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Sample records for preferences strategic behavior

  1. Cognitive skills affect economic preferences, strategic behavior, and job attachment.

    PubMed

    Burks, Stephen V; Carpenter, Jeffrey P; Goette, Lorenz; Rustichini, Aldo

    2009-05-12

    Economic analysis has so far said little about how an individual's cognitive skills (CS) are related to the individual's economic preferences in different choice domains, such as risk taking or saving, and how preferences in different domains are related to each other. Using a sample of 1,000 trainee truckers we report three findings. First, there is a strong and significant relationship between an individual's CS and preferences. Individuals with better CS are more patient, in both short- and long-run. Better CS are also associated with a greater willingness to take calculated risks. Second, CS predict social awareness and choices in a sequential Prisoner's Dilemma game. Subjects with better CS more accurately forecast others' behavior and differentiate their behavior as a second mover more strongly depending on the first-mover's choice. Third, CS, and in particular, the ability to plan, strongly predict perseverance on the job in a setting with a substantial financial penalty for early exit. Consistent with CS being a common factor in all of these preferences and behaviors, we find a strong pattern of correlation among them. These results, taken together with the theoretical explanation we offer for the relationships we find, suggest that higher CS systematically affect preferences and choices in ways that favor economic success.

  2. Collective preferences in strategic decisions.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jo; Colman, Andrew M

    2007-12-01

    In the theories of team reasoning of Sugden and Bacharach, players are assumed to be motivated in some circumstances to maximize collective rather than individual utilities. An experiment was performed to assess whether preferences underlying such collective payoff maximization occur. An opportunistic sample of 50 undergraduate and graduate students, 7 men and 43 women ages 19 to 42 years (M= 23.0, SD=5.4), expressed preferences among the outcomes of strategic decisions presented in vignettes designed to engage social value orientations of individualism, altruism, competitiveness, equality seeking, or collective preferences. In the vignettes designed to engage collective preferences, and significantly less frequently in the other vignettes, preferences were biased toward outcomes maximizing collective payoffs, and respondents invariably gave team-reasoning explanations for their preferences. These results provide evidence for collective preferences according to theories of team reasoning and empirical support for one of the essential assumptions of these theories.

  3. On operator strategic behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Deeper and more detailed knowledge as to how human operators such as pilots respond, singly and in groups, to demands on their performance which arise from technical systems will support the manipulation of such systems' design in order to accommodate the foibles of human behavior. Efforts to understand how self-autonomy impacts strategic behavior and such related issues as error generation/recognition/correction are still in their infancy. The present treatment offers both general and aviation-specific definitions of strategic behavior as precursors of prospective investigations.

  4. On operator strategic behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Deeper and more detailed knowledge as to how human operators such as pilots respond, singly and in groups, to demands on their performance which arise from technical systems will support the manipulation of such systems' design in order to accommodate the foibles of human behavior. Efforts to understand how self-autonomy impacts strategic behavior and such related issues as error generation/recognition/correction are still in their infancy. The present treatment offers both general and aviation-specific definitions of strategic behavior as precursors of prospective investigations.

  5. Strategic supply cost management: physician preference without deference.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Rand

    2005-04-01

    Strategic supply chain management differs from traditional supply chain management in that it leaves nothing to chance: It takes into account physician preference in product selection and pricing. It does not allow vendors to bypass supply chain leaders. Its leaders require a broad understanding of strategic, financial, and clinical issues. Its leaders are accountable for maintaining control over supply costs across the board.

  6. Sex differences in cognitive strategic preference among medical students.

    PubMed

    Caplan, B

    1984-02-01

    The cognitive strategic preferences of first-year medical students (42 men and 31 women) were assessed using the Word-Shape Sorting Test, on which subjects may adopt a verbal or visuospatial approach to problem-solving. 24 (77%) women, but only 25 (60%) men, exhibited a clear preference for a particular information-processing strategy. Some factors contributing to confusion in the literature on cognitive style are discussed.

  7. Men's strategic preferences for femininity in female faces.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; Feinberg, David R; Perrett, David I

    2014-08-01

    Several evolutionarily relevant sources of individual differences in face preference have been documented for women. Here, we examine three such sources of individual variation in men's preference for female facial femininity: term of relationship, partnership status and self-perceived attractiveness. We show that men prefer more feminine female faces when rating for a short-term relationship and when they have a partner (Study 1). These variables were found to interact in a follow-up study (Study 2). Men who thought themselves attractive also preferred more feminized female faces for short-term relationships than men who thought themselves less attractive (Study 1 and Study 2). In women, similar findings for masculine preferences in male faces have been interpreted as adaptive. In men, such preferences potentially reflect that attractive males are able to compete for high-quality female partners in short-term contexts. When a man has secured a mate, the potential cost of being discovered may increase his choosiness regarding short-term partners relative to unpartnered men, who can better increase their short-term mating success by relaxing their standards. Such potentially strategic preferences imply that men also face trade-offs when choosing relatively masculine or feminine faced partners. In line with a trade-off, women with feminine faces were seen as more likely to be unfaithful and more likely to pursue short-term relationships (Study 3), suggesting that risk of cuckoldry is one factor that may limit men's preferences for femininity in women and could additionally lead to preferences for femininity in short-term mates.

  8. Education for Strategic Environmental Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chawla, Louise; Cushing, Debra Flanders

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews four bodies of research that shed light on how to promote active care for the environment in children and youth: research on sources of proenvironmental behavior, socialization for democratic skills and values, the development of a personal sense of competence, and the development of collective competence. The article begins…

  9. Preferred pathways of behavioral contagion.

    PubMed

    Jones, M B; Jones, D R

    1995-01-01

    A behavioral disorder is "contagious" if the risk to a given individual increases when someone in that person's vicinity, family, or social group develops the disorder. So understood, behavioral contagion may be involved in criminality, conduct disorder, drug abuse, suicide, and teenage pregnancy. Previous papers have shown that contagion generates highly distinctive result patterns, from which its presence may be inferred. The patterns concern prevalence in sibships of different size and, in case-control designs, the number of susceptible sibs that affected and unaffected individuals have. The present paper extends the analysis by allowing the likelihood of transmission from one sib to another to vary according as the two sibs are of the same or opposite gender, male or female, single borns or co-twins, fraternal or identical twins. The extension is illustrated by application to data on criminality in Danish twins previously reported by other workers. We will show that the distribution of criminality by gender and zygosity is better explained in terms of behavioral contagion than by previous analyses.

  10. Exploring Strategic Behavior in an Oligopoly Market Using Classroom Clickers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouhle, Keith

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses an innovative technique to teach strategic behavior in oligopoly markets. In the classroom exercise, students play the role of a firm that maximizes its profit given the behavior of other firms in the industry. Using classroom clickers to communicate pricing decisions, students explore first-hand the strategic nature of…

  11. Exploring Strategic Behavior in an Oligopoly Market Using Classroom Clickers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouhle, Keith

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses an innovative technique to teach strategic behavior in oligopoly markets. In the classroom exercise, students play the role of a firm that maximizes its profit given the behavior of other firms in the industry. Using classroom clickers to communicate pricing decisions, students explore first-hand the strategic nature of…

  12. Residential Preferences and Population Dispersal Migration Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, Gordon F.

    In order to test the hypothesis that size of place of residence and urban proximity preferences constitute factors in population dispersal migration behavior, a random sample of 777 Pennsylvania households plus a sample screened for moving probability (N=319) were surveyed via personal interviews in 1974. A follow-up survey on actual migration…

  13. Predicting Networked Strategic Behavior via Machine Learning and Game Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-13

    The funding for this project was used to develop basic models, methodology and algorithms for the application of machine learning and related tools to settings in which strategic behavior is central. Among the topics studied was the development of simple behavioral models explaining and predicting human subject behavior in networked strategic experiments from prior work. These included experiments in biased voting and networked trading, among others.

  14. A Methodological Framework to Analyze Stakeholder Preferences and Propose Strategic Pathways for a Sustainable University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turan, Fikret Korhan; Cetinkaya, Saadet; Ustun, Ceyda

    2016-01-01

    Building sustainable universities calls for participative management and collaboration among stakeholders. Combining analytic hierarchy and network processes (AHP/ANP) with statistical analysis, this research proposes a framework that can be used in higher education institutions for integrating stakeholder preferences into strategic decisions. The…

  15. A Methodological Framework to Analyze Stakeholder Preferences and Propose Strategic Pathways for a Sustainable University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turan, Fikret Korhan; Cetinkaya, Saadet; Ustun, Ceyda

    2016-01-01

    Building sustainable universities calls for participative management and collaboration among stakeholders. Combining analytic hierarchy and network processes (AHP/ANP) with statistical analysis, this research proposes a framework that can be used in higher education institutions for integrating stakeholder preferences into strategic decisions. The…

  16. Social class & risk preferences and behavior.

    PubMed

    Kish-Gephart, Jennifer J

    2017-08-02

    This paper reviews recent work regarding the link between one's societal ranking (or social class), and risk preferences and behavior. While the topic of social class and its relationship to risk has been studied only tentatively in psychology, preliminary evidence suggests that experiences with rank, access to resources, and movement between classes have a meaningful impact on people's risk preferences and behaviors. Yet, a clear pattern of results remains elusive. Some studies suggest that lower social class standing is related to risk aversion, while others suggest it is related to risk taking. These mixed results highlight the need for future research that examines when and why lower social class standing is related to more or less risky decisions. By shedding light on this important phenomenon, the hope is to offer intervention opportunities that influence policies and mitigate inequality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Scaling laws of strategic behavior and size heterogeneity in agent dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaglica, Gabriella; Lillo, Fabrizio; Moro, Esteban; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2008-03-01

    We consider the financial market as a model system and study empirically how agents strategically adjust the properties of large orders in order to meet their preference and minimize their impact. We quantify this strategic behavior by detecting scaling relations between the variables characterizing the trading activity of different institutions. We also observe power-law distributions in the investment time horizon, in the number of transactions needed to execute a large order, and in the traded value exchanged by large institutions, and we show that heterogeneity of agents is a key ingredient for the emergence of some aggregate properties characterizing this complex system.

  18. Lateral Preference Behaviors in Preschool Children and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coren, Stanley; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The behavioral manifestations of hand, eye, foot, and ear preference were studied in a sample of 384 children of 3, 4, and 5 years of age, and were compared to the preferences of a group of 171 high school students. Results indicate that some aspects of lateral preference behavior are influenced by age-related variables. (Author/RH)

  19. Measurement of Client Preferences for Therapist Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richert, Alphons J.

    While past research has found conflicting results on the place for client role preferences in psychotherapy, none of this research has examined the client role preferences in an actual client population seeking outpatient therapy. This study involved the development of a measure of client role preferences which attempted to survey a wider range of…

  20. Separate neural mechanisms underlie choices and strategic preferences in risky decision making

    PubMed Central

    Venkatraman, Vinod; Payne, John W.; Bettman, James R.; Luce, Mary Frances; Huettel, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive decision making in real-world contexts often relies on strategic simplifications of decision problems. Yet, the neural mechanisms that shape these strategies and their implementation remain largely unknown. Using a novel economic decision-making task, we dissociate brain regions that predict specific choices from those predicting an individual’s preferred strategy. Choices that maximized gains or minimized losses were predicted by fMRI activation in ventromedial prefrontal cortex or anterior insula, respectively. However, choices that followed a simplifying strategy (i.e., attending to overall probability of winning) were associated with activation in parietal and lateral prefrontal cortices. Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, through differential functional connectivity with parietal and insular cortex, predicted individual variability in strategic preferences. Finally, we demonstrate that robust decision strategies follow from neural sensitivity to rewards. We conclude that decision making reflects more than compensatory interaction of choice-related regions; in addition, specific brain systems potentiate choices depending upon strategies, traits, and context. PMID:19477159

  1. Information and strategic voting.

    PubMed

    Tyszler, Marcelo; Schram, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally study voter behavior in a setting characterized by plurality rule and mandatory voting. Voters choose from three options. We are interested in the occurrence of strategic voting in an environment where Condorcet cycles may occur and focus on how information about the preference distribution affects strategic behavior. We also vary the relative importance of the second preferred option. Quantal response equilibrium analysis is used to analyze the game and derive predictions. Our results indeed show that strategic voting arises. Its extent depends on (i) information availability; (ii) the relative importance of the intermediate candidate; (iii) the electorate's relative support for one's preferred candidate; (iv) the relative position of the plurality-supported candidate in one's preference ordering. Our results show that information serves as a coordination device where strategic voting does not harm the plurality-preferred candidate's chances of winning.

  2. Help Preferences among Employees Who Wish to Change Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Roger; Cleal, Bryan; Jakobsen, Mette Øllgaard; Villadsen, Ebbe; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the help preferences of employees in the Danish police who had acknowledged that they wished to change health behaviors. In addition, we explored whether preferences varied with age, gender, chronic health concerns, positive expectations of good health, and past experiences of in-house health promotion services (i.e.,…

  3. Help Preferences among Employees Who Wish to Change Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Roger; Cleal, Bryan; Jakobsen, Mette Øllgaard; Villadsen, Ebbe; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the help preferences of employees in the Danish police who had acknowledged that they wished to change health behaviors. In addition, we explored whether preferences varied with age, gender, chronic health concerns, positive expectations of good health, and past experiences of in-house health promotion services (i.e.,…

  4. Neural correlates of behavioral preference for culturally familiar drinks.

    PubMed

    McClure, Samuel M; Li, Jian; Tomlin, Damon; Cypert, Kim S; Montague, Latané M; Montague, P Read

    2004-10-14

    Coca-Cola (Coke) and Pepsi are nearly identical in chemical composition, yet humans routinely display strong subjective preferences for one or the other. This simple observation raises the important question of how cultural messages combine with content to shape our perceptions; even to the point of modifying behavioral preferences for a primary reward like a sugared drink. We delivered Coke and Pepsi to human subjects in behavioral taste tests and also in passive experiments carried out during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two conditions were examined: (1) anonymous delivery of Coke and Pepsi and (2) brand-cued delivery of Coke and Pepsi. For the anonymous task, we report a consistent neural response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex that correlated with subjects' behavioral preferences for these beverages. In the brand-cued experiment, brand knowledge for one of the drinks had a dramatic influence on expressed behavioral preferences and on the measured brain responses.

  5. Establishing Partial Limits on Children's Behavior: Use of Strategic, Structural, and Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoorwitz, Aaron Noah

    1985-01-01

    Playful wrestling, splashing, fidgeting, chair-tilting, and a number of other behaviors by children often result in injuries, tantrums, or conflicts in families. Exact limits can be established in these instances with an intervention which integrates strategic, structural, and cognitive-behavioral approaches. Two case examples are presented and…

  6. Charting the expansion of strategic exploratory behavior during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Somerville, Leah H; Sasse, Stephanie F; Garrad, Megan C; Drysdale, Andrew T; Abi Akar, Nadine; Insel, Catherine; Wilson, Robert C

    2017-02-01

    Although models of exploratory decision making implicate a suite of strategies that guide the pursuit of information, the developmental emergence of these strategies remains poorly understood. This study takes an interdisciplinary perspective, merging computational decision making and developmental approaches to characterize age-related shifts in exploratory strategy from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were 149 12-28-year-olds who completed a computational explore-exploit paradigm that manipulated reward value, information value, and decision horizon (i.e., the utility that information holds for future choices). Strategic directed exploration, defined as information seeking selective for long time horizons, emerged during adolescence and maintained its level through early adulthood. This age difference was partially driven by adolescents valuing immediate reward over new information. Strategic random exploration, defined as stochastic choice behavior selective for long time horizons, was invoked at comparable levels over the age range, and predicted individual differences in attitudes toward risk taking in daily life within the adolescent portion of the sample. Collectively, these findings reveal an expansion of the diversity of strategic exploration over development, implicate distinct mechanisms for directed and random exploratory strategies, and suggest novel mechanisms for adolescent-typical shifts in decision making. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Self-generated strategic behavior in an ecological shopping task.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Carolina; Wai Shun, Priscilla Lam; Dorze, Guylaine Le; Gosselin, Nadia; Dawson, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The use of cognitive strategies optimizes performance in complex everyday tasks such as shopping. This exploratory study examined the cognitive strategies people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) effectively use in an unstructured, real-world situation. METHOD. A behavioral analysis of the self-generated strategic behaviors of 5 people with severe TBI using videotaped sessions of an ecological shopping task (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Profile) was performed. RESULTS. All participants used some form of cognitive strategy in an unstructured real-world shopping task, although the number, type, and degree of effectiveness of the strategies in leading to goal attainment varied. The most independent person used the largest number and a broader repertoire of self-generated strategies. CONCLUSION. These results provide initial evidence that occupational therapists should examine the use of self-generated cognitive strategies in real-world contexts as a potential means of guiding therapy aimed at improving independence in everyday activities for people with TBI.

  8. Infants' preference for prosocial behaviors: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Holvoet, Claire; Scola, Céline; Arciszewski, Thomas; Picard, Delphine

    2016-11-01

    In 2007, a study carried out by Hamlin, Wynn, and Bloom provided concrete evidence that infants as young as 6 months were capable of social evaluation, displaying an early preference for agents performing a prosocial behavior. Since then the development of early social abilities to judge other's behavior has been the topic of a growing body of research. The present paper reviews studies conducted between 2007 and 2015 that experimentally examined infants' social evaluation abilities by testing their preference for agents acting prosocially. We performed a detailed analysis of a corpus of 16 research studies including 59 experimental results, scrutinizing their methods and findings, and identifying their convergent and divergent features. This analysis showed that a preference for agents who perform prosocial behaviors (as opposed to antisocial or neutral) was present in a majority of infants, but some conflicting results have also been reported. The rich interpretation that infants are endowed with mature socio-moral evaluation abilities has not really been sufficiently discussed. In order to deepen this debate, we assessed other studies that have further explored infants' understanding of the social value of behaviors. Many of the studies provide evidence that young infants manage to identify and prefer the prosocial agent by taking into account the context and agents' mental states beyond the behavior itself. In this study two specific areas are assessed: (1) studies that have previously explored social evaluation abilities beyond a basic preference for prosocial behavior and (2) current theories which attempt to explain how and why such preferences could exist so early in infancy. Future directions for research on social evaluation abilities in infants are also discussed as well as a review of the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Behavioral Variability of Choices Versus Structural Inconsistency of Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Regenwetter, Michel; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2012-01-01

    Theories of rational choice often make the structural consistency assumption that every decision maker’s binary strict preference among choice alternatives forms a strict weak order. Likewise, the very concept of a utility function over lotteries in normative, prescriptive, and descriptive theory is mathematically equivalent to strict weak order preferences over those lotteries, while intransitive heuristic models violate such weak orders. Using new quantitative interdisciplinary methodologies we dissociate variability of choices from structural inconsistency of preferences. We show that laboratory choice behavior among stimuli of a classical “intransitivity” paradigm is, in fact, consistent with variable strict weak order preferences. We find that decision makers act in accordance with a restrictive mathematical model that, for the behavioral sciences, is extraordinarily parsimonious. Our findings suggest that the best place to invest future behavioral decision research is not in the development of new intransitive decision models, but rather in the specification of parsimonious models consistent with strict weak order(s), as well as heuristics and other process models that explain why preferences appear to be weakly ordered. PMID:22506679

  10. Son preference in Pakistan: an analysis of intentions vs. behavior.

    PubMed

    De Tray, D

    1984-01-01

    The study assesses the extent to which the very strong expressed preference for sons in Pakistan influences couples' actual fertility behavior. Several fertility measures and estimation techniques were used to determine whether subsequent fertility behavior is influenced by the sex composition of previous births. Khan and Sirageldin's work on sex preference and desires for additional children in Pakistan were reviewed, followed by consideration of several methods of testing the relationship between sex of children and subsequent fertility and presentation of the results of several other tests of the hypothesis that sex composition of children affects actual fertility behavior. The Khan and Sirageldin (1977) results can be translated into a stopping rule which states that the higher the proportion of boys in a family, the less likely a couple is to go on to have another child. This finding, based on intentions, conflicts with the results based on actual behavior presented here. The Khan and Sirageldin results were extended by assessing the extent to which couples translated their very strong expressed preferences for sons into actual behavior. This extension was based on a sample of women, most of whom have completed fertility (all were aged 35 or older) and all of whom had at least 1 live birth. No overall relationship was found between the sex composition of children and subsequent fertility behavior. At least 2 explanations are possible for this inconsistency between intentions and behavior with each having a different implication for population policy and for the future of population growth in general. The first explanation is that in traditional societies such as Pakistan couples are unable to control their fertility adequately. The policy implications of this view suggest family planning and contraceptive distribution programs aimed at reducing the cost of achieving whatever desired family size couples want. Another explanation is that although parents

  11. Test-Takers' Strategic Behaviors in Independent and Integrated Speaking Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled; Brooks, Lindsay; Swain, Merrill; Lapkin, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the strategic behaviors that test-takers reported using when responding to integrated and independent speaking tasks in an English oral proficiency test [the Speaking Section of the Internet-based Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL iBT)] and the relationship between test-takers' strategic behaviors and their…

  12. Brainstem correlates of behavioral and compositional preferences of musical harmony.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan

    2011-03-30

    Certain chords are preferred by listeners behaviorally and also occur with higher regularity in musical composition. Event-related potentials index the perceived consonance (i.e., pleasantness) of musical pitch relationships providing a cortical neural correlate for such behavioral preferences. Here, we show correlates of these harmonic preferences exist at subcortical stages of audition. Brainstem frequency-following responses were measured in response to four prototypical musical triads. Pitch salience computed from frequency-following responses correctly predicted the ordering of triadic harmony stipulated by music theory (i.e., major >minor >diminished >augmented). Moreover, neural response magnitudes showed high correspondence with listeners' perceptual ratings of the same chords. Results suggest that preattentive stages of pitch processing may contribute to perceptual judgments of musical harmony.

  13. C. elegans behavior of preference choice on bacterial food.

    PubMed

    Abada, Emad Abd-elmoniem; Sung, Hyun; Dwivedi, Meenakshi; Park, Byung-Jae; Lee, Sun-Kyung; Ahnn, Joohong

    2009-09-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a free living soil nematode and thus in its natural habitat, C. elegans encounters many different species of soil bacteria. Although some soil bacteria may be excellent sources of nutrition for the worm, others may be pathogenic. Thus, we undertook a study to understand how C. elegans can identify their preferred food using a simple behavioral assay. We found that there are various species of soil bacteria that C. elegans prefers in comparison to the standard laboratory E. coli strain OP50. In particular, two bacterial strains, Bacillus mycoides and Bacillus soli, were preferred strains. Interestingly, the sole feeding of these bacteria to wild type animals results in extended lifespan through the activation of the autophagic process. Further studies will be required to understand the precise mechanism controlling the behavior of identification and selection of food in C. elegans.

  14. Behavioral and biochemical characteristics of rats preferring ethanol or water

    SciTech Connect

    Kulikova, O.G.; Borodkin, Y.S.; Razumovskaya, N.I.; Shabanov, P.D.; Sokolovskaya, N.E.

    1985-05-01

    Considering that learning and memory processes are largely determined by the intensity of RNA synthesis in specific brain structure, the authors study the relationship between learning ability of rats preferring ethanol or water and the level of RNA-synthesizing activity of brain cell nuclei. RNA-synthesizing activity of cell nuclei from cortical gray matter of the animals was determined one month after selection by measuring incorporation of deuterium-uridine triphosphate. The numerical results were subjected to statistical analysis by Student's test at P 0.05. It is shown that the altered behavior of animals preferring ethanol is evidently based on disturbed interaction between mediator and genetic structures of brain cells.

  15. Adolescents' preference for technology-based emergency department behavioral interventions: does it depend on risky behaviors?

    PubMed

    Ranney, Megan L; Choo, Esther K; Spirito, Anthony; Mello, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to (1) determine the prevalence of technology use and interest in technology-based interventions among adolescent emergency department patients and (2) examine the association between interest in an intervention and self-reported risky behaviors. Adolescents (age, 13-17 years) presenting to an urban pediatric emergency department completed a survey regarding baseline technology use, risky behaviors, and interest in and preferred format for behavioral health interventions. Questions were drawn from validated measures when possible. Descriptive statistics and χ2 tests were calculated to identify whether self-reported risky behaviors were differentially associated with intervention preference. Two hundred thirty-four patients (81.8% of eligible) consented to participate. Almost all used technology, including computers (98.7%), social networking (84.9%), and text messaging (95.1%). Adolescents reported high prevalence of risky behaviors as follows: unintentional injury (93.2%), peer violence exposure (29.3%), dating violence victimization (23.0%), depression or anxiety (30.0%), alcohol use (22.8%), drug use (36.1%), cigarette use (16.4%), and risky sexual behaviors (15.1%). Most were interested in receiving behavioral interventions (ranging from 93.6% interest in unintentional injury prevention, to 73.1% in smoking cessation); 45% to 93% preferred technology-based (vs in person, telephone call, or paper) interventions for each topic. Proportion interested in a specific topic and proportion preferring a technology-based intervention did not significantly differ by self-reported risky behaviors. Among this sample of adolescent emergency department patients, high rates of multiple risky behaviors are reported. Patients endorsed interest in receiving interventions for these behaviors, regardless of whether they reported the behavior. Most used multiple forms of technology, and approximately 50% preferred a technology-based intervention format.

  16. Consumer peach preferences and purchasing behavior: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Kathleen M; Primrose, Rachel; Crassweller, Robert; Hayes, John E; Marini, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Stokes) are grown in several regions throughout the USA, are eaten fresh, and used as ingredients in value-added processed products. An Internet survey was conducted to investigate Mid-Atlantic consumers' fresh and processed peach purchasing behaviors, and whether packaging certain numbers of peaches together, providing information about nutritional content, and other factors would increase purchases. Additionally, laboratory-based sensory testing was used to better understand peel color, texture, sweetness, sourness, and flavor preferences for cultivars commonly grown in the Mid-Atlantic region. Irrespective of fresh peach consumption frequency, certain value-added products were of interest. For some products, interest in purchasing was higher than reported purchasing behavior. Preference for certain fresh peach characteristics, such as peel color, differed between less frequent fresh peach consumers and those who consumed fresh peaches more often. Of the four peach cultivars included in the sensory test, most were liked; however, there were some cultivar differences pertaining to color, texture, sweetness, tartness, and flavor liking. Potential marketing strategies can be developed based on frequency of fresh peach consumption and household demographics. Data can be used to select peaches that best appeal to consumers. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Drug-Related HIV Risk Behaviors and Cocaine Preference among Injection Drug Users in Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longshore, Douglas; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared drug-related risk behavior of drug users whose preferred injection drug was cocaine and users with preference for heroin or no preference between the two drugs (total n=422). Found cocaine preference unrelated to likelihood of needle sharing overall, needle sharing with strangers, needle sharing at shooting galleries, and failure to use…

  18. Drug-Related HIV Risk Behaviors and Cocaine Preference among Injection Drug Users in Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longshore, Douglas; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared drug-related risk behavior of drug users whose preferred injection drug was cocaine and users with preference for heroin or no preference between the two drugs (total n=422). Found cocaine preference unrelated to likelihood of needle sharing overall, needle sharing with strangers, needle sharing at shooting galleries, and failure to use…

  19. [The strategic psychotherapy in the treatment of mental and behavioral disorders of the anxiety spectrum].

    PubMed

    Lyubchenko, M; Baziak, Y

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the work is to present the results of psychotherapeutic treatment of patients with anxiety disorders in the model of short-term strategic therapy. On the basis of the material the effectiveness of the short-term strategic approach is represented in the treatment of patients with phobic disorders. The apparent non-directive behavior of therapist allows to bypass the internal resistance of the patient. As a result of using the paradoxical prescriptions, phobic manifestations lost or significantly reduced their symptomatic significance. The combination of the neurolinguistic techniques and strategic approach gave to the psychotherapeutic process high effectiveness.

  20. Simulating Terrorism: Credible Commitment, Costly Signaling, and Strategic Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, David A.; Young, Joseph K.

    2009-01-01

    We present two simulations designed to convey the strategic nature of terrorism and counterterrorism. The first is a simulated hostage crisis, designed primarily to illustrate the concepts of credible commitment and costly signaling. The second explores high-level decision making of both a terrorist group and the state, and is designed to…

  1. Simulating Terrorism: Credible Commitment, Costly Signaling, and Strategic Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, David A.; Young, Joseph K.

    2009-01-01

    We present two simulations designed to convey the strategic nature of terrorism and counterterrorism. The first is a simulated hostage crisis, designed primarily to illustrate the concepts of credible commitment and costly signaling. The second explores high-level decision making of both a terrorist group and the state, and is designed to…

  2. Strategic costs and preferences revelation in the allocation of resources for health care.

    PubMed

    Levaggi, Laura; Levaggi, Rosella

    2010-09-01

    This article examines the resources allocation process in the internal market for health care in an environment characterised by asymmetry of information. We analyse the strategic behaviour of the provider and show how, by misreporting its cost function and reservation utility, it might shift the allocation of resources away from the purchaser's objectives. Although the fundamental importance of equity, efficiency and risk aversion considerations which have been the traditional focus of the literature on allocation of resources should not be denied, this paper shows that contracts and internal markets are not neutral instruments and more research should be devoted to studying their effects.

  3. Guided Writing Lessons: Second-Grade Students' Development of Strategic Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sharan A.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes intra-individual change in strategic behavior of five second-grade students during three months of guided writing instruction for informational text. Data sources included sequential coding of writing behavior from videotaped writing events and analytic assessment of writing products. Students' development of self-scaffolding…

  4. I Don't Want to Pick! Introspection on Uncertainty Supports Early Strategic Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Kristen E.; Ghetti, Simona

    2013-01-01

    Although some evidence indicates that even very young children engage in rudimentary forms of strategic behavior, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that uncertainty monitoring underlies such behaviors. Three-, four-, and five-year-old children ("N" = 88) completed a perceptual discrimination task.…

  5. Estimating US federal wildland fire managers' preferences toward competing strategic suppression objectives

    Treesearch

    David E. Calkin; Tyron Venn; Matthew Wibbenmeyer; Matthew P. Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Wildfire management involves significant complexity and uncertainty, requiring simultaneous consideration of multiple, non-commensurate objectives. This paper investigates the tradeoffs fire managers are willing to make among these objectives using a choice experiment methodology that provides three key advancements relative to previous stated-preference studies...

  6. Drosophila gustatory preference behaviors require the atypical soluble guanylyl cyclases.

    PubMed

    Vermehren-Schmaedick, Anke; Scudder, Charles; Timmermans, Wendy; Morton, David B

    2011-07-01

    The intracellular messenger cGMP has been suggested to play a role in taste signal transduction in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the present study, we have examined the role of the Drosophila atypical soluble guanylyl cyclases (sGCs), Gyc-89Da and Gyc-89Db, in larval and adult gustatory preference behaviors. We showed that in larvae, sucrose attraction requires Gyc-89Db and caffeine avoidance requires Gyc-89Da. In adult flies, sucrose attraction is unaffected by mutations in either gene whereas avoidance of low concentrations of caffeine is eliminated by loss of either gene. Similar defective behaviors were observed when cGMP increases were prevented by the expression of a cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase. We also showed that both genes were expressed in gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) in larval and adult gustatory organs, primarily in a non-overlapping pattern, with the exception of a small group of cells in the adult labellum. In addition, in adults, several cells co-expressed the bitter taste receptor, Gr66a, with either Gyc-89Da or Gyc-89Db. We also showed that the electrophysiological responses of a GRN to caffeine were significantly reduced in flies mutant for the atypical sGCs, suggesting that at least part of the adult behavioral defects were due to a reduced ability to detect caffeine.

  7. Effects of Peer Models' Food Choices and Eating Behaviors on Preschoolers' Food Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Leann Lipps

    1980-01-01

    The influence of peer models' food selections and eating behaviors on preschoolers' food preferences was investigated. Thirty-nine preschool children's preferences for vegetables were assessed. (Author/MP)

  8. Preference for reinforcers under varying schedule arrangements: A behavioral economic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tustin, R. Don

    1994-01-01

    The field of behavioral economics combines concepts from economics and operant conditioning to examine the influence of schedules or price on preference for reinforcers. Three case studies are reported in which behavioral economic analyses were used to assess relative preference for reinforcers shown by people with intellectual disabilities when schedule requirements varied. The studies examined (a) preference for different reinforcers, (b) substitutability of reinforcers, and (c) changes in preference as a function of schedule requirements. PMID:16795840

  9. Succession planning: aligning strategic goals and leadership behaviors.

    PubMed

    Coonan, Patrick R

    2005-01-01

    In the intense health care environment of today, human capital is an organizations most important asset. Leadership and human capital can often differentiate a successful organization from one that is not. In an ongoing effort to develop a strong and capable workforce, many organizations focus exclusively on hiring and training without regard for succession planning; this is a mistake. Succession planning is essential to develop and maintain organizational success. Succession planning supports the development of strong leadership because it leads to increased skills and competencies of staff who can best manage the organization toward achievement of organizational strategic goals. Dealing with the fears and issues surrounding the topic enables leaders to align an organizations strategic goals with its human capital needs to maintain and support leadership transitions and effective organizations.

  10. Tactical Versus Strategic Behavior: General Aviation Piloting in Convective Weather Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latorella, Kara A.; Chamberlain, James P.

    2002-01-01

    We commonly describe environments and behavioral responses to environmental conditions as 'tactical' and 'strategic.' However theoretical research defining relevant environmental characteristics is rare, as are empirical investigations that would inform such theory. This paper discusses General Aviation (GA) pilots' descriptions of tactical/strategic conditions with respect to weather flying, and evaluates their ratings along a tactical/strategic scale in response to real convective weather scenarios experienced during a flight experiment with different weather information cues. Perceived risk was significantly associated with ratings for all experimental conditions. In addition, environmental characteristics were found to be predictive of ratings for Traditional IMC (instrument meteorological conditions), i.e., aural weather information only, and Traditional VMC (visual meteorological conditions), i.e., aural information and an external view. The paper also presents subjects' comments regarding use of Graphical Weather Information Systems (GWISs) to support tactical and strategic weather flying decisions and concludes with implications for the design and use of GWISs.

  11. Caregiver preference for reinforcement-based interventions for problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Gabor, Anne M; Fritz, Jennifer N; Roath, Christopher T; Rothe, Brittany R; Gourley, Denise A

    2016-06-01

    Social validity of behavioral interventions typically is assessed with indirect methods or by determining preferences of the individuals who receive treatment, and direct observation of caregiver preference rarely is described. In this study, preferences of 5 caregivers were determined via a concurrent-chains procedure. Caregivers were neurotypical, and children had been diagnosed with developmental disabilities and engaged in problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement. Caregivers were taught to implement noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA), and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), and the caregivers selected interventions to implement during sessions with the child after they had demonstrated proficiency in implementing the interventions. Three caregivers preferred DRA, 1 caregiver preferred differential reinforcement procedures, and 1 caregiver did not exhibit a preference. Direct observation of implementation in concurrent-chains procedures may allow the identification of interventions that are implemented with sufficient integrity and preferred by caregivers.

  12. Exploring the Utility of Preference Assessments in Organizational Behavior Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldvogel, Jamie M.; Dixon, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared two variations of stimulus preference assessments: a survey in which direct service employees ranked their preferences for a variety of items, and a multiple stimulus preference assessment without replacement (MSWO), in which textual stimuli were used to represent the actual items. Results obtained for four participants…

  13. The Effects of Physical Attractiveness and Ethnicity on Children's Behavioral Attributions and Peer Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Judith H.; Stephan, Cookie

    1977-01-01

    Investigates the generality of stereotypes associated with physical attractiveness and assesses the relative contributions of attractiveness and ethnicity in determining children's behavioral attributions and peer preferences. (JMB)

  14. Spontaneous Behaviors and Wall-Curvature Lead to Apparent Wall Preference in Planarian.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yoshitaro; Agata, Kiyokazu; Inoue, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The planarian Dugesia japonica tends to stay near the walls of its breeding containers and experimental dishes in the laboratory, a phenomenon called "wall preference". This behavior is thought to be important for environmental adaptation, such as hiding by planarians in nature. However, the mechanisms regulating wall-preference behavior are not well understood, since this behavior occurs in the absence of any particular stimulation. Here we show the mechanisms of wall-preference behavior. Surprisingly, planarian wall-preference behavior was also shown even by the head alone and by headless planarians. These results indicate that planarian "wall-preference" behavior only appears to be a "preference" behavior, and is actually an outcome of spontaneous behaviors, rather than of brain function. We found that in the absence of environmental cues planarians moved basically straight ahead until they reached a wall, and that after reaching a wall, they changed their direction of movement to one tangential to the wall, suggesting that this spontaneous behavior may play a critical role in the wall preference. When we tested another spontaneous behavior, the wigwag movement of the planarian head, using computer simulation with various wigwag angles and wigwag intervals, large wigwag angle and short wigwag interval reduced wall-preference behavior. This indicated that wigwag movement may determine the probability of staying near the wall or leaving the wall. Furthermore, in accord with this simulation, when we tested planarian wall-preference behavior using several assay fields with different curvature of the wall, we found that concavity and sharp curvature of walls negatively impacted wall preference by affecting the permissible angle of the wigwag movement. Together, these results indicate that planarian wall preference may be involuntarily caused by the combination of two spontaneous planarian behaviors: moving straight ahead until reaching a wall and then moving along it

  15. Strategic behavior and marriage payments: theory and evidence from Senegal.

    PubMed

    Gaspart, Frederic; Platteau, Jean-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes an original theory of marriage payments based on insights gained from firsthand information collected in the Senegal River valley. This theory postulates that decisions about the bride-price, which are made by the bride's father, take into account the likely effects of the amount set on the risk of ill-treatment of the wife and the risk of marriage failure. Based on a sequential game with three players (the bride's father, the husband, and the wife) and a matching process, it leads to a number of important predictions that are tested against Senegalese data relating to bride-prices and various characteristics of women. The empirical results confirm that parents behave strategically by keeping bride-prices down so as to reduce the risk of marriage failure for their daughters. Other interesting effects on marriage payments and the probability of separation are also highlighted, stressing the role of the bride's bargaining power in her own family.

  16. Bullying as Strategic Behavior: Relations with Desired and Acquired Dominance in the Peer Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits A.; Vermande, Marjolijn M.; Aleva, Elisabeth A.; van der Meulen, Matty

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether bullying is strategic behavior aimed at obtaining or maintaining social dominance, 1129 9- to 12-year-old Dutch children were classified in terms of their role in bullying and in terms of their use of dominance oriented coercive and prosocial social strategies. Multi-informant measures of participants' acquired and desired…

  17. Welfare, Child Support, and Strategic Behavior: Do High Orders and Low Disregards Discourage Child Support Awards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roff, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative research has documented strategic behavior in response to child support policy. Parents of children on welfare have an incentive to avoid formal child support, since most states limit the amount of formal child support that women on welfare can receive (the "disregard") and have relatively high child support orders for low-income…

  18. Older Adults' Strategic Behavior: Effects of Individual versus Collaborative Cognitive Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saczynski, Jane; Margrett, Jennifer; Willis, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    Changes in strategic behavior were examined in older married couples participating in a cognitive intervention study. Participants were randomly assigned to: Questionnaire Control, Individual Training, or Collaborative Training. Trained participants completed inductive reasoning training sessions at home individually or as a couple. Participants…

  19. Older Adults Strategic Behavior: Effects of Individual Versus Collaborative Cognitive Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saczynski, Jane; Margrett, Jennifer; Willis, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    Changes in strategic behavior were examined in older married couples participating in a cognitive intervention study. Participants were randomly assigned to: Questionnaire Control, Individual Training, or Collaborative Training. Trained participants completed inductive reasoning training sessions at home individually or as a couple. Participants…

  20. Welfare, Child Support, and Strategic Behavior: Do High Orders and Low Disregards Discourage Child Support Awards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roff, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative research has documented strategic behavior in response to child support policy. Parents of children on welfare have an incentive to avoid formal child support, since most states limit the amount of formal child support that women on welfare can receive (the "disregard") and have relatively high child support orders for low-income…

  1. The Relationship between Collegiate Band Members' Preferences of Teacher Interpersonal Behavior and Perceived Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royston, Natalie Steele

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe collegiate band members' preferred teacher interpersonal behaviors and perceptions of self-efficacy based on the gender, year in college, instrument, and major and to measure the relationship between preferences of interpersonal teacher behavior and self-efficacy scores. The sample (N = 1,020) was…

  2. An Examination of Behavioral History Effects on Preference for Choice in Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberlin, Alayna T.

    2010-01-01

    The current investigation examined the effects of behavioral history on elementary students' preference for making a choice in two studies. Previous research on choice has focused on the arrangement of current contingencies and has not accounted for the effects of behavioral history. Study 1 examined participants' preference for two options (i.e.,…

  3. Brief strategic family therapy: engaging drug using/problem behavior adolescents and their families in treatment.

    PubMed

    Szapocznik, José; Zarate, Monica; Duff, Johnathan; Muir, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Despite the efficacy of family-based interventions for improving outcomes for adolescent behavior problems such as substance use, engaging and retaining whole families in treatment is one of the greatest challenges therapists confront. This article illustrates how the Brief Strategic Family Therapy model, a family-based, empirically validated intervention designed to treat children and adolescents' problem behaviors, can be used to increase engagement, improve retention, and bring about positive outcomes for families. Research evidence for efficacy and effectiveness is also presented.

  4. Hypotheses about Typical General Human Strategic Behavior in a Concrete Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagiew, Rustam

    This work is about typical human behavior in general strategic interactions called also games. This work is not about modelling best human performance in well-known games like chess or poker. It tries to answer the question 'How can we exactly describe what we typically do, if we interact strategically in games we have not much experience with?' in a concrete case. This concrete case is a very basic scenario - a repeated zero sum game with imperfect information. Rational behavior in games is best studied by game theory. But, numerous experiments with untrained subjects showed that human behavior in strategic interactions deviates from predictions of game theory. However, people do not behave in a fully indescribable way. Subjects deviate from game theoretic predictions in the concrete scenario presented here. As results, a couple of regularities in the data is presented first which are also reported in related work. Then, the way of using machine learning for describing human behavior is given. Machine learning algorithms provide automatically generated hypotheses about human behavior. Finally, designing a formalism for representing human behavior is discussed.

  5. Aggression and prosocial behaviors in social conflicts mediating the influence of cold social intelligence and affective empathy on children's social preference.

    PubMed

    Carreras, M R; Braza, P; Muñoz, J M; Braza, F; Azurmendi, A; Pascual-Sagastizabal, E; Cardas, J; Sánchez-Martín, J R

    2014-08-01

    This study proposes a model in which aggressive and prosocial behaviors exhibited in social conflicts mediate the influence of empathy and social intelligence to children's social preference by same-sex peers. Data were obtained from kindergarten to the end of the first grade. The sample yielded 117 Spanish children (64 girls and 53 boys) with a mean age of 62.8 months (SD = 3.3) at the beginning of the study. For boys, affective empathy contributed to boys' social preference through a decrease in physical aggression as responses to social conflict. For girls, affective empathy had an indirect effect on girls' preference by increasing assistance to others in their conflicts. No mediating effect in the contribution of social intelligence on girls' social preference was detected. Our results suggest that, only for girls, cold social intelligence can promote both indirect aggression (coercive strategic that do not leave social preference, at least at these ages) and behaviors that lead social preference (such as prosocial behaviors). © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Bullying as strategic behavior: relations with desired and acquired dominance in the peer group.

    PubMed

    Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits A; Vermande, Marjolijn M; Aleva, Elisabeth A; van der Meulen, Matty

    2011-06-01

    To examine whether bullying is strategic behavior aimed at obtaining or maintaining social dominance, 1129 9- to 12-year-old Dutch children were classified in terms of their role in bullying and in terms of their use of dominance oriented coercive and prosocial social strategies. Multi-informant measures of participants' acquired and desired social dominance were also included. Unlike non-bullying children, children contributing to bullying often were bistrategics in that they used both coercive and prosocial strategies and they also were socially dominant. Ringleader bullies also expressed a higher desire to be dominant. Among non-bullying children, those who tended to help victims were relatively socially dominant but victims and outsiders were not. Generally, the data supported the claim that bullying is dominance-oriented strategic behavior, which suggests that intervention strategies are more likely to be successful when they take the functional aspects of bullying behavior into account.

  7. Spontaneous Behaviors and Wall-Curvature Lead to Apparent Wall Preference in Planarian

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Yoshitaro; Agata, Kiyokazu; Inoue, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The planarian Dugesia japonica tends to stay near the walls of its breeding containers and experimental dishes in the laboratory, a phenomenon called “wall preference”. This behavior is thought to be important for environmental adaptation, such as hiding by planarians in nature. However, the mechanisms regulating wall-preference behavior are not well understood, since this behavior occurs in the absence of any particular stimulation. Here we show the mechanisms of wall-preference behavior. Surprisingly, planarian wall-preference behavior was also shown even by the head alone and by headless planarians. These results indicate that planarian “wall-preference” behavior only appears to be a “preference” behavior, and is actually an outcome of spontaneous behaviors, rather than of brain function. We found that in the absence of environmental cues planarians moved basically straight ahead until they reached a wall, and that after reaching a wall, they changed their direction of movement to one tangential to the wall, suggesting that this spontaneous behavior may play a critical role in the wall preference. When we tested another spontaneous behavior, the wigwag movement of the planarian head, using computer simulation with various wigwag angles and wigwag intervals, large wigwag angle and short wigwag interval reduced wall-preference behavior. This indicated that wigwag movement may determine the probability of staying near the wall or leaving the wall. Furthermore, in accord with this simulation, when we tested planarian wall-preference behavior using several assay fields with different curvature of the wall, we found that concavity and sharp curvature of walls negatively impacted wall preference by affecting the permissible angle of the wigwag movement. Together, these results indicate that planarian wall preference may be involuntarily caused by the combination of two spontaneous planarian behaviors: moving straight ahead until reaching a wall and then

  8. College Application Behavior: Who Is Strategic? Does It Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayalon, Hanna

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines whether college application behavior assists members of privileged social groups to preserve their advantages in diversified higher education systems. The study is based on a survey conducted in Israel in 1999 on a sample of 4,061 freshmen in the research universities and the academic colleges, which are often perceived as the…

  9. Personality Influences Temporal Discounting Preferences: Behavioral and Brain Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Joshua; Hedden, Trey; Wickens, Nina; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Prelec, Drazen; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Personality traits are stable predictors of many life outcomes that are associated with important decisions that involve tradeoffs over time. Therefore, a fundamental question is how tradeoffs over time vary from person to person in relation to stable personality traits. We investigated the influence of personality, as measured by the Five-Factor Model, on time preferences and on neural activity engaged by intertemporal choice. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants made choices between smaller-sooner and larger-later monetary rewards. For each participant, we estimated a constant-sensitivity discount function that dissociates impatience (devaluation of future consequences) from time sensitivity (consistency with rational, exponential discounting). Overall, higher neuroticism was associated with a relatively greater preference for immediate rewards and higher conscientiousness with a relatively greater preference for delayed rewards. Specifically, higher conscientiousness correlated positively with lower short-term impatience and more exponential time preferences, whereas higher neuroticism (lower emotional stability) correlated positively with higher short-term impatience and less exponential time preferences. Cognitive-control and reward brain regions were more activated when higher conscientiousness participants selected a smaller-sooner reward and, conversely, when higher neuroticism participants selected a larger-later reward. Both cases involved choices that went against predispositions implied by personality. These findings reveal that stable personality traits fundamentally influence how rewards are chosen over time. PMID:24799134

  10. Personality influences temporal discounting preferences: behavioral and brain evidence.

    PubMed

    Manning, Joshua; Hedden, Trey; Wickens, Nina; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Prelec, Drazen; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-09-01

    Personality traits are stable predictors of many life outcomes that are associated with important decisions that involve tradeoffs over time. Therefore, a fundamental question is how tradeoffs over time vary from person to person in relation to stable personality traits. We investigated the influence of personality, as measured by the Five-Factor Model, on time preferences and on neural activity engaged by intertemporal choice. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants made choices between smaller-sooner and larger-later monetary rewards. For each participant, we estimated a constant-sensitivity discount function that dissociates impatience (devaluation of future consequences) from time sensitivity (consistency with rational, exponential discounting). Overall, higher neuroticism was associated with a relatively greater preference for immediate rewards and higher conscientiousness with a relatively greater preference for delayed rewards. Specifically, higher conscientiousness correlated positively with lower short-term impatience and more exponential time preferences, whereas higher neuroticism (lower emotional stability) correlated positively with higher short-term impatience and less exponential time preferences. Cognitive-control and reward brain regions were more activated when higher conscientiousness participants selected a smaller-sooner reward and, conversely, when higher neuroticism participants selected a larger-later reward. The greater activations that occurred when choosing rewards that contradicted personality predispositions may reflect the greater recruitment of mental resources needed to override those predispositions. These findings reveal that stable personality traits fundamentally influence how rewards are chosen over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the rate of problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers across preference assessments.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soyeon; O'Reilly, Mark F; Fragale, Christina L; Aguilar, Jeannie M; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The rates of problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers were evaluated across 3 preference assessment formats (i.e., paired stimulus, multiple-stimulus without replacement, and free operant). The experimenter administered each assessment format 5 times in a random order for 7 children with developmental disabilities whose problem behavior was maintained by attention, tangible items, or escape. Results demonstrated different effects related to the occurrence of problem behavior, suggesting an interaction between function of problem behavior and assessment format. Implications for practitioners are discussed with respect to assessing preferences of individuals with developmental disabilities who exhibit problem behavior.

  12. EVALUATION OF THE RATE OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR MAINTAINED BY DIFFERENT REINFORCERS ACROSS PREFERENCE ASSESSMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Soyeon; O'Reilly, Mark F; Fragale, Christina L; Aguilar, Jeannie M; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The rates of problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers were evaluated across 3 preference assessment formats (i.e., paired stimulus, multiple-stimulus without replacement, and free operant). The experimenter administered each assessment format 5 times in a random order for 7 children with developmental disabilities whose problem behavior was maintained by attention, tangible items, or escape. Results demonstrated different effects related to the occurrence of problem behavior, suggesting an interaction between function of problem behavior and assessment format. Implications for practitioners are discussed with respect to assessing preferences of individuals with developmental disabilities who exhibit problem behavior. PMID:22219533

  13. Behavioral Variability of Choices versus Structural Inconsistency of Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regenwetter, Michel; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2012-01-01

    Theories of rational choice often make the structural consistency assumption that every decision maker's binary strict preference among choice alternatives forms a "strict weak order". Likewise, the very concept of a "utility function" over lotteries in normative, prescriptive, and descriptive theory is mathematically equivalent to strict weak…

  14. Evaluating Change in Behavioral Preferences: Multidimensional Scaling Single-Ideal Point Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to propose a multidimensional scaling single-ideal point model as a method to evaluate changes in individuals' preferences under the explicit methodological framework of behavioral preference assessment. One example is used to illustrate the approach for a clear idea of what this approach can accomplish.

  15. Evaluating Change in Behavioral Preferences: Multidimensional Scaling Single-Ideal Point Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to propose a multidimensional scaling single-ideal point model as a method to evaluate changes in individuals' preferences under the explicit methodological framework of behavioral preference assessment. One example is used to illustrate the approach for a clear idea of what this approach can accomplish.

  16. Teaching Behavioral Therapists to Conduct Brief Preference Assessments during Therapy Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Michele R.; Kenzer, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group classroom instruction and the need for in vivo feedback when teaching 11 behavioral therapists how to conduct a brief paired-stimulus preference assessment, when to conduct preference assessments, and how to interpret the data during regular therapy sessions. Group classroom instruction, consisting of…

  17. Relationships between personal beliefs and treatment acceptability, and preferences for behavioral treatments.

    PubMed

    Sidani, Souraya; Miranda, Joyal; Epstein, Dana R; Bootzin, Richard R; Cousins, Jennifer; Moritz, Patricia

    2009-10-01

    The literature on preferences for behavioral interventions is limited in terms of understanding treatment-related factors that underlie treatment choice. The objectives of this study were to examine the direct relationships between personal beliefs about clinical condition, perception of treatment acceptability, and preferences for behavioral interventions for insomnia. The data set used in this study was obtained from 431 persons with insomnia who participated in a partially randomized clinical trial and expressed preferences for treatment options. The data were collected at baseline. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between personal beliefs and treatment acceptability, and preferences. The relationships between personal beliefs and perception of treatment acceptability were explored with correlational analysis. Perception of treatment acceptability was associated with preferences. Persons viewing the option as convenient tended to choose that option for managing insomnia. Personal beliefs were not related to preferences. However, beliefs about sleep promoting behaviors were correlated with perceived treatment effectiveness. Perception of treatment acceptability underlies expressed preferences for behavioral interventions. Personal beliefs about insomnia are not directly associated with preferences. Importance is highlighted for providing information about treatment options and exploring perception of each option's acceptability during the process of treatment selection.

  18. Correlations between sequential timing decisions do not necessarily indicate strategic behavior: a comment on Bêty et al.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Julia; Mitesser, Oliver; Hinsch, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Using correlation analysis, Bêty, Gauthier, and Giroux confirmed that individuals of the migrating snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) arriving earlier on their breeding grounds experienced longer prelaying periods but laid earlier than late-arriving birds. They concluded that these birds strategically adjusted timing to optimize fitness. This test is, however, not sufficient to indicate strategic behavior. We show analytically that, without assuming strategic behavior, arrival date, prelaying period, and laying date are correlated with each other because of their sequential occurrence. We conclude that correlation tests on sequentially occurring variables are not sufficient to detect nonrandom relations.

  19. Brief Strategic Family Therapy: Engaging Drug Using/Problem Behavior Adolescents and their Families into Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Szapocznik, José; Zarate, Monica; Duff, Johnathan; Muir, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Despite the efficacy of family-based interventions for improving outcomes for adolescent behavior problems such as substance use, engaging and retaining whole families in treatment is one of the greatest challenges therapists confront. This article illustrates how the Brief Strategic Family Therapy® (BSFT®) model, a family-based, empirically validated intervention designed to treat children and adolescents’ problem behaviors, can be used to increase engagement, improve retention, and bring about positive outcomes for families. Research evidence for efficacy and effectiveness is also presented. PMID:23731415

  20. [Brief strategic family therapy: an empirically-validated intervention for reducing adolescent behavior problems].

    PubMed

    Robbins, Michael S; Horigian, Viviana E; Szapocznik, José

    2008-01-01

    Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) is an empirically-supported treatment for children and adolescents with behavior problems and substance use problems. For three decades, the efficacy and effectiveness of BSFT has been established through the results of rigorous clinical trials studies conducted at the University of Miami's Center for Family Studies. BSFT is based on family systems approaches, most notably the work of Salvador Minuchin and Jay Haley, but has been refined to meet the pressing needs of youth with behavior problems. BSFT theory and interventions cover four broad domains: joining with family members and the family system, assessing problematic family interactions, creating a motivational context for change, and restructuring family interactions.

  1. Distributional Preferences, Reciprocity-Like Behavior, and Efficiency in Bilateral Exchange.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Daniel J

    Under what conditions do distributional preferences, such as altruism or a concern for fair outcomes, generate efficient trade? I analyze theoretically a simple bilateral exchange game: each player sequentially takes an action that reduces his own material payoff but increases the other player's. Each player's preferences may depend on both his/her own material payoff and the other player's. I identify two key properties of the second-mover's preferences: indifference curves kinked around "fair" material-payoff distributions, and materials payoffs entering preferences as "normal goods." Either property can drive reciprocity-like behavior and generate a Pareto efficient outcome.

  2. Postpartum depression in rats: differences in swim test immobility, sucrose preference and nurturing behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Jamie Winderbaum; Grizzell, J Alex; Philpot, Rex M; Wecker, Lynn

    2014-10-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common disorder affecting both mothers and their offspring. Studies of PPD in laboratory animals have typically assessed either immobility on forced swim testing or sucrose preference in ovariectomized rats following hormone supplementation and withdrawal or in stress models. To date, few studies have related these measures to maternal behaviors, a potential indicator of depressive-like activity postpartum. Because a single measure may be insufficient to characterize depression, the present study determined the distribution of depressive-like behaviors in Sprague-Dawley rats postpartum. Nurturing and non-nurturing behaviors exhibited by undisturbed dams were recorded during the first 12 days postpartum, and immobility in the forced swim test and sucrose preference were determined thereafter. A median-split analysis indicated that 19% of dams exhibited high sucrose preference and low immobility, 30% exhibited either only high immobility or only low sucrose preference, and 21% exhibited both high immobility and low preference. Dams exhibiting depressive-like activity on either or both tests displayed increased self-directed behaviors and decreased active nurturing during the dark phase of the diurnal cycle. This is the first study to characterize undisturbed nurturing and non-nurturing behaviors, and use both sucrose preference and immobility in the forced swim test, to classify PPD endophenotypes exhibited by rat dams following parturition. The present study underscores the idea that multiple tests should be used to characterize depressive-like behavior, which is highly heterogeneous in both the human and laboratory animal populations.

  3. Kids Speak: Preferred Parental Behavior at Youth Sport Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omli, Jens; Wiese-Bjornstal, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    News reports (e.g., Abrams, 2008) and scholarly research (e.g., Wiersma & Fifer, 2005) have indicated increasing concern that parent-spectator behavior at youth sport events may be problematic. Multiple strategies have been used to influence spectator behavior in youth sport contexts (e.g., "Silent Sundays"). However, it is unlikely that…

  4. Kids Speak: Preferred Parental Behavior at Youth Sport Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omli, Jens; Wiese-Bjornstal, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    News reports (e.g., Abrams, 2008) and scholarly research (e.g., Wiersma & Fifer, 2005) have indicated increasing concern that parent-spectator behavior at youth sport events may be problematic. Multiple strategies have been used to influence spectator behavior in youth sport contexts (e.g., "Silent Sundays"). However, it is unlikely that…

  5. The role of time and risk preferences in adherence to physician advice on health behavior change.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, Marjon; Hennessy, Deirdre; Manns, Braden

    2017-04-01

    Changing physical activity and dietary behavior in chronic disease patients is associated with significant health benefits but is difficult to achieve. An often-used strategy is for the physician or other health professional to encourage behavior changes by providing advice on the health consequences of such behaviors. However, adherence to advice on health behavior change varies across individuals. This paper uses data from a population-based cross-sectional survey of 1849 individuals with chronic disease to explore whether differences in individuals' time and risk preferences can help explain differences in adherence. Health behaviors are viewed as investments in health capital within the Grossman model. Physician advice plays a role in the model in that it improves the understanding of the future health consequences of investments. It can be hypothesized that the effect of advice on health behavior will depend on an individuals' time and risk preference. Within the survey, which measured a variety of health-related behaviors and outcomes, including receipt and compliance with advice on dietary and physical activity changes, time preferences were measured using financial planning horizon, and risk preferences were measured through a commonly used question which asked respondents to indicate their willingness to take risks on a ten-point scale. Results suggest that time preferences play a role in adherence to physical activity advice. While time preferences also play a role in adherence to dietary advice, this effect is only apparent for males. Risk preferences do not seem to be associated with adherence. The results suggest that increasing the salience of more immediate benefits of health behavior change may improve adherence.

  6. Microeconomics-based resource allocation in overlay networks by using non-strategic behavior modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Analoui, Morteza; Rezvani, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Behavior modeling has recently been investigated for designing self-organizing mechanisms in the context of communication networks in order to exploit the natural selfishness of the users with the goal of maximizing the overall utility. In strategic behavior modeling, the users of the network are assumed to be game players who seek to maximize their utility with taking into account the decisions that the other players might make. The essential difference between the aforementioned researches and this work is that it incorporates the non-strategic decisions in order to design the mechanism for the overlay network. In this solution concept, the decisions that a peer might make does not affect the actions of the other peers at all. The theory of consumer-firm developed in microeconomics is a model of the non-strategic behavior that we have adopted in our research. Based on it, we have presented distributed algorithms for peers' "joining" and "leaving" operations. We have modeled the overlay network as a competitive economy in which the content provided by an origin server can be viewed as commodity and the origin server and the peers who multicast the content to their downside are considered as the firms. On the other hand, due to the dual role of the peers in the overlay network, they can be considered as the consumers as well. On joining to the overlay economy, each peer is provided with an income and tries to get hold of the service regardless to the behavior of the other peers. We have designed the scalable algorithms in such a way that the existence of equilibrium price (known as Walrasian equilibrium price) is guaranteed.

  7. The effects of preference for information on consumers' online health information search behavior.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan

    2013-11-26

    Preference for information is a personality trait that affects people's tendency to seek information in health-related situations. Prior studies have focused primarily on investigating its impact on patient-provider communication and on the implications for designing information interventions that prepare patients for medical procedures. Few studies have examined its impact on general consumers' interactions with Web-based search engines for health information or the implications for designing more effective health information search systems. This study intends to fill this gap by investigating the impact of preference for information on the search behavior of general consumers seeking health information, their perceptions of search tasks (representing information needs), and user experience with search systems. Forty general consumers who had previously searched for health information online participated in the study in our usability lab. Preference for information was measured using Miller's Monitor-Blunter Style Scale (MBSS) and the Krantz Health Opinion Survey-Information Scale (KHOS-I). Each participant completed four simulated health information search tasks: two look-up (fact-finding) and two exploratory. Their behaviors while interacting with the search systems were automatically logged and ratings of their perceptions of tasks and user experience with the systems were collected using Likert-scale questionnaires. The MBSS showed low reliability with the participants (Monitoring subscale: Cronbach alpha=.53; Blunting subscale: Cronbach alpha=.35). Thus, no further analyses were performed based on the scale. KHOS-I had sufficient reliability (Cronbach alpha=.77). Participants were classified into low- and high-preference groups based on their KHOS-I scores. The high-preference group submitted significantly shorter queries when completing the look-up tasks (P=.02). The high-preference group made a significantly higher percentage of parallel movements in query

  8. Reversal of an Unconditioned Behavioral Preference for Specific Food Pellets by Intervention of Whisker Sensory Inputs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hannah; Lee, Yunjin; Kim, Ji-Eun; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2016-04-01

    Adenylyl cyclase type-5 (AC5) is preferentially expressed in the dorsal striatum. Recently, we reported that AC5 knockout (KO) mice preferred food pellets carrying an olfactory cue produced by AC5 KO mice during food consumption (AC5 KO pellets) over food pellets that had been taken by wildtype (WT) mice. In the present study, we demonstrated that whisker trimming on the right side of the face but not the left in AC5 KO mice blocked the behavioral preference for AC5 KO pellets. Conversely, whisker trimming on the right but not the left in WT mice induced a behavioral preference for AC5 KO pellets. Mice lacking D2 dopamine receptor (D2 KO mice) also showed a behavioral preference for AC5 KO pellets. In D2 mice, whisker trimming on the right side of the face but not the left blocked a behavioral preference for AC5 KO food pellets. AC5 KO mice had increased level of phospho-CaMKIIα in the dorsal striatum, and WT mice with whiskers cut on either side also showed increased p-CaMKIIα level in the dorsal striatum. The siRNA-mediated inhibition of CaMKIIα in the dorsal striatum in either the right or the left hemisphere in AC5 KO mice and D2 KO mice blocked the behavioral preference for AC5 KO pellets. However, behavioral changes induced by this inhibition on each side showed asymmetrical time courses. These results suggest that an unconditioned behavioral preference for specific food pellets can be switched on or off based on the balance of states of neural activity in the dorsal striatum regulated by a signaling pathway centered on AC5 and D2 and the sensory inputs of whiskers from the right side of the face.

  9. Human Eating Behavior: Preferences. Consumption Patterns, and Biorhythms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    5.82 Tuna Fish 82r529.42 7.4 Canned Fruit Pineapple 7.36 6.45 12.18 7.33 Apricots 7.45 7.00 13.54 11.09 Fruit Cocktail 8.27 7.55 16.8 12.73 Fruit Cake...0.09 Pineapple a. 0.0 b. 0.0 C. 0.2- Mean change -0.08 -0.40 so Table 9. Mean SPS Preference Ratings for Ration Foods Before and After Three and Six...gain some insight into the role of specific foods under these difficult restrictions. Pineapple increases in desired frequency from 7.3 to an

  10. Thinking Styles and Preferred Teacher Interpersonal Behavior among Hong Kong Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Tak-ming; Chen, Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between thinking styles and preferred teacher interpersonal behavior based on the Model for Interpersonal Teacher Behavior (MITB, Wubbels, Creton, & Hooymayers, 1985) among 247 Hong Kong secondary school female students. The Thinking Style Inventory Revised (TSI-R, Sternberg, Wagner, & Zhang, 2003)…

  11. Thinking Styles and Preferred Teacher Interpersonal Behavior among Hong Kong Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Tak-ming; Chen, Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between thinking styles and preferred teacher interpersonal behavior based on the Model for Interpersonal Teacher Behavior (MITB, Wubbels, Creton, & Hooymayers, 1985) among 247 Hong Kong secondary school female students. The Thinking Style Inventory Revised (TSI-R, Sternberg, Wagner, & Zhang, 2003)…

  12. Kids speak: preferred parental behavior at youth sport events.

    PubMed

    Omli, Jens; Wiese-Bjornstal, Diane M

    2011-12-01

    News reports (e.g., Abrams, 2008) and scholarly research (e.g., Wiersma & Fife, 2005) have indicated increasing concern that parent-spectator behavior at youth sport events may be problematic. Multiple strategies have been used to influence spectator behavior in youth sport contexts (e.g., "Silent Sundays"). However it is unlikely that interventions aimed at changing parent-spectator behaviors have adequately considered young athletes' perspectives, because little is known about how children want parents to behave during youth sport events. Therefore, children (ages 7-14 years) were asked to describe how parents actually behaved at youth sport events and how they wanted parents to behave. Through grounded theory analysis (Charmaz, 2000), three parent "roles" emerged from the data-supportive parent, demanding coach, and crazed fan.

  13. Design and Construction of a Two-Temperature Preference Behavioral Assay for Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Richard L.; McKemy, David D.

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral assays in the undergraduate neuroscience laboratory are useful for illustrating a variety of physiological concepts. An example is homeostatic temperature regulation (thermoregulation). Many model organisms, from flies to mice, regulate internal temperatures in part by moving to suitable climates (thermotaxis). A particularly reliable method of quantifying temperature-dependent thermotactic behaviors is the two-temperature preference behavioral assay. In this preparation, an organism is free to move between two temperature-controlled surfaces, thus revealing its preferred thermal environment. Here we present the design and construction of a two-temperature preference assay chamber. The device uses Peltier-based thermoelectric modules (TECs) for heating and cooling, and is capable of precision control of temperatures from −5ºC to 60ºC. Our approach can be easily adapted for use in a variety of physiological and behavioral assays that require precise temperature control over a wide range of temperatures. PMID:23494724

  14. Time Preferences and Natural Resource Extraction Behavior: An Experimental Study from Artisanal Fisheries in Zanzibar

    PubMed Central

    Kulesz, Micaela M.; Schlüter, Achim; Ghosh, Alexandra; Jiddawi, Narriman S.

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource users face a trade-off between present and future consumption. Using harmful methods or extracting unsustainably, lowers future consumption. Therefore, it is reasonable to posit that people with higher time preferences extract more as compared to people with lower time preferences. The present study combines experimental methods and questionnaire data in order to understand the relationship between individual time preferences and fishers’ extraction behavior. We elicit individual time preferences using an incentivized experiment, linking the resulting time preference measures to extraction data from a questionnaire, as well as data collected from a framed Common Pool Resource (CPR) experiment. Both the experiments and questionnaire were conducted with artisanal fishers in Zanzibar. Our findings suggest that the relationship between time preferences and CPR extraction is not as straightforward as predicted by classical economic theory. In contrast to earlier studies, we find that fishers’ time preferences are negatively correlated to their extraction rates. Our surprising findings can partly be explained by the fact that higher time preferences are associated with lower investment in extraction capability (the disinvestment effect of time preferences), and by fishers´ cognitive abilities. PMID:28033328

  15. Sexuality Education among Latinas: Experiences, Preferences, Attitudes and Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; King, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated sexuality topics discussed by parents, sources of sexuality education, sexual risk behaviors, and attitudes about who should educate children about sexuality among a sample of 204 adult Latinas. Nearly half of sexually active women (having ever had sex) reported condom use and 36.7% reported discussing sexual history with…

  16. Behavioral Evaluation of Preference for Game-Based Teaching Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Leonardo Brandão; das Graças de Souza, Deisy

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has evaluated the motivational functions of educational games and its potential role for the teaching of reading skills. Educational games must maintain their educational function retaining clear definitions of the teaching objectives and instructional methods. Reading skills can be broken down into more basic behavioral units.…

  17. Intermunicipal health care consortia in Brazil: strategic behavior, incentives and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luciana; Bugarin, Mauricio; Dourado, Maria Cristina

    2006-01-01

    This article studies strategic behavior in municipal health care consortia where neighboring municipalities form a partnership to supply high-complexity health care. Each municipality partially funds the organization. Depending on the partnership contract, a free rider problem may jeopardize the organization. A municipality will default its payments if it can still benefit from the services, especially when political pressures for competing expenditure arise. The main result is that the partnership sustainability depends on punishment mechanisms to a defaulting member, the gains from joint provision of services and the overall economic environment. Possible solutions to the incentive problem are discussed.

  18. Women's preferences for male behavioral displays change across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Gangestad, Steven W; Simpson, Jeffry A; Cousins, Alita J; Garver-Apgar, Christine E; Christensen, P Niels

    2004-03-01

    Women prefer both the scent of symmetrical men and masculine male faces more during the fertile (late follicular and ovulatory) phases of their menstrual cycles than during their infertile (e.g., luteal) phases. Men's behavioral displays in social settings may convey signals that affect women's attraction to men even more strongly. This study examined shifts in women's preferences for these behavioral displays. A sample of 237 normally ovulating women viewed 36 or 40 videotaped men who were competing for a potential lunch date and then rated each man's attractiveness as a short-term and a long-term mate. As predicted, women's preference for men who displayed social presence and direct intrasexual competitiveness increased on high-fertility days relative to low-fertility days, but only in a short-term, not a long-term, mating context. These findings add to the growing literature indicating that women's mate preferences systematically vary across the reproductive cycle.

  19. Economic preferences and fast food consumption in US adults: Insights from behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Shuval, Kerem; Stoklosa, Michal; Pachucki, Mark C; Yaroch, Amy L; Drope, Jeffrey; Harding, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    To examine the relationship between economic time preferences and frequency of fast food and full-service restaurant consumption among U.S. adults. Participants included 5871U.S. adults who responded to a survey conducted in 2011 pertaining to the lifestyle behaviors of families and the social context of these behaviors. The primary independent variable was a measure of time preferences, an intertemporal choice assessing delay discounting. This was elicited via responses to preferences for an immediate dollar amount or a larger sum in 30 (30-day time horizon) or 60days (60-day time horizon). Outcomes were the frequency of fast food and full-service restaurant consumption. Ordered logistic regression was performed to examine the relationship between time preferences and food consumption while adjusting for covariates (e.g. socio-demographics). Multivariable analysis revealed that higher future time preferences were significantly related to less frequent fast food intake for both the 30- and 60-day time horizon variables (P for linear trend <0.05; both). Notably, participants with the highest future time preference were significantly less likely to consume fast food than those with very low future time preferences (30-day: OR=0.74, 95%CI: 0.62-0.89; and 60-day: OR=0.86, 95%CI: 0.74-1.00). In comparison, higher future time preferences were not significantly associated with full-service restaurant intake (30-day: p for linear trend=0.73; 60-day: p for linear trend=0.83). Higher future time preferences were related to a lower frequency of fast food consumption. Utilizing concepts from behavioral economics (e.g. pre-commitment contracts) to facilitate more healthful eating is warranted using experimental studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Baseline and Strategic Effects behind Mindful Emotion Regulation: Behavioral and Physiological Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Grecucci, Alessandro; De Pisapia, Nicola; Kusalagnana Thero, Derangala; Paladino, Maria Paola; Venuti, Paola; Job, Remo

    2015-01-01

    One of the consequences of extensive mindfulness practice is a reduction of anxiety and depression, but also a capacity to regulate negative emotions. In this study, we explored four key questions concerning mindfulness training: (1) What are the processes by which mindfulness regulates our emotions? (2) Can mindfulness be applied to social emotions? (3) Does mindfulness training affect emotionally driven behavior towards others? (4) Does mindfulness alter physiological reactivity? To address these questions, we tested, in two experiments, the ability of mindfulness meditators to regulate interpersonal emotions (Experiment 1) and interactive behaviors (Experiment 2) as compared to naïve controls. To better understand the mechanisms by which mindfulness regulates emotions, we asked participants to apply two strategies: a cognitive strategy (mentalizing, a form of reappraisal focused on the intentions of others) and an experiential strategy derived from mindfulness principles (mindful detachment). Both groups were able to regulate interpersonal emotions by means of cognitive (mentalizing) and experiential (mindful detachment) strategies. In Experiment 1, a simple effect of meditation, independent from the implementation of the strategies, resulted in reduced emotional and physiological reactivity, as well as in increased pleasantness for meditators when compared to controls, providing evidence of baseline regulation. In Experiment 2, one visible effect of the strategy was that meditators outperformed controls in the experiential (mindful detachment) but not in the cognitive (mentalize) strategy, showing stronger modulation of their interactive behavior (less punishments) and providing evidence of a strategic behavioral regulation. Based on these results, we suggest that mindfulness can influence interpersonal emotional reactions through an experiential mechanism, both at a baseline level and a strategic level, thereby altering the subjective and physiological

  1. Baseline and strategic effects behind mindful emotion regulation: behavioral and physiological investigation.

    PubMed

    Grecucci, Alessandro; De Pisapia, Nicola; Kusalagnana Thero, Derangala; Paladino, Maria Paola; Venuti, Paola; Job, Remo

    2015-01-01

    One of the consequences of extensive mindfulness practice is a reduction of anxiety and depression, but also a capacity to regulate negative emotions. In this study, we explored four key questions concerning mindfulness training: (1) What are the processes by which mindfulness regulates our emotions? (2) Can mindfulness be applied to social emotions? (3) Does mindfulness training affect emotionally driven behavior towards others? (4) Does mindfulness alter physiological reactivity? To address these questions, we tested, in two experiments, the ability of mindfulness meditators to regulate interpersonal emotions (Experiment 1) and interactive behaviors (Experiment 2) as compared to naïve controls. To better understand the mechanisms by which mindfulness regulates emotions, we asked participants to apply two strategies: a cognitive strategy (mentalizing, a form of reappraisal focused on the intentions of others) and an experiential strategy derived from mindfulness principles (mindful detachment). Both groups were able to regulate interpersonal emotions by means of cognitive (mentalizing) and experiential (mindful detachment) strategies. In Experiment 1, a simple effect of meditation, independent from the implementation of the strategies, resulted in reduced emotional and physiological reactivity, as well as in increased pleasantness for meditators when compared to controls, providing evidence of baseline regulation. In Experiment 2, one visible effect of the strategy was that meditators outperformed controls in the experiential (mindful detachment) but not in the cognitive (mentalize) strategy, showing stronger modulation of their interactive behavior (less punishments) and providing evidence of a strategic behavioral regulation. Based on these results, we suggest that mindfulness can influence interpersonal emotional reactions through an experiential mechanism, both at a baseline level and a strategic level, thereby altering the subjective and physiological

  2. Exogenous Androgen during Development Alters Adult Partner Preference and Mating Behavior in Gonadally Intact Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Henley, C.L.; Nunez, A.A.; Clemens, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    In the rat, neonatal administration of testosterone propionate to a castrated male causes masculinization of behavior. However, if an intact male is treated neonatally with testosterone (hyper-androgen condition), male sexual behavior in adulthood is disrupted. There is a possibility that the hyper-androgen treatment is suppressing male sexual behavior by altering the male’s partner preference and thereby reducing his motivation to approach the female. If so, this would suggest that exposure to supra-physiological levels of androgen during development may result in the development of male-oriented partner preference in the male. To test this idea, male rats were treated either postnatally or prenatally with testosterone, and partner preference and sexual behavior were examined in adulthood. The principal finding of this study was that increased levels of testosterone during early postnatal life, but not prenatal, decreased male sexual behavior and increased the amount of time a male spent with a stimulus male, without affecting the amount of time spent with a stimulus female during partner preference tests. Thus, the reduction in male sexual behavior produced by early exposure to high levels of testosterone is not likely due to a reduction in the male’s motivation to approach a receptive female. PMID:20171967

  3. Preference for immediate reinforcement over delayed reinforcement: relation between delay discounting and health behavior.

    PubMed

    Melanko, Shane; Larkin, Kevin T

    2013-02-01

    Reinforcement from engaging in health behaviors is often delayed by several months or years, a circumstance partly responsible for some people's increased preference for engaging in unhealthy behaviors associated with immediate reinforcement. To examine whether individuals who discount the future engage in fewer health behaviors, 72 young adults completed questionnaires assessing health behaviors and impulsiveness and laboratory-behavioral measures of impulsive decision making. Regression analyses of impulsivity measures predicting health behavior were only significant for one measure, the Experiential Discounting Task, a task in which monetary consequences of choice were actually experienced by study participants. Participants who discounted most by delay (i.e., exhibited impulsive choice) engaged in fewer health behaviors than those who showed less impulsive responding. This task, in contrast to a hypothetical choice task or self-reported impulsiveness, measures the actual behavior of discounting by delay, and was the facet of impulsive decision making most closely associated with adopting a range of health behaviors.

  4. The Impact of Farmers' Strategic Behavior on the Spread of Animal Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tago, Damian; Hammitt, James K; Thomas, Alban; Raboisson, Didier

    2016-01-01

    One of the main strategies to control the spread of infectious animal diseases is the implementation of movement restrictions. This paper shows a loss in efficiency of the movement restriction policy (MRP) when behavioral responses of farmers are taken into account. Incorporating the strategic behavior of farmers in an epidemiologic model reveals that the MRP can trigger premature animal sales by farms at high risk of becoming infected that significantly reduce the efficacy of the policy. The results are validated in a parameterized network via Monte Carlo simulations and measures to mitigate the loss of efficiency of the MRP are discussed. Financial aid to farmers can be justified by public health concerns, not only for equity. This paper contributes to developing an interdisciplinary analytical framework regarding the expansion of infectious diseases combining economic and epidemiologic dimensions.

  5. A Strategic Interaction Model of Punishment Favoring Contagion of Honest Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cremene, Marcel; Dumitrescu, D.; Cremene, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    The punishment effect on social behavior is analyzed within the strategic interaction framework of Cellular Automata and computational Evolutionary Game Theory. A new game, called Social Honesty (SH), is proposed. The SH game is analyzed in spatial configurations. Probabilistic punishment is used as a dishonesty deterrence mechanism. In order to capture the intrinsic uncertainty of social environments, payoffs are described as random variables. New dynamics, with a new relation between punishment probability and punishment severity, are revealed. Punishment probability proves to be more important than punishment severity in guiding convergence towards honesty as predominant behavior. This result is confirmed by empirical evidence and reported experiments. Critical values and transition intervals for punishment probability and severity are identified and analyzed. Clusters of honest or dishonest players emerge spontaneously from the very first rounds of interaction and are determinant for the future dynamics and outcomes. PMID:24489917

  6. A strategic interaction model of punishment favoring contagion of honest behavior.

    PubMed

    Cremene, Marcel; Dumitrescu, D; Cremene, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    The punishment effect on social behavior is analyzed within the strategic interaction framework of Cellular Automata and computational Evolutionary Game Theory. A new game, called Social Honesty (SH), is proposed. The SH game is analyzed in spatial configurations. Probabilistic punishment is used as a dishonesty deterrence mechanism. In order to capture the intrinsic uncertainty of social environments, payoffs are described as random variables. New dynamics, with a new relation between punishment probability and punishment severity, are revealed. Punishment probability proves to be more important than punishment severity in guiding convergence towards honesty as predominant behavior. This result is confirmed by empirical evidence and reported experiments. Critical values and transition intervals for punishment probability and severity are identified and analyzed. Clusters of honest or dishonest players emerge spontaneously from the very first rounds of interaction and are determinant for the future dynamics and outcomes.

  7. The Impact of Farmers’ Strategic Behavior on the Spread of Animal Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hammitt, James K.; Thomas, Alban; Raboisson, Didier

    2016-01-01

    One of the main strategies to control the spread of infectious animal diseases is the implementation of movement restrictions. This paper shows a loss in efficiency of the movement restriction policy (MRP) when behavioral responses of farmers are taken into account. Incorporating the strategic behavior of farmers in an epidemiologic model reveals that the MRP can trigger premature animal sales by farms at high risk of becoming infected that significantly reduce the efficacy of the policy. The results are validated in a parameterized network via Monte Carlo simulations and measures to mitigate the loss of efficiency of the MRP are discussed. Financial aid to farmers can be justified by public health concerns, not only for equity. This paper contributes to developing an interdisciplinary analytical framework regarding the expansion of infectious diseases combining economic and epidemiologic dimensions. PMID:27300368

  8. Preference for and discrimination of videos of conspecific social behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shigeru; Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2016-05-01

    We showed mice videos of three conspecific social behaviors, namely sniffing, copulation, and fighting, in pairwise combinations using iPods and evaluated preference as determined by time spent in front of each iPod. Mice preferred the copulation video to the sniffing video, the fighting video to the sniffing video, and the fighting video to the copulation video. In Experiment 1a, we used a single video clip for each social behavior but used multiple video clips for each social behavior in Experiment 2a. Next, we trained mice to discriminate between the fighting and copulation videos using a conditioned-place-preference-like task in which one video was associated with injection of morphine and the other was not. For half of the subjects, the fighting video was associated with morphine injection, and for the other half, the copulation video was associated with morphine injection. After conditioning, the mice stayed longer in the compartment with the morphine-associated video. When tested with still images obtained from the videos, mice stayed longer in the compartment with still images from the video associated with morphine injection (Experiment 1b). When we trained mice with multiple exemplars, the subjects showed generalization of preference for new video clips never shown during conditioning (Experiment 2b). These results demonstrate that mice had a preference among videos of particular behavior patterns and that they could discriminate these videos as visual category. Although relationship between real social behaviors and their videos is still open question, the preference tests suggest that the mice perceived the videos as meaningful stimuli.

  9. Inappropriate mealtime behavior: the effects of noncontingent access to preferred tangibles on responding in functional analyses.

    PubMed

    González, Melissa L; Rubio, Emily Kate; Taylor, Tessa

    2014-12-01

    An understanding of the functional variables associated with inappropriate mealtime behavior (IMB) is critical to developing an effective and efficient treatment for food refusal. To this aim, functional analysis methodology has been modified for the meal context, and previous research has shown that multiple sources of reinforcement maintain IMB. Functional analysis literature, related to severe problem behavior, suggests that access to preferred stimuli may abolish or compete with social reinforcers in some cases. The role of noncontingent access to preferred stimuli during the assessment of IMB has not been evaluated. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects noncontingent access to preferred toys/activities on IMB in the presence and absence of social consequences. The specific aims were to evaluate: (1) levels of IMB when the spoon is held stationary at the child's lips when preferred tangible stimuli are present noncontingently vs. absent; (2) levels of IMB when social consequences were provided contingent upon IMB when preferred tangible stimuli are present noncontingently vs. absent. For many participants, levels of IMB were reduced with the inclusion of preferred toys/activities; while for one, levels of IMB increased. Possible implications of these findings on functional analyses of IMB will be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sexual behavior regulated (paced) by the female induces conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Paredes, R G; Alonso, A

    1997-02-01

    The possibility that female-paced coital behavior induces a reward state of sufficient intensity and duration to induce conditioning was evaluated by the conditioned-place-preference paradigm. Ovariectomized female rats, treated with estradiol benzoate and progesterone, regulated (paced) their coital interactions with a stud male through a 2-compartment chamber in which only the female could freely move from one compartment to the other. The females that paced their coital interactions showed a clear place preference. In contrast, no change in preference was observed in the females that could not pace their coital contacts. The change in preference in the females that paced their coital interactions was similar to that produced by an injection of morphine (1 mg/kg). These results suggest that coital interactions in females can induce a reward state when the females can control the pace of the sexual interaction.

  11. Distributional Preferences, Reciprocity-Like Behavior, and Efficiency in Bilateral Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Under what conditions do distributional preferences, such as altruism or a concern for fair outcomes, generate efficient trade? I analyze theoretically a simple bilateral exchange game: each player sequentially takes an action that reduces his own material payoff but increases the other player’s. Each player’s preferences may depend on both his/her own material payoff and the other player’s. I identify two key properties of the second-mover’s preferences: indifference curves kinked around “fair” material-payoff distributions, and materials payoffs entering preferences as “normal goods.” Either property can drive reciprocity-like behavior and generate a Pareto efficient outcome. PMID:25664144

  12. Are vent crab behavioral preferences adaptations for habitat choice?

    PubMed

    Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Tseng, Li-Chun; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2017-01-01

    Hydrothermal vent organisms are adapted to their extreme and patchily distributed habitats. They are expected to have evolved mechanisms that keep them in their specific habitation. Since little is known about the recruitment or habitat selection of HV organisms such as brachyurans, we examined the properties of several hydrothermal vent-associated cues on the behavior of the hydrothermal vent (HV) crab Xenograpsus testudinatus in the laboratory that were contrasted by the offering of non-vent cues. This crab species is endemic and dominates the vent fauna of Turtle Island off the NE coast of Taiwan. HV crabs were separately and in combination offered the following vent-specific cues: (1) sulfuric sediment, (3) air-bubbling, (4) elevated temperature, (5) dead settled zooplankton, (7) other crabs, and (8) shade. The non-vent-specific cues were: (2) quarz sediment, (6) dead fish, (8) light. These cues were provided on either side of a two-choice chamber. The movement of individual crabs was monitored: as initial and final choices, and as the proportion of time the crabs spent in each compartment (resident time). Cues were offered alone and no such cue as a control in the same set-up. Sulfuric sediments and dead fish were significantly more attractive to females, and other crabs irrespective of gender were significantly more attractive to males. When compared to expected distributions, crabs, irrespective of gender, significantly avoided light and tended to select other crabs, air-bubbling, sulfuric sediment, elevated temperature, dead fish, dead zooplankton, and quarz sediments in the order of decreasing importance. Data do not support the hypothesis that dead settled zooplankton was particularly attractive nor that the other gender was selected. A combination of several vent-associated cues (sulfuric sediment, elevated temperature, air-bubbling) facilitated the strongest attraction to the crabs as reflected by all response variables. The 'first choice' responses

  13. Empirical research on evolutionary behavior of covert network with preference measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Sun, Duoyong; Bai, Guanghan

    2017-04-01

    A key ingredient of studying the topological evolution of covert network is the individual behaviors which generate the evolutionary dynamics of covert organizational network. In this paper, we proposed an improved preference measurement method and used it to analyze three evolutionary behaviors of a real covert network, namely node addition, node deletion and link formation. Simulation experiment demonstrated that the improved method is robust on the small organizational network. The empirical study showed the specific pattern of evolutionary behaviors by offering direct quantitative support from preferential measurement. The measured property is then extended from degree to multiple node properties. The results indicate that the preferences of different behaviors follow different distributions with linear or nonlinear tendency across the process according to the type of node property. We conclude that the general scale-free network model is not suitable to model the evolutionary process of covert network.

  14. Temperament and Externalizing Behavior: Social Preference and Perceived Acceptance as Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Berdan, Louise E.; Keane, Susan P.; Calkins, Susan D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of social preference and perceived acceptance as moderators of the relation between child temperament and externalizing behavior. Participants included 399 children evaluated at pre-kindergarten and kindergarten assessments. Pre-kindergarten children characterized by high temperamental Surgency/Extraversion were more likely to exhibit hyperactivity and aggression in the kindergarten classroom. In addition, kindergarten perceived acceptance and social preference moderated the relation between pre-kindergarten Surgency/Extraversion and kindergarten hyperactivity for girls only. Girls who were characterized by high temperamental Surgency/Extraversion, high perceived acceptance, and low social preference were at risk for higher levels of teacher-reported and peer-nominated hyperactivity. In contrast, accurately high perceived acceptance was a protective factor for high temperamental Surgency/Extraversion. Findings are discussed in terms of risk and protective factors for externalizing behavior. PMID:18605827

  15. A Study of Stimulus Preference and Its Role in Children's Learning Behavior. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Catherine H.; Stone, David R.

    This paper is concerned with the question of relationship among preferred perceptual modes, selected independent variables which cause individual differences, and the resulting effects on conceptual behavior. Subjects ranged from four and one-half years to eight and one-half years of age. Each child chosen by the plan was screened for color…

  16. Evaluation of the Rate of Problem Behavior Maintained by Different Reinforcers across Preference Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Soyeon; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Fragale, Christina L.; Aguilar, Jeannie M.; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The rates of problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers were evaluated across 3 preference assessment formats (i.e., paired stimulus, multiple-stimulus without replacement, and free operant). The experimenter administered each assessment format 5 times in a random order for 7 children with developmental disabilities whose problem…

  17. Preference Assessment for Dimensions of Reinforcement to Inform Token Economies Targeting Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romani, Patrick W.; Alcorn, Aimee S.; Miller, Jonathan R.; Clark, Gwendolyn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current two-experiment study was to examine the use of a preference assessment for dimensions of reinforcement to inform an effective token economy arrangement. Three participants diagnosed with developmental disabilities who engaged in negatively reinforced problem behavior participated in this study. During Experiment 1, a…

  18. Genetics of a nonoptimal behavior: oviposition preference of Drosophila mauritiana for a toxic resource.

    PubMed

    Moreteau, B; R'Kha, S; David, J R

    1994-09-01

    Among three sibling species of the D. melanogaster subgroup, two are generalists (D. simulans and D. mauritiana), while the third, D. sechellia, specializes on a single toxic resource, the fruit of Morinda citrifolia. D. sechellia, resistant to the toxics, prefers to oviposit on morinda; D. simulans, which is very sensitive, is strongly repelled. D. mauritiana exhibits an aberrant behavior since it prefers to lay its eggs on morinda, where its embryos are killed. Oviposition behavior, studied in parental species, F1 hybrids, and backcrosses, was mostly an additive genetical trait. Further investigations were made with D. mauritiana and D. simulans carrying recessive markers. The X and second chromosomes had no effect, while a clear effect was found for chromosome 3. Since the toxicity of morinda is due to middle-length fatty acids, the behavior of the three species toward various acids was investigated. We found that D. sechellia exhibited a general oviposition preference for acids, while D. simulans was repelled by acids with at least four carbons. Surprisingly D. mauritiana exhibited behavior quite similar to that of D. simulans. Preference for morinda in D. sechellia and D. mauritiana could be mediated by different chemicals.

  19. Ideal Teacher Behaviors: Student Motivation and Self-Efficacy Predict Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komarraju, Meera

    2013-01-01

    Differences in students' academic self-efficacy and motivation were examined in predicting preferred teacher traits. Undergraduates (261) completed the Teaching Behavior Checklist, Academic Self-Concept scale, and Academic Motivation scale. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that academic self-efficacy and extrinsic motivation explained…

  20. Left and right brain-oriented hemisity subjects show opposite behavioral preferences.

    PubMed

    Morton, Bruce E

    2012-01-01

    Recently, three independent, intercorrelated biophysical measures have provided the first quantitative measures of a binary form of behavioral laterality called "Hemisity," a term referring to inherent opposite right or left brain-oriented differences in thinking and behavioral styles. Crucially, the right or left brain-orientation of individuals assessed by these methods was later found to be essentially congruent with the thicker side of their ventral gyrus of the anterior cingulate cortex (vgACC) as revealed by a 3 min MRI procedure. Laterality of this putative executive structural element has thus become the primary standard defining individual hemisity. Here, the behavior of 150 subjects, whose hemisity had been calibrated by MRI, was assessed using five MRI-calibrated preference questionnaires, two of which were new. Right and left brain-oriented subjects selected opposite answers (p > 0.05) for 47 of the 107 "either-or," forced choice type preference questionnaire items. The resulting 30 hemisity subtype preference differences were present in several areas. These were: (1) in logical orientation, (2) in type of consciousness, (3) in fear level and sensitivity, (4) in social-professional orientation, and (5) in pair bonding-spousal dominance style. The right and left brain-oriented hemisity subtype subjects, sorted on the anatomical basis of upon which brain side their vgACC was thickest, showed 30 significant differences in their "either-or" type of behavioral preferences.

  1. Ideal Teacher Behaviors: Student Motivation and Self-Efficacy Predict Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komarraju, Meera

    2013-01-01

    Differences in students' academic self-efficacy and motivation were examined in predicting preferred teacher traits. Undergraduates (261) completed the Teaching Behavior Checklist, Academic Self-Concept scale, and Academic Motivation scale. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that academic self-efficacy and extrinsic motivation explained…

  2. Left and right brain-oriented hemisity subjects show opposite behavioral preferences

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Recently, three independent, intercorrelated biophysical measures have provided the first quantitative measures of a binary form of behavioral laterality called “Hemisity,” a term referring to inherent opposite right or left brain-oriented differences in thinking and behavioral styles. Crucially, the right or left brain-orientation of individuals assessed by these methods was later found to be essentially congruent with the thicker side of their ventral gyrus of the anterior cingulate cortex (vgACC) as revealed by a 3 min MRI procedure. Laterality of this putative executive structural element has thus become the primary standard defining individual hemisity. Methods: Here, the behavior of 150 subjects, whose hemisity had been calibrated by MRI, was assessed using five MRI-calibrated preference questionnaires, two of which were new. Results: Right and left brain-oriented subjects selected opposite answers (p > 0.05) for 47 of the 107 “either-or,” forced choice type preference questionnaire items. The resulting 30 hemisity subtype preference differences were present in several areas. These were: (1) in logical orientation, (2) in type of consciousness, (3) in fear level and sensitivity, (4) in social-professional orientation, and (5) in pair bonding-spousal dominance style. Conclusions: The right and left brain-oriented hemisity subtype subjects, sorted on the anatomical basis of upon which brain side their vgACC was thickest, showed 30 significant differences in their “either-or” type of behavioral preferences. PMID:23130000

  3. Temperament and Externalizing Behavior: Social Preference and Perceived Acceptance as Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdan, Louise E.; Keane, Susan P.; Calkins, Susan D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of social preference and perceived acceptance as moderators of the relation between child temperament and externalizing behavior. Participants included 399 children evaluated at pre-kindergarten and kindergarten assessments. Pre-kindergarten children characterized by high temperamental…

  4. Response Competition and Stimulus Preference in the Treatment of Automatically Reinforced Behavior: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groskreutz, Mark P.; Groskreutz, Nicole C.; Higbee, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians are particularly challenged by the development of interventions for behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement because reinforcers that maintain the responses often cannot be directly observed or manipulated. Researchers have conducted either preference assessments or competing items assessments when developing effective treatments…

  5. The Relations between Friendship Quality, Ranked-Friendship Preference, and Adolescents' Behavior with Their Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Markievicz, Dorothy; Doyle, Anna Beth; Bukowski, William M.

    2001-01-01

    Eighty adolescents and their same-sex friends rated the quality of their friendship, ranked their preference for this friendship, and participated in a videotaped discussion. Compared to boys, girls rated their friendship quality more positively and less negatively and showed more positive and less negative behavior in interaction with their…

  6. The Relations between Friendship Quality, Ranked-Friendship Preference, and Adolescents' Behavior with Their Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Markievicz, Dorothy; Doyle, Anna Beth; Bukowski, William M.

    2001-01-01

    Eighty adolescents and their same-sex friends rated the quality of their friendship, ranked their preference for this friendship, and participated in a videotaped discussion. Compared to boys, girls rated their friendship quality more positively and less negatively and showed more positive and less negative behavior in interaction with their…

  7. Peer Status in Emerging Adulthood: Associations of Popularity and Preference with Social Roles and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansu, Tessa A. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2012-01-01

    Although peer status has been studied extensively in childhood and adolescence, little is known about social status in peer groups of emerging adults. The current study filled this gap by testing whether preference and popularity are distinct dimensions of peer status and uniquely associated with social behavior in emerging adulthood. Participants…

  8. Preferences for Pink and Blue: The Development of Color Preferences as a Distinct Gender-Typed Behavior in Toddlers.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wang I; Hines, Melissa

    2015-07-01

    Many gender differences are thought to result from interactions between inborn factors and sociocognitive processes that occur after birth. There is controversy, however, over the causes of gender-typed preferences for the colors pink and blue, with some viewing these preferences as arising solely from sociocognitive processes of gender development. We evaluated preferences for gender-typed colors, and compared them to gender-typed toy and activity preferences in 126 toddlers on two occasions separated by 6-8 months (at Time 1, M = 29 months; range 20-40). Color preferences were assessed using color cards and neutral toys in gender-typed colors. Gender-typed toy and activity preferences were assessed using a parent-report questionnaire, the Preschool Activities Inventory. Color preferences were also assessed for the toddlers' parents using color cards. A gender difference in color preferences was present between 2 and 3 years of age and strengthened near the third birthday, at which time it was large (d > 1). In contrast to their parents, toddlers' gender-typed color preferences were stronger and unstable. Gender-typed color preferences also appeared to establish later and were less stable than gender-typed toy and activity preferences. Gender-typed color preferences were largely uncorrelated with gender-typed toy and activity preferences. These results suggest that the factors influencing gender-typed color preferences and gender-typed toy and activity preferences differ in some respects. Our findings suggest that sociocognitive influences and play with gender-typed toys that happen to be made in gender-typed colors contribute to toddlers' gender-typed color preferences.

  9. Innate Color Preference of Zebrafish and Its Use in Behavioral Analyses.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Su; Ryu, Jae-Ho; Choi, Tae-Ik; Bae, Young-Ki; Lee, Suman; Kang, Hae Jin; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2016-10-01

    Although innate color preference of motile organisms may provide clues to behavioral biases, it has remained a longstanding question. In this study, we investigated innate color preference of zebrafish larvae. A cross maze with different color sleeves around each arm was used for the color preference test (R; red, G; green, B; blue, Y; yellow). The findings showed that 5 dpf zebrafish larvae preferred blue over other colors (B > R > G > Y). To study innate color recognition further, tyrosinase mutants were generated using CRISPR/Cas9 system. As a model for oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and color vision impairment, tyrosinase mutants demonstrated diminished color sensation, indicated mainly by hypopigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Due to its relative simplicity and ease, color preference screening using zebrafish larvae is suitable for high-throughput screening applications. This system may potentially be applied to the analysis of drug effects on larval behavior or the detection of sensory deficits in neurological disorder models, such as autism-related disorders, using mutant larvae generated by the CRISPR/Cas9 technique.

  10. Innate Color Preference of Zebrafish and Its Use in Behavioral Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Su; Ryu, Jae-Ho; Choi, Tae-Ik; Bae, Young-Ki; Lee, Suman; Kang, Hae Jin; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Although innate color preference of motile organisms may provide clues to behavioral biases, it has remained a longstanding question. In this study, we investigated innate color preference of zebrafish larvae. A cross maze with different color sleeves around each arm was used for the color preference test (R; red, G; green, B; blue, Y; yellow). The findings showed that 5 dpf zebrafish larvae preferred blue over other colors (B > R > G > Y). To study innate color recognition further, tyrosinase mutants were generated using CRISPR/Cas9 system. As a model for oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and color vision impairment, tyrosinase mutants demonstrated diminished color sensation, indicated mainly by hypopigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Due to its relative simplicity and ease, color preference screening using zebrafish larvae is suitable for high-throughput screening applications. This system may potentially be applied to the analysis of drug effects on larval behavior or the detection of sensory deficits in neurological disorder models, such as autism-related disorders, using mutant larvae generated by the CRISPR/Cas9 technique. PMID:27802373

  11. A Context-Aware Mobile User Behavior-Based Neighbor Finding Approach for Preference Profile Construction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qian; Fu, Deqian; Dong, Xiangjun

    2016-01-23

    In this paper, a new approach is adopted to update the user preference profile by seeking users with similar interests based on the context obtainable for a mobile network instead of from desktop networks. The trust degree between mobile users is calculated by analyzing their behavior based on the context, and then the approximate neighbors are chosen by combining the similarity of the mobile user preference and the trust degree. The approach first considers the communication behaviors between mobile users, the mobile network services they use as well as the corresponding context information. Then a similarity degree of the preference between users is calculated with the evaluation score of a certain mobile web service provided by a mobile user. Finally, based on the time attenuation function, the users with similar preference are found, through which we can dynamically update the target user's preference profile. Experiments are then conducted to test the effect of the context on the credibility among mobile users, the effect of time decay factors and trust degree thresholds. Simulation shows that the proposed approach outperforms two other methods in terms of Recall Ratio, Precision Ratio and Mean Absolute Error, because neither of them consider the context mobile information.

  12. The Effects of Preference for Information on Consumers’ Online Health Information Search Behavior

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preference for information is a personality trait that affects people’s tendency to seek information in health-related situations. Prior studies have focused primarily on investigating its impact on patient-provider communication and on the implications for designing information interventions that prepare patients for medical procedures. Few studies have examined its impact on general consumers’ interactions with Web-based search engines for health information or the implications for designing more effective health information search systems. Objective This study intends to fill this gap by investigating the impact of preference for information on the search behavior of general consumers seeking health information, their perceptions of search tasks (representing information needs), and user experience with search systems. Methods Forty general consumers who had previously searched for health information online participated in the study in our usability lab. Preference for information was measured using Miller’s Monitor-Blunter Style Scale (MBSS) and the Krantz Health Opinion Survey-Information Scale (KHOS-I). Each participant completed four simulated health information search tasks: two look-up (fact-finding) and two exploratory. Their behaviors while interacting with the search systems were automatically logged and ratings of their perceptions of tasks and user experience with the systems were collected using Likert-scale questionnaires. Results The MBSS showed low reliability with the participants (Monitoring subscale: Cronbach alpha=.53; Blunting subscale: Cronbach alpha=.35). Thus, no further analyses were performed based on the scale. KHOS-I had sufficient reliability (Cronbach alpha=.77). Participants were classified into low- and high-preference groups based on their KHOS-I scores. The high-preference group submitted significantly shorter queries when completing the look-up tasks (P=.02). The high-preference group made a significantly higher

  13. Brief Strategic Family Therapy: An Intervention to Reduce Adolescent Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Szapocznik, José; Schwartz, Seth J.; Muir, Joan A.; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the brief strategic family therapy (BSFT; J. Szapocznik, M. A. Scopetta, & O. E. King, 1978, The effect and degree of treatment comprehensiveness with a Latino drug abusing population. In D. E. Smith, S. M. Anderson, M. Burton, N. Gotlieb, W. Harvey, & T. Chung, Eds, A multicultural view of drug abuse, pp. 563–573, Cambridge, MA: G. K. Hall & J. Szapocznik, M. A. Scopetta, & O. E. King, 1978, Theory and practice in matching treatment to the special characteristics and problems of Cuban immigrants, Journal of Community Psychology, 6, 112–122.) approach to treating adolescent drug abuse and related problem behaviors. The treatment intervention is reviewed, including specialized features such as engagement of difficult families. Empirical evidence supporting the BSFT approach is presented. We then illustrate ways in which clinicians can use the model with troubled families whose adolescents may be at risk for drug use and HIV. Finally, future directions for BSFT research are described. PMID:23936750

  14. Brief Strategic Family Therapy: An Intervention to Reduce Adolescent Risk Behavior.

    PubMed

    Szapocznik, José; Schwartz, Seth J; Muir, Joan A; Brown, C Hendricks

    2012-06-01

    This article reviews the brief strategic family therapy (BSFT; J. Szapocznik, M. A. Scopetta, & O. E. King, 1978, The effect and degree of treatment comprehensiveness with a Latino drug abusing population. In D. E. Smith, S. M. Anderson, M. Burton, N. Gotlieb, W. Harvey, & T. Chung, Eds, A multicultural view of drug abuse, pp. 563-573, Cambridge, MA: G. K. Hall & J. Szapocznik, M. A. Scopetta, & O. E. King, 1978, Theory and practice in matching treatment to the special characteristics and problems of Cuban immigrants, Journal of Community Psychology, 6, 112-122.) approach to treating adolescent drug abuse and related problem behaviors. The treatment intervention is reviewed, including specialized features such as engagement of difficult families. Empirical evidence supporting the BSFT approach is presented. We then illustrate ways in which clinicians can use the model with troubled families whose adolescents may be at risk for drug use and HIV. Finally, future directions for BSFT research are described.

  15. Behavioral and Molecular Analysis of Nicotine-Conditioned Place Preference in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kedikian, Ximena; Faillace, Maria Paula; Bernabeu, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    Studies using mice and rats have demonstrated that nicotine induces a conditioned place preference (CPP), with more effective results obtained by using biased procedures. Zebrafish have also been used as a model system to identify factors influencing nicotine-associated reward by using an unbiased design. Here, we report that zebrafish exhibited putative nicotine biased CPP to an initially aversive compartment (nicotine-paired group). A counterbalanced nicotine-exposed control group did not show a significant preference shift, providing evidence that the preference shift in the nicotine-paired group was not due to a reduction of aversion for this compartment. Zebrafish preference was corroborated by behavioral analysis of several indicators of drug preference, such as time spent in the drug-paired side, number of entries to the drug-paired side, and distance traveled. These results provided strong evidence that zebrafish may actually develop a preference for nicotine, although the drug was administrated in an aversive place for the fish, which was further supported by molecular studies. Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR analysis depicted a significant increase in the expression of α7 and α6 but not α4 and β2 subunits of the nicotinic receptor in nicotine-paired zebrafish brains. In contrast, zebrafish brains from the counterbalanced nicotine group showed no significant changes. Moreover, CREB phosphorylation, an indicator of neural activity, accompanied the acquisition of nicotine-CPP. Our studies offered an incremental value to the drug addiction field, because they further describe behavioral features of CPP to nicotine in zebrafish. The results suggested that zebrafish exposed to nicotine in an unfriendly environment can develop a preference for that initially aversive place, which is likely due to the rewarding effect of nicotine. Therefore, this model can be used to screen exogenous and endogenous molecules involved in nicotine

  16. A New Method of Random Environmental Walking for Assessing Behavioral Preferences for Different Lighting Applications

    PubMed Central

    Patching, Geoffrey R.; Rahm, Johan; Jansson, Märit; Johansson, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Accurate assessment of people’s preferences for different outdoor lighting applications is increasingly considered important in the development of new urban environments. Here a new method of random environmental walking is proposed to complement current methods of assessing urban lighting applications, such as self-report questionnaires. The procedure involves participants repeatedly walking between different lighting applications by random selection of a lighting application and preferred choice or by random selection of a lighting application alone. In this manner, participants are exposed to all lighting applications of interest more than once and participants’ preferences for the different lighting applications are reflected in the number of times they walk to each lighting application. On the basis of an initial simulation study, to explore the feasibility of this approach, a comprehensive field test was undertaken. The field test included random environmental walking and collection of participants’ subjective ratings of perceived pleasantness (PP), perceived quality, perceived strength, and perceived flicker of four lighting applications. The results indicate that random environmental walking can reveal participants’ preferences for different lighting applications that, in the present study, conformed to participants’ ratings of PP and perceived quality of the lighting applications. As a complement to subjectively stated environmental preferences, random environmental walking has the potential to expose behavioral preferences for different lighting applications. PMID:28337163

  17. Hand preference patterns in expert basketball players: interrelations between basketball-specific and everyday life behavior.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Tino; Vater, Christian

    2014-12-01

    In the present study we examined the interrelation of everyday life handedness and hand preference in basketball, as an area of expertise that requires individuals being proficient with both their non-dominant and dominant hand. A secondary aim was to elucidate the link between basketball-specific practice, hand preference in basketball and everyday life handedness. Therefore, 176 expert basketball players self-reported their hand preference for activities of daily living and for basketball-specific behavior as well as details about their basketball-specific history via questionnaire. We found that compared to the general population the one-hand bias was significantly reduced for both everyday life and basketball-specific hand preference (i.e., a higher prevalence of mixed-handed individuals), and that both concepts were significantly related. Moreover, only preference scores for lay-up and dribbling skills were significantly related to measures of basketball-specific practice. Consequently, training-induced modulations of lateral preference seem to be very specific to only a few basketball-specific skills, and do not generalize to other skills within the domain of basketball nor do they extend into everyday life handedness. The results are discussed in terms of their relevance regarding theories of handedness and their practical implications for the sport of basketball. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A New Method of Random Environmental Walking for Assessing Behavioral Preferences for Different Lighting Applications.

    PubMed

    Patching, Geoffrey R; Rahm, Johan; Jansson, Märit; Johansson, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Accurate assessment of people's preferences for different outdoor lighting applications is increasingly considered important in the development of new urban environments. Here a new method of random environmental walking is proposed to complement current methods of assessing urban lighting applications, such as self-report questionnaires. The procedure involves participants repeatedly walking between different lighting applications by random selection of a lighting application and preferred choice or by random selection of a lighting application alone. In this manner, participants are exposed to all lighting applications of interest more than once and participants' preferences for the different lighting applications are reflected in the number of times they walk to each lighting application. On the basis of an initial simulation study, to explore the feasibility of this approach, a comprehensive field test was undertaken. The field test included random environmental walking and collection of participants' subjective ratings of perceived pleasantness (PP), perceived quality, perceived strength, and perceived flicker of four lighting applications. The results indicate that random environmental walking can reveal participants' preferences for different lighting applications that, in the present study, conformed to participants' ratings of PP and perceived quality of the lighting applications. As a complement to subjectively stated environmental preferences, random environmental walking has the potential to expose behavioral preferences for different lighting applications.

  19. Soldiers' preferences for follow-up communications with behavioral health providers.

    PubMed

    Stanfill, Katherine E; Kinn, Julie; Bush, Nigel

    2014-08-01

    Recent research has shown value in utilizing follow-up communication with patients to improve long-term outcomes of behavioral health, particularly among the most high-risk patients. We surveyed 38 active-duty Army personnel who were attached as behavioral health patients to a Warrior Transition Unit at a large military installation to ask their preferences for follow-up communication to behavioral healthcare. Strongest preferences for contact were (1) personal cellphone, (2) text message, and (3) e-mail to non-work account. Because of frequent endorsement of stigma as a barrier to behavioral health treatment in this population, we also evaluated the influence of stigma on follow-up preferences. "High-stigma" participants indicated less favor for a personal note from a behavioral healthcare provider following treatment, although both high- and low-stigma participants agreed it was a "good idea" for a provider to e-mail a link to a Web site with relevant information about a diagnosis.

  20. Genetic, hormonal, and metabolomic influences on social behavior and sex preference of XXY mice

    PubMed Central

    Erkkila, Krista; Lue, YanHe; Jentsch, J. David; Schwarcz, Monica Dorin; Abuyounes, Deena; Hikim, Amiya Sinha; Wang, Christina; Lee, Paul W.-N.; Swerdloff, Ronald S.

    2010-01-01

    XXY men (Klinefelter syndrome) are testosterone deficient, socially isolated, exhibit impaired gender identity, and may experience more homosexual behaviors. Here, we characterize social behaviors in a validated XXY mouse model to understand mechanisms. Sociability and gender preference were assessed by three-chambered choice tasks before and after castration and after testosterone replacement. Metabolomic activities of brain and blood were quantified through fractional synthesis rates of palmitate and ribose (GC-MS). XXY mice exhibit greater sociability than XY littermates, particularly for male mice. The differences in sociability disappear after matching androgen exposure. Intact XXY, compared with XY, mice prefer male mice odors when the alternatives are ovariectomized female mice odors, but they prefer estrous over male mice odors, suggesting that preference for male mice may be due to social, not sexual, cues. Castration followed by testosterone treatment essentially remove these preferences. Fractional synthesis rates of palmitate are higher in the hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus of XXY compared with XY mice but not with ribose in these brain regions or palmitate in blood. Androgen ablation in XY mice increases fractional synthesis rates of fatty acids in the brain to levels indistinguishable from those in XXY mice. We conclude that intact XXY mice exhibit increased sociability, differences in gender preference for mice and their odors are due to social rather than sexual cues and, these differences are mostly related to androgen deficiency rather than genetics. Specific metabolic changes in brain lipids, which are also regulated by androgens, are observed in brain regions that are involved in these behaviors. PMID:20570823

  1. Leadership for Evidence-Based Practice: Strategic and Functional Behaviors for Institutionalizing EBP

    PubMed Central

    Stetler, Cheryl B; Ritchie, Judith A; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Charns, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Background Making evidence-based practice (EBP) a reality throughout an organization is a challenging goal in healthcare services. Leadership has been recognized as a critical element in that process. However, little is known about the exact role and function of various levels of leadership in the successful institutionalization of EBP within an organization. Aims To uncover what leaders at different levels and in different roles actually do, and what actions they take to develop, enhance, and sustain EBP as the norm. Methods Qualitative data from a case study regarding institutionalization of EBP in two contrasting cases (Role Model and Beginner hospitals) were systematically analyzed. Data were obtained from multiple interviews of leaders, both formal and informal, and from staff nurse focus groups. A deductive coding schema, based on concepts of functional leadership, was developed for this in-depth analysis. Results Participants’ descriptions reflected a hierarchical array of strategic, functional, and cross-cutting behaviors. Within these macrolevel “themes,” 10 behavioral midlevel themes were identified; for example, Intervening and Role modeling. Each theme is distinctive, yet various themes and their subthemes were interrelated and synergistic. These behaviors and their interrelationships were conceptualized in the framework “Leadership Behaviors Supportive of EBP Institutionalization” (L-EBP). Leaders at multiple levels in the Role Model case, both formal and informal, engaged in most of these behaviors. Linking Evidence to Action Supportive leadership behaviors required for organizational institutionalization of EBP reflect a complex set of interactive, multifaceted EBP-focused actions carried out by leaders from the chief nursing officer to staff nurses. A related framework such as L-EBP may provide concrete guidance needed to underpin the often-noted but abstract finding that leaders should “support” EBP. PMID:24986669

  2. Leadership for evidence-based practice: strategic and functional behaviors for institutionalizing EBP.

    PubMed

    Stetler, Cheryl B; Ritchie, Judith A; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Charns, Martin P

    2014-08-01

    Making evidence-based practice (EBP) a reality throughout an organization is a challenging goal in healthcare services. Leadership has been recognized as a critical element in that process. However, little is known about the exact role and function of various levels of leadership in the successful institutionalization of EBP within an organization. To uncover what leaders at different levels and in different roles actually do, and what actions they take to develop, enhance, and sustain EBP as the norm. Qualitative data from a case study regarding institutionalization of EBP in two contrasting cases (Role Model and Beginner hospitals) were systematically analyzed. Data were obtained from multiple interviews of leaders, both formal and informal, and from staff nurse focus groups. A deductive coding schema, based on concepts of functional leadership, was developed for this in-depth analysis. Participants' descriptions reflected a hierarchical array of strategic, functional, and cross-cutting behaviors. Within these macrolevel "themes," 10 behavioral midlevel themes were identified; for example, Intervening and Role modeling. Each theme is distinctive, yet various themes and their subthemes were interrelated and synergistic. These behaviors and their interrelationships were conceptualized in the framework "Leadership Behaviors Supportive of EBP Institutionalization" (L-EBP). Leaders at multiple levels in the Role Model case, both formal and informal, engaged in most of these behaviors. Supportive leadership behaviors required for organizational institutionalization of EBP reflect a complex set of interactive, multifaceted EBP-focused actions carried out by leaders from the chief nursing officer to staff nurses. A related framework such as L-EBP may provide concrete guidance needed to underpin the often-noted but abstract finding that leaders should "support" EBP. © 2014 The Authors. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of

  3. Strategic Placement of Treatments (SPOTS): Maximizing the Effectiveness of Fuel and Vegetation Treatments on Problem Fire Behavior and Effects

    Treesearch

    Diane M. Gercke; Susan A. Stewart

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, eight U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management interdisciplinary teams participated in a test of strategic placement of treatments (SPOTS) techniques to maximize the effectiveness of fuel treatments in reducing problem fire behavior, adverse fire effects, and suppression costs. This interagency approach to standardizing the assessment of risks and...

  4. High and Low Reading Comprehension Achievers' Strategic Behaviors and Their Relation to Performance in a Reading Comprehension Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dermitzaki, Irini; Andreou, Georgia; Paraskeva, Violetta

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the actual strategic behaviors of high and low achievers in reading comprehension and their relation with respective performance. The participants were 45 individually examined third graders, 20 high and 25 low reading comprehension achievers. Cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational aspects of the participants'…

  5. The effects of noncontingent delivery of high- and low-preference stimuli on attention-maintained destructive behavior.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W W; O'Connor, J T; Kurtz, P F; DeLeon, I G; Gotjen, D L

    2000-01-01

    An adolescent with severe mental retardation and cerebral palsy who displayed attention-maintained destructive behavior was exposed to noncontingent reinforcer delivery (NCR) with either a high-preference or a low-preference stimulus while reinforcement for destructive behavior with attention remained in effect (i.e., NCR without extinction). NCR without extinction was effective only when the high-preference stimulus was available, suggesting that systematic assessment of stimulus quality may enhance the effectiveness of NCR with alternative stimuli.

  6. The Effects of Noncontingent Delivery of High- and Low-Preference Stimuli on Attention-Maintained Destructive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Wayne W.; O'Connor, Julia T.; Kurtz, Patricia F.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Gotjen, Deidre L.

    2000-01-01

    An adolescent with severe mental retardation and cerebral palsy who displayed attention-maintained destructive behavior was exposed to noncontingent reinforcer delivery (NCR) with a high-preference or a low-preference stimulus while reinforcement for destructive behavior with attention remained in effect. NCR without extinction was effective only…

  7. The Effects of Noncontingent Delivery of High- and Low-Preference Stimuli on Attention-Maintained Destructive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Wayne W.; O'Connor, Julia T.; Kurtz, Patricia F.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Gotjen, Deidre L.

    2000-01-01

    An adolescent with severe mental retardation and cerebral palsy who displayed attention-maintained destructive behavior was exposed to noncontingent reinforcer delivery (NCR) with a high-preference or a low-preference stimulus while reinforcement for destructive behavior with attention remained in effect. NCR without extinction was effective only…

  8. Discovery of high-level behavior from observation of human performance in a strategic game.

    PubMed

    Stensrud, Brian S; Gonzalez, Avelino J

    2008-06-01

    This paper explores the issues faced in creating a system that can learn tactical human behavior merely by observing a human perform the behavior in a simulation. More specifically, this paper describes a technique based on fuzzy ARTMAP (FAM) neural networks to discover the criteria that cause a transition between contexts during a strategic game simulation. The approach depends on existing context templates that can identify the high-level action of the human, given a description of the situation along with his action. The learning task then becomes the identification and representation of the context sequence executed by the human. In this paper, we present the FAM/Template-based Interpretation Learning Engine (FAMTILE). This system seeks to achieve this learning task by constructing rules that govern the context transitions made by the human. To evaluate FAMTILE, six test scenarios were developed to achieve three distinct evaluation goals: 1) to assess the learning capabilities of FAM; 2) to evaluate the ability of FAMTILE to correctly predict human and context selections, given an observation; and 3) more fundamentally, to create a model of the human's behavior that can perform the high-level task at a comparable level of proficiency.

  9. PREFER study: a randomized clinical trial testing treatment preference and two dietary options in behavioral weight management--rationale, design and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Burke, Lora E; Choo, Jina; Music, Edvin; Warziski, Melanie; Styn, Mindi A; Kim, Yookyung; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2006-02-01

    Obesity, a disorder associated with a myriad of comorbidities, is increasing at an alarming rate around the world. Given that pharmacotherapy has limited available options and that bariatric surgery is reserved for those who are morbidly obese or who have significant comorbidities, the most common approach to the treatment of obesity is standard behavioral treatment. This approach includes behavior modification related to eating and activity habits. The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale, design, methods and baseline sample characteristics of a randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention in weight loss management, referred to as the PREFER study. The PREFER study, using a four-group design, includes: (1) a randomization scheme that permits participants to indicate a preferred dietary treatment approach, and (2) two dietary options, one of which is a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet that has demonstrated potential for long-term adherence. The intervention (32 treatment sessions) is delivered over 12 months and is followed by a 6-month maintenance phase; final assessment occurs at 18 months. We screened 932 individuals and randomized 197 to the study: Treatment Preference-Yes (n=84) and Treatment Preference-No (n=98). To maintain a balance across the four treatment groups, 15 subjects who preferred the standard diet had to be discarded from the Treatment Preference-Yes group. Retention at 18 months for the first of three cohorts was 82%. The PREFER study is a single center study and is the first randomized controlled trial examining a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet as part of weight loss treatment. The ethnically diverse sample includes males and females with a body mass index of 27 to 43. The study has the potential to make a contribution to understanding the role of treatment preference and the potential of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet for long-term weight loss.

  10. Left Habenula Mediates Light-Preference Behavior in Zebrafish via an Asymmetrical Visual Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bai-Bing; Yao, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, He-Fei; Kawakami, Koichi; Du, Jiu-Lin

    2017-02-22

    Habenula (Hb) plays critical roles in emotion-related behaviors through integrating inputs mainly from the limbic system and basal ganglia. However, Hb also receives inputs from multiple sensory modalities. The function and underlying neural circuit of Hb sensory inputs remain unknown. Using larval zebrafish, we found that left dorsal Hb (dHb, a homolog of mammalian medial Hb) mediates light-preference behavior by receiving visual inputs from a specific subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) through eminentia thalami (EmT). Loss- and gain-of-function manipulations showed that left, but not right, dHb activities, which encode environmental illuminance, are necessary and sufficient for light-preference behavior. At circuit level, left dHb neurons receive excitatory monosynaptic inputs from bilateral EmT, and EmT neurons are contacted mainly by sustained ON-type RGCs at the arborization field 4 of retinorecipient brain areas. Our findings discover a previously unidentified asymmetrical visual pathway to left Hb and its function in mediating light-preference behavior. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  11. Examining Overlap in Behavioral and Neural Representations of Morals, Facts, and Preferences.

    PubMed

    Theriault, Jordan; Waytz, Adam; Heiphetz, Larisa; Young, Liane

    2017-08-14

    Metaethical judgments refer to judgments about the information expressed by moral claims. Moral objectivists generally believe that moral claims are akin to facts, whereas moral subjectivists generally believe that moral claims are more akin to preferences. Evidence from developmental and social psychology has generally favored an objectivist view; however, this work has typically relied on few examples, and analyses have disallowed statistical generalizations beyond these few stimuli. The present work addresses whether morals are represented as fact-like or preference-like, using behavioral and neuroimaging methods, in combination with statistical techniques that can (a) generalize beyond our sample stimuli, and (b) test whether particular item features are associated with neural activity. Behaviorally, and contrary to prior work, morals were perceived as more preference-like than fact-like. Neurally, morals and preferences elicited common magnitudes and spatial patterns of activity, particularly within the dorsal-medial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), a critical region for social cognition. This common DMPFC activity for morals and preferences was present across whole-brain conjunctions, and in individually localized functional regions of interest (targeting the theory of mind network). By contrast, morals and facts did not elicit any neural activity in common. Follow-up item analyses suggested that the activity elicited in common by morals and preferences was explained by their shared tendency to evoke representations of mental states. We conclude that morals are represented as far more subjective than prior work has suggested. This conclusion is consistent with recent theoretical research, which has argued that morality is fundamentally about regulating social relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Dairy cattle prefer shade over sprinklers: effects on behavior and physiology.

    PubMed

    Schütz, K E; Rogers, A R; Cox, N R; Webster, J R; Tucker, C B

    2011-01-01

    Cattle will readily use shade in warm weather, but less is known about voluntary use of sprinklers. We examined preferences of 96 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (milk yield: 12.7±3.48 kg per day; mean±SD) for sprinklers, shade, or ambient conditions after walking 2.0 km or 0.3 km before afternoon milking (n=48 cows/distance). Each cow was individually tested on 3 consecutive days with a different paired choice each day: 1) shade or sprinklers, 2) shade or ambient conditions, 3) sprinklers or ambient conditions. Average air temperature during testing was 22.3°C. Cows preferred shade over sprinklers (62 vs. 38% ± 5.0%; mean ± SE) and shade over ambient conditions (65 vs. 35% ± 5.1%; mean±SE). Cows showed no preference between sprinklers and ambient conditions (44% of the cows chose sprinklers, SE=5.3%). The preference for shade over sprinklers and ambient conditions increased with air temperature, solar radiation, and wind speed. Walking distance did not influence the preference for any treatment. Respiration rate was decreased most by sprinklers (38% decrease) but also decreased in shade and ambient conditions (17 and 13% decrease, respectively; standard error of the difference=4.7%). Similarly, surface temperature was decreased most by sprinklers (11.4% decrease), compared with that by shade (1.0% decrease), or that by ambient conditions (1.4% increase; standard error of the difference=1.82%). Furthermore, sprinklers reduced insect avoidance behaviors, including number of tail flicks and hoof stamps. In conclusion, dairy cattle preferred to use shade in summer despite sprinklers being more efficient in decreasing heat load and insect avoidance behavior.

  13. Risk and culture: variations in dioxin risk perceptions, behavioral preferences among social groups in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seohyun; Kim, Jong Guk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examined variations in the perceptions of dioxin risk among social groups defined by geographical living location, environmental education, and occupation. Dioxin risk perceptions were analyzed according to values, risk awareness, knowledge, and behavioral preferences. Methods A quasi-experimental survey was designed and conducted on individuals from seven experimental groups in Jeonju city, South Korea, including: people living near incineration facilities; people living far from incineration facilities; governmental experts; nongovernmental organization members; office workers in developmental institutes or banks; students who were enrolled in environmental-related classes; and students who were enrolled in business-related classes. Results The results show variations among groups in values, awareness and behavioral preferences. Particular attention should be given to the result that groups with higher connectedness- to-nature values show higher willingness-to-act (WTA) for risk reduction. Result s can be summarized as follows. First, awareness is associated with one’s geographical setting. Second, values and WTA behaviors are related to one’s environmental-related education and occupation. Third, values are significantly related to WTA behaviors. Conclusions Different cultures, in terms of values or worldview, among groups influence their perceptions of dioxin risk and choices of risk reduction behaviors. It is important to consider values in communicating complicated long-term risk management involving public participation. Further research should be continuously conducted on the effects of multiple dimensions of values on one’s WTA for risk reduction behaviors. PMID:25384388

  14. "Sex-role preference" as an explanatory variable in homosexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Carrier, J M

    1977-01-01

    Sex-role preference is an important neglected variable in statistically controlled studies of homosexual behavior. This variable must accompany controls for degree of psychopathology of respondents and degree of heterosexual and homosexual behavior experienced by respondents. Cross-cultural differences exist. Mexican males have rigidly defined insertor-insertee roles, with earlier life events serving as predictors of these sex-role preferences. Greece is comparable to Mexico. In Turkey, stigmatization accompanies passive homosexuality. Role playing may be age graded, as in the Southwest Pacific. In lower socioeconomic classes of the United States, sex roles for homosexual males are more stereo-typically and unequivocably defined. Chicanos generally have strong sex-role preferences when involved in homosexual encounters; their attitude is similar to that found in Mexico. Among middle-class Anglo-American males, few or no sex-role feelings are associated with types of sex acts by most homosexually behaving males. This may be related to a focus on oral-genital rather than anal sex acts. The sharply dichotomized gender roles and the cultural formulation linking effeminacy and homosexuality appear to provide the necessary conditions for the development of sex-role preferences in many societies.

  15. Understanding Messaging Preferences to Inform Development of Mobile Goal-Directed Behavioral Interventions

    PubMed Central

    van Stolk-Cooke, Katherine; Morgenstern, Jon; Kuerbis, Alexis N; Markle, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    one type of message over another. Global preferences were indicated for messages that contained accurate spelling and grammar, as well as messages that emphasize the positive over the negative. Research implications and a guide for developing short messages for goal-directed behaviors are presented in this paper. PMID:24500775

  16. Understanding messaging preferences to inform development of mobile goal-directed behavioral interventions.

    PubMed

    Muench, Frederick; van Stolk-Cooke, Katherine; Morgenstern, Jon; Kuerbis, Alexis N; Markle, Kendra

    2014-02-05

    Mobile messaging interventions have been shown to improve outcomes across a number of mental health and health-related conditions, but there are still significant gaps in our knowledge of how to construct and deliver the most effective brief messaging interventions. Little is known about the ways in which subtle linguistic variations in message content can affect user receptivity and preferences. The aim of this study was to determine whether any global messaging preferences existed for different types of language content, and how certain characteristics moderate those preferences, in an effort to inform the development of mobile messaging interventions. This study examined user preferences for messages within 22 content groupings. Groupings were presented online in dyads of short messages that were identical in their subject matter, but structurally or linguistically varied. Participants were 277 individuals residing in the United States who were recruited and compensated through Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) system. Participants were instructed to select the message in each dyad that they would prefer to receive to help them achieve a personal goal of their choosing. Results indicate global preferences of more than 75% of subjects for certain types of messages, such as those that were grammatically correct, free of textese, benefit-oriented, polite, nonaggressive, and directive as opposed to passive, among others. For several classes of messages, few or no clear global preferences were found. There were few personality- and trait-based moderators of message preferences, but subtle manipulations of message structure, such as changing "Try to…" to "You might want to try to…" affected message choice. The results indicate that individuals are sensitive to variations in the linguistic content of text messages designed to help them achieve a personal goal and, in some cases, have clear preferences for one type of message over another. Global preferences were

  17. A pilot study of RN-BSN completion students' preferred instructor online classroom caring behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mann, Judith C

    2014-01-01

    Definitions of caring include the global concept of showing concern and empathy of others. This may be especially true in the online classroom in the absence of face to face interactions. This quantitative study focused on RN-BSN completion students' preferred online instructor caring behaviors. Online RN-BSN students (N = 100) were invited to participate in the study. The research question was: What are historically black colleges universities nursing students' preferred instructor caring behaviors in the online classroom? All of the respondents (N = 48) agreed that an instructor can create a caring online learning environment, while the vast majority agreed that the presence of a caring environment influenced their success in the course. As ranked by the respondents the three most important items in creating a caring online learning environment were instructors': 1) attention to detail in organization and clarity, 2) prompt and detailed feedback to assignments, and 3) prompt response to students' questions.

  18. Immersive Virtual Environment Technology to Supplement Environmental Perception, Preference and Behavior Research: A Review with Applications.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jordan W

    2015-09-11

    Immersive virtual environment (IVE) technology offers a wide range of potential benefits to research focused on understanding how individuals perceive and respond to built and natural environments. In an effort to broaden awareness and use of IVE technology in perception, preference and behavior research, this review paper describes how IVE technology can be used to complement more traditional methods commonly applied in public health research. The paper also describes a relatively simple workflow for creating and displaying 360° virtual environments of built and natural settings and presents two freely-available and customizable applications that scientists from a variety of disciplines, including public health, can use to advance their research into human preferences, perceptions and behaviors related to built and natural settings.

  19. Immersive Virtual Environment Technology to Supplement Environmental Perception, Preference and Behavior Research: A Review with Applications

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jordan W.

    2015-01-01

    Immersive virtual environment (IVE) technology offers a wide range of potential benefits to research focused on understanding how individuals perceive and respond to built and natural environments. In an effort to broaden awareness and use of IVE technology in perception, preference and behavior research, this review paper describes how IVE technology can be used to complement more traditional methods commonly applied in public health research. The paper also describes a relatively simple workflow for creating and displaying 360° virtual environments of built and natural settings and presents two freely-available and customizable applications that scientists from a variety of disciplines, including public health, can use to advance their research into human preferences, perceptions and behaviors related to built and natural settings. PMID:26378565

  20. Transactional associations among teacher support, peer social preference, and child externalizing behavior: a four-wave longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Leflot, Geertje; van Lier, Pol A C; Verschueren, Karine; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    The links between children's externalizing behaviors and two characteristics of children's social interactions within the classroom, namely, peer social preference and received support from the teacher, were studied in 570 children followed from their 2nd- to 3rd-grade years of elementary school. Data consisted of peer and teacher reports of externalizing behavior, sociometric "liked most" and "liked least" nominations, and teacher rated support. Results showed consistent paths from externalizing behavior to (low) peer social preference. Peer social preference, in turn, predicted decreases in externalizing behavior, even after taking teacher support into account. Teacher support was not consistently linked to the development of externalizing behavior across time. However, an indirect path from externalizing behavior, via (low) peer social preference, to lower levels of teacher support was found. These results were similar for girls and boys.

  1. Chronic social instability increases anxiety-like behavior and ethanol preference in male Long Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Roeckner, Alyssa R; Bowling, Alexandra; Butler, Tracy R

    2017-02-13

    Chronic stress during adolescence is related to increased prevalence of anxiety disorders and alcohol use disorders in humans. This phenotype has been consistently recapitulated in animal models with male subjects, but models using female subjects are fewer. The aim of these studies was to test the hypothesis that chronic social instability (CSI) during adolescence engenders increased anxiety-like behavior, increased corticosterone, and greater ethanol intake and/or preference than control groups in male and female rats. A chronic social instability (CSI) procedure was conducted in separate cohorts of female and male adolescent Long Evans rats. CSI included daily social isolation for 1h, and then pair housing with a novel cage mate for 23h until the next 1h isolation period from PND 30-46. Control groups included social stability (SS), chronic isolation (ISO), and acute social instability (aSI). At PND 49-50, anxiety-like behavior was assessed on the elevated plus maze, and on PND 51 tails bloods were obtained for determination of corticosterone (CORT) levels. This was followed by 4weeks of ethanol drinking in a home cage intermittent access ethanol drinking paradigm (PND 55-81 for males, PND 57-83 for females). Planned contrast testing showed that the male CSI group had greater anxiety-like behavior compared controls, but group differences were not apparent for CORT. CSI males had significantly higher levels of ethanol preference during drinking weeks 2-3 compared to all other groups and compared to SS and ISO groups in week 4. For the female cohort, we did not observe consistent group differences in anxiety-like behavior, CORT levels were unexpectedly lower in the ISO group only compared to the other groups, and group differences were not apparent for ethanol intake/preference. In conclusion, chronic stress during adolescence in the form of social instability increases anxiety-like behavior and ethanol preference in male rats, consistent with other models of

  2. Impact of gender on patient preferences for technology-based behavioral interventions.

    PubMed

    Kim, David J; Choo, Esther K; Ranney, Megan L

    2014-08-01

    Technology-based interventions offer an opportunity to address high-risk behaviors in the emergency department (ED). Prior studies suggest behavioral health strategies are more effective when gender differences are considered. However, the role of gender in ED patient preferences for technology-based interventions has not been examined. The objective was to assess whether patient preferences for technology-based interventions varies by gender. This was a secondary analysis of data from a systematic survey of adult (≥18 years of age), English-speaking patients in a large urban academic ED. Subjects were randomly selected during a purposive sample of shifts. The iPad survey included questions on access to technology, preferences for receiving health information, and demographics. We defined "technology-based" as web, text message, e-mail, social networking, or DVD; "non-technology-based" was defined as in-person, written materials, or landline. We calculated descriptive statistics and used univariate tests to compare men and women. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine associations between other demographic factors (age, race, ethnicity, income) and technology-based preferences for information on specific risky behaviors. Of 417 participants, 45.1% were male. There were no significant demographic differences between men and women. Women were more likely to use computers (90.8% versus 81.9%; p=0.03), Internet (66.8% versus 59.0%; p=0.03), and social networks (53.3% versus 42.6%; p=0.01). 89% of men and 90% of women preferred technology-based formats for at least type of health information; interest in technology-based for individual health topics did not vary by gender. Concern about confidentiality was the most common barrier to technology-based use for both genders. Multivariate analysis showed that for smoking, depression, drug/alcohol use, and injury prevention, gender modified the relationship between other demographic

  3. Impact of small groups with heterogeneous preference on behavioral evolution in population evacuation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Keke; Wang, Zhen; Zheng, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Up to now, there have been a great number of mechanisms to explain the individual behavior and population traits, which seem of particular significance in evolutionary biology and social behavior analysis. Among them, small groups and heterogeneity are two useful frameworks to the above issue. However, vast majority of existing works separately consider both scenarios, which is inconsistent with realistic cases in our life. Here we propose the evolutionary games of heterogeneous small groups (namely, different small groups possess different preferences to dilemma) to study the collective behavior in population evacuation. Importantly, players usually face completely different dilemmas inside and outside the small groups. By means of numerous computation simulations, it is unveiled that the ratio of players in one certain small group directly decides the final behavior of the whole population. Moreover, it can also be concluded that heterogeneous degree of preference for different small groups plays a key role in the behavior traits of the system, which may validate some realistic social observations. The proposed framework is thus universally applicable and may shed new light into the solution of social dilemmas.

  4. Resveratrol fails to affect cocaine conditioned place preference behavior, but alleviates anxiety-like behaviors in cocaine withdrawn rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Panpan; Zhu, Wei; Zhu, Chao; Jin, Lai; Guan, Yun; Guan, Xiaowei

    2016-04-01

    Resveratrol participates in regulating abnormal behaviors in psychostimulant-exposed animals. To examine effects of resveratrol on relapse and anxiety-like behaviors in cocaine withdrawn rats and to investigate possible molecular mechanisms underlying resveratrol effects in hippocampus (HP) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Conditioned place preference (CPP) assay and elevated plus maze (EPM) test were used to examine cocaine CPP behavior and anxiety-like behaviors in rats, respectively. Resveratrol was administrated to cocaine withdrawn rats. Levels of MDA, GSH and SOD were examined to evaluate oxidative status, and levels of IL-6, IL-1β and TNF α were measured to examine inflammatory status and levels of caspase-3 and BAX was examined to evaluate apoptotic status in HP and PFC. SIRT expression was also examined here. Resveratrol did not affect cocaine CPP behaviors, but attenuated anxiety-like behaviors in cocaine withdrawn rats. Levels of MDA and TNFα in PFC, and levels of MDA, SOD, GSH, IL-6, IL-1β, TNFα, caspase-3 and BAX in HP, but not SIRT1 expression in both regions were significantly changed during cocaine withdrawal period. Except SOD, resveratrol reversed above neurochemical changes induced by cocaine withdrawal. Furthermore, RSV induced a greater upregulation of SIRT1 expression in PFC in cocaine withdrawn rats than that in saline controls. Current findings suggest that resveratrol may influence behaviors in cocaine withdrawn rats. Oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and SIRT1 signaling pathway in HP or PFC might be involved in mediating effects of RSV on behaviors in cocaine withdrawn rats.

  5. Effects of voluntary alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during rat adolescence.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Matthew S; Amodeo, Leslie R; Roitman, Jamie D

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30-50), rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH) or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control) at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses.

  6. Male Syrian Hamsters Demonstrate a Conditioned Place Preference for Sexual Behavior and Female Chemosensory Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Margaret R.; Meerts, Sarah H.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual behavior is a natural reward for many rodent species, and it often includes chemosensory-directed components. Chemosensory stimuli themselves may also be rewarding. Conditioned place preference (CPP) is one paradigm frequently used to test the rewarding properties of a range of stimuli. Males and females of several rodent species show a CPP for sexual behavior, however, it is currently unknown whether sexual behavior can induce a CPP in male Syrian hamsters. As male Syrian hamsters are an animal model commonly used for investigation of the neurobiology of sexual behavior, understanding the rewarding components of sexual stimuli will better direct future research on brain regions and neurotransmitters involved in these behaviors. Experiment 1 tested the prediction that male hamsters show a CPP for sexual behavior. Female chemosensory stimuli are essential for the display of sexual behavior in male hamsters, however, the rewarding properties of female chemosensory stimuli contained in vaginal secretions (VS) are uncertain. Therefore, Experiment 2 tested the prediction that male hamsters show a CPP for VS. This study is the first demonstration that both sexual behavior and VS induce a CPP in male hamsters. Thus, female chemosensory stimuli are a natural reward in a species that is dependent on these stimuli for reproductive fitness. PMID:20515693

  7. Male Syrian hamsters demonstrate a conditioned place preference for sexual behavior and female chemosensory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Bell, Margaret R; Meerts, Sarah H; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2010-08-01

    Sexual behavior is a natural reward for many rodent species, and it often includes chemosensory-directed components. Chemosensory stimuli themselves may also be rewarding. Conditioned place preference (CPP) is one paradigm frequently used to test the rewarding properties of a range of stimuli. Males and females of several rodent species show a CPP for sexual behavior; however, it is currently unknown whether sexual behavior can induce a CPP in male Syrian hamsters. As male Syrian hamsters are an animal model commonly used for investigation of the neurobiology of sexual behavior, understanding the rewarding components of sexual stimuli will better direct future research on brain regions and neurotransmitters involved in these behaviors. Experiment 1 tested the prediction that male hamsters show a CPP for sexual behavior. Female chemosensory stimuli are essential for the display of sexual behavior in male hamsters; however, the rewarding properties of female chemosensory stimuli contained in vaginal secretions (VS) are uncertain. Therefore, experiment 2 tested the prediction that male hamsters show a CPP for VS. This study is the first demonstration that both sexual behavior and VS induce a CPP in male hamsters. Thus, female chemosensory stimuli are a natural reward in a species that is dependent on these stimuli for reproductive fitness. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preference for Sucralose Predicts Behavioral Responses to Sweet and Bittersweet Tastants

    PubMed Central

    Loney, Gregory C.; Torregrossa, Ann-Marie; Carballo, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Rats can be classified as either sucralose avoiders (SA) or sucralose preferrers (SP) based on their behavioral responses in 2-bottle preference, 1-bottle intake, and brief-access licking tests. The present study demonstrates that this robust phenotypic variation in the preference for sucralose predicts acceptance of saccharin, an artificial sweetener with a purported concentration-dependent “bitter” side taste and a 0.25 M sucrose solution adulterated with increasing concentrations of quinine hydrochloride (QHCl). Specifically, SA displayed decreased preference for and intakes of saccharin (≥41.5 mM) and sucrose–QHCl (>0.5 mM QHCl) solutions, relative to SP. In a second experiment involving brief-access (30-s) tests, SP and SA did not differ in their unconditioned licking responses across a range of sodium chloride or QHCl solutions (0.03–1 mM). However, the acceptability threshold for sucrose was lower in SA, relative to SP (0.06 and 0.13 M, respectively). Our findings suggest that phenotypic differences in sucralose preference are indicative of a more general difference in the hedonic processing of stimuli containing “bittersweet” or “sweet” taste qualities. PMID:22281530

  9. Preference for sucralose predicts behavioral responses to sweet and bittersweet tastants.

    PubMed

    Loney, Gregory C; Torregrossa, Ann-Marie; Carballo, Chris; Eckel, Lisa A

    2012-06-01

    Rats can be classified as either sucralose avoiders (SA) or sucralose preferrers (SP) based on their behavioral responses in 2-bottle preference, 1-bottle intake, and brief-access licking tests. The present study demonstrates that this robust phenotypic variation in the preference for sucralose predicts acceptance of saccharin, an artificial sweetener with a purported concentration-dependent "bitter" side taste and a 0.25 M sucrose solution adulterated with increasing concentrations of quinine hydrochloride (QHCl). Specifically, SA displayed decreased preference for and intakes of saccharin (≥41.5 mM) and sucrose-QHCl (>0.5 mM QHCl) solutions, relative to SP. In a second experiment involving brief-access (30-s) tests, SP and SA did not differ in their unconditioned licking responses across a range of sodium chloride or QHCl solutions (0.03-1 mM). However, the acceptability threshold for sucrose was lower in SA, relative to SP (0.06 and 0.13 M, respectively). Our findings suggest that phenotypic differences in sucralose preference are indicative of a more general difference in the hedonic processing of stimuli containing "bittersweet" or "sweet" taste qualities.

  10. Flexible and fixed partitions in freestalls--effects on lying behavior and cow preference.

    PubMed

    Ruud, L E; Bøe, K E

    2011-10-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of stall partition design on total lying time, lying position, and stall cleanliness, and to evaluate the preferences of cows regarding stalls with traditional fixed stall dividers or flexible stall dividers. Using a crossover design, 16 nonlactating dairy cows were housed singly for 9 d in pens with 2 freestalls, 1 with fixed cantilever dividers and 1 with flexible dividers. The cows were first given access to one stall type, and then to the other type of stall, and finally to both in a preference test. Type of stall divider did not influence lying behavior (13.5h for fixed versus 14.0 h for flexible, ± 0.4h), lying positions, or stall cleanliness; however, the cows showed a preference for lying in the flexible stalls (65.2 for flexible vs. 34.8 for fixed ± 8.2%). This indicated that cows are able to distinguish between type of stall divider and that it is important to them; however, it is not clear if the reason for this is the shape or the properties of the dividers. We concluded that cattle chose a flexible stall divider over a fixed one, but the long-term consequences of this preference are not clear, because no obvious changes in stall usage were observed when cows were only given access to one type of divider. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Robot navigation in cluttered 3-D environments using preference-based fuzzy behaviors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dongqing; Collins, Emmanuel G; Dunlap, Damion

    2007-12-01

    Autonomous navigation systems for mobile robots have been successfully deployed for a wide range of planar ground-based tasks. However, very few counterparts of previous planar navigation systems were developed for 3-D motion, which is needed for both unmanned aerial and underwater vehicles. A novel fuzzy behavioral scheme for navigating an unmanned helicopter in cluttered 3-D spaces is developed. The 3-D navigation problem is decomposed into several identical 2-D navigation subproblems, each of which is solved by using preference-based fuzzy behaviors. Due to the shortcomings of vector summation during the fusion of the 2-D subproblems, instead of directly outputting steering subdirections by their own defuzzification processes, the intermediate preferences of the subproblems are fused to create a 3-D solution region, representing degrees of preference for the robot movement. A new defuzzification algorithm that steers the robot by finding the centroid of a 3-D convex region of maximum volume in the 3-D solution region is developed. A fuzzy speed-control system is also developed to ensure efficient and safe navigation. Substantial simulations have been carried out to demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can smoothly and effectively guide an unmanned helicopter through unknown and cluttered urban and forest environments.

  12. Conditioned place preference induced by social play behavior: parametrics, extinction, reinstatement and disruption by methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Trezza, Viviana; Damsteegt, Ruth; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2009-09-01

    In this study, we investigated behavioral factors underlying conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by social interaction in adolescent rats. We found that the magnitude of socially-induced CPP depended on the social motivation of the animals and on the amount of training. After extinction, socially-induced CPP could be reinstated by a single reconditioning session. Treatment with methylphenidate, which disrupts social play behavior in adolescent rats, but not social exploratory behavior, prevented the development of socially-induced CPP. Interestingly, methylphenidate by itself induced CPP. These data demonstrate that: 1. social interaction is rewarding in adolescent rats; 2. appetitive and mnemonic factors influence the development of socially-induced CPP; 3. comparable to drug-induced CPP, socially-induced CPP can be extinguished and reinstated; 4. social play is likely to be the most rewarding aspect of social interaction in adolescent rats; 5. social context influences the subjective effects of methylphenidate.

  13. Conditioned place preference induced by social play behavior: parametrics, extinction, reinstatement and disruption by methylphenidate

    PubMed Central

    Trezza, Viviana; Damsteegt, Ruth; Vanderschuren, Louk J.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated behavioral factors underlying conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by social interaction in adolescent rats. We found that the magnitude of socially-induced CPP depended on the social motivation of the animals and on the amount of training. After extinction, socially-induced CPP could be reinstated by a single reconditioning session. Treatment with methylphenidate, which disrupts social play behavior in adolescent rats, but not social exploratory behavior, prevented the development of socially-induced CPP. Interestingly, methylphenidate by itself induced CPP. These data demonstrate that: 1. social interaction is rewarding in adolescent rats; 2. appetitive and mnemonic factors influence the development of socially-induced CPP; 3. comparable to drug-induced CPP, socially-induced CPP can be extinguished and reinstated; 4. social play is likely to be the most rewarding aspect of social interaction in adolescent rats; 5. social context influences the subjective effects of methylphenidate. PMID:19427175

  14. The Effects of Preferred Activities during Academic Work Breaks on Task Engagement and Negatively Reinforced Destructive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComas, Jennifer J.; Goddard, Carol; Hoch, Hannah

    2002-01-01

    Destructive behavior of 9-year-old with learning disabilities was evaluated in a functional analysis. The effects of extinction, negative reinforcement, and negative reinforcement combined with access to preferred activities were compared on behavior and task engagement. Engagement occurred most and destructive behavior occurred least when…

  15. Heavy Metal and Hip-Hop Style Preferences and Externalizing Problem Behavior: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfhout, Maarten H. W.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines (a) the stability of Dutch adolescents' preferences for heavy metal and hip-hop youth culture styles, (b) longitudinal associations between their preferences and externalizing problem behavior, and (c) the moderating role of gender in these associations. Questionnaire data were gathered from 931 adolescents between the ages of…

  16. Heavy Metal and Hip-Hop Style Preferences and Externalizing Problem Behavior: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfhout, Maarten H. W.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines (a) the stability of Dutch adolescents' preferences for heavy metal and hip-hop youth culture styles, (b) longitudinal associations between their preferences and externalizing problem behavior, and (c) the moderating role of gender in these associations. Questionnaire data were gathered from 931 adolescents between the ages of…

  17. Relationship between Adolescent Risk Preferences on a Laboratory Task and Behavioral Measures of Risk-taking

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Uma; Sidhartha, Tanuj; Harker, Karen R.; Bidesi, Anup S.; Chen, Li-Ann; Ernst, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The goal of the study was to assess individual differences in risk-taking behavior among adolescents in the laboratory. A second aim was to evaluate whether the laboratory-based risk-taking behavior is associated with other behavioral and psychological measures associated with risk-taking behavior. Methods Eighty-two adolescents with no personal history of psychiatric disorder completed a computerized decision-making task, the Wheel of Fortune (WOF). By offering choices between clearly defined probabilities and real monetary outcomes, this task assesses risk preferences when participants are confronted with potential rewards and losses. The participants also completed a variety of behavioral and psychological measures associated with risk-taking behavior. Results Performance on the task varied based on the probability and anticipated outcomes. In the winning sub-task, participants selected low probability-high magnitude reward (high-risk choice) less frequently than high probability-low magnitude reward (low-risk choice). In the losing sub-task, participants selected low probability-high magnitude loss more often than high probability-low magnitude loss. On average, the selection of probabilistic rewards was optimal and similar to performance in adults. There were, however, individual differences in performance, and one-third of the adolescents made high-risk choice more frequently than low-risk choice while selecting a reward. After controlling for sociodemographic and psychological variables, high-risk choice on the winning task predicted “real-world” risk-taking behavior and substance-related problems. Conclusions These findings highlight individual differences in risk-taking behavior. Preliminary data on face validity of the WOF task suggest that it might be a valuable laboratory tool for studying behavioral and neurobiological processes associated with risk-taking behavior in adolescents. PMID:21257113

  18. Teen Preferences for Clinic-Based Behavior Screens: Who, Where, When, and How?

    PubMed

    Jasik, Carolyn Bradner; Berna, Mark; Martin, Maria; Ozer, Elizabeth M

    2016-12-01

    Previous research examining computer-based adolescent risk behavior screening was done before widespread adoption of smartphones and merits updating. This is a cross-sectional survey among 115 adolescents seeking primary care age 12-18 years. It is a diverse sample with 59% female, 51% white, 18% African-American, and 27% Latino. Respondents were asked level of comfort and honesty (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree) when answering health behavior questions by paper, interview, or electronic device. Differences in the level of agreement were tested using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Adolescents reported a higher level of comfort and honesty for screening conducted via electronic device versus paper (90% vs. 57%, p < .001; 89% vs. 61%, p < .001). Sixty-two percent adolescents prefer waiting room electronic screening versus at home (4.7%) or by provider in the examination room (11.2%). Electronic same-day risk behavior screening is the preferred method for adolescents and should be incorporated into preventive services. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sun protection preferences and behaviors among young adult males during maximum ultraviolet radiation exposure activities.

    PubMed

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K

    2013-07-31

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population.

  20. Sun Protection Preferences and Behaviors among Young Adult Males during Maximum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure Activities

    PubMed Central

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population. PMID:23912201

  1. Design and Analysis of Temperature Preference Behavior and its Circadian Rhythm in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Goda, Tadahiro; Leslie, Jennifer R.; Hamada, Fumika N.

    2014-01-01

    The circadian clock regulates many aspects of life, including sleep, locomotor activity, and body temperature (BTR) rhythms1,2. We recently identified a novel Drosophila circadian output, called the temperature preference rhythm (TPR), in which the preferred temperature in flies rises during the day and falls during the night 3. Surprisingly, the TPR and locomotor activity are controlled through distinct circadian neurons3. Drosophila locomotor activity is a well known circadian behavioral output and has provided strong contributions to the discovery of many conserved mammalian circadian clock genes and mechanisms4. Therefore, understanding TPR will lead to the identification of hitherto unknown molecular and cellular circadian mechanisms. Here, we describe how to perform and analyze the TPR assay. This technique not only allows for dissecting the molecular and neural mechanisms of TPR, but also provides new insights into the fundamental mechanisms of the brain functions that integrate different environmental signals and regulate animal behaviors. Furthermore, our recently published data suggest that the fly TPR shares features with the mammalian BTR3. Drosophila are ectotherms, in which the body temperature is typically behaviorally regulated. Therefore, TPR is a strategy used to generate a rhythmic body temperature in these flies5-8. We believe that further exploration of Drosophila TPR will facilitate the characterization of the mechanisms underlying body temperature control in animals. PMID:24457268

  2. The Co-evolution of Honesty and Strategic Vigilance

    PubMed Central

    Heintz, Christophe; Karabegovic, Mia; Molnar, Andras

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesize that when honesty is not motivated by selfish goals, it reveals social preferences that have evolved for convincing strategically vigilant partners that one is a person worth cooperating with. In particular, we explain how the patterns of dishonest behavior observed in recent experiments can be motivated by preferences for social and self-esteem. These preferences have evolved because they are adaptive in an environment where it is advantageous to be selected as a partner by others and where these others are strategically vigilant: they efficiently evaluate the expected benefit of cooperating with specific partners and attend to their intentions. We specify the adaptive value of strategic vigilance and preferences for social and self-esteem. We argue that evolved preferences for social and self-esteem are satisfied by applying mechanisms of strategic vigilance to one's own behavior. We further argue that such cognitive processes obviate the need for the evolution of preferences for fairness and social norm compliance. PMID:27790162

  3. Peer Preference and Friendship Quantity in Children with Externalizing Behavior: Distinct Influences on Bully Status and Victim Status.

    PubMed

    Jia, Mary; Mikami, Amori Yee

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the predictive relations between externalizing behavior, peer preference and friendship quantity, and bully status and victim status among children becoming acquainted with one another for the first time. Children ages 6.8-9.8 years (24 with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; 113 typically developing; 72 girls) attended a 2-week summer day camp grouped into same-age, same-sex classrooms with previously unacquainted peers. Externalizing behavior (via parent and teacher ratings) was measured before the start of camp; peer preference and friendship quantity (via peer nominations) were measured in the middle of camp, and bully status and victim status (via peer nominations) were measured at the end of camp. Low peer preference mediated the positive association between externalizing behavior and bully status. Both peer preference and friendship quantity moderated the relation between externalizing behavior and bully status as well as between externalizing behavior and victim status; whereas high peer preference protected against both bully status and victim status, friendship quantity protected against victim status but exacerbated bully status. Some gender differences were found within these pathways. Peer preference, compared to friendship quantity, appears to have a more consistently protective role in the relation between externalizing behavior and bully status as well as victim status.

  4. Analysis of consumers' preferences and behavior with regard to horse meat using a structured survey questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Oh, Woon Yong; Lee, Ji Woong; Lee, Chong Eon; Ko, Moon Seok; Jeong, Jae Hong

    2009-12-01

    In this study, a structured survey questionnaire was used to determine consumers' preferences and behavior with regard to horse meat at a horse meat restaurant located in Jeju, Korea, from October 1 to December 24, 2005. The questionnaire employed in this study consisted of 20 questions designed to characterize six general attributes: horse meat sensory property, physical appearance, health condition, origin, price, and other attributes. Of the 1370 questionnaires distributed, 1126 completed questionnaires were retained based on the completeness of the answers, representing an 82.2% response rate. Two issues were investigated that might facilitate the search for ways to improve horse meat production and marketing programs in Korea. The first step was to determine certain important factors, called principal components, which enabled the researchers to understand the needs of horse meat consumers via principal component analysis. The second step was to define consumer segments with regard to their preferences for horse meat, which was accomplished via cluster analysis. The results of the current study showed that health condition, price, origin, and leanness were the most critical physical attributes affecting the preferences of horse meat consumers. Four segments of consumers, with different demands for horse meat attributes, were identified: origin-sensitive consumers, price-sensitive consumers, quality and safety-sensitive consumers, and non-specific consumers. Significant differences existed among segments of consumers in terms of age, nature of work, frequency of consumption, and general level of acceptability of horse meat.

  5. Choice behavior in transition: development of preference for the higher probability of reinforcement.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, J T; Mazur, J E

    1990-01-01

    Ten acquisition curves were obtained from each of 4 pigeons in a two-choice discrete-trial procedure. In each of these 10 conditions, the two response keys initially had equal probabilities of reinforcement, and subjects' choice responses were about equally divided between the two keys. Then the reinforcement probabilities were changed so that one key had a higher probability of reinforcement (the left key in half of the conditions and the right key in the other half), and in nearly every case the subjects developed a preference for this key. The rate of acquisition of preference for this key was faster when the ratio of the two reinforcement probabilities was higher. For instance, acquisition of preference was faster in conditions with reinforcement probabilities of .12 and .02 than in conditions with reinforcement probabilities of .40 and .30, even though the pairs of probabilities differed by .10 in both cases. These results were used to evaluate the predictions of some theories of transitional behavior in choice situations. A trial-by-trial analysis of individual responses and reinforcers suggested that reinforcement had both short-term and long-term effects on choice. The short-term effect was an increased probability of returning to the same key on the one or two trials following a reinforcer. The long-term effect was a gradual increase in the proportion of responses on the key with the higher probability of reinforcement, an increase that usually continued for several hundred trials. PMID:2341823

  6. African American Men and Women's Attitude Toward Mental Illness, Perceptions of Stigma, and Preferred Coping Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Earlise; Wiltshire, Jacqueline C.; Detry, Michelle A.; Brown, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although research focused on African Americans with mental illness has been increasing, few researchers have addressed gender and age differences in beliefs, attitudes, and coping. Objective To examine African Americans' beliefs about mental illness, attitudes toward seeking mental health services, preferred coping behaviors, and whether these variables differ by gender and age. Method An exploratory, cross-sectional survey design was used. Participants were 272 community-dwelling African Americans aged 25-72 years. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and general linear regression models. Results Depression was the most common mental illness and there were no gender differences in prevalence. Both men and women believed they knew some of the symptoms and causal factors of mental illness. Their attitudes suggested they are not very open to acknowledging psychological problems, are very concerned about stigma associated with mental illness, and are somewhat open to seeking mental health services, but they prefer religious coping. Significant gender and age differences were evident in attitudes and preferred coping. Discussion Our findings have implications for gender and age-specific psychoeducation interventions and future research. For instance, psychoeducation or community awareness programs designed to increase openness to psychological problems and reducing stigma are needed. Also, exploration of partnerships between faith-based organizations and mental health services could be helpful to African Americans. PMID:23328705

  7. Agency and the construction of social preference: between inequality aversion and prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Choshen-Hillel, Shoham; Yaniv, Ilan

    2011-12-01

    The term social preference refers to decision makers' satisfaction with their own outcomes and those attained by comparable others. The present research was inspired by what appears to be a discrepancy in the literature on social preferences--specifically, between a class of studies demonstrating people's concern with inequality and others documenting their motivation to increase social welfare. The authors propose a theoretical framework to account for this puzzling difference. In particular, they argue that a characteristic of the decision setting--an individual's role in creating the outcomes, referred to as agency--critically affects decision makers' weighting of opposing social motives. Namely, in settings in which people can merely judge the outcomes, but cannot affect them ("low agency"), their concern with inequality figures prominently. In contrast, in settings in which people determine the outcomes for themselves and others ("high agency"), their concern with the welfare of others is prominent. Three studies using a new salary-allocation paradigm document a robust effect of agency. In the high-agency condition, participants had to assign salaries, whereas in the low-agency condition, they indicated their satisfaction with equivalent predetermined salaries. It was found that, compared with low-agency participants, high-agency participants were less concerned with disadvantageous salary allocations and were even willing to sacrifice a portion of their pay to better others' outcomes. The effects of agency are discussed in connection to inequality aversion, social comparison, prosocial behavior, and preference construction.

  8. Association between leisure time physical activity preference and behavior: evidence from the China Health & Nutrition Survey, 2004-2011.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junmin; Britigan, Denise H; Rajaram, Shireen S; Wang, Hongmei; Su, Dejun

    2017-05-16

    Previous studies have suggested that food preference is a good indicator of actual food intake and that sedentary activity preference is a significant predictor of lower physical activity level. But no studies have examined the direct relationship between leisure time physical activity (LTPA) preferences and actual LTPA behavior, especially studies using longitudinal data. This study seeks to determine the association between these two variables, and to assess whether the association differs between urban and rural areas in China. A total of 2427 Chinese adults were included in the analysis. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to test the association between leisure time physical activity preference and behavior, followed by multiple logistic regressions to further examine the association after adjusting for possible confounding variables. Urban-rural differences in the association were investigated through stratified analysis. In the sample, 63.0% were from urban areas, 47.4% were men, and the mean age was 40. Adjusted estimates based on logistic regression show that LTPA preference was a significant predictor of actual LTPA behavior (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.01-1.09). The correlation was found to be significant among urban residents (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.01-1.10), but not in rural residents. The study illustrates the predictive value of LTPA preference for actual LTPA behavior. Changing LTPA preference to promote LTPA may be helpful in preventing and controlling chronic disease in China.

  9. Maternal education preferences moderate the effects of mandatory employment and education programs on child positive and problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gassman-Pines, Anna; Godfrey, Erin B; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Grounded in person-environment fit theory, this study examined whether low-income mothers' preferences for education moderated the effects of employment- and education-focused welfare programs on children's positive and problem behaviors. The sample included 1,365 families with children between ages 3 and 5 years at study entry. Results 5 years after random assignment, when children were ages 8-10 years, indicated that mothers' education preferences did moderate program impacts on teacher-reported child behavior problems and positive behavior. Children whose mothers were assigned to the education program were rated by teachers to have less externalizing behavior and more positive behavior than children whose mothers were assigned to the employment program but only when mothers had strong preferences for education. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Maternal education preferences moderate the effects of mandatory employment and education programs on child positive and problem behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Gassman-Pines, Anna; Godfrey, Erin B.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    Grounded in Person-Environment Fit Theory, this study examined whether low-income mothers' preferences for education moderated the effects of employment- and education-focused welfare programs on children's positive and problem behaviors. The sample included 1,365 families with children between ages 3 and 5 at study entry. Results 5 years after random assignment, when children were ages 8 to 10, indicated that mothers' education preferences did moderate program impacts on teacher-reported child behavior problems and positive behavior. Children whose mothers were assigned to the education program were rated by teachers to have less externalizing behavior and more positive behavior than children whose mothers were assigned to the employment program, but only when mothers had strong preferences for education. PMID:22861169

  11. Consumer preference, behavior and perception about meat and meat products: an overview.

    PubMed

    Font-I-Furnols, Maria; Guerrero, Luis

    2014-11-01

    Meat and meat products currently represent an important source of protein in the human diet, and their quality varies according to intrinsic and extrinsic parameters that can sometimes be shaped to make a product more desirable. Because consumers are the final step in the production chain, it is useful to identify which factors affect their behavioral patterns. This would allow the meat sector to better satisfy consumer expectations, demands and needs. This paper focuses on features that might influence consumer behavior, preferences and their perception of meat and meat products with respect to psychological, sensory and marketing aspects. This multidisciplinary approach includes evaluating psychological issues such as attitudes, beliefs, and expectations; sensory properties such as appearance, texture, flavor and odor; and marketing-related aspects such as price and brand.

  12. Parallel encoding of sensory history and behavioral preference during Caenorhabditis elegans olfactory learning.

    PubMed

    Cho, Christine E; Brueggemann, Chantal; L'Etoile, Noelle D; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2016-07-06

    Sensory experience modifies behavior through both associative and non-associative learning. In Caenorhabditis elegans, pairing odor with food deprivation results in aversive olfactory learning, and pairing odor with food results in appetitive learning. Aversive learning requires nuclear translocation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase EGL-4 in AWC olfactory neurons and an insulin signal from AIA interneurons. Here we show that the activity of neurons including AIA is acutely required during aversive, but not appetitive, learning. The AIA circuit and AGE-1, an insulin-regulated PI3 kinase, signal to AWC to drive nuclear enrichment of EGL-4 during conditioning. Odor exposure shifts the AWC dynamic range to higher odor concentrations regardless of food pairing or the AIA circuit, whereas AWC coupling to motor circuits is oppositely regulated by aversive and appetitive learning. These results suggest that non-associative sensory adaptation in AWC encodes odor history, while associative behavioral preference is encoded by altered AWC synaptic activity.

  13. Perinatal Preparation for Effective Parenting Behaviors: A Nationally Representative Survey of Patient Attitudes and Preferences.

    PubMed

    Moniz, Michelle H; O'Connell, Lauren K; Kauffman, Anna Daly; Singer, Dianne C; Clark, Sarah J; Davis, Matthew M

    2016-02-01

    To characterize patient preferences about parenting preparation during pregnancy and the role of healthcare providers. A nationally representative, cross-sectional survey was administered to parents of children 0-3 years old. Respondents (N = 459 non-institutionalized US adults from the GfK Knowledge Panel®) completed an online survey about parenting preparation (response rate = 61.2 %). Primary outcomes were perceived importance of parenting, regret about opportunities to prepare for parenting, acceptability of parenting support from healthcare workers, and preferred healthcare setting for perinatal parenting support. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, Chi square analyses and logistic regression. A majority of respondents (87.6 %, 95 % CI 83.3-90.8) believed that parenting had an equal or greater effect on early childhood behavior than the child's personality. Overall, 68.7 % (63.5-73.5 %) wished there were more opportunities during pregnancy to prepare for parenting, and a large majority (89.2, 84.9-92.4 %) believed that it would be helpful to receive parenting information from healthcare providers during pregnancy, with no differences across demographic groups. The preferred clinical encounters for receiving parenting education were at "a visit with my ObGyn/midwife" during pregnancy (58.2, 52.5-63.7 %) and at "a visit with my child's doctor/nurse practitioner" during 0-2 months postpartum (60.7, 55.0-66.2 %). A majority of US parents of young children express interest in receiving parenting support at perinatal healthcare visits. Preferences for parenting support at prenatal visits during pregnancy and at pediatric visits in the immediate postpartum period should guide clinicians, community-based outreach organizations, and governmental stakeholders seeking to design and evaluate parenting preparation interventions.

  14. Behavioral contagion during learning about another agent's risk-preferences acts on the neural representation of decision-risk.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shinsuke; Jensen, Emily L S; Bossaerts, Peter; O'Doherty, John P

    2016-04-05

    Our attitude toward risk plays a crucial role in influencing our everyday decision-making. Despite its importance, little is known about how human risk-preference can be modulated by observing risky behavior in other agents at either the behavioral or the neural level. Using fMRI combined with computational modeling of behavioral data, we show that human risk-preference can be systematically altered by the act of observing and learning from others' risk-related decisions. The contagion is driven specifically by brain regions involved in the assessment of risk: the behavioral shift is implemented via a neural representation of risk in the caudate nucleus, whereas the representations of other decision-related variables such as expected value are not affected. Furthermore, we uncover neural computations underlying learning about others' risk-preferences and describe how these signals interact with the neural representation of risk in the caudate. Updating of the belief about others' preferences is associated with neural activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Functional coupling between the dlPFC and the caudate correlates with the degree of susceptibility to the contagion effect, suggesting that a frontal-subcortical loop, the so-called dorsolateral prefrontal-striatal circuit, underlies the modulation of risk-preference. Taken together, these findings provide a mechanistic account for how observation of others' risky behavior can modulate an individual's own risk-preference.

  15. Sigma-1 Receptor Mediates Acquisition of Alcohol Drinking and Seeking behavior in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Blasio, Angelo; Valenza, Marta; Iyer, Malliga R.; Rice, Kenner C.; Steardo, Luca; Hayashi, T.; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target for drug and alcohol addiction. We have shown previously that Sig-1R agonists facilitate the reinforcing effects of ethanol and induce binge-like drinking, while Sig-1R antagonists block excessive drinking in both genetic and environmental models of alcoholism, without affecting intake in outbred non-dependent rats. Even though significant progress has been made in understanding the function of Sig-1Rs in alcohol reinforcement, its role in the early and late stage of alcohol addiction remains unclear. Administration of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 dramatically reduced the acquisition of alcohol drinking behavior as well as the preference for alcohol in genetically selected TSRI Sardinian alcohol preferring (Scr:sP) rats; the treatment had no effect on total fluid intake, food intake or body weight gain, proving selectivity of action. Furthermore, BD-1063 dose-dependently decreased alcohol-seeking behavior in rats trained under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which responding is maintained by contingent presentation of a conditioned reinforcer. Finally, an innate elevation in Sig-1R protein levels was found in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring Scr:sP rats, compared to outbred Wistar rats, alteration which was normalized by chronic, voluntary alcohol drinking. Taken together these findings demonstrate that Sig-1R blockade reduces the propensity to both acquire alcohol drinking and to seek alcohol, and point to the nucleus accumbens as a potential key region for the effects observed. Our data suggest that Sig-1R antagonists may have therapeutic potential in multiple stages of alcohol addiction. PMID:25848705

  16. Sigma-1 receptor mediates acquisition of alcohol drinking and seeking behavior in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Blasio, Angelo; Valenza, Marta; Iyer, Malliga R; Rice, Kenner C; Steardo, Luca; Hayashi, T; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target for drug and alcohol addiction. We have shown previously that Sig-1R agonists facilitate the reinforcing effects of ethanol and induce binge-like drinking, while Sig-1R antagonists on the other hand block excessive drinking in genetic and environmental models of alcoholism, without affecting intake in outbred non-dependent rats. Even though significant progress has been made in understanding the function of Sig-1R in alcohol reinforcement, its role in the early and late stage of alcohol addiction remains unclear. Administration of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 dramatically reduced the acquisition of alcohol drinking behavior as well as the preference for alcohol in genetically selected TSRI Sardinian alcohol preferring (Scr:sP) rats; the treatment had instead no effect on total fluid intake, food intake or body weight gain, proving selectivity of action. Furthermore, BD-1063 dose-dependently decreased alcohol-seeking behavior in rats trained under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which responding is maintained by contingent presentation of a conditioned reinforcer. Finally, an innate elevation in Sig-1R protein levels was found in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring Scr:sP rats, compared to outbred Wistar rats, alteration which was normalized by chronic, voluntary alcohol drinking. Taken together these findings demonstrate that Sig-1R blockade reduces the propensity to both acquire alcohol drinking and to seek alcohol, and point to the nucleus accumbens as a potential key region for the effects observed. Our data suggest that Sig-1R antagonists may have therapeutic potential in multiple stages of alcohol addiction.

  17. β-endorphin neuronal transplantation into the hypothalamus alters anxiety-like behaviors in prenatal alcohol exposed rats and non-preferring and preferring rats

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Ryan; Wynne, Olivia; Maglakelidze, George; Zhang, Changqing; O’Connell, Stephanie; Boyadjieva, Nadka I.; Sarkar, Dipak K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol exposure has adverse effects on stress physiology and behavioral reactivity. This is suggested to be due, in part, to the effect of alcohol on β-endorphin (β-EP) producing neurons in the hypothalamus. In response to stress, β-EP normally provides negative feedback to the HPA axis and interacts with other neurotransmitter systems in the amygdala to regulate behavior. We examined whether β-EP neuronal function in the hypothalamus reduces the corticosterone response to acute stress, attenuates anxiety-like behaviors, and modulates alcohol drinking in rats. Methods To determine if β-EP neuronal transplants modulate the stress response, anxiety behavior and alcohol drinking, we implanted differentiated β-EP neurons into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) of normal, prenatal alcohol exposed, and alcohol-preferring (P) and non-preferring (NP) rats. We then assessed corticosterone levels in response to acute restraint stress and other markers of stress response in the brain, and anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze and open-field assays. Results We showed that β-EP neuronal transplants into the PVN reduced the peripheral corticosterone response to acute stress and attenuated anxiety-like behaviors. Similar transplants completely reduced the hyper-corticosterone response and elevated anxiety behaviors in prenatal alcohol exposed adult rats. Moreover, we showed that β-EP reduced anxiety behavior in P rats with minimal effects on alcohol drinking during and following restraint stress. Conclusions These data further establish a role of β-EP neurons in the hypothalamus for regulating physiological stress response and anxiety behavior, and resembles a potential novel therapy for treating stress-related psychiatric disorders in prenatal alcohol exposed children and those genetically predisposed to increased alcohol consumption. PMID:25623413

  18. Preference for the nearer of otherwise equivalent navigational goals quantifies behavioral motivation and natural selection.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Russell E

    2013-01-01

    Navigation and environmental perception precede most actions in mobile organisms. Navigation is based upon the fundamental assumption of a ubiquitous Preference for the Nearest of otherwise equivalent navigational goals (PfN). However, the magnitude and triggers for PfN are unknown and there is no clear evidence that PfN exists. I tested for PfN in human participants on a retrieval task. Results of these experiments provide the first evidence for PfN. Further, these data quantify the three primary PfN triggers and provide an experimental structure for using PfN as a behavioral metric across domains. Surprisingly, PfN exists at a high, but not universal, magnitude. Further, PfN derives most from the absolute distance to the farthest of multiple goals (d(f)), with little influence of the distance to the nearest goal (d(n)). These data provide previously unavailable quantification of behavioral motivation across species and may provide a measurable index of selection. These methods hold particular import for behavioral modification because proximity is a powerful determinant of decision outcomes across most behaviors.

  19. Infant Attention and Visual Preferences: Converging Evidence from Behavior, Event-Related Potentials, and Cortical Source Localization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Courage, Mary L.; Richards, John E.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we had 3 major goals. The 1st goal was to establish a link between behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures of infant attention and recognition memory. To assess the distribution of infant visual preferences throughout ERP testing, we designed a new experimental procedure that embeds a behavioral measure (paired…

  20. The Moderating Role of Classroom Descriptive Norms in the Association of Student Behavior with Social Preference and Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boor-Klip, Henrike J.; Segers, Eliane; Hendrickx, Marloes M. H. G.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2017-01-01

    This study addressed the moderating role of classroom descriptive norms for overt and relational aggression, social withdrawal, prosocial behavior, and academic reputation in the association of behavior with social preference and popularity in early adolescence. Participants were 1,492 fifth-grade students ([x-bar][subscript age] = 10.6 years,…

  1. The Moderating Role of Classroom Descriptive Norms in the Association of Student Behavior with Social Preference and Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boor-Klip, Henrike J.; Segers, Eliane; Hendrickx, Marloes M. H. G.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2017-01-01

    This study addressed the moderating role of classroom descriptive norms for overt and relational aggression, social withdrawal, prosocial behavior, and academic reputation in the association of behavior with social preference and popularity in early adolescence. Participants were 1,492 fifth-grade students ([x-bar][subscript age] = 10.6 years,…

  2. Infant Attention and Visual Preferences: Converging Evidence from Behavior, Event-Related Potentials, and Cortical Source Localization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Courage, Mary L.; Richards, John E.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we had 3 major goals. The 1st goal was to establish a link between behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures of infant attention and recognition memory. To assess the distribution of infant visual preferences throughout ERP testing, we designed a new experimental procedure that embeds a behavioral measure (paired…

  3. The impact of a mental work on food preferences, eating behavior traits and satiety efficiency.

    PubMed

    Salama, Miram; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo; Pérusse-Lachance, Émilie

    2016-02-01

    Sedentary lifestyles, which are partly due to the type of labor being performed, have contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In general, labor in a modern context solicits mental work, which has been shown to promote overeating and altered satiety efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of knowledge-based work on food preferences, eating behaviors traits and appetite sensations. The relationship between these effects and the morphological profile was also assessed. A cross-over experimental design was used in this study for which 35 healthy adults (22 men and 13 women (mean age: 24±3years)), were recruited. The participants were randomly assigned the one of the two following conditions: mental work (reading a document and writing a summary of 350 words with the use of a computer) or control (rest in seated position). Each condition lasted 45min, and was followed by a standardized ad libitum buffet-type meal. Measurements included anthropometric variables, ad libitum food intake, appetite sensations before and after each condition, and satiety quotient, a marker of satiety efficiency in response to the meal. Eating behavior traits were also evaluated using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Eating behaviors (restriction, disinhibition) were not associated with the energy intake in both conditions and in both genders. Women appeared to have a higher energy intake after the mental work condition (p<0.05), which was accompanied by an increased carbohydrate intake (p<0.05). Moreover, participants with the highest waist circumference had lower satiety efficiency (r=0.43, p<0.05) in response to mental work. These results suggest that increased energy intake in response to knowledge-based work is associated with food preference and an altered satiety efficiency in women and individuals with higher waist circumference.

  4. Health Related Quality of Life, Lifestyle Behaviors, and Intervention Preferences of Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Hoda; Chandra, Joya; Paxton, Raheem J.; Ater, Joann L.; Urbauer, Diana; Cruz, Cody Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) are at increased risk for poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and chronic health conditions -- both of which can be exacerbated by unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. Developing a clearer understanding of the associations between HRQOL, lifestyle behaviors, and medical and demographic variables (e.g., age/developmental stage at time of diagnosis) is an important step toward developing more targeted behavioral interventions for this population. METHOD Cross-sectional questionnaires were completed by 170 CCSs who were diagnosed with leukemia, lymphoma, sarcoma, or a cancer of the central nervous system (CNS) and treated at a comprehensive cancer center between 1992 and 2007. Questionnaires addressed weight status, lifestyle behaviors, aspects of HRQOL, and intervention preferences. RESULTS Adolescent and young adult survivors (AYAs) and survivors of CNS tumors or lymphoma reported significantly (p<.05) poorer HRQOL across multiple domains compared to those diagnosed at an earlier age, survivors of leukemia or sarcoma, and healthy populations. A significant proportion also failed to meet national recommendations for dietary intakes (39–94%) and physical activity (65%). Female survivors reported poorer physical functioning and consumed less dietary fiber and fruits and vegetables than did male survivors. They also expressed the strongest interest in participating in diet and exercise interventions. CONCLUSION Findings support the premise that females, AYAs, and survivors of cancers of the CNS or lymphoma are “at risk” subgroups within the CCS population for poor dietary practices, sedentary behaviors, and poor HRQOL. Future research should focus on developing diet and PA interventions to improve HRQOL that target these groups. IMPLICATIONS FOR SURVIVORS Greater consideration of the role of gender, developmental stage, and the HRQOL challenges facing CCSs may help researchers to develop targeted behavioral interventions

  5. Speech preference is associated with autistic-like behavior in 18-months-olds at risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-09-01

    We examined whether infants' preference for speech at 12 months is associated with autistic-like behaviors at 18 months in infants who are at increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) because they have an older sibling diagnosed with ASD and in low-risk infants. Only low-risk infants listened significantly longer to speech than to nonspeech at 12 months. In both groups, relative preference for speech correlated positively with general cognitive ability at 12 months. However, in high-risk infants only, preference for speech was associated with autistic-like behavior at 18 months, while in low-risk infants, preference for speech correlated with language abilities. This suggests that in children at risk for ASD an atypical species-specific bias for speech may underlie atypical social development.

  6. Speech Preference is Associated with Autistic-like Behavior in 18-Months-Olds at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether infants’ preference for speech at 12 months is associated with autistic-like behaviors at 18 months in infants who are at increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) because they have an older sibling diagnosed with ASD and in low-risk infants. Only low-risk infants listened significantly longer to speech than to nonspeech at 12 months. In both groups, relative preference for speech correlated positively with general cognitive ability at 12 months. However, in high-risk infants only, preference for speech was associated with autistic-like behavior at 18 months, while in low-risk infants, preference for speech correlated with language abilities. This suggests that in children at risk for ASD an atypical species-specific bias for speech may underlie atypical social development. PMID:23334808

  7. The influence of lifestyle on health behavior and preference for functional foods.

    PubMed

    Szakály, Zoltán; Szente, Viktória; Kövér, György; Polereczki, Zsolt; Szigeti, Orsolya

    2012-02-01

    The main objective of this survey is to reveal the relationship between lifestyle, health behavior, and the consumption of functional foods on the basis of Grunert's food-related lifestyle model. In order to achieve this objective, a nationwide representative questionnaire-based survey was launched with 1000 participants in Hungary. The results indicate that a Hungarian consumer makes rational decisions, he or she seeks bargains, and he wants to know whether or not he gets good value for his money. Further on, various lifestyle segments are defined by the authors: the rational, uninvolved, conservative, careless, and adventurous consumer segments. Among these, consumers with a rational approach provide the primary target group for the functional food market, where health consciousness and moderate price sensitivity can be observed together. Adventurous food consumers stand out because they search for novelty; this makes them an equally important target group. Conservative consumers are another, one characterized by positive health behavior. According to the findings of the research, there is a significant relationship between lifestyle, health behavior, and the preference for functional food products.

  8. Behavioral economic analysis of drug preference using multiple choice procedure data.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Mark K

    2008-01-11

    The multiple choice procedure has been used to evaluate preference for psychoactive drugs, relative to money amounts (price), in human subjects. The present re-analysis shows that MCP data are compatible with behavioral economic analysis of drug choices. Demand curves were constructed from studies with intravenous fentanyl, intramuscular hydromorphone and oral methadone in opioid-dependent individuals; oral d-amphetamine, oral MDMA alone and during fluoxetine treatment, and smoked marijuana alone or following naltrexone pretreatment in recreational drug users. For each participant and dose, the MCP crossover point was converted into unit price (UP) by dividing the money value ($) by the drug dose (mg/70kg). At the crossover value, the dose ceases to function as a reinforcer, so "0" was entered for this and higher UPs to reflect lack of drug choice. At lower UPs, the dose functions as a reinforcer and "1" was entered to reflect drug choice. Data for UP vs. average percent choice were plotted in log-log space to generate demand functions. Rank of order of opioid inelasticity (slope of non-linear regression) was: fentanyl>hydromorphone (continuing heroin users)>methadone>hydromorphone (heroin abstainers). Rank order of psychostimulant inelasticity was d-amphetamine>MDMA>MDMA+fluoxetine. Smoked marijuana was more inelastic with high-dose naltrexone. These findings show this method translates individuals' drug preferences into estimates of population demand, which has the potential to yield insights into pharmacotherapy efficacy, abuse liability assessment, and individual differences in susceptibility to drug abuse.

  9. Structural Imbalance Promotes Behavior Analogous to Aesthetic Preference in Domestic Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Mark A.; Salva, Orsola Rosa; Mulcahy, Paul; Regolin, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    Background Visual images may be judged ‘aesthetic’ when their positioning appears imbalanced. An apparent imbalance may signify an as yet incomplete action or event requiring more detailed processing. As such it may refer to phylogenetically ancient stimulus-response mechanisms such as those mediating attentional deployment. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied preferences for structural balance or imbalance in week-old domestic chicks (Gallus gallus), using a conditioning procedure to reinforce pecking at either “aligned” (balanced) or “misaligned” (imbalanced) training stimuli. A testing phase with novel balanced and imbalanced stimuli established whether chicks would retain their conditioned behavior or revert to chance responding. Whereas those trained on aligned stimuli were equally likely to choose aligned or misaligned stimuli, chicks trained on misaligned stimuli maintained the trained preference. Conclusions/Significance Our results are consistent with the idea that the coding of structural imbalance is primary and even overrides classical conditioning. Generalized to the humans, these results suggest aesthetic judgments based upon structural imbalance may be based on evolutionarily ancient mechanisms, which are shared by different vertebrate species. PMID:22905198

  10. The Effect of Computerized Testing on Sun Bear Behavior and Enrichment Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Perdue, Bonnie M.

    2016-01-01

    The field of comparative cognition investigates species’ differences and similarities in cognitive abilities, and sheds light on the evolutionary origins of such capacities. Cognitive testing has been carried out in a variety of species; however, there are some taxa that are underrepresented in this field. The current work follows on a recent increase in cognitive research in the order Carnivora with a specific focus on sun bears. Sun bears are the smallest existing bear species and live in tropical regions of Southeast Asia. They have an omnivorous diet and use their tongues to forage for insects and sap. Little is known about sun bear cognition, although much like other bear species, anecdotes suggest a high level of intelligence. The current work explored training sun bears to use a touchscreen computer. This effort allows for insight into cognitive abilities as well as providing a complex source of enrichment for the bears. The bears use their tongues to respond to a touchscreen computer, and the effects on stereotypic behaviors on exhibit and preference for this over other forms of enrichment were examined. Overall, bears performed well on the task and showed a preference for the computer. PMID:27669314

  11. The Effect of Computerized Testing on Sun Bear Behavior and Enrichment Preferences.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bonnie M

    2016-09-22

    The field of comparative cognition investigates species' differences and similarities in cognitive abilities, and sheds light on the evolutionary origins of such capacities. Cognitive testing has been carried out in a variety of species; however, there are some taxa that are underrepresented in this field. The current work follows on a recent increase in cognitive research in the order Carnivora with a specific focus on sun bears. Sun bears are the smallest existing bear species and live in tropical regions of Southeast Asia. They have an omnivorous diet and use their tongues to forage for insects and sap. Little is known about sun bear cognition, although much like other bear species, anecdotes suggest a high level of intelligence. The current work explored training sun bears to use a touchscreen computer. This effort allows for insight into cognitive abilities as well as providing a complex source of enrichment for the bears. The bears use their tongues to respond to a touchscreen computer, and the effects on stereotypic behaviors on exhibit and preference for this over other forms of enrichment were examined. Overall, bears performed well on the task and showed a preference for the computer.

  12. Inverse association of high-fat diet preference and anxiety-like behavior: a putative role for urocortin 2.

    PubMed

    Alsiö, J; Roman, E; Olszewski, P K; Jonsson, P; Fredriksson, R; Levine, A S; Meyerson, B J; Hulting, A-L; Lindblom, J; Schiöth, H B

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the preference for a palatable high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with response to novelty and with anxiety-like behavior in rats and whether such fat preference correlates with gene expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides related to feeding. We subjected male rats to two tests of exploration of novel environments: the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) and the elevated plus maze (EPM). The rats were then exposed to a 5-day test of preference for a palatable HFD versus reference diets. Messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of 21 neuropeptides were investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We found a strong positive correlation of HFD preference and open-arm activity in the EPM (% open-arm time, r(s) = 0.629, df = 26, P < 0.001). Thus, HFD preference was inversely associated with anxiety-like behavior. The same association was found for HFD preference and behavior in the MCSF (bridge entries, r(s) = 0.399, df = 23, P = 0.048). In addition, the HFD preference was positively correlated (r(s) = 0.433, df = 25, P = 0.021) with hypothalamic mRNA levels of urocortin 2 (Ucn 2). Moreover, behavior in the EPM was significantly correlated with expression levels of the receptor for Ucn 2, the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2, in the hypothalamus (r(s) = 0.382, df = 33, P = 0.022, pituitary (r(s) = 0.494, df = 31, P = 0.004) and amygdala (r(s) = 0.381, df = 30, P = 0.032). We conclude that preference for palatable HFD is inversely associated with anxiety and propose that Ucn 2 signaling may play a role in this association.

  13. Identifying flavor preference subgroups. Genetic basis and related eating behavior traits.

    PubMed

    Törnwall, Outi; Silventoinen, Karri; Hiekkalinna, Tero; Perola, Markus; Tuorila, Hely; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2014-04-01

    Subgroups based on flavor preferences were identified and their genetic and behavior related characteristics investigated using extensive data from 331 Finnish twins (21-25years, 146 men) including 47 monozygotic (MZ) and 93 dizygotic (DZ) pairs, and 51 twin individuals. The subgroup identification (hierarchical and K-means clustering) was based on liking responses to food names representing sour, umami, and spicy flavor qualities. Furthermore, sensory tests were conducted, a questionnaire on food likes completed, and various eating behavior related traits measured with validated scales. Sensory data included intensity ratings of PROP (6-n-propylthiouracil-impregnated filter paper), hedonic and intensity responses to sourness (orange juice with and without added citric acid, 0.42%), pungency (strawberry jelly with and without added capsaicin 0.00013%) and umami ('mouthfeel flavor' taste solution). Ratings of liking of 41 general food names were categorized into salty-and-fatty, sweet-and-fatty, fruits and vegetables and fish foods. Subgroup differences (complex samples procedure) and the genetics underlying the subgroups (structural equation modeling) were investigated. Of the resulting two groups (basic, n=140, adventurous n=152; non-grouped n=39), the adventurous expressed higher liking for sour and spicy foods, and had more tolerance for capsaicin burn in the sensory-hedonic test. The adventurous were also less food neophobic (25.9±9.1 vs. 32.5±10.6, respectively) and expressed higher liking for fruits and vegetables compared to the basic group. Genetic effects were shown to underlie the subgroups (heritability 72%, CI: 36-92%). Linkage analysis for 27 candidate gene regions revealed suggestively that being adventurous is linked to TAS1R1 and PKD1L3 genes. These results indicate that food neophobia and genetic differences may form a barrier through which individual flavor preferences are generated.

  14. Conditioned Place Preference to Acetone Inhalation and the Effects on Locomotor Behavior and 18FDG Uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, J.C.; Dewey, S.L.; Schiffer, W.; Lee, D.

    2006-01-01

    Acetone is a component in many inhalants that have been widely abused. While other solvents have addictive potential, such as toluene, it is unclear whether acetone alone contains addictive properties. The locomotor, relative glucose metabolism and abusive effects of acetone inhalation were studied in animals using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and [18F]2-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose (18FDG) imaging. The CPP apparatus contains two distinct conditioning chambers and a middle adaptation chamber, each lined with photocells to monitor locomotor activity. Adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16; 90-110 g) were paired with acetone in least preferred conditioning chamber, determined on the pretest day. The animals were exposed to a 10,000 ppm dose for an hour, alternating days with air. A CPP test was conducted after the 3rd, 6th and 12th pairing. In these same animals, the relative glucose metabolism effects were determined using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 18FDG. Following the 3rd pairing, there was a significant aversion to the acetone paired chamber (190.9 ± 13.7 sec and 241.7 ± 16.9 sec, acetone and air, respectively). After the 6th pairing, there was no significant preference observed with equal time spent in each chamber (222 ± 21 sec and 207 ± 20 sec, acetone and air-paired, respectively). A similar trend was observed after the 12th pairing (213 ± 21 sec and 221 ± 22 sec, acetone and air-paired, respectively). Locomotor analysis indicated a significant decrease (p<0.05) from air pairings to acetone pairings on the first and sixth pairings. The observed locomotor activity was characteristic of central nervous system (CNS) depressants, without showing clear abusive effects in this CPP model. In these studies, acetone vapors were not as reinforcing as other solvents, shown by overall lack of preference for the acetone paired side of the chamber. PET imaging indicated a regionally specific distribution of 18FDG uptake following

  15. Melanocortin receptor 4 deficiency affects body weight regulation, grooming behavior, and substrate preference in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mul, Joram D; van Boxtel, Ruben; Bergen, Dylan J M; Brans, Maike A D; Brakkee, Jan H; Toonen, Pim W; Garner, Keith M; Adan, Roger A H; Cuppen, Edwin

    2012-03-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure and has become a major health-care problem in western society. The central melanocortin system plays a crucial role in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure, and functional loss of melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is the most common genetic cause of human obesity. In this study, we present the first functional Mc4r knockout model in the rat, resulting from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis-induced point mutation. In vitro observations revealed impaired membrane-binding and subsequent nonfunctionality of the receptor, whereas in vivo observations showed that functional loss of MC4R increased body weight, food intake, white adipose mass, and changed substrate preference. In addition, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of Agouti-Related Protein(79-129) (AgRP(79-129)), an MC4R inverse agonist, or Melanotan-II (MTII), an MC4R agonist, did affect feeding behavior in wild-type rats but not in homozygous mutant rats, confirming complete loss of MC4R function in vivo. Finally, ICV administration of MTII induced excessive grooming behavior in wild-type rats, whereas this effect was absent in homozygous mutant rats, indicating that MTII-induced grooming behavior is exclusively regulated via MC4R pathways. Taken together, we expect that the MC4R rat model described here will be a valuable tool for studying monogenic obesity in humans. More specifically, the relative big size and increased cognitive capacity of rats as compared to mice will facilitate complex behavioral studies and detailed mechanistic studies regarding central function of MC4R, both of which ultimately may help to further understand the specific mechanisms that induce obesity during loss of MC4R function.

  16. Melanocortin Receptor 4 Deficiency Affects Body Weight Regulation, Grooming Behavior, and Substrate Preference in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mul, Joram D.; van Boxtel, Ruben; Bergen, Dylan J.M.; Brans, Maike A.D.; Brakkee, Jan H.; Toonen, Pim W.; Garner, Keith M.; Adan, Roger A.H.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure and has become a major health-care problem in western society. The central melanocortin system plays a crucial role in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure, and functional loss of melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is the most common genetic cause of human obesity. In this study, we present the first functional Mc4r knockout model in the rat, resulting from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis–induced point mutation. In vitro observations revealed impaired membrane-binding and subsequent nonfunctionality of the receptor, whereas in vivo observations showed that functional loss of MC4R increased body weight, food intake, white adipose mass, and changed substrate preference. In addition, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of Agouti-Related Protein79–129 (AgRP79–129), an MC4R inverse agonist, or Melanotan-II (MTII), an MC4R agonist, did affect feeding behavior in wild-type rats but not in homozygous mutant rats, confirming complete loss of MC4R function in vivo. Finally, ICV administration of MTII induced excessive grooming behavior in wild-type rats, whereas this effect was absent in homozygous mutant rats, indicating that MTII-induced grooming behavior is exclusively regulated via MC4R pathways. Taken together, we expect that the MC4R rat model described here will be a valuable tool for studying monogenic obesity in humans. More specifically, the relative big size and increased cognitive capacity of rats as compared to mice will facilitate complex behavioral studies and detailed mechanistic studies regarding central function of MC4R, both of which ultimately may help to further understand the specific mechanisms that induce obesity during loss of MC4R function. PMID:21527895

  17. A randomized clinical trial testing treatment preference and two dietary options in behavioral weight management: preliminary results of the impact of diet at 6 months--PREFER study.

    PubMed

    Burke, Lora E; Styn, Mindi A; Steenkiste, Ann R; Music, Edvin; Warziski, Melanie; Choo, Jina

    2006-11-01

    The PREFER study objectives were to examine potential differences in weight loss during a standard behavioral intervention between subjects assigned to one of two calorie- and fat-restricted diets [standard behavior treatment (SBT) and lacto-ovo-vegetarian ([SBT+LOV)], with or without regard to their preferred dietary treatment. This article reports the differences in outcomes between diet groups after the first 6 months of the intervention. The study used a four-group design. Subjects (n = 182) were randomized to a treatment preference group and then to a dietary treatment group. For this report, preference groups were combined to permit comparisons by dietary treatment only (SBT, n = 98; SBT+LOV, n = 84). Additional analyses compared SBT+LOV subjects who were 100% adherent (did not consume any meat, fish, or poultry, n = 47) to those who were <100% adherent (n = 24). Significant differences were seen in the baseline to 6-month change scores between the two groups for carbohydrate consumption (p = 0.013), protein consumption (p < 0.001), polyunsaturated-to-saturated fat ratio (p = 0.009), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) level (p = 0.013). Among SBT+LOV subjects, those who were 100% adherent experienced greater reductions in weight (p < 0.001), total cholesterol (p = 0.026), LDL-C (p = 0.034), and glucose (p = 0.002) and consumed less fat (p = 0.030) compared with those who were <100% adherent. Differences between dietary treatment groups at 6 months were minimal, most likely because one-third of the SBT+LOV group did not follow the vegetarian diet and because both groups had the same calorie and fat restrictions. SBT+LOV subjects who were 100% adherent were more successful at both weight loss and cholesterol reduction than those who were <100% adherent, suggesting that vegetarian diets are efficacious for weight and cholesterol control.

  18. Parallel encoding of sensory history and behavioral preference during Caenorhabditis elegans olfactory learning

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Christine E; Brueggemann, Chantal; L'Etoile, Noelle D; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2016-01-01

    Sensory experience modifies behavior through both associative and non-associative learning. In Caenorhabditis elegans, pairing odor with food deprivation results in aversive olfactory learning, and pairing odor with food results in appetitive learning. Aversive learning requires nuclear translocation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase EGL-4 in AWC olfactory neurons and an insulin signal from AIA interneurons. Here we show that the activity of neurons including AIA is acutely required during aversive, but not appetitive, learning. The AIA circuit and AGE-1, an insulin-regulated PI3 kinase, signal to AWC to drive nuclear enrichment of EGL-4 during conditioning. Odor exposure shifts the AWC dynamic range to higher odor concentrations regardless of food pairing or the AIA circuit, whereas AWC coupling to motor circuits is oppositely regulated by aversive and appetitive learning. These results suggest that non-associative sensory adaptation in AWC encodes odor history, while associative behavioral preference is encoded by altered AWC synaptic activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14000.001 PMID:27383131

  19. Age-Related Differences in Judgments of Inappropriate Behavior are Related to Humor Style Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Jennifer Tehan; Lohani, Monika; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying social gaffes is important for maintaining relationships. Older adults are less able than young to discriminate between socially appropriate and inappropriate behavior in video clips. One open question is how these social appropriateness ratings relate to potential age differences in the perception of what is actually funny or not. In the present study, young, middle-aged, and older adults were equally able to discriminate between appropriate and inappropriate social behavior in a diverse set of clips relevant to both age groups. However, young and middle-aged adults rated the gaffe clips as funnier than control clips and young adults smiled more during the inappropriate clips than the control clips. Older adults did not show this pattern, suggesting that they did not find the inappropriate clips funny. Additionally, young adults endorsed a more aggressive humor style than middle-aged and older adults and aggressive humor style endorsement mediated age differences in social appropriateness ratings. Results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms such as cohort differences in humor and developmental prioritization of certain humor styles, as well as the importance of investigating age differences in both abilities and preferences. PMID:25244473

  20. The development of a preference for cocaine over food identifies individual rats with addiction-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Perry, Adam N; Westenbroek, Christel; Becker, Jill B

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine dependence is characterized by compulsive drug taking that supercedes other recreational, occupational or social pursuits. We hypothesized that rats vulnerable to addiction could be identified within the larger population based on their preference for cocaine over palatable food rewards. To validate the choice self-administration paradigm as a preclinical model of addiction, we examined changes in motivation for cocaine and recidivism to drug seeking in cocaine-preferring and pellet-preferring rats. We also examined behavior in males and females to identify sex differences in this "addicted" phenotype. Preferences were identified during self-administration on a fixed-ratio schedule with cocaine-only, pellet-only and choice sessions. Motivation for each reward was probed early and late during self-administration using a progressive-ratio schedule. Reinstatement of cocaine- and pellet-seeking was examined following exposure to their cues and non-contingent delivery of each reward. Cocaine preferring rats increased their drug intake at the expense of pellets, displayed increased motivation for cocaine, attenuated motivation for pellets and greater cocaine and cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. Females were more likely to develop cocaine preferences and recidivism of cocaine- and pellet-seeking was sexually dimorphic. The choice self-administration paradigm is a valid preclinical model of addiction. The unbiased selection criteria also revealed sex-specific vulnerability factors that could be differentiated from generalized sex differences in behavior, which has implications for the neurobiology of addiction and effective treatments in each sex.

  1. Enhanced morphine- and cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in alcohol-preferring AA rats.

    PubMed

    Honkanen, A; Mikkola, J; Korpi, E R; Hyytiä, P; Seppälä, T; Ahtee, L

    1999-03-01

    Locomotor stimulation and behavioral sensitization induced by acute and repeated treatment with alcohol, cocaine or morphine were studied in the alcohol-preferring AA (Alko, Alcohol), alcohol-avoiding ANA (Alko, Non-Alcohol) rats and non-selected Wistar rats. Daily treatment with alcohol (ethanol, 0.4 or 1.0 g/kg, IP) for 6 days had no effect on locomotor activity either in the AA or ANA rats. Acute cocaine (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg, IP) produced a locomotor stimulation in the animals of all lines studied, and there was no difference in this effect between the AA and ANA rats. During a 4-day repeated cocaine treatment, the AA rats became sensitized with the 10 mg/kg dose, while the ANA rats did not show any sensitization with this dose. With the 20 mg/kg cocaine dose, in addition to locomotor stimulation, the rats of all lines studied showed stereotyped behavior, which response was enhanced during repeated treatment. Morphine-induced locomotor stimulation was larger in the AA rats than in the ANA or Wistar rats both with 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg doses and only the AA rats were sensitized during 4-day treatment with the 1 mg/kg dose. With the 3.0 mg/kg morphine dose, only the AA rats showed a weak sensitization evident only during the initial 30 min after morphine injection. As the drug-induced behavioral sensitization is an important factor in the development of drug addiction, it is possible that mechanisms underlying the enhanced susceptibility of the AA rats to morphine- and cocaine-induced sensitization contribute to the high intake of alcohol and other abused drugs by these animals.

  2. Measurement of Behavioral Taste Responses in Mice: Two-Bottle Preference, Lickometer, and Conditioned Taste-Aversion Tests.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Dany; Stratford, Jennifer M

    2016-12-01

    The natural like and dislike of foods based on taste is one of the most easily observed behaviors in animals. Animals eat palatable foods and reject aversive foods, which makes measurement of taste perception possible using various behavioral techniques. Three different methods to accurately measure taste behavior are described here. First, two-bottle preference tests evaluate whether a taste compound (tastant) is preferred over water. Second, lickometer tests quantify the like and dislike for multiple concentrations of the same tastant or multiple tastants at the same time. Finally, conditioned taste aversion tests accurately determine the perceived taste threshold for palatable tastants. Together, these diverse methods enable researchers to observe and measure behavioral taste responses in mice to any tastant. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Salinity Preference in the Estuarine Teleost Fish Mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus): Halocline Behavior.

    PubMed

    Marshall, W S; Tait, J C; Mercer, E W

    2016-01-01

    Mummichogs prefer seawater (SW) but have wide ability to acclimate to extreme temperatures and salinities. In the field, minnow trapping revealed that mummichogs move progressively into low-salinity warmer water during early spring after ice melt and show significant aversion to colder temperatures and high salinity. First appearance in estuarine shallows occurred above 10°C, and catch increased to 21°C over 4 wk. Three-spine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) also preferred warmer low-salinity locations but preferred slowing streams, whereas mummichogs preferred tidal ponds. In the laboratory, artificial haloclines tested isothermal salinity preference, between 28‰ full-strength SW (below) and 10% SW (3.0‰; above). Mummichogs of both sexes acclimated to 5°C in SW strongly preferred SW. Freshwater (0% SW)-acclimated mummichogs at 21°C also preferred SW, but of sexually mature fish acclimated to 21°C SW, only the males preferred SW; the females showed no significant preference for SW, meaning they freely entered low salinity. SW preference was manifested by a stereotypic passive aversion to the dilute upper layer at the halocline. We conclude that the overall movement of mummichogs into summer breeding grounds of low salinity is driven by maturation of females and their preference for warmer water regardless of salinity.

  4. Leave no trace practices: behaviors and preferences of wilderness visitors regarding use of cookstoves and camping away from lakes

    Treesearch

    Neal A. Christensen; David N. Cole

    2000-01-01

    This research used descriptive information collected in visitor studies conducted between 1990 and 1992 in eight different wildernesses around the United States to evaluate behaviors and preferences of wilderness visitors regarding cookstoves and camping away from lakes. The majority of visitors used stoves for cooking. However, in all but the Desolation Wilderness, at...

  5. Outdoor recreation behaviors and preferences of urban racial/ethnic groups: an example from the Chicago area

    Treesearch

    John F. Dwyer; Susan C. Barro

    2001-01-01

    A study of outdoor recreation preferences and behavior of Non-Hispanic White Americans (n=618), African Americans (n=647), and Hispanic Americans (n=346) in Cook County, Illinois was conducted in early 1999. Respondents were contacted in a phone survey using random digit dialing and a quota for each group. Important similarities and differences were found among these...

  6. Outdoor recreation behaviors and preferences of urban racial/ethnic groups: an example from the Chicago area

    Treesearch

    John F. Dwyer; Susan C. Barro

    2001-01-01

    A study of outdoor recreation preferences and behavior of Non-Hispanic White Americans (n=618), Aferican Americans (n=6470, and Hispanic Americans (n=346) in Cook County, Illinois was conducted in early 1999. Respondents were contacted in a phone survey using random digit dailing and a quota for each group. Important similarities and differences were found among these...

  7. The Mediating and Moderating Effects of Teacher Preference on the Relations between Students' Social Behaviors and Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Lei; Liu, Hongyun; Fung, Kitty Y.; Wang, Yan; Wen, Zhonglin; Li, Hongli; Farver, JoAnn M.

    2007-01-01

    Tested on a sample of 1,365 Hong Kong primary school students from five grades, teacher preference or the extent to which the classroom teacher likes a child in the class was found to both mediate and, to a lesser extent, moderate the relations between children's social behaviors and peer acceptance across age groups. The mediating effect suggests…

  8. Maternal Education Preferences Moderate the Effects of Mandatory Employment and Education Programs on Child Positive and Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassman-Pines, Anna; Godfrey, Erin B.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Grounded in person-environment fit theory, this study examined whether low-income mothers' preferences for education moderated the effects of employment- and education-focused welfare programs on children’s positive and problem behaviors. The sample included 1,365 families with children between ages 3 and 5 years at study entry. Results 5 years…

  9. Maternal Education Preferences Moderate the Effects of Mandatory Employment and Education Programs on Child Positive and Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassman-Pines, Anna; Godfrey, Erin B.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Grounded in person-environment fit theory, this study examined whether low-income mothers' preferences for education moderated the effects of employment- and education-focused welfare programs on children’s positive and problem behaviors. The sample included 1,365 families with children between ages 3 and 5 years at study entry. Results 5 years…

  10. [Preference for behavior conducive to physical activity and physical activity levels of children from a southern Brazil city].

    PubMed

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Xavier, Mariana Otero; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to describe preferences for behavior conducive to physical activity (PA) and to evaluate the influence of these preferences on physical activity of children from Pelotas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. It involved a cross-sectional study with children aged 4 to 11. Behavior conducive to PA was evaluated using the Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ). Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured by accelerometry. Variance analysis and linear regression were performed to evaluate associations between questions from the NPAQ and independent variables and between each form of behavior and time spent in MVPA, respectively. Children in the higher economic bracket liked to draw more and preferred less vigorous games and playing outside than poorer children. Older children were less extrovert and liked to draw less than younger children. Enjoying sports, disliking drawing and liking to play outside were positively associated with daily time spent in MVPA. Some characteristics studied were associated with behavior conducive to PA, and economic status proved to be the most important influence. Preferences like enjoying sports positively influenced the time spent in MVPA.

  11. The strategic nature of individual change behavior: How physicians and their staff implement medical home care.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Timothy; Scott, Sarah

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model of care is central to primary care system success and transformation. Less is known about which PCMH activities primary care workers most frequently perform, if or why they might view that work more favorably, and how such work may function strategically to advance individual and organizational adaptation to new demands, as well as deliver good patient care. Understanding better how primary care physicians and staff perceive, experience, and use certain types of PCMH work for adapting to new demands looms a key imperative for gaining insights into PCMH implementation at the workplace level. Using a worker adaptation perspective that emphasizes the role of social learning and individual agency, this study explores the strategic nature of PCMH implementation through 51 in-depth interviews with physicians and staff in six accredited PCMHs. Select medical home activities were identified, in which primary care physicians and staff most engaged on a daily basis, and they fell into five distinct PCMH work domains labeled team care, medical home responsibilities, care management, access, and medication management. These activities had common features such as high levels of familiarity, simplicity, and camaraderie. In addition, through their experiences performing these activities, physicians and staff appeared to gain strategic benefits for themselves and the larger organization including enhanced self-efficacy and readiness for change. The findings show that particular forms of PCMH work not only advance patient care in favorable ways but also enhance individual and organizational capacity for adapting to this innovative model and its demands. This knowledge adds to our understanding of how to implement PCMH care in ways that are good for workers, primary care organizations, and patients and offers practical guidance as to which forms of PCMH work should be encouraged, incented, and rewarded.

  12. Nesting habits shape feeding preferences and predatory behavior in an ant genus.

    PubMed

    Dejean, Alain; Labrière, Nicolas; Touchard, Axel; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    We tested if nesting habits influence ant feeding preferences and predatory behavior in the monophyletic genus Pseudomyrmex (Pseudomyrmecinae) which comprises terrestrial and arboreal species, and, among the latter, plant-ants which are obligate inhabitants of myrmecophytes (i.e., plants sheltering so-called plant-ants in hollow structures). A cafeteria experiment revealed that the diet of ground-nesting Pseudomyrmex consists mostly of prey and that of arboreal species consists mostly of sugary substances, whereas the plant-ants discarded all the food we provided. Workers forage solitarily, detecting prey from a distance thanks to their hypertrophied eyes. Approach is followed by antennal contact, seizure, and the manipulation of the prey to sting it under its thorax (next to the ventral nerve cord). Arboreal species were not more efficient at capturing prey than were ground-nesting species. A large worker size favors prey capture. Workers from ground- and arboreal-nesting species show several uncommon behavioral traits, each known in different ant genera from different subfamilies: leaping abilities, the use of surface tension strengths to transport liquids, short-range recruitment followed by conflicts between nestmates, the consumption of the prey's hemolymph, and the retrieval of entire prey or pieces of prey after having cut it up. Yet, we never noted group ambushing. We also confirmed that Pseudomyrmex plant-ants live in a kind of food autarky as they feed only on rewards produced by their host myrmecophyte, or on honeydew produced by the hemipterans they attend and possibly on the fungi they cultivate.

  13. Nesting habits shape feeding preferences and predatory behavior in an ant genus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Labrière, Nicolas; Touchard, Axel; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    We tested if nesting habits influence ant feeding preferences and predatory behavior in the monophyletic genus Pseudomyrmex (Pseudomyrmecinae) which comprises terrestrial and arboreal species, and, among the latter, plant-ants which are obligate inhabitants of myrmecophytes (i.e., plants sheltering so-called plant-ants in hollow structures). A cafeteria experiment revealed that the diet of ground-nesting Pseudomyrmex consists mostly of prey and that of arboreal species consists mostly of sugary substances, whereas the plant-ants discarded all the food we provided. Workers forage solitarily, detecting prey from a distance thanks to their hypertrophied eyes. Approach is followed by antennal contact, seizure, and the manipulation of the prey to sting it under its thorax (next to the ventral nerve cord). Arboreal species were not more efficient at capturing prey than were ground-nesting species. A large worker size favors prey capture. Workers from ground- and arboreal-nesting species show several uncommon behavioral traits, each known in different ant genera from different subfamilies: leaping abilities, the use of surface tension strengths to transport liquids, short-range recruitment followed by conflicts between nestmates, the consumption of the prey's hemolymph, and the retrieval of entire prey or pieces of prey after having cut it up. Yet, we never noted group ambushing. We also confirmed that Pseudomyrmex plant-ants live in a kind of food autarky as they feed only on rewards produced by their host myrmecophyte, or on honeydew produced by the hemipterans they attend and possibly on the fungi they cultivate.

  14. Clay preference and particle transport behavior of Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cai; Henderson, Gregg

    2014-12-01

    Although preference and utilization of clay have been studied in many higher termites, little attention has been paid to lower termites, especially subterranean termites. The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, can modify its habitat by using clay to fill tree cavities. Here, the biological significance of clay on C. formosanus was investigated. Choice tests showed that significantly more termites aggregated in chambers where clay blocks were provided, regardless of colony group, observation period, or nutritional condition (fed or starved). No-choice tests showed that clay had no observable effect on survivorship, live or dry biomass, water content, and tunneling activity after 33-35 d. However, clay appeared to significantly decrease filter paper consumption (dry weight loss). Active particle (sand, paper, and clay) transport behavior was observed in both choice and no-choice tests. When present, clay was preferentially spread on the substrate, attached to the smooth surfaces of the containers, and used to line sand tunnels. Mechanisms and potential application of clay attraction are discussed.

  15. A Context-Aware Mobile User Behavior-Based Neighbor Finding Approach for Preference Profile Construction †

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qian; Fu, Deqian; Dong, Xiangjun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach is adopted to update the user preference profile by seeking users with similar interests based on the context obtainable for a mobile network instead of from desktop networks. The trust degree between mobile users is calculated by analyzing their behavior based on the context, and then the approximate neighbors are chosen by combining the similarity of the mobile user preference and the trust degree. The approach first considers the communication behaviors between mobile users, the mobile network services they use as well as the corresponding context information. Then a similarity degree of the preference between users is calculated with the evaluation score of a certain mobile web service provided by a mobile user. Finally, based on the time attenuation function, the users with similar preference are found, through which we can dynamically update the target user’s preference profile. Experiments are then conducted to test the effect of the context on the credibility among mobile users, the effect of time decay factors and trust degree thresholds. Simulation shows that the proposed approach outperforms two other methods in terms of Recall Ratio, Precision Ratio and Mean Absolute Error, because neither of them consider the context mobile information. PMID:26805852

  16. The Personality Trait of Intolerance to Uncertainty Affects Behavior in a Novel Computer-Based Conditioned Place Preference Task.

    PubMed

    Radell, Milen L; Myers, Catherine E; Beck, Kevin D; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Allen, Michael Todd

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has found that personality factors that confer vulnerability to addiction can also affect learning and economic decision making. One personality trait which has been implicated in vulnerability to addiction is intolerance to uncertainty (IU), i.e., a preference for familiar over unknown (possibly better) options. In animals, the motivation to obtain drugs is often assessed through conditioned place preference (CPP), which compares preference for contexts where drug reward was previously received. It is an open question whether participants with high IU also show heightened preference for previously rewarded contexts. To address this question, we developed a novel computer-based CPP task for humans in which participants guide an avatar through a paradigm in which one room contains frequent reward (i.e., rich) and one contains less frequent reward (i.e., poor). Following exposure to both contexts, subjects are assessed for preference to enter the previously rich and previously poor room. Individuals with low IU showed little bias to enter the previously rich room first, and instead entered both rooms at about the same rate which may indicate a foraging behavior. By contrast, those with high IU showed a strong bias to enter the previously rich room first. This suggests an increased tendency to chase reward in the intolerant group, consistent with previously observed behavior in opioid-addicted individuals. Thus, the personality factor of high IU may produce a pre-existing cognitive bias that provides a mechanism to promote decision-making processes that increase vulnerability to addiction.

  17. EFFECTS OF NEUROPEPTIDE Y (NPY) AND ETHANOL ON AROUSAL AND ANXIETY-LIKE BEHAVIOR IN ALCOHOL-PREFERRING (P) RATS

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, N.W.; Henderson, A.N.; Badia-Elder, N.E.; Stewart, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y is abundant in the mammalian brain and plays a prominent role in behaviors related to negative affect and alcohol. NPY suppresses anxiety-like behavior and alcohol-drinking behaviors in a wide array of rodent models, and also affects changes in these behaviors produced by fearful and stressful stimuli. Rats selectively bred for high alcohol preference (P rats) appear to be particularly sensitive to the behavioral effects of NPY. The dual purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of intraventricular NPY on [1] the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) of P rats in a high-anxiety setting and [2] social interaction behavior of P rats. In Experiment 1, P rats were either cycled through periods of long-term ethanol access and abstinence or they remained ethanol-naïve. Rats were injected with one of four NPY doses and tested for ASR before and after footshock stress. NPY suppressed ASR in all P rats regardless of shock condition or drinking history. In Experiment 2, rats received intraventricular infusion of one of four NPY doses and then were injected with either ethanol (0.75 g/kg) or saline and tested for social interaction. NPY increased social interaction in P rats even at doses that suppressed locomotor activity, regardless of ethanol dose. Suppression of anxiety-like and arousal behaviors by NPY in the present study confirm a role for NPY in alcohol-related behaviors in alcohol-preferring P rats. PMID:20880660

  18. Effects of neuropeptide Y and ethanol on arousal and anxiety-like behavior in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W; Henderson, Angela N; Badia-Elder, Nancy E; Stewart, Robert B

    2011-03-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundant in the mammalian brain and plays a prominent role in behaviors related to negative affect and alcohol. NPY suppresses anxiety-like behavior and alcohol-drinking behaviors in a wide array of rodent models and also affects changes in these behaviors produced by fearful and stressful stimuli. Rats selectively bred for high alcohol preference (P rats) appear to be particularly sensitive to the behavioral effects of NPY. The dual purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of intraventricular NPY on (1) the acoustic startle response (ASR) of P rats in a high-anxiety setting and (2) social interaction behavior of P rats. In experiment 1, P rats were either cycled through periods of long-term ethanol access and abstinence or they remained ethanol naive. Rats were injected with one of four NPY doses and tested for ASR before and after footshock stress. NPY suppressed ASR in all P rats regardless of shock condition or drinking history. In experiment 2, rats received intraventricular infusion of one of four NPY doses and were then injected with either ethanol (0.75 g/kg) or saline and tested for social interaction. NPY increased social interaction in P rats even at doses that suppressed locomotor activity, regardless of ethanol dose. Suppression of anxiety-like and arousal behaviors by NPY in the present study confirm a role for NPY in alcohol-related behaviors in alcohol-preferring P rats.

  19. Cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy for anxiety: treatment preferences and credibility among pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Arch, Joanna J

    2014-01-01

    Relatively little is known about women's anxiety-related treatment preferences and no studies have examined potential differences between pregnant versus non-pregnant women. Treatment credibility and willingness are particularly important to understand regarding exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy, the leading evidence-based treatments. A large U.S. sample of pregnant (n = 377) and matched non-pregnant (n = 399) women (total N = 776) rated overall treatment preferences and treatment credibility, concerns, and willingness to have CBT and pharmacotherapy if suffering from anxiety. Women preferred anxiety-related treatment that included psychotherapy. Preference for psychotherapy alone was stronger among pregnant (74%) than non-pregnant (47%) women, p < .001. In response to treatment descriptions, both groups rated CBT more favorably than pharmacotherapy on treatment willingness, credibility, and concerns, ps < .001, with the magnitude of this preference significantly greater among pregnant than non-pregnant women, ps < .001. Pregnancy status was unrelated to CBT ratings. Treatment credibility and to a lesser extent total concerns mediated the relationship between pregnancy status and pharmacotherapy willingness. Non-pregnant and especially pregnant women rated exposure-based CBT for anxiety more favorably than pharmacotherapy. Pregnancy status predicted general treatment preferences and pharmacotherapy, but not CBT, ratings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term behavioral sensitization to apomorphine is independent of conditioning and increases conditioned pecking, but not preference, in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Anselme, Patrick; Edeş, Neslihan; Tabrik, Sepideh; Güntürkün, Onur

    2017-08-30

    When rodents are given a free choice between a variable option and a constant option, they may prefer variability. This preference is even sometimes increased following repeated administration of a dopamine agonist. The present study was the first to examine preference for variability under the systemic administration of a dopamine agonist, apomorphine (Apo), in birds. Experiment 1 tested the drug-free preference and the propensity to choose of pigeons for a constant over a variable delay. It appeared that they preferred and decided more quickly to peck at the optimal delay option. Experiment 2 assessed the effects of a repeated injection of Apo on delay preference, in comparison with previous control tests within the same individuals. Apo treatment might have decreased the number of pecks at the constant option across the different experimental phases, but failed to induce a preference for the variable option. In Experiment 3, two groups of pigeons (Apo-sensitized and saline) were used in order to avoid inhomogeneity in treatments. They had to choose between a 50% probability option and a 5-s delay option. Conditioned pecking and the propensity to choose were higher in the Apo-sensitized pigeons, but, in each group, the pigeons showed indifference between the two options. This experiment also showed that long-term behavioral sensitization to Apo can occur independently of a conditioning process. These results suggest that Apo sensitization can enhance the attractiveness of conditioned cues, while having no effect on the development of a preference for variable-delay and probabilistic schedules of reinforcement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Music Preferences, Friendship, and Externalizing Behavior in Early Adolescence: A SIENA Examination of the Music Marker Theory Using the SNARE Study.

    PubMed

    Franken, Aart; Keijsers, Loes; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Ter Bogt, Tom

    2017-01-18

    Music Marker Theory posits that music is relevant for the structuring of peer groups and that rock, urban, or dance music preferences relate to externalizing behavior. The present study tested these hypotheses, by investigating the role of music preference similarity in friendship selection and the development of externalizing behavior, while taking the effects of friends' externalizing behavior into account. Data were used from the first three waves of the SNARE (Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence) study (N = 1144; 50% boys; M age = 12.7; SD = 0.47), including students who entered the first-year of secondary school. Two hypotheses were tested. First, adolescents were expected to select friends based both on a similarity in externalizing behavior and music genre preference. Second, a preference for rock, urban, or dance, music types was expected to predict the development of externalizing behavior, even when taking friends' influence on externalizing behavior into account. Stochastic Actor-Based Modeling indicated that adolescents select their friends based on both externalizing behavior and highbrow music preference. Moreover, both friends' externalizing behavior and a preference for dance music predicted the development of externalizing behavior. Intervention programs might focus on adolescents with dance music preferences.

  2. The National Strategic Plan and Action Agenda for Agricultural Education: Reinventing Agricultural Education for the Year 2020. Creating the Preferred Future for Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Agricultural Education, Alexandria, VA.

    The Reinventing Agricultural Education for the Year 2020 initiative, a project conducted during 1996-1999 with a diverse group of more than 10,000 people from across the United States, resulted in this strategic plan designed to achieve the mission set by the initiative. That mission has a two-part focus: preparing students for career success in…

  3. Time-Preference Tests Fail to Predict Behavior Related to Self-control

    PubMed Central

    Arfer, Kodi B.; Luhmann, Christian C.

    2017-01-01

    According to theory, choices relating to patience and self-control in domains as varied as drug use and retirement saving are driven by generalized preferences about delayed rewards. Past research has shown that measurements of these time preferences are associated with these choices. Research has also attempted to examine how well such measurements can predict choices, but only with inappropriate analytical methods. Moreover, it is not clear which of the many kinds of time-preference tests that have been proposed are most useful for prediction, and a theoretically important aspect of time preferences, nonstationarity, has been neglected in measurement. In Study 1, we examined three approaches to measuring time preferences with 181 users of Mechanical Turk. Retest reliability, for both immediate and 1-month intervals, was decent, as was convergent validity between tests, and association was similar to previous results, but predictive accuracy for 10 criterion variables (e.g., tobacco use) was approximately nil. In Study 2, we examined one other approach to measuring time preferences, and 40 criterion variables, using 7,127 participants in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Time preferences were significantly related to criterion variables, but predictive accuracy was again poor. Our findings imply serious problems for using time-preference tests to predict real-world decisions. The results of Study 1 further suggest there is little value in measuring nonstationarity separately from patience. PMID:28232810

  4. Understanding Excellence through an Examination of Shared Vision, Leadership Behaviors, Strategic Planning, and the Use of Data at Three Award-Winning Two-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, Deborah Lynn Rose

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the interplay of a community college's vision, its leaders' behaviors, strategic planning, and the use of data that contributed to an organizational culture that led to the improvement of student success. The researcher used a grounded theory approach to delve into the relationships and connections between these four…

  5. Understanding Excellence through an Examination of Shared Vision, Leadership Behaviors, Strategic Planning, and the Use of Data at Three Award-Winning Two-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, Deborah Lynn Rose

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the interplay of a community college's vision, its leaders' behaviors, strategic planning, and the use of data that contributed to an organizational culture that led to the improvement of student success. The researcher used a grounded theory approach to delve into the relationships and connections between these four…

  6. The effect of preference for three different types of music on magnitude estimation-scaling behavior in young adults.

    PubMed

    Fucci, D; Petrosino, L; Banks, M; Zaums, K; Wilcox, C

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of preference for three different types of music on magnitude estimation scaling behavior in young adults. Three groups of college students, 10 who liked rock music, 10 who liked big band music, and 10 who liked classical music were tested. Subjects were instructed to assign numerical values to a random series of nine suprathreshold intensity levels of 10-sec, samples of rock music, big band music, and classical music. Analysis indicated that subjects who liked rock music scaled that stimulus differently from those subjects who liked big band and classical music. Subjects who liked big band music scaled that stimulus differently from those subjects who liked rock music and classical music. All subjects scaled classical music similarly regardless of their musical preferences. Results are discussed in reference to the literature concerned with personality and preference as well as spectrographic analyses of the three different types of music used in this study.

  7. Mothers say "baby" and their newborns do not choose to listen: a behavioral preference study to compare with ERP results.

    PubMed

    Moon, Christine; Zernzach, Randall C; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2015-01-01

    Previously published results from neonatal brain evoked response potential (ERP) experiments revealed different brain responses to the single word "baby" depending on whether it was recorded by the mother or an unfamiliar female. These results are consistent with behavioral preference studies in which infants altered pacifier sucking to contingently activate recordings of the maternal vs. an unfamiliar female voice, but the speech samples were much longer and information-rich than in the ERP studies. Both types of neonatal voice recognition studies imply postnatal retention of prenatal learning. The preference studies require infant motor and motivation systems to mount a response in addition to voice recognition. The current contingent sucking preference study was designed to test neonatal motivation to alter behavior when the reward is the single word "baby" recorded by the mother or an unfamiliar speaker. Results showed an absent or weak contingent sucking response to the brief maternal voice sample, and they demonstrate the complementary value of electrophysiological and behavioral studies for very early development. Neonates can apparently recognize the maternal voice in brief recorded sample (previous ERP results) but they are not sufficiently motivated by it to alter sucking behavior.

  8. Heat or Insulation: Behavioral Titration of Mouse Preference for Warmth or Access to a Nest

    PubMed Central

    Gaskill, Brianna N.; Gordon, Christopher J.; Pajor, Edmond A.; Lucas, Jeffrey R.; Davis, Jerry K.; Garner, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    In laboratories, mice are housed at 20–24°C, which is below their lower critical temperature (≈30°C). This increased thermal stress has the potential to alter scientific outcomes. Nesting material should allow for improved behavioral thermoregulation and thus alleviate this thermal stress. Nesting behavior should change with temperature and material, and the choice between nesting or thermotaxis (movement in response to temperature) should also depend on the balance of these factors, such that mice titrate nesting material against temperature. Naïve CD-1, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice (36 male and 36 female/strain in groups of 3) were housed in a set of 2 connected cages, each maintained at a different temperature using a water bath. One cage in each set was 20°C (Nesting cage; NC) while the other was one of 6 temperatures (Temperature cage; TC: 20, 23, 26, 29, 32, or 35°C). The NC contained one of 6 nesting provisions (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10g), changed daily. Food intake and nest scores were measured in both cages. As the difference in temperature between paired cages increased, feed consumption in NC increased. Nesting provision altered differences in nest scores between the 2 paired temperatures. Nest scores in NC increased with increasing provision. In addition, temperature pairings altered the difference in nest scores with the smallest difference between locations at 26°C and 29°C. Mice transferred material from NC to TC but the likelihood of transfer decreased with increasing provision. Overall, mice of different strains and sexes prefer temperatures between 26–29°C and the shift from thermotaxis to nest building is seen between 6 and 10 g of material. Our results suggest that under normal laboratory temperatures, mice should be provided with no less than 6 grams of nesting material, but up to 10 grams may be needed to alleviate thermal distress under typical temperatures. PMID:22479340

  9. Heat or insulation: behavioral titration of mouse preference for warmth or access to a nest.

    PubMed

    Gaskill, Brianna N; Gordon, Christopher J; Pajor, Edmond A; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Davis, Jerry K; Garner, Joseph P

    2012-01-01

    In laboratories, mice are housed at 20-24°C, which is below their lower critical temperature (≈30°C). This increased thermal stress has the potential to alter scientific outcomes. Nesting material should allow for improved behavioral thermoregulation and thus alleviate this thermal stress. Nesting behavior should change with temperature and material, and the choice between nesting or thermotaxis (movement in response to temperature) should also depend on the balance of these factors, such that mice titrate nesting material against temperature. Naïve CD-1, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice (36 male and 36 female/strain in groups of 3) were housed in a set of 2 connected cages, each maintained at a different temperature using a water bath. One cage in each set was 20°C (Nesting cage; NC) while the other was one of 6 temperatures (Temperature cage; TC: 20, 23, 26, 29, 32, or 35°C). The NC contained one of 6 nesting provisions (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10g), changed daily. Food intake and nest scores were measured in both cages. As the difference in temperature between paired cages increased, feed consumption in NC increased. Nesting provision altered differences in nest scores between the 2 paired temperatures. Nest scores in NC increased with increasing provision. In addition, temperature pairings altered the difference in nest scores with the smallest difference between locations at 26°C and 29°C. Mice transferred material from NC to TC but the likelihood of transfer decreased with increasing provision. Overall, mice of different strains and sexes prefer temperatures between 26-29°C and the shift from thermotaxis to nest building is seen between 6 and 10 g of material. Our results suggest that under normal laboratory temperatures, mice should be provided with no less than 6 grams of nesting material, but up to 10 grams may be needed to alleviate thermal distress under typical temperatures.

  10. Strategic Persuasive Writing Instruction for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.; Irby Cerar, Nancy; Guckert, Mary; Thompson, Catherine; Bronaugh, Danette Allen; Jakulski, Jill; Abdulalim, Latif; Mills, Sara; Evmenova, Anya; Regan, Kelley; Cuenca-Carlino, Yojanna

    2015-01-01

    Expressive writing is important for school and life success, but remains challenging for many students with emotional and behavioral disabilities. Emerging evidence reveals promise for teaching students with learning and behavioral issues to improve written expression with self-regulated strategy development instruction. In that research, students…

  11. Strategic Persuasive Writing Instruction for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.; Irby Cerar, Nancy; Guckert, Mary; Thompson, Catherine; Bronaugh, Danette Allen; Jakulski, Jill; Abdulalim, Latif; Mills, Sara; Evmenova, Anya; Regan, Kelley; Cuenca-Carlino, Yojanna

    2015-01-01

    Expressive writing is important for school and life success, but remains challenging for many students with emotional and behavioral disabilities. Emerging evidence reveals promise for teaching students with learning and behavioral issues to improve written expression with self-regulated strategy development instruction. In that research, students…

  12. Educational attainment, time preference, and health-related behaviors: A mediation analysis from the J-SHINE survey.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Daisuke; Kondo, Naoki; Takada, Misato; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2016-03-01

    Evidence consistently shows that low education is associated with unhealthy behaviors. A recent study in behavioral economics argued that high time preferences - the tendency to prefer immediate gain to later reward - explain the limited self-control of individuals in making preventive health-related choices. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of time preference on the associations between education and smoking, binge drinking and overweight in young and middle-aged adults living in a Japanese metropolitan area, using a quantitatively measured time discount rate. A population-based probabilistic sample of residents of 25-50 years of age living in four municipalities within Japanese metropolitan areas where economic disparity is relatively large was obtained from the Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE). Respondents answered the questionnaire items using a computer-aided personal instrument (CAPI). Data from 3457 respondents were used in this study. Time preferences measured as categorical responses were converted into a continuous number of time discount rates by using the maximum likelihood method. Smoking habit, binge drinking, and body mass index were regressed on educational attainment with demographics and other confounders. The mediating effects of the time discount rate were examined with the bootstrapping method. Results showed that the time discount rate did not mediate the association between education and binge drinking and BMI. Even for smoking, the mediating effect of time discount rate was quite limited, indicating that the proportion of total effect of education mediated was only 4.3% for men and 3.0% for women. The results suggest that modifying time preferences through educational intervention has only limited efficacy in closing disparities in health-related behaviors, and that other mediators fostered by schooling, such as knowledge/skills, group norms and supportive peers

  13. Aggression Norms in the Classroom Social Network: Contexts of Aggressive Behavior and Social Preference in Middle Childhood.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Daisy R; Cappella, Elise; Neal, Jennifer Watling

    2015-12-01

    In a cross-sectional sample of African-American 2nd-4th grade students (N = 681), we examine the moderating effects of classroom overt and relational aggression norms on peers' social acceptance of classmates who exhibit overt and relational aggression in urban schools. Extending theory and research on classroom norms, we integrate social network data to adjust aggression norms based on children's direct and indirect connections in the classroom. Results of multilevel models indicate that network-based classroom aggression norms moderated relations between children's aggressive behavior and their social preference. Specifically, children benefited socially when their form of aggressive behavior fit with what was normative in the classroom social context. The moderating effect of classroom aggression norms was stronger for the association between overt aggression and social preference than relational aggression and social preference. Relationally aggressive youth were socially preferred by peers regardless of the classroom norm, although this positive association was magnified in classrooms with higher levels of relational aggression. Future research focused on aggression norms within classroom social networks are discussed and implications for school prevention efforts are considered.

  14. Construction of a taste-blind medaka fish and quantitative assay of its preference-aversion behavior.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Y; Yasuoka, A; Iwamoto, S; Yoshida, Y; Misaka, T; Abe, K

    2008-11-01

    In vertebrates, the taste system provides information used in the regulation of food ingestion. In mammals, each cell group within the taste buds expresses either the T1R or the T2R taste receptor for preference-aversion discrimination. However, no such information is available regarding fish. We developed a novel system for quantitatively assaying taste preference-aversion in medaka fish. In this study, we prepared fluorescently labeled foods with fine cavities designed to retain tastants until they were bitten by the fish. The subjects were fed food containing a mixture of amino acids and inosine monophosphate (AN food), denatonium benzoate (DN food) or no tastant (NT food), and the amounts of ingested food were measured by fluorescence microscopy. Statistical analysis of the fluorescence intensities yielded quantitative measurements of AN food preference and DN food aversion. We then generated a transgenic fish expressing dominant-negative Galpha(i2) both in T1R-expressing and in T2R-expressing cells. The feeding assay revealed that the transgenic fish was unable to show a preference for AN food and an aversion to DN food. The assay system was useful for evaluating taste-blind behaviors, and the results indicate that the two taste signaling pathways conveying preferable and aversive taste information are conserved in fish as well as in mammals.

  15. A selective androgen receptor modulator enhances male-directed sexual preference, proceptive behavior, and lordosis behavior in sexually experienced, but not sexually naive, female rats.

    PubMed

    Kudwa, A E; López, F J; McGivern, R F; Handa, R J

    2010-06-01

    Androgens influence many aspects of reproductive behavior, including sexual preference of females for males. In oophorectomized women with sexual desire disorder, testosterone patches improve libido, but their use is limited because of adverse side effects. Selective androgen receptor modulators offer an improved safety profile for both sexes: enhancing libido and muscle and bone growth in a manner similar to steroidal androgens but with fewer adverse effects, such as hirsutism, acne, and prostate growth. The current study investigated the action of a novel selective androgen receptor modulator (LGD-3303 [9-chloro-2-ethyl-1-methyl-3-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-3H-pyrrolo-[3,2-f]quinolin-7(6H)-one]) on male-directed sexual preference, proceptivity, and lordosis behavior of female rats. LGD-3303 is a nonsteroidal, nonaromatizable, highly selective ligand for the androgen receptor and effectively crosses the blood-brain barrier. Gonadectomized female rats were treated with LGD-3303 (3-30 mg/kg) or vehicle by daily oral gavage. Results showed that LGD-3303 treatment enhanced sexual preference of females for males but only if females had previous sexual experience. This occurred after 1 or 7 d of treatment. In contrast, preference for males was inhibited by LGD-3303 treatments of sexually naive females. The LGD-3303 increase in male preference was blocked by pretreatment with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide. LGD-3303 treatment increased lordosis and proceptivity behaviors in ovariectomized females primed with suboptimal doses of estradiol benzoate plus progesterone. These data support the concept that LGD-3303 can stimulate aspects of female sexual behavior and may serve as a potential therapeutic for women with sexual desire disorders.

  16. Preferred growth orientation and microsegregation behaviors of eutectic in a nickel-based single-crystal superalloy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu; Ma, Dexin; Bührig-Polaczek, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    A nickel-based single-crystal superalloy was employed to investigate the preferred growth orientation behavior of the (γ + γ') eutectic and the effect of these orientations on the segregation behavior. A novel solidification model for the eutectic island was proposed. At the beginning of the eutectic island's crystallization, the core directly formed from the liquid by the eutectic reaction, and then preferably grew along [100] direction. The crystallization of the eutectic along [110] always lagged behind that in [100] direction. The eutectic growth in [100] direction terminated on impinging the edge of the dendrites or another eutectic island. The end of the eutectic island's solidification terminates due to the encroachment of the eutectic liquid/solid interface at the dendrites or another eutectic island in [110] direction. The distribution of the alloying elements depended on the crystalline axis. The degree of the alloying elements' segregation was lower along [100] than [110] direction with increasing distance from the eutectic island's center.

  17. Speech Preference Is Associated with Autistic-Like Behavior in 18-Months-Olds at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether infants' preference for speech at 12 months is associated with autistic-like behaviors at 18 months in infants who are at increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) because they have an older sibling diagnosed with ASD and in low-risk infants. Only low-risk infants listened significantly longer to speech than to…

  18. Speech Preference Is Associated with Autistic-Like Behavior in 18-Months-Olds at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether infants' preference for speech at 12 months is associated with autistic-like behaviors at 18 months in infants who are at increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) because they have an older sibling diagnosed with ASD and in low-risk infants. Only low-risk infants listened significantly longer to speech than to…

  19. Cultural Differences in Color/Form Preference and in Classificatory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, W. H. O.; Nzimande, A.

    1970-01-01

    Cross-cultural data was collected on color/form preference and the ability to classify among Zulu children and adults. Significant differences were found attributable to factors of Western-type schooling, literacy, and urban or rural life. (NH)

  20. Heterogeneity and nonlinearity in consumers' preferences: An application to the olive oil shopping behavior in Chile.

    PubMed

    Romo-Muñoz, Rodrigo Alejandro; Cabas-Monje, Juan Hernán; Garrido-Henrríquez, Héctor Manuel; Gil, José María

    2017-01-01

    In relatively unknown products, consumers use prices as a quality reference. Under such circumstances, the utility function can be non-negative for a specific price range and generate an inverted U-shaped function. The extra virgin olive oil market in Chile is a good example. Although domestic production and consumption have increased significantly in the last few years, consumer knowledge of this product is still limited. The objective of this study was to analyze Chilean consumer preferences and willingness to pay for extra virgin olive oil attributes. Consumers were segmented taking into account purchasing frequency. A Random Parameter Logit model was estimated for preference heterogeneity. Results indicate that the utility function is nonlinear allowing us to differentiate between two regimes. In the first regime, olive oil behaves as a conspicuous good, that is, higher utility is assigned to higher prices and consumers prefer foreign products in smaller containers. Under the second regime, Chilean olive oil in larger containers is preferred.

  1. Effects of bedding with recycled sand on lying behaviors, udder hygiene, and preference of lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kull, J A; Ingle, H D; Black, R A; Eberhart, N L; Krawczel, P D

    2017-09-01

    Effects of bedding with recycled sand and season on lying behaviors, hygiene, and preferences of late-lactation Holstein cows were studied. It was hypothesized that recycled sand will decrease lying time and increase hygiene scores due to increased moisture content and organic matter, and thus a preference for the control sand will be evident. Cows (n = 64) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8 per group) per season. In summer (August to September), cows were balanced by days in milk (268.1 ± 11.9 d) and parity (2.0 ± 0.2). In winter (January to February), mean DIM was 265.5 ± 34.1 d. Cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments using a crossover design with each treatment lasting 7 d (no-choice phase): bedding with recycled sand (RS; n = 32) or control (CO; clean sand; n = 32). Stocking density was maintained at 100%. The choice phase allowed cows to have access to either treatment with stocking density at 50%. Accelerometers recorded daily lying time, number of lying bouts per day, lying bout duration (min/bout), and total steps per day. Teat swabs, milk, sand samples, and udder hygiene scores were collected on d 0, 3, and 7 of each experimental week. Samples were cultured for streptococci, staphylococci, and gram-negative bacteria. Video data were used to assess bedding preferences. All data were analyzed using the MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Lying time was not affected by treatment, but cows did take more steps during winter. Bacterial counts were elevated for cows on recycled sand. A preference was observed for clean sand during the summer, but no preference was observed for sand during the winter. Regardless of bedding, the most commonly observed behavior was lying in the stalls, which suggested either bedding might be suitable. Caution should be used with this interpretation of preference, as sand was recycled only once. This limited reclamation was still sufficient to potentially alter the composition of sand, driving

  2. Peer Effects in Pro-Social Behavior: Social Norms or Social Preferences?

    PubMed

    Gächter, Simon; Nosenzo, Daniele; Sefton, Martin

    2013-06-03

    We compare social preference and social norm based explanations for peer effects in a three-person gift-exchange experiment. In the experiment a principal pays a wage to each of two agents, who then make effort choices sequentially. In our baseline treatment we observe that the second agent's effort is influenced by the effort choice of the first agent, even though there are no material spillovers between agents. This peer effect is predicted by the Fehr-Schmidt (1999) model of social preferences. As we show from a norms-elicitation experiment, it is also consistent with social norms compliance. A conditional logit investigation of the explanatory power of payoff inequality and elicited norms finds that the second agent's effort is best explained by the social preferences model. In further experiments we find that the peer effects change as predicted by the social preferences model. Again, a conditional logit analysis favors an explanation based on social preferences, rather than social norms. Our results suggest that, in our context, the social preferences model provides a parsimonious explanation for the observed peer effect.

  3. Peer Effects in Pro-Social Behavior: Social Norms or Social Preferences?

    PubMed Central

    Gächter, Simon; Nosenzo, Daniele; Sefton, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We compare social preference and social norm based explanations for peer effects in a three-person gift-exchange experiment. In the experiment a principal pays a wage to each of two agents, who then make effort choices sequentially. In our baseline treatment we observe that the second agent's effort is influenced by the effort choice of the first agent, even though there are no material spillovers between agents. This peer effect is predicted by the Fehr-Schmidt (1999) model of social preferences. As we show from a norms-elicitation experiment, it is also consistent with social norms compliance. A conditional logit investigation of the explanatory power of payoff inequality and elicited norms finds that the second agent's effort is best explained by the social preferences model. In further experiments we find that the peer effects change as predicted by the social preferences model. Again, a conditional logit analysis favors an explanation based on social preferences, rather than social norms. Our results suggest that, in our context, the social preferences model provides a parsimonious explanation for the observed peer effect. PMID:28553193

  4. Cognitive Model of Trust Dynamics Predicts Human Behavior within and between Two Games of Strategic Interaction with Computerized Confederate Agents

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Michael G.; Juvina, Ion; Gluck, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    When playing games of strategic interaction, such as iterated Prisoner's Dilemma and iterated Chicken Game, people exhibit specific within-game learning (e.g., learning a game's optimal outcome) as well as transfer of learning between games (e.g., a game's optimal outcome occurring at a higher proportion when played after another game). The reciprocal trust players develop during the first game is thought to mediate transfer of learning effects. Recently, a computational cognitive model using a novel trust mechanism has been shown to account for human behavior in both games, including the transfer between games. We present the results of a study in which we evaluate the model's a priori predictions of human learning and transfer in 16 different conditions. The model's predictive validity is compared against five model variants that lacked a trust mechanism. The results suggest that a trust mechanism is necessary to explain human behavior across multiple conditions, even when a human plays against a non-human agent. The addition of a trust mechanism to the other learning mechanisms within the cognitive architecture, such as sequence learning, instance-based learning, and utility learning, leads to better prediction of the empirical data. It is argued that computational cognitive modeling is a useful tool for studying trust development, calibration, and repair. PMID:26903892

  5. Cognitive Model of Trust Dynamics Predicts Human Behavior within and between Two Games of Strategic Interaction with Computerized Confederate Agents.

    PubMed

    Collins, Michael G; Juvina, Ion; Gluck, Kevin A

    2016-01-01

    When playing games of strategic interaction, such as iterated Prisoner's Dilemma and iterated Chicken Game, people exhibit specific within-game learning (e.g., learning a game's optimal outcome) as well as transfer of learning between games (e.g., a game's optimal outcome occurring at a higher proportion when played after another game). The reciprocal trust players develop during the first game is thought to mediate transfer of learning effects. Recently, a computational cognitive model using a novel trust mechanism has been shown to account for human behavior in both games, including the transfer between games. We present the results of a study in which we evaluate the model's a priori predictions of human learning and transfer in 16 different conditions. The model's predictive validity is compared against five model variants that lacked a trust mechanism. The results suggest that a trust mechanism is necessary to explain human behavior across multiple conditions, even when a human plays against a non-human agent. The addition of a trust mechanism to the other learning mechanisms within the cognitive architecture, such as sequence learning, instance-based learning, and utility learning, leads to better prediction of the empirical data. It is argued that computational cognitive modeling is a useful tool for studying trust development, calibration, and repair.

  6. The Personality Trait of Intolerance to Uncertainty Affects Behavior in a Novel Computer-Based Conditioned Place Preference Task

    PubMed Central

    Radell, Milen L.; Myers, Catherine E.; Beck, Kevin D.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Allen, Michael Todd

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has found that personality factors that confer vulnerability to addiction can also affect learning and economic decision making. One personality trait which has been implicated in vulnerability to addiction is intolerance to uncertainty (IU), i.e., a preference for familiar over unknown (possibly better) options. In animals, the motivation to obtain drugs is often assessed through conditioned place preference (CPP), which compares preference for contexts where drug reward was previously received. It is an open question whether participants with high IU also show heightened preference for previously rewarded contexts. To address this question, we developed a novel computer-based CPP task for humans in which participants guide an avatar through a paradigm in which one room contains frequent reward (i.e., rich) and one contains less frequent reward (i.e., poor). Following exposure to both contexts, subjects are assessed for preference to enter the previously rich and previously poor room. Individuals with low IU showed little bias to enter the previously rich room first, and instead entered both rooms at about the same rate which may indicate a foraging behavior. By contrast, those with high IU showed a strong bias to enter the previously rich room first. This suggests an increased tendency to chase reward in the intolerant group, consistent with previously observed behavior in opioid-addicted individuals. Thus, the personality factor of high IU may produce a pre-existing cognitive bias that provides a mechanism to promote decision-making processes that increase vulnerability to addiction. PMID:27555829

  7. Assessment of Texan pharmacists’ attitudes, behaviors, and preferences related to continuing pharmacy education

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whether the available Continuing Education (CE) programs meet pharmacists’ continuously increasing needs and preferences is open to question. Objectives: to investigate pharmacists’ perceptions and attitudes concerning available CE programs, evaluate the pharmacists’ choices with regard to selecting among different CE programs, and investigate the factors that are associated with preference to utilize online CE programs. Method: A 17-question survey was developed and mailed to a random sample of 600 Texan pharmacists. In addition to collecting basic demographic information, the survey investigated pharmacists’ choices with regard to delivery and content of CE programs, motivations to participation in CE programs, and pharmacists’ preferences for future CE programs. Results: A total of 161 pharmacists completed the survey and mailed back their responses. Excluding the 75 undeliverable surveys, the response rate was 31%. Approximately 83% of respondents found that currently available CE programs met their educational needs. The most important factors influencing pharmacists’ choices with regard to CE programs were the scope programs, the location where programs are held, and the cost associated with enrolling in such programs. Online CE was the most preferred mode of CE among participants. The factors that were associated with pharmacists’ preferences to complete 50% or more of required CE through online programs were previous use of online CE programs, preference to limit the duration of CE programs to 1 or 2 hour-long, and perceived ability to find adequate CE programs among currently available CE programs. Conclusion: The findings suggest modalities for CE programs providers on how to improve CE programs in the future in order to meet the preferences of local pharmacists. PMID:27785162

  8. Political ideologies and health-oriented beliefs and behaviors: an empirical examination of strategic issues.

    PubMed

    Murrow, J J; Coulter, R L; Coulter, M K

    2000-01-01

    The area of health care has been called the most important political issue of the 1990s. Attitudes toward health care reform, increasing health costs, and defensive medical practices have been examined in the public press and by academicians. In addition, a substantial amount of research has been directed toward the improvement of individual personal health due to changes in personal health-related habits and behaviors. To date, there are relatively few studies which have attempted to examine the political tendencies of a nationwide sample of respondents as they relate to personal health-related beliefs and behaviors. This article explores the consumer's views on critical questions relating to health orientations and political tendencies. The results indicate a divergence between the political orientations of respondents and their beliefs and behaviors associated with health and wellness. Implications for policy-makers are discussed.

  9. A comparative analysis of homosexual behaviors, sex role preferences, and anal sex proclivities in Latino and non-Latino men.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, William L

    2009-10-01

    Machismo prescribes that homosexual encounters among Latino men are conducted along highly gendered lines: men tend to be anally insertive or receptive over the lifecourse, but not both. Some have argued that Latino men have more lifecourse homosexual behaviors in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups. This is often due to the perception that Latin America has quasi-institutionalized homosexuality, which sharply contrasts it with the United States. Although scholars suggest that sex role preferences and greater likelihoods for homosexual behaviors exist among Latino men in the United States, limited empirical data validate these claims. Latino/non-Latino differences in male homosexual behaviors and sex role preferences were analyzed by using the 2002 cycle of the National Survey of Family Growth, a nationally representative, probability sample of 4,928 men. Findings revealed that non-Mexican Latino, but not Mexican, men had increased likelihoods of ever having anal sex than non-Latino Whites and oral sex than non-Latino Blacks. These relationships remained after controlling for age, education, and foreign birth. Latino men preferred insertive or receptive sex in comparison to non-Latino Blacks and Whites, but this difference disappeared after education was controlled. In full and reduced models, Mexican men tended to be orifice-specific (oral or anal), while non-Mexican Latinos were more oriented to both oral and anal sex. Controlling for other factors, all Latinos were more likely than non-Latino Blacks and Whites to refuse to answer male homosexual behavior questions. The implications of race/ethnicity are discussed for homosexual behavior patterns among U.S. men.

  10. Effect of Female-Biased Sex Ratios on Female Homosexual Behavior in Japanese Macaques: Evidence for the "Bisexual Preference Hypothesis".

    PubMed

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Huffman, Michael A; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to explain the frequent and prevalent female homosexual behavior in the context of female-biased operational sex ratios (OSR) and qualified sex ratios (Q) in a free-ranging group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama-Kyoto, Japan. Our data included the average availability of sexually mature males during females' putative fertile period (OSR), the ratio of sexually mature males to sexually mature females (Q), as well as heterosexual and female homosexual solicitations and consortships collected during 13 mating seasons from 136 females. Our results did not support the "heterosexual deprivation hypothesis," which holds that female homosexual behavior is attributable to a shortage of male mates. Likewise, our results did not support the "lack of opposite-sex sexual competitor hypothesis," which holds that females have more access to female mates when male sexual rivals are scarce. Of the 11 predictions tested, only one yielded statistically significant results: we found that higher ratios of availability of preferred female partners to preferred male partners were associated with female homosexual consortships rather than female heterosexual consortships. This result supported the "bisexual preference hypothesis," which holds that female homosexual behavior is attributable to female preference for certain female mates relative to certain male mates. We conclude that when a female targets another female as a mate, it is an active choice for a female sexual partner over available male alternatives, rather than a by-default situation that occurs because males are not available as sexual partners, or because females are better able to access female sexual partners due to a scarcity of male sexual competitors.

  11. Essays on Online Reviews: Reviewers' Strategic Behaviors and Contributions over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Wenqi

    2010-01-01

    Online reviews play an important role in consumers' purchasing decisions. Researchers are increasingly interested in studying the dynamic impact of online reviews on product sales. However, the antecedent of online reviews, online reviewers' behaviors, has not been fully explored. Understanding how online reviewers make review decisions can assist…

  12. Bending the Rules: Strategic Behavioral Differences Are Reflected in the Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfensteller, Uta; von Cramon, D. Yves

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of higher-order conditional motor behavior was investigated in the present fMRI study with the objective of answering three questions: (a) what happens in situations where one stimulus dimension alone does not sufficiently determine the correct response?; (b) does the implementation of second-order stimulus-response (S-R) rules…

  13. Essays on Online Reviews: Reviewers' Strategic Behaviors and Contributions over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Wenqi

    2010-01-01

    Online reviews play an important role in consumers' purchasing decisions. Researchers are increasingly interested in studying the dynamic impact of online reviews on product sales. However, the antecedent of online reviews, online reviewers' behaviors, has not been fully explored. Understanding how online reviewers make review decisions can assist…

  14. SDN-POA volume, sexual behavior, and partner preference of male rats affected by perinatal treatment with ATD.

    PubMed

    Houtsmuller, E J; Brand, T; de Jonge, F H; Joosten, R N; van de Poll, N E; Slob, A K

    1994-09-01

    The present study investigated 1) the importance of the aromatization process during the perinatal period for the development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (SDN-POA) of male rats, and 2) the relationship between SDN-POA volume and parameters of masculinization in male rats that were treated perinatally with the aromatase-inhibitor ATD. Males were treated with ATD either prenatally or pre- and neonatally, or with the vehicle. Masculine sexual behavior and partner preference were investigated in adulthood. Thereafter, animals were sacrificed and SDN-POA volume was measured. The SDN-POA volume was reduced in both the prenatally and the pre- and neonatally treated group, with a larger reduction in the latter than in the former group. Combined pre- and neonatal ATD treatment resulted in reduced frequency of mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations, as well as a reduced preference for a female over a male. The SDN-POA size was significantly and positively correlated with frequency of masculine sexual behavior, as well as preference for a female over a male.

  15. Context, emotion, and the strategic pursuit of goals: interactions among multiple brain systems controlling motivated behavior.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Aaron J; McDonald, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Motivated behavior exhibits properties that change with experience and partially dissociate among a number of brain structures. Here, we review evidence from rodent experiments demonstrating that multiple brain systems acquire information in parallel and either cooperate or compete for behavioral control. We propose a conceptual model of systems interaction wherein a ventral emotional memory network involving ventral striatum (VS), amygdala, ventral hippocampus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex triages behavioral responding to stimuli according to their associated affective outcomes. This system engages autonomic and postural responding (avoiding, ignoring, approaching) in accordance with associated stimulus valence (negative, neutral, positive), but does not engage particular operant responses. Rather, this emotional system suppresses or invigorates actions that are selected through competition between goal-directed control involving dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and habitual control involving dorsolateral striatum (DLS). The hippocampus provides contextual specificity to the emotional system, and provides an information rich input to the goal-directed system for navigation and discriminations involving ambiguous contexts, complex sensory configurations, or temporal ordering. The rapid acquisition and high capacity for episodic associations in the emotional system may unburden the more complex goal-directed system and reduce interference in the habit system from processing contingencies of neutral stimuli. Interactions among these systems likely involve inhibitory mechanisms and neuromodulation in the striatum to form a dominant response strategy. Innate traits, training methods, and task demands contribute to the nature of these interactions, which can include incidental learning in non-dominant systems. Addition of these features to reinforcement learning models of decision-making may better align theoretical predictions with behavioral and neural correlates in

  16. Context, emotion, and the strategic pursuit of goals: interactions among multiple brain systems controlling motivated behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Aaron J.; McDonald, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Motivated behavior exhibits properties that change with experience and partially dissociate among a number of brain structures. Here, we review evidence from rodent experiments demonstrating that multiple brain systems acquire information in parallel and either cooperate or compete for behavioral control. We propose a conceptual model of systems interaction wherein a ventral emotional memory network involving ventral striatum (VS), amygdala, ventral hippocampus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex triages behavioral responding to stimuli according to their associated affective outcomes. This system engages autonomic and postural responding (avoiding, ignoring, approaching) in accordance with associated stimulus valence (negative, neutral, positive), but does not engage particular operant responses. Rather, this emotional system suppresses or invigorates actions that are selected through competition between goal-directed control involving dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and habitual control involving dorsolateral striatum (DLS). The hippocampus provides contextual specificity to the emotional system, and provides an information rich input to the goal-directed system for navigation and discriminations involving ambiguous contexts, complex sensory configurations, or temporal ordering. The rapid acquisition and high capacity for episodic associations in the emotional system may unburden the more complex goal-directed system and reduce interference in the habit system from processing contingencies of neutral stimuli. Interactions among these systems likely involve inhibitory mechanisms and neuromodulation in the striatum to form a dominant response strategy. Innate traits, training methods, and task demands contribute to the nature of these interactions, which can include incidental learning in non-dominant systems. Addition of these features to reinforcement learning models of decision-making may better align theoretical predictions with behavioral and neural correlates in

  17. Strategic Provider Behavior Under Global Budget Payment with Price Adjustment in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bradley; Fan, Victoria Y

    2015-11-01

    Global budget payment is one of the most effective strategies for cost containment, but its impacts on provider behavior have not been explored in detail. This study examines the theoretical and empirical role of global budget payment on provider behavior. The study proposes that global budget payment with price adjustment is a form of common-pool resources. A two-product game theoretic model is derived, and simulations demonstrate that hospitals are expected to expand service volumes, with an emphasis on products with higher price-marginal cost ratios. Next, the study examines the early effects of Taiwan's global budget payment system using a difference-in-difference strategy and finds that Taiwanese hospitals exhibited such behavior, where the pursuit of individual interests led to an increase in treatment intensities. Furthermore, hospitals significantly increased inpatient service volume for regional hospitals and medical centers. In contrast, local hospitals, particularly for those without teaching status designation, faced a negative impact on service volume, as larger hospitals were better positioned to induce demand and pulled volume away from their smaller counterparts through more profitable services and products such as radiology and pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Gender-differentiated effects of theory of mind, emotion understanding, and social preference on prosocial behavior development: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kuhnert, Rebecca-Lee; Begeer, Sander; Fink, Elian; de Rosnay, Marc

    2017-02-01

    Although key differences have been found in boys' and girls' prosocial behavior toward peers, few studies have systematically examined gender differences in how intrinsic perspective-taking abilities-theory of mind (ToM) and emotion understanding (EU)-and the extrinsic peer environment relate to prosocial behavior. In this prospective longitudinal study, we studied gender differences in the relations between children's observed prosocial behavior and their ToM, EU, and social preference ratings in 114 children (58 boys and 56 girls). We used conventional ToM and EU tasks at 5 and 7years of age. Observed prosocial behavior in triadic peer interactions was assessed at both time points. Controlling for gender, age, verbal ability, and earlier prosocial behavior, ToM at 5years was found to predict prosocial behavior at 7years. Results also revealed gender-differentiated associations at 7years, whereby only girls' prosocial behavior was positively associated with EU. Results are discussed in terms of gender-differentiated patterns of socialization.

  19. Critical Behavior of Spatial Evolutionary Game with Altruistic to Spiteful Preferences on Two-Dimensional Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bo; Li, Xiao-Teng; Chen, Wei; Liu, Jian; Chen, Xiao-Song

    2016-10-01

    Self-questioning mechanism which is similar to single spin-flip of Ising model in statistical physics is introduced into spatial evolutionary game model. We propose a game model with altruistic to spiteful preferences via weighted sums of own and opponent's payoffs. This game model can be transformed into Ising model with an external field. Both interaction between spins and the external field are determined by the elements of payoff matrix and the preference parameter. In the case of perfect rationality at zero social temperature, this game model has three different phases which are entirely cooperative phase, entirely non-cooperative phase and mixed phase. In the investigations of the game model with Monte Carlo simulation, two paths of payoff and preference parameters are taken. In one path, the system undergoes a discontinuous transition from cooperative phase to non-cooperative phase with the change of preference parameter. In another path, two continuous transitions appear one after another when system changes from cooperative phase to non-cooperative phase with the prefenrence parameter. The critical exponents v, β, and γ of two continuous phase transitions are estimated by the finite-size scaling analysis. Both continuous phase transitions have the same critical exponents and they belong to the same universality class as the two-dimensional Ising model. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11121403 and 11504384

  20. Caffeine Reinforces Flavor Preference and Behavior in Moderate Users but Not in Low Caffeine Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dack, Charlotte; Reed, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the role of caffeine consumption in caffeine reinforcement. Previous findings have shown that caffeine reinforced flavor preference in moderate caffeine consumers who are caffeine deprived. However, most of these studies have employed rating procedures only, and have not shown the effectiveness of caffeine to reinforce behaviors…

  1. Intergenerational Influences on the Entry into Parenthood: Mothers' Preferences for Family and Nonfamily Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Jennifer S.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of long-term longitudinal data on White married mothers and their children found that both sons and daughters whose mothers preferred early marriage, large families, low levels of education, and stay-at-home mothers had children earlier than their peers. Analyses support both socialization and social control mechanisms. (Contains 56…

  2. Effects of gypsy moth infestation on near-view aesthetic preferences and recreation behavior intentions

    Treesearch

    S.J. Hollenhorst; S.M. Brock; W.A. Freimund; M.J. Twery

    1991-01-01

    Using the Scenic Beauty Estimator (SBE) approach, near-view color photographs were taken of 25 forested sites exhibiting gypsy moth induced tree mortality from 6% - 97%. A quadratic function of tree mortality by preference rating best described the variability in ratings ( R2 = .60). The effect of flowering mountain laurel flowers was also...

  3. Caffeine Reinforces Flavor Preference and Behavior in Moderate Users but Not in Low Caffeine Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dack, Charlotte; Reed, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the role of caffeine consumption in caffeine reinforcement. Previous findings have shown that caffeine reinforced flavor preference in moderate caffeine consumers who are caffeine deprived. However, most of these studies have employed rating procedures only, and have not shown the effectiveness of caffeine to reinforce behaviors…

  4. The Right Relationship Is Everything: Linking Personality Preferences to Managerial Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berr, Seth A.; Church, Allan H.; Waclawski, Janine

    2000-01-01

    Behavior measures and the Myers Briggs Type Indicator were completed by 343 senior managers; 3,158 of their peers, supervisees, and supervisors rated managers' behavior. A modest correlation appeared between personality type and manager behavior. Differences related to raters' perceptions were found. (SK)

  5. Site preference and compensation behavior in Co(Cr, Mn){sub 2}O{sub 4} system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H. G.; Wang, Z.; Yue, M.; Liu, E. K.; Wang, W. H.; Wu, G. H.

    2015-05-07

    Site preference of doped Mn ions in CoCr{sub 2−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 4} (x = 0–2) series has been derived separately from structure and magnetic measurement. It shows that parts of the doped Mn ions occupy the A (Co) sites when x < 0.5. And then, it takes the two B (Cr) sites in turn before and after x = 1.3. This site preference behavior results in a role conversion of the magnetic contributors and, thus, leads to the composition dependent magnetic compensation. Temperature induced compensation and negative magnetization have also been found in several samples, which is attributed to the large energy barrier between the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic spin arrangement. A structure transition from cubic to tetragonal symmetry has been detected.

  6. Effect of rotation preference on spontaneous alternation behavior on Y maze and introduction of a new analytical method, entropy of spontaneous alternation.

    PubMed

    Bak, Jia; Pyeon, Hae-In; Seok, Jin-I; Choi, Yun-Sik

    2017-03-01

    Y maze has been used to test spatial working memory in rodents. To this end, the percentage of spontaneous alternation has been employed. Alternation indicates sequential entries into all three arms; e.g., when an animal visits all three arms clockwise or counterclockwise sequentially, alternation is achieved. Interestingly, animals have a tendency to rotate or turn to a preferred side. Thus, when an animal has a high rotation preference, this may influence their alternation behavior. Here, we have generated a new analytical method, termed entropy of spontaneous alternation, to offset the effect of rotation preference on Y maze. To validate the entropy of spontaneous alternation, we employed a free rotation test using a cylinder and a spatial working memory test on Y maze. We identified that mice showed 65.1% rotation preference on average. Importantly, the percentage of spontaneous alternation in the high preference group (more than 70% rotation to a preferred side) was significantly higher than that in the no preference group (<55%). In addition, there was a clear correlation between rotation preference on cylinder and turning preference on Y maze. On the other hand, this potential leverage effect that arose from rotation preference disappeared when the animal behavior on Y maze was analyzed with the entropy of spontaneous alternation. Further, entropy of spontaneous alternation significantly determined the loss of spatial working memory by scopolamine administration. Combined, these data indicate that the entropy of spontaneous alternation provides higher credibility when spatial working memory is evaluated using Y maze.

  7. The posteromedial cortical amygdala regulates copulatory behavior, but not sexual odor preference, in the male Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Maras, P M; Petrulis, A

    2008-10-15

    In rodent species, the expression of reproductive behavior relies heavily on the perception of social odors, as well as the presence of circulating steroid hormones. In the Syrian hamster, chemosensory and hormonal cues are processed within an interconnected network of ventral forebrain nuclei that regulates many aspects of social behavior. Within this network, the posteromedial cortical amygdala (PMCo) receives direct projections from the accessory olfactory bulbs and contains a dense population of steroid receptor-containing neurons. Consequently, the PMCo may be important for generating odor-guided aspects of reproductive behavior, yet little is known regarding the role of this nucleus in regulating these behaviors. Thus, the present study tested male hamsters with site-specific electrolytic lesions of the PMCo for their (a) sexual odor preference in a Y-maze apparatus, (b) sexual odor discrimination in a habituation-dishabituation task, and (c) copulatory behavior when paired with a sexually receptive female. PMCo-lesioned males preferred to investigate female odors over male odors and were able to discriminate between these odor sources. However, PMCo lesions were associated with several alterations in the male copulatory pattern. First, PMCo-lesioned males displayed increased investigation of the female's non-anogenital region, suggesting that the PMCo may be involved in directing appropriate chemosensory investigation during mating. Second, PMCo lesions altered the temporal pattern of the mating sequence, as PMCo-lesioned males took longer than Sham-lesioned males to reach sexual satiety, as indicated by the delayed expression of long intromissions. This delayed onset of satiety was associated with an increased number of ejaculations compared with Sham-lesioned males. Importantly, these data provide the first direct evidence for a functional role of the PMCo in regulating male reproductive behavior.

  8. Higher Childhood Peer Reports of Social Preference Mediates the Impact of the Good Behavior Game on Suicide Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Newcomer, Alison R.; Roth, Kimberly B.; Kellam, Sheppard G.; Wang, Wei; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Hart, Shelley R.; Wagner, Barry M.; Wilcox, Holly C.

    2015-01-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a universal classroom-based preventive intervention directed at reducing early aggressive, disruptive behavior and improving children's social adaptation into the classroom. GBG is one of the few universal preventive interventions delivered in early elementary school that has been shown to reduce the risk for future suicide attempts. This paper addresses one potential mechanism by which the GBG lowers the risk of later suicide attempt. In this study we tested whether the GBG, by facilitating social adaptation into the classroom early on, including the level of social preference by classmates, thereby lowers future risk of suicide attempts. The measure of social adaptation is based on first and second grade peer reports of social preference (“which children do you like best?”; “which children don't you like?”). As part of the hypothesized meditational model, we examined the longitudinal association between childhood peer social preference and the risk of future suicide attempt, which has not previously been examined. Data were from an epidemiologically-based randomized prevention trial, which tested the GBG among two consecutive cohorts of first grade children in 19 public schools and 41 classrooms. Results indicated that peer social preference partially mediated the relationship between the GBG and the associated reduction of risk for later suicide attempts by adulthood, specifically among children characterized by their first grade teacher as highly aggressive, disruptive. These results suggest that positive childhood peer relations may partially explain the GBG-associated reduction of risk for suicide attempts and may be an important and malleable protective factor for future suicide attempt. PMID:26297498

  9. Effect of social housing on the development of feeding behavior and social feeding preferences of dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated how social housing affects pre- and postweaning feeding behavior and social feeding preferences of dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were housed either individually (IH; 10 calves) or in pairs (PH; 10 calves) from birth. Calves were offered grain concentrate and milk replacer ad libitum via an artificial teat (1 teat provided per calf) and weaned by incrementally diluting the milk replacer from 39 to 49 d of age. Postweaning, IH calves were paired within treatment and all pens (n=5 per treatment) were offered a complete pelleted diet ad libitum and followed until 13 wk of age. We recorded feeding times from video for 3 consecutive days in wk 6, 9, and 12 of age and used this to calculate daily meal frequency and meal duration. In wk 9 and 12, frequency and duration of synchronized feeding were also calculated. In addition, preference tests were conducted at time of feed delivery in wk 10 to assess the preference of each calf to feed alongside or out of visual contact of their pen mate. Pair-housed calves consumed more concentrate, in more frequent meals, than IH calves in the week before weaning (wk 6) and continued to have greater concentrate intake during weaning. Milk intake was not affected by treatment, but calves in PH pens consumed their milk in more frequent and smaller meals. Postweaning, intake was similar between treatments, but calves raised in PH pens continued to have meals that were more frequent and shorter in duration. Both treatments had a similar frequency of synchronized meals. However, when offered a choice to feed alone or alongside their pen mate during preference testing, calves raised in PH pens spent more time feeding in the presence of their pen mate than calves raised in IH pens. These results suggest that meal patterns established in response to different early social environments may persist after weaning and that early social contact may have longer-term effects on social feeding behavior.

  10. Higher Childhood Peer Reports of Social Preference Mediates the Impact of the Good Behavior Game on Suicide Attempt.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Alison R; Roth, Kimberly B; Kellam, Sheppard G; Wang, Wei; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Hart, Shelley R; Wagner, Barry M; Wilcox, Holly C

    2016-02-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a universal classroom-based preventive intervention directed at reducing early aggressive, disruptive behavior and improving children's social adaptation into the classroom. The GBG is one of the few universal preventive interventions delivered in early elementary school that has been shown to reduce the risk for future suicide attempts. This paper addresses one potential mechanism by which the GBG lowers the risk of later suicide attempt. In this study, we tested whether the GBG, by facilitating social adaptation into the classroom early on, including the level of social preference by classmates, thereby lowers future risk of suicide attempts. The measure of social adaptation is based on first and second grade peer reports of social preference ("which children do you like best?"; "which children don't you like?"). As part of the hypothesized meditational model, we examined the longitudinal association between childhood peer social preference and the risk of future suicide attempt, which has not previously been examined. Data were from an epidemiologically based randomized prevention trial, which tested the GBG among two consecutive cohorts of first grade children in 19 public schools and 41 classrooms. Results indicated that peer social preference partially mediated the relationship between the GBG and the associated reduction of risk for later suicide attempts by adulthood, specifically among children characterized by their first grade teacher as highly aggressive, disruptive. These results suggest that positive childhood peer relations may partially explain the GBG-associated reduction of risk for suicide attempts and may be an important and malleable protective factor for future suicide attempt.

  11. Preference and drinking behavior of lactating dairy cows offered water with different concentrations, valences, and sources of iron.

    PubMed

    Genther, O N; Beede, D K

    2013-02-01

    Drinking water can contain high concentrations of Fe, mainly of the ferrous (Fe(2+)) valence. The current recommended upper tolerable concentration of Fe in drinking water for cattle (0.3mg/L) comes from guidelines for human palatability, but cattle may be able to tolerate higher concentrations. Our objective was to determine the effects of varying concentrations of ferrous (Fe(2+)) or ferric (Fe(3+)) iron and Fe salt source on lactating dairy cows' preferences for and drinking behavior of water offered as choices ad libitum. In 4 separate experiments, cows were offered pairs of water treatments for 22-h periods and water intake and drinking behavior were recorded. In experiment 1, treatments were 0, 4, or 8 mg of total recoverable Fe/L from ferrous lactate. Cows exhibited no preference between water with 0 or 4 mg of Fe/L, but water intake was less with 8 compared with 0 or 4 mg of Fe/L. Also, cows spent less time drinking water containing 8 mg of Fe/L. Total time spent drinking correlated positively with water intake when pooled across treatments. In experiment 2, treatments were 0 or 8 mg of Fe/L from either ferrous sulfate (FeSO(4)) or ferric sulfate [Fe(2)(SO(4))(3)]. Water intake did not differ among treatments. In experiment 3, treatments were 0 (control), 12.5, or 8 mg of Fe/L from ferrous chloride (FeCl(2)) or ferric chloride (FeCl(3)), respectively. Again, cows exhibited no preference among treatments. In experiment 4, treatments were 0 or 8 mg of Fe/L from ferrous lactate [Fe(C(3)H(5)O(3))(2)], ferrous sulfate (FeSO(4)), or ferrous chloride (FeCl(2)). Cows preferred to drink water without added Fe, but did not exhibit any preference among waters containing the Fe sources with different anionic moieties. Cows spent less time drinking and drank less frequently when offered water containing 12.5mg of total recoverable Fe/L from ferrous chloride compared with 8.0mg of Fe/L from ferrous lactate or ferrous sulfate. Water intake correlated positively with both

  12. Unfakeable Facial Configurations Affect Strategic Choices in Trust Games with or without Information about Past Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rezlescu, Constantin; Duchaine, Brad; Olivola, Christopher Y.; Chater, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Background Many human interactions are built on trust, so widespread confidence in first impressions generally favors individuals with trustworthy-looking appearances. However, few studies have explicitly examined: 1) the contribution of unfakeable facial features to trust-based decisions, and 2) how these cues are integrated with information about past behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings Using highly controlled stimuli and an improved experimental procedure, we show that unfakeable facial features associated with the appearance of trustworthiness attract higher investments in trust games. The facial trustworthiness premium is large for decisions based solely on faces, with trustworthy identities attracting 42% more money (Study 1), and remains significant though reduced to 6% when reputational information is also available (Study 2). The face trustworthiness premium persists with real (rather than virtual) currency and when higher payoffs are at stake (Study 3). Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that cooperation may be affected not only by controllable appearance cues (e.g., clothing, facial expressions) as shown previously, but also by features that are impossible to mimic (e.g., individual facial structure). This unfakeable face trustworthiness effect is not limited to the rare situations where people lack any information about their partners, but survives in richer environments where relevant details about partner past behavior are available. PMID:22470553

  13. Adenylyl cyclase-5 in the dorsal striatum function as a molecular switch for the generation of behavioral preferences for cue-directed food choices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hannah; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Kim, Ji-Eun; Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Yunjin; Kang, Minkyung; Kim, Kyoung-Shim; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2014-11-07

    Behavioral choices in habits and innate behaviors occur automatically in the absence of conscious selection. These behaviors are not easily modified by learning. Similar types of behaviors also occur in various mental illnesses including drug addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, and autism. However, underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms regulating unconditioned preferred behaviors in food-choices. Mice lacking adenylyl cyclase-5 (AC5 KO mice), which is preferentially expressed in the dorsal striatum, consumed food pellets nearly one after another in cages. AC5 KO mice showed aversive behaviors to bitter tasting quinine, but they compulsively chose quinine-containing AC5 KO-pellets over fresh pellets. The unusual food-choice behaviors in AC5 KO mice were due to the gain of behavioral preferences for food pellets containing an olfactory cue, which wild-type mice normally ignored. Such food-choice behaviors in AC5 KO mice disappeared when whiskers were trimmed. Conversely, whisker trimming in wildtype mice induced behavioral preferences for AC5 KO food pellets, indicating that preferred food-choices were not learned through prior experience. Both AC5 KO mice and wildtype mice with trimmed whiskers had increased glutamatergic input from the barrel cortex into the dorsal striatum, resulting in an increase in the mGluR1-dependent signaling cascade. The siRNA-mediated inhibition of mGluR1 in the dorsal striatum in AC5 KO mice and wildtype mice with trimmed whiskers abolished preferred choices for AC5 KO food pellets, whereas siRNA-mediated inhibition of mGluR3 glutamate receptors in the dorsal striatum in wildtype mice induced behavioral preferences for AC5 KO food pellets, thus mimicking AC5 KO phenotypes. Our results show that the gain and loss of behavioral preferences for a specific cue-directed option were regulated by specific cellular factors in the dorsal striatum, such

  14. Pramipexole induced place preference after L-dopa therapy and nigral dopaminergic loss: linking behavior to transcriptional modifications.

    PubMed

    Loiodice, Simon; Winlow, Poppy; Dremier, Sarah; Hanon, Etienne; Dardou, David; Ouachikh, Omar; Hafidi, Aziz; da Costa, Andre Nogueira; Durif, Franck

    2017-01-01

    Impulsive-compulsive disorders (ICD) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been described as behavioral or substance addictions including hypersexuality, gambling, or compulsive medication use of the dopamine replacement therapy (DRT). A remaining challenge is to understand the neuroadaptations leading to reward bias in PD patients under DRT. To this end, the appetitive effect of the D2/D3 agonist pramipexole was assessed after chronic exposure to L-dopa in an alpha-synuclein PD rat model. Association of progressive nigral loss and chronic L-dopa was required to observe a pramipexole-induced place preference. This behavioral outcome was inhibited by metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) antagonism while transcriptional profiling highlighted regulations potentially related to the context of psychostimulant addiction. This study provides evidences strongly suggesting that PD-like lesion and L-dopa therapy were concomitant factors involved in striatal remodeling underlying the pramipexole-induced place preference. Molecular and pharmacological data suggest a key involvement of the glutamatergic pathway in this behavioral outcome.

  15. NMDA receptors-dependent plasticity in the phototaxis preference behavior induced by visual deprivation in young and adult flies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, M; Lei, Z; Li, H; Yi, W; Zhang, Z; Guo, A

    2010-04-01

    Adult mammals have experience-dependent plasticity in visual system, but it is unclear whether adult insects also have this plasticity after the critical period of visual development. Here, we have established a modified Y-maze apparatus for investigating experience-dependent plasticity in Drosophila. Using this setup we demonstrate that flies after the critical period have bidirectional modifications of the phototaxis preference behavior (PPB) induced by visual deprivation and experience: Visual deprivation decreases the preference of flies for visible light, while visual experience exerts the opposite effect. We also found an age-dependent PPB plasticity induced by visual deprivation. Molecular and cellular studies suggest that the N-methyl- d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediate ocular dominance plasticity in visual cortex in mammals, but direct behavioral evidence is lacking. Here, we used the genetic approaches to demonstrate that NMDAR1, which is NMDARs subunit in Drosophila, can mediate PPB plasticity in young and adult flies. These findings provide direct behavioral evidence that NMDAR1 mediates PPB plasticity in Drosophila. Our results suggest that mammals and insects have analogous mechanisms for experience-dependent plasticity and its regulation by NMDAR signaling.

  16. Oviposition preference for and positional avoidance of acetic acid provide a model for competing behavioral drives in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Ryan M; Devineni, Anita V; King, Ian F G; Heberlein, Ulrike

    2009-07-07

    Selection of appropriate oviposition sites is essential for progeny survival and fitness in generalist insect species, such as Drosophila melanogaster, yet little is known about the mechanisms regulating how environmental conditions and innate adult preferences are evaluated and balanced to yield the final substrate choice for egg-deposition. Female D. melanogaster are attracted to food containing acetic acid (AA) as an oviposition substrate. However, our observations reveal that this egg-laying preference is a complex process, as it directly opposes an otherwise strong, default behavior of positional avoidance for the same food. We show that 2 distinct sensory modalities detect AA. Attraction to AA-containing food for the purpose of egg-laying relies on the gustatory system, while positional repulsion depends primarily on the olfactory system. Similarly, distinct central brain regions are involved in AA attraction and repulsion. Given this unique situation, in which a single environmental stimulus yields 2 opposing behavioral outputs, we propose that the interaction of egg-laying attraction and positional aversion for AA provides a powerful model for studying how organisms balance competing behavioral drives and integrate signals involved in choice-like processes.

  17. Oviposition preference for and positional avoidance of acetic acid provide a model for competing behavioral drives in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Ryan M.; Devineni, Anita V.; King, Ian F. G.; Heberlein, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Selection of appropriate oviposition sites is essential for progeny survival and fitness in generalist insect species, such as Drosphila melanogaster, yet little is known about the mechanisms regulating how environmental conditions and innate adult preferences are evaluated and balanced to yield the final substrate choice for egg-deposition. Female D. melanogaster are attracted to food containing acetic acid (AA) as an oviposition substrate. However, our observations reveal that this egg-laying preference is a complex process, as it directly opposes an otherwise strong, default behavior of positional avoidance for the same food. We show that 2 distinct sensory modalities detect AA. Attraction to AA-containing food for the purpose of egg-laying relies on the gustatory system, while positional repulsion depends primarily on the olfactory system. Similarly, distinct central brain regions are involved in AA attraction and repulsion. Given this unique situation, in which a single environmental stimulus yields 2 opposing behavioral outputs, we propose that the interaction of egg-laying attraction and positional aversion for AA provides a powerful model for studying how organisms balance competing behavioral drives and integrate signals involved in choice-like processes. PMID:19541615

  18. National multi-cohort time trends in adolescent risk preference and the relation with substance use and problem behavior from 1976 to 2011*

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Jager, Justin; Hamilton, Ava; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Miech, Richard; Schulenberg, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Preference for risky activities is an important developmentally-graded predictor of substance use. Population-level trends in adolescent risk preference, as well as the way in which risk preference may be a conduit to risk behavior, have never been documented. The present study examines population-level trends in risk preference among U.S. high school seniors for the 36 years from 1976–2011, as well as trends in the association between risk preference and substance use and other problem behaviors. Methods Data were drawn from yearly nationally-representative cross-sectional surveys of US high school seniors (N=91,860). Risk preference was measured consistently with two items. Marijuana and cocaine use, binge drinking, and conduct problems were assessed. Trends were tested using JoinPoint software. Results The mean level of reported risk preference among US 12th graders has increased over time, especially in the 1980s. For example, the proportion of high school females who reported enjoying activities that were “a little dangerous” more than doubled, from 4.9% in 1976 to 10.8% in 1988. While risk preference reports among adolescent males leveled off in 1992, risk preference reports among females shows a continued positive overall slope through 2011. The magnitude of the association between risk preference and marijuana use has increased over time. Conclusions Reported preference for risky activities has increased among adolescents in the US, especially among young women. Reported risk preference is increasingly associated with a higher use of marijuana. Our findings argue for the importance of placing risk preference within a multi-level framework that attends to historical variation. PMID:26254018

  19. Strategic Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-11

    of massive multi-player gaming environments to facilitate expert education, collaboration, and experimentation. Finally, it recommends a focus on red ... team analysis and experimentation as a means of minimizing strategic surprise from technological sources. To fully explore potential strategic

  20. Music listening preferences and preadmission dysfunctional psychosocial behaviors of adolescents hospitalized on an in-patient psychiatric unit.

    PubMed

    Weidinger, C K; Demi, A S

    1991-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between music listening preferences and preadmission, dysfunctional psychosocial behaviors (PDPB) of 60 adolescents who were hospitalized on an in-patient psychiatric unit. Findings were that hospitalized adolescents who primarily listened to music with negative lyrics/themes had a history of more PDPB than hospitalized adolescents who primarily listened to music that did not contain negative lyrics/themes; and hospitalized adolescents who primarily listened to heavy metal music had a history of more PDPB than hospitalized adolescents who primarily listened to other types of music.

  1. Autistic traits affect interpersonal motor coordination by modulating strategic use of role-based behavior.

    PubMed

    Curioni, Arianna; Minio-Paluello, Ilaria; Sacheli, Lucia Maria; Candidi, Matteo; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2017-01-01

    Despite the fact that deficits in social communication and interaction are at the core of Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC), no study has yet tested individuals on a continuum from neurotypical development to autism in an on-line, cooperative, joint action task. In our study, we aimed to assess whether the degree of autistic traits affects participants' ability to modulate their motor behavior while interacting in a Joint Grasping task and according to their given role. Sixteen pairs of adult participants played a cooperative social interactive game in which they had to synchronize their reach-to-grasp movements. Pairs were comprised of one ASC and one neurotypical with no cognitive disability. In alternate experimental blocks, one participant knew what action to perform (instructed role) while the other had to infer it from his/her partner's action (adaptive role). When in the adaptive condition, participants were told to respond with an action that was either opposite or similar to their partner. Participants also played a non-social control game in which they had to synchronize with a non-biological stimulus. In the social interactive task, higher degree of autistic traits predicted less ability to modulate joint action according to one's interactive role. In the non-social task, autistic traits did not predict differences in movement preparation and planning, thus ruling out the possibility that social interactive task results were due to basic motor or executive function difficulties. Furthermore, when participants played the non-social game, the higher their autistic traits, the more they were interfered by the non-biological stimulus. Our study shows for the first time that high autistic traits predict a stereotypical interaction style when individuals are required to modulate their movements in order to coordinate with their partner according to their role in a joint action task. Specifically, the infrequent emergence of role-based motor behavior modulation

  2. Thinking Strategically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffress, Conway

    2000-01-01

    Asserts that community college leaders must think strategically and understand the difference between what is important and immediate, and what is strategic and essential to the long-term survival of a college. States that thinking strategically aligns decision-making and actions with the core purpose of the college; produces core competencies in…

  3. Comparisons of Conceptual Preference for Cultural and Leadership Behavior in an Information Technology Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valley, Amina B.

    2009-01-01

    The primary focus of the research study conducted was to analyze the predictive leadership behaviors of Southern Asian and United States individuals in the information technology career field. This research validates the leadership traits and behaviors of information technology types of United States individuals that enhance the impact of…

  4. Assessing Preferences for Positive and Negative Reinforcement during Treatment of Destructive Behavior with Functional Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Wayne W.; Adelinis, John D.; Volkert, Valerie M.; Keeney, Kris M.; Neidert, Pamela L.; Hovanetz, Alyson

    2005-01-01

    Results of prior studies (e.g. [J. Appl. Behav. Anal. 32 (1999) 285]) showing that participants chose alternative behavior (compliance) over escape-reinforced destructive behavior when this latter response produced escape and the former response produced positive reinforcement may have been due to (a) the value of the positive reinforcer…

  5. Assessing Preferences for Positive and Negative Reinforcement during Treatment of Destructive Behavior with Functional Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Wayne W.; Adelinis, John D.; Volkert, Valerie M.; Keeney, Kris M.; Neidert, Pamela L.; Hovanetz, Alyson

    2005-01-01

    Results of prior studies (e.g. [J. Appl. Behav. Anal. 32 (1999) 285]) showing that participants chose alternative behavior (compliance) over escape-reinforced destructive behavior when this latter response produced escape and the former response produced positive reinforcement may have been due to (a) the value of the positive reinforcer…

  6. Preferred Teacher-Student Interpersonal Behavior: Differences Between Polish Primary and Higher Education Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sztejnberg, Aleksander; den Brok, Perry; Hurek, Jozef

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated differences between students' perceptions of their best teachers in primary and higher education in Poland. Teacher behavior was conceptualized in terms of the teacher-student interpersonal relationship and described in terms of eight behavioral sectors ? leadership, helpful/friendly, understanding, student…

  7. Comparisons of Conceptual Preference for Cultural and Leadership Behavior in an Information Technology Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valley, Amina B.

    2009-01-01

    The primary focus of the research study conducted was to analyze the predictive leadership behaviors of Southern Asian and United States individuals in the information technology career field. This research validates the leadership traits and behaviors of information technology types of United States individuals that enhance the impact of…

  8. How Are Preferences Revealed?

    PubMed Central

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2009-01-01

    Revealed preferences are tastes that rationalize an economic agent’s observed actions. Normative preferences represent the agent’s actual interests. It sometimes makes sense to assume that revealed preferences are identical to normative preferences. But there are many cases where this assumption is violated. We identify five factors that increase the likelihood of a disparity between revealed preferences and normative preferences: passive choice, complexity, limited personal experience, third-party marketing, and intertemporal choice. We then discuss six approaches that jointly contribute to the identification of normative preferences: structural estimation, active decisions, asymptotic choice, aggregated revealed preferences, reported preferences, and informed preferences. Each of these approaches uses consumer behavior to infer some property of normative preferences without equating revealed and normative preferences. We illustrate these issues with evidence from savings and investment outcomes. PMID:24761048

  9. Ceftriaxone, a beta-lactam antibiotic, attenuates relapse-like ethanol-drinking behavior in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Qrunfleh, Abeer M; Alazizi, Adnan; Sari, Youssef

    2013-06-01

    Relapse-like ethanol-drinking behavior depends on increased glutamate transmission in the mesocorticolimbic motive circuit. Extracellular glutamate is regulated by a number of glutamate transporters. Of these transporters, glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) is responsible for the majority of extracellular glutamate uptake. We have recently reported that ceftriaxone (CEF) treatment (i.p.), a β-lactam antibiotic known to elevate GTL1 expression, reduced ethanol intake in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We investigated here whether CEF treatment attenuates relapse-like ethanol-drinking behavior. P rats were exposed to free choice of 15% and 30% ethanol for 5 weeks and treated with CEF (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) during the last 5 days of the 2-week deprivation period. Rats treated with CEF during the deprivation period showed a reduction in ethanol intake compared with saline-treated rats upon re-exposure to ethanol; this effect persisted for 9 days. Moreover, CEF-mediated attenuation in relapse to ethanol-drinking behavior was associated with upregulation of GLT1 level in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens core. GLT1 upregulation was revealed only at the higher dose of CEF. In addition, CEF has no effect on relapse-like sucrose-drinking behavior. These findings suggest that ceftriaxone might be used as a potential therapeutic treatment for the attenuation of relapse-like ethanol-drinking behavior.

  10. Preference and behavior of lactating dairy cows given free access to pasture at two herbage masses and two distances.

    PubMed

    Motupalli, P R; Sinclair, L A; Charlton, G L; Bleach, E C; Rutter, S M

    2014-11-01

    A number of factors influence dairy cow preference to be indoors or at pasture. The study reported here investigated whether herbage mass and distance affects preference and if continuously housed cows exhibited behavioral and production differences compared to cows that had free access to pasture. Dairy cows (n = 16) were offered a free choice of being in cubicle housing (1.5 cubicles/cow) or at pasture with a high (3,000 ± 200 kg DM/ha) vs. low (1,800 ± 200 kg DM/ha) herbage mass. A control group (n = 16) was confined to cubicle housing for the duration of the study. Each herbage mass was offered at either a near (38 m) or far (254 m) distance in a 2 × 2 factorial crossover design to determine motivation to access pasture. Overall, dairy cows expressed a partial preference to be at pasture, spending 68.7% of their time at pasture. This was not affected (P > 0.05) by herbage mass. Both grass intake (P = 0.001) and grazing time (P = 0.039) was greater when cows were offered the high herbage mass. Neither total mixed ration intake (P > 0.05) nor milk yield (P > 0.05) was affected by herbage mass or distance. Additionally, no interaction existed between herbage mass and distance (P > 0.05). Distance affected preference: overall time on pasture was greater at the near distance (P = 0.002); however, nighttime use was not affected by distance (P = 0.184). Housed cows produced less milk than free-choice cows and this was potentially due to a combination of decreased lying time in housed cows (P < 0.001) and grass intake (1.22 kg/d) in free-choice cows. This study shows that herbage mass is not a major factor driving dairy cow preference for pasture, but distance does affect preference for pasture during the day. Additionally, there are clear production and welfare benefits for providing cows with a choice to be at pasture or cubicle housing over being continuously housed. Further research is necessary to quantify the effect of lying time on milk yields.

  11. Lower risk taking and exploratory behavior in alcohol-preferring sP rats than in alcohol non-preferring sNP rats in the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test.

    PubMed

    Roman, Erika; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2009-12-14

    The present investigation continues previous behavioral profiling studies of selectively bred alcohol-drinking and alcohol non-drinking rats. In this study, alcohol-naïve adult Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) and non-preferring (sNP) rats were tested in the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test. The MCSF test has an ethoexperimental approach and measures general activity, exploration, risk assessment, risk taking, and shelter seeking in laboratory rodents. The multivariate design enables behavioral profiling in one and the same test situation. Age-matched male Wistar rats were included as a control group. Five weeks after the first MCSF trial, a repeated testing was done to explore differences in acquired experience. The results revealed distinct differences in exploratory strategies and behavioral profiles between sP and sNP rats. The sP rats were characterized by lower activity, lower exploratory drive, higher risk assessment, and lower risk taking behavior than in sNP rats. In the repeated trial, risk-taking behavior was almost abolished in sP rats. When comparing the performance of sP and sNP rats with that of Wistar rats, the principal component analysis revealed that the sP rats were the most divergent group. The vigilant behavior observed in sP rats with low exploratory drive and low risk-taking behavior is interpreted here as high innate anxiety-related behaviors and may be related to their propensity for high voluntary alcohol intake and preference. We suggest that the different lines of alcohol-preferring rats with different behavioral characteristics constitute valuable animal models that mimic the heterogeneity in human alcohol dependence.

  12. Behavioral and neural evidence of incentive bias for immediate rewards relative to preference-matched delayed rewards

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shan; Ainslie, George; Giragosian, Lisa; Monterosso, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Several theories of self-control (including intertemporal bargaining Ainslie (1992) and self-signaling Bodner and Prelec (2001)) imply that intertemporal decisions can be more farsighted than would be predicted by the incentive associated with rewards outside a decision context. We examined this hypothesis using behavior and functional neuroimaging. First, subjects expressed preferences between amounts of money delayed by four months and smaller amounts available that day. This allowed us to establish “indifference pairs” individualized to each participant -- immediate and delayed amounts that were equally preferred. Participants subsequently performed a reaction time fMRI task (Knutson et al, 2001a) that provided them with distinct opportunities to win each of the rewards that comprised the indifference pairs. Anatomical Region of Interest analysis as well as whole-brain analysis indicated greater response recruited by the immediate rewards (relative to the preference matched delayed rewards) in regions previously implicated as sensitive to incentive value using the same task (including bilateral putamen, bilateral anterior insula and midbrain). RT to the target was also faster during the immediate relative to delayed reward trials (p < .01), and individual differences in RT between immediate versus delayed reward trials correlated with variance in MR signal in those clusters that responded preferentially to immediate rewards (r = .33, p < .05). These findings indicate a discrepancy in incentive associated with the immediate versus the preference-matched delayed rewards. This discrepancy may mark the contribution of self-control processes that are recruited during decision-making, but that are absent when rewards are individually anticipated. PMID:19940177

  13. A case study in behavioral analysis, synthesis and attention to detail: social learning of food preferences.

    PubMed

    Galef, Bennett G

    2012-06-01

    Philip Teitelbaum's focus on detailed description of behavior, the interplay of analysis and synthesis in experimental investigations and the importance of converging lines of evidence in testing hypotheses has proven useful in fields distant from the physiological psychology that he studied throughout his career. Here we consider the social biasing of food choice in Norway rats as an instance of the application of Teitelbaum's principles of behavioral analysis and synthesis and the usefulness of convergent evidence as well as the contributions of detailed behavioral analysis of social influences on food choice to present understanding of both sensory processes and memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effects of 4-Methylethcathinone on Conditioned Place Preference, Locomotor Sensitization, and Anxiety-Like Behavior: A Comparison with Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Qiu, Yi; Zhang, Yizhi; Βai, Yanping; Xu, Pengfei; Liu, Yuan; Kim, Jee Hyun; Shen, Hao-wei

    2016-04-01

    4-Methylethcathinone is a drug that belongs to the second generation of synthetic cathinones, and recently it has been ranked among the most popular "legal highs". Although it has similar in vitro neurochemical actions to other drugs such as cocaine, the behavioral effects of 4-methylethcathinone remain to be determined. The addictive potential and locomotor potentiation by 4-methylethcathinone were investigated in rats using the conditioned place preference and sensitization paradigm. Methamphetamine was used as a positive control. Because synthetic cathinones can have psychological effects, we also examined anxiety-like behavior using the elevated plus maze. A conditioning dose of 10 mg/kg 4-methylethcathinone was able to induce conditioned place preference and reinstatement (following 2 weeks of withdrawal). Acute or repeated injections of 4-methylethcathinone at 3 or 10mg/kg failed to alter locomotor activity. At 30 mg/kg, however, acute 4-methylethcathinone increased locomotor activity compared with saline, while chronic 4-methylethcathinone induced a delayed and attenuated sensitization compared with methamphetamine. Additionally, repeated daily injections of 4-methylethcathinone (30 mg/kg) reduced, whereas methamphetamine increased time spent by rats in the open arm of an elevated plus maze compared with saline injections. Interestingly, a 2-week withdrawal period following chronic injections of 4-methylethcathinone or methamphetamine increased time spent in the open arm in all rats. The rewarding properties of 4-methylethcathinone were found to be dissociated from its effects on locomotor activity. Additionally, chronic 4-methylethcathinone use may trigger abnormal anxious behaviors. These behavioral effects caused by 4-methylethcathinone appear to last even after a withdrawal period. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  15. The Effects of 4-Methylethcathinone on Conditioned Place Preference, Locomotor Sensitization, and Anxiety-Like Behavior: A Comparison with Methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peng; Qiu, Yi; Zhang, Yizhi; Βai, Yanping; Xu, Pengfei; Liu, Yuan; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background: 4-Methylethcathinone is a drug that belongs to the second generation of synthetic cathinones, and recently it has been ranked among the most popular “legal highs”. Although it has similar in vitro neurochemical actions to other drugs such as cocaine, the behavioral effects of 4-methylethcathinone remain to be determined. Methods: The addictive potential and locomotor potentiation by 4-methylethcathinone were investigated in rats using the conditioned place preference and sensitization paradigm. Methamphetamine was used as a positive control. Because synthetic cathinones can have psychological effects, we also examined anxiety-like behavior using the elevated plus maze. Results: A conditioning dose of 10mg/kg 4-methylethcathinone was able to induce conditioned place preference and reinstatement (following 2 weeks of withdrawal). Acute or repeated injections of 4-methylethcathinone at 3 or 10mg/kg failed to alter locomotor activity. At 30mg/kg, however, acute 4-methylethcathinone increased locomotor activity compared with saline, while chronic 4-methylethcathinone induced a delayed and attenuated sensitization compared with methamphetamine. Additionally, repeated daily injections of 4-methylethcathinone (30mg/kg) reduced, whereas methamphetamine increased time spent by rats in the open arm of an elevated plus maze compared with saline injections. Interestingly, a 2-week withdrawal period following chronic injections of 4-methylethcathinone or methamphetamine increased time spent in the open arm in all rats. Conclusions: The rewarding properties of 4-methylethcathinone were found to be dissociated from its effects on locomotor activity. Additionally, chronic 4-methylethcathinone use may trigger abnormal anxious behaviors. These behavioral effects caused by 4-methylethcathinone appear to last even after a withdrawal period. PMID:26612552

  16. Changes in saccharin preference behavior as a primary outcome to evaluate pain and analgesia in acetic acid-induced visceral pain in mice

    PubMed Central

    de la Puente, Beatriz; Romero-Alejo, Elizabeth; Vela, José Miguel; Merlos, Manuel; Zamanillo, Daniel; Portillo-Salido, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Reflex-based procedures are important measures in preclinical pain studies that evaluate stimulated behaviors. These procedures, however, are insufficient to capture the complexity of the pain experience, which is often associated with the depression of several innate behaviors. While recent studies have made efforts to evidence the suppression of some positively motivated behaviors in certain pain models, they are still far from being routinely used as readouts for analgesic screening. Here, we characterized and compared the effect of the analgesic ibuprofen (Ibu) and the stimulant, caffeine, in assays of acute pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior. Intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (AA) served as a noxious stimulus to stimulate a writhing response or depress saccharin preference and locomotor activity (LMA) in mice. AA injection caused the maximum number of writhes between 5 and 20 minutes after administration, and writhing almost disappeared 1 hour later. AA-treated mice showed signs of depression-like behaviors after writhing resolution, as evidenced by reduced locomotion and saccharin preference for at least 4 and 6 hours, respectively. Depression-like behaviors resolved within 24 hours after AA administration. A dose of Ibu (40 mg/kg) – inactive to reduce AA-induced abdominal writhing – administered before or after AA injection significantly reverted pain-induced saccharin preference deficit. The same dose of Ibu also significantly reverted the AA-depressed LMA, but only when it was administered after AA injection. Caffeine restored locomotion – but not saccharin preference – in AA-treated mice, thus suggesting that the reduction in saccharin preference – but not in locomotion – was specifically sensitive to analgesics. In conclusion, AA-induced acute pain attenuated saccharin preference and LMA beyond the resolution of writhing behavior, and the changes in the expression of hedonic behavior, such as sweet taste preference, can be

  17. Changes in saccharin preference behavior as a primary outcome to evaluate pain and analgesia in acetic acid-induced visceral pain in mice.

    PubMed

    de la Puente, Beatriz; Romero-Alejo, Elizabeth; Vela, José Miguel; Merlos, Manuel; Zamanillo, Daniel; Portillo-Salido, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Reflex-based procedures are important measures in preclinical pain studies that evaluate stimulated behaviors. These procedures, however, are insufficient to capture the complexity of the pain experience, which is often associated with the depression of several innate behaviors. While recent studies have made efforts to evidence the suppression of some positively motivated behaviors in certain pain models, they are still far from being routinely used as readouts for analgesic screening. Here, we characterized and compared the effect of the analgesic ibuprofen (Ibu) and the stimulant, caffeine, in assays of acute pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior. Intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (AA) served as a noxious stimulus to stimulate a writhing response or depress saccharin preference and locomotor activity (LMA) in mice. AA injection caused the maximum number of writhes between 5 and 20 minutes after administration, and writhing almost disappeared 1 hour later. AA-treated mice showed signs of depression-like behaviors after writhing resolution, as evidenced by reduced locomotion and saccharin preference for at least 4 and 6 hours, respectively. Depression-like behaviors resolved within 24 hours after AA administration. A dose of Ibu (40 mg/kg) - inactive to reduce AA-induced abdominal writhing - administered before or after AA injection significantly reverted pain-induced saccharin preference deficit. The same dose of Ibu also significantly reverted the AA-depressed LMA, but only when it was administered after AA injection. Caffeine restored locomotion - but not saccharin preference - in AA-treated mice, thus suggesting that the reduction in saccharin preference - but not in locomotion - was specifically sensitive to analgesics. In conclusion, AA-induced acute pain attenuated saccharin preference and LMA beyond the resolution of writhing behavior, and the changes in the expression of hedonic behavior, such as sweet taste preference, can be used as a more

  18. Behavioral contagion during learning about another agent’s risk-preferences acts on the neural representation of decision-risk

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shinsuke; Jensen, Emily L. S.; Bossaerts, Peter; O’Doherty, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Our attitude toward risk plays a crucial role in influencing our everyday decision-making. Despite its importance, little is known about how human risk-preference can be modulated by observing risky behavior in other agents at either the behavioral or the neural level. Using fMRI combined with computational modeling of behavioral data, we show that human risk-preference can be systematically altered by the act of observing and learning from others’ risk-related decisions. The contagion is driven specifically by brain regions involved in the assessment of risk: the behavioral shift is implemented via a neural representation of risk in the caudate nucleus, whereas the representations of other decision-related variables such as expected value are not affected. Furthermore, we uncover neural computations underlying learning about others’ risk-preferences and describe how these signals interact with the neural representation of risk in the caudate. Updating of the belief about others’ preferences is associated with neural activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Functional coupling between the dlPFC and the caudate correlates with the degree of susceptibility to the contagion effect, suggesting that a frontal–subcortical loop, the so-called dorsolateral prefrontal–striatal circuit, underlies the modulation of risk-preference. Taken together, these findings provide a mechanistic account for how observation of others’ risky behavior can modulate an individual’s own risk-preference. PMID:27001826

  19. Grabbing the Air Force by the Tail: Applying Strategic Cost Analytics to Understand and Manage Indirect Cost Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-17

    tail activities in order to manage costs, and v) how to provide a decision support tool for tooth-to-tail policy impact analysis. 1.2 Research...value chain for cost management purposes. The intent of the chapter is to introduce the reader to strategic cost analytics and provide a comprehensive ...than a comprehensive understanding of how data and advanced analytics are applied across the entire organization for strategic cost management purposes

  20. Young pigs exhibit differential exploratory behavior during novelty preference tasks in response to age, sex, and delay.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Stephen A; Dilger, Ryan N

    2017-03-15

    Novelty preference paradigms have been widely used to study recognition memory and its neural substrates. The piglet model continues to advance the study of neurodevelopment, and as such, tasks that use novelty preference will serve especially useful due to their translatable nature to humans. However, there has been little use of this behavioral paradigm in the pig, and previous studies using the novel object recognition paradigm in piglets have yielded inconsistent results. The current study was conducted to determine if piglets were capable of displaying a novelty preference. Herein a series of experiments were conducted using novel object recognition or location in 3- and 4-week-old piglets. In the novel object recognition task, piglets were able to discriminate between novel and sample objects after delays of 2min, 1h, 1 day, and 2 days (all P<0.039) at both ages. Performance was sex-dependent, as females could perform both 1- and 2-day delays (P<0.036) and males could perform the 2-day delay (P=0.008) but not the 1-day delay (P=0.347). Furthermore, 4-week-old piglets and females tended to exhibit greater exploratory behavior compared with males. Such performance did not extend to novel location recognition tasks, as piglets were only able to discriminate between novel and sample locations after a short delay (P>0.046). In conclusion, this study determined that piglets are able to perform the novel object and location recognition tasks at 3-to-4 weeks of age, however performance was dependent on sex, age, and delay.

  1. Preferred growth orientation and microsegregation behaviors of eutectic in a nickel-based single-crystal superalloy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dexin; Bührig-Polaczek, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A nickel-based single-crystal superalloy was employed to investigate the preferred growth orientation behavior of the (γ + γ′) eutectic and the effect of these orientations on the segregation behavior. A novel solidification model for the eutectic island was proposed. At the beginning of the eutectic island’s crystallization, the core directly formed from the liquid by the eutectic reaction, and then preferably grew along [100] direction. The crystallization of the eutectic along [110] always lagged behind that in [100] direction. The eutectic growth in [100] direction terminated on impinging the edge of the dendrites or another eutectic island. The end of the eutectic island’s solidification terminates due to the encroachment of the eutectic liquid/solid interface at the dendrites or another eutectic island in [110] direction. The distribution of the alloying elements depended on the crystalline axis. The degree of the alloying elements’ segregation was lower along [100] than [110] direction with increasing distance from the eutectic island’s center. PMID:27877773

  2. Self-harming behavior of a parent with borderline personality disorder assessed using revealed preference and attributional approaches: a case study.

    PubMed

    Tustin, R Don

    2002-08-01

    This article discusses a case study involving a parent with Borderline Personality Disorder who exhibited self-harming behaviors. Assessment and intervention were based both on a review of the client's attributions about causes of her own behavior as being either internalizing or externalizing, and on a review of motivation of the behaviors using functional analysis. Antecedent situations for self-harming behaviors were identified to provide a basis for reviewing the client's attributions of reasons for disordered behavior. A new technique of functional analysis was applied using the principle of revealed preference arising from behavioral economics. Revealed preference identified outcomes that were valued by the client, enabling new responses to be identified to attain these reinforcers. Attribution re-training was provided. Significant reductions in self-harming behaviors were achieved during brief therapy and were maintained during follow-up.

  3. Weather and place-based human behavior: recreational preferences and sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Freitas, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the links between biometeorological variables and the behavior of beach recreationists along with their rating of overall weather conditions. To identify and describe significance of on-site atmospheric conditions, two separate forms of response are examined. The first is sensory perception of the immediate atmospheric surround expressed verbally, which was the subject of earlier work. In the research reported here, on-site observations of behavior that reflect the effects of weather and climate are examined. By employing, independently, separate indicators of on-site experience, the reliability of each is examined and interpreted and apparent threshold conditions verified. The study site is King's Beach located on the coast of Queensland, Australia. On-site observations of atmospheric variables and beach user behavior are made for the daylight hours of 45 days spread over a 12-month period. The results show that behavioral data provide reliable and meaningful indications of the significance of the atmospheric environment for leisure. Atmospheric conditions within the zone of acceptability are those that the beach users can readily cope with or modify by a range of minor behavioral adjustments. Optimal weather conditions appear to be those requiring no specific behavioral adjustment. Attendance levels reflect only the outer limits of acceptability of the meteorological environment, while duration of visit enables calibration of levels of approval in so far as it reflects rating of on-site weather within a broad zone of tolerance. In a broad theoretical sense, the results add to an understanding of the relationship between weather and human behavior. This information is potentially useful in effective tourism management and planning.

  4. Weather and place-based human behavior: recreational preferences and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, C R

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the links between biometeorological variables and the behavior of beach recreationists along with their rating of overall weather conditions. To identify and describe significance of on-site atmospheric conditions, two separate forms of response are examined. The first is sensory perception of the immediate atmospheric surround expressed verbally, which was the subject of earlier work. In the research reported here, on-site observations of behavior that reflect the effects of weather and climate are examined. By employing, independently, separate indicators of on-site experience, the reliability of each is examined and interpreted and apparent threshold conditions verified. The study site is King's Beach located on the coast of Queensland, Australia. On-site observations of atmospheric variables and beach user behavior are made for the daylight hours of 45 days spread over a 12-month period. The results show that behavioral data provide reliable and meaningful indications of the significance of the atmospheric environment for leisure. Atmospheric conditions within the zone of acceptability are those that the beach users can readily cope with or modify by a range of minor behavioral adjustments. Optimal weather conditions appear to be those requiring no specific behavioral adjustment. Attendance levels reflect only the outer limits of acceptability of the meteorological environment, while duration of visit enables calibration of levels of approval in so far as it reflects rating of on-site weather within a broad zone of tolerance. In a broad theoretical sense, the results add to an understanding of the relationship between weather and human behavior. This information is potentially useful in effective tourism management and planning.

  5. TrkB signaling is required for behavioral sensitization and conditioned place preference induced by a single injection of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Crooks, Kristy R; Kleven, Daniel T; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Wetsel, William C; McNamara, James O

    2010-06-01

    Exogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can regulate behavioral sensitization and conditioned place preference (CPP) when animals are exposed to repeated cocaine administration. However, it is unclear whether BDNF signaling through the TrkB receptor can mediate these behavioral responses when animals are given a single cocaine exposure. Because TrkB knockout mice die as neonates, we engineered a transgenic mouse that expressed a dominant negative form of TrkB (dnTrkB) in a conditional and reversible manner. We assessed also activation of endogenous TrkB by quantifying levels of phosphorylated TrkB (p-TrkB) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We found that a single exposure to cocaine was sufficient to increase p-TrkB within the NAc 9-12h after administration. Expression of the dnTrkB transgene not only prevented the acute cocaine-induced increase in p-TrkB, but it also prevented behavioral sensitization and CPP following a single cocaine injection. These findings demonstrate that TrkB activation is required both for behavioral sensitization and CPP to a single cocaine exposure. The fact that enhanced TrkB activation is induced within 9h of a single injection of cocaine suggests that inhibition of TrkB signaling commencing hours after cocaine exposure may prevent at least the initial antecedents to the sensitizing and reinforcing effects of this psychostimulant. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. TrkB signaling is required for behavioral sensitization and conditioned place preference induced by a single injection of cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, Kristy R.; Kleven, Daniel T.; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Wetsel, William C.; McNamara, James O.

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can regulate behavioral sensitization and conditioned place preference (CPP) when animals are exposed to repeated cocaine administration. However, it is unclear whether BDNF signaling through the TrkB receptor can mediate these behavioral responses when animals are given a single cocaine exposure. Because TrkB knockout mice die as neonates, we engineered a transgenic mouse that expressed a dominant negative form of TrkB (dnTrkB) in a conditional and reversible manner. We assessed also activation of endogenous TrkB by quantifying levels of phosphorylated TrkB (p-TrkB) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We found that a single exposure to cocaine was sufficient to increase p-TrkB within the NAc 9–12 h after administration. Expression of the dnTrkB transgene not only prevented the acute cocaine-induced increase in p-TrkB, but it also prevented behavioral sensitization and CPP following a single cocaine injection. These findings demonstrate that TrkB activation is required both for behavioral sensitization and CPP to a single cocaine exposure. The fact that enhanced TrkB activation is induced within 9 h of a single injection of cocaine suggests that inhibition of TrkB signaling commencing hours after cocaine exposure may prevent at least the initial antecedents to the sensitizing and reinforcing effects of this psychostimulant. PMID:20176040

  7. Androgen and the Development of Human Sex-Typical Behavior: Rough-and-Tumble Play and Sex of Preferred Playmates in Children with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Melissa; Kaufman, Francine R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the rough-and-tumble play and gender of preferred playmates in three- to eight-year olds with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)--hypothesized to masculinize behaviors that show sex differences--and in unaffected three- to eight-year-old relatives. Found that CAH girls did not exhibit increased levels of masculine behavior when compared…

  8. Parents who refuse or delay HPV vaccine: Differences in vaccination behavior, beliefs, and clinical communication preferences.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, Melissa B; Calo, William A; Marciniak, Macary W; Brewer, Noel T

    2017-03-04

    We sought to estimate the national prevalence of HPV vaccine refusal and delay in a nationally-representative sample of parents of adolescents. We also compared parents who refused versus delayed HPV vaccine in terms of their vaccination beliefs and clinical communication preferences. In 2014 to 2015, we conducted an online survey of 1,484 US parents who reported on an 11- to 17-year-old child in their household. We used weighted multinomial logistic regression to assess correlates of HPV vaccine refusal and delay. Overall, 28% of parents reported that they had ever "refused or decided not to get" HPV vaccine for their child, and an additional 8% of parents reported that they had "delayed or put off getting" HPV vaccine. Compared to no refusal/delay, refusal was associated with lower confidence in adolescent vaccination (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-0.91), lower perceived HPV vaccine effectiveness (RRR = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.50-0.91), and higher perceived harms (RRR = 3.49, 95% CI, 2.65-4.60). In contrast, delay was associated with needing more information (RRR = 1.76, 95% CI, 1.08-2.85). Most parents rated physicians and information sheets as helpful for making decisions about HPV vaccination, although parents who reported refusal endorsed these resources less often. Our findings suggest that HPV vaccine refusal is common among parents of adolescents and may have increased relative to previous estimates. Because the vaccination beliefs and communication preferences of parents who refuse appear to differ from those who delay, targeted communication strategies may be needed to effectively address HPV vaccine hesitancy.

  9. Distinct behavioral phenotypes in ethanol-induced place preference are associated with different extinction and reinstatement but not behavioral sensitization responses.

    PubMed

    Pildervasser, João V N; Abrahao, Karina P; Souza-Formigoni, Maria L O

    2014-01-01

    Conditioned place preference (CPP) is a model to study the role of drug conditioning properties. In outbred strains, individual variability may affect some behavioral measures. However, there are few studies focusing on understanding how different phenotypes of ethanol conditioned behavior may influence its extinction, reinstatement, and behavioral adaptation measures. We used male Swiss Webster mice to study different phenotypes related to ethanol conditioning strength, reinstatement and behavioral sensitization. Mice went through a CPP procedure with ethanol (2.2 g/kg, i.p.). After that, one group of mice was submitted to repeated extinction sessions, while another group remained in their home cages without any drug treatment. Mice went through environmental and ethanol priming (1.0 g/kg, i.p.) reinstatement tests. Ethanol priming test reinstated the conditioned behavior only in the animals kept in the home-cage during the abstinence period. Besides, the ethanol conditioned behavior strength was positively correlated with the time required to be extinguished. In the second set of experiments, some mice went through a CPP protocol followed by behavioral sensitization (five i.p. administrations of ethanol 2.2 g/kg or saline per week, for 3 weeks) and another group of mice went through sensitization followed by CPP. No positive correlation was observed between ethanol CPP strength and the intensity of behavioral sensitization. Considering that different phenotypes observed in CPP strength predicted the variability in other CPP measures, we developed a statistics-based method to classify mice according to CPP strength to be used in the evaluation of ethanol conditioning properties.

  10. Distinct behavioral phenotypes in ethanol-induced place preference are associated with different extinction and reinstatement but not behavioral sensitization responses

    PubMed Central

    Pildervasser, João V. N.; Abrahao, Karina P.; Souza-Formigoni, Maria L. O.

    2014-01-01

    Conditioned place preference (CPP) is a model to study the role of drug conditioning properties. In outbred strains, individual variability may affect some behavioral measures. However, there are few studies focusing on understanding how different phenotypes of ethanol conditioned behavior may influence its extinction, reinstatement, and behavioral adaptation measures. We used male Swiss Webster mice to study different phenotypes related to ethanol conditioning strength, reinstatement and behavioral sensitization. Mice went through a CPP procedure with ethanol (2.2 g/kg, i.p.). After that, one group of mice was submitted to repeated extinction sessions, while another group remained in their home cages without any drug treatment. Mice went through environmental and ethanol priming (1.0 g/kg, i.p.) reinstatement tests. Ethanol priming test reinstated the conditioned behavior only in the animals kept in the home-cage during the abstinence period. Besides, the ethanol conditioned behavior strength was positively correlated with the time required to be extinguished. In the second set of experiments, some mice went through a CPP protocol followed by behavioral sensitization (five i.p. administrations of ethanol 2.2 g/kg or saline per week, for 3 weeks) and another group of mice went through sensitization followed by CPP. No positive correlation was observed between ethanol CPP strength and the intensity of behavioral sensitization. Considering that different phenotypes observed in CPP strength predicted the variability in other CPP measures, we developed a statistics-based method to classify mice according to CPP strength to be used in the evaluation of ethanol conditioning properties. PMID:25152719

  11. Preferences, Information, and Parental Choice Behavior in Public School Choice. NBER Working Paper No. 12995

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Justine S.; Van Weelden, Richard; Weinstein, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    The incentives and outcomes generated by public school choice depend to a large degree on parents' choice behavior. There is growing empirical evidence that low-income parents place lower weights on academics when choosing schools, but there is little evidence as to why. We use a field experiment in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Public School district…

  12. Preferences, Information, and Parental Choice Behavior in Public School Choice. NBER Working Paper No. 12995

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Justine S.; Van Weelden, Richard; Weinstein, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    The incentives and outcomes generated by public school choice depend to a large degree on parents' choice behavior. There is growing empirical evidence that low-income parents place lower weights on academics when choosing schools, but there is little evidence as to why. We use a field experiment in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Public School district…

  13. Marginal zinc deficiency and changes in behavioral salt taste threshold and salt preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, X W; Dejima, Y; Suzuki, T; Himeno, S; Okazaki, Y

    1991-04-01

    An animal model of marginal zinc deficiency was tested in mice, and salt taste threshold and salt preference were investigated in the state of marginal zinc deficiency. Two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, four-week-old male ICR mice were fed diets of three different levels of zinc content (3.17, 9.27, or 48.13 micrograms Zn/g) for 60 days. Food intake, growth, zinc levels in tissues, hepatic metallothionein (MT) content, and activities of selected enzymes (hepatic and RBC delta-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP] did not differ among the groups throughout the experiment, and no overt signs of zinc deficiency were manifested in any group. In Experiment 2, four-week-old male ICR mice were fed a zinc-deficient diet (1.98 micrograms Zn/g) or a zinc-adequate diet (49.14 micrograms Zn/g) for 56 days. Food intake and growth did not differ between the two groups, and no overt signs of zinc deficiency were observed throughout the experiment. Zinc levels in the plasma and femur--but not those in the brain, kidneys, liver, and red blood cell (RBC)--and plasma ALP activities were significantly lower on Day 42 and Day 56 of the experiment in the mice fed the zinc-deficient diet (ZnD group) than in those fed the zinc-adequate diet (ZnA group). Hepatic MT contents were lower in the ZnD group than in the ZnA group on Day 56 only. Salt taste threshold was 0.05% in the ZnA group, while it was 0.1% in the ZnD group, between Day 30 and Day 38, and between Day 44 and Day 52 of the experiment. Preference for 0.9% NaCl solution was no different in the two groups when tested between Day 38 and Day 40 or between Day 52 and Day 54, but that for 1.6% NaCl solution was significantly higher in the ZnD group than in the ZnA group between Day 40 and Day 42, and between Day 54 and Day 56.

  14. Motivation and incentive preferences of community health officers in Ghana: an economic behavioral experiment approach.

    PubMed

    Shiratori, Sakiko; Agyekum, Enoch Oti; Shibanuma, Akira; Oduro, Abraham; Okawa, Sumiyo; Enuameh, Yeetey; Yasuoka, Junko; Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Gyapong, Margaret; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Ansah, Evelyn; Hodgson, Abraham; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-08-22

    Health worker shortage in rural areas is one of the biggest problems of the health sector in Ghana and many developing countries. This may be due to fewer incentives and support systems available to attract and retain health workers at the rural level. This study explored the willingness of community health officers (CHOs) to accept and hold rural and community job postings in Ghana. A discrete choice experiment was used to estimate the motivation and incentive preferences of CHOs in Ghana. All CHOs working in three Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites in Ghana, 200 in total, were interviewed between December 2012 and January 2013. Respondents were asked to choose from choice sets of job preferences. Four mixed logit models were used for the estimation. The first model considered (a) only the main effect. The other models included interaction terms for (b) gender, (c) number of children under 5 in the household, and (d) years worked at the same community. Moreover, a choice probability simulation was performed. Mixed logit analyses of the data project a shorter time frame before study leave as the most important motivation for most CHOs (β 2.03; 95 % CI 1.69 to 2.36). This is also confirmed by the largest simulated choice probability (29.1 %). The interaction effect of the number of children was significant for education allowance for children (β 0.58; 95 % CI 0.24 to 0.93), salary increase (β 0.35; 95 % CI 0.03 to 0.67), and housing provision (β 0.16; 95 % CI -0.02 to 0.60). Male CHOs had a high affinity for early opportunity to go on study leave (β 0.78; 95 % CI -0.06 to 1.62). CHOs who had worked at the same place for a long time greatly valued salary increase (β 0.28; 95 % CI 0.09 to 0.47). To reduce health worker shortage in rural settings, policymakers could provide "needs-specific" motivational packages. They should include career development opportunities such as shorter period of work before study leave and financial policy in the

  15. Effects of Chronic Stress on Alcohol Reward- and Anxiety-Related Behavior in High- and Low-Alcohol Preferring Mice

    PubMed Central

    Breit, Kristen R.; Chester, Julia A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Stress exposure (SE) during adolescence is associated with an increased risk for the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Past research has shown that SE during adolescence increases voluntary alcohol consumption in mice during adulthood; however, little is known about the positive or negative motivational aspects of this relationship. Methods High-alcohol preferring (HAP2) and low-alcohol preferring (LAP2) male mice were exposed to stress during adolescence, stress during adulthood, or no stress. After a 30-day interim, subjects were exposed to alcohol-induced place and footshock-induced fear conditioning procedures to measure stress-induced behavioral alterations during adulthood. Results SE during adolescence did not increase the magnitude of alcohol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), as hypothesized, but increased the magnitude of conditioned fear, as measured by fear-potentiated startle (FPS), in HAP2 subjects only. Regardless of stress treatment group, LAP2 subjects showed greater alcohol-induced CPP expression than HAP2 mice. HAP2 mice also showed greater FPS than LAP2 mice, as previously shown. Conclusions These results in mice, taken together with past research, suggest that mice exposed to stress during adolescence do not increase alcohol consumption during adulthood because of a greater sensitivity to the rewarding effects of alcohol, as measured via place conditioning. These results in mice also suggest that humans exposed to stress during adolescence may be more susceptible to developing anxiety during adulthood. The findings may be particularly relevant for humans with a familial history of AUDs. PMID:26876975

  16. Influences of age, gender, and parents' educational level in knowledge, behavior and preferences regarding noise, from childhood to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Knobel, Keila Alessandra Baraldi; Lima, Maria Cecília Marconi Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to loud sound during leisure activities for long periods of time is an important area to implement preventive health education, especially among young people. The aim was to identify the relations among awareness about the damaging effects of loud levels of sounds, previous exposures do loud sounds, preferences-related to sound levels and knowledge about hearing protection with age, gender, and their parent's educational level among children. Prospective cross-sectional. Seven hundred and forty students (5-16 years old) and 610 parents participated in the study. Chi-square test, Fisher exact test and linear regression. About 86.5% of the children consider that loud sounds damage the ears and 53.7% dislike noisy places. Children were previously exposed to parties and concerts with loud music, Mardi Gras, firecrackers and loud music at home or in the car and loud music with earphones. About 18.4% of the younger children could select the volume of the music, versus 65.3% of the older ones. Children have poor information about hearing protection and do not have hearing protection device. Knowledge about the risks related to exposures to loud sounds and about strategies to protect their hearing increases with age, but preference for loud sounds and exposures to it increases too. Gender and parents' instructional level have little influence on the studied variables. Many of the children's recreational activities are noisy. It is possible that the tendency of increasing preference for loud sounds with age might be a result of a learned behavior.

  17. Androgen and the development of human sex-typical behavior: rough-and-tumble play and sex of preferred playmates in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

    PubMed

    Hines, M; Kaufman, F R

    1994-08-01

    We hypothesized that girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), who experience higher than normal levels of androgens prenatally, would show masculinization of behaviors that show sex differences. Therefore, we examined rough-and-tumble play and sex of preferred playmates in 3-8-year-old children with CAH and in unaffected 3-8-year-old male and female relatives. The hypothesized sex differences in rough-and-tumble play were seen, with unaffected boys showing more rough-and-tumble play than unaffected girls. However, CAH girls were similar to unaffected girls. Additionally, CAH boys showed reduced rough-and-tumble play. In contrast, sex of preferred playmates showed the hypothesized pattern of results. There were sex differences, with unaffected boys preferring boys and unaffected girls preferring girls. In addition, the preferences of girls with CAH were masculinized compared to those of unaffected girls. Results are discussed in terms of possible influences of social, hormonal, and illness factors.

  18. Attraction to male facial masculinity in gay men in China: relationship to intercourse preference positions and sociosexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lijun; Hart, Trevor A; Zheng, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Distinctions are commonly made regarding preferences for insertive or receptive anal intercourse within gay male communities. Three sexual self-labels are typically specified: "top," meaning a man who prefers the insertive role, "bottom," meaning a man who prefers the receptive role, and "versatile," meaning a man willing to perform either role. In this study, we examined the association between intercourse position preference and preference for male facial masculinity among 447 gay men across multiple cities in China. Each participant was shown 10 pairs of male faces sequentially, with each pair consisting of a masculinized and feminized version of the same base face. Tops preferred the feminized male face over the masculinized face, bottoms preferred the masculinized male face over the feminized face, and versatiles did not have a preference. Tops preferred more feminized male faces than did bottoms and versatiles. Preferences for male facial masculinity were also associated with sociosexual orientation and the nature of the associations differed by sex role preferences. Among tops, men who were less restricted preferred more feminine male faces compared to men who were more restricted. Among bottoms, men who were less restricted preferred more masculine male faces compared to men who were more restricted. Among versatiles, there was no association between sociosexual orientation and preferences for male facial masculinity. These findings provide new evidence that less sociosexually restricted men have stronger preferences for sexual dimorphism in the sexual partners they prefer than do more restricted men.

  19. Variability of preference toward mechanical ventilator settings: a model-based behavioral analysis.

    PubMed

    Allerød, Charlotte; Karbing, Dan S; Thorgaard, Per; Andreassen, Steen; Kjærgaard, Søren; Rees, Stephen E

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Danish clinicians' opinions toward ventilator settings using standardized model-simulated patients. The models ensured that all clinicians received identical presentations of data and anticipated responses to changes in patient state, enabling opinions on the same patient cases to be obtained from different clinicians. Ten Danish intensive care clinicians' and a computerized decision support system each provided suggestions for respiratory frequency (f), tidal volume (Vt) and insoired oxygen fraction (FiO2) in the same 10 model-simulated patient cases. The 110 suggestions were then evaluated by the 10 clinicians in a ranking and classification procedure. Clinicians' preferences toward ventilator settings (Fio(2), Vt, and f) and the resulting simulated values of arterial oxygen saturation, peak inspiratory pressure, and pH were significantly different (P < .005). The results of the classification showed that clinicians generally had poor opinion of the advice provided by other clinicians and the decision support system, considering this advice to be unacceptable in 33% of cases and good only in 21%. The ranking procedure also showed that clinicians did not agree on the best and worst advice. The present study shows significant difference in opinion on appropriate settings of f, Vt, and Fio(2) in the same computerized decision support system model-simulated patient cases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Strategic weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This paper describes the Defense Department's process for formulating its strategic weapons targeting policy and translating that policy into a nuclear war plan-the Single Integrated Operational Plan. GAO provides information on the relationship between the strategic nuclear targeting process and the determination of requirements for nuclear weapons and related delivery systems, level of civilian oversight, and categories and types of targets. These strategic nuclear weapons systems, commonly known as the triad, include land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles, submarine-launched ballistic missiles, and strategic bombers armed with nuclear bombs and missiles.

  1. Acquisition and production of skilled behavior in dynamic decision-making tasks: Modeling strategic behavior in human-automation interaction: Why and aid can (and should) go unused

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirlik, Alex

    1991-01-01

    Advances in computer and control technology offer the opportunity for task-offload aiding in human-machine systems. A task-offload aid (e.g., an autopilot, an intelligent assistant) can be selectively engaged by the human operator to dynamically delegate tasks to an automated system. Successful design and performance prediction in such systems requires knowledge of the factors influencing the strategy the operator develops and uses for managing interaction with the task-offload aid. A model is presented that shows how such strategies can be predicted as a function of three task context properties (frequency and duration of secondary tasks and costs of delaying secondary tasks) and three aid design properties (aid engagement and disengagement times, aid performance relative to human performance). Sensitivity analysis indicates how each of these contextual and design factors affect the optimal aid aid usage strategy and attainable system performance. The model is applied to understanding human-automation interaction in laboratory experiments on human supervisory control behavior. The laboratory task allowed subjects freedom to determine strategies for using an autopilot in a dynamic, multi-task environment. Modeling results suggested that many subjects may indeed have been acting appropriately by not using the autopilot in the way its designers intended. Although autopilot function was technically sound, this aid was not designed with due regard to the overall task context in which it was placed. These results demonstrate the need for additional research on how people may strategically manage their own resources, as well as those provided by automation, in an effort to keep workload and performance at acceptable levels.

  2. Economic Behavior under the Influence of Alcohol: An Experiment on Time Preferences, Risk-Taking, and Altruism

    PubMed Central

    Corazzini, Luca; Filippin, Antonio; Vanin, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    We report results from an incentivized laboratory experiment undertaken with the purpose of providing controlled evidence on the causal effects of alcohol consumption on risk-taking, time preferences and altruism. Our design disentangles the pharmacological effects of alcohol intoxication from those mediated by expectations, as we compare the behavior of three groups of subjects: those who participated in an experiment with no reference to alcohol, those who were exposed to the possibility of consuming alcohol but were given a placebo and those who effectively consumed alcohol. All subjects participated in a series of economic tasks administered in the same sequence across treatments. After controlling for both the willingness to pay for an object and the potential misperception of probabilities as elicited in the experiment, we detect no effect of alcohol in depleting subjects’ risk tolerance. However, we find that alcohol intoxication increases impatience and makes subjects less altruistic. PMID:25853520

  3. University students' on-campus food purchasing behaviors, preferences, and opinions on food availability.

    PubMed

    Tam, Ryan; Yassa, Barbara; Parker, Helen; O'Connor, Helen; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-05-01

    Emerging adulthood (18-24 y) where >50% of young adults attend tertiary education, is a transitional period that may provide an opportunity to influence future eating behaviors. The aim of this study was to identify possible strategies for encouraging healthy eating in university food environments. Over 4 wk, students from a large university completed an anonymous researcher-designed survey with both closed (n = 41) and open-ended (n = 3) questions assessing food purchasing, food choice behaviors, and opinions of the campus food environment. Results were reported as proportions (%) or mean ± SD. Chi-square analysis was used to determine differences between sex and campuses. The study took place at an Australian urban university with seven campuses. We recruited 653 currently enrolled students by convenience sampling. Respondents were mostly women (77%), aged <25 y (83%), and enrolled full time (96%). Almost all participants purchased food or beverages on campus (93%), with the most frequently purchased items being hot beverages and sandwiches. The greatest determinants of food choice were taste, value, convenience, and cost. Female students placed more importance on health-related factors and followed more special dietary behaviors than male students. The most common improvements suggested were lowering the cost and increasing the variety of food. As most students purchase food on campus, there are opportunities to intervene to improve diet quality. Our results indicate demand for healthy food and that price manipulation is an important lever for change. This information will be used for changing the local university food environment but may be useful for planning interventions at other universities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing preferences for positive and negative reinforcement during treatment of destructive behavior with functional communication training.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Wayne W; Adelinis, John D; Volkert, Valerie M; Keeney, Kris M; Neidert, Pamela L; Hovanetz, Alyson

    2005-01-01

    Results of prior studies (e.g. [J. Appl. Behav. Anal. 32 (1999) 285]) showing that participants chose alternative behavior (compliance) over escape-reinforced destructive behavior when this latter response produced escape and the former response produced positive reinforcement may have been due to (a) the value of the positive reinforcer overriding the value of the negative reinforcer or (b) the presence of the positive reinforcer altering the value of the negative reinforcer (i.e., lessening the aversiveness of the demands). In this investigation we evaluated the relative contributions of these alternative mechanisms with two girls with autism. We compared the relative effects of positive and negative reinforcement using equivalent communication responses under both a restricted-choice condition (in which participants could choose positive or negative reinforcement, but not both) and an unrestricted-choice condition (in which participants could choose one or both reinforcers). Both participants often chose positive over negative reinforcement in the restricted-choice condition. However, in the unrestricted-choice condition (in which participants could choose one or both reinforcers), one participant consistently chose both reinforcers by the end of the analysis whereas the other primarily chose only positive reinforcement. Results suggested that for one participant the value of the positive reinforcer overrode the value of the negative reinforcer, whereas for the other participant, the presence of the positive reinforcer in the demand context lessened the aversiveness of the demands.

  5. Strategic Genius

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    Theory: Modern , Symbolic, and Postmodern Perspectives (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), 185–188. 10 status quo solutions remain...York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Hatch, Mary Jo. Organization Theory: Modern , Symbolic, and Postmodern Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University...elusive strategic genius. What traits make a strategic genius? Several modern theorists examine how such an individual might think and some offer how

  6. The Genetic Basis of Host Preference and Resting Behavior in the Major African Malaria Vector, Anopheles arabiensis

    PubMed Central

    Main, Bradley J; Lee, Yoosook; Ferguson, Heather M.; Kreppel, Katharina S.; Kihonda, Anicet; Govella, Nicodem J.; Collier, Travis C.; Cornel, Anthony J.; Eskin, Eleazar; Kang, Eun Yong; Nieman, Catelyn C.; Weakley, Allison M.; Lanzaro, Gregory C.

    2016-01-01

    selection on host choice behavior within these vector populations; possibly in response to vector control. Controlled host-choice assays are needed to discern whether the observed genetic component has a direct relationship with innate host preference. A better understanding of the genetic basis for host feeding behavior in An. arabiensis may also open avenues for novel vector control strategies based on driving genes for zoophily into wild mosquito populations. PMID:27631375

  7. The Genetic Basis of Host Preference and Resting Behavior in the Major African Malaria Vector, Anopheles arabiensis.

    PubMed

    Main, Bradley J; Lee, Yoosook; Ferguson, Heather M; Kreppel, Katharina S; Kihonda, Anicet; Govella, Nicodem J; Collier, Travis C; Cornel, Anthony J; Eskin, Eleazar; Kang, Eun Yong; Nieman, Catelyn C; Weakley, Allison M; Lanzaro, Gregory C

    2016-09-01

    selection on host choice behavior within these vector populations; possibly in response to vector control. Controlled host-choice assays are needed to discern whether the observed genetic component has a direct relationship with innate host preference. A better understanding of the genetic basis for host feeding behavior in An. arabiensis may also open avenues for novel vector control strategies based on driving genes for zoophily into wild mosquito populations.

  8. The effect of active video gaming on children's physical activity, behavior preferences and body composition.

    PubMed

    Graves, Lee E F; Ridgers, Nicola D; Atkinson, Greg; Stratton, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    Active video game interventions typically provide children a single game that may become unappealing. A peripheral device (jOG) encourages step-powered gaming on multiple games. This trial evaluated the effect of jOG on children's objectively measured PA, body fat and self-reported behaviors. 42 of 58 eligible children (8-10 y) randomly assigned to an intervention (jOG) or control (CON) completed the trial. Intervention children received two jOG devices for home use. Analyses of covariance compared the intervention effect at 6 and 12 weeks from baseline. No differences were found between groups for counts per minute (CPM; primary outcome) at 6 and 12 weeks (p > .05). Active video gaming increased (adjusted change 0.95 (95% CI 0.25, 1.65) h·d⁻¹, p <.01) and sedentary video gaming decreased (-0.34 (-1.24, 0.56) h·d⁻¹, p > .05) at 6 weeks relative to CON. No body fat changes were observed between groups. Targeted changes in video game use did not positively affect PA. Larger trials are needed to verify the impact of active video games on children's PA and health.

  9. Preferred health behaviors and quality of life of the elderly people in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Cybulski, Mateusz; Krajewska-Kulak, Elzbieta; Jamiolkowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess possible differences between a group of residents of public nursing homes (PNH) and a group of members of Universities of the Third Age (UTA) measured using standard psychometric scales. Materials and methods The research was conducted between January 3, 2013 and February 15, 2014 on a group of 200 residents of PNH and 200 members of the UTA using five psychometric scales: Standardized Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Standardized Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), Standardized Social Support Scale (SSS), Standardized General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES), and Standardized Multiple Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC). Results The average point total in the Standardized Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in the group of residents of PNH was 18.03 (Me =19) and was significantly higher (P=0.047) in comparison with the group of UTA members (17.08). Similar to residents of PNH, a vast majority of UTA members assessed the support received from the UTA as good, which significantly influenced their satisfaction from life (P=0.028) and their feeling of self-efficacy (P=0.048). An observed dependence states that the greater the level of satisfaction from life, the greater the level of various types of support from family. Conclusion This study indicates that biopsychosocial problems decrease quality of life in elderly people. The elderly people require a comprehensive, holistic approach to a variety of problems that occur with aging. In future, extended interdisciplinary research should be carried out on aspects of quality of life in order to optimize comprehensive geriatric assessment. PMID:26491271

  10. Preferred health behaviors and quality of life of the elderly people in Poland.

    PubMed

    Cybulski, Mateusz; Krajewska-Kulak, Elzbieta; Jamiolkowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess possible differences between a group of residents of public nursing homes (PNH) and a group of members of Universities of the Third Age (UTA) measured using standard psychometric scales. The research was conducted between January 3, 2013 and February 15, 2014 on a group of 200 residents of PNH and 200 members of the UTA using five psychometric scales: Standardized Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Standardized Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), Standardized Social Support Scale (SSS), Standardized General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES), and Standardized Multiple Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC). The average point total in the Standardized Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in the group of residents of PNH was 18.03 (Me =19) and was significantly higher (P=0.047) in comparison with the group of UTA members (17.08). Similar to residents of PNH, a vast majority of UTA members assessed the support received from the UTA as good, which significantly influenced their satisfaction from life (P=0.028) and their feeling of self-efficacy (P=0.048). An observed dependence states that the greater the level of satisfaction from life, the greater the level of various types of support from family. This study indicates that biopsychosocial problems decrease quality of life in elderly people. The elderly people require a comprehensive, holistic approach to a variety of problems that occur with aging. In future, extended interdisciplinary research should be carried out on aspects of quality of life in order to optimize comprehensive geriatric assessment.

  11. R-Modafinil Attenuates Nicotine-Taking and Nicotine-Seeking Behavior in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Bi, Guo-Hua; He, Yi; Yang, Hong-Ju; Gao, Jun-Tao; Okunola-Bakare, Oluyomi M; Slack, Rachel D; Gardner, Eliot L; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2015-01-01

    (±)-Modafinil (MOD) is used clinically for the treatment of sleep disorders and has been investigated as a potential medication for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction. However, the therapeutic efficacy of (±)-MOD for addiction is inconclusive. Herein we used animal models of self-administration and in vivo microdialysis to study the pharmacological actions of R-modafinil (R-MOD) and S-modafinil (S-MOD) on nicotine-taking and nicotine-seeking behavior, and mechanisms underlying such actions. We found that R-MOD is more potent and effective than S-MOD in attenuating nicotine self-administration in Long–Evans rats. As Long–Evans rats did not show a robust reinstatement response to nicotine, we used alcohol-preferring rats (P-rats) that display much higher reinstatement responses to nicotine than Long–Evans rats. We found that R-MOD significantly inhibited intravenous nicotine self-administration, nicotine-induced reinstatement, and nicotine-associated cue-induced drug-seeking behavior in P-rats. R-MOD alone neither sustained self-administration in P-rats previously self-administering nicotine nor reinstated extinguished nicotine-seeking behavior. The in vivo brain microdialysis assays demonstrated that R-MOD alone produced a slow-onset moderate increase in extracellular DA. Pretreatment with R-MOD dose-dependently blocked nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in both naive and nicotine self-administrating rats, suggesting a DA-dependent mechanism underlying mitigation of nicotine's effects. In conclusion, the present findings support further investigation of R-MOD for treatment of nicotine dependence in humans. PMID:25613829

  12. Brief Strategic Family Therapy: Twenty-Five Years of Interplay Among Theory, Research and Practice in Adolescent Behavior Problems and Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Szapocznik, José; Williams, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a systematic program of research that focuses on Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) and the adaptations that were developed based on BSFT principles. The culture-specific origins of BSFT are reviewed, as well as its broader applications to the field of family therapy. Research is reviewed demonstrating that BSFT is a promising family-based approach to treating Hispanic youth behavior problems and drug abuse. Treatment innovations are described that address the combination of intergenerational and cultural differences that occur among youths and their Hispanic parents. Programmatic work is described that challenges basic principles of family therapy by expanding BSFT to a One Person modality and a strategic engagement procedure. Both of these novel approaches are intended to add tools to therapists’ repertoire in working with difficult-to-engage families. A preview discussion of results is presented from a randomized clinical trial that is an application of an ecosystemic prevention version of BSFT. The implications of the work of the Center for Family Studies are discussed in the context of the broader service system. Ultimately, this article articulates a way of thinking about adolescent problem behavior, its social interactional determinants, and a range of theoretically consistent family-centered strategies that attempt to change social ecological processes that impact adolescent developmental trajectories. PMID:11227062

  13. DRD4 Genotype and the Developmental Link of Peer Social Preference with Conduct Problems and Prosocial Behavior Across Ages 9-12 Years.

    PubMed

    Buil, J Marieke; Koot, Hans M; Olthof, Tjeert; Nelson, Kelly A; van Lier, Pol A C

    2015-07-01

    The peer environment is among the most important factors for children's behavioral development. However, not all children are equally influenced by their peers, which is potentially due to their genetic make-up. The dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) is a potential candidate gene that may influence children's susceptibility to the peer environment. In the present study, we explored whether variations in the DRD4 gene moderated the association between children's social standing in the peer group (i.e., social preference among classmates) with subsequent conduct problems and prosocial behavior among 405 (51% females) elementary school children followed annually throughout early adolescence (ages 9-12 years). The behavioral development of children with and without the DRD4 7-repeat allele was compared. The results indicated that children who had higher positive social preference scores (i.e., who were more liked relative to disliked by their peers) showed less conduct problem development in subsequent years relative to children who had lower positive social preference scores. In contrast, children who had more negative preference scores (i.e., who were more disliked relative to liked among peers) showed more conduct problem development in subsequent years, relative to children who had less negative preference scores. However, these effects only occurred when children had a 7-repeat allele. For children who did not have a 7-repeat allele, the level of social preference was not associated with subsequent conduct problems. No evidence for gene-environment interaction effects for prosocial behavior was found. The implications for our understanding of conduct problem development and its prevention are discussed.

  14. Paths to Bullying in Online Gaming: The Effects of Gender, Preference for Playing Violent Games, Hostility, and Aggressive Behavior on Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shu Ching

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a sample of adolescent online game players and explored the relationships between their gender, preference for video games (VG), hostility, aggressive behavior, experiences of cyberbullying, and victimization. The path relationships among the variables were further validated with structure equation modeling. Among the…

  15. Students' Perceptions of Relatedness in the Classroom: The Roles of Emotionally Supportive Teacher-Child Interactions, Children's Aggressive-Disruptive Behaviors, and Peer Social Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madill, Rebecca A.; Gest, Scott D.; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the roles of emotionally supportive teacher-child interactions and child characteristics (aggressive-disruptive behavior and low peer social preference) in first-, third, and fifth-grade children's perceptions of teacher closeness and sense of peer community. Results from a series of multilevel models suggest that emotionally…

  16. Paths to Bullying in Online Gaming: The Effects of Gender, Preference for Playing Violent Games, Hostility, and Aggressive Behavior on Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shu Ching

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a sample of adolescent online game players and explored the relationships between their gender, preference for video games (VG), hostility, aggressive behavior, experiences of cyberbullying, and victimization. The path relationships among the variables were further validated with structure equation modeling. Among the…

  17. Strategic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Sears, US Navy Lt Col Mark Williams, US Air Force Dr. Sylvia Babus , Faculty Dr. Maureen Crandall, Faculty Mr. Bill Jones, Faculty Strategic...graying rapidly, populated predominantly with baby- boomers over 40 years of age. Aggravating this demographic shift, the number of workforce S&E...Transnational Environment. [Student Essay from Strategic Materials Industry Study 2005, available from Dr. Sylvia Babus , Industrial College of the Armed

  18. The links between health-related behaviors and life satisfaction in elderly individuals who prefer institutional living

    PubMed Central

    Inal, Serap; Subasi, Feryal; Ay, Serap M; Hayran, Osman

    2007-01-01

    Background Life satisfaction among residents of institutions is becoming an important issue in a rapidly aging population. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the links between life satisfaction and health-related behaviors amongst functionally independent elderly people who prefer institutional living in İstanbul, Turkey. Methods The socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behaviors, leisure-time activities and fall histories of 133 residents of an institution in Istanbul were assessed by a structured questionnaire during face-to-face interviews. A validated life-satisfaction index questionnaire (LSI-A) was completed. Results The mean age of the study group was 73.9 ± 8.0 (range 60–90 years). Within the group, 22.6% had never married and 14.3% had university degrees. The majority (71.4%) were in the low income bracket. The overall mean LSI-A score was 20.3 ± 5.9. Participants who declared moderate/high income levels had a significantly higher mean LSI-A score than those in the low-income bracket (p = 0.009). Multivariate analysis of the data suggested that leisure-time activities and participation in regular physical activities are significant predictors of LSI-A scores (R2: 0.112; p = 0.005 and p = 0.02, respectively). Conclusion The findings imply that regular physical activity and leisure-time activities are significantly related to life satisfaction among residents in institutions. Participation in physical activity and leisure-time activity programs may help to improve the life satisfaction of elderly people living in institutions. PMID:17326842

  19. Low responsiveness to agents evoking 5-HT2 receptor-mediated behaviors in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Ciccocioppo, R; Panocka, I; Stefanini, E; Gessa, G L; Massi, M

    1995-05-01

    The selective NK3 tachykinin agonist senktide evokes in rodents 5-HT mediated behaviors, including 5-HT2 receptor-mediated wet dog shakes (WDS) and head shakes (HS). It was observed previously that genetically selected Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats show a small number of WDS and HS following intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of senktide. The present study was aimed at confirming these observations and at providing information on the reasons accounting for the anomalous response of sP rats. Senktide (500-2000 ng/rat, ICV) produced a much lower number of WDS and HS in sP rats than in nonselected Wistar (nsW) rats. Both behaviors were suppressed by the 5-HT2 antagonist ritanserin (1 mg/kg, subcutaneously), confirming that 5-HT2 receptors mediate the response. HS induced by the ICV injection of 5-HT agonists endowed with marked activity at 5-HT2 receptors, such as quipazine (1500-6000 ng/rat) or DOI (500-3500 ng/rat), were much less pronounced in sP rats than in nsW rats. Moreover, WDS following peripheral injection of 5-hydroxytryptophan, 25-100 mg/kg, and carbidopa, 12.5 mg/kg, were less intense in sP and in ethanol-naive sP rats than in nsW and in Sardinian alcohol-nonpreferring rats. These findings suggest that sP rats have an inherent different regulation of central 5-HT2 mechanisms.

  20. Prenatal letrozole produces a subpopulation of male rats with same-sex preference and arousal as well as female sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Hernández, Sandra; Chavira, Roberto; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2015-02-01

    Disruption of the sexual differentiation process during critical periods in male rodents produces changes in partner preference and sexual behavior. In this study we used prenatal (gestation days 10-22) letrozole (0.31 and 0.56 μg/kg) to inhibit aromatase and alter normal sexual differentiation of males. These animals and control rats (injected with vehicle) were used when adults to study: a) sexual preference (where the experimental male could choose to interact with a receptive female or a sexually experienced male); b) masculine and feminine sexual behaviors (tested in cylindrical arenas); c) non-contact erections when exposed to a female or a male and, d) serum sex steroids and gonadotropin levels. The results showed that 30% of the males treated with letrozole (0.56 μg/kg) had same-sex preference, 33% displayed lordosis and 63% showed non-contact erections in the presence of a sexually experienced male. However, 44% of these males also exhibited complete masculine sexual behavior towards receptive females. None of the control males displayed lordosis when mounted by another male and very few (12%) showed non-contact erections when exposed to a sexually experienced male. Similar low percentages were found in those males prenatally treated with the low letrozole dose (0.31 μg/kg). No difference was found in the serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, LH and FSH between control and letrozole-treated males regardless of their sexual preference. These results indicate that prenatal selective inhibition of aromatization produces feminization of sexual partner preference, arousal and sexual behavior but does not affect masculine sexual behavior.

  1. Smoking cessation treatment preferences, intentions, and behaviors among a large sample of Colorado gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered smokers.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Arnold H; Hood, Nancy; Mahajan, Rajeev; Russ, Rebecca

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about preferences, intentions, and behaviors regarding evidence-based cessation treatment for smoking cessation among gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered (GLBT) adults. We obtained and analyzed questionnaire responses from GLBT smokers (n= 1,633) surveyed in 129 GLBT-identified Colorado venues and online during 2007. Most respondents (80.4%) smoked daily. Nearly one-third smoked 20 or more cigarettes/day. Fewer than half (47.2%) had attempted quitting in the previous year, and only 8.5% were preparing to quit in the next month. More than one-fourth (28.2%) of quit attempters had used nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and a similar proportion said they intended to use NRT in their next quit attempt. Lesbians were significantly less likely than gay men to have used or intend to use NRT. One-fourth of respondents said they were uncomfortable talking to their doctor about quitting smoking. Four factors (daily smoking, ever having used NRT, a smoke-free home rule, and comfort asking one's doctor for cessation advice) were associated with preparation to quit smoking. GLBT self-identification was not associated with lower than average acceptance of evidence-based smoking cessation strategies, especially NRT, but a large minority of GLBT smokers were unlikely to seek cessation assistance through clinical encounters. Public health campaigns should focus on supporting motivation to quit and providing nonclinical access to evidence-based treatments.

  2. Reach and posture hand preferences during arboreal feeding in Sifakas (Propithecus sp.): a test of the postural origins theory of behavioral lateralization.

    PubMed

    Milliken, Garrett W; Ferra, Gina; Kraiter, Kyle S; Ross, Courtney L

    2005-11-01

    Sixteen sifakas (11 Propithecus verreauxi coquereli, 2 Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi form majori, and 3 Propithecus tattersalli) were videotaped as they fed on leaves in an arboreal context. The hand used to feed and the hand used to maintain postural stability was coded. For each subject, the lateral bias of the hand used to feed was opposite the hand used in postural support. Seven sifakas displayed no bias for feeding or posture-related hand use, 7 sifakas displayed significant feeding-related reach preferences for pulling branches to the mouth (5 left- and 2 right-hand preferences), and 9 sifakas exhibited significant hand preferences for postural support (2 left-, 7 right-hand preferent). Although these data do not strongly support the postural origins theory of behavioral lateralization, the modal preference pattern for sifakas that displayed significant hand preferences for posture and feeding involve a left bias for feeding and a right bias for postural support. s reserved). ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Male mice lacking the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R) display elevated preference for conspecific odors and increased social investigatory behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yamada, K; Wada, E; Wada, K

    2000-07-07

    Previously, we generated gastrin-releasing peptide receptor null mutant mice (GRP-R-deficient mice), and found that these animals displayed increased non-aggressive social responses in an ordinary social interaction test using a resident-intruder method. In the present study, we examined in more detail the social behaviors of GRP-R-deficient male mice. In social interaction tests, GRP-R-deficient mice showed more social responses, such as sniffing and nosing, relative to wild-type mice, and similar results were obtained whether GRP-R-deficient mice served as intruders or residents. In the same way, they showed more contact behaviors toward an anesthetized conspecific, and less locomotor activity than wild-type mice in a social investigation test toward an anesthetized male mouse. Since olfactory systems play important roles in the social behavior of rodents, olfactory preference tests were conducted in order to evaluate the olfactory properties of GRP-R-deficient mice. The results suggest that no differences exist between wild-type mice and GRP-R-deficient mice in the preference between a novel sawdust odor and their own odor, or that of other male mice. However, GRP-R-deficient mice preferred the odor of other male mice to their own, in contrast to wild-type mice. Furthermore, the preferences of GRP-R-deficient and wild-type mice were not disrupted by intraperitoneal infusion of diazepam (1.5 mg/kg). These results indicate that neither the motion, nor the behavior of conspecifics, nor reduced anxiety lead to the increased non-aggressive social responses and/or social investigatory behaviors in GRP-R-deficient mice. Rather, these latter behaviors may be a consequence of altered cognition of conspecific odors in the mutant mice.

  4. Factors underlying the psychological and behavioral characteristics of Office of Strategic Services candidates: the assessment of men data revisited.

    PubMed

    Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2015-01-01

    During World War II, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the forerunner of the Central Intelligence Agency, sought the assistance of clinical psychologists and psychiatrists to establish an assessment program for evaluating candidates for the OSS. The assessment team developed a novel and rigorous program to evaluate OSS candidates. It is described in Assessment of Men: Selection of Personnel for the Office of Strategic Services (OSS Assessment Staff, 1948). This study examines the sole remaining multivariate data matrix that includes all final ratings for a group of candidates (n = 133) assessed near the end of the assessment program. It applies the modern statistical methods of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to this rich and highly unique data set. An exploratory factor analysis solution suggested 3 factors underlie the OSS assessment staff ratings. Confirmatory factor analysis results of multiple plausible substantive models reveal that a 3-factor model provides the best fit to these data. The 3 factors are emotional/interpersonal factors (social relations, emotional stability, security), intelligence processing (effective IQ, propaganda skills, observing and reporting), and agency/surgency (motivation, energy and initiative, leadership, physical ability). These factors are discussed in terms of their potential utility for personnel selection within the intelligence community.

  5. The impact of cooking classes on food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors of school-aged children: a systematic review of the evidence, 2003-2014.

    PubMed

    Hersch, Derek; Perdue, Laura; Ambroz, Teresa; Boucher, Jackie L

    2014-11-06

    Cooking programs have been used to promote healthful eating among people of all ages. This review assesses the evidence on childhood cooking programs and their association with changes in food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors of school-aged children. We systematically searched PubMed, Ovid-Medline, and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) databases. We included primary research articles that involved cooking education programs for children and searched reference lists for eligible articles. Studies considered for review contained a hands-on cooking intervention; had participants aged 5 to 12 years; were published in a peer-reviewed journal on or after January 1, 2003; and were written in English. We used the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies to rate the strength of each article and assess bias. The following information was extracted from each study: study design, sample size, location, duration, intervention components, data collection methods, and outcomes. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria and used cooking education to influence children's food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors. Programs varied in duration, evaluation methods, and outcomes of interest. Self-reported food preparation skills, dietary intake, cooking confidence, fruit and vegetable preferences, attitudes toward food and cooking, and food-related knowledge were among the outcomes measured. Program exposure ranged from 2 sessions to regular instruction over 2 years, and the effect of cooking programs on children's food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors varied among the reviewed studies. Findings suggest that cooking programs may positively influence children's food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors. However, because study measurements varied widely, determining best practices was difficult. Further research is needed to fill knowledge gaps on ideal program

  6. The Impact of Cooking Classes on Food-Related Preferences, Attitudes, and Behaviors of School-Aged Children: A Systematic Review of the Evidence, 2003–2014

    PubMed Central

    Perdue, Laura; Ambroz, Teresa; Boucher, Jackie L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cooking programs have been used to promote healthful eating among people of all ages. This review assesses the evidence on childhood cooking programs and their association with changes in food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors of school-aged children. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Ovid-Medline, and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) databases. We included primary research articles that involved cooking education programs for children and searched reference lists for eligible articles. Studies considered for review contained a hands-on cooking intervention; had participants aged 5 to 12 years; were published in a peer-reviewed journal on or after January 1, 2003; and were written in English. We used the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies to rate the strength of each article and assess bias. The following information was extracted from each study: study design, sample size, location, duration, intervention components, data collection methods, and outcomes. Results Eight studies met the inclusion criteria and used cooking education to influence children’s food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors. Programs varied in duration, evaluation methods, and outcomes of interest. Self-reported food preparation skills, dietary intake, cooking confidence, fruit and vegetable preferences, attitudes toward food and cooking, and food-related knowledge were among the outcomes measured. Program exposure ranged from 2 sessions to regular instruction over 2 years, and the effect of cooking programs on children’s food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors varied among the reviewed studies. Conclusions Findings suggest that cooking programs may positively influence children’s food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors. However, because study measurements varied widely, determining best practices was difficult. Further research is

  7. Teacher Preferences for Professional Development Delivery Models and Delivery Model Influence on Teacher Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Eve R.

    2011-01-01

    Current trends and research in education indicated that teacher learning is a crucial link to student achievement. There is a void in the research regarding teacher preferences for delivery models in professional development. Determining teacher preferences is an important component in professional development planning and the driving inquiry for…

  8. Music Preferences and Family Language Background: A Computer-Supported Study of Children's Listening Behavior in the Context of Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakai, Winfried

    2011-01-01

    Turkish migrants are the largest national group in Germany. Nevertheless, neither in music psychology research nor in intercultural research can empirical data on the music preferences of Turkish-German primary schoolchildren in the migrational context be found. This study thus examined the music preference responses of children with Turkish…

  9. Developmental Profiles of Peer Social Preference over the Course of Elementary School: Associations with Trajectories of Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Bukowski, William M.; Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy

    2001-01-01

    Used new longitudinal clustering technique to identify and compare groups of children with distinct longitudinal profiles of peer social preference during elementary school. Identified a stable popular group, stable average group, and unpopular group, all with decreasing social preference. Groups showed overlap over time with closest corresponding…

  10. Developmental Profiles of Peer Social Preference over the Course of Elementary School: Associations with Trajectories of Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Bukowski, William M.; Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy

    2001-01-01

    Used new longitudinal clustering technique to identify and compare groups of children with distinct longitudinal profiles of peer social preference during elementary school. Identified a stable popular group, stable average group, and unpopular group, all with decreasing social preference. Groups showed overlap over time with closest corresponding…

  11. Music Preferences and Family Language Background: A Computer-Supported Study of Children's Listening Behavior in the Context of Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakai, Winfried

    2011-01-01

    Turkish migrants are the largest national group in Germany. Nevertheless, neither in music psychology research nor in intercultural research can empirical data on the music preferences of Turkish-German primary schoolchildren in the migrational context be found. This study thus examined the music preference responses of children with Turkish…

  12. Phase Structure and Site Preference Behavior of Ternary Alloying Additions to PdTi and PtTi Shape-Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Mosca, Hugo O.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    The phasc structure and concentration dependence of the lattice parameter and energy of formation of ternary Pd-'I-X and Pt-Ti-X alloys for a large number of ternary alloying additions X (X = Na, Mg, Al, Si, Sc. V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, Cd, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir) are investigated with an atomistic modeling approach. In addition, a detailed description of the site preference behavior of such additions showing that the elements can be grouped according to their absolute preference for a specific site, regardless of concentration, or preference for available sites in the deficient sublattice is provided.

  13. Phase Structure and Site Preference Behavior of Ternary Alloying Additions to PdTi and PtTi Shape-Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Mosca, Hugo O.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    The phasc structure and concentration dependence of the lattice parameter and energy of formation of ternary Pd-'I-X and Pt-Ti-X alloys for a large number of ternary alloying additions X (X = Na, Mg, Al, Si, Sc. V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, Cd, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir) are investigated with an atomistic modeling approach. In addition, a detailed description of the site preference behavior of such additions showing that the elements can be grouped according to their absolute preference for a specific site, regardless of concentration, or preference for available sites in the deficient sublattice is provided.

  14. Mothers say “baby” and their newborns do not choose to listen: a behavioral preference study to compare with ERP results

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Christine; Zernzach, Randall C.; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2015-01-01

    Previously published results from neonatal brain evoked response potential (ERP) experiments revealed different brain responses to the single word “baby” depending on whether it was recorded by the mother or an unfamiliar female. These results are consistent with behavioral preference studies in which infants altered pacifier sucking to contingently activate recordings of the maternal vs. an unfamiliar female voice, but the speech samples were much longer and information-rich than in the ERP studies. Both types of neonatal voice recognition studies imply postnatal retention of prenatal learning. The preference studies require infant motor and motivation systems to mount a response in addition to voice recognition. The current contingent sucking preference study was designed to test neonatal motivation to alter behavior when the reward is the single word “baby” recorded by the mother or an unfamiliar speaker. Results showed an absent or weak contingent sucking response to the brief maternal voice sample, and they demonstrate the complementary value of electrophysiological and behavioral studies for very early development. Neonates can apparently recognize the maternal voice in brief recorded sample (previous ERP results) but they are not sufficiently motivated by it to alter sucking behavior. PMID:25859203

  15. The Speaking Section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] (SSTiBT): Test-Takers' Reported Strategic Behaviors. TOEFL iBT[TM] Research Report. RR-09-30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill; Huang, Li-Shih; Barkaoui, Khaled; Brooks, Lindsay; Lapkin, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study responds to the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) research agenda concerning the need to understand the processes and knowledge that test-takers utilize. Specifically, it investigates the strategic behaviors test-takers reported using when taking the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] (SSTiBT). It also investigates…

  16. Social isolation in adolescence alters behaviors in the forced swim and sucrose preference tests in female but not in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Suzie; Flashner, Bess; Chiu, Melissa; Hoeve, Elizabeth ver; Luz, Sandra; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2011-01-01

    Social interactions in rodents are rewarding and motivating and social isolation is aversive. Accumulating evidence suggests that disruption of the social environment in adolescence has long-term effects on social interactions, on anxiety-like behavior and on stress reactivity. In previous work we showed that adolescent isolation produced increased reactivity to acute and to repeated stress in female rats, whereas lower corticosterone responses to acute stress and decreased anxiety-related behavior were noted in isolated males. These results indicate a sex specific impact on the effects of social stress in adolescence. However, little is known about whether social isolation impacts behaviors related to affect and whether it does so differently in male and female rats. The present study investigated the impact of adolescent social isolation from day 30-50 of age in male and female Sprague Dawley rats on behavior in the forced swim test at the end of adolescence and in adulthood and on behavior in the sucrose preference test in adulthood. Adult female rats that were isolated in adolescence exhibited increased climbing on the first and second day of the forced swim test and showed an increased preference for sucrose compared to adult females that were group-housed in adolescence. There were no effects in male rats. The results indicate that social isolation in adolescence produces a stable and active behavioral phenotype in adult female rats. PMID:21907226

  17. Application of the multi-mechanism deformation model for three-dimensional simulations of salt : behavior for the strategic petroleum reserve.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Bean, James E.

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve stores crude oil in 62 solution-mined caverns in salt domes located in Texas and Louisiana. Historically, three-dimensional geomechanical simulations of the behavior of the caverns have been performed using a power law creep model. Using this method, and calibrating the creep coefficient to field data such as cavern closure and surface subsidence, has produced varying degrees of agreement with observed phenomena. However, as new salt dome locations are considered for oil storage facilities, pre-construction geomechanical analyses are required that need site-specific parameters developed from laboratory data obtained from core samples. The multi-mechanism deformation (M-D) model is a rigorous mathematical description of both transient and steady-state creep phenomena. Recent enhancements to the numerical integration algorithm within the model have created a more numerically stable implementation of the M-D model. This report presents computational analyses to compare the results of predictions of the geomechanical behavior at the West Hackberry SPR site using both models. The recently-published results using the power law creep model produced excellent agreement with an extensive set of field data. The M-D model results show similar agreement using parameters developed directly from laboratory data. It is also used to predict the behavior for the construction and operation of oil storage caverns at a new site, to identify potential problems before a final cavern layout is designed.

  18. Final Draft Strategic Marketing Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-02-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has developed a marketing plan to define how BPA can be viable and competitive in the future, a result important to BPA`s customers and constituents. The Marketing Plan represents the preferred customer outcomes, marketplace achievements, and competitive advantage required to accomplish the Vision and the Strategic Business Objectives of the agency. The Marketing Plan contributes to successful implementation of BPA`s Strategic Business Objectives (SBOs) by providing common guidance to organizations and activities throughout the agency responsible for (1) planning, constructing, operating, and maintaining the Federal Columbia River Power System; (2) conducting business with BPA`s customers; and (3) providing required internal support services.

  19. Strategic Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lynn; Tyson, Ben

    2003-01-01

    Many school buildings are in dire need of renovation, expansion, or replacement. Brief case studies from around the country illustrate the importance of finding out why people vote for or against a construction referendum. Lists recommendations for a strategic campaign. (MLF)

  20. Strategic HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on strategic human resource development (HRD). "Examination of the Use of Scenarios as Learning and Decision-Making Tools for Human Resource Development" (Roger F. Miller, Susan A. Lynham, Joanne Provo, Jeanne M. St. Claire) explores the potential value of scenarios as learning and…

  1. Strategic Staffing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ann B.

    2012-01-01

    Business and industry leaders do not flinch at the idea of placing top talent in struggling departments and divisions. This is not always the case in public education. The Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools made a bold statement to its community in its strategic plan by identifying two key reform levers--(1) an effective principal leading each school;…

  2. Strategic HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on strategic human resource development (HRD). "Examination of the Use of Scenarios as Learning and Decision-Making Tools for Human Resource Development" (Roger F. Miller, Susan A. Lynham, Joanne Provo, Jeanne M. St. Claire) explores the potential value of scenarios as learning and…

  3. Theoretical and Methodological Implications of the Influence of Sex Preferences on the Fertility Attitude-Behavior Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Gary H.

    1979-01-01

    Investigated is the idea that measures of preferred family size can elicit accurate aggregate fertility predictions but inaccurate individual fertility predictions, because the children's sex composition is not considered. Suggestions are given for developing fertility attitude measures. (Author/SA)

  4. Behavioral asymmetries of psychomotor performance in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - A dissociation between hand preference and skill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.; Berke, Leslie; Williams, Mary

    1992-01-01

    Hand preferences were recorded for 35 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) as they manipulated a joystick in response to 2 computerized tasks. These preferences were then used to contrast 8 left- and 10 right-handed subjects on performance measures of hand skill. Individual hand preferences were found, but no significant population asymmetry was observed across the sample. However, the performance data reveal substantial benefits of right-handedness for joystick manipulation, as this group of monkeys mastered the 2 psychomotor tasks significantly faster than did their left-handed counterparts. The data support earlier reports of a right-hand advantage for joystick manipulation and also support the importance of distinguishing between hand preference and manual performance in research on functional asymmetries.

  5. Behavioral asymmetries of psychomotor performance in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - A dissociation between hand preference and skill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.; Berke, Leslie; Williams, Mary

    1992-01-01

    Hand preferences were recorded for 35 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) as they manipulated a joystick in response to 2 computerized tasks. These preferences were then used to contrast 8 left- and 10 right-handed subjects on performance measures of hand skill. Individual hand preferences were found, but no significant population asymmetry was observed across the sample. However, the performance data reveal substantial benefits of right-handedness for joystick manipulation, as this group of monkeys mastered the 2 psychomotor tasks significantly faster than did their left-handed counterparts. The data support earlier reports of a right-hand advantage for joystick manipulation and also support the importance of distinguishing between hand preference and manual performance in research on functional asymmetries.

  6. [Study on food preference and dietary behavior to overweight/obesity in school children and adolescents in Guangzhou: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Li-hua; Wang, Cui-ling; Chen, Zong-qiu; Weng, Jian-ping; Chen, Wei-qing; Mai, Jin-cheng; Chen, Yu-ming

    2008-10-01

    This study assessed the effect of food preference and dietary behaviors on the risk of overweight or obesity in school children and adolescents aged 6 - 19 years. All overweight or obese students, with age- and school-matched controls were recruited for this case-control study from 28 elementary and secondary schools in Guangzhou urban districts from October 2006 to April 2007. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated for the classification of obesity, overweight and underweight. Their food preference and behaviors were assessed using a structured questionnaire completed by their parents. Behavior and food preference were classified into four levels, and the relevant bottom levels were defined as control groups. Logistic regression was used to assess independent determinants of overweight and obesity. Among 7136 participants, 1947 cases and 2136 normal weight controls from 5755 students with valid questionnaire data were included in the study. Results from univariate analysis showed that odds ratios for overweight or obesity were 0.60-0.69 in those with most preference (top group) on vegetables, fruits, candy, evening snacks, 0.50 in the students of less food partiality, 1.84, 1.30 and 1.26 in those of most preference for pork, beef and deep-fried foods, and 5.14 in students with fastest speed during eating, respectively (all P < 0.05). Vegetable intake, evening snacks preference, speed during eating and food partiality remained with significant association with overweight and obesity in multivariate analysis after adjusted for age, sex, family socio-economical status and their parents' body build. The adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of the above items became 0.55 (0.42 - 0.73), 0.48 (0.35 - 0.65), 0.50 (0.39 - 0.65), and 4.32 (3.23 - 5.80) as compared to the relevant lowest categories, respectively. Behaviors as eating more vegetables and slow-eating might be protective factors against overweight and

  7. Children's strategic theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Sher, Itai; Koenig, Melissa; Rustichini, Aldo

    2014-09-16

    Human strategic interaction requires reasoning about other people's behavior and mental states, combined with an understanding of their incentives. However, the ontogenic development of strategic reasoning is not well understood: At what age do we show a capacity for sophisticated play in social interactions? Several lines of inquiry suggest an important role for recursive thinking (RT) and theory of mind (ToM), but these capacities leave out the strategic element. We posit a strategic theory of mind (SToM) integrating ToM and RT with reasoning about incentives of all players. We investigated SToM in 3- to 9-y-old children and adults in two games that represent prevalent aspects of social interaction. Children anticipate deceptive and competitive moves from the other player and play both games in a strategically sophisticated manner by 7 y of age. One game has a pure strategy Nash equilibrium: In this game, children achieve equilibrium play by the age of 7 y on the first move. In the other game, with a single mixed-strategy equilibrium, children's behavior moved toward the equilibrium with experience. These two results also correspond to two ways in which children's behavior resembles adult behavior in the same games. In both games, children's behavior becomes more strategically sophisticated with age on the first move. Beyond the age of 7 y, children begin to think about strategic interaction not myopically, but in a farsighted way, possibly with a view to cooperating and capitalizing on mutual gains in long-run relationships.

  8. Why bother with the brain? A role for decision neuroscience in understanding strategic variability.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience, by its nature, seems to hold considerable promise for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of decision making. In recent years, several studies in the domain of "neuroeconomics" or "decision neuroscience" have provided important insights into brain function. Yet, the apparent success and value of each of these domains are frequently called into question by researchers in economics and behavioral decision making. Critics often charge that knowledge about the brain is unnecessary for understanding decision preferences. In this chapter, I contend that knowledge about underlying brain mechanisms helps in the development of biologically plausible models of behavior, which can then help elucidate the mechanisms underlying individual choice biases and strategic preferences. Using a novel risky choice paradigm, I will demonstrate that people vary in whether they adopt compensatory or noncompensatory rules in economic decision making. Importantly, neuroimaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging reveal that distinct neural mechanisms support variability in choices and variability in strategic preferences. Converging evidence from a study involving decisions between hypothetical stocks illustrates how knowledge about the underlying mechanisms can help inform neuroanatomical models of cognitive control. Last, I will demonstrate how knowledge about these underlying neural mechanisms can provide novel insights into the effects of decision states like sleep deprivation on decision preferences. Together, these findings suggest that neuroscience can play a critical role in creating robust and flexible models of real-world decision behavior.

  9. Cocaine-conditioned place preference is predicted by previous anxiety-like behavior and is related to an increased number of neurons in the basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, David; Pavón, Francisco J; Serrano, Antonia; Rivera, Patricia; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Suárez, Juan; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santín, Luis J; Castilla-Ortega, Estela

    2016-02-01

    The identification of behavioral traits that could predict an individual's susceptibility to engage in cocaine addiction is relevant for understanding and preventing this disorder, but investigations of cocaine addicts rarely allow us to determinate whether their behavioral attributes are a cause or a consequence of drug use. To study the behaviors that predict cocaine vulnerability, male C57BL/6J mice were examined in a battery of tests (the elevated plus maze, hole-board, novelty preference in the Y-Maze, episodic-like object recognition and forced swimming) prior to training in a cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to assess the reinforcing value of the drug. In a second study, the anatomical basis of high and low CPP in the mouse brain was investigated by studying the number of neurons (neuronal nuclei-positive) in two addiction-related limbic regions (the medial prefrontal cortex and the basolateral amygdala) and the number of dopaminergic neurons (tyrosine hydroxylase-positive) in the ventral tegmental area by immunohistochemistry and stereology. Correlational analyses revealed that CPP behavior was successfully predicted by anxiety-like measures in the elevated plus maze (i.e., the more anxious mice showed more preference for the cocaine-paired compartment) but not by the other behaviors analyzed. In addition, increased numbers of neurons were found in the basolateral amygdala of the high CPP mice, a key brain center for anxiety and fear responses. The results support the theory that anxiety is a relevant factor for cocaine vulnerability, and the basolateral amygdala is a potential neurobiological substrate where both anxiety and cocaine vulnerability could overlap. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal Agencies in Implementing Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans - Implementing Sustainability: The Institutional-Behavioral Dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.; Sanquist, Tom; Wolfe, Amy K.; Diamond, Rick; Payne, Christopher; Dion, Jerry

    2013-06-01

    This document is part of a larger, programmatic effort to assist federal agencies in taking action and changing their institutions to achieve and maintain federal sustainability goals, while meeting their mission goals. FEMP is developing guidance for federal agency efforts to enable institutional behavior change for sustainability, and for making sustainability “business as usual.” The driving requirement for this change is Executive Order (EO) 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance. FEMP emphasizes strategies for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy utilization as critical components of attaining sustainability, and promotes additional non-energy action pathways contained in EO 13514. This report contributes to the larger goal by laying out the conceptual and evidentiary underpinnings of guidance to federal agencies. Conceptual frameworks focus and organize the development of guidance. We outline a series of progressively refined conceptual frameworks, including a multi-layer approach, key steps in sustainability implementation, a process view of specific approaches to institutional change, the agency Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans (SSPPs), and concepts related to context-specific rules, roles and tools for sustainability. Additionally, we tap pertinent bodies of literature in drawing eight evidence-based principles for behavior change. These principles are important foundations upon which to build in selecting strategies to effect change in organizations. Taken together, this report presents a suite of components that inform the training materials, presentations, web site, and other products that provide guidance to federal agencies.

  11. Seasonal and cultivar-associated variation in oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) adults and feeding behavior of neonate larvae in apples.

    PubMed

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-04-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) has become a pest of tree fruits since its introduction to the United States in the early twentieth century. Oriental fruit moth has historically been a major pest problem in peach production, and outbreaks in commercial apple (Malus spp.) orchards in the eastern United States were rare until the late 1990s. Recent outbreaks in Mid-Atlantic apple orchards have lead researchers to investigate host-associated effects on oriental fruit moth biology, behavior, and population dynamics. Studies were designed to assess cultivar level effects in apples on oviposition and larval feeding behavior of oriental fruit moth. In a mixed cultivar apple orchard, total oriental fruit moth oviposition and oviposition site preferences varied between cultivars. These preferences also varied over time, when sampling was repeated at various times of the growing season. Although most adult female oriental fruit moth preferentially oviposited in the calyx and stem areas of apple fruit, noticeable numbers of eggs also were laid on the sides of fruit, contradicting some previous reports. Oriental fruit moth females exhibited a strong ovipositional preference for fruit that were previously damaged by oriental fruit moth or codling moth, Cydia ponmonella (L.). The majority of newly hatched oriental fruit moth larvae were observed to spend <24 h on the surface of apple fruit before entry, and this behavior was observed on several apple cultivars. Neonate larvae exhibited a preference for entering fruit at either the stem or calyx ends, regardless of their initial site of placement. Our findings underscore the importance of adequate spray coverage and accurate timing of insecticide applications targeting oriental fruit moth.

  12. Strategic Supply

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    leaders as Sears, Limited Brands, DHL, Circuit City, Cingular, Nestle and IKEA (Manugistics, 2006). The Strategic Supply Chain Industry Study Group...inventory turns have increased. Other global customers have also reaped the benefits of the Manugistics software. IKEA , Sweden’s retail icon...turned to Manugistics after a mid-1990s ERP implementation failed to fix their forecasting problems, which gave way to fluctuating inventory levels. IKEA

  13. Differences in Cancer Information Seeking Behavior, Preferences, and Awareness Between Cancer Survivors and Healthy Controls: A National, Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Abbey R.; Lykins, Emily L.B.; Gochett, Celestine G.; Brechting, Emily H.; Graue, Lili O.; Andrykowski, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Background No research has examined how cancer diagnosis and treatment might alter information source preferences or opinions. Methods Data from 719 cancer survivors (CS group) and 2012 matched healthy controls (NCC group) regarding cancer-related information seeking behavior, preferences, and awareness from the population-based 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) was examined. Results The CS group reported greater consumption of cancer-related information but the CS and NCC groups did not differ in information source use or preferences. The CS group was more confident of their ability to get cancer information, reported more trust in health care professionals and television as cancer information sources, but evaluated their recent cancer information seeking experiences more negatively than the NCC group. Awareness of cancer information resources was surprisingly low in both the CS and NCC groups. Conclusions Cancer diagnosis and treatment subtly alters cancer information seeking preferences and experience. However awareness and use of cancer information resources was relatively low regardless of personal history of cancer. PMID:19259869

  14. Health behavior and behavioral economics: economic preferences and physical activity stages of change in a low-income African-American community.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Tammy; Shuval, Kerem; de Oliveira, Angela; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Eckel, Catherine; Murdoch, James C

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between physical activity stages of change and preferences for financial risk and time. A cross-sectional, community-based study. A low-income, urban, African-American neighborhood. One hundred sixty-nine adults. Self-reported physical activity stages of change-precontemplation to maintenance, objectively measured body mass index and waist circumference, and economic preferences for time and risk measured via incentivized economic experiments. Multivariable ordered logistic regression models were used to examine the association between physical activity stages of change and economic preferences while controlling for demographic characteristics of the individuals. Individuals who are more tolerant of financial risks (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31, p < .05) and whose time preferences indicate more patience (OR = 1.68, p < .01) are more likely to be in a more advanced physical activity stage (e.g., from preparation to action). The likelihood of being in the maintenance stage increases by 5.6 and 10.9 percentage points for each one-unit increase in financial risk tolerance or one-unit increase in the time preference measure, respectively. Greater tolerance of financial risk and more patient time preferences among this low-income ethnic minority population are associated with a more advanced physical activity stage. Further exploration is clearly warranted in larger and more representative samples.

  15. Health Behavior and Behavioral Economics: Economic Preferences and Physical Activity Stages of Change in a Low-Income African American Community

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Tammy; Shuval, Kerem; de Oliveira, Angela; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Eckel, Catherine; Murdoch, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between physical activity stages of change and preferences for financial risk and time. Design A cross-sectional, community-based study. Setting A low-income, urban, African American neighborhood. Subjects 169 adults Measures Self-reported physical activity stages of change—precontemplation to maintenance, objectively measured BMI and waist circumference, and economic preferences for time and risk measured via incentivized economic experiments. Analysis Multivariable ordered logistic regression models were used to examine the association between physical activity stages of change and economic preferences while controlling for demographic characteristics of the individuals. Results Individuals who are more tolerant of financial risks (OR=1.31, p<0.05) and whose time preferences indicate more patience (OR=1.68, p<0.01) are more likely to be in a more advanced physical activity stage (e.g. from preparation to action). The likelihood of being in the maintenance stage increases by 5.6 and 10.9 percentage points for each 1 unit increase in financial risk tolerance or 1 unit increase in the time preference measure, respectively. Conclusions Greater tolerance of financial risk and more patient time preferences among this low-income ethnic minority population are associated with a more advanced physical activity stage. Further exploration is clearly warranted in larger and more representative samples. PMID:23448410

  16. Recalled sex-typed behavior in childhood and sports' preferences in adulthood of heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual men from Brazil, Turkey, and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Fernando Luiz

    2009-10-01

    This research used interview and questionnaire data from homosexual (n = 177), bisexual (n = 157), and heterosexual (n = 544) men between 20 and 30 years of age among lower class men and university students in three countries: Brazil, Thailand, and Turkey. The main goal of the study was to examine the recalled childhood sex-typed behavior and adult sports preferences that distinguish homosexuals from bisexuals and heterosexuals. In all three cultures and both social groups, homosexual men were almost always more likely as children to have wanted to be a girl, to cross-dress, to play with girls, to do girls' tasks, and to practice fewer sports. They were also less likely to bully others or to engage in physical fights. As children, homosexual men were more likely to prefer swimming and playing volleyball rather than soccer and, as adults, they preferred watching gymnastics and swimming over soccer. The bisexuals scored intermediate mostly in "desire to be a girl" and "cross-dressing," although they were much closer to the heterosexuals. These results, coupled with previous cross-cultural research, suggest that cross-gender behavior in childhood may characterize most male homosexuals regardless of their cultural milieu.

  17. How do risk preferences relate to malaria care-seeking behavior and the acceptability of a new health technology in Nigeria?

    PubMed

    Liu, Jenny; Modrek, Sepideh; Anyanti, Jennifer; Nwokolo, Ernest; De La Cruz, Anna; Schatzkin, Eric; Isiguzo, Chinwoke; Ujuju, Chinazo; Montagu, Dominic

    2014-09-05

    To reduce the burden of disease from malaria, innovative approaches are needed to engender behavior change. One unobservable, but fundamental trait-preferences for risk-may influence individuals' willingness to adopt new health technologies. We explore the association of risk preferences with malaria care-seeking behavior and the acceptability of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to inform RDT scale-up plans. In Oyo State, Nigeria, adult customers purchasing anti-malarial medications at selected drug shops took surveys and received an RDT as they exited. After an initial risk preference assessment via a simple lottery game choice, individuals were given their RDT result and treatment advice, and called four days later to assess treatment adherence. We used bivariable and multivariable regression analysis to assess the association of risk game choices with malaria care-seeking behaviors and RDT acceptability. Of 448 respondents, 63.2% chose the lottery game with zero variance in expected payout, 27.9% chose the game with low variance, and 8.9% chose the game with high variance. Compared to participants who chose lower variance games, individuals choosing higher variance games were older, less educated, more likely to be male, and were more likely to patronize lower quality drug shops, seek care immediately, and report complete disability due to their illness. In contrast, individuals choosing lower variance games were more likely to follow the correct treatment directions and were more likely to report an increase in their willingness to pay for an RDT compared to other risk groups, our two measures of RDT acceptability. Differences in estimated associations between risk game choices and selected care-seeking behaviors remained after controlling sociodemographic confounders. The uptake of health diagnostic information in terms of translating the RDT experience into willingness to pay for an RDT and treatment adherence to test results may vary according to risk

  18. Use of Causal Attributions about Recall Performance to Assess Metamemory and Predict Strategic Memory Behavior in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabricius, William V.; Hagen, John W.

    1984-01-01

    First and second graders were exposed to a memory task in which their recall performance varied as a function of their incidentally elicited sorting behavior. When asked what had affected their recall, only some children at each grade identified sorting as a causal factor. Causal attributions predicted use of sorting strategy in a standard…

  19. Use of Causal Attributions about Recall Performance to Assess Metamemory and Predict Strategic Memory Behavior in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabricius, William V.; Hagen, John W.

    1984-01-01

    First and second graders were exposed to a memory task in which their recall performance varied as a function of their incidentally elicited sorting behavior. When asked what had affected their recall, only some children at each grade identified sorting as a causal factor. Causal attributions predicted use of sorting strategy in a standard…

  20. Effects of the novel endocannabinoid uptake inhibitor, LY2183240, on fear-potentiated startle and alcohol-seeking behaviors in mice selectively bred for high alcohol preference.

    PubMed

    Powers, Matthew S; Barrenha, Gustavo D; Mlinac, Nate S; Barker, Eric L; Chester, Julia A

    2010-12-01

    Alcohol-use disorders often occur together with anxiety disorders in humans which may be partly due to common inherited genetic factors. Evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of individuals with anxiety and/or alcohol-use disorders. The present study assessed the effects of a novel endocannabinoid uptake inhibitor, LY2183240, on anxiety- and alcohol-seeking behaviors in a unique animal model that may represent increased genetic risk to develop co-morbid anxiety and alcohol-use disorders in humans. Mice selectively bred for high alcohol preference (HAP) show greater fear-potentiated startle (FPS) than mice selectively bred for low alcohol preference (LAP). We examined the effects of LY2183240 on the expression of FPS in HAP and LAP mice and on alcohol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and limited-access alcohol drinking behavior in HAP mice. Repeated administration of LY2183240 (30 mg/kg) reduced the expression of FPS in HAP but not LAP mice when given prior to a second FPS test 48 h after fear conditioning. Both the 10 and 30 mg/kg doses of LY2183240 enhanced the expression of alcohol-induced CPP and this effect persisted in the absence of the drug. LY2183240 did not alter limited-access alcohol drinking behavior, unconditioned startle responding, or locomotor activity. These findings suggest that ECS modulation influences both conditioned fear and conditioned alcohol reward behavior. LY2183240 may be an effective pharmacotherapy for individuals with anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, but may not be appropriate for individuals with co-morbid anxiety and alcohol-use disorders.

  1. Effects of the novel endocannabinoid uptake inhibitor, LY2183240, on fear-potentiated startle and alcohol-seeking behaviors in mice selectively bred for high alcohol preference

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Matthew S.; Barrenha, Gustavo D.; Mlinac, Nate S.; Barker, Eric L.; Chester, Julia A.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol-use disorders often occur together with anxiety disorders in humans which may be partly due to common inherited genetic factors. Evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of individuals with anxiety and/or alcohol-use disorders. Objectives The present study assessed the effects of a novel endocannabinoid uptake inhibitor, LY2183240, on anxiety- and alcohol-seeking behaviors in a unique animal model that may represent increased genetic risk to develop comorbid anxiety and alcohol-use disorders in humans. Mice selectively bred for high alcohol preference (HAP) show greater fear-potentiated startle (FPS) than mice selectively bred for low alcohol preference (LAP). We examined the effects of LY2183240 on the expression of FPS in HAP and LAP mice and on alcohol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and limited-access alcohol drinking behavior in HAP mice. Results Repeated administration of LY2183240 (30 mg/kg) reduced the expression of FPS in HAP but not LAP mice when given prior to a second FPS test 48 h after fear conditioning. Both the 10 and 30 mg/kg doses of LY2183240 enhanced the expression of alcohol-induced CPP and this effect persisted in the absence of the drug. LY2183240 did not alter limited-access alcohol drinking behavior, unconditioned startle responding, or locomotor activity. Conclusions These findings suggest that ECS modulation influences both conditioned fear and conditioned alcohol reward behavior. LY2183240 may be an effective pharmacotherapy for individuals with anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, but may not be appropriate for individuals with co-morbid anxiety and alcohol-use disorders. PMID:20838777

  2. A Study of Preferred Conflict-Management Behaviors among Small-School Principals: Effects of Gender and Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vestal, Brad; Torres, Mario

    2016-01-01

    It cannot be overstated the broad skill set managers must have to manage conflict in modern organizations (Lang, 2009; Ramani & Zhimin, 2010). Few studies have explored this topic in smaller organizational settings where leaders often assume a greater number of roles and responsibilities. For this reason, this study analyzed preferred conflict…

  3. A Study of Preferred Conflict-Management Behaviors among Small-School Principals: Effects of Gender and Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vestal, Brad; Torres, Mario

    2016-01-01

    It cannot be overstated the broad skill set managers must have to manage conflict in modern organizations (Lang, 2009; Ramani & Zhimin, 2010). Few studies have explored this topic in smaller organizational settings where leaders often assume a greater number of roles and responsibilities. For this reason, this study analyzed preferred conflict…

  4. Evaluating the Performance Improvement Preferences of Disability Service Managers: An Exploratory Study Using Gilbert's Behavior Engineering Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooderson, John R.; Cuskelly, Monica; Meyer, Kim A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Front-line managers play an important role in managing the performance of staff working in services for people with intellectual disability, but little is known about the practices they prefer to use to improve staff performance and whether these align with what research has shown to be effective. Method: This study comprised two…

  5. Characterization of greenbug feeding behavior and aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) host preference in relation to resistant and susceptible tetraploid switchgrass populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two choice studies were performed to evaluate geenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes), preference for two tetraploid switchgrass populations, Summer and Kanlow, and one experimental hybrid, KxS, derived by crossing Kanlow (male) x Summer (female) plan...

  6. Blockade of dopamine D1-family receptors attenuates the mania-like hyperactive, risk-preferring, and high motivation behavioral profile of mice with low dopamine transporter levels.

    PubMed

    Milienne-Petiot, Morgane; Groenink, Lucianne; Minassian, Arpi; Young, Jared W

    2017-10-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder mania exhibit poor cognition, impulsivity, risk-taking, and goal-directed activity that negatively impact their quality of life. To date, existing treatments for bipolar disorder do not adequately remediate cognitive dysfunction. Reducing dopamine transporter expression recreates many bipolar disorder mania-relevant behaviors (i.e. hyperactivity and risk-taking). The current study investigated whether dopamine D1-family receptor blockade would attenuate the risk-taking, hypermotivation, and hyperactivity of dopamine transporter knockdown mice. Dopamine transporter knockdown and wild-type littermate mice were tested in mouse versions of the Iowa Gambling Task (risk-taking), Progressive Ratio Breakpoint Test (effortful motivation), and Behavioral Pattern Monitor (activity). Prior to testing, the mice were treated with the dopamine D1-family receptor antagonist SCH 23390 hydrochloride (0.03, 0.1, or 0.3 mg/kg), or vehicle. Dopamine transporter knockdown mice exhibited hyperactivity and hyperexploration, hypermotivation, and risk-taking preference compared with wild-type littermates. SCH 23390 hydrochloride treatment decreased premature responding in dopamine transporter knockdown mice and attenuated their hypermotivation. SCH 23390 hydrochloride flattened the safe/risk preference, while reducing activity and exploratory levels of both genotypes similarly. Dopamine transporter knockdown mice exhibited mania-relevant behavior compared to wild-type mice. Systemic dopamine D1-family receptor antagonism attenuated these behaviors in dopamine transporter knockdown, but not all effects were specific to only the knockdown mice. The normalization of behavior via blockade of dopamine D1-family receptors supports the hypothesis that D1 and/or D5 receptors could contribute to the mania-relevant behaviors of dopamine transporter knockdown mice.

  7. [Study of the dietary preferences and the social-psychological factors that affect the dietary behaviors of high school and university students].

    PubMed

    Kasamaki, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the correlation among dietary intake, dietary preferences, and social-psychological factors in the youth and to examine the factors that affect such dietary behaviors as snacking, skipping breakfast, and taking a biased nutrition. A survey was carried out using a questionnaire with closed questions on multiple items such as dietary behaviors, psychosocial stress, dietary externalization, information and consciousness about health. The survey was conducted on 1,056 high school students and 1,323 university students in Japan. As a result of the factor analysis among the groups of male/female and high school/university students, relationships were found between the items of "preferences for snacking" and "snack food intakes" among all these groups. Those who like sweets and snacks tended to snack between lunch and dinner or after dinner by themselves more often than those who do not. In contrast to men, intermediate correlations were found between the item of "a meal as a diversion" and each of the items of "snack food intake," "preferences for fried foods/sautéed foods/meat dishes," and "preferences for snacking," among women who do not live alone, regardless of their being high school or university students. The item of "stress over human relationships/academic performance" was shown to have similarly weak correlations with the items of "reasons for skipping breakfast" and "nutrition intake" in the groups of male and female high school students. The less they value nutrition intake, the more they tend to be conscious of stress over human relationships/academic performance.

  8. Sexual Behavior Patterns and PrEP Dosing Preferences in a large sample of North American Men who have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Stack, Conor; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Mimiaga, Matthew; Elsesser, Steven Alan; Krakower, Douglas; Novak, David S.; Egan, James E.; Stall, Ron; Safren, Steve; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), taken as a single daily co-formulated pill containing tenofovir-emtricitabine, is a promising intervention to reduce the likelihood of HIV acquisition in at-risk individuals, including men who have sex with men (MSM). Little is known about the acceptability of less than daily, intermittent PrEP (iPrEP) regimens. We conducted an online survey of North American MSM to characterize their sexual frequency and planning behaviors and correlate these with PrEP dosing preferences. Of the 3,217 respondents who completed the survey, 46% reported engaging in unplanned condomless anal intercourse (CAI) at least once in the prior 3 months and 8% reported engaging in CAI more than once per week. In multivariable analysis, reporting unplanned CAI was associated with lower educational level, identifying as homosexual/gay as compared to bisexual, being in a monogamous relationship, having a higher self-perceived risk of HIV acquisition, higher income, engaging in CAI more than five times in the last 3 months, and not having visited a healthcare provider in the previous year. Frequent CAI (>1×/week) was associated with being younger, identifying as homosexual/gay as compared to bisexual, being in a monogamous relationship, and having a higher self-perceived risk of HIV. Having had only planned sex over the last 3 months was associated with a preference for event-based PrEP, while having frequent or unplanned CAI was associated with a preference for daily or time-driven PrEP regimens, respectively. Our findings suggest that preferences for different PrEP regimens are associated with the sexual frequency and planning behaviors of potential users. PMID:26371786

  9. Ethanol conditioned place preference and alterations in ΔFosB following adolescent nicotine administration differ in rats exhibiting high or low behavioral reactivity to a novel environment.

    PubMed

    Philpot, Rex M; Engberg, Melanie E; Wecker, Lynn

    2014-04-01

    This study determined the effects of adolescent nicotine administration on adult alcohol preference in rats exhibiting high or low behavioral reactivity to a novel environment, and ascertained whether nicotine altered ΔFosB in the ventral striatum (vStr) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) immediately after drug administration or after rats matured to adulthood. Animals were characterized as exhibiting high (HLA) or low (LLA) locomotor activity in the novel open field on postnatal day (PND) 31 and received injections of saline (0.9%) or nicotine (0.56 mg free base/kg) from PND 35 to 42. Ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) was assessed on PND 68 following 8 days conditioning in a biased paradigm; ΔFosB was measured on PND 43 or PND 68. Following adolescent nicotine exposure, HLA animals demonstrated a CPP when conditioned with ethanol; LLA animals were unaffected. Further, adolescent nicotine exposure for 8 days increased levels of ΔFosB in limbic regions in both HLA and LLA rats, but this increase persisted into adulthood only in LLA animals. Results indicate that adolescent nicotine exposure facilitates the establishment of an ethanol CPP in HLA rats, and that sustained elevations in ΔFosB are not necessary or sufficient for the establishment of an ethanol CPP in adulthood. These studies underscore the importance of assessing behavioral phenotype when determining the behavioral and cellular effects of adolescent nicotine exposure.

  10. Thinking strategically.

    PubMed

    Goree, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Over the course of the past 20 years, human resources has tried a variety of strategic initiatives to add value to the working environment, from the alphabets of TQM, CQI, EVA, ROI, ISO, QS, Theory X, Y, Z, Generation X and Y to re-engineering, balanced scorecard, lean, hoshin, six sigma, to Margaret Wheatley's "The Simpler Way" and finally to cheese and fish. The problem is that none of these is a strategy. They are all tactics to accomplish or achieve a strategy.

  11. The role of attitude importance in social evaluation: a study of policy preferences, presidential candidate evaluations, and voting behavior.

    PubMed

    Krosnick, J A

    1988-08-01

    According to a number of social psychological theories, attitudes toward government policies that people consider important should have substantial impact on presidential candidate preferences, and unimportant attitudes should have relatively little impact. Surprisingly, the accumulated evidence evaluating this hypothesis offers little support for it. This article reexamines the hypothesis, applying more appropriate analysis methods to data collected during the 1968, 1980, and 1984 American presidential election campaigns. The impact of policy attitudes on candidate preferences was indeed found to depend on the importance of those attitudes, just as theory suggests. The analysis also documented two mechanisms of this increased impact: People for whom a policy attitude is important perceive larger differences between competing candidates' attitudes, and important attitudes appear to be more accessible in memory than unimportant ones.

  12. An eye for beauty: lateralized visual stimulation of courtship behavior and mate preferences in male zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Jennifer J; McCracken, Brianna G; Sher, Melissa; Mountjoy, D James

    2014-02-01

    Research on intersexual selection focuses on traits that have evolved for attracting mates and the consequences of mate choice. However, little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms that allow choosers to discriminate among potential mates and express an attraction to specific traits. Preferential use of the right eye during lateral displays in zebra finches, and lateralized expression of intermediate early genes in the left hemisphere during courtship led us to hypothesize that: (1) visual information from each eye differentially mediates courtship responses to potential mates; and (2) the ability to discriminate among mates and prefer certain mates over others is lateralized in the right eye/left hemisphere system of zebra finch brains. First, we exposed male zebra finches to females when using left, right or both eyes. Males courted more when the right eye was available than when only the left eye was used. Secondly, male preference for females - using beak color to indicate female quality - was tested. Right-eyed and binocular males associated with and courted orange-beaked more than gray-beaked females; whereas left-eyed males showed no preference. Lateral displays and eye use in male zebra finches increase their attractiveness and ability to assess female quality, potentially enhancing reproductive success. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: CO3 2013. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. In Others' Shoes: Do Individual Differences in Empathy and Theory of Mind Shape Social Preferences?

    PubMed Central

    Artinger, Florian; Exadaktylos, Filippos; Koppel, Hannes; Sääksvuori, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Abundant evidence across the behavioral and social sciences suggests that there are substantial individual differences in pro-social behavior. However, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underlie social preferences. This paper investigates whether empathy and Theory of Mind shape individual differences in pro-social behavior as conventionally observed in neutrally framed social science experiments. Our results show that individual differences in the capacity for empathy do not shape social preferences. The results qualify the role of Theory of Mind in strategic interaction. We do not only show that fair individuals exhibit more accurate beliefs about the behavior of others but that Theory of Mind can be effectively used to pursue both self-interest and pro-social goals depending on the principle objectives of a person. PMID:24743312

  14. In others' shoes: do individual differences in empathy and theory of mind shape social preferences?

    PubMed

    Artinger, Florian; Exadaktylos, Filippos; Koppel, Hannes; Sääksvuori, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Abundant evidence across the behavioral and social sciences suggests that there are substantial individual differences in pro-social behavior. However, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underlie social preferences. This paper investigates whether empathy and Theory of Mind shape individual differences in pro-social behavior as conventionally observed in neutrally framed social science experiments. Our results show that individual differences in the capacity for empathy do not shape social preferences. The results qualify the role of Theory of Mind in strategic interaction. We do not only show that fair individuals exhibit more accurate beliefs about the behavior of others but that Theory of Mind can be effectively used to pursue both self-interest and pro-social goals depending on the principle objectives of a person.

  15. High versus low fat/sugar food affects the behavioral, but not the cortisol response of marmoset monkeys in a conditioned-place-preference task.

    PubMed

    Duarte, R B M; Patrono, E; Borges, A C; Tomaz, C; Ventura, R; Gasbarri, A; Puglisi-Allegra, S; Barros, M

    2015-02-01

    The effect of a high (chocolate) versus low fat/sugar (chow) food on a conditioned-place-preference (CPP) task was evaluated in marmoset monkeys. Anxiety-related behaviors and cortisol levels before and after the CPP task were also measured. Subjects were habituated to a two-compartment CPP box and then, on alternate days, had access to only one compartment during daily 15-min conditionings, for a total of 14 trials. Marmosets were provisioned with chocolate chips in the CC-paired compartment on odd-numbered trials and standard chow in the CW-paired compartment on even-numbered trials. They were then tested for preferring the CC-paired context after a 24-h interval. During the conditioning, a significantly greater amount (in kcal/trial) of chocolate was consumed than chow, yet the foraging pattern of both food types was similar. On the test trial, the time spent in the CC-paired context increased significantly compared to pre-CPP levels, yet this response was not readily predicted by baseline behavioral or cortisol levels. Also, the chocolate CPP response was positively correlated with foraging time, rather than the amount of calories consumed. The sudden absence of the food increased exploration, while the chocolate CPP effect was associated with vigilance - both anxiety-related behaviors in marmosets. This behavioral profile occurred regardless of any concomitant change or correlation with cortisol. Therefore, the high fat/sugar food was more prone to be overly consumed by the marmosets, to induce a CPP response and to lead to anxiety-related behavior in its absence.

  16. Maternal and littermate deprivation disrupts maternal behavior and social-learning of food preference in adulthood: tactile stimulation, nest odor, and social rearing prevent these effects.

    PubMed

    Melo, Angel I; Lovic, Vedran; Gonzalez, Andrea; Madden, Melissa; Sinopoli, Katia; Fleming, Alison S

    2006-04-01

    Maternal and littermate (social) separation, through artificial rearing (AR), disrupts the development of subsequent maternal behavior and social learning in rats. The addition of maternal-licking-like stimulation during AR, partially reverses some of these effects. However, little is know about the role of social stimuli from littermates and nest odors during the preweaning period, in the development of the adult maternal behavior and social learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of peer- and peer-and-odor rearing on the development of maternal behavior and social learning in rats. Female pups were reared with mothers (mother reared-MR) or without mothers (AR) from postnatal day (PND) 3. AR rats received three different treatments: (1) AR-CONTROL group received minimal tactile stimulation, (2) AR-ODOR females received exposure to maternal nest material inside the AR-isolation-cup environment, (3) AR-SOCIAL group was reared in the cup with maternal nest material and a conspecific of the same-age and same-sex and received additional tactile stimulation. MR females were reared by their mothers in the nest and with conspecifics. In adulthood, rats were tested for maternal behavior towards their own pups and in a social learning task. Results confirm our previous report that AR impairs performance of maternal behavior and the development of a social food preference. Furthermore, social cues from a littermate, in combination with tactile stimulation and the nest odor, reversed the negative effects of complete isolation (AR-CONTROL) on some of the above behaviors. Exposure to the odor alone also had effects on some of these olfactory-mediated behaviors. These studies indicate that social stimulation from littermates during the preweaning period, in combination with odor from the nest and tactile stimulation, contributes to the development of affiliative behaviors.

  17. Effects of swimming exercise on morphine-induced reward and behavioral sensitization in maternally-separated rat pups in the conditioned place preference procedure.

    PubMed

    Abad, Atiyeh Taghavi-Khalil; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Bigdeli, Imanollah

    2016-09-19

    This study was designed to examine the effects of swimming exercise during adolescence on morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and behavioral sensitization in maternally separated male and female rat pups. Male Wistar rats were allowed to mate with female virgin Wistar rats. Pups were separated from the dam daily for 180min during postnatal days 2-14. All pups were weaned on day 21.The exercising pups were allowed to swim (60min/d, five days per a week, for 30days) during adolescence. Then, rat pups were tested for behavioral sensitization and the CPP induced by morphine. Maternal separation produced a significant increase in morphine-induced CPP in both sexes, behavioral sensitization in male pups and tolerance to morphine-induced motor activity in female pups. Swimmer pups separated from the dam exhibited a decrease in morphine-induced CPP in both sexes and behavioral sensitization in male pups than those of their control pups. The present results have shown that swimming exercise during adolescence may exert a protective effect against morphine-induced reward and behavioral sensitization in adult male and female rats following maternal separation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Strategic Processes in Beginning Reading. Technical Report No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Robert M.

    A strategic process perspective is used to integrate reading research with developmental findings in cognitive psychology. The main concepts of the system are explicated and are used to reinterpret a variety of previous studies. Analysis of strategic demands and the factors affecting strategic behavior yield a framework for conceptualizing the…

  19. Interest in, concerns about, and preferences for potential video-group delivery of an effective behavioral intervention among women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Marhefka, Stephanie L; Fuhrmann, Hollie J; Gilliam, Patricia; Lopez, Bernice; Baldwin, Julie

    2012-10-01

    Novel strategies are needed to expand access to effective behavioral interventions for HIV prevention. Delivering effective group-based interventions to people living with HIV using video-conferencing technology is an innovative approach that may address this need, but has not been explored. Twenty-seven women living with HIV (WLH) who had just completed Healthy Relationships, a group-based behavioral program for WLH, participated in focus groups to share their thoughts about potentially participating in Healthy Relationships via a video-conferencing group. Overall, WLH supported the idea of video-group delivery of the program. They had numerous questions about logistics, expressed concerns about safety and confidentiality, and indicated a preference for accessing video-groups via special video-phones versus computers. Findings warrant further research into the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of video-group delivery of HIV prevention interventions and suggest important considerations for researchers and practitioners who may employ video-conferencing for intervention delivery.

  20. Strategic Planning: What's so Strategic about It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Bart

    2005-01-01

    The words "strategic" and "planning" used together can lead to confusion unless one spent the early years of his career in never-ending, team-oriented, corporate training sessions. Doesn't "strategic" have something to do with extremely accurate bombing or a defensive missile system or Star Wars or something? Don't "strategic" and "planning" both…

  1. Enduring effects of tacrine on cocaine-reinforced behavior: Analysis by conditioned-place preference, temporal separation from drug reward, and reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Grasing, Kenneth; Yang, Yungao; He, Shuangteng

    2015-07-01

    Previous work by our laboratory has shown that tacrine can produce long-lasting reductions in cocaine-reinforced behavior, when administered to rats as daily intravenous infusions over four days. Tacrine causes dose-related liver toxicity in different species, and its manufacture for human use was recently discontinued. This study was conducted to further characterize its actions on cocaine reward. Cocaine-experienced animals that had no contact with drug over one week resumed self-administration at levels similar to their initial baseline. When tacrine was administered over four days which were preceded and followed by washout periods to allow elimination of cocaine and tacrine respectively, subsequent cocaine self-administration was attenuated by more than one-half. Tacrine administered at 10 mg/kg-day as a chronic infusion by osmotic pump did not modify cocaine-induced increases in locomotor activity or conditioned-place preference. In rats that exhibited persistent attenuation of cocaine-self-administration after receiving tacrine, cocaine-induced reinstatement was also attenuated. No changes in plasma measures of renal or hepatic function were observed in rats receiving tacrine. In conclusion, pretreatment with tacrine can decrease cocaine-motivated behavior measured by self-administration or reinstatement, but not conditioned-place preference. Reductions in cocaine self-administration following pretreatment with tacrine do not require direct interaction with cocaine and are not secondary to either liver or kidney toxicity.

  2. Maternal nicotine exposure during lactation alters food preference, anxiety-like behavior and the brain dopaminergic reward system in the adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C R; Moura, E G; Manhães, A C; Fraga, M C; Claudio-Neto, S; Younes-Rapozo, V; Santos-Silva, A P; Lotufo, B M; Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C

    2015-10-01

    The mesolimbic reward pathway is activated by drugs of abuse and palatable food, causing a sense of pleasure, which promotes further consumption of these substances. Children whose parents smoke are more vulnerable to present addictive-like behavior to drugs and food.We evaluated the association between maternal nicotine exposure during lactation with changes in feeding, behavior and in the dopaminergic reward system. On postnatal day (PN) 2,Wistar rat dams were implanted with minipumps releasing nicotine (N; 6 mg/kg/day, s.c.) or saline (C) for 14 days. On PN150 and PN160, offspring were divided into 4 groups for a food challenge: N and C that received standard chow(SC); and N and C that could freely self-select (SSD) between high-fat and high-sugar diets (HFD and HSD, respectively). Offspring were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field (OF) arena on PN152–153. On PN170, offspring were euthanized for central dopaminergic analysis. SSD animals showed an increased food intake compared to SC ones and a preference for HFD. However, N-SSD animals consumed relatively more HSD than C-SSD ones. Regarding behavior, N animals showed an increase in the time spent in the EPM center and a reduction in relative activity in the OF center. N offspring presented lower dopamine receptor (D2R) and transporter (DAT) contents in the nucleus accumbens, and lower D2R in the arcuate nucleus. Postnatal exposure to nicotine increases preference for sugar and anxiety levels in the adult progeny possibly due to a decrease in dopaminergic action in the nucleus accumbens and arcuate nucleus.

  3. Sexual Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on the Observance of International Women's Year, Washington, DC.

    This document considers sexual preference as it specifically relates to women. Divided into two parts, the document presents a fact sheet about lesbianism and contains a workshop resource guide on sexual preference. The fact sheet, arranged in a question-answer format, focuses on the following concerns: (1) lesbianism as a woman's issue; (2) legal…

  4. A Multidimensional Study of Gender Typing in Preschool Children and Their Parents: Personality, Attitudes, Preferences, Behavior, and Cultural Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Patricia J.; Gervai, Judit

    1995-01-01

    Examined the nature and extent of parental influences on gender differentiation in 161 4-year olds from Hungary and England. Found that certain aspects of parental gender typing were associated with individual differences in children's behavior and gender typing. Association was related to sex of parent and of child, context, and aspect of gender…

  5. The Strategic Communication Plan: Effective Communication for Strategic Leaders.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    PLAN? 5 WHO SHOULD HAVE A STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS PLAN? 7 SUCCESSFUL STRATEGIC PLANNING BEGINS WITH STRATEGIC THINKING . 8 HOW IS THE STRATEGIC...communicate internally and externally.9 SUCCESSFUL STRATEGIC PLANNING BEGINS WITH STRATEGIC THINKING A key objective of strategic thinking is to formulate and...vision should be captured in the strategic communication plan. Yet, in many organizations, prescribed strategic planning systems are the death knell

  6. Strategic forces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The Air Force now plans to retain the Minuteman II and III missile force through fiscal year 2008. Introduced about 25 years ago, these missiles have served as a nuclear deterrence for longer than initially envisioned. Over the extended lives of the systems, questions have arisen over their continued reliability and operational effectiveness, particularly the Minuteman II system. Limited flight testing, due to a shortage of test missiles, and reduced reliability caused by age-related deterioration of guidance computers and propulsion motors are two factors undermining confidence in the Minuteman II. GAO believes that the Minuteman II could be retired before 1998 as presently contemplated under an assumption of a Strategic Arms Reduction Talks agreement. An alternative would be to reinstate the Air Force's plans to replace deteriorated missile components and acquire the assets needed to resume flight testing at rates necessary to restore and sustain confidence in the system's performance through fiscal year 2008. However, on the basis of current test schedules, GAO is concerned that components to test the missile's warheads will be depleted by about 1999.

  7. D1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens-shell, but not the core, are involved in mediating ethanol-seeking behavior of alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Hauser, S R; Deehan, G A; Dhaher, R; Knight, C P; Wilden, J A; McBride, W J; Rodd, Z A

    2015-06-04

    Clinical and preclinical research suggest that activation of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is involved in mediating the rewarding actions of drugs of abuse, as well as promoting drug-seeking behavior. Inhibition of DA D1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) can reduce ethanol (EtOH)-seeking behavior of non-selective rats triggered by environmental context. However, to date, there has been no research on the effects of D1 receptor agents on EtOH- seeking behavior of high alcohol-preferring (P) rats following prolonged abstinence. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of microinjecting the D1 antagonist SCH 23390 or the D1 agonist A-77636 into the Acb shell or Acb core on spontaneous recovery of EtOH-seeking behavior. After 10 weeks of concurrent access to EtOH and water, P rats underwent seven extinction sessions (EtOH and water withheld), followed by 2 weeks in their home cages without access to EtOH or operant sessions. In the 2nd week of the home cage phase, rats were bilaterally implanted with guide cannula aimed at the Acb shell or Acb core; rats were allowed 7d ays to recover before EtOH-seeking was assessed by the Pavlovian Spontaneous Recovery (PSR) model. Administration of SCH23390 (1μg/side) into the Acb shell inhibited responding on the EtOH lever, whereas administration of A-77636 (0.125μg/side) increased responding on the EtOH lever. Microinfusion of D1 receptor agents into the Acb core did not alter responding on the EtOH lever. Responses on the water lever were not altered by any of the treatments. The results suggest that activation of D1 receptors within the Acb shell, but not Acb core, are involved in mediating PSR of EtOH-seeking behavior of P rats.

  8. More Than the Sum of Its Parts: A Complex Epistatic Network Underlies Natural Variation in Thermal Preference Behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Gaertner, Bryn E.; Parmenter, Michelle D.; Rockman, Matthew V.; Kruglyak, Leonid; Phillips, Patrick C.

    2012-01-01

    Behavior is a complex trait that results from interactions among multiple genes and the environment. Both additive and nonadditive effects are expected to contribute to broad-sense heritability of complex phenotypes, although the relative contribution of each of these mechanisms is unknown. Here, we mapped genetic variation in the correlated phenotypes of thermal preference and isothermal dispersion in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetic variation underlying these traits is characterized by a set of linked quantitative trait loci (QTL) that interact in a complex epistatic network. In particular, two loci located on the X chromosome interact with one another to generate extreme thermophilic behavior and are responsible for ∼50% of the total variation observed in a cross between two parental lines, even though these loci individually explain very little of the among-line variation. Our results demonstrate that simultaneously considering the influence of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on multiple scales of behavior can inform the physiological mechanism of the QTL and show that epistasis can explain significant proportions of otherwise unattributed variance within populations. PMID:23086219

  9. A qualitative assessment of the social cultural factors that influence cervical cancer screening behaviors and the health communication preferences of women in Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michelle S.

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in Ghana. Despite the availability of cervical cancer screening in healthcare facilities throughout the country, less than 4% of Ghanaian women seek preventive cervical cancer screenings regularly. There is a lack of culturally relevant cervical cancer education material available in Ghana. The aims of this study were to assess the social cultural factors that influence cervical cancer screening behaviors and the health communication preferences of Ghanaian women. A focus group guide based on the constructs of the PEN-3 model was used to conduct six focus groups that were stratified by educational attainment. Thirty-four women participated in the study. The qualitative data revealed that most participants were not aware of cervical cancer or cervical cancer screening. However, many of the participants were willing to seek screening if they knew more about it. The most common sources of health information were television, radio, friends, and family. And the participants preferred inspirational cervical cancer screening messages that would be delivered by a doctor and a cancer survivor. PMID:24488557

  10. Arecoline Alters Taste Bud Cell Morphology, Reduces Body Weight, and Induces Behavioral Preference Changes in Gustatory Discrimination in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei-Hau; Chau, Yat-Pang; Lu, Kuo-Shyan; Kung, Hsiu-Ni

    2016-01-01

    Arecoline, a major alkaloid in areca nuts, is involved in the pathogenesis of oral diseases. Mammalian taste buds are the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. The effects of arecoline on taste bud morphology are poorly understood. Arecoline was injected intraperitoneally (IP) into C57BL/6 mice twice daily for 1-4 weeks. After arecoline treatment, the vallate papillae were processed for electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry analysis of taste receptor proteins (T1R2, T1R3, T1R1, and T2R) and taste associated proteins (α-gustducin, PLCβ2, and SNAP25). Body weight, food intake and water consumption were recorded. A 2-bottle preference test was also performed. The results demonstrated that 1) arecoline treatment didn't change the number and size of the taste buds or taste bud cells, 2) electron microscopy revealed the change of organelles and the accumulation of autophagosomes in type II cells, 3) immunohistochemistry demonstrated a decrease of taste receptor T1R2- and T1R3-expressing cells, 4) the body weight and food intake were markedly reduced, and 5) the sweet preference behavior was reduced. We concluded that the long-term injection of arecoline alters the morphology of type II taste bud cells, retards the growth of mice, and affects discrimination competencies for sweet tastants.

  11. A qualitative assessment of the social cultural factors that influence cervical cancer screening behaviors and the health communication preferences of women in Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle S

    2014-09-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in Ghana. Despite the availability of cervical cancer screening in healthcare facilities throughout the country, less than 4 % of Ghanaian women seek preventive cervical cancer screenings regularly. There is a lack of culturally relevant cervical cancer education material available in Ghana. The aims of this study were to assess the social cultural factors that influence cervical cancer screening behaviors and the health communication preferences of Ghanaian women. A focus group guide based on the constructs of the PEN-3 model was used to conduct six focus groups that were stratified by educational attainment. Thirty-four women participated in the study. The qualitative data revealed that most participants were not aware of cervical cancer or cervical cancer screening. However, many of the participants were willing to seek screening if they knew more about it. The most common sources of health information were television, radio, friends, and family. And the participants preferred inspirational cervical-cancer-screening messages that would be delivered by a doctor and a cancer survivor.

  12. The STRATOB study: design of a randomized controlled clinical trial of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Brief Strategic Therapy with telecare in patients with obesity and binge-eating disorder referred to residential nutritional rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are linked with Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Effective interventions to significantly reduce weight, maintain weight loss and manage associated pathologies like BED are tipically combined treatment options (dietetic, nutritional, physical, behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, pharmacological, surgical). Significant difficulties with regard to availability, costs, treatment adherence and long-term efficacy are present. Particularly Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is the therapeutic approach indicated both in in-patient and in out-patient settings for BED. In recent years systemic and systemic-strategic psychotherapies have been implemented to treat patients with obesity and BED involved in familiar problems. Particularly a brief protocol for the systemic-strategic treatment of BED, using overall the strategic dialogue, has been recently developed. Moreover telemedicine, a new promising low cost method, has been used for obesity with BED in out-patient settings in order to avoid relapse after the in-patient step of treatment and to keep on a continuity of care with the involvement of the same clinical in-patient team. Methods The comparison between CBT and Brief Strategic Therapy (BST) will be assessed in a two-arm randomized controlled clinical trial. Due to the novelty of the application of BST in BED treatment (no other RCTs including BST have been carried out), a pilot study will be carried out before conducting a large scale randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT). Both CBT and BST group will follow an in-hospital treatment (diet, physical activity, dietitian counseling, 8 psychological sessions) plus 8 out-patient telephone-based sessions of psychological support and monitoring with the same in-patient psychotherapists. Primary outcome measure of the randomized trial will be the change in the Global Index of the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45.2). Secondary outcome measures will be the percentage of BED patients remitted

  13. The STRATOB study: design of a randomized controlled clinical trial of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Brief Strategic Therapy with telecare in patients with obesity and binge-eating disorder referred to residential nutritional rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Villa, Valentina; Cesa, Gian Luca; Pietrabissa, Giada; Molinari, Enrico

    2011-05-09

    Overweight and obesity are linked with binge eating disorder (BED). Effective interventions to significantly reduce weight, maintain weight loss and manage associated pathologies like BED are typically combined treatment options (dietetic, nutritional, physical, behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, pharmacological, surgical). Significant difficulties with regard to availability, costs, treatment adherence and long-term efficacy are present. Particularly Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is the therapeutic approach indicated both in in-patient and in out-patient settings for BED. In recent years systemic and systemic-strategic psychotherapies have been implemented to treat patients with obesity and BED involved in familiar problems. Particularly a brief protocol for the systemic-strategic treatment of BED, using overall the strategic dialogue, has been recently developed. Moreover telemedicine, a new promising low cost method, has been used for obesity with BED in out-patient settings in order to avoid relapse after the in-patient step of treatment and to keep on a continuity of care with the involvement of the same clinical in-patient team. The comparison between CBT and Brief Strategic Therapy (BST) will be assessed in a two-arm randomized controlled clinical trial. Due to the novelty of the application of BST in BED treatment (no other RCTs including BST have been carried out), a pilot study will be carried out before conducting a large scale randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT). Both CBT and BST group will follow an in-hospital treatment (diet, physical activity, dietitian counseling, 8 psychological sessions) plus 8 out-patient telephone-based sessions of psychological support and monitoring with the same in-patient psychotherapists. Primary outcome measure of the randomized trial will be the change in the Global Index of the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45.2). Secondary outcome measures will be the percentage of BED patients remitted considering the number of

  14. The Addicted-Self Model of addictive behavior cessation: does it predict recovery for gender, ethnic, age and drug preference populations?

    PubMed

    Fiorentine, Robert; Hillhouse, Maureen P

    2004-01-01

    Although previous research provided empirical support for the main assumptions of the Addicted-Self (A-S) Model of recovery, it is not known whether the model predicts recovery for various gender, ethnic, age, and drug preference populations. It may be that the model predicts recovery only for some groups of addicts and should not be viewed as a general theory of the recovery process. Addressing this concern using data from the Los Angeles Target Cities Drug Treatment Enhancement Project, it was determined that only trivial population differences exist in the primary variables associated with the A-S Model. The A-S Model predicts abstinence with about the same degree of accuracy and parsimony for all populations. The findings indicate that the A-S Model is a general theory of drug and alcohol addictive behavior cessation.

  15. Mice that gorged during dietary restriction increased foraging related behaviors and differed in their macronutrient preference when released from restriction

    PubMed Central

    Speakman, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) can trigger gorging behavior. We examined macronutrient choice and behavior in mice that gorged during restriction compared to restricted non-gorgers and controls. Fifty MF1 male mice were restricted to 75% of ad-libitum food intake (FI), while ten controls were fed ad-lib. Body mass (BM) and FI were measured two and 24-h after food inclusion over 14-days. ‘Gorging’ mice were defined as those which ate over 25% of their daily FI in 2-h. The top 11 gorgers and the lowest 9 gorgers, along with 10 controls, had their behavior analysed during restriction, and were then provided with an unrestricted food choice, consisting of three diets that were high in fat, protein or carbohydrate. During restriction gorgers ate on average 51% of their daily FI in the 2-h following food introduction while the non-gorgers ate only 16%. Gorgers lost significantly more BM than non-gorgers possibly due to an increased physical activity linked to anticipation of daily food provision. Controls and non-gorgers spent most of their time sleeping. After restriction, both gorgers and non-gorgers were hyperphagic until their lost weight was regained. All 3 groups favoured high fat food. Gorgers and non-gorgers had a significantly greater high carbohydrate diet intake than controls, and gorgers also had a significantly greater high protein diet intake than non-gorgers and controls. On unrestricted food, they did not continue to gorge, although they still had a significantly greater 2-h FI than the other groups. Elevated protein intake may play an important role in the recovery of the lost lean tissue of gorgers after restriction. PMID:26157640

  16. Compound measure of hand-foot-eye preference masked opposite turning behavior in healthy right-handers and non-right-handers: technical comment on Mohr et al. (2003).

    PubMed

    Mohr, C; Bracha, H S

    2004-10-01

    A previous article reported opposite turning behavior in right-handers and non-right-handers (C. Mohr. T. Landis, H. S. Bracha, & P. Brugger, 2003). This observation appears contradictory to the 1st study on long-term spontaneous turning behavior in healthy participants (H. S. Bracha, D. J. Seitz, J. Otemaa, & S. D. Click, 1987). These latter authors found a complex interaction between hemispheric dominance, preferred turning side, and sex. C. Mohr et al. (2003) argued that the differentiation of the population in hemisphere-dominant groups by a compound measure of hand-foot-eye preference might have masked their recent finding. Thus, this commentary presents a reanalysis of the original data set (H. S. Bracha et al., 1987). Replicating recent observation, right-handers preferred left-sided turns; and non-righthanders, right-sided turns. This replication strengthens the proposition that handedness and turning behavior might depend on interhemispheric dopamine asymmetries. Copyright 2004 APA.

  17. Evidence for behavioral preference toward environmental concentrations of urban-use herbicides in a model adult fish.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Keith B; Sekela, Mark A; Cobbler, Christine E; Xhabija, Besa; Gledhill, Melissa; Ananvoranich, Sirinart; Zielinski, Barbara S

    2011-09-01

    Fish live in waters of contaminant flux. In three urban, fish-bearing waterways of British Columbia, Canada, we found the active ingredients of WeedEx, KillEx, and Roundup herbicide formulations (2,4-D, dicamba, glyphosate, and mecoprop) at low to high ng/L concentrations (0.26 to 309 ng/L) in routine conditions, i.e., no rain for at least one week. Following rain, these concentrations increased by an average of eightfold, suggesting runoff as a major route of herbicide introduction in these waterways. To determine whether fish might be able to limit point-source exposures through sensory-driven behaviors, we introduced pulses of representative herbicide mixtures to individual adult zebrafish (a model species) in flow-through tanks. Fish did the opposite of limit exposure; they chose to spend more time in pulses of herbicide mixtures representative of those that may occur with rain events. This attraction response was not altered by a previous 4-d exposure to lower concentrations of the mixtures, suggesting fish will not learn from previous exposures. However, previous exposures did alter an attraction response to an amino acid prevalent in food (L-alanine). The present study demonstrates that fish living within urban waterways may elect to place themselves in herbicide-contaminated environments and that these exposures may alter their behavioral responses to cues necessary for survival. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  18. High affinity α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands AT-1001 and AT-1012 attenuate cocaine-induced conditioned place preference and behavioral sensitization in mice.

    PubMed

    Khroyan, Taline V; Yasuda, Dennis; Toll, Lawrence; Polgar, Willma E; Zaveri, Nurulain T

    2015-10-15

    Cholinergic signaling via the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the mesolimbic circuitry is involved in the rewarding effects of abused drugs such as cocaine and opioids. In mouse studies, nonselective nAChR antagonist mecamylamine blocks cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and behavioral sensitization. Among subtype-selective nAChR antagonists, the β2-selective antagonist dihydrobetaerythroidine and α7 antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA), but not MLA alone prevent behavioral sensitization to cocaine. Since the role of the α3β4 nAChR subtype in the rewarding and behavioral effects of cocaine is unknown, the present study investigated the effect of two potent and selective α3β4 nAChR ligands, AT-1001 and AT-1012, on the acquisition of cocaine-induced CPP and behavioral sensitization in mice. At 5-30mg/kg, cocaine produced robust CPP, whereas behavioral sensitization of locomotor activity was only observed at the higher doses (20-30mg/kg). Pretreatment with AT-1001 (1-10mg/kg) or AT-1012 (3-10mg/kg) blocked CPP induced by 5mg/kg cocaine, but not by 30mg/kg cocaine. Lower doses of AT-1001 (0.3-1mg/kg) and AT-1012 (1-3mg/kg) did not affect the increase in locomotor activity induced by 5 or 30mg/kg cocaine. But AT-1001, at these doses, blocked locomotor sensitization induced by 30mg/kg cocaine. These results indicate that the α3β4 nAChR play a role in the rewarding and behavioral effects of cocaine, and that selective α3β4 nAChR ligands can attenuate cocaine-induced behavioral phenomena. Since the selective α3β4 nAChR functional antagonist AT-1001 has also been shown to block nicotine self-administration in rats, the present results suggest that α3β4 nAChRs may be a target for the treatment of cocaine addiction as well as for cocaine-nicotine comorbid addiction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. The relationships between menthol cigarette preference and state tobacco control policies on smoking behaviors of young adult smokers in the 2006-07 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Surveys (TUS CPS).

    PubMed

    Ahijevych, Karen; Ford, Jodi

    2010-12-01

    To examine relationships between the preference for menthol cigarettes and young adult smoking behaviors, including the extent to which state tobacco control policies moderate these relationships. Cross-sectional design using secondary data from the 2006-07 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Surveys (TUS CPS) surveys appended with 2006 state-policy data. United States nationally representative survey. A total of 2241 young adult daily smokers and 688 young adult non-daily smokers. The two dependent variables of smoking behaviors were smoking first cigarette within 30 minutes of waking (TTF) and number of cigarettes smoked per day (cpd). Primary independent variables included menthol brand preference and state tobacco control policies (youth access laws, clean indoor air laws and cigarette excise taxes), adjusting for controls. Among daily smokers, there were no significant associations between menthol brand preference and TTF or cpd. However, lower educational attainment, not being in the labor force and the lack of home smoking rules were associated positively with shorter TTF, being white and the lack of home smoking rules were associated positively with cpd. Among daily smokers, state excise taxes were associated negatively with higher cpd. Among non-daily smokers, menthol brand preference was associated positively with shorter TTF, but associations did not vary with state tobacco control policies. Menthol brand preference was not associated significantly with cpd, but male gender, unmarried status and the lack of home smoking rules were associated positively with greater cpd among non-daily smokers. Young adult non-daily smokers who preferred menthol cigarettes were significantly more dependent than those who preferred non-menthol cigarettes, as shown through the shorter TTF. Associations between menthol brand preference and smoking behaviors did not vary with state tobacco control policies. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the

  20. Strategic Supply

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    turn helped fuel its highly efficient and effective distribution network. Wal-Mart has characteristically been at the forefront 2 of IT advances...identification technologies that is wireless and applied to tags and labels that capture a host of characteristics of objects. Within the supply chain...behavior, leading to faster processing and improved productivity. RFID technology can authenticate objects and monitor environmental characteristics

  1. BXD recombinant inbred strains participate in social preference, anxiety and depression behaviors along sex-differences in cytokines and tactile allodynia.

    PubMed

    López-Granero, Caridad; Antunes Dos Santos, Alessandra; Ferrer, Beatriz; Culbreth, Megan; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Barrasa, Angel; Gulinello, Maria; Bowman, Aaron B; Aschner, Michael

    2017-03-06

    Depression and anxiety are the most common psychiatric disorders, representing a major public health concern. Dysregulation of oxidative and inflammatory systems may be associated with psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Due to the need to find appropriate animal models to the understanding of such disorders, we queried whether 2 BXD recombinant inbred (RI) mice strains (BXD21/TyJ RI and BXD84/RwwJ RI mice) and C57BL/6 wild-type mice show differential performance in depression and anxiety related behaviors and biomarkers. Specifically, we assessed social preference, elevated plus maze, forced swim, and Von Frey tests at 3-4 months-of-age, as well as activation of cytokines and antioxidant mRNA levels in the cortex at 7 months-of-age. We report that (1) the BXD84/RwwJ RI strain exhibits anxiety disorder and social avoidance-like behavior (2) BXD21/TyJ RI strain shows a resistance to depression illness, and (3) sex-dependent cytokine profiles and allodynia with elevated inflammatory activity were inherent to male BXD21/TyJ RI mice. In conclusion, we provide novel data in favor of the use of BXD recombinant inbred mice to further understand anxiety and depression disorders.

  2. Moving Beyond Strategic Planning to Strategic Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Mimi; Gmelch, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Examines a moderately sized Washington school district's efforts to move beyond strategic planning as a segregated activity toward thinking strategically about long-term plans to govern both tactical operations and the district's future. Top management grew to recognize the legitimacy of multiple external and internal constituent claims. (25…

  3. The mechanism behind the calcium aluminum silicide ternary structural preference and the origin of its semimetal behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semi, Torey Elizabeth

    CaAl2Si2 is the prototype of the CaAl 2Si2 class of Zintl structures established to be useful as thermoelectrics. We propose that CaAl2Si2 be interpreted as an ordinary covalently bonded, tetrahedrally coordinated quasi-semiconductor consisting of a large distortion of the wurtzite structure with the almost fully ionized Ca inserted at an interstitial site. We support this interpretation via a structural mapping and calculations for both a charged binary primitive cell and a Si4primitive cell. Our intent is to explain the unusual structure of the CaAl2Si 2 class of semiconductors, the origin of its semimetallic behavior, the basis for its stability and the effect of substituting other column II atoms for Ca on these properties. To be clear, this work does not examine the nature of the true band gap, or the transport coefficients of CaAl 2Si2. GW corrections are not discussed, in view of the focus on the origins of stability of this peculiar structure.

  4. fMRI activities in the emotional cerebellum: a preference for negative stimuli and goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Schraa-Tam, Caroline K L; Rietdijk, Willem J R; Verbeke, Willem J M I; Dietvorst, Roeland C; van den Berg, Wouter E; Bagozzi, Richard P; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2012-03-01

    Several studies indicate that the cerebellum might play a role in experiencing and/or controlling emphatic emotions, but it remains to be determined whether there is a distinction between positive and negative emotions, and, if so, which specific parts of the cerebellum are involved in these types of emotions. Here, we visualized activations of the cerebellum and extracerebellar regions using high-field fMRI, while we asked participants to observe and imitate images with pictures of human faces expressing different emotional states or with moving geometric shapes as control. The state of the emotions could be positive (happiness and surprise), negative (anger and disgust), or neutral. The positive emotional faces only evoked mild activations of crus 2 in the cerebellum, whereas the negative emotional faces evoked prominent activations in lobules VI and VIIa in its hemispheres and lobules VIII and IX in the vermis. The cerebellar activations associated with negative emotions occurred concomitantly with activations of mirror neuron domains such as the insula and amygdala. These data suggest that the potential role of the cerebellum in control of emotions may be particularly relevant for goal-directed behavior that is required for observing and reacting to another person's (negative) expressions.

  5. The Difference between Anxiolytic and Anxiogenic Effects Induced by Acute and Chronic Alcohol Exposure and Changes in Associative Learning and Memory Based on Color Preference and the Cause of Parkinson-Like Behaviors in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Di; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    We describe an interdisciplinary comparison of the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure in terms of their disturbance of light, dark and color preferences and the occurrence of Parkinson-like behavior in zebrafish through computer visual tracking, data mining, and behavioral and physiological analyses. We found that zebrafish in anxiolytic and anxious states, which are induced by acute and chronic repeated alcohol exposure, respectively, display distinct emotional reactions in light/dark preference tests as well as distinct learning and memory abilities in color-enhanced conditional place preference (CPP) tests. Additionally, compared with the chronic alcohol (1.0%) treatment, acute alcohol exposure had a significant, dose-dependent effect on anxiety, learning and memory (color preference) as well as locomotive activities. Acute exposure doses (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) generated an “inverted V” dose-dependent pattern in all of the behavioral parameters, with 1.0% having the greatest effect, while the chronic treatment had a moderate effect. Furthermore, by measuring locomotive activity, learning and memory performance, the number of dopaminergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, and the change in the photoreceptors in the retina, we found that acute and chronic alcohol exposure induced varying degrees of Parkinson-like symptoms in zebrafish. Taken together, these results illuminated the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying the changes associated with learning and memory and the cause of potential Parkinson-like behaviors in zebrafish due to acute and chronic alcohol exposure. PMID:26558894

  6. The Difference between Anxiolytic and Anxiogenic Effects Induced by Acute and Chronic Alcohol Exposure and Changes in Associative Learning and Memory Based on Color Preference and the Cause of Parkinson-Like Behaviors in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Li, Xu; Li, Yi-Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Di; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    We describe an interdisciplinary comparison of the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure in terms of their disturbance of light, dark and color preferences and the occurrence of Parkinson-like behavior in zebrafish through computer visual tracking, data mining, and behavioral and physiological analyses. We found that zebrafish in anxiolytic and anxious states, which are induced by acute and chronic repeated alcohol exposure, respectively, display distinct emotional reactions in light/dark preference tests as well as distinct learning and memory abilities in color-enhanced conditional place preference (CPP) tests. Additionally, compared with the chronic alcohol (1.0%) treatment, acute alcohol exposure had a significant, dose-dependent effect on anxiety, learning and memory (color preference) as well as locomotive activities. Acute exposure doses (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) generated an "inverted V" dose-dependent pattern in all of the behavioral parameters, with 1.0% having the greatest effect, while the chronic treatment had a moderate effect. Furthermore, by measuring locomotive activity, learning and memory performance, the number of dopaminergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, and the change in the photoreceptors in the retina, we found that acute and chronic alcohol exposure induced varying degrees of Parkinson-like symptoms in zebrafish. Taken together, these results illuminated the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying the changes associated with learning and memory and the cause of potential Parkinson-like behaviors in zebrafish due to acute and chronic alcohol exposure.

  7. Strategic orientations of small multihospital systems.

    PubMed

    Luke, R D; Begun, J W

    1988-12-01

    Strategic behaviors of organizations can be classified along two dimensions--growth orientations, or patterns of evolution over time, and action orientations, or strategic aggressiveness in undertaking a particular growth orientation. We create measures of growth and action orientations for small multihospital systems and test the validity of the growth and action orientation typologies, using data from a sample of small multihospital systems. Growth and action orientations do appear to exist independently of each other, and they are related to the ownership status of the systems. Not-for-profit and church-other systems exhibit similar strategic orientations, unlike those of Catholic and investor-owned systems.

  8. Strategic orientations of small multihospital systems.

    PubMed Central

    Luke, R D; Begun, J W

    1988-01-01

    Strategic behaviors of organizations can be classified along two dimensions--growth orientations, or patterns of evolution over time, and action orientations, or strategic aggressiveness in undertaking a particular growth orientation. We create measures of growth and action orientations for small multihospital systems and test the validity of the growth and action orientation typologies, using data from a sample of small multihospital systems. Growth and action orientations do appear to exist independently of each other, and they are related to the ownership status of the systems. Not-for-profit and church-other systems exhibit similar strategic orientations, unlike those of Catholic and investor-owned systems. PMID:3060448

  9. Squirrel Foraging Preferences: Gone Nuts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Randi A.

    2007-01-01

    This field exercise examines the feeding preferences of Gray Squirrels ("Sciurus carolinensis"). Students present squirrels with a variety of food types in a cafeteria-style arrangement in order to test hypotheses about foraging preferences. This exercise, which is appropriate for introductory biology, ecology, and animal behavior classes, is…

  10. NASA Strategic Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The aforementioned strategic decisions and the overarching direction for America's aeronautics and space program are addressed in the Strategic Plan. Our Strategic Plan is critical to our ability to meet the challenges of this new era and deliver a vibrant aeronautics and space program that strengthens and inspires the Nation. The Plan is our top-level strategy.

  11. Biperiden (M₁ antagonist) impairs the expression of cocaine conditioned place preference but potentiates the expression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Anna C; Andersen, Monica L; Oliveira, Maria G M; Soeiro, Aline C; Galduróz, José C F

    2012-05-16

    Cocaine addiction is a public health issue in many countries, stressing the need for more effective treatments. As all drugs of abuse, cocaine acts on the brain reward system, increasing dopamine (DA) levels. Other neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine (ACh) are involved in the mechanisms underlying the development and the maintenance of cocaine addiction. ACh plays an important role in learning and memory processes and also regulates DA in some specific regions of the central nervous system. The present study investigated the effects of biperiden, a muscarinic cholinergic (mACh) antagonist in two animal models: conditioned place preference (CPP) and behavioral sensitization. Male C57BL/6J mice were used in both studies. The CPP protocol was unbiased and carried out in three phases: habituation, conditioning and testing. For conditioning, cocaine was injected at a dose of 10mg/kg in eight 15 min-sessions. The treatment with biperiden (doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg) was made 30 min prior to the testing session. For behavioral sensitization development, cocaine was administered at the dose of 10 mg/kg for 10 days. After sensitization, two challenges were performed: saline and cocaine (5 mg/kg). Biperiden (10 mg/kg) was administered 30 min before the cocaine challenge. At the dose of 10 mg/kg, biperiden blocked the cocaine-CPP expression, suggesting an effect on conditioned memory retrieval. However, the same dose potentiated the expression of behavioral sensitization, suggesting an increase in DA release, probably in the NAc. Biperiden, as other mACh antagonists, may be a promising drug for the pharmacologic treatment of cocaine addiction.

  12. Behavioral Attitudes and Preferences in Cooking Practices with Traditional Open-Fire Stoves in Peru, Nepal, and Kenya: Implications for Improved Cookstove Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Evelyn L.; Dreibelbis, Robert; Klasen, Elizabeth; Naithani, Neha; Baliddawa, Joyce; Menya, Diana; Khatry, Subarna; Levy, Stephanie; Tielsch, James M.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Kennedy, Caitlin; Checkley, William

    2014-01-01

    Global efforts are underway to develop and promote improved cookstoves which may reduce the negative health and environmental effects of burning solid fuels on health and the environment. Behavioral studies have considered cookstove user practices, needs and preferences in the design and implementation of cookstove projects; however, these studies have not examined the implications of the traditional stove use and design across multiple resource-poor settings in the implementation and promotion of improved cookstove projects that utilize a single, standardized stove design. We conducted in-depth interviews and direct observations of meal preparation and traditional, open-fire stove use of 137 women aged 20–49 years in Kenya, Peru and Nepal prior in the four-month period preceding installation of an improved cookstove as part of a field intervention trial. Despite general similarities in cooking practices across sites, we identified locally distinct practices and norms regarding traditional stove use and desired stove improvements. Traditional stoves are designed to accommodate specific cooking styles, types of fuel, and available resources for maintenance and renovation. The tailored stoves allow users to cook and repair their stoves easily. Women in each setting expressed their desire for a new stove, but they articulated distinct specific alterations that would meet their needs and preferences. Improved cookstove designs need to consider the diversity of values and needs held by potential users, presenting a significant challenge in identifying a “one size fits all” improved cookstove design. Our data show that a single stove design for use with locally available biomass fuels will not meet the cooking demands and resources available across the three sites. Moreover, locally produced or adapted improved cookstoves may be needed to meet the cooking needs of diverse populations while addressing health and environmental concerns of traditional stoves. PMID

  13. Narrative Solutions: Using Preferred View of Self to Motivate Individual and Family Change.

    PubMed

    Lund, Thomas; Eron, Joseph; Dagirmanjian, Steve

    2016-12-01

    This article describes refinements of the Narrative Solutions approach to individual and family therapy we first presented in Family Process 22 years ago. The centerpiece of this integrative (narrative-strategic) model is "preferred view of self," or the constellation of qualities people would like to see in themselves and have others see in them. We assume that problems generally involve one or more people mismanaging discrepancies or "gaps" between preferred views of self and either their actual behavior or how they see others seeing them and their behavior. Because clients are motivated to resolve such discrepancies, we use specifiable conversational strategies to help people (a) be clear about their preferred view of self, (b) notice gaps or discrepancies, and (c) summon resources to manage these gaps more effectively. Positive clinical effects of these strategic conversations can be rapid and dramatic. Case examples highlight applications to child and family problems, and we discuss some challenges and future directions for the Narrative Solutions approach.

  14. Strategic groups, performance, and strategic response in the nursing home industry.

    PubMed Central

    Zinn, J S; Aaronson, W E; Rosko, M D

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study examines the effect of strategic group membership on nursing home performance and strategic behavior. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING. Data from the 1987 Medicare and Medicaid Automated Certification Survey were combined with data from the 1987 and 1989 Pennsylvania Long Term Care Facility Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 383 Pennsylvania nursing homes. STUDY DESIGN. Cluster analysis was used to place the 383 nursing homes into strategic groups on the basis of variables measuring scope and resource deployment. Performance was measured by indicators of the quality of nursing home care (rates of pressure ulcers, catheterization, and restraint usage) and efficiency in services provision. Changes in Medicare participation after passage of the 1988 Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act (MCCA) measured strategic behavior. MANOVA and Turkey HSD post hoc means tests determined if significant differences were associated with strategic group membership. FINDINGS. Cluster analysis produced an optimal seven-group solution. Differences in group means were significant for the clustering, performance, and conduct variables (p < .0001). Strategic groups characterized by facilities providing a continuum of care services had the best patient care outcomes. The most efficient groups were characterized by facilities with high Medicare census. While all strategic groups increased Medicare census following passage of the MCCA, those dominated by for-profits had the greatest increases. CONCLUSIONS. Our analysis demonstrates that strategic orientation influences nursing home response to regulatory initiatives, a factor that should be recognized in policy formation directed at nursing home reform. PMID:8005789

  15. Increased conditioned place preference for cocaine in high anxiety related behavior (HAB) mice is associated with an increased activation in the accumbens corridor

    PubMed Central

    Prast, Janine M.; Schardl, Aurelia; Sartori, Simone B.; Singewald, Nicolas; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders and substance use disorders are strongly associated in humans. Accordingly, a widely held but controversial concept in the addiction field, the so-called “self-medication hypothesis,” posits that anxious individuals are more vulnerable for drug dependence because they use drugs of abuse to alleviate their anxiety. We tested this hypothesis under controlled experimental conditions by quantifying the conditioned place preference (CPP) to 15 mg/kg i.p. cocaine given contingently (COCAINE) in CD1 mice selectively bred for high anxiety-related behavior (HAB) vs. normal anxiety-related behavior (NAB). Cocaine was conditioned to the initially non-preferred compartment in an alternate day design (cocaine vs. saline, four pairings each). HAB and NAB mice were also tested for the effects of non-contingent (NONCONT) cocaine administration. HAB mice showed a slightly higher bias for one of the conditioning compartments during the pretest than NAB mice that became statistically significant (p = 0.045) only after pooling COCAINE and NONCONT groups. Cocaine CPP was higher (p = 0.0035) in HAB compared to NAB mice. The increased cocaine CPP was associated with an increased expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs) c-Fos and Early Growth Related Protein 1 (EGR1) in the accumbens corridor, i.e., a region stretching from the anterior commissure to the interhemispheric border and comprising the medial nucleus accumbens core and shell, the major island of Calleja and intermediate part of the lateral septum, as well as the vertical limb of the diagonal band and medial septum. The cocaine CPP-induced EGR1 expression was only observed in D1- and D2-medium spiny neurons, whereas other types of neurons or glial cells were not involved. With respect to the activation by contingent vs. non-contingent cocaine EGR1 seemed to be a more sensitive marker than c-Fos. Our findings suggest that cocaine may be more rewarding in high anxiety individuals, plausibly due to an

  16. Learning to think strategically.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Strategic thinking focuses on issues that directly affect the ability of a family planning program to attract and retain clients. This issue of "The Family Planning Manager" outlines the five steps of strategic thinking in family planning administration: 1) define the organization's mission and strategic goals; 2) identify opportunities for improving quality, expanding access, and increasing demand; 3) evaluate each option in terms of its compatibility with the organization's goals; 4) select an option; and 5) transform strategies into action. Also included in this issue is a 20-question test designed to permit readers to assess their "strategic thinking quotient" and a list of sample questions to guide a strategic analysis.

  17. One more time: what do we mean by strategic management?

    PubMed

    Smith, D P

    1987-05-01

    Health care executives and planners struggling to improve their organizations' ability to cope with the pace of change in today's hospital environment are advised to consider the concepts and practices of strategic management. This approach has been prescribed in other industries as a remedy to the failure of the strategic planning of the 1970s to guide American businesses in the past decade's unstable business environment successfully. Strategic management expands the domain of strategic planning beyond the traditional focus on technical, externally oriented problem solving. Strategically managed companies have excelled at execution of strategy because they are adept at building new capabilities consistent with strategy, heed behavioral aspects of planning and change, and skillfully blend the roles of line managers and planning staff. While strategically managed hospitals or hospital systems are few and far between, the nature and pace of change in the environment are propelling more in the direction of strategic management.

  18. Strategic Analysis Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Earle, Kevin D.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Reeves, J. D.; Stromgren, Chel; Andraschko, Mark R.; Merrill, R. Gabe

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Constellation Program employs a strategic analysis methodology in providing an integrated analysis capability of Lunar exploration scenarios and to support strategic decision-making regarding those scenarios. The strategic analysis methodology integrates the assessment of the major contributors to strategic objective satisfaction performance, affordability, and risk and captures the linkages and feedbacks between all three components. Strategic analysis supports strategic decision making by senior management through comparable analysis of alternative strategies, provision of a consistent set of high level value metrics, and the enabling of cost-benefit analysis. The tools developed to implement the strategic analysis methodology are not element design and sizing tools. Rather, these models evaluate strategic performance using predefined elements, imported into a library from expert-driven design/sizing tools or expert analysis. Specific components of the strategic analysis tool set include scenario definition, requirements generation, mission manifesting, scenario lifecycle costing, crew time analysis, objective satisfaction benefit, risk analysis, and probabilistic evaluation. Results from all components of strategic analysis are evaluated a set of pre-defined figures of merit (FOMs). These FOMs capture the high-level strategic characteristics of all scenarios and facilitate direct comparison of options. The strategic analysis methodology that is described in this paper has previously been applied to the Space Shuttle and International Space Station Programs and is now being used to support the development of the baseline Constellation Program lunar architecture. This paper will present an overview of the strategic analysis methodology and will present sample results from the application of the strategic analysis methodology to the Constellation Program lunar architecture.

  19. Involvement of AMPA/Kainate Glutamate Receptor in the Extinction and Reinstatement of Morphine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference: A Behavioral and Molecular Study.

    PubMed

    Siahposht-Khachaki, Ali; Fatahi, Zahra; Yans, Asal; Khodagholi, Fariba; Haghparast, Abbas

    2017-03-01

    Glutamate receptors in mesolimbic areas such as the nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, prefrontal cortex (PFC), and hippocampus (HIP) are a component of the mechanisms of drug-induced reward and can modulate the firing pattern of dopaminergic neurons in the reward system. In addition, several lines of study have indicated that cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and c-fos have important role in morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by drugs of abuse, such as morphine, cocaine, nicotine, and alcohol. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the changes in phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) and c-fos induction within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), HIP, and PFC after intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of different doses of CNQX or vehicle during extinction period or reinstatement of morphine-induced CPP. In all groups, the CPP procedure was done; afterward, the conditioning scores were recorded by Ethovision software. After behavioral test recording, we dissected out the NAc, HIP, and PFC regions and measured the p-CREB/CREB ratio and c-fos level by Western blot analysis. Our results showed that administration of CNQX significantly shortened the extinction of morphine CPP. Besides, ICV microinjection of CNQX following extinction period decreased the reinstatement of morphine CPP in extinguished rats. In molecular section, in treatment group, all mentioned factors were dose-dependently decreased in comparison with vehicle group (DMSO) after ICV microinjection of different doses of CNQX but not in pre-extinction microinjection. These findings suggested that antagonism of AMPA receptor decreased p-CREB/CREB ratio and c-fos level in the PFC, NAc, and HIP. Modulation of the drug memory reconsolidation may be useful for faster extinction of drug-induced reward and attenuation of drug-seeking behavior.

  20. Can We Selectively Reduce Appetite for Energy-Dense Foods? An Overview of Pharmacological Strategies for Modification of Food Preference Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bojanowska, Ewa; Ciosek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Excessive intake of food, especially palatable and energy-dense carbohydrates and fats, is largely responsible for the growing incidence of obesity worldwide. Although there are a number of candidate antiobesity drugs, only a few of them have been proven able to inhibit appetite for palatable foods without the concurrent reduction in regular food consumption. In this review, we discuss the interrelationships between homeostatic and hedonic food intake control mechanisms in promoting overeating with palatable foods and assess the potential usefulness of systemically administered pharmaceuticals that impinge on the endogenous cannabinoid, opioid, aminergic, cholinergic, and peptidergic systems in the modification of food preference behavior. Also, certain dietary supplements with the potency to reduce specifically palatable food intake are presented. Based on human and animal studies, we indicate the most promising therapies and agents that influence the effectiveness of appetite-modifying drugs. It should be stressed, however, that most of the data included in our review come from preclinical studies; therefore, further investigations aimed at confirming the effectiveness and safety of the aforementioned medications in the treatment of obese humans are necessary. PMID:26549651

  1. Suppression of maintenance of alcohol-drinking behavior by the concurrent availability of saccharin in Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Giancarlo; Lobina, Carla; Maccioni, Paola; Mascia, M Francesca; Orrù, Alessandro; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Carai, Mauro A M

    2005-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the effect of the concurrent presentation of saccharin on the maintenance of alcohol-drinking behavior in selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats. Rats were initially given access to alcohol [10% (volume/volume) in water] and water under the home cage, two-bottle, free-choice regimen, with unlimited access for 24 h/day for eight consecutive weeks. Next, a third bottle, containing saccharin [0%, 0.01%, 0.1%, 1%, or 3% (weight/volume) in water], was concomitantly offered for an additional 10 consecutive days. Intake of saccharin solution resulted as an inverted-U function of saccharin concentration, with the 0.1% saccharin solution being the highest accepted. Alcohol intake was a U function of saccharin concentration, being reduced by 65%-95% in the group of rats exposed to the 0.1% saccharin solution. These results indicate that (1) the concurrent presentation of highly palatable solutions of saccharin markedly reduced alcohol intake in alcohol-experienced sP rats and (2) the reducing effect of saccharin solutions on the alcohol intake in sP rats was positively related to their degree of acceptability. We hypothesized that saccharin solutions may have functioned as a reinforcer, partially substituting for alcohol reinforcement and rendering alcohol drinking less urgent.

  2. A survey of Australian and New Zealand old age psychiatrists' preferred medications to treat behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD).

    PubMed

    Greve, Melissa; O'Connor, Daniel

    2005-06-01

    People with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are often prescribed psychotropic medications. There is little evidence that one class of medication is more effective and safer than another and so expert opinion plays an important role in shaping local practice. In an earlier U.S. survey of psychiatrists and neurologists, limited consensus emerged regarding the pharmacological management of BPSD. We repeated this study to check consensus levels in Australia and New Zealand, following the introduction of newer atypical neuroleptics, antidepressants and cholinesterase inhibitors, and to identify areas where drug trials will be of greatest benefit. A brief structured survey, similar to one used in the U.S.A., was posted to a random sample of members of the Australian and New Zealand Faculty of Psychiatry of Old Age. We received 106 replies (71% response). Respondents, who had 14 years' experience on average, rated atypical neuroleptics as their treatment of choice for dementia complicated by psychosis, verbal aggression, physical aggression, sundowning and persistent yelling. Opinions varied widely regarding the management of other symptoms and the role of second-line treatments. Atypical neuroleptics were preferred by most respondents for treatment of most BPSD. These views, while based on considerable clinical experience, have only limited backing from published reports, and head-to-head studies of available treatments are required to ensure that clinical practice has scientific support.

  3. Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) Preference and Behavioral Response to Animated Images of Conspecifics Altered in Their Color, Aspect Ratio, and Swimming Depth

    PubMed Central

    Polverino, Giovanni; Liao, Jian Cong; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) is an example of a freshwater fish species whose remarkable diffusion outside its native range has led to it being placed on the list of the world’s hundred worst invasive alien species (International Union for Conservation of Nature). Here, we investigate mosquitofish shoaling tendency using a dichotomous choice test in which computer-animated images of their conspecifics are altered in color, aspect ratio, and swimming level in the water column. Pairs of virtual stimuli are systematically presented to focal subjects to evaluate their attractiveness and the effect on fish behavior. Mosquitofish respond differentially to some of these stimuli showing preference for conspecifics with enhanced yellow pigmentation while exhibiting highly varying locomotory patterns. Our results suggest that computer-animated images can be used to understand the factors that regulate the social dynamics of shoals of Gambusia affinis. Such knowledge may inform the design of control plans and open new avenues in conservation and protection of endangered animal species. PMID:23342131

  4. Can We Selectively Reduce Appetite for Energy-Dense Foods? An Overview of Pharmacological Strategies for Modification of Food Preference Behavior.

    PubMed

    Bojanowska, Ewa; Ciosek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Excessive intake of food, especially palatable and energy-dense carbohydrates and fats, is largely responsible for the growing incidence of obesity worldwide. Although there are a number of candidate antiobesity drugs, only a few of them have been proven able to inhibit appetite for palatable foods without the concurrent reduction in regular food consumption. In this review, we discuss the interrelationships between homeostatic and hedonic food intake control mechanisms in promoting overeating with palatable foods and assess the potential usefulness of systemically administered pharmaceuticals that impinge on the endogenous cannabinoid, opioid, aminergic, cholinergic, and peptidergic systems in the modification of food preference behavior. Also, certain dietary supplements with the potency to reduce specifically palatable food intake are presented. Based on human and animal studies, we indicate the most promising therapies and agents that influence the effectiveness of appetite-modifying drugs. It should be stressed, however, that most of the data included in our review come from preclinical studies; therefore, further investigations aimed at confirming the effectiveness and safety of the aforementioned medications in the treatment of obese humans are necessary.

  5. Strategic Defense Initiative - strategic implications. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, T.L.

    1988-03-31

    In March 1983, during this address to the nation, President Reagan initiated a major shift in U.S. strategic policy, as he indicated his desire to move away from the condition of mutual vulnerability as the primary deterrent to nuclear war. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), as the vehicle for this shift, has become the focus of debate over implications of a new strategic policy. This study seeks to examine the strategic relationship, and the role of arms control during a transition from an offensive-dominant strategy to a defensive-dominant strategy. The methodology for the study is to present arguments for and against SDI, as they relate to the issues of stability and arms control, evaluate their validity, draw conclusions, and provide recommendations that may enhance international security during a transition period of SDI.

  6. Sequential effects in preference decision: Prior preference assimilates current preference.

    PubMed

    Chang, Seah; Kim, Chai-Youn; Cho, Yang Seok

    2017-01-01

    An important factor affecting preference formation is the context in which that preference decision takes place. The current research examined whether one's preference formed for a previously presented stimulus influences the processing of a subsequent preference decision, henceforth referred to as the preference sequence effect. Using a novel sequential rating/judgment paradigm, the present study demonstrated the presence of a preference sequence effect using artistic photographs and face stimuli: A neutral stimulus was preferred more following a preferable stimulus than a less preferable stimulus. Furthermore, a similar trend was found even when the potential influence of response bias was controlled. These results suggest that an assimilative sequential effect exists even when sequential judgments are made solely based on one's subjective feeling; preference formed for a preceding stimulus modulates preference for a subsequent stimulus. This implies the need for a consideration of trial sequence as a factor creating a psychological context affecting the subsequent preference decisions.

  7. Sequential effects in preference decision: Prior preference assimilates current preference

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Seah; Kim, Chai-Youn

    2017-01-01

    An important factor affecting preference formation is the context in which that preference decision takes place. The current research examined whether one’s preference formed for a previously presented stimulus influences the processing of a subsequent preference decision, henceforth referred to as the preference sequence effect. Using a novel sequential rating/judgment paradigm, the present study demonstrated the presence of a preference sequence effect using artistic photographs and face stimuli: A neutral stimulus was preferred more following a preferable stimulus than a less preferable stimulus. Furthermore, a similar trend was found even when the potential influence of response bias was controlled. These results suggest that an assimilative sequential effect exists even when sequential judgments are made solely based on one’s subjective feeling; preference formed for a preceding stimulus modulates preference for a subsequent stimulus. This implies the need for a consideration of trial sequence as a factor creating a psychological context affecting the subsequent preference decisions. PMID:28817619

  8. Age- and Sex-Dependent Effects of Footshock Stress on Subsequent Alcohol Drinking and Acoustic Startle Behavior in Mice Selectively Bred for High-Alcohol Preference

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Julia A.; Barrenha, Gustavo D.; Hughes, Matthew L.; Keuneke, Kelly J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to stress during adolescence is known to be a risk factor for alcohol-use and anxiety disorders. This study examined the effects of footshock stress during adolescence on subsequent alcohol drinking in male and female mice selectively bred for high-alcohol preference (HAP1 lines). Acoustic startle responses and prepulse inhibition (PPI) were also assessed in the absence of, and immediately following, subsequent footshock stress exposures to determine whether a prior history of footshock stress during adolescence would produce enduring effects on anxiety-related behavior and sensorimotor gating. Methods Alcohol-nav̈ve, adolescent (male, n = 27; female, n = 23) and adult (male, n = 30; female, n = 30) HAP1 mice were randomly assigned to a stress or no stress group. The study consisted of 5 phases: (1) 10 consecutive days of exposure to a 30-minute footshock session, (2) 1 startle test, (3) one 30-minute footshock session immediately followed by 1 startle test, (4) 30 days of free-choice alcohol consumption, and (5) one 30-minute footshock session immediately followed by 1 startle test. Results Footshock stress exposure during adolescence, but not adulthood, robustly increased alcohol drinking behavior in both male and female HAP1 mice. Before alcohol drinking, females in both the adolescent and adult stress groups showed greater startle in phases 2 and 3; whereas males in the adolescent stress group showed greater startle only in phase 3. After alcohol drinking, in phase 5, enhanced startle was no longer apparent in any stress group. Males in the adult stress group showed reduced startle in phases 2 and 5. PPI was generally unchanged, except that males in the adolescent stress group showed increased PPI in phase 3 and females in the adolescent stress group showed decreased PPI in phase 5. Conclusions Adolescent HAP1 mice appear to be more vulnerable to the effects of footshock stress than adult mice, as manifested by increased alcohol drinking

  9. Age- and sex-dependent effects of footshock stress on subsequent alcohol drinking and acoustic startle behavior in mice selectively bred for high-alcohol preference.

    PubMed

    Chester, Julia A; Barrenha, Gustavo D; Hughes, Matthew L; Keuneke, Kelly J

    2008-10-01

    Exposure to stress during adolescence is known to be a risk factor for alcohol-use and anxiety disorders. This study examined the effects of footshock stress during adolescence on subsequent alcohol drinking in male and female mice selectively bred for high-alcohol preference (HAP1 lines). Acoustic startle responses and prepulse inhibition (PPI) were also assessed in the absence of, and immediately following, subsequent footshock stress exposures to determine whether a prior history of footshock stress during adolescence would produce enduring effects on anxiety-related behavior and sensorimotor gating. Alcohol-naïve, adolescent (male, n = 27; female, n = 23) and adult (male, n = 30; female, n = 30) HAP1 mice were randomly assigned to a stress or no stress group. The study consisted of 5 phases: (1) 10 consecutive days of exposure to a 30-minute footshock session, (2) 1 startle test, (3) one 30-minute footshock session immediately followed by 1 startle test, (4) 30 days of free-choice alcohol consumption, and (5) one 30-minute footshock session immediately followed by 1 startle test. Footshock stress exposure during adolescence, but not adulthood, robustly increased alcohol drinking behavior in both male and female HAP1 mice. Before alcohol drinking, females in both the adolescent and adult stress groups showed greater startle in phases 2 and 3; whereas males in the adolescent stress group showed greater startle only in phase 3. After alcohol drinking, in phase 5, enhanced startle was no longer apparent in any stress group. Males in the adult stress group showed reduced startle in phases 2 and 5. PPI was generally unchanged, except that males in the adolescent stress group showed increased PPI in phase 3 and females in the adolescent stress group showed decreased PPI in phase 5. Adolescent HAP1 mice appear to be more vulnerable to the effects of footshock stress than adult mice, as manifested by increased alcohol drinking and anxiety-related behavior in adulthood

  10. Behavior, preference for, and use of alfalfa, tall fescue, white clover, and buffalograss by pregnant gilts in an outdoor production system.

    PubMed

    Rachuonyo, H A; Allen, V G; McGlone, J J

    2005-09-01

    Sustainable outdoor pig production requires vegetation that can maintain ground cover, assimilate manure nutrients, and prevent soil erosion. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability of four forages: alfalfa (Medicago sativa), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), white clover (Trifolium repens), and buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides) for grazing or ground cover in pastures for pigs. Each forage plot covered 7.5 m2, with nine replicates in a randomized block design. In Exp. 1, eight pregnant gilts had free access to all forages during a 2-d adjustment period. Immediately thereafter, pairs of gilts were assigned randomly to one of each of four blocks of the four forages during a 2-d measurement period. The percentage of ground cover for each forage was visually estimated at 0, 24, and 48 h of study. Behavioral data, including walking, eating, grazing, rooting, drinking, standing, lying, and time spent in hut were video-monitored continuously for 48 h. Initial percentage of ground cover was 100% for all species. By 48 h, percentage of ground cover decreased (P < 0.001) for white clover (11.3 +/- 0.88%) and alfalfa (36.3 +/- 0.88%), but not for tall fescue (98.0 +/- 0.88%) or buffalograss (98.0 +/- 0.88%). Gilts spent more (P < 0.01) time grazing white clover (16.3 +/- 1.97 min/d) and alfalfa (11.2 +/- 1.97) than tall fescue (0.8 +/- 1.97) or buffalograss (0.3 +/- 1.97), and rooted more (P < 0.04) white clover than other forages. In Exp. 2, six gilts from the initial group were put on six blocks of the four forages. Each gilt was assigned randomly to three replicates of each forage, including alfalfa, tall fescue, or buffalograss (white clover was excluded because of damage by gilts during Exp. 1), and gilts grazed single forages for 2 d. After this grazing period, the percentage of ground cover was less (P < 0.01) for alfalfa than for buffalograss or tall fescue (37.5 +/- 0.38, 96.7 +/- 0.39, 96.3 +/- 0.39%, respectively). With access to a single

  11. What does God know? Supernatural agents' access to socially strategic and non-strategic information.

    PubMed

    Purzycki, Benjamin G; Finkel, Daniel N; Shaver, John; Wales, Nathan; Cohen, Adam B; Sosis, Richard

    2012-07-01

    Current evolutionary and cognitive theories of religion posit that supernatural agent concepts emerge from cognitive systems such as theory of mind and social cognition. Some argue that these concepts evolved to maintain social order by minimizing antisocial behavior. If these theories are correct, then people should process information about supernatural agents' socially strategic knowledge more quickly than non-strategic knowledge. Furthermore, agents' knowledge of immoral and uncooperative social behaviors should be especially accessible to people. To examine these hypotheses, we measured response-times to questions about the knowledge attributed to four different agents--God, Santa Claus, a fictional surveillance government, and omniscient but non-interfering aliens--that vary in their omniscience, moral concern, ability to punish, and how supernatural they are. As anticipated, participants respond more quickly to questions about agents' socially strategic knowledge than non-strategic knowledge, but only when agents are able to punish.

  12. Cultivating strategic thinking skills.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2012-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author presents an overview of strategic leadership and offers approaches for cultivating strategic thinking skills.

  13. Role of Dimension Preference in the Discrimination Transfer of the Mentally Retarded: Training of Flexibility. IMRID Behavior Science Monograph No. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mankinen, Richard Lauri

    To investigate whether trained flexibility would generalize to a novel discrimination task and to novel preferred and nonpreferred dimensions, 40 institutionalized retarded children and adults (IQ 50-77) were trained on five two-choice simultaneous-discriminations. Control subjects were trained with a preferred dimension relevant, the others…

  14. Hand Preference for Writing and Associations with Selected Demographic and Behavioral Variables in 255,100 Subjects: The BBC Internet Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael; Reimers, Stian; Manning, John T.

    2006-01-01

    In an Internet study unrelated to handedness, 134,317 female and 120,783 male participants answered a graded question as to which hand they preferred for writing. This allowed determination of hand preference patterns across 7 ethnic groups. Sex differences in left-handedness were found in 4 ethnic groups, favoring males, while no significant sex…

  15. Hand Preference for Writing and Associations with Selected Demographic and Behavioral Variables in 255,100 Subjects: The BBC Internet Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael; Reimers, Stian; Manning, John T.

    2006-01-01

    In an Internet study unrelated to handedness, 134,317 female and 120,783 male participants answered a graded question as to which hand they preferred for writing. This allowed determination of hand preference patterns across 7 ethnic groups. Sex differences in left-handedness were found in 4 ethnic groups, favoring males, while no significant sex…

  16. Strategic planning for neuroradiologists.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Jonathan W; Lexa, Frank J

    2012-08-01

    Strategic planning is becoming essential to neuroradiology as the health care environment continues to emphasize cost efficiency, teamwork and collaboration. A strategic plan begins with a mission statement and vision of where the neuroradiology division would like to be in the near future. Formalized strategic planning frameworks, such as the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT), and the Balanced Scorecard frameworks, can help neuroradiology divisions determine their current position in the marketplace. Communication, delegation, and accountability in neuroradiology is essential in executing an effective strategic plan.

  17. Sandia Strategic Plan 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Sandia embarked on its first exercise in corporate strategic planning during the winter of 1989. The results of that effort were disseminated with the publication of Strategic Plan 1990. Four years later Sandia conducted their second major planning effort and published Strategic Plan 1994. Sandia`s 1994 planning effort linked very clearly to the Department of Energy`s first strategic plan, Fueling a Competitive Economy. It benefited as well from the leadership of Lockheed Martin Corporation, the management and operating contractor. Lockheed Martin`s corporate success is founded on visionary strategic planning and annual operational planning driven by customer requirements and technology opportunities. In 1996 Sandia conducted another major planning effort that resulted in the development of eight long-term Strategic Objectives. Strategic Plan 1997 differs from its predecessors in that the robust elements of previous efforts have been integrated into one comprehensive body. The changes implemented so far have helped establish a living strategic plan with a stronger business focus and with clear deployment throughout Sandia. The concept of a personal line of sight for all employees to this strategic plan and its objectives, goals, and annual milestones is becoming a reality.

  18. Definitions of Tactical and Strategic: An Informal Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.

    2004-01-01

    Seventeen subject matter experts defined tactical and strategic within the aviation domain. They provided five verbs and a sentence describing both behaviors. The verbs for strategic behavior were Plan, Think, Arrange, Formulate, Intend, Devise, Anticipate, and Order. The verbs for tactical behavior were Act, Fly, Respond, Do, Avoid, Control, React, and Move. Verbs that were common to both were Get Information, Navigate, Know, Execute, Manage, Perceive, Understand, Direct, Concentrate, and Point. The responses highlight the difference between planning (strategic) and carrying out those plans (tactical). Tactical verbs are more action-oriented that change the state of the world after they have been accomplished. Strategic verbs are more prescriptive in that they do not change the state of the world but offer a procedure or program for changing the world. The pilot is in a tactical mode when actually moving the aircraft and in a strategic mode when thinking about moving it.

  19. Pro-sociality and strategic reasoning in economic decisions.

    PubMed

    Arruñada, Benito; Casari, Marco; Pancotto, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between pro-social preferences and strategic reasoning. These aspects are typically studied separately but little is known about their joint distribution. In an experiment, for each participant we elicit individual concerns toward pro-sociality-inequality aversion and efficiency-as well as the number of steps of reasoning through a guessing game. We report that self-regarding and pro-social participants exhibit similar levels of strategic reasoning, which supports the view that pro-sociality and strategic reasoning can be studied independently.

  20. Strategic sophistication of individuals and teams. Experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Sutter, Matthias; Czermak, Simon; Feri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Many important decisions require strategic sophistication. We examine experimentally whether teams act more strategically than individuals. We let individuals and teams make choices in simple games, and also elicit first- and second-order beliefs. We find that teams play the Nash equilibrium strategy significantly more often, and their choices are more often a best response to stated first order beliefs. Distributional preferences make equilibrium play less likely. Using a mixture model, the estimated probability to play strategically is 62% for teams, but only 40% for individuals. A model of noisy introspection reveals that teams differ from individuals in higher order beliefs. PMID:24926100

  1. Consumer research and strategic planning for hospitals: a second opinion.

    PubMed

    Muller, A

    1984-01-01

    Strategic planning based on a market orientation requires close attention to consumers' needs and preferences. Therefore, consumer research is a prerequisite for strategic planning. However, problems and limitations have been pointed out in business fields which have had over 30 years' experience with consumer research. These shortcomings also apply to consumer research in healthcare. Several examples are presented to illustrate this point. Some recommendations follow which should make consumer research more useful for strategic planning. Yet, the importance of consumer research should not be overestimated.

  2. Pro-sociality and strategic reasoning in economic decisions

    PubMed Central

    Arruñada, Benito; Casari, Marco; Pancotto, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between pro-social preferences and strategic reasoning. These aspects are typically studied separately but little is known about their joint distribution. In an experiment, for each participant we elicit individual concerns toward pro-sociality—inequality aversion and efficiency—as well as the number of steps of reasoning through a guessing game. We report that self-regarding and pro-social participants exhibit similar levels of strategic reasoning, which supports the view that pro-sociality and strategic reasoning can be studied independently. PMID:26074799

  3. Self-Presentation, Desired Partner Characteristics, and Sexual Behavior Preferences in Online Personal Advertisements of Men Seeking Non-Gay-Identified Men.

    PubMed

    Downing, Martin J; Schrimshaw, Eric W

    2014-03-14

    Despite attention to the sexual behaviors of non-gay-identified (NGI) men who have same-sex encounters, virtually no research has focused on issues of partner desirability and selection. Limited evidence suggests that a subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) advertise online for sexual encounters with NGI men. Exchange theory provided a framework to investigate this seeking of NGI men, based on the content of Internet personal advertisements for same-sex encounters. Researchers analyzed 282 ads posted to an online bulletin board. Ads by men who explicitly desired encounters with NGI men were compared with those by men who did not indicate this preference in potential partners. Multivariate analyses revealed that NGI-seeking men had significantly increased odds of identifying as discreet (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.82), seeking a discreet encounter (AOR = 4.68), seeking a masculine partner (AOR = 2.18), being willing to host (AOR = 2.77), as well as seeking oral-receptive sex (AOR = 2.69), unprotected oral sex (AOR = 6.76), and anal-receptive sex (AOR = 2.18). Further, NGI-seeking ads were more likely to not mention condom use or safer sex practices (AOR = 4.13) and were less likely to indicate a desire for oral-insertive sex (AOR = 0.34) and rimming (AOR = 0.21). Findings suggest that some men may deliberately present themselves in ways that they perceive as being attractive to NGI men, and have research implications for NGI MSM, their partners, and the risk outcomes of these online ads.

  4. Self-Presentation, Desired Partner Characteristics, and Sexual Behavior Preferences in Online Personal Advertisements of Men Seeking Non-Gay-Identified Men

    PubMed Central

    Schrimshaw, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    Despite attention to the sexual behaviors of non-gay-identified (NGI) men who have same-sex encounters, virtually no research has focused on issues of partner desirability and selection. Limited evidence suggests that a subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) advertise online for sexual encounters with NGI men. Exchange theory provided a framework to investigate this seeking of NGI men, based on the content of Internet personal advertisements for same-sex encounters. Researchers analyzed 282 ads posted to an online bulletin board. Ads by men who explicitly desired encounters with NGI men were compared with those by men who did not indicate this preference in potential partners. Multivariate analyses revealed that NGI-seeking men had significantly increased odds of identifying as discreet (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.82), seeking a discreet encounter (AOR = 4.68), seeking a masculine partner (AOR = 2.18), being willing to host (AOR = 2.77), as well as seeking oral-receptive sex (AOR = 2.69), unprotected oral sex (AOR = 6.76), and anal-receptive sex (AOR = 2.18). Further, NGI-seeking ads were more likely to not mention condom use or safer sex practices (AOR = 4.13) and were less likely to indicate a desire for oral-insertive sex (AOR = 0.34) and rimming (AOR = 0.21). Findings suggest that some men may deliberately present themselves in ways that they perceive as being attractive to NGI men, and have research implications for NGI MSM, their partners, and the risk outcomes of these online ads. PMID:25750927

  5. Hand preference for writing and associations with selected demographic and behavioral variables in 255,100 subjects: the BBC internet study.

    PubMed

    Peters, Michael; Reimers, Stian; Manning, John T

    2006-11-01

    In an Internet study unrelated to handedness, 134,317 female and 120,783 male participants answered a graded question as to which hand they preferred for writing. This allowed determination of hand preference patterns across 7 ethnic groups. Sex differences in left-handedness were found in 4 ethnic groups, favoring males, while no significant sex differences were found in three of the groups. Prevalence of left-handedness in the largest of the ethnic groups (self-labelled as "White") was comparable to contemporary hand preference data for this group [Gilbert, A. N., & Wysocki, C. J. (1992). Hand preference and age in the United states. Neuropsychologia, 30, 601-608] but the prevalence of left-handedness in individuals >70 years of age was considerably higher in the present study. Individuals who indicated "either" hand for writing preference had significantly lower spatial performance (mental rotation task) and significantly higher prevalence of hyperactivity, dyslexia, asthma than individuals who had clear left or right hand preferences, in support of Crow et al. [Crow, T., Crow, L., Done, D., & Leask, S. (1998). Relative hand skill predicts academic ability: global deficits at the point of hemispheric indecision. Neuropsychologia, 36, 1275-1282]. Similarly, an association of writing hand preference and non-heterosexual orientation was clearest for individuals with "either" writing hand responses. We conclude that contradictions in the literature as to whether or not these variables are linked to handedness stem largely from different definitions of hand preference. Due to a lack of statistical power in most studies in the literature, the "either" hand writing preference group that yielded the most salient results in this study is not normally available for analysis.

  6. Keeping the Strategic Flame

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    thinking strategically fifty years ago when he observed what nuclear weapons implied: “Thus far the chief purpose of our military establishment has...reached beyond available technol- ogy. Airmen in that day were thinking strategically and thus laid the founda- tions for American security policies

  7. Strategic Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derleth, Jason; Lobia, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation provides an overview of the attempt to develop and demonstrate a methodology for the comparative assessment of risks across the entire portfolio of NASA projects and assets. It includes information about strategic risk identification, normalizing strategic risks, calculation of relative risk score, and implementation options.

  8. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  9. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  10. 11. Strategic planning.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    There are several types of planning processes and plans, including strategic, operational, tactical, and contingency. For this document, operational planning includes tactical planning. This chapter examines the strategic planning process and includes an introduction into disaster response plans. "A strategic plan is an outline of steps designed with the goals of the entire organisation as a whole in mind, rather than with the goals of specific divisions or departments". Strategic planning includes all measures taken to provide a broad picture of what must be achieved and in which order, including how to organise a system capable of achieving the overall goals. Strategic planning often is done pre-event, based on previous experience and expertise. The strategic planning for disasters converts needs into a strategic plan of action. Strategic plans detail the goals that must be achieved. The process of converting needs into plans has been deconstructed into its components and includes consideration of: (1) disaster response plans; (2) interventions underway or planned; (3) available resources; (4) current status vs. pre-event status; (5) history and experience of the planners; and (6) access to the affected population. These factors are tempered by the local: (a) geography; (b) climate; (c) culture; (d) safety; and (e) practicality. The planning process consumes resources (costs). All plans must be adapted to the actual conditions--things never happen exactly as planned.

  11. Strategic Leadership in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Henry S.; Johnson, Teryl L.

    2013-01-01

    Strategic leadership is built upon traits and actions that encompass the successful execution of all leadership styles. In a world that is rapidly changing, strategic leadership in schools guides school leader through assuring constant improvement process by anticipating future trends and planning for them and noting that plans must be flexible to…

  12. Strategic Investments Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, Doug

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the organizational hierarchy for strategic management and strategic investments at NASA. The presentation also relates these topics to the budgets it submits to Congress, strategies for space exploration research and development, and systems analysis.

  13. Strategic Leadership in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Henry S.; Johnson, Teryl L.

    2013-01-01

    Strategic leadership is built upon traits and actions that encompass the successful execution of all leadership styles. In a world that is rapidly changing, strategic leadership in schools guides school leader through assuring constant improvement process by anticipating future trends and planning for them and noting that plans must be flexible to…

  14. Developing Strategic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer; Leahy, Susie

    2006-01-01

    As elementary students progress from "learning to read" toward "reading to learn," it is vital that they become strategic readers. A strategic reader is one who understands when and how to use a strategy in order to comprehend text. While some students use strategies naturally during the reading process, most students must be taught how to…

  15. Eye Movements in Strategic Choice

    PubMed Central

    Gächter, Simon; Noguchi, Takao; Mullett, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In risky and other multiattribute choices, the process of choosing is well described by random walk or drift diffusion models in which evidence is accumulated over time to threshold. In strategic choices, level‐k and cognitive hierarchy models have been offered as accounts of the choice process, in which people simulate the choice processes of their opponents or partners. We recorded the eye movements in 2 × 2 symmetric games including dominance‐solvable games like prisoner's dilemma and asymmetric coordination games like stag hunt and hawk–dove. The evidence was most consistent with the accumulation of payoff differences over time: we found longer duration choices with more fixations when payoffs differences were more finely balanced, an emerging bias to gaze more at the payoffs for the action ultimately chosen, and that a simple count of transitions between payoffs—whether or not the comparison is strategically informative—was strongly associated with the final choice. The accumulator models do account for these strategic choice process measures, but the level‐k and cognitive hierarchy models do not. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27513881

  16. Review: Thermal preference in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Michael E.; Wang, George; Garrity, Paul A.; Huey, Raymond B.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental temperature strongly affects physiology of ectotherms. Small ectotherms, like Drosophila, cannot endogenously regulate body temperature so must rely on behavior to maintain body temperature within a physiologically permissive range. Here we review what is known about Drosophila thermal preference. Work on thermal behavior in this group is particularly exciting because it provides the opportunity to connect genes to neuromolecular mechanisms to behavior to fitness in the wild. PMID:20161211

  17. Strategic Management or Strategic Planning for Defense?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    manage at the regional or CinC level with an appreciation of strategic planning and management concepts currently taught at business schools . Military...those not in uniform. Science, engineering, and business schools all suggest that their faculties have experience tours so that they can appreciate

  18. American Strategic Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeYoung, John H., Jr.; Chidester, Alfred H.

    American Strategic Minerals is a collection of six papers that were presented in December 1982 at a conference organized by the Center for the Study of Marine Policy at the University of Delaware. According to editor Gerard J. Mangone, director of the center, the papers were commissioned “to investigate not only the objective resource situation, but also past United States policy on strategic minerals and future options open to Washington.” The authors and their chapter titles are John C. Kraft, University of Delaware: “Strategic minerals and world stability” V. Anthony Cammarota, Jr., U.S. Bureau of Mines: “America's dependence on strategic minerals” John D. Morgan, U.S. Bureau of Mines: “Future demands of the United States for strategic minerals” J. Robert Moore, University of Texas: “Alternative sources of strategic minerals from the seabed” Allan I. Mendelowitz and John E. Watson, U.S. General Accounting Office: “U.S. mining investments in developing countries” and James W. Curlin, Nautilus Press: “The political dimensions of strategic minerals.”

  19. Strategic Plan. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the strategic plan and associated organizational structure that the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) will utilize to achieve the defined mission and objectives provided by NASA. Much of the information regarding the background and establishment of the NSBRI by NASA has been provided in other documentation and will not be repeated in this Strategic Plan. This Strategic Plan is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this volume) begins with an Introduction (Section 2) that provides the Institute's NASA-defined mission and objectives, and the organizational structure adopted to implement these through three Strategic Programs: Countermeasure Research; Education, Training and Outreach; and Cooperative Research and Development. These programs are described in Sections 3 to 5. Each program is presented in a similar way, using four subsections: Goals and Objectives; Current Strategies; Gaps and Modifications; and Resource Requirements. Section 6 provides the administrative infrastructure and total budget required to implement the Strategic Programs and assures that they form a single cohesive plan. This plan will ensure continued success of the Institute for the next five years. Volume II of the Strategic Plan provides an in-depth analysis of the current and future strategic programs of the 12 current NSBRI teams, including their goals, objectives, mutual interactions and schedules.

  20. Strategic agility for nursing leadership.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2015-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change. In this article, the author discusses strategic agility as an important leadership competency and offers approaches for incorporating strategic agility in healthcare systems. A strategic agility checklist and infrastructure-building approach are presented.