control (n=48) groups. The two groups were then compared before and after 6 weeks of treatment using a visual analog scale (VAS). At least a 30% reduction in VAS was considered a response to treatment. Results: Differences between the two groups regarding sex, age, duration of disease, and audiometry results was not significant (P>0.05). After 6 weeks’ treatment, the VAS significantly decreased in both groups (P<0.001), but the reduction was significantly greater in the gabapentin group compared with control (P<0.001). Forty-nine patients (89%) in the gabapentin group and 28 control patients (58.3%) responded to treatment (≥30% reduction in VAS), with the difference between the two groups being statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion: We conclude that gabapentin 300 mg bid for 6 weeks is an effective treatment for acoustic tinnitus. In addition, the placebo effect in relieving tinnitus is remarkable. PMID:28393057

  6. Effects of Nalbuphine on Anterior Pituitary and Adrenal Hormones and Subjective Responses in Male Cocaine Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Goletiani, Nathalie V.; Mendelson, Jack H.; Sholar, Michelle B.; Siegel, Arthur J.; Skupny, Alicja J.; Mello, Nancy K.

    2007-01-01

    Nalbuphine (Nubain®) is a mixed action mu-kappa agonist used clinically for the management of pain. Nalbuphine and other mu-kappa agonists decreased cocaine self-administration in preclinical models. Cocaine stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but the effects of nalbuphine on the HPA axis are unknown. Analgesic doses (5 and 10 mg/70 kg) of IV nalbuphine were administered to healthy male cocaine abusers, and plasma levels of PRL, ACTH and cortisol were measured before and at 10, 17, 19, 23, 27, 31, 35, 40, 45, 60, 75, 105, 135 min after nalbuphine administration. Subjective effects were measured on a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Prolactin (PRL) increased significantly within 17 min (P=.04) and reached peak levels of 22.1 ± 7.1 ng/ml and 54.1 ± 11.3 at 60 min after low and high dose nalbuphine administration, respectively. VAS reports of “Sick,” “Bad” and “Dizzy” were significantly higher after 10 mg/70 kg than after 5 mg/70 kg nalbuphine (P=.05−.0001), and were significantly correlated with increases in PRL (P=.05−.0003). However, sedation and emesis were observed only after a 10 mg/70 kg dose of nalbuphine. Interestingly, ACTH and cortisol levels did not change significantly after administration of either dose of nalbuphine. Taken together, these data suggest that nalbuphine had both mu- and kappa-like effects on PRL (PRL increase) but did not increase ACTH and cortisol. PMID:17391744

  7. The combined effects of alcohol, caffeine, and expectancies on subjective experience, impulsivity, and risk-taking.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Adrienne J; de Wit, Harriet; Lilje, Todd C; Kassel, Jon D

    2013-06-01

    Caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) consumption is a rapidly growing phenomenon among young adults and is associated with a variety of health-risk behaviors. The current study examined whether either caffeinated alcohol or the expectation of receiving caffeinated alcohol altered affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes hypothesized to contribute to risk behavior. Young adult social drinkers (N = 146) participated in a single session where they received alcohol (peak Breath Alcohol Content = .088 g/dL, SD = .019; equivalent to about four standard drinks) and were randomly assigned to one of four further conditions: 1) no caffeine, no caffeine expectancy, 2) caffeine and caffeine expectancy, 3) no caffeine but caffeine expectancy, 4) caffeine but no caffeine expectancy. Participants' habitual CAB consumption was positively correlated with measures of impulsivity and risky behavior, independently of study drugs. Administration of caffeine (mean dose = 220 mg, SD = 38; equivalent to about 2.75 Red Bulls) in the study reduced subjective ratings of intoxication and reversed the decrease in desire to continue drinking, regardless of expectancy. Caffeine also reduced the effect of alcohol on inhibitory reaction time (RT) (faster incorrect responses). Participants not expecting caffeine were less attentive after alcohol, whereas participants expecting caffeine were not, regardless of caffeine administration. Alcohol decreased response accuracy in all participants except those who both expected and received caffeine. Findings suggest that CABs may elevate risk for continued drinking by reducing perceived intoxication, and by maintaining the desire to continue drinking. Simply expecting to consume caffeine may reduce the effects of alcohol on inattention, and either expecting or consuming caffeine may protect against other alcohol-related performance decrements. Caffeine, when combined with alcohol, has both beneficial and detrimental effects on mechanisms known to

  8. Effects of Strengthening Exercises on Swallowing Musculature and Function in Senior Healthy Subjects: a Prospective Effectiveness and Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Kraaijenga, S A C; van der Molen, L; Stuiver, M M; Teertstra, H J; Hilgers, F J M; van den Brekel, M W M

    2015-08-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients may develop dysphagia due to muscle atrophy and fibrosis following chemoradiotherapy. Strengthening of the swallowing muscles through therapeutic exercise is potentially effective for improving swallowing function. We hypothesize that a customized Swallow Exercise Aid (SEA), developed for isometric and isokinetic strengthening exercises (against resistance), can help to functionally strengthen the suprahyoid musculature, which in turn can improve swallowing function. An effectiveness/feasibility study was carried out with ten senior healthy volunteers, who performed exercises 3 times per day for 6 weeks. Exercises included chin tuck against resistance (CTAR), jaw opening against resistance (JOAR), and effortful swallow exercises with the SEA. Multidimensional assessment consisted of measurements of maximum chin tuck and jaw opening strength, maximum tongue strength/endurance, suprahyoid muscle volume, hyoid bone displacement, swallowing transport times, occurrence of laryngeal penetration/aspiration and/or contrast residue, maximum mouth opening, feasibility/compliance (questionnaires), and subjective swallowing complaints (SWAL-QOL). After 6-weeks exercise, mean chin tuck strength, jaw opening strength, anterior tongue strength, suprahyoid muscle volume, and maximum mouth opening significantly increased (p < .05). Feasibility and compliance (median 86 %, range 48-100 %) of the SEA exercises were good. This prospective effectiveness/feasibility study on the effects of CTAR/JOAR isometric and isokinetic strengthening exercises on swallowing musculature and function shows that senior healthy subjects are able to significantly increase swallowing muscle strength and volume after a 6-week training period. These positive results warrant further investigation of effectiveness and feasibility of these SEA exercises in HNC patients with dysphagia.

  9. Estimating Intervention Effects across Different Types of Single-Subject Experimental Designs: Empirical Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M.; Onghena, Patrick; Heyvaert, Mieke; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the multilevel meta-analysis of results from single-subject experimental designs of different types, including AB phase designs, multiple-baseline designs, ABAB reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs. Current methodological work on the meta-analysis of single-subject experimental designs…

  10. Effects of bolus size and hardness on within-subject variability of chewing cycle kinematics.

    PubMed

    Wintergerst, Ana M; Throckmorton, Gaylord S; Buschang, Peter H

    2008-04-01

    This study analysed how bolus hardness and size affect within-subject variability of chewing cycle kinematics. Two independent prospective studies were performed; both tracked chin movements using an optoelectronic recording system. Computer programs identified each subject's ten most representative cycles, and multilevel modelling procedures were used to estimate variances. One study evaluated 38 subjects who chewed 1, 2, 4 or 8 g of gum presented in random order. The second study evaluated 26 subjects who chewed approximately 2.5 g of harder (670 g) or softer (440 g) gum, also presented in random order. In terms of bolus size, the 2g and 1g boluses produced the least and greatest relative within-subject variability, respectively; the largest differences were found for cycle duration and excursions. Within-subject variability when chewing the harder gum was consistently greater than when chewing the softer gum, except for lateral movement towards the balancing side. Because bolus hardness and bolus size influence within-subject variability differently, they must be taken into consideration when designing experiments to study masticatory kinematics. We conclude that a 2g bolus of soft gum should be used in studies of chewing cycle kinematics in order to reduce within-subject variability and increase statistical power.

  11. Effect of Ivacaftor on Objective and Subjective Measures of Cough in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Faruqi, Shoaib; Shiferaw, Dejene; Morice, Alyn H.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Cough is a major symptom in cystic fibrosis. Ivacaftor is a novel drug which targets the G551D mutation and has been demonstrated to improve lung function and weight in the long term. It also improves symptoms of extra-oesophageal reflux. We wanted to evaluate the effect of ivacaftor on cough in cystic fibrosis. Methods: In two patients with cystic fibrosis the Hull Airway Reflux Questionnaire (HARQ) was completed and objective cough counts were measured prior to and within 4 weeks after initiation of treatment with ivacaftor. Spirometry was also undertaken and weight checked at these time frames. Results: In the first patient the HARQ score decreased from 29 to 11 and objective cough counts from 29 to 9 cough events per hour. Similarly in the second patient the HARQ score decreased from 13 to 9 and objective cough count from 76 to 5 cough events per hour. There was no significant change in spirometric parameters or weight. Conclusion: We have observed early subjective and objective improvement in cough measures on treatment with ivacaftor. We suggest that this improvement could be attributed to improvement of gastro-intestinal function and that cough metrics could be used as early and accurate end points of drug efficacy. PMID:28217196

  12. Effects of fast expiration exercises without pressure on the respiratory muscle strength of healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Kuramoto, Yuri; Ikeda, Daiki; Watanabe, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this investigation was to determine the effects of 4 weeks of fast expiration exercises performed without pressure on respiratory muscle strength. [Subjects and Methods] Respiratory muscle strength of the training group that performed fast expiration exercises (n=12) was compared with that of a control group that performed no exercises (n=12). The fast expiration exercises were performed using a peak expiratory flow meter device and consisted of 20 fast expiration exercises performed 3 times per week for 4 weeks. Maximal expiratory and inspiratory pressures were evaluated as respiratory muscle strength using a spirometer pre- and post- intervention. [Results] There were significant increases in maximal expiratory pressure from 76.9 ± 29.1 to 96.1 ± 37.5 cmH2O and maximal inspiratory pressure from 80.8 ± 36.6 to 95.3 ± 37.6 cmH2O in the training group, but there was no significant difference in respiratory muscle strength between pre- and post-intervention in the control group. [Conclusion] Fast expiration exercises may be beneficial for increasing respiratory muscle strength. The findings of this study should be considered when prescribing a variation of the expiratory muscle strength training, as part of a pulmonary rehabilitation program. PMID:27821930

  13. No Effect of Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Fear Memory in Healthy Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Mungee, Aditya; Burger, Max; Bajbouj, Malek

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have demonstrated that fear memories can be modified using non-invasive methods. Recently, we demonstrated that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is capable of enhancing fear memories. Here, we examined the effects of cathodal tDCS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during fear reconsolidation in humans. Methods: Seventeen young, healthy subjects were randomly assigned to two groups, which underwent fear conditioning with mild electric stimuli paired with a visual stimulus. Twenty-four hours later, both groups were shown a reminder of the conditioned fearful stimulus. Shortly thereafter, they received either tDCS (right prefrontal—cathodal, left supraorbital—anodal) for 20 min at 1 mA, or sham stimulation. A day later, fear responses of both groups were compared. Results: On Day 3, during fear response assessment, there were no significant differences between the tDCS and sham group (p > 0.05). Conclusion: We conclude that cathodal tDCS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right prefrontal—cathodal, left supraorbital—anodal) did not influence fear memories. PMID:27827903

  14. Subjective and cardiovascular effects of cocaine during treatment with amantadine and baclofen in combination.

    PubMed

    Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; De La Garza, Richard; Mahoney, James J; Shoptaw, Steve; Newton, Thomas F

    2007-08-30

    This study assessed the subjective and cardiovascular effects of relevant doses of cocaine administration during steady-state treatment of the combination of amantadine and baclofen compared to placebo. Participants included 8 healthy, male, cocaine-dependent, non-treatment-seeking individuals (age=36.6+/-5.9; 75% African American, 25% Caucasian; using cocaine for an average of 15.3+/-6.5 years). Data were collected prior to and following double-blind intravenous administration of 0 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg of cocaine. Data were collected at baseline, following 5 days of treatment with placebo, and again following 5 days of treatment with a combination of amantadine 100 mg t.i.d. and baclofen 30 mg t.i.d. counterbalanced for order of medication and placebo in a cross-over design. Results showed no significant alterations to cardiovascular variables (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) from treatment using combination medication or placebo in the presence of cocaine. Self-rated "desire" for cocaine was significantly lower during cocaine administrations while participants were receiving treatment with amantadine-baclofen compared to infusions while taking placebo medication, although there was no difference in the intensity of cocaine-induced euphoria, or reduction in the likelihood to use cocaine if given access. Study findings support the safety of the amantadine-baclofen combination treatment for cocaine dependence.

  15. Pull-In Effect of Suspended Microchannel Resonator Sensor Subjected to Electrostatic Actuation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Han; Zhang, Wen-Ming; Jiang, Hui-Ming; Hu, Kai-Ming

    2017-01-08

    In this article, the pull-in instability and dynamic characteristics of electrostatically actuated suspended microchannel resonators are studied. A theoretical model is presented to describe the pull-in effect of suspended microchannel resonators by considering the electrostatic field and the internal fluid. The results indicate that the system is subjected to both the pull-in instability and the flutter. The former is induced by the applied voltage which exceeds the pull-in value while the latter occurs as the velocity of steady flow get closer to the critical velocity. The statically and dynamically stable regions are presented by thoroughly studying the two forms of instability. It is demonstrated that the steady flow can remarkably extend the dynamic stable range of pull-in while the applied voltage slightly decreases the critical velocity. It is also shown that the dc voltage and the steady flow can adjust the resonant frequency while the ac voltage can modulate the vibrational amplitude of the resonator.

  16. Pull-In Effect of Suspended Microchannel Resonator Sensor Subjected to Electrostatic Actuation

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Han; Zhang, Wen-Ming; Jiang, Hui-Ming; Hu, Kai-Ming

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the pull-in instability and dynamic characteristics of electrostatically actuated suspended microchannel resonators are studied. A theoretical model is presented to describe the pull-in effect of suspended microchannel resonators by considering the electrostatic field and the internal fluid. The results indicate that the system is subjected to both the pull-in instability and the flutter. The former is induced by the applied voltage which exceeds the pull-in value while the latter occurs as the velocity of steady flow get closer to the critical velocity. The statically and dynamically stable regions are presented by thoroughly studying the two forms of instability. It is demonstrated that the steady flow can remarkably extend the dynamic stable range of pull-in while the applied voltage slightly decreases the critical velocity. It is also shown that the dc voltage and the steady flow can adjust the resonant frequency while the ac voltage can modulate the vibrational amplitude of the resonator. PMID:28075344

  17. The Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Insulin Resistance in Obese Subjects: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Kyria Jayanne Clímaco; Morais, Jennifer Beatriz Silva; de Oliveira, Ana Raquel Soares; Severo, Juliana Soares; Marreiro, Dilina do Nascimento

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by excessive accumulation of body fat and the presence of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance. In this sense, zinc is an important nutrient that stimulates insulin secretion and increases sensitivity to insulin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of zinc supplementation on insulin resistance in obese subjects through a systematic review of the available clinical trials. The search for articles was conducted using the PubMed, SciVerse Scopus, SciVerse ScienceDirect, and Cochrane databases, on May 25, 2016, by two authors independently. The recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) were followed in the conduct of this review. The Cochrane Collaboration tool was used to assess the risk of bias of the trials included in this review. After screening of the articles, six clinical trials were included in this systematic review. The scientific evidence presented in this systematic review shows that zinc supplementation improves insulin resistance in obese individuals of both sexes.

  18. Effects of work zone configurations and traffic density on performance variables and subjective workload.

    PubMed

    Shakouri, Mahmoud; Ikuma, Laura H; Aghazadeh, Fereydoun; Punniaraj, Karthy; Ishak, Sherif

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the effect of changing work zone configurations and traffic density on performance variables and subjective workload. Data regarding travel time, average speed, maximum percent braking force and location of lane changes were collected by using a full size driving simulator. The NASA-TLX was used to measure self-reported workload ratings during the driving task. Conventional lane merge (CLM) and joint lane merge (JLM) were modeled in a driving simulator, and thirty participants (seven female and 23 male), navigated through the two configurations with two levels of traffic density. The mean maximum braking forces was 34% lower in the JLM configuration, and drivers going through the JLM configuration remained in the closed lane longer. However, no significant differences in speed were found between the two merge configurations. The analysis of self-reported workload ratings show that participants reported 15.3% lower total workload when driving through the JLM. In conclusion, the implemented changes in the JLM make it a more favorable merge configuration in both high and low traffic densities in terms of optimizing traffic flow by increasing the time and distance cars use both lanes, and in terms of improving safety due to lower braking forces and lower reported workload.

  19. Effects of thyroid hormone on serum glycated albumin levels: study on non-diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Koga, M; Murai, J; Saito, H; Matsumoto, S; Kasayama, S

    2009-05-01

    Glycated albumin (GA) is used alongside glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1C)) as an indicator of glycemic control. Although serum GA levels are affected mainly by plasma glucose, they are also influenced by serum albumin metabolism. Thyroid hormone is known to promote albumin catabolism, and it is thus thought to affect serum GA levels. In the present study, the effects of thyroid hormone on serum GA measurements were investigated in patients with thyroid dysfunction. Six patients with untreated hypothyroidism and 17 patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis were investigated. Patients who had anemia or diabetes were excluded. A total of 25 non-diabetic, euthyroid individuals were enrolled as controls. HbA(1C), serum GA, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (T(3)), and free thyroxine (T(4)) levels were measured in all these subjects, and their relationships were examined. Although no intergroup differences were observed for HbA(1C), serum GA was significantly higher among patients with hypothyroidism than controls, and significantly lower among patients with thyrotoxicosis. Serum GA had a significant positive correlation with serum TSH and significant inverse correlations with free T(3) and free T(4). Thyroid hormone levels are inversely associated with serum GA levels. Cautions are necessary when evaluating serum GA levels in patients with thyroid dysfunction.

  20. Acute effects of nicorandil on glucose tolerance in subjects with borderline fasting blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Boes, U; Wallner, S; Wascher, T C

    2001-02-15

    The acute effect of the anti-ischemic potassium channel opener nicorandil on glucose tolerance and post-challenge insulin levels was investigated in 11 subjects (6 males and 5 females, age 59 +/- 2 years) with borderline fasting blood glucose in a single blinded randomised study. All participants were submitted to two oral glucose tolerance tests in randomised order, once without any premedication and once 30 minutes after oral administration of 20 mg nicorandil. This single dose of nicorandil significantly increased blood glucose levels at 120 minutes (173 +/- 16 vs. 150 +/- 11 mg/dl, p < 0.05 by ANOVA) and 180 minutes (106 +/- 11 vs. 88 +/- 7 mg/dl, p < 0.05 by ANOVA) after ingestion of 75 mg of glucose. Serum insulin levels were not significantly altered. In conclusion we suggest that controlled studies in patients with coronary artery disease should be performed to investigate whether long term treatment with nicorandil increases progression rates from impaired glucose tolerance to type-II diabetes and/or from normal to impaired glucose tolerance with a possibly negative impact on the course of cardiovascular disease in comparison to conventional anti-anginal drugs.

  1. [Comparative effects of couscous and pasta on glycemia in normal subjects and type I diabetics].

    PubMed

    Jamel, N; Hajri, S; Jenkins, D J; Bousnina, S; Naggati, K; Jedidi, H; Boukhris, R; Bennaceur, B

    1990-01-01

    8 healthy subjects have eaten in the morning, after an overnight fast, in two separated occasions and in a randomised order 50 gr of CHO as pasta or couscous. Blood glucose after pasta ingestion was lower at 30 mn (p less than 0.05) at 45 mn (p less than 0.01) and at 60 mn (p less than 0.05). Area under the curve after pasta was significantly reduced (p less than 0.01). In a second time 6 IDDM patients have eaten in a randomised order a meal made of pasta with tomato sauce (P = 11%, F = 30%, G = 59%) or couscous with vegetables and sauce (P = 10%, F = 37%, G = 53%). Blood glucose after the pasta was lower than couscous at 90 mn (p less than 0.05) the area under the curve after the pasta ingestion was reduced of 38% but did'nt reach significance. In conclusion couscous has a higher glycemic effect than pasta although it has a similar composition. This phenomenon is still observed when the cereal products are mixed with other foods and ingested by IDDM patients.

  2. Effect of Demographic Status and Lifestyle Habits on Glycaemic Levels in Apparently Healthy Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Walatara, Kasuni Nisansala Wijesena

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To identify the effects of sociodemographic status, family history, and lifestyle habits on fasting blood glucose (FBG) and fasting serum insulin (FSI) levels in apparently healthy subjects. Methods. Information was gathered using an interviewer-administered questionnaire from 227 apparently healthy nondiabetic subjects residing in a suburban area in Sri Lanka. Venous blood samples were collected after an overnight fast for FBG and FSI analysis. Correlations and differences were analyzed using SPSS (ver. 17) software. Results. The majority of the subjects were females, having secondary or tertiary education, monthly income ≥Rs. 25,000 (USD 175), and a positive family history of diabetes. Among the subjects, 10.1% were identified as prediabetics and the majority had familial diabetes with monthly income ≥Rs. 25,000 (USD 175). Subjects with high income had significantly higher mean FBG. In addition FBG had a significant correlation with age. Males and subjects with less than 6 hours/day sleeping duration at night had significantly higher FBG. Subjects with less vigorous physical activity and longer sitting duration had significantly higher FSI levels. Conclusions. Increasing age, higher income, positive familial history of diabetes, sedentary lifestyle, and short sleep at night have positive impact on glycaemic status in apparently healthy subjects. PMID:27995147

  3. How Many Is Enough? Effect of Sample Size in Inter-Subject Correlation Analysis of fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Pajula, Juha; Tohka, Jussi

    2016-01-01

    Inter-subject correlation (ISC) is a widely used method for analyzing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired during naturalistic stimuli. A challenge in ISC analysis is to define the required sample size in the way that the results are reliable. We studied the effect of the sample size on the reliability of ISC analysis and additionally addressed the following question: How many subjects are needed for the ISC statistics to converge to the ISC statistics obtained using a large sample? The study was realized using a large block design data set of 130 subjects. We performed a split-half resampling based analysis repeatedly sampling two nonoverlapping subsets of 10–65 subjects and comparing the ISC maps between the independent subject sets. Our findings suggested that with 20 subjects, on average, the ISC statistics had converged close to a large sample ISC statistic with 130 subjects. However, the split-half reliability of unthresholded and thresholded ISC maps improved notably when the number of subjects was increased from 20 to 30 or more. PMID:26884746

  4. Childhood Obesity: Update on Predisposing Factors and Prevention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic and children are affected in increasing numbers. Overweight children are at increased risk of becoming overweight adults with associated chronic diseases. In this update, we present key findings from a review of the current literature focused on potential causes and strategies for preventing childhood obesity. We highlight recent evidence regarding the role of genetics, maternal body mass index, postnatal influences, and environmental effects throughout childhood in predicting overweight. We also summarize the results of new research that examined the effectiveness of intervention strategies implemented in a variety of settings: home, school, community, and health care system. Statements recently released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the US Department of Health and Human Services emphasize the need for effective policy and environmental change to promote healthy lifestyle change at the individual and population levels. PMID:20563673

  5. Acute, subacute and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Studerus, Erich; Kometer, Michael; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2011-11-01

    Psilocybin and related hallucinogenic compounds are increasingly used in human research. However, due to limited information about potential subjective side effects, the controlled medical use of these compounds has remained controversial. We therefore analysed acute, short- and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans by pooling raw data from eight double-blind placebo-controlled experimental studies conducted between 1999 and 2008. The analysis included 110 healthy subjects who had received 1-4 oral doses of psilocybin (45-315 µg/kg body weight). Although psilocybin dose-dependently induced profound changes in mood, perception, thought and self-experience, most subjects described the experience as pleasurable, enriching and non-threatening. Acute adverse drug reactions, characterized by strong dysphoria and/or anxiety/panic, occurred only in the two highest dose conditions in a relatively small proportion of subjects. All acute adverse drug reactions were successfully managed by providing interpersonal support and did not need psychopharmacological intervention. Follow-up questionnaires indicated no subsequent drug abuse, persisting perception disorders, prolonged psychosis or other long-term impairment of functioning in any of our subjects. The results suggest that the administration of moderate doses of psilocybin to healthy, high-functioning and well-prepared subjects in the context of a carefully monitored research environment is associated with an acceptable level of risk.

  6. Subject-Specific Effect of Metallic Body Accessories on Path Loss of Dynamic on-Body Propagation Channels

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, H. A.; Abdulmalek, M.; Soh, P. J.; Rani, K. A.; Hisham, N.; Vandenbosch, G. A. E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the investigation of path loss variation for subject-specific on-body radio propagation channels, considering the effect of metallic spectacles and loop like metallic accessories. Adding metallic items may affect the operability of Body Centric Wireless Communications (BCWC). Measurements were carried out in an RF-shielded room lined with microwave absorbing sheets for strategically placed bodyworn antennas covering the upper front torso and the lower limbs. The path loss of the on-body radio channel was characterized explicitly taking into account the body size of the subjects. For metallic loop-like accessories, the results indicate that for underweight subjects, there was a slightly higher influence, up to 2%, compared to normal and overweight subjects. Our findings indicate that a noticeable effect exists on on-body channels for dynamic movements where the metallic watch acts as a local scatterer that affects the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) signal path between transmitter and receiver for underweight subjects in comparison to normal and overweight subjects. The path loss decreases when the receiving terminal was positioned very close to the metallic item. If a loop-like metallic accessory is not appropriately considered when designing the radio channel on a subject, the reliability of the body-centric wireless system may degrade. PMID:27436496

  7. Subject-Specific Effect of Metallic Body Accessories on Path Loss of Dynamic on-Body Propagation Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, H. A.; Abdulmalek, M.; Soh, P. J.; Rani, K. A.; Hisham, N.; Vandenbosch, G. A. E.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the investigation of path loss variation for subject-specific on-body radio propagation channels, considering the effect of metallic spectacles and loop like metallic accessories. Adding metallic items may affect the operability of Body Centric Wireless Communications (BCWC). Measurements were carried out in an RF-shielded room lined with microwave absorbing sheets for strategically placed bodyworn antennas covering the upper front torso and the lower limbs. The path loss of the on-body radio channel was characterized explicitly taking into account the body size of the subjects. For metallic loop-like accessories, the results indicate that for underweight subjects, there was a slightly higher influence, up to 2%, compared to normal and overweight subjects. Our findings indicate that a noticeable effect exists on on-body channels for dynamic movements where the metallic watch acts as a local scatterer that affects the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) signal path between transmitter and receiver for underweight subjects in comparison to normal and overweight subjects. The path loss decreases when the receiving terminal was positioned very close to the metallic item. If a loop-like metallic accessory is not appropriately considered when designing the radio channel on a subject, the reliability of the body-centric wireless system may degrade.

  8. Acute Reversible Duodenitis Following Non-Therapeutic Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Is Duodenal Diverticulum a Predisposing Factor?

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Emre; Ayan, Elif Nurbegum; Yazgan, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Diagnostic upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy has been regarded as a safe procedure. Case report We report of a 67-year-old woman who developed epigastric pain and dyspeptic complaints following an uneventful upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The diagnosis of an acute reversible duodenitis was made on the basis of imaging studies. A duodenal diverticulum was also found on CT images, which raised the suspicion that duodenal diverticulum could be a predisposing factor for duodenitis. Conclusions Despite significant inflammation the patient demonstrated rapid clinical improvement with conservative treatment. Presence of a duodenal diverticulum may predispose to acute duodenitis following diagnostic UGI endoscopy. PMID:27994697

  9. Acute effects of external negative pressure ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease compared with normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C B; Harris, N D; Howard, P

    1991-01-01

    This study compares the acute physiological effects of external negative pressure ventilation (ENPV) in normal subjects and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The equipment consisted of an airtight jacket (Pneumosuit) and vacuum pump. Minute ventilation (Ve) was recorded using a light-emitting turbine transducer. Oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) were calculated every 30 s. Measurements were made at rest and during ENPV with pressures of -20 cmH2O and -40 cmH2O. The ventilator rate was fixed at 16.min-1. In 10 normal subjects, Ve increased from 8.6 to 22.9 l.min-1 (p less than 0.01) accompanied by an increase in VCO2 from 0.25 to 0.39 l.min-1 (p less than 0.01). In 10 normocapnic COPD patients (arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) less than 6.0 kPa) Ve increased from 11.5 to 17.1 l.min-1 (p less than 0.01) whilst in 10 hypercapnic patients (PaCO2 greater than 6.0 kPa) Ve increased from 9.7 to 12.4 l.min-1 (p less than 0.01). A change in VCO2 was not detected in the COPD patients, and VO2 did not change in any group. Arterial blood samples were obtained in eight hypercapnic patients. Baseline mean physiological deadspace ventilation (VD) was calculated to be 4.9 l.min-1 (56% of Ve) whilst Ve was 8.8 l.min-1 in this subgroup. During ENPV, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) increased from 6.8 to 8.2 kPa (p less than 0.01) whilst PaCO2 decreased from 6.8 to 5.8 kPa (p less than 0.01) suggesting that despite the large physiological deadspace, a significant increase in alveolar ventilation had occurred. In advanced COPD, thoracic compliance falls and limits the ventilatory response to ENPV.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Effect of beverages on bovine dental enamel subjected to erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Amoras, Dinah Ribeiro; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Rodrigues, Antonio Luiz; Serra, Mônica Campos

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated by an in vitro model the effect of beverages on dental enamel previously subjected to erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid. The factor under study was the type of beverage, in five levels: Sprite® Zero Low-calorie Soda Lime (positive control), Parmalat® ultra high temperature (UHT) milk, Ades® Original soymilk, Leão® Ice Tea Zero ready-to-drink low-calorie peach-flavored black teaand Prata® natural mineral water (negative control). Seventy-five bovine enamel specimens were distributed among the five types of beverages (n=15), according to a randomized complete block design. For the formation of erosive wear lesions, the specimens were immersed in 10 mL aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid 0.01 M for 2 min. Subsequently, the specimens were immersed in 20 mL of the beverages for 1 min, twice daily for 2 days at room temperature. In between, the specimens were kept in 20 mL of artificial saliva at 37ºC. The response variable was the quantitative enamel microhardness. ANOVA and Tukey's test showed highly significant differences (p<0.00001) in the enamel exposed to hydrochloric acid and beverages. The soft drink caused a significantly higher decrease in microhardness compared with the other beverages. The black tea caused a significantly higher reduction in microhardness than the mineral water, UHT milk and soymilk, but lower than the soft drink. Among the analyzed beverages, the soft drink and the black tea caused the most deleterious effects on dental enamel microhardness.

  11. The effect of feeding frequency on insulin and ghrelin responses in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Thomas P J; Chambers, Edward S; Jeukendrup, Asker E; Toogood, Andrew A; Blannin, Andrew K

    2008-10-01

    Recent work shows that increased meal frequency reduces ghrelin responses in sheep. Human research suggests there is an interaction between insulin and ghrelin. The effect of meal frequency on this interaction is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effect of feeding frequency on insulin and ghrelin responses in human subjects. Five healthy male volunteers were recruited from the general population: age 24 (SEM 2)years, body mass 75.7 (SEM 3.2) kg and BMI 23.8 (SEM 0.8) kg/m(2). Volunteers underwent three 8-h feeding regimens: fasting (FAST); low-frequency(two) meal ingestion (LOFREQ(MEAL)); high-frequency (twelve) meal ingestion (HIFREQ(MEAL)). Meals were equi-energetic within trials,consisting of 64% carbohydrate, 23% fat and 13% protein. Total energy intake was equal between feeding trials. Total area under the curve for serum insulin and plasma ghrelin responses did not differ between trials (P>0.05), although the hormonal response patterns to the two meal feeding regimens were different. An inverse relationship was found between serum insulin and plasma ghrelin during the FAST andLOFREQ(MEAL) trials (P<0.05); and, in the postprandial period, there was a time delay between insulin responses and successive ghrelin responses.This relationship was not observed during the HIFREQ(MEAL) trial (P>0.05). This study provides further evidence that the postprandial fall in ghrelin might be due, at least partially, to the rise in insulin and that high-frequency feeding may disrupt this relationship.

  12. Effects of Body Weight Reduction on Serum Irisin and Metabolic Parameters in Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kurose, Satoshi; Shinno, Hiromi; Thi Thu, Ha Cao; Takao, Nana; Tsutsumi, Hiromi; Hasegawa, Takaaki; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Kimura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Background Irisin is a myokine implicated in lipid and glucose metabolism. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of a body weight reduction on the serum irisin level and physical indicators in obese Japanese patients without diabetes. Methods The subjects were 22 patients (male/female, 5/17; age, 46.1±16.0 years; body mass index [BMI], 36.9±5.0 kg/m2) who completed a 6-month body weight reduction program at our clinic. The program included diet, exercise therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. Blood parameters, body composition, exercise tolerance, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and serum irisin were determined before and after intervention, and relationships among changes in these data were examined. Results There were significant decreases in body weight and BMI after the intervention. Irisin before the intervention was significantly positively correlated with HOMA-IR (r=0.434, P<0.05). The mean irisin level showed no significant change after the intervention in all participants. However, improvements in % body fat, subcutaneous fat area, triglycerides, and fasting glucose were significantly greater in patients with an increase in irisin compared to those with a decrease in irisin after the intervention. Patients with an increase in irisin also had significantly lower fasting insulin (9.7±4.8 vs. 16.4±8.2, P<0.05) and HOMA-IR (2.2±1.1 vs. 3.7±1.6, P<0.05) after the intervention, compared to patients with a decrease in irisin. Conclusion Body weight reduction did not alter irisin levels. However, irisin may play important roles in fat and glucose metabolism and insulin resistance, and the effects of body weight reduction on irisin kinetics may be a key for obesity treatment. PMID:27766246

  13. Common variants at the MHC locus and at chromosome 16q24.1 predispose to Barrett’s esophagus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Barrett’s Esophagus is an increasingly common disease that is strongly associated with reflux of stomach acid and usually a hiatus hernia. Barrett’s Esophagus strongly predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a tumour with a very poor prognosis. We have undertaken the first genome-wide association study on Barrett’s Esophagus, comprising 1,852 UK cases and 5,172 UK controls in discovery and 5,986 cases and 12,825 controls in the replication. Two regions were associated with disease risk: chromosome 6p21, rs9257809 (Pcombined=4.09×10−9, OR(95%CI) =1.21(1.13-1.28)) and chromosome 16q24, rs9936833 (Pcombined=2.74×10−10, OR(95%CI) =1.14(1.10-1.19)). The top SNP on chromosome 6p21 is within the major histocompatibility complex, and the closest protein-coding gene to rs9936833 on chromosome 16q24 is FOXF1, which is implicated in esophageal development and structure. We found evidence that the genetic component of Barrett’s Esophagus is mediated by many common variants of small effect and that SNP alleles predisposing to obesity also increase risk for Barrett’s Esophagus. PMID:22961001

  14. Somatic inactivation of ATM in hematopoietic cells predisposes mice to cyclin D3 dependent T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Lori A; Yang-Iott, Katherine; DeMicco, Amy; Bassing, Craig H

    2015-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a cancer of immature T cells that exhibits heterogeneity of oncogenic lesions, providing an obstacle for development of more effective and less toxic therapies. Inherited deficiency of ATM, a regulator of the cellular DNA damage response, predisposes young humans and mice to T-ALLs with clonal chromosome translocations. While acquired ATM mutation or deletion occurs in pediatric T-ALLs, the role of somatic ATM alterations in T-ALL pathogenesis remains unknown. We demonstrate here that somatic Atm inactivation in haematopoietic cells starting as these cells differentiate in utero predisposes mice to T-ALL at similar young ages and harboring analogous translocations as germline Atm-deficient mice. However, some T-ALLs from haematopoietic cell specific deletion of Atm were of more mature thymocytes, revealing that the developmental timing and celluar origin of Atm inactivation influences the phenotype of ATM-deficient T-ALLs. Although it has been hypothesized that ATM suppresses cancer by preventing deletion and inactivation of TP53, we find that Atm inhibits T-ALL independent of Tp53 deletion. Finally, we demonstrate that the Cyclin D3 protein that drives immature T cell proliferation is essential for transformation of Atm-deficient thymocytes. Our study establishes a pre-clinical model for pediatric T-ALLs with acquired ATM inactivation and identifies the cell cycle machinery as a therapeutic target for this aggressive childhood T-ALL subtype.

  15. Effects of self-construal and its relationship with subjective well-being across cultures.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Ayano; Kim, Min-Sun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test cross-cultural predictions of the associations between goal pursuits and subjective well-being among 601 college students (200 in Japan and 401 in the United States). The results indicated that interdependence in all cultures was associated with socially oriented subjective well-being. In the United States, it was also correlated with social goal pursuit. However, independence in the United States correlated with individual-oriented subjective well-being, while in Hawaii, it also correlated with hedonic goal pursuit. Discussion of these results and their implications are provided.

  16. [Predisposing factors and subclinical depression among healthy college students].

    PubMed

    Margitics, Ferenc

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the presence of predisposition factors to depression among healthy college students, who have a successful socialization and are able to show socially accepted and acknowledged performance. Among 681 individuals involved in the study, 465 were men and 216 were women. The affected group (n = 232, 161 women and 71 men) consisted of students with any of the following predisposition factors: positive family anamnesis (history of depression of the mother, father, sibling or grandparent), loss (death of parent, separation, parents' divorce during the first ten years of the child). The control group (n = 219, 135 women and 84 men) consisted of students with none of these predisposition factors. The results of the present study show that the predisposition factors relevant to depression have also effect on the persons in a non-clinical population. In addition, we have also demonstrated that certain family socialization effects may also function as predisposition factors.

  17. Bayesian vector autoregressive model for multi-subject effective connectivity inference using multi-modal neuroimaging data.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Sharon; Guindani, Michele; Yeh, Hsiang J; Haneef, Zulfi; Stern, John M; Vannucci, Marina

    2017-03-01

    In this article a multi-subject vector autoregressive (VAR) modeling approach was proposed for inference on effective connectivity based on resting-state functional MRI data. Their framework uses a Bayesian variable selection approach to allow for simultaneous inference on effective connectivity at both the subject- and group-level. Furthermore, it accounts for multi-modal data by integrating structural imaging information into the prior model, encouraging effective connectivity between structurally connected regions. They demonstrated through simulation studies that their approach resulted in improved inference on effective connectivity at both the subject- and group-level, compared with currently used methods. It was concluded by illustrating the method on temporal lobe epilepsy data, where resting-state functional MRI and structural MRI were used. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1311-1332, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Effects of Levetiracetam on Alcohol Consumption in Alcohol-Dependent Subjects: An Open Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Sarid-Segal, Ofra; Piechniczek-Buczek, Joanna; Knapp, Clifford; Afshar, Maryam; Devine, Eric; Sickles, Laurie; Uwodukunda, Emma; Richambault, Courtney; Koplow, Jillian; Ciraulo, Domenic

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this open-label pilot study was to assess the efficacy and safety of the novel anticonvulsant agent, levetiracetam, for the treatment of alcohol dependence. A maximal dose of 2000 mg was administered daily for 10 weeks to alcohol dependent subjects (n = 20). Mean reported ethanol intake declined significantly from 5.3 to 1.7 standard drinks per day. Levetiracetam was well tolerated by most subjects. PMID:18584574

  19. Effects of ergotamine and methysergide on blood platelet aggregation responses of migrainous subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Barbara P.; Zilkha, K. J.

    1974-01-01

    Platelet aggregation responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were measured in plasma from migrainous subjects taking either methysergide maleate or ergotamine tartrate and were found to be reduced. Blood 5-HT levels of subjects free of headache were not affected by these drugs. The results support the hypothesis that methysergide and ergotamine act by occupying 5-HT uptake sites in vessel walls, leaving 5-HT molecules available to occupy receptors concerned with vasoconstriction. PMID:4836755

  20. Effect of Honey Vinegar Syrup on Blood Sugar and Lipid Profile in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Derakhshandeh-Rishehri, Seyedeh-Masomeh; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Feizi, Awat; Askari, Gholam-Reza; Entezari, Mohammad-Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The impact of honey or vinegar on several metabolic abnormalities has been studied separately, a mixture of these two ingredients known as honey vinegar syrup (HVS) has not been investigated previously so far. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HVS consumption (Iranian's traditional syrup) on glycemic parameters and lipid profiles in healthy individuals. Methods: We conducted a 4-week, randomized, controlled, parallel study consisting of two groups of nonobese healthy volunteers. All subjects were asked to stay on their normal diet. Intervention group (n = 36) received a cup of HVS daily in the evening snack for 4-week (250 cc syrup contains 21.66 g honey vinegar). Assessments of fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were conducted at the baseline and after 4-week of study. Results: We observed no significant effect of HVS on FBS, HOMA-IR, LDL-C and TG. A significant effect of HVS was found on increasing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR and reduction in TC level only in intervention group (Δ =3.39 P = 0.01, Δ =1.65 P = 0.03, Δ = −9.43 P = 0.005, respectively). Changes of FBS, TG and LDL-C were 1.83 mg/dl, −1.53 mg/dl and − 3.99 mg/dl respectively in the intervention group. These changes were not significant. An unfavorable and significant reduction in HDL-C level was also observed between two groups (Δ = −4.82 P < 0.001 in the intervention group). Conclusions: Honey vinegar syrup increased fasting insulin level and decreased TC level in the intervention group. HVS had an unfavorable effect on HDL-C level. Further prospective investigations are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:25709798

  1. An Analysis of Effect Sizes for Single-Subject Research: A Statistical Comparison of Five Judgemental Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lee L.

    2010-01-01

    Effect sizes for single-subject research were examined to determine to what extent they measure similar aspects of the effects of the treatment. Seventy-five articles on the reduction of problem behavior in children with autism were recharted on standard celeration charts. Pearson product-moment correlations were then conducted between two…

  2. Metabolic Effects of Eradicating Breath Methane using Antibiotics in Prediabetic Subjects with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Ruchi; Chua, Kathleen S.; Mamelak, Mindy; Morales, Walter; Barlow, Gillian M.; Thomas, Rita; Stefanovski, Darko; Weitsman, Stacy; Marsh, Zachary; Bergman, Richard N.; Pimentel, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objective Methanogens colonizing the human gut produce methane and influence host metabolism. We examined metabolic parameters in methane-producing subjects before and after antibiotic treatment. Methods 11 prediabetic methane-positive subjects (9F, 2M) with obesity (BMI 35.17±7.71 kg/m2) aged 47±9 years were recruited. Subjects underwent breath testing, symptom questionnaire, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), lipid profile, stool Methanobrevibacter smithii levels, gastric transit and energy utilization analyses. After a 10 day antibiotic therapy (neomycin 500mg bid/rifaximin 550mg tid), all testing was repeated. Results Baseline stool M. smithii levels correlated with breath methane (R=0.7, P=0.05). Eight subjects (73%) eradicated breath methane and showed reduced stool M. smithii (P=0.16). After therapy, methane-eradicated subjects showed significant improvements in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (P=0.028), total cholesterol (P=0.01) and insulin levels on OGTT (P=0.05 at 120 minutes), lower blood glucose levels on OGTT (P=0.054 at 90 minutes), significant reductions in bloating (P=0.018) and straining (P=0.059), and a trend towards lower stool dry weight. No changes were detected in gastric emptying time or energy harvest. Conclusions Breath methane eradication and M. smithii reduction are associated with significant improvements in total cholesterol, LDL and insulin levels, and with lower glucose levels, in prediabetic subjects with obesity. The underlying mechanisms require further elucidation. PMID:26833719

  3. Metacognition of Working Memory Performance: Trial-by-Trial Subjective Effects from a New Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Andrew C.; Bhangal, Sabrina; Velasquez, Anthony G.; Geisler, Mark W.; Morsella, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    Investigators have begun to examine the fleeting urges and inclinations that subjects experience when performing tasks involving response interference and working memory. Building on this research, we developed a paradigm in which subjects, after learning to press certain buttons when presented with certain letters, are presented with two action-related letters (the memoranda) but must withhold responding (4 s) until cued to emit the response associated with only one of the two letters. In the Congruent condition, the action corresponds to the cue (e.g., memoranda = AB, cue = B, response = B); in the Incongruent condition, the action corresponds to the other item of the memoranda (e.g., memoranda = AB, cue = B, response = A). After each trial, subjects inputted a rating regarding their subjectively experienced “urge to err” on that trial. These introspection-based data revealed that, as found in previous research, urges to err were strongest for incongruent trials. Our findings reveal, first, that subjects can successfully perform this new task, even though it is more complex than that of previous studies, and second, that, in this new paradigm, reliable subjective, metacognitive data can be obtained on a trial-by-trial basis. We hope that our novel paradigm will serve as a foundation for future experimental projects on the relationship between working memory performance and consciousness—an under-explored nexus whose investigation is likely to reveal insights about working memory, cognitive control, and metacognition. PMID:27445897

  4. Metacognition of Working Memory Performance: Trial-by-Trial Subjective Effects from a New Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Andrew C; Bhangal, Sabrina; Velasquez, Anthony G; Geisler, Mark W; Morsella, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    Investigators have begun to examine the fleeting urges and inclinations that subjects experience when performing tasks involving response interference and working memory. Building on this research, we developed a paradigm in which subjects, after learning to press certain buttons when presented with certain letters, are presented with two action-related letters (the memoranda) but must withhold responding (4 s) until cued to emit the response associated with only one of the two letters. In the Congruent condition, the action corresponds to the cue (e.g., memoranda = AB, cue = B, response = B); in the Incongruent condition, the action corresponds to the other item of the memoranda (e.g., memoranda = AB, cue = B, response = A). After each trial, subjects inputted a rating regarding their subjectively experienced "urge to err" on that trial. These introspection-based data revealed that, as found in previous research, urges to err were strongest for incongruent trials. Our findings reveal, first, that subjects can successfully perform this new task, even though it is more complex than that of previous studies, and second, that, in this new paradigm, reliable subjective, metacognitive data can be obtained on a trial-by-trial basis. We hope that our novel paradigm will serve as a foundation for future experimental projects on the relationship between working memory performance and consciousness-an under-explored nexus whose investigation is likely to reveal insights about working memory, cognitive control, and metacognition.

  5. Effects of method and format on subjects' responses to a control of variables reasoning problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staver, John R.

    Excessive time and training demands have rendered Piaget's clinical method of reasoning assessment impractical for researchers and science teachers who work with large numbers of students. The published literature[Note ][See: Lawson, A. E. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 1978, 15(1), 11-24; Shayer, M., Adey, P., & Wylam, H. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 1981, 18(2), 157-168; Staver, J. R., & Gabel, D. L. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 1979, 16(6), 534-544; Tobin, K. G., & Capie, W. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1981, 41(2), 413-424.] indicates that reliable, valid alternatives to clinical assessment are feasible. However, the overestimate/underestimate of reasoning for different methods and formats remains unresolved through research. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various methods and formats on subjects' responses to a Piagetian reasoning problem requiring control of variables. The task chosen for this investigation was the Mealworm problem.[Note ][See: Karplus, R., Lawson, A., Wollman, W., Appel, M., Bernoff, R., Howe, A., Rusch, J., & Sullivan, F. Science teaching and the development of reasoning. Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1977.] The task was presented by three methods: (1) individual clinical interview; (2) group presentation of task followed by paper-and-pencil problem with illustration; and (3) group administration of paper-and-pencil instrument with illustration. Each method included four formats: (1) completion answer with essay justification; (2) completion answer with multiplechoice justification; (3) multiple-choice answer with essay justification; and (4) multiple-choice answer with multiple-choice justification. Two hundred and fifty-three (253) students who were enrolled in a freshman level biological science class participated in the study. The research design was a 3 × 4 factorial design with method and format of assessment as the main effects

  6. Effects of long-term use of HAART on oral health status of HIV-infected subjects

    PubMed Central

    Nittayananta, Wipawee; Talungchit, Sineepat; Jaruratanasirikul, Sutep; Silpapojakul, Kachornsakdi; Chayakul, Panthip; Nilmanat, Ampaipith; Pruphetkaew, Nannapat

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the effects of long-term use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on oral health status of HIV-infected subjects. METHODS Oral examination and measurement of saliva flow rate of both unstimulated and wax-stimulated whole saliva were performed in HIV-infected subjects with and without HAART, and in non-HIV individuals. The following data were recorded; duration and risk of HIV infection, type and duration of HAART, CD4 cell count, viral load, presence of orofacial pain, oral dryness, oral burning sensation, oral lesions, cervical caries, and periodontal pocket. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the effects of long-term use of HAART on oral health status of HIV-infected subjects. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-seven HIV-infected subjects – 99 on HAART (age range 23–57 years, mean 39 years) and 58 not on HAART (age range 20–59 years, mean 34 years) – and 50 non-HIV controls (age range 19–59 years, mean 36 years) were enrolled. The most common HAART regimen was 2 NRTI + 2 NNRTI. HIV-infected subjects without HAART showed greater risks of having orofacial pain, oral dryness, oral lesions, and periodontal pockets than those with short-term HAART (P < 0.01). The subjects with long-term HAART were found to have a greater risk of having oral lesions than those with short-term HAART (P < 0.05). The unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates of the subjects with HAART were significantly lower than in those without HAART (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION We conclude that long-term HAART has adverse effects on oral health status of HIV-infected subjects. PMID:20202089

  7. Effect of sucralfate on total carbon dioxide concentration in horses subjected to a simulated race test.

    PubMed

    Caltabilota, T J; Milizio, J G; Malone, S; Kenney, J D; McKeever, K H

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that sucralfate, a gastric ulcer medication, would alter plasma concentrations of total carbon dioxide (tCO2), lactate (LA), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-) and total protein (TP), as well as calculated plasma strong ion difference (SID) and packed cell volume (PCV) in horses subjected to a simulated race test (SRT). Six unfit Standardbred mares (approximately 520 kg, 9-18 years) were used in a randomized crossover design with the investigators blinded to the treatment given. The horses were assigned to either a control (40-50 mL apple sauce administered orally (PO)) or a sucralfate (20 mg/kg bodyweight dissolved in 40-50 mL apple sauce administered PO) group. Each horse completed a series of SRTs during which blood samples were taken via jugular venipuncture at five sampling intervals (prior to receiving treatment, prior to SRT, immediately following exercise, and at 60 and 90 min post-SRT). During the SRTs, each horse ran on a treadmill fixed on a 6% grade for 2 min at a warm-up speed (4 m/s) and then for 2 min at a velocity predetermined to produce VO2max. Each horse then walked at 4 m/s for 2 min to complete the SRT. Plasma tCO2, electrolytes, LA, and blood PCV and TP were analysed at all intervals. No differences (P>0.05) were detected between control and sucralfate for any of the measured variables. There were differences (P<0.05) in tCO2, SID, PCV, TP, LA and electrolyte concentrations relative to sampling time. However, these differences were attributable to the physiological pressures associated with acute exercise and were not an effect of the medication. It was concluded that sucralfate did not alter plasma tCO2 concentration in this study.

  8. Metabolic Effects of Aerobic Training and Resistance Training in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bacchi, Elisabetta; Negri, Carlo; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta; Milanese, Chiara; Faccioli, Niccolò; Trombetta, Maddalena; Zoppini, Giacomo; Cevese, Antonio; Bonadonna, Riccardo C.; Schena, Federico; Bonora, Enzo; Lanza, Massimo; Moghetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess differences between the effects of aerobic and resistance training on HbA1c (primary outcome) and several metabolic risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes, and to identify predictors of exercise-induced metabolic improvement. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Type 2 diabetic patients (n = 40) were randomly assigned to aerobic training or resistance training. Before and after 4 months of intervention, metabolic phenotypes (including HbA1c, glucose clamp–measured insulin sensitivity, and oral glucose tolerance test–assessed β-cell function), body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular strength were measured. RESULTS After training, increase in peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) was greater in the aerobic group (time-by-group interaction P = 0.045), whereas increase in strength was greater in the resistance group (time-by-group interaction P < 0.0001). HbA1c was similarly reduced in both groups (−0.40% [95% CI −0.61 to −0.18] vs. −0.35% [−0.59 to −0.10], respectively). Total and truncal fat, VAT, and SAT were also similarly reduced in both groups, whereas insulin sensitivity and lean limb mass were similarly increased. β-Cell function showed no significant changes. In multivariate analyses, improvement in HbA1c after training was independently predicted by baseline HbA1c and by changes in VO2peak and truncal fat. CONCLUSIONS Resistance training, similarly to aerobic training, improves metabolic features and insulin sensitivity and reduces abdominal fat in type 2 diabetic patients. Changes after training in VO2peak and truncal fat may be primary determinants of exercise-induced metabolic improvement. PMID:22344613

  9. Effect of grapefruit juice on the disposition of manidipine enantiomers in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Tsukasa; Ohkubo, Tadashi; Motomura, Shigeru; Sugawara, Kazunobu

    2006-01-01

    Aim To examine the effect of grapefruit juice, an inhibitor of CYP3A4 in the small intestine, on the disposition of manidipine enantiomers in healthy subjects. Methods A randomized cross-over study with at least a 2-week wash-out period was performed. Seven healthy male volunteers received an oral 40-mg dose of racemic manidipine after an overnight fast with either grapefruit juice (GFJ) or water, as a control study. Plasma concentrations of (S)- and (R)-manidipine were monitored up to 10 h after the dosing. Results The plasma concentrations of (S)-manidipine were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than those of (R)-manidipine in the control phase with an S/R ratio for the AUC0–∞ of 1.62 (95% confidence interval 1.52, 1.73). GFJ significantly increased Cmax and AUC0–∞ of (S)-manidipine by 2.4-fold (P < 0.01) and 2.3-fold (P < 0.01), respectively, and Cmax and AUC0–∞ of (R)-manidipine were increased by 3.4-fold (P < 0.01) and 3.0-fold (P < 0.01), respectively. There were significant differences (P < 0.01) in GFJ-mediated percentage increases in Cmax and AUC0–∞ of (S)-manidipine compared with those of (R)-manidipine. The S/R ratio for AUC0–∞ was significantly decreased from 1.6 to 1.2 during the GFJ phase (P < 0.01). Conclusion These results indicate that the stereoselective disposition of manidipine was altered by GFJ, as an inhibitor of CYP3A4. GFJ appears to affect this metabolic disposal of (R)-manidipine to a greater extent than that of (S)-manidipine. PMID:16669846

  10. Oxidant and acid aerosol exposure in healthy subjects and subjects with asthma. Part 1. Effects of oxidants, combined with sulfuric or nitric acid, on the pulmonary function of adolescents with asthma. Part 2. Effects of sequential sulfuric acid and ozone exposures on the pulmonary function of healthy subjects and subjects with asthma. Research report, February 1989-April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, J.Q.; Covert, D.S.; Pierson, W.E.; Hanley, Q.S.; Rebolledo, V.

    1994-11-01

    The study investigated the pulmonary effects of acid summer haze in a controlled laboratory setting. Of 28 adolescent subjects with allergic asthma, exercise-induced bronchospasm, and a positive response to a standardized methacholine challenge enrolled in the study, 22 completed the study. For two consecutive days each subject inhaled each of four test atmospheres by mouthpiece. The order of exposure to the four test atmospheres was assigned via a random protocol; air, oxidants (0.12 parts per million (ppm) ozone plus 0.30 ppm nitrogen dioxide), oxidants plus sulfuric acid at 70 micro/m3 of air, or oxidants plus 0.05 ppm nitric acid. Exposure to each of the different atmospheres was separated by at least one week. A postexposure methacholine challenge was performed on Day 3.

  11. APOH Interacts with FTO to Predispose to Healthy Thinness

    PubMed Central

    Hasstedt, Sandra J; Coon, Hilary; Xin, Yuanpei; Adams, Ted D; Hunt, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    We identified 8 candidate thinness predisposition variants from the Illumina HumanExome chip genotyped on members of pedigrees selected for either healthy thinness or severe obesity. For validation, we tested the candidates for association with healthy thinness in additional pedigree members while accounting for effects of obesity-associated genes: NPFFR2, NPY2R, FTO, and MC4R. Significance was obtained for the interaction of FTO rs9939609 with APOH missense variant rs52797880 (minor allele frequency = 0.054). The thinness odds ratio was estimated as 2.15 (p<0.05) for the combination of APOH heterozygote with the homozygote for the non-obesity FTO allele. Significance was not obtained for any other combination of a candidate variant with an obesity gene or for any of the 8 candidates tested independently. PMID:26711810

  12. Mixed Effects Models for Resampled Network Statistics Improves Statistical Power to Find Differences in Multi-Subject Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Manjari; Allen, Genevera I.

    2016-01-01

    Many complex brain disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders, exhibit a wide range of symptoms and disability. To understand how brain communication is impaired in such conditions, functional connectivity studies seek to understand individual differences in brain network structure in terms of covariates that measure symptom severity. In practice, however, functional connectivity is not observed but estimated from complex and noisy neural activity measurements. Imperfect subject network estimates can compromise subsequent efforts to detect covariate effects on network structure. We address this problem in the case of Gaussian graphical models of functional connectivity, by proposing novel two-level models that treat both subject level networks and population level covariate effects as unknown parameters. To account for imperfectly estimated subject level networks when fitting these models, we propose two related approaches—R2 based on resampling and random effects test statistics, and R3 that additionally employs random adaptive penalization. Simulation studies using realistic graph structures reveal that R2 and R3 have superior statistical power to detect covariate effects compared to existing approaches, particularly when the number of within subject observations is comparable to the size of subject networks. Using our novel models and methods to study parts of the ABIDE dataset, we find evidence of hypoconnectivity associated with symptom severity in autism spectrum disorders, in frontoparietal and limbic systems as well as in anterior and posterior cingulate cortices. PMID:27147940

  13. Hypothesis: conjugate vaccines may predispose children to autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Richmand, Brian J

    2011-12-01

    The first conjugate vaccine was approved for use in the US in 1988 to protect infants and young children against the capsular bacteria Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Since its introduction in the US, this vaccine has been approved in most developed countries, including Denmark and Israel where the vaccine was added to their national vaccine programs in 1993 and 1994, respectively. There have been marked increases in the reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) among children in the US beginning with birth cohorts in the late 1980s and in Denmark and Israel starting approximately 4-5 years later. Although these increases may partly reflect ascertainment biases, an exogenous trigger could explain a significant portion of the reported increases in ASDs. It is hypothesized here that the introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine in the US in 1988 and its subsequent introduction in Denmark and Israel could explain a substantial portion of the initial increases in ASDs in those countries. The continuation of the trend toward increased rates of ASDs could be further explained by increased usage of the vaccine, a change in 1990 in the recommended age of vaccination in the US from 15 to 2 months, increased immunogenicity of the vaccine through changes in its carrier protein, and the subsequent introduction of the conjugate vaccine for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although conjugate vaccines have been highly effective in protecting infants and young children from the significant morbidity and mortality caused by Hib and S. pneumoniae, the potential effects of conjugate vaccines on neural development merit close examination. Conjugate vaccines fundamentally change the manner in which the immune systems of infants and young children function by deviating their immune responses to the targeted carbohydrate antigens from a state of hypo-responsiveness to a robust B2 B cell mediated response. This period of hypo-responsiveness to carbohydrate antigens coincides

  14. Subjective responses and cardiovascular effects of self-administered cocaine in cocaine-abusing men and women.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Wendy J; Kalayasiri, Rasmon; Sughondhabirom, Atapol; Pittman, Brian; Coric, Vladimir; Morgan, Peter T; Malison, Robert T

    2008-09-01

    This study aimed to examine sex differences in cocaine self-administration and cocaine-induced subjective and cardiovascular measures. The research was based on secondary analysis of data collected in our human laboratory in which subjects self-administered cocaine infusions (8, 16 and 32 mg/70 kg) over a 2-hour period under a fixed ratio 1, 5 minute time out schedule in three test sessions. Subjects were 10 women and 21 men with a history of either cocaine abuse or dependence who were not currently seeking treatment. Women and men self-administered similar amounts of cocaine. None of the subjective effects measures showed a significant main effect of sex during the cocaine self-administration session. Significant interactions were observed for subjective ratings of 'high' (sex x time) and 'stimulated' (sex x time x dose), with women reporting lower ratings over time/doses than men. Relative to men, cocaine produced dose- and time-dependent increases in feelings of hunger (i.e., reduced appetite suppression) in women. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures showed different patterns of change in men and women, with women showing less robust cocaine-induced increases than men. Taken together, these findings suggest that women and men may differ in their subjective and cardiovascular responses to self-administered cocaine. Further research that prospectively controls for hormonal influences upon these measures is needed.

  15. The effect of cognitive training on the subjective perception of well-being in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bureš, Vladimír; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Ponce, Daniela; Kuca, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a growing number of studies indicating the major consequences of the subjective perception of well-being on mental health and healthcare use. However, most of the cognitive training research focuses more on the preservation of cognitive function than on the implications of the state of well-being. This secondary analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial investigated the effects of individualised television-based cognitive training on self-rated well-being using the WHO-5 index while considering gender and education as influencing factors. The effects of cognitive training were compared with leisure activities that the elderly could be engaged in to pass time. Methods Cognitively healthy participants aged 60 years or above screened using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Major Depression Inventory (MDI) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design and underwent 24 training sessions. Data acquired from the WHO-5 questionnaire administered before and after intervention were statistically analysed using a mixed design model for repeated measures. The effect of individualised cognitive training was compared with leisure activities while the impact of gender and education was explored using estimated marginal means. Results A total of 81 participants aged 67.9 ± 5.59 [60–84] without cognitive impairments and absent of depression symptoms underwent the study. Participants with leisure time activities declared significantly higher scores compared to participants with cognitive training M = 73.48 ± 2.88, 95% CI [67.74–79.22] vs M = 64.13 ± 3.034, 95% CI [58.09–70.17] WHO-5 score. Gender and education were found to moderate the effect of cognitive training on well-being when compared to leisure activities. Females engaged in leisure activities in the control group reported higher by M = 9.77 ± 5.4, 95% CI [−0.99–20.54] WHO

  16. Effect of flow rate and initial aperture on fractured cement plug subjected to CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdoulghafour, H.; Luquot, L.; Gouze, P.

    2012-04-01

    Effect of flow rate and initial aperture on fractured cement plugs subjected to CO2 rich brine under geo-sequestration conditions Abdoulghafour Halidi, Linda Luquot and Philippe Gouze Laboratoire Géosciences Montpellier, UMR 5243, Montpellier, France (1,3), CSIC Barcelona, Spain(2) Laboratory studies conducted on cement materials under CO2 sequestration conditions, showed evidence of alteration due to CO2 attack.Therefore cement alteration is controlled by hydrodynamic parameters and chemical processes. In this study we present three percolation experiments conducted on fractured cement plugs using the same thermodynamic conditions (T = 60°C, P = 10MPa).Such experiment allow to simulate leakage limestone reservoirs. Hydro-chemical processes were determined based on fluid flow velocity and initial fracture aperture. During experiment conducted on most opened fracture (a0 = 43µm), with high flow rate of 2ml/min and lasted 25h, in situ permeability remains constant for 18h exposure, then decreases to the end of experiment. Similar observation has been seen for experiment conducted on more or less closed fracture (a0~7µm), with very slow flow (0.05) where slow increase of permeability was recorded followed by progressive decrease from 13h to the end of experiment (28h). On the other hand, we performed short-term experiment lasted 6h on intermediate opened fracture (a0 = 27µm), using high flow rate of 2ml/min. Permeability change was recorded during the first hour experiment, then remains constant still the end of CO2 exposure. Chemical analysis performed on outlet fluid match with permeability evolution as they showed the effect of flow rate on dissolution as well as precipitation. From this data set we could evidence the determining role of local velocity of fluid renewal on reaction processes, leading to structures and hydrodynamic changes. Presented results were reproduced using coupled reactive-transport model highlighting the important role of transport

  17. Aging predisposes to acute inflammatory induced pathology after tumor immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bouchlaka, Myriam N; Sckisel, Gail D; Chen, Mingyi; Mirsoian, Annie; Zamora, Anthony E; Maverakis, Emanual; Wilkins, Danice E C; Alderson, Kory L; Hsiao, Hui-Hua; Weiss, Jonathan M; Monjazeb, Arta M; Hesdorffer, Charles; Ferrucci, Luigi; Longo, Dan L; Blazar, Bruce R; Wiltrout, Robert H; Redelman, Doug; Taub, Dennis D; Murphy, William J

    2013-10-21

    Cancer commonly occurs in the elderly and immunotherapy (IT) is being increasingly applied to this population. However, the majority of preclinical mouse tumor models assessing potential efficacy and toxicities of therapeutics use young mice. We assessed the impact of age on responses to systemic immune stimulation. In contrast to young mice, systemic cancer IT regimens or LPS given to aged mice resulted in rapid and lethal toxicities affecting multiple organs correlating with heightened proinflammatory cytokines systemically and within the parenchymal tissues. This inflammatory response and increased morbidity with age was independent of T cells or NK cells. However, prior in vivo depletion of macrophages in aged mice resulted in lesser cytokine levels, increased survival, and decreased liver histopathology. Furthermore, macrophages from aged mice and normal human elderly volunteers displayed heightened TNF and IL-6 production upon in vitro stimulation. Treatment of both TNF knockout mice and in vivo TNF blockade in aged mice resulted in significant increases in survival and lessened pathology. Importantly, TNF blockade in tumor-bearing, aged mice receiving IT displayed significant anti-tumor effects. These data demonstrate the critical role of macrophages in the age-associated hyper-inflammatory cytokine responses to systemic immunostimulation and underscore the importance of performing preclinical assessments in aged mice.

  18. Dasatinib induces lung vascular toxicity and predisposes to pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Carole; Seferian, Andrei; Huertas, Alice; Thuillet, Raphaël; Sattler, Caroline; Le Hiress, Morane; Tamura, Yuichi; Jutant, Etienne-Marie; Chaumais, Marie-Camille; Bouchet, Stéphane; Manéglier, Benjamin; Molimard, Mathieu; Rousselot, Philippe; Sitbon, Olivier; Simonneau, Gérald; Montani, David; Humbert, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disease that can be induced by dasatinib, a dual Src and BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is used to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Today, key questions remain regarding the mechanisms involved in the long-term development of dasatinib-induced PAH. Here, we demonstrated that chronic dasatinib therapy causes pulmonary endothelial damage in humans and rodents. We found that dasatinib treatment attenuated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction responses and increased susceptibility to experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH) in rats, but these effects were absent in rats treated with imatinib, another BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Furthermore, dasatinib treatment induced pulmonary endothelial cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, while imatinib did not. Dasatinib treatment mediated endothelial cell dysfunction via increased production of ROS that was independent of Src family kinases. Consistent with these findings, we observed elevations in markers of endothelial dysfunction and vascular damage in the serum of CML patients who were treated with dasatinib, compared with CML patients treated with imatinib. Taken together, our findings indicate that dasatinib causes pulmonary vascular damage, induction of ER stress, and mitochondrial ROS production, which leads to increased susceptibility to PH development. PMID:27482885

  19. Aging predisposes to acute inflammatory induced pathology after tumor immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bouchlaka, Myriam N.; Sckisel, Gail D.; Chen, Mingyi; Mirsoian, Annie; Zamora, Anthony E.; Maverakis, Emanual; Wilkins, Danice E.C.; Alderson, Kory L.; Hsiao, Hui-Hua; Weiss, Jonathan M.; Monjazeb, Arta M.; Hesdorffer, Charles; Ferrucci, Luigi; Longo, Dan L.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Wiltrout, Robert H.; Redelman, Doug; Taub, Dennis D.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer commonly occurs in the elderly and immunotherapy (IT) is being increasingly applied to this population. However, the majority of preclinical mouse tumor models assessing potential efficacy and toxicities of therapeutics use young mice. We assessed the impact of age on responses to systemic immune stimulation. In contrast to young mice, systemic cancer IT regimens or LPS given to aged mice resulted in rapid and lethal toxicities affecting multiple organs correlating with heightened proinflammatory cytokines systemically and within the parenchymal tissues. This inflammatory response and increased morbidity with age was independent of T cells or NK cells. However, prior in vivo depletion of macrophages in aged mice resulted in lesser cytokine levels, increased survival, and decreased liver histopathology. Furthermore, macrophages from aged mice and normal human elderly volunteers displayed heightened TNF and IL-6 production upon in vitro stimulation. Treatment of both TNF knockout mice and in vivo TNF blockade in aged mice resulted in significant increases in survival and lessened pathology. Importantly, TNF blockade in tumor-bearing, aged mice receiving IT displayed significant anti-tumor effects. These data demonstrate the critical role of macrophages in the age-associated hyper-inflammatory cytokine responses to systemic immunostimulation and underscore the importance of performing preclinical assessments in aged mice. PMID:24081947

  20. Identifying Some Factors That Might Predispose Drug Abuse among Learners in a South African Township School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grobler, R.; Khatite, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study inquires into some of the factors that might predispose the use and abuse of drugs among secondary school learners in a township school. The objective of this research is to identify these factors and to offer a few suggestions on how the abuse may be prevented. A quantitative research strategy is used and a document analysis technique…

  1. Effects of Low Volume Aerobic Training on Muscle Desaturation During Exercise in Elderly Subjects.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Kime, Ryotaro; Murase, Norio; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    Aging enhances muscle desaturation responses due to reduced O2 supply. Even though aerobic training enhances muscle desaturation responses in young subjects, it is unclear whether the same is true in elderly subjects. Ten elderly women (age: 62±4 years) participated in 12-weeks of cycling exercise training. Training consisted of 30 min cycling exercise at the lactate threshold. The subjects exercised 15±6 sessions during training. Before and after endurance training, the subjects performed ramp cycling exercise. Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) was measured at the vastus lateralis by near infrared spectroscopy during the exercise. There were no significant differences in SmO2 between before and after training. Nevertheless, changes in peak pulmonary O2 uptake were significantly negatively related to changes in SmO2 (r=-0.67, p<0.05) after training. Muscle desaturation was not enhanced by low volume aerobic training in this study, possibly because the training volume was too low. However, our findings suggest that aerobic training may potentially enhance muscle desaturation at peak exercise in elderly subjects.

  2. Effect of positive acceleration (+gz) on electrocardiogram of subjects with vasoregulatory abnormality.

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, P K; Balasubramanian, K V; Dham, S K; Rai, K; Hoon, R S

    1977-01-01

    ST-T wave changes in the electrocardiogram detected during routine examination and aggravated by erect posture, hyperventilation, and exercise in apparently healthy young individuals have been termed vasoregulatory abnormalities. No evidence of ischaemic heart disease has been found in such subjects. Ten young healthy air crew with vasoregulatory abnormalities were subjected to maximal exercise on treadmill and procedure repeated after 120 mg propranolol daily for 3 days. After one week, they were subjected to a stress of positive acceleration (+gz) in a human centrifuge at 2-5 g and 3-5 g for 15 seconds each at a constant rate of rise of 0-1 g/s and the electrocardiogram was monitored during and in the post-acceleration phase. The procedure was repeated after propranolol 120 mg daily for 3 days. The stress of positive acceleration resulted in pronounced prominence of P waves and inversion of T waves (as has been reported in normal subjects) with minimal ST depression in the electrocardiogram. ST segment depression during exercise, at heart rates corresponding to those achieved during peak centrifuge runs, was significantly more pronounced. The ST, P, and T wave changes were returned to normal after propranolol. It is concluded that minimal ST segment depression after stress of positive acceleration as compared with conspicuous ST segment depression during exercise at corresponding heart rates, and their normalisation after propranolol, rules out ischaemia as an aetiological factor in subjects with vasoregulatory abnormalities. Images PMID:849393

  3. Effects of systemic glucocorticosteroids on peripheral neutrophil functions in asthmatic subjects: an ex vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Bancalari, L.; Giannessi, D.; Bernini, W.; Lazzerini, G.; Sicari, R.; Bacci, E.; Dente, F. L.; Vagaggini, B.; Caterina, R. De

    1995-01-01

    In 21 asthmatic subjects, several functions of isolated peripheral neutrophils (chemokinesis and chemotaxis toward 10% E. coli; superoxide anion generation after PMA; leukotriene B4 (LTB4) release from whole blood and isolated neutrophtls, before and after different stimuli) were evaluated during an acute exacerbation of asthma, and after 14 – 54 days of treatment with systemic glucocorticosteroids (GCS). During acute exacerbation, superoxide anion generation was higher in asthmatics than in eleven normal subjects (39.2 ± 14.1 vs. 25.2 ± 7.3 nmol, p < 0.05); there was a significant correlation between FEV1 (% of predicted) and neutrophil chemotaxis (r = −0.52, p = 0.04). After treatment, there was no significant change in all neutrophil functions, except for a decrease in neutrophil chemotaxis in subjects who showed an FEV1 increase > 20% after GCS treatment (from 131 ± 18 to 117 ± 21 μm, p = 0.005). Chemokinesis sicantly decreased in all subjects, and the changes significantly correlated with an arbitrary score of the total administered dose of GCS (r = 0.57, p < 0.05). These data suggest that neutrophil activation plays a minor role in asthma, and that treatment with GCS is not able to modify most functions of peripheral neutrophils in asthmatic subjects; chemotaxis seems to be related only to the severity of the asthma and it could reflect the improvement of the disease. PMID:18475647

  4. [Effects of over-adaptation on subjective well-being in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Asai, Keigo

    2014-06-01

    The Over-Adaptation Tendency Scale is designed to assess internal (self-inhibitive personality traits) and external (other-directed behavioral adaptation strategies) characteristics of over adaptation. The relationships among over-adaptation, subjective well-being, and family relationships were investigated using this scale. The scale was administered to undergraduate and graduate students (N = 408). The results indicated that for both men and women, all internal aspects of over-adaptation were significantly and negatively associated with the participant's cognition of past, present, and future subjective well-being. Furthermore, for women, all external aspects of over-adaptation were significantly and positively associated with future subjective well-being and family cohesion was associated with both internal and external aspects. These results are discussed in relation to the characteristics of over-adaptation.

  5. Obesity accentuates circadian variability in breathing during sleep in mice but does not predispose to apnea.

    PubMed

    Davis, Eric M; Locke, Landon W; McDowell, Angela L; Strollo, Patrick J; O'Donnell, Christopher P

    2013-08-15

    Obesity is a primary risk factor for the development of obstructive sleep apnea in humans, but the impact of obesity on central sleep apnea is less clear. Given the comorbidities associated with obesity in humans, we developed techniques for long-term recording of diaphragmatic EMG activity and polysomnography in obese mice to assess breathing patterns during sleep and to determine the effect of obesity on apnea generation. We hypothesized that genetically obese ob/ob mice would exhibit less variability in breathing across the 24-h circadian cycle, be more prone to central apneas, and be more likely to exhibit patterns of increased diaphragm muscle activity consistent with obstructive apneas compared with lean mice. Unexpectedly, we found that obese mice exhibited a greater circadian impact on respiratory rate and diaphragmatic burst amplitude than lean mice, particularly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Central apneas were more common in REM sleep (42 ± 17 h(-1)) than non-REM (NREM) sleep (14 ± 5 h(-1)) in obese mice (P < 0.05), but rates were not different between lean and obese mice in either sleep state. Even after experimentally enhancing central apnea generation by acute withdrawal of hypoxic chemoreceptor activation during sleep, central apnea rates remained comparable between lean and obese mice. Last, we were unable to detect patterns of diaphragmatic burst activity suggestive of obstructive apnea events in obese mice. In summary, obesity does not predispose mice to increased occurrence of central or obstructive apneas during sleep, but does lead to a more pronounced circadian variability in respiration.

  6. Disruption of Vitamin D and Calcium Signaling in Keratinocytes Predisposes to Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Jiang, Yan; Nguyen, Thai; Oda, Yuko; Tu, Chia-ling

    2016-01-01

    1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), the active metabolite of vitamin D, and calcium regulate epidermal differentiation. 1,25(OH)2D exerts its effects through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a transcription factor in the nuclear hormone receptor family, whereas calcium acts through the calcium sensing receptor (Casr), a membrane bound member of the G protein coupled receptor family. We have developed mouse models in which the Vdr and Casr have been deleted in the epidermis (epidVdr−∕− and epidCasr−∕−). Both genotypes show abnormalities in calcium induced epidermal differentiation in vivo and in vitro, associated with altered hedgehog (HH) and β–catenin signaling that when abnormally expressed lead to basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and trichofolliculomas, respectively. The Vdr−∕− mice are susceptible to tumor formation following UVB or chemical carcinogen exposure. More recently we found that the keratinocytes from these mice over express long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) oncogenes such as H19 and under express lncRNA tumor suppressors such as lincRNA-21. Spontaneous tumors have not been observed in either the epidVdr−∕− or epidCasr−∕−. But in mice with epidermal specific deletion of both Vdr and Casr (epidVdr−∕−/epidCasr−∕− [DKO]) tumor formation occurs spontaneously when the DKO mice are placed on a low calcium diet. These results demonstrate important interactions between vitamin D and calcium signaling through their respective receptors that lead to cancer when these signals are disrupted. The roles of the β–catenin, hedgehog, and lncRNA pathways in predisposing the epidermis to tumor formation when vitamin D and calcium signaling are disrupted will be discussed. PMID:27462278

  7. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K.; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T.; Sameshima, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  8. Subjective effects of antipsychotic drugs and their relevance for compliance and remission.

    PubMed

    Naber, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Only recently, success criteria became more ambitious and include a more thorough consideration of negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. The most important change within the last decade is the long overdue consideration of the patient's perspective. His/her subjective well-being, often unchanged or even worsened by typical antipsychotics, was neglected for a long time. One reason was the prejudice that schizophrenic patients are not able to self-rate their quality of life. Another reason was the belief that such data are not necessary because the psychiatrists' perspective, "objective" psychopathology, includes these domains. Among other scales, a self-report instrument has been constructed to evaluate "subjective well-being under neuroleptics" (SWN). This scale was used in numerous open and controlled trials, indicating: a) patients, if no longer acutely psychotic or suffering from severe cognitive deficits, are able to reliably assess their subjective well-being, b) high SWN is correlated with high compliance, c) atypical antipsychotics increase SWN, and d) individual improvements of SWN and of PANSS are not strongly related. Moreover, several studies found that early improvement of subjective well-being is a major predictor for the chance of remission. All these data indicate that a better consideration of the patient's perspective is possible and necessary.

  9. Effect of 6-day hypokinesia on oxygen metabolism indices in elderly and senile subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, L. A.; Orlov, P. A.

    1978-01-01

    After a strict 6 day confinement to bed of elderly and senile subjects the oxygen supply of the subcutaneous cellular tissue was impaired, and the intensity of its tissue respiration was somewhat reduced. The vacat-oxygen of the blood and urine, the coefficient of incomplete oxidation, and the oxygen deficiency in the organism were increased.

  10. Effects of Premature Parental Death on Subjective Life Expectancy, Death Anxiety, and Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denes-Raj, Veronika; Ehrlichman, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Subjective life expectancy, death anxiety, and health behavior were assessed in college students (n=36) with at least one parent who died prematurely of illness (PD group) and students (n=36) with both parents alive (PA group). PD group estimated their life expectancy to be shorter than the PA; subgroup of PD reported poorer diet. (Author/ABL)

  11. Effect of the artificial sweetener, sucralose, on small intestinal glucose absorption in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Chang, Jessica; Checklin, Helen L; Young, Richard L; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K

    2010-09-01

    It has been reported that the artificial sweetener, sucralose, stimulates glucose absorption in rodents by enhancing apical availability of the transporter GLUT2. We evaluated whether exposure of the proximal small intestine to sucralose affects glucose absorption and/or the glycaemic response to an intraduodenal (ID) glucose infusion in healthy human subjects. Ten healthy subjects were studied on two separate occasions in a single-blind, randomised order. Each subject received an ID infusion of sucralose (4 mM in 0.9% saline) or control (0.9% saline) at 4 ml/min for 150 min (T = - 30 to 120 min). After 30 min (T = 0), glucose (25 %) and its non-metabolised analogue, 3-O-methylglucose (3-OMG; 2.5 %), were co-infused intraduodenally (T = 0-120 min; 4.2 kJ/min (1 kcal/min)). Blood was sampled at frequent intervals. Blood glucose, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and serum 3-OMG concentrations increased during ID glucose/3-OMG infusion (P < 0.005 for each). However, there were no differences in blood glucose, plasma GLP-1 or serum 3-OMG concentrations between sucralose and control infusions. In conclusion, sucralose does not appear to modify the rate of glucose absorption or the glycaemic or incretin response to ID glucose infusion when given acutely in healthy human subjects.

  12. Ideograms Versus Alphabets: Effects of Script on Memory in "Biscriptual" Korean Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Soja; Arbuckle, Tannis Y.

    1977-01-01

    Four experiments examined the memory of Korean subjects for words written in the two writing systems used in Korea, one alphabetic, the other ideographic. The impetus for the investigation was the apparently different encoding properties of the two scripts, with alphabets seeming to encode sound and ideograms, meaning. (Editor)

  13. Chronic periodic fluid redistribution effect on muscle calcium in healthy subjects during prolonged hypokinesia.

    PubMed

    Zorbas, Yan G; Deogenov, Victor A; Merkov, Pavel L; Federenko, Yuri F

    2012-05-01

    Studies have shown that chronic periodic fluid shifting upwards is not sensed as excessive fluid volume and excretion mechanisms are not activated. To determine if chronic periodic fluid and volume shifting upwards can affect muscle calcium (Ca(2+)) during hypokinesia (HK) we measured muscle Ca(2+) content, plasma Ca(2+) concentration, and Ca(2+) losses in urine and feces. Studies were conducted on 40 healthy male volunteers. They were divided into four equal groups: active control subjects (ACS), hypokinetic subjects (HKS), periodic fluid redistribution control subjects (PFRCS), and periodic fluid redistribution hypokinetic subjects (PFRHS). Plasma Ca(2+) level decreased (p < 0.05) in Ca(2+) repleted muscle, muscle Ca(2+) level increased (p < 0.05), and Ca(2+) losses in urine and feces decreased (p < 0.05) in the PFRHS group compared with the HKS group. Plasma Ca(2+) level increased (p < 0.05) in Ca(2+) deficient muscle, muscle Ca(2+) level decreased (p < 0.05), and Ca(2+) losses in urine and feces increased (p < 0.05) in the HKS group compared with their pre-experimental levels and the values in their respective control groups (ACS and PFRCS). This study shows that the muscle Ca(2+) content increases and Ca(2+) excretion decreases, suggesting the clinical potential of chronic periodic fluid and volume redistribution in treatment of muscle Ca(2+) deficiency.

  14. Effects with Multiple Causes: Evaluating Arguments Using the Subjective Probability Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mike; Burrell, Nancy; Egan, Tony

    2000-01-01

    Finds that the subjective probability model continues to provide some degree of prediction for beliefs (of an individual for circumstances of a single event with multiple causes) prior to the exposure to a message, but that after exposure to a persuasive message, the model did not maintain the same level of accuracy of prediction. Offers several…

  15. Effects of individual sound sources on the subjective loudness and acoustic comfort in underground shopping streets.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jian; Meng, Qi; Jin, Hong

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that human evaluation of subjective loudness and acoustic comfort depends on a series of factors in a particular situation rather than only on sound pressure levels. In the present study, a large-scale subjective survey has been undertaken on underground shopping streets in Harbin, China, to determine how individual sound sources influence subjective loudness and acoustic comfort evaluation. Based on the analysis of case study results, it has been shown that all individual sound sources can increase subjective loudness to a certain degree. However, their levels of influence on acoustic comfort are different. Background music and the public address system can increase acoustic comfort, with a mean difference of 0.18 to 0.32 and 0.21 to 0.27, respectively, where a five-point bipolar category scale is used. Music from shops and vendor shouts can decrease acoustic comfort, with a mean difference of -0.11 to -0.38 and -0.39 to -0.62, respectively. The feasibility of improving acoustic comfort by changing certain sound sources is thus demonstrated.

  16. Ethanol increases plasma Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) levels and subjective effects after marihuana smoking in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lukas, S E; Orozco, S

    2001-10-01

    Marihuana and alcohol are often used together, yet little is known about why they are combined. Male volunteers were assigned to one marihuana treatment group (placebo, low or moderate dose Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) and, on three separate study days, they also drank a different dose of ethanol (placebo, 0.35 or 0.7 g/kg). Plasma THC levels and changes in subjective mood states were recorded for 90 min after smoking. For many of the drug combinations, when subjects consumed ethanol they detected marihuana effects more quickly, reported more episodes of euphoria and had higher plasma THC levels than when they consumed placebo ethanol. These data suggest that ethanol may increase the absorption of THC resulting in an increase in the positive subjective mood effects of smoked marihuana and contributing to the popularity of this drug combination.

  17. [Gene c-Fos expression in brain of rats resistant and predisposed to emotional stress after intraperitoneal injection of the ACTH(4-10)analog--semax].

    PubMed

    Umriukhin, P E; Koplik, E V; Grivennikov, I A; Miasoedov, N F; Sudakov, K V

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the ACTH(4-10) analog Semax on immediate early gene c-Fos expression was studied in Wistar rats with high and low resistance to emotional stress under the usual conditions and during psychoemotional loading. Fos-immunoreactive cells in the were counted automatically with the help of a computer. It was shown that under the usual conditions the intraperitoneal Semax injection induced immediate early gene c-Fos expression in the lateral septal region in rats predisposed to emotional stress and in the paraventricular hypothalamus in rats of both groups. Preliminary Semax injection decreased the stress-induced c-Fos expression in the paraventricular hypothalamus and medial septum in rats predisposed to emotional stress and tended to reduce the number of stress-induced c-Fos-immunopositive cells in the lateral septum and basolateral amygdala in both groups of animals. The obtained data suggest that Semax differently affects the immediate early c-Fos gene expression in the brain of rats resistant and predisposed to emotional stress and this effect reflects the antistressor properties of the regulatory peptide.

  18. Subjective sexual arousal in response to erotica: effects of gender, guided fantasy, erotic stimulus, and duration of exposure.

    PubMed

    Youn, Gahyun

    2006-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of gender, guided fantasy, erotic stimulus (with or without audio), and exposure duration on the subjective sexual arousal of participants watching a 10-min erotic video excerpt depicting sexual activities between a heterosexual adult couple. The excerpt was shown to 105 male and 110 female undergraduates, and sexual arousal was measured four times, at intervals of 1, 4, 7, and 10,min from the onset of the excerpt. While no erotic stimulus effect was found, analysis of variance showed main effects of gender, guided fantasy, and exposure duration, and three two-way interactions of gender x guided fantasy, gender x exposure duration, and guided fantasy x exposure duration. According to the results of simple effects tests, the gender effects were found regardless of whether they had firstly experienced a guided fantasy, while the guided fantasy effect was detected only for the females. The simple main effects for gender were found at all four time intervals, while the pattern of within-subject contrasts at the four time intervals for the males was different from that for the females. The simple main effects for guided fantasy were not found at 1,min and 4,min, but at 7,min and 10,min, while the pattern of within-subject contrasts at the four time intervals for the guided fantasy present condition was different from that for the absent condition. The findings involving gender differences were discussed in the context of biological and social factors.

  19. Effect of salt intake and potassium supplementation on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in Chinese subjects: an interventional study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Mu, J.J.; Geng, L.K.; Wang, D.; Ren, K.Y.; Guo, T.S.; Chu, C.; Xie, B.Q.; Liu, F.Q.; Yuan, Z.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has suggested that high salt and potassium might be associated with vascular function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of salt intake and potassium supplementation on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV) in Chinese subjects. Forty-nine subjects (28-65 years of age) were selected from a rural community of northern China. All subjects were sequentially maintained on a low-salt diet for 7 days (3.0 g/day NaCl), a high-salt diet for an additional 7 days (18.0 g/day NaCl), and a high-salt diet with potassium supplementation for a final 7 days (18.0 g/day NaCl+4.5 g/day KCl). Brachial-ankle PWV was measured at baseline and on the last day of each intervention. Blood pressure levels were significantly increased from the low-salt to high-salt diet, and decreased from the high-salt diet to high-salt plus potassium supplementation. Baseline brachial-ankle PWV in salt-sensitive subjects was significantly higher than in salt-resistant subjects. There was no significant change in brachial-ankle PWV among the 3 intervention periods in salt-sensitive, salt-resistant, or total subjects. No significant correlations were found between brachial-ankle PWV and 24-h sodium and potassium excretions. Our study indicates that dietary salt intake and potassium supplementation, at least in the short term, had no significant effect on brachial-ankle PWV in Chinese subjects. PMID:25493387

  20. Effect of Pseudocereal-Based Breakfast Meals on the First and Second Meal Glucose Tolerance in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gabrial, Shreef G. N.; Shakib, Marie-Christine R.; Gabrial, Gamal N.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many studies have indicated that the incidence of serious diabetic complications may be reduced through strict glycemic control. A low glycemic index diet is one tool to improve insulin resistance and improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). AIM: The objective was to study the effect of pseudocereals-based breakfasts (quinoa and buckwheat) on glucose variations at first meal (breakfast) and second meal (standardised lunch) in healthy and diabetic subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects and 12 patients with Type 2 DM (not- insulin dependent) were recruited in the study. Subjects were provided with quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals. A standardised lunch was provided 4 h after breakfast. Postprandial blood glucose response after breakfast and the second meal effect was measured in healthy and diabetic subjects. Incremental area under the curve (IAUC) values for glucose was measured in response to the breakfast and lunch. The glycemic index of the 2 pseudocereals-based test breakfasts was determined. A white wheat bread (WWB) was served as a reference breakfast meal. RESULTS: In post-breakfast analyses, healthy subjects showed that buckwheat meal had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P < 0.001) while quinoa meal showed no significance. In diabetic subjects, buckwheat and quinoa meals had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05 respectively). Blood glucose concentrations started to decline gradually for the quinoa and buckwheat but not for WWB in all healthy and diabetic subjects and returned to near-fasting baseline levels by 210 min. Post-lunch analyses indicated higher IAUC for the two breakfast types in healthy and diabetic subjects. In addition, the quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals were followed by a significantly flatter blood glucose response to the second meal for the period between 270 and 330

  1. The Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Predisposes for the Development of Clostridium perfringens-Induced Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Antonissen, Gunther; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Timbermont, Leen; Verlinden, Marc; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Eeckhout, Mia; De Saeger, Sarah; Hessenberger, Sabine; Martel, An; Croubels, Siska

    2014-01-01

    Both mycotoxin contamination of feed and Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis have an increasing global economic impact on poultry production. Especially the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common feed contaminant. This study aimed at examining the predisposing effect of DON on the development of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. An experimental Clostridium perfringens infection study revealed that DON, at a contamination level of 3,000 to 4,000 µg/kg feed, increased the percentage of birds with subclinical necrotic enteritis from 20±2.6% to 47±3.0% (P<0.001). DON significantly reduced the transepithelial electrical resistance in duodenal segments (P<0.001) and decreased duodenal villus height (P = 0.014) indicating intestinal barrier disruption and intestinal epithelial damage, respectively. This may lead to an increased permeability of the intestinal epithelium and decreased absorption of dietary proteins. Protein analysis of duodenal content indeed showed that DON contamination resulted in a significant increase in total protein concentration (P = 0.023). Furthermore, DON had no effect on in vitro growth, alpha toxin production and netB toxin transcription of Clostridium perfringens. In conclusion, feed contamination with DON at concentrations below the European maximum guidance level of 5,000 µg/kg feed, is a predisposing factor for the development of necrotic enteritis in broilers. These results are associated with a negative effect of DON on the intestinal barrier function and increased intestinal protein availability, which may stimulate growth and toxin production of Clostridium perfringens. PMID:25268498

  2. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol predisposes for the development of Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Antonissen, Gunther; Van Immerseel, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Timbermont, Leen; Verlinden, Marc; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Eeckhout, Mia; De Saeger, Sarah; Hessenberger, Sabine; Martel, An; Croubels, Siska

    2014-01-01

    Both mycotoxin contamination of feed and Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis have an increasing global economic impact on poultry production. Especially the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common feed contaminant. This study aimed at examining the predisposing effect of DON on the development of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. An experimental Clostridium perfringens infection study revealed that DON, at a contamination level of 3,000 to 4,000 µg/kg feed, increased the percentage of birds with subclinical necrotic enteritis from 20±2.6% to 47±3.0% (P<0.001). DON significantly reduced the transepithelial electrical resistance in duodenal segments (P<0.001) and decreased duodenal villus height (P = 0.014) indicating intestinal barrier disruption and intestinal epithelial damage, respectively. This may lead to an increased permeability of the intestinal epithelium and decreased absorption of dietary proteins. Protein analysis of duodenal content indeed showed that DON contamination resulted in a significant increase in total protein concentration (P = 0.023). Furthermore, DON had no effect on in vitro growth, alpha toxin production and netB toxin transcription of Clostridium perfringens. In conclusion, feed contamination with DON at concentrations below the European maximum guidance level of 5,000 µg/kg feed, is a predisposing factor for the development of necrotic enteritis in broilers. These results are associated with a negative effect of DON on the intestinal barrier function and increased intestinal protein availability, which may stimulate growth and toxin production of Clostridium perfringens.

  3. Nicotine content and abstinence state have different effects on subjective ratings of positive versus negative reinforcement from smoking.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Kimberly P; Bracken, Bethany K; Maclean, Robert R; Ryan, Elizabeth T; Lukas, Scott E; Frederick, Blaise Deb

    2013-02-01

    Despite the well-known adverse health consequences of smoking, approximately 20% of US adults smoke tobacco cigarettes. Much of the research on smoking reinforcement and the maintenance of tobacco smoking behavior has focused on nicotine; however, a number of other non-nicotine factors are likely to influence the reinforcing effects of smoked tobacco. A growing number of studies suggest that non-nicotine factors, through many pairings with nicotine, are partially responsible for the reinforcing effect of smoking. Additionally, both clinical studies and preclinical advances in our understanding of nicotinic receptor regulation suggest that abstinence from smoking may influence smoking reinforcement. These experiments were conducted for 2 reasons: to validate a MRI-compatible cigarette smoking device; and to simultaneously investigate the impact of nicotine, smoking-associated conditioned reinforcers, and smoking abstinence state on subjective ratings of smoking reinforcement. Participants smoked nicotine and placebo cigarettes through an fMRI compatible device in an overnight-abstinent state or in a nonabstinent state, after having smoked a cigarette 25minutes prior. Outcome measures were within-subject changes in physiology and subjective ratings of craving and drug effect during the smoking of nicotine or placebo cigarettes on different days in both abstinence states. Cigarette type (nicotine vs. placebo) had a significant effect on positive subjective ratings of smoking reinforcement ("High", "Like Drug", "Feel Drug"; nicotine>placebo). In contrast, abstinence state was found to have significant effects on both positive and negative ratings of smoking reinforcement ("Crave", "Anxiety", "Irritability"; abstinence>nonabstinence). Interaction effects between abstinence and nicotine provide clues about the importance of neuroadaptive mechanisms operating in dependence, as well as the impact of conditioned reinforcement on subjective ratings of smoking-induced high.

  4. Do Functional Behavioral Assessments Improve Intervention Effectiveness for Students Diagnosed with ADHD? A Single-Subject Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Faith G.; Lee, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this quantitative synthesis of single-subject research was to investigate the relative effectiveness of function-based and non-function-based behavioral interventions for students diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In addition, associations between various participant, assessment, and intervention…

  5. EFFECT OF INHALED ENDOTOXIN ON AIRWAY AND CIRCULATING INFLAMMATORY CELL PHAGOCYTOSIS AND CD11B EXPRESSION IN ATOPIC ASTHMATIC SUBJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effect of inhaled endotoxin on airway and circulating inflammatory cell phagocytosis and CD11b expression in atopic asthmatic subjects

    Neil E. Alexis, PhD, Marlowe W. Eldridge, MD, David B. Peden, MD, MS

    Chapel Hill and Research Triangle Park, NC

    Backgrou...

  6. Nonsmoker Exposure to Secondhand Cannabis Smoke. III. Oral Fluid and Blood Drug Concentrations and Corresponding Subjective Effects

    PubMed Central

    Cone, Edward J.; Bigelow, George E.; Herrmann, Evan S.; Mitchell, John M.; LoDico, Charles; Flegel, Ronald; Vandrey, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of highly potent strains of cannabis prompted this new evaluation of human toxicology and subjective effects following passive exposure to cannabis smoke. The study was designed to produce extreme cannabis smoke exposure conditions tolerable to drug-free nonsmokers. Six experienced cannabis users smoked cannabis cigarettes [5.3% Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in Session 1 and 11.3% THC in Sessions 2 and 3] in a closed chamber. Six nonsmokers were seated alternately with smokers during exposure sessions of 1 h duration. Sessions 1 and 2 were conducted with no ventilation and ventilation was employed in Session 3. Oral fluid, whole blood and subjective effect measures were obtained before and at multiple time points after each session. Oral fluid was analyzed by ELISA (4 ng/mL cutoff concentration) and by LC–MS-MS (limit of quantitation) for THC (1 ng/mL) and total THCCOOH (0.02 ng/mL). Blood was analyzed by LC–MS-MS (0.5 ng/mL) for THC, 11-OH-THC and free THCCOOH. Positive tests for THC in oral fluid and blood were obtained for nonsmokers up to 3 h following exposure. Ratings of subjective effects correlated with the degree of exposure. Subjective effect measures and amounts of THC absorbed by nonsmokers (relative to smokers) indicated that extreme secondhand cannabis smoke exposure mimicked, though to a lesser extent, active cannabis smoking. PMID:26139312

  7. The Effect of Six Thinking Hats on Student Success in Teaching Subjects Related to Sustainable Development in Geography Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Mehmet Fatih

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of six thinking hats technique in teaching subjects related to sustainable development in geography classes. The study was in both a quantitative and qualitative form. The quantitative part of the study was designed according to pre-test, post-test control group research model, and in the qualitative…

  8. Investigating Prospective Primary Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of "Effect of Human on Environment" Subject in the Process of Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calik, Muammer; Aytar, Ayse

    2013-01-01

    The principal aim of this study is to determine what the extent of the prospective primary teachers' (PPT) pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is on "effect of human on environment" subject in grade 5 science and technology curriculum before and after "Teaching Practice" course. Within case study research methodology, the study…

  9. The Effects of Form-Focused Instruction on the Acquisition of Subject-Verb Inversion in German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindseth, Martina

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effects of form-focused instruction (FFI) on the acquisition of subject-verb inversion word order in declarative sentences in German. A group of U.S. college students who participated in a semester-long study abroad program in Germany and were comparable in terms of preprogram oral proficiency levels and accuracy scores in…

  10. The Rematee Bumper Belt(®) positional therapy device for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea: Positional effectiveness in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Les; Fortier, Normand

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate body position changes resulting from wearing a Rematee Bumper Belt (Rematee, Canada) during sleep. The majority of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients will experience up to two times as many apneas and hypopneas while supine relative to lateral or prone body positions during sleep. It has been suggested that a positional therapy device could reduce the number of apneas and hypopneas in such patients. The present study was conducted to determine whether the Rematee Bumper Belt positional therapy device could prevent healthy subjects from sleeping in the supine position. Test subjects wore the belt for one to two nights. Each belt was equipped with an accelerometer that was used to measure the orientation of the belt relative to the horizontal plane. The results suggest that the belt creates an exclusion zone approximately 80° wide centred near the supine orientation, where subjects are effectively prevented to enter. Results of the present preliminary study suggests that the Rematee Bumper Belt positional therapy device is effective at limiting healthy subjects from sleeping in a supine position. The device appears to be most effective between 150° and 230°. A device with this capability may provide an inexpensive and potentially effective alternative treatment option for patients with OSA. This device has the capacity for reducing snoring and the apnea-hypopnea index in individuals with positional OSA.

  11. The Effects of Classic and Web-Designed Conceptual Change Texts on the Subject of Water Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tas, Erol; Gülen, Salih; Öner, Zeynep; Özyürek, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to research the effects of traditional and web-assisted conceptual change texts for the subject of water chemistry on the success, conceptual errors and permanent learning of students. A total of 37 8th graders in a secondary school of Samsun participated in this study which had a random experimental design with…

  12. Associations of endothelial dysfunction with exposure to ambient fine particles in diabetic subjects: are the effects modified by patient characteristics?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective: Exposure to fme airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) has been shown to be responsible for cardiovascular and hematological effects, especially in older people with cardiovascular disease. Results of epidemiological studies suggest that subjects with diabetes may be a pa...

  13. The Effect of Internet-Based Education on Student Success in Teaching of 8th Grade Triangles Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Deniz; Kesan, Cenk; Izgiol, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    In the study, it was researched the effect of internet-based application on student success. Internet-based application was used at the teaching of triangles subject which is included in 8th grade units of triangles and algebra. The study was carried out over the internet with a computer software program: Vitamin Program. The study was carried out…

  14. Toward Independent L2 Readers: Effects of Text Adjuncts, Subject Knowledge, L1 Reading, and L2 Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmeier, Cindy; Hammadou Sullivan, JoAnn; Strube, Michael

    2014-01-01

    With 97 learners in an advanced Spanish course, the study examines the effects of textual enhancement adjuncts, prior subject knowledge, first language (L1) reading ability, and second language (L2) Spanish proficiency on L2 comprehension of scientific passages. Readings included two texts with two types of embedded questions: a pause or written…

  15. Safety and efficacy of varenicline to reduce positive subjective effects produced by methamphetamine in methamphetamine-dependent volunteers.

    PubMed

    Verrico, Christopher D; Mahoney, James J; Thompson-Lake, Daisy G Y; Bennett, Ryan S; Newton, Thomas F; De La Garza, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Methamphetamine use is increasing in the US. Although there are no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for methamphetamine dependence, preclinical and clinical studies suggest that methamphetamine users may benefit from treatments that enhance cholinergic neurotransmission. Consequently, we determined the safety and the efficacy of varenicline treatment, a partial agonist at α4β2 and a full agonist at α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, to reduce positive subjective effects produced by smoked methamphetamine. Additionally, the effects of treatment with varenicline on the cardiovascular and reinforcing effects of methamphetamine were determined. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects trial of varenicline vs. placebo in methamphetamine-dependent volunteers who were not seeking treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to receive one dose of varenicline (0, 1, or 2 mg) po BID, titrated up to the target dose over days 1-7, during each of three separate inpatient phases. Safety measures included the frequency, duration, severity, and relatedness of adverse events reported. Positive subjective effects included 'Any drug effect', 'High', 'Good effects', 'Stimulated', and 'Drug liking', which were rated by participants before and for 1 h after smoking methamphetamine (0, 10, and 30 mg). There were no serious adverse events and no differences in adverse events reported during the three phases. Varenicline (2 mg) significantly reduced ratings of 'Any drug effect' and 'Stimulated', as well as attenuated ratings of 'High', 'Drug liking', and 'Good effects', produced by methamphetamine (30 mg). The ability of varenicline to attenuate the positive subjective effects of methamphetamine in the laboratory suggests that varenicline should continue to be explored as a treatment for methamphetamine dependence.

  16. Effect of Plasma Uric Acid on Antioxidant Capacity, Oxidative Stress, and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Fabbrini, Elisa; Serafini, Mauro; Colic Baric, Irena; Hazen, Stanley L.; Klein, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is purported to be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated insulin resistance. We evaluated whether alterations in levels of circulating uric acid (UA), a systemic antioxidant, affects the following: 1) systemic (plasma and saliva) nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC); 2) markers of systemic (urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α) and muscle (carbonylated protein content) oxidative stress; and 3) whole-body insulin sensitivity (percentage increase in glucose uptake during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure). Thirty-one obese subjects (BMI 37.1 ± 0.7 kg/m2) with either high serum UA (HUA; 7.1 ± 0.4 mg/dL; n = 15) or normal serum UA (NUA; 4.5 ± 0.2 mg/dL; n = 16) levels were studied; 13 subjects with HUA levels were studied again after reduction of serum UA levels to 0 by infusing a recombinant urate oxidase. HUA subjects had 20–90% greater NEAC, but lower insulin sensitivity (40%) and levels of markers of oxidative stress (30%) than subjects in the NUA group (all P < 0.05). Acute UA reduction caused a 45–95% decrease in NEAC and a 25–40% increase in levels of systemic and muscle markers of oxidative stress (all P < 0.05), but did not affect insulin sensitivity (from 168 ± 25% to 156 ± 17%, P = NS). These results demonstrate that circulating UA is a major antioxidant and might help protect against free-radical oxidative damage. However, oxidative stress is not a major determinant of insulin action in vivo. PMID:24353177

  17. Lateralization effects during semantic and rhyme judgement tasks in deaf and hearing subjects.

    PubMed

    D'Hondt, Murielle; Leybaert, Jacqueline

    2003-11-01

    A visual hemifield experiment investigated hemispheric specialization among hearing children and adults and prelingually, profoundly deaf youngsters who were exposed intensively to Cued Speech (CS). Of interest was whether deaf CS users, who undergo a development of phonology and grammar of the spoken language similar to that of hearing youngsters, would display similar laterality patterns in the processing of written language. Semantic, rhyme, and visual judgement tasks were used. In the visual task no VF advantage was observed. A RVF (left hemisphere) advantage was obtained for both the deaf and the hearing subjects for the semantic task, supporting Neville's claim that the acquisition of competence in the grammar of language is critical in establishing the specialization of the left hemisphere for language. For the rhyme task, however, a RVF advantage was obtained for the hearing subjects, but not for the deaf ones, suggesting that different neural resources are recruited by deaf and hearing subjects. Hearing the sounds of language may be necessary to develop left lateralised processing of rhymes.

  18. Effects of suppressing neutral and obsession-like thoughts in normal subjects: beyond frequency.

    PubMed

    Belloch, Amparo; Morillo, Carmen; Giménez, Amparo

    2004-07-01

    Recent cognitive-behavioral theories on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) show that deliberate attempts to suppress intrusive and undesirable thoughts lie at the genesis of clinical obsessions. In this paper the results of an experimental study on the suppression of neutral and obsession-like thoughts in normal subjects are presented. Eighty-seven university students performed in three experimental periods: (1) base-line monitoring, (2) experimental instruction, and (3) monitoring. For each of these periods, the frequency of the occurrence of a "white bear" thought or a personally relevant intrusive thought was registered. Half of the subjects received instructions to suppress the target-thought in period 2, and the other half were instructed to only monitor the target-thought in each of the experimental periods. Several measures were also obtained before and after the experiment: annoyance caused by the intrusion, suppression effort, subjective success, and evaluative appraisals of the target-thought. The results showed neither immediate nor delayed frequency increases of the target thought. However, evidence was found that deliberate thought suppression efforts, regardless of their content, had greater negative consequences than did non suppression. These results are discussed in relation to the recent cognitive proposals about OCD.

  19. Subjective Effects of Ethanol, Morphine, Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol, and Ketamine Following a Pharmacological Challenge Are Related to Functional Brain Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kleinloog, Daniël; Rombouts, Serge; Zoethout, Remco; Klumpers, Linda; Niesters, Marieke; Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; Dahan, Albert; van Gerven, Joop

    2015-12-01

    This analysis examines the neuronal foundation of drug-induced psychomimetic symptoms by relating the severity of these symptoms to changes in functional connectivity for a range of different psychoactive compounds with varying degrees of psychomimetic effects. The repeated measures design included 323 resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging time series and measures of subjective effects in 36 healthy male volunteers. Four different pharmacological challenges with ethanol, morphine, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and ketamine (12 subjects per drug) were applied. A set of 10 "template" resting-state networks was used to determine individual connectivity maps. Linear regression was used for each individual subject to relate these connectivity maps to three clusters of drug-induced subjective psychomimetic effects ("perception," "relaxation," and "dysphoria") as measured with visual analogue scales. Group analysis showed that the subjective effects of perception correlated significantly across drugs with the connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex and precentral gyrus with the sensorimotor network (p < 0.005, corrected). No significant correlations were found for relaxation or dysphoria. The posterior cingulate cortex has a role in visuospatial evaluation and the precentral gyrus has been associated with auditory hallucinations. Both the posterior cingulate cortex and the precentral gyrus show changes in activation in patients with schizophrenia, which can be related to the severity of positive symptoms (i.e., hallucinations and delusions), and have previously been related to changes induced by psychoactive drugs. The similarity of functional connectivity changes for drug-induced psychomimetic effects and symptoms of psychosis provides further support for the use of pharmacological challenges with psychomimetic drugs as models for psychosis.

  20. A Comparison of the Effects of Fatigue on Subjective and Objective Assessment of Situation Awareness in Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Knez, Wade L.; Ham, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    Maximal effort on a 30 km Time Trial (TT30) was examined to assess whether it would elicit changes in objective and subjective tests of the participants’ perception of the environment and their ability to anticipate future occurrences (situation awareness; SA) and to determine the effect of post-exercise recovery on SA. Nine experienced (5.22 ± 2.77 years) road cyclists had their objective and subjective levels of SA assessed prior to and at the completion of two TT30. The participants’ results were compared to measurements of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), peak power output (PPO), age and years of competitive cycle racing experience. Fatigue resulting from maximal effort on a TT30 produced significant changes in both the objective and subjective test of SA. Effect sizes of 0.93 and 0.99 indicated that the first and second TT30 were likely or almost certain to have a beneficial effect on the objective assessment of SA. However, the effect sizes of 0.97 and 0.95 relating to the subjective assessment of cognitive performance on the first and second TT30 showed that it was very likely the participants’ had an increased difficulty in maintaining SA. A recovery period of up to three minutes post TT30 had no effect on SA. Changes in SA had no relationship with measurements of VO2max, peak power output (PPO), age and years of competitive cycle racing experience. The findings suggest that within a laboratory environment, participants consistently underestimate their ability to make accurate assessments of their cycling environment compared to objective measures of their SA. Key Points Exhaustive exercise from a TT30 produces significant changes in both subjective and objective SA. This study indicates that fatigued participants underestimate their ability to maintain SA. A time period of three minutes is not enough to observe a recovery effect on subjective or objective SA. Both the objective and subjective tests proved to be reliable assessments of SA. PMID

  1. Dose-related Behavioral, Subjective, Endocrine and Psychophysiological Effects Of the Kappa Opioid Agonist Salvinorin A in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Mohini; Schnakenberg, Ashley; Skosnik, Patrick D.; Cohen, Bruce; Pittman, Brian; Sewell, R. Andrew; D’Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2012-01-01

    Background Salvia divinorum (Salvia) is an increasingly popular recreational drug amongst adolescents and young adults. Its primary active ingredient, Salvinorin A (SA), a highly selective agonist at the kappa opiate receptor (KOR), is believed to be one of the most potent naturally occurring hallucinogens. However, there is little experimental data on the effects of SA in humans. Methods In a 3-day, double-blind, randomized, crossover, counterbalanced study, the behavioral, subjective, cognitive, psychophysiological and endocrine effects of 0 mg, 8 mg and 12 mg of inhaled SA were characterized in 10 healthy individuals who had previously used Salvia. Results SA produced psychotomimetic effects and perceptual alterations including dissociative and somaesthetic effects, increased plasma cortisol and prolactin and reduced resting EEG spectral power. SA administration was associated with a rapid increase of its levels in the blood. SA did not produce euphoria, cognitive deficits or changes in vital signs. The effects were transient and not dose-related. SA administration was very well tolerated without acute or delayed adverse effects. Conclusions SA produced a wide range of transient effects in healthy subjects. The perceptual altering effects and lack of euphoric effects would explain its intermittent use pattern. Such a profile would also suggest a low addictive potential similar to other hallucinogens and consistent with KOR agonism. Further work is warranted to carefully characterize a full spectrum of its effects in humans, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved and to explore the basis for individual variability in its effects. PMID:22817868

  2. Effect of yogic exercises on thyroid function in subjects resident at sea level upon exposure to high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawal, S. B.; Singh, M. V.; Tyagi, A. K.; Selvamurthy, W.; Chaudhuri, B. N.

    1994-03-01

    Using radioactive iodine, the effect of 1 month's yogic exercises has been investigated on the thyroid function of subjects resident at sea level (SL) specially after their exposure to high altitude (HA). The results have been compared with a group of SL subjects who underwent physical training (PT) exercises for the same duration. Ten healthy male volunteers in the age range of 20 30 years were used as test subjects in this study with each serving as his own control. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups of 5 each. One group practised hatha yogic exercises, while the other group performed the regular PT exercises. The thyroidal accumulation and release of radioactive iodine have been measured in each of the subjects of both groups before and after 1 month of their respective exercises at SL. One month of yogic exercises at SL has been observed to cause a significant reduction in the trans-thy-roidal availability of radioiodine. The thyroid radioactivity in this group of subjects was always below normal levels with the exception of two peaks of radioactive iodine uptake, when the levels of radioactivity in the thyroid were similar to the control values of pre-yogic exercises. The release of radiolabel at 24 48 h was significantly increased after yogic exercises. In contrast, the subjects performing PT exercises for the same duration at SL showed significant thyroid uptake of radioactive iodine at 24 h. Subsequently their131I uptake continued to rise slowly until 72 h without any demonstrable thyroidal release of radiolabel. This indicated that increased thyroid activity was induced by conventional PT exercise. Exposure of SL residents to HA irrespective of their exercise regime altered the thyroidal handling of radioiodine. Thyroidal concentrations of freshly administered radioiodine at early and late sampling intervals were very high in both of the groups, especially the yogics, after their return to SL from HA. Possible mechanisms of the observed

  3. Effects of periodontal therapy on C-reactive protein and HDL in serum of subjects with periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Anne Carolina Eleutério; Carneiro, Valéria Martins de Araújo; Guimarães, Maria do Carmo Machado

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in the sera and its association with body mass index and high density lipoprotein in subjects with severe periodontitis. Methods Sera from 28 subjects (mean age: 34.36±6.24; 32% men) with severe periodontitis and 27 healthy controls (mean age: 33.18±6.42; 33% men) were collected prior to periodontal therapy. Blood samples were obtained from 23 subjects who completed therapy (9-12 months). Oral and systemic parameters such as the number of blood cells, glucose examination, lipid profile, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels accessed by high-sensitivity immunonephelometry assay, were included. Results Before therapy, in the periodontitis group, the ratio of subjects with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein <0.3 mg/dL was statistically lower than in the control group (P<0.0216). After therapy, the ratio of subjects with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein <0.3 mg/dL was significantly higher (65.22%) (P<0.0339). The mean value for body mass index was statistically lower in subjects with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein <0.3 mg/dL (24.63±4.19), compared with those with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein >0.3 mg/dL (28.91±6.03) (P<0.0411). High density lipoprotein presented a mean value statistically higher after therapy (P<0.0027). Conclusion In systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis, periodontal therapy was associated with decreased levels of circulating high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and increase of high density lipoprotein in serum. The clinical trial was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.br/, No. RBR-24T799. PMID:24896165

  4. Effect of potassium and calcium loading on healthy subjects under hypokinesia and physical exercise with fluid and salt supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Naexu, Konstantin A.; Federenko, Youri F.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the acute responses to the electrolyte challenges under hypokinesia and physical exercise (PE) of different intensities with fluid and salt supplementation (FSS). The studies were performed on 12 physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years under 364 days of hypokinesia (decreased number of steps per day) with a set of PE with FSS. The volunteers were divided into two equal groups. The first group was subjected to a set of intensive PE and the second group was submitted to a set of moderate PE. Both groups of subjects consumed daily water and salt supplements that aimed to increase the body hydration level. For simulation of the hypokinetic effect all subjects were kept under an average of 3000 steps per day. Functional tests with a potassium chloride (KCl) and calcium lactate (Cal) load were performed during the hypokinetic period of 364 days and the 60-day prehypokinetic period that served as control, while both groups of subjects consumed daily calcium and potassium supplements. The concentration of electrolyte and hormone levels in the blood and their excretion rate in urine were determined. Renal excretion of calcium and potassium and the blood concentration thereof increased markedly in both groups of subjects. With the potassium chloride load tests the increased potassium excretion was accompanied by higher aldosterone and insulin blood levels, and with the calcium lactate load tests the increased calcium excretion was accompanied by a decreased parathyroid content in the blood. FSS and PE, regardless of intensity, failed to attenuate calcium and potassium losses. Additional intake of KCl and Cal also failed to normalize potassium and calcium abnormalities. It was concluded that during the KCl and Cal loading tests, the increased losses of potassium and calcium in the hypokinetic subjects were due to the inability of their bodies to retain these electrolytes, and that electrolyte abnormalities could

  5. Attrition of the Zeigarnik effect: role of subjects' expectancy aroused by placebos.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, V H; Jha, R J; Joshi, N J; Kelkar, V V

    1992-12-01

    The present paper describes the effect for 45 medical students and interns of "placebo" treatment on the Zeigarnik effect. Attrition of the Zeigarnik effect caused by placebo was resistant to caffeine and diazepam (ns = 58 and 28).

  6. Air toxics and epigenetic effects: ozone altered microRNAs in the sputum of human subjects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone (03) is a criteria air pollutant that is associated with numerous adverse health effects, including altered respiratory immune responses. Despite its deleterious health effects, possible epigenetic mechanisms underlying 03-induced health effects remain understudied. MicroRN...

  7. Tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and neuroendocrine effects of PRX-00023, a novel 5-HT1A agonist, in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Ganesh R; Reinhard, John F; Oshana, Scott; Kauffman, Michael; Donahue, Stephen

    2007-07-01

    PRX-00023 is a novel, nonazapirone 5-HT1A agonist in clinical development for treatment of affective disorders. The objectives of the initial clinical phase I studies (a single ascending dose study and multiple dose-ascending and high-dose titration studies) were to measure the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamic (neuroendocrine) effects, and tolerability of PRX-00023 in healthy subjects. The studies evaluated 10-mg to 150-mg doses of PRX-00023 in up to 112 healthy male and female subjects aged 18 to 54 years. Single and multiple oral doses of PRX-00023 were found to be safe and well tolerated in healthy subjects. PRX-00023 was absorbed relatively rapidly, with a tmax of 0.5 to 2 hours, and eliminated with a half-life of approximately 12 hours. PRX-00023 treatment transiently increased blood prolactin levels 2 to 3 hours after administration, consistent with its mechanism as a 5-HT1A agonist.

  8. A-Class Genitive Subject Effect: A Pragmatic and Discourse Grammar Approach to A- and O-Class Genitive Subject Selection in Hawaiian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, C. M. Kaliko

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores genitive class selection of genitive case subjects in nominalizations and relative clauses in Hawaiian. The amount of research in the area of Hawaiian's "a"- and "o"-class is far from sufficient. Since Wilson (1976a), there has been minimal critical new inquiry to "a"- and…

  9. Naming the Ethological Subject.

    PubMed

    Benson, Etienne S

    2016-03-01

    Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.

  10. [Maximal exercise in spinal cord injured subjects: effects of an antigravity suit].

    PubMed

    Bazzi-Grossin, C; Bonnin, P; Bailliart, O; Bazzi, H; Kedra, A W; Martineaud, J P

    1996-01-01

    Paraplegics have low aerobic capacity because of the spinal cord injury. Their functional muscle mass is reduced and usually untrained. They have to use upperbody muscles for displacements and daily activities. Sympathic nervous system injury is responsible of vasomotricity disturbances in leg vessels and possible abdominal vessels, proportionally to level injury. If cord injury level is higher than T5, then sympathic cardiac efferences may be damaged. Underbody muscles atrophy and vasomotricity disturbances contribute to phlebostasis. This stasis may decrease venous return, preload and stroke volume (Starling). To maintain appropriate cardiac output, tachycardia is necessary, especially during exercise. Low stroke volume, all the more since it is associated with cardio-acceleration disturbances, may reduce cardiac output reserve, and so constitutes a limiting factor for adaptation to exercise. The aim of this study was to verify if use of an underlesional pressure suit may increase cardiac output reserve because of lower venous stasis, and increase performance. We studied 10 able-bodied and 14 traumatic paraplegic subjects. Able-bodied subjects were 37 +/- 6 years old, wellbeing, not especially trained with upperbody muscles: there were 2 women and 8 men. Paraplegics were 27 +/- 7 years old, wellbeing except paraplegia, five of them practiced sport regularly (athletism or basket for disabled), and the others just daily propelled their wheelchair; there were 5 women and 9 men. For 8 of them, cord injury levels were located below T7, between T1 and T6 for the others. The age disability varied from 6 months to 2 years for 9 of them, it was approximately five years for 4 of them, and 20 years for one. We used a maximal triangular arm crank exercise with an electro-magnetic ergocycle Gauthier frame. After five minutes warm up, it was proceeded in one minute successive stages until maximal oxygen consumption is raised. VO2, VCO2, RER were measured by direct method with

  11. Factors predisposing to dislocation of the Thompson hemiarthroplasty: 22 dislocations in 338 patients.

    PubMed

    Pajarinen, Jarkko; Savolainen, Vesa; Tulikoura, Ilkka; Lindahl, Jan; Hirvensalo, Eero

    2003-02-01

    In a series of 338 patients, we have retrospectively analyzed technical and anatomical factors, which may predispose to a dislocation of the Thompson hemiprosthesis. 22 patients (7%) had at least 1 dislocation during the 6-month follow-up. The most significant independent factor predisposing to dislocation was the use of a posterior approach (dislocation rate 16%). We examined the radiographs and data on operations in the 22 patients, using 79 random patients without dislocation as controls. Factors correlating with an increase in the incidence of dislocation were the length of the residual femoral neck > 0.5 cm in short patients (< 165 cm), and considerable change in the postoperative offset of the hip. Acetabular measurements showed no correlation to the dislocation. Our findings suggest that the main factors predicting dislocation are technical and not related to anatomical measurements.

  12. Anterior Coracoscapular Ligament as a Factor Predisposing to or Protective for Suprascapular Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Borowski, Andrzej; Wojciechowski, Mariusz; Wysiadecki, Grzegorz; Topol, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Suprascapular neuropathy is a pathology caused by injury or compression of the suprascapular nerve. As the nerve runs from the anterior to posterior side of the scapula, the hot point where it is most susceptible to both injury and compression is the suprascapular notch. A literature search reveals several potential predisposing morphological factors in this area. However the most recent reports indicate that the structures at the suprascapular notch region may also prevent nerve injury and compression. The role of the anterior coracoscapular ligament (ACSL) remains unclear. While some studies indicate that it may predispose to suprascapular neuropathy, the newest study proposes a protective function. The aim of the article was to review the function of the anterior coracoscapular ligament in the light of the most recent studies. An understanding of the role of the ligament is essential for arthroscopic and other surgical procedures of this area in order to avoid iatrogenic injury of the suprascapular nerve. PMID:28105422

  13. The Effect of Sampling and Storage on the Fecal Microbiota Composition in Healthy and Diseased Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tedjo, Danyta I.; Jonkers, Daisy M. A. E.; Savelkoul, Paul H.; Masclee, Ad A.; van Best, Niels; Pierik, Marieke J.; Penders, John

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale cohort studies are currently being designed to investigate the human microbiome in health and disease. Adequate sampling strategies are required to limit bias due to shifts in microbial communities during sampling and storage. Therefore, we examined the impact of different sampling and storage conditions on the stability of fecal microbial communities in healthy and diseased subjects. Fecal samples from 10 healthy controls, 10 irritable bowel syndrome and 8 inflammatory bowel disease patients were collected on site, aliquoted immediately after defecation and stored at -80°C, -20°C for 1 week, at +4°C or room temperature for 24 hours. Fecal transport swabs (FecalSwab, Copan) were collected and stored for 48-72 hours at room temperature. We used pyrosequencing of the 16S gene to investigate the stability of microbial communities. Alpha diversity did not differ between all storage methods and -80°C, except for the fecal swabs. UPGMA clustering and principal coordinate analysis showed significant clustering by test subject (p<0.001) but not by storage method. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and (un)weighted UniFrac showed a significant higher distance between fecal swabs and -80°C versus the other methods and -80°C samples (p<0.009). The relative abundance of Ruminococcus and Enterobacteriaceae did not differ between the storage methods versus -80°C, but was higher in fecal swabs (p<0.05). Storage up to 24 hours (at +4°C or room temperature) or freezing at -20°C did not significantly alter the fecal microbial community structure compared to direct freezing of samples from healthy subjects and patients with gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:26024217

  14. Effect of standing on neurohumoral responses and plasma volume in healthy subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Ertl, A. C.; Shannon, J. R.; Furlan, R.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.

    1998-01-01

    Upright posture leads to rapid pooling of blood in the lower extremities and shifts plasma fluid into surrounding tissues. This results in a decrease in plasma volume (PV) and in hemoconcentration. There has been no integrative evaluation of concomitant neurohumoral and PV shifts with upright posture in normal subjects. We studied 10 healthy subjects after 3 days of stable Na+ and K+ intake. PV was assessed by the Evans blue dye method and by changes in hematocrit. Norepinephrine (NE), NE spillover, epinephrine (Epi), vasopressin, plasma renin activity, aldosterone, osmolarity, and kidney response expressed by urine osmolality and by Na+ and K+ excretion of the subjects in the supine and standing postures were all measured. We found that PV fell by 13% (375 +/- 35 ml plasma) over approximately 14 min, after which time it remained relatively stable. There was a concomitant decrease in systolic blood pressure and an increase in heart rate that peaked at the time of maximal decrease in PV. Plasma Epi and NE increased rapidly to this point. Epi approached baseline by 20 min of standing. NE spillover increased 80% and clearance decreased 30% with 30 min of standing. The increase in plasma renin activity correlated with an increase in aldosterone. Vasopressin increased progressively, but there was no change in plasma osmolarity. The kidney response showed a significant decrease in Na+ and an increase in K+ excretion with upright posture. We conclude that a cascade of neurohumoral events occurs with upright posture, some of which particularly coincide with the decrease in PV. Plasma Epi levels may contribute to the increment in heart rate with maintained upright posture.

  15. Effect of synergetic implementation of inquiry activities across three subjects in comparison to more traditional approach to teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogová, Brigita; Ješková, Zuzana; Hančová, Martina; Kireš, Marián

    2017-01-01

    Science education standards for grammar schools (ISCED 3) urge more emphasis on students' investigations in order to develop understanding but also scientific process skills (inquiry skills). It is true for not only science, but also mathematics and informatics. This approach is promoted to increase scientific literacy and inquiry skills development, however, there has not been many studies carried out in Slovakia to show the effect on students' achievements. In cooperation with Institutes of mathematics and informatics there was a research designed in order to study the effect of synergetic implementation of inquiry activities across the three subjects of physics, mathematics and informatics. The effect was identified with the help of inquiry skills' test and results were compared to those achieved by students subjected to more traditional teaching. In the contribution there are results of the study analyzed and discussed in details.

  16. Effects of alprazolam and clonidine on carbon dioxide-induced increases in anxiety rating in healthy human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, S.W.; Krystal, J.H.; Heninger, G.R.; Charney, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    In order to investigate possible neurobiologic mechanisms underlying carbon dioxide-induced anxiety, the effects of oral alprazolam 0.75 mg and intravenous clonidine 2 mcg/kg on CO/sub 2/-induced increases in ratings of subjective anxiety, pulse rate, and ventilation were measured in healthy human subjects. Pretreatment with alprazolam but not with clonidine significantly reduced the CO/sub 2/-induced increases in ratings of anxiety. Neither drug altered CO/sub 2/-induced increases in pulse rate or ventilatory responses. Clonidine did produce potent sedative and hypotensive effects. The behavioral data suggest that the mechanisms through which CO/sub 2/ induces anxiety-like effects involve neural systems regulated by benzodiazepine receptors and, secondly, that they appear not to require normal functioning of noradrenergic systems. Carbon dioxide may provide a useful model system for identification of new drugs with anxiolytic properties.

  17. Effect of Different Cooling Regimes on the Mechanical Properties of Cementitious Composites Subjected to High Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiangtao; Weng, Wenfang; Yu, Kequan

    2014-01-01

    The influence of different cooling regimes (quenching in water and cooling in air) on the residual mechanical properties of engineered cementitious composite (ECC) subjected to high temperature up to 800°C was discussed in this paper. The ECC specimens are exposed to 100, 200, 400, 600, and 800°C with the unheated specimens for reference. Different cooling regimens had a significant influence on the mechanical properties of postfire ECC specimens. The microstructural characterization was examined before and after exposure to fire deterioration by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results from the microtest well explained the mechanical properties variation of postfire specimens. PMID:25161392

  18. The subjective effect of multiple co-channel frequency modulated television interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whyte, W. A., Jr.; Cauley, M. A.; Groumpos, P. P.

    1983-01-01

    As the geostationary orbit/spectrum becomes saturated, there is a need for the ability to reuse frequency assignments. Protection ratios (the ratio of wanted signal power to interfering signal power at the receiver) play a key role in determining efficient frequency reuse plans. A knowledge of the manner in which multiple sources of co-channel interference combine is vital in determining protection ratio requirements such that suitable margin may be allocated for multiple interfering signals. Results of tests examining the subjective assessment of multiple co-channel frequency modulated television signals interfering with another frequency modulated TV system are presented.

  19. Effects of extreme endurance running on cardiac autonomic nervous modulation in healthy trained subjects.

    PubMed

    Sztajzel, Juan; Atchou, Guillaume; Adamec, Richard; Bayes de L