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Sample records for preferences strategic behavior

  1. Cognitive skills affect economic preferences, strategic behavior, and job attachment.

    PubMed

    Burks, Stephen V; Carpenter, Jeffrey P; Goette, Lorenz; Rustichini, Aldo

    2009-05-12

    Economic analysis has so far said little about how an individual's cognitive skills (CS) are related to the individual's economic preferences in different choice domains, such as risk taking or saving, and how preferences in different domains are related to each other. Using a sample of 1,000 trainee truckers we report three findings. First, there is a strong and significant relationship between an individual's CS and preferences. Individuals with better CS are more patient, in both short- and long-run. Better CS are also associated with a greater willingness to take calculated risks. Second, CS predict social awareness and choices in a sequential Prisoner's Dilemma game. Subjects with better CS more accurately forecast others' behavior and differentiate their behavior as a second mover more strongly depending on the first-mover's choice. Third, CS, and in particular, the ability to plan, strongly predict perseverance on the job in a setting with a substantial financial penalty for early exit. Consistent with CS being a common factor in all of these preferences and behaviors, we find a strong pattern of correlation among them. These results, taken together with the theoretical explanation we offer for the relationships we find, suggest that higher CS systematically affect preferences and choices in ways that favor economic success.

  2. Cognitive skills affect economic preferences, strategic behavior, and job attachment

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Stephen V.; Carpenter, Jeffrey P.; Goette, Lorenz; Rustichini, Aldo

    2009-01-01

    Economic analysis has so far said little about how an individual's cognitive skills (CS) are related to the individual's economic preferences in different choice domains, such as risk taking or saving, and how preferences in different domains are related to each other. Using a sample of 1,000 trainee truckers we report three findings. First, there is a strong and significant relationship between an individual's CS and preferences. Individuals with better CS are more patient, in both short- and long-run. Better CS are also associated with a greater willingness to take calculated risks. Second, CS predict social awareness and choices in a sequential Prisoner's Dilemma game. Subjects with better CS more accurately forecast others' behavior and differentiate their behavior as a second mover more strongly depending on the first-mover's choice. Third, CS, and in particular, the ability to plan, strongly predict perseverance on the job in a setting with a substantial financial penalty for early exit. Consistent with CS being a common factor in all of these preferences and behaviors, we find a strong pattern of correlation among them. These results, taken together with the theoretical explanation we offer for the relationships we find, suggest that higher CS systematically affect preferences and choices in ways that favor economic success. PMID:19416865

  3. On operator strategic behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Deeper and more detailed knowledge as to how human operators such as pilots respond, singly and in groups, to demands on their performance which arise from technical systems will support the manipulation of such systems' design in order to accommodate the foibles of human behavior. Efforts to understand how self-autonomy impacts strategic behavior and such related issues as error generation/recognition/correction are still in their infancy. The present treatment offers both general and aviation-specific definitions of strategic behavior as precursors of prospective investigations.

  4. Strategic supply cost management: physician preference without deference.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Rand

    2005-04-01

    Strategic supply chain management differs from traditional supply chain management in that it leaves nothing to chance: It takes into account physician preference in product selection and pricing. It does not allow vendors to bypass supply chain leaders. Its leaders require a broad understanding of strategic, financial, and clinical issues. Its leaders are accountable for maintaining control over supply costs across the board.

  5. Strategic supply cost management: physician preference without deference.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Rand

    2005-04-01

    Strategic supply chain management differs from traditional supply chain management in that it leaves nothing to chance: It takes into account physician preference in product selection and pricing. It does not allow vendors to bypass supply chain leaders. Its leaders require a broad understanding of strategic, financial, and clinical issues. Its leaders are accountable for maintaining control over supply costs across the board. PMID:15853039

  6. Distributional preferences and competitive behavior.

    PubMed

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Kerschbamer, Rudolf; Sutter, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    We study experimentally the relationship between distributional preferences and competitive behavior. We find that spiteful subjects react strongest to competitive pressure and win in a tournament significantly more often than efficiency-minded and inequality averse subjects. However, when given the choice between a tournament and a piece rate scheme, efficiency-minded subjects choose the tournament most often, while spiteful and inequality averse subjects avoid it. When controlling for distributional preferences, risk attitudes and past performance, the gender gap in the willingness to compete is no longer significant, indicating that gender-related variables explain why twice as many men as women self-select into competition.

  7. Men's strategic preferences for femininity in female faces.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; Feinberg, David R; Perrett, David I

    2014-08-01

    Several evolutionarily relevant sources of individual differences in face preference have been documented for women. Here, we examine three such sources of individual variation in men's preference for female facial femininity: term of relationship, partnership status and self-perceived attractiveness. We show that men prefer more feminine female faces when rating for a short-term relationship and when they have a partner (Study 1). These variables were found to interact in a follow-up study (Study 2). Men who thought themselves attractive also preferred more feminized female faces for short-term relationships than men who thought themselves less attractive (Study 1 and Study 2). In women, similar findings for masculine preferences in male faces have been interpreted as adaptive. In men, such preferences potentially reflect that attractive males are able to compete for high-quality female partners in short-term contexts. When a man has secured a mate, the potential cost of being discovered may increase his choosiness regarding short-term partners relative to unpartnered men, who can better increase their short-term mating success by relaxing their standards. Such potentially strategic preferences imply that men also face trade-offs when choosing relatively masculine or feminine faced partners. In line with a trade-off, women with feminine faces were seen as more likely to be unfaithful and more likely to pursue short-term relationships (Study 3), suggesting that risk of cuckoldry is one factor that may limit men's preferences for femininity in women and could additionally lead to preferences for femininity in short-term mates.

  8. Men's strategic preferences for femininity in female faces.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; Feinberg, David R; Perrett, David I

    2014-08-01

    Several evolutionarily relevant sources of individual differences in face preference have been documented for women. Here, we examine three such sources of individual variation in men's preference for female facial femininity: term of relationship, partnership status and self-perceived attractiveness. We show that men prefer more feminine female faces when rating for a short-term relationship and when they have a partner (Study 1). These variables were found to interact in a follow-up study (Study 2). Men who thought themselves attractive also preferred more feminized female faces for short-term relationships than men who thought themselves less attractive (Study 1 and Study 2). In women, similar findings for masculine preferences in male faces have been interpreted as adaptive. In men, such preferences potentially reflect that attractive males are able to compete for high-quality female partners in short-term contexts. When a man has secured a mate, the potential cost of being discovered may increase his choosiness regarding short-term partners relative to unpartnered men, who can better increase their short-term mating success by relaxing their standards. Such potentially strategic preferences imply that men also face trade-offs when choosing relatively masculine or feminine faced partners. In line with a trade-off, women with feminine faces were seen as more likely to be unfaithful and more likely to pursue short-term relationships (Study 3), suggesting that risk of cuckoldry is one factor that may limit men's preferences for femininity in women and could additionally lead to preferences for femininity in short-term mates. PMID:25040006

  9. Exploring Strategic Behavior in an Oligopoly Market Using Classroom Clickers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouhle, Keith

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses an innovative technique to teach strategic behavior in oligopoly markets. In the classroom exercise, students play the role of a firm that maximizes its profit given the behavior of other firms in the industry. Using classroom clickers to communicate pricing decisions, students explore first-hand the strategic nature of…

  10. Eating behavior reveals rats' preference for morphine.

    PubMed

    Yanaura, S; Suzuki, T; Kawai, T

    1980-04-01

    Using an automatic food intake measuring apparatus ("food intakometer"), we recorded the approach behavior to food, eating behavior and food intake of morphine dependent rats and examined the relationship among these factors and morphine dependence. Morphine dependent rats were produced by the drug-admixed food (DAF) method. In the choice trial of free feeding group, morphine dependent rats showed only the approach behavior both to drug-free diet and to morphine-admixed food, then ate the morphine-admixed food and approached the drug-free diet at the same period. Eating behavior in the case of morphine-admixed food was observed not only at night but also during thee feeding group, morphine dependent rats showed only the approach behavior both to drug-free diet and to morphine-admixed food, then ate the morphine-admixed food and approached the drug-free diet at the same period. Eating behavior in the case of morphine-admixed food was observed not only at night but also during the day time in the morphine dependent rats. In the choice trial of the limited feeding group, preference for morphine rapidly increased in every choice trial of each session and the preference rate became stable at about 60%. Eating patterns of these rats were similar to these in the free feeding group. When these rats were given morphine prior to the choice trial, eating behavior of those on the morphine-admixed food was inhibited dose-dependently, while eating behavior of these on the drug-free diet was enhanced dose-dependently. When these rats were allowed free access to drug-free diet for 1 hour previously to the choice trial, eating behavior of the rats on the morphine-admixed food in the choice trial was markedly enhanced. Thus, the rats clearly showed drug-seeking behavior and seemed to be able to distinguish between the need for morphine and satisfaction without it. Morphine dependent rats apparently can control their required maintenance dose.

  11. Preference for starting and finishing behavior patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Shimp, C P; Sabulsky, S L; Childers, L J

    1989-01-01

    Pigeon's key pecking was reinforced with food in two experiments in which the correspondence between preference for starting one of two reinforced behavior patterns and the likelihood of finishing it subsequently was examined. Reinforcers were scheduled according to concurrent schedules for two classes of interresponse times, modified such that reinforcers followed a center-key peck terminating either a shorter interresponse time started by a left-key peck or a longer interresponse time started by a right-key peck. In Experiment 1, the times when reinforcers potentially were available were not discriminated, whereas in Experiment 2 they were. Absolute reinforced pattern durations were varied. The relative frequency of starting a particular pattern was highly correlated with relative frequency of that completed pattern in both experiments. Other relations between starting and finishing a pattern depended on whether reinforced interresponse times were discriminated. For instance, preference for starting a pattern sometimes correlated negatively with the likelihood of subsequently completing it. The present experiments are described as capturing part of the ordinary language meaning of "intention," according to which an organism's behavior at one moment sets the occasion for an observer to say that the organism "intends" in the future to engage in one behavior rather than another. PMID:2584918

  12. Scaling laws of strategic behavior and size heterogeneity in agent dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaglica, Gabriella; Lillo, Fabrizio; Moro, Esteban; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2008-03-01

    We consider the financial market as a model system and study empirically how agents strategically adjust the properties of large orders in order to meet their preference and minimize their impact. We quantify this strategic behavior by detecting scaling relations between the variables characterizing the trading activity of different institutions. We also observe power-law distributions in the investment time horizon, in the number of transactions needed to execute a large order, and in the traded value exchanged by large institutions, and we show that heterogeneity of agents is a key ingredient for the emergence of some aggregate properties characterizing this complex system.

  13. Measurement of Client Preferences for Therapist Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richert, Alphons J.

    While past research has found conflicting results on the place for client role preferences in psychotherapy, none of this research has examined the client role preferences in an actual client population seeking outpatient therapy. This study involved the development of a measure of client role preferences which attempted to survey a wider range of…

  14. Impulse control and underlying functions of the left DLPFC mediate age-related and age-independent individual differences in strategic social behavior.

    PubMed

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Bernhardt, Boris C; Singer, Tania

    2012-03-01

    Human social exchange is often characterized by conflicts of interest requiring strategic behavior for their resolution. To investigate the development of the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying strategic behavior, we studied children's decisions while they played two types of economic exchange games with differing demands of strategic behavior. We show an increase of strategic behavior with age, which could not be explained by age-related changes in social preferences but instead by developmental differences in impulsivity and associated brain functions of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Furthermore, observed differences in cortical thickness of lDLPFC were predictive of differences in impulsivity and strategic behavior irrespective of age. We conclude that egoistic behavior in younger children is not caused by a lack of understanding right or wrong, but by the inability to implement behavioral control when tempted to act selfishly; a function relying on brain regions maturing only late in ontogeny.

  15. Teacher Reinforcement of Feminine-Preferred Behavior Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagot, Beverly I.

    The two studies reported, on teacher reinforcement of and teacher attitudes toward children's sex-preferred behaviors attempted to clarify some issues concerning the differential treatment of boys and girls at the preschool level. The first study looked at teacher reinforcement of sex-preferred behaviors in children aged 3 to 5 years as a function…

  16. Help Preferences among Employees Who Wish to Change Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Roger; Cleal, Bryan; Jakobsen, Mette Øllgaard; Villadsen, Ebbe; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the help preferences of employees in the Danish police who had acknowledged that they wished to change health behaviors. In addition, we explored whether preferences varied with age, gender, chronic health concerns, positive expectations of good health, and past experiences of in-house health promotion services (i.e.,…

  17. Neural correlates of behavioral preference for culturally familiar drinks.

    PubMed

    McClure, Samuel M; Li, Jian; Tomlin, Damon; Cypert, Kim S; Montague, Latané M; Montague, P Read

    2004-10-14

    Coca-Cola (Coke) and Pepsi are nearly identical in chemical composition, yet humans routinely display strong subjective preferences for one or the other. This simple observation raises the important question of how cultural messages combine with content to shape our perceptions; even to the point of modifying behavioral preferences for a primary reward like a sugared drink. We delivered Coke and Pepsi to human subjects in behavioral taste tests and also in passive experiments carried out during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two conditions were examined: (1) anonymous delivery of Coke and Pepsi and (2) brand-cued delivery of Coke and Pepsi. For the anonymous task, we report a consistent neural response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex that correlated with subjects' behavioral preferences for these beverages. In the brand-cued experiment, brand knowledge for one of the drinks had a dramatic influence on expressed behavioral preferences and on the measured brain responses.

  18. Neural correlates of behavioral preference for culturally familiar drinks.

    PubMed

    McClure, Samuel M; Li, Jian; Tomlin, Damon; Cypert, Kim S; Montague, Latané M; Montague, P Read

    2004-10-14

    Coca-Cola (Coke) and Pepsi are nearly identical in chemical composition, yet humans routinely display strong subjective preferences for one or the other. This simple observation raises the important question of how cultural messages combine with content to shape our perceptions; even to the point of modifying behavioral preferences for a primary reward like a sugared drink. We delivered Coke and Pepsi to human subjects in behavioral taste tests and also in passive experiments carried out during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two conditions were examined: (1) anonymous delivery of Coke and Pepsi and (2) brand-cued delivery of Coke and Pepsi. For the anonymous task, we report a consistent neural response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex that correlated with subjects' behavioral preferences for these beverages. In the brand-cued experiment, brand knowledge for one of the drinks had a dramatic influence on expressed behavioral preferences and on the measured brain responses. PMID:15473974

  19. Behavioral and neural correlates of visual preference decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2009-02-01

    Three sets of findings are reported here, all related to behavioral and neural correlates of preference decision. First, when one is engaged in a preference decision task with free observation, one's gaze is biased towards the to-be-chosen stimulus (eg. face) long before (s)he is consciously aware of the decision ("gaze cascade effect"). Second, an fMRI study suggested that implicit activity in a subcortical structure (the Nucleus Accumbens) precedes cognitive and conscious decision of preference. Finally, both novelty and familiarity causally contribute to attractiveness, but differently across object categories (such as faces and natural scenes). Taken together, these results point to dynamical and implicit processes both in short- and long-term, towards conscious preference decision. Finally, some discussion will be given on aesthetic decision (i.e. "beauty").

  20. Brainstem correlates of behavioral and compositional preferences of musical harmony.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan

    2011-03-30

    Certain chords are preferred by listeners behaviorally and also occur with higher regularity in musical composition. Event-related potentials index the perceived consonance (i.e., pleasantness) of musical pitch relationships providing a cortical neural correlate for such behavioral preferences. Here, we show correlates of these harmonic preferences exist at subcortical stages of audition. Brainstem frequency-following responses were measured in response to four prototypical musical triads. Pitch salience computed from frequency-following responses correctly predicted the ordering of triadic harmony stipulated by music theory (i.e., major >minor >diminished >augmented). Moreover, neural response magnitudes showed high correspondence with listeners' perceptual ratings of the same chords. Results suggest that preattentive stages of pitch processing may contribute to perceptual judgments of musical harmony.

  1. The politics of requesting: Strategic behavior and public utility regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    Extant models of public utility regulation assume that regulated firms make the same rate adjustment requests regardless of the political environment they will face during the rate case. Focusing on information asymmetries, the repeated interaction between the firm and the regulatory commission, and behavioral assumptions about the goals of regulators, a new model is proposed that assumes firms strategically and rationally plan their requests to respond to political and agency, as well as standard economic factors. An implication of the new model is that the effect of political factors, such as grassroots advocacy and regulator election, should be observed in request equations rather than in award equations where they are traditionally sought. This new model is tested using data from 54 telephone rate cases. The results indicate that firms do respond strategically to political factors (especially to regulator electrons), and also to agency factors (such as workload), by increasing their requests. This partially explains a puzzling result in the literature and has implications for regulatory policy, interest group behavior, democratic institutions, and public management. 48 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Test-Takers' Strategic Behaviors in Independent and Integrated Speaking Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled; Brooks, Lindsay; Swain, Merrill; Lapkin, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the strategic behaviors that test-takers reported using when responding to integrated and independent speaking tasks in an English oral proficiency test [the Speaking Section of the Internet-based Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL iBT)] and the relationship between test-takers' strategic behaviors and their…

  3. Media preferences in scenarios involving relationship closeness and information valence: evidence of strategic self-presentation and sex differences.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Jan-Are K; Kummervold, Per Egil; Wynn, Rolf

    2014-02-01

    The study investigated strategic self-presentation (relationship closeness, information valence, and sex) on hypothetical choice of media used. 145 participants (73 women, 72 men; M age = 22.3 yr.) were randomly assigned to experimental conditions where they indicated their preference for communicating with either a friend or a stranger using Short Messaging Service (SMS), e-mail, or telephone, compared to face-to-face. Information valence was manipulated as a within-subjects variable by scenarios where information was self-referential and either negative or positive. Preference to mediated channels in the two scenarios was measured as an average of self-reported scores on a scale from 1-5 where 3 indicated face-to-face communication. Relationship closeness and scenario affected media preferences. Participants had higher preference scores for mediated channels when communicating with strangers than with friends and when sharing self-referential and negative information. Only women's preferences appeared to be affected by the manipulation of relationship closeness.

  4. Strategic behavior in adolescent sexual offenses against children: linking modus operandi to sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Benoit; Tremblay, Pierre

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, the modus operandi of 103 adolescents involved in sexual offenses against children (12 year old or less) is analyzed. Modus operandi strategies were measured by the participants' responses to the Modus Operandi Questionnaire. Findings indicate that the degree of intrusiveness of the sexual behaviors committed by the adolescents is contingent on the participation of their victims during the sexual episodes. Moreover, the more strategic adolescents may be more likely to secure compliance. This study shows the relevance of analyzing adolescent modus operandi as purposeful behavior and discusses some implications of the findings for crime-commission or offending process models. PMID:17235700

  5. Drug-Related HIV Risk Behaviors and Cocaine Preference among Injection Drug Users in Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longshore, Douglas; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared drug-related risk behavior of drug users whose preferred injection drug was cocaine and users with preference for heroin or no preference between the two drugs (total n=422). Found cocaine preference unrelated to likelihood of needle sharing overall, needle sharing with strangers, needle sharing at shooting galleries, and failure to use…

  6. Effects of Peer Models' Food Choices and Eating Behaviors on Preschoolers' Food Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Leann Lipps

    1980-01-01

    The influence of peer models' food selections and eating behaviors on preschoolers' food preferences was investigated. Thirty-nine preschool children's preferences for vegetables were assessed. (Author/MP)

  7. Preference for reinforcers under varying schedule arrangements: A behavioral economic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tustin, R. Don

    1994-01-01

    The field of behavioral economics combines concepts from economics and operant conditioning to examine the influence of schedules or price on preference for reinforcers. Three case studies are reported in which behavioral economic analyses were used to assess relative preference for reinforcers shown by people with intellectual disabilities when schedule requirements varied. The studies examined (a) preference for different reinforcers, (b) substitutability of reinforcers, and (c) changes in preference as a function of schedule requirements. PMID:16795840

  8. Strategic costs and preferences revelation in the allocation of resources for health care.

    PubMed

    Levaggi, Laura; Levaggi, Rosella

    2010-09-01

    This article examines the resources allocation process in the internal market for health care in an environment characterised by asymmetry of information. We analyse the strategic behaviour of the provider and show how, by misreporting its cost function and reservation utility, it might shift the allocation of resources away from the purchaser's objectives. Although the fundamental importance of equity, efficiency and risk aversion considerations which have been the traditional focus of the literature on allocation of resources should not be denied, this paper shows that contracts and internal markets are not neutral instruments and more research should be devoted to studying their effects. PMID:20309636

  9. Simulating Terrorism: Credible Commitment, Costly Signaling, and Strategic Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, David A.; Young, Joseph K.

    2009-01-01

    We present two simulations designed to convey the strategic nature of terrorism and counterterrorism. The first is a simulated hostage crisis, designed primarily to illustrate the concepts of credible commitment and costly signaling. The second explores high-level decision making of both a terrorist group and the state, and is designed to…

  10. TV Viewing Preferences as Correlates of Adult Dysfunctional Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balon, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    Among the findings of a study of the television viewing preferences of prison inmates were that inmates convicted of aggressive assault preferred family drama programs, that those convicted of aggravated robbery preferred ethnic comedy, and that all inmate subgroups were inclined toward crime and action programs. (GW)

  11. Caregiver preference for reinforcement-based interventions for problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Gabor, Anne M; Fritz, Jennifer N; Roath, Christopher T; Rothe, Brittany R; Gourley, Denise A

    2016-06-01

    Social validity of behavioral interventions typically is assessed with indirect methods or by determining preferences of the individuals who receive treatment, and direct observation of caregiver preference rarely is described. In this study, preferences of 5 caregivers were determined via a concurrent-chains procedure. Caregivers were neurotypical, and children had been diagnosed with developmental disabilities and engaged in problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement. Caregivers were taught to implement noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA), and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), and the caregivers selected interventions to implement during sessions with the child after they had demonstrated proficiency in implementing the interventions. Three caregivers preferred DRA, 1 caregiver preferred differential reinforcement procedures, and 1 caregiver did not exhibit a preference. Direct observation of implementation in concurrent-chains procedures may allow the identification of interventions that are implemented with sufficient integrity and preferred by caregivers.

  12. The Effects of Physical Attractiveness and Ethnicity on Children's Behavioral Attributions and Peer Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Judith H.; Stephan, Cookie

    1977-01-01

    Investigates the generality of stereotypes associated with physical attractiveness and assesses the relative contributions of attractiveness and ethnicity in determining children's behavioral attributions and peer preferences. (JMB)

  13. Spontaneous Behaviors and Wall-Curvature Lead to Apparent Wall Preference in Planarian.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yoshitaro; Agata, Kiyokazu; Inoue, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The planarian Dugesia japonica tends to stay near the walls of its breeding containers and experimental dishes in the laboratory, a phenomenon called "wall preference". This behavior is thought to be important for environmental adaptation, such as hiding by planarians in nature. However, the mechanisms regulating wall-preference behavior are not well understood, since this behavior occurs in the absence of any particular stimulation. Here we show the mechanisms of wall-preference behavior. Surprisingly, planarian wall-preference behavior was also shown even by the head alone and by headless planarians. These results indicate that planarian "wall-preference" behavior only appears to be a "preference" behavior, and is actually an outcome of spontaneous behaviors, rather than of brain function. We found that in the absence of environmental cues planarians moved basically straight ahead until they reached a wall, and that after reaching a wall, they changed their direction of movement to one tangential to the wall, suggesting that this spontaneous behavior may play a critical role in the wall preference. When we tested another spontaneous behavior, the wigwag movement of the planarian head, using computer simulation with various wigwag angles and wigwag intervals, large wigwag angle and short wigwag interval reduced wall-preference behavior. This indicated that wigwag movement may determine the probability of staying near the wall or leaving the wall. Furthermore, in accord with this simulation, when we tested planarian wall-preference behavior using several assay fields with different curvature of the wall, we found that concavity and sharp curvature of walls negatively impacted wall preference by affecting the permissible angle of the wigwag movement. Together, these results indicate that planarian wall preference may be involuntarily caused by the combination of two spontaneous planarian behaviors: moving straight ahead until reaching a wall and then moving along it

  14. Guided Writing Lessons: Second-Grade Students' Development of Strategic Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sharan A.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes intra-individual change in strategic behavior of five second-grade students during three months of guided writing instruction for informational text. Data sources included sequential coding of writing behavior from videotaped writing events and analytic assessment of writing products. Students' development of self-scaffolding…

  15. I Don't Want to Pick! Introspection on Uncertainty Supports Early Strategic Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Kristen E.; Ghetti, Simona

    2013-01-01

    Although some evidence indicates that even very young children engage in rudimentary forms of strategic behavior, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that uncertainty monitoring underlies such behaviors. Three-, four-, and five-year-old children ("N" = 88) completed a perceptual discrimination task.…

  16. Succession planning: aligning strategic goals and leadership behaviors.

    PubMed

    Coonan, Patrick R

    2005-01-01

    In the intense health care environment of today, human capital is an organizations most important asset. Leadership and human capital can often differentiate a successful organization from one that is not. In an ongoing effort to develop a strong and capable workforce, many organizations focus exclusively on hiring and training without regard for succession planning; this is a mistake. Succession planning is essential to develop and maintain organizational success. Succession planning supports the development of strong leadership because it leads to increased skills and competencies of staff who can best manage the organization toward achievement of organizational strategic goals. Dealing with the fears and issues surrounding the topic enables leaders to align an organizations strategic goals with its human capital needs to maintain and support leadership transitions and effective organizations.

  17. I don't want to pick! Introspection on uncertainty supports early strategic behavior.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kristen E; Ghetti, Simona

    2013-01-01

    Although some evidence indicates that even very young children engage in rudimentary forms of strategic behavior, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that uncertainty monitoring underlies such behaviors. Three-, four-, and five-year-old children (N = 88) completed a perceptual discrimination task. Results indicated that children are more likely to withhold (vs. volunteer) responses on trials for which, when forced to provide an answer, they report subjective uncertainty (vs. subjective certainty). Furthermore, uncertainty monitoring positively predicted the strategic regulation of accuracy via withholding of incorrect responses, even when controlling for individual differences in inhibitory control. Overall, results suggest that children's awareness of their own knowledge states contributes to early strategic behavior.

  18. An Examination of Behavioral History Effects on Preference for Choice in Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberlin, Alayna T.

    2010-01-01

    The current investigation examined the effects of behavioral history on elementary students' preference for making a choice in two studies. Previous research on choice has focused on the arrangement of current contingencies and has not accounted for the effects of behavioral history. Study 1 examined participants' preference for two options (i.e.,…

  19. The Relationship between Collegiate Band Members' Preferences of Teacher Interpersonal Behavior and Perceived Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Natalie Anne

    2009-01-01

    The first purpose of this study was to describe collegiate band members' preferred teacher interpersonal behaviors and perceptions of self-efficacy based on the gender, year in college, instrument, and major. The second purpose of the study was to measure the relationship between preferences of interpersonal teacher behavior and self-efficacy…

  20. Stimulus Duration Preference at Electrode Sites Yielding Elicited Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, V. C.

    1970-01-01

    The latency to display eating or drinking during hypothalamic stimulation was compared with the preferred duration of the same stimulus intensity in a self-stimulation situation. All the animals preferred longer stimulus durations than those required to elicit eating or drinking

  1. Tactical Versus Strategic Behavior: General Aviation Piloting in Convective Weather Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latorella, Kara A.; Chamberlain, James P.

    2002-01-01

    We commonly describe environments and behavioral responses to environmental conditions as 'tactical' and 'strategic.' However theoretical research defining relevant environmental characteristics is rare, as are empirical investigations that would inform such theory. This paper discusses General Aviation (GA) pilots' descriptions of tactical/strategic conditions with respect to weather flying, and evaluates their ratings along a tactical/strategic scale in response to real convective weather scenarios experienced during a flight experiment with different weather information cues. Perceived risk was significantly associated with ratings for all experimental conditions. In addition, environmental characteristics were found to be predictive of ratings for Traditional IMC (instrument meteorological conditions), i.e., aural weather information only, and Traditional VMC (visual meteorological conditions), i.e., aural information and an external view. The paper also presents subjects' comments regarding use of Graphical Weather Information Systems (GWISs) to support tactical and strategic weather flying decisions and concludes with implications for the design and use of GWISs.

  2. The training and validation of youth-preferred social behaviors of child-care personnel1

    PubMed Central

    Willner, Alan G.; Braukmann, Curtis J.; Kirigin, Kathryn A.; Fixsen, Dean L.; Phillips, Elery L.; Wolf, Montrose M.

    1977-01-01

    This research sought to identify, train, and validate social behaviors preferred by youths to be used by youth-care personnel (called teaching-parents). With training, consistent increases in seven preferred behaviors were observed for the six teaching-parent trainees. These behaviors included offering to help, “getting to the point”, giving reasons why a behavior is important to a youth, providing descriptions of alternative behaviors, positive feedback, smiling, and positive motivational incentives (i.e., points for task mastery exchanged for tangible reinforcers). Increases in these behaviors correlated with increases in the youths' ratings of the quality of the trainees' interactions. Posttraining levels of preferred social behavior and youth ratings for trainees also compared favorably with levels for successful professional teaching-parents. These results suggest that teaching-parents can be successfully trained to interact with youths in ways that are preferred by the youths. PMID:16795551

  3. Spontaneous Behaviors and Wall-Curvature Lead to Apparent Wall Preference in Planarian

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Yoshitaro; Agata, Kiyokazu; Inoue, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The planarian Dugesia japonica tends to stay near the walls of its breeding containers and experimental dishes in the laboratory, a phenomenon called “wall preference”. This behavior is thought to be important for environmental adaptation, such as hiding by planarians in nature. However, the mechanisms regulating wall-preference behavior are not well understood, since this behavior occurs in the absence of any particular stimulation. Here we show the mechanisms of wall-preference behavior. Surprisingly, planarian wall-preference behavior was also shown even by the head alone and by headless planarians. These results indicate that planarian “wall-preference” behavior only appears to be a “preference” behavior, and is actually an outcome of spontaneous behaviors, rather than of brain function. We found that in the absence of environmental cues planarians moved basically straight ahead until they reached a wall, and that after reaching a wall, they changed their direction of movement to one tangential to the wall, suggesting that this spontaneous behavior may play a critical role in the wall preference. When we tested another spontaneous behavior, the wigwag movement of the planarian head, using computer simulation with various wigwag angles and wigwag intervals, large wigwag angle and short wigwag interval reduced wall-preference behavior. This indicated that wigwag movement may determine the probability of staying near the wall or leaving the wall. Furthermore, in accord with this simulation, when we tested planarian wall-preference behavior using several assay fields with different curvature of the wall, we found that concavity and sharp curvature of walls negatively impacted wall preference by affecting the permissible angle of the wigwag movement. Together, these results indicate that planarian wall preference may be involuntarily caused by the combination of two spontaneous planarian behaviors: moving straight ahead until reaching a wall and then

  4. Strategic behavior and marriage payments: theory and evidence from Senegal.

    PubMed

    Gaspart, Frederic; Platteau, Jean-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes an original theory of marriage payments based on insights gained from firsthand information collected in the Senegal River valley. This theory postulates that decisions about the bride-price, which are made by the bride's father, take into account the likely effects of the amount set on the risk of ill-treatment of the wife and the risk of marriage failure. Based on a sequential game with three players (the bride's father, the husband, and the wife) and a matching process, it leads to a number of important predictions that are tested against Senegalese data relating to bride-prices and various characteristics of women. The empirical results confirm that parents behave strategically by keeping bride-prices down so as to reduce the risk of marriage failure for their daughters. Other interesting effects on marriage payments and the probability of separation are also highlighted, stressing the role of the bride's bargaining power in her own family.

  5. Aggression and prosocial behaviors in social conflicts mediating the influence of cold social intelligence and affective empathy on children's social preference.

    PubMed

    Carreras, M R; Braza, P; Muñoz, J M; Braza, F; Azurmendi, A; Pascual-Sagastizabal, E; Cardas, J; Sánchez-Martín, J R

    2014-08-01

    This study proposes a model in which aggressive and prosocial behaviors exhibited in social conflicts mediate the influence of empathy and social intelligence to children's social preference by same-sex peers. Data were obtained from kindergarten to the end of the first grade. The sample yielded 117 Spanish children (64 girls and 53 boys) with a mean age of 62.8 months (SD = 3.3) at the beginning of the study. For boys, affective empathy contributed to boys' social preference through a decrease in physical aggression as responses to social conflict. For girls, affective empathy had an indirect effect on girls' preference by increasing assistance to others in their conflicts. No mediating effect in the contribution of social intelligence on girls' social preference was detected. Our results suggest that, only for girls, cold social intelligence can promote both indirect aggression (coercive strategic that do not leave social preference, at least at these ages) and behaviors that lead social preference (such as prosocial behaviors).

  6. Welfare, Child Support, and Strategic Behavior: Do High Orders and Low Disregards Discourage Child Support Awards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roff, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative research has documented strategic behavior in response to child support policy. Parents of children on welfare have an incentive to avoid formal child support, since most states limit the amount of formal child support that women on welfare can receive (the "disregard") and have relatively high child support orders for low-income…

  7. Bullying as Strategic Behavior: Relations with Desired and Acquired Dominance in the Peer Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits A.; Vermande, Marjolijn M.; Aleva, Elisabeth A.; van der Meulen, Matty

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether bullying is strategic behavior aimed at obtaining or maintaining social dominance, 1129 9- to 12-year-old Dutch children were classified in terms of their role in bullying and in terms of their use of dominance oriented coercive and prosocial social strategies. Multi-informant measures of participants' acquired and desired…

  8. Personality influences temporal discounting preferences: behavioral and brain evidence.

    PubMed

    Manning, Joshua; Hedden, Trey; Wickens, Nina; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Prelec, Drazen; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-09-01

    Personality traits are stable predictors of many life outcomes that are associated with important decisions that involve tradeoffs over time. Therefore, a fundamental question is how tradeoffs over time vary from person to person in relation to stable personality traits. We investigated the influence of personality, as measured by the Five-Factor Model, on time preferences and on neural activity engaged by intertemporal choice. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants made choices between smaller-sooner and larger-later monetary rewards. For each participant, we estimated a constant-sensitivity discount function that dissociates impatience (devaluation of future consequences) from time sensitivity (consistency with rational, exponential discounting). Overall, higher neuroticism was associated with a relatively greater preference for immediate rewards and higher conscientiousness with a relatively greater preference for delayed rewards. Specifically, higher conscientiousness correlated positively with lower short-term impatience and more exponential time preferences, whereas higher neuroticism (lower emotional stability) correlated positively with higher short-term impatience and less exponential time preferences. Cognitive-control and reward brain regions were more activated when higher conscientiousness participants selected a smaller-sooner reward and, conversely, when higher neuroticism participants selected a larger-later reward. The greater activations that occurred when choosing rewards that contradicted personality predispositions may reflect the greater recruitment of mental resources needed to override those predispositions. These findings reveal that stable personality traits fundamentally influence how rewards are chosen over time.

  9. Personality Influences Temporal Discounting Preferences: Behavioral and Brain Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Joshua; Hedden, Trey; Wickens, Nina; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Prelec, Drazen; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Personality traits are stable predictors of many life outcomes that are associated with important decisions that involve tradeoffs over time. Therefore, a fundamental question is how tradeoffs over time vary from person to person in relation to stable personality traits. We investigated the influence of personality, as measured by the Five-Factor Model, on time preferences and on neural activity engaged by intertemporal choice. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants made choices between smaller-sooner and larger-later monetary rewards. For each participant, we estimated a constant-sensitivity discount function that dissociates impatience (devaluation of future consequences) from time sensitivity (consistency with rational, exponential discounting). Overall, higher neuroticism was associated with a relatively greater preference for immediate rewards and higher conscientiousness with a relatively greater preference for delayed rewards. Specifically, higher conscientiousness correlated positively with lower short-term impatience and more exponential time preferences, whereas higher neuroticism (lower emotional stability) correlated positively with higher short-term impatience and less exponential time preferences. Cognitive-control and reward brain regions were more activated when higher conscientiousness participants selected a smaller-sooner reward and, conversely, when higher neuroticism participants selected a larger-later reward. Both cases involved choices that went against predispositions implied by personality. These findings reveal that stable personality traits fundamentally influence how rewards are chosen over time. PMID:24799134

  10. Directional and color preference in adult zebrafish: Implications in behavioral and learning assays in neurotoxicology studies.

    PubMed

    Bault, Zachary A; Peterson, Samuel M; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2015-12-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a useful vertebrate model organism for neurological studies. While a number of behavior and learning assays are recently reported in the literature for zebrafish, many of these assays are still being refined. The initial purpose of this study was to apply a published T-maze assay for adult zebrafish that measures how quickly an organism can discriminate between different color stimuli after receiving reinforcement to measure learning in a study investigating the later life impacts of developmental Pb exposure. The original results were inconclusive as the control group showed a directional and color preference. To assess directional preference further, a three-chambered testing apparatus was constructed and rotated in several directions. The directional preference observed in males was alleviated by rotating the arms pointing west and east. In addition, color preference was investigated using all combinations of five different colors (orange, yellow, green, blue and purple). With directional preference alleviated results showed that both male and female zebrafish preferred colors of shorter wavelengths. An additional experiment tested changes in color preference due to developmental exposure to Pb in adult male zebrafish. Results revealed that Pb-exposed males gained and lost certain color preferences compared to control males and the preference for short wavelengths was decreased. Overall, these results show that consideration and pretesting should be completed before applying behavioral and learning assays involving adult zebrafish to avoid innate preferences and confounding changes in neurotoxicology studies and that developmental Pb exposure alters color preferences in adult male zebrafish.

  11. Hypotheses about Typical General Human Strategic Behavior in a Concrete Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagiew, Rustam

    This work is about typical human behavior in general strategic interactions called also games. This work is not about modelling best human performance in well-known games like chess or poker. It tries to answer the question 'How can we exactly describe what we typically do, if we interact strategically in games we have not much experience with?' in a concrete case. This concrete case is a very basic scenario - a repeated zero sum game with imperfect information. Rational behavior in games is best studied by game theory. But, numerous experiments with untrained subjects showed that human behavior in strategic interactions deviates from predictions of game theory. However, people do not behave in a fully indescribable way. Subjects deviate from game theoretic predictions in the concrete scenario presented here. As results, a couple of regularities in the data is presented first which are also reported in related work. Then, the way of using machine learning for describing human behavior is given. Machine learning algorithms provide automatically generated hypotheses about human behavior. Finally, designing a formalism for representing human behavior is discussed.

  12. Exposure to PCB 77 affects partner preference but not sexual behavior in the female rat.

    PubMed

    Cummings, J A; Clemens, L G; Nunez, A A

    2008-10-20

    In rats, exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyl congener 3, 4, 3', 4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) affects the brain and behavior of the offspring as well as the maternal behavior of the dams. In the present study, a cross-fostering design was used to examine the effects of pre- and/or postnatal exposure to PCB 77 on sexual behavior and partner preference in female rats, and to determine the role of altered maternal behavior in the mediation of these effects. Pregnant rats were treated with oil or PCB dissolved in oil (2 mg/kg b.w.) on gestation days 6-18 and then given pups that had been exposed to either the oil vehicle or PCB during gestation. As adults, the female offspring were tested for partner preference (that is, whether they preferred to spend time with a sexually receptive female or a sexually active male) and sexual behavior. None of the treatments affected female sexual behavior. However, both double exposure and postnatal exposure diminished the animals' preference for a male over a female stimulus, but partner preference was not affected by prenatal exposure alone. There were no significant correlations between the changes in partner preferences due to PCB exposure and the amount of maternal grooming and licking received by the treated litters. Thus, female partner preference is affected by early PCB exposure, and the effects depend upon whether the exposure is in utero or via lactation and may be independent of any effects of the PCB on maternal care.

  13. Evaluation of the rate of problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers across preference assessments.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soyeon; O'Reilly, Mark F; Fragale, Christina L; Aguilar, Jeannie M; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The rates of problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers were evaluated across 3 preference assessment formats (i.e., paired stimulus, multiple-stimulus without replacement, and free operant). The experimenter administered each assessment format 5 times in a random order for 7 children with developmental disabilities whose problem behavior was maintained by attention, tangible items, or escape. Results demonstrated different effects related to the occurrence of problem behavior, suggesting an interaction between function of problem behavior and assessment format. Implications for practitioners are discussed with respect to assessing preferences of individuals with developmental disabilities who exhibit problem behavior. PMID:22219533

  14. College Women: Eating Behaviors and Help-Seeking Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prouty, Anne M.; Protinsky, Howard O.; Canady, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Late adolescent college women (N=578) were surveyed regarding eating disorders. Participants found to have eating disorders were younger and more likely to be white, in a sorority, and Christian. Additionally, they were most likely to say that they would prefer a close friend to support them when dealing with disordered eating, followed by their…

  15. Behavioral Variability of Choices versus Structural Inconsistency of Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regenwetter, Michel; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2012-01-01

    Theories of rational choice often make the structural consistency assumption that every decision maker's binary strict preference among choice alternatives forms a "strict weak order". Likewise, the very concept of a "utility function" over lotteries in normative, prescriptive, and descriptive theory is mathematically equivalent to strict weak…

  16. Assessment of urinary pheromone discrimination, partner preference, and mating behaviors in female mice.

    PubMed

    Brock, Olivier; Bakker, Julie; Baum, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral testing methods are described for determining whether female mice can discriminate between volatile urinary pheromones of conspecifics of the same vs. opposite sex and/or in different endocrine conditions, for determining sexual partner preference, for quantifying receptive (lordosis) behavior, and for monitoring the expression of male-typical mounting behavior in female mice.

  17. Teaching Behavioral Therapists to Conduct Brief Preference Assessments during Therapy Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Michele R.; Kenzer, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group classroom instruction and the need for in vivo feedback when teaching 11 behavioral therapists how to conduct a brief paired-stimulus preference assessment, when to conduct preference assessments, and how to interpret the data during regular therapy sessions. Group classroom instruction, consisting of…

  18. Evaluating Change in Behavioral Preferences: Multidimensional Scaling Single-Ideal Point Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to propose a multidimensional scaling single-ideal point model as a method to evaluate changes in individuals' preferences under the explicit methodological framework of behavioral preference assessment. One example is used to illustrate the approach for a clear idea of what this approach can accomplish.

  19. Stimuli affecting zebrafish (Danio rerio) behavior in the light/dark preference test.

    PubMed

    Blaser, R E; Peñalosa, Y M

    2011-10-24

    Ethanol has been suggested to have an anxiolytic effect on zebrafish, primarily based on its disruption of the novel tank diving response and of some social behaviors. The light/dark preference test offers a complementary measure of anxiety-like behavior in fish, and the purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of acute ethanol exposure on behavior in the light/dark task. In Experiment 1, the stimuli used to induce light/dark preference in zebrafish were varied in order to determine how best to measure the behavior. Subjects exhibited phototaxis (preference for light) when illumination was manipulated, but scototaxis (preference for dark) when wall and substrate color were manipulated. There was a clear interaction between locomotor activity and color preference, with animals preferentially freezing in darker locations. Because of ambiguity in interpreting behavior in the open/covered version of the test, the black/white version was used in Experiment 2. In Experiment 2, zebrafish were exposed to ethanol (0.25%, 0.5%, or 1.0%) or water for 30 minutes, and then placed in a black/white preference tank containing either ethanol (same doses) or water for a 30-minute test. Ethanol exposure increased locomotor activity and reduced freezing. Additionally, there was a significant interaction between ethanol treatment and locomotor activity on side preference. Low doses of ethanol increased white avoidance in normally swimming fish, while high doses did not.

  20. Postpartum depression in rats: differences in swim test immobility, sucrose preference and nurturing behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Jamie Winderbaum; Grizzell, J Alex; Philpot, Rex M; Wecker, Lynn

    2014-10-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common disorder affecting both mothers and their offspring. Studies of PPD in laboratory animals have typically assessed either immobility on forced swim testing or sucrose preference in ovariectomized rats following hormone supplementation and withdrawal or in stress models. To date, few studies have related these measures to maternal behaviors, a potential indicator of depressive-like activity postpartum. Because a single measure may be insufficient to characterize depression, the present study determined the distribution of depressive-like behaviors in Sprague-Dawley rats postpartum. Nurturing and non-nurturing behaviors exhibited by undisturbed dams were recorded during the first 12 days postpartum, and immobility in the forced swim test and sucrose preference were determined thereafter. A median-split analysis indicated that 19% of dams exhibited high sucrose preference and low immobility, 30% exhibited either only high immobility or only low sucrose preference, and 21% exhibited both high immobility and low preference. Dams exhibiting depressive-like activity on either or both tests displayed increased self-directed behaviors and decreased active nurturing during the dark phase of the diurnal cycle. This is the first study to characterize undisturbed nurturing and non-nurturing behaviors, and use both sucrose preference and immobility in the forced swim test, to classify PPD endophenotypes exhibited by rat dams following parturition. The present study underscores the idea that multiple tests should be used to characterize depressive-like behavior, which is highly heterogeneous in both the human and laboratory animal populations.

  1. Kids Speak: Preferred Parental Behavior at Youth Sport Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omli, Jens; Wiese-Bjornstal, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    News reports (e.g., Abrams, 2008) and scholarly research (e.g., Wiersma & Fifer, 2005) have indicated increasing concern that parent-spectator behavior at youth sport events may be problematic. Multiple strategies have been used to influence spectator behavior in youth sport contexts (e.g., "Silent Sundays"). However, it is unlikely that…

  2. Adult partner preference and sexual behavior of male rats affected by perinatal endocrine manipulations.

    PubMed

    Brand, T; Kroonen, J; Mos, J; Slob, A K

    1991-09-01

    Intact adult male rats, in which aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was prevented pre- and/or neonatally by ATD (1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione), were repeatedly tested for partner preference behavior (choice: estrous female vs active male). In consecutive tests increasing preference scores for the female were found. Neonatal ATD males showed significantly lower preference scores for an estrous female than controls or prenatal ATD males. Prenatal ATD caused preference scores only slightly lower than those of controls. Ejaculation frequencies were markedly reduced or even absent in neonatal ATD males. Prenatal ATD treatment only had no or a moderately lowering effect on ejaculation frequency. Lordosis behavior of adult intact males was more facilitated following neonatal ATD treatment than following prenatal ATD treatment. In a number of tests the serotonergic drug 8-OH-DPAT was injected prior to testing for sexual partner preference and copulatory behavior. DPAT significantly increased preference for an estrous female in all groups of males when interaction was possible, but had no effect when sexual interaction was prevented by wire mesh. DPAT was able to increase the number of ejaculators in nonejaculating groups (i.e., perinatally ATD-treated males). "Premature ejaculations," i.e., ejaculations with the first intromission, were frequently observed with DPAT treatment in all groups of males. In conclusion, the availability of neonatal estrogen (derived from testosterone) organizes, at least partially, the preference for an estrous female normally shown by adult male rats. The lack of neonatal estrogen causes males to be less masculinized, both in partner preference behavior and ejaculatory behavior, and less defeminized in lordosis behavior.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Reversal of an Unconditioned Behavioral Preference for Specific Food Pellets by Intervention of Whisker Sensory Inputs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hannah; Lee, Yunjin; Kim, Ji-Eun; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2016-04-01

    Adenylyl cyclase type-5 (AC5) is preferentially expressed in the dorsal striatum. Recently, we reported that AC5 knockout (KO) mice preferred food pellets carrying an olfactory cue produced by AC5 KO mice during food consumption (AC5 KO pellets) over food pellets that had been taken by wildtype (WT) mice. In the present study, we demonstrated that whisker trimming on the right side of the face but not the left in AC5 KO mice blocked the behavioral preference for AC5 KO pellets. Conversely, whisker trimming on the right but not the left in WT mice induced a behavioral preference for AC5 KO pellets. Mice lacking D2 dopamine receptor (D2 KO mice) also showed a behavioral preference for AC5 KO pellets. In D2 mice, whisker trimming on the right side of the face but not the left blocked a behavioral preference for AC5 KO food pellets. AC5 KO mice had increased level of phospho-CaMKIIα in the dorsal striatum, and WT mice with whiskers cut on either side also showed increased p-CaMKIIα level in the dorsal striatum. The siRNA-mediated inhibition of CaMKIIα in the dorsal striatum in either the right or the left hemisphere in AC5 KO mice and D2 KO mice blocked the behavioral preference for AC5 KO pellets. However, behavioral changes induced by this inhibition on each side showed asymmetrical time courses. These results suggest that an unconditioned behavioral preference for specific food pellets can be switched on or off based on the balance of states of neural activity in the dorsal striatum regulated by a signaling pathway centered on AC5 and D2 and the sensory inputs of whiskers from the right side of the face.

  4. Food preferences, dieting behaviors, and body image perceptions of elite figure skaters.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Ziegler, Paula J; Nelson, Judy A

    2004-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine food preferences, body image perceptions, dieting behaviors, and nutrient intakes of elite male and female figure skaters. Male (n = 23) and female (n = 26) figure skaters completed a food preference checklist, a questionnaire examining their demographics, dieting behaviors and body image perceptions, and 3-d food records. Male skaters had a higher preference (score > or = 6) for grains, fruit, meat, dairy, fats, and sweets. Female skaters had higher preference for grains and fruits. Of the female skaters, 30% considered themselves overweight and indicated a preference for a thinner body contour. Both male and female skaters expressed a preference for leaner body contours for members of the opposite gender. Total energy intake, total fat (females) and dietary fiber were below the dietary recommendations. Vitamin E, vitamin D, folate (females), pantothenic acid (females), calcium (females), magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus (females) were less than two-thirds of the dietary recommendations. Macronutrient intake of male skaters was associated with preferences for the grain group, although no association was observed among female skaters. Results suggest that these behaviors and attitudes need to be assessed and addressed among figure skaters, given their impact on dietary intakes and overall well-being.

  5. Thinking Styles and Preferred Teacher Interpersonal Behavior among Hong Kong Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Tak-ming; Chen, Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between thinking styles and preferred teacher interpersonal behavior based on the Model for Interpersonal Teacher Behavior (MITB, Wubbels, Creton, & Hooymayers, 1985) among 247 Hong Kong secondary school female students. The Thinking Style Inventory Revised (TSI-R, Sternberg, Wagner, & Zhang, 2003) and the…

  6. Sexuality Education among Latinas: Experiences, Preferences, Attitudes and Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; King, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated sexuality topics discussed by parents, sources of sexuality education, sexual risk behaviors, and attitudes about who should educate children about sexuality among a sample of 204 adult Latinas. Nearly half of sexually active women (having ever had sex) reported condom use and 36.7% reported discussing sexual history with…

  7. Tailored eHealth Lifestyle Promotion: Which Behavioral Modules Do Users Prefer?

    PubMed

    Schulz, Daniela N; Kremers, Stef P J; De Vries, Hein

    2015-01-01

    Health risk behaviors are widespread among adults and often co-occur. eHealth computer-tailored technology provides individuals with personalized feedback regarding multiple lifestyle behaviors. First, the authors investigated individuals' preferences for particular lifestyle modules and hypothesised that health preventive behavior modules would be preferred over addictive behavior modules. Second, characteristics associated with these choices were examined. A web-based questionnaire assessed demographics, health status, and five lifestyle behaviors (i.e., physical activity, fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, alcohol intake and tobacco use) among adults (N = 1,828). Responses were translated into a health risk appraisal outlining whether respondents adhered to the national guidelines for these behaviors. Next, respondents could select one of the lifestyle modules providing personalized advice. More than 60% of the participants failed to meet the guidelines for more than one lifestyle behavior. The physical activity module was the most popular, followed by the smoking and fruit modules. Young adults tended to prefer the physical activity and fruit modules, whereas the vegetable module was more popular among older adults. No consistent pattern was identified for the alcohol and smoking modules. The results support the authors' hypothesis that health preventive behaviors-in particular, physical activity-would be preferred. Although this could imply that physical activity could serve as a gateway behavior when aiming at multiple behavior changes, it is also conceivable that other mechanisms, such as the actual success of behavior change, or the fact that people can choose, may increase chances of multiple behavior change. Hence, mechanisms leading to multiple behavior change need to be further explored.

  8. [Brief strategic family therapy: an empirically-validated intervention for reducing adolescent behavior problems].

    PubMed

    Robbins, Michael S; Horigian, Viviana E; Szapocznik, José

    2008-01-01

    Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) is an empirically-supported treatment for children and adolescents with behavior problems and substance use problems. For three decades, the efficacy and effectiveness of BSFT has been established through the results of rigorous clinical trials studies conducted at the University of Miami's Center for Family Studies. BSFT is based on family systems approaches, most notably the work of Salvador Minuchin and Jay Haley, but has been refined to meet the pressing needs of youth with behavior problems. BSFT theory and interventions cover four broad domains: joining with family members and the family system, assessing problematic family interactions, creating a motivational context for change, and restructuring family interactions.

  9. Brief Strategic Family Therapy: Engaging Drug Using/Problem Behavior Adolescents and their Families into Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Szapocznik, José; Zarate, Monica; Duff, Johnathan; Muir, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Despite the efficacy of family-based interventions for improving outcomes for adolescent behavior problems such as substance use, engaging and retaining whole families in treatment is one of the greatest challenges therapists confront. This article illustrates how the Brief Strategic Family Therapy® (BSFT®) model, a family-based, empirically validated intervention designed to treat children and adolescents’ problem behaviors, can be used to increase engagement, improve retention, and bring about positive outcomes for families. Research evidence for efficacy and effectiveness is also presented. PMID:23731415

  10. Correlations between sequential timing decisions do not necessarily indicate strategic behavior: a comment on Bêty et al.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Julia; Mitesser, Oliver; Hinsch, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Using correlation analysis, Bêty, Gauthier, and Giroux confirmed that individuals of the migrating snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) arriving earlier on their breeding grounds experienced longer prelaying periods but laid earlier than late-arriving birds. They concluded that these birds strategically adjusted timing to optimize fitness. This test is, however, not sufficient to indicate strategic behavior. We show analytically that, without assuming strategic behavior, arrival date, prelaying period, and laying date are correlated with each other because of their sequential occurrence. We conclude that correlation tests on sequentially occurring variables are not sufficient to detect nonrandom relations. PMID:20961222

  11. Exogenous androgen during development alters adult partner preference and mating behavior in gonadally intact male rats.

    PubMed

    Henley, C L; Nunez, A A; Clemens, L G

    2010-04-01

    In the rat, neonatal administration of testosterone propionate to a castrated male causes masculinization of behavior. However, if an intact male is treated neonatally with testosterone (hyper-androgen condition), male sexual behavior in adulthood is disrupted. There is a possibility that the hyper-androgen treatment is suppressing male sexual behavior by altering the male's partner preference and thereby reducing his motivation to approach the female. If so, this would suggest that exposure to supra-physiological levels of androgen during development may result in the development of male-oriented partner preference in the male. To test this idea, male rats were treated either postnatally or prenatally with testosterone, and partner preference and sexual behavior were examined in adulthood. The principal finding of this study was that increased levels of testosterone during early postnatal life, but not prenatal, decreased male sexual behavior and increased the amount of time a male spent with a stimulus male, without affecting the amount of time spent with a stimulus female during partner preference tests. Thus, the reduction in male sexual behavior produced by early exposure to high levels of testosterone is not likely due to a reduction in the male's motivation to approach a receptive female.

  12. Localizing Brain Regions Associated with Female Mate Preference Behavior in a Swordtail

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ryan Y.; Ramsey, Mary E.; Cummings, Molly E.

    2012-01-01

    Female mate choice behavior is a critical component of sexual selection, yet identifying the neural basis of this behavior is largely unresolved. Previous studies have implicated sensory processing and hypothalamic brain regions during female mate choice and there is a conserved network of brain regions (Social Behavior Network, SBN) that underlies sexual behaviors. However, we are only beginning to understand the role this network has in pre-copulatory female mate choice. Using in situ hybridization, we identify brain regions associated with mate preference in female Xiphophorus nigrensis, a swordtail species with a female choice mating system. We measure gene expression in 10 brain regions (linked to sexual behavior, reward, sensory integration or other processes) and find significant correlations between female preference behavior and gene expression in two telencephalic areas associated with reward, learning and multi-sensory processing (medial and lateral zones of the dorsal telencephalon) as well as an SBN region traditionally associated with sexual response (preoptic area). Network analysis shows that these brain regions may also be important in mate preference and that correlated patterns of neuroserpin expression between regions co-vary with differential compositions of the mate choice environment. Our results expand the emerging network for female preference from one that focused on sensory processing and midbrain sexual response centers to a more complex coordination involving forebrain areas that integrate primary sensory processing and reward. PMID:23209722

  13. Microeconomics-based resource allocation in overlay networks by using non-strategic behavior modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Analoui, Morteza; Rezvani, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Behavior modeling has recently been investigated for designing self-organizing mechanisms in the context of communication networks in order to exploit the natural selfishness of the users with the goal of maximizing the overall utility. In strategic behavior modeling, the users of the network are assumed to be game players who seek to maximize their utility with taking into account the decisions that the other players might make. The essential difference between the aforementioned researches and this work is that it incorporates the non-strategic decisions in order to design the mechanism for the overlay network. In this solution concept, the decisions that a peer might make does not affect the actions of the other peers at all. The theory of consumer-firm developed in microeconomics is a model of the non-strategic behavior that we have adopted in our research. Based on it, we have presented distributed algorithms for peers' "joining" and "leaving" operations. We have modeled the overlay network as a competitive economy in which the content provided by an origin server can be viewed as commodity and the origin server and the peers who multicast the content to their downside are considered as the firms. On the other hand, due to the dual role of the peers in the overlay network, they can be considered as the consumers as well. On joining to the overlay economy, each peer is provided with an income and tries to get hold of the service regardless to the behavior of the other peers. We have designed the scalable algorithms in such a way that the existence of equilibrium price (known as Walrasian equilibrium price) is guaranteed.

  14. Response competition and stimulus preference in the treatment of automatically reinforced behavior: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Groskreutz, Mark P; Groskreutz, Nicole C; Higbee, Thomas S

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians are particularly challenged by the development of interventions for behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement because reinforcers that maintain the responses often cannot be directly observed or manipulated. Researchers have conducted either preference assessments or competing items assessments when developing effective treatments for behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement. However, interventions based on these assessments have not been directly compared. The current study evaluated procedures to make such a comparison. High-competition items resulted in greater reductions in vocal stereotypy than did high-preference items for a preschool boy with autism. PMID:21541129

  15. Preference for and discrimination of videos of conspecific social behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shigeru; Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2016-05-01

    We showed mice videos of three conspecific social behaviors, namely sniffing, copulation, and fighting, in pairwise combinations using iPods and evaluated preference as determined by time spent in front of each iPod. Mice preferred the copulation video to the sniffing video, the fighting video to the sniffing video, and the fighting video to the copulation video. In Experiment 1a, we used a single video clip for each social behavior but used multiple video clips for each social behavior in Experiment 2a. Next, we trained mice to discriminate between the fighting and copulation videos using a conditioned-place-preference-like task in which one video was associated with injection of morphine and the other was not. For half of the subjects, the fighting video was associated with morphine injection, and for the other half, the copulation video was associated with morphine injection. After conditioning, the mice stayed longer in the compartment with the morphine-associated video. When tested with still images obtained from the videos, mice stayed longer in the compartment with still images from the video associated with morphine injection (Experiment 1b). When we trained mice with multiple exemplars, the subjects showed generalization of preference for new video clips never shown during conditioning (Experiment 2b). These results demonstrate that mice had a preference among videos of particular behavior patterns and that they could discriminate these videos as visual category. Although relationship between real social behaviors and their videos is still open question, the preference tests suggest that the mice perceived the videos as meaningful stimuli.

  16. Inappropriate mealtime behavior: the effects of noncontingent access to preferred tangibles on responding in functional analyses.

    PubMed

    González, Melissa L; Rubio, Emily Kate; Taylor, Tessa

    2014-12-01

    An understanding of the functional variables associated with inappropriate mealtime behavior (IMB) is critical to developing an effective and efficient treatment for food refusal. To this aim, functional analysis methodology has been modified for the meal context, and previous research has shown that multiple sources of reinforcement maintain IMB. Functional analysis literature, related to severe problem behavior, suggests that access to preferred stimuli may abolish or compete with social reinforcers in some cases. The role of noncontingent access to preferred stimuli during the assessment of IMB has not been evaluated. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects noncontingent access to preferred toys/activities on IMB in the presence and absence of social consequences. The specific aims were to evaluate: (1) levels of IMB when the spoon is held stationary at the child's lips when preferred tangible stimuli are present noncontingently vs. absent; (2) levels of IMB when social consequences were provided contingent upon IMB when preferred tangible stimuli are present noncontingently vs. absent. For many participants, levels of IMB were reduced with the inclusion of preferred toys/activities; while for one, levels of IMB increased. Possible implications of these findings on functional analyses of IMB will be discussed.

  17. Distributional Preferences, Reciprocity-Like Behavior, and Efficiency in Bilateral Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Under what conditions do distributional preferences, such as altruism or a concern for fair outcomes, generate efficient trade? I analyze theoretically a simple bilateral exchange game: each player sequentially takes an action that reduces his own material payoff but increases the other player’s. Each player’s preferences may depend on both his/her own material payoff and the other player’s. I identify two key properties of the second-mover’s preferences: indifference curves kinked around “fair” material-payoff distributions, and materials payoffs entering preferences as “normal goods.” Either property can drive reciprocity-like behavior and generate a Pareto efficient outcome. PMID:25664144

  18. Intermunicipal health care consortia in Brazil: strategic behavior, incentives and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luciana; Bugarin, Mauricio; Dourado, Maria Cristina

    2006-01-01

    This article studies strategic behavior in municipal health care consortia where neighboring municipalities form a partnership to supply high-complexity health care. Each municipality partially funds the organization. Depending on the partnership contract, a free rider problem may jeopardize the organization. A municipality will default its payments if it can still benefit from the services, especially when political pressures for competing expenditure arise. The main result is that the partnership sustainability depends on punishment mechanisms to a defaulting member, the gains from joint provision of services and the overall economic environment. Possible solutions to the incentive problem are discussed.

  19. Intermunicipal health care consortia in Brazil: strategic behavior, incentives and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luciana; Bugarin, Mauricio; Dourado, Maria Cristina

    2006-01-01

    This article studies strategic behavior in municipal health care consortia where neighboring municipalities form a partnership to supply high-complexity health care. Each municipality partially funds the organization. Depending on the partnership contract, a free rider problem may jeopardize the organization. A municipality will default its payments if it can still benefit from the services, especially when political pressures for competing expenditure arise. The main result is that the partnership sustainability depends on punishment mechanisms to a defaulting member, the gains from joint provision of services and the overall economic environment. Possible solutions to the incentive problem are discussed. PMID:17175731

  20. Temperament and externalizing behavior: social preference and perceived acceptance as protective factors.

    PubMed

    Berdan, Louise E; Keane, Susan P; Calkins, Susan D

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of social preference and perceived acceptance as moderators of the relation between child temperament and externalizing behavior. Participants included 399 children evaluated at pre-kindergarten and kindergarten assessments. Pre-kindergarten children characterized by high temperamental Surgency/Extraversion were more likely to exhibit hyperactivity and aggression in the kindergarten classroom. In addition, kindergarten perceived acceptance and social preference moderated the relation between pre-kindergarten Surgency/Extraversion and kindergarten hyperactivity for girls only. Girls who were characterized by high temperamental Surgency/Extraversion, high perceived acceptance, and low social preference were at risk for higher levels of teacher-reported and peer-nominated hyperactivity. In contrast, accurately high perceived acceptance was a protective factor for high temperamental Surgency/Extraversion. Findings are discussed in terms of risk and protective factors for externalizing behavior. PMID:18605827

  1. Left and right brain-oriented hemisity subjects show opposite behavioral preferences

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Recently, three independent, intercorrelated biophysical measures have provided the first quantitative measures of a binary form of behavioral laterality called “Hemisity,” a term referring to inherent opposite right or left brain-oriented differences in thinking and behavioral styles. Crucially, the right or left brain-orientation of individuals assessed by these methods was later found to be essentially congruent with the thicker side of their ventral gyrus of the anterior cingulate cortex (vgACC) as revealed by a 3 min MRI procedure. Laterality of this putative executive structural element has thus become the primary standard defining individual hemisity. Methods: Here, the behavior of 150 subjects, whose hemisity had been calibrated by MRI, was assessed using five MRI-calibrated preference questionnaires, two of which were new. Results: Right and left brain-oriented subjects selected opposite answers (p > 0.05) for 47 of the 107 “either-or,” forced choice type preference questionnaire items. The resulting 30 hemisity subtype preference differences were present in several areas. These were: (1) in logical orientation, (2) in type of consciousness, (3) in fear level and sensitivity, (4) in social-professional orientation, and (5) in pair bonding-spousal dominance style. Conclusions: The right and left brain-oriented hemisity subtype subjects, sorted on the anatomical basis of upon which brain side their vgACC was thickest, showed 30 significant differences in their “either-or” type of behavioral preferences. PMID:23130000

  2. Temperament and Externalizing Behavior: Social Preference and Perceived Acceptance as Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdan, Louise E.; Keane, Susan P.; Calkins, Susan D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of social preference and perceived acceptance as moderators of the relation between child temperament and externalizing behavior. Participants included 399 children evaluated at pre-kindergarten and kindergarten assessments. Pre-kindergarten children characterized by high temperamental…

  3. The Relations between Friendship Quality, Ranked-Friendship Preference, and Adolescents' Behavior with Their Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Markievicz, Dorothy; Doyle, Anna Beth; Bukowski, William M.

    2001-01-01

    Eighty adolescents and their same-sex friends rated the quality of their friendship, ranked their preference for this friendship, and participated in a videotaped discussion. Compared to boys, girls rated their friendship quality more positively and less negatively and showed more positive and less negative behavior in interaction with their…

  4. Ideal Teacher Behaviors: Student Motivation and Self-Efficacy Predict Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komarraju, Meera

    2013-01-01

    Differences in students' academic self-efficacy and motivation were examined in predicting preferred teacher traits. Undergraduates (261) completed the Teaching Behavior Checklist, Academic Self-Concept scale, and Academic Motivation scale. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that academic self-efficacy and extrinsic motivation explained…

  5. Peer Status in Emerging Adulthood: Associations of Popularity and Preference with Social Roles and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansu, Tessa A. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2012-01-01

    Although peer status has been studied extensively in childhood and adolescence, little is known about social status in peer groups of emerging adults. The current study filled this gap by testing whether preference and popularity are distinct dimensions of peer status and uniquely associated with social behavior in emerging adulthood. Participants…

  6. A Study of Stimulus Preference and Its Role in Children's Learning Behavior. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Catherine H.; Stone, David R.

    This paper is concerned with the question of relationship among preferred perceptual modes, selected independent variables which cause individual differences, and the resulting effects on conceptual behavior. Subjects ranged from four and one-half years to eight and one-half years of age. Each child chosen by the plan was screened for color…

  7. Preferences for Pink and Blue: The Development of Color Preferences as a Distinct Gender-Typed Behavior in Toddlers.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wang I; Hines, Melissa

    2015-07-01

    Many gender differences are thought to result from interactions between inborn factors and sociocognitive processes that occur after birth. There is controversy, however, over the causes of gender-typed preferences for the colors pink and blue, with some viewing these preferences as arising solely from sociocognitive processes of gender development. We evaluated preferences for gender-typed colors, and compared them to gender-typed toy and activity preferences in 126 toddlers on two occasions separated by 6-8 months (at Time 1, M = 29 months; range 20-40). Color preferences were assessed using color cards and neutral toys in gender-typed colors. Gender-typed toy and activity preferences were assessed using a parent-report questionnaire, the Preschool Activities Inventory. Color preferences were also assessed for the toddlers' parents using color cards. A gender difference in color preferences was present between 2 and 3 years of age and strengthened near the third birthday, at which time it was large (d > 1). In contrast to their parents, toddlers' gender-typed color preferences were stronger and unstable. Gender-typed color preferences also appeared to establish later and were less stable than gender-typed toy and activity preferences. Gender-typed color preferences were largely uncorrelated with gender-typed toy and activity preferences. These results suggest that the factors influencing gender-typed color preferences and gender-typed toy and activity preferences differ in some respects. Our findings suggest that sociocognitive influences and play with gender-typed toys that happen to be made in gender-typed colors contribute to toddlers' gender-typed color preferences.

  8. Preferences for Pink and Blue: The Development of Color Preferences as a Distinct Gender-Typed Behavior in Toddlers.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wang I; Hines, Melissa

    2015-07-01

    Many gender differences are thought to result from interactions between inborn factors and sociocognitive processes that occur after birth. There is controversy, however, over the causes of gender-typed preferences for the colors pink and blue, with some viewing these preferences as arising solely from sociocognitive processes of gender development. We evaluated preferences for gender-typed colors, and compared them to gender-typed toy and activity preferences in 126 toddlers on two occasions separated by 6-8 months (at Time 1, M = 29 months; range 20-40). Color preferences were assessed using color cards and neutral toys in gender-typed colors. Gender-typed toy and activity preferences were assessed using a parent-report questionnaire, the Preschool Activities Inventory. Color preferences were also assessed for the toddlers' parents using color cards. A gender difference in color preferences was present between 2 and 3 years of age and strengthened near the third birthday, at which time it was large (d > 1). In contrast to their parents, toddlers' gender-typed color preferences were stronger and unstable. Gender-typed color preferences also appeared to establish later and were less stable than gender-typed toy and activity preferences. Gender-typed color preferences were largely uncorrelated with gender-typed toy and activity preferences. These results suggest that the factors influencing gender-typed color preferences and gender-typed toy and activity preferences differ in some respects. Our findings suggest that sociocognitive influences and play with gender-typed toys that happen to be made in gender-typed colors contribute to toddlers' gender-typed color preferences. PMID:25680819

  9. A Context-Aware Mobile User Behavior-Based Neighbor Finding Approach for Preference Profile Construction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qian; Fu, Deqian; Dong, Xiangjun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach is adopted to update the user preference profile by seeking users with similar interests based on the context obtainable for a mobile network instead of from desktop networks. The trust degree between mobile users is calculated by analyzing their behavior based on the context, and then the approximate neighbors are chosen by combining the similarity of the mobile user preference and the trust degree. The approach first considers the communication behaviors between mobile users, the mobile network services they use as well as the corresponding context information. Then a similarity degree of the preference between users is calculated with the evaluation score of a certain mobile web service provided by a mobile user. Finally, based on the time attenuation function, the users with similar preference are found, through which we can dynamically update the target user's preference profile. Experiments are then conducted to test the effect of the context on the credibility among mobile users, the effect of time decay factors and trust degree thresholds. Simulation shows that the proposed approach outperforms two other methods in terms of Recall Ratio, Precision Ratio and Mean Absolute Error, because neither of them consider the context mobile information. PMID:26805852

  10. The Effects of Preference for Information on Consumers’ Online Health Information Search Behavior

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preference for information is a personality trait that affects people’s tendency to seek information in health-related situations. Prior studies have focused primarily on investigating its impact on patient-provider communication and on the implications for designing information interventions that prepare patients for medical procedures. Few studies have examined its impact on general consumers’ interactions with Web-based search engines for health information or the implications for designing more effective health information search systems. Objective This study intends to fill this gap by investigating the impact of preference for information on the search behavior of general consumers seeking health information, their perceptions of search tasks (representing information needs), and user experience with search systems. Methods Forty general consumers who had previously searched for health information online participated in the study in our usability lab. Preference for information was measured using Miller’s Monitor-Blunter Style Scale (MBSS) and the Krantz Health Opinion Survey-Information Scale (KHOS-I). Each participant completed four simulated health information search tasks: two look-up (fact-finding) and two exploratory. Their behaviors while interacting with the search systems were automatically logged and ratings of their perceptions of tasks and user experience with the systems were collected using Likert-scale questionnaires. Results The MBSS showed low reliability with the participants (Monitoring subscale: Cronbach alpha=.53; Blunting subscale: Cronbach alpha=.35). Thus, no further analyses were performed based on the scale. KHOS-I had sufficient reliability (Cronbach alpha=.77). Participants were classified into low- and high-preference groups based on their KHOS-I scores. The high-preference group submitted significantly shorter queries when completing the look-up tasks (P=.02). The high-preference group made a significantly higher

  11. Effects of neonatal treatment with two phytoestrogens on male rat sexual behavior and partner preference.

    PubMed

    Morales-Otal, Adriana; Ferreira-Nuño, Armando; Olayo-Lortia, Jesús; Barrios-González, Javier; Tarragó-Castellanos, Rosario

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the effect of neonatal treatment with the phytoestrogens coumestrol (COU) and genistein (GEN), administered in equimolecular doses, on the sexual behavior and partner preference of male rats. Four groups of male rats were injected daily from day 1 to 5 with 150 µg of GEN, an equivalent amount of COU, 1 µg of β-estradiol 3-benzoato (EB), or olive oil (VEH) (control). A fifth group remained intact. In the GEN group, intromission and ejaculation latencies decreased, whereas ejaculatory frequency increased. Contrasting results were observed in COU males. EB males could not ejaculate and their mount and intromission latencies increased significantly. To determine sexual-partner preferences, a multiple partner preference arena was used and two types of tests were performed, the first one without allowing contact test (CT) with the stimulus animals, followed by a CT. COU and GEN groups did not show preference for any stimulus animal, whereas the EB males preferred the expert male. When CT with the stimulus animals was allowed, GEN-males preferred the receptive female, unlike the COU and EB groups. It is concluded that neonatal treatment with COU and GEN induced opposite effects, the effects of COU being more estrogenic.

  12. Organization of partner preference and sexual behavior and its nocturnal rhythmicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bakker, J; van Ophemert, J; Slob, A K

    1993-12-01

    Male rats were neonatally treated with 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione (ATD), which blocks aromatization of testosterone (T) to estradiol (E2), from Days 0, 2, or 5 through 14. Adult partner preference behavior (PPB; choice between estrous female rat [F] and active male rat [M]) was studied in the early part of the dark phase of the light-dark (LD) cycle. ATD Day 0 Ms showed a preference for the stimulus M or showed no preference for either of the stimulus Ss. Controls preferred the estrous F. ATD Days 2 and 5 Ms showed PPB intermediate between ATD Day 0 Ms and controls. Thus the neonatally sensitive period for organization of adult PPB extends beyond Day 5. Furthermore, PPB showed a nocturnal rhythmicity in ATD Ms but not in controls. In the late part of the dark phase, all Ms showed a preference for the stimulus F. ATD Days 2 and 5 Ms and control Ms were no longer different in PPB, but ATD Day 0 Ms still showed significantly lower preference scores for F than all other Ms. Thus the E2 metabolite of T suppresses organization of an adult nocturnal rhythm in PPB.

  13. Effects of neonatal treatment with two phytoestrogens on male rat sexual behavior and partner preference.

    PubMed

    Morales-Otal, Adriana; Ferreira-Nuño, Armando; Olayo-Lortia, Jesús; Barrios-González, Javier; Tarragó-Castellanos, Rosario

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the effect of neonatal treatment with the phytoestrogens coumestrol (COU) and genistein (GEN), administered in equimolecular doses, on the sexual behavior and partner preference of male rats. Four groups of male rats were injected daily from day 1 to 5 with 150 µg of GEN, an equivalent amount of COU, 1 µg of β-estradiol 3-benzoato (EB), or olive oil (VEH) (control). A fifth group remained intact. In the GEN group, intromission and ejaculation latencies decreased, whereas ejaculatory frequency increased. Contrasting results were observed in COU males. EB males could not ejaculate and their mount and intromission latencies increased significantly. To determine sexual-partner preferences, a multiple partner preference arena was used and two types of tests were performed, the first one without allowing contact test (CT) with the stimulus animals, followed by a CT. COU and GEN groups did not show preference for any stimulus animal, whereas the EB males preferred the expert male. When CT with the stimulus animals was allowed, GEN-males preferred the receptive female, unlike the COU and EB groups. It is concluded that neonatal treatment with COU and GEN induced opposite effects, the effects of COU being more estrogenic. PMID:27482864

  14. Hand preference patterns in expert basketball players: interrelations between basketball-specific and everyday life behavior.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Tino; Vater, Christian

    2014-12-01

    In the present study we examined the interrelation of everyday life handedness and hand preference in basketball, as an area of expertise that requires individuals being proficient with both their non-dominant and dominant hand. A secondary aim was to elucidate the link between basketball-specific practice, hand preference in basketball and everyday life handedness. Therefore, 176 expert basketball players self-reported their hand preference for activities of daily living and for basketball-specific behavior as well as details about their basketball-specific history via questionnaire. We found that compared to the general population the one-hand bias was significantly reduced for both everyday life and basketball-specific hand preference (i.e., a higher prevalence of mixed-handed individuals), and that both concepts were significantly related. Moreover, only preference scores for lay-up and dribbling skills were significantly related to measures of basketball-specific practice. Consequently, training-induced modulations of lateral preference seem to be very specific to only a few basketball-specific skills, and do not generalize to other skills within the domain of basketball nor do they extend into everyday life handedness. The results are discussed in terms of their relevance regarding theories of handedness and their practical implications for the sport of basketball.

  15. A Strategic Interaction Model of Punishment Favoring Contagion of Honest Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cremene, Marcel; Dumitrescu, D.; Cremene, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    The punishment effect on social behavior is analyzed within the strategic interaction framework of Cellular Automata and computational Evolutionary Game Theory. A new game, called Social Honesty (SH), is proposed. The SH game is analyzed in spatial configurations. Probabilistic punishment is used as a dishonesty deterrence mechanism. In order to capture the intrinsic uncertainty of social environments, payoffs are described as random variables. New dynamics, with a new relation between punishment probability and punishment severity, are revealed. Punishment probability proves to be more important than punishment severity in guiding convergence towards honesty as predominant behavior. This result is confirmed by empirical evidence and reported experiments. Critical values and transition intervals for punishment probability and severity are identified and analyzed. Clusters of honest or dishonest players emerge spontaneously from the very first rounds of interaction and are determinant for the future dynamics and outcomes. PMID:24489917

  16. A strategic interaction model of punishment favoring contagion of honest behavior.

    PubMed

    Cremene, Marcel; Dumitrescu, D; Cremene, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    The punishment effect on social behavior is analyzed within the strategic interaction framework of Cellular Automata and computational Evolutionary Game Theory. A new game, called Social Honesty (SH), is proposed. The SH game is analyzed in spatial configurations. Probabilistic punishment is used as a dishonesty deterrence mechanism. In order to capture the intrinsic uncertainty of social environments, payoffs are described as random variables. New dynamics, with a new relation between punishment probability and punishment severity, are revealed. Punishment probability proves to be more important than punishment severity in guiding convergence towards honesty as predominant behavior. This result is confirmed by empirical evidence and reported experiments. Critical values and transition intervals for punishment probability and severity are identified and analyzed. Clusters of honest or dishonest players emerge spontaneously from the very first rounds of interaction and are determinant for the future dynamics and outcomes.

  17. A strategic interaction model of punishment favoring contagion of honest behavior.

    PubMed

    Cremene, Marcel; Dumitrescu, D; Cremene, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    The punishment effect on social behavior is analyzed within the strategic interaction framework of Cellular Automata and computational Evolutionary Game Theory. A new game, called Social Honesty (SH), is proposed. The SH game is analyzed in spatial configurations. Probabilistic punishment is used as a dishonesty deterrence mechanism. In order to capture the intrinsic uncertainty of social environments, payoffs are described as random variables. New dynamics, with a new relation between punishment probability and punishment severity, are revealed. Punishment probability proves to be more important than punishment severity in guiding convergence towards honesty as predominant behavior. This result is confirmed by empirical evidence and reported experiments. Critical values and transition intervals for punishment probability and severity are identified and analyzed. Clusters of honest or dishonest players emerge spontaneously from the very first rounds of interaction and are determinant for the future dynamics and outcomes. PMID:24489917

  18. The Impact of Farmers' Strategic Behavior on the Spread of Animal Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tago, Damian; Hammitt, James K; Thomas, Alban; Raboisson, Didier

    2016-01-01

    One of the main strategies to control the spread of infectious animal diseases is the implementation of movement restrictions. This paper shows a loss in efficiency of the movement restriction policy (MRP) when behavioral responses of farmers are taken into account. Incorporating the strategic behavior of farmers in an epidemiologic model reveals that the MRP can trigger premature animal sales by farms at high risk of becoming infected that significantly reduce the efficacy of the policy. The results are validated in a parameterized network via Monte Carlo simulations and measures to mitigate the loss of efficiency of the MRP are discussed. Financial aid to farmers can be justified by public health concerns, not only for equity. This paper contributes to developing an interdisciplinary analytical framework regarding the expansion of infectious diseases combining economic and epidemiologic dimensions.

  19. The Impact of Farmers’ Strategic Behavior on the Spread of Animal Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hammitt, James K.; Thomas, Alban; Raboisson, Didier

    2016-01-01

    One of the main strategies to control the spread of infectious animal diseases is the implementation of movement restrictions. This paper shows a loss in efficiency of the movement restriction policy (MRP) when behavioral responses of farmers are taken into account. Incorporating the strategic behavior of farmers in an epidemiologic model reveals that the MRP can trigger premature animal sales by farms at high risk of becoming infected that significantly reduce the efficacy of the policy. The results are validated in a parameterized network via Monte Carlo simulations and measures to mitigate the loss of efficiency of the MRP are discussed. Financial aid to farmers can be justified by public health concerns, not only for equity. This paper contributes to developing an interdisciplinary analytical framework regarding the expansion of infectious diseases combining economic and epidemiologic dimensions. PMID:27300368

  20. The Impact of Farmers' Strategic Behavior on the Spread of Animal Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tago, Damian; Hammitt, James K; Thomas, Alban; Raboisson, Didier

    2016-01-01

    One of the main strategies to control the spread of infectious animal diseases is the implementation of movement restrictions. This paper shows a loss in efficiency of the movement restriction policy (MRP) when behavioral responses of farmers are taken into account. Incorporating the strategic behavior of farmers in an epidemiologic model reveals that the MRP can trigger premature animal sales by farms at high risk of becoming infected that significantly reduce the efficacy of the policy. The results are validated in a parameterized network via Monte Carlo simulations and measures to mitigate the loss of efficiency of the MRP are discussed. Financial aid to farmers can be justified by public health concerns, not only for equity. This paper contributes to developing an interdisciplinary analytical framework regarding the expansion of infectious diseases combining economic and epidemiologic dimensions. PMID:27300368

  1. Adult partner preference and sexual behavior of male rats exposed prenatally to betamethasone.

    PubMed

    Piffer, Renata C; Garcia, Patrícia C; Pereira, Oduvaldo C M

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate long-term effects of prenatal betamethasone exposure on sexual partner preference, testosterone level, and sexual behavior. Pregnant rats received 0.1 mg/kg of betamethasone or saline on the 12th, 13th, 18th, and 19th days of pregnancy. Parameters in male offspring were evaluated at 90 days of age. Male rats from the betamethasone group did not show any difference in sexual partner preference as expressed by the total number of visits to the female or male zone. However, these males spent significantly less total time and shorter duration per visit in the female zone than their controls. Therefore, prenatal exposure to betamethasone led to a significantly lower sexual female partner preference score compared to the control group. These animals also presented diminished testosterone levels in adulthood. Prenatal exposure to betamethasone induced a delay in the latency to first ejaculation, as well as a decrease in the numbers of postejaculatory intromissions, total intromissions and total ejaculations. Although 80% of the betamethasone-treated animals exhibited male sexual behavior, when they were castrated and pretreated with estrogen, 50% of them showed lordosis and accepted mounts of another sexually experienced male. These results suggest that the prenatal treatment with betamethasone, by increasing maternal corticosteroid level, may have diminished testosterone peak in male pups, a peak crucial to brain sexual differentiation. As a consequence, the prenatal betamethasone treatment reduced the testosterone level in adulthood and altered partner preference and sexual behavior.

  2. The Relationship between Collegiate Band Members' Preferences of Teacher Interpersonal Behavior and Perceived Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royston, Natalie Steele

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe collegiate band members' preferred teacher interpersonal behaviors and perceptions of self-efficacy based on the gender, year in college, instrument, and major and to measure the relationship between preferences of interpersonal teacher behavior and self-efficacy scores. The sample (N = 1,020) was…

  3. ANALYSIS OF RESIDENTIAL CHOICE BEHAVIOR BASED ON CLASSIFICATION OF RESIDENTIAL PREFERENCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Yusuke; Nakatani, Jun; Kurisu, Kiyo; Aramaki, Toshiya; Hanaki, Keisuke

    Citizen's preference of residential site choice was examined and analyzed to reflect such preference in changing the urban form toward the realization of the sustainable society. Diversity and characteristics of preference were examined by questionnaire survey for the residents who have moved within the last 10 years in Usutunomiya City. Three major factors of residential condition were determined based on the factor analysis of the importance recognition of 26 characteristics of residential condition in the decision of moving. The residents were classified into 6 groups by using cluster analysis of the factor score. Moving behavior and characteristic of each group were analyzed. The relative importance of 7 residential characteristics were analyzed by a choice experiment and compared among 6 groups of the resident.

  4. African American women's beliefs about mental illness, stigma, and preferred coping behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ward, Earlise C; Heidrich, Susan M

    2009-10-01

    We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, including family-related stress and social stress due to racism, is cyclical, and has serious consequences but can be controlled by treatment. Participants endorsed low perceptions of stigma. Major preferred coping strategies included praying and seeking medical and mental health care. Age differences were found in all variables except stigma.

  5. African American Women's Beliefs About Mental Illness, Stigma, and Preferred Coping Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Heidrich, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, including family-related stress and social stress due to racism, is cyclical, and has serious consequences but can be controlled by treatment. Participants endorsed low perceptions of stigma. Major preferred coping strategies included praying and seeking medical and mental health care. Age differences were found in all variables except stigma. PMID:19650070

  6. Seeking pleasant touch: neural correlates of behavioral preferences for skin stroking

    PubMed Central

    Perini, Irene; Olausson, Håkan; Morrison, India

    2015-01-01

    Affective touch is a dynamic process. In this fMRI study we investigated affective touch by exploring its effects on overt behavior. Arm and palm skin were stroked with a soft brush at five different velocities (0.3, 1, 10, 3, and 30 cm s−1), using a novel feedback-based paradigm. Following stimulation in each trial, participants actively chose whether the caress they would receive in the next trial would be the same speed (“repeat”) or different (“change”). Since preferred stroking speeds should be sought with greater frequency than non-preferred speeds, this paradigm provided a measure of such preferences in the form of active choices. The stimulation velocities were implemented with respect to the differential subjective pleasantness ratings they elicit in healthy subjects, with intermediate velocities (1, 10, and 3 cm s−1) considered more pleasant than very slow or very fast ones. Such pleasantness ratings linearly correlate with changes in mean firing rates of unmyelinated low-threshold C-tactile (CT) afferent nerves in the skin. Here, gentle, dynamic stimulation optimal for activating CT-afferents not only affected behavioral choices, but engaged brain regions involved in reward-related behavior and decision-making. This was the case for both hairy skin of the arm, where CTs are abundant, and glabrous skin of the palm, where CTs are absent. These findings provide insights on central and behavioral mechanisms underlying the perception of affective touch, and indicate that seeking affective touch involves value-based neural processing that is ultimately reflected in behavioral preferences. PMID:25698948

  7. Prenatal testosterone supplementation alters puberty onset, aggressive behavior, and partner preference in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Dela Cruz, Cynthia; Pereira, Oduvaldo C M

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether prenatal exposure to testosterone (T) could change the body weight (BW), anogenital distance (AGD), anogenital distance index (AGDI), puberty onset, social behavior, fertility, sexual behavior, sexual preference, and T level of male rats in adulthood. To test this hypothesis, pregnant rats received either 1 mg/animal of T propionate diluted in 0.1 ml peanut oil or 0.1 ml peanut oil, as control, on the 17th, 18th and 19th gestational days. No alterations in BW, AGD, AGDI, fertility, and sexual behavior were observed (p > 0.05). Delayed onset of puberty (p < 0.0001), increased aggressive behavior (p > 0.05), altered pattern of sexual preference (p < 0.05), and reduced T plasma level (p < 0.05) were observed for adult male rats exposed prenatally to T. In conclusion, the results showed that prenatal exposure to T was able to alter important aspects of sexual and social behavior although these animals were efficient at producing descendants. In this sense more studies should be carried to evaluated the real impact of this hormonal alteration on critical period of sexual differentiation on humans, because pregnant women exposed to hyperandrogenemia and then potentially exposing their unborn children to elevated androgen levels in the uterus can undergo alteration of normal levels of T during the sexual differentiation period, and, as a consequence, affect the reproductive and behavior patterns of their children in adulthood.

  8. Risk and culture: variations in dioxin risk perceptions, behavioral preferences among social groups in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seohyun; Kim, Jong Guk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examined variations in the perceptions of dioxin risk among social groups defined by geographical living location, environmental education, and occupation. Dioxin risk perceptions were analyzed according to values, risk awareness, knowledge, and behavioral preferences. Methods A quasi-experimental survey was designed and conducted on individuals from seven experimental groups in Jeonju city, South Korea, including: people living near incineration facilities; people living far from incineration facilities; governmental experts; nongovernmental organization members; office workers in developmental institutes or banks; students who were enrolled in environmental-related classes; and students who were enrolled in business-related classes. Results The results show variations among groups in values, awareness and behavioral preferences. Particular attention should be given to the result that groups with higher connectedness- to-nature values show higher willingness-to-act (WTA) for risk reduction. Result s can be summarized as follows. First, awareness is associated with one’s geographical setting. Second, values and WTA behaviors are related to one’s environmental-related education and occupation. Third, values are significantly related to WTA behaviors. Conclusions Different cultures, in terms of values or worldview, among groups influence their perceptions of dioxin risk and choices of risk reduction behaviors. It is important to consider values in communicating complicated long-term risk management involving public participation. Further research should be continuously conducted on the effects of multiple dimensions of values on one’s WTA for risk reduction behaviors. PMID:25384388

  9. Olfactory bulb removal: effects on sexual behavior and partner-preference in male rats.

    PubMed

    Edwards, D A; Griffis, K T; Tardivel, C

    1990-09-01

    Control and bilaterally bulbectomized male rats were tested in an arena where the male could choose to spend time with (and mate with) a sexually receptive female, a nonreceptive female, or be in a neutral compartment. Control males mated with, and showed a strong preference for, sexually receptive females. Bulbectomy virtually eliminated mating. In addition, bulbectomized males showed no preference for a receptive female over a nonreceptive female, and spent their time equally between the receptive female, the nonreceptive female, and the neutral compartment. Effects of bulbectomy on preference and copulation could be consequences of a severely impaired ability to smell--the perception of odors may be essential for sexual arousal, or the absence of preference and copulation after bulbectomy might reflect a deficit in the male's ability to make odor-dependent classification of conspecifics as appropriate sexual partners. Or the behavioral effects of bulbectomy might reflect a disruption of tonic input to the forebrain that has little or nothing to do with the sensory impairment that follows bulb removal. But whatever the reason, in partner-preference tests bulbectomized males show a striking indifference to the sexual status of females, and it seems likely that the failure to mate is causally linked to this effect of surgery.

  10. Understanding Messaging Preferences to Inform Development of Mobile Goal-Directed Behavioral Interventions

    PubMed Central

    van Stolk-Cooke, Katherine; Morgenstern, Jon; Kuerbis, Alexis N; Markle, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    one type of message over another. Global preferences were indicated for messages that contained accurate spelling and grammar, as well as messages that emphasize the positive over the negative. Research implications and a guide for developing short messages for goal-directed behaviors are presented in this paper. PMID:24500775

  11. Immersive Virtual Environment Technology to Supplement Environmental Perception, Preference and Behavior Research: A Review with Applications

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jordan W.

    2015-01-01

    Immersive virtual environment (IVE) technology offers a wide range of potential benefits to research focused on understanding how individuals perceive and respond to built and natural environments. In an effort to broaden awareness and use of IVE technology in perception, preference and behavior research, this review paper describes how IVE technology can be used to complement more traditional methods commonly applied in public health research. The paper also describes a relatively simple workflow for creating and displaying 360° virtual environments of built and natural settings and presents two freely-available and customizable applications that scientists from a variety of disciplines, including public health, can use to advance their research into human preferences, perceptions and behaviors related to built and natural settings. PMID:26378565

  12. A pilot study of RN-BSN completion students' preferred instructor online classroom caring behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mann, Judith C

    2014-01-01

    Definitions of caring include the global concept of showing concern and empathy of others. This may be especially true in the online classroom in the absence of face to face interactions. This quantitative study focused on RN-BSN completion students' preferred online instructor caring behaviors. Online RN-BSN students (N = 100) were invited to participate in the study. The research question was: What are historically black colleges universities nursing students' preferred instructor caring behaviors in the online classroom? All of the respondents (N = 48) agreed that an instructor can create a caring online learning environment, while the vast majority agreed that the presence of a caring environment influenced their success in the course. As ranked by the respondents the three most important items in creating a caring online learning environment were instructors': 1) attention to detail in organization and clarity, 2) prompt and detailed feedback to assignments, and 3) prompt response to students' questions.

  13. Immersive Virtual Environment Technology to Supplement Environmental Perception, Preference and Behavior Research: A Review with Applications.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jordan W

    2015-09-11

    Immersive virtual environment (IVE) technology offers a wide range of potential benefits to research focused on understanding how individuals perceive and respond to built and natural environments. In an effort to broaden awareness and use of IVE technology in perception, preference and behavior research, this review paper describes how IVE technology can be used to complement more traditional methods commonly applied in public health research. The paper also describes a relatively simple workflow for creating and displaying 360° virtual environments of built and natural settings and presents two freely-available and customizable applications that scientists from a variety of disciplines, including public health, can use to advance their research into human preferences, perceptions and behaviors related to built and natural settings.

  14. Leadership for Evidence-Based Practice: Strategic and Functional Behaviors for Institutionalizing EBP

    PubMed Central

    Stetler, Cheryl B; Ritchie, Judith A; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Charns, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Background Making evidence-based practice (EBP) a reality throughout an organization is a challenging goal in healthcare services. Leadership has been recognized as a critical element in that process. However, little is known about the exact role and function of various levels of leadership in the successful institutionalization of EBP within an organization. Aims To uncover what leaders at different levels and in different roles actually do, and what actions they take to develop, enhance, and sustain EBP as the norm. Methods Qualitative data from a case study regarding institutionalization of EBP in two contrasting cases (Role Model and Beginner hospitals) were systematically analyzed. Data were obtained from multiple interviews of leaders, both formal and informal, and from staff nurse focus groups. A deductive coding schema, based on concepts of functional leadership, was developed for this in-depth analysis. Results Participants’ descriptions reflected a hierarchical array of strategic, functional, and cross-cutting behaviors. Within these macrolevel “themes,” 10 behavioral midlevel themes were identified; for example, Intervening and Role modeling. Each theme is distinctive, yet various themes and their subthemes were interrelated and synergistic. These behaviors and their interrelationships were conceptualized in the framework “Leadership Behaviors Supportive of EBP Institutionalization” (L-EBP). Leaders at multiple levels in the Role Model case, both formal and informal, engaged in most of these behaviors. Linking Evidence to Action Supportive leadership behaviors required for organizational institutionalization of EBP reflect a complex set of interactive, multifaceted EBP-focused actions carried out by leaders from the chief nursing officer to staff nurses. A related framework such as L-EBP may provide concrete guidance needed to underpin the often-noted but abstract finding that leaders should “support” EBP. PMID:24986669

  15. Brief Strategic Family Therapy: An Intervention to Reduce Adolescent Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Szapocznik, José; Schwartz, Seth J.; Muir, Joan A.; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the brief strategic family therapy (BSFT; J. Szapocznik, M. A. Scopetta, & O. E. King, 1978, The effect and degree of treatment comprehensiveness with a Latino drug abusing population. In D. E. Smith, S. M. Anderson, M. Burton, N. Gotlieb, W. Harvey, & T. Chung, Eds, A multicultural view of drug abuse, pp. 563–573, Cambridge, MA: G. K. Hall & J. Szapocznik, M. A. Scopetta, & O. E. King, 1978, Theory and practice in matching treatment to the special characteristics and problems of Cuban immigrants, Journal of Community Psychology, 6, 112–122.) approach to treating adolescent drug abuse and related problem behaviors. The treatment intervention is reviewed, including specialized features such as engagement of difficult families. Empirical evidence supporting the BSFT approach is presented. We then illustrate ways in which clinicians can use the model with troubled families whose adolescents may be at risk for drug use and HIV. Finally, future directions for BSFT research are described. PMID:23936750

  16. Brief Strategic Family Therapy: An Intervention to Reduce Adolescent Risk Behavior.

    PubMed

    Szapocznik, José; Schwartz, Seth J; Muir, Joan A; Brown, C Hendricks

    2012-06-01

    This article reviews the brief strategic family therapy (BSFT; J. Szapocznik, M. A. Scopetta, & O. E. King, 1978, The effect and degree of treatment comprehensiveness with a Latino drug abusing population. In D. E. Smith, S. M. Anderson, M. Burton, N. Gotlieb, W. Harvey, & T. Chung, Eds, A multicultural view of drug abuse, pp. 563-573, Cambridge, MA: G. K. Hall & J. Szapocznik, M. A. Scopetta, & O. E. King, 1978, Theory and practice in matching treatment to the special characteristics and problems of Cuban immigrants, Journal of Community Psychology, 6, 112-122.) approach to treating adolescent drug abuse and related problem behaviors. The treatment intervention is reviewed, including specialized features such as engagement of difficult families. Empirical evidence supporting the BSFT approach is presented. We then illustrate ways in which clinicians can use the model with troubled families whose adolescents may be at risk for drug use and HIV. Finally, future directions for BSFT research are described.

  17. Behaviorally spontaneous confabulation in limbic encephalitis: the roles of reality filtering and strategic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Nahum, Louis; Ptak, Radek; Leemann, Béatrice; Lalive, Patrice; Schnider, Armin

    2010-11-01

    Behaviorally spontaneous confabulation is characterized by a confusion of reality evident in currently inappropriate acts that patients justify with confabulations and in disorientation. Here, we describe a 38-year-old woman lawyer hospitalized because of non-herpetic, presumably autoimmune, limbic encephalitis. For months, she considered herself at work and desperately tried to respect her falsely believed professional obligations. In contrast to a completely erroneous concept of reality, she did not confabulate about her remote personal past. In tasks proposed to test strategic retrieval monitoring, she produced no confabulations. As expected, she failed in tasks of reality filtering, previously shown to have high sensitivity and specificity for behaviorally spontaneous confabulation and disorientation: she failed to suppress the interference of currently irrelevant memories and she had deficient extinction capacity. The observation underscores the special status of behaviorally spontaneous confabulation among confabulatory phenomena and of reality filtering as a thought control mechanism. We suggest that different processes may underlie the generation of false memories and their verbal expression. We also emphasize the need to present theories of confabulation together with experimental tasks that allow one to empirically verify the theories and to explore underlying physiological mechanisms.

  18. Effects of voluntary alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during rat adolescence.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Matthew S; Amodeo, Leslie R; Roitman, Jamie D

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30-50), rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH) or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control) at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses.

  19. Experimental evidence for asymmetric mate preference and aggression: behavioral interactions in a woodrat (Neotoma) hybrid zone

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Female mate preferences may be under strong selection in zones of contact between closely related species because of greater variation in available mates and the potential costs of hybridization. We studied female mate preferences experimentally in a zone of secondary contact between Desert and Bryant’s Woodrat (Neotoma lepida and N. bryanti) in the southern foothills of the Sierra Nevada of California. We tested female preference for conspecific versus heterospecific males in paired choice trials in which females could interact freely with males, but males could not interact directly with each other. We compared preferences of females from both allopatric and sympatric sites. Results We did not find evidence of the process of reinforcement as assortative preferences were not stronger in sympatry than in allopatry. Mate preferences, however, were asymmetric, with N. lepida females mating preferentially with conspecifics and N. bryanti females showing no preference by species. Sympatric females were less likely to mate than allopatric females, due in part to an increase in aggressive interactions. However, even in the absence of aggression, courtship led to mating less often in sympatric females, suggesting they were choosier or had lower sexual motivation than allopatric females. Conclusions Patterns of mate choice in this woodrat system appear to be strongly impacted by body size and aggressive behavior. In particular, females of the smaller-bodied species rarely interact with the relatively large heterospecific males. In contrast females of the larger-bodied species accept the relatively small heterospecific males. For sympatric animals, rates of aggression were markedly higher than for allopatric animals and reduced affiliative and reproductive behavior in our trials. Sympatric animals are larger and more aggressive, traits that are likely under strong ecological selection across the sharp resource gradient that characterizes the contact zone

  20. Parity-related differences in suckling behavior and nipple preference among free-ranging Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, I

    1997-01-01

    Suckling behavior of primiparae in free-ranging Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) was compared with that of multiparae at Jigokudani Monkey Park, the Shiga Heights, Nagano Prefecture, Japan, from April 1984 to 1994. The estimated rates of milk secretion in a single preferred nipple among primiparae were lower than those among multiparae from birth to 5 months of age. Milk secretion capabilities of primiparous mothers, hence, appear to be inferior to those of multiparous mothers. In nutritive suckling, although Japanese macaque infants preferred one single nipple, nipple preferences in primiparae were weaker than those in multiparae. With supplementary two-nipple use during suckling, however, the infants of primiparae appear to overcome a suckling flaw of their primiparous mothers. After infants were 5 months of age and after a drop (from approximately 10% to approximately 5%) in the rates of milk secretion, however, milk secretion rates in a single preferred nipple among primiparae were similar to those in multiparae and the supplementary two-nipple use in primiparous mother-infant dyads disappeared.

  1. Sexual behavior of female rats in a multiple-partner preference test.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Nuño, A; Morales-Otal, A; Paredes, Raúl G; Velázquez-Moctezuma, J

    2005-03-01

    In this study, sexually experienced female rats were tested in a multiple-partner preference test (MPPT) in which they were allowed to pace their sexual contacts with four sexually active males. Four cylinders, with a small hole through which only the female could move freely from one cylinder to another, were assembled forming in the center an empty compartment. An intact female was placed in the central compartment and a sexually active male in each cylinder. Female sexual behavior was analyzed throughout the estrus cycle in four consecutive days. Each daily test lasted 15 min. The percentage of exits after intromission or ejaculation was significantly higher than the percentage of exits after each mount. The female spent significantly longer time with one of the males. We designated this male as the preferred male (PM). Although in each of the 4 days studied, females spent significantly longer time with the PM, however, the male selected was not the same throughout the estrus cycle. The number of entries into the compartment of the PM was significantly higher and increased around proestrus. Compared to previous studies, pacing behavior was notably lower in the conditions of the MPPT. No significant differences were observed during the estrous cycle concerning the other parameters recorded. The present results suggest that the MPPT could be a good model to study partner preference in the female rat. PMID:15708757

  2. Sexual behavior of female rats in a multiple-partner preference test.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Nuño, A; Morales-Otal, A; Paredes, Raúl G; Velázquez-Moctezuma, J

    2005-03-01

    In this study, sexually experienced female rats were tested in a multiple-partner preference test (MPPT) in which they were allowed to pace their sexual contacts with four sexually active males. Four cylinders, with a small hole through which only the female could move freely from one cylinder to another, were assembled forming in the center an empty compartment. An intact female was placed in the central compartment and a sexually active male in each cylinder. Female sexual behavior was analyzed throughout the estrus cycle in four consecutive days. Each daily test lasted 15 min. The percentage of exits after intromission or ejaculation was significantly higher than the percentage of exits after each mount. The female spent significantly longer time with one of the males. We designated this male as the preferred male (PM). Although in each of the 4 days studied, females spent significantly longer time with the PM, however, the male selected was not the same throughout the estrus cycle. The number of entries into the compartment of the PM was significantly higher and increased around proestrus. Compared to previous studies, pacing behavior was notably lower in the conditions of the MPPT. No significant differences were observed during the estrous cycle concerning the other parameters recorded. The present results suggest that the MPPT could be a good model to study partner preference in the female rat.

  3. Large-scale assessment of olfactory preferences and learning in Drosophila melanogaster: behavioral and genetic components

    PubMed Central

    Reisenberger, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In the Evolve and Resequence method (E&R), experimental evolution and genomics are combined to investigate evolutionary dynamics and the genotype-phenotype link. As other genomic approaches, this methods requires many replicates with large population sizes, which imposes severe restrictions on the analysis of behavioral phenotypes. Aiming to use E&R for investigating the evolution of behavior in Drosophila, we have developed a simple and effective method to assess spontaneous olfactory preferences and learning in large samples of fruit flies using a T-maze. We tested this procedure on (a) a large wild-caught population and (b) 11 isofemale lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Compared to previous methods, this procedure reduces the environmental noise and allows for the analysis of large population samples. Consistent with previous results, we show that flies have a preference for orange vs. apple odor. With our procedure wild-derived flies exhibit olfactory learning in the absence of previous laboratory selection. Furthermore, we find genetic differences in the olfactory learning with relatively high heritability. We propose this large-scale method as an effective tool for E&R and genome-wide association studies on olfactory preferences and learning. PMID:26357595

  4. Robot navigation in cluttered 3-D environments using preference-based fuzzy behaviors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dongqing; Collins, Emmanuel G; Dunlap, Damion

    2007-12-01

    Autonomous navigation systems for mobile robots have been successfully deployed for a wide range of planar ground-based tasks. However, very few counterparts of previous planar navigation systems were developed for 3-D motion, which is needed for both unmanned aerial and underwater vehicles. A novel fuzzy behavioral scheme for navigating an unmanned helicopter in cluttered 3-D spaces is developed. The 3-D navigation problem is decomposed into several identical 2-D navigation subproblems, each of which is solved by using preference-based fuzzy behaviors. Due to the shortcomings of vector summation during the fusion of the 2-D subproblems, instead of directly outputting steering subdirections by their own defuzzification processes, the intermediate preferences of the subproblems are fused to create a 3-D solution region, representing degrees of preference for the robot movement. A new defuzzification algorithm that steers the robot by finding the centroid of a 3-D convex region of maximum volume in the 3-D solution region is developed. A fuzzy speed-control system is also developed to ensure efficient and safe navigation. Substantial simulations have been carried out to demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can smoothly and effectively guide an unmanned helicopter through unknown and cluttered urban and forest environments.

  5. The Effects of Preferred Activities during Academic Work Breaks on Task Engagement and Negatively Reinforced Destructive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComas, Jennifer J.; Goddard, Carol; Hoch, Hannah

    2002-01-01

    Destructive behavior of 9-year-old with learning disabilities was evaluated in a functional analysis. The effects of extinction, negative reinforcement, and negative reinforcement combined with access to preferred activities were compared on behavior and task engagement. Engagement occurred most and destructive behavior occurred least when…

  6. Evolutionary Dynamics of Strategic Behavior in a Collective-Risk Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Abou Chakra, Maria; Traulsen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    A collective-risk social dilemma arises when a group must cooperate to reach a common target in order to avoid the risk of collective loss while each individual is tempted to free-ride on the contributions of others. In contrast to the prisoners' dilemma or public goods games, the collective-risk dilemma encompasses the risk that all individuals lose everything. These characteristics have potential relevance for dangerous climate change and other risky social dilemmas. Cooperation is costly to the individual and it only benefits all individuals if the common target is reached. An individual thus invests without guarantee that the investment is worthwhile for anyone. If there are several subsequent stages of investment, it is not clear when individuals should contribute. For example, they could invest early, thereby signaling their willingness to cooperate in the future, constantly invest their fair share, or wait and compensate missing contributions. To investigate the strategic behavior in such situations, we have simulated the evolutionary dynamics of such collective-risk dilemmas in a finite population. Contributions depend individually on the stage of the game and on the sum of contributions made so far. Every individual takes part in many games and successful behaviors spread in the population. It turns out that constant contributors, such as constant fair sharers, quickly lose out against those who initially do not contribute, but compensate this in later stages of the game. In particular for high risks, such late contributors are favored. PMID:22927807

  7. Relationship between Adolescent Risk Preferences on a Laboratory Task and Behavioral Measures of Risk-taking

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Uma; Sidhartha, Tanuj; Harker, Karen R.; Bidesi, Anup S.; Chen, Li-Ann; Ernst, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The goal of the study was to assess individual differences in risk-taking behavior among adolescents in the laboratory. A second aim was to evaluate whether the laboratory-based risk-taking behavior is associated with other behavioral and psychological measures associated with risk-taking behavior. Methods Eighty-two adolescents with no personal history of psychiatric disorder completed a computerized decision-making task, the Wheel of Fortune (WOF). By offering choices between clearly defined probabilities and real monetary outcomes, this task assesses risk preferences when participants are confronted with potential rewards and losses. The participants also completed a variety of behavioral and psychological measures associated with risk-taking behavior. Results Performance on the task varied based on the probability and anticipated outcomes. In the winning sub-task, participants selected low probability-high magnitude reward (high-risk choice) less frequently than high probability-low magnitude reward (low-risk choice). In the losing sub-task, participants selected low probability-high magnitude loss more often than high probability-low magnitude loss. On average, the selection of probabilistic rewards was optimal and similar to performance in adults. There were, however, individual differences in performance, and one-third of the adolescents made high-risk choice more frequently than low-risk choice while selecting a reward. After controlling for sociodemographic and psychological variables, high-risk choice on the winning task predicted “real-world” risk-taking behavior and substance-related problems. Conclusions These findings highlight individual differences in risk-taking behavior. Preliminary data on face validity of the WOF task suggest that it might be a valuable laboratory tool for studying behavioral and neurobiological processes associated with risk-taking behavior in adolescents. PMID:21257113

  8. Rapamycin attenuates the expression of cocaine-induced place preference and behavioral sensitization.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jeffrey; Ma, Dzwokai; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2012-03-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine-threonine kinase that controls global protein synthesis, in part, by modulating translation initiation, a rate-limiting step for many mRNAs. Previous studies implicate mTOR in regulating stimulant-induced sensitization and antidepressive-like behavior in rodents, as well as drug craving in abstinent heroin addicts. To determine if signaling downstream of mTOR is affected by repeated cocaine administration in reward-associated brain regions, and if inhibition of mTOR alters cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity, C57BL/6J mice received four intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of 15 mg/kg cocaine and levels of phosphorylated P70S6 kinase and ribosomal S6 protein-two translational regulators directly downstream of mTOR-were analyzed by immunoblotting across several brain regions. Cocaine place preference and locomotor sensitization were elicited by four pairings of cocaine with a distinct environment and the effects of mTOR inhibition were assessed by pre-treating the mice with 10 mg/kg rapamycin, 1 hour prior to: (1) each saline/cocaine conditioning session; (2) a post-conditioning test; or (3) a test for locomotor sensitization conducted at 3 weeks withdrawal. While systemic pre-treatment with 10 mg/kg rapamycin during conditioning failed to alter the development of a cocaine place preference or locomotor sensitization, pre-treatment prior to the post-conditioning test attenuated the expression of the place preference. Additionally, rapamycin pre-treatment prior to a cocaine challenge 3 weeks post-conditioning blocked the expression of the sensitized locomotor response. These findings suggest a role for mTOR activity, and perhaps translational control, in the expression of cocaine-induced place preference and locomotor sensitization.

  9. Heavy Metal and Hip-Hop Style Preferences and Externalizing Problem Behavior: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfhout, Maarten H. W.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines (a) the stability of Dutch adolescents' preferences for heavy metal and hip-hop youth culture styles, (b) longitudinal associations between their preferences and externalizing problem behavior, and (c) the moderating role of gender in these associations. Questionnaire data were gathered from 931 adolescents between the ages of…

  10. Increasing Task Engagement Using Preference or Choice-Making: Some Behavioral and Methodological Factors Affecting Their Efficacy as Classroom Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.

    2006-01-01

    Frequent reprimands, low expectations, and infrequent praise characterize the daily school experiences of many students who display problem behaviors. This review evaluates preference and choice-making as possible interventions for improving these school experiences. Findings from 15 studies suggest that preference and choice-making may improve…

  11. Design and analysis of temperature preference behavior and its circadian rhythm in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Goda, Tadahiro; Leslie, Jennifer R; Hamada, Fumika N

    2014-01-01

    The circadian clock regulates many aspects of life, including sleep, locomotor activity, and body temperature (BTR) rhythms(1) (,) (2). We recently identified a novel Drosophila circadian output, called the temperature preference rhythm (TPR), in which the preferred temperature in flies rises during the day and falls during the night (3). Surprisingly, the TPR and locomotor activity are controlled through distinct circadian neurons(3). Drosophila locomotor activity is a well known circadian behavioral output and has provided strong contributions to the discovery of many conserved mammalian circadian clock genes and mechanisms(4). Therefore, understanding TPR will lead to the identification of hitherto unknown molecular and cellular circadian mechanisms. Here, we describe how to perform and analyze the TPR assay. This technique not only allows for dissecting the molecular and neural mechanisms of TPR, but also provides new insights into the fundamental mechanisms of the brain functions that integrate different environmental signals and regulate animal behaviors. Furthermore, our recently published data suggest that the fly TPR shares features with the mammalian BTR(3). Drosophila are ectotherms, in which the body temperature is typically behaviorally regulated. Therefore, TPR is a strategy used to generate a rhythmic body temperature in these flies(5-8). We believe that further exploration of Drosophila TPR will facilitate the characterization of the mechanisms underlying body temperature control in animals.

  12. Sun protection preferences and behaviors among young adult males during maximum ultraviolet radiation exposure activities.

    PubMed

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K

    2013-07-31

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population.

  13. On the transmission of HIV with self-protective behavior and preferred mixing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Frederick H

    2006-02-01

    An epidemic model of HIV transmission with self-protective behavior and preferred mixing is presented. Individuals in the model are assumed to choose their levels of risk behavior by comparing the costs and benefits of self-protective actions. Unlike in models which treat individual risk behavior as exogenously given and fixed, the condition under which an endemic steady state equilibrium exists does not depend on the extent of assortative mixing in the population. Specifically, a unique endemic equilibrium exists when the basic reproductive number of the disease, which is given in the model by the expected number of secondary infections caused by an infected individual in the absence of any self-protection, is strictly greater than one. Otherwise, the disease-free equilibrium is the only steady state equilibrium. With respect to changes in contact patterns, it is shown that, if the degree of preferred mixing is increased, the disease prevalence can decrease in the high-risk subpopulation consisting of individuals who are more likely to engage in unsafe practices. The situation is reversed for the low-risk subpopulation, which is composed of individuals who are less willing to engage in risky practices, so that increasing the likelihood of mixing with members of one's own group may increase the prevalence level within the low-risk subpopulation. PMID:16427658

  14. Sun protection preferences and behaviors among young adult males during maximum ultraviolet radiation exposure activities.

    PubMed

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K

    2013-08-01

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population. PMID:23912201

  15. Design and Analysis of Temperature Preference Behavior and its Circadian Rhythm in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Goda, Tadahiro; Leslie, Jennifer R.; Hamada, Fumika N.

    2014-01-01

    The circadian clock regulates many aspects of life, including sleep, locomotor activity, and body temperature (BTR) rhythms1,2. We recently identified a novel Drosophila circadian output, called the temperature preference rhythm (TPR), in which the preferred temperature in flies rises during the day and falls during the night 3. Surprisingly, the TPR and locomotor activity are controlled through distinct circadian neurons3. Drosophila locomotor activity is a well known circadian behavioral output and has provided strong contributions to the discovery of many conserved mammalian circadian clock genes and mechanisms4. Therefore, understanding TPR will lead to the identification of hitherto unknown molecular and cellular circadian mechanisms. Here, we describe how to perform and analyze the TPR assay. This technique not only allows for dissecting the molecular and neural mechanisms of TPR, but also provides new insights into the fundamental mechanisms of the brain functions that integrate different environmental signals and regulate animal behaviors. Furthermore, our recently published data suggest that the fly TPR shares features with the mammalian BTR3. Drosophila are ectotherms, in which the body temperature is typically behaviorally regulated. Therefore, TPR is a strategy used to generate a rhythmic body temperature in these flies5-8. We believe that further exploration of Drosophila TPR will facilitate the characterization of the mechanisms underlying body temperature control in animals. PMID:24457268

  16. Postweaning housing conditions and partner preference and sexual behavior of neonatally ATD-treated male rats.

    PubMed

    Bakker, J; van Ophemert, J; Slob, A K

    1995-01-01

    Male rats were neonatally treated with cholesterol or a substance that blocks the aromatization of testosterone to estradiol (1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione: ATD). At weaning (21 days) they were either housed alone or in small groups (2-3 animals) and tested for partner preference behavior (PPB) in adulthood. Choice was between an estrous female and an active male (Part I) and between an estrous female and an ATD-male (Part II). Tests were carried out in a 3-compartment box. Social isolation did not have major effects on PPB except when sexual interaction with the stimulus animals was prevented (Part I). In this case, isolates (ATD and control) showed higher preference scores (PS) for the estrous female and spent less time in the empty middle compartment. When the choice was between an estrous female and an ATD-male, partner PS decreased in all males, most clearly in ATD-males. The latter animals spent more time with the stimulus ATD-male than they had done in previous PPB tests with the normal stimulus male. In contrast to partner preference behaviors, sexual behavior was clearly affected by social isolation. Isolates (ATD and control) displayed lower frequencies of mounts and intromissions. These effects persisted over consecutive tests. Ejaculation was not affected. In conclusion, the present results confirm earlier findings about the significance of neonatal endocrine conditions for the organization of adult PPB in male rats. The presence or absence of social conspecifics after weaning appears to have little influence on adult PPB.

  17. Peer Preference and Friendship Quantity in Children with Externalizing Behavior: Distinct Influences on Bully Status and Victim Status.

    PubMed

    Jia, Mary; Mikami, Amori Yee

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the predictive relations between externalizing behavior, peer preference and friendship quantity, and bully status and victim status among children becoming acquainted with one another for the first time. Children ages 6.8-9.8 years (24 with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; 113 typically developing; 72 girls) attended a 2-week summer day camp grouped into same-age, same-sex classrooms with previously unacquainted peers. Externalizing behavior (via parent and teacher ratings) was measured before the start of camp; peer preference and friendship quantity (via peer nominations) were measured in the middle of camp, and bully status and victim status (via peer nominations) were measured at the end of camp. Low peer preference mediated the positive association between externalizing behavior and bully status. Both peer preference and friendship quantity moderated the relation between externalizing behavior and bully status as well as between externalizing behavior and victim status; whereas high peer preference protected against both bully status and victim status, friendship quantity protected against victim status but exacerbated bully status. Some gender differences were found within these pathways. Peer preference, compared to friendship quantity, appears to have a more consistently protective role in the relation between externalizing behavior and bully status as well as victim status.

  18. Analysis of consumers' preferences and behavior with regard to horse meat using a structured survey questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Oh, Woon Yong; Lee, Ji Woong; Lee, Chong Eon; Ko, Moon Seok; Jeong, Jae Hong

    2009-12-01

    In this study, a structured survey questionnaire was used to determine consumers' preferences and behavior with regard to horse meat at a horse meat restaurant located in Jeju, Korea, from October 1 to December 24, 2005. The questionnaire employed in this study consisted of 20 questions designed to characterize six general attributes: horse meat sensory property, physical appearance, health condition, origin, price, and other attributes. Of the 1370 questionnaires distributed, 1126 completed questionnaires were retained based on the completeness of the answers, representing an 82.2% response rate. Two issues were investigated that might facilitate the search for ways to improve horse meat production and marketing programs in Korea. The first step was to determine certain important factors, called principal components, which enabled the researchers to understand the needs of horse meat consumers via principal component analysis. The second step was to define consumer segments with regard to their preferences for horse meat, which was accomplished via cluster analysis. The results of the current study showed that health condition, price, origin, and leanness were the most critical physical attributes affecting the preferences of horse meat consumers. Four segments of consumers, with different demands for horse meat attributes, were identified: origin-sensitive consumers, price-sensitive consumers, quality and safety-sensitive consumers, and non-specific consumers. Significant differences existed among segments of consumers in terms of age, nature of work, frequency of consumption, and general level of acceptability of horse meat.

  19. Operant ethanol-reinforced behavior in P, NP, HAD, and LAD rats bred for high versus low ethanol preference.

    PubMed

    Ritz, M C; Garcia, J M; Protz, D; George, F R

    1994-12-01

    These studies examined the reinforcing effects of ethanol in rats selectively bred for high versus low ethanol drinking in a two-bottle choice preference task, namely the Preferring (P), Non-Preferring (NP), High Alcohol Drinking (HAD), and Low Alcohol Drinking (LAD) rats. The results substantiate findings suggesting that genetic factors are significant in determining whether ethanol will come to serve as a reinforcer. P rats exhibited high levels of responding for ethanol compared with the water vehicle, NP and HAD rats exhibited more moderate levels of responding for ethanol, and the behavior of LAD rats suggested that ethanol served only inconsistently as a reinforcer for these rats. Overall, the results suggest the existence of distinct, biologically influenced components of ethanol drinking behavior. Preference appears to measure an inherent facilitative factor allowing animals to initiate ethanol drinking. The operant chamber paradigm appears to measure factors related to whether and to what extent ethanol will serve as a positive reinforcer following conditioned exposure to the drug. Although preferring animals generally find ethanol reinforcing there seems to be little quantitative relationship between degree of preference and whether ethanol will serve as a reinforcer. Lack of preference does not seem to be predictive of lack of reinforcement. Thus, it appears that preference for ethanol and reinforcement from ethanol are somewhat overlapping, but distinct factors that contribute to ethanol drinking. These results suggest the existence of multiple components of behavior mediated by multiple mechanisms that contribute to ethanol drinking. PMID:7695037

  20. Parallel encoding of sensory history and behavioral preference during Caenorhabditis elegans olfactory learning.

    PubMed

    Cho, Christine E; Brueggemann, Chantal; L'Etoile, Noelle D; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2016-01-01

    Sensory experience modifies behavior through both associative and non-associative learning. In Caenorhabditis elegans, pairing odor with food deprivation results in aversive olfactory learning, and pairing odor with food results in appetitive learning. Aversive learning requires nuclear translocation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase EGL-4 in AWC olfactory neurons and an insulin signal from AIA interneurons. Here we show that the activity of neurons including AIA is acutely required during aversive, but not appetitive, learning. The AIA circuit and AGE-1, an insulin-regulated PI3 kinase, signal to AWC to drive nuclear enrichment of EGL-4 during conditioning. Odor exposure shifts the AWC dynamic range to higher odor concentrations regardless of food pairing or the AIA circuit, whereas AWC coupling to motor circuits is oppositely regulated by aversive and appetitive learning. These results suggest that non-associative sensory adaptation in AWC encodes odor history, while associative behavioral preference is encoded by altered AWC synaptic activity.

  1. Consumer preference, behavior and perception about meat and meat products: an overview.

    PubMed

    Font-I-Furnols, Maria; Guerrero, Luis

    2014-11-01

    Meat and meat products currently represent an important source of protein in the human diet, and their quality varies according to intrinsic and extrinsic parameters that can sometimes be shaped to make a product more desirable. Because consumers are the final step in the production chain, it is useful to identify which factors affect their behavioral patterns. This would allow the meat sector to better satisfy consumer expectations, demands and needs. This paper focuses on features that might influence consumer behavior, preferences and their perception of meat and meat products with respect to psychological, sensory and marketing aspects. This multidisciplinary approach includes evaluating psychological issues such as attitudes, beliefs, and expectations; sensory properties such as appearance, texture, flavor and odor; and marketing-related aspects such as price and brand.

  2. Maternal education preferences moderate the effects of mandatory employment and education programs on child positive and problem behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Gassman-Pines, Anna; Godfrey, Erin B.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    Grounded in Person-Environment Fit Theory, this study examined whether low-income mothers' preferences for education moderated the effects of employment- and education-focused welfare programs on children's positive and problem behaviors. The sample included 1,365 families with children between ages 3 and 5 at study entry. Results 5 years after random assignment, when children were ages 8 to 10, indicated that mothers' education preferences did moderate program impacts on teacher-reported child behavior problems and positive behavior. Children whose mothers were assigned to the education program were rated by teachers to have less externalizing behavior and more positive behavior than children whose mothers were assigned to the employment program, but only when mothers had strong preferences for education. PMID:22861169

  3. Maternal education preferences moderate the effects of mandatory employment and education programs on child positive and problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gassman-Pines, Anna; Godfrey, Erin B; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Grounded in person-environment fit theory, this study examined whether low-income mothers' preferences for education moderated the effects of employment- and education-focused welfare programs on children's positive and problem behaviors. The sample included 1,365 families with children between ages 3 and 5 years at study entry. Results 5 years after random assignment, when children were ages 8-10 years, indicated that mothers' education preferences did moderate program impacts on teacher-reported child behavior problems and positive behavior. Children whose mothers were assigned to the education program were rated by teachers to have less externalizing behavior and more positive behavior than children whose mothers were assigned to the employment program but only when mothers had strong preferences for education.

  4. Sigma-1 receptor mediates acquisition of alcohol drinking and seeking behavior in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Blasio, Angelo; Valenza, Marta; Iyer, Malliga R; Rice, Kenner C; Steardo, Luca; Hayashi, T; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target for drug and alcohol addiction. We have shown previously that Sig-1R agonists facilitate the reinforcing effects of ethanol and induce binge-like drinking, while Sig-1R antagonists on the other hand block excessive drinking in genetic and environmental models of alcoholism, without affecting intake in outbred non-dependent rats. Even though significant progress has been made in understanding the function of Sig-1R in alcohol reinforcement, its role in the early and late stage of alcohol addiction remains unclear. Administration of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 dramatically reduced the acquisition of alcohol drinking behavior as well as the preference for alcohol in genetically selected TSRI Sardinian alcohol preferring (Scr:sP) rats; the treatment had instead no effect on total fluid intake, food intake or body weight gain, proving selectivity of action. Furthermore, BD-1063 dose-dependently decreased alcohol-seeking behavior in rats trained under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which responding is maintained by contingent presentation of a conditioned reinforcer. Finally, an innate elevation in Sig-1R protein levels was found in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring Scr:sP rats, compared to outbred Wistar rats, alteration which was normalized by chronic, voluntary alcohol drinking. Taken together these findings demonstrate that Sig-1R blockade reduces the propensity to both acquire alcohol drinking and to seek alcohol, and point to the nucleus accumbens as a potential key region for the effects observed. Our data suggest that Sig-1R antagonists may have therapeutic potential in multiple stages of alcohol addiction.

  5. Sigma-1 receptor mediates acquisition of alcohol drinking and seeking behavior in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Blasio, Angelo; Valenza, Marta; Iyer, Malliga R; Rice, Kenner C; Steardo, Luca; Hayashi, T; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target for drug and alcohol addiction. We have shown previously that Sig-1R agonists facilitate the reinforcing effects of ethanol and induce binge-like drinking, while Sig-1R antagonists on the other hand block excessive drinking in genetic and environmental models of alcoholism, without affecting intake in outbred non-dependent rats. Even though significant progress has been made in understanding the function of Sig-1R in alcohol reinforcement, its role in the early and late stage of alcohol addiction remains unclear. Administration of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 dramatically reduced the acquisition of alcohol drinking behavior as well as the preference for alcohol in genetically selected TSRI Sardinian alcohol preferring (Scr:sP) rats; the treatment had instead no effect on total fluid intake, food intake or body weight gain, proving selectivity of action. Furthermore, BD-1063 dose-dependently decreased alcohol-seeking behavior in rats trained under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which responding is maintained by contingent presentation of a conditioned reinforcer. Finally, an innate elevation in Sig-1R protein levels was found in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring Scr:sP rats, compared to outbred Wistar rats, alteration which was normalized by chronic, voluntary alcohol drinking. Taken together these findings demonstrate that Sig-1R blockade reduces the propensity to both acquire alcohol drinking and to seek alcohol, and point to the nucleus accumbens as a potential key region for the effects observed. Our data suggest that Sig-1R antagonists may have therapeutic potential in multiple stages of alcohol addiction. PMID:25848705

  6. [Pup-Associated Conditioned Place Preference and Maternal Behavior in Depressive WAG/Rij Rats].

    PubMed

    Sarkisova, K Yu; Tanaeva, K K; Dobryakova, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    Elaboration of conditioned place preference (CPP) associated with own and foster pups, and maternal behavior were compared in females of WAG/Rij and Wistar rats. In addition, behavior of females in the open field, elevated plus-maze and forced swimming tests were investigated before pregnancy and after pup delivery. In has been found that females of WAG/Rij rats elaborate worse CPP task associated with both their own (WAG/Rij) and foster (Wistar) pups. Thus, the number of females that increase time spent in initially non-preferred compartment after its association with pups and the number of females that reach criterion of CPP elaboration in WAG/Rij rats were less than in Wistar controls. WAG/Rij females exhibited less maternal care in the place preference test both to their own and foster pups: less number of approaches to pups, pups carrying and the time spent in contact with pups non-associated with feeding. In WAG/Rij females compared with Wistar controls immobility time in the forced swimming test was higher both before pregnancy and after pup delivery indicating a stable depression-like state. Before pregnancy, statistically significant inter-strain differences in the anxiety level have not been revealed. After pup delivery, in WAG/Rij females anxiety level decreased but in Wistar females didn't substantially change. Results suggest that worse elaboration of CPP task and reduced maternal care in depressive WAG/Rij females are not associated with specific features of their own pups but are due to their depression-like state. Put into other words, pups for depressive mothers are less potent reinforcer than for "normal" (non-depressive) mothers. PMID:27538286

  7. Behavioral contagion during learning about another agent's risk-preferences acts on the neural representation of decision-risk.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shinsuke; Jensen, Emily L S; Bossaerts, Peter; O'Doherty, John P

    2016-04-01

    Our attitude toward risk plays a crucial role in influencing our everyday decision-making. Despite its importance, little is known about how human risk-preference can be modulated by observing risky behavior in other agents at either the behavioral or the neural level. Using fMRI combined with computational modeling of behavioral data, we show that human risk-preference can be systematically altered by the act of observing and learning from others' risk-related decisions. The contagion is driven specifically by brain regions involved in the assessment of risk: the behavioral shift is implemented via a neural representation of risk in the caudate nucleus, whereas the representations of other decision-related variables such as expected value are not affected. Furthermore, we uncover neural computations underlying learning about others' risk-preferences and describe how these signals interact with the neural representation of risk in the caudate. Updating of the belief about others' preferences is associated with neural activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Functional coupling between the dlPFC and the caudate correlates with the degree of susceptibility to the contagion effect, suggesting that a frontal-subcortical loop, the so-called dorsolateral prefrontal-striatal circuit, underlies the modulation of risk-preference. Taken together, these findings provide a mechanistic account for how observation of others' risky behavior can modulate an individual's own risk-preference. PMID:27001826

  8. The effect of behavioral preferences on skill acquisition in determining unspecified, suitable action patterns to control humanoid robots.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Taiki; Watanabe, Tetsuyou

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the effect of behavioral preferences on learning efficiency when attempting to determine unspecified, but suitable action sequences for unfamiliar tasks. The goal of this research was to develop a skill acquisition support system for the elderly to aid them in using unfamiliar IT products, particularly those of welfare systems. Here, behavioral preference is defined as the type of action sequences that people would prefer to adopt for completing unfamiliar tasks. To achieve this goal, this research investigated the action sequences of participants when they attempt to control the posture of an unfamiliar humanoid robot with an unfamiliar controller. The participants were assigned the task of making the humanoid stand on one foot. Machine-learning-based methods were presented for analyzing the behavioral preferences. The analysis results indicate that participants having behavioral preferences of adopting random action sequences can complete the task in a much shorter time, compared to participants having a behavioral preference of adopting action sequences similar to those of previous actions.

  9. The impact of a mental work on food preferences, eating behavior traits and satiety efficiency.

    PubMed

    Salama, Miram; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo; Pérusse-Lachance, Émilie

    2016-02-01

    Sedentary lifestyles, which are partly due to the type of labor being performed, have contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In general, labor in a modern context solicits mental work, which has been shown to promote overeating and altered satiety efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of knowledge-based work on food preferences, eating behaviors traits and appetite sensations. The relationship between these effects and the morphological profile was also assessed. A cross-over experimental design was used in this study for which 35 healthy adults (22 men and 13 women (mean age: 24±3years)), were recruited. The participants were randomly assigned the one of the two following conditions: mental work (reading a document and writing a summary of 350 words with the use of a computer) or control (rest in seated position). Each condition lasted 45min, and was followed by a standardized ad libitum buffet-type meal. Measurements included anthropometric variables, ad libitum food intake, appetite sensations before and after each condition, and satiety quotient, a marker of satiety efficiency in response to the meal. Eating behavior traits were also evaluated using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Eating behaviors (restriction, disinhibition) were not associated with the energy intake in both conditions and in both genders. Women appeared to have a higher energy intake after the mental work condition (p<0.05), which was accompanied by an increased carbohydrate intake (p<0.05). Moreover, participants with the highest waist circumference had lower satiety efficiency (r=0.43, p<0.05) in response to mental work. These results suggest that increased energy intake in response to knowledge-based work is associated with food preference and an altered satiety efficiency in women and individuals with higher waist circumference.

  10. Infant Attention and Visual Preferences: Converging Evidence from Behavior, Event-Related Potentials, and Cortical Source Localization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Courage, Mary L.; Richards, John E.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we had 3 major goals. The 1st goal was to establish a link between behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures of infant attention and recognition memory. To assess the distribution of infant visual preferences throughout ERP testing, we designed a new experimental procedure that embeds a behavioral measure (paired…

  11. The Effect of Computerized Testing on Sun Bear Behavior and Enrichment Preferences.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bonnie M

    2016-09-22

    The field of comparative cognition investigates species' differences and similarities in cognitive abilities, and sheds light on the evolutionary origins of such capacities. Cognitive testing has been carried out in a variety of species; however, there are some taxa that are underrepresented in this field. The current work follows on a recent increase in cognitive research in the order Carnivora with a specific focus on sun bears. Sun bears are the smallest existing bear species and live in tropical regions of Southeast Asia. They have an omnivorous diet and use their tongues to forage for insects and sap. Little is known about sun bear cognition, although much like other bear species, anecdotes suggest a high level of intelligence. The current work explored training sun bears to use a touchscreen computer. This effort allows for insight into cognitive abilities as well as providing a complex source of enrichment for the bears. The bears use their tongues to respond to a touchscreen computer, and the effects on stereotypic behaviors on exhibit and preference for this over other forms of enrichment were examined. Overall, bears performed well on the task and showed a preference for the computer.

  12. The Effect of Computerized Testing on Sun Bear Behavior and Enrichment Preferences.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bonnie M

    2016-01-01

    The field of comparative cognition investigates species' differences and similarities in cognitive abilities, and sheds light on the evolutionary origins of such capacities. Cognitive testing has been carried out in a variety of species; however, there are some taxa that are underrepresented in this field. The current work follows on a recent increase in cognitive research in the order Carnivora with a specific focus on sun bears. Sun bears are the smallest existing bear species and live in tropical regions of Southeast Asia. They have an omnivorous diet and use their tongues to forage for insects and sap. Little is known about sun bear cognition, although much like other bear species, anecdotes suggest a high level of intelligence. The current work explored training sun bears to use a touchscreen computer. This effort allows for insight into cognitive abilities as well as providing a complex source of enrichment for the bears. The bears use their tongues to respond to a touchscreen computer, and the effects on stereotypic behaviors on exhibit and preference for this over other forms of enrichment were examined. Overall, bears performed well on the task and showed a preference for the computer. PMID:27669314

  13. The effect of preference for rock music on magnitude-estimation scaling behavior in young adults.

    PubMed

    Fucci, D; Harris, D; Petrosino, L; Banks, M

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of preference for rock music on magnitude-estimation scaling behavior in young adults. Two groups of young adults, 20 who liked rock music and 20 who did not like rock music, were tested. Subjects were instructed to assign numerical values to a random series of nine suprathreshold intensity levels of a 10-second sample of rock music. Analysis indicated that there was a difference in performance by the two groups of subjects on the magnitude-estimation scaling task. The subjects who liked rock music provided significantly lower mean numerical responses than the subjects who did not like rock music for all nine suprathreshold intensities.

  14. Identifying flavor preference subgroups. Genetic basis and related eating behavior traits.

    PubMed

    Törnwall, Outi; Silventoinen, Karri; Hiekkalinna, Tero; Perola, Markus; Tuorila, Hely; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2014-04-01

    Subgroups based on flavor preferences were identified and their genetic and behavior related characteristics investigated using extensive data from 331 Finnish twins (21-25years, 146 men) including 47 monozygotic (MZ) and 93 dizygotic (DZ) pairs, and 51 twin individuals. The subgroup identification (hierarchical and K-means clustering) was based on liking responses to food names representing sour, umami, and spicy flavor qualities. Furthermore, sensory tests were conducted, a questionnaire on food likes completed, and various eating behavior related traits measured with validated scales. Sensory data included intensity ratings of PROP (6-n-propylthiouracil-impregnated filter paper), hedonic and intensity responses to sourness (orange juice with and without added citric acid, 0.42%), pungency (strawberry jelly with and without added capsaicin 0.00013%) and umami ('mouthfeel flavor' taste solution). Ratings of liking of 41 general food names were categorized into salty-and-fatty, sweet-and-fatty, fruits and vegetables and fish foods. Subgroup differences (complex samples procedure) and the genetics underlying the subgroups (structural equation modeling) were investigated. Of the resulting two groups (basic, n=140, adventurous n=152; non-grouped n=39), the adventurous expressed higher liking for sour and spicy foods, and had more tolerance for capsaicin burn in the sensory-hedonic test. The adventurous were also less food neophobic (25.9±9.1 vs. 32.5±10.6, respectively) and expressed higher liking for fruits and vegetables compared to the basic group. Genetic effects were shown to underlie the subgroups (heritability 72%, CI: 36-92%). Linkage analysis for 27 candidate gene regions revealed suggestively that being adventurous is linked to TAS1R1 and PKD1L3 genes. These results indicate that food neophobia and genetic differences may form a barrier through which individual flavor preferences are generated. PMID:24361469

  15. Conditioned Place Preference to Acetone Inhalation and the Effects on Locomotor Behavior and 18FDG Uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, J.C.; Dewey, S.L.; Schiffer, W.; Lee, D.

    2006-01-01

    Acetone is a component in many inhalants that have been widely abused. While other solvents have addictive potential, such as toluene, it is unclear whether acetone alone contains addictive properties. The locomotor, relative glucose metabolism and abusive effects of acetone inhalation were studied in animals using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and [18F]2-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose (18FDG) imaging. The CPP apparatus contains two distinct conditioning chambers and a middle adaptation chamber, each lined with photocells to monitor locomotor activity. Adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16; 90-110 g) were paired with acetone in least preferred conditioning chamber, determined on the pretest day. The animals were exposed to a 10,000 ppm dose for an hour, alternating days with air. A CPP test was conducted after the 3rd, 6th and 12th pairing. In these same animals, the relative glucose metabolism effects were determined using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 18FDG. Following the 3rd pairing, there was a significant aversion to the acetone paired chamber (190.9 ± 13.7 sec and 241.7 ± 16.9 sec, acetone and air, respectively). After the 6th pairing, there was no significant preference observed with equal time spent in each chamber (222 ± 21 sec and 207 ± 20 sec, acetone and air-paired, respectively). A similar trend was observed after the 12th pairing (213 ± 21 sec and 221 ± 22 sec, acetone and air-paired, respectively). Locomotor analysis indicated a significant decrease (p<0.05) from air pairings to acetone pairings on the first and sixth pairings. The observed locomotor activity was characteristic of central nervous system (CNS) depressants, without showing clear abusive effects in this CPP model. In these studies, acetone vapors were not as reinforcing as other solvents, shown by overall lack of preference for the acetone paired side of the chamber. PET imaging indicated a regionally specific distribution of 18FDG uptake following

  16. Endogenous reproductive hormones and nocturnal rhythms in partner preference and sexual behavior of ATD-treated male rats.

    PubMed

    Bakker, J; van Ophemert, J; Timmerman, M A; de Jong, F H; Slob, A K

    1995-10-01

    Male rats received subcutaneously silastic capsules, containing the aromatase inhibitor 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione (ATD), shortly after birth. Control males were given silastic capsules containing cholesterol. The capsules were removed at the age of 21 days. In adulthood, blood serum was collected early and late in the dark phase of the light/dark cycle (experiment I). Testosterone and luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) fluctuated nocturnally, both in ATD and control males, with highest levels late in the dark phase. FSH levels were significantly higher in ATD males. Nocturnal levels of inhibin, a selective suppressor of pituitary FSH secretion, also fluctuated in both ATD and control males, with lowest levels late in the dark phase. In experiment II, ATD and control males were tested for partner preference behavior in a three-compartment box (choice: sexually active male vs. estrous female) early and late in the dark phase. When gonadally intact, ATD males, but not controls, showed a clear nocturnal rhythmicity in partner preference behavior and sexual behavior. Early in the dark phase, such ATD males preferred the vicinity of and interaction with a sexually active male. Late in the dark phase, this preference for the active male shifted to a preference for the estrous female. Control males preferred the estrous female. After castration and subsequent treatment with testosterone via silastic capsules, which ensured constant blood serum levels, ATD males continued to show their nocturnal rhythms in partner preference behavior and in sexual behavior. Thus, the underlying mechanism of the nocturnal rhythmicity phenomenon is an organizational effect of neonatal ATD treatment rather than an activational effect of fluctuating serum hormone levels.

  17. The Co-evolution of Honesty and Strategic Vigilance

    PubMed Central

    Heintz, Christophe; Karabegovic, Mia; Molnar, Andras

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesize that when honesty is not motivated by selfish goals, it reveals social preferences that have evolved for convincing strategically vigilant partners that one is a person worth cooperating with. In particular, we explain how the patterns of dishonest behavior observed in recent experiments can be motivated by preferences for social and self-esteem. These preferences have evolved because they are adaptive in an environment where it is advantageous to be selected as a partner by others and where these others are strategically vigilant: they efficiently evaluate the expected benefit of cooperating with specific partners and attend to their intentions. We specify the adaptive value of strategic vigilance and preferences for social and self-esteem. We argue that evolved preferences for social and self-esteem are satisfied by applying mechanisms of strategic vigilance to one's own behavior. We further argue that such cognitive processes obviate the need for the evolution of preferences for fairness and social norm compliance. PMID:27790162

  18. Cocaine Influences Alcohol-Seeking Behavior and Relapse Drinking in Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Sheketha R.; Wilden, Jessica A.; Deehan, Gerald A.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The results of several studies suggest that there may be common neurocircuits regulating drug-seeking behaviors. Common biological pathways regulating drug-seeking would explain the phenomenon that seeking for one drug can be enhanced by exposure to another drug of abuse. The objective of the current study was to assess the time-course effects of acute cocaine administration on alcohol seeking and relapse. Methods Alcohol-Preferring (P) rats were allowed to self-administer 15% ethanol (EtOH) and water. EtOH-seeking was assessed through use of the Pavlovian Spontaneous Recovery (PSR) model, while relapse EtOH drinking was assessed through use of the alcohol deprivation effect. Results Cocaine (0, 1 or 10 mg/kg), injected immediately, 30 min, or 4 hr prior to the 1st PSR testing session, dose-dependently increased responding on the EtOH lever compared to extinction responses and responding by saline controls. Under relapse conditions, cocaine given immediately prior to the relapse session had no effect (1 mg/kg) or reduced responding (10 mg/kg). In contrast, cocaine given 4 hr prior to the relapse session markedly enhanced EtOH responding compared to saline. Conclusion The enhanced expression of EtOH-seeking and relapse behaviors may be a result of a priming effect of cocaine on neuronal circuits mediating these behaviors. The effect of cocaine on EtOH-relapse drinking is indicative of the complex interactions that can occur between drugs of abuse; production of conflicting behaviors (immediate) and priming of relapse/seeking (4 hour delay). PMID:25346508

  19. Behavioral effects of progesterone on pair bonding and partner preference in the female zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Smiley, Kristina O; Vahaba, Daniel M; Tomaszycki, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Progesterone is a sex steroid known to be involved in reproduction, but its role in pair relationships is not well understood. This study explored the effects of exogenous progesterone (P4) on courtship and pairing behaviors in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) in two separate experiments: the first focused on courtship and initial pair formation and the second examined the effects on pair maintenance. In these experiments, we tested the hypothesis that P4 increases pairing behaviors and consequently influences their partner preference. In Experiment 1, animals engaged in significantly more pairing behaviors when they were treated with P4 than when they received the vehicle. However, this effect was not partner-specific, since the association index (a marker for female partner preference) did not differ between treatment conditions. In Experiment 2, females were given two weeks to form a pair and then injected with P4 or vehicle. Pairs were observed that day and the subsequent day to determine if P4 caused a decrease in mate-directed behavior and an increase in extra pair behavior. P4 did not affect the quality of the pair relationship and did not increase extra pair behavior. These results suggest that P4 influences the overall quantity of initial pairing behaviors and may slightly increase the likelihood of partner preference formation over short time courses. However, P4 does not alter a previously established bond, suggesting there are likely separate mechanisms for initial pairing behaviors and pair maintenance.

  20. Parallel encoding of sensory history and behavioral preference during Caenorhabditis elegans olfactory learning.

    PubMed

    Cho, Christine E; Brueggemann, Chantal; L'Etoile, Noelle D; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2016-01-01

    Sensory experience modifies behavior through both associative and non-associative learning. In Caenorhabditis elegans, pairing odor with food deprivation results in aversive olfactory learning, and pairing odor with food results in appetitive learning. Aversive learning requires nuclear translocation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase EGL-4 in AWC olfactory neurons and an insulin signal from AIA interneurons. Here we show that the activity of neurons including AIA is acutely required during aversive, but not appetitive, learning. The AIA circuit and AGE-1, an insulin-regulated PI3 kinase, signal to AWC to drive nuclear enrichment of EGL-4 during conditioning. Odor exposure shifts the AWC dynamic range to higher odor concentrations regardless of food pairing or the AIA circuit, whereas AWC coupling to motor circuits is oppositely regulated by aversive and appetitive learning. These results suggest that non-associative sensory adaptation in AWC encodes odor history, while associative behavioral preference is encoded by altered AWC synaptic activity. PMID:27383131

  1. Age-Related Differences in Judgments of Inappropriate Behavior are Related to Humor Style Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Jennifer Tehan; Lohani, Monika; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying social gaffes is important for maintaining relationships. Older adults are less able than young to discriminate between socially appropriate and inappropriate behavior in video clips. One open question is how these social appropriateness ratings relate to potential age differences in the perception of what is actually funny or not. In the present study, young, middle-aged, and older adults were equally able to discriminate between appropriate and inappropriate social behavior in a diverse set of clips relevant to both age groups. However, young and middle-aged adults rated the gaffe clips as funnier than control clips and young adults smiled more during the inappropriate clips than the control clips. Older adults did not show this pattern, suggesting that they did not find the inappropriate clips funny. Additionally, young adults endorsed a more aggressive humor style than middle-aged and older adults and aggressive humor style endorsement mediated age differences in social appropriateness ratings. Results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms such as cohort differences in humor and developmental prioritization of certain humor styles, as well as the importance of investigating age differences in both abilities and preferences. PMID:25244473

  2. Age-related differences in judgments of inappropriate behavior are related to humor style preferences.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jennifer Tehan; Lohani, Monika; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2014-09-01

    Identifying social gaffes is important for maintaining relationships. Older adults are less able than young to discriminate between socially appropriate and inappropriate behavior in video clips. One open question is how these social appropriateness ratings relate to potential age differences in the perception of what is actually funny or not. In the present study, young, middle-aged, and older adults were equally able to discriminate between appropriate and inappropriate social behavior in a diverse set of clips relevant across age groups. However, young and middle-aged adults rated the gaffe clips as funnier than control clips and young adults smiled more during the inappropriate clips than the control clips. Older adults did not show this pattern, suggesting that they did not find the inappropriate clips funny. Additionally, young adults endorsed a more aggressive humor style than middle-aged and older adults and aggressive humor style endorsement mediated age differences in social appropriateness ratings. Results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms such as cohort differences in humor and developmental prioritization of certain humor styles, as well as the importance of investigating age differences in both abilities and preferences. PMID:25244473

  3. Parallel encoding of sensory history and behavioral preference during Caenorhabditis elegans olfactory learning

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Christine E; Brueggemann, Chantal; L'Etoile, Noelle D; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2016-01-01

    Sensory experience modifies behavior through both associative and non-associative learning. In Caenorhabditis elegans, pairing odor with food deprivation results in aversive olfactory learning, and pairing odor with food results in appetitive learning. Aversive learning requires nuclear translocation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase EGL-4 in AWC olfactory neurons and an insulin signal from AIA interneurons. Here we show that the activity of neurons including AIA is acutely required during aversive, but not appetitive, learning. The AIA circuit and AGE-1, an insulin-regulated PI3 kinase, signal to AWC to drive nuclear enrichment of EGL-4 during conditioning. Odor exposure shifts the AWC dynamic range to higher odor concentrations regardless of food pairing or the AIA circuit, whereas AWC coupling to motor circuits is oppositely regulated by aversive and appetitive learning. These results suggest that non-associative sensory adaptation in AWC encodes odor history, while associative behavioral preference is encoded by altered AWC synaptic activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14000.001 PMID:27383131

  4. Effects of maternal separation on the dietary preference and behavioral satiety sequence in rats.

    PubMed

    da Silva, M C; de Souza, J A; Dos Santos, L O; Pinheiro, I L; Borba, T K F; da Silva, A A M; de Castro, R M; de Souza, S L

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of maternal separation on the feeding behavior of rats. A maternal separation model was used on postnatal day 1 (PND1), forming the following groups: in the maternal separation (MS) group, pups were separated from their mothers each day from PND1 to PND14, whereas in the control (C) group pups were kept with their mothers. Subgroups were formed to study the effects of light and darkness: control with dark and light exposure, female and male (CF and CM), and maternal separation with dark and light exposure, female and male (SDF, SDM, SLF and SLM). Female rats had higher caloric intake relative to body weight compared with male controls in the dark period only (CF=23.3±0.5 v. CM=18.2±0.7, P<0.001). Macronutrient feeding preferences were observed, with male rats exhibiting higher caloric intake from a protein diet as compared with female rats (CF=4.1±0.7, n=8 v. CM=7.0±0.5, n=8, P<0.05) and satiety development was not interrupted. Female rats had a higher adrenal weight as compared with male rats independently of experimental groups and exhibited a higher concentration of serum triglycerides (n=8, P<0.001). The study indicates possible phenotypic adjustments in the structure of feeding behavior promoted by maternal separation, especially in the dark cycle. The dissociation between the mother's presence and milk intake probably induces adjustments in feeding behavior during adulthood. PMID:24901662

  5. An Evaluation of a Brief Multiple-stimulus Preference assessment with Adolescents with Emotional-behavioral disorders in an Educational Setting

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Brief multiple-stimulus-without-replacement (MSWO) preference assessments were conducted with 3 adolescent boys with emotional-behavioral disorders in the context of their public school educational program. The reinforcing effects of stimuli identified as high, medium, and low preference were then evaluated using an alternating treatments design in which, following an initial baseline, stimuli were delivered contingent on on-task behavior. High-preference stimuli produced the highest percentages of on-task behavior for all 3 participants. PMID:16270849

  6. Video preference assessment and behavioral management of single-caged Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) by movie presentation.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Tadatoshi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2012-01-01

    Movie presentation can act as an enrichment technique for nonhuman primates, who also show preferences for certain contents. This study investigated the video preferences and effects of movies on behavioral abnormalities in single-caged Japanese macaques. When movie rewards were provided for subjects' touch responses, the subjects maintained the touch responses during 40 2-hr sessions. Although repeated presentation of 1 stimulus set decreased the subject's touch response, changing the stimulus set led to recovery of this response. The subjects showed clear preferences, consistent across 2 different stimulus sets, for movies showing humans or animation (61.1% of total duration). Subjects consistently played movies both with and without their preferred content. The availability of a variety of contents might be important for attracting subjects' interest. The frequency with which monkeys engaged in abnormal behaviors decreased in the experimental (20.9%) and the postexperimental (25.6%) periods compared with the preexperimental period (33.5%). Movie presentations could keep attracting the interest of single-caged monkeys in their visual environment, ameliorating their behavioral abnormalities for some time. In summary, social experience during infancy might influence Japanese macaques' movie preferences.

  7. Salinity Preference in the Estuarine Teleost Fish Mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus): Halocline Behavior.

    PubMed

    Marshall, W S; Tait, J C; Mercer, E W

    2016-01-01

    Mummichogs prefer seawater (SW) but have wide ability to acclimate to extreme temperatures and salinities. In the field, minnow trapping revealed that mummichogs move progressively into low-salinity warmer water during early spring after ice melt and show significant aversion to colder temperatures and high salinity. First appearance in estuarine shallows occurred above 10°C, and catch increased to 21°C over 4 wk. Three-spine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) also preferred warmer low-salinity locations but preferred slowing streams, whereas mummichogs preferred tidal ponds. In the laboratory, artificial haloclines tested isothermal salinity preference, between 28‰ full-strength SW (below) and 10% SW (3.0‰; above). Mummichogs of both sexes acclimated to 5°C in SW strongly preferred SW. Freshwater (0% SW)-acclimated mummichogs at 21°C also preferred SW, but of sexually mature fish acclimated to 21°C SW, only the males preferred SW; the females showed no significant preference for SW, meaning they freely entered low salinity. SW preference was manifested by a stereotypic passive aversion to the dilute upper layer at the halocline. We conclude that the overall movement of mummichogs into summer breeding grounds of low salinity is driven by maturation of females and their preference for warmer water regardless of salinity. PMID:27153132

  8. Novelty-induced conditioned place preference, sucrose preference, and elevated plus maze behavior in adult rats after repeated exposure to methylphenidate during the preweanling period.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Cynthia A; Der-Ghazarian, Taleen; Britt, Cynthia E; Varela, Fausto A; Kozanian, Olga O

    2013-06-01

    Early treatment with methylphenidate has a persistent effect on the affective (i.e., anxiety- and depressive-like) behaviors of adult rats and mice. Interestingly, age at methylphenidate exposure appears to be a critical determinant influencing the expression of affective behaviors. In the present study, we exposed rats to methylphenidate during the preweanling period (i.e., PD 11-PD 20) because this ontogenetic period is analogous to early childhood in humans (an age associated with increasing methylphenidate usage). Rats were injected with methylphenidate (0, 2, or 5mg/kg) from PD 11 to PD 20 and reactivity to rewarding and aversive stimuli were measured in early adulthood. Specifically, novelty-induced CPP, sucrose preference, and elevated plus maze behavior were assessed on PD 60. Early treatment with 2 or 5mg/kg methylphenidate increased total time spent in the white compartment of the CPP chamber. This methylphenidate-induced effect occurred regardless of exposure condition. Performance on the elevated plus maze was also impacted by early methylphenidate exposure, because rats treated with 5mg/kg methylphenidate spent more time in the closed compartment of the elevated plus maze than vehicle controls. Early methylphenidate exposure did not alter sucrose preference. These data indicate that exposing rats to methylphenidate during the preweanling period differentially affects anxiety-like behavior depending on the type of anxiety-provoking stimulus. Specifically, early methylphenidate exposure decreased aversion to a bright white room when measured on a novelty-induced CPP task, whereas methylphenidate caused a long-term increase in anxiety when measured on the elevated plus maze. PMID:23466690

  9. Novelty-induced conditioned place preference, sucrose preference, and elevated plus maze behavior in adult rats after repeated exposure to methylphenidate during the preweanling period.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Cynthia A; Der-Ghazarian, Taleen; Britt, Cynthia E; Varela, Fausto A; Kozanian, Olga O

    2013-06-01

    Early treatment with methylphenidate has a persistent effect on the affective (i.e., anxiety- and depressive-like) behaviors of adult rats and mice. Interestingly, age at methylphenidate exposure appears to be a critical determinant influencing the expression of affective behaviors. In the present study, we exposed rats to methylphenidate during the preweanling period (i.e., PD 11-PD 20) because this ontogenetic period is analogous to early childhood in humans (an age associated with increasing methylphenidate usage). Rats were injected with methylphenidate (0, 2, or 5mg/kg) from PD 11 to PD 20 and reactivity to rewarding and aversive stimuli were measured in early adulthood. Specifically, novelty-induced CPP, sucrose preference, and elevated plus maze behavior were assessed on PD 60. Early treatment with 2 or 5mg/kg methylphenidate increased total time spent in the white compartment of the CPP chamber. This methylphenidate-induced effect occurred regardless of exposure condition. Performance on the elevated plus maze was also impacted by early methylphenidate exposure, because rats treated with 5mg/kg methylphenidate spent more time in the closed compartment of the elevated plus maze than vehicle controls. Early methylphenidate exposure did not alter sucrose preference. These data indicate that exposing rats to methylphenidate during the preweanling period differentially affects anxiety-like behavior depending on the type of anxiety-provoking stimulus. Specifically, early methylphenidate exposure decreased aversion to a bright white room when measured on a novelty-induced CPP task, whereas methylphenidate caused a long-term increase in anxiety when measured on the elevated plus maze.

  10. Early Child Care Teachers' Socialization Goals and Preferred Behavioral Strategies: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gernhardt, Ariane; Lamm, Bettina; Keller, Heidi; Döge, Paula

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated early child care teachers' culturally shaped socialization goals and preferred behavioral strategies. The participants were 183 female teachers and trainees, 93 from Osnabrück, Germany, representing an urban Western context, which can be characterized by a primary cultural orientation toward psychological autonomy and…

  11. Maternal Education Preferences Moderate the Effects of Mandatory Employment and Education Programs on Child Positive and Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassman-Pines, Anna; Godfrey, Erin B.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Grounded in person-environment fit theory, this study examined whether low-income mothers' preferences for education moderated the effects of employment- and education-focused welfare programs on children’s positive and problem behaviors. The sample included 1,365 families with children between ages 3 and 5 years at study entry. Results 5 years…

  12. The Mediating and Moderating Effects of Teacher Preference on the Relations between Students' Social Behaviors and Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Lei; Liu, Hongyun; Fung, Kitty Y.; Wang, Yan; Wen, Zhonglin; Li, Hongli; Farver, JoAnn M.

    2007-01-01

    Tested on a sample of 1,365 Hong Kong primary school students from five grades, teacher preference or the extent to which the classroom teacher likes a child in the class was found to both mediate and, to a lesser extent, moderate the relations between children's social behaviors and peer acceptance across age groups. The mediating effect suggests…

  13. Nesting habits shape feeding preferences and predatory behavior in an ant genus.

    PubMed

    Dejean, Alain; Labrière, Nicolas; Touchard, Axel; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    We tested if nesting habits influence ant feeding preferences and predatory behavior in the monophyletic genus Pseudomyrmex (Pseudomyrmecinae) which comprises terrestrial and arboreal species, and, among the latter, plant-ants which are obligate inhabitants of myrmecophytes (i.e., plants sheltering so-called plant-ants in hollow structures). A cafeteria experiment revealed that the diet of ground-nesting Pseudomyrmex consists mostly of prey and that of arboreal species consists mostly of sugary substances, whereas the plant-ants discarded all the food we provided. Workers forage solitarily, detecting prey from a distance thanks to their hypertrophied eyes. Approach is followed by antennal contact, seizure, and the manipulation of the prey to sting it under its thorax (next to the ventral nerve cord). Arboreal species were not more efficient at capturing prey than were ground-nesting species. A large worker size favors prey capture. Workers from ground- and arboreal-nesting species show several uncommon behavioral traits, each known in different ant genera from different subfamilies: leaping abilities, the use of surface tension strengths to transport liquids, short-range recruitment followed by conflicts between nestmates, the consumption of the prey's hemolymph, and the retrieval of entire prey or pieces of prey after having cut it up. Yet, we never noted group ambushing. We also confirmed that Pseudomyrmex plant-ants live in a kind of food autarky as they feed only on rewards produced by their host myrmecophyte, or on honeydew produced by the hemipterans they attend and possibly on the fungi they cultivate.

  14. Nesting habits shape feeding preferences and predatory behavior in an ant genus.

    PubMed

    Dejean, Alain; Labrière, Nicolas; Touchard, Axel; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    We tested if nesting habits influence ant feeding preferences and predatory behavior in the monophyletic genus Pseudomyrmex (Pseudomyrmecinae) which comprises terrestrial and arboreal species, and, among the latter, plant-ants which are obligate inhabitants of myrmecophytes (i.e., plants sheltering so-called plant-ants in hollow structures). A cafeteria experiment revealed that the diet of ground-nesting Pseudomyrmex consists mostly of prey and that of arboreal species consists mostly of sugary substances, whereas the plant-ants discarded all the food we provided. Workers forage solitarily, detecting prey from a distance thanks to their hypertrophied eyes. Approach is followed by antennal contact, seizure, and the manipulation of the prey to sting it under its thorax (next to the ventral nerve cord). Arboreal species were not more efficient at capturing prey than were ground-nesting species. A large worker size favors prey capture. Workers from ground- and arboreal-nesting species show several uncommon behavioral traits, each known in different ant genera from different subfamilies: leaping abilities, the use of surface tension strengths to transport liquids, short-range recruitment followed by conflicts between nestmates, the consumption of the prey's hemolymph, and the retrieval of entire prey or pieces of prey after having cut it up. Yet, we never noted group ambushing. We also confirmed that Pseudomyrmex plant-ants live in a kind of food autarky as they feed only on rewards produced by their host myrmecophyte, or on honeydew produced by the hemipterans they attend and possibly on the fungi they cultivate. PMID:24566996

  15. Nesting habits shape feeding preferences and predatory behavior in an ant genus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Labrière, Nicolas; Touchard, Axel; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    We tested if nesting habits influence ant feeding preferences and predatory behavior in the monophyletic genus Pseudomyrmex (Pseudomyrmecinae) which comprises terrestrial and arboreal species, and, among the latter, plant-ants which are obligate inhabitants of myrmecophytes (i.e., plants sheltering so-called plant-ants in hollow structures). A cafeteria experiment revealed that the diet of ground-nesting Pseudomyrmex consists mostly of prey and that of arboreal species consists mostly of sugary substances, whereas the plant-ants discarded all the food we provided. Workers forage solitarily, detecting prey from a distance thanks to their hypertrophied eyes. Approach is followed by antennal contact, seizure, and the manipulation of the prey to sting it under its thorax (next to the ventral nerve cord). Arboreal species were not more efficient at capturing prey than were ground-nesting species. A large worker size favors prey capture. Workers from ground- and arboreal-nesting species show several uncommon behavioral traits, each known in different ant genera from different subfamilies: leaping abilities, the use of surface tension strengths to transport liquids, short-range recruitment followed by conflicts between nestmates, the consumption of the prey's hemolymph, and the retrieval of entire prey or pieces of prey after having cut it up. Yet, we never noted group ambushing. We also confirmed that Pseudomyrmex plant-ants live in a kind of food autarky as they feed only on rewards produced by their host myrmecophyte, or on honeydew produced by the hemipterans they attend and possibly on the fungi they cultivate.

  16. Clay preference and particle transport behavior of Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cai; Henderson, Gregg

    2014-12-01

    Although preference and utilization of clay have been studied in many higher termites, little attention has been paid to lower termites, especially subterranean termites. The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, can modify its habitat by using clay to fill tree cavities. Here, the biological significance of clay on C. formosanus was investigated. Choice tests showed that significantly more termites aggregated in chambers where clay blocks were provided, regardless of colony group, observation period, or nutritional condition (fed or starved). No-choice tests showed that clay had no observable effect on survivorship, live or dry biomass, water content, and tunneling activity after 33-35 d. However, clay appeared to significantly decrease filter paper consumption (dry weight loss). Active particle (sand, paper, and clay) transport behavior was observed in both choice and no-choice tests. When present, clay was preferentially spread on the substrate, attached to the smooth surfaces of the containers, and used to line sand tunnels. Mechanisms and potential application of clay attraction are discussed.

  17. A Context-Aware Mobile User Behavior-Based Neighbor Finding Approach for Preference Profile Construction †

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qian; Fu, Deqian; Dong, Xiangjun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach is adopted to update the user preference profile by seeking users with similar interests based on the context obtainable for a mobile network instead of from desktop networks. The trust degree between mobile users is calculated by analyzing their behavior based on the context, and then the approximate neighbors are chosen by combining the similarity of the mobile user preference and the trust degree. The approach first considers the communication behaviors between mobile users, the mobile network services they use as well as the corresponding context information. Then a similarity degree of the preference between users is calculated with the evaluation score of a certain mobile web service provided by a mobile user. Finally, based on the time attenuation function, the users with similar preference are found, through which we can dynamically update the target user’s preference profile. Experiments are then conducted to test the effect of the context on the credibility among mobile users, the effect of time decay factors and trust degree thresholds. Simulation shows that the proposed approach outperforms two other methods in terms of Recall Ratio, Precision Ratio and Mean Absolute Error, because neither of them consider the context mobile information. PMID:26805852

  18. The Personality Trait of Intolerance to Uncertainty Affects Behavior in a Novel Computer-Based Conditioned Place Preference Task.

    PubMed

    Radell, Milen L; Myers, Catherine E; Beck, Kevin D; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Allen, Michael Todd

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has found that personality factors that confer vulnerability to addiction can also affect learning and economic decision making. One personality trait which has been implicated in vulnerability to addiction is intolerance to uncertainty (IU), i.e., a preference for familiar over unknown (possibly better) options. In animals, the motivation to obtain drugs is often assessed through conditioned place preference (CPP), which compares preference for contexts where drug reward was previously received. It is an open question whether participants with high IU also show heightened preference for previously rewarded contexts. To address this question, we developed a novel computer-based CPP task for humans in which participants guide an avatar through a paradigm in which one room contains frequent reward (i.e., rich) and one contains less frequent reward (i.e., poor). Following exposure to both contexts, subjects are assessed for preference to enter the previously rich and previously poor room. Individuals with low IU showed little bias to enter the previously rich room first, and instead entered both rooms at about the same rate which may indicate a foraging behavior. By contrast, those with high IU showed a strong bias to enter the previously rich room first. This suggests an increased tendency to chase reward in the intolerant group, consistent with previously observed behavior in opioid-addicted individuals. Thus, the personality factor of high IU may produce a pre-existing cognitive bias that provides a mechanism to promote decision-making processes that increase vulnerability to addiction.

  19. Effects of neuropeptide Y and ethanol on arousal and anxiety-like behavior in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W; Henderson, Angela N; Badia-Elder, Nancy E; Stewart, Robert B

    2011-03-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundant in the mammalian brain and plays a prominent role in behaviors related to negative affect and alcohol. NPY suppresses anxiety-like behavior and alcohol-drinking behaviors in a wide array of rodent models and also affects changes in these behaviors produced by fearful and stressful stimuli. Rats selectively bred for high alcohol preference (P rats) appear to be particularly sensitive to the behavioral effects of NPY. The dual purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of intraventricular NPY on (1) the acoustic startle response (ASR) of P rats in a high-anxiety setting and (2) social interaction behavior of P rats. In experiment 1, P rats were either cycled through periods of long-term ethanol access and abstinence or they remained ethanol naive. Rats were injected with one of four NPY doses and tested for ASR before and after footshock stress. NPY suppressed ASR in all P rats regardless of shock condition or drinking history. In experiment 2, rats received intraventricular infusion of one of four NPY doses and were then injected with either ethanol (0.75 g/kg) or saline and tested for social interaction. NPY increased social interaction in P rats even at doses that suppressed locomotor activity, regardless of ethanol dose. Suppression of anxiety-like and arousal behaviors by NPY in the present study confirm a role for NPY in alcohol-related behaviors in alcohol-preferring P rats.

  20. The Posterior Ventral Tegmental Area Mediates Alcohol-Seeking Behavior in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zheng-Ming; Getachew, Bruk; Toalston, Jamie E.; Oster, Scott M.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2011-01-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is involved in the rewarding process of drugs of abuse and is activated during the anticipation of drug availability. However, the neurocircuitry that regulates ethanol (EtOH)-seeking has not been adequately investigated. The objectives of the present study were to determine 1) whether the posterior ventral tegmental area (p-VTA) mediates EtOH-seeking, 2) whether microinjections of EtOH into the p-VTA could stimulate EtOH-seeking, and (3) the involvement of p-VTA DA neurons in EtOH-seeking. Alcohol-preferring rats were trained to self-administer 15% EtOH and water. After 10 weeks, rats underwent extinction training, followed by 2 weeks in their home cages. During the home-cage period, rats were then bilaterally implanted with guide cannulae aimed at the p-VTA or anterior ventral tegmental area (a-VTA). EtOH-seeking was assessed by the Pavlovian spontaneous recovery model. Separate experiments examined the effects of: 1) microinjection of quinpirole into the p-VTA, 2) EtOH microinjected into the p-VTA, 3) coadministration of EtOH and quinpirole into the p-VTA, 4) microinjection of quinpirole into the a-VTA, and 5) microinjection of EtOH into the a-VTA. Quinpirole microinjected into the p-VTA reduced EtOH-seeking. Microinjections of EtOH into the p-VTA increased EtOH-seeking. Pretreatment with both quinpirole and EtOH into the p-VTA reduced EtOH-seeking. Microinjections of quinpirole or EtOH into the a-VTA did not alter EtOH-seeking. Overall, the results suggest that the p-VTA is a neuroanatomical substrate mediating alcohol-seeking behavior and that activation of local DA neurons is involved. PMID:21148248

  1. Heat or Insulation: Behavioral Titration of Mouse Preference for Warmth or Access to a Nest

    PubMed Central

    Gaskill, Brianna N.; Gordon, Christopher J.; Pajor, Edmond A.; Lucas, Jeffrey R.; Davis, Jerry K.; Garner, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    In laboratories, mice are housed at 20–24°C, which is below their lower critical temperature (≈30°C). This increased thermal stress has the potential to alter scientific outcomes. Nesting material should allow for improved behavioral thermoregulation and thus alleviate this thermal stress. Nesting behavior should change with temperature and material, and the choice between nesting or thermotaxis (movement in response to temperature) should also depend on the balance of these factors, such that mice titrate nesting material against temperature. Naïve CD-1, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice (36 male and 36 female/strain in groups of 3) were housed in a set of 2 connected cages, each maintained at a different temperature using a water bath. One cage in each set was 20°C (Nesting cage; NC) while the other was one of 6 temperatures (Temperature cage; TC: 20, 23, 26, 29, 32, or 35°C). The NC contained one of 6 nesting provisions (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10g), changed daily. Food intake and nest scores were measured in both cages. As the difference in temperature between paired cages increased, feed consumption in NC increased. Nesting provision altered differences in nest scores between the 2 paired temperatures. Nest scores in NC increased with increasing provision. In addition, temperature pairings altered the difference in nest scores with the smallest difference between locations at 26°C and 29°C. Mice transferred material from NC to TC but the likelihood of transfer decreased with increasing provision. Overall, mice of different strains and sexes prefer temperatures between 26–29°C and the shift from thermotaxis to nest building is seen between 6 and 10 g of material. Our results suggest that under normal laboratory temperatures, mice should be provided with no less than 6 grams of nesting material, but up to 10 grams may be needed to alleviate thermal distress under typical temperatures. PMID:22479340

  2. Heat or insulation: behavioral titration of mouse preference for warmth or access to a nest.

    PubMed

    Gaskill, Brianna N; Gordon, Christopher J; Pajor, Edmond A; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Davis, Jerry K; Garner, Joseph P

    2012-01-01

    In laboratories, mice are housed at 20-24°C, which is below their lower critical temperature (≈30°C). This increased thermal stress has the potential to alter scientific outcomes. Nesting material should allow for improved behavioral thermoregulation and thus alleviate this thermal stress. Nesting behavior should change with temperature and material, and the choice between nesting or thermotaxis (movement in response to temperature) should also depend on the balance of these factors, such that mice titrate nesting material against temperature. Naïve CD-1, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice (36 male and 36 female/strain in groups of 3) were housed in a set of 2 connected cages, each maintained at a different temperature using a water bath. One cage in each set was 20°C (Nesting cage; NC) while the other was one of 6 temperatures (Temperature cage; TC: 20, 23, 26, 29, 32, or 35°C). The NC contained one of 6 nesting provisions (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10g), changed daily. Food intake and nest scores were measured in both cages. As the difference in temperature between paired cages increased, feed consumption in NC increased. Nesting provision altered differences in nest scores between the 2 paired temperatures. Nest scores in NC increased with increasing provision. In addition, temperature pairings altered the difference in nest scores with the smallest difference between locations at 26°C and 29°C. Mice transferred material from NC to TC but the likelihood of transfer decreased with increasing provision. Overall, mice of different strains and sexes prefer temperatures between 26-29°C and the shift from thermotaxis to nest building is seen between 6 and 10 g of material. Our results suggest that under normal laboratory temperatures, mice should be provided with no less than 6 grams of nesting material, but up to 10 grams may be needed to alleviate thermal distress under typical temperatures. PMID:22479340

  3. Heat or insulation: behavioral titration of mouse preference for warmth or access to a nest.

    PubMed

    Gaskill, Brianna N; Gordon, Christopher J; Pajor, Edmond A; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Davis, Jerry K; Garner, Joseph P

    2012-01-01

    In laboratories, mice are housed at 20-24°C, which is below their lower critical temperature (≈30°C). This increased thermal stress has the potential to alter scientific outcomes. Nesting material should allow for improved behavioral thermoregulation and thus alleviate this thermal stress. Nesting behavior should change with temperature and material, and the choice between nesting or thermotaxis (movement in response to temperature) should also depend on the balance of these factors, such that mice titrate nesting material against temperature. Naïve CD-1, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice (36 male and 36 female/strain in groups of 3) were housed in a set of 2 connected cages, each maintained at a different temperature using a water bath. One cage in each set was 20°C (Nesting cage; NC) while the other was one of 6 temperatures (Temperature cage; TC: 20, 23, 26, 29, 32, or 35°C). The NC contained one of 6 nesting provisions (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10g), changed daily. Food intake and nest scores were measured in both cages. As the difference in temperature between paired cages increased, feed consumption in NC increased. Nesting provision altered differences in nest scores between the 2 paired temperatures. Nest scores in NC increased with increasing provision. In addition, temperature pairings altered the difference in nest scores with the smallest difference between locations at 26°C and 29°C. Mice transferred material from NC to TC but the likelihood of transfer decreased with increasing provision. Overall, mice of different strains and sexes prefer temperatures between 26-29°C and the shift from thermotaxis to nest building is seen between 6 and 10 g of material. Our results suggest that under normal laboratory temperatures, mice should be provided with no less than 6 grams of nesting material, but up to 10 grams may be needed to alleviate thermal distress under typical temperatures.

  4. Hypothalamic and olfactory control of sexual behavior and partner preference in male rats.

    PubMed

    Edwards, D A; Walter, B; Liang, P

    1996-11-01

    Sexually active male rats prefer a sexually receptive female to a nonreceptive female, and partner-preference tests provide one way of studying sexual motivation. Surgical deafferentation of the olfactory bulbs from all the known chemosensory systems of the nasal septum renders rats anosmic. In Experiment 1, we show that, although bulb deafferentation of male rats decreases some aspects of sexual performance, most deafferented males copulate and partner preference is not affected. In Experiment 2, we show that large excitotoxin lesions of the preoptic hypothalamus eliminate copulation, an effect that is correlated with damage to the anterior portions of the medial and lateral preoptic area. Lesions also decrease partner preference, an effect that is correlated (r = 0.82) with damage to a small part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Most males who do not copulate after hypothalamic lesions show a persistent, albeit reduced, preference for receptive females over nonreceptive females. This preference appears to depend on olfactory ability because bulb deafferentation of lesioned, noncopulating males virtually eliminates partner preference.

  5. Educational attainment, time preference, and health-related behaviors: A mediation analysis from the J-SHINE survey.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Daisuke; Kondo, Naoki; Takada, Misato; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2016-03-01

    Evidence consistently shows that low education is associated with unhealthy behaviors. A recent study in behavioral economics argued that high time preferences - the tendency to prefer immediate gain to later reward - explain the limited self-control of individuals in making preventive health-related choices. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of time preference on the associations between education and smoking, binge drinking and overweight in young and middle-aged adults living in a Japanese metropolitan area, using a quantitatively measured time discount rate. A population-based probabilistic sample of residents of 25-50 years of age living in four municipalities within Japanese metropolitan areas where economic disparity is relatively large was obtained from the Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE). Respondents answered the questionnaire items using a computer-aided personal instrument (CAPI). Data from 3457 respondents were used in this study. Time preferences measured as categorical responses were converted into a continuous number of time discount rates by using the maximum likelihood method. Smoking habit, binge drinking, and body mass index were regressed on educational attainment with demographics and other confounders. The mediating effects of the time discount rate were examined with the bootstrapping method. Results showed that the time discount rate did not mediate the association between education and binge drinking and BMI. Even for smoking, the mediating effect of time discount rate was quite limited, indicating that the proportion of total effect of education mediated was only 4.3% for men and 3.0% for women. The results suggest that modifying time preferences through educational intervention has only limited efficacy in closing disparities in health-related behaviors, and that other mediators fostered by schooling, such as knowledge/skills, group norms and supportive peers

  6. Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe) Prevents Morphine-Induced Addictive Behaviors in Conditioned Place Preference Test in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Torkzadeh-Mahani, Shima; Nasri, Sima; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Background Consumption of chronic morphine induces neuro-inflammation and addictive seeking behavior. Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe), a well-known spice plant, has been used traditionally in the treatment of a wide variety of ailments. It has been shown that ginger has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and antinociceptive properties. However, its influences on morphine-induced addictive behaviors have not yet been clarified. The aim of the present study was the inhibition of exploratory behavior of morphine addiction in the conditioned place preference test in male desert rats through ginger. Methods For conditioning to the morphine, the male Wistar rats received morphine (12 mg/kg intraperitoneally or i.p.) for 6 consecutive days and treatment groups were given different doses of ginger (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg intragastrically or i.g.) 30 min before morphine injection. For investigating addictive seeking behavior, conditioned place preference test (CPP) was used. Findings Our result demonstrated that injection of morphine for 6 days induces dependency to morphine and creates addictive seeking behavior and ginger (100 mg/kg) could decrease time spend in conditioning box (addictive seeking behavior). Conclusion The data indicated that ginger extract has a potential anti-addictive property against chronic usage of morphine. PMID:25140219

  7. Aggression Norms in the Classroom Social Network: Contexts of Aggressive Behavior and Social Preference in Middle Childhood.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Daisy R; Cappella, Elise; Neal, Jennifer Watling

    2015-12-01

    In a cross-sectional sample of African-American 2nd-4th grade students (N = 681), we examine the moderating effects of classroom overt and relational aggression norms on peers' social acceptance of classmates who exhibit overt and relational aggression in urban schools. Extending theory and research on classroom norms, we integrate social network data to adjust aggression norms based on children's direct and indirect connections in the classroom. Results of multilevel models indicate that network-based classroom aggression norms moderated relations between children's aggressive behavior and their social preference. Specifically, children benefited socially when their form of aggressive behavior fit with what was normative in the classroom social context. The moderating effect of classroom aggression norms was stronger for the association between overt aggression and social preference than relational aggression and social preference. Relationally aggressive youth were socially preferred by peers regardless of the classroom norm, although this positive association was magnified in classrooms with higher levels of relational aggression. Future research focused on aggression norms within classroom social networks are discussed and implications for school prevention efforts are considered.

  8. A selective androgen receptor modulator enhances male-directed sexual preference, proceptive behavior, and lordosis behavior in sexually experienced, but not sexually naive, female rats.

    PubMed

    Kudwa, A E; López, F J; McGivern, R F; Handa, R J

    2010-06-01

    Androgens influence many aspects of reproductive behavior, including sexual preference of females for males. In oophorectomized women with sexual desire disorder, testosterone patches improve libido, but their use is limited because of adverse side effects. Selective androgen receptor modulators offer an improved safety profile for both sexes: enhancing libido and muscle and bone growth in a manner similar to steroidal androgens but with fewer adverse effects, such as hirsutism, acne, and prostate growth. The current study investigated the action of a novel selective androgen receptor modulator (LGD-3303 [9-chloro-2-ethyl-1-methyl-3-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-3H-pyrrolo-[3,2-f]quinolin-7(6H)-one]) on male-directed sexual preference, proceptivity, and lordosis behavior of female rats. LGD-3303 is a nonsteroidal, nonaromatizable, highly selective ligand for the androgen receptor and effectively crosses the blood-brain barrier. Gonadectomized female rats were treated with LGD-3303 (3-30 mg/kg) or vehicle by daily oral gavage. Results showed that LGD-3303 treatment enhanced sexual preference of females for males but only if females had previous sexual experience. This occurred after 1 or 7 d of treatment. In contrast, preference for males was inhibited by LGD-3303 treatments of sexually naive females. The LGD-3303 increase in male preference was blocked by pretreatment with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide. LGD-3303 treatment increased lordosis and proceptivity behaviors in ovariectomized females primed with suboptimal doses of estradiol benzoate plus progesterone. These data support the concept that LGD-3303 can stimulate aspects of female sexual behavior and may serve as a potential therapeutic for women with sexual desire disorders.

  9. Speech Preference Is Associated with Autistic-Like Behavior in 18-Months-Olds at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether infants' preference for speech at 12 months is associated with autistic-like behaviors at 18 months in infants who are at increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) because they have an older sibling diagnosed with ASD and in low-risk infants. Only low-risk infants listened significantly longer to speech than to…

  10. Don't stand so close to me: a behavioral and ERP study of preferred interpersonal distance.

    PubMed

    Perry, Anat; Rubinsten, Orly; Peled, Leehe; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2013-12-01

    The space between people, or interpersonal distance, creates and defines the dynamics of social interactions. Given that invasion of one's interpersonal space may trigger threat and anxiety, a critical question is if high vulnerability to social anxiety (SA) is associated with avoidance and attentional biases when anticipating invasion to one's interpersonal space. Therefore, the current study sought to examine the behavioral mechanisms, time course and neural correlates underlying the threat of interpersonal distance invasion with a focus on different SA levels, using both a behavioral and an ERP experiment. Preferred interpersonal distance was assessed using a paradigm that involves responding to different virtual protagonists (friend or stranger) approaching the participant by indicating where one would like the protagonist to stop. In addition, participants' level of social anxiety was measured. The behavioral experiment indicated that levels of SA predicted one's preferred interpersonal distance such that higher SA individuals preferred further distance from a stranger. At the neural level, across groups, early (N1) but not late (LPP) differences were found between stranger and friend conditions. Importantly, SA individuals were characterized by attenuated early ERP responses, suggesting less attentional resources allocated to social stimuli. The results suggest that high SA individuals feel discomfort earlier than others in social engagement, which may lead them to stand further away, thus creating less communicative social interactions. PMID:23876246

  11. Assessment of Texan pharmacists’ attitudes, behaviors, and preferences related to continuing pharmacy education

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whether the available Continuing Education (CE) programs meet pharmacists’ continuously increasing needs and preferences is open to question. Objectives: to investigate pharmacists’ perceptions and attitudes concerning available CE programs, evaluate the pharmacists’ choices with regard to selecting among different CE programs, and investigate the factors that are associated with preference to utilize online CE programs. Method: A 17-question survey was developed and mailed to a random sample of 600 Texan pharmacists. In addition to collecting basic demographic information, the survey investigated pharmacists’ choices with regard to delivery and content of CE programs, motivations to participation in CE programs, and pharmacists’ preferences for future CE programs. Results: A total of 161 pharmacists completed the survey and mailed back their responses. Excluding the 75 undeliverable surveys, the response rate was 31%. Approximately 83% of respondents found that currently available CE programs met their educational needs. The most important factors influencing pharmacists’ choices with regard to CE programs were the scope programs, the location where programs are held, and the cost associated with enrolling in such programs. Online CE was the most preferred mode of CE among participants. The factors that were associated with pharmacists’ preferences to complete 50% or more of required CE through online programs were previous use of online CE programs, preference to limit the duration of CE programs to 1 or 2 hour-long, and perceived ability to find adequate CE programs among currently available CE programs. Conclusion: The findings suggest modalities for CE programs providers on how to improve CE programs in the future in order to meet the preferences of local pharmacists. PMID:27785162

  12. The Personality Trait of Intolerance to Uncertainty Affects Behavior in a Novel Computer-Based Conditioned Place Preference Task

    PubMed Central

    Radell, Milen L.; Myers, Catherine E.; Beck, Kevin D.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Allen, Michael Todd

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has found that personality factors that confer vulnerability to addiction can also affect learning and economic decision making. One personality trait which has been implicated in vulnerability to addiction is intolerance to uncertainty (IU), i.e., a preference for familiar over unknown (possibly better) options. In animals, the motivation to obtain drugs is often assessed through conditioned place preference (CPP), which compares preference for contexts where drug reward was previously received. It is an open question whether participants with high IU also show heightened preference for previously rewarded contexts. To address this question, we developed a novel computer-based CPP task for humans in which participants guide an avatar through a paradigm in which one room contains frequent reward (i.e., rich) and one contains less frequent reward (i.e., poor). Following exposure to both contexts, subjects are assessed for preference to enter the previously rich and previously poor room. Individuals with low IU showed little bias to enter the previously rich room first, and instead entered both rooms at about the same rate which may indicate a foraging behavior. By contrast, those with high IU showed a strong bias to enter the previously rich room first. This suggests an increased tendency to chase reward in the intolerant group, consistent with previously observed behavior in opioid-addicted individuals. Thus, the personality factor of high IU may produce a pre-existing cognitive bias that provides a mechanism to promote decision-making processes that increase vulnerability to addiction. PMID:27555829

  13. The Personality Trait of Intolerance to Uncertainty Affects Behavior in a Novel Computer-Based Conditioned Place Preference Task.

    PubMed

    Radell, Milen L; Myers, Catherine E; Beck, Kevin D; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Allen, Michael Todd

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has found that personality factors that confer vulnerability to addiction can also affect learning and economic decision making. One personality trait which has been implicated in vulnerability to addiction is intolerance to uncertainty (IU), i.e., a preference for familiar over unknown (possibly better) options. In animals, the motivation to obtain drugs is often assessed through conditioned place preference (CPP), which compares preference for contexts where drug reward was previously received. It is an open question whether participants with high IU also show heightened preference for previously rewarded contexts. To address this question, we developed a novel computer-based CPP task for humans in which participants guide an avatar through a paradigm in which one room contains frequent reward (i.e., rich) and one contains less frequent reward (i.e., poor). Following exposure to both contexts, subjects are assessed for preference to enter the previously rich and previously poor room. Individuals with low IU showed little bias to enter the previously rich room first, and instead entered both rooms at about the same rate which may indicate a foraging behavior. By contrast, those with high IU showed a strong bias to enter the previously rich room first. This suggests an increased tendency to chase reward in the intolerant group, consistent with previously observed behavior in opioid-addicted individuals. Thus, the personality factor of high IU may produce a pre-existing cognitive bias that provides a mechanism to promote decision-making processes that increase vulnerability to addiction. PMID:27555829

  14. A comparative analysis of homosexual behaviors, sex role preferences, and anal sex proclivities in Latino and non-Latino men.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, William L

    2009-10-01

    Machismo prescribes that homosexual encounters among Latino men are conducted along highly gendered lines: men tend to be anally insertive or receptive over the lifecourse, but not both. Some have argued that Latino men have more lifecourse homosexual behaviors in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups. This is often due to the perception that Latin America has quasi-institutionalized homosexuality, which sharply contrasts it with the United States. Although scholars suggest that sex role preferences and greater likelihoods for homosexual behaviors exist among Latino men in the United States, limited empirical data validate these claims. Latino/non-Latino differences in male homosexual behaviors and sex role preferences were analyzed by using the 2002 cycle of the National Survey of Family Growth, a nationally representative, probability sample of 4,928 men. Findings revealed that non-Mexican Latino, but not Mexican, men had increased likelihoods of ever having anal sex than non-Latino Whites and oral sex than non-Latino Blacks. These relationships remained after controlling for age, education, and foreign birth. Latino men preferred insertive or receptive sex in comparison to non-Latino Blacks and Whites, but this difference disappeared after education was controlled. In full and reduced models, Mexican men tended to be orifice-specific (oral or anal), while non-Mexican Latinos were more oriented to both oral and anal sex. Controlling for other factors, all Latinos were more likely than non-Latino Blacks and Whites to refuse to answer male homosexual behavior questions. The implications of race/ethnicity are discussed for homosexual behavior patterns among U.S. men.

  15. Strategic Persuasive Writing Instruction for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.; Irby Cerar, Nancy; Guckert, Mary; Thompson, Catherine; Bronaugh, Danette Allen; Jakulski, Jill; Abdulalim, Latif; Mills, Sara; Evmenova, Anya; Regan, Kelley; Cuenca-Carlino, Yojanna

    2015-01-01

    Expressive writing is important for school and life success, but remains challenging for many students with emotional and behavioral disabilities. Emerging evidence reveals promise for teaching students with learning and behavioral issues to improve written expression with self-regulated strategy development instruction. In that research, students…

  16. Effect of Female-Biased Sex Ratios on Female Homosexual Behavior in Japanese Macaques: Evidence for the "Bisexual Preference Hypothesis".

    PubMed

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Huffman, Michael A; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to explain the frequent and prevalent female homosexual behavior in the context of female-biased operational sex ratios (OSR) and qualified sex ratios (Q) in a free-ranging group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama-Kyoto, Japan. Our data included the average availability of sexually mature males during females' putative fertile period (OSR), the ratio of sexually mature males to sexually mature females (Q), as well as heterosexual and female homosexual solicitations and consortships collected during 13 mating seasons from 136 females. Our results did not support the "heterosexual deprivation hypothesis," which holds that female homosexual behavior is attributable to a shortage of male mates. Likewise, our results did not support the "lack of opposite-sex sexual competitor hypothesis," which holds that females have more access to female mates when male sexual rivals are scarce. Of the 11 predictions tested, only one yielded statistically significant results: we found that higher ratios of availability of preferred female partners to preferred male partners were associated with female homosexual consortships rather than female heterosexual consortships. This result supported the "bisexual preference hypothesis," which holds that female homosexual behavior is attributable to female preference for certain female mates relative to certain male mates. We conclude that when a female targets another female as a mate, it is an active choice for a female sexual partner over available male alternatives, rather than a by-default situation that occurs because males are not available as sexual partners, or because females are better able to access female sexual partners due to a scarcity of male sexual competitors.

  17. SDN-POA volume, sexual behavior, and partner preference of male rats affected by perinatal treatment with ATD.

    PubMed

    Houtsmuller, E J; Brand, T; de Jonge, F H; Joosten, R N; van de Poll, N E; Slob, A K

    1994-09-01

    The present study investigated 1) the importance of the aromatization process during the perinatal period for the development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (SDN-POA) of male rats, and 2) the relationship between SDN-POA volume and parameters of masculinization in male rats that were treated perinatally with the aromatase-inhibitor ATD. Males were treated with ATD either prenatally or pre- and neonatally, or with the vehicle. Masculine sexual behavior and partner preference were investigated in adulthood. Thereafter, animals were sacrificed and SDN-POA volume was measured. The SDN-POA volume was reduced in both the prenatally and the pre- and neonatally treated group, with a larger reduction in the latter than in the former group. Combined pre- and neonatal ATD treatment resulted in reduced frequency of mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations, as well as a reduced preference for a female over a male. The SDN-POA size was significantly and positively correlated with frequency of masculine sexual behavior, as well as preference for a female over a male.

  18. Caffeine Reinforces Flavor Preference and Behavior in Moderate Users but Not in Low Caffeine Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dack, Charlotte; Reed, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the role of caffeine consumption in caffeine reinforcement. Previous findings have shown that caffeine reinforced flavor preference in moderate caffeine consumers who are caffeine deprived. However, most of these studies have employed rating procedures only, and have not shown the effectiveness of caffeine to reinforce behaviors…

  19. Effect of social housing on the development of feeding behavior and social feeding preferences of dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated how social housing affects pre- and postweaning feeding behavior and social feeding preferences of dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were housed either individually (IH; 10 calves) or in pairs (PH; 10 calves) from birth. Calves were offered grain concentrate and milk replacer ad libitum via an artificial teat (1 teat provided per calf) and weaned by incrementally diluting the milk replacer from 39 to 49 d of age. Postweaning, IH calves were paired within treatment and all pens (n=5 per treatment) were offered a complete pelleted diet ad libitum and followed until 13 wk of age. We recorded feeding times from video for 3 consecutive days in wk 6, 9, and 12 of age and used this to calculate daily meal frequency and meal duration. In wk 9 and 12, frequency and duration of synchronized feeding were also calculated. In addition, preference tests were conducted at time of feed delivery in wk 10 to assess the preference of each calf to feed alongside or out of visual contact of their pen mate. Pair-housed calves consumed more concentrate, in more frequent meals, than IH calves in the week before weaning (wk 6) and continued to have greater concentrate intake during weaning. Milk intake was not affected by treatment, but calves in PH pens consumed their milk in more frequent and smaller meals. Postweaning, intake was similar between treatments, but calves raised in PH pens continued to have meals that were more frequent and shorter in duration. Both treatments had a similar frequency of synchronized meals. However, when offered a choice to feed alone or alongside their pen mate during preference testing, calves raised in PH pens spent more time feeding in the presence of their pen mate than calves raised in IH pens. These results suggest that meal patterns established in response to different early social environments may persist after weaning and that early social contact may have longer-term effects on social feeding behavior. PMID:26686722

  20. Preference and drinking behavior of lactating dairy cows offered water with different concentrations, valences, and sources of iron.

    PubMed

    Genther, O N; Beede, D K

    2013-02-01

    Drinking water can contain high concentrations of Fe, mainly of the ferrous (Fe(2+)) valence. The current recommended upper tolerable concentration of Fe in drinking water for cattle (0.3mg/L) comes from guidelines for human palatability, but cattle may be able to tolerate higher concentrations. Our objective was to determine the effects of varying concentrations of ferrous (Fe(2+)) or ferric (Fe(3+)) iron and Fe salt source on lactating dairy cows' preferences for and drinking behavior of water offered as choices ad libitum. In 4 separate experiments, cows were offered pairs of water treatments for 22-h periods and water intake and drinking behavior were recorded. In experiment 1, treatments were 0, 4, or 8 mg of total recoverable Fe/L from ferrous lactate. Cows exhibited no preference between water with 0 or 4 mg of Fe/L, but water intake was less with 8 compared with 0 or 4 mg of Fe/L. Also, cows spent less time drinking water containing 8 mg of Fe/L. Total time spent drinking correlated positively with water intake when pooled across treatments. In experiment 2, treatments were 0 or 8 mg of Fe/L from either ferrous sulfate (FeSO(4)) or ferric sulfate [Fe(2)(SO(4))(3)]. Water intake did not differ among treatments. In experiment 3, treatments were 0 (control), 12.5, or 8 mg of Fe/L from ferrous chloride (FeCl(2)) or ferric chloride (FeCl(3)), respectively. Again, cows exhibited no preference among treatments. In experiment 4, treatments were 0 or 8 mg of Fe/L from ferrous lactate [Fe(C(3)H(5)O(3))(2)], ferrous sulfate (FeSO(4)), or ferrous chloride (FeCl(2)). Cows preferred to drink water without added Fe, but did not exhibit any preference among waters containing the Fe sources with different anionic moieties. Cows spent less time drinking and drank less frequently when offered water containing 12.5mg of total recoverable Fe/L from ferrous chloride compared with 8.0mg of Fe/L from ferrous lactate or ferrous sulfate. Water intake correlated positively with both

  1. Political ideologies and health-oriented beliefs and behaviors: an empirical examination of strategic issues.

    PubMed

    Murrow, J J; Coulter, R L; Coulter, M K

    2000-01-01

    The area of health care has been called the most important political issue of the 1990s. Attitudes toward health care reform, increasing health costs, and defensive medical practices have been examined in the public press and by academicians. In addition, a substantial amount of research has been directed toward the improvement of individual personal health due to changes in personal health-related habits and behaviors. To date, there are relatively few studies which have attempted to examine the political tendencies of a nationwide sample of respondents as they relate to personal health-related beliefs and behaviors. This article explores the consumer's views on critical questions relating to health orientations and political tendencies. The results indicate a divergence between the political orientations of respondents and their beliefs and behaviors associated with health and wellness. Implications for policy-makers are discussed.

  2. Cognitive Model of Trust Dynamics Predicts Human Behavior within and between Two Games of Strategic Interaction with Computerized Confederate Agents.

    PubMed

    Collins, Michael G; Juvina, Ion; Gluck, Kevin A

    2016-01-01

    When playing games of strategic interaction, such as iterated Prisoner's Dilemma and iterated Chicken Game, people exhibit specific within-game learning (e.g., learning a game's optimal outcome) as well as transfer of learning between games (e.g., a game's optimal outcome occurring at a higher proportion when played after another game). The reciprocal trust players develop during the first game is thought to mediate transfer of learning effects. Recently, a computational cognitive model using a novel trust mechanism has been shown to account for human behavior in both games, including the transfer between games. We present the results of a study in which we evaluate the model's a priori predictions of human learning and transfer in 16 different conditions. The model's predictive validity is compared against five model variants that lacked a trust mechanism. The results suggest that a trust mechanism is necessary to explain human behavior across multiple conditions, even when a human plays against a non-human agent. The addition of a trust mechanism to the other learning mechanisms within the cognitive architecture, such as sequence learning, instance-based learning, and utility learning, leads to better prediction of the empirical data. It is argued that computational cognitive modeling is a useful tool for studying trust development, calibration, and repair.

  3. Cognitive Model of Trust Dynamics Predicts Human Behavior within and between Two Games of Strategic Interaction with Computerized Confederate Agents

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Michael G.; Juvina, Ion; Gluck, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    When playing games of strategic interaction, such as iterated Prisoner's Dilemma and iterated Chicken Game, people exhibit specific within-game learning (e.g., learning a game's optimal outcome) as well as transfer of learning between games (e.g., a game's optimal outcome occurring at a higher proportion when played after another game). The reciprocal trust players develop during the first game is thought to mediate transfer of learning effects. Recently, a computational cognitive model using a novel trust mechanism has been shown to account for human behavior in both games, including the transfer between games. We present the results of a study in which we evaluate the model's a priori predictions of human learning and transfer in 16 different conditions. The model's predictive validity is compared against five model variants that lacked a trust mechanism. The results suggest that a trust mechanism is necessary to explain human behavior across multiple conditions, even when a human plays against a non-human agent. The addition of a trust mechanism to the other learning mechanisms within the cognitive architecture, such as sequence learning, instance-based learning, and utility learning, leads to better prediction of the empirical data. It is argued that computational cognitive modeling is a useful tool for studying trust development, calibration, and repair. PMID:26903892

  4. Cognitive Model of Trust Dynamics Predicts Human Behavior within and between Two Games of Strategic Interaction with Computerized Confederate Agents.

    PubMed

    Collins, Michael G; Juvina, Ion; Gluck, Kevin A

    2016-01-01

    When playing games of strategic interaction, such as iterated Prisoner's Dilemma and iterated Chicken Game, people exhibit specific within-game learning (e.g., learning a game's optimal outcome) as well as transfer of learning between games (e.g., a game's optimal outcome occurring at a higher proportion when played after another game). The reciprocal trust players develop during the first game is thought to mediate transfer of learning effects. Recently, a computational cognitive model using a novel trust mechanism has been shown to account for human behavior in both games, including the transfer between games. We present the results of a study in which we evaluate the model's a priori predictions of human learning and transfer in 16 different conditions. The model's predictive validity is compared against five model variants that lacked a trust mechanism. The results suggest that a trust mechanism is necessary to explain human behavior across multiple conditions, even when a human plays against a non-human agent. The addition of a trust mechanism to the other learning mechanisms within the cognitive architecture, such as sequence learning, instance-based learning, and utility learning, leads to better prediction of the empirical data. It is argued that computational cognitive modeling is a useful tool for studying trust development, calibration, and repair. PMID:26903892

  5. Essays on Online Reviews: Reviewers' Strategic Behaviors and Contributions over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Wenqi

    2010-01-01

    Online reviews play an important role in consumers' purchasing decisions. Researchers are increasingly interested in studying the dynamic impact of online reviews on product sales. However, the antecedent of online reviews, online reviewers' behaviors, has not been fully explored. Understanding how online reviewers make review decisions can assist…

  6. Behavioral assessment of acoustic parameters relevant to signal recognition and preference in a vocal fish.

    PubMed

    McKibben, J R; Bass, A H

    1998-12-01

    Acoustic signal recognition depends on the receiver's processing of the physical attributes of a sound. This study takes advantage of the simple communication sounds produced by plainfin midshipman fish to examine effects of signal variation on call recognition and preference. Nesting male midshipman generate both long duration (> 1 min) sinusoidal-like "hums" and short duration "grunts." The hums of neighboring males often overlap, creating beat waveforms. Presentation of humlike, single tone stimuli, but not grunts or noise, elicited robust attraction (phonotaxis) by gravid females. In two-choice tests, females differentiated and chose between acoustic signals that differed in duration, frequency, amplitude, and fine temporal content. Frequency preferences were temperature dependent, in accord with the known temperature dependence of hum fundamental frequency. Concurrent hums were simulated with two-tone beat stimuli, either presented from a single speaker or produced more naturally by interference between adjacent sources. Whereas certain single-source beats reduced stimulus attractiveness, beats which resolved into unmodulated tones at their sources did not affect preference. These results demonstrate that phonotactic assessment of stimulus relevance can be applied in a teleost fish, and that multiple signal parameters can affect receiver response in a vertebrate with relatively simple communication signals. PMID:9857511

  7. National multi-cohort time trends in adolescent risk preference and the relation with substance use and problem behavior from 1976 to 2011*

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Jager, Justin; Hamilton, Ava; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Miech, Richard; Schulenberg, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Preference for risky activities is an important developmentally-graded predictor of substance use. Population-level trends in adolescent risk preference, as well as the way in which risk preference may be a conduit to risk behavior, have never been documented. The present study examines population-level trends in risk preference among U.S. high school seniors for the 36 years from 1976–2011, as well as trends in the association between risk preference and substance use and other problem behaviors. Methods Data were drawn from yearly nationally-representative cross-sectional surveys of US high school seniors (N=91,860). Risk preference was measured consistently with two items. Marijuana and cocaine use, binge drinking, and conduct problems were assessed. Trends were tested using JoinPoint software. Results The mean level of reported risk preference among US 12th graders has increased over time, especially in the 1980s. For example, the proportion of high school females who reported enjoying activities that were “a little dangerous” more than doubled, from 4.9% in 1976 to 10.8% in 1988. While risk preference reports among adolescent males leveled off in 1992, risk preference reports among females shows a continued positive overall slope through 2011. The magnitude of the association between risk preference and marijuana use has increased over time. Conclusions Reported preference for risky activities has increased among adolescents in the US, especially among young women. Reported risk preference is increasingly associated with a higher use of marijuana. Our findings argue for the importance of placing risk preference within a multi-level framework that attends to historical variation. PMID:26254018

  8. Comparisons of Conceptual Preference for Cultural and Leadership Behavior in an Information Technology Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valley, Amina B.

    2009-01-01

    The primary focus of the research study conducted was to analyze the predictive leadership behaviors of Southern Asian and United States individuals in the information technology career field. This research validates the leadership traits and behaviors of information technology types of United States individuals that enhance the impact of…

  9. Assessing Preferences for Positive and Negative Reinforcement during Treatment of Destructive Behavior with Functional Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Wayne W.; Adelinis, John D.; Volkert, Valerie M.; Keeney, Kris M.; Neidert, Pamela L.; Hovanetz, Alyson

    2005-01-01

    Results of prior studies (e.g. [J. Appl. Behav. Anal. 32 (1999) 285]) showing that participants chose alternative behavior (compliance) over escape-reinforced destructive behavior when this latter response produced escape and the former response produced positive reinforcement may have been due to (a) the value of the positive reinforcer…

  10. Preferred Traditional and Creative Behavioral Intervention Techniques Employed by School Psychologists in Louisiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Patricia D.

    A major emphasis in Louisiana school psychologists' jobs involves interventions with, and evaluations of, children classified as behavior disordered, learning disabled, and mildly mentally handicapped, as well as by regular education students. In assessment, both traditional and behavioral instruments are employed. In intervention, the emphasis is…

  11. Context, emotion, and the strategic pursuit of goals: interactions among multiple brain systems controlling motivated behavior.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Aaron J; McDonald, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Motivated behavior exhibits properties that change with experience and partially dissociate among a number of brain structures. Here, we review evidence from rodent experiments demonstrating that multiple brain systems acquire information in parallel and either cooperate or compete for behavioral control. We propose a conceptual model of systems interaction wherein a ventral emotional memory network involving ventral striatum (VS), amygdala, ventral hippocampus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex triages behavioral responding to stimuli according to their associated affective outcomes. This system engages autonomic and postural responding (avoiding, ignoring, approaching) in accordance with associated stimulus valence (negative, neutral, positive), but does not engage particular operant responses. Rather, this emotional system suppresses or invigorates actions that are selected through competition between goal-directed control involving dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and habitual control involving dorsolateral striatum (DLS). The hippocampus provides contextual specificity to the emotional system, and provides an information rich input to the goal-directed system for navigation and discriminations involving ambiguous contexts, complex sensory configurations, or temporal ordering. The rapid acquisition and high capacity for episodic associations in the emotional system may unburden the more complex goal-directed system and reduce interference in the habit system from processing contingencies of neutral stimuli. Interactions among these systems likely involve inhibitory mechanisms and neuromodulation in the striatum to form a dominant response strategy. Innate traits, training methods, and task demands contribute to the nature of these interactions, which can include incidental learning in non-dominant systems. Addition of these features to reinforcement learning models of decision-making may better align theoretical predictions with behavioral and neural correlates in

  12. Context, emotion, and the strategic pursuit of goals: interactions among multiple brain systems controlling motivated behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Aaron J.; McDonald, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Motivated behavior exhibits properties that change with experience and partially dissociate among a number of brain structures. Here, we review evidence from rodent experiments demonstrating that multiple brain systems acquire information in parallel and either cooperate or compete for behavioral control. We propose a conceptual model of systems interaction wherein a ventral emotional memory network involving ventral striatum (VS), amygdala, ventral hippocampus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex triages behavioral responding to stimuli according to their associated affective outcomes. This system engages autonomic and postural responding (avoiding, ignoring, approaching) in accordance with associated stimulus valence (negative, neutral, positive), but does not engage particular operant responses. Rather, this emotional system suppresses or invigorates actions that are selected through competition between goal-directed control involving dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and habitual control involving dorsolateral striatum (DLS). The hippocampus provides contextual specificity to the emotional system, and provides an information rich input to the goal-directed system for navigation and discriminations involving ambiguous contexts, complex sensory configurations, or temporal ordering. The rapid acquisition and high capacity for episodic associations in the emotional system may unburden the more complex goal-directed system and reduce interference in the habit system from processing contingencies of neutral stimuli. Interactions among these systems likely involve inhibitory mechanisms and neuromodulation in the striatum to form a dominant response strategy. Innate traits, training methods, and task demands contribute to the nature of these interactions, which can include incidental learning in non-dominant systems. Addition of these features to reinforcement learning models of decision-making may better align theoretical predictions with behavioral and neural correlates in

  13. Context, emotion, and the strategic pursuit of goals: interactions among multiple brain systems controlling motivated behavior.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Aaron J; McDonald, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Motivated behavior exhibits properties that change with experience and partially dissociate among a number of brain structures. Here, we review evidence from rodent experiments demonstrating that multiple brain systems acquire information in parallel and either cooperate or compete for behavioral control. We propose a conceptual model of systems interaction wherein a ventral emotional memory network involving ventral striatum (VS), amygdala, ventral hippocampus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex triages behavioral responding to stimuli according to their associated affective outcomes. This system engages autonomic and postural responding (avoiding, ignoring, approaching) in accordance with associated stimulus valence (negative, neutral, positive), but does not engage particular operant responses. Rather, this emotional system suppresses or invigorates actions that are selected through competition between goal-directed control involving dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and habitual control involving dorsolateral striatum (DLS). The hippocampus provides contextual specificity to the emotional system, and provides an information rich input to the goal-directed system for navigation and discriminations involving ambiguous contexts, complex sensory configurations, or temporal ordering. The rapid acquisition and high capacity for episodic associations in the emotional system may unburden the more complex goal-directed system and reduce interference in the habit system from processing contingencies of neutral stimuli. Interactions among these systems likely involve inhibitory mechanisms and neuromodulation in the striatum to form a dominant response strategy. Innate traits, training methods, and task demands contribute to the nature of these interactions, which can include incidental learning in non-dominant systems. Addition of these features to reinforcement learning models of decision-making may better align theoretical predictions with behavioral and neural correlates in

  14. Strategic Provider Behavior Under Global Budget Payment with Price Adjustment in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bradley; Fan, Victoria Y

    2015-11-01

    Global budget payment is one of the most effective strategies for cost containment, but its impacts on provider behavior have not been explored in detail. This study examines the theoretical and empirical role of global budget payment on provider behavior. The study proposes that global budget payment with price adjustment is a form of common-pool resources. A two-product game theoretic model is derived, and simulations demonstrate that hospitals are expected to expand service volumes, with an emphasis on products with higher price-marginal cost ratios. Next, the study examines the early effects of Taiwan's global budget payment system using a difference-in-difference strategy and finds that Taiwanese hospitals exhibited such behavior, where the pursuit of individual interests led to an increase in treatment intensities. Furthermore, hospitals significantly increased inpatient service volume for regional hospitals and medical centers. In contrast, local hospitals, particularly for those without teaching status designation, faced a negative impact on service volume, as larger hospitals were better positioned to induce demand and pulled volume away from their smaller counterparts through more profitable services and products such as radiology and pharmaceuticals. PMID:25132007

  15. The effect of preference for three different types of music on magnitude estimation-scaling behavior in young adults.

    PubMed

    Fucci, D; Petrosino, L; Banks, M; Zaums, K; Wilcox, C

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of preference for three different types of music on magnitude estimation scaling behavior in young adults. Three groups of college students, 10 who liked rock music, 10 who liked big band music, and 10 who liked classical music were tested. Subjects were instructed to assign numerical values to a random series of nine suprathreshold intensity levels of 10-sec, samples of rock music, big band music, and classical music. Analysis indicated that subjects who liked rock music scaled that stimulus differently from those subjects who liked big band and classical music. Subjects who liked big band music scaled that stimulus differently from those subjects who liked rock music and classical music. All subjects scaled classical music similarly regardless of their musical preferences. Results are discussed in reference to the literature concerned with personality and preference as well as spectrographic analyses of the three different types of music used in this study. PMID:8873212

  16. Ceftriaxone, a beta-lactam antibiotic, attenuates relapse-like ethanol-drinking behavior in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Qrunfleh, Abeer M; Alazizi, Adnan; Sari, Youssef

    2013-06-01

    Relapse-like ethanol-drinking behavior depends on increased glutamate transmission in the mesocorticolimbic motive circuit. Extracellular glutamate is regulated by a number of glutamate transporters. Of these transporters, glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) is responsible for the majority of extracellular glutamate uptake. We have recently reported that ceftriaxone (CEF) treatment (i.p.), a β-lactam antibiotic known to elevate GTL1 expression, reduced ethanol intake in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We investigated here whether CEF treatment attenuates relapse-like ethanol-drinking behavior. P rats were exposed to free choice of 15% and 30% ethanol for 5 weeks and treated with CEF (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) during the last 5 days of the 2-week deprivation period. Rats treated with CEF during the deprivation period showed a reduction in ethanol intake compared with saline-treated rats upon re-exposure to ethanol; this effect persisted for 9 days. Moreover, CEF-mediated attenuation in relapse to ethanol-drinking behavior was associated with upregulation of GLT1 level in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens core. GLT1 upregulation was revealed only at the higher dose of CEF. In addition, CEF has no effect on relapse-like sucrose-drinking behavior. These findings suggest that ceftriaxone might be used as a potential therapeutic treatment for the attenuation of relapse-like ethanol-drinking behavior.

  17. How Are Preferences Revealed?

    PubMed

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C

    2008-08-01

    Revealed preferences are tastes that rationalize an economic agent's observed actions. Normative preferences represent the agent's actual interests. It sometimes makes sense to assume that revealed preferences are identical to normative preferences. But there are many cases where this assumption is violated. We identify five factors that increase the likelihood of a disparity between revealed preferences and normative preferences: passive choice, complexity, limited personal experience, third-party marketing, and intertemporal choice. We then discuss six approaches that jointly contribute to the identification of normative preferences: structural estimation, active decisions, asymptotic choice, aggregated revealed preferences, reported preferences, and informed preferences. Each of these approaches uses consumer behavior to infer some property of normative preferences without equating revealed and normative preferences. We illustrate these issues with evidence from savings and investment outcomes. PMID:24761048

  18. How Are Preferences Revealed?

    PubMed Central

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2009-01-01

    Revealed preferences are tastes that rationalize an economic agent’s observed actions. Normative preferences represent the agent’s actual interests. It sometimes makes sense to assume that revealed preferences are identical to normative preferences. But there are many cases where this assumption is violated. We identify five factors that increase the likelihood of a disparity between revealed preferences and normative preferences: passive choice, complexity, limited personal experience, third-party marketing, and intertemporal choice. We then discuss six approaches that jointly contribute to the identification of normative preferences: structural estimation, active decisions, asymptotic choice, aggregated revealed preferences, reported preferences, and informed preferences. Each of these approaches uses consumer behavior to infer some property of normative preferences without equating revealed and normative preferences. We illustrate these issues with evidence from savings and investment outcomes. PMID:24761048

  19. Behavioral and neural evidence of incentive bias for immediate rewards relative to preference-matched delayed rewards.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shan; Ainslie, George; Giragosian, Lisa; Monterosso, John R

    2009-11-25

    Several theories of self-control [including intertemporal bargaining (Ainslie, 1992) and self-signaling (Bodner and Prelec, 2001)] imply that intertemporal decisions can be more farsighted than would be predicted by the incentive associated with rewards outside a decision context. We examined this hypothesis using behavior and functional neuroimaging. First, subjects expressed preferences between amounts of money delayed by 4 months and smaller amounts available that day. This allowed us to establish "indifference pairs" individualized to each participant: immediate and delayed amounts that were equally preferred. Participants subsequently performed a reaction time functional magnetic resonance imaging task (Knutson et al., 2001a) that provided them with distinct opportunities to win each of the rewards that comprised the indifference pairs. Anatomical region of interest analysis as well as whole-brain analysis indicated greater response recruited by the immediate rewards (relative to the preference-matched delayed rewards) in regions previously implicated as sensitive to incentive value using the same task (including bilateral putamen, bilateral anterior insula, and midbrain). Reaction time to the target was also faster during the immediate relative to delayed reward trials (p < 0.01), and individual differences in reaction time between immediate versus delayed reward trials correlated with variance in magnetic resonance signal in those clusters that responded preferentially to immediate rewards (r = 0.33, p < 0.05). These findings indicate a discrepancy in incentive associated with the immediate versus the preference-matched delayed rewards. This discrepancy may mark the contribution of self-control processes that are recruited during decision-making but that are absent when rewards are individually anticipated. PMID:19940177

  20. Changes in saccharin preference behavior as a primary outcome to evaluate pain and analgesia in acetic acid-induced visceral pain in mice

    PubMed Central

    de la Puente, Beatriz; Romero-Alejo, Elizabeth; Vela, José Miguel; Merlos, Manuel; Zamanillo, Daniel; Portillo-Salido, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Reflex-based procedures are important measures in preclinical pain studies that evaluate stimulated behaviors. These procedures, however, are insufficient to capture the complexity of the pain experience, which is often associated with the depression of several innate behaviors. While recent studies have made efforts to evidence the suppression of some positively motivated behaviors in certain pain models, they are still far from being routinely used as readouts for analgesic screening. Here, we characterized and compared the effect of the analgesic ibuprofen (Ibu) and the stimulant, caffeine, in assays of acute pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior. Intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (AA) served as a noxious stimulus to stimulate a writhing response or depress saccharin preference and locomotor activity (LMA) in mice. AA injection caused the maximum number of writhes between 5 and 20 minutes after administration, and writhing almost disappeared 1 hour later. AA-treated mice showed signs of depression-like behaviors after writhing resolution, as evidenced by reduced locomotion and saccharin preference for at least 4 and 6 hours, respectively. Depression-like behaviors resolved within 24 hours after AA administration. A dose of Ibu (40 mg/kg) – inactive to reduce AA-induced abdominal writhing – administered before or after AA injection significantly reverted pain-induced saccharin preference deficit. The same dose of Ibu also significantly reverted the AA-depressed LMA, but only when it was administered after AA injection. Caffeine restored locomotion – but not saccharin preference – in AA-treated mice, thus suggesting that the reduction in saccharin preference – but not in locomotion – was specifically sensitive to analgesics. In conclusion, AA-induced acute pain attenuated saccharin preference and LMA beyond the resolution of writhing behavior, and the changes in the expression of hedonic behavior, such as sweet taste preference, can be

  1. Changes in saccharin preference behavior as a primary outcome to evaluate pain and analgesia in acetic acid-induced visceral pain in mice.

    PubMed

    de la Puente, Beatriz; Romero-Alejo, Elizabeth; Vela, José Miguel; Merlos, Manuel; Zamanillo, Daniel; Portillo-Salido, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Reflex-based procedures are important measures in preclinical pain studies that evaluate stimulated behaviors. These procedures, however, are insufficient to capture the complexity of the pain experience, which is often associated with the depression of several innate behaviors. While recent studies have made efforts to evidence the suppression of some positively motivated behaviors in certain pain models, they are still far from being routinely used as readouts for analgesic screening. Here, we characterized and compared the effect of the analgesic ibuprofen (Ibu) and the stimulant, caffeine, in assays of acute pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior. Intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (AA) served as a noxious stimulus to stimulate a writhing response or depress saccharin preference and locomotor activity (LMA) in mice. AA injection caused the maximum number of writhes between 5 and 20 minutes after administration, and writhing almost disappeared 1 hour later. AA-treated mice showed signs of depression-like behaviors after writhing resolution, as evidenced by reduced locomotion and saccharin preference for at least 4 and 6 hours, respectively. Depression-like behaviors resolved within 24 hours after AA administration. A dose of Ibu (40 mg/kg) - inactive to reduce AA-induced abdominal writhing - administered before or after AA injection significantly reverted pain-induced saccharin preference deficit. The same dose of Ibu also significantly reverted the AA-depressed LMA, but only when it was administered after AA injection. Caffeine restored locomotion - but not saccharin preference - in AA-treated mice, thus suggesting that the reduction in saccharin preference - but not in locomotion - was specifically sensitive to analgesics. In conclusion, AA-induced acute pain attenuated saccharin preference and LMA beyond the resolution of writhing behavior, and the changes in the expression of hedonic behavior, such as sweet taste preference, can be used as a more

  2. Behavioral contagion during learning about another agent’s risk-preferences acts on the neural representation of decision-risk

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shinsuke; Jensen, Emily L. S.; Bossaerts, Peter; O’Doherty, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Our attitude toward risk plays a crucial role in influencing our everyday decision-making. Despite its importance, little is known about how human risk-preference can be modulated by observing risky behavior in other agents at either the behavioral or the neural level. Using fMRI combined with computational modeling of behavioral data, we show that human risk-preference can be systematically altered by the act of observing and learning from others’ risk-related decisions. The contagion is driven specifically by brain regions involved in the assessment of risk: the behavioral shift is implemented via a neural representation of risk in the caudate nucleus, whereas the representations of other decision-related variables such as expected value are not affected. Furthermore, we uncover neural computations underlying learning about others’ risk-preferences and describe how these signals interact with the neural representation of risk in the caudate. Updating of the belief about others’ preferences is associated with neural activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Functional coupling between the dlPFC and the caudate correlates with the degree of susceptibility to the contagion effect, suggesting that a frontal–subcortical loop, the so-called dorsolateral prefrontal–striatal circuit, underlies the modulation of risk-preference. Taken together, these findings provide a mechanistic account for how observation of others’ risky behavior can modulate an individual’s own risk-preference. PMID:27001826

  3. Weather and place-based human behavior: recreational preferences and sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Freitas, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the links between biometeorological variables and the behavior of beach recreationists along with their rating of overall weather conditions. To identify and describe significance of on-site atmospheric conditions, two separate forms of response are examined. The first is sensory perception of the immediate atmospheric surround expressed verbally, which was the subject of earlier work. In the research reported here, on-site observations of behavior that reflect the effects of weather and climate are examined. By employing, independently, separate indicators of on-site experience, the reliability of each is examined and interpreted and apparent threshold conditions verified. The study site is King's Beach located on the coast of Queensland, Australia. On-site observations of atmospheric variables and beach user behavior are made for the daylight hours of 45 days spread over a 12-month period. The results show that behavioral data provide reliable and meaningful indications of the significance of the atmospheric environment for leisure. Atmospheric conditions within the zone of acceptability are those that the beach users can readily cope with or modify by a range of minor behavioral adjustments. Optimal weather conditions appear to be those requiring no specific behavioral adjustment. Attendance levels reflect only the outer limits of acceptability of the meteorological environment, while duration of visit enables calibration of levels of approval in so far as it reflects rating of on-site weather within a broad zone of tolerance. In a broad theoretical sense, the results add to an understanding of the relationship between weather and human behavior. This information is potentially useful in effective tourism management and planning.

  4. Weather and place-based human behavior: recreational preferences and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, C R

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the links between biometeorological variables and the behavior of beach recreationists along with their rating of overall weather conditions. To identify and describe significance of on-site atmospheric conditions, two separate forms of response are examined. The first is sensory perception of the immediate atmospheric surround expressed verbally, which was the subject of earlier work. In the research reported here, on-site observations of behavior that reflect the effects of weather and climate are examined. By employing, independently, separate indicators of on-site experience, the reliability of each is examined and interpreted and apparent threshold conditions verified. The study site is King's Beach located on the coast of Queensland, Australia. On-site observations of atmospheric variables and beach user behavior are made for the daylight hours of 45 days spread over a 12-month period. The results show that behavioral data provide reliable and meaningful indications of the significance of the atmospheric environment for leisure. Atmospheric conditions within the zone of acceptability are those that the beach users can readily cope with or modify by a range of minor behavioral adjustments. Optimal weather conditions appear to be those requiring no specific behavioral adjustment. Attendance levels reflect only the outer limits of acceptability of the meteorological environment, while duration of visit enables calibration of levels of approval in so far as it reflects rating of on-site weather within a broad zone of tolerance. In a broad theoretical sense, the results add to an understanding of the relationship between weather and human behavior. This information is potentially useful in effective tourism management and planning.

  5. Identifying context-specific gene profiles of social, reproductive, and mate preference behavior in a fish species with female mate choice.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Mary E; Maginnis, Tara L; Wong, Ryan Y; Brock, Chad; Cummings, Molly E

    2012-01-01

    Sensory and social inputs interact with underlying gene suites to coordinate social behavior. Here we use a naturally complex system in sexual selection studies, the swordtail, to explore how genes associated with mate preference, receptivity, and social affiliation interact in the female brain under specific social conditions. We focused on 11 genes associated with mate preference in this species (neuroserpin, neuroligin-3, NMDA receptor, tPA, stathmin-2, β-1 adrenergic receptor) or with female sociosexual behaviors in other taxa (vasotocin, isotocin, brain aromatase, α-1 adrenergic receptor, tyrosine hydroxylase). We exposed females to four social conditions, including pairings of differing mate choice complexity (large males, large/small males, small males), and a social control (two females). Female mate preference differed significantly by context. Multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) of behaviors revealed a primary axis (explaining 50.2% between-group variance) highlighting differences between groups eliciting high preference behaviors (LL, LS) vs. other contexts, and a secondary axis capturing general measures distinguishing a non-favored group (SS) from other groups. Gene expression MDA revealed a major axis (68.4% between-group variance) that distinguished amongst differential male pairings and was driven by suites of "preference and receptivity genes"; whereas a second axis, distinguishing high affiliation groups (large males, females) from low (small males), was characterized by traditional affiliative-associated genes (isotocin, vasotocin). We found context-specific correlations between behavior and gene MDA, suggesting gene suites covary with behaviors in a socially relevant context. Distinct associations between "affiliative" and "preference" axes suggest mate preference may be mediated by distinct clusters from those of social affiliation. Our results highlight the need to incorporate natural complexity of mating systems into behavioral genomics.

  6. Distinct behavioral phenotypes in ethanol-induced place preference are associated with different extinction and reinstatement but not behavioral sensitization responses.

    PubMed

    Pildervasser, João V N; Abrahao, Karina P; Souza-Formigoni, Maria L O

    2014-01-01

    Conditioned place preference (CPP) is a model to study the role of drug conditioning properties. In outbred strains, individual variability may affect some behavioral measures. However, there are few studies focusing on understanding how different phenotypes of ethanol conditioned behavior may influence its extinction, reinstatement, and behavioral adaptation measures. We used male Swiss Webster mice to study different phenotypes related to ethanol conditioning strength, reinstatement and behavioral sensitization. Mice went through a CPP procedure with ethanol (2.2 g/kg, i.p.). After that, one group of mice was submitted to repeated extinction sessions, while another group remained in their home cages without any drug treatment. Mice went through environmental and ethanol priming (1.0 g/kg, i.p.) reinstatement tests. Ethanol priming test reinstated the conditioned behavior only in the animals kept in the home-cage during the abstinence period. Besides, the ethanol conditioned behavior strength was positively correlated with the time required to be extinguished. In the second set of experiments, some mice went through a CPP protocol followed by behavioral sensitization (five i.p. administrations of ethanol 2.2 g/kg or saline per week, for 3 weeks) and another group of mice went through sensitization followed by CPP. No positive correlation was observed between ethanol CPP strength and the intensity of behavioral sensitization. Considering that different phenotypes observed in CPP strength predicted the variability in other CPP measures, we developed a statistics-based method to classify mice according to CPP strength to be used in the evaluation of ethanol conditioning properties. PMID:25152719

  7. Distinct behavioral phenotypes in ethanol-induced place preference are associated with different extinction and reinstatement but not behavioral sensitization responses

    PubMed Central

    Pildervasser, João V. N.; Abrahao, Karina P.; Souza-Formigoni, Maria L. O.

    2014-01-01

    Conditioned place preference (CPP) is a model to study the role of drug conditioning properties. In outbred strains, individual variability may affect some behavioral measures. However, there are few studies focusing on understanding how different phenotypes of ethanol conditioned behavior may influence its extinction, reinstatement, and behavioral adaptation measures. We used male Swiss Webster mice to study different phenotypes related to ethanol conditioning strength, reinstatement and behavioral sensitization. Mice went through a CPP procedure with ethanol (2.2 g/kg, i.p.). After that, one group of mice was submitted to repeated extinction sessions, while another group remained in their home cages without any drug treatment. Mice went through environmental and ethanol priming (1.0 g/kg, i.p.) reinstatement tests. Ethanol priming test reinstated the conditioned behavior only in the animals kept in the home-cage during the abstinence period. Besides, the ethanol conditioned behavior strength was positively correlated with the time required to be extinguished. In the second set of experiments, some mice went through a CPP protocol followed by behavioral sensitization (five i.p. administrations of ethanol 2.2 g/kg or saline per week, for 3 weeks) and another group of mice went through sensitization followed by CPP. No positive correlation was observed between ethanol CPP strength and the intensity of behavioral sensitization. Considering that different phenotypes observed in CPP strength predicted the variability in other CPP measures, we developed a statistics-based method to classify mice according to CPP strength to be used in the evaluation of ethanol conditioning properties. PMID:25152719

  8. Preferences, Information, and Parental Choice Behavior in Public School Choice. NBER Working Paper No. 12995

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Justine S.; Van Weelden, Richard; Weinstein, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    The incentives and outcomes generated by public school choice depend to a large degree on parents' choice behavior. There is growing empirical evidence that low-income parents place lower weights on academics when choosing schools, but there is little evidence as to why. We use a field experiment in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Public School district…

  9. Influences of age, gender, and parents' educational level in knowledge, behavior and preferences regarding noise, from childhood to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Knobel, Keila Alessandra Baraldi; Lima, Maria Cecília Marconi Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to loud sound during leisure activities for long periods of time is an important area to implement preventive health education, especially among young people. The aim was to identify the relations among awareness about the damaging effects of loud levels of sounds, previous exposures do loud sounds, preferences-related to sound levels and knowledge about hearing protection with age, gender, and their parent's educational level among children. Prospective cross-sectional. Seven hundred and forty students (5-16 years old) and 610 parents participated in the study. Chi-square test, Fisher exact test and linear regression. About 86.5% of the children consider that loud sounds damage the ears and 53.7% dislike noisy places. Children were previously exposed to parties and concerts with loud music, Mardi Gras, firecrackers and loud music at home or in the car and loud music with earphones. About 18.4% of the younger children could select the volume of the music, versus 65.3% of the older ones. Children have poor information about hearing protection and do not have hearing protection device. Knowledge about the risks related to exposures to loud sounds and about strategies to protect their hearing increases with age, but preference for loud sounds and exposures to it increases too. Gender and parents' instructional level have little influence on the studied variables. Many of the children's recreational activities are noisy. It is possible that the tendency of increasing preference for loud sounds with age might be a result of a learned behavior. PMID:25387530

  10. Influences of age, gender, and parents' educational level in knowledge, behavior and preferences regarding noise, from childhood to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Knobel, Keila Alessandra Baraldi; Lima, Maria Cecília Marconi Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to loud sound during leisure activities for long periods of time is an important area to implement preventive health education, especially among young people. The aim was to identify the relations among awareness about the damaging effects of loud levels of sounds, previous exposures do loud sounds, preferences-related to sound levels and knowledge about hearing protection with age, gender, and their parent's educational level among children. Prospective cross-sectional. Seven hundred and forty students (5-16 years old) and 610 parents participated in the study. Chi-square test, Fisher exact test and linear regression. About 86.5% of the children consider that loud sounds damage the ears and 53.7% dislike noisy places. Children were previously exposed to parties and concerts with loud music, Mardi Gras, firecrackers and loud music at home or in the car and loud music with earphones. About 18.4% of the younger children could select the volume of the music, versus 65.3% of the older ones. Children have poor information about hearing protection and do not have hearing protection device. Knowledge about the risks related to exposures to loud sounds and about strategies to protect their hearing increases with age, but preference for loud sounds and exposures to it increases too. Gender and parents' instructional level have little influence on the studied variables. Many of the children's recreational activities are noisy. It is possible that the tendency of increasing preference for loud sounds with age might be a result of a learned behavior.

  11. Elementary school teachers' strategies to handle externalizing classroom behavior: a study of relations between perceived control, teacher orientation and strategy preferences.

    PubMed

    Rydell, Ann-Margret; Henricsson, Lisbeth

    2004-04-01

    Strategies for dealing with problematic student behavior are an important part of the teacher role. Relations between teachers' perceptions of control over children's classroom behavior, teacher orientation and teachers' strategy preferences when confronted with externalizing child behaviors were investigated. Eighty-six primary school teachers, 91% of all first grade teachers in one municipality in Sweden, completed a questionnaire. Disciplinary strategy preferences were measured through vignettes describing externalizing child behaviors, with response alternatives modeled after the Parental Discipline Interview (Scarr, Pinkerton & Eisenberg, 1991). Perceived control was measured with a subscale applied to teachers from the Parental Locus of Control Scale (Campis, Lyman & Prentice-Dunn, 1986). Newly constructed measures of teacher orientation were used. The results indicated that perceived low control over one's classroom situation and a custodial teacher orientation were associated with preferences for authoritarian strategies (firm verbal reprimands, physical restraint) and perceived high control and a humanistic teacher orientation were associated with non-authoritarian strategies (e.g. reasoning with students). Teachers' strategy preferences and associations between perceived control, teacher orientation and strategy preferences were to some extent validated in relations to observed teacher behavior in a subsample of the classrooms.

  12. Attraction to male facial masculinity in gay men in China: relationship to intercourse preference positions and sociosexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lijun; Hart, Trevor A; Zheng, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Distinctions are commonly made regarding preferences for insertive or receptive anal intercourse within gay male communities. Three sexual self-labels are typically specified: "top," meaning a man who prefers the insertive role, "bottom," meaning a man who prefers the receptive role, and "versatile," meaning a man willing to perform either role. In this study, we examined the association between intercourse position preference and preference for male facial masculinity among 447 gay men across multiple cities in China. Each participant was shown 10 pairs of male faces sequentially, with each pair consisting of a masculinized and feminized version of the same base face. Tops preferred the feminized male face over the masculinized face, bottoms preferred the masculinized male face over the feminized face, and versatiles did not have a preference. Tops preferred more feminized male faces than did bottoms and versatiles. Preferences for male facial masculinity were also associated with sociosexual orientation and the nature of the associations differed by sex role preferences. Among tops, men who were less restricted preferred more feminine male faces compared to men who were more restricted. Among bottoms, men who were less restricted preferred more masculine male faces compared to men who were more restricted. Among versatiles, there was no association between sociosexual orientation and preferences for male facial masculinity. These findings provide new evidence that less sociosexually restricted men have stronger preferences for sexual dimorphism in the sexual partners they prefer than do more restricted men.

  13. Effect of preference for rock music on magnitude-production scaling behavior in young adults: a validation.

    PubMed

    Fucci, D; Harris, D; Petrosino, L; Banks, M

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the presence study was to examine the effect of preference for rock music on magnitude-production scaling behavior in young adults as an attempt to validate further the 1993 magnitude-estimation scaling results obtained by Fucci, Harris, Petrosino, and Banks. Two groups of young adults, 20 who liked rock music and 20 who disliked rock music, were tested. Subjects were instructed to adjust the intensity of a 10-sec. sample of rock music in response to seven written stimuli presented in random order. Analysis indicated that there was a significant difference in performance by the two groups of subjects on the magnitude-production scaling task. Those subjects who liked rock music adjusted the intensity of the music to higher levels than did the subjects who disliked rock music.

  14. Prenatal and neonatal testosterone exposure interact to affect differentiation of sexual behavior and partner preference in female ferrets.

    PubMed

    Baum, M J; Erskine, M S; Kornberg, E; Weaver, C E

    1990-02-01

    Implanting testosterone (T) subcutaneously over Postnatal Days 5-20 masculinized sexual behavior, reduced proceptive responsiveness, and shifted sexual preference more readily in male than in female ferrets gonadectomized on Day 5. This enhanced sensitivity of males to neonatal T was best duplicated in females exposed transplacentally to T over Embryonic Days (E) 27-39 (41-day gestation) and injected at birth with T (2.5 micrograms sc in oil: 10% ethanol). Extended exposure of male ferrets to high levels of T, beginning shortly after the onset of testicular steroidogenesis (E25) and continuing for several hours after birth (E41) normally sensitizes their brains to the subsequent organizational effects on coital performance and sexual motivation of the relatively low levels of T that circulate in male ferrets during the first 3 postnatal weeks.

  15. Economic Behavior under the Influence of Alcohol: An Experiment on Time Preferences, Risk-Taking, and Altruism

    PubMed Central

    Corazzini, Luca; Filippin, Antonio; Vanin, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    We report results from an incentivized laboratory experiment undertaken with the purpose of providing controlled evidence on the causal effects of alcohol consumption on risk-taking, time preferences and altruism. Our design disentangles the pharmacological effects of alcohol intoxication from those mediated by expectations, as we compare the behavior of three groups of subjects: those who participated in an experiment with no reference to alcohol, those who were exposed to the possibility of consuming alcohol but were given a placebo and those who effectively consumed alcohol. All subjects participated in a series of economic tasks administered in the same sequence across treatments. After controlling for both the willingness to pay for an object and the potential misperception of probabilities as elicited in the experiment, we detect no effect of alcohol in depleting subjects’ risk tolerance. However, we find that alcohol intoxication increases impatience and makes subjects less altruistic. PMID:25853520

  16. Strategic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Barbara; Davies, Brent

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the nature of strategic leadership and assesses whether a framework can be established to map the dimensions of strategic leadership. In particular it establishes a model which outlines both the organizational abilities and the individual characteristics of strategic leaders.

  17. The Genetic Basis of Host Preference and Resting Behavior in the Major African Malaria Vector, Anopheles arabiensis.

    PubMed

    Main, Bradley J; Lee, Yoosook; Ferguson, Heather M; Kreppel, Katharina S; Kihonda, Anicet; Govella, Nicodem J; Collier, Travis C; Cornel, Anthony J; Eskin, Eleazar; Kang, Eun Yong; Nieman, Catelyn C; Weakley, Allison M; Lanzaro, Gregory C

    2016-09-01

    selection on host choice behavior within these vector populations; possibly in response to vector control. Controlled host-choice assays are needed to discern whether the observed genetic component has a direct relationship with innate host preference. A better understanding of the genetic basis for host feeding behavior in An. arabiensis may also open avenues for novel vector control strategies based on driving genes for zoophily into wild mosquito populations. PMID:27631375

  18. The Genetic Basis of Host Preference and Resting Behavior in the Major African Malaria Vector, Anopheles arabiensis

    PubMed Central

    Main, Bradley J; Lee, Yoosook; Ferguson, Heather M.; Kreppel, Katharina S.; Kihonda, Anicet; Govella, Nicodem J.; Collier, Travis C.; Cornel, Anthony J.; Eskin, Eleazar; Kang, Eun Yong; Nieman, Catelyn C.; Weakley, Allison M.; Lanzaro, Gregory C.

    2016-01-01

    selection on host choice behavior within these vector populations; possibly in response to vector control. Controlled host-choice assays are needed to discern whether the observed genetic component has a direct relationship with innate host preference. A better understanding of the genetic basis for host feeding behavior in An. arabiensis may also open avenues for novel vector control strategies based on driving genes for zoophily into wild mosquito populations. PMID:27631375

  19. From the reaching behavior at 5 months of age to hand preference at preschool age.

    PubMed

    Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Strohmeier, Andrea; Plienegger, Johann; Garzarolli, Bettina; Prechtl, Heinz F R

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the reaching behavior at the age of 5 months, and to determine whether and to what extent there is a relationship between hand use at this age and manual laterality at preschool age. 20 participants (13 girls and 7 boys) were investigated on two occasions: At the age of 5 months we assessed the hand use for reaching for four different objects placed at the infant's body midline or in their right or left hemispaces, respectively. At the age of 5 years and 7 months, we assessed the hand use for 22 motor tasks. The handedness status was calculated in order to reflect the sinistrality-dextrality continuum. All but one infant were unimanual reachers at 5 months of age. Preferential reaching was space dependent rather than object dependent at this stage. Children reaching for objects in the right hemispace predominantly with their right hand showed a significantly greater right hand laterality at late preschool age than children who at the age of 5 months had shown inconsistent hand use (p < .05). Children who at the age of 5 months had reached for objects in the left hemispace with their left hand proved to be less lateralized in their right hand use approximately 5 years later (p < .05).

  20. The effect of active video gaming on children's physical activity, behavior preferences and body composition.

    PubMed

    Graves, Lee E F; Ridgers, Nicola D; Atkinson, Greg; Stratton, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    Active video game interventions typically provide children a single game that may become unappealing. A peripheral device (jOG) encourages step-powered gaming on multiple games. This trial evaluated the effect of jOG on children's objectively measured PA, body fat and self-reported behaviors. 42 of 58 eligible children (8-10 y) randomly assigned to an intervention (jOG) or control (CON) completed the trial. Intervention children received two jOG devices for home use. Analyses of covariance compared the intervention effect at 6 and 12 weeks from baseline. No differences were found between groups for counts per minute (CPM; primary outcome) at 6 and 12 weeks (p > .05). Active video gaming increased (adjusted change 0.95 (95% CI 0.25, 1.65) h·d⁻¹, p <.01) and sedentary video gaming decreased (-0.34 (-1.24, 0.56) h·d⁻¹, p > .05) at 6 weeks relative to CON. No body fat changes were observed between groups. Targeted changes in video game use did not positively affect PA. Larger trials are needed to verify the impact of active video games on children's PA and health. PMID:21242603

  1. Sex preferences in Jeju pony foals (Equus caballus) for mutual grooming and play-fighting behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rho, Jeong Rae; Srygley, Robert Baxter; Choe, Jae Chun

    2007-08-01

    We investigated mutual grooming by Jeju pony (Equus caballus) foals to determine whether male foals preferentially interact with potential future sexual partners or competitors. We predicted that relative to female foals, male foals would exchange grooming more frequently with young mares and that in general, foals would mutually groom more frequently with the opposite sex rather than the same sex. Observing 53 foals between April and October 1998, we recorded 113 mutual grooming events. Male foals exchanged grooming with yearling mares more frequently than with their mother, while female foals exchanged grooming with their mother more frequently than with yearling mares. Contrary to the prediction, foals were not more likely to mutually groom with a foal of the opposite sex than with a foal of the same sex. In our study, 21 instances of play-fighting behavior followed mutual grooming between peers. Relative to intersexual grooming events, play-fighting was more likely to follow intrasexual mutual grooming, and male foals were much more likely to play fight than female foals. These results provide evidence that Jeju pony foals develop and maintain social relationships at the earliest stage of their lives. We suggest that early social experiences might influence social bonding later when the male foal begins to form a harem after separation from its mother.

  2. The effect of active video gaming on children's physical activity, behavior preferences and body composition.

    PubMed

    Graves, Lee E F; Ridgers, Nicola D; Atkinson, Greg; Stratton, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    Active video game interventions typically provide children a single game that may become unappealing. A peripheral device (jOG) encourages step-powered gaming on multiple games. This trial evaluated the effect of jOG on children's objectively measured PA, body fat and self-reported behaviors. 42 of 58 eligible children (8-10 y) randomly assigned to an intervention (jOG) or control (CON) completed the trial. Intervention children received two jOG devices for home use. Analyses of covariance compared the intervention effect at 6 and 12 weeks from baseline. No differences were found between groups for counts per minute (CPM; primary outcome) at 6 and 12 weeks (p > .05). Active video gaming increased (adjusted change 0.95 (95% CI 0.25, 1.65) h·d⁻¹, p <.01) and sedentary video gaming decreased (-0.34 (-1.24, 0.56) h·d⁻¹, p > .05) at 6 weeks relative to CON. No body fat changes were observed between groups. Targeted changes in video game use did not positively affect PA. Larger trials are needed to verify the impact of active video games on children's PA and health.

  3. Preferred health behaviors and quality of life of the elderly people in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Cybulski, Mateusz; Krajewska-Kulak, Elzbieta; Jamiolkowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess possible differences between a group of residents of public nursing homes (PNH) and a group of members of Universities of the Third Age (UTA) measured using standard psychometric scales. Materials and methods The research was conducted between January 3, 2013 and February 15, 2014 on a group of 200 residents of PNH and 200 members of the UTA using five psychometric scales: Standardized Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Standardized Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), Standardized Social Support Scale (SSS), Standardized General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES), and Standardized Multiple Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC). Results The average point total in the Standardized Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in the group of residents of PNH was 18.03 (Me =19) and was significantly higher (P=0.047) in comparison with the group of UTA members (17.08). Similar to residents of PNH, a vast majority of UTA members assessed the support received from the UTA as good, which significantly influenced their satisfaction from life (P=0.028) and their feeling of self-efficacy (P=0.048). An observed dependence states that the greater the level of satisfaction from life, the greater the level of various types of support from family. Conclusion This study indicates that biopsychosocial problems decrease quality of life in elderly people. The elderly people require a comprehensive, holistic approach to a variety of problems that occur with aging. In future, extended interdisciplinary research should be carried out on aspects of quality of life in order to optimize comprehensive geriatric assessment. PMID:26491271

  4. Acquisition and production of skilled behavior in dynamic decision-making tasks: Modeling strategic behavior in human-automation interaction: Why and aid can (and should) go unused

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirlik, Alex

    1991-01-01

    Advances in computer and control technology offer the opportunity for task-offload aiding in human-machine systems. A task-offload aid (e.g., an autopilot, an intelligent assistant) can be selectively engaged by the human operator to dynamically delegate tasks to an automated system. Successful design and performance prediction in such systems requires knowledge of the factors influencing the strategy the operator develops and uses for managing interaction with the task-offload aid. A model is presented that shows how such strategies can be predicted as a function of three task context properties (frequency and duration of secondary tasks and costs of delaying secondary tasks) and three aid design properties (aid engagement and disengagement times, aid performance relative to human performance). Sensitivity analysis indicates how each of these contextual and design factors affect the optimal aid aid usage strategy and attainable system performance. The model is applied to understanding human-automation interaction in laboratory experiments on human supervisory control behavior. The laboratory task allowed subjects freedom to determine strategies for using an autopilot in a dynamic, multi-task environment. Modeling results suggested that many subjects may indeed have been acting appropriately by not using the autopilot in the way its designers intended. Although autopilot function was technically sound, this aid was not designed with due regard to the overall task context in which it was placed. These results demonstrate the need for additional research on how people may strategically manage their own resources, as well as those provided by automation, in an effort to keep workload and performance at acceptable levels.

  5. A computer-based interview to identify HIV risk behaviors and to assess patient preferences for HIV-related health states.

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, G. D.; Owens, D. K.; Padian, N.; Cardinalli, A. B.; Sullivan, A. N.; Nease, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    We developed a computer-based utility assessment tool to assess the preferences of patients towards HIV-related health states and identify risk behaviors (both sexual and drug related) of the patient being interviewed. The reliability of the computer-based interview was assessed through comparison with person-to-person interviews. Our pilot study included 22 patients. Twelve of these patients were also interviewed by the research assistants in person-to-person interviews. The agreement between the person-to-person and computer-based interviews was excellent (3 discrepancies of 180 compared answers), and the majority of the patients preferred to use the computer to disclose sensitive information regarding risk behaviors. Our study suggests that assessment of patient preferences and risk factors can be performed reliably through a computer-based interview. PMID:7949919

  6. Paths to Bullying in Online Gaming: The Effects of Gender, Preference for Playing Violent Games, Hostility, and Aggressive Behavior on Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shu Ching

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a sample of adolescent online game players and explored the relationships between their gender, preference for video games (VG), hostility, aggressive behavior, experiences of cyberbullying, and victimization. The path relationships among the variables were further validated with structure equation modeling. Among the…

  7. Athletic Coaching from an Instructional Communication Perspective: The Influence of Coach Experience on High School Wrestlers' Preferences and Perceptions of Coaching Behaviors across a Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turman, Paul D.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the influence of coach experience on young athletes' preferences for, and perceptions of, coaches' leadership behaviors (autocratic, democratic, social support, positive feedback, and training and instruction) across an athletic season. Indicates that negative control strategies can be quite satisfactory at times, particularly if a…

  8. Relation between corticosterone and fear-related behavior in mice selectively bred for high or low alcohol preference.

    PubMed

    Chester, Julia A; Kirchhoff, Aaron M; Barrenha, Gustavo D

    2014-07-01

    Blunted cortisol responses to stress or trauma have been linked with genetic (familial) risk for both alcoholism and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Mouse lines selectively bred for high (HAP) or low (LAP) alcohol preference may be a relevant model of genetic risk for co-morbid alcoholism and PTSD in humans. HAP mice show greater fear-potentiated startle (FPS), a model used to study PTSD, than LAP mice. The relation between corticosterone (CORT) and FPS behavior was explored in four experiments. Naïve male and female HAP2 and LAP2 mice received fear-conditioning or control treatments, and CORT levels were measured before and immediately after fear-conditioning or FPS testing. In two other experiments, HAP2 mice received CORT (1.0, 5.0 or 10.0 mg/kg) or a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist (mifepristone; 25.0 and 50.0 mg/kg) 30 minutes before fear conditioning. HAP2 mice exposed to fear conditioning and to control foot shock exposures showed lower CORT after the fear-conditioning and FPS testing sessions than LAP2 mice. A trend toward higher FPS was seen in HAP2 mice pretreated with 10.0 mg/kg CORT, and CORT levels were the lowest in this group, suggesting negative feedback inhibition of CORT release. Mifepristone did not alter FPS. Overall, these results are consistent with data in humans and rodents indicating that lower cortisol/CORT levels after stress are associated with PTSD/PTSD-like behavior. These findings in HAP2 and LAP2 mice suggest that a blunted CORT response to stress may be a biological marker for greater susceptibility to develop PTSD in individuals with increased genetic risk for alcoholism.

  9. Prenatal letrozole produces a subpopulation of male rats with same-sex preference and arousal as well as female sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Hernández, Sandra; Chavira, Roberto; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2015-02-01

    Disruption of the sexual differentiation process during critical periods in male rodents produces changes in partner preference and sexual behavior. In this study we used prenatal (gestation days 10-22) letrozole (0.31 and 0.56 μg/kg) to inhibit aromatase and alter normal sexual differentiation of males. These animals and control rats (injected with vehicle) were used when adults to study: a) sexual preference (where the experimental male could choose to interact with a receptive female or a sexually experienced male); b) masculine and feminine sexual behaviors (tested in cylindrical arenas); c) non-contact erections when exposed to a female or a male and, d) serum sex steroids and gonadotropin levels. The results showed that 30% of the males treated with letrozole (0.56 μg/kg) had same-sex preference, 33% displayed lordosis and 63% showed non-contact erections in the presence of a sexually experienced male. However, 44% of these males also exhibited complete masculine sexual behavior towards receptive females. None of the control males displayed lordosis when mounted by another male and very few (12%) showed non-contact erections when exposed to a sexually experienced male. Similar low percentages were found in those males prenatally treated with the low letrozole dose (0.31 μg/kg). No difference was found in the serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, LH and FSH between control and letrozole-treated males regardless of their sexual preference. These results indicate that prenatal selective inhibition of aromatization produces feminization of sexual partner preference, arousal and sexual behavior but does not affect masculine sexual behavior.

  10. Multi-sensory rooms: comparing effects of the Snoezelen and the Stimulus Preference environment on the behavior of adults with profound mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Fava, Leonardo; Strauss, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether Snoezelen and Stimulus Preference environments have differential effects on disruptive and pro-social behaviors in adults with profound mental retardation and autism. In N=27 adults these target behaviors were recorded for a total of 20 sessions using both multi-sensory rooms. Three comparison groups were created by diagnosis and motor respective linguistic abilities. Each client was exposed to only one multi-sensory room. Results showed that Snoezelen intervention decreased disruptive behaviors only in individuals with autism, while Stimulus Preference increased pro-social behaviors only in participants with profound mental retardation with co-occurring poor motor and linguistic abilities. Furthermore, several trend analyses of the improved behaviors were conducted throughout all sessions toward short and mid term effects of the multi-sensory room applications. These findings support both the prudence of using the Snoezelen room in individuals with developmental disabilities and the importance of using a Stimulus Preference assessment in multi-sensory environments in clients with profound mental retardation.

  11. The Impact of Cooking Classes on Food-Related Preferences, Attitudes, and Behaviors of School-Aged Children: A Systematic Review of the Evidence, 2003–2014

    PubMed Central

    Perdue, Laura; Ambroz, Teresa; Boucher, Jackie L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cooking programs have been used to promote healthful eating among people of all ages. This review assesses the evidence on childhood cooking programs and their association with changes in food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors of school-aged children. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Ovid-Medline, and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) databases. We included primary research articles that involved cooking education programs for children and searched reference lists for eligible articles. Studies considered for review contained a hands-on cooking intervention; had participants aged 5 to 12 years; were published in a peer-reviewed journal on or after January 1, 2003; and were written in English. We used the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies to rate the strength of each article and assess bias. The following information was extracted from each study: study design, sample size, location, duration, intervention components, data collection methods, and outcomes. Results Eight studies met the inclusion criteria and used cooking education to influence children’s food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors. Programs varied in duration, evaluation methods, and outcomes of interest. Self-reported food preparation skills, dietary intake, cooking confidence, fruit and vegetable preferences, attitudes toward food and cooking, and food-related knowledge were among the outcomes measured. Program exposure ranged from 2 sessions to regular instruction over 2 years, and the effect of cooking programs on children’s food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors varied among the reviewed studies. Conclusions Findings suggest that cooking programs may positively influence children’s food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors. However, because study measurements varied widely, determining best practices was difficult. Further research is

  12. Brief Strategic Family Therapy: Twenty-Five Years of Interplay Among Theory, Research and Practice in Adolescent Behavior Problems and Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Szapocznik, José; Williams, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a systematic program of research that focuses on Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) and the adaptations that were developed based on BSFT principles. The culture-specific origins of BSFT are reviewed, as well as its broader applications to the field of family therapy. Research is reviewed demonstrating that BSFT is a promising family-based approach to treating Hispanic youth behavior problems and drug abuse. Treatment innovations are described that address the combination of intergenerational and cultural differences that occur among youths and their Hispanic parents. Programmatic work is described that challenges basic principles of family therapy by expanding BSFT to a One Person modality and a strategic engagement procedure. Both of these novel approaches are intended to add tools to therapists’ repertoire in working with difficult-to-engage families. A preview discussion of results is presented from a randomized clinical trial that is an application of an ecosystemic prevention version of BSFT. The implications of the work of the Center for Family Studies are discussed in the context of the broader service system. Ultimately, this article articulates a way of thinking about adolescent problem behavior, its social interactional determinants, and a range of theoretically consistent family-centered strategies that attempt to change social ecological processes that impact adolescent developmental trajectories. PMID:11227062

  13. Developmental Profiles of Peer Social Preference over the Course of Elementary School: Associations with Trajectories of Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Bukowski, William M.; Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy

    2001-01-01

    Used new longitudinal clustering technique to identify and compare groups of children with distinct longitudinal profiles of peer social preference during elementary school. Identified a stable popular group, stable average group, and unpopular group, all with decreasing social preference. Groups showed overlap over time with closest corresponding…

  14. Teacher Preferences for Professional Development Delivery Models and Delivery Model Influence on Teacher Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Eve R.

    2011-01-01

    Current trends and research in education indicated that teacher learning is a crucial link to student achievement. There is a void in the research regarding teacher preferences for delivery models in professional development. Determining teacher preferences is an important component in professional development planning and the driving inquiry for…

  15. Music Preferences and Family Language Background: A Computer-Supported Study of Children's Listening Behavior in the Context of Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakai, Winfried

    2011-01-01

    Turkish migrants are the largest national group in Germany. Nevertheless, neither in music psychology research nor in intercultural research can empirical data on the music preferences of Turkish-German primary schoolchildren in the migrational context be found. This study thus examined the music preference responses of children with Turkish…

  16. Phase Structure and Site Preference Behavior of Ternary Alloying Additions to PdTi and PtTi Shape-Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Mosca, Hugo O.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    The phasc structure and concentration dependence of the lattice parameter and energy of formation of ternary Pd-'I-X and Pt-Ti-X alloys for a large number of ternary alloying additions X (X = Na, Mg, Al, Si, Sc. V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, Cd, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir) are investigated with an atomistic modeling approach. In addition, a detailed description of the site preference behavior of such additions showing that the elements can be grouped according to their absolute preference for a specific site, regardless of concentration, or preference for available sites in the deficient sublattice is provided.

  17. Mothers say “baby” and their newborns do not choose to listen: a behavioral preference study to compare with ERP results

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Christine; Zernzach, Randall C.; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2015-01-01

    Previously published results from neonatal brain evoked response potential (ERP) experiments revealed different brain responses to the single word “baby” depending on whether it was recorded by the mother or an unfamiliar female. These results are consistent with behavioral preference studies in which infants altered pacifier sucking to contingently activate recordings of the maternal vs. an unfamiliar female voice, but the speech samples were much longer and information-rich than in the ERP studies. Both types of neonatal voice recognition studies imply postnatal retention of prenatal learning. The preference studies require infant motor and motivation systems to mount a response in addition to voice recognition. The current contingent sucking preference study was designed to test neonatal motivation to alter behavior when the reward is the single word “baby” recorded by the mother or an unfamiliar speaker. Results showed an absent or weak contingent sucking response to the brief maternal voice sample, and they demonstrate the complementary value of electrophysiological and behavioral studies for very early development. Neonates can apparently recognize the maternal voice in brief recorded sample (previous ERP results) but they are not sufficiently motivated by it to alter sucking behavior. PMID:25859203

  18. CB1 Receptors Regulate Alcohol-Seeking Behavior and Alcohol Self-administration of Female Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Getachew, Bruk; Hauser, Sheketha R.; Dhaher, Ronnie; Bell, Richard L.; Oster, Scott M.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale The endogenous cannabinoid (CB) system mediates a number of behaviors associated with drug-seeking and drug self-administration. In this study the effects of CB1 receptor manipulations on operant ethanol (EtOH) responding during EtOH-seeking, EtOH- relapse as well as on-going EtOH self-administration were determined. Methods Alcohol-preferring (P) rats were trained in 2-lever operant chambers to self-administer 15% EtOH (v/v) and water on a concurrent fixed-ratio 5 – fixed-ratio 1 (FR5-FR1) schedule of reinforcement in daily 1-hr sessions. After 10 weeks, rats underwent 7 extinction sessions, followed by 2 weeks in their home cages without access to EtOH or operant chambers. Rats were then returned to the operant chambers for testing of EtOH-seeking behavior (no EtOH present) for 4 sessions. After a week in their home cages following the EtOH-seeking test, rats were returned to the operant chambers with access to EtOH and water (relapse). Rats were then maintained in the operant chambers for daily 1-hr sessions with access to 15% EtOH and water for several weeks. Results The CB1 receptor antagonist (SR141716A), at doses of 1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p. reduced EtOH-seeking and transiently reduced EtOH self-administration during relapse and maintenance. Conversely, treatment with the CB1 receptor agonist CP, 55-940, at doses of 1 and 10 μg/kg i.p., increased EtOH-seeking and EtOH self-administration during relapse. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that activation of CB1 receptors are involved in regulating EtOH-seeking as well as the reinforcing effects of EtOH under relapse and on-going self-administration conditions. PMID:21110997

  19. Social isolation in adolescence alters behaviors in the forced swim and sucrose preference tests in female but not in male rats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Suzie; Flashner, Bess; Chiu, Melissa; ver Hoeve, Elizabeth; Luz, Sandra; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2012-01-18

    Social interactions in rodents are rewarding and motivating and social isolation is aversive. Accumulating evidence suggests that disruption of the social environment in adolescence has long-term effects on social interactions, on anxiety-like behavior and on stress reactivity. In previous work we showed that adolescent isolation produced increased reactivity to acute and to repeated stress in female rats, whereas lower corticosterone responses to acute stress and decreased anxiety-related behavior were noted in isolated males. These results indicate a sex specific impact on the effects of social stress in adolescence. However, little is known about whether social isolation impacts behaviors related to affect and whether it does so differently in male and female rats. The present study investigated the impact of adolescent social isolation from day 30-50 of age in male and female Sprague Dawley rats on behavior in the forced swim test at the end of adolescence and in adulthood and on behavior in the sucrose preference test in adulthood. Adult female rats that were isolated in adolescence exhibited increased climbing on the first and second day of the forced swim test and showed an increased preference for sucrose compared to adult females that were group-housed in adolescence. There were no effects in male rats. The results indicate that social isolation in adolescence produces a stable and active behavioral phenotype in adult female rats.

  20. Social isolation in adolescence alters behaviors in the forced swim and sucrose preference tests in female but not in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Suzie; Flashner, Bess; Chiu, Melissa; Hoeve, Elizabeth ver; Luz, Sandra; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2011-01-01

    Social interactions in rodents are rewarding and motivating and social isolation is aversive. Accumulating evidence suggests that disruption of the social environment in adolescence has long-term effects on social interactions, on anxiety-like behavior and on stress reactivity. In previous work we showed that adolescent isolation produced increased reactivity to acute and to repeated stress in female rats, whereas lower corticosterone responses to acute stress and decreased anxiety-related behavior were noted in isolated males. These results indicate a sex specific impact on the effects of social stress in adolescence. However, little is known about whether social isolation impacts behaviors related to affect and whether it does so differently in male and female rats. The present study investigated the impact of adolescent social isolation from day 30-50 of age in male and female Sprague Dawley rats on behavior in the forced swim test at the end of adolescence and in adulthood and on behavior in the sucrose preference test in adulthood. Adult female rats that were isolated in adolescence exhibited increased climbing on the first and second day of the forced swim test and showed an increased preference for sucrose compared to adult females that were group-housed in adolescence. There were no effects in male rats. The results indicate that social isolation in adolescence produces a stable and active behavioral phenotype in adult female rats. PMID:21907226

  1. Behavioral asymmetries of psychomotor performance in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - A dissociation between hand preference and skill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.; Berke, Leslie; Williams, Mary

    1992-01-01

    Hand preferences were recorded for 35 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) as they manipulated a joystick in response to 2 computerized tasks. These preferences were then used to contrast 8 left- and 10 right-handed subjects on performance measures of hand skill. Individual hand preferences were found, but no significant population asymmetry was observed across the sample. However, the performance data reveal substantial benefits of right-handedness for joystick manipulation, as this group of monkeys mastered the 2 psychomotor tasks significantly faster than did their left-handed counterparts. The data support earlier reports of a right-hand advantage for joystick manipulation and also support the importance of distinguishing between hand preference and manual performance in research on functional asymmetries.

  2. Factors underlying the psychological and behavioral characteristics of Office of Strategic Services candidates: the assessment of men data revisited.

    PubMed

    Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2015-01-01

    During World War II, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the forerunner of the Central Intelligence Agency, sought the assistance of clinical psychologists and psychiatrists to establish an assessment program for evaluating candidates for the OSS. The assessment team developed a novel and rigorous program to evaluate OSS candidates. It is described in Assessment of Men: Selection of Personnel for the Office of Strategic Services (OSS Assessment Staff, 1948). This study examines the sole remaining multivariate data matrix that includes all final ratings for a group of candidates (n = 133) assessed near the end of the assessment program. It applies the modern statistical methods of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to this rich and highly unique data set. An exploratory factor analysis solution suggested 3 factors underlie the OSS assessment staff ratings. Confirmatory factor analysis results of multiple plausible substantive models reveal that a 3-factor model provides the best fit to these data. The 3 factors are emotional/interpersonal factors (social relations, emotional stability, security), intelligence processing (effective IQ, propaganda skills, observing and reporting), and agency/surgency (motivation, energy and initiative, leadership, physical ability). These factors are discussed in terms of their potential utility for personnel selection within the intelligence community.

  3. Cocaine-conditioned place preference is predicted by previous anxiety-like behavior and is related to an increased number of neurons in the basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, David; Pavón, Francisco J; Serrano, Antonia; Rivera, Patricia; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Suárez, Juan; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santín, Luis J; Castilla-Ortega, Estela

    2016-02-01

    The identification of behavioral traits that could predict an individual's susceptibility to engage in cocaine addiction is relevant for understanding and preventing this disorder, but investigations of cocaine addicts rarely allow us to determinate whether their behavioral attributes are a cause or a consequence of drug use. To study the behaviors that predict cocaine vulnerability, male C57BL/6J mice were examined in a battery of tests (the elevated plus maze, hole-board, novelty preference in the Y-Maze, episodic-like object recognition and forced swimming) prior to training in a cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to assess the reinforcing value of the drug. In a second study, the anatomical basis of high and low CPP in the mouse brain was investigated by studying the number of neurons (neuronal nuclei-positive) in two addiction-related limbic regions (the medial prefrontal cortex and the basolateral amygdala) and the number of dopaminergic neurons (tyrosine hydroxylase-positive) in the ventral tegmental area by immunohistochemistry and stereology. Correlational analyses revealed that CPP behavior was successfully predicted by anxiety-like measures in the elevated plus maze (i.e., the more anxious mice showed more preference for the cocaine-paired compartment) but not by the other behaviors analyzed. In addition, increased numbers of neurons were found in the basolateral amygdala of the high CPP mice, a key brain center for anxiety and fear responses. The results support the theory that anxiety is a relevant factor for cocaine vulnerability, and the basolateral amygdala is a potential neurobiological substrate where both anxiety and cocaine vulnerability could overlap. PMID:26523857

  4. Cocaine-conditioned place preference is predicted by previous anxiety-like behavior and is related to an increased number of neurons in the basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, David; Pavón, Francisco J; Serrano, Antonia; Rivera, Patricia; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Suárez, Juan; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santín, Luis J; Castilla-Ortega, Estela

    2016-02-01

    The identification of behavioral traits that could predict an individual's susceptibility to engage in cocaine addiction is relevant for understanding and preventing this disorder, but investigations of cocaine addicts rarely allow us to determinate whether their behavioral attributes are a cause or a consequence of drug use. To study the behaviors that predict cocaine vulnerability, male C57BL/6J mice were examined in a battery of tests (the elevated plus maze, hole-board, novelty preference in the Y-Maze, episodic-like object recognition and forced swimming) prior to training in a cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to assess the reinforcing value of the drug. In a second study, the anatomical basis of high and low CPP in the mouse brain was investigated by studying the number of neurons (neuronal nuclei-positive) in two addiction-related limbic regions (the medial prefrontal cortex and the basolateral amygdala) and the number of dopaminergic neurons (tyrosine hydroxylase-positive) in the ventral tegmental area by immunohistochemistry and stereology. Correlational analyses revealed that CPP behavior was successfully predicted by anxiety-like measures in the elevated plus maze (i.e., the more anxious mice showed more preference for the cocaine-paired compartment) but not by the other behaviors analyzed. In addition, increased numbers of neurons were found in the basolateral amygdala of the high CPP mice, a key brain center for anxiety and fear responses. The results support the theory that anxiety is a relevant factor for cocaine vulnerability, and the basolateral amygdala is a potential neurobiological substrate where both anxiety and cocaine vulnerability could overlap.

  5. Application of the multi-mechanism deformation model for three-dimensional simulations of salt : behavior for the strategic petroleum reserve.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Bean, James E.

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve stores crude oil in 62 solution-mined caverns in salt domes located in Texas and Louisiana. Historically, three-dimensional geomechanical simulations of the behavior of the caverns have been performed using a power law creep model. Using this method, and calibrating the creep coefficient to field data such as cavern closure and surface subsidence, has produced varying degrees of agreement with observed phenomena. However, as new salt dome locations are considered for oil storage facilities, pre-construction geomechanical analyses are required that need site-specific parameters developed from laboratory data obtained from core samples. The multi-mechanism deformation (M-D) model is a rigorous mathematical description of both transient and steady-state creep phenomena. Recent enhancements to the numerical integration algorithm within the model have created a more numerically stable implementation of the M-D model. This report presents computational analyses to compare the results of predictions of the geomechanical behavior at the West Hackberry SPR site using both models. The recently-published results using the power law creep model produced excellent agreement with an extensive set of field data. The M-D model results show similar agreement using parameters developed directly from laboratory data. It is also used to predict the behavior for the construction and operation of oil storage caverns at a new site, to identify potential problems before a final cavern layout is designed.

  6. Health Behavior and Behavioral Economics: Economic Preferences and Physical Activity Stages of Change in a Low-Income African American Community

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Tammy; Shuval, Kerem; de Oliveira, Angela; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Eckel, Catherine; Murdoch, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between physical activity stages of change and preferences for financial risk and time. Design A cross-sectional, community-based study. Setting A low-income, urban, African American neighborhood. Subjects 169 adults Measures Self-reported physical activity stages of change—precontemplation to maintenance, objectively measured BMI and waist circumference, and economic preferences for time and risk measured via incentivized economic experiments. Analysis Multivariable ordered logistic regression models were used to examine the association between physical activity stages of change and economic preferences while controlling for demographic characteristics of the individuals. Results Individuals who are more tolerant of financial risks (OR=1.31, p<0.05) and whose time preferences indicate more patience (OR=1.68, p<0.01) are more likely to be in a more advanced physical activity stage (e.g. from preparation to action). The likelihood of being in the maintenance stage increases by 5.6 and 10.9 percentage points for each 1 unit increase in financial risk tolerance or 1 unit increase in the time preference measure, respectively. Conclusions Greater tolerance of financial risk and more patient time preferences among this low-income ethnic minority population are associated with a more advanced physical activity stage. Further exploration is clearly warranted in larger and more representative samples. PMID:23448410

  7. The Speaking Section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] (SSTiBT): Test-Takers' Reported Strategic Behaviors. TOEFL iBT[TM] Research Report. RR-09-30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill; Huang, Li-Shih; Barkaoui, Khaled; Brooks, Lindsay; Lapkin, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study responds to the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) research agenda concerning the need to understand the processes and knowledge that test-takers utilize. Specifically, it investigates the strategic behaviors test-takers reported using when taking the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] (SSTiBT). It also investigates…

  8. Effects of the novel endocannabinoid uptake inhibitor, LY2183240, on fear-potentiated startle and alcohol-seeking behaviors in mice selectively bred for high alcohol preference

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Matthew S.; Barrenha, Gustavo D.; Mlinac, Nate S.; Barker, Eric L.; Chester, Julia A.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol-use disorders often occur together with anxiety disorders in humans which may be partly due to common inherited genetic factors. Evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of individuals with anxiety and/or alcohol-use disorders. Objectives The present study assessed the effects of a novel endocannabinoid uptake inhibitor, LY2183240, on anxiety- and alcohol-seeking behaviors in a unique animal model that may represent increased genetic risk to develop comorbid anxiety and alcohol-use disorders in humans. Mice selectively bred for high alcohol preference (HAP) show greater fear-potentiated startle (FPS) than mice selectively bred for low alcohol preference (LAP). We examined the effects of LY2183240 on the expression of FPS in HAP and LAP mice and on alcohol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and limited-access alcohol drinking behavior in HAP mice. Results Repeated administration of LY2183240 (30 mg/kg) reduced the expression of FPS in HAP but not LAP mice when given prior to a second FPS test 48 h after fear conditioning. Both the 10 and 30 mg/kg doses of LY2183240 enhanced the expression of alcohol-induced CPP and this effect persisted in the absence of the drug. LY2183240 did not alter limited-access alcohol drinking behavior, unconditioned startle responding, or locomotor activity. Conclusions These findings suggest that ECS modulation influences both conditioned fear and conditioned alcohol reward behavior. LY2183240 may be an effective pharmacotherapy for individuals with anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, but may not be appropriate for individuals with co-morbid anxiety and alcohol-use disorders. PMID:20838777

  9. Characterization of greenbug feeding behavior and aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) host preference in relation to resistant and susceptible tetraploid switchgrass populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two choice studies were performed to evaluate geenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes), preference for two tetraploid switchgrass populations, Summer and Kanlow, and one experimental hybrid, KxS, derived by crossing Kanlow (male) x Summer (female) plan...

  10. Strategic Staffing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ann B.

    2012-01-01

    Business and industry leaders do not flinch at the idea of placing top talent in struggling departments and divisions. This is not always the case in public education. The Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools made a bold statement to its community in its strategic plan by identifying two key reform levers--(1) an effective principal leading each school;…

  11. Strategic Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lynn; Tyson, Ben

    2003-01-01

    Many school buildings are in dire need of renovation, expansion, or replacement. Brief case studies from around the country illustrate the importance of finding out why people vote for or against a construction referendum. Lists recommendations for a strategic campaign. (MLF)

  12. Final Draft Strategic Marketing Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-02-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has developed a marketing plan to define how BPA can be viable and competitive in the future, a result important to BPA`s customers and constituents. The Marketing Plan represents the preferred customer outcomes, marketplace achievements, and competitive advantage required to accomplish the Vision and the Strategic Business Objectives of the agency. The Marketing Plan contributes to successful implementation of BPA`s Strategic Business Objectives (SBOs) by providing common guidance to organizations and activities throughout the agency responsible for (1) planning, constructing, operating, and maintaining the Federal Columbia River Power System; (2) conducting business with BPA`s customers; and (3) providing required internal support services.

  13. Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal Agencies in Implementing Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans - Implementing Sustainability: The Institutional-Behavioral Dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.; Sanquist, Tom; Wolfe, Amy K.; Diamond, Rick; Payne, Christopher; Dion, Jerry

    2013-06-01

    This document is part of a larger, programmatic effort to assist federal agencies in taking action and changing their institutions to achieve and maintain federal sustainability goals, while meeting their mission goals. FEMP is developing guidance for federal agency efforts to enable institutional behavior change for sustainability, and for making sustainability “business as usual.” The driving requirement for this change is Executive Order (EO) 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance. FEMP emphasizes strategies for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy utilization as critical components of attaining sustainability, and promotes additional non-energy action pathways contained in EO 13514. This report contributes to the larger goal by laying out the conceptual and evidentiary underpinnings of guidance to federal agencies. Conceptual frameworks focus and organize the development of guidance. We outline a series of progressively refined conceptual frameworks, including a multi-layer approach, key steps in sustainability implementation, a process view of specific approaches to institutional change, the agency Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans (SSPPs), and concepts related to context-specific rules, roles and tools for sustainability. Additionally, we tap pertinent bodies of literature in drawing eight evidence-based principles for behavior change. These principles are important foundations upon which to build in selecting strategies to effect change in organizations. Taken together, this report presents a suite of components that inform the training materials, presentations, web site, and other products that provide guidance to federal agencies.

  14. An eye for beauty: lateralized visual stimulation of courtship behavior and mate preferences in male zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Jennifer J; McCracken, Brianna G; Sher, Melissa; Mountjoy, D James

    2014-02-01

    Research on intersexual selection focuses on traits that have evolved for attracting mates and the consequences of mate choice. However, little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms that allow choosers to discriminate among potential mates and express an attraction to specific traits. Preferential use of the right eye during lateral displays in zebra finches, and lateralized expression of intermediate early genes in the left hemisphere during courtship led us to hypothesize that: (1) visual information from each eye differentially mediates courtship responses to potential mates; and (2) the ability to discriminate among mates and prefer certain mates over others is lateralized in the right eye/left hemisphere system of zebra finch brains. First, we exposed male zebra finches to females when using left, right or both eyes. Males courted more when the right eye was available than when only the left eye was used. Secondly, male preference for females - using beak color to indicate female quality - was tested. Right-eyed and binocular males associated with and courted orange-beaked more than gray-beaked females; whereas left-eyed males showed no preference. Lateral displays and eye use in male zebra finches increase their attractiveness and ability to assess female quality, potentially enhancing reproductive success. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: CO3 2013.

  15. High versus low fat/sugar food affects the behavioral, but not the cortisol response of marmoset monkeys in a conditioned-place-preference task.

    PubMed

    Duarte, R B M; Patrono, E; Borges, A C; Tomaz, C; Ventura, R; Gasbarri, A; Puglisi-Allegra, S; Barros, M

    2015-02-01

    The effect of a high (chocolate) versus low fat/sugar (chow) food on a conditioned-place-preference (CPP) task was evaluated in marmoset monkeys. Anxiety-related behaviors and cortisol levels before and after the CPP task were also measured. Subjects were habituated to a two-compartment CPP box and then, on alternate days, had access to only one compartment during daily 15-min conditionings, for a total of 14 trials. Marmosets were provisioned with chocolate chips in the CC-paired compartment on odd-numbered trials and standard chow in the CW-paired compartment on even-numbered trials. They were then tested for preferring the CC-paired context after a 24-h interval. During the conditioning, a significantly greater amount (in kcal/trial) of chocolate was consumed than chow, yet the foraging pattern of both food types was similar. On the test trial, the time spent in the CC-paired context increased significantly compared to pre-CPP levels, yet this response was not readily predicted by baseline behavioral or cortisol levels. Also, the chocolate CPP response was positively correlated with foraging time, rather than the amount of calories consumed. The sudden absence of the food increased exploration, while the chocolate CPP effect was associated with vigilance - both anxiety-related behaviors in marmosets. This behavioral profile occurred regardless of any concomitant change or correlation with cortisol. Therefore, the high fat/sugar food was more prone to be overly consumed by the marmosets, to induce a CPP response and to lead to anxiety-related behavior in its absence. PMID:25447426

  16. Effects of swimming exercise on morphine-induced reward and behavioral sensitization in maternally-separated rat pups in the conditioned place preference procedure.

    PubMed

    Abad, Atiyeh Taghavi-Khalil; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Bigdeli, Imanollah

    2016-09-19

    This study was designed to examine the effects of swimming exercise during adolescence on morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and behavioral sensitization in maternally separated male and female rat pups. Male Wistar rats were allowed to mate with female virgin Wistar rats. Pups were separated from the dam daily for 180min during postnatal days 2-14. All pups were weaned on day 21.The exercising pups were allowed to swim (60min/d, five days per a week, for 30days) during adolescence. Then, rat pups were tested for behavioral sensitization and the CPP induced by morphine. Maternal separation produced a significant increase in morphine-induced CPP in both sexes, behavioral sensitization in male pups and tolerance to morphine-induced motor activity in female pups. Swimmer pups separated from the dam exhibited a decrease in morphine-induced CPP in both sexes and behavioral sensitization in male pups than those of their control pups. The present results have shown that swimming exercise during adolescence may exert a protective effect against morphine-induced reward and behavioral sensitization in adult male and female rats following maternal separation. PMID:27519931

  17. Children's strategic theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Sher, Itai; Koenig, Melissa; Rustichini, Aldo

    2014-09-16

    Human strategic interaction requires reasoning about other people's behavior and mental states, combined with an understanding of their incentives. However, the ontogenic development of strategic reasoning is not well understood: At what age do we show a capacity for sophisticated play in social interactions? Several lines of inquiry suggest an important role for recursive thinking (RT) and theory of mind (ToM), but these capacities leave out the strategic element. We posit a strategic theory of mind (SToM) integrating ToM and RT with reasoning about incentives of all players. We investigated SToM in 3- to 9-y-old children and adults in two games that represent prevalent aspects of social interaction. Children anticipate deceptive and competitive moves from the other player and play both games in a strategically sophisticated manner by 7 y of age. One game has a pure strategy Nash equilibrium: In this game, children achieve equilibrium play by the age of 7 y on the first move. In the other game, with a single mixed-strategy equilibrium, children's behavior moved toward the equilibrium with experience. These two results also correspond to two ways in which children's behavior resembles adult behavior in the same games. In both games, children's behavior becomes more strategically sophisticated with age on the first move. Beyond the age of 7 y, children begin to think about strategic interaction not myopically, but in a farsighted way, possibly with a view to cooperating and capitalizing on mutual gains in long-run relationships.

  18. Interest in, concerns about, and preferences for potential video-group delivery of an effective behavioral intervention among women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Marhefka, Stephanie L; Fuhrmann, Hollie J; Gilliam, Patricia; Lopez, Bernice; Baldwin, Julie

    2012-10-01

    Novel strategies are needed to expand access to effective behavioral interventions for HIV prevention. Delivering effective group-based interventions to people living with HIV using video-conferencing technology is an innovative approach that may address this need, but has not been explored. Twenty-seven women living with HIV (WLH) who had just completed Healthy Relationships, a group-based behavioral program for WLH, participated in focus groups to share their thoughts about potentially participating in Healthy Relationships via a video-conferencing group. Overall, WLH supported the idea of video-group delivery of the program. They had numerous questions about logistics, expressed concerns about safety and confidentiality, and indicated a preference for accessing video-groups via special video-phones versus computers. Findings warrant further research into the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of video-group delivery of HIV prevention interventions and suggest important considerations for researchers and practitioners who may employ video-conferencing for intervention delivery.

  19. A choice behavior for morphine reveals experience-dependent drug preference and underlying neural substrates in developing larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Bretaud, S; Li, Q; Lockwood, B L; Kobayashi, K; Lin, E; Guo, S

    2007-05-25

    Transparent larval zebrafish offer the opportunity to unravel genetic and neuronal networks underlying behavior in a developing system. In this study, we developed a choice chamber paradigm to measure reward-associated behavior in larval zebrafish. In the chamber where larval zebrafish have a choice of spending their time in either a water- or morphine-containing compartment, larvae that have previously experienced morphine spend significantly more time in the compartment containing morphine. This behavior can be attentuated by pre-treatment with antagonists of the opioid receptor or the dopamine receptor, and furthermore, is impaired in the too few mutant, which has a genetic deficiency in the production of specific groups of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons in the ventral forebrain. These results uncover a choice behavior for an addictive substance in larval zebrafish that is mediated through central opioid and monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems.

  20. Enduring effects of tacrine on cocaine-reinforced behavior: Analysis by conditioned-place preference, temporal separation from drug reward, and reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Grasing, Kenneth; Yang, Yungao; He, Shuangteng

    2015-07-01

    Previous work by our laboratory has shown that tacrine can produce long-lasting reductions in cocaine-reinforced behavior, when administered to rats as daily intravenous infusions over four days. Tacrine causes dose-related liver toxicity in different species, and its manufacture for human use was recently discontinued. This study was conducted to further characterize its actions on cocaine reward. Cocaine-experienced animals that had no contact with drug over one week resumed self-administration at levels similar to their initial baseline. When tacrine was administered over four days which were preceded and followed by washout periods to allow elimination of cocaine and tacrine respectively, subsequent cocaine self-administration was attenuated by more than one-half. Tacrine administered at 10 mg/kg-day as a chronic infusion by osmotic pump did not modify cocaine-induced increases in locomotor activity or conditioned-place preference. In rats that exhibited persistent attenuation of cocaine-self-administration after receiving tacrine, cocaine-induced reinstatement was also attenuated. No changes in plasma measures of renal or hepatic function were observed in rats receiving tacrine. In conclusion, pretreatment with tacrine can decrease cocaine-motivated behavior measured by self-administration or reinstatement, but not conditioned-place preference. Reductions in cocaine self-administration following pretreatment with tacrine do not require direct interaction with cocaine and are not secondary to either liver or kidney toxicity.

  1. Enduring effects of tacrine on cocaine-reinforced behavior: Analysis by conditioned-place preference, temporal separation from drug reward, and reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Grasing, Kenneth; Yang, Yungao; He, Shuangteng

    2015-07-01

    Previous work by our laboratory has shown that tacrine can produce long-lasting reductions in cocaine-reinforced behavior, when administered to rats as daily intravenous infusions over four days. Tacrine causes dose-related liver toxicity in different species, and its manufacture for human use was recently discontinued. This study was conducted to further characterize its actions on cocaine reward. Cocaine-experienced animals that had no contact with drug over one week resumed self-administration at levels similar to their initial baseline. When tacrine was administered over four days which were preceded and followed by washout periods to allow elimination of cocaine and tacrine respectively, subsequent cocaine self-administration was attenuated by more than one-half. Tacrine administered at 10 mg/kg-day as a chronic infusion by osmotic pump did not modify cocaine-induced increases in locomotor activity or conditioned-place preference. In rats that exhibited persistent attenuation of cocaine-self-administration after receiving tacrine, cocaine-induced reinstatement was also attenuated. No changes in plasma measures of renal or hepatic function were observed in rats receiving tacrine. In conclusion, pretreatment with tacrine can decrease cocaine-motivated behavior measured by self-administration or reinstatement, but not conditioned-place preference. Reductions in cocaine self-administration following pretreatment with tacrine do not require direct interaction with cocaine and are not secondary to either liver or kidney toxicity. PMID:25890194

  2. Effect of Orexin A antagonist (SB-334867) infusion into the nucleus accumbens on consummatory behavior and alcohol preference in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Mayannavar, Santosh; Rashmi, K. S.; Rao, Yalla Durga; Yadav, Saraswati; Ganaraja, B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has a role in addiction and ingestive behavior. In order to assess orexinergic system involved in this, we infused Orexin A antagonist and assessed the effect on food intake fluid intake and alcohol preference in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Inbred Wistar rats (n = 54) were divided into control and experimental groups (low dose and high dose). Using stereotaxic method, guide cannula was set in place bilaterally to reach NAcc. Low dose (3 ng) and high dose (6 ng) of Orexin A antagonist (SB-334867) was infused, and the food consumption, water intake and alcohol intake, and two bottle free choice preference test for alcohol were carried out in the experimental group. The control group received saline infusion and rest of the methods followed were same. The measurements were carried out immediately after the infusion, at 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, and for the whole day and represented in the figure and tables. Results: A decrease in water intake observed immediately after the infusion in 1st h (P < 0.05) and 2nd h (P < 0.01), which was more in high dose group compared to low dose and controls. Alcohol intake was also following the same pattern. In two bottle free choice, rats did not show any specific preference to alcohol. Conclusion: There was dose dependent reduction in intake of food and fluids in treated rats. This suggested a possible role for orexinergic system in ingestive behavior. However, Orexin A may not have a role in modulation of alcohol addiction by the rewarding center NAcc. PMID:26997723

  3. In others' shoes: do individual differences in empathy and theory of mind shape social preferences?

    PubMed

    Artinger, Florian; Exadaktylos, Filippos; Koppel, Hannes; Sääksvuori, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Abundant evidence across the behavioral and social sciences suggests that there are substantial individual differences in pro-social behavior. However, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underlie social preferences. This paper investigates whether empathy and Theory of Mind shape individual differences in pro-social behavior as conventionally observed in neutrally framed social science experiments. Our results show that individual differences in the capacity for empathy do not shape social preferences. The results qualify the role of Theory of Mind in strategic interaction. We do not only show that fair individuals exhibit more accurate beliefs about the behavior of others but that Theory of Mind can be effectively used to pursue both self-interest and pro-social goals depending on the principle objectives of a person.

  4. In Others' Shoes: Do Individual Differences in Empathy and Theory of Mind Shape Social Preferences?

    PubMed Central

    Artinger, Florian; Exadaktylos, Filippos; Koppel, Hannes; Sääksvuori, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Abundant evidence across the behavioral and social sciences suggests that there are substantial individual differences in pro-social behavior. However, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underlie social preferences. This paper investigates whether empathy and Theory of Mind shape individual differences in pro-social behavior as conventionally observed in neutrally framed social science experiments. Our results show that individual differences in the capacity for empathy do not shape social preferences. The results qualify the role of Theory of Mind in strategic interaction. We do not only show that fair individuals exhibit more accurate beliefs about the behavior of others but that Theory of Mind can be effectively used to pursue both self-interest and pro-social goals depending on the principle objectives of a person. PMID:24743312

  5. Effect of ASF (a Compound of Traditional Chinese Medicine) on Behavioral Sensitization Induced by Ethanol and Conditioned Place Preference in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Da-chao; Li, Yi-bei; Hu, Xiao-Yu; Lin, Wu; Jia, Ling-yan; Zhong, Sen

    2014-01-01

    ASF composed by semen and epimedium herbal is a traditional plant compound that is widely used in the treatment of insomnia. Studies have shown that saponins and flavonoids contained in semen can significantly decrease the content of excitatory neurotransmitter Glu in mice. And the total flavone of YinYangHuo can increase the release of GABA in the anterior periventricular system of rat and increase the affinity of GABA for the receptors GABAA. It can be inferred that their synergism may have effect on the neurotransmitter that causes behavioral sensitization and conditioned place preference in experimental animals and affects their drinking behaviors, which is the starting point of this research. The present study found that ASF can inhibit development and expression of behavioral sensitization induced by ethanol and the development of CPP in mice. We demonstrate the inhibition of ASF on behavioral sensitization partly due to its effect on the mesolimbic neurotransmitter system, including decreasing level of DA and Glu and increasing the content of GABA. It suggested that the ASF may have pharmacological effects in the treatment of alcohol addiction. PMID:25530778

  6. Preference pulses without reinforcers.

    PubMed

    McLean, Anthony P; Grace, Randolph C; Pitts, Raymond C; Hughes, Christine E

    2014-05-01

    Preference pulses are thought to represent strong, short-term effects of reinforcers on preference in concurrent schedules. However, the general shape of preference pulses is substantially determined by the distributions of responses-per-visit (visit lengths) for the two choice alternatives. In several series of simulations, we varied the means and standard deviations of distributions describing visits to two concurrently available response alternatives, arranged "reinforcers" according to concurrent variable-interval schedules, and found a range of different preference pulses. Because characteristics of these distributions describe global aspects of behavior, and the simulations assumed no local effects of reinforcement, these preference pulses derive from the visit structure alone. This strongly questions whether preference pulses should continue to be interpreted as representing local effects of reinforcement. We suggest an alternative approach whereby local effects are assessed by subtracting the artifactual part, which derives from visit structure, from the observed preference pulses. This yields "residual" preference pulses. We illustrate this method in application to published data from mixed dependent concurrent schedules, revealing evidence that the delivery of reinforcers had modest lengthening effects on the duration of the current visit, a conclusion that is quantitatively consistent with early research on short-term effects of reinforcement.

  7. A Multidimensional Study of Gender Typing in Preschool Children and Their Parents: Personality, Attitudes, Preferences, Behavior, and Cultural Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Patricia J.; Gervai, Judit

    1995-01-01

    Examined the nature and extent of parental influences on gender differentiation in 161 4-year olds from Hungary and England. Found that certain aspects of parental gender typing were associated with individual differences in children's behavior and gender typing. Association was related to sex of parent and of child, context, and aspect of gender…

  8. Thinking strategically.

    PubMed

    Goree, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Over the course of the past 20 years, human resources has tried a variety of strategic initiatives to add value to the working environment, from the alphabets of TQM, CQI, EVA, ROI, ISO, QS, Theory X, Y, Z, Generation X and Y to re-engineering, balanced scorecard, lean, hoshin, six sigma, to Margaret Wheatley's "The Simpler Way" and finally to cheese and fish. The problem is that none of these is a strategy. They are all tactics to accomplish or achieve a strategy.

  9. PC1, a non-peptide PKR1-preferring antagonist, reduces pain behavior and spinal neuronal sensitization in neuropathic mice.

    PubMed

    Guida, F; Lattanzi, R; Boccella, S; Maftei, D; Romano, R; Marconi, V; Balboni, G; Salvadori, S; Scafuro, M A; de Novellis, V; Negri, L; Maione, S; Luongo, L

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is characterized by abnormal pain responses triggered by the release of several mediators and neuronal hyperexcitability at the spinal cord level. Emerging evidence indicates that the enhanced activity of dorsal horn neurons requires communication with glia and microglia, cells that are physiologically involved in neuronal wellbeing. Prokineticins (PKs), which include PK1 and PK2, represent a novel family of chemokines characterized by a unique structural motif comprising five disulfide bonds. They are expressed in the peripheral and central nervous system. PKs bind two G protein coupled receptors, PKR1 and PKR2, and participate in the regulation of several biological processes, including pain sensation. This study aimed to investigate the anti-nociceptive effect of PC1, a non-peptide PKR1-preferring antagonist, in a mouse model of neuropathic pain. To do this, we assessed the activity of spinal cord nociceptive neurons as well as astrocyte and microglia phenotypes after repeated administration of PC1 in vivo. PC1 treatment strongly delayed the development of thermal hyperalgesia and tactile and mechanical allodynia. It also reduced spinal microglial and glial activation 8 days post injury in spared nerve injury (SNI) mice. Neuropathic mice showed an increased level of PK2 protein in the spinal cord, mostly in astrocytes. PC1 treatment completely reversed the increased responsiveness to mechanical stimuli, the decreased threshold of neuronal activation, and the increased spontaneous activity that were observed in nociceptive specific (NS) neurons of SNI mice. PMID:25434589

  10. D1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens-shell, but not the core, are involved in mediating ethanol-seeking behavior of alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Hauser, S R; Deehan, G A; Dhaher, R; Knight, C P; Wilden, J A; McBride, W J; Rodd, Z A

    2015-06-01

    Clinical and preclinical research suggest that activation of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is involved in mediating the rewarding actions of drugs of abuse, as well as promoting drug-seeking behavior. Inhibition of DA D1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) can reduce ethanol (EtOH)-seeking behavior of non-selective rats triggered by environmental context. However, to date, there has been no research on the effects of D1 receptor agents on EtOH- seeking behavior of high alcohol-preferring (P) rats following prolonged abstinence. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of microinjecting the D1 antagonist SCH 23390 or the D1 agonist A-77636 into the Acb shell or Acb core on spontaneous recovery of EtOH-seeking behavior. After 10 weeks of concurrent access to EtOH and water, P rats underwent seven extinction sessions (EtOH and water withheld), followed by 2 weeks in their home cages without access to EtOH or operant sessions. In the 2nd week of the home cage phase, rats were bilaterally implanted with guide cannula aimed at the Acb shell or Acb core; rats were allowed 7d ays to recover before EtOH-seeking was assessed by the Pavlovian Spontaneous Recovery (PSR) model. Administration of SCH23390 (1μg/side) into the Acb shell inhibited responding on the EtOH lever, whereas administration of A-77636 (0.125μg/side) increased responding on the EtOH lever. Microinfusion of D1 receptor agents into the Acb core did not alter responding on the EtOH lever. Responses on the water lever were not altered by any of the treatments. The results suggest that activation of D1 receptors within the Acb shell, but not Acb core, are involved in mediating PSR of EtOH-seeking behavior of P rats.

  11. D1 Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens-Shell, but not the Core, are Involved in Mediating Ethanol-Seeking Behavior of Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Sheketha R.; Deehan, Gerald A.; Dhaher, Ronnie; Knight, Christopher P.; Wilden, Jessica A.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and preclinical research suggest that activation of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is involved in mediating the rewarding actions of drugs of abuse, as well as promoting drug-seeking behavior. Inhibition of DA D1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) can reduce ethanol (EtOH)-seeking behavior of non-selective rats triggered by environmental context. However, to date, there has been no research on the effects D1 receptor agen ts on EtOH-seeking behavior of high alcohol preferring (P) rats following prolonged abstinence. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of microinjecting the D1 antagonist SCH 23390 or the D1 agonist A-77636 into the Acb shell or Acb core on spontaneous recovery of EtOH-seeking behavior. After 10 weeks of concurrent access to EtOH and water, P rats underwent 7 extinction sessions (EtOH and water withheld), followed by 2 weeks in their home cages without access to EtOH or operant sessions. In the 2nd week of the home cage phase, rats were bilaterally implanted with guide cannula aimed at the Acb shell or Acb core; rats were allowed 7 days to recover before EtOH-seeking was assessed by the Pavlovian spontaneous recovery (PSR) model. Administration of SCH23390 (1 μg/side) into the Acb shell inhibited responding on the EtOH lever, whereas administration of A-77636 (0.125 μg/side) increased responding on the EtOH lever. Microinfusion of D1 receptor agents into the Acb core did not alter responding on the EtOH lever. Responses on the water lever were not altered by any of the treatments. The results suggest that activation of D1 receptors within the Acb shell, but not Acb core, are involved in mediating PSR of EtOH-seeking behavior of P rats. PMID:25813708

  12. Differences in cocaine-induced place preference persistence, locomotion and social behaviors between C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Li; Wang, Bei; Chen, Wen

    2014-09-01

    C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice display significant differences in sociability and response to drugs, but the phenotypic variability of their susceptibility to cocaine is still not well known. In this study, the differences between these two mice strains in the persistence of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), as well as the locomotion and social behaviors after the 24-hour withdrawal from a four-day cocaine (20 mg/kg/day) administration were investigated. The results showed that the cocaine-induced CPP persisted over two weeks in C57BL/6J mice, while it diminished within one week among BALB/cJ mice. After 24-hours of cocaine withdrawal, high levels of locomotion as well as low levels of social interaction and aggressive behavior were found in C57BL/6J mice, but no significant changes were found in BALB/cJ mice, indicating that cocaine-induced CPP persistence, locomotion and social behavior are not consistent between these two strains, and that overall C57BL/6J mice are more susceptible to cocaine than BALB/cJ mice at the tested doses.

  13. Arecoline Alters Taste Bud Cell Morphology, Reduces Body Weight, and Induces Behavioral Preference Changes in Gustatory Discrimination in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei-Hau; Chau, Yat-Pang; Lu, Kuo-Shyan; Kung, Hsiu-Ni

    2016-01-01

    Arecoline, a major alkaloid in areca nuts, is involved in the pathogenesis of oral diseases. Mammalian taste buds are the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. The effects of arecoline on taste bud morphology are poorly understood. Arecoline was injected intraperitoneally (IP) into C57BL/6 mice twice daily for 1-4 weeks. After arecoline treatment, the vallate papillae were processed for electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry analysis of taste receptor proteins (T1R2, T1R3, T1R1, and T2R) and taste associated proteins (α-gustducin, PLCβ2, and SNAP25). Body weight, food intake and water consumption were recorded. A 2-bottle preference test was also performed. The results demonstrated that 1) arecoline treatment didn't change the number and size of the taste buds or taste bud cells, 2) electron microscopy revealed the change of organelles and the accumulation of autophagosomes in type II cells, 3) immunohistochemistry demonstrated a decrease of taste receptor T1R2- and T1R3-expressing cells, 4) the body weight and food intake were markedly reduced, and 5) the sweet preference behavior was reduced. We concluded that the long-term injection of arecoline alters the morphology of type II taste bud cells, retards the growth of mice, and affects discrimination competencies for sweet tastants.

  14. A qualitative assessment of the social cultural factors that influence cervical cancer screening behaviors and the health communication preferences of women in Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle S

    2014-09-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in Ghana. Despite the availability of cervical cancer screening in healthcare facilities throughout the country, less than 4 % of Ghanaian women seek preventive cervical cancer screenings regularly. There is a lack of culturally relevant cervical cancer education material available in Ghana. The aims of this study were to assess the social cultural factors that influence cervical cancer screening behaviors and the health communication preferences of Ghanaian women. A focus group guide based on the constructs of the PEN-3 model was used to conduct six focus groups that were stratified by educational attainment. Thirty-four women participated in the study. The qualitative data revealed that most participants were not aware of cervical cancer or cervical cancer screening. However, many of the participants were willing to seek screening if they knew more about it. The most common sources of health information were television, radio, friends, and family. And the participants preferred inspirational cervical-cancer-screening messages that would be delivered by a doctor and a cancer survivor. PMID:24488557

  15. Arecoline Alters Taste Bud Cell Morphology, Reduces Body Weight, and Induces Behavioral Preference Changes in Gustatory Discrimination in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei-Hau; Chau, Yat-Pang; Lu, Kuo-Shyan; Kung, Hsiu-Ni

    2016-01-01

    Arecoline, a major alkaloid in areca nuts, is involved in the pathogenesis of oral diseases. Mammalian taste buds are the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. The effects of arecoline on taste bud morphology are poorly understood. Arecoline was injected intraperitoneally (IP) into C57BL/6 mice twice daily for 1-4 weeks. After arecoline treatment, the vallate papillae were processed for electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry analysis of taste receptor proteins (T1R2, T1R3, T1R1, and T2R) and taste associated proteins (α-gustducin, PLCβ2, and SNAP25). Body weight, food intake and water consumption were recorded. A 2-bottle preference test was also performed. The results demonstrated that 1) arecoline treatment didn't change the number and size of the taste buds or taste bud cells, 2) electron microscopy revealed the change of organelles and the accumulation of autophagosomes in type II cells, 3) immunohistochemistry demonstrated a decrease of taste receptor T1R2- and T1R3-expressing cells, 4) the body weight and food intake were markedly reduced, and 5) the sweet preference behavior was reduced. We concluded that the long-term injection of arecoline alters the morphology of type II taste bud cells, retards the growth of mice, and affects discrimination competencies for sweet tastants. PMID:26453050

  16. A qualitative assessment of the social cultural factors that influence cervical cancer screening behaviors and the health communication preferences of women in Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michelle S.

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in Ghana. Despite the availability of cervical cancer screening in healthcare facilities throughout the country, less than 4% of Ghanaian women seek preventive cervical cancer screenings regularly. There is a lack of culturally relevant cervical cancer education material available in Ghana. The aims of this study were to assess the social cultural factors that influence cervical cancer screening behaviors and the health communication preferences of Ghanaian women. A focus group guide based on the constructs of the PEN-3 model was used to conduct six focus groups that were stratified by educational attainment. Thirty-four women participated in the study. The qualitative data revealed that most participants were not aware of cervical cancer or cervical cancer screening. However, many of the participants were willing to seek screening if they knew more about it. The most common sources of health information were television, radio, friends, and family. And the participants preferred inspirational cervical cancer screening messages that would be delivered by a doctor and a cancer survivor. PMID:24488557

  17. The Addicted-Self Model of addictive behavior cessation: does it predict recovery for gender, ethnic, age and drug preference populations?

    PubMed

    Fiorentine, Robert; Hillhouse, Maureen P

    2004-01-01

    Although previous research provided empirical support for the main assumptions of the Addicted-Self (A-S) Model of recovery, it is not known whether the model predicts recovery for various gender, ethnic, age, and drug preference populations. It may be that the model predicts recovery only for some groups of addicts and should not be viewed as a general theory of the recovery process. Addressing this concern using data from the Los Angeles Target Cities Drug Treatment Enhancement Project, it was determined that only trivial population differences exist in the primary variables associated with the A-S Model. The A-S Model predicts abstinence with about the same degree of accuracy and parsimony for all populations. The findings indicate that the A-S Model is a general theory of drug and alcohol addictive behavior cessation.

  18. A selective D3 receptor antagonist YQA14 attenuates methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization and conditioned place preference in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Song, Rui; Chen, Ying; Yang, Ri-fang; Wu, Ning; Su, Rui-bin; Li, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We have reported that a selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist YQA14 attenuates cocaine reward and relapse to drug-seeking in mice. In the present study, we investigated whether YQA14 could inhibit methamphetamine (METH)-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice. Methods: Locomotor activity was monitored in mice treated with METH (1 mg/kg, ip) daily on d 4–13, followed by a challenge with METH (0.5 mg/kg) on d 21. CPP was examined in mice that were administered METH (1 mg/kg) or saline alternately on each other day for 8 days (METH conditioning). YQA14 was injected intraperitoneally 20 min prior to METH or saline. Results: Both repetitive (daily on d 4–13) and a single injection (on the day of challenge) of YQA14 (6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited the acquisition and expression of METH-induced locomotor sensitization. However, repetitive injection of YQA14 (daily during the METH conditioning) did not alter the acquisition of METH-induced CPP, whereas a single injection of YQA14 (prior to CPP test) dose-dependently attenuated the expression of METH-induced CPP. In addition, the repetitive injection of YQA14 dose-dependently facilitated the extinction and decreased the reinstatement of METH-induced CPP. Conclusion: Brain D3 receptors are critically involved in the reward and psychomotor-stimulating effects of METH. Thus, YQA14 deserves further study as a potential medication for METH addiction. PMID:26687935

  19. Mice that gorged during dietary restriction increased foraging related behaviors and differed in their macronutrient preference when released from restriction

    PubMed Central

    Speakman, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) can trigger gorging behavior. We examined macronutrient choice and behavior in mice that gorged during restriction compared to restricted non-gorgers and controls. Fifty MF1 male mice were restricted to 75% of ad-libitum food intake (FI), while ten controls were fed ad-lib. Body mass (BM) and FI were measured two and 24-h after food inclusion over 14-days. ‘Gorging’ mice were defined as those which ate over 25% of their daily FI in 2-h. The top 11 gorgers and the lowest 9 gorgers, along with 10 controls, had their behavior analysed during restriction, and were then provided with an unrestricted food choice, consisting of three diets that were high in fat, protein or carbohydrate. During restriction gorgers ate on average 51% of their daily FI in the 2-h following food introduction while the non-gorgers ate only 16%. Gorgers lost significantly more BM than non-gorgers possibly due to an increased physical activity linked to anticipation of daily food provision. Controls and non-gorgers spent most of their time sleeping. After restriction, both gorgers and non-gorgers were hyperphagic until their lost weight was regained. All 3 groups favoured high fat food. Gorgers and non-gorgers had a significantly greater high carbohydrate diet intake than controls, and gorgers also had a significantly greater high protein diet intake than non-gorgers and controls. On unrestricted food, they did not continue to gorge, although they still had a significantly greater 2-h FI than the other groups. Elevated protein intake may play an important role in the recovery of the lost lean tissue of gorgers after restriction. PMID:26157640

  20. Evidence for behavioral preference toward environmental concentrations of urban-use herbicides in a model adult fish.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Keith B; Sekela, Mark A; Cobbler, Christine E; Xhabija, Besa; Gledhill, Melissa; Ananvoranich, Sirinart; Zielinski, Barbara S

    2011-09-01

    Fish live in waters of contaminant flux. In three urban, fish-bearing waterways of British Columbia, Canada, we found the active ingredients of WeedEx, KillEx, and Roundup herbicide formulations (2,4-D, dicamba, glyphosate, and mecoprop) at low to high ng/L concentrations (0.26 to 309 ng/L) in routine conditions, i.e., no rain for at least one week. Following rain, these concentrations increased by an average of eightfold, suggesting runoff as a major route of herbicide introduction in these waterways. To determine whether fish might be able to limit point-source exposures through sensory-driven behaviors, we introduced pulses of representative herbicide mixtures to individual adult zebrafish (a model species) in flow-through tanks. Fish did the opposite of limit exposure; they chose to spend more time in pulses of herbicide mixtures representative of those that may occur with rain events. This attraction response was not altered by a previous 4-d exposure to lower concentrations of the mixtures, suggesting fish will not learn from previous exposures. However, previous exposures did alter an attraction response to an amino acid prevalent in food (L-alanine). The present study demonstrates that fish living within urban waterways may elect to place themselves in herbicide-contaminated environments and that these exposures may alter their behavioral responses to cues necessary for survival.

  1. High affinity α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands AT-1001 and AT-1012 attenuate cocaine-induced conditioned place preference and behavioral sensitization in mice.

    PubMed

    Khroyan, Taline V; Yasuda, Dennis; Toll, Lawrence; Polgar, Willma E; Zaveri, Nurulain T

    2015-10-15

    Cholinergic signaling via the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the mesolimbic circuitry is involved in the rewarding effects of abused drugs such as cocaine and opioids. In mouse studies, nonselective nAChR antagonist mecamylamine blocks cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and behavioral sensitization. Among subtype-selective nAChR antagonists, the β2-selective antagonist dihydrobetaerythroidine and α7 antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA), but not MLA alone prevent behavioral sensitization to cocaine. Since the role of the α3β4 nAChR subtype in the rewarding and behavioral effects of cocaine is unknown, the present study investigated the effect of two potent and selective α3β4 nAChR ligands, AT-1001 and AT-1012, on the acquisition of cocaine-induced CPP and behavioral sensitization in mice. At 5-30mg/kg, cocaine produced robust CPP, whereas behavioral sensitization of locomotor activity was only observed at the higher doses (20-30mg/kg). Pretreatment with AT-1001 (1-10mg/kg) or AT-1012 (3-10mg/kg) blocked CPP induced by 5mg/kg cocaine, but not by 30mg/kg cocaine. Lower doses of AT-1001 (0.3-1mg/kg) and AT-1012 (1-3mg/kg) did not affect the increase in locomotor activity induced by 5 or 30mg/kg cocaine. But AT-1001, at these doses, blocked locomotor sensitization induced by 30mg/kg cocaine. These results indicate that the α3β4 nAChR play a role in the rewarding and behavioral effects of cocaine, and that selective α3β4 nAChR ligands can attenuate cocaine-induced behavioral phenomena. Since the selective α3β4 nAChR functional antagonist AT-1001 has also been shown to block nicotine self-administration in rats, the present results suggest that α3β4 nAChRs may be a target for the treatment of cocaine addiction as well as for cocaine-nicotine comorbid addiction.

  2. Strategic Planning: What's so Strategic about It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Bart

    2005-01-01

    The words "strategic" and "planning" used together can lead to confusion unless one spent the early years of his career in never-ending, team-oriented, corporate training sessions. Doesn't "strategic" have something to do with extremely accurate bombing or a defensive missile system or Star Wars or something? Don't "strategic" and "planning" both…

  3. The Difference between Anxiolytic and Anxiogenic Effects Induced by Acute and Chronic Alcohol Exposure and Changes in Associative Learning and Memory Based on Color Preference and the Cause of Parkinson-Like Behaviors in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Li, Xu; Li, Yi-Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Di; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    We describe an interdisciplinary comparison of the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure in terms of their disturbance of light, dark and color preferences and the occurrence of Parkinson-like behavior in zebrafish through computer visual tracking, data mining, and behavioral and physiological analyses. We found that zebrafish in anxiolytic and anxious states, which are induced by acute and chronic repeated alcohol exposure, respectively, display distinct emotional reactions in light/dark preference tests as well as distinct learning and memory abilities in color-enhanced conditional place preference (CPP) tests. Additionally, compared with the chronic alcohol (1.0%) treatment, acute alcohol exposure had a significant, dose-dependent effect on anxiety, learning and memory (color preference) as well as locomotive activities. Acute exposure doses (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) generated an "inverted V" dose-dependent pattern in all of the behavioral parameters, with 1.0% having the greatest effect, while the chronic treatment had a moderate effect. Furthermore, by measuring locomotive activity, learning and memory performance, the number of dopaminergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, and the change in the photoreceptors in the retina, we found that acute and chronic alcohol exposure induced varying degrees of Parkinson-like symptoms in zebrafish. Taken together, these results illuminated the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying the changes associated with learning and memory and the cause of potential Parkinson-like behaviors in zebrafish due to acute and chronic alcohol exposure. PMID:26558894

  4. The Difference between Anxiolytic and Anxiogenic Effects Induced by Acute and Chronic Alcohol Exposure and Changes in Associative Learning and Memory Based on Color Preference and the Cause of Parkinson-Like Behaviors in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Di; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    We describe an interdisciplinary comparison of the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure in terms of their disturbance of light, dark and color preferences and the occurrence of Parkinson-like behavior in zebrafish through computer visual tracking, data mining, and behavioral and physiological analyses. We found that zebrafish in anxiolytic and anxious states, which are induced by acute and chronic repeated alcohol exposure, respectively, display distinct emotional reactions in light/dark preference tests as well as distinct learning and memory abilities in color-enhanced conditional place preference (CPP) tests. Additionally, compared with the chronic alcohol (1.0%) treatment, acute alcohol exposure had a significant, dose-dependent effect on anxiety, learning and memory (color preference) as well as locomotive activities. Acute exposure doses (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) generated an “inverted V” dose-dependent pattern in all of the behavioral parameters, with 1.0% having the greatest effect, while the chronic treatment had a moderate effect. Furthermore, by measuring locomotive activity, learning and memory performance, the number of dopaminergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, and the change in the photoreceptors in the retina, we found that acute and chronic alcohol exposure induced varying degrees of Parkinson-like symptoms in zebrafish. Taken together, these results illuminated the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying the changes associated with learning and memory and the cause of potential Parkinson-like behaviors in zebrafish due to acute and chronic alcohol exposure. PMID:26558894

  5. The Difference between Anxiolytic and Anxiogenic Effects Induced by Acute and Chronic Alcohol Exposure and Changes in Associative Learning and Memory Based on Color Preference and the Cause of Parkinson-Like Behaviors in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Li, Xu; Li, Yi-Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Di; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    We describe an interdisciplinary comparison of the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure in terms of their disturbance of light, dark and color preferences and the occurrence of Parkinson-like behavior in zebrafish through computer visual tracking, data mining, and behavioral and physiological analyses. We found that zebrafish in anxiolytic and anxious states, which are induced by acute and chronic repeated alcohol exposure, respectively, display distinct emotional reactions in light/dark preference tests as well as distinct learning and memory abilities in color-enhanced conditional place preference (CPP) tests. Additionally, compared with the chronic alcohol (1.0%) treatment, acute alcohol exposure had a significant, dose-dependent effect on anxiety, learning and memory (color preference) as well as locomotive activities. Acute exposure doses (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) generated an "inverted V" dose-dependent pattern in all of the behavioral parameters, with 1.0% having the greatest effect, while the chronic treatment had a moderate effect. Furthermore, by measuring locomotive activity, learning and memory performance, the number of dopaminergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, and the change in the photoreceptors in the retina, we found that acute and chronic alcohol exposure induced varying degrees of Parkinson-like symptoms in zebrafish. Taken together, these results illuminated the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying the changes associated with learning and memory and the cause of potential Parkinson-like behaviors in zebrafish due to acute and chronic alcohol exposure.

  6. Strategic forces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The Air Force now plans to retain the Minuteman II and III missile force through fiscal year 2008. Introduced about 25 years ago, these missiles have served as a nuclear deterrence for longer than initially envisioned. Over the extended lives of the systems, questions have arisen over their continued reliability and operational effectiveness, particularly the Minuteman II system. Limited flight testing, due to a shortage of test missiles, and reduced reliability caused by age-related deterioration of guidance computers and propulsion motors are two factors undermining confidence in the Minuteman II. GAO believes that the Minuteman II could be retired before 1998 as presently contemplated under an assumption of a Strategic Arms Reduction Talks agreement. An alternative would be to reinstate the Air Force's plans to replace deteriorated missile components and acquire the assets needed to resume flight testing at rates necessary to restore and sustain confidence in the system's performance through fiscal year 2008. However, on the basis of current test schedules, GAO is concerned that components to test the missile's warheads will be depleted by about 1999.

  7. Biperiden (M₁ antagonist) impairs the expression of cocaine conditioned place preference but potentiates the expression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Anna C; Andersen, Monica L; Oliveira, Maria G M; Soeiro, Aline C; Galduróz, José C F

    2012-05-16

    Cocaine addiction is a public health issue in many countries, stressing the need for more effective treatments. As all drugs of abuse, cocaine acts on the brain reward system, increasing dopamine (DA) levels. Other neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine (ACh) are involved in the mechanisms underlying the development and the maintenance of cocaine addiction. ACh plays an important role in learning and memory processes and also regulates DA in some specific regions of the central nervous system. The present study investigated the effects of biperiden, a muscarinic cholinergic (mACh) antagonist in two animal models: conditioned place preference (CPP) and behavioral sensitization. Male C57BL/6J mice were used in both studies. The CPP protocol was unbiased and carried out in three phases: habituation, conditioning and testing. For conditioning, cocaine was injected at a dose of 10mg/kg in eight 15 min-sessions. The treatment with biperiden (doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg) was made 30 min prior to the testing session. For behavioral sensitization development, cocaine was administered at the dose of 10 mg/kg for 10 days. After sensitization, two challenges were performed: saline and cocaine (5 mg/kg). Biperiden (10 mg/kg) was administered 30 min before the cocaine challenge. At the dose of 10 mg/kg, biperiden blocked the cocaine-CPP expression, suggesting an effect on conditioned memory retrieval. However, the same dose potentiated the expression of behavioral sensitization, suggesting an increase in DA release, probably in the NAc. Biperiden, as other mACh antagonists, may be a promising drug for the pharmacologic treatment of cocaine addiction.

  8. Behavioral attitudes and preferences in cooking practices with traditional open-fire stoves in Peru, Nepal, and Kenya: implications for improved cookstove interventions.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Evelyn L; Dreibelbis, Robert; Klasen, Elizabeth M; Naithani, Neha; Baliddawa, Joyce; Menya, Diana; Khatry, Subarna; Levy, Stephanie; Tielsch, James M; Miranda, J Jaime; Kennedy, Caitlin; Checkley, William

    2014-10-03

    Global efforts are underway to develop and promote improved cookstoves which may reduce the negative health and environmental effects of burning solid fuels on health and the environment. Behavioral studies have considered cookstove user practices, needs and preferences in the design and implementation of cookstove projects; however, these studies have not examined the implications of the traditional stove use and design across multiple resource-poor settings in the implementation and promotion of improved cookstove projects that utilize a single, standardized stove design. We conducted in-depth interviews and direct observations of meal preparation and traditional, open-fire stove use of 137 women aged 20-49 years in Kenya, Peru and Nepal prior in the four-month period preceding installation of an improved cookstove as part of a field intervention trial. Despite general similarities in cooking practices across sites, we identified locally distinct practices and norms regarding traditional stove use and desired stove improvements. Traditional stoves are designed to accommodate specific cooking styles, types of fuel, and available resources for maintenance and renovation. The tailored stoves allow users to cook and repair their stoves easily. Women in each setting expressed their desire for a new stove, but they articulated distinct specific alterations that would meet their needs and preferences. Improved cookstove designs need to consider the diversity of values and needs held by potential users, presenting a significant challenge in identifying a "one size fits all" improved cookstove design. Our data show that a single stove design for use with locally available biomass fuels will not meet the cooking demands and resources available across the three sites. Moreover, locally produced or adapted improved cookstoves may be needed to meet the cooking needs of diverse populations while addressing health and environmental concerns of traditional stoves.

  9. Behavioral Attitudes and Preferences in Cooking Practices with Traditional Open-Fire Stoves in Peru, Nepal, and Kenya: Implications for Improved Cookstove Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Evelyn L.; Dreibelbis, Robert; Klasen, Elizabeth; Naithani, Neha; Baliddawa, Joyce; Menya, Diana; Khatry, Subarna; Levy, Stephanie; Tielsch, James M.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Kennedy, Caitlin; Checkley, William

    2014-01-01

    Global efforts are underway to develop and promote improved cookstoves which may reduce the negative health and environmental effects of burning solid fuels on health and the environment. Behavioral studies have considered cookstove user practices, needs and preferences in the design and implementation of cookstove projects; however, these studies have not examined the implications of the traditional stove use and design across multiple resource-poor settings in the implementation and promotion of improved cookstove projects that utilize a single, standardized stove design. We conducted in-depth interviews and direct observations of meal preparation and traditional, open-fire stove use of 137 women aged 20–49 years in Kenya, Peru and Nepal prior in the four-month period preceding installation of an improved cookstove as part of a field intervention trial. Despite general similarities in cooking practices across sites, we identified locally distinct practices and norms regarding traditional stove use and desired stove improvements. Traditional stoves are designed to accommodate specific cooking styles, types of fuel, and available resources for maintenance and renovation. The tailored stoves allow users to cook and repair their stoves easily. Women in each setting expressed their desire for a new stove, but they articulated distinct specific alterations that would meet their needs and preferences. Improved cookstove designs need to consider the diversity of values and needs held by potential users, presenting a significant challenge in identifying a “one size fits all” improved cookstove design. Our data show that a single stove design for use with locally available biomass fuels will not meet the cooking demands and resources available across the three sites. Moreover, locally produced or adapted improved cookstoves may be needed to meet the cooking needs of diverse populations while addressing health and environmental concerns of traditional stoves. PMID

  10. Squirrel Foraging Preferences: Gone Nuts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Randi A.

    2007-01-01

    This field exercise examines the feeding preferences of Gray Squirrels ("Sciurus carolinensis"). Students present squirrels with a variety of food types in a cafeteria-style arrangement in order to test hypotheses about foraging preferences. This exercise, which is appropriate for introductory biology, ecology, and animal behavior classes, is…

  11. Son preference in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Haughton, J; Haughton, D

    1995-01-01

    This article assesses the strength of son preference in Vietnam, as reflected in fertility behavior. It formulates and estimates a proportional hazards model applied to birth intervals, and a contraceptive prevalence model, using household survey data from 2,636 ever-married women aged 15-49 with at least one living child who were interviewed for the Vietnam Living Standards Survey 1992-1993. Son preference is found to be strong by world standards, but nevertheless, it has a minor effect on fertility; in its absence, the total fertility rate would fall by roughly 10 percent from the current level of about 3.2 children per woman of reproductive age.

  12. Increased conditioned place preference for cocaine in high anxiety related behavior (HAB) mice is associated with an increased activation in the accumbens corridor

    PubMed Central

    Prast, Janine M.; Schardl, Aurelia; Sartori, Simone B.; Singewald, Nicolas; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders and substance use disorders are strongly associated in humans. Accordingly, a widely held but controversial concept in the addiction field, the so-called “self-medication hypothesis,” posits that anxious individuals are more vulnerable for drug dependence because they use drugs of abuse to alleviate their anxiety. We tested this hypothesis under controlled experimental conditions by quantifying the conditioned place preference (CPP) to 15 mg/kg i.p. cocaine given contingently (COCAINE) in CD1 mice selectively bred for high anxiety-related behavior (HAB) vs. normal anxiety-related behavior (NAB). Cocaine was conditioned to the initially non-preferred compartment in an alternate day design (cocaine vs. saline, four pairings each). HAB and NAB mice were also tested for the effects of non-contingent (NONCONT) cocaine administration. HAB mice showed a slightly higher bias for one of the conditioning compartments during the pretest than NAB mice that became statistically significant (p = 0.045) only after pooling COCAINE and NONCONT groups. Cocaine CPP was higher (p = 0.0035) in HAB compared to NAB mice. The increased cocaine CPP was associated with an increased expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs) c-Fos and Early Growth Related Protein 1 (EGR1) in the accumbens corridor, i.e., a region stretching from the anterior commissure to the interhemispheric border and comprising the medial nucleus accumbens core and shell, the major island of Calleja and intermediate part of the lateral septum, as well as the vertical limb of the diagonal band and medial septum. The cocaine CPP-induced EGR1 expression was only observed in D1- and D2-medium spiny neurons, whereas other types of neurons or glial cells were not involved. With respect to the activation by contingent vs. non-contingent cocaine EGR1 seemed to be a more sensitive marker than c-Fos. Our findings suggest that cocaine may be more rewarding in high anxiety individuals, plausibly due to an

  13. Modulation of neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptors influences the expression of amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference and amphetamine withdrawal anxiety-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Kotlinska, J H; Gibula-Bruzda, E; Koltunowska, D; Raoof, H; Suder, P; Silberring, J

    2012-01-01

    Many data indicate that endogenous opioid system is involved in amphetamine-induced behavior. Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) possesses opioid-modulating properties. The aim of the present study was to determine whether pharmacological modulation of NPFF receptors modify the expression of amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and amphetamine withdrawal anxiety-like behavior, both processes relevant to drug addiction/abuse. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of NPFF (5, 10, and 20 nmol) inhibited the expression of amphetamine CPP at the doses of 10 and 20 nmol. RF9, the NPFF receptors antagonist, reversed inhibitory effect of NPFF (20 nmol, i.c.v.) at the doses of 10 and 20 nmol and did not show any effect in amphetamine- and saline conditioned rats. Anxiety-like effect of amphetamine withdrawal was measured 24h after the last (14 days) amphetamine (2.5mg/kg, i.p.) treatment in the elevated plus-maze test. Amphetamine withdrawal decreased the percent of time spent by rats in the open arms and the percent of open arms entries. RF9 (5, 10, and 20 nmol, i.c.v.) significantly reversed these anxiety-like effects of amphetamine withdrawal and elevated the percent of time spent by rats in open arms at doses of 5 and 10 nmol, and the percent of open arms entries in all doses used. NPFF (20 nmol) pretreatment inhibited the effect of RF9 (10 nmol). Our results indicated that stimulation or inhibition of NPFF receptors decrease the expression of amphetamine CPP and amphetamine withdrawal anxiety, respectively. These findings may have implications for a better understanding of the processes involved in amphetamine dependence.

  14. Can We Selectively Reduce Appetite for Energy-Dense Foods? An Overview of Pharmacological Strategies for Modification of Food Preference Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bojanowska, Ewa; Ciosek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Excessive intake of food, especially palatable and energy-dense carbohydrates and fats, is largely responsible for the growing incidence of obesity worldwide. Although there are a number of candidate antiobesity drugs, only a few of them have been proven able to inhibit appetite for palatable foods without the concurrent reduction in regular food consumption. In this review, we discuss the interrelationships between homeostatic and hedonic food intake control mechanisms in promoting overeating with palatable foods and assess the potential usefulness of systemically administered pharmaceuticals that impinge on the endogenous cannabinoid, opioid, aminergic, cholinergic, and peptidergic systems in the modification of food preference behavior. Also, certain dietary supplements with the potency to reduce specifically palatable food intake are presented. Based on human and animal studies, we indicate the most promising therapies and agents that influence the effectiveness of appetite-modifying drugs. It should be stressed, however, that most of the data included in our review come from preclinical studies; therefore, further investigations aimed at confirming the effectiveness and safety of the aforementioned medications in the treatment of obese humans are necessary. PMID:26549651

  15. Can We Selectively Reduce Appetite for Energy-Dense Foods? An Overview of Pharmacological Strategies for Modification of Food Preference Behavior.

    PubMed

    Bojanowska, Ewa; Ciosek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Excessive intake of food, especially palatable and energy-dense carbohydrates and fats, is largely responsible for the growing incidence of obesity worldwide. Although there are a number of candidate antiobesity drugs, only a few of them have been proven able to inhibit appetite for palatable foods without the concurrent reduction in regular food consumption. In this review, we discuss the interrelationships between homeostatic and hedonic food intake control mechanisms in promoting overeating with palatable foods and assess the potential usefulness of systemically administered pharmaceuticals that impinge on the endogenous cannabinoid, opioid, aminergic, cholinergic, and peptidergic systems in the modification of food preference behavior. Also, certain dietary supplements with the potency to reduce specifically palatable food intake are presented. Based on human and animal studies, we indicate the most promising therapies and agents that influence the effectiveness of appetite-modifying drugs. It should be stressed, however, that most of the data included in our review come from preclinical studies; therefore, further investigations aimed at confirming the effectiveness and safety of the aforementioned medications in the treatment of obese humans are necessary.

  16. Do children prefer mentalistic descriptions?

    PubMed

    Dore, Rebecca A; Lillard, Angeline S

    2014-01-01

    Against a long tradition of childhood realism (Piaget, 1929), A. S. Lillard and J. H. Flavell (1990) found that 3-year-olds prefer to characterize people by their mental states (beliefs, desires, emotions) than by their visible behaviors. In this exploratory study, we extend this finding to a new cohort of 3-year-olds, examine how these preferences change from 3-4 years, and explore relationships with theory of mind and parental mind-mindedness. The results showed a developmental change and a possible cohort difference: at 3 years, children in the sample preferred behavioral descriptions, although by 4 years of age, they preferred mentalistic ones. Interestingly, mentalistic preferences were unrelated to theory of mind or parental mind-mindedness, concurrently or over time. Perspective-taking skills at 3 years, however, predicted an increase in mentalistic responses from 3 years to 4 years. Possible explanations for each finding are discussed. PMID:24796151

  17. Central opioid receptors differentially regulate the nalmefene-induced suppression of ethanol- and saccharin-reinforced behaviors in alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    June, Harry L; Cummings, Rancia; Eiler, William J A; Foster, Katrina L; McKay, Peter F; Seyoum, Regat; Garcia, Marin; McCane, Shannan; Grey, Collette; Hawkins, Stephanie E; Mason, Dynesha

    2004-02-01

    The exact opioid-sensitive receptors participating in EtOH-seeking behaviors remains unclear. Previous studies have reported higher densities of micro-opioid receptor binding in the nucleus accumbens (NACC) of P relative to NP rats; however, no differences were seen in delta-receptor binding. In contrast to the NACC, substantially lower levels of micro-receptor binding have been observed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of both P and NP rats, albeit no line differences have been observed. In the present study, opioid receptors in the NACC, VTA, and hippocampus were evaluated for their capacity to regulate both EtOH- and saccharin-motivated behaviors in the genetically selected alcohol-preferring (P) rat. To accomplish this, nalmefene, an opiate antagonist with preferential binding affinity for the micro-opioid receptor was unilaterally or bilaterally infused during concurrent availability of 1 h daily EtOH (10% v/v) and saccharin (0.025 or 0.050% w/v) solutions. Rats performed under a two-lever fixed ratio (FR) schedule in which four responses on one lever produced the EtOH solution, and four on a second lever produced the saccharin solution. The results demonstrated that when responding maintained by both EtOH and saccharin are matched at basal levels, unilateral (1-60 microg) or bilateral (0.5-10 microg) microinjections of nalmefene into the NACC produced selective dose-dependent reductions on responding maintained by EtOH. Unilateral (40, 60 microg) and bilateral (10 microg) VTA infusions were also observed to selectively reduced EtOH responding; however, greater nalmefene doses were required and the magnitude of suppression on EtOH responding was markedly less compared with the NACC. The greater sensitivity of nalmefene to suppress EtOH responding in the NACC is likely due to the greater number of opioid receptors in the NACC relative to the VTA. Only bilateral infusion of the 40 microg dose in the NACC and VTA suppressed responding maintained by both Et

  18. Age- and Sex-Dependent Effects of Footshock Stress on Subsequent Alcohol Drinking and Acoustic Startle Behavior in Mice Selectively Bred for High-Alcohol Preference

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Julia A.; Barrenha, Gustavo D.; Hughes, Matthew L.; Keuneke, Kelly J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to stress during adolescence is known to be a risk factor for alcohol-use and anxiety disorders. This study examined the effects of footshock stress during adolescence on subsequent alcohol drinking in male and female mice selectively bred for high-alcohol preference (HAP1 lines). Acoustic startle responses and prepulse inhibition (PPI) were also assessed in the absence of, and immediately following, subsequent footshock stress exposures to determine whether a prior history of footshock stress during adolescence would produce enduring effects on anxiety-related behavior and sensorimotor gating. Methods Alcohol-nav̈ve, adolescent (male, n = 27; female, n = 23) and adult (male, n = 30; female, n = 30) HAP1 mice were randomly assigned to a stress or no stress group. The study consisted of 5 phases: (1) 10 consecutive days of exposure to a 30-minute footshock session, (2) 1 startle test, (3) one 30-minute footshock session immediately followed by 1 startle test, (4) 30 days of free-choice alcohol consumption, and (5) one 30-minute footshock session immediately followed by 1 startle test. Results Footshock stress exposure during adolescence, but not adulthood, robustly increased alcohol drinking behavior in both male and female HAP1 mice. Before alcohol drinking, females in both the adolescent and adult stress groups showed greater startle in phases 2 and 3; whereas males in the adolescent stress group showed greater startle only in phase 3. After alcohol drinking, in phase 5, enhanced startle was no longer apparent in any stress group. Males in the adult stress group showed reduced startle in phases 2 and 5. PPI was generally unchanged, except that males in the adolescent stress group showed increased PPI in phase 3 and females in the adolescent stress group showed decreased PPI in phase 5. Conclusions Adolescent HAP1 mice appear to be more vulnerable to the effects of footshock stress than adult mice, as manifested by increased alcohol drinking

  19. Strategic Plan. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Mission of the NSBRI will be to lead a National effort for accomplishing the integrated, critical path, biomedical research necessary to support the long term human presence, development, and exploration of space and to enhance life on Earth by applying the resultant advances in human knowledge and technology acquired through living and working in space. To carry out this mission, the NSBRI focuses its activities on three Strategic Programs: Strategic Program 1: Countermeasure Research Strategic Program 2: Education, Training and Outreach Strategic Program 3: Cooperative Research and Development. This document contains the detailed Team Strategic Plans for the 11 research teams focused on Strategic Program 1, and the Education and Outreach Team focused on Strategic Program 2. There is overlap and integration among the Programs and Team Strategic Plans, as described in each of the Plans.

  20. Strategic planning and competition

    SciTech Connect

    Gang, W.G. )

    1994-02-01

    This article discusses how to formulate a successful strategic plan in the face of competition from other electric utilities. Areas covered include reasons for plan failure, competitive simulations to test strategic plans, intelligence gathering, and cost reduction through reorganization.

  1. Hand Preference for Writing and Associations with Selected Demographic and Behavioral Variables in 255,100 Subjects: The BBC Internet Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael; Reimers, Stian; Manning, John T.

    2006-01-01

    In an Internet study unrelated to handedness, 134,317 female and 120,783 male participants answered a graded question as to which hand they preferred for writing. This allowed determination of hand preference patterns across 7 ethnic groups. Sex differences in left-handedness were found in 4 ethnic groups, favoring males, while no significant sex…

  2. NASA Strategic Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The aforementioned strategic decisions and the overarching direction for America's aeronautics and space program are addressed in the Strategic Plan. Our Strategic Plan is critical to our ability to meet the challenges of this new era and deliver a vibrant aeronautics and space program that strengthens and inspires the Nation. The Plan is our top-level strategy.

  3. Strategic orientations of small multihospital systems.

    PubMed Central

    Luke, R D; Begun, J W

    1988-01-01

    Strategic behaviors of organizations can be classified along two dimensions--growth orientations, or patterns of evolution over time, and action orientations, or strategic aggressiveness in undertaking a particular growth orientation. We create measures of growth and action orientations for small multihospital systems and test the validity of the growth and action orientation typologies, using data from a sample of small multihospital systems. Growth and action orientations do appear to exist independently of each other, and they are related to the ownership status of the systems. Not-for-profit and church-other systems exhibit similar strategic orientations, unlike those of Catholic and investor-owned systems. PMID:3060448

  4. Stress and opioids: role of opioids in modulating stress-related behavior and effect of stress on morphine conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Bali, Anjana; Randhawa, Puneet Kaur; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2015-04-01

    Research studies have defined the important role of endogenous opioids in modulating stress-associated behavior. The release of β-endorphins in the amygdala in response to stress helps to cope with a stressor by inhibiting the over-activation of HPA axis. Administration of mu opioid agonists reduces the risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following a traumatic event by inhibiting fear-related memory consolidation. Similarly, the release of endogenous enkephalin and nociceptin in the basolateral amygdala and the nucleus accumbens tends to produce the anti-stress effects. An increase in dynorphin levels during prolonged exposure to stress may produce learned helplessness, dysphoria and depression. Stress also influences morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) depending upon the intensity and duration of the stressor. Acute stress inhibits morphine CPP, while chronic stress potentiates CPP. The development of dysphoria due to increased dynorphin levels may contribute to chronic stress-induced potentiation of morphine CPP. The activation of ERK/cyclic AMP responsive element-binding (CREB) signaling in the mesocorticolimbic area, glucocorticoid receptors in the basolateral amygdala, and norepinephrine and galanin system in the nucleus accumbens may decrease the acute stress-induced inhibition of morphine CPP. The increase in dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens and augmentation of GABAergic transmission in the median prefrontal cortex may contribute in potentiating morphine CPP. Stress exposure reinstates the extinct morphine CPP by activating the orexin receptors in the nucleus accumbens, decreasing the oxytocin levels in the lateral septum and amygdala, and altering the GABAergic transmission (activation of GABAA and inactivation of GABAB receptors). The present review describes these varied interactions between opioids and stress along with the possible mechanism. PMID:25636946

  5. Self-Presentation, Desired Partner Characteristics, and Sexual Behavior Preferences in Online Personal Advertisements of Men Seeking Non-Gay-Identified Men

    PubMed Central

    Schrimshaw, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    Despite attention to the sexual behaviors of non-gay-identified (NGI) men who have same-sex encounters, virtually no research has focused on issues of partner desirability and selection. Limited evidence suggests that a subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) advertise online for sexual encounters with NGI men. Exchange theory provided a framework to investigate this seeking of NGI men, based on the content of Internet personal advertisements for same-sex encounters. Researchers analyzed 282 ads posted to an online bulletin board. Ads by men who explicitly desired encounters with NGI men were compared with those by men who did not indicate this preference in potential partners. Multivariate analyses revealed that NGI-seeking men had significantly increased odds of identifying as discreet (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.82), seeking a discreet encounter (AOR = 4.68), seeking a masculine partner (AOR = 2.18), being willing to host (AOR = 2.77), as well as seeking oral-receptive sex (AOR = 2.69), unprotected oral sex (AOR = 6.76), and anal-receptive sex (AOR = 2.18). Further, NGI-seeking ads were more likely to not mention condom use or safer sex practices (AOR = 4.13) and were less likely to indicate a desire for oral-insertive sex (AOR = 0.34) and rimming (AOR = 0.21). Findings suggest that some men may deliberately present themselves in ways that they perceive as being attractive to NGI men, and have research implications for NGI MSM, their partners, and the risk outcomes of these online ads. PMID:25750927

  6. Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Braccini, Stephanie N; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-09-01

    Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a video camera. Main effects of stimulus type were found for direction of eye preference, number of looks, and looking duration, but not for strength of eye preference. A left-eye bias was found for viewing the rubber snake and a right-eye bias was found for viewing the bananas, supporting theories that emotional valence may affect lateralized behaviors. In addition, a significant shift in eye preference took place from the initial look to subsequent looks when viewing the snake. These results are not consistent with previous reports of human eye preference and may reflect lateralization differences for emotional processing. No relationship between eye preference and previously recorded hand preference was found. PMID:22733385

  7. Strategic groups, performance, and strategic response in the nursing home industry.

    PubMed Central

    Zinn, J S; Aaronson, W E; Rosko, M D

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study examines the effect of strategic group membership on nursing home performance and strategic behavior. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING. Data from the 1987 Medicare and Medicaid Automated Certification Survey were combined with data from the 1987 and 1989 Pennsylvania Long Term Care Facility Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 383 Pennsylvania nursing homes. STUDY DESIGN. Cluster analysis was used to place the 383 nursing homes into strategic groups on the basis of variables measuring scope and resource deployment. Performance was measured by indicators of the quality of nursing home care (rates of pressure ulcers, catheterization, and restraint usage) and efficiency in services provision. Changes in Medicare participation after passage of the 1988 Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act (MCCA) measured strategic behavior. MANOVA and Turkey HSD post hoc means tests determined if significant differences were associated with strategic group membership. FINDINGS. Cluster analysis produced an optimal seven-group solution. Differences in group means were significant for the clustering, performance, and conduct variables (p < .0001). Strategic groups characterized by facilities providing a continuum of care services had the best patient care outcomes. The most efficient groups were characterized by facilities with high Medicare census. While all strategic groups increased Medicare census following passage of the MCCA, those dominated by for-profits had the greatest increases. CONCLUSIONS. Our analysis demonstrates that strategic orientation influences nursing home response to regulatory initiatives, a factor that should be recognized in policy formation directed at nursing home reform. PMID:8005789

  8. Children’s strategic theory of mind

    PubMed Central

    Sher, Itai; Koenig, Melissa; Rustichini, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Human strategic interaction requires reasoning about other people’s behavior and mental states, combined with an understanding of their incentives. However, the ontogenic development of strategic reasoning is not well understood: At what age do we show a capacity for sophisticated play in social interactions? Several lines of inquiry suggest an important role for recursive thinking (RT) and theory of mind (ToM), but these capacities leave out the strategic element. We posit a strategic theory of mind (SToM) integrating ToM and RT with reasoning about incentives of all players. We investigated SToM in 3- to 9-y-old children and adults in two games that represent prevalent aspects of social interaction. Children anticipate deceptive and competitive moves from the other player and play both games in a strategically sophisticated manner by 7 y of age. One game has a pure strategy Nash equilibrium: In this game, children achieve equilibrium play by the age of 7 y on the first move. In the other game, with a single mixed-strategy equilibrium, children’s behavior moved toward the equilibrium with experience. These two results also correspond to two ways in which children’s behavior resembles adult behavior in the same games. In both games, children’s behavior becomes more strategically sophisticated with age on the first move. Beyond the age of 7 y, children begin to think about strategic interaction not myopically, but in a farsighted way, possibly with a view to cooperating and capitalizing on mutual gains in long-run relationships. PMID:25197065

  9. Strategic Analysis Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Earle, Kevin D.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Reeves, J. D.; Stromgren, Chel; Andraschko, Mark R.; Merrill, R. Gabe

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Constellation Program employs a strategic analysis methodology in providing an integrated analysis capability of Lunar exploration scenarios and to support strategic decision-making regarding those scenarios. The strategic analysis methodology integrates the assessment of the major contributors to strategic objective satisfaction performance, affordability, and risk and captures the linkages and feedbacks between all three components. Strategic analysis supports strategic decision making by senior management through comparable analysis of alternative strategies, provision of a consistent set of high level value metrics, and the enabling of cost-benefit analysis. The tools developed to implement the strategic analysis methodology are not element design and sizing tools. Rather, these models evaluate strategic performance using predefined elements, imported into a library from expert-driven design/sizing tools or expert analysis. Specific components of the strategic analysis tool set include scenario definition, requirements generation, mission manifesting, scenario lifecycle costing, crew time analysis, objective satisfaction benefit, risk analysis, and probabilistic evaluation. Results from all components of strategic analysis are evaluated a set of pre-defined figures of merit (FOMs). These FOMs capture the high-level strategic characteristics of all scenarios and facilitate direct comparison of options. The strategic analysis methodology that is described in this paper has previously been applied to the Space Shuttle and International Space Station Programs and is now being used to support the development of the baseline Constellation Program lunar architecture. This paper will present an overview of the strategic analysis methodology and will present sample results from the application of the strategic analysis methodology to the Constellation Program lunar architecture.

  10. Review: Thermal preference in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Michael E.; Wang, George; Garrity, Paul A.; Huey, Raymond B.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental temperature strongly affects physiology of ectotherms. Small ectotherms, like Drosophila, cannot endogenously regulate body temperature so must rely on behavior to maintain body temperature within a physiologically permissive range. Here we review what is known about Drosophila thermal preference. Work on thermal behavior in this group is particularly exciting because it provides the opportunity to connect genes to neuromolecular mechanisms to behavior to fitness in the wild. PMID:20161211

  11. Neural Signatures of Intransitive Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Kalenscher, Tobias; Tobler, Philippe N.; Huijbers, Willem; Daselaar, Sander M.; Pennartz, Cyriel M.A.

    2010-01-01

    It is often assumed that decisions are made by rank-ordering and thus comparing the available choice options based on their subjective values. Rank-ordering requires that the alternatives’ subjective values are mentally represented at least on an ordinal scale. Because one alternative cannot be at the same time better and worse than another alternative, choices should satisfy transitivity (if alternative A is preferred over B, and B is preferred over C, A should be preferred over C). Yet, individuals often demonstrate striking violations of transitivity (preferring C over A). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the neural correlates of intransitive choices between gambles varying in magnitude and probability of financial gains. Behavioral intransitivities were common. They occurred because participants did not evaluate the gambles independently, but in comparison with the alternative gamble presented. Neural value signals in prefrontal and parietal cortex were not ordinal-scaled and transitive, but reflected fluctuations in the gambles’ local, pairing-dependent preference-ranks. Detailed behavioral analysis of gamble preferences showed that, depending on the difference in the offered gambles’ attributes, participants gave variable priority to magnitude or probability and thus shifted between preferring richer or safer gambles. The variable, context-dependent priority given to magnitude and probability was tracked by insula (magnitude) and posterior cingulate (probability). Their activation-balance may reflect the individual decision rules leading to intransitivities. Thus, the phenomenon of intransitivity is reflected in the organization of the neural systems involved in risky decision-making. PMID:20814565

  12. Cultivating strategic thinking skills.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2012-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author presents an overview of strategic leadership and offers approaches for cultivating strategic thinking skills.

  13. Strategic planning for neuroradiologists.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Jonathan W; Lexa, Frank J

    2012-08-01

    Strategic planning is becoming essential to neuroradiology as the health care environment continues to emphasize cost efficiency, teamwork and collaboration. A strategic plan begins with a mission statement and vision of where the neuroradiology division would like to be in the near future. Formalized strategic planning frameworks, such as the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT), and the Balanced Scorecard frameworks, can help neuroradiology divisions determine their current position in the marketplace. Communication, delegation, and accountability in neuroradiology is essential in executing an effective strategic plan.

  14. Sandia Strategic Plan 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Sandia embarked on its first exercise in corporate strategic planning during the winter of 1989. The results of that effort were disseminated with the publication of Strategic Plan 1990. Four years later Sandia conducted their second major planning effort and published Strategic Plan 1994. Sandia`s 1994 planning effort linked very clearly to the Department of Energy`s first strategic plan, Fueling a Competitive Economy. It benefited as well from the leadership of Lockheed Martin Corporation, the management and operating contractor. Lockheed Martin`s corporate success is founded on visionary strategic planning and annual operational planning driven by customer requirements and technology opportunities. In 1996 Sandia conducted another major planning effort that resulted in the development of eight long-term Strategic Objectives. Strategic Plan 1997 differs from its predecessors in that the robust elements of previous efforts have been integrated into one comprehensive body. The changes implemented so far have helped establish a living strategic plan with a stronger business focus and with clear deployment throughout Sandia. The concept of a personal line of sight for all employees to this strategic plan and its objectives, goals, and annual milestones is becoming a reality.

  15. Strategic planning for neuroradiologists.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Jonathan W; Lexa, Frank J

    2012-08-01

    Strategic planning is becoming essential to neuroradiology as the health care environment continues to emphasize cost efficiency, teamwork and collaboration. A strategic plan begins with a mission statement and vision of where the neuroradiology division would like to be in the near future. Formalized strategic planning frameworks, such as the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT), and the Balanced Scorecard frameworks, can help neuroradiology divisions determine their current position in the marketplace. Communication, delegation, and accountability in neuroradiology is essential in executing an effective strategic plan. PMID:22902108

  16. Definitions of Tactical and Strategic: An Informal Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.

    2004-01-01

    Seventeen subject matter experts defined tactical and strategic within the aviation domain. They provided five verbs and a sentence describing both behaviors. The verbs for strategic behavior were Plan, Think, Arrange, Formulate, Intend, Devise, Anticipate, and Order. The verbs for tactical behavior were Act, Fly, Respond, Do, Avoid, Control, React, and Move. Verbs that were common to both were Get Information, Navigate, Know, Execute, Manage, Perceive, Understand, Direct, Concentrate, and Point. The responses highlight the difference between planning (strategic) and carrying out those plans (tactical). Tactical verbs are more action-oriented that change the state of the world after they have been accomplished. Strategic verbs are more prescriptive in that they do not change the state of the world but offer a procedure or program for changing the world. The pilot is in a tactical mode when actually moving the aircraft and in a strategic mode when thinking about moving it.

  17. Strategic sophistication of individuals and teams. Experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Sutter, Matthias; Czermak, Simon; Feri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Many important decisions require strategic sophistication. We examine experimentally whether teams act more strategically than individuals. We let individuals and teams make choices in simple games, and also elicit first- and second-order beliefs. We find that teams play the Nash equilibrium strategy significantly more often, and their choices are more often a best response to stated first order beliefs. Distributional preferences make equilibrium play less likely. Using a mixture model, the estimated probability to play strategically is 62% for teams, but only 40% for individuals. A model of noisy introspection reveals that teams differ from individuals in higher order beliefs. PMID:24926100

  18. Consumer research and strategic planning for hospitals: a second opinion.

    PubMed

    Muller, A

    1984-01-01

    Strategic planning based on a market orientation requires close attention to consumers' needs and preferences. Therefore, consumer research is a prerequisite for strategic planning. However, problems and limitations have been pointed out in business fields which have had over 30 years' experience with consumer research. These shortcomings also apply to consumer research in healthcare. Several examples are presented to illustrate this point. Some recommendations follow which should make consumer research more useful for strategic planning. Yet, the importance of consumer research should not be overestimated.

  19. Strategic sophistication of individuals and teams. Experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Matthias; Czermak, Simon; Feri, Francesco

    2013-11-01

    Many important decisions require strategic sophistication. We examine experimentally whether teams act more strategically than individuals. We let individuals and teams make choices in simple games, and also elicit first- and second-order beliefs. We find that teams play the Nash equilibrium strategy significantly more often, and their choices are more often a best response to stated first order beliefs. Distributional preferences make equilibrium play less likely. Using a mixture model, the estimated probability to play strategically is 62% for teams, but only 40% for individuals. A model of noisy introspection reveals that teams differ from individuals in higher order beliefs. PMID:24926100

  20. Trans fat intake across gestation and lactation increases morphine preference in females but not in male rats: Behavioral and biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Roversi, Karine; Pase, Camila Simonetti; Roversi, Katiane; Vey, Luciana Taschetto; Dias, Verônica Tironi; Metz, Vinícia Garzella; Burger, Marilise Escobar

    2016-10-01

    The abuse of morphine has risen considerably in recent years, mainly due to the increase of its prescription in clinical medicine. Also, increased consumption of processed foods, rich in trans fatty acids (TFA), has caused concerns about human health. Thus, the aim of our study was to determine whether trans fat consumption in the perinatal period may affect preference for morphine in adolescent female and male rats. Dams were orally supplemented with water (C-control) or hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF-rich in TFA) during gestation and lactation periods. On post-natal day 43, pups were exposed to morphine (4mg/kg i.p., for 4 days) and assessed in the conditioned place preference paradigm. Anxiety-like symptoms were assessed, and oxidative status of the brain was estimated by reactive species (RS) generation. Female rats with HVF supplementation showed increased morphine preference and less anxiety-like symptoms. Additionally, both male and female rats from HVF-supplementation showed increased RS generation in the ventral tegmental area, whose level was similar in morphine-conditioned female rats. RS generation was increased in the hippocampus of morphine-conditioned female rats, regardless of the supplementation of their dams. We may infer that gender is a predictive factor to opioid preference, since adolescent female rats showed more susceptibility to addiction than males. Furthermore, trans fat consumption across the perinatal period is able to modify parameters of opioid preference in female rats, possibly due to TFA incorporation in phospholipid membranes, modifying the endogenous opioid system and the oxidative status in brain areas related to drug addiction. PMID:27341999

  1. Trans fat intake across gestation and lactation increases morphine preference in females but not in male rats: Behavioral and biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Roversi, Karine; Pase, Camila Simonetti; Roversi, Katiane; Vey, Luciana Taschetto; Dias, Verônica Tironi; Metz, Vinícia Garzella; Burger, Marilise Escobar

    2016-10-01

    The abuse of morphine has risen considerably in recent years, mainly due to the increase of its prescription in clinical medicine. Also, increased consumption of processed foods, rich in trans fatty acids (TFA), has caused concerns about human health. Thus, the aim of our study was to determine whether trans fat consumption in the perinatal period may affect preference for morphine in adolescent female and male rats. Dams were orally supplemented with water (C-control) or hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF-rich in TFA) during gestation and lactation periods. On post-natal day 43, pups were exposed to morphine (4mg/kg i.p., for 4 days) and assessed in the conditioned place preference paradigm. Anxiety-like symptoms were assessed, and oxidative status of the brain was estimated by reactive species (RS) generation. Female rats with HVF supplementation showed increased morphine preference and less anxiety-like symptoms. Additionally, both male and female rats from HVF-supplementation showed increased RS generation in the ventral tegmental area, whose level was similar in morphine-conditioned female rats. RS generation was increased in the hippocampus of morphine-conditioned female rats, regardless of the supplementation of their dams. We may infer that gender is a predictive factor to opioid preference, since adolescent female rats showed more susceptibility to addiction than males. Furthermore, trans fat consumption across the perinatal period is able to modify parameters of opioid preference in female rats, possibly due to TFA incorporation in phospholipid membranes, modifying the endogenous opioid system and the oxidative status in brain areas related to drug addiction.

  2. 11. Strategic planning.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    There are several types of planning processes and plans, including strategic, operational, tactical, and contingency. For this document, operational planning includes tactical planning. This chapter examines the strategic planning process and includes an introduction into disaster response plans. "A strategic plan is an outline of steps designed with the goals of the entire organisation as a whole in mind, rather than with the goals of specific divisions or departments". Strategic planning includes all measures taken to provide a broad picture of what must be achieved and in which order, including how to organise a system capable of achieving the overall goals. Strategic planning often is done pre-event, based on previous experience and expertise. The strategic planning for disasters converts needs into a strategic plan of action. Strategic plans detail the goals that must be achieved. The process of converting needs into plans has been deconstructed into its components and includes consideration of: (1) disaster response plans; (2) interventions underway or planned; (3) available resources; (4) current status vs. pre-event status; (5) history and experience of the planners; and (6) access to the affected population. These factors are tempered by the local: (a) geography; (b) climate; (c) culture; (d) safety; and (e) practicality. The planning process consumes resources (costs). All plans must be adapted to the actual conditions--things never happen exactly as planned.

  3. Strategic Initiatives and Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard Community Coll., Columbia, MD.

    This document outlines Howard Community College's (HCC) six strategic initiatives and goals. Each of the strategic initiatives is presented, along with a context for the statement and a list of goals to be achieved in support of the overall initiative. First, HCC will be a learning community that provides possibilities for learning that address…

  4. Strategic Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derleth, Jason; Lobia, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation provides an overview of the attempt to develop and demonstrate a methodology for the comparative assessment of risks across the entire portfolio of NASA projects and assets. It includes information about strategic risk identification, normalizing strategic risks, calculation of relative risk score, and implementation options.

  5. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  6. Strategic Leadership in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Henry S.; Johnson, Teryl L.

    2013-01-01

    Strategic leadership is built upon traits and actions that encompass the successful execution of all leadership styles. In a world that is rapidly changing, strategic leadership in schools guides school leader through assuring constant improvement process by anticipating future trends and planning for them and noting that plans must be flexible to…

  7. Strategic Investments Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, Doug

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the organizational hierarchy for strategic management and strategic investments at NASA. The presentation also relates these topics to the budgets it submits to Congress, strategies for space exploration research and development, and systems analysis.

  8. An Analysis of Preference Relative to Teacher Implementation of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, LeAnne D.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Symons, Frank J.; Moore, Tara C.; Maggin, Daniel M.; Sutherland, Kevin S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a preference trial as a preliminary test of preference effects on teacher behavior relative to implementation (adoption, adherence, quality). Teachers were randomly assigned to "preference" or "no-preference" groups and then trained to implement the intervention. Direct observation…

  9. Eye Movements in Strategic Choice

    PubMed Central

    Gächter, Simon; Noguchi, Takao; Mullett, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In risky and other multiattribute choices, the process of choosing is well described by random walk or drift diffusion models in which evidence is accumulated over time to threshold. In strategic choices, level‐k and cognitive hierarchy models have been offered as accounts of the choice process, in which people simulate the choice processes of their opponents or partners. We recorded the eye movements in 2 × 2 symmetric games including dominance‐solvable games like prisoner's dilemma and asymmetric coordination games like stag hunt and hawk–dove. The evidence was most consistent with the accumulation of payoff differences over time: we found longer duration choices with more fixations when payoffs differences were more finely balanced, an emerging bias to gaze more at the payoffs for the action ultimately chosen, and that a simple count of transitions between payoffs—whether or not the comparison is strategically informative—was strongly associated with the final choice. The accumulator models do account for these strategic choice process measures, but the level‐k and cognitive hierarchy models do not. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27513881

  10. Broaden Students' Music Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Blanc, Albert

    1983-01-01

    A model of music preference theory suggests ways that teachers can broaden their students' musical preferences. Teachers can change preferences by changing something in the listener, the social environment, the music, or the ways that the listener processes information. (AM)

  11. The shy prefer familiar congeners.

    PubMed

    Benhaïm, David; Ferrari, Sébastien; Chatain, Béatrice; Bégout, Marie-Laure

    2016-05-01

    The shy-bold continuum is both a fundamental aspect of human behavior and a relatively stable behavioral trait for many other species. Here we assessed whether shy individuals prefer familiar congeners, taking the European sea bass, a recently domesticated fish showing similar behavioral responses to wild fish, as a model to better understand the inter-individual variability in social behavior previously observed in this species. In the wild, the link between familiarity i.e., the preference of fish for familiar congeners and boldness could be part of the mechanism underlying shoaling formation in fish. Thirty fish were individually tested in a device designed to assess the preference for a familiar vs. an unfamiliar congener on the basis of visual cues only. An open field test (OFT) with shelter was performed on the same fish 32 days later to assess the boldness of each individual. Variables of interest included the proportion of time spent in the shelter, border and center zone of the arena and variables of activity. Variables measured in OFT were collapsed into first principal component scores using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) which allowed characterizing a shy-bold continuum. Time spent near the familiar congener was negatively correlated with boldness i.e., shy individuals spent most of the time near the familiar congener. We discuss the relevance of these findings to the understanding of the behavior of European sea bass and suggest that the link between familiarity and shyness is a general aspect of both animal and human behavior.

  12. Health information, behavior change, and decision support for patients with type 2 diabetes: development of a tailored, preference-sensitive health communication application

    PubMed Central

    Weymann, Nina; Härter, Martin; Petrak, Frank; Dirmaier, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Patient involvement in diabetes treatment such as shared decision-making and patient self-management has significant effects on clinical parameters. As a prerequisite for active involvement, patients need to be informed in an adequate and preference-sensitive way. Interactive Health Communication Applications (IHCAs) that combine web-based health information for patients with additional support offer the opportunity to reach great numbers of patients at low cost and provide them with high-quality information and support at the time, place, and learning speed they prefer. Still, web-based interventions often suffer from high attrition. Tailoring the intervention to patients’ needs and preferences might reduce attrition and should thereby increase effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to develop a tailored IHCA offering evidence-based, preference-sensitive content and treatment decision support to patients with type 2 diabetes. The content was developed based on a needs assessment and two evidence-based treatment guidelines. The delivery format is a dialogue-based, tunneled design tailoring the content and tone of the dialogue to relevant patient characteristics (health literacy, attitudes toward self-care, and psychological barriers to insulin treatment). Both content and tailoring were revised by an interdisciplinary advisory committee. Conclusion The World Wide Web holds great potential for patient information and self-management interventions. With the development and evaluation of a tailored IHCA, we complement face-to-face consultations of patients with their health care practitioners and make them more efficient and satisfying for both sides. Effects of the application are currently being tested within a randomized controlled trial. PMID:24174871

  13. Values and preferences: defining preference construction.

    PubMed

    Warren, Caleb; McGraw, A Peter; Van Boven, Leaf

    2011-03-01

    Extensive research in the values and preferences literature suggests that preferences are sensitive to context and calculated at the time of choice. This has led to the view that preferences are constructed. Recent work calls for a better understanding of when preferences are constructed and when they are not. We contend that the answer to this question depends on the meaning of the term constructed. Constructed can mean that a preference changes across contexts. If construction is synonymous with context sensitivity, we contend that preferences are always constructed because context influences nearly every aspect of the judgment and choice process. As a motivating example, we show that preferences are influenced by goals and goals are highly context sensitive. Constructed, however, can mean instead that a preference is calculated or formulated during the judgment and choice process. If construction is synonymous with calculation, we contend that many preferences are calculated and the more important question is to what degree preferences are calculated. We review the literature that shows that the degree to which decision makers calculate preferences is influenced by goals, cognitive constraints, and experience. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 193-205 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.98 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  14. Strategic Plan. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the strategic plan and associated organizational structure that the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) will utilize to achieve the defined mission and objectives provided by NASA. Much of the information regarding the background and establishment of the NSBRI by NASA has been provided in other documentation and will not be repeated in this Strategic Plan. This Strategic Plan is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this volume) begins with an Introduction (Section 2) that provides the Institute's NASA-defined mission and objectives, and the organizational structure adopted to implement these through three Strategic Programs: Countermeasure Research; Education, Training and Outreach; and Cooperative Research and Development. These programs are described in Sections 3 to 5. Each program is presented in a similar way, using four subsections: Goals and Objectives; Current Strategies; Gaps and Modifications; and Resource Requirements. Section 6 provides the administrative infrastructure and total budget required to implement the Strategic Programs and assures that they form a single cohesive plan. This plan will ensure continued success of the Institute for the next five years. Volume II of the Strategic Plan provides an in-depth analysis of the current and future strategic programs of the 12 current NSBRI teams, including their goals, objectives, mutual interactions and schedules.

  15. American Strategic Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeYoung, John H., Jr.; Chidester, Alfred H.

    American Strategic Minerals is a collection of six papers that were presented in December 1982 at a conference organized by the Center for the Study of Marine Policy at the University of Delaware. According to editor Gerard J. Mangone, director of the center, the papers were commissioned “to investigate not only the objective resource situation, but also past United States policy on strategic minerals and future options open to Washington.” The authors and their chapter titles are John C. Kraft, University of Delaware: “Strategic minerals and world stability” V. Anthony Cammarota, Jr., U.S. Bureau of Mines: “America's dependence on strategic minerals” John D. Morgan, U.S. Bureau of Mines: “Future demands of the United States for strategic minerals” J. Robert Moore, University of Texas: “Alternative sources of strategic minerals from the seabed” Allan I. Mendelowitz and John E. Watson, U.S. General Accounting Office: “U.S. mining investments in developing countries” and James W. Curlin, Nautilus Press: “The political dimensions of strategic minerals.”

  16. Toward Effective and Preferred Programming: A Case for the Objective Measurement of Social Validity with Recipients of Behavior-Change Programs

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Gregory P

    2010-01-01

    The adoption of effective behavioral interventions and teaching strategies for young children is largely influenced by the extent to which stakeholders find the procedures appropriate and the effects important. Stakeholder values have been described by measures of social validity in applied behavior analysis, and these measures have been a part of behavior-analytic research and practice since their important characteristics were described in the late 1970s. The typically subjective nature of the social validation process appears, however, to have marginalized children and other usual recipients of behavior-change procedures (i.e., individuals with autism or intellectual disabilities) from social validation processes. Therefore, the importance of including recipients of behavior-change procedures in the social validation process and methods for doing so are described in this paper. PMID:22479668

  17. Game theory, conditional preferences, and social influence.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Wynn C; Felin, Teppo

    2013-01-01

    Neoclassical noncooperative game theory is based on a simple, yet powerful synthesis of mathematical and logical concepts: unconditional and immutable preference orderings and individual rationality. Although this structure has proven useful for characterizing competitive multi-player behavior, its applicability to scenarios involving complex social relationships is problematic. In this paper we directly address this limitation by the introduction of a conditional preference structure that permits players to modulate their preference orderings as functions of the preferences of other players. Embedding this expanded preference structure in a formal and graphical framework provides a systematic approach for characterizing a complex society. The result is an influence network that allows conditional preferences to propagate through the community, resulting in an emergent social model which characterizes all of the social relationships that exist and which leads to solution concepts that account for both group and individual interests. The Ultimatum game is presented as an example of how social influence can be modeled with conditional preferences.

  18. Human preference for individual colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  19. Transitivity of Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2011-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to "z". Any claim of empirical violations of transitivity by…

  20. Risk Preference and Diagnosticity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocklin, Thomas

    Researchers have suggested two models of risk preference to account for subjects' preference for tasks of moderate difficulty. The affective model proposes that pride of success and shame of failure are responsible for the observed preference. The cognitive model suggests preference for tasks of moderate difficulty because they are the most…

  1. Benchmarking for strategic action.

    PubMed

    Jennings, K; Westfall, F

    1992-01-01

    By focusing on three key elements--customer expectations, competitor strengths and vulnerabilities, and organizational competencies--a company's benchmarking effort can be designed to drive the strategic planning process.

  2. Strategic agility for nursing leadership.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2015-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change. In this article, the author discusses strategic agility as an important leadership competency and offers approaches for incorporating strategic agility in healthcare systems. A strategic agility checklist and infrastructure-building approach are presented. PMID:26010278

  3. The Concept of Strategic Decisionmaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Douglas J.

    Strategic decision-making literature is reviewed, and applications to colleges and universities are made. The key requirement for strategic decision-making is that decisions affect the entire organization. While strategic decision-making can occur at different levels within the organization, the specific strategic decisions available to the…

  4. Strategic agility for nursing leadership.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2015-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change. In this article, the author discusses strategic agility as an important leadership competency and offers approaches for incorporating strategic agility in healthcare systems. A strategic agility checklist and infrastructure-building approach are presented.

  5. The Combination of Marketed Antagonists of α1b-Adrenergic and 5-HT2A Receptors Inhibits Behavioral Sensitization and Preference to Alcohol in Mice: A Promising Approach for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Trovero, Fabrice; David, Sabrina; Bernard, Philippe; Puech, Alain; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Tassin, Jean-Pol

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol-dependence is a chronic disease with a dramatic and expensive social impact. Previous studies have indicated that the blockade of two monoaminergic receptors, α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A, could inhibit the development of behavioral sensitization to drugs of abuse, a hallmark of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in rodents. Here, in order to develop a potential therapeutic treatment of alcohol dependence in humans, we have blocked these two monoaminergic receptors by a combination of antagonists already approved by Health Agencies. We show that the association of ifenprodil (1 mg/kg) and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg) (α1-adrenergic and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists marketed as Vadilex ® and Periactine ® in France, respectively) blocks behavioral sensitization to amphetamine in C57Bl6 mice and to alcohol in DBA2 mice. Moreover, this combination of antagonists inhibits alcohol intake in mice habituated to alcohol (10% v/v) and reverses their alcohol preference. Finally, in order to verify that the effect of ifenprodil was not due to its anti-NMDA receptors property, we have shown that a combination of prazosin (0.5 mg/kg, an α1b-adrenergic antagonist, Mini-Press ® in France) and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg) could also reverse alcohol preference. Altogether these findings strongly suggest that combined prazosin and cyproheptadine could be efficient as a therapy to treat alcoholism in humans. Finally, because α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors blockade also inhibits behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants, opioids and tobacco, it cannot be excluded that this combination will exhibit some efficacy in the treatment of addiction to other abused drugs. PMID:26968030

  6. 2015 Enterprise Strategic Vision

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    This document aligns with the Department of Energy Strategic Plan for 2014-2018 and provides a framework for integrating our missions and direction for pursuing DOE’s strategic goals. The vision is a guide to advancing world-class science and engineering, supporting our people, modernizing our infrastructure, and developing a management culture that operates a safe and secure enterprise in an efficient manner.

  7. Neonatal handling induces deficits in infant mother preference and adult partner preference.

    PubMed

    Raineki, Charlis; Lutz, Maiara Lenise; Sebben, Vanise; Ribeiro, Rosane Aparecida; Lucion, Aldo Bolten

    2013-07-01

    Neonatal handling is an experimental procedure used to understand how early-life adversity can negatively affect neurobehavioral development and place animals on a pathway to pathology. Decreased preference for the maternal odor during infancy is one of many behavioral deficits induced by neonatal handling. Here, we hypothesize that deficits in maternal odor preference may interfere with partner preference in the adult. To test this hypothesis, we assessed infant maternal odor preference and adult partner preference in different reproductive stages in both male and female rats that received neonatal handling. Our results indicate that only neonatally handled females present deficits in maternal odor preference during infancy, but both male and females present deficits in adult partner preference. However, sexual experience was effective in rescuing partner preference deficits in males. These results indicate that, considering infant and adult social interactions, females are more susceptible to the effects of neonatal handling than males.

  8. Assisting children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to reduce the hyperactive behavior of arbitrary standing in class with a Nintendo Wii remote controller through an active reminder and preferred reward stimulation.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Wang, Shu-Hui; Wang, Yun-Ting

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies in the field of special education have shown that in combination with software technology, high-tech commercial products can be applied as useful assistive technology devices to help people with disabilities. This study extended this concept to turn a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller into a high-performance limb action detector, in order to evaluate whether two students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) could reduce their hyperactive behavior through an active reminder and stimulation in the form of the participants' preferred rewards. This study focused on one particular hyperactive behavior common to both students: standing up arbitrarily during class. The active reminder was in the form of vibration feedback provided via the built-in function of the Wii Remote Controller, which was controlled and triggered by a control system to remind participants when they were engaging in standing behavior. This study was performed according to a multiple baseline design across participants. The results showed that both participants significantly improved their control over their hyperactive behavior during the intervention phase, and retained this effective performance in the maintenance phase. The practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed.

  9. Guidelines for strategic planning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    Strategic planning needs to be done as one of the integral steps in fulfilling our overall Departmental mission. The role of strategic planning is to assure that the longer term destinations, goals, and objectives which the programs and activities of the Department are striving towards are the best we can envision today so that our courses can then be set to move in those directions. Strategic planning will assist the Secretary, Deputy Secretary, and Under Secretary in setting the long-term directions and policies for the Department and in making final decisions on near-term priorities and resource allocations. It will assist program developers and implementors by providing the necessary guidance for multi-year program plans and budgets. It is one of the essential steps in the secretary's Strategic Planning Initiative. The operational planning most of us are so familiar with deals with how to get things done and with the resources needed (people, money, facilities, time) to carry out tasks. Operating plans like budgets, capital line item projects, R D budgets, project proposals, etc., are vital to the mission of the Department. They deal, however, with how to carry out programs to achieve some objective or budget assumption. Strategic planning deals with the prior question of what it is that should be attempted. It deals with what objectives the many programs and activities of the Department of Department should be striving toward. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to those organizations and personnel starting the process for the first time as well as those who have prepared strategic plans in the past and now wish to review and update them. This guideline should not be constructed as a rigid, restrictive or confining rulebook. Each organization is encouraged to develop such enhancements as they think may be useful in their planning. The steps outlined in this document represent a very simplified approach to strategic planning. 9 refs.

  10. Strategic forces briefing

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, G.; Chrzanowski, P.; May, M.; Nordyke, M.

    1989-04-06

    The Strategic Forces Briefing'' is our attempt, accomplished over the past several months, to outline and highlight the more significant strategic force issues that must be addressed in the near future. Some issues are recurrent: the need for an effective modernized Triad and a constant concern for force survivability. Some issues derive from arms control: the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (SALT) are sufficiently advanced to set broad numerical limits on forces, but not so constraining as to preclude choices among weapon systems and deployment modes. Finally, a new administration faced with serious budgetary problems must strive for the most effective strategic forces limited dollars can buy and support. A review of strategic forces logically begins with consideration of the missions the forces are charged with. We begin the briefing with a short review of targeting policy and implementation within the constraints of available unclassified information. We then review each element of the Triad with sections on SLBMs, ICBMs, and Air-Breathing (bomber and cruise missile) systems. A short section at the end deals with the potential impact of strategic defense on offensive force planning. We consider ABM, ASAT, and air defense; but we do not attempt to address the technical issues of strategic defense per se. The final section gives a brief overview of the tritium supply problem. We conclude with a summary of recommendations that emerge from our review. The results of calculation on the effectiveness of various weapon systems as a function of cost that are presented in the briefing are by Paul Chrzanowski.

  11. Boy preference in Korea: a review of empirical studies related to boy preference.

    PubMed

    Kong, C J; Cha, J H

    1974-01-01

    Findings related to 20 empirical studies relating to boy preference in Korea during the past 10 years are summarized under 5 headings: 1) boy preference in the familial values; 2) boy preference in the ideal number of children; 3) boy preference in family planning behavior; 4) relationship between boy preference attitude and fertility behavior; and 5) social-psychological characteristics associated with boy preference attitude. Studies made at the turn of the 1960s were descriptive and viewed boy preference only as a dependent variable; since the late 1960s, boy preference began to receive attention as a factor contributing to fertility behavior. A son was regarded as important for support in old age and family lineage. Until the 1960s, the ideal number of sons had always exceeded that of daughters by 1 person. In the 1970s, the difference was reduced to .5. Several studies showed that sex composition of children affects the rate of contraceptive practice: the greater the number of living sons, the higher the likelihood of women using contraceptives. The same was not true for living daughters. Mothers with more sons than daughters have a stronger boy preference attitude than mothers of girl-skewed or balanced families. Boy preference attitude was positively related to the number of living children and the number of pregnancies.

  12. Modulation of opiate-related signaling molecules in morphine-dependent conditioned behavior: conditioned place preference to morphine induces CREB phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Morón, José A; Gullapalli, Srinivas; Taylor, Chirisse; Gupta, Achla; Gomes, Ivone; Devi, Lakshmi A

    2010-03-01

    Opiate addiction is a chronic, relapsing behavioral disorder where learned associations that develop between the abused opiate and the environment in which it is consumed are brought about through Pavlovian (classical) conditioning processes. However, the signaling mechanisms/pathways regulating the mechanisms that underlie the responses to opiate-associated cues or the development of sensitization as a consequence of repeated context-independent administration of opiates are unknown. In this study we examined the phosphorylation levels of various classic signaling molecules in brain regions implicated in addictive behaviors after acute and repeated morphine administration. An unbiased place conditioning protocol was used to examine changes in phosphorylation that are associated with (1) the expression of the rewarding effects of morphine and (2) the sensitization that develops to this effect. We also examined the effects of a delta-receptor antagonist on morphine-induced conditioned behavior and on the phosphorylation of classic signaling molecules in view of data showing that blockade of delta-opioid receptor (deltaOR) prevents the development of sensitization to the rewarding effects of morphine. We find that CREB phosphorylation is specifically induced upon the expression of a sensitized response to morphine-induced conditioned behavior in brain areas related to memory consolidation, such as the hippocampus and cortex. A similar effect is also observed, albeit to a lesser extent, in the case of the GluR1 subunit of AMPA glutamate receptor. These increases in the phosphorylation levels of CREB and pGluR1 are significantly blocked by pretreatment with a deltaOR antagonist. These results indicate a critical role for phospho-CREB, AMPA, and deltaOR activities in mediating the expression of a sensitized response to morphine-dependent conditioned behavior. PMID:19956087

  13. When getting angry is smart: emotional preferences and emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ford, Brett Q; Tamir, Maya

    2012-08-01

    People who prefer to feel useful emotions, even when they are unpleasant to experience, must understand emotions and seek to regulate them in strategic ways. Such people, therefore, may be more emotionally intelligent compared with people who prefer to feel emotions that may not be useful for the context at hand, even if those emotions are pleasant to experience. We tested this hypothesis by measuring emotional intelligence and preferences to feel pleasant and unpleasant emotions in contexts in which they are likely to be useful or not. We found significant positive associations between emotional intelligence and preferences for useful emotions, even when controlling for trait emotional experiences and cognitive intelligence. People who prefer to feel anger when confronting others tend to be higher in emotional intelligence, whereas people who prefer to feel happiness in such contexts tend to be lower in emotional intelligence. Such findings are consistent with the idea that wanting to feel bad may be good at times, and vice versa.

  14. Successful Manipulation in Stable Marriage Model with Complete Preference Lists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hirotatsu; Matsui, Tomomi

    This paper deals with a strategic issue in the stable marriage model with complete preference lists (i.e., a preference list of an agent is a permutation of all the members of the opposite sex). Given complete preference lists of n men over n women, and a marriage µ, we consider the problem for finding preference lists of n women over n men such that the men-proposing deferred acceptance algorithm (Gale-Shapley algorithm) adopted to the lists produces µ. We show a simple necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a set of preference lists of women over men. Our condition directly gives an O(n2) time algorithm for finding a set of preference lists, if it exists.

  15. Rats prefer mutual rewards in a prosocial choice task

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Lallement, Julen; van Wingerden, Marijn; Marx, Christine; Srejic, Milan; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Pro-sociality, i.e., the preference for outcomes that produce benefits for other individuals, is ubiquitous in humans. Recently, cross-species comparisons of social behavior have offered important new insights into the evolution of pro-sociality. Here, we present a rodent analog of the Pro-social Choice Task that controls strategic components, de-confounds other-regarding choice motives from the animals' natural tendencies to maximize own food access and directly tests the effect of social context on choice allocation. We trained pairs of rats—an actor and a partner rat—in a double T-maze task where actors decided between two alternatives only differing in the reward delivered to the partner. The “own reward” choice yielded a reward only accessible to the actor whereas the “both reward” choice produced an additional reward for a partner (partner condition) or an inanimate toy (toy Condition), located in an adjacent compartment. We found that actors chose “both reward” at levels above chance and more often in the partner than in the toy condition. Moreover, we show that this choice pattern adapts to the current social context and that the observed behavior is stable over time. PMID:25642162

  16. Rotational Preference in Gymnastics

    PubMed Central

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Vinken, Pia M.; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast’s rotational preference. Therefore, we sought to explore relationships in gymnast’s rotation direction between different gymnastic skills. Furthermore, we sought to explore relationships between rotational preference, lateral preference, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry. In the experiment n = 30 non-experts, n = 30 near-experts and n = 30 experts completed a rotational preference questionnaire, a lateral preference inventory, and the Unterberger-Fukuda Stepping Test. The results revealed, that near-experts and experts more often rotate rightward in the straight jump with a full turn when rotating leftward in the round-off and vice versa. The same relationship was found for experts when relating the rotation preference in the handstand with a full turn to the rotation preference in the straight jump with a full turn. Lateral preference was positively related to rotational preference in non-expert gymnasts, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry was positively related to rotational preference in experts. We suggest, that gymnasts should explore their individual rotational preference by systematically practicing different skills with a different rotation direction, bearing in mind that a clearly developed structure in rotational preference between different skills may be appropriate to develop more complex skills in gymnastics. PMID:23486362

  17. Rotational preference in gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Vinken, Pia M; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2012-06-01

    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast's rotational preference. Therefore, we sought to explore relationships in gymnast's rotation direction between different gymnastic skills. Furthermore, we sought to explore relationships between rotational preference, lateral preference, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry. In the experiment n = 30 non-experts, n = 30 near-experts and n = 30 experts completed a rotational preference questionnaire, a lateral preference inventory, and the Unterberger-Fukuda Stepping Test. The results revealed, that near-experts and experts more often rotate rightward in the straight jump with a full turn when rotating leftward in the round-off and vice versa. The same relationship was found for experts when relating the rotation preference in the handstand with a full turn to the rotation preference in the straight jump with a full turn. Lateral preference was positively related to rotational preference in non-expert gymnasts, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry was positively related to rotational preference in experts. We suggest, that gymnasts should explore their individual rotational preference by systematically practicing different skills with a different rotation direction, bearing in mind that a clearly developed structure in rotational preference between different skills may be appropriate to develop more complex skills in gymnastics. PMID:23486362

  18. Developing a strategic marketing plan for hospitals.

    PubMed

    Dychtwald, K; Zitter, M

    1988-09-01

    The initial stages of developing a strategic marketing plan for hospitals are explored in this excerpt from the book, The Role of the Hospital in an Aging Society: A Blueprint for Action. The elderly have unique perceptual, cognitive, social, and psychological needs and preferences, and a marketing strategy for eldercare services must reflect these factors, as well as the financial role of third-party payers and the decision-making influence of families and physicians. Among the elements the hospital must address when developing a marketing strategy are market selection and segmentation, targeting markets with specific services, pricing, and positioning the hospital for a maximum share of the eldercare market.

  19. NASA strategic plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Strategic Plan is a living document. It provides far-reaching goals and objectives to create stability for NASA's efforts. The Plan presents NASA's top-level strategy: it articulates what NASA does and for whom; it differentiates between ends and means; it states where NASA is going and what NASA intends to do to get there. This Plan is not a budget document, nor does it present priorities for current or future programs. Rather, it establishes a framework for shaping NASA's activities and developing a balanced set of priorities across the Agency. Such priorities will then be reflected in the NASA budget. The document includes vision, mission, and goals; external environment; conceptual framework; strategic enterprises (Mission to Planet Earth, aeronautics, human exploration and development of space, scientific research, space technology, and synergy); strategic functions (transportation to space, space communications, human resources, and physical resources); values and operating principles; implementing strategy; and senior management team concurrence.

  20. Strategic quality planning.

    PubMed

    Yarborough, C M

    1994-04-01

    Instilling the principles of total quality management (TQM) into organizations is a difficult undertaking, yet many leaders of health care organizations are forging this paradigmatic shift with encouraging results. In this paper, a practical approach is described that has been deployed within an occupational and environmental health setting. The vehicle for this transformation is called the Strategic Quality Plan. Once the purpose was clearly elucidated by the leadership, a basic design of the plan was developed that melded two interrelated goals: achieving strategic business objectives by applying quality principles. The resulting matrix became the basis for detailed flowcharts that show the steps, inputs, decision points, deadlines, and continuous improvement loops for each strategic objective. A deployment plan was developed to aid implementation.

  1. Effects of UMB24 and (±)-SM 21, putative σ2-preferring antagonists, on behavioral toxic and stimulant effects of cocaine in mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Rae R.; Pouw, Buddy; Mack, Aisha L.; Daniels, Antawan; Coop, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that antagonism of σ1 receptors attenuates the convulsive, lethal, locomotor stimulatory and rewarding actions of cocaine in mice. In contrast, the contribution of σ2 receptors is unclear because experimental tools to selectively target this subtype are unavailable. To begin addressing this need, we characterized UMB24 (1-(2-phenethyl)-4-(2-pyridyl)-piperazine) and (±)-SM 21 (3α-tropanyl-2-(4-chorophenoxy)butyrate) in receptor binding and behavioral studies. Receptor binding studies confirmed that UMB24 and (±)-SM 21 display preferential affinity for σ2 over σ1 receptors. In behavioral studies, pretreatment of Swiss Webster mice with UMB24 or (±)-SM 21 significantly attenuated cocaine-induced convulsions and locomotor activity, but not lethality. When administered alone, (±)-SM 21 produced no significant effects compared to control injections of saline, but UMB24 had locomotor depressant actions. Together, the data suggest that σ2 receptor antagonists have the potential to attenuate some of the behavioral effects of cocaine, and further development of more selective, high affinity ligands are warranted. PMID:17241657

  2. Microgravity strategic planning exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Richard; Downey, Jim; Harvey, Harold

    1991-01-01

    The Center for Space and Advanced Technology supported a planning exercise for the Microgravity Program management at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The effort focused on the status of microgravity work at MSFC and elsewhere with the objective of preparing a goal-oriented strategic planning document which could be used for informational/brochure purposes. The effort entailed numerous interactions and presentations with Field Center programmatic components and Headquarters personnel. Appropriate material was consolidated in a draft format for a MSFC Strategic Plan.

  3. Strategic avionics technology planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Kenneth J.; Brown, Don C.

    1991-01-01

    NASA experience in development and insertion of technology into programs had led to a recognition that a Strategic Plan for Avionics is needed for space. In the fall of 1989 an Avionics Technology Symposium was held in Williamsburg, Virginia. In early 1990, as a followon, a NASA wide Strategic Avionics Technology Working Group was chartered by NASA Headquarters. This paper will describe the objectives of this working group, technology bridging, and approaches to incentivize both the federal and commercial sectors to move toward rapidly developed, simple, and reliable systems with low life cycle cost.

  4. The Strategic Attitude: Integrating Strategic Planning into Daily University Worklife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickmeyer, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    Chief financial officers in today's universities are so busy with the challenges of day-to-day management that strategic thinking often takes a back seat. Planning for strategic change can go a long way toward streamlining the very daily tasks that obscure the "big picture." Learning how to integrate strategic thinking into day-to-day management…

  5. Grappling with Strategic Dissonance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowie, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    Presents a case study of the Virtual Retina project (an instructional CD-ROM for ophthalmology students) at the University of Alberta as an example of strategic dissonance in an educational technology unit. Offers methods to analyze the external competitive environment and internal capabilities of educational technology units. (EV)

  6. Implementing College Strategic Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Development Agency, London (England).

    This document, which is intended for individuals responsible for planning and management at further education (FE) colleges, summarizes the factors that contributed to or obstructed implementation of strategic plans in 10 FE colleges in England and Wales in 1994-95. It presents key questions and illustrations that FE colleges can use for…

  7. A Strategic Planning Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, William

    This workbook outlines the Salem Community College's (New Jersey) Strategic Planning Initiative (SPI), which will enable the college to enter the 21st Century as an active agent in the educational advancement of the Salem community. SPI will allow college faculty, staff, students, and the local community to reflect on the vitality of the college…

  8. The Strategic Assessment Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazner, Steve, Ed.

    This book presents six papers focusing on the application of the strategic assessment model (SAM) to the management of higher education facilities. The papers are part of an ongoing effort by the Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers to provide comparative cost and staffing information and to develop a benchmarking process. The…

  9. Strategic Marketing for Presidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Richard J., Ed.

    Designed to inform the marketing efforts of community college presidents, this document describes the importance of marketing, presents a targeted approach, and outlines the specific roles and skills needed by the president to ensure successful efforts and effective institutions. The first chapter, "Developing a Marketing-Strategic Plan," by…

  10. Strategic planning for marketers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, I

    1978-12-01

    The merits of strategic planning as a marketing tool are discussed in this article which takes the view that although marketers claim to be future-oriented, they focus too little attention on long-term planning and forecasting. Strategic planning, as defined by these authors, usually encompasses periods of between five and twenty-five years and places less emphasis on the past as an absolute predictor of the future. It takes a more probabilistic view of the future than conventional marketing strategy and looks at the corporation as but one component interacting with the total environment. Inputs are examined in terms of environmental, social, political, technological and economic importance. Because of its futuristic orientation, an important tenant of strategic planning is the preparation of several alternative scenarios ranging from most to least likely. By planning for a wide-range of future market conditions, a corporation is more able to be flexible by anticipating the course of future events, and is less likely to become a captive reactor--as the authors believe is now the case. An example of strategic planning at General Elecric is cited.

  11. Strategic Goals for 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Toni

    This is the report of the 2000 New Mexico Association of Community Colleges (NMACC) Strategic Planning Conference. Participants worked in small groups to identify the most probable and the most desirable world for the year 2000. Results for the most probable world include: (1) education would be available to many consumers, using many delivery…

  12. Using Collaborative Strategic Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingner, Janette K.; Vaughn, Sharon

    1998-01-01

    Describes collaborative strategic reading (CSR), a technique for teaching students, such as those with learning disabilities, reading comprehension and vocabulary skills in a cooperative setting. Covers teaching the four strategies of CSR (preview, click and clunk, get the gist, and wrap up), as well as teaching students cooperative learning group…

  13. Strategic Tutor Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chee-kwong, Kenneth Chao

    1996-01-01

    Discusses effective tutor monitoring strategies based on experiences at the Open Learning Institute of Hong Kong. Highlights include key performance and strategic control points; situational factors, including tutor expectations and relevant culture; Theory X versus Theory Y leadership theories; and monitoring relationships with tutors. (LRW)

  14. Strategic Marketing for Agribusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The steps for strategic market planning are discussed including: (1) assessing the situation with market conditions, customers, competitors, and your firm; and (2) crafting a strategy to prioritize target markets, develop a core strategy, and create a marketing mix. Examples of agribusiness successes are presented. The booklet concludes with a…

  15. NAEA's Strategic Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the National Art Education Association's strategic plan for art education. Their plan states that all PreK-12 students deserve a comprehensive, balanced, and sequential program of instruction in the visual arts. The Association's primary vision and goals are described.

  16. EMSL Strategic Plan 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Allison A.

    2008-08-15

    This Strategic Plan is EMSL’s template for achieving our vision of simultaneous excellence in all aspects of our mission as a national scientific user facility. It reflects our understanding of the long-term stewardship we must work toward to meet the scientific challenges of the Department of Energy and the nation. During the next decade, we will implement the strategies contained in this Plan, working closely with the scientific community, our advisory committees, DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research, and other key stakeholders. This Strategic Plan is fully aligned with the strategic plans of DOE and its Office of Science. We recognize that shifts in science and technology, national priorities, and resources made available through the Federal budget process create planning uncertainties and, ultimately, a highly dynamic planning environment. Accordingly, this Strategic Plan should be viewed as a living document for which we will continually evaluate changing needs and opportunities posed by our stakeholders (i.e., DOE, users, staff, advisory committees), work closely with them to understand and respond to those changes, and align our strategy accordingly.

  17. External Strategic Planning Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Community Coll. District, CA. Office of Research and Planning.

    In response to a community reputation that has grown increasingly negative, the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) devised a strategic plan in 1998 to improve its programs and services and assure the educational success of its students. The planning process involved several steps: (1) revisiting the district mission statement; (2)…

  18. Strategic BI for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2008-01-01

    Implementing a complex business intelligence (BI) system at a small school or one with limited resources can seem daunting. For small to midsize schools and community colleges, a strategic BI initiative may still be an elusive goal. This article discusses how schools with limited resources are making the dream a reality.

  19. Strategically Planning to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Kemal

    2010-01-01

    Higher education, like the private sector, is searching for innovative ways to respond to demographic shifts, globalization, greater accountability, and new technologies. New organizational models are needed to meet these challenges. In a rapidly changing world, the development of such models can occur through effective strategic analysis and…

  20. The Strategic Revolution.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andy

    2016-09-01

    On the 40(th) anniversary of the publication of Richard Dawkins's The Selfish Gene, we explore the origins of cynical, strategic thinking in evolutionary biology, investigate how this illuminated the sexual and social lives of animals, and assess Dawkins's suggestion that evolution is best understood by taking the gene's-eye view. PMID:27610556

  1. Enhanced alcohol-seeking behavior by nicotine in the posterior ventral tegmental area of female alcohol-preferring (P) rats: modulation by serotonin-3 and nicotinic cholinergic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Deehan, Gerald A.; Toalston, Jamie E.; Bell, Richard L.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol and nicotine co-use can reciprocally promote self-administration and drug-craving/drug-seeking behaviors. To date, the neurocircuitry in which nicotine influences ethanol (EtOH) seeking has not been elucidated. Clinical and preclinical research has suggested that the activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system is involved in the promotion of drug seeking. Alcohol, nicotine, and serotonin-3 (5-HT3) receptors interact within the posterior ventral tegmental area (pVTA) to regulate drug reward. Recently, our laboratory has reported that systemic administration of nicotine can promote context-induced EtOH seeking. Objectives The goals of the current study were to (1) determine if microinjections of pharmacologically relevant levels of nicotine into the pVTA would enhance EtOH seeking, (2) determine if coadministration of nicotinic cholinergic receptor antagonist (nACh) or 5-HT3 receptor antagonists would block the ability of nicotine microinjected into the pVTA to promote EtOH seeking, and (3) determine if 5-HT3 receptors in the pVTA can modulate EtOH seeking. Results Nicotine (100 and 200 µM) microinjected into the pVTA enhanced EtOH seeking. Coinfusion with 200 µM mecamylamine (nACh antagonist) or 100 and 200 µM zacopride (5-HT3 receptor antagonist) blocked the observed nicotine enhancement of EtOH seeking. The data also indicated that microinjection of 1 µM CPBG (5-HT3 receptor agonist) promotes context-induced EtOH seeking; conversely microinjection of 100 and 200 µM zacopride alone reduced context-induced EtOH seeking. Conclusions Overall, the results show that nicotine-enhanced EtOH-seeking behavior is modulated by 5-HT3 and nACh receptors within the pVTA and that the 5-HT3 receptor system within pVTA may be a potential pharmacological target to inhibit EtOH-seeking behaviors. PMID:24599396

  2. Being Strategic in HE Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The call to be strategic--and with it the concept of strategic management--can bring to mind a wide range of definitions, and there is now a huge array of academic literature supporting the different schools of thought. At a basic level, however, strategic thinking is probably most simply about focusing on the whole, rather than the part. In…

  3. Strategic Partnerships in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of strategic partnerships between community colleges and key stakeholders; to specifically examine strategic partnerships; leadership decision-making; criteria to evaluate strategic partnerships that added value to the institution, value to the students, faculty, staff, and the local…

  4. Strategic Planning and Financial Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conneely, James F.

    2010-01-01

    Strong financial management is a strategy for strategic planning success in student affairs. It is crucial that student affairs professionals understand the necessity of linking their strategic planning with their financial management processes. An effective strategic planner needs strong financial management skills to implement the plan over…

  5. Strategic market planning for hospitals.

    PubMed

    Zallocco, R L; Joseph, W B; Doremus, H

    1984-01-01

    The application of strategic market planning to hospital management is discussed, along with features of the strategic marketing management process. A portfolio analysis tool, the McKinsey/G.E. Business Screen, is presented and, using a large urban hospital as an example, discussed in detail relative to hospital administration. Finally, strategic implications of the portfolio analysis are examined.

  6. Developing a strategic security plan.

    PubMed

    Potter, Anthony N

    2011-01-01

    Strategic planning is an essential component of a security director job. Every healthcare organization has a strategic plan, and the security department that doesn't is at a major disadvantage when it comes to budgeting, growth and effectiveness. This article describes how a security director can develop and integrate a strategic plan into his organization's mission, vision and values.

  7. The Possibilities of Strategic Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Strategic finance is aligning financial decisions--regarding revenues, creating and maintaining institutional assets, and using those assets--with the institution's mission and strategic plan. The concept known as "strategic finance" increasingly is being seen as a useful perspective for helping boards and presidents develop a sustainable…

  8. Financing strategic healthcare facilities: the growing attraction of alternative capital.

    PubMed

    Zismer, Daniel K; Fox, James; Torgerson, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Community health system leaders often dismiss use of alternative capital to finance strategic facilities as being too expensive and less strategically useful, preferring to follow historical precedent and use tax-exempt bonding to finance such facilities. Proposed changes in accounting rules should cause third-party-financed facility lease arrangements to be treated similarly to tax-exempt debt financings with respect to the income statement and balance sheet, increasing their appeal to community health systems. An in-depth comparison of the total costs associated with each financing approach can help inform the choice of financing approaches by illuminating their respective advantages and disadvantages. PMID:23678696

  9. Financing strategic healthcare facilities: the growing attraction of alternative capital.

    PubMed

    Zismer, Daniel K; Fox, James; Torgerson, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Community health system leaders often dismiss use of alternative capital to finance strategic facilities as being too expensive and less strategically useful, preferring to follow historical precedent and use tax-exempt bonding to finance such facilities. Proposed changes in accounting rules should cause third-party-financed facility lease arrangements to be treated similarly to tax-exempt debt financings with respect to the income statement and balance sheet, increasing their appeal to community health systems. An in-depth comparison of the total costs associated with each financing approach can help inform the choice of financing approaches by illuminating their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  10. Ambiguous games: evidence for strategic ambiguity aversion.

    PubMed

    Pulford, Briony D; Colman, Andrew M

    2007-08-01

    The problem of ambiguity in games is discussed, and a class of ambiguous games is identified. A total of 195 participants played strategic-form games of various sizes with unidentified co-players. In each case, they first chose between a known-risk game involving a co-player indifferent between strategies and an equivalent ambiguous game involving one of several co-player types, each with a different dominant strategy, and then they chose a strategy for the preferred game. Half the players knew that the ambiguous co-player types were equally likely, and half did not. Half expected the outcomes to be known immediately, and half expected a week's delay. Known-risk games were generally preferred, confirming a significant strategic ambiguity aversion effect. In the delay conditions, players who knew that the ambiguous co-player types were equally likely were significantly less ambiguity averse than those who did not. Decision confidence was significantly higher in 2 x 2 than in larger games.

  11. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  12. Memory effect of the online user preference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lei; Pan, Xue; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-10-01

    The mechanism of the online user preference evolution is of great significance for understanding the online user behaviors and improving the quality of online services. Since users are allowed to rate on objects in many online systems, ratings can well reflect the users' preference. With two benchmark datasets from online systems, we uncover the memory effect in users' selecting behavior which is the sequence of qualities of selected objects and the rating behavior which is the sequence of ratings delivered by each user. Furthermore, the memory duration is presented to describe the length of a memory, which exhibits the power-law distribution, i.e., the probability of the occurring of long-duration memory is much higher than that of the random case which follows the exponential distribution. We present a preference model in which a Markovian process is utilized to describe the users' selecting behavior, and the rating behavior depends on the selecting behavior. With only one parameter for each of the user's selecting and rating behavior, the preference model could regenerate any duration distribution ranging from the power-law form (strong memory) to the exponential form (weak memory).

  13. Mapping the Strategic Thinking of Public Relations Managers in a Crisis Situation: An Illustrative Example Using Conjoint Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronn, Peggy Simcic; Olson, Erik L.

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates the operationalization of the conjoint analysis multivariate technique for the study of the public relations function within strategic decision making in a crisis situation. Finds that what the theory describes as the strategic way of handling a crisis is also the way each of the managers who were evaluated would prefer to conduct…

  14. Handedness and hobby preference.

    PubMed

    Giotakos, Orestis

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between handedness and hobby preference in healthy individuals. For this reason, the Annett handedness questionnaire and a standard questionnaire on preference for hobbies were administered to 879 healthy young men (age, M = 22.3, SD = 4.8 yr.). Analysis showed more cultured individuals were much less likely to be strongly right-handed. Especially, pure right-handedness highly overrepresented among those who mainly preferred doing sports, pure left-handedness among those who preferred reading books, collecting, or going to the cinema/theater, and mixed-handedness among those who preferred arts, like playing music, drawing, or handicraft. The findings support evidence that handedness is associated with hobby preference. PMID:15209302

  15. Visual aesthetics and human preference.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Stephen E; Schloss, Karen B; Sammartino, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Human aesthetic preference in the visual domain is reviewed from definitional, methodological, empirical, and theoretical perspectives. Aesthetic science is distinguished from the perception of art and from philosophical treatments of aesthetics. The strengths and weaknesses of important behavioral techniques are presented and discussed, including two-alternative forced-choice, rank order, subjective rating, production/adjustment, indirect, and other tasks. Major findings are reviewed about preferences for colors (single colors, color combinations, and color harmony), spatial structure (low-level spatial properties, shape properties, and spatial composition within a frame), and individual differences in both color and spatial structure. Major theoretical accounts of aesthetic response are outlined and evaluated, including explanations in terms of mere exposure effects, arousal dynamics, categorical prototypes, ecological factors, perceptual and conceptual fluency, and the interaction of multiple components. The results of the review support the conclusion that aesthetic response can be studied rigorously and meaningfully within the framework of scientific psychology.

  16. Natural selection and social preferences.

    PubMed

    Weibull, Jörgen W; Salomonsson, Marcus

    2006-03-01

    A large number of individuals are randomly matched into groups, where each group plays a finite symmetric game. Individuals breed true. The expected number of surviving offspring depends on own material payoff, but may also, due to cooperative breeding and/or reproductive competition, depend on the material payoffs to other group members. The induced population dynamic is equivalent with the replicator dynamic for a game with payoffs derived from those in the original game. We apply this selection dynamic to a number of examples, including prisoners' dilemma games with and without a punishment option, coordination games, and hawk-dove games. For each of these, we compare the outcomes with those obtained under the standard replicator dynamic. By way of a revealed-preference argument, our selection dynamic can explain certain "altruistic" and "spiteful" behaviors that are consistent with individuals having social preferences.

  17. Microgravity strategic plan, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA agency-wide microgravity strategic plan is presented, and its research, applications, and commercialization for the 1990's is addressed. The plan presents an analysis of the current situation, identifies critical factors, and defines goals, objectives, and strategies, which are intended to: (1) provide a context for decision making; (2) assure realism in long-range planning and direction for hardware development; and (3) establish a framework for developing a national microgravity research plan.

  18. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  19. Strategic plan, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Lewis Strategic Plan was updated for 1985 and beyond. Major programs for the space station, the advanced turboprop, the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS), and the Altitude Wind Tunnel were begun or greatly expanded during 1984. In parallel, The Lewis aeropropulsion research and technology program was extensively evaluated and reviewed; a reduced and reoriented program emerged. The thrusts and implementation plans for these programs are described as they pertain to the individual directorates. Other key accomplishments and plans are summarized.

  20. Strategic scene generation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckathorn, Harry M.; Anding, David C.

    1992-09-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) must simulate the detection, acquisition, discrimination and tracking of anticipated targets and predict the effect of natural and man-made background phenomena on optical sensor systems designed to perform these tasks. NRL is developing such a capability using a computerized methodology to provide modeled data in the form of digital realizations of complex, dynamic scenes. The Strategic Scene Generation Model (SSGM) is designed to integrate state-of-science knowledge, data bases and computerized phenomenology models to simulate strategic engagement scenarios and to support the design, development and test of advanced surveillance systems. Multi-phenomenology scenes are produced from validated codes--thereby serving as a standard against which different SDI concepts and designs can be tested. This paper describes the SSGM design architecture, the software modules and databases which are used to create scene elements, the synthesis of deterministic and/or stochastic structured scene elements into composite scenes, the software system to manage the various databases and digital image libraries, and verification and validation by comparison with measured data. The focus will be on the functionality and development schedule of the Baseline Model (SSGMB) which is currently being implemented.

  1. Do Children Prefer Contingencies? An Evaluation of the Efficacy of and Preference for Contingent versus Noncontingent Social Reinforcement during Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luczynski, Kevin C.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2009-01-01

    Discovering whether children prefer reinforcement via a contingency or independent of their behavior is important considering the ubiquity of these programmed schedules of reinforcement. The current study evaluated the efficacy of and preference for social interaction within differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) and…

  2. Preference assessments in the zoo: Keeper and staff predictions of enrichment preferences across species.

    PubMed

    Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Dorey, Nicole R

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is widely used in the management of zoo animals, and is an essential strategy for increasing the behavioral welfare of these populations. It may be difficult, however, to identify potentially effective enrichment strategies that are also cost-effective and readily available. An animal's preference for a potential enrichment item may be a reliable predictor of whether that individual will reliably interact with that item, and subsequently enable staff to evaluate the effects of that enrichment strategy. The aim of the present study was to assess the utility of preference assessments for identifying potential enrichment items across six different species--each representing a different taxonomic group. In addition, we evaluated the agreement between zoo personnel's predictions of animals' enrichment preferences and stimuli selected via a preference assessment. Five out of six species (nine out of 11 individuals) exhibited clear, systematic preferences for specific stimuli. Similarities in enrichment preferences were observed among all individuals of primates, whereas individuals within ungulate and avian species displayed individual differences in enrichment preferences. Overall, zoo personnel, regardless of experience level, were significantly more accurate at predicting least-preferred stimuli than most-preferred stimuli across species, and tended to make the same predictions for all individuals within a species. Preference assessments may therefore be a useful, efficient husbandry strategy for identifying viable enrichment items at both the individual and species levels. PMID:26179195

  3. Preference assessments in the zoo: Keeper and staff predictions of enrichment preferences across species.

    PubMed

    Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Dorey, Nicole R

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is widely used in the management of zoo animals, and is an essential strategy for increasing the behavioral welfare of these populations. It may be difficult, however, to identify potentially effective enrichment strategies that are also cost-effective and readily available. An animal's preference for a potential enrichment item may be a reliable predictor of whether that individual will reliably interact with that item, and subsequently enable staff to evaluate the effects of that enrichment strategy. The aim of the present study was to assess the utility of preference assessments for identifying potential enrichment items across six different species--each representing a different taxonomic group. In addition, we evaluated the agreement between zoo personnel's predictions of animals' enrichment preferences and stimuli selected via a preference assessment. Five out of six species (nine out of 11 individuals) exhibited clear, systematic preferences for specific stimuli. Similarities in enrichment preferences were observed among all individuals of primates, whereas individuals within ungulate and avian species displayed individual differences in enrichment preferences. Overall, zoo personnel, regardless of experience level, were significantly more accurate at predicting least-preferred stimuli than most-preferred stimuli across species, and tended to make the same predictions for all individuals within a species. Preference assessments may therefore be a useful, efficient husbandry strategy for identifying viable enrichment items at both the individual and species levels.

  4. Order, topology and preference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sertel, M. R.

    1971-01-01

    Some standard order-related and topological notions, facts, and methods are brought to bear on central topics in the theory of preference and the theory of optimization. Consequences of connectivity are considered, especially from the viewpoint of normally preordered spaces. Examples are given showing how the theory of preference, or utility theory, can be applied to social analysis.

  5. Paw preferences in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tan, U

    1987-02-01

    The distribution of paw preferences were studied in 28 dogs. The paw preference was assessed by counting the right and left paw movements performed to remove an adhesive plaster from the eyes. The significance of the right minus left paw reaches in percentages was evaluated statistically in each animal. There were three distinct groups in respect to paw preferences in dogs: right-preferent (57.1%), left-preferent (17.9%), and ambidextrous (25.0%). Statistical analysis showed that the observed frequencies for each group were not merely chance variations which would be expected in a random sample. It was concluded that the population bias can be expressed in a distribution skewed toward a right-hand bias as seen in man.

  6. The strategic use of humility.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, K

    1998-01-01

    Authentic humility is strategic for the success of leaders. It is strategic from the perspective of the egotistically free relationship humility establishes with the staff, patients, and others. The lack of strategic humility explains the inevitable downfall of people who are motivated to lead by power and status. It also explains why leaders who always remember where they came from, and who are motivated by what they can do for patients and staff, succeed.

  7. Effects of (R)-(-)-5-methyl-1-nicotinoyl-2-pyrazoline on glutamate transporter 1 and cysteine/glutamate exchanger as well as ethanol drinking behavior in male, alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Aal-Aaboda, Munaf; Alhaddad, Hasan; Osowik, Francis; Nauli, Surya M; Sari, Youssef

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is largely associated with alterations in the extracellular glutamate concentrations in several brain reward regions. We recently showed that glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) is downregulated following chronic exposure to ethanol for 5 weeks in alcohol-preferring (P) rats and that upregulation of the GLT-1 levels in nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex results, in part, in attenuating ethanol consumption. Cystine glutamate antiporter (xCT) is also downregulated after chronic ethanol exposure in P rats, and its upregulation could be valuable in attenuating ethanol drinking. This study examines the effect of a synthetic compound, (R)-(-)-5-methyl-1-nicotinoyl-2-pyrazoline (MS-153), on ethanol drinking and expressions of GLT-1 and xCT in the amygdala and the hippocampus of P rats. P rats were exposed to continuous free-choice access to water, 15% and 30% ethanol, and food for 5 weeks, after which they received treatments of MS-153 or vehicle for 5 days. The results show that MS-153 treatment significantly reduces ethanol consumption. It was revealed that GLT-1 and xCT expressions were downregulated in both the amygdala and the hippocampus of ethanol-vehicle-treated rats (ethanol-vehicle group) compared with water-control animals. MS-153 treatment upregulated GLT-1 and xCT expressions in these brain regions. These findings demonstrate an important role for MS-153 in these glutamate transporters for the attenuation of ethanol-drinking behavior.

  8. Whitefly resistance traits derived from the wild tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium affect the preference and feeding behavior of Bemisia tabaci and reduce the spread of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-López, M J; Garzo, E; Bonani, J P; Fereres, A; Fernández-Muñoz, R; Moriones, E

    2011-10-01

    Breeding of tomato genotypes that limit whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) access and feeding might reduce the spread of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that is the causal agent of tomato yellow leaf curl disease. TYLCV is restricted to the phloem and is transmitted in a persistent manner by B. tabaci. The tomato breeding line ABL 14-8 was developed by introgressing type IV leaf glandular trichomes and secretion of acylsucroses from the wild tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium accession TO-937 into the genetic background of the whitefly- and virus-susceptible tomato cultivar Moneymaker. Results of preference bioassays with ABL 14-8 versus Moneymaker indicated that presence of type IV glandular trichomes and the production of acylsucrose deterred the landing and settling of B. tabaci on ABL 14-8. Moreover, electrical penetration graph studies indicated that B. tabaci adults spent more time in nonprobing activities and showed a reduced ability to start probing. Such behavior resulted in a reduced ability to reach the phloem. The superficial type of resistance observed in ABL 14-8 against B. tabaci probing significantly reduced primary and secondary spread of TYLCV. PMID:21615206

  9. NASA strategic plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Plan summarizes the Agency's vision, mission, and values. Specific goals are listed for each externally focused Enterprise: Mission to Planet Earth, Aeronautics, Human Exploration and Development of Space, Space Science, and Space Technology. These Enterprises satisfy the needs of customers external to NASA. The Strategic Functions (Space Communications, Human Resources, and Physical Resources) are necessary in order to meet the goals of the Enterprises. The goals of these Functions are also presented. All goals must be met while adhering to the discussed values and operating principles of NASA. A final section outlines the implementing strategy.

  10. Guam Strategic Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, M. D.

    2013-07-01

    Describes various energy strategies available to Guam to meet the territory's goal of diversifying fuel sources and reducing fossil energy consumption 20% by 2020.The information presented in this strategic energy plan will be used by the Guam Energy Task Force to develop an energy action plan. Available energy strategies include policy changes, education and outreach, reducing energy consumption at federal facilities, and expanding the use of a range of energy technologies, including buildings energy efficiency and conservation, renewable electricity production, and alternative transportation. The strategies are categorized based on the time required to implement them.

  11. Strategic implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Life Science Division of the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) describes its plans for assuring the health, safety, and productivity of astronauts in space, and its plans for acquiring further fundamental scientific knowledge concerning space life sciences. This strategic implementation plan details OSSA's goals, objectives, and planned initiatives. The following areas of interest are identified: operational medicine; biomedical research; space biology; exobiology; biospheric research; controlled ecological life support; flight programs and advance technology development; the life sciences educational program; and earth benefits from space life sciences.

  12. [Osteoporosis and beverage preference].

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Noriko; Ezawa, Ikuko

    2005-02-01

    Opinions regarding beverage preference ingestion and osteoporosis differ with cultural background as well as by eating habits, food customs and other lifestyle factors in addition to climate, differences in each country and area. Furthermore, it is conceivable that it differs with or depends on life stages of the individual. Currently, beverage preferences are enjoyed as part of the eating habits in, daily life considered an indispensable food to be enjoyed thoroughly. Therefore, it may be important to drink a beverage preferences in moderate but not to indulge in excessive ingestion in order to build a healthy lifestyle contributing to both a sound mind and a sound body at each individual life stage.

  13. 7 CFR 25.202 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strategic plan. 25.202 Section 25.202 Agriculture... Procedure § 25.202 Strategic plan. (a) Principles of strategic plan. The strategic plan included in the application must be developed in accordance with the following four key principles: (1) Strategic vision...

  14. 7 CFR 25.202 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strategic plan. 25.202 Section 25.202 Agriculture... Procedure § 25.202 Strategic plan. (a) Principles of strategic plan. The strategic plan included in the... transportation, education, and public safety. (b) Minimum requirements. The strategic plan must: (1) Describe...

  15. 7 CFR 25.202 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strategic plan. 25.202 Section 25.202 Agriculture... Procedure § 25.202 Strategic plan. (a) Principles of strategic plan. The strategic plan included in the... transportation, education, and public safety. (b) Minimum requirements. The strategic plan must: (1) Describe...

  16. 7 CFR 25.202 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strategic plan. 25.202 Section 25.202 Agriculture... Procedure § 25.202 Strategic plan. (a) Principles of strategic plan. The strategic plan included in the... transportation, education, and public safety. (b) Minimum requirements. The strategic plan must: (1) Describe...

  17. 7 CFR 25.202 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strategic plan. 25.202 Section 25.202 Agriculture... Procedure § 25.202 Strategic plan. (a) Principles of strategic plan. The strategic plan included in the... transportation, education, and public safety. (b) Minimum requirements. The strategic plan must: (1) Describe...

  18. Why Contextual Preference Reversals Maximize Expected Value

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals. We explore the implications of expected value maximizing choice, conditioned on noisy observations, for a range of contextual preference reversal types—including attraction, compromise, similarity, and phantom effects. These preference reversal types have played a key role in the development of models of human choice. We conclude that experiments demonstrating contextual preference reversals are not evidence for irrationality. They are, however, a consequence of expected value maximization given noisy observations. PMID:27337391

  19. Why contextual preference reversals maximize expected value.

    PubMed

    Howes, Andrew; Warren, Paul A; Farmer, George; El-Deredy, Wael; Lewis, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals. We explore the implications of expected value maximizing choice, conditioned on noisy observations, for a range of contextual preference reversal types-including attraction, compromise, similarity, and phantom effects. These preference reversal types have played a key role in the development of models of human choice. We conclude that experiments demonstrating contextual preference reversals are not evidence for irrationality. They are, however, a consequence of expected value maximization given noisy observations. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Game Theory, Conditional Preferences, and Social Influence

    PubMed Central

    Stirling, Wynn C.; Felin, Teppo

    2013-01-01

    Neoclassical noncooperative game theory is based on a simple, yet powerful synthesis of mathematical and logical concepts: unconditional and immutable preference orderings and individual rationality. Although this structure has proven useful for characterizing competitive multi-player behavior, its applicability to scenarios involving complex social relationships is problematic. In this paper we directly address this limitation by the introduction of a conditional preference structure that permits players to modulate their preference orderings as functions of the preferences of other players. Embedding this expanded preference structure in a formal and graphical framework provides a systematic approach for characterizing a complex society. The result is an influence network that allows conditional preferences to propagate through the community, resulting in an emergent social model which characterizes all of the social relationships that exist and which leads to solution concepts that account for both group and individual interests. The Ultimatum game is presented as an example of how social influence can be modeled with conditional preferences. PMID:23451078

  1. Why contextual preference reversals maximize expected value.

    PubMed

    Howes, Andrew; Warren, Paul A; Farmer, George; El-Deredy, Wael; Lewis, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals. We explore the implications of expected value maximizing choice, conditioned on noisy observations, for a range of contextual preference reversal types-including attraction, compromise, similarity, and phantom effects. These preference reversal types have played a key role in the development of models of human choice. We conclude that experiments demonstrating contextual preference reversals are not evidence for irrationality. They are, however, a consequence of expected value maximization given noisy observations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337391

  2. Operationalizing strategic marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, S B

    1989-05-01

    The strategic marketing process, like any administrative practice, is far simpler to conceptualize than operationalize within an organization. It is for this reason that this chapter focused on providing practical techniques and strategies for implementing the strategic marketing process. First and foremost, the marketing effort needs to be marketed to the various publics of the organization. This chapter advocated the need to organize the marketing analysis into organizational, competitive, and market phases, and it provided examples of possible designs of the phases. The importance and techniques for exhausting secondary data sources and conducting efficient primary data collection methods were explained and illustrated. Strategies for determining marketing opportunities and threats, as well as segmenting markets, were detailed. The chapter provided techniques for developing marketing strategies, including considering the five patterns of coverage available; determining competitor's position and the marketing mix; examining the stage of the product life cycle; and employing a consumer decision model. The importance of developing explicit objectives, goals, and detailed action plans was emphasized. Finally, helpful hints for operationalizing the communication variable and evaluating marketing programs were provided.

  3. Strategic identities in cyberspace.

    PubMed

    Talamo, A; Ligorio, B

    2001-02-01

    This paper aims at describing, according to the recent advances in social psychology and Computer Mediated Communication, how identities are perceived and constructed in cyberspace. All interactions analyzed in this study were performed within "Euroland," a collaborative virtual environment. The interacting community was composed of students, teachers, and researchers working on a transnational educational project. Practices and dialogues within Euroland are analyzed using an ethnographic and conversational method. A sample of discourses and actions that occurred during 8 months of time, selected according to the research aims, was analyzed. During online connections, users were personified by an "Avatar." Avatars are able to walk, fly, and look around the virtual world. They are also able to build and manipulate three-dimensional objects, perform virtual actions, and chat with other connected users. Results showed that "Eurolanders" showed and constructed their identities using strategic "positioning" depending on the interactive situation. Identities are thus dynamic and strongly related to the context, created and constantly recreated by the users. It is concluded that specific features offered by the Euroland environment are exploited by the users as resources to play with, while moving from one strategic positioning to another. Cyber identities involve resources given by specific technological tools and by community. The cyber-identity construction process seems to be highly congruent to the advances in the dialogical perspective in psychology, where identities are considered in their conceptualizations as multiple, "multivoiced," "positioned," and context-dependent.

  4. Preference for newspaper size.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Steve N H; Hoffmann, Errol R; Chan, Alan H S

    2014-05-01

    The past few years has seen a change in the size of newspapers, with publishers moving to a smaller size format. Five 'standard' newspaper sizes are used in different countries: Broadsheet, Rhensch, Tabloid, Tall Tabloid and Berliner. These papers vary in both width and height of pages and hence there are implications for human reading comfort, which may be dependent on reading location such as on a lounge chair or on a train. Experiments were carried out to determine preferences for the different sizes and to relate these preferences to the geometric characteristics of the newspapers. For both comfortable and cramped/uncomfortable reading conditions, the rank order of preference for paper types was, from least to most-preferred, Broadsheet, Rhensch, Berliner, Tall Tabloid and Tabloid. Preferences were much stronger when determined in cramped/uncomfortable reading conditions, where most comparisons were significantly different. There was good correlation between participant ratings on several scales and preference, where most factors were related to comfort of holding and controlling the paper. PMID:23987982

  5. Preference for newspaper size.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Steve N H; Hoffmann, Errol R; Chan, Alan H S

    2014-05-01

    The past few years has seen a change in the size of newspapers, with publishers moving to a smaller size format. Five 'standard' newspaper sizes are used in different countries: Broadsheet, Rhensch, Tabloid, Tall Tabloid and Berliner. These papers vary in both width and height of pages and hence there are implications for human reading comfort, which may be dependent on reading location such as on a lounge chair or on a train. Experiments were carried out to determine preferences for the different sizes and to relate these preferences to the geometric characteristics of the newspapers. For both comfortable and cramped/uncomfortable reading conditions, the rank order of preference for paper types was, from least to most-preferred, Broadsheet, Rhensch, Berliner, Tall Tabloid and Tabloid. Preferences were much stronger when determined in cramped/uncomfortable reading conditions, where most comparisons were significantly different. There was good correlation between participant ratings on several scales and preference, where most factors were related to comfort of holding and controlling the paper.

  6. Does Octopus vulgaris have preferred arms?

    PubMed

    Byrne, Ruth A; Kuba, Michael J; Meisel, Daniela V; Griebel, Ulrike; Mather, Jennifer A

    2006-08-01

    Previous behavioral studies in Octopus vulgaris revealed lateralization of eye use. In this study, the authors expanded the scope to investigate arm preferences. The octopus's generalist hunting lifestyle and the structure of their arms suggest that these animals have no need to designate specific arms for specific tasks. However, octopuses also show behaviors, like exploration, in which only single or small groups of arms are involved. Here the authors show that octopuses had a strong preference for anterior arm use to reach for and explore objects, which points toward a task division between anterior and posterior arms. Four out of 8 subjects also showed a lateral bias. In addition, octopuses had a preference for a specific arm to reach into a T maze to retrieve a food reward. These findings give evidence for limb-specialization in an animal whose 8 arms were believed to be equipotential.

  7. Pension Participation: Do Parents Transmit Time Preference?

    PubMed Central

    Chiteji, Ngina; Stafford, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of economic and health behaviors are influenced by individuals’ attitudes toward the future – including investments in human capital, health capital and financial capital. Intergenerational correlations in such behaviors suggest an important role the family may play in transmitting time preferences to children. This article presents a model of parental investment in future-oriented capital, where parents shape their children’s time preference rates. The research identifies a dual role for a parent’s time preference rate in the process of shaping the offspring’s attitude toward the future, and discusses paths through which parents may socialize children to be patient. The model’s implications are studied by investigating the parent-child correlation in pension participation using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics PMID:23807825

  8. Strategic Partnerships in International Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treat, Tod; Hartenstine, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides a framework and recommendations for development of strategic partnerships in a variety of cultural contexts. Additionally, this study elucidates barriers and possibilities in interagency collaborations. Without careful consideration regarding strategic partnerships' approaches, functions, and goals, the ability to…

  9. The Search for Strategic Silence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lentz, Richard

    Media content analysts seldom observe the principle that editorial omissions are as telling as what is published or broadcast; hence, the purpose of this paper is to explore, and thus stimulate debate about, editorial omissions or "strategic silence." It is observed that as a concept, strategic silence embraces both tact and strategy--the former…

  10. Strategic Planning and Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin-Graham, Karen; Berge, Zane L.

    2005-01-01

    Strategic planning is a critical part of sustaining distance education. Through such planning, the organization can solve business problems that involve training and education in an effective and often cost savings manner compared to in-person training efforts. This paper examines the strategic planning process as it relates to sustaining distance…

  11. Strategic Planning Is an Oxymoron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett, Patrick F.

    2012-01-01

    The thinking on "strategic thinking" has evolved significantly over the years. In the previous century, the independent school strategy was to focus on long-range planning, blithely projecting 10 years into the future. For decades this worked well enough, but in the late 20th century, independent schools shifted to "strategic planning," with its…

  12. NASA Space Sciences Strategic Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of strategic planning roadmap is to:Fulfill the strategic planning requirements; Provide a guide to the science community in presenting research requests to NASA; Inform and inspire; Focus investments in technology and research for future missions; and Provide the scientific and technical justification for augmentation requests.

  13. Strategic Planning for Curriculum Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawelti, Gordon

    Strategic planning is a process deliberately designed to help educational leaders conceive of the kinds of institutions that they would like to create to serve their students. Drawn from industry, strategic planning attempts to respond to a wide variety of factors determining the directions that schools should take in planning for the future.…

  14. Strategic Marketing for Educational Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, E. Mark; Henry, Walter

    1992-01-01

    Private-sector strategic marketing processes can significantly benefit schools desiring to develop public confidence and support and establish guidelines for future development. This article defines a strategic marketing model for school systems and articulates the sequence of related research and operational steps comprising it. Although schools…

  15. Strategic Planning for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotler, Philip; Murphy, Patrick E.

    1981-01-01

    The framework necessary for achieving a strategic planning posture in higher education is outlined. The most important benefit of strategic planning for higher education decision makers is that it forces them to undertake a more market-oriented and systematic approach to long- range planning. (Author/MLW)

  16. Strategic Human Resource Development. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers on strategic human resource (HR) development. "Strategic HR Orientation and Firm Performance in India" (Kuldeep Singh) reports findings from a study of Indian business executives that suggests there is a positive link between HR policies and practices and workforce motivation and loyalty and sustainable…

  17. Chinese Pupils and Their Learning Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Derek; Sham, Sylvia (Mei, Yuen)

    2001-01-01

    Explored the responses of Chinese students in British schools to the education they received in independent, grant-maintained, and comprehensive school settings. British-Chinese students had distinctly different learning preferences than British-European students. They remained conditioned by traditional Chinese behavioral rules and believed in…

  18. Temporal Context, Preference, and Resistance to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Thrailkill, Eric A.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    According to behavioral momentum theory, preference and relative resistance to change in concurrent chains schedules are correlated and reflect the relative conditioned value of discriminative stimuli. In the present study, we explore the generality of this relation by manipulating the temporal context within a concurrent-chains procedure through…

  19. The Strategic Form of Quantum Prisoners' Dilemma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Nawaz

    2013-05-01

    In a normal form, prisoners' dilemma (PD) is represented by a payoff matrix showing players' strategies and payoffs. To obtain the distinguishing trait and strategic form of PD, certain constraints are imposed on the elements of its payoff matrix. We quantize PD by a generalized quantization scheme to analyze its strategic behavior in the quantum domain. The game starts with a general entangled state of the form and the measurement for payoffs is performed in entangled and product bases. We show that for both measurements, there exist respective cutoff values of entanglement of the initial quantum state up to which the strategic form of the game remains intact. Beyond these cutoffs the quantized PD behaves like the chicken game (CG) up to another cutoff value. For the measurement in the entangled basis the dilemma is resolved for sinξ > 1/7 with Q Q as a Nash Equilibrium (NE). However, the quantized game behaves like PD when sinξ > 1/3; whereas in the range 1/7 < sinξ < 1/3 it behaves like CG with Q Q as an NE. For the measurement in the product basis the quantized PD behaves like classical PD for with D D as an NE. In region , the quantized PD behaves like classical CG with C D and D C as NEs.

  20. TRANSITION FROM ADVERSARIAL TO COOPERATIVE STRATEGIC INTERACTION

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. CANAVAN

    2001-08-01

    This note extends the game theoretic analysis of strategic conflicts begun in earlier Seminars on Planetary Emergencies to interactions with and without defenses between two or more adversaries with more realistic target structures. It reviews the essentials of game theory as applied to the analysis of strategic decisions, the application of first and second strike costs as payoffs, and solution optimization, which resolves several inconsistencies seen with earlier metrics. The stability of the current bilateral offensive configuration is shown to be high and insensitive to deep reductions in offensive forces, the deployment of limited defenses, and the exchange of significant offensive forces for defenses. The transition from adversarial to cooperative interaction is represented by the progressive reduction of the parameters representing each side's preference for damaging or deterring the other, which monotonically improves stability. Estimates of strike incentives in bilateral and trilateral configurations are reduced by the inclusion of high value targets in both sides' force allocations, which dominates the details of offensive and defensive forces. The shift to high value targets stabilizes trilateral offensive configurations, a result that differs with that from analyses based on military costs only. When defenses are included, they lead to a balance between a large defended side and small undefended side that resembles the balance between two large sides. Including the large side's preference for defense of high value targets in the analyses reduces its strike incentives and thus the small side's incentive to preempt. However, it also removes the large sides' ability to deter, so the stability of multi-polar configurations continues to be controlled by the least stable dyad, which places constraints on the size of defenses that can be deployed stably that could be more stringent than those from the bilateral balance.

  1. Strategic operating indicators point to equity growth.

    PubMed

    Cleverley, W O

    1988-07-01

    As healthcare managers become more business-like in their behavior, they are becoming increasingly concerned with the equity growth rate of their organizations. Strong equity growth means a financially healthy organization. Equity growth can be expressed as a product of five financial ratios--the most important ratio being the operating margin. Improvements in operating margins will lead to improvements in equity growth. Thirty indicators, called strategic operating indicators, have been developed to monitor operating margins. These indicators, when compared with values from other peer groups, can help point to strategies for improvement of operating margins, and hence equity growth.

  2. 2006 NASA Strategic Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    On January 14, 2004, President George W. Bush announced A Renewed Spirit of Discovery: The President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration, a new directive for the Nation's space program. The fundamental goal of this directive is "to advance U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests through a robust space exploration program." In issuing it, the President committed the Nation to a journey of exploring the solar system and beyond: returning to the Moon in the next decade, then venturing further into the solar system, ultimately sending humans to Mars and beyond. He challenged NASA to establish new and innovative programs to enhance understanding of the planets, to ask new questions, and to answer questions that are as old as humankind. NASA enthusiastically embraced the challenge of extending a human presence throughout the solar system as the Agency's Vision, and in the NASA Authorization Act of 2005, Congress endorsed the Vision for Space Exploration and provided additional guidance for implementation. NASA is committed to achieving this Vision and to making all changes necessary to ensure success and a smooth transition. These changes will include increasing internal collaboration, leveraging personnel and facilities, developing strong, healthy NASA Centers,a nd fostering a safe environment of respect and open communication for employees at all levels. NASA also will ensure clear accountability and solid program management and reporting practices. Over the next 10 years, NASA will focus on six Strategic Goals to move forward in achieving the Vision for Space Exploration. Each of the six Strategic Goals is clearly defined and supported by multi-year outcomes that will enhance NASA's ability to measure and report Agency accomplishments in this quest.

  3. A neural circuit encoding sexual preference in humans.

    PubMed

    Poeppl, Timm B; Langguth, Berthold; Rupprecht, Rainer; Laird, Angela R; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2016-09-01

    Sexual preference determines mate choice for reproduction and hence guarantees conservation of species in mammals. Despite this fundamental role in human behavior, current knowledge on its target-specific neurofunctional substrate is based on lesion studies and therefore limited. We used meta-analytic remodeling of neuroimaging data from 364 human subjects with diverse sexual interests during sexual stimulation to quantify neural regions associated with sexual preference manipulations. We found that sexual preference is encoded by four phylogenetically old, subcortical brain structures. More specifically, sexual preference is controlled by the anterior and preoptic area of the hypothalamus, the anterior and mediodorsal thalamus, the septal area, and the perirhinal parahippocampus including the dentate gyrus. In contrast, sexual non-preference is regulated by the substantia innominata. We anticipate the identification of a core neural circuit for sexual preferences to be a starting point for further sophisticated investigations into the neural principles of sexual behavior and particularly of its aberrations.

  4. Ethics Content in Strategic Management Textbooks: A Longitudinal Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Scott W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of ethics content in strategic management textbooks. The importance of ethical behavior within organizations has been highlighted in the past by organizations, such as Enron and WorldCom, and more recently by British Petroleum and Toyota. The data collected from two different editions of five…

  5. The Long-Lasting Effects of JDTic, a Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonist, on the Expression of Ethanol-Seeking Behavior and the Relapse Drinking of Female Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Deehan, Gerald A.; McKinzie, David L.; Carroll, F. Ivy; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2012-01-01

    The current study assessed the effects of the selective kappa opioid antagonist JDTic on alcohol (EtOH) -seeking behavior, EtOH relapse, and maintenance responding for EtOH. Adult alcohol-preferring (P) rats were trained in 2-lever operant chambers to self-administer 15% EtOH (v/v) on a fixed-ratio 5 (FR-5) and water on a FR-1 schedule of reinforcement during 1-hr sessions. After 10 weeks, rats underwent extinction training for seven sessions. Rats were then maintained in their home cages for 3 weeks without EtOH access. All rats received an injection (s.c.) of 0, 1, 3, or 10 mg/kg JDTic (n = 11–14/group) after the first week of the home cage period. Rats were then tested using the Pavlovian Spontaneous Recovery paradigm (PSR; an animal model of alcohol-seeking) for four sessions during which, responses on the EtOH and water levers were recorded but did not produce their respective reinforcer. Following PSR testing rats were returned to their home cages without access to EtOH for one week prior to the start of EtOH relapse testing. To examine EtOH relapse responding, rats were returned to the operant chambers and the EtOH (FR5) and water (FR1) levers were active. Finally, rats were then tested over 17 operant sessions to assess the effects of JDTic on maintenance responding for EtOH. Rats received 0, 1, 3, or 10 mg/kg JDTic (counterbalanced from the initial experiment) 30 minutes prior to the initial maintenance session. JDTic administered 14 and 25 days prior to testing dose-dependently reduced the expression of an EtOH PSR and relapse responding. In contrast, JDTic did not alter EtOH responding under maintenance conditions. Overall, the results of this study indicate that different mechanisms mediate EtOH self-administration under relapse and maintenance conditions and kappa opioid receptors are involved in mediating EtOH-seeking behavior and relapse responding but not on-going EtOH self-administration. PMID:22429993

  6. A comparison of preference-assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Verriden, Amanda L; Roscoe, Eileen M

    2016-06-01

    In Study 1, we evaluated preference stability across 4 preference-assessment methods for 6 individuals, 5 of whom had autism spectrum disorder and 1 of whom had traumatic brain injury. We also measured participants' problem behavior as a corollary measure during all assessment methods. The highest mean correlation coefficients and Kendall rank coefficients of concordance across administrations were observed for the paired-stimulus and multiple-stimulus-without-replacement methods. Lower correspondence across administrations was observed for the free-operant and response-restriction methods. Although differentially higher levels of problem behavior did not occur with a single method, lower levels were consistently observed with the free-operant method. During Study 2, we evaluated the implications of lower coefficients on reinforcer efficacy by comparing an initially identified and an immediately identified high-preference stimulus in a reinforcer assessment. Initially identified and immediately identified high-preference stimuli were equally effective reinforcers, suggesting that fluctuations in preference do not necessarily affect reinforcer efficacy in practice.

  7. The preference for potential.

    PubMed

    Tormala, Zakary L; Jia, Jayson S; Norton, Michael I

    2012-10-01

    When people seek to impress others, they often do so by highlighting individual achievements. Despite the intuitive appeal of this strategy, we demonstrate that people often prefer potential rather than achievement when evaluating others. Indeed, compared with references to achievement (e.g., "this person has won an award for his work"), references to potential (e.g., "this person could win an award for his work") appear to stimulate greater interest and processing, which can translate into more favorable reactions. This tendency creates a phenomenon whereby the potential to be good at something can be preferred over actually being good at that very same thing. We document this preference for potential in laboratory and field experiments, using targets ranging from athletes to comedians to graduate school applicants and measures ranging from salary allocations to online ad clicks to admission decisions.

  8. Temporal context, preference, and resistance to change.

    PubMed

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Thrailkill, Eric A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2011-09-01

    According to behavioral momentum theory, preference and relative resistance to change in concurrent-chains schedules are correlated and reflect the relative conditioned value of discriminative stimuli. In the present study, we explore the generality of this relation by manipulating the temporal context within a concurrent-chains procedure through changes in the duration of the initial links. Consistent with previous findings, preference for a richer terminal link was less extreme with longer initial links across three experiments with pigeons. In Experiment 1, relative resistance to change and preference were related inversely when responding was disrupted with response-independent food presentations during initial links, replicating a previous finding with rats. However, more food was presented with longer initial links, confounding the disrupter and initial-link duration. In Experiment 2, presession feeding was used instead and eliminated the negative relation between relative resistance to change and preference, but relative resistance to change was not sensitive to relative terminal-link reinforcement rates. In Experiment 3, with more extreme relative terminal-link reinforcement rates, increasing initial-link duration similarly decreased preference and relative resistance to change for the richer terminal link. Thus, when conditions of disruption are equal and assessed under the appropriate reinforcement conditions, changes in temporal context impact relative resistance to change and preference similarly.

  9. Constraint-based Temporal Reasoning with Preferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatib, Lina; Morris, Paul; Morris, Robert; Rossi, Francesca; Sperduti, Alessandro; Venable, K. Brent

    2005-01-01

    Often we need to work in scenarios where events happen over time and preferences are associated to event distances and durations. Soft temporal constraints allow one to describe in a natural way problems arising in such scenarios. In general, solving soft temporal problems require exponential time in the worst case, but there are interesting subclasses of problems which are polynomially solvable. In this paper we identify one of such subclasses giving tractability results. Moreover, we describe two solvers for this class of soft temporal problems, and we show some experimental results. The random generator used to build the problems on which tests are performed is also described. We also compare the two solvers highlighting the tradeoff between performance and robustness. Sometimes, however, temporal local preferences are difficult to set, and it may be easier instead to associate preferences to some complete solutions of the problem. To model everything in a uniform way via local preferences only, and also to take advantage of the existing constraint solvers which exploit only local preferences, we show that machine learning techniques can be useful in this respect. In particular, we present a learning module based on a gradient descent technique which induces local temporal preferences from global ones. We also show the behavior of the learning module on randomly-generated examples.

  10. Temporal context, preference, and resistance to change.

    PubMed

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Thrailkill, Eric A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2011-09-01

    According to behavioral momentum theory, preference and relative resistance to change in concurrent-chains schedules are correlated and reflect the relative conditioned value of discriminative stimuli. In the present study, we explore the generality of this relation by manipulating the temporal context within a concurrent-chains procedure through changes in the duration of the initial links. Consistent with previous findings, preference for a richer terminal link was less extreme with longer initial links across three experiments with pigeons. In Experiment 1, relative resistance to change and preference were related inversely when responding was disrupted with response-independent food presentations during initial links, replicating a previous finding with rats. However, more food was presented with longer initial links, confounding the disrupter and initial-link duration. In Experiment 2, presession feeding was used instead and eliminated the negative relation between relative resistance to change and preference, but relative resistance to change was not sensitive to relative terminal-link reinforcement rates. In Experiment 3, with more extreme relative terminal-link reinforcement rates, increasing initial-link duration similarly decreased preference and relative resistance to change for the richer terminal link. Thus, when conditions of disruption are equal and assessed under the appropriate reinforcement conditions, changes in temporal context impact relative resistance to change and preference similarly. PMID:21909164

  11. Metal Preferences and Metallation*

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Andrew W.; Osman, Deenah; Robinson, Nigel J.

    2014-01-01

    The metal binding preferences of most metalloproteins do not match their metal requirements. Thus, metallation of an estimated 30% of metalloenzymes is aided by metal delivery systems, with ∼25% acquiring preassembled metal cofactors. The remaining ∼70% are presumed to compete for metals from buffered metal pools. Metallation is further aided by maintaining the relative concentrations of these pools as an inverse function of the stabilities of the respective metal complexes. For example, magnesium enzymes always prefer to bind zinc, and these metals dominate the metalloenzymes without metal delivery systems. Therefore, the buffered concentration of zinc is held at least a million-fold below magnesium inside most cells. PMID:25160626

  12. Leadership Preferences of Indian and Non-Indian Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, D. C.; Nilson, R. N.

    1991-01-01

    Among 86 Indian and non-Indian volleyball competitors, non-Indian players indicated significantly greater preferences for leadership that involved democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, or social support. Indians may adapt their behavior by participating in non-Indian games, without changing their traditional value orientations. Contains 22…

  13. The Value of Strategic Partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, Josh; Narayan, Amit; McNutt, Ty

    2015-02-10

    Strong strategic partnerships can be the difference between those technologies that only achieve success in the lab and those that actually break into the marketplace. Two ARPA-E awardees—AutoGrid and APEI—have forged strategic partnerships that have positioned their technologies to achieve major success in the market. This video features remarks from ARPA-E Technology-to-Market Advisor Josh Gould and interviews with technologists at AutoGrid and APEI, who each tell the story of how their company leveraged relationships with strategic partners to broaden their customer base and bring their technology to life.

  14. The Value of Strategic Partnerships

    ScienceCinema

    Gould, Josh; Narayan, Amit; McNutt, Ty

    2016-07-12

    Strong strategic partnerships can be the difference between those technologies that only achieve success in the lab and those that actually break into the marketplace. Two ARPA-E awardees—AutoGrid and APEI—have forged strategic partnerships that have positioned their technologies to achieve major success in the market. This video features remarks from ARPA-E Technology-to-Market Advisor Josh Gould and interviews with technologists at AutoGrid and APEI, who each tell the story of how their company leveraged relationships with strategic partners to broaden their customer base and bring their technology to life.

  15. Socialization Preferences and Intentions: Does One Size Fit All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruman, Jamie A.; Saks, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate student preferences for socialization tactics and their intentions to be proactive when they begin a new job. We examined the relationship between the Five Factor Model of personality and proactive personality with socialization tactics preferences and proactive behavior intentions in a sample of 243…

  16. Preference Reversal: A New Look at an Old Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shu

    2006-01-01

    A generalized "weak dominance" approach is used to test the documented preference reversal (PR) phenomenon. This approach simply models risky choice behavior in PR as a choice between the best possible outcomes or a choice between the worst possible outcomes by equating smaller paired outcome difference between bets. The preference reversals are…

  17. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Call, Nathan A.; Addison, Laura R.; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current…

  18. Heat Waves, Droughts, and Preferences for Environmental Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Ann L.; Conover, Emily; Videras, Julio; Wu, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a new household survey on environmental attitudes, behaviors, and policy preferences, we find that current weather conditions affect preferences for environmental regulation. Individuals who have recently experienced extreme weather (heat waves or droughts) are more likely to support laws to protect the environment. We find…

  19. The Soundtrack of Recklessness: Musical Preferences among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey

    1992-01-01

    Adolescents (n=248) with various musical preferences were compared. Adolescents who preferred hard rock or heavy metal music reported higher rates of reckless behavior and were associated with higher levels of sensation seeking, negative family relationships, and, among girls, lower self-esteem. The relationship between sensation seeking, reckless…

  20. Perspectives in avoidance-preference bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, C.W.; Taylor, D.H.; Strickler-Shaw, S.

    1996-12-31

    Although behavioral endpoints are used in hazard assessment, establishment of water quality criteria and assessment of a contaminant`s hazard to aquatic life rely primarily on standard acute and chronic toxicity tests. Sublethal effects of pollutants should, however, be of major concern because more organisms experience sublethal rather than acutely or chronically lethal exposures of contaminants. The avoidance-preference approach to behavioral bioassays is very useful in screening pollutants for which the mechanisms of perception or response are largely unknown. The underlying philosophy of these studies is that an animal which perceives a chemical can be attracted or repulsed by it. No response is frequently assumed to indicate lack of perception. All three responses have broad ecological implications. The authors discuss the conditions required for performing avoidance-preference bioassays, as well as their sensitivities, advantages, and limitations. In this regard, a comparative approach is used in examining the results of avoidance-preference bioassays with zebrafish in two different apparatuses. Finally, they compare the results of avoidance-preference studies with other measures of the behavioral toxicity of lead to tadpoles.

  1. Inservice Education Preferences of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Fred O.; Anderson, Robert L.

    A teacher inservice preference questionnaire was used to identify, categorize, and compare inservice preferences of educators, and findings indicated that workshops were ranked first as the inservice activity most preferred with conventions and professional conferences least preferred. Other categorical analysis indicated that professional…

  2. Cognitive Preferences and Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, William J.; O'Donnell, Teresa Flores

    This document reports on a study into the relationships between cognitive preferences, achievement, and ethnicity of first year algebra students. The sample consisted of 175 students from two high schools in the Denver (Colorado) metropolitan area. The two schools were chosen because of the diversity of ethnic groups in the student populations.…

  3. How actions create--not just reveal--preferences.

    PubMed

    Ariely, Dan; Norton, Michael I

    2008-01-01

    The neo-classical economics view that behavior is driven by - and reflective of - hedonic utility is challenged by psychologists' demonstrations of cases in which actions do not merely reveal preferences but rather create them. In this view, preferences are frequently constructed in the moment and are susceptible to fleeting situational factors; problematically, individuals are insensitive to the impact of such factors on their behavior, misattributing utility caused by these irrelevant factors to stable underlying preferences. Consequently, subsequent behavior might reflect not hedonic utility but rather this erroneously imputed utility that lingers in memory. Here we review the roles of these streams of utility in shaping preferences, and discuss how neuroimaging offers unique possibilities for disentangling their independent contributions to behavior.

  4. Strategic Decisions in Task-Oriented Reading.

    PubMed

    Salmerón, Ladislao; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo; Martínez, Tomás; Mañá, Amelia; Gil, Laura; Naumann, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Answering questions from texts are assessment and instructional activities that are frequently used in schools. Nevertheless, little is known about the strategic processes that students take while performing these tasks. We explored the amount and frequency that students initially read of a text before they answered questions pertaining to the material. In a procedure similar to the one used in the PISA (Program for International Students Assessment), one-hundred-seventy students between 7th and 9th grade read and answered several questions designed to assess task-oriented reading in three specific texts. We recorded on-line indexes that evaluated student behavior (e.g., the amount of text that students read before answering questions raised within a given text), performance, and comprehension skill. The results revealed that students skilled in comprehension initially read a high proportion of the texts, which in turn improved their overall performance in two of the three texts read (text 1: CI95%: 0.01 to 0.09; text 2: CI95%: -0.01 to 0.05; text 3: CI95%: 0.04 to 0.20). Therefore, we conclude that this strategic behavior should be considered during the assessment and instruction of reading literacy.

  5. Maintenance Process Strategic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, M.; Stachowiak, A.

    2016-08-01

    The performance and competitiveness of manufacturing companies is dependent on the availability, reliability and productivity of their production facilities. Low productivity, downtime, and poor machine performance is often linked to inadequate plant maintenance, which in turn can lead to reduced production levels, increasing costs, lost market opportunities, and lower profits. These pressures have given firms worldwide the motivation to explore and embrace proactive maintenance strategies over the traditional reactive firefighting methods. The traditional view of maintenance has shifted into one of an overall view that encompasses Overall Equipment Efficiency, Stakeholders Management and Life Cycle assessment. From practical point of view it requires changes in approach to maintenance represented by managers and changes in actions performed within maintenance area. Managers have to understand that maintenance is not only about repairs and conservations of machines and devices, but also actions striving for more efficient resources management and care for safety and health of employees. The purpose of the work is to present strategic analysis based on SWOT analysis to identify the opportunities and strengths of maintenance process, to benefit from them as much as possible, as well as to identify weaknesses and threats, so that they could be eliminated or minimized.

  6. BTS strategic plan executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-06

    This Strategic Plan positions the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) to be more effective in reducing energy consumption in homes, offices, schools and other buildings, and in reducing environmental impacts associated with energy use.

  7. A process for implementation of the strategic plan: from strategic planning toward strategic management.

    PubMed

    Chenoy, N C; Morrison, M J; Carlow, D R

    1991-01-01

    Although the principles and process for developing a strategic plan are well established, little information exists on how organizations can implement these plans. The authors developed a framework and methodology for The Ontario Cancer Institute/Princess Margaret Hospital that connects the implementation of the strategic plan with resource allocation and the budget; thus, the budget is a quantified expression of the strategic plan. To accomplish this, a specific cycle of events leading to the development of a corporate calendar was undertaken, which results in the establishment of the annual budget.

  8. Executive presence for strategic influence.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2013-01-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author discusses cultivating executive presence, a crucial component of great leadership, needed for strategic influence and to drive change.

  9. Strategic planning for organizational effectiveness during dynamic change.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Susan L; Harris, Melodee; McLeskey, Nanci

    2013-01-01

    The leadership of a professional association is charged with developing a strategic plan to operationalize the organization's goals, tactics, and progress. Within the context of its values and goals, a strategic plan steers the organization toward its mission. While there are a variety of models and approaches used in strategic planning, the National Gerontological Nursing Association (NGNA) has historically used goal-based methodology. This method is congruent with the organization's leadership preferences, consistent with the mission-driven culture of the organization, and collaborative in its approach. In 2009 the NGNA Board of Directors initiated a plan for the organization's transformation to a more dynamic and member-driven association through a deliberate process. This article addresses the process used to arrive at the 2010–2011 NGNA strategic initiatives, including a discussion of pertinent data revealed in the 2011 needs assessment survey and NGNA's future initiatives focused on networking, communication, and membership benefits. This process is relevant for all organizations and groups seeking improvement in serving their constituents.

  10. Partner preference in male hamsters: steroids, sexual experience and chemosensory cues.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Cortney L; Wood, Ruth I

    2007-05-16

    This study investigated the effects of gonadal steroids on sexual motivation in male Syrian hamsters, using partner preference as a model. Male hamsters were assigned to 5 groups: control (n=4), Intact-->Orchx (n=8), Orchx-->Orchx+T (n=7), olfactory bulbectomy (BulbX, n=5), and vomeronasal organ lesion (VnoX, n=8). Each male was tested for partner preference before and after sexual experience. Unlike rats, sexually-inexperienced gonad-intact male hamsters preferred the receptive female to a stimulus male. However, sexual experience did not enhance preference for the stimulus female. Castration (Orchx) reduced sexual motivation: Orchx males showed no significant preference for the stimulus female. Subsequently, intact males were castrated (Intact-->Orchx) and Orchx males received a testosterone implant (Orchx-->Orchx+T) to determine the time course of gonadal hormones on partner preference and mating behavior. Partner preference changed significantly in both groups within 6 weeks. In Intact-->Orchx males, preference for the stimulus female decreased while Orchx-->Orchx+T males increased their preference for the stimulus female. However, significant changes in mating behavior preceded the alterations in partner preference. Chemosensory cues are also important for partner preference. After BulbX, preference for the stimulus female significantly decreased. However, VnoX failed to block partner preference. These results show that partner preference may be even more dependent on testosterone than is sexual behavior. Furthermore, while chemosensory cues are essential for sexual motivation, the vomeronasal organ is not required for partner preference.

  11. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Conflict: Strategic Insights for California's Policymakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moazezi, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta - a major water supply source in California and a unique habitat for many native and invasive species--is on the verge of collapse due to a prolonged conflict over how to manage the Delta. There is an urgent need to expedite the resolution of this conflict because the continuation of the status quo would leave irreversible environmental consequences for the entire state. In this paper a systematic technique is proposed for providing strategic insights into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta conflict. Game theory framework is chosen to systematically analyze behavioral characteristics of decision makers as well as their options in the conflict with respect to their preferences using a formal mathematical language. The Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR), a recent game-theoretic technique, is applied to model and analyze the Delta conflict in order to better understand the options, preferences, and behavioral characteristics of the major decision makers. GMCR II as a decision support system tool based on GMCR concept is used to facilitate the analysis of the problem through a range of non-cooperative game theoretic stability definitions. Furthermore, coalition analysis is conducted to analyze the potential for forming partial coalitions among decision makers, and to investigate how forming a coalition can influence the conflict resolution process. This contribution shows that involvement of the State of California is necessary for developing an environmental-friendly resolution for the Delta conflict. It also indicates that this resolution is only achievable through improving the fragile levee systems and constructing a new water export facility.

  12. Taste Preference Assay for Adult Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Bantel, Andrew P; Tessier, Charles R

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory and gustatory perception of the environment is vital for animal survival. The most obvious application of these chemosenses is to be able to distinguish good food sources from potentially dangerous food sources. Gustation requires physical contact with a chemical compound which is able to signal through taste receptors that are expressed on the surface of neurons. In insects, these gustatory neurons can be located across the animal's body allowing taste to play an important role in many different behaviors. Insects typically prefer compounds containing sugars, while compounds that are considered bitter tasting are avoided. Given the basic biological importance of taste, there is intense interest in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this sensory modality. We describe an adult Drosophila taste assay which reflects the preference of the animals for a given tastant compound. This assay may be applied to animals of any genetic background to examine the taste preference for a desired soluble compound. PMID:27684591

  13. Crisis behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Grinspoon, L.

    1984-04-01

    The Department of Defense has rules and procedures to minimize the opportunity for error and improper behavior among those with access to strategic weapons, but no psychiatric screening system can predict with assurance who will or will not behave rationally during a crisis. Personal problems and institutional decision-making pressures may destroy nuclear deterrence. Certain features of military life, including drug and alcohol abuse, heavy responsibility, tension, and group decision making, can destreoy rationality. 12 references.

  14. The effect of reinforcer preference on functional analysis outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Lalli, J S; Kates, K

    1998-01-01

    We combined functional analyses and concurrent-schedule assessments to identify reinforcer preference during situations in which problem behavior may have been multiply controlled. Participants were 3 children with developmental delays who engaged in problem behavior during toy play with another child and one adult present, suggesting that problem behavior may have been maintained by adult attention or access to tangible reinforcement. Thus, conditions were designed to test attention and access-to-toys hypotheses. Initial functional analyses suggested multiple control. Subsequent concurrent-schedule assessments identified preference between the reinforcers, and treatments were based on these findings. Findings are discussed regarding the assessment of potentially multiply controlled problem behavior. PMID:9532752

  15. Strategic issues in performance appraisal: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Fombrun, C J; Laud, R L

    1983-01-01

    Performance appraisal systems have tremendous strategic potential for governing employee behavior and thus corporate direction through their links to selection, training and career planning, and reward systems. Authors Charles J. Fombrun, assistant professor of management at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School, and Robert P. Laud, senior vice-president of Drake Beam Morin, Inc., surveyed appraisal systems of Fortune 1300 corporations to find out how well companies are realizing this potential. Among their conclusions: (1) In most organizations, the typical performance appraisal system is focused on short-term goals. Strengthening the linkage between the appraisal system and the long-term implications of strategic planning could improve organizational effectiveness in the future. (2) The performance appraisal system's most prevalent use is as a feedback mechanism rather than as a management tool. Thus, the authors conclude, the role of the performance appraisal system as a strategic organizational tool is largely unappreciated by U.S. organizations.

  16. Preferences, needs and QALYs.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J

    1996-10-01

    Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) have become a household word among health economists. Their use as a means of comparing the value of health programmes and medical interventions has stirred up controversy in the medical profession and the academic community. In this paper, I argue that QALY analysis does not adequately take into account the differentiated nature of the health state values it measures. Specifically, it does not distinguish between needs and preferences with respect to its valuation of health states. I defend the view that needs and preferences are clearly distinguishable, and that the concept of needs cannot be dispensed with, as many health economists suggest. It is argued that the scale along which health states are measured in QALY analysis is not a continuous interval scale, but one which concerns two distinctly different value dimensions. Measuring the values of health state intervals may reveal the weighting attached to the different value dimensions. PMID:8910777

  17. Learning What to Want: Context-Sensitive Preference Learning

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Nisheeth; Schrater, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a method for learning relative preferences from histories of choices made, without requiring an intermediate utility computation. Our method infers preferences that are rational in a psychological sense, where agent choices result from Bayesian inference of what to do from observable inputs. We further characterize conditions on choice histories wherein it is appropriate for modelers to describe relative preferences using ordinal utilities, and illustrate the importance of the influence of choice history by explaining all major categories of context effects using them. Our proposal clarifies the relationship between economic and psychological definitions of rationality and rationalizes several behaviors heretofore judged irrational by behavioral economists. PMID:26496645

  18. A Neural Mechanism of Preference Shifting Under Zero Price Condition.

    PubMed

    Votinov, Mikhail; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Mima, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    In everyday life, free products have a strong appeal to us, even if we do not need them. Behavioral studies demonstrated that people have a tendency to switch their preference from preferred more expensive products to less preferable, cheaper alternatives, when the cheaper option becomes free. However, the neural representation of this behavioral anomaly called "Zero price" is still unclear. Using fMRI, we studied subjects while they performed binary preference choice task for items with different prices. We found that zero-related change of preference was associated with activation of the choice network, which includes inferior parietal lobule (IPL), posterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex. Moreover, the amount of activation in medial prefrontal cortex was positively correlated with the subjective happiness score of getting free products. Our findings suggest that the Zero-price effect is driven by affective evaluations during decision-making.

  19. A Neural Mechanism of Preference Shifting Under Zero Price Condition.

    PubMed

    Votinov, Mikhail; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Mima, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    In everyday life, free products have a strong appeal to us, even if we do not need them. Behavioral studies demonstrated that people have a tendency to switch their preference from preferred more expensive products to less preferable, cheaper alternatives, when the cheaper option becomes free. However, the neural representation of this behavioral anomaly called "Zero price" is still unclear. Using fMRI, we studied subjects while they performed binary preference choice task for items with different prices. We found that zero-related change of preference was associated with activation of the choice network, which includes inferior parietal lobule (IPL), posterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex. Moreover, the amount of activation in medial prefrontal cortex was positively correlated with the subjective happiness score of getting free products. Our findings suggest that the Zero-price effect is driven by affective evaluations during decision-making. PMID:27148024

  20. A Neural Mechanism of Preference Shifting Under Zero Price Condition

    PubMed Central

    Votinov, Mikhail; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Mima, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    In everyday life, free products have a strong appeal to us, even if we do not need them. Behavioral studies demonstrated that people have a tendency to switch their preference from preferred more expensive products to less preferable, cheaper alternatives, when the cheaper option becomes free. However, the neural representation of this behavioral anomaly called “Zero price” is still unclear. Using fMRI, we studied subjects while they performed binary preference choice task for items with different prices. We found that zero-related change of preference was associated with activation of the choice network, which includes inferior parietal lobule (IPL), posterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex. Moreover, the amount of activation in medial prefrontal cortex was positively correlated with the subjective happiness score of getting free products. Our findings suggest that the Zero-price effect is driven by affective evaluations during decision-making. PMID:27148024