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Sample records for pregnant female models

  1. PRRSV and the pregnant female

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Pregnant Gilt Model (PGM) is substantially complete and has provided substantive deliverables for the swine industry in Canada and beyond. The success of the PGM was largely dependent on a team of more than 30 researchers, students and technicians, along with external collaborators and instituti...

  2. SAF values for internal photon emitters calculated for the RPI-P pregnant-female models using Monte Carlo methods

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, C. Y.; Xu, X. George; Stabin, Michael G.

    2008-07-15

    Estimates of radiation absorbed doses from radionuclides internally deposited in a pregnant woman and her fetus are very important due to elevated fetal radiosensitivity. This paper reports a set of specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) for use with the dosimetry schema developed by the Society of Nuclear Medicine's Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee. The calculations were based on three newly constructed pregnant female anatomic models, called RPI-P3, RPI-P6, and RPI-P9, that represent adult females at 3-, 6-, and 9-month gestational periods, respectively. Advanced Boundary REPresentation (BREP) surface-geometry modeling methods were used to create anatomically realistic geometries and organ volumes that were carefully adjusted to agree with the latest ICRP reference values. A Monte Carlo user code, EGS4-VLSI, was used to simulate internal photon emitters ranging from 10 keV to 4 MeV. SAF values were calculated and compared with previous data derived from stylized models of simplified geometries and with a model of a 7.5-month pregnant female developed previously from partial-body CT images. The results show considerable differences between these models for low energy photons, but generally good agreement at higher energies. These differences are caused mainly by different organ shapes and positions. Other factors, such as the organ mass, the source-to-target-organ centroid distance, and the Monte Carlo code used in each study, played lesser roles in the observed differences in these. Since the SAF values reported in this study are based on models that are anatomically more realistic than previous models, these data are recommended for future applications as standard reference values in internal dosimetry involving pregnant females.

  3. Assessment of CT dose to the fetus and pregnant female patient using patient-specific computational models.

    PubMed

    Xie, Tianwu; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Platon, Alexandra; Becker, Christoph D; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-09-08

    This work provides detailed estimates of the foetal dose from diagnostic CT imaging of pregnant patients to enable the assessment of the diagnostic benefits considering the associated radiation risks. To produce realistic biological and physical representations of pregnant patients and the embedded foetus, we developed a methodology for construction of patient-specific voxel-based computational phantoms based on existing standardised hybrid computational pregnant female phantoms. We estimated the maternal absorbed dose and foetal organ dose for 30 pregnant patients referred to the emergency unit of Geneva University Hospital for abdominal CT scans. The effective dose to the mother varied from 1.1 mSv to 2.0 mSv with an average of 1.6 mSv, while commercial dose-tracking software reported an average effective dose of 1.9 mSv (range 1.7-2.3 mSv). The foetal dose normalised to CTDIvol varies between 0.85 and 1.63 with an average of 1.17. The methodology for construction of personalised computational models can be exploited to estimate the patient-specific radiation dose from CT imaging procedures. Likewise, the dosimetric data can be used for assessment of the radiation risks to pregnant patients and the foetus from various CT scanning protocols, thus guiding the decision-making process. • In CT examinations, the absorbed dose is non-uniformly distributed within foetal organs. • This work reports, for the first time, estimates of foetal organ-level dose. • The foetal brain and skeleton doses present significant correlation with gestational age. • The conceptus dose normalised to CTDI vol varies between 0.85 and 1.63. • The developed methodology is adequate for patient-specific CT radiation dosimetry.

  4. Development of pregnant female, hybrid voxel-mathematical models and their application to the dosimetry of applied magnetic and electric fields at 50 Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimbylow, Peter

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the development of 2 mm resolution hybrid voxel-mathematical models of the pregnant female. Mathematical models of the developing foetus at 8-, 13-, 26- and 38-weeks of gestation were converted into voxels and combined with the adult female model, NAOMI. This set of models was used to calculate induced current densities and electric fields in the foetus from applied 50 Hz magnetic and electric fields. The influence of foetal tissue conductivities was investigated and implications for electromagnetic field guidelines discussed.

  5. A comparison of foetal SAR in three sets of pregnant female models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimbylow, Peter J.; Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Xu, X. George

    2009-05-01

    This paper compares the foetal SAR in the HPA hybrid mathematical phantoms with the 26-week foetal model developed at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Tokyo, and the set of 13-, 26- and 38-week boundary representation models produced at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. FDTD calculations are performed at a resolution of 2 mm for a plane wave with a vertically aligned electric field incident upon the body from the front, back and two sides from 20 MHz to 3 GHz under isolated conditions. The external electric field values required to produce the ICNIRP public exposure localized restriction of 2 W kg-1 when averaged over 10 g of the foetus are compared with the ICNIRP reference levels.

  6. [Surgical treatment of a pregnant female with AVM hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Kheireddin, A S; Lubnin, A Yu; Kaftanov, A N; Akhvlediani, K N; Belousova, O B; Dmitriev, A V; Kuchina, O B

    2017-01-01

    Hemorrhages from arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in pregnant females are rare, but they are known to lead to high maternal and infant mortality. There are no standards for AVM treatment in pregnant females. Many authors believe that AVM resection before delivery improves the prognosis for life and health of the mother and fetus. In this paper, we present a case of successful surgical treatment of a female patient with AVM hemorrhage at 20 weeks and address management issues of these patients.

  7. A boundary-representation method for designing whole-body radiation dosimetry models: pregnant females at the ends of three gestational periods—RPI-P3, -P6 and -P9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. George; Taranenko, Valery; Zhang, Juying; Shi, Chengyu

    2007-12-01

    Fetuses are extremely radiosensitive and the protection of pregnant females against ionizing radiation is of particular interest in many health and medical physics applications. Existing models of pregnant females relied on simplified anatomical shapes or partial-body images of low resolutions. This paper reviews two general types of solid geometry modeling: constructive solid geometry (CSG) and boundary representation (BREP). It presents in detail a project to adopt the BREP modeling approach to systematically design whole-body radiation dosimetry models: a pregnant female and her fetus at the ends of three gestational periods of 3, 6 and 9 months. Based on previously published CT images of a 7-month pregnant female, the VIP-Man model and mesh organ models, this new set of pregnant female models was constructed using 3D surface modeling technologies instead of voxels. The organ masses were adjusted to agree with the reference data provided by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and previously published papers within 0.5%. The models were then voxelized for the purpose of performing dose calculations in identically implemented EGS4 and MCNPX Monte Carlo codes. The agreements of the fetal doses obtained from these two codes for this set of models were found to be within 2% for the majority of the external photon irradiation geometries of AP, PA, LAT, ROT and ISO at various energies. It is concluded that the so-called RPI-P3, RPI-P6 and RPI-P9 models have been reliably defined for Monte Carlo calculations. The paper also discusses the needs for future research and the possibility for the BREP method to become a major tool in the anatomical modeling for radiation dosimetry.

  8. Fluence-to-absorbed-dose conversion coefficients for neutron beams from 0.001 eV to 100 GeV calculated for a set of pregnant female and fetus models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranenko, Valery; Xu, X. George

    2008-03-01

    Protection of fetuses against external neutron exposure is an important task. This paper reports a set of absorbed dose conversion coefficients for fetal and maternal organs for external neutron beams using the RPI-P pregnant female models and the MCNPX code. The newly developed pregnant female models represent an adult female with a fetus including its brain and skeleton at the end of each trimester. The organ masses were adjusted to match the reference values within 1%. For the 3 mm cubic voxel size, the models consist of 10-15 million voxels for 35 organs. External monoenergetic neutron beams of six standard configurations (AP, PA, LLAT, RLAT, ROT and ISO) and source energies 0.001 eV-100 GeV were considered. The results are compared with previous data that are based on simplified anatomical models. The differences in dose depend on source geometry, energy and gestation periods: from 20% up to 140% for the whole fetus, and up to 100% for the fetal brain. Anatomical differences are primarily responsible for the discrepancies in the organ doses. For the first time, the dependence of mother organ doses upon anatomical changes during pregnancy was studied. A maximum of 220% increase in dose was observed for the placenta in the nine months model compared to three months, whereas dose to the pancreas, small and large intestines decreases by 60% for the AP source for the same models. Tabulated dose conversion coefficients for the fetus and 27 maternal organs are provided.

  9. Megaloblastic hematopoiesis in a 20 year old pregnant female

    PubMed Central

    Trivette, Evan T.; Hoedebecke, Kyle; Berry-Cabán, Cristóbal S.; Jacobs, Brandy R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background: Nitrous oxide can cause disordered blood cell proliferation and lead to pancytopenia and altered immune function. Case Report: A young pregnant female patient presented after binge nitrous oxide abuse with altered mental status and abnormal vital signs. From her initial assessment she was noted to have pancytopenia and was found to have megaloblastic, hyper-cellular changes in a subsequent bone marrow biopsy. This presentation was determined to be secondary to toxic effects after heavy use of nitrous oxide. Conclusions: Nitrous oxide exposure, including use as an inhalant, over 12 hours can lead to bone marrow abnormalities such as megaloblastic hematopoiesis. PMID:23569553

  10. Exploring signet-ring cells in pregnant female

    PubMed Central

    Gogia, Pooja; Atri, Rajeev; Dhankhar, Rakesh; Kaushal, Vivek; Singh, Sunita; Sen, Rajeev; Pal, Manoj; Lathwal, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the colon and rectum are rare form, which present at an advanced stage and have poor prognosis. Different treatment policies of SRCC during different gestational age of pregnancy are explored from the literature. Case study A 26-year-old young pregnant female with 10-week gestation presented with constipation and blood in stools and on per rectal examination a tender circumferential stricture was present 2 cm above the anal verge. Magnetic resonant imaging (MRI) pelvis of the patient revealed rectal thickening, the biopsy of which revealed characteristic appearance of “linitis plastica” and diagnosed as poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with signet ring morphology with wide spread positivity for cytokeratin & p53. With this diagnosis, patient underwent medical termination of pregnancy (MTP). Discussion SRCC of the colon comprises about only 1% of all cases of colon cancer. When compared with other types of adenocarcinoma, patients with SRCC in the colon are younger and more likely to experience lymph node metastasis. Its incidence in pregnancy is estimated to be less than 0.1%. Certainly, any pregnant patient who reports rectal bleeding or has hemoccult positive stool on examination deserves careful evaluation to rule out cancer. The complex treatment of colorectal cancer in pregnancy is based on the gestational age of the fetus, tumor stage and need for emergent vs. elective management. PMID:25830043

  11. Virtual traumatology of pregnant women: the PRegnant car Occupant Model for Impact Simulations (PROMIS).

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Peres, J; Delotte, J; Kayvantash, K; Brunet, C; Behr, M

    2014-01-03

    This study report documents the development of a finite element (FE) model for analyzing trauma in pregnant women involved in road accidents and help the design of a specific safety device. The model is representative of a 50th percentile pregnant woman at 26 weeks of pregnancy in sitting position. To achieve this, the HUMOS 2 model, which has been validated in a wide range of dynamic tests, was scaled to the morphology of a woman in the 50th percentile and coupled with a model of gravid uterus. During scaling, special attention was paid to the pelvic region which is known to differ considerably in morphological terms between men and women. The gravid uterus model includes a placenta, a fetus, uterosacral ligaments and the amniotic fluid by means of fluid structure interaction formulation. The uterus and the female model were coupled using an original method whereby the growth of an uterus was simulated to compress the abdominal organs in a realistic manner. The model was validated based on experimental tests described in the literature. Additional tests based on abdominal loadings with a seatbelt on Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) coupled to silicone uterus were also performed. Results highlighted the role of the possible interaction of the fetus in the pregnant woman abdominal response. Experimental corridors taking into account the presence of this fetus could therefore be proposed.

  12. Fear of becoming pregnant among female healthcare students in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Cremades, Felipe; Arroyo-Sebastián, María del Ángel; Gómez-Pérez, Luis; Sepehri, Armina; Martínez-Pérez, Salvador; Marhuenda-Amorós, Dolores; Rizo-Baeza, María Mercedes; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The inconsistent use of hormonal contraceptive methods can result, during the first year of use, in one in twelve women still having an undesired pregnancy. This may lead to women experiencing fear of becoming pregnant (FBP). We have only found one study examining the proportion of FBP among women who used hormonal contraceptives. To gather further scientific evidence we undertook an observational, cross-sectional study involving 472 women at a Spanish university in 2005–2009. The inclusion criteria were having had vaginal intercourse with a man in the previous three months and usual use for contraception of a male condom or hormonal contraceptives, or no method of contraception. The outcome was FBP. The secondary variables were contraceptive method used (oral contraceptives; condom; none), desire to increase the frequency of sexual relations, frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner, the sexual partner not always able to ejaculate, desire to increase the partner’s time before orgasm, age and being in a stable relationship. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the associated factors. Of the 472 women, 171 experienced FBP (36.2%). Factors significantly associated (p < 0.05) with this FBP were method of contraception (condom and none), desire to increase the partner’s ability to delay orgasm and higher frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner. There was a high proportion of FBP, depending on the use of efficient contraceptive methods. A possible solution to this problem may reside in educational programmes. Qualitative studies would be useful to design these programmes. PMID:26336643

  13. [Methamphetamine--a drug of pregnant female drug addicts].

    PubMed

    Slamberová, Romana; Charousová, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Drug abuse is still a serious problem of nowadays. One of the most abused drugs in the Czech Republic is methamphetamine (MA). MA is strongly addictive substance with high disposition to abuse. It belongs to the group of synthetic amphetamines that together with cocaine and caffeine are classified as psychomotor stimulant drugs. Lately, the growing problem is drug abuse of pregnant women. MA is popular drug in pregnant women dependent on addictive substances. Drugs abused during pregnancy are risky not only for the mother, but may induce changes in developing organism that may have permanent consequences. Prenatal exposure to MA may have teratogenic effects by inducing malformations or impair postnatal functional development of offspring. The impairing effects may last until adulthood and may affect even next generation. Mechanism of these long-term consequences is not fully explained yet. The present review summarizes the existing information.

  14. [Body mass of pregnant females, as a risk factor for the development of obstetric complications].

    PubMed

    Shelia, G P; Beshkenadze, M G

    2012-10-01

    To elucidate the specific courses of the course of pregnancy and labor in patients with obesity and inadequate body mass. 280 women (pregnant females aged 17-38) clinically followed up for pregnancy and labor. The nutritional status was estimated by the Quetle index (QI). Complications of pregnancy were more common in females with insufficient and excessive body mass. There are gestational diabetes, gestoses,uterine inertia,fetal macrosomy and perinatal mortality was observed in 67 % of the obese women , total number of spontaneous abortions was 9 % cases, in females with inadequete body mass. The neonatal outcomes of pregnancy and complications of labor were better in the pregnant females, who had normal QI. Thus, insufficient and/or excersive body mass is premorbid negative background and risk factor for the development of obstetric complications. Further studies will allow us to get answers to some of the issues raised and to the management of pregnant women with obesity and low levels of IQ.

  15. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Taghipour, Ali; Sadat Borghei, Narjes; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Keramat, Afsaneh; Jabbari Nooghabi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW) model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965) bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during pregnancy. PMID

  16. Management of deep venous thrombosis in the pregnant female.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, J C; Estrada, F P; Orr, R M

    1990-01-01

    Deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremities is an uncommon but dreaded complication of pregnancy which can present diagnostic and therapeutic problems to the treating physician. From January 1, 1985, to December 31, 1988, 7867 deliveries were performed at St. Luke's Hospital. Five of these patients were pregnant women who were treated for deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremities. The women were either in their second or third trimester of pregnancy. The clinical diagnosis in each case was confirmed with duplex ultrasonography. Each patient was treated with 7 to 10 days of intravenous heparin therapy and then discharged on subcutaneous heparin therapy. There were no bleeding complications related to the heparin therapy. No patient developed a pulmonary embolism. Each patient delivered a normal child. The only complication was a heparin induced rash in one patient which resolved when a different preparation of heparin was used. The management of deep venous thrombosis in pregnancy is discussed.

  17. Prepregnancy obesity and periodontitis among pregnant females with and without gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yiqiong; Xiong, Xu; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen E; Pridjian, Gabriella; Maney, Pooja; Delarosa, Robert L; Buekens, Pierre

    2014-07-01

    This study explored whether there is an association between prepregnancy obesity and periodontitis among pregnant females. A retrospective cohort study was conducted by using data from a previous case-control study at Woman's Hospital, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. One hundred fifty-nine pregnant females were recruited at their prenatal care visits. Periodontal status was assessed through dental examinations performed at an average of 31 weeks gestation. Periodontitis was defined as the presence of one or more sites exhibiting probing depth ≥4 mm or clinical attachment level ≥4 mm. A Poisson regression with robust error variance was used to estimate risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Prepregnancy obesity was statistically significantly associated with periodontitis during pregnancy, with obese females at 1.7 times higher risk compared with under/normal-weight females (RR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2 to 2.3, P <0.01). There is no difference in the association between maternal obesity and periodontitis between females with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and females without GDM. There is a positive association between prepregnancy obesity and periodontitis among pregnant females.

  18. [Bioinsecticides risk influence estimation on intestinal microbiocenosis of the pregnant females and posterity in experiment].

    PubMed

    Orlenkovich, L N

    2012-01-01

    It is carried out research by a method of paired correlations of the bioinsecticides influence on intestinal microbiota of the pregnant females rats and them 1, 2 monthly posterities in conditions of preparations repeated inhalation influence during all pregnancy at various concentrations.

  19. Delivery recommendations for pregnant females with risk factors for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hannah; Steele, Donna; McAlister, Chryssa; Lam, Wai-Ching

    2015-02-01

    High-risk pathologies for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in otherwise healthy pregnant females are not contraindications for spontaneous vaginal delivery. However, 74% of European obstetrician-gynecologist (OBGYN) respondents in 2008 recommended operative delivery for females at risk for RRD. This discrepancy is likely due to an older study suggesting a causal relation between Valsalva-like manoeuvres and RRD. The purpose of this study is to determine current delivery recommendations for healthy pregnant females with high-risk pathologies for RRD among Canadian ophthalmologists and OBGYNs. Anonymous prospective cross-sectional survey sent via electronic link in 2013. χ(2) test of proportions was used to compare delivery recommendations between the 2 specialties. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify predictors for recommendations. A total of 356 participants responded including 92 ophthalmologists and 27 trainees, and 185 OBGYNs and 52 trainees. For healthy pregnant females with previously treated retinal hole/tear or treated RRD, significantly more OBGYNs recommended cesarean section and significantly more ophthalmologists recommended spontaneous vaginal delivery. Length of practice and type of practice setting were significant predictors among obstetricians in their delivery recommendations. This study is the first to include obstetricians, ophthalmologists, and their trainees in a survey of the recommended mode of delivery for pregnant females with risk factors of RRD. Our results suggest that obstetricians concerned about potential RRD in pregnant patients may be unnecessarily recommending operative management. Educational sessions on the risk for RRD with spontaneous vaginal delivery may reconcile the current differences in recommendations between ophthalmologists and obstetricians. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of developmental toxicity of guaifenesin using pregnant female rats.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Arham; Shamsi, Sadia; Shahzad, Muhammad; Butt, Hajra Ikram; Aamir, Khurram; Iqbal, Javed

    2016-01-01

    Guaifenesin possesses expectorant, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsive properties. To the best of our knowledge, the promising data regarding the developmental toxicity of guaifenesin are scarce. The current study investigates the developmental toxic effects of guaifenesin in detail using female rats. Twenty-five dams were divided into five groups. Group 1 served as a control, while Group-2, -3, -4, and -5 were administered with 250, 350, 500, and 600 (mg/kg b.w.) doses of guaifenesin, respectively, starting from gestation day 6 to day 17. Half of the total recovered fetuses was subjected to morphologic and morphometric analysis, while other half was subjected to skeletal examination. A significant reduction in maternal weight, and food/water intake, was observed, however, no mortality and morbidity were observed. About 14 dead fetuses were found in Group-3 and -4 each, while 26 in Group 5. Morphological analysis revealed 21.2%, 45.4%, 67.2%, and 86.9% of total fetuses having hemorrhagic spots in Group-2, -3, -4, and -5, respectively. Dropping wrist/ankle and kinky tail were found in Group-4 and -5 only. Morphometric analysis showed a significant decline in fetal weight, full body length, skull length, forelimb length, hindlimb length, and tail length in all guaifenesin treated groups. Skeletal examination displayed that only Group 5 fetuses had increased intercostal space between 7(th) and 8(th) rib. We also observed improper development of carpals, metacarpals, tarsals, and metatarsals of the Group 5 fetuses. Guaifenesin showed a significant developmental toxicity at selected test doses; therefore, a careful use is suggested during pregnancy.

  1. Evaluation of developmental toxicity of guaifenesin using pregnant female rats

    PubMed Central

    Shabbir, Arham; Shamsi, Sadia; Shahzad, Muhammad; Butt, Hajra Ikram; Aamir, Khurram; Iqbal, Javed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Guaifenesin possesses expectorant, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsive properties. To the best of our knowledge, the promising data regarding the developmental toxicity of guaifenesin are scarce. The current study investigates the developmental toxic effects of guaifenesin in detail using female rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five dams were divided into five groups. Group 1 served as a control, while Group-2, -3, -4, and -5 were administered with 250, 350, 500, and 600 (mg/kg b.w.) doses of guaifenesin, respectively, starting from gestation day 6 to day 17. Half of the total recovered fetuses was subjected to morphologic and morphometric analysis, while other half was subjected to skeletal examination. Results: A significant reduction in maternal weight, and food/water intake, was observed, however, no mortality and morbidity were observed. About 14 dead fetuses were found in Group-3 and -4 each, while 26 in Group 5. Morphological analysis revealed 21.2%, 45.4%, 67.2%, and 86.9% of total fetuses having hemorrhagic spots in Group-2, -3, -4, and -5, respectively. Dropping wrist/ankle and kinky tail were found in Group-4 and -5 only. Morphometric analysis showed a significant decline in fetal weight, full body length, skull length, forelimb length, hindlimb length, and tail length in all guaifenesin treated groups. Skeletal examination displayed that only Group 5 fetuses had increased intercostal space between 7th and 8th rib. We also observed improper development of carpals, metacarpals, tarsals, and metatarsals of the Group 5 fetuses. Conclusion: Guaifenesin showed a significant developmental toxicity at selected test doses; therefore, a careful use is suggested during pregnancy. PMID:27298495

  2. Predictors of stress in adolescents: an exploratory study of pregnant and of parenting females.

    PubMed

    Pasley, K; Langfield, P A; Kreutzer, J A

    1993-07-01

    A study of 152 adolescents enrolled in school-based programs for pregnant and parenting youth in Colorado in 1987-88 found no differences in overall stress levels between these two groups; however, salient predictors of stressful life events for pregnant teens were not the same as those for teen mothers. The mean age of study subjects was 16.5 years (range 14-19 years); most were living with a parent rather than the child's father. The dependent variable, level of stress, was measured through use of an abbreviated Life Events Questionnaire. Independent variables were assessed through administration of the Inventory of Social Supportive Behaviors, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences scale. Of the 5 sources of stress measured (family, accidents, autonomy, deviance, relocation, and distress), only stress related to accidents differed significantly between pregnant and parenting adolescents. For pregnant adolescents, self-esteem was the only significant predictor of the overall level of stress; among parents, the only significant predictor was objective social support. Among adolescents, self-esteem was associated with more frequent use of social support and coping strategies. For parenting adolescents, self-esteem was correlated with the frequency of use of social support, satisfaction resulting from such use, and frequent use of coping strategies. Overall, the independent variables of social support, self-esteem, coping, and age were stronger predictors of stress in pregnant than in parenting adolescent females. This finding suggests that parenting teens may have successfully negotiated the multiple transitions involved in this new stage of the life-cycle. An important implication of this study is the need to design separate counseling components of school-based programs for pregnant versus parenting adolescents rather than to use a single curriculum.

  3. The UF Family of hybrid phantoms of the pregnant female for computational radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Matthew R.; Long, Nelia S.; Moawad, Nash S.; Shifrin, Roger Y.; Geyer, Amy M.; Fong, Grant; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2014-08-01

    Efforts to assess in utero radiation doses and related quantities to the developing fetus should account for the presence of the surrounding maternal tissues. Maternal tissues can provide varying levels of protection to the fetus by shielding externally-emitted radiation or, alternatively, can become sources of internally-emitted radiation following the biokinetic uptake of medically-administered radiopharmaceuticals or radionuclides located in the surrounding environment—as in the case of the European Union’s SOLO project (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations). The University of Florida had previously addressed limitations in available computational phantom representation of the developing fetus by constructing a series of hybrid computational fetal phantoms at eight different ages and three weight percentiles. Using CT image sets of pregnant patients contoured using 3D-DOCTORTM, the eight 50th percentile fetal phantoms from that study were systematically combined in RhinocerosTM with the UF adult non-pregnant female to yield a series of reference pregnant female phantoms at fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks post-conception. Deformable, non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces were utilized to alter contoured maternal anatomy in order to (1) accurately position and orient each fetus and surrounding maternal tissues and (2) match target masses of maternal soft tissue organs to reference data reported in the literature.

  4. Arsenite in drinking water produces glucose intolerance in pregnant rats and their female offspring.

    PubMed

    Bonaventura, María Marta; Bourguignon, Nadia Soledad; Bizzozzero, Marianne; Rodriguez, Diego; Ventura, Clara; Cocca, Claudia; Libertun, Carlos; Lux-Lantos, Victoria Adela

    2017-02-01

    Drinking water is the main source of arsenic exposure. Chronic exposure has been associated with metabolic disorders. Here we studied the effects of arsenic on glucose metabolism, in pregnant and post-partum of dams and their offspring. We administered 5 (A5) or 50 (A50) mg/L of sodium arsenite in drinking water to rats from gestational day 1 (GD1) until two months postpartum (2MPP), and to their offspring from weaning until 8 weeks old. Liver arsenic dose-dependently increased in arsenite-treated rats to levels similar to exposed population. Pregnant A50 rats gained less weight than controls and recovered normal weight at 2MPP. Arsenite-treated pregnant animals showed glucose intolerance on GD16-17, with impaired insulin secretion but normal insulin sensitivity; they showed dose-dependent increased pancreas insulin on GD18. All alterations reverted at 2MPP. Offspring from A50-treated mothers showed lower body weight at birth, 4 and 8 weeks of age, and glucose intolerance in adult females, probably due to insulin secretion and sensitivity alterations. Arsenic alters glucose homeostasis during pregnancy by altering beta-cell function, increasing risk of developing gestational diabetes. In pups, it induces low body weight from birth to 8 weeks of age, and glucose intolerance in females, demonstrating a sex specific response.

  5. Biotransformation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) in male, pregnant and non-pregnant female rabbits after single high dose inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Tobias; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Rusch, George M.; Hoffman, Gary M.; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2012-08-15

    2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) is a novel refrigerant intended for use in mobile air conditioning. It showed a low potential for toxicity in rodents studies with most NOAELs well above 10,000 ppm in guideline compliant toxicity studies. However, a developmental toxicity study in rabbits showed mortality at exposure levels of 5,500 ppm and above. No lethality was observed at exposure levels of 2,500 and 4,000 ppm. Nevertheless, increased subacute inflammatory heart lesions were observed in rabbits at all exposure levels. Since the lethality in pregnant animals may be due to altered biotransformation of HFO-1234yf and to evaluate the potential risk to pregnant women facing a car crash, this study compared the acute toxicity and biotransformation of HFO-1234yf in male, female and pregnant female rabbits. Animals were exposed to 50,000 ppm and 100,000 ppm for 1 h. For metabolite identification by {sup 19}F NMR and LC/MS-MS, urine was collected for 48 h after inhalation exposure. In all samples, the predominant metabolites were S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-mercaptolactic acid and N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine. Since no major differences in urinary metabolite pattern were observed between the groups, only N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine excretion was quantified. No significant differences in recovery between non-pregnant (43.10 ± 22.35 μmol) and pregnant female (50.47 ± 19.72 μmol) rabbits were observed, male rabbits exposed to 100,000 ppm for one hour excreted 86.40 ± 38.87 μmol. Lethality and clinical signs of toxicity were not observed in any group. The results suggest that the lethality of HFO-1234yf in pregnant rabbits unlikely is due to changes in biotransformation patterns or capacity in pregnant rabbits. -- Highlights: ► No lethality and clinical signs were observed. ► No differences in metabolic pattern between pregnant and non-pregnant rabbits. ► Rapid and similar metabolite

  6. Aggressive hemangioma of the spine in a pregnant female: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Demirkale, İsmail; De Iure, Federico; Terzi, Silvia; Gasbarrini, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Type and timing of treatment for symptomatic hemangiomas in pregnant females are challenging due to fetus survival and conflicts in neurological recovery. In this article, we report a 40-year-old female patient at pregnancy week 23 with a complicated hemangioma at T1 level. Physical examination revealed an incomplete spastic paraplegia. Patient did not accept any surgery due to child's death risk. Patient was started corticoid treatment and no more weight bearing was allowed. At the 28th week of pregnancy, the patient underwent cesarean section immediately followed by selective arterial embolization, decompression, fixation, and radiotherapy. At two-year follow-up, the patient was pain free, without any signs of local recurrence and with complete neurological recovery. A multidisciplinary approach is mandatory to save the life of the fetus without damaging the spinal cord functions of the mother.

  7. Poliovirus immunity among pregnant females aged 15-44 years, Namibia, 2010.

    PubMed

    Cardemil, Cristina V; Jonas, Anna; Gerber, Sue; Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Beukes, Anita; Sawadogo, Souleymane; Patel, Sadhna V; Zeko, Sikota; Muroua, Clementine; Gaeb, Esegiel; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Goodson, James L

    2014-11-01

    Poliovirus (PV) antibody seroprevalence studies assess population immunity, verify an immunization program's performance and vaccine efficacy, and guide polio eradication strategy. Namibia experienced a polio outbreak among adults in 2006, yet population seroimmunity was unknown. We tested 2061 specimens from Namibian pregnant females aged 15-44 years for neutralizing antibody to PV types 1-3 (PV1-3); all females were sampled during the 2010 National HIV Sentinel Survey. We determined the proportion of females seropositive for PV antibody by 5-year age strata, and analyzed factors associated with seropositivity, including age, gravidity, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection status, residence, and antiretroviral treatment, by log-binomial regression. The seroprevalence was 94.6% for PV1, 97.0% for PV2, and 85.1% for PV3. HIV-positive females had significantly lower seroprevalence than HIV-negative females for PV1 (91.8% vs 95.3%; P<.01) and PV3 (80.0% vs 86.1%; P<.01) but not for PV2 (96.4% vs 97.1%; P=.3). The prevalence ratio of seropositivity for HIV-positive females versus HIV-negative females was 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI], .92-.98) for PV1, 0.99 (95% CI, .97-1.01) for PV2, and 0.92 (95% CI, .87-.96) for PV3. Despite relatively high PV seroprevalence, Namibia might remain at risk for a PV outbreak, particularly in lower-seroprevalence populations, such as HIV-positive females. Namibia should continue to maintain high routine polio vaccination coverage. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Runaway and pregnant: risk factors associated with pregnancy in a national sample of runaway/homeless female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sanna J; Bender, Kimberly A; Lewis, Carol M; Watkins, Rita

    2008-08-01

    Homeless youth are at particularly high risk for teen pregnancy; research indicates as many as 20% of homeless young women become pregnant. These pregnant and homeless teens lack financial resources and adequate health care, resulting in increased risk for low-birth-weight babies and high infant mortality. This study investigated individual and family-level predictors of teen pregnancy among a national sample of runaway/homeless youth in order to better understand the needs of this vulnerable population. Data from the Runaway/Homeless Youth Management Information System (RHY MIS) provided a national sample of youth seeking services at crisis shelters. A sub-sample of pregnant females and a random sub-sample (matched by age) of nonpregnant females comprised the study sample (N = 951). Chi-square and t tests identified differences between pregnant and nonpregnant runaway females; maximum likelihood logistic regression identified individual and family-level predictors of teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy was associated with being an ethnic minority, dropping out of school, being away from home for longer periods of time, having a sexually transmitted disease, and feeling abandoned by one's family. Family factors, such as living in a single parent household and experiencing emotional abuse by one's mother, increased the odds of a teen being pregnant. The complex problems associated with pregnant runaway/homeless teens create challenges for short-term shelter services. Suggestions are made for extending shelter services to include referrals and coordination with teen parenting programs and other systems of care.

  9. Metabolism and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of flumioxazin in pregnant animals

    SciTech Connect

    Takaku, Tomoyuki Nagahori, Hirohisa; Sogame, Yoshihisa

    2014-06-15

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to predict the concentration of flumioxazin, in the blood and fetus of pregnant humans during a theoretical accidental intake (1000 mg/kg). The data on flumioxazin concentration in pregnant rats (30 mg/kg po) was used to develop the PBPK model in pregnant rats using physiological parameters and chemical specific parameters. The rat PBPK model developed was extrapolated to a human model. Liver microsomes of female rats and a mixed gender of humans were used for the in vitro metabolism study. To determine the % of flumioxazin absorbed after administration at a dose of 1000 mg/kg assuming maximum accidental intake, the biliary excretion study of [phenyl-U-{sup 14}C]flumioxazin was conducted in bile duct-cannulated female rats (Crl:CD (SD)) to collect and analyze the bile, urine, feces, gastrointestinal tract, and residual carcass. The % of flumioxazin absorbed at a dose of 1000 mg/kg in rats was low (12.3%) by summing up {sup 14}C of the urine, bile, and residual carcass. The pregnant human model that was developed demonstrated that the maximum flumioxazin concentration in the blood and fetus of a pregnant human at a dose of 1000 mg/kg po was 0.86 μg/mL and 0.68 μg/mL, respectively, which is much lower than K{sub m} (202.4 μg/mL). Because the metabolism was not saturated and the absorption rate was low at a dose of 1000 mg/kg, the calculated flumioxazin concentration in pregnant humans was thought to be relatively low, considering the flumioxazin concentration in pregnant rats at a dose of 30 mg/kg. For the safety assessment of flumioxazin, these results would be useful for further in vitro toxicology experiments. - Highlights: • A PBPK model of flumioxazin in pregnant humans was developed. • Simulated flumioxazin concentration in pregnant humans was relatively low. • The results would be useful for further in vitro toxicology experiments.

  10. Reproductive capacity in male mink after long distance transportation in pregnant females.

    PubMed

    Sundqvist, C; Lukola, A; Valtonen, M

    1985-01-01

    Young American male mink born in Finland from imported pregnant females showed a clear delay (p less than 0.05) in testicular development as compared with local male mink in late February and produced semen of unsatisfactory quality during the breeding season in March. Better sperm quality (p less than 0.05) and better testicular development (p less than 0.1-0.05) was obtained in older American male mink born in Finland as compared with younger American male mink and the local breeding stock. Serum testosterone concentrations during six successive months in American males indicated a clear delay in sexual maturity and it could also be established that testosterone development reached normal levels in American males after 2 generations born in Finland. There were no differences in the serum thyroxine concentrations between American and local male mink.

  11. Simplified pregnant woman models for the fetus exposure assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jala, Marjorie; Conil, Emmanuelle; Varsier, Nadège; Wiart, Joe; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Moulines, Éric; Lévy-Leduc, Céline

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce a study that we carried out in order to validate the use of a simplified pregnant woman model for the assessment of the fetus exposure to radio frequency waves. This simplified model, based on the use of a homogeneous tissue to replace most of the inner organs of the virtual mother, would allow us to deal with many issues that are raised because of the lack of pregnant woman models for numerical dosimetry. Using specific absorption rate comparisons, we show that this model could be used to estimate the fetus exposure to plane waves.

  12. Gestational Zearalenone Exposure Causes Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity in Pregnant Rats and Female Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xin; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Niya; Li, Chong; Zhang, Jiacai; Xiao, Zhuohui; Qi, Desheng

    2017-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is an oestrogenic mycotoxin commonly found in food and feed products and can affect reproduction and development in both humans and animals. This study aimed to determine the toxic effects of ZEN on maternal SD rats and the F1 female offspring. Sixty-four pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups and exposed to feed contaminated with ZEN (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg feed) on gestational days (GDs) 0–21. Compared with the controls, the groups exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN showed significantly decreased feed intake and body weight of pregnant rats and/or female offspring. Meanwhile, 20 mg/kg ZEN significantly decreased the birth weight and viability of F1 newborn rats. Moreover, 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN diets increased follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations but decreased oestradiol in both maternal and F1 adult rats. In the F1 generation, ZEN caused no pathological changes in ovaries and uterus in weaned rats, but significant follicular atresia and a thinning uterine layer were found in F1 female adult rats in the 20 mg/kg ZEN group. These impairments concurred with the inhibited mRNA and protein levels of oestrogen receptor-alpha (Esr1) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) in the adult uterus and/or ovaries. Furthermore, 10 and/or 20 mg/kg ZEN exposure significantly reduced Esr1, gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHr), and ATP binding cassette transporters b1 and c1 (ABCb1 and ABCc1) in the placenta and foetal and weaned F1 brains, and also produced a dose-dependent increase in 3β-HSD in the placenta. Additionally, 20 mg/kg ZEN significantly upregulated ABCc5 expression in the placenta and ovaries of weaned rats. These results suggested that prenatal ZEN exposure in rats affected maternal and foetal development and may lead to long-term reproductive impairment in F1 adult females. PMID:28067781

  13. Strontium biokinetic model for the pregnant woman and fetus: application to Techa River studies.

    PubMed

    Shagina, N B; Fell, T P; Tolstykh, E I; Harrison, J D; Degteva, M O

    2015-09-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium (Sr) for the pregnant woman and fetus (Sr-PWF model) has been developed for use in the quantification of doses from internal radiation exposures following maternal ingestion of Sr radioisotopes before or during pregnancy. The model relates in particular to the population of the Techa River villages exposed to significant amounts of ingested Sr radioisotopes as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak plutonium production facility (Russia) in the early 1950s. The biokinetic model for Sr metabolism in the pregnant woman was based on a biokinetic model for the adult female modified to account for changes in mineral metabolism during pregnancy. The model for non-pregnant females of all ages was developed earlier with the use of extensive data on (90)Sr-body measurements in the Techa Riverside residents. To determine changes in model parameter values to take account of changing mineral metabolism during pregnancy, data from longitudinal studies of calcium homeostasis during human pregnancy were analysed and applied. Exchanges between maternal and fetal circulations and retention in fetal skeleton and soft tissues were modelled as adaptations of previously published models, taking account of data on Sr and calcium (Ca) metabolism obtained in Russia (Southern Urals and Moscow) relating to dietary calcium intakes, calcium contents in maternal and fetal skeletons and strontium transfer to the fetus. The model was validated using independent data on (90)Sr in the fetal skeleton from global fallout as well as unique data on (90)Sr-body burden in mothers and their still-born children for Techa River residents. While the Sr-PWF model has been developed specifically for ingestion of Sr isotopes by Techa River residents, it is also more widely applicable to maternal ingestion of Sr radioisotopes at different times before and during pregnancy and different ages of pregnant women in a general population.

  14. Runaway and Pregnant: Risk Factors Associated with Pregnancy in a National Sample of Runaway/Homeless Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Bender, Kimberly A.; Lewis, Carol M.; Watkins, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Homeless youth are at particularly high risk for teen pregnancy; research indicates as many as 20% of homeless young women become pregnant. These pregnant and homeless teens lack financial resources and adequate health care, resulting in increased risk for low– birth-weight babies and high infant mortality. This study investigated individual and family-level predictors of teen pregnancy among a national sample of runaway/homeless youth in order to better understand the needs of this vulnerable population. Methods Data from the Runaway/Homeless Youth Management Information System (RHY MIS) provided a national sample of youth seeking services at crisis shelters. A sub-sample of pregnant females and a random sub-sample (matched by age) of nonpregnant females comprised the study sample (N= 951). Chi-square and t tests identified differences between pregnant and nonpregnant runaway females; maximum likelihood logistic regression identified individual and family-level predictors of teen pregnancy. Results Teen pregnancy was associated with being an ethnic minority, dropping out of school, being away from home for longer periods of time, having a sexually transmitted disease, and feeling abandoned by one's family. Family factors, such as living in a single parent household and experiencing emotional abuse by one's mother, increased the odds of a teen being pregnant. Conclusions The complex problems associated with pregnant runaway/homeless teens create challenges for short-term shelter services. Suggestions are made for extending shelter services to include referrals and coordination with teen parenting programs and other systems of care. PMID:18639785

  15. Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Norfloxacin in Pregnant Female Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elbadawy, Mohamed; Soliman, Ahmed; El-Hewaity, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the possible developmental teratogenicity of norfloxacin in rats. Forty pregnant female rats were divided into four equal groups. Group A received norfloxacin in a dose of 500 mg/kg·b·wt/day orally from 6th to 15th day of gestation. Groups B and C received 1000 and 2000 mg/kg·b·wt/day orally for the same period, respectively; Group D behaved as control and received 0.5 mL distilled water orally for the same period. The dams were killed on 20th day of gestation and their fetuses were subjected to morphological, visceral, and skeletal examinations. Norfloxacin significantly decreased the number of viable fetuses, increased the number of resorbed fetuses, and induced retardation in growth of viable fetuses; some visceral and skeletal defects in these fetuses were seen and these effects were dose dependant. Conclusively, norfloxacin caused some fetal defects and abnormalities, so it is advisable to avoid using this drug during pregnancy. PMID:24639869

  16. Infective endocarditis due to Bacillus cereus in a pregnant female: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mahek; Patnaik, Soumya; Wongrakpanich, Supakanya; Alhamshari, Yaser; Alnabelsi, Talal

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of infective endocarditis during pregnancy is around 0.006% with high maternal and fetal mortality. Bacillus cereus is an extremely rare cause for endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers (IVDA) or those with valvular disease or devices such as pacemakers. We report a case of B. cereus endocarditis, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been reported in pregnancy. A 30-year-old, 25-week pregnant female presented with right shoulder pain, swelling and erythema on the lateral aspect of deltoid muscle from large abscess over her deltoid muscle. She was found to have a vegetation on the native tricuspid valve. Cultures from abscess fluid and blood cultures grew B. cereus, she was appropriately treated with antimicrobials and had favorable outcomes. There are <20 cases of B. cereus endocarditis reported but none during pregnancy. When cultures grow unusual organisms the case must be thoroughly investigated. This case illustrates a rare situation (endocarditis in pregnancy) with an unusual outcome (B. cereus) on an uncommon valve (tricuspid valve).

  17. Does viviparity evolve in cold climate reptiles because pregnant females maintain stable (not high) body temperatures?

    PubMed

    Shine, Richard

    2004-08-01

    Viviparity (live bearing) has evolved from egg laying (oviparity) in many lineages of lizards and snakes, apparently in response to occupancy of cold climates. Explanations for this pattern have focused on the idea that behaviorally thermoregulating (sun-basking) pregnant female reptiles can maintain higher incubation temperatures for their embryos than would be available in nests under the soil surface. This is certainly true at very high elevations, where only viviparous species occur. However, comparisons of nest and lizard temperatures at sites close to the upper elevational limit for oviparous reptiles (presumably, the selective environment where the transition from oviparity to viviparity actually occurs) suggest that reproductive mode has less effect on mean incubation temperatures than on the diel distribution of those temperatures. Nests of the oviparous scincid lizard Bassiana duperreyi showed smooth diel cycles of heating and cooling. In contrast, body temperatures of the viviparous scincid Eulamprus heatwolei rose abruptly in the morning, were high and stable during daylight hours, and fell abruptly at night. Laboratory incubation experiments mimicking these patterns showed that developmental rates of eggs and phenotypic traits of hatchling B. duperreyi were sensitive to this type of thermal variance as well as to mean temperature. Hence, diel distributions as well as mean incubation temperatures may have played an important role in the selective forces for viviparity. More generally, variances as well as mean values of abiotic factors may constitute significant selective forces on life-history evolution.

  18. No Rush to Motherhood: The Lived Experience of African American Never Pregnant Sexually Active Female Teens.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Monique; Roye, Carol F; Frederickson, Keville

    The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the lived experiences of underserved minority sexually active teenaged girls' successful avoidance of unwanted pregnancy. Merleau-Ponty's methodology and van Manen's method of doing phenomenological research guided and facilitated the process of the study. 7 participants were eligible and all of them were interviewed for this study. Six main themes were identified: sense of emotional safety; sense of being free from a potential pregnancy; feeling supported by family and friends; connections built on trust and communication; regard for self through self-esteem and self-confidence; and sense of having life goals. The interpretive statement of 'these teen-agers experienced a sense of emotional safety, support by family and friends, trust and connection with family, friends and healthcare providers, and self-confidence resulting in the opportunity to develop life goals and feel strongly motivated to be free from pregnancy' was developed after further reflection upon the study themes. Healthcare providers, primarily nurses, can use the findings of this study to improve their interactions with sexually active never pregnant female teens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasma progesterone levels in the pregnant female rat-kangaroo (Bettongia gaimardi).

    PubMed

    Jones, S M; Rose, R W

    1992-08-01

    Plasma progesterone levels were measured in female bettongs (small macropodid marsupials) under two natural regimes: (1) during "delayed" gestation (initiated by removal of pouch young, RPY) and (2) during the pregnancy prior to pouch vacation when a young still occupies the pouch (i.e., during lactation). Basal levels of progesterone were 0.15-0.5 ng/ml. There was a transient peak of progesterone (0.7 ng/ml) early in gestation at Day 4 RPY. After Day 6 RPY, progesterone levels remained elevated (1.2-1.5 ng/ml) until they dropped sharply to basal levels on the day of birth. This pattern of progesterone secretion during delayed gestation is similar to that seen in other marsupials, such as the tammar wallaby. There was no significant difference between the progesterone profiles of the two experimental groups. We deduce, then, that lactation had no effect on corpus luteum function (as assessed by plasma progesterone levels) in the pregnant bettong.

  20. Body image dissatisfaction in pregnant and non-pregnant females is strongly predicted by immune activation and mucosa-derived activation of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway.

    PubMed

    Roomruangwong, Chutima; Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Carvalho, André F; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Duleu, Sebastien; Geffard, Michel; Maes, Michael

    2016-08-30

    The aim of the present study is to delineate the associations between body image dissatisfaction in pregnant women and immune-inflammatory biomarkers, i.e., C-reactive protein (CRP), zinc and IgA/IgM responses to tryptophan and tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs). We assessed 49 pregnant and 24 non-pregnant females and assessed Body Image Satisfaction (BIS) scores at the end of term (T1), and 2-4 days (T2) and 4-6 weeks (T3) after delivery. Subjects were divided in those with a lowered BIS score (≤ 3) versus those with a higher score. Logistic regression analysis showed that a lowered T1 BIS score was predicted by CRP levels and IgA responses to tryptophan (negative) and TRYCATs (positive), perinatal depression, body mass index (BMI) and age. The sum of quinolinic acid, kynurenine, 3-OH-kynurenine and 3-OH-anthranilic acid (reflecting brain quinolinic acid contents) was the single best predictor. In addition, a large part of the variance in the T1, T2 and T3 BIS scores was explained by IgA responses to tryptophan and TRYCATs, especially quinolinic acid. Body image dissatisfaction is strongly associated with inflammation and mucosa-derived IDO activation independently from depression, pregnancy, BMI and age. IgA responses to peripheral TRYCATs, which determine brain quinolinic acid concentrations, also predict body image dissatisfaction.

  1. Serum concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants in a sample of pregnant females and changes in their concentrations during gestation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Richard Y; Jain, Ram B; Wolkin, Amy F; Rubin, Carol H; Needham, Larry L

    2009-08-01

    In this study we evaluated the concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants in a sample of first-time pregnant females residing in the United States and assessed differences in these concentrations in all pregnant females during gestation. We reviewed demographic and laboratory data for pregnant females participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, including concentrations of 25 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 6 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 9 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and 9 organochlorine pesticides. We report serum concentrations for first-time pregnant females (2001-2002; n = 49) and evaluate these concentrations in all pregnant females by trimester (1999-2002; n = 203) using a cross-sectional analysis. The chemicals with >or= 60% detection included PCBs (congeners 126, 138/158, 153, 180), PCDDs/PCDFs [1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1234678HpCDD), 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (123678HxCDD), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran (1234678HpCDF), 1,1'-(2,2-dichloroethenylidene)-bis(4-chlorobenzene) (p,p'-DDE)], and trans-nonachlor. The geometric mean concentration (95% confidence intervals) for 1234678HpCDD was 15.9 pg/g lipid (5.0-50.6 pg/g); for 123678HxCDD, 9.7 pg/g (5.5-17.1 pg/g); and for 1234678HpCDF, 5.4 pg/g (3.3-8.7 pg/g). The differences in concentrations of these chemicals by trimester were better accounted for with the use of lipid-adjusted units than with whole-weight units; however, the increase in the third-trimester concentration was greater for PCDDs/PCDFs (123678HxCDD, 1234678HpCDF) than for the highest concentration of indicator PCBs (138/158, 153, 180), even after adjusting for potential confounders. The concentrations of these persistent organic pollutants in a sample of first-time pregnant females living in the United States suggest a decline in exposures to these chemicals since their ban or restricted use and emission. The redistribution of body burden for

  2. Increased Glyburide Clearance in the Pregnant Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lin; Zhang, Yi; Hebert, Mary F.; Unadkat, Jashvant D.

    2010-01-01

    Glyburide (GLB) is an oral sulfonylurea, commonly used for the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus. It has been reported that the clearance of GLB in pregnant women is significantly higher than that in nonpregnant women. The molecular mechanism by which pregnancy increases the clearance of GLB is not known, but it may be caused by increased CYP3A activity. Because liver tissue from pregnant women is not readily available, in the present study, we investigated the mechanism of such pregnancy-related changes in GLB disposition in a mouse model. We demonstrated that the systemic clearance of GLB in pregnant mice was increased approximately 2-fold (p < 0.01) compared with nonpregnant mice, a magnitude of change similar to that observed in the clinical study. Plasma protein binding of GLB in mice was not altered by pregnancy. The half-life of GLB depletion in hepatic S-9 fractions of pregnant mice was significantly shorter than that of nonpregnant mice. Moreover, GLB depletion was markedly inhibited by ketoconazole, a potent inhibitor of mouse Cyp3a, suggesting that GLB metabolism in mice is primarily mediated by hepatic Cyp3a. These data suggest that the increased systemic clearance of GLB in pregnant mice is likely caused by an increase in hepatic Cyp3a activity during pregnancy, and they provide a basis for further mechanistic understanding and analysis of pregnancy-induced alterations in the disposition of GLB and drugs that are predominantly and extensively metabolized by CYP3A/Cyp3a. PMID:20558597

  3. Tuning the brain for motherhood: prolactin-like central signalling in virgin, pregnant, and lactating female mice.

    PubMed

    Salais-López, Hugo; Lanuza, Enrique; Agustín-Pavón, Carmen; Martínez-García, Fernando

    2017-03-01

    Prolactin is fundamental for the expression of maternal behaviour. In virgin female rats, prolactin administered upon steroid hormone priming accelerates the onset of maternal care. By contrast, the role of prolactin in mice maternal behaviour remains unclear. This study aims at characterizing central prolactin activity patterns in female mice and their variation through pregnancy and lactation. This was revealed by immunoreactivity of phosphorylated (active) signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5-ir), a key molecule in the signalling cascade of prolactin receptors. We also evaluated non-hypophyseal lactogenic activity during pregnancy by administering bromocriptine, which suppresses hypophyseal prolactin release. Late-pregnant and lactating females showed significantly increased pSTAT5-ir resulting in a widespread pattern of immunostaining with minor variations between pregnant and lactating animals, which comprises nuclei of the sociosexual and maternal brain, including telencephalic (septum, nucleus of the stria terminalis, and amygdala), hypothalamic (preoptic, paraventricular, supraoptic, and ventromedial), and midbrain (periaqueductal grey) regions. During late pregnancy, this pattern was not affected by the administration of bromocriptine, suggesting it to be elicited mostly by non-hypophyseal lactogenic agents, likely placental lactogens. Virgin females displayed, instead, a variable pattern of pSTAT5-ir restricted to a subset of the brain nuclei labelled in pregnant and lactating mice. A hormonal substitution experiment confirmed that estradiol and progesterone contribute to the variability found in virgin females. Our results reflect how the shaping of the maternal brain takes place prior to parturition and suggest that lactogenic agents are important candidates in the development of maternal behaviours already during pregnancy.

  4. Sonomorphology of the reproductive tract in male and pregnant and non-pregnant female Rothschild's giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis rotschildi).

    PubMed

    Lueders, Imke; Niemuller, Cheryl; Pootoolal, Jason; Rich, Peter; Gray, Charlie; Streich, Wolf Jürgen; Hildebrandt, Thomas Bernd

    2009-07-01

    The application of real-time-B-mode ultrasonography to wild and zoo animal medicine has been shown to improve the understanding of reproductive physiology in many species. Ultrasound technology is especially helpful for monitoring urogenital health, which in turn has advantages for giraffe breeding and welfare in captivity. This study aimed to ultrasonographically describe the genital organs of reproductively healthy male and female giraffes. Through the use of a restrainer, repeated rectal ultrasound examinations were performed over a 2 year period in 2.6 Rothschild's giraffes. Changes in ovarian activity were monitored throughout four different reproductive stages in the females and included immature, mature-cycling, pregnancy, post-partum-period. In the immature giraffes the ovaries showed multiple follicles of which larger ones luteinized to form pseudo-corpora lutea. By comparison, in the mature giraffes the dominant follicle reached an ovulatory diameter of 18.5+/-0.89 mm. After ovulation, a single corpus luteum rapidly formed and reached a maximum diameter of 33.0+/-2.4mm on average. Pregnancy was detected for the first time by the embryonic vesicle, visualized around 28 days post copulation. Follicular development remained ongoing during early pregnancy. In the males, as in other ruminants, the bulbourethral glands and the seminal vesicles were prominent, whereas the prostate gland was indistinct. Knowledge about the reproductive tract morphology and physiology is necessary for diagnosing medical disorders and abnormalities in giraffes. The aim of this study was to help consolidate the current knowledge on basic reproductive parameters for this species.

  5. Effect of intra-cellular trafficking on flow cytometric measurement of neutrophil's oxidative status in iron deficient pregnant females.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Soha R; Hendawy, Sherif F; Boshnak, Noha H; Sedhom, Mariana S

    2017-03-27

    Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are prevalent among pregnant women particularly in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the iron status among Egyptian pregnant women and its impact on their neutrophil's count and antimicrobial functions. Ninety pregnant females underwent complete blood count, iron profile, flow cytometric studies for neutrophil myeloperoxidase expression & oxidative burst using dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) after phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) stimulation as well as neutrophil phagocytic and lytic indices. According to percent saturation 54/90 women (60%) were iron deficient (<15% saturation) (cases) and 36/90 (40%) were iron sufficient (controls). A higher proportion of iron deficient pregnant women were in their third trimester compared to controls. No significant difference was found between the iron deficient & sufficient groups as regards anemia despite a positive correlation between haemoglobin level and percent saturation (P=.02). Both the phagocytic and lytic indices were significantly lower among the cases compared to controls (P=.014 & .002 respectively). Cases and controls were comparable as regards flow cytometric studies of neutrophils' myeloperoxidase and oxidative burst (P>.05). No significant correlation was found between any of the iron profile parameters and the oxidative burst by flow cytometry. Functional microphage assay (phagocytic and lytic indices) may be more relevant and cost effective than flow cytometry assays of myeloperoxidase and oxidative burst in reflecting either iron status or cellular immunity in pregnancy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A case of semi-combusted pregnant female in the Phoenician-Punic necropolis of Monte Sirai (Carbonia, Sardinia, Italy).

    PubMed

    Piga, G; Guirguis, M; Thompson, T J U; Isidro, A; Enzo, S; Malgosa, A

    2016-02-01

    We present a case of a pregnant woman with the fetus skeletal remains in situ, belonging to the Phoenician-Punic necropolis of Monte Sirai (Sardinia, Italy). The burial dates back to the late 6th to early 5th century BCE. Of the unborn fetal cases documented in the literature this is amongst the oldest four and it represents the first documented case of a pregnant woman in the Phoenician and Punic necropolis literature. A physico-chemical investigation of bones combining X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy suggests that the female skeleton and fetus were subjected to an incomplete heat treatment according to a funerary practice, perhaps limited to the period of early 5th century BCE, that appears to be peculiar to this site.

  7. Seroepidemiological investigation of Toxocara canis in a female Greek pregnant population in the area of Athens.

    PubMed

    Papavasilopoulos, V; Bonatsos, G; Elefsiniotis, I; Birbas, C; Panagopoulos, P; Trakakis, E

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the of areas where the soil is contaminated by Toxocara ova and also to assess seroepidemiological positivity in a Greek pregnant women population (ELISA IgG test). The authors carried out an examination of soil samples collected from different areas of Athens and Piraeus (Kazakos method). Blood serum was only collected from pregnant women living and conducting activities in places close to the places where the soil sample's were collected for at least a decade (ELISA IgG assay). The authors suggest a correlation between the positive response in the ELISA assay IgG antibodies and the activities of people where soil was contaminated by Toxocara eggs. In conclusion, the prevalence of Toxocara canis infection in a population of Greek pregnant women was found to be a rate of 17.16% and the soil contamination rate of 17.08%.

  8. Higher Risk of Homicide Among Pregnant and Postpartum Females Aged 10-29 Years in Illinois, 2002-2011.

    PubMed

    Koch, Abigail R; Rosenberg, Deborah; Geller, Stacie E

    2016-09-01

    To examine whether being pregnant or postpartum was associated with excess risk for homicide among females in Illinois and to describe the association between pregnancy status and homicide by race, ethnicity, and age group. This is a retrospective, multicohort, ecologic study of females of reproductive age in Illinois between 2002 and 2011 using Illinois Department of Public Health maternal mortality data and vital records data. We compared pregnancy-associated homicides with live births using χ tests. Among maternal deaths in the state, we calculated mortality rates per 100,000 live births for homicide and other violent causes and the leading direct obstetric causes. We calculated aggregate, pregnancy-associated, and nonpregnancy associated homicide rates stratified by race or ethnicity and age group. There were 636 pregnancy-associated deaths in Illinois from 2002 to 2011. Of these, 82 (13%) were the result of homicide (5.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.0-6.2]/100,000 live births). There were 931 homicides among females of reproductive age not associated with pregnancy (2.88 [95% CI 2.70-3.07]/100,000 population). More than half of the homicides were women aged 20-29 years (n=53 [64.6%]), non-Hispanic black women (n=43 [52.4%]), women residing in Cook County (n=47 [57.3%]), and unmarried women (n=57 [69.5%]). Pregnant and postpartum females aged 10-29 years were at twice the risk of homicide compared with their nonpregnant or postpartum counterparts (relative risk 2.20 [95% CI 1.70-2.85]). Non-Hispanic black and Hispanic females experienced higher rates of homicide than non-Hispanic white females irrespective of pregnancy or age. Although all violence against women must be addressed, we recommend that state maternal mortality review committees, in addition to reviewing deaths resulting from obstetric and clinical causes, should conduct in-depth reviews of pregnancy-associated homicides and other violent deaths.

  9. [Secretory immunoglobulin A in the amniotic fluid of healthy pregnant females].

    PubMed

    Briese, V; Straube, W; Brock, J; Stark, K H; Lorenz, U

    1983-01-01

    Amniotic fluid levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-AgA) were measured by simple radial immunodiffusion according to the method of Mancini using a monospecific antiserum against the human secretory component. 256 samples from healthy pregnant women were examined. Amniotic fluid S-IgA concentration increases significantly during normal pregnancy and shows a loose correlation to the phospholipid level.

  10. To Madagascar and back: long-distance, return migration across open ocean by a pregnant female bull shark Carcharhinus leucas.

    PubMed

    Lea, J S E; Humphries, N E; Clarke, C R; Sims, D W

    2015-12-01

    A large, pregnant, female bull shark Carcharhinus leucas was tracked migrating from Seychelles across open ocean to south-east Madagascar, c. 2000 km away, and back again. In Madagascar, the shark spent a prolonged period shallower than 5 m, consistent with entering estuarine habitat to pup, and upon return to Seychelles the shark was slender and no longer gravid. This represents an unprecedented return migration across the open ocean for a C. leucas and highlights the need for international collaboration to manage the regional C. leucas population sustainably.

  11. Changes in Smoking Rates Among Pregnant Women and the General Female Population in Australia, Finland, Norway, and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Reitan, Therese; Callinan, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    Smoking rates have dropped substantially in most developed countries in recent decades. This general trend has, however, not always been evident among women-particularly younger women. Smoking habits do, however, often change in connection with pregnancy and the aim of this study is to determine whether smoking during pregnancy follows general trends in smoking rates in the general female population in four countries with active anti-tobacco policies and decreasing population smoking rates. Changes in rates of persistent smoking, that is, smoking in late pregnancy or daily smoking among all women of childbearing age were described according to age groups. Data were retrieved from the Australian Household Drug Surveys during 2000-2013 and from registries and surveys in Finland, Norway, and Sweden between 1995 and 2014. In general, persistent smoking has decreased and late-pregnancy smoking rates are lower than daily smoking rates among all women. However, younger women are more likely to be persistent smokers regardless of pregnancy status. In Norway and Finland, persistent smoking was most common among young pregnant women and in Sweden there was an increased polarization between age groups. In Australia, a steady decrease in smoking rates appears to have stalled in younger pregnant women. Although smoking has declined substantially in recent decades, there are groups lagging behind this general trend. Young pregnant women are of particular concern in this respect. The possibility that these findings reflect the changing characteristics of younger pregnant women is discussed. This study puts recent trends in maternal smoking into a broader context by relating developments to changes in smoking rates among women in general. By using similar data from four countries we were able to follow changes in smoking rates "within" groups of women within the four countries without being limited by methodological problems related to cross-country or inter-group comparisons. We

  12. Toxoplasmosis screening and risk factors amongst pregnant females in Natal, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Isabelle Ribeiro; de Carvalho Xavier Holanda, Cecília Maria; de Andrade-Neto, Valter Ferreira

    2009-04-01

    Toxoplasmosis results in systemic disease, and if the mother is infected for the first time during gestation, the fetus may suffer substantial damage. Relatively little is known about the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in most states of northeastern Brazil. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant woman was studied in Natal, capital of Rio Grande do Norte State, in northeastern Brazil, from March to December 2007. The sera were tested for IgM and avidity of IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma by a microparticle enzyme immunoassay. The overall seroprevalence was high [126/190 (66.3%)]; prevalence increased with age indicating that in this setting most infections occur in adulthood (third decade of life). Only one pregnant woman was IgM positive and had high-avidity antibodies. The high percentage of pregnant women who are vulnerable to this parasite (33.1%) favors primary infection during pregnancy. Our studies show that direct contact with cats or dogs was highly associated with toxoplasmosis (odds ratio 2.72, P<0.001, 95% CI 1.46-5.02). The number of years in school (P<0.001), precarious socioeconomic status and limited knowledge about the disease (P

  13. Prevention of female reproductive system cancer among rural and urban Polish pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Bojar, Iwona; Biliński, Przemysław; Boyle, Peter; Zatoński, Witold; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T; Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Based on data obtained from the system MoZMaD - PL (Polish Mother and Child Health Monitoring System; an equivalent of the American system PRAMS (Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System). In the developed countries prevention programmes proved to be efficient in reducing morbidity and mortality due to breast and cervical cancer. In Poland, these diseases still constitute a very big problem, despite relatively easy and early diagnostics of pathological conditions preceding their development. The objective of the study was analysis of the usage of prophylactic examinations and the assessment of knowledge concerning risk factors of the development of reproductive cancers among pregnant women from rural and urban environments in Poland. The study was based on questionnaire forms within the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (MoZMaD - PL) implemented in Poland. The precise date of the study for the whole of Poland is announced annually by the Chief Sanitary Inspector. The questionnaire forms were correctly completed in 2010 by 2,877 women. The replies to the questions were introduced by surveyors into the MoZMaD - PL system central database managed by the Institute of Agricultural Medicine in Lublin. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The studies of pregnant women in Poland showed that the situation with respect to the performance of prevention examinations for cervical cancer was significantly worse among rural than urban women. Pregnant women from both rural and urban areas very rarely had breast USG performed. Awareness concerning cervical cancer risk factors was lower among rural than urban women. Also, knowledge concerning the examinations which should be performed for the prevention of breast cancer was poorer among rural, compared to urban women. The recognition of the attitudes of women at reproductive age towards prevention examinations is necessary in order to effectively plan health education and social health promotion

  14. [Emergency abdominal delivery and ventriculoperitoneal bypass in pregnant females with brain tumor].

    PubMed

    Volodin, A V; Nemirovskiĭ, V B

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes a case from the practice of the maternity hospital, City Hospital Sixty-Seven. The pregnant woman at gestational weeks 36-37 was found to have a brain tumor complicated by obstructive hydrocephalus and dislocation syndrome. Ventriculoperitoneal bypass and abdominal delivery were simultaneously performed under endotracheal anesthesia using propofol, nitrous oxide, and small-dose ketamine (25 mg), and after fetal extraction, fentanyl. At minutes 1 and 5, the Apgar score of the neonate was 8 and 8, respectively. The patient was discharged from the hospital in satisfactory condition on day 7 postoperatively and it was recommended that her surgical treatment at a neurosurgical clinic be decided.

  15. Red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in female nulligravid and pregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Giuseppe; Martino, Guglielmo

    2009-01-01

    Background The alterations of the glutathione peroxidase enzyme complex system occur in physiological conditions such as aging and oxidative stress consequent to strenuous exercise. Methods Authors optimize the spectrophotometric method to measure glutathione peroxidase activity in rat red blood cell membranes. Results The optimization, when applied to age paired rats, both nulligravid and pregnant, shows that pregnancy induces, at seventeen d of pregnancy, an increase of both reactive oxygen substance concentration in red blood cells and membrane glutathione peroxidase activity. Conclusion The glutathione peroxidase increase in erythrocyte membranes is induced by systemic oxidative stress long lasting rat pregnancy. PMID:19171040

  16. Pleased to be pregnant? Positive pregnancy attitudes among sexually active adolescent females in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lau, May; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2014-08-01

    To identify factors associated with a positive pregnancy attitude among sexually active US teen females. Secondary database analysis of the National Survey of Family Growth. Adolescent females 15-19 years old. Nationally representative sample. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed of the 2002 and 2006-08 cycles to examine whether sociodemographic factors, contraceptive history, sexual education and behavior history, medical services history, and family and sexual attitudes were associated with a positive pregnancy attitude among sexually active teen females. Among the 975 sexually active US adolescent females surveyed, 15% reported a positive pregnancy attitude. Compared with adolescent females with a negative pregnancy attitude, those females with a positive pregnancy attitude were significantly (P < .05) more likely to have public insurance (43% vs 20%), to be poor (33% vs 10%), to have reached menarche at an earlier age (12 years old vs 13 years old), ever have HIV tested (35% vs 23%), but less likely to have ever been forced to have sex (1% vs 10%). In multivariable analyses, Latino race/ethnicity was associated with triple the odds, and African-American double the odds, of a positive pregnancy attitude. Older age of menarche and higher family income were associated with reduced odds of a positive pregnancy attitude. One in 7 sexually active US adolescent females had a positive pregnancy attitude. Minority race/ethnicity was associated with greater odds of a positive pregnancy attitude, whereas older age of menarche and a higher family income were associated with lower odds of a positive pregnancy attitude. Assessing pregnancy attitudes for these groups of adolescent females might prove useful to decrease adolescent pregnancy rates. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A BBDR-HPT Axis Model for the Pregnant Rat and Fetus: Evaluation of Iodide Deficiency

    EPA Science Inventory

    A biologically based dose response (BBDR) model for the hypothalamic-pituitarythyroid (HPT) axis for the pregnant rat and fetus is being developed to advance understanding of thyroid hormone disruptions and developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). The model for the pregnant rat and fet...

  18. A BBDR-HPT Axis Model for the Pregnant Rat and Fetus: Evaluation of Iodide Deficiency

    EPA Science Inventory

    A biologically based dose response (BBDR) model for the hypothalamic-pituitarythyroid (HPT) axis for the pregnant rat and fetus is being developed to advance understanding of thyroid hormone disruptions and developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). The model for the pregnant rat and fet...

  19. Pregnant female lizards Iberolacerta cyreni adjust refuge use to decrease thermal costs for their body condition and cell-mediated immune response.

    PubMed

    Amo, Luisa; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2007-02-01

    Lizards often respond to increased predation risk by increasing refuge use, but this strategy may entail a loss of thermoregulatory opportunities, which may lead to a loss of body condition. This may be especially important for pregnant oviparous female lizards, because they need to maintain optimal body temperatures as long as possible to maximize developmental embryos rate until laying. However, little is known about how increased time spent at low temperatures in refuges affects body condition and health state of pregnant female lizards. Furthermore, it is not clear how initial body condition affects refuge use. Female Iberian rock lizards forced to increase time spent at low temperatures showed lower body condition and tended to show lower cell-mediated immune responses than control females. Therefore, the loss of thermoregulatory opportunities seems to be an important cost for pregnant females. Nevertheless, thereafter, when we simulated two repeated predatory attacks, females modified refuge use in relation to their body condition, with females with worse condition decreasing time hidden after attacks. In conclusion, female lizards seemed able to compensate increased predation risk with flexible antipredatory strategies, thus minimizing costs for body condition and health state.

  20. Considerations in Management of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment in One Eyed Pregnant Females: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ashish, M; Alok, S; Elesh, J; Shubhi, T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to discuss issues related to management of one eyed pregnant female. A 26-year-old female (Patient A) and 28-year-old female (Patient B) both in second trimester and one eyed presented to our outpatient department with diminution of vision due to rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Retina was attached in Patient A following scleral buckling surgery but Patient B required pars plana vitrectomy with silicon oil tamponade. Best corrected visual acuity in both patients did improve from 1/60 to 6/24 and 6/18, respectively at 6 months follow-up. Exudative RDs are known to occur in pregnancy as a complication of preeclampsia, but RRD in pregnancy although co-incidental poses certain challenge with regard to management of such cases especially if the patient is one-eyed. Things to consider for management include (1) type of anesthesia (2) surgical positioning (3) positioning after surgery (4) anti-glaucoma medication if required (5) corticosteroid treatment in pregnancy (6) to provide them ambulatory vision as early as possible. With proper management and monitoring it is possible to provide them with early ambulatory vision without offering any harm to her pregnancy and fetus. PMID:27057392

  1. Changes in Smoking Rates Among Pregnant Women and the General Female Population in Australia, Finland, Norway, and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Callinan, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Smoking rates have dropped substantially in most developed countries in recent decades. This general trend has, however, not always been evident among women—particularly younger women. Smoking habits do, however, often change in connection with pregnancy and the aim of this study is to determine whether smoking during pregnancy follows general trends in smoking rates in the general female population in four countries with active anti-tobacco policies and decreasing population smoking rates. Methods: Changes in rates of persistent smoking, that is, smoking in late pregnancy or daily smoking among all women of childbearing age were described according to age groups. Data were retrieved from the Australian Household Drug Surveys during 2000–2013 and from registries and surveys in Finland, Norway, and Sweden between 1995 and 2014. Results: In general, persistent smoking has decreased and late-pregnancy smoking rates are lower than daily smoking rates among all women. However, younger women are more likely to be persistent smokers regardless of pregnancy status. In Norway and Finland, persistent smoking was most common among young pregnant women and in Sweden there was an increased polarization between age groups. In Australia, a steady decrease in smoking rates appears to have stalled in younger pregnant women. Conclusion: Although smoking has declined substantially in recent decades, there are groups lagging behind this general trend. Young pregnant women are of particular concern in this respect. The possibility that these findings reflect the changing characteristics of younger pregnant women is discussed. Implications: This study puts recent trends in maternal smoking into a broader context by relating developments to changes in smoking rates among women in general. By using similar data from four countries we were able to follow changes in smoking rates “within” groups of women within the four countries without being limited by

  2. Perception and attitude of pregnant women in a rural community north-west Nigeria to female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ashimi, Adewale O; Amole, Taiwo G

    2015-03-01

    Nigeria has the highest absolute number of residents who have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM) and most are carried out during infancy; however most reports on FGM are from urban based facilities hence we sought to know the perception and attitude of pregnant women residing in a rural community in northern Nigeria to FGM. A descriptive cross sectional study utilized a pretested structured interviewer administered questionnaire to assess the types of FGM known, reasons for performing it and willingness to support or perform FGM among 323 pregnant women attending antenatal care in two different health facilities. Of the 323 respondents, 256 (79.3%) were aware of the practice and the common varieties of FGM known to them were Gishiri cut in 137 (53.5%) and Angurya cut 113 (44.1). The notable reasons for carrying out FGM in the community were tradition 88 (34.4%), to ease difficulty in childbirth 69 (26.9%) and better marriage prospect in 55 (21.5%). Of the respondents that were aware of FGM; 100 (39.1%) have experienced it and 55 (21.5%) of those aware of it would subject their daughters to the procedure. There was statistically significant association between willingness to mutilate daughters by the respondents type of education (p = 0.014) and the type of facility they were receiving antenatal care (p = 0.001). FGM is prevalent in this community with Gishiri cut being the commonest variety. It is often associated with difficult childbirth and many women would subject their daughters to this practice. Female education and empowerment is crucial to discontinuation of this practice.

  3. In-flight dose estimates for aircraft crew and pregnant female crew members in military transport missions.

    PubMed

    Alves, J G; Mairos, J C

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft fighter pilots may experience risks other than the exposure to cosmic radiation due to the characteristics of a typical fighter flight. The combined risks for fighter pilots due to the G-forces, hypobaric hypoxia, cosmic radiation exposure, etc. have determined that pregnant female pilots should remain on ground. However, several military transport missions can be considered an ordinary civil aircraft flight and the question arises whether a pregnant female crew member could still be part of the aircraft crew. The cosmic radiation dose received was estimated for transport missions carried out on the Hercules C-130 type of aircraft by a single air squad in 1 month. The flights departed from Lisboa to areas such as: the Azores, several countries in central and southern Africa, the eastern coast of the USA and the Balkans, and an estimate of the cosmic radiation dose received on each flight was carried out. A monthly average cosmic radiation dose to the aircraft crew was determined and the dose values obtained were discussed in relation to the limits established by the European Union Council Directive 96/29/Euratom. The cosmic radiation dose estimates were performed using the EPCARD v3.2 and the CARI-6 computing codes. EPCARD v3.2 was kindly made available by GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection (Neuherberg, Germany). CARI-6 (version July 7, 2004) was downloaded from the web site of the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute, Federal Aviation Administration (USA). In this study an estimate of the cosmic radiation dose received by military aircraft crew on typical transport missions is made.

  4. The Comprehensive Female Soldier Support Model.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Daniel L; Kovacich, Joann; Rivers, Melvin J

    2017-04-25

    Women represent a small minority in the U.S. military and an even smaller minority in the military chaplaincy. Prior to this study, the U.S. Army chaplaincy did not have a gender-specific model for providing support to women soldiers. In this Delphi research project, wounded women soldiers and female military chaplains provided expert opinions to develop the comprehensive female soldier support model (CFS2). Ten military women and 11 female chaplains who had been deployed overseas contributed to the body of knowledge related to the understanding of the emotional and spiritual support needs of wounded female soldiers. Five key findings appeared in the study: (a) many women did not get the chaplain support they needed; (b) the gender of the chaplain was not significant; (c) the attitude of the chaplain was critical; (d) chaplain skills not found in literature were identified; and (e) the comprehensive female soldier support model was developed.

  5. Antiphospholipid Syndrome in a Pregnant Female Presenting with Severe Thrombocytopenia and Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Kunal; Katyal, Virender; Arya, Suvrat; Shrama, Meha

    2015-01-01

    The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is defined by the persistent presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with recurrent venous or arterial thromboembolism or pregnancy morbidity. Antithrombotic therapy is the mainstay of treatment given the high risk of recurrent thromboembolism that characterizes this condition. Despite the prothrombotic nature of APS, thrombocytopenia is present in a proportion of patients, which can complicate management and limit the use of antithrombotic therapy. The mechanism of APS-associated thrombocytopenia is multifactorial and its relation to thrombotic risk is poorly characterized. The presence of thrombocytopenia does not appear to reduce thrombotic risk in patients with APS, who can develop thromboembolic complications necessitating antithrombotic treatment. In these cases, treatment of the thrombocytopenia may be necessary to facilitate administration of antithrombotic agents. We present such a pregnant lady with history of recurrent pregnancy losses who presented with severe thrombocytopenia and bleeding manifestations, who was subsequently diagnosed to have antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. She was initially managed with steroids and when her platelet counts improved, antithrombotic therapy was started. She delivered an uneventful and successful pregnancy outcome without any complications during follow-up. PMID:25722728

  6. Antiphospholipid syndrome in a pregnant female presenting with severe thrombocytopenia and bleeding.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Kunal; Katyal, Virender; Arya, Suvrat; Shrama, Meha

    2015-01-01

    The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is defined by the persistent presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with recurrent venous or arterial thromboembolism or pregnancy morbidity. Antithrombotic therapy is the mainstay of treatment given the high risk of recurrent thromboembolism that characterizes this condition. Despite the prothrombotic nature of APS, thrombocytopenia is present in a proportion of patients, which can complicate management and limit the use of antithrombotic therapy. The mechanism of APS-associated thrombocytopenia is multifactorial and its relation to thrombotic risk is poorly characterized. The presence of thrombocytopenia does not appear to reduce thrombotic risk in patients with APS, who can develop thromboembolic complications necessitating antithrombotic treatment. In these cases, treatment of the thrombocytopenia may be necessary to facilitate administration of antithrombotic agents. We present such a pregnant lady with history of recurrent pregnancy losses who presented with severe thrombocytopenia and bleeding manifestations, who was subsequently diagnosed to have antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. She was initially managed with steroids and when her platelet counts improved, antithrombotic therapy was started. She delivered an uneventful and successful pregnancy outcome without any complications during follow-up.

  7. Neospora caninum in non-pregnant and pregnant mouse models: cross-talk between infection and immunity.

    PubMed

    Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Basto, Afonso P; Leitão, Alexandre; Hemphill, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    Neospora caninum is a cyst-forming coccidian which causes abortion in cattle, with a high economic impact globally. Vaccination is considered to be the most cost-effective strategy to control and prevent bovine neosporosis. However, there is no commercial vaccine available to date. To investigate this disease under laboratory conditions, mouse models were developed, and they have been efficiently used as an initial proof-of-concept platform to investigate different immunogenic formulations. We here provide a detailed review on the current knowledge on immunity against neosporosis in non-pregnant as well as pregnant mice, and present a general overview of the most relevant parameters that may be responsible for protective immunity, which in turn could be relevant for vaccine development. Despite the considerable differences in immunity between cattle and mice, it is essential to understand how mice respond immunologically to Neospora caninum infection and how this response influences congenital infection and offspring survival. In this context, pregnant mouse models play a key role, and allow correlation of the outcome of congenital neosporosis with specific immune mechanisms which could also be relevant in cattle. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pregnant growth restricted female rats have bone gains during late gestation which contributes to second generation adolescent and adult offspring having normal bone health.

    PubMed

    Anevska, Kristina; Gallo, Linda A; Tran, Melanie; Jefferies, Andrew J; Wark, John D; Wlodek, Mary E; Romano, Tania

    2015-05-01

    Low birth weight, due to uteroplacental insufficiency, results in programmed bone deficits in the first generation (F1). These deficits may be passed onto subsequent generations. We characterized the effects of being born small on maternal bone health during pregnancy; and aimed to characterize the contribution of the maternal environment and germ line effects to bone health in F2 offspring from mothers born small. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation (or sham) surgery was performed on female F0 WKY rats on gestational day 18 (term 22days) to induce uteroplacental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction. Control and Restricted F1 female offspring were allocated to a non-pregnant or pregnant group. To generate F2 offspring, F1 females were allocated to either non-embryo or embryo transfer groups. Embryo transfer was performed on gestational day 1, where second generation (F2) embryos were gestated (donor-in-recipient) in either a Control (Control-in-Control, Restricted-in-Control) or Restricted (Control-in-Restricted, Restricted-in-Restricted) mother. Restricted F1 females were born 10-15% lighter than Controls. Restricted non-pregnant females had shorter femurs, reduced trabecular and cortical bone mineral contents, trabecular density and bone geometry measures determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) compared to non-pregnant Controls. Pregnancy restored the bone deficits that were present in F1 Restricted females. F2 non-embryo transfer male and female offspring were born of normal weight, while F2 embryo transfer males and females gestated in a Control mother (Control-in-Control, Restricted-in-Control) were heavier at birth compared to offspring gestated in a Restricted mother (Restricted-in-Restricted, Control-in-Restricted). Male F2 Restricted embryo groups (Restricted-in-Control and Restricted-in-Restricted) had accelerated postnatal growth. There was no transmission of bone deficits present at 35days or 6months in F2 offspring. Embryo

  9. Vaginal and endocervical microorganisms in symptomatic and asymptomatic non-pregnant females: risk factors and rates of occurrence.

    PubMed

    Tibaldi, C; Cappello, N; Latino, M A; Masuelli, G; Marini, S; Benedetto, C

    2009-07-01

    Physiological or non-physiological factors may affect the vaginal flora. The occurrence of genital microorganisms in non-pregnant females of all ages was studied, as were the risk factors associated with each microorganism. A retrospective analysis of vaginal and endocervical cultures and wet smears from 27,172 non-pregnant women, between 1996 to 2005, was performed taking into consideration clinical and socio-demographic characteristics. No microorganisms were observed in 55.7% of the individuals studied and 44.3% had positive cultures. There was no microbiological aetiology in 49% of women with genital symptoms. Poor hygiene, chemical irritants, sexual behaviour, vaginal blood, birth control type, and/or the lack of an oestrogen effect may have caused the symptoms. The highest occurrence of Gram-negative bacteria (p<0.01), mainly Escherichia coli, was observed in prepubescent girls. The highest occurrence of Candida species (p<0.01) was in women of childbearing age, and of Gram-positive bacteria (p<0.01) in menopausal women. Adolescents, particularly asymptomatic girls, carried more frequently Ureaplasma urealyticum and Chlamydia trachomatis (p<0.01). Hormonal contraception and consistent condom use was protective against bacterial vaginosis and U. urealyticum colonization. Users of intrauterine devices had an increased risk of bacterial vaginosis or of contracting U. urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis and Candida species. Genital complaints were an independent indicator of Candida species, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis.Chlamydia trachomatis infections were often asymptomatic. It is concluded that the hormonal milieu and non-physiological factors are major determinants of the vaginal flora. If diagnosis of genital infections is based on symptoms alone and not on culture results, it may be erroneous. Sexual abuse should be investigated when a child presents with a sexually transmitted disease.

  10. Foetal dose conversion coefficients for ICRP-compliant pregnant models from idealised proton exposures

    PubMed Central

    Taranenko, Valery; Xu, X. George

    2009-01-01

    Protection of pregnant women and their foetus against external proton irradiations poses a unique challenge. Assessment of foetal dose due to external protons in galactic cosmic rays and as secondaries generated in aircraft walls is especially important during high-altitude flights. This paper reports a set of fluence to absorbed dose conversion coefficients for the foetus and its brain for external monoenergetic proton beams of six standard configurations (the antero-posterior, the postero-anterior, the right lateral, the left lateral, the rotational and the isotropic). The pregnant female anatomical definitions at each of the three gestational periods (3, 6 and 9 months) are based on newly developed RPI-P series of models whose organ masses were matched within 1% with the International Commission on Radiological Protection reference values. Proton interactions and the transport of secondary particles were carefully simulated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended code (MCNPX) and the phantoms consisting of several million voxels at 3 mm resolution. When choosing the physics models in the MCNPX, it was found that the advanced Cascade-Exciton intranuclear cascade model showed a maximum of 9% foetal dose increase compared with the default model combination at intermediate energies below 5 GeV. Foetal dose results from this study are tabulated and compared with previously published data that were based on simplified anatomy. The comparison showed a strong dependence upon the source geometry, energy and gestation period: the dose differences are typically less than 20% for all sources except ISO where systematically 40–80% of higher doses were observed. Below 200 MeV, a larger discrepancy in dose was found due to the Bragg peak shift caused by different anatomy. The tabulated foetal doses represent the latest and most detailed study to date offering a useful set of data to improve radiation protection dosimetry against external protons. PMID:19246483

  11. Development and application of a tomographic model from CT images for calculating internal dose to a pregnant woman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chengyu

    Assessment of radiation dose and possible risk to a pregnant woman and her fetus is an important task in radiation protection. Although stylized models for male and female patients of different ages have been developed, tomographic models for pregnant women have not been developed to date. This dissertation presents an effort to construct a partial-body model of a pregnant woman from a set of CT images. The patient was 30-weeks pregnant, and the CT scan covered the portion of the body between the lower breast and the upper thigh in 70 slices, each 7 mm thick. The image resolution was 512 x 512 pixels in a 48 cm x 48 cm field. The images were carefully segmented to identify 34 organs and tissues, It has been found that the masses are different from the Reference Woman. The characteristics of the resulting model is discussed and compared with one existing stylized mathematical model for pregnant women. Based on this tomographic model, a Monte Carlo code, EGS4-VLSI, was used to derive Specific Absorbed Fractions. Monoenergetic and isotropic photon and electron emitters distributed in different source organs were assumed and the energies ranged from 10 keV to 4 MeV for photons and from 100 keV to 4 MeV for electrons. The results for high energy (>50 keV) photons showed general agreement with previous studies, however, the results for lower energy (<50 keV) photons showed differences of up to several hundreds percent for some source and target organs. For electron results, several tens of percent differences were found. Those differences can be explained by mass differences and the relative geometry differences between source and target organs. In summary, the stylized models for pregnant women are satisfactory for a very large size patient for most of the photon energies (between 50 keV and 4 MeV). However, a tomographic model has to be used to obtain acceptable dose assessments for electrons. The newly calculated SAF data set can provide the nuclear medicine dosimetry

  12. Relationships between postweaning residual feed intake in heifers and forage use, body composition, feeding behavior, physical activity, and heart rate of pregnant beef females.

    PubMed

    Hafla, A N; Carstens, G E; Forbes, T D A; Tedeschi, L O; Bailey, J C; Walter, J T; Johnson, J R

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if residual feed intake (RFI) classification of beef heifers affected efficiency of forage utilization, body composition, feeding behavior, heart rate, and physical activity of pregnant females. Residual feed intake was measured in growing Bonsmara heifers for 2 yr (n=62 and 53/yr), and heifers with the lowest (n=12/yr) and highest (n=12/yr) RFI were retained for breeding. Of the 48 heifers identified as having divergent RFI, 19 second-parity and 23 first-parity females were used in the subsequent pregnant-female trial. Pregnant females were fed a chopped hay diet (ME=2.11 Mcal kg(-1) DM) in separate pens equipped with GrowSafe bunks to measure individual intake and feeding behavior. Body weights were measured at 7-d intervals and BCS and ultrasound measurements of 12th-rib fat depth, rump fat depth, and LM area obtained on d 0 and 77. Heart rate and physical activity were measured for 7 consecutive d. First-parity females had lower (P<0.05) initial BW, BW gain, and initial hip height and tended (P=0.07) to have lower DMI compared to second-parity females. Females with low RFI as heifers consumed 17% less (P<0.01) forage compared to females with high RFI as heifers but maintained the same BW, BW gain, and body composition. Likewise, RFI classification did not affect calving date. An interaction (P=0.04) between heifer RFI classification and parity was found for calf birth weight. Calves from first-parity low-RFI females were lighter at birth (P<0.01) than calves from high-RFI females, but RFI classification did not affect BW of calves born to second-parity females. Residual feed intake classification did not affect bunk visit frequency, but low-RFI females spent 26% less time (P<0.01) at the bunk compared to high-RFI females. First-parity females had more (P<0.05) daily step counts and greater lying-bout frequencies compared to second-parity females, but physical activity was not affected by RFI classification. Heart

  13. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations.

  14. Iron deficiency is associated with food insecurity in pregnant females in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Park, Clara Y; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2014-12-01

    Food-insecure pregnant females may be at greater risk of iron deficiency (ID) because nutrition needs increase and more resources are needed to secure food during pregnancy. This may result in a higher risk of infant low birth weight and possibly cognitive impairment in the neonate. The relationships of food insecurity and poverty income ratio (PIR) with iron intake and ID among pregnant females in the United States were investigated using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 data (n=1,045). Food security status was classified using the US Food Security Survey Module. One 24-hour dietary recall and a 30-day supplement recall were used to assess iron intake. Ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, or total body iron classified ID. Difference of supplement intake prevalence, difference in mean iron intake, and association of ID and food security status or PIR were assessed using χ(2) analysis, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis (adjusted for age, race, survey year, PIR/food security status, education, parity, trimester, smoking, C-reactive protein level, and health insurance coverage), respectively. Mean dietary iron intake was similar among groups. Mean supplemental and total iron intake were lower, whereas odds of ID, classified by ferritin status, were 2.90 times higher for food-insecure pregnant females compared with food-secure pregnant females. Other indicators of ID were not associated with food security status. PIR was not associated with iron intake or ID. Food insecurity status may be a better indicator compared with income status to identify populations at whom to direct interventions aimed at improving access and education regarding iron-rich foods and supplements.

  15. Green tea extract increases mRNA expression of enzymes which influence epigenetic marks in newborn female offspring from undernourished pregnant mother.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongkun; Mukai, Yuuka; Tanaka, Masato; Saito, Takeshi; Sato, Shin; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical and toxicological properties of catechin remain unclear, e.g.; how catechin affects female offspring from undernourished pregnant dams. Here, to elucidate effects of low prenatal protein on female offspring health status, changes of enzymes which modify epigenetic marks related with metabolism in kidneys from newborns were investigated after continuously administering catechin extracted from green tea to lactating maternal rats after pregnant undernourishment. We found that green tea extract intake during lactation up-regulated the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in young female offspring from protein-restricted dams and modulated the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway in the kidney. This pathway was indicated to be stimulated by SIRT1 gene expression. The feeding of green tea extract to protein-restricted dams during lactation is likely to up-regulate AMP-activated protein kinase activation and may partly lead to alterations of the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway in female offspring kidneys. In addition, energy metabolism in fetal and offspring period with green tea extract administration might be related to enzymes which modify epigenetic marks such as DNA methyltransferase 1 and 3a.

  16. Preventing abuse to pregnant women: implementation of a "mentor mother" advocacy model.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, J; Wiist, W

    1997-01-01

    Abuse to pregnant women is common and can result in complications to maternal and child health. Although screening and detection of abuse in primary health care settings is becoming more commonplace, intervention models that include community outreach have not been developed or tested. An advocacy model was developed and tested for pregnant abused women by melding research on advocacy programs for abused women exiting shelters with the principles of home visitation used to improve outcomes to pregnant women. Advocacy was offered by "mentor mothers," who were residents of the project's service area. The advocacy consisted of weekly social support, education, and assisted referrals to pregnant women identified as abused as part of routine screening offered at the first prenatal visit to a public health clinic. Effectiveness of the advocacy intervention was measured as contact success rate, number and type of advocacy contacts, and number and type of referrals made to the first 100 women to complete the advocacy program. The mentor mother advocates were successful in contacting the abused woman 33% of the time, regardless of whether a telephone call, home visitation, or in-person meeting was attempted. The average number of advocacy contacts was 9.2 (SD = 7.6) with the majority (74%) being via the telephone. The average number of referrals per woman was 8.6 (SD = 7.6) with the largest percentage (38%) being for medical services. Outreach advocacy as an intervention model for pregnant abused women is recommended.

  17. A prospective cohort study comparing the reactogenicity of trivalent influenza vaccine in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Regan, Annette K; Tracey, Lauren; Blyth, Christopher C; Mak, Donna B; Richmond, Peter C; Shellam, Geoffrey; Talbot, Caroline; Effler, Paul V

    2015-03-18

    Influenza vaccination during pregnancy can prevent serious illness in expectant mothers and provide protection to newborns; however, historically uptake has been limited due to a number of factors, including safety concerns. Symptomatic complaints are common during pregnancy and may be mistakenly associated with reactions to trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). To investigate this, we compared post-vaccination events self-reported by pregnant women to events reported by non-pregnant women receiving TIV. A prospective cohort of 1,086 pregnant women and 314 non-pregnant female healthcare workers (HCWs) who received TIV between March-May 2014 were followed-up seven days post-vaccination to assess local and systemic adverse events following immunisation (AEFIs). Women were surveyed by text message regarding perceived reactions to TIV. Those reporting an AEFI completed an interview by telephone or mobile phone to ascertain details. Logistic regression models adjusting for age and residence were used to compare reactions reported by pregnant women and non-pregnant HCWs. Similar proportions of pregnant women and non-pregnant, female HCWs reported ≥1 reaction following vaccination with TIV (13.0% and 17.3%, respectively; OR = 1.2 [95% CI: 0.8-1.8]). Non-pregnant, female HCWs were more likely to report fever or headache compared to pregnant women (OR: 4.6 [95% CI 2.1-10.3] and OR: 2.2 [95% CI 1.0-4.6], respectively). No other significant differences in reported symptoms were observed. No serious vaccine-associated adverse events were reported, and less than 2% of each group sought medical advice for a reaction. We found no evidence suggesting pregnant women are more likely to report adverse events following influenza vaccination when compared to non-pregnant female HCWs of similar age, and in some cases, pregnant women reported significantly fewer adverse events. These results further support the safety of TIV administered in pregnant women.

  18. Physiology of female sexual function: animal models.

    PubMed

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Marson, Lesley; Nappi, Rossella; Pfaus, James; Traish, Abdulmaged M; Vardi, Yoram; Goldstein, Irwin

    2004-11-01

    Data concerning the physiology of desire, arousal, and orgasm in women are limited because of ethical constraints. Aim. To gain knowledge of physiology of female sexual function through animal models. To provide state-of-the-art knowledge concerning female sexual function in animal models, representing the opinions of seven experts from five countries developed in a consensus process over a 2-year period. Expert opinion was based on the grading of evidence-based medical literature, widespread internal committee discussion, public presentation, and debate. Sexual desire may be considered as the presence of desire for, and fantasy about, sexual activity. Desire in animals can be inferred from certain appetitive behaviors that occur during copulation and from certain unconditioned copulatory measures. Proceptive behaviors are dependent in part on estrogen, progesterone, and drugs that bind to D1 dopamine receptors, adrenergic receptors, oxytocin receptors, opioid receptors, or gamma-amino butyric acid receptors. Peripheral arousal states are dependent on regulation of genital smooth muscle tone. Multiple neurotransmitters/mediators are involved including adrenergic, and nonadrenergic, noncholinergic agents such as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, nitric oxide, neuropeptide Y, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and substance P. Sex steroid hormones, estrogens and androgens, are critical for structure and function of genital tissues including modulation of genital blood flow, lubrication, neurotransmitter function, smooth muscle contractility, mucification, and sex steroid receptor expression in genital tissues. Orgasm may be investigated by urethrogenital (UG) reflex, in which genital stimulation results in rhythmic contractions of striated perineal muscles and contractions of vagina, anus, and uterine smooth muscle. The UG reflex is generated by a multisegmental spinal pattern generator involving the coordination of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and somatic efferents

  19. Tumor necrosis factor α induces a model of preeclampsia in pregnant baboons (Papio hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Neroli S; Thomson, Sally E; Heffernan, Scott J; Lim, Shirlene; Thompson, John; Ogle, Robert; McKenzie, Paul; Kirwan, Paul J; Makris, Angela; Hennessy, Annemarie

    2011-11-01

    Preeclampsia is a common disease of pregnancy characterised by maternal hypertension and proteinuria. Abnormal placentation in early pregnancy and abnormal cytokine and anti-angiogenic factor expression are thought to contribute to the clinical syndrome of endothelial dysfunction evident in the second half of gestation. The mechanisms underlying both the placental pathology and its translation to the maternal clinical syndrome are not fully understood. A model of preeclampsia manifest by clinically evident endothelial dysfunction (increased blood pressure and proteinuria) was induced by administration of low-dose TNF-α for 2weeks at mid-gestation in pregnant baboons (Papio hamadryas). Blood pressure was monitored continuously and remotely by intra-arterial radiotelemetry. Following TNF-α infusion, there was an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and development of proteinuria in pregnant treated animals, but not in pregnant saline controls nor in non-pregnant TNF-α treated animals. The treated pregnant animals also developed elevated plasma soluble FMS-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT-1) and increased placental mRNA expression of sFLT-1 and soluble endoglin (sEng). These results clearly demonstrate that the cytokine TNF-α can induce the clinical and biochemical features of human preeclampsia. The results identify a link between cytokines, placental dysfunction and endothelial dysfunction resulting in a loss of maternal blood pressure control.

  20. Pregnant women models analyzed for RF exposure and temperature increase in 3T RF shimmed birdcages.

    PubMed

    Murbach, Manuel; Neufeld, Esra; Samaras, Theodoros; Córcoles, Juan; Robb, Fraser J; Kainz, Wolfgang; Kuster, Niels

    2017-05-01

    MRI is increasingly used to scan pregnant patients. We investigated the effect of 3 Tesla (T) two-port radiofrequency (RF) shimming in anatomical pregnant women models. RF shimming improves B1(+) uniformity, but may at the same time significantly alter the induced current distribution and result in large changes in both the level and location of the absorbed RF energy. In this study, we evaluated the electrothermal exposure of pregnant women in the third, seventh, and ninth month of gestation at various imaging landmarks in RF body coils, including modes with RF shimming. Although RF shimmed configurations may lower the local RF exposure for the mother, they can increase the thermal load on the fetus. In worst-case configurations, whole-body exposure and local peak temperatures-up to 40.8°C-are equal in fetus and mother. Two-port RF shimming can significantly increase the fetal exposure in pregnant women, requiring further research to derive a very robust safety management. For the time being, restriction to the CP mode, which reduces fetal SAR exposure compared with linear-horizontal polarization modes, may be advisable. Results from this study do not support scanning pregnant patients above the normal operating mode. Magn Reson Med 77:2048-2056, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for bisphenol A in pregnant mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamoto, Yuko; Matsuyama, Wakoto; Wada, Masahiro; Hishikawa, Junko; Chan, Melissa Pui Ling; Nakayama, Aki; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2007-10-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a weakly estrogenic monomer used to produce polymers for food contact and other applications, so there is potential for oral exposure of humans to trace amounts via ingestion. To date, no physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model has been located for BPA in pregnant mice with or without fetuses. An estimate by a mathematical model is essential since information on humans is difficult to obtain experimentally. The PBPK model was constructed based on the pharmacokinetic data of our experiment following single oral administration of BPA to pregnant mice. The risk assessment of bisphenol A (BPA) on the development of human offspring is an important issue. There have been limited data on the exposure level of human fetuses to BPA (e.g. BPA concentration in cord blood) and no information is available on the pharmacokinetics of BPA in humans with or without fetuses. In the present study, we developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model describing the pharmacokinetics of BPA in a pregnant mouse with the prospect of future extrapolation to humans. The PBPK model was constructed based on the pharmacokinetic data of an experiment we executed on pregnant mice following single oral administration of BPA. The model could describe the rapid transfer of BPA through the placenta to the fetus and the slow disappearance from fetuses. The simulated time courses after three-time repeated oral administrations of BPA by the constructed model fitted well with the experimental data, and the simulation for the 10 times lower dose was also consistent with the experiment. This suggested that the PBPK model for BPA in pregnant mice was successfully verified and is highly promising for extrapolation to humans who are expected to be exposed more chronically to lower doses.

  2. The Effects of Female Sexual Hormones on the Expression of Aquaporin 5 in the Late-Pregnant Rat Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Csányi, Adrienn; Bóta, Judit; Falkay, George; Gáspár, Robert; Ducza, Eszter

    2016-01-01

    Thirteen mammalian aquaporin (AQP) water channels are known, and few of them play a role in the mammalian reproductive system. In our earlier study, the predominance of AQP5 in the late-pregnant rat uterus was proven. Our current aim was to investigate the effect of estrogen- and gestagen-related compounds on the expression of the AQP5 channel in the late-pregnant rat uterus. Furthermore, we examined the effect of hormonally-induced preterm delivery on the expression of AQP5 in the uterus. We treated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats subcutaneously with 17β-estradiol, clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen citrate, progesterone, levonorgestrel, and medroxyprogesterone acetate. Preterm delivery was induced by subcutaneous mifepristone and intravaginal prostaglandin E2. Reverse-transcriptase PCR and Western blot techniques were used for the detection of the changes in AQP5 mRNA and protein expressions. The amount of AQP5 significantly increased after progesterone and progesterone analogs treatment on 18 and 22 days of pregnancy. The 17β-estradiol and estrogen receptor agonists did not influence the AQP5 mRNA level; however, estradiol induced a significant increase in the AQP5 protein level on the investigated days of gestation. Tamoxifen increased the AQP5 protein expression on day 18, while clomiphene citrate was ineffective. The hormonally-induced preterm birth significantly decreased the AQP5 level similarly to the day of delivery. We proved that AQP5 expression is influenced by both estrogen and progesterone in the late-pregnant rat uterus. The influence of progesterone on AQP5 expression is more predominant as compared with estrogen. PMID:27556454

  3. The Effects of Female Sexual Hormones on the Expression of Aquaporin 5 in the Late-Pregnant Rat Uterus.

    PubMed

    Csányi, Adrienn; Bóta, Judit; Falkay, George; Gáspár, Robert; Ducza, Eszter

    2016-08-22

    Thirteen mammalian aquaporin (AQP) water channels are known, and few of them play a role in the mammalian reproductive system. In our earlier study, the predominance of AQP5 in the late-pregnant rat uterus was proven. Our current aim was to investigate the effect of estrogen- and gestagen-related compounds on the expression of the AQP5 channel in the late-pregnant rat uterus. Furthermore, we examined the effect of hormonally-induced preterm delivery on the expression of AQP5 in the uterus. We treated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats subcutaneously with 17β-estradiol, clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen citrate, progesterone, levonorgestrel, and medroxyprogesterone acetate. Preterm delivery was induced by subcutaneous mifepristone and intravaginal prostaglandin E2. Reverse-transcriptase PCR and Western blot techniques were used for the detection of the changes in AQP5 mRNA and protein expressions. The amount of AQP5 significantly increased after progesterone and progesterone analogs treatment on 18 and 22 days of pregnancy. The 17β-estradiol and estrogen receptor agonists did not influence the AQP5 mRNA level; however, estradiol induced a significant increase in the AQP5 protein level on the investigated days of gestation. Tamoxifen increased the AQP5 protein expression on day 18, while clomiphene citrate was ineffective. The hormonally-induced preterm birth significantly decreased the AQP5 level similarly to the day of delivery. We proved that AQP5 expression is influenced by both estrogen and progesterone in the late-pregnant rat uterus. The influence of progesterone on AQP5 expression is more predominant as compared with estrogen.

  4. Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon) Seed Extract Consumption during Lactation Improved Vasodilation and Attenuated the Development of Hypertension in Female Offspring of Fructose-Fed Pregnant Rats.

    PubMed

    Uson-Lopez, Rachael A; Kataoka, Saori; Mukai, Yuuka; Sato, Shin; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2017-09-19

    Fructose intake has been correlated with increased prevalence of metabolic disorders including hypertension. In pregnant rats, fructose intake has been reported to have adverse effects on the health of its offspring. This study investigated the effects of gestational maternal fructose consumption and if supplementation with melinjo seed extracts to the maternal diet during lactation could benefit the offspring in later life. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: untreated (CC), fructose-treated (FC), and fructose and melinjo-treated (FM). FC and FM groups received 100 g/L of D(-)-fructose solution by means of the drinking water during gestation while CC received normal drinking water. During lactation, CC and FC groups were given standard commercial laboratory diet, while the FM group was given commercial laboratory diet with 0.1% melinjo seed extracts. After weaning, the offspring were given normal drinking water and standard commercial diet until week 17. The blood pressure of the offspring was monitored until the 16th week. During week 17, the offspring were killed, and the kidneys were collected and analyzed. The level of renal phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) in FM of 17-week female offspring was significantly higher compared with FC and CC groups. Maternal fructose intake down-regulated the renal endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthetase expression in FC and maternal melinjo seed extract consumption maintained renal endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthetase expression in FM of 17-week female offspring. In addition, maternal melinjo seed extract intake during lactation lowered the systolic blood pressure in FM of 17-week female offspring. Female offspring were more vulnerable to the effects of placental fructose and melinjo seed extracts, suggesting sex-specific sensitivities. In summary, our data show that melinjo seed extract consumption during lactation improved vasodilation and attenuated the development of

  5. Hsp70 Expression Profile in Preeclampsia Model of Pregnant Rat (Rattus norvegicus) after Giving the EVOO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irianti, E.; ilyas, S.; Rosidah; Hutahaean, S.

    2017-03-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp) has long been known to protect cells from oxidative stress. In this case an increased expression is found on several cases of preeclampsia. One of the efforts to prevent preeclampsia is by giving antioxidants such as Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) or it’s better known as olive oil (Oleoa europaea), in the form of extra virgin known for its rich antioxidant content of tocopherols (vitamin E). The purpose of this study is to determine the expression levels of Hsp70 serum on pregnant white rat model of preeclampsia after being given EVOO. This type of research is true experiment; the subjects were female white rats and male virgin with Sprague Dawley, ± 8-11 weeks old, 180g BB s / d 200g, healthy and didn’t show any physical defects. Samples were 25 animals, divided into 5 groups, which consisted of different control and treatment given to T2 (rat model of preeclampsia), T3 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 0.45g/bw/day), T4 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 0.9g/bw/day) and T5 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 1.8g/bw/day). The determination of each group was done by simple random sampling. Result on serum levels of Hsp70 that were tested by Elisa test in rats showed the average control was 14.64 mg / ml, group T2: 22:51 mg/ml, T3: 13.62 mg/ml, T4: 15.92 mg/ml, T5: 16:09 mg/ml. ANOVA test showed the P value was 0.001 <0.005, which meant there were significant differences on serum Hsp70 levels in the control and treatment pregnant rats group. It was known that there was a significant difference level of Hsp70 serum in group of control rats with T2 (P value <0.001) after LSD test was conducted, but not so with the group T3, T4, and T5, where the difference was not significant. There was a significant difference in the levels of Hsp70 serum on group T2 and T3 (P value 0.000), T4 (0004), T5 (0000). The gift of EVOO in the treatment group which was given EVOO with even low doses was able to control the induction of Hsp70 serum levels, which

  6. Utero-fetal unit and pregnant woman modeling using a computer graphics approach for dosimetry studies.

    PubMed

    Anquez, Jérémie; Boubekeur, Tamy; Bibin, Lazar; Angelini, Elsa; Bloch, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Potential sanitary effects related to electromagnetic fields exposure raise public concerns, especially for fetuses during pregnancy. Human fetus exposure can only be assessed through simulated dosimetry studies, performed on anthropomorphic models of pregnant women. In this paper, we propose a new methodology to generate a set of detailed utero-fetal unit (UFU) 3D models during the first and third trimesters of pregnancy, based on segmented 3D ultrasound and MRI data. UFU models are built using recent geometry processing methods derived from mesh-based computer graphics techniques and embedded in a synthetic woman body. Nine pregnant woman models have been generated using this approach and validated by obstetricians, for anatomical accuracy and representativeness.

  7. An anatomically realistic whole-body pregnant-woman model and specific absorption rates for pregnant-woman exposure to electromagnetic plane waves from 10 MHz to 2 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Togashi, Toshihiro; Saito, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Masaharu; Ito, Koichi; Watanabe, Soichi

    2007-11-01

    The numerical dosimetry of pregnant women is an important issue in electromagnetic-field safety. However, an anatomically realistic whole-body pregnant-woman model for electromagnetic dosimetry has not been developed. Therefore, we have developed a high-resolution whole-body model of pregnant women. A new fetus model including inherent tissues of pregnant women was constructed on the basis of abdominal magnetic resonance imaging data of a 26-week-pregnant woman. The whole-body pregnant-woman model was developed by combining the fetus model and a nonpregnant-woman model that was developed previously. The developed model consists of about 7 million cubical voxels of 2 mm size and is segmented into 56 tissues and organs. This pregnant-woman model is the first completely anatomically realistic voxel model that includes a realistic fetus model and enables a numerical simulation of electromagnetic dosimetry up to the gigahertz band. In this paper, we also present the basic specific absorption rate characteristics of the pregnant-woman model exposed to vertically and horizontally polarized electromagnetic waves from 10 MHz to 2 GHz.

  8. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling of renally excreted antiretroviral drugs in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    De Sousa Mendes, Maïlys; Hirt, Deborah; Urien, Saik; Valade, Elodie; Bouazza, Naïm; Foissac, Frantz; Blanche, Stephane; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Benaboud, Sihem

    2015-11-01

    Physiological changes during pregnancy can affect drug disposition. Anticipating these changes will help to maximize drug efficacy and safety in pregnant women. Our objective was to determine if physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) can accurately predict changes in the disposition of renally excreted antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy. Whole body PBPK models were developed for three renally excreted antiretroviral drugs, tenofovir (TFV), emtricitabine (FTC) and lamivudine (3TC). To assess the impact of pregnancy on PK, time-varying pregnancy-related physiological parameters available within the p-PBPK Simcyp software package were used. Renal clearance during pregnancy followed glomerular filtration changes with or without alterations in secretion. PK profiles were simulated and compared with observed data, i.e. area under the curves (AUC), peak plasma concentrations (Cmax ) and oral clearances (CL/F). PBPK models successfully predicted TFV, FTC and 3TC disposition for non-pregnant and pregnant populations. Both renal secretion and filtration changed during pregnancy. Changes in renal clearance secretion were related to changes in renal plasma flow. The maximum clearance increases were approximately 30% (TFV 33%, FTC 31%, 3TC 29%). Pregnancy PBPK models are useful tools to quantify a priori the drug exposure changes during pregnancy for renally excreted drugs. These models can be applied to evaluate alternative dosing regimens to optimize drug therapy during pregnancy. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. SAR Computation inside Fetus by RF Coil during MR Imaging Employing Realistic Numerical Pregnant Woman Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Satoru; Saito, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Masaharu; Ito, Koichi; Ikehira, Hiroo

    This paper presents the computational electromagnetic dosimetry inside an anatomically based pregnant woman models exposed to electromagnetic wave during magnetic resonance imaging. The two types of pregnant woman models corresponding to early gestation and 26 weeks gestation were used for this study. The specific absorption rate (SAR) in and around a fetus were calculated by radiated electromagnetic wave from highpass and lowpass birdcage coil. Numerical calculation results showed that high SAR region is observed at the body in the vicinity of gaps of the coil, and is related to concentrated electric field in the gaps of human body such as armpit and thigh. Moreover, it has confirmed that the SAR in the fetus is less than International Electrotechnical Commission limit of 10W/kg, when whole-body average SARs are 2W/kg and 4W/kg, which are the normal operating mode and first level controlled operating mode, respectively.

  10. A comprehensive tool for image-based generation of fetus and pregnant women mesh models for numerical dosimetry studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahdouh, S.; Varsier, N.; Serrurier, A.; De la Plata, J.-P.; Anquez, J.; Angelini, E. D.; Wiart, J.; Bloch, I.

    2014-08-01

    Fetal dosimetry studies require the development of accurate numerical 3D models of the pregnant woman and the fetus. This paper proposes a 3D articulated fetal growth model covering the main phases of pregnancy and a pregnant woman model combining the utero-fetal structures and a deformable non-pregnant woman body envelope. The structures of interest were automatically or semi-automatically (depending on the stage of pregnancy) segmented from a database of images and surface meshes were generated. By interpolating linearly between fetal structures, each one can be generated at any age and in any position. A method is also described to insert the utero-fetal structures in the maternal body. A validation of the fetal models is proposed, comparing a set of biometric measurements to medical reference charts. The usability of the pregnant woman model in dosimetry studies is also investigated, with respect to the influence of the abdominal fat layer.

  11. [Health Promoting Behavior in Pregnant Couples: Actor-Partner Interdependence Model Analysis].

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju Hee; Song, Young A

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to identify the actor and partner effects of self-efficacy, marital adjustment, and social support on the health promoting behavior of Korean pregnant couples. Participants were 132 couples who met the eligibility criteria. Data were collected from June to November, 2016 at a community health center. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used for analyzing the actor and partner effects of self-efficacy, marital adjustment, and social support on health promoting behavior. The fitness indices for the model were GFI=0.90, NFI=0.92, CFI=0.91, TLI=0.90, and RMSEA=0.04, which satisfied the criteria. Self-efficacy had actor and partner effect on health promoting behavior of wives, but had only actor effect of on health promoting behavior of husbands. Marital adjustment showed actor and partner effect on the health promoting behavior of pregnant couples. Social support only had an actor effect on the health promoting behavior of wives. And, marital adjustment and social support had a mutual effect. This study indicates that the partner involvement is needed to develop health promotion programs for pregnant couples.

  12. Piperidine, pyridine alkaloid inhibition of fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Panter, Kip E

    2013-08-01

    Inhibition of fetal movement is one mechanism behind the development of multiple congenital contracture-type defects in developing fetuses of humans and animals. We tested the alkaloids anabasine, lobeline, and myosmine for agonist actions, and sensitivity to alpha conotoxins EI and GI blockade at fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) expressed by TE-671 cells. We also determined if the alkaloids decreased fetal movement in an IV dosed, day 40 pregnant goat model. In TE-671 cells, all three alkaloids elicited concentration-dependent changes in membrane potential sensing dye fluorescence. 1.0 μM alpha conotoxin GI shifted the concentration-effect curves of anabasine and myosmine to the right, and decreased maximal responses. Neither of the conotoxins blocked the actions of lobeline in TE-671 cells. In the day 40 pregnant goats, 0.8 mg/kg anabasine abolished fetal movement at 30 and 60 min after dosing and fetal movement was reduced by lobeline and myosmine. The blockade of anabasine and myosmine actions in TE-671 cells by alpha conotoxin GI indicates that they are agonists at fetal muscle-type nAChR. All three alkaloids did significantly decrease fetal movement in the day 40 pregnant goat model suggesting a potential for these alkaloids to cause multiple congenital contracture-type defects in developing fetuses.

  13. Human nonindependent mate choice: is model female attractiveness everything?

    PubMed

    Vakirtzis, Antonios; Roberts, S Craig

    2012-05-06

    Following two decades of research on non-human animals, there has recently been increased interest in human nonindependent mate choice, namely the ways in which choosing women incorporate information about a man's past or present romantic partners ('model females') into their own assessment of the male. Experimental studies using static facial images have generally found that men receive higher desirability ratings from female raters when presented with attractive (compared to unattractive) model females. This phenomenon has a straightforward evolutionary explanation: the fact that female mate value is more dependent on physical attractiveness compared to male mate value. Furthermore, due to assortative mating for attractiveness, men who are paired with attractive women are more likely to be of high mate value themselves. Here, we also examine the possible relevance of model female cues other than attractiveness (personality and behavioral traits) by presenting video recordings of model females to a set of female raters. The results confirm that the model female's attractiveness is the primary cue. Contrary to some earlier findings in the human and nonhuman literature, we found no evidence that female raters prefer partners of slightly older model females. We conclude by suggesting some promising variations on the present experimental design.

  14. Cigarette exposure induces changes in maternal vascular function in a pregnant mouse model.

    PubMed

    Gandley, Robin E; Jeyabalan, Arun; Desai, Ketaki; McGonigal, Stacy; Rohland, Jennifer; DeLoia, Julie A

    2010-05-01

    Smoking is associated with multiple adverse pregnancy outcomes, including fetal growth restriction. The objective of this study was to determine whether cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy in a mouse model affects the functional properties of maternal uterine, mesenteric, and renal arteries as a possible mechanism for growth restriction. C57Bl/CJ mice were exposed to whole body sidestream smoke for 4 h/day. Smoke particle exposure was increased from day 4 of gestation until late pregnancy (day 16-19), with mean total suspended particle levels of 63 mg/m(3), representative of moderate-to-heavy smoking in humans. Uterine, mesenteric, and renal arteries from late-pregnant and virgin mice were isolated and studied in a pressure-arteriograph system (n = 23). Plasma cotinine was measured by ELISA. Fetal weights were significantly reduced in smoke-exposed compared with control fetuses (0.88 +/- 0.1 vs. 1.0 +/- 0.08 g, P < 0.02), while litter sizes were not different. Endothelium-mediated relaxation responses to methacholine were significantly impaired in both the uterine and mesenteric vasculature of pregnant mice exposed to cigarette smoke during gestation. This difference was not apparent in isolated renal arteries from pregnant mice exposed to cigarette smoke; however, relaxation was significantly reduced in renal arteries from smoke-exposed virgin mice. In conclusion, we found that passive cigarette smoke exposure is associated with impaired vascular relaxation of uterine and mesenteric arteries in pregnant mice. Functional maternal vascular perturbations during pregnancy, specifically impaired peripheral and uterine vasodilation, may contribute to a mechanism by which smoking results in fetal growth restriction.

  15. Female Role Models: Implications for Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Roberta R.

    1995-01-01

    The lives of six prominent female leaders (Sandra Day O'Connor, Maya Angelou, Wilma Mankiller, Hillary Rodham Clinton, Elizabeth Dole, and Mary Kay Ash) are summarized. Similarities are noted and questions and activities provided to encourage discussion by teachers and students. (DB)

  16. Female Role Models: Implications for Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Roberta R.

    1995-01-01

    The lives of six prominent female leaders (Sandra Day O'Connor, Maya Angelou, Wilma Mankiller, Hillary Rodham Clinton, Elizabeth Dole, and Mary Kay Ash) are summarized. Similarities are noted and questions and activities provided to encourage discussion by teachers and students. (DB)

  17. Oral contraceptive use may not preclude condom use: a study of non‐pregnant African‐American adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Richard A; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Salazar, Laura F; Rose, Eve; Sales, Jessica M; Caliendo, Angela M

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between oral contraceptive and condom use, and laboratory‐confirmed sexually transmitted infection (STI) among African‐American adolescent females at a high risk of STI acquisition. Methods A cross‐sectional study of 715 African‐American adolescent females (15–21 years old) was conducted. Data collection included (a) an audio‐computer‐assisted self‐interview and a self‐collected vaginal swab for nucleic acid amplification testing of Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Results The age‐adjusted odds ratio (AOR) indicated a modest protective effect of oral contraceptive use against unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) using a 60‐day recall period (AOR = 0.66; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.99). The age‐adjusted difference in mean frequency of UVS in the past 60 days was non‐significant (p = 0.23) as was condom use at last sex (p = 0.34). The age‐AOR relative to STI prevalence also showed a protective effect (AOR = 0.60; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.98) for those using oral contraceptives. Conclusion The findings suggest that the use of oral contraceptives may not preclude safer sex practices for the prevention of STIs among high‐risk African‐American adolescent females. PMID:17569720

  18. A mathematical model of the nine-month pregnant woman for calculating specific absorbed fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, E.E.; Stabin, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Existing models that allow calculation of internal doses from radionuclide intakes by both men and women are based on a mathematical model of Reference Man. No attempt has been made to allow for the changing geometric relationships that occur during pregnancy which would affect the doses to the mother's organs and to the fetus. As pregnancy progresses, many of the mother's abdominal organs are repositioned, and their shapes may be somewhat changed. Estimation of specific absorbed fractions requires that existing mathematical models be modified to accommodate these changes. Specific absorbed fractions for Reference Woman at three, six, and nine months of pregnancy should be sufficient for estimating the doses to the pregnant woman and the fetus. This report describes a model for the pregnant woman at nine months. An enlarged uterus was incorporated into a model for Reference Woman. Several abdominal organs as well as the exterior of the trunk were modified to accommodate the new uterus. This model will allow calculation of specific absorbed fractions for the fetus from photon emitters in maternal organs. Specific absorbed fractions for the repositioned maternal organs from other organs can also be calculated. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Barriers to becoming a female surgeon and the influence of female surgical role models.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Hui-Ling; Armstrong, Lesley Ann; Cade, Jennifer Ellen

    2016-10-01

    We aim to investigate the reasons that medical students and junior doctors who are women are less likely to pursue a career in surgery compared with their male counterparts. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to female final year medical students and female junior doctors in two UK hospitals between August and September 2012. Topics included career choice, attitudes to surgery, recognition of female surgical role models and perceived sexual discrimination. 50 medical students and 50 junior doctors were given our survey. We received a 96% response rate; 46 medical students and 50 junior doctors. 6/50 (12%) junior doctors planned a career in surgery compared with 14/46 (30%) medical students. 'Work-life balance' was the main reason cited for not wishing to pursue surgery (29/46 (63%) medical students and 25/50 (50%) junior doctors). 28/46 (61%) medical students and 28/50 (56%) junior doctors had encountered a female surgical role model; only five students and two junior doctors felt that these were influential in their career decision. Of those who had not, approximately 40% in each group felt that if they had, they may have considered surgery. Approximately 30% in each group had encountered female surgeons that had dissuaded them from a surgical career. Work-life balance is still cited by female junior doctors as being the main deterrent to a surgical career. The paucity of female role models and some perceived sexual discrimination may cause female doctors to discount surgery as a career. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Female Leaders: Injurious or Inspiring Role Models for Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Crystal L.; Simon, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    The impact of female role models on women's leadership aspirations and self-perceptions after a leadership task were assessed across two laboratory studies. These studies tested the prediction that upward social comparisons to high-level female leaders will have a relatively detrimental impact on women's self-perceptions and leadership aspirations…

  1. SAR exposure from UHF RFID reader in adult, child, pregnant woman, and fetus anatomical models.

    PubMed

    Fiocchi, Serena; Markakis, Ioannis A; Ravazzani, Paolo; Samaras, Theodoros

    2013-09-01

    The spread of radio frequency identification (RFID) devices in ubiquitous applications without their simultaneous exposure assessment could give rise to public concerns about their potential adverse health effects. Among the various RFID system categories, the ultra high frequency (UHF) RFID systems have recently started to be widely used in many applications. This study addresses a computational exposure assessment of the electromagnetic radiation generated by a realistic UHF RFID reader, quantifying the exposure levels in different exposure scenarios and subjects (two adults, four children, and two anatomical models of women 7 and 9 months pregnant). The results of the computations are presented in terms of the whole-body and peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) averaged over 10 g of tissue to allow comparison with the basic restrictions of the exposure guidelines. The SAR levels in the adults and children were below 0.02 and 0.8 W/kg in whole-body SAR and maximum peak SAR levels, respectively, for all tested positions of the antenna. On the contrary, exposure of pregnant women and fetuses resulted in maximum peak SAR(10 g) values close to the values suggested by the guidelines (2 W/kg) in some of the exposure scenarios with the antenna positioned in front of the abdomen and with a 100% duty cycle and 1 W radiated power.

  2. Caring for pregnant opioid abusers in Vermont: A potential model for non-urban areas

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Marjorie; Phillips, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Opioid addiction is no longer a primarily urban problem. As dependence on heroin and prescription pain relievers has become a significant issue in rural areas, the need for effective treatment of opioid-dependent pregnant women and their neonates has grown accordingly. In addition to the adverse perinatal outcomes associated with opioid addiction in pregnant women, the high costs of caring for these mothers and their babies motivate efforts to develop appropriate treatment models. We found that integration and coordination of services that promote maternal recovery and ability to parent are key requirements for treatment of opioid dependence during pregnancy. Unfortunately, lack of experience and resources make such coordination a real challenge in rural areas. In this review, we discuss how we managed the challenges of developing a comprehensive program for treatment of opioid dependence during pregnancy. In addition, we outline our approach for facilitating the development of community-based programs to help these patients and families in rural regions of Vermont. Close relationships between our tertiary care center, local hospitals, community health care infrastructure, and legislators bolstered our efforts. In particular, appreciation for the severity and importance of the opioid-dependence problem in Vermont among health care providers and state legislators was paramount for our success in developing a state-wide treatment program. This approach can inform similar efforts in other rural regions of the United States, and has great potential to improve both access and quality of care for women struggling with opioid dependence. PMID:26212632

  3. Caring for pregnant opioid abusers in Vermont: A potential model for non-urban areas.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Marjorie; Phillips, Julie

    2015-11-01

    Opioid addiction is no longer a primarily urban problem. As dependence on heroin and prescription pain relievers has become a significant issue in rural areas, the need for effective treatment of opioid-dependent pregnant women and their neonates has grown accordingly. In addition to the adverse perinatal outcomes associated with opioid addiction in pregnant women, the high costs of caring for these mothers and their babies motivate efforts to develop appropriate treatment models. We found that integration and coordination of services that promote maternal recovery and ability to parent are key requirements for treatment of opioid dependence during pregnancy. Unfortunately, lack of experience and resources makes such coordination a real challenge in rural areas. In this review, we discuss how we managed the challenges of developing a comprehensive program for treatment of opioid dependence during pregnancy. In addition, we outline our approach for facilitating the development of community-based programs to help these patients and families in rural regions of Vermont. Close relationships between our tertiary care center, local hospitals, community health care infrastructure, and legislators bolstered our efforts. In particular, appreciation for the severity and importance of the opioid-dependence problem in Vermont among health care providers and state legislators was paramount for our success in developing a state-wide treatment program. This approach can inform similar efforts in other rural regions of the United States, and has great potential to improve both access and quality of care for women struggling with opioid dependence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Intrauterine Zika virus infection of pregnant immunocompetent mice models transplacental transmission and adverse perinatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Vermillion, Meghan S; Lei, Jun; Shabi, Yahya; Baxter, Victoria K; Crilly, Nathan P; McLane, Michael; Griffin, Diane E; Pekosz, Andrew; Klein, Sabra L; Burd, Irina

    2017-02-21

    Zika virus (ZIKV) crosses the placenta and causes congenital disease. Here we develop an animal model utilizing direct ZIKV inoculation into the uterine wall of pregnant, immunocompetent mice to evaluate transplacental transmission. Intrauterine inoculation at embryonic day (E) 10, but not E14, with African, Asian or American strains of ZIKV reduces fetal viability and increases infection of placental and fetal tissues. ZIKV inoculation at E10 causes placental inflammation, placental dysfunction and reduces neonatal brain cortical thickness, which is associated with increased activation of microglia. Viral antigen localizes in trophoblast and endothelial cells in the placenta, and endothelial, microglial and neural progenitor cells in the fetal brain. ZIKV infection of the placenta increases production of IFNβ and expression of IFN-stimulated genes 48 h after infection. This mouse model provides a platform for identifying factors at the maternal-fetal interface that contribute to adverse perinatal outcomes in a host with an intact immune system.

  5. Intrauterine Zika virus infection of pregnant immunocompetent mice models transplacental transmission and adverse perinatal outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Vermillion, Meghan S.; Lei, Jun; Shabi, Yahya; Baxter, Victoria K.; Crilly, Nathan P.; McLane, Michael; Griffin, Diane E.; Pekosz, Andrew; Klein, Sabra L.; Burd, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) crosses the placenta and causes congenital disease. Here we develop an animal model utilizing direct ZIKV inoculation into the uterine wall of pregnant, immunocompetent mice to evaluate transplacental transmission. Intrauterine inoculation at embryonic day (E) 10, but not E14, with African, Asian or American strains of ZIKV reduces fetal viability and increases infection of placental and fetal tissues. ZIKV inoculation at E10 causes placental inflammation, placental dysfunction and reduces neonatal brain cortical thickness, which is associated with increased activation of microglia. Viral antigen localizes in trophoblast and endothelial cells in the placenta, and endothelial, microglial and neural progenitor cells in the fetal brain. ZIKV infection of the placenta increases production of IFNβ and expression of IFN-stimulated genes 48 h after infection. This mouse model provides a platform for identifying factors at the maternal–fetal interface that contribute to adverse perinatal outcomes in a host with an intact immune system. PMID:28220786

  6. Female Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  7. Pregnant Low-Income Teenagers: A Social Structural Model of the Determinants of Abortion-Seeking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Rosalind J.; Poindexter, Alfred N.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews literature on teenage abortion seekers. Suggests and tests a theoretical model designed to predict whether a low-income pregnant teenager will decide to abort or to deliver her baby. Concludes that age and socioemotional variables are the strongest predictive elements in the model. (GC)

  8. Mathematical models and specific absorbed fractions of photon energy in the nonpregnant adult female and at the end of each trimester of pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Watson, E.E.; Cristy, M.; Ryman, J.C.; Eckerman, K.F.; Davis, J.L.; Marshall, D.; Gehlen, M.K.

    1995-05-08

    Mathematical phantoms representing the adult female at three, six, and nine months of gestation are described. They are modifications of the 15-year-old male/adult female phantom (15-AF phantom) of Cristy and Eckerman (1987). The model of uterine contents includes the fetus, fetal skeleton, and placenta. The model is suitable for dose calculations for the fetus as a whole; individual organs within the fetus (other than the skeleton) are not modeled. A new model for the nonpregnant adult female is also described, comprising (1) the 15-AF phantom; (2) an adjustment to specific absorbed fractions for organ self-dose from photons to better match Reference Woman masses; and (3) computation of specific absorbed fractions with Reference Woman masses from ICRP Publication 23 for both penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations. Specific absorbed fractions for photons emitted from various source regions are tabulated for the new non;pregnant adult female model and the three pregnancy models.

  9. A female head-neck model for rear impact simulations.

    PubMed

    Östh, Jonas; Mendoza-Vazquez, Manuel; Sato, Fusako; Svensson, Mats Y; Linder, Astrid; Brolin, Karin

    2017-01-25

    Several mathematical cervical models of the 50th percentile male have been developed and used for impact biomechanics research. However, for the 50th percentile female no similar modelling efforts have been made, despite females being subject to a higher risk of soft tissue neck injuries. This is a limitation for the development of automotive protective systems addressing Whiplash Associated Disorders (WADs), most commonly caused in rear impacts, as the risk for females sustaining WAD symptoms is double that of males. In this study, a finite element head and neck model of a 50th percentile female was validated in rear impacts. A previously validated ligamentous cervical spine model was complemented with a rigid body head, soft tissues and muscles. In both physiological flexion-extension motions and simulated rear impacts, the kinematic response at segment level was comparable to that of human subjects. Evaluation of ligament stress levels in simulations with varied initial cervical curvature revealed that if an individual assumes a more lordotic posture than the neutral, a higher risk of WAD might occur in rear impact. The female head and neck model, together with a kinematical whole body model which is under development, addresses a need for tools for assessment of automotive protection systems for the group which is at the highest risk to sustain WAD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Current densities in a pregnant woman model induced by simultaneous ELF electric and magnetic field exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cech, R.; Leitgeb, N.; Pediaditis, M.

    2008-01-01

    The pregnant woman model SILVY was studied to ascertain to what extent the electric current densities induced by 50 Hz homogeneous electric and magnetic fields increase in the case of simultaneous exposure. By vectorial addition of the electric current densities, it could be shown that under worst case conditions the basic restrictions recommended by ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) guidelines are exceeded within the central nervous system (CNS) of the mother, whereas in sole field exposure they are not. However, within the foetus the induced current densities do not comply with basic restrictions, either from single reference-level electric fields or from simultaneous exposure to electric and magnetic fields. Basic limits were considerably exceeded.

  11. A Physiologically Based Model for Methylmercury in Female American Kestrels

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model was developed to describe the uptake, distribution, and elimination of methylmercury (CH3Hg) in female American kestrels. The model consists of six tissue compartments corresponding to the brain, liver, kidney, gut, red blood cel...

  12. A Physiologically Based Model for Methylmercury in Female American Kestrels

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model was developed to describe the uptake, distribution, and elimination of methylmercury (CH3Hg) in female American kestrels. The model consists of six tissue compartments corresponding to the brain, liver, kidney, gut, red blood cel...

  13. Gender Equity Model: High School Female Students and Technology Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Martha; Wark, Alan; Zimmerman, Sara

    A model for gender equity in a rural Appalachia school system is approaching its second year of implementation at the high school level. This model focuses on equity issues, student motivation, and nontraditional coursework. In addition, it addresses career awareness for females, including a strong emphasis on technology and the sciences. Specific…

  14. [Using the transtheoretical model to develop educational media to promote smoking cessation in pregnant and postpartum women].

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Guo, Jong-Long; Guo, Hua-Jhen; Lee, Mei-Ying; Shen, Wang-Ping

    2009-12-01

    Smoking endangers the health of pregnant and postpartum women. However, there is lack of health education materials related to smoking cessation that targets this particular group - especially such developed based on behavior change theory. This paper describes how to develop smoking cessation educational materials for pregnant and postpartum women based on the Transtheoretical Model (TTM). The theoretical foundations of various educational materials were presented using tables and figures. Demonstrations and examples were provided for clinical nurses to conduct smoking cessation educational counseling and to develop theoretically-based educational materials. The effectiveness of nursing education may be improved by applying effective components of the theory to educational materials.

  15. A Retrospective Analysis of Decision Making by Pregnant Adolescents Using Janis and Mann's Decisional Conflict Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colecchi, Cheryl A.; Worthington, Everett L., Jr.

    Research on decision making in pregnant adolescents is in its infancy. Most has focused on correlates of the various pregnancy outcomes such as abortion, delivery, parenting one's child, or relinquishing the child for adoption. There is a need to investigate the process of decision making with pregnant adolescents in light of a theory of decision…

  16. Animal Models for the Study of Female Sexual Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Marson, Lesley; Giamberardino, Maria Adele; Costantini, Raffaele; Czakanski, Peter; Wesselmann, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Significant progress has been made in elucidating the physiological and pharmacological mechanisms of female sexual function through preclinical animal research. The continued development of animal models is vital for the understanding and treatment of the many diverse disorders that occur in women. Aim To provide an updated review of the experimental models evaluating female sexual function that may be useful for clinical translation. Methods Review of English written, peer-reviewed literature, primarily from 2000 to 2012, that described studies on female sexual behavior related to motivation, arousal, physiological monitoring of genital function and urogenital pain. Main Outcomes Measures Analysis of supporting evidence for the suitability of the animal model to provide measurable indices related to desire, arousal, reward, orgasm, and pelvic pain. Results The development of female animal models has provided important insights in the peripheral and central processes regulating sexual function. Behavioral models of sexual desire, motivation, and reward are well developed. Central arousal and orgasmic responses are less well understood, compared with the physiological changes associated with genital arousal. Models of nociception are useful for replicating symptoms and identifying the neurobiological pathways involved. While in some cases translation to women correlates with the findings in animals, the requirement of circulating hormones for sexual receptivity in rodents and the multifactorial nature of women’s sexual function requires better designed studies and careful analysis. The current models have studied sexual dysfunction or pelvic pain in isolation; combining these aspects would help to elucidate interactions of the pathophysiology of pain and sexual dysfunction. Conclusions Basic research in animals has been vital for understanding the anatomy, neurobiology, and physiological mechanisms underlying sexual function and urogenital pain

  17. The Role Model Effect on Gender Equity: How are Female College Students Influenced by Female Teaching Assistants in Science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Darilyn

    The gender gap of women in science is an important and unresolved issue in higher education and occupational opportunities. The present study was motivated by the fact that there are typically fewer females than males advancing in science, and therefore fewer female science instructor role models. This observation inspired the questions: Are female college students influenced in a positive way by female science teaching assistants (TAs), and if so how can their influence be measured? The study tested the hypothesis that female TAs act as role models for female students and thereby encourage interest and increase overall performance. To test this "role model" hypothesis, the reasoning ability and self-efficacy of a sample of 724 introductory college biology students were assessed at the beginning and end of the Spring 2010 semester. Achievement was measured by exams and course work. Performance of four randomly formed groups was compared: 1) female students with female TAs, 2) male students with female TAs, 3) female students with male TAs, and 4) male students with male TAs. Based on the role model hypothesis, female students with female TAs were predicted to perform better than female students with male TAs. However, group comparisons revealed similar performances across all four groups in achievement, reasoning ability and self-efficacy. The slight differences found between the four groups in student exam and coursework scores were not statistically significant. Therefore, the results did not support the role model hypothesis. Given that both lecture professors in the present study were males, and given that professors typically have more teaching experience, finer skills and knowledge of subject matter than do TAs, a future study that includes both female science professors and female TAs, may be more likely to find support for the hypothesis.

  18. Predictive models reduce talent development costs in female gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Pion, Johan; Hohmann, Andreas; Liu, Tianbiao; Lenoir, Matthieu; Segers, Veerle

    2017-04-01

    This retrospective study focuses on the comparison of different predictive models based on the results of a talent identification test battery for female gymnasts. We studied to what extent these models have the potential to optimise selection procedures, and at the same time reduce talent development costs in female artistic gymnastics. The dropout rate of 243 female elite gymnasts was investigated, 5 years past talent selection, using linear (discriminant analysis) and non-linear predictive models (Kohonen feature maps and multilayer perceptron). The coaches classified 51.9% of the participants correct. Discriminant analysis improved the correct classification to 71.6% while the non-linear technique of Kohonen feature maps reached 73.7% correctness. Application of the multilayer perceptron even classified 79.8% of the gymnasts correctly. The combination of different predictive models for talent selection can avoid deselection of high-potential female gymnasts. The selection procedure based upon the different statistical analyses results in decrease of 33.3% of cost because the pool of selected athletes can be reduced to 92 instead of 138 gymnasts (as selected by the coaches). Reduction of the costs allows the limited resources to be fully invested in the high-potential athletes.

  19. Influence of Female Role Models on Career-Related Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Alice A.

    Since women compose nearly half the labor market and are expected to continue to be a major component, the variables which affect women's career choices are of considerable interest. The effect of role models on attitudes related to career aspirations was examined for female college freshmen. Experimental subjects (N=75) were provided with role…

  20. Influence of Female Role Models on Career-Related Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Alice A.

    Since women compose nearly half the labor market and are expected to continue to be a major component, the variables which affect women's career choices are of considerable interest. The effect of role models on attitudes related to career aspirations was examined for female college freshmen. Experimental subjects (N=75) were provided with role…

  1. Periodontitis in Pregnant Baboons: Systemic Inflammation and Adaptive Immune Responses and Pregnancy Outcomes in a Baboon Model

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Holt, Stanley C.; Cappelli, David

    2014-01-01

    Chronic periodontal infections have been suggested to contribute to the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study describes the relationship of patterns of systemic inflammatory mediators and IgG antibody to 20 oral bacteria in pregnant female baboons (Papio anubis) coupled with clinical features of ligature-induced periodontitis, as risk indicators for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Animals showing a preterm delivery and/or low birth weight newborns, as well as those pregnancies resulting in spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, or fetal demise were tabulated as adverse pregnancy outcomes. A significantly greater frequency of the periodontitis group neonates had a low birth weight (18.1%; p=0.008) and decreased gestational age (9.8%). Spontaneous abortion/stillbirth/fetal demise were increased in the periodontitis (8.7%) versus the control group (3.8%) (p=0.054). The baseline oral clinical presentation of the experimental animals did not relate to the adverse pregnancy outcomes. Animals with the greatest extent/severity of periodontitis progression during the initial ½ of gestation (ie. to mid-pregnancy) had the greatest risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Baseline biological parameters indicating historical responses of the animals to periodontal challenge demonstrated individual variation in selected mediators, some of which became more differential during ligature-induced periodontitis. The relationship of clinical parameters to systemic inflammatory responses was consistent with a temporal contribution to adverse pregnancy outcomes in a subset of the animals. These results support a link between periodontitis and adverse pregnancy outcomes in the baboons and provide a prospective experimental model for delineating the biologic parameters that contribute to a causal relationship between chronic oral infections and birth events. PMID:23710643

  2. Periodontitis in pregnant baboons: systemic inflammation and adaptive immune responses and pregnancy outcomes in a baboon model.

    PubMed

    Ebersole, J L; Holt, S C; Cappelli, D

    2014-04-01

    Chronic periodontal infections have been suggested to contribute to the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study describes the relationship of patterns of systemic inflammatory mediators and IgG antibody to 20 oral bacteria in pregnant female baboons (Papio anubis) coupled with clinical features of ligature-induced periodontitis, as risk indicators for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Animals showing a preterm delivery and/or low birth weight newborns, as well as those pregnancies resulting in spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, or fetal demise were tabulated as adverse pregnancy outcomes. A significantly greater frequency of the periodontitis group neonates had a low birth weight (18.1%; p = 0.008) and decreased gestational age (9.8%). Spontaneous abortion/stillbirth/fetal demise were increased in the periodontitis (8.7%) versus the control group (3.8%) (p = 0.054). The baseline oral clinical presentation of the experimental animals did not relate to the adverse pregnancy outcomes. Animals with the greatest extent/severity of periodontitis progression during the initial ½ of gestation (ie. to mid-pregnancy) had the greatest risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Baseline biological parameters indicating historical responses of the animals to periodontal challenge demonstrated individual variation in selected mediators, some of which became more differential during ligature-induced periodontitis. The relationship of clinical parameters to systemic inflammatory responses was consistent with a temporal contribution to adverse pregnancy outcomes in a subset of the animals. These results support a link between periodontitis and adverse pregnancy outcomes in the baboons and provide a prospective experimental model for delineating the biologic parameters that contribute to a causal relationship between chronic oral infections and birth events. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A Novel System Dynamics Model of Female Obesity and Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Hovmand, Peter S.; Osgood, Nathaniel D.; Dyck, Roland F.; Jungheim, Emily S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Our objective was to create a system dynamics model specific to weight gain and obesity in women of reproductive age that could inform future health policies and have the potential for use in preconception interventions targeting obese women. Methods. We used our system dynamics model of obesity in women to test various strategies for family building, including ovulation induction versus weight loss to improve ovulation. Outcomes included relative fecundability, postpartum body mass index, and mortality. Results. Our system dynamics model demonstrated that obese women who become pregnant exhibit increasing obesity levels over time with elevated morbidity and mortality. Alternatively, obese women who lose weight prior to pregnancy have improved reproductive outcomes but may risk an age-related decline in fertility, which can affect overall family size. Conclusions. Our model highlights important public health issues regarding obesity in women of reproductive age. The model may be useful in preconception counseling of obese women who are attempting to balance the competing risks associated with age-related declines in fertility and clinically meaningful weight loss. PMID:24832413

  4. Modeling female and male rib geometry with logarithmic spirals.

    PubMed

    Holcombe, Sven A; Wang, Stewart C; Grotberg, James B

    2016-09-06

    In this study we present a novel six-parameter shape model of the human rib centroidal path using logarithmic spirals. It provides a reduction in parameter space from previous models of overall rib shape, while simultaneously reducing fitting error by 34% and increasing curvature continuity. Furthermore, the model directly utilizes geometric properties such as rib end-to-end span, aspect ratio, rib "skewness", and inner angle with the spine in its parameterization, making the effects of each parameter on overall shape intuitive and easy to visualize. The model was tested against 2197 rib geometries extracted from CT scans from a population of 100 adult females and males of uniformly distributed ages between 20 and 70. Significant size and shape differences between genders were identified, and shape model utility is demonstrated by the production of statistically average male and female rib shapes for all rib levels. Simulated mechanical loading of the resulting model rib shapes showed that the stiffness of statistically average male and female ribs matched well with the average rib stiffness from each separate population. This in-plane rib shape model can be used to characterize variation in human rib geometry seen throughout the population, including investigation of the overall changes in shape and resultant mechanical properties that ribs undergo during aging or disease progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A pregnant mouse model for the vertical transmission of Brucella melitensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Wang, S S; Wang, G L; Wu, T L; Lv, Y L; Wu, Q M

    2014-04-01

    Abortion is the major clinical sign of brucellosis in animals but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This study was designed to evaluate a pregnant mouse model for the vertical transmission of Brucella melitensis using four infectious doses: 10(3) colony-forming units (CFU), 10(4) CFU, 10(5) CFU, and 10(6) CFU. During the experimental period, no instances of abortion were recorded, but stillbirths were observed in the groups infected with doses of 10(4) CFU and higher. Regardless of whether the fetuses were stillborn or alive, transmission of bacteria to the fetus and bacterial replication in the cytoplasm of placental trophoblast giant cells were detected. A higher degree of bacterial colonization was found in the placenta than in the spleen or fetus. Doses of 10(5) CFU of B. melitensis or higher produced a severe, necrotizing placentitis similar to the pathological damage observed in ruminants. The data suggest that experimental murine brucellosis resembles ruminant brucellosis and represents a potential model for studying the pathogenic mechanisms of B. melitensis.

  6. Female role models in physics education in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chormaic, Síle Nic; Fee, Sandra; Tobin, Laura; Hennessy, Tara

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we consider the statistics on undergraduate student representation in Irish universities and look at student numbers in secondary (high) schools in one region in Ireland. There seems to be no significant change in female participation in physics from 2002 to 2011. Additionally, we have studied the influence of an educator's gender on the prevalence of girls studying physics in secondary schools in Co. Louth, Ireland, and at the postgraduate level in Irish universities. It would appear that strong female role models have a positive influence and lead to an increase in girls' participation in physics.

  7. Animal Models for the Study of Female Sexual Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Marson, Lesley; Giamberardino, Maria Adele; Costantini, Raffaele; Czakanski, Peter; Wesselmann, Ursula

    2013-07-01

    Significant progress has been made in elucidating the physiological and pharmacological mechanisms of female sexual function through preclinical animal research. The continued development of animal models is vital for the understanding and treatment of the many diverse disorders that occur in women. To provide an updated review of the experimental models evaluating female sexual function that may be useful for clinical translation. Review of English written, peer-reviewed literature, primarily from 2000 to 2012, that described studies on female sexual behavior related to motivation, arousal, physiological monitoring of genital function and urogenital pain. Analysis of supporting evidence for the suitability of the animal model to provide measurable indices related to desire, arousal, reward, orgasm, and pelvic pain. The development of female animal models has provided important insights in the peripheral and central processes regulating sexual function. Behavioral models of sexual desire, motivation, and reward are well developed. Central arousal and orgasmic responses are less well understood, compared with the physiological changes associated with genital arousal. Models of nociception are useful for replicating symptoms and identifying the neurobiological pathways involved. While in some cases translation to women correlates with the findings in animals, the requirement of circulating hormones for sexual receptivity in rodents and the multifactorial nature of women's sexual function requires better designed studies and careful analysis. The current models have studied sexual dysfunction or pelvic pain in isolation; combining these aspects would help to elucidate interactions of the pathophysiology of pain and sexual dysfunction. Basic research in animals has been vital for understanding the anatomy, neurobiology, and physiological mechanisms underlying sexual function and urogenital pain. These models are important for understanding the etiology of female sexual

  8. Effects of Education Based on Health Belief Model on Dietary Behaviors of Iranian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Khoramabadi, M.; Dolatian, M.; Hajian, S.; Zamanian, M.; Taheripanah, R.; Sheikhan, Z.; Mahmoodi, Z.; Seyedi-Moghadam, A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mothers and children are the most vulnerable members of every society. As a result many deaths occur in these two groups, so caring for these two groups is very important. Today, it is believed that the health of an infant is related to the health of their mother. Maintaining a healthy weight before pregnancy, and optimal weight gain during pregnancy by appropriate and sufficient nutrition, are two effective measures for the prevention of low birth weight.To provide successful health interventions, it is essential to design and implement effective health education programs. Successful education also depends on the proper use of theories and models in health education. The Health Belief Model is a model that illustrates the relationship between beliefs and health, and it is based on the hypothesis that preventive health behavior consists of personal beliefs. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of training on the Health Belief Model on dietary behaviors of a sample of pregnant Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial, involving 130 pregnant women who attended two health care centers of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Data was collected by a structured questionnaire in three parts and seven sub-scales (including demographic characteristics, knowledge and dietary behaviors) based on the Health Belief Model. Principles of education were based on the Health Belief Model and performed twice during two-hour sessions in the intervention group. Women in the control group received routine care and did not receive training on the above model. In order to evaluate the intervention, the previously mentioned questionnaire was administered one month after completion of the intervention, and filled by participants in both groups. Data were analyzed by SPSS software and reported with diagrams and tables. Results: The mean score for each variable before the intervention, except for the

  9. A Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Pregnant Women to Predict the Pharmacokinetics of Drugs Metabolized Via Several Enzymatic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Dallmann, André; Ince, Ibrahim; Coboeken, Katrin; Eissing, Thomas; Hempel, Georg

    2017-09-18

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling is considered a valuable tool for predicting pharmacokinetic changes in pregnancy to subsequently guide in-vivo pharmacokinetic trials in pregnant women. The objective of this study was to extend and verify a previously developed physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for pregnant women for the prediction of pharmacokinetics of drugs metabolized via several cytochrome P450 enzymes. Quantitative information on gestation-specific changes in enzyme activity available in the literature was incorporated in a pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic model and the pharmacokinetics of eight drugs metabolized via one or multiple cytochrome P450 enzymes was predicted. The tested drugs were caffeine, midazolam, nifedipine, metoprolol, ondansetron, granisetron, diazepam, and metronidazole. Pharmacokinetic predictions were evaluated by comparison with in-vivo pharmacokinetic data obtained from the literature. The pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic model successfully predicted the pharmacokinetics of all tested drugs. The observed pregnancy-induced pharmacokinetic changes were qualitatively and quantitatively reasonably well predicted for all drugs. Ninety-seven percent of the mean plasma concentrations predicted in pregnant women fell within a twofold error range and 63% within a 1.25-fold error range. For all drugs, the predicted area under the concentration-time curve was within a 1.25-fold error range. The presented pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic model can quantitatively predict the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are metabolized via one or multiple cytochrome P450 enzymes by integrating prior knowledge of the pregnancy-related effect on these enzymes. This pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic model may thus be used to identify potential exposure changes in pregnant women a priori and to eventually support informed decision making when clinical trials are designed in this

  10. Effects of Socioeconomic Status and Social Support on Violence against Pregnant Women: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto E; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marco Antônio

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have used structural equation modeling to analyze the effects of variables on violence against women. The present study analyzed the effects of socioeconomic status and social support on violence against pregnant women who used prenatal services. This was a cross-sectional study based on data from the Brazilian Ribeirão Preto and São Luís birth cohort studies (BRISA). The sample of the municipality of São Luís (Maranhão/Brazil) consisted of 1,446 pregnant women interviewed in 2010 and 2011. In the proposed model, socioeconomic status was the most distal predictor, followed by social support that determined general violence, psychological violence or physical/sexual violence, which were analyzed as latent variables. Violence was measured by the World Health Organization Violence against Women (WHO VAW) instrument. The São Luis model was estimated using structural equation modeling and validated with 1,378 pregnant women from Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo/Brazil). The proposed model showed good fit for general, psychological and physical/sexual violence for the São Luís sample. Socioeconomic status had no effect on general or psychological violence (p>0.05), but pregnant women with lower socioeconomic status reported more episodes of physical/sexual violence (standardized coefficient, SC = -0.136; p = 0.021). This effect of socioeconomic status was indirect and mediated by low social support (SC = -0.075; p<0.001). Low social support was associated with more episodes of general, psychological and physical/sexual violence (p<0.001). General and psychological violence indistinctly affected pregnant women of different socioeconomic status. Physical/sexual violence was more common for pregnant women with lower socioeconomic status and lower social support. Better social support contributed to reduction of all types of violence. Results were nearly the same for the validation sample of Ribeirão Preto except that SES was not associated with physical

  11. Effects of Socioeconomic Status and Social Support on Violence against Pregnant Women: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marco Antônio

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have used structural equation modeling to analyze the effects of variables on violence against women. The present study analyzed the effects of socioeconomic status and social support on violence against pregnant women who used prenatal services. This was a cross-sectional study based on data from the Brazilian Ribeirão Preto and São Luís birth cohort studies (BRISA). The sample of the municipality of São Luís (Maranhão/Brazil) consisted of 1,446 pregnant women interviewed in 2010 and 2011. In the proposed model, socioeconomic status was the most distal predictor, followed by social support that determined general violence, psychological violence or physical/sexual violence, which were analyzed as latent variables. Violence was measured by the World Health Organization Violence against Women (WHO VAW) instrument. The São Luis model was estimated using structural equation modeling and validated with 1,378 pregnant women from Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo/Brazil). The proposed model showed good fit for general, psychological and physical/sexual violence for the São Luís sample. Socioeconomic status had no effect on general or psychological violence (p>0.05), but pregnant women with lower socioeconomic status reported more episodes of physical/sexual violence (standardized coefficient, SC = -0.136; p = 0.021). This effect of socioeconomic status was indirect and mediated by low social support (SC = -0.075; p<0.001). Low social support was associated with more episodes of general, psychological and physical/sexual violence (p<0.001). General and psychological violence indistinctly affected pregnant women of different socioeconomic status. Physical/sexual violence was more common for pregnant women with lower socioeconomic status and lower social support. Better social support contributed to reduction of all types of violence. Results were nearly the same for the validation sample of Ribeirão Preto except that SES was not associated with physical

  12. Breathing abnormalities in a female mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher M; Cui, Ningren; Zhong, Weiwei; Oginsky, Max F; Jiang, Chun

    2015-09-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a female neurodevelopmental disease with breathing abnormalities. To understand whether breathing defects occur in the early lives of a group of female Mecp2(+/-) mice, a mouse model of RTT, and what percentage of mice shows RTT-like breathing abnormality, breathing activity was measured by plethysmography in conscious mice. Breathing frequency variation and central apnea in a group of Mecp2(+/-) females displayed a distribution pattern similar to Mecp2(-/Y) males, while the rest resembled the wild-type mice. Similar results were obtained using the k-mean clustering statistics analysis. With two independent methods, about 20% of female Mecp2(+/-) mice showed RTT-like breathing abnormalities that began as early as 3 weeks of age in the Mecp2(+/-) mice, and were suppressed with 3% CO2. The finding that only a small proportion of Mecp2(+/-) mice develops RTT-like breathing abnormalities suggests incomplete allele inactivation in the RTT-model Mecp2(+/-) mice.

  13. Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis rat model attenuated by a remote ischemic preconditioning in the pregnant.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Rúdnei de Oliveira Luciano; Artigiani, Ricardo; Guimarães, José de Freitas; Nunes, Adriana Porto; Montero, Edna Frasson de Souza; Martins, José Luiz

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of remote ischemic preconditioning (r-IPC) administered to pregnant rats, in the ileum of newborn rats subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation. We used three pregnant rats and their newborn rats distributed in three groups: 1) Control (C) - Newborn rats born from a pregnant rat which did not undergo any intervention; 2) Hypoxia-Reoxygenation (H/R) - Newborn rats born from a pregnant rat which did not undergo any intervention, and were subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation; 3) Remote Ischemic Preconditioning (r-IPC) - newborn rats born from a pregnant rat which was subjected to remote ischemic preconditioning twenty-four hours before giving birth and the newborn rats were subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation. Segments of ileum were prepared for histological analysis by HE and immunohistochemistry by the Ki67 to evaluate cell proliferation, crypt depth and villus height and evaluation of apoptosis by cleaved caspase-3. The intensity of the lesions was lower in the r-IPC than in the H/R group, showing significant difference (p<0.01). The r-IPC group showed a higher proliferative activity compared to the H/R group (p<0.01), with deeper crypts (r-IPC > H/R - p < 0.05), and higher villi, showing significant difference (r-IPC > H/R - (p <0.01). The occurrence of apoptosis in the H/R group was lower in comparison to groups C and r-IPC, with significant difference (H/R < r-IPC; p<0.05). The remote ischemic preconditioning applied to the pregnant rat protected the ileum of newborn rats subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation, with decreased intensity of the lesions in the ileum mucosa and preservation of proliferative activity, keeping the villus height and crypt depth similar to group C.

  14. Meeting the health and social care needs of pregnant asylum seekers; midwifery students' perspectives: part 3; "the pregnant woman within the global context"; an inclusive model for midwifery education to address the needs of asylum seeking women in the UK.

    PubMed

    Haith-Cooper, Melanie; Bradshaw, Gwendolen

    2013-09-01

    to describe the conceptualisation and development of an inclusive educational model. The model is designed to facilitate pre-registration midwifery students' learning around the health and social care needs of pregnant women seeking asylum in the United Kingdom. current literature has identified a concern about the standard of maternity care experienced by asylum seeking women accessing maternity services in the United Kingdom. In response to this, a doctorate study was undertaken which focused on examining the way in which a group of midwifery students approached the provision of care for asylum seekers. This study revealed difficulties that these students had both in identifying these women's needs and also in the wider care issues in practice. Consequently, one of the recommendations was to ameliorate these difficulties through midwifery education. the key findings from this study were used together with relevant supporting literature to construct "the pregnant woman within the global context" model for midwifery education. The model is designed to facilitate a holistic assessment of need rather than focusing on the physical assessment at the expense of other aspects of care. It incorporates wider factors, on a global level, which could impact on the health and social care needs of a pregnant woman seeking asylum. It also prompts students to consider the influence of dominant discourses on perceptions of asylum seek;ing and is designed to encourage students' to question these discourses. this model can be used in midwifery education to prepare students in caring for pregnant women seeking asylum. It may be especially helpful when students have close contact with pregnant women seeking asylum, for example through caseloading. Further research is recommended to evaluate the effectiveness of this model in enhancing the care of asylum seeking women in the United Kingdom. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Animal models of female pelvic organ prolapse: lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Couri, Bruna M; Lenis, Andrew T; Borazjani, Ali; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R; Damaser, Margot S

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a vaginal protrusion of female pelvic organs. It has high prevalence worldwide and represents a great burden to the economy. The pathophysiology of pelvic organ prolapse is multifactorial and includes genetic predisposition, aberrant connective tissue, obesity, advancing age, vaginal delivery and other risk factors. Owing to the long course prior to patients becoming symptomatic and ethical questions surrounding human studies, animal models are necessary and useful. These models can mimic different human characteristics – histological, anatomical or hormonal, but none present all of the characteristics at the same time. Major animal models include knockout mice, rats, sheep, rabbits and nonhuman primates. In this article we discuss different animal models and their utility for investigating the natural progression of pelvic organ prolapse pathophysiology and novel treatment approaches. PMID:22707980

  16. Modelling of peripheral fluid accumulation after a crystalloid bolus in female volunteers - a mathematical study.

    PubMed

    Rodhe, Peter; Drobin, Dan; Hahn, Robert G; Wennberg, Bernt; Lindahl, Christina; Sjöstrand, Fredrik; Svensen, Christer H

    2010-12-01

    To simultaneously model plasma dilution and urinary output in female volunteers. Ten healthy female non-pregnant volunteers, aged 21-39 years (mean 29), with a bodyweight of 58-67 kg (mean 62.5 kg) participated. No oral fluid or food was allowed between midnight and completion of the experiment. The protocol included an infusion of acetated Ringer's solution, 25 ml/kg over 30 min. Blood samples (4 ml) were taken every 5 min during the first 120 min, and thereafter the sampling rate was every 10 min until the end of the experiment at 240 min. A standard bladder catheter connected to a drip counter to monitor urine excretion continuously was used. The data were analysed by empirical calculations as well as by a mathematical model. Maximum urinary output rate was found to be 19 (13-31) ml/min. The subjects were likely to accumulate three times as much of the infused fluid peripherally as centrally; 1/μ = 2.7 (2.0-5.7). Elimination efficacy, E(eff), was 24 (5-35), and the basal elimination k(b) was 1.11 (0.28-2.90). The total time delay T(tot) of urinary output was estimated as 17 (11-31) min. The experimental results showed a large variability in spite of a homogenous volunteer group. It was possible to compute the infusion amount, plasma dilution and simultaneous urinary output for each consecutive time point and thereby the empirical peripheral fluid accumulation. The variability between individuals may be explained by differences in tissue and hormonal responses to fluid boluses, which needs to be further explored.

  17. Identifying healthy eating strategies in low-income pregnant women: applying a positive deviance model.

    PubMed

    Fowles, Eileen R; Hendricks, Jennifer A; Walker, Lorraine O

    2005-10-01

    Using positive deviance methodology, we identified strategies that enabled some low-income pregnant women to eat healthy meals while others did not. We used a descriptive design consisting of small group interviews of low-income pregnant women and identified 6 of 18 women as eating healthy diets. Women with healthy diets knew to eat balanced meals, had family support, were willing to prepare foods that were different than other family members, and ate at home more frequently than women with unhealthy diets. Health care providers can use the positive deviance approach to guide the development of interventions to improve women's diets using community-specific solutions to enhance the health of mothers and infants.

  18. Different perceptions of stress, coping styles, and general well-being among pregnant Chinese women: a structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ying; Tha, Pyai Htun; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Wang, Yuqiong; Wang, Ying; Yobas, Piyanee Klainin

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have examined different perceptions of stress or explored the positive aspects of well-being among pregnant Chinese women, so there is a need to explore these phenomena in order to fill the research gap. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among the different perceptions of stress, coping styles, and general well-being using a structural equation modeling approach. We examined a hypothetical model among 755 pregnant Chinese women based on the integration of theoretical models. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Trait Coping Styles Questionnaire (TCSQ), and the General Well-Being Schedule (GWB) were used to measure perceived stress, coping styles, and general well-being, respectively. A structural equation model showed that positive and negative perceptions of stress significantly influenced positive and negative coping styles, respectively. Different perceptions of stress were significantly associated with general well-being, but different coping styles had no significant effects on general well-being. The model had a good fit to the data (IFI = 0.910, TLI = 0.904, CFI = 0.910, and RMSEA = 0.038). Different perception of stress was able to predict significant differences in coping styles and general well-being.

  19. Need of tetraiodothyronine supplemental therapy in pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for fetal development. Normal thyroid function in pregnant women adjusts by itself in cases of pregnancy, phenomenon that is deficient in cases of previous maternal thyroid disease. The study group was represented by 120 females, with reproductive age, with known thyroid disease, that had a up to delivery pregnancy. Thyroid ultrasound parameters and functional parameters were follow-up during the 9-month of gestation. The study proposes a mathematical model of predicting the need and the amount of tetraiodothyronine treatment in pregnant women with prevalent thyroid disease.

  20. A processing plant persistent strain of Listeria monocytogenes crosses the fetoplacental barrier in a pregnant guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Anne; Williams, Denita; Irvin, Elizabeth A; Gram, Lone; Smith, Mary Alice

    2008-05-01

    The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes can cause infection in immunocompromised humans and in the fetuses of pregnant women. We have demonstrated that one group of genetically similar L. monocytogenes strains (random amplified polymorphic DNA [RAPD] type 9) dominate and persist in several independent fish processing plants. The purpose of the present study was to determine the virulence potential of one RAPD type 9 strain (La111), one human clinical strain (Scott A), and one monkey clinical strain (12443) in a pregnant guinea pig model. Animals were orally exposed to 10(8) CFU of L. monocytogenes in whipping cream on gestation day (GD) 36 and euthanized on GD 42, 45, or 56. Strains 12443 and Scott A were shed from treated animals for 20 days, whereas La111 was shed only in the first 10 days. Strains 12443 and Scott A were recovered from maternal liver, spleen, and gallbladder on all 3 days of euthanization, whereas La111 was recovered only at GD 45 and 56. Scott A was not isolated from any placentas or fetuses. For dams treated with 12443, 22% of the fetuses were positive for L. monocytogenes, and surprisingly, treatment of dams with La111 resulted in 56% infected fetuses. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 16 and 20% of placentas for 12443 and La111, respectively. The study demonstrates that a food processing plant persistent strain of L. monocytogenes is able to cross the fetoplacental barrier in pregnant guinea pigs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that although information can be gained from model virulence assays, assessment of the virulence potential of a strain may require more complex hosts.

  1. Repurposing of antiparasitic drugs: the hydroxy-naphthoquinone buparvaquone inhibits vertical transmission in the pregnant neosporosis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Müller, Joachim; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Manser, Vera; Wong, Ho Ning; Haynes, Richard K; Hemphill, Andrew

    2016-02-17

    The three anti-malarial drugs artemiside, artemisone, and mefloquine, and the naphthoquinone buparvaquone known to be active against theileriosis in cattle and Leishmania infections in rodents, were assessed for activity against Neospora caninum infection. All four compounds inhibited the proliferation of N. caninum tachyzoites in vitro with IC50 in the sub-micromolar range, but artemisone and buparvaquone were most effective (IC50 = 3 and 4.9 nM, respectively). However, in a neosporosis mouse model for cerebral infection comprising Balb/c mice experimentally infected with the virulent isolate Nc-Spain7, the three anti-malarial compounds failed to exhibit any activity, since treatment did not reduce the parasite burden in brains and lungs compared to untreated controls. Thus, these compounds were not further evaluated in pregnant mice. On the other hand, buparvaquone, shown earlier to be effective in reducing the parasite load in the lungs in an acute neosporosis disease model, was further assessed in the pregnant mouse model. Buparvaquone efficiently inhibited vertical transmission in Balb/c mice experimentally infected at day 7 of pregnancy, reduced clinical signs in the pups, but had no effect on cerebral infection in the dams. This demonstrates proof-of-concept that drug repurposing may lead to the discovery of an effective compound against neosporosis that can protect offspring from vertical transmission and disease.

  2. Development of multi-route physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models for ethanol in the adult, pregnant, and neonatal rat.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sheppard A; McLanahan, Eva D; El-Masri, Hisham; LeFew, William R; Bushnell, Philip J; Boyes, William K; Choi, Kyoungju; Clewell, Harvey J; Campbell, Jerry L

    2012-09-01

    Biofuel blends of 10% ethanol (EtOH) and gasoline are common in the USA, and higher EtOH concentrations are being considered (15-85%). Currently, no physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are available to describe the kinetics of EtOH-based biofuels. PBPK models were developed to describe life-stage differences in the kinetics of EtOH alone in adult, pregnant, and neonatal rats for inhalation, oral, and intravenous routes of exposure, using data available in the open literature. Whereas ample data exist from gavage and intravenous routes of exposure, kinetic data from inhalation exposures are limited, particularly at concentrations producing blood and target tissue concentrations associated with developmental neurotoxicity. Compared to available data, the three models reported in this paper accurately predicted the kinetics of EtOH, including the absorption, peak concentration, and clearance across multiple datasets. In general, model predictions for adult and pregnant animals matched inhalation and intravenous datasets better than gavage data. The adult model was initially better able to predict the time-course of blood concentrations than was the neonatal model. However, after accounting for age-related changes in gastric uptake using the calibrated neonate model, simulations consistently reproduced the early kinetic behavior in blood. This work provides comprehensive multi-route life-stage models of EtOH pharmacokinetics and represents a first step in development of models for use with gasoline-EtOH blends, with additional potential applicability in investigation of the pharmacokinetics of EtOH abuse, addiction, and toxicity.

  3. Safe mom, safe baby: a collaborative model of care for pregnant women experiencing intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Alice; Nosbusch, Jane Morgan; Rice, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Violence during pregnancy is a national and global health-related problem. Intimate partner violence significantly increases the risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Abused pregnant women are 1.4 times more likely to deliver a preterm or low-birth-weight infant requiring extended and resource-intense care in tertiary settings. Despite the prevalence of intimate partner violence during pregnancy, very little is written about established clinical programs designed to address this problem. This article presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of a nurse-led, evidence-based initiative respected for enhancing the health and safety of abused pregnant women. This interdisciplinary program combines registered nurse case management, the advocacy services of a community-based domestic violence agency, and perinatal care into a seamless continuum of professional services. Program interventions focus on helping clients navigate (1) their perinatal experiences across healthcare settings and (2) the complexities of criminal justice, legal, and social service systems within the community. Program-related data collected and evaluated for performance improvement purposes are discussed, and innovative educational programming is described.

  4. Food Insecurity, Prenatal Care and Other Anemia Determinants in Pregnant Women from the NISAMI Cohort, Brazil: Hierarchical Model Concept.

    PubMed

    Demétrio, Fran; Teles-Santos, Carlos Antônio de Souza; Santos, Djanilson Barbosa Dos

    2017-08-01

    Objective To identify the prevalence of anemia and its relation to food insecurity (FI) and other determinants in pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional, cohort-nested study, with the participation of 245 pregnant women who were cared for at Family Health Units in the municipality of Santo Antônio de Jesus, Bahia, Brazil. The participants underwent blood tests for hemoglobin levels, anthropometric examinations, and answered a structured questionnaire. The hemoglobin (Hb) parameter (Hb < 11 g/dL) was used for the classification of the diagnosis of anemia. Food insecurity was evaluated using the North American short-scale food insecurity assessment. Logistic regression was adopted for the statistical analyses, based on a hierarchical conceptual model that enabled the measurement of the decomposition of the total effect of its non-mediated and mediated components using the proposed hierarchical levels. Results The prevalence of anemia in the studied population was of 21.8%, and the average hemoglobin was 12.06 g/dL (standard deviation [SD]: 1.27). Food insecurity was identified in 28.16% of the pregnant women. The average maternal age was 25.82 years (SD: 5.94). After ranking, the variables positively associated with anemia remained significant: FI (odds ratio [OR] =3.63; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.77-7.45); not undergoing prenatal care (OR = 5.15; 95%CI: 1.43-18.50); multiparity (OR = 2.27; 95%CI: 1.02-5.05); and non-supplementation of iron medication (OR = 2.45; 95%CI: 1.04-5.76). The results also indicated that the socioeconomic and environmental factors were largely mediated by food insecurity and factors regarding prenatal care. Conclusions In the present study, the chance of occurrence of anemia in pregnant women was significantly higher, mainly among women: in situations of food insecurity, not undergoing prenatal care, not having received iron supplements, and who are multiparous. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de

  5. The possible role of female sex hormones in milk from pregnant cows in the development of breast, ovarian and corpus uteri cancers.

    PubMed

    Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Sato, Akio

    2005-01-01

    The continued increase in incidence of some hormone-related cancers worldwide is of great concern. Although estrogen-like substances in the environment were blamed for this increase, the possible role of endogenous estrogens from food has not been widely discussed. We are particularly concerned about cows' milk, which contains a considerable quantity of estrogens. When we name cows' milk as one of the important routes of human exposure to estrogens, the general response of Western people is that "man has been drinking cows' milk for around 2000 years without apparent harm." However, the milk that we are now consuming is quite different from that consumed 100 years ago. Unlike their pasture-fed counterparts of 100 years ago, modern dairy cows are usually pregnant and continue to lactate during the latter half of pregnancy, when the concentration of estrogens in blood, and hence in milk, increases. The correlation of incidence and mortality rates with environmental variables in worldwide countries provides useful clues to the etiology of cancer. In this study, we correlated incidence rates for breast, ovarian, and corpus uteri cancers (1993-97 from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents) with food intake (1961-97 from FAOSTAT) in 40 countries. Meat was most closely correlated with the breast cancer incidence (r=0.827), followed by milk (0.817) and cheese (0.751). Stepwise multiple-regression analysis (SMRA) identified meat as the factor contributing most greatly to the incidence of breast cancer ([R]=0.862). Milk was most closely correlated with the incidence of ovarian cancer (r=0.779), followed by animal fats (0.717) and cheese (0.697). SMRA revealed that milk plus cheese make the greatest contribution to the incidence of ovarian cancer ([R]=0.767). Milk was most closely correlated with corpus uteri cancer (r=0.814), followed by cheese (0.787). SMRA revealed that milk plus cheese make the most significant contribution to the incidence of corpus uteri cancer ([R]=0

  6. A Physiologically-based Model for Methylmercury Uptake and Accumulation in Female American Kestrels

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiologically-based model was developed to describe the uptake, distribution, and elimination of methylmercury in female American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). The model was adapted from established models for methylmercury in rodents. Features unique to the model include meth...

  7. A Physiologically-based Model for Methylmercury Uptake and Accumulation in Female American Kestrels

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiologically-based model was developed to describe the uptake, distribution, and elimination of methylmercury in female American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). The model was adapted from established models for methylmercury in rodents. Features unique to the model include meth...

  8. [Sexuality of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Malarewicz, Andrzej; Szymkiewicz, Jadwiga; Rogala, Jerzy

    2006-09-01

    Over the time when the sexual intercourse has been considered merely one of a number of forms of sexual contact, views on sexuality during pregnancy have undergone considerable transformation. A great many of authors emphasise, that the pregnancy is a stimulus for partners to search for ways to maintain mutual emotional bond, close physical affinity and satisfy sexual needs not necessarily finished with an intercourse. The fact, that one of the two partners is pregnant, imposes some restrictions on sexual life. Not rarely, in particular in the first trimester of pregnancy, a female is little interested in sex. It is due to, inter alia, hormonal changes resulting in nausea, fatigue and increased nervosity. These symptoms contribute to general feebleness and reduction of the level of sexual needs and difficulty to become aroused and sexually ready. In spite of that, a lot of women have the need to keep physical and emotional contact with their partners. For a number of couples, pregnancy becomes a stimulus to search for new ways of pleasing each other in love play, that does not necessarily leads with an intercourse. Most studies concerning sexuality during pregnancy focus on observing sexual activity, physiological changes, mutual relationship of partners, analysis of sexual intercourses and investigation of so-called sexual satisfaction. Examination of sexual satisfaction ruchedes the frequency of sexual contacts, intercourses, foreplay, concurrence of orgasms in the two partners, partners' happiness, sexual satisfaction and mutual heartiness. In some researchers' opinion, sexual satisfaction correlates with the feeling of happiness resulting form being pregnant, pregnant woman's feeling still attractive and experience of orgasm. However, some researchers observe reduced sexual activity during pregnancy, except for the second trimester, when sexual activity is similar to the one outside pregnancy. Pregnant women prefer the following types of sexual activity: non

  9. A model of tuberculosis screening for pregnant women in resource-limited settings using Xpert MTB/RIF.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Eleanor R; Kancheya, Nzali G; Harris, Jennifer B; Topp, Stephanie M; Henostroza, German; Reid, Stewart E

    2012-01-01

    Timely diagnosis and treatment of maternal tuberculosis (TB) is important to reduce morbidity and mortality for both the mother and child, particularly in women who are coinfected with HIV. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the integration of TB/HIV screening into antenatal services but available diagnostic tools are slow and insensitive, resulting in delays in treatment initiation. Recently the WHO endorsed Xpert MTB/RIF, a highly sensitive, real-time PCR assay for Mycobacterium tuberculosis that simultaneously detects rifampicin resistance directly from sputum and provides results within 100 minutes. We propose a model for same-day TB screening and diagnosis of all pregnant women at antenatal care using Xpert MTB/RIF. Pilot studies are urgently required to evaluate strategies for the integration of TB screening into antenatal clinics using new diagnostic technologies.

  10. A Model of Tuberculosis Screening for Pregnant Women in Resource-Limited Settings Using Xpert MTB/RIF

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Eleanor R.; Kancheya, Nzali G.; Harris, Jennifer B.; Topp, Stephanie M.; Henostroza, German; Reid, Stewart E.

    2012-01-01

    Timely diagnosis and treatment of maternal tuberculosis (TB) is important to reduce morbidity and mortality for both the mother and child, particularly in women who are coinfected with HIV. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the integration of TB/HIV screening into antenatal services but available diagnostic tools are slow and insensitive, resulting in delays in treatment initiation. Recently the WHO endorsed Xpert MTB/RIF, a highly sensitive, real-time PCR assay for Mycobacterium tuberculosis that simultaneously detects rifampicin resistance directly from sputum and provides results within 100 minutes. We propose a model for same-day TB screening and diagnosis of all pregnant women at antenatal care using Xpert MTB/RIF. Pilot studies are urgently required to evaluate strategies for the integration of TB screening into antenatal clinics using new diagnostic technologies. PMID:22007302

  11. Spatial modelling and mapping of female genital mutilation in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is still prevalent in several communities in Kenya and other areas in Africa, as well as being practiced by some migrants from African countries living in other parts of the world. This study aimed at detecting clustering of FGM/C in Kenya, and identifying those areas within the country where women still intend to continue the practice. A broader goal of the study was to identify geographical areas where the practice continues unabated and where broad intervention strategies need to be introduced. Methods The prevalence of FGM/C was investigated using the 2008 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) data. The 2008 KDHS used a multistage stratified random sampling plan to select women of reproductive age (15–49 years) and asked questions concerning their FGM/C status and their support for the continuation of FGM/C. A spatial scan statistical analysis was carried out using SaTScan™ to test for statistically significant clustering of the practice of FGM/C in the country. The risk of FGM/C was also modelled and mapped using a hierarchical spatial model under the Integrated Nested Laplace approximation approach using the INLA library in R. Results The prevalence of FGM/C stood at 28.2% and an estimated 10.3% of the women interviewed indicated that they supported the continuation of FGM. On the basis of the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC), hierarchical spatial models with spatially structured random effects were found to best fit the data for both response variables considered. Age, region, rural–urban classification, education, marital status, religion, socioeconomic status and media exposure were found to be significantly associated with FGM/C. The current FGM/C status of a woman was also a significant predictor of support for the continuation of FGM/C. Spatial scan statistics confirm FGM clusters in the North-Eastern and South-Western regions of Kenya (p < 0.001). Conclusion This suggests that the

  12. Spatial modelling and mapping of female genital mutilation in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Achia, Thomas N O

    2014-03-25

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is still prevalent in several communities in Kenya and other areas in Africa, as well as being practiced by some migrants from African countries living in other parts of the world. This study aimed at detecting clustering of FGM/C in Kenya, and identifying those areas within the country where women still intend to continue the practice. A broader goal of the study was to identify geographical areas where the practice continues unabated and where broad intervention strategies need to be introduced. The prevalence of FGM/C was investigated using the 2008 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) data. The 2008 KDHS used a multistage stratified random sampling plan to select women of reproductive age (15-49 years) and asked questions concerning their FGM/C status and their support for the continuation of FGM/C. A spatial scan statistical analysis was carried out using SaTScan™ to test for statistically significant clustering of the practice of FGM/C in the country. The risk of FGM/C was also modelled and mapped using a hierarchical spatial model under the Integrated Nested Laplace approximation approach using the INLA library in R. The prevalence of FGM/C stood at 28.2% and an estimated 10.3% of the women interviewed indicated that they supported the continuation of FGM. On the basis of the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC), hierarchical spatial models with spatially structured random effects were found to best fit the data for both response variables considered. Age, region, rural-urban classification, education, marital status, religion, socioeconomic status and media exposure were found to be significantly associated with FGM/C. The current FGM/C status of a woman was also a significant predictor of support for the continuation of FGM/C. Spatial scan statistics confirm FGM clusters in the North-Eastern and South-Western regions of Kenya (p<0.001). This suggests that the fight against FGM/C in Kenya is not yet over

  13. Social stress in pregnant squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis peruviensis) differentially affects placental transfer of maternal antibody to male and female infants.

    PubMed

    Coe, C L; Crispen, H R

    2000-11-01

    The capacity of prenatal stress to disrupt the placental transfer of maternal antibody was evaluated in neonatal squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis peruviensis) gestated under different pregnancy conditions. Normal squirrel monkey offspring (n = 63) were compared with infants generated from pregnancies that involved either a single or 3 periods of disturbance (ns = 21 and 29, respectively). At parturition, levels of antibody (IgG) were determined in mothers and neonates. Only the chronic disturbance condition significantly altered antibody levels in the mothers, resulting in lower IgG. Antibody transfer to the fetus was also affected only by chronic disturbance. In this case the effect was bidirectional, influenced by the sex of the infant. Males were born with lower levels, whereas female infants actually had higher-than-normal IgG, despite lower titers in their mothers. Because virtually all IgG is derived from the prenatal transfer of maternal antibody, it indicates that the sex of the fetus differentially affected this placental process. The IgG receptor may have been up-regulated selectively on the placentas of female fetuses, compensating for reduced antibody in the disturbed mothers.

  14. The "Decorative" Female Model: Sexual Stimuli and the Recognition of Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaChance, Charles C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the impact of the decorative or functionless female models in print advertising and indicates that models facilitate recognition of model/related information but do little to increase the recognition of brand names.

  15. The "Decorative" Female Model: Sexual Stimuli and the Recognition of Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaChance, Charles C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the impact of the decorative or functionless female models in print advertising and indicates that models facilitate recognition of model/related information but do little to increase the recognition of brand names.

  16. Virulence of human and bovine isolates of group B streptococci (types Ia and III) in experimental pregnant mouse models.

    PubMed Central

    Poutrel, B; Dore, J

    1985-01-01

    Two experimental mouse models were tested for their suitability in measuring virulence of two human and two bovine isolates (types Ia and III) of group B streptococci. In the first model, the kinetics of the number of bacteria in the spleen, liver, and placenta of mice inoculated intravenously on day 16 of pregnancy were monitored for 48 h after infection. In the second model, lethality and abortion were recorded for mice inoculated on day 13 of pregnancy. Levels of colonization in spleens or livers and lethality were significantly greater (P less than 0.001) for human isolates than for bovine isolates. In contrast, no statistically significant differences in the ability to colonize placentas and to induce abortions were noted between human and bovine isolates. The results showed that pregnant mice were more sensitive than nonpregnant mice to a challenge with group B streptococci. The results also suggest that placental colonization and abortion could be a suitable mouse model in evaluating the virulence of human and bovine isolates of group B streptococci. PMID:3880731

  17. The educational attainment of young women: role model effects of female high school faculty.

    PubMed

    Nixon, L A; Robinson, M D

    1999-05-01

    To test for the presence of role model effects of female high school faculty and professional staff on young women in high school, we estimate several models of educational attainment for young women using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Exposure to female high school faculty and professional staff has a positive impact on the educational attainment of young women. This result, combined with our finding that female faculty and professional staff have no significant impact on the educational attainment of young men, supports a female role model hypothesis.

  18. Assessment of Anthropometric Trends and the Effects on Thermal Regulatory Models: Females Versus Males

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    MODELS: FEMALES VERSUS MALES 6. AUTHOR(S) Miyo Yokota, Gaston P Bathalon, Larry G Berglund 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...public release; distribution unlimited 14. SUBJECT TERMS Individual variability, female anthropometrics, secular trend, thermal regulatory model, core...height, weight, %body fat (%BF)) in U.S. Army female soldiers, by comparing the 2004 and 1988 databases. Identified anthropometric somatotypes were

  19. The role of model female quality in the mate choice copying behaviour of sailfin mollies.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sarah E; Ryan, Michael J

    2006-06-22

    Female mate choice copying is a socially mediated mate choice behaviour, in which a male's attractiveness to females increases if he was previously chosen by another female as a mate. Although copying has been demonstrated in numerous species, little is known about the specific benefits it confers to copying females. Here we demonstrate that the mate choice behaviour of female sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) is influenced by the phenotypic quality of model females with whom males are observed consorting. Test females choosing between two males of similar body length were found to significantly increase time spent with previously non-preferred males after having observed them with a relatively high-quality female. Conversely, females were found to significantly decrease time spent with previously preferred males after having observed them with a relatively low-quality female. Female mate choice copying might be maintained by selection based on the heuristic value it provides females choosing between males whose quality differences are not easily distinguishable.

  20. The role of model female quality in the mate choice copying behaviour of sailfin mollies

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Sarah E; Ryan, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Female mate choice copying is a socially mediated mate choice behaviour, in which a male's attractiveness to females increases if he was previously chosen by another female as a mate. Although copying has been demonstrated in numerous species, little is known about the specific benefits it confers to copying females. Here we demonstrate that the mate choice behaviour of female sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) is influenced by the phenotypic quality of model females with whom males are observed consorting. Test females choosing between two males of similar body length were found to significantly increase time spent with previously non-preferred males after having observed them with a relatively high-quality female. Conversely, females were found to significantly decrease time spent with previously preferred males after having observed them with a relatively low-quality female. Female mate choice copying might be maintained by selection based on the heuristic value it provides females choosing between males whose quality differences are not easily distinguishable. PMID:17148362

  1. The Effect of Physical Attractiveness of Models on Advertising Effectiveness for Male and Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  2. The effect of physical attractiveness of models on advertising effectiveness for male and female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  3. The Effect of Physical Attractiveness of Models on Advertising Effectiveness for Male and Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  4. Comparison of pregnant and non-pregnant occupant crash and injury characteristics based on national crash data.

    PubMed

    Manoogian, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide specific characteristics of injuries and crash characteristics for pregnant occupants from the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) database for pregnant women as a group, broken down by trimester, and compared to non-pregnant women. Using all NASS/CDS cases collected between the years 2000 and 2012 with at least one pregnant occupant, the entire pregnant data set included 321,820 vehicles, 324,535 occupants, and 640,804 injuries. The pregnant occupant data were compared to the characteristics of NASS/CDS cases for 14,719,533 non-pregnant females 13-44 years old in vehicle crashes from 2000 to 2012. Sixty five percent of pregnant women were located in the front left seat position and roughly the same percentage of pregnant women was wearing a lap and shoulder belt. The average change in velocity was 11.6 mph for pregnant women and over 50% of crashes for pregnant women were frontal collisions. From these collisions, less than seven percent of pregnant women sustained MAIS 2+ injuries. Minor differences between the pregnant and non-pregnant occupants were identified in the body region and source of injuries sustained. However, the data indicated no large differences in injury or crash characteristics based on trimester of pregnancy. Moreover, the risk of an MAIS 2+ level injury for pregnant occupants is similar to the risk of injury for non-pregnant occupants based on the total vehicle change in velocity. Overall this study provides useful data for researchers to focus future efforts in pregnant occupant research. Additionally, this study reinforces that more detailed and complete data on pregnant crashes needs to be collected to understand the risk for pregnant occupants.

  5. Estimation of iodine nutrition and thyroid function status in late-gestation pregnant women in the United States: Development and application of a population-based pregnancy model.

    PubMed

    Lumen, A; George, N I

    2017-01-01

    Previously, a deterministic biologically-based dose-response (BBDR) pregnancy model was developed to evaluate moderate thyroid axis disturbances with and without thyroid-active chemical exposure in a near-term pregnant woman and fetus. In the current study, the existing BBDR model was adapted to include a wider functional range of iodine nutrition, including more severe iodine deficiency conditions, and to incorporate empirically the effects of homeostatic mechanisms. The extended model was further developed into a population-based model and was constructed using a Monte Carlo-based probabilistic framework. In order to characterize total (T4) and free (fT4) thyroxine levels for a given iodine status at the population-level, the distribution of iodine intake for late-gestation pregnant women in the U.S was reconstructed using various reverse dosimetry methods and available biomonitoring data. The range of median (mean) iodine intake values resulting from three different methods of reverse dosimetry tested was 196.5-219.9μg of iodine/day (228.2-392.9μg of iodine/day). There was minimal variation in model-predicted maternal serum T4 and ft4 thyroxine levels from use of the three reconstructed distributions of iodine intake; the range of geometric mean for T4 and fT4, was 138-151.7nmol/L and 7.9-8.7pmol/L, respectively. The average value of the ratio of the 97.5th percentile to the 2.5th percentile equaled 3.1 and agreed well with similar estimates from recent observations in third-trimester pregnant women in the U.S. In addition, the reconstructed distributions of iodine intake allowed us to estimate nutrient inadequacy for late-gestation pregnant women in the U.S. via the probability approach. The prevalence of iodine inadequacy for third-trimester pregnant women in the U.S. was estimated to be between 21% and 44%. Taken together, the current work provides an improved tool for evaluating iodine nutritional status and the corresponding thyroid function status in

  6. In an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Prenatal Androgens Suppress Female Fetal Renal Gluconeogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T.; Späth, Katharina; Boswell, Lyndsey; McNeilly, Alan S.; Duncan, W. Colin

    2015-01-01

    Increased maternal androgen exposure during pregnancy programmes a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like condition, with metabolic dysfunction, in adult female offspring. Other in utero exposures associated with the development of insulin resistance, such as intrauterine growth restriction and exposure to prenatal glucocorticoids, are associated with altered fetal gluconeogenesis. We therefore aimed to assess the effect of maternal androgenisation on the expression of PEPCK and G6PC in the ovine fetus. Pregnant Scottish Greyface sheep were treated with twice weekly testosterone propionate (TP; 100mg) or vehicle control from day 62 to day102 of gestation. At day 90 and day 112 fetal plasma and liver and kidney tissue was collected for analysis. PEPCK and G6PC expression were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. PEPCK and G6PC were localised to fetal hepatocytes but maternal androgens had no effect on female or male fetuses. PEPCK and G6PC were also localised to the renal tubules and renal PEPCK (P<0.01) and G6PC (P = 0.057) were lower in females after prenatal androgenisation with no change in male fetuses. These tissue and sex specific observations could not be explained by alterations in fetal insulin or cortisol. The sexual dimorphism may be related to the increase in circulating estrogen (P<0.01) and testosterone (P<0.001) in females but not males. The tissue specific effects may be related to the increased expression of ESR1 (P<0.01) and AR (P<0.05) in the kidney when compared to the fetal liver. After discontinuation of maternal androgenisation female fetal kidney PEPCK expression normalised. These data further highlight the fetal and sexual dimorphic effects of maternal androgenisation, an antecedent to adult disease and the plasticity of fetal development. PMID:26148093

  7. In an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Prenatal Androgens Suppress Female Fetal Renal Gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T; Späth, Katharina; Boswell, Lyndsey; McNeilly, Alan S; Duncan, W Colin

    2015-01-01

    Increased maternal androgen exposure during pregnancy programmes a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like condition, with metabolic dysfunction, in adult female offspring. Other in utero exposures associated with the development of insulin resistance, such as intrauterine growth restriction and exposure to prenatal glucocorticoids, are associated with altered fetal gluconeogenesis. We therefore aimed to assess the effect of maternal androgenisation on the expression of PEPCK and G6PC in the ovine fetus. Pregnant Scottish Greyface sheep were treated with twice weekly testosterone propionate (TP; 100mg) or vehicle control from day 62 to day 102 of gestation. At day 90 and day 112 fetal plasma and liver and kidney tissue was collected for analysis. PEPCK and G6PC expression were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. PEPCK and G6PC were localised to fetal hepatocytes but maternal androgens had no effect on female or male fetuses. PEPCK and G6PC were also localised to the renal tubules and renal PEPCK (P<0.01) and G6PC (P = 0.057) were lower in females after prenatal androgenisation with no change in male fetuses. These tissue and sex specific observations could not be explained by alterations in fetal insulin or cortisol. The sexual dimorphism may be related to the increase in circulating estrogen (P<0.01) and testosterone (P<0.001) in females but not males. The tissue specific effects may be related to the increased expression of ESR1 (P<0.01) and AR (P<0.05) in the kidney when compared to the fetal liver. After discontinuation of maternal androgenisation female fetal kidney PEPCK expression normalised. These data further highlight the fetal and sexual dimorphic effects of maternal androgenisation, an antecedent to adult disease and the plasticity of fetal development.

  8. Female Genital Cutting: Applying the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model To Understand the Incentives for the Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbagh, Leila

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the practice of female circumcision and the significance of considering social, cultural, economic, and educational opportunities available to females in developing countries when creating intervention programs to help end this practice. The PRECEDE-PROCEED model is a tool that can assess various elements present in a girls' life that…

  9. Female Genital Cutting: Applying the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model To Understand the Incentives for the Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbagh, Leila

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the practice of female circumcision and the significance of considering social, cultural, economic, and educational opportunities available to females in developing countries when creating intervention programs to help end this practice. The PRECEDE-PROCEED model is a tool that can assess various elements present in a girls' life that…

  10. Sperm competition games: the risk model can generate higher sperm allocation to virgin females.

    PubMed

    Ball, M A; Parker, G A

    2007-03-01

    We examine the risk model in sperm competition games for cases where female fertility increases significantly with sperm numbers (sperm limitation). Without sperm competition, sperm allocation increases with sperm limitation. We define 'average risk' as the probability q that females in the population mate twice, and 'perceived risk' as the information males gain about the sperm competition probability with individual females. If males obtain no information from individual females, sperm numbers increase with q unless sperm limitation is high and one of the two competing ejaculates is strongly disfavoured. If males can distinguish between virgin and mated females, greater sperm allocation to virgins is favoured by high sperm limitation, high q, and by the second male's ejaculate being disfavoured. With high sperm limitation, sperm allocation to virgins increases and to mated females decreases with q at high q levels. With perfect information about female mating pattern, sperm allocation (i) to virgins that will mate again exceeds that to mated females and to virgins that will mate only once, (ii) to virgins that mate only once exceeds that for mated females if q is high and there is high second male disadvantage and (iii) to each type of female can decrease with q if sperm limitation is high, although the average allocation increases at least across low q levels. In general, higher sperm allocation to virgins is favoured by: strong disadvantage to the second ejaculate, high sperm limitation, high average risk and increased information (perceived risk). These conditions may apply in a few species, especially spiders.

  11. Prospective validation and assessment of cardiovascular and offspring risk models for pregnant women with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Balci, Ali; Sollie-Szarynska, Krystyna M; van der Bijl, Antoinette G L; Ruys, Titia P E; Mulder, Barbara J M; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; van Dijk, Arie P J; Wajon, Elly M C J; Vliegen, Hubert W; Drenthen, Willem; Hillege, Hans L; Aarnoudse, Jan G; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Pieper, Petronella G

    2014-09-01

    Adequate prepregnancy prediction of maternal cardiovascular and offspring risk is important for counselling and management of pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease (CHD). Therefore we performed a study to identify the optimal assessment strategy for estimating the risk of pregnancy in women with CHD. In this prospective study, we determined the outcomes of 213 pregnancies in 203 women with CHD. The ZAHARA I (Zwangerschap bij Aangeboren HARtAfwijkingen I) and CARPREG (CARdiac disease in PREGnancy) risk scores were calculated for each pregnancy, as was the total number of cardiovascular (TPc) or offspring risk predictors (TPo) from these and other studies combined. Pregnancies were also classified according to the modified WHO classification of maternal cardiovascular risk and according to disease complexity (DC). Maternal cardiovascular events occurred during 22 pregnancies (10.3%). Offspring events occurred during 77 pregnancies in 81 children (37.3%). Cardiovascular and offspring event rates increased with higher risk scores, higher TPc or TPo, higher WHO class and greater DC. The highest area under the curve (AUC) for maternal cardiovascular risk was achieved by the WHO class (AUC: 0.77, p<0.0001). AUC for the ZAHARA I risk score was 0.71 (p=0.001), and for the CARPREG risk score 0.57 (p=0.32). All models performed insufficiently in predicting offspring events (AUC≤0.6). The WHO classification is the best available risk assessment model for estimating cardiovascular risk in pregnant women with CHD. None of the offspring prediction models perform adequately in our cohort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. A Female Ligamentous Cervical Spine Finite Element Model Validated for Physiological Loads.

    PubMed

    Östh, Jonas; Brolin, Karin; Svensson, Mats Y; Linder, Astrid

    2016-06-01

    Mathematical cervical spine models allow for studying of impact loading that can cause whiplash associated disorders (WAD). However, existing models only cover the male anthropometry, despite the female population being at a higher risk of sustaining WAD in automotive rear-end impacts. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a ligamentous cervical spine intended for biomechanical research on the effect of automotive impacts. A female model has the potential to aid the design of better protection systems as well as improve understanding of injury mechanisms causing WAD. A finite element (FE) mesh was created from surface data of the cervical vertebrae of a 26-year old female (stature 167 cm, weight 59 kg). Soft tissues were generated from the skeletal geometry and anatomical literature descriptions. Ligaments were modeled with nonlinear elastic orthotropic membrane elements, intervertebral disks as composites of nonlinear elastic bulk elements, and orthotropic anulus fibrosus fiber layers, while cortical and trabecular bones were modeled as isotropic plastic-elastic. The model has geometrical features representative of the female cervical spine-the largest average difference compared with published anthropometric female data was the vertebral body depth being 3.4% shorter for the model. The majority the cervical segments compare well with respect to biomechanical data at physiological loads, with the best match for flexion-extension loads and less biofidelity for axial rotation. An average female FE ligamentous cervical spine model was developed and validated with respect to physiological loading. In flexion-extension simulations with the developed female model and an existing average male cervical spine model, a greater range of motion (ROM) was found in the female model.

  13. Development of PBPK Models for Gasoline in Adult and Pregnant Rats and their Fetuses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern for potential developmental effects of exposure to gasoline-ethanol blends has grown along with their increased use in the US fuel supply. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for these complex mixtures were developed to address dosimetric issues related to...

  14. Development of PBPK Models for Gasoline in Adult and Pregnant Rats and their Fetuses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern for potential developmental effects of exposure to gasoline-ethanol blends has grown along with their increased use in the US fuel supply. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for these complex mixtures were developed to address dosimetric issues related to...

  15. Pregnancy-Related Health Information-Seeking Behaviors Among Rural Pregnant Women in India: Validating the Wilson Model in the Indian Context

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ashavaree; Sarkar, Madhurima

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Understanding health information-seeking behaviors and barriers to care and access among pregnant women can potentially moderate the consistent negative associations between poverty, low levels of literacy, and negative maternal and child health outcomes in India. Our seminal study explores health information needs, health information-seeking behaviors, and perceived information support of low-income pregnant women in rural India. Methods: Using the Wilson Model of health information-seeking framework, we designed a culturally tailored guided interview to assess information-seeking behaviors and barriers to information seeking among pregnant women. We used a local informant and health care worker to recruit 14 expectant women for two focus group interviews lasting 45 minutes to an hour each. Thirteen other related individuals including husbands, mothers, mothers-in-law, and health care providers were also recruited by hospital counselors for in-depth interviews regarding their pregnant wives/daughters and daughters-in-law. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by coding the data into thematic categories. Results: The data were coded manually and emerging themes included pregnancy-related knowledge and misconceptions and personal, societal, and structural barriers, as well as risk perceptions and self-efficacy. Lack of access to health care and pregnancy-related health information led participants to rely heavily on information and misconceptions about pregnancy gleaned from elder women, friends, and mothers-in-law and husbands. Doctors and para-medical staff were only consulted during complications. All women faced personal, societal, and structural level barriers, including feelings of shame and embarrassment, fear of repercussion for discussing their pregnancies with their doctors, and inadequate time with their doctors. Conclusion: Lack of access and adequate health care information were of primary concern to pregnant women and their families

  16. Pregnancy-related health information-seeking behaviors among rural pregnant women in India: validating the Wilson model in the Indian context.

    PubMed

    Das, Ashavaree; Sarkar, Madhurima

    2014-09-01

    Understanding health information-seeking behaviors and barriers to care and access among pregnant women can potentially moderate the consistent negative associations between poverty, low levels of literacy, and negative maternal and child health outcomes in India. Our seminal study explores health information needs, health information-seeking behaviors, and perceived information support of low-income pregnant women in rural India. Using the Wilson Model of health information-seeking framework, we designed a culturally tailored guided interview to assess information-seeking behaviors and barriers to information seeking among pregnant women. We used a local informant and health care worker to recruit 14 expectant women for two focus group interviews lasting 45 minutes to an hour each. Thirteen other related individuals including husbands, mothers, mothers-in-law, and health care providers were also recruited by hospital counselors for in-depth interviews regarding their pregnant wives/daughters and daughters-in-law. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by coding the data into thematic categories. The data were coded manually and emerging themes included pregnancy-related knowledge and misconceptions and personal, societal, and structural barriers, as well as risk perceptions and self-efficacy. Lack of access to health care and pregnancy-related health information led participants to rely heavily on information and misconceptions about pregnancy gleaned from elder women, friends, and mothers-in-law and husbands. Doctors and para-medical staff were only consulted during complications. All women faced personal, societal, and structural level barriers, including feelings of shame and embarrassment, fear of repercussion for discussing their pregnancies with their doctors, and inadequate time with their doctors. Lack of access and adequate health care information were of primary concern to pregnant women and their families. Our study can help inform policies and multi

  17. Comparison of Sexual Functions in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Mustafa; Cayonu, Neval; Kadihasanoglu, Mustafa; Irkilata, Lokman; Atilla, Mustafa Kemal; Kendirci, Muammer

    2015-11-14

    The physiology and anatomy of pregnant women change during pregnancy. Pregnancy is an anatomically and physiologically amended process experienced by women and as a result of these changes, sexual life of pregnant women alters during pregnancy. We aimed to compare sexual functions of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Sexually active 246 pregnant women were included into this cross-sectional controlled study. A total of 210 non-pregnant women were served as control. Both groups were compared in terms of age, gestational age, presence of urinary incontinence, body mass index, and obstetrical history. Sexual functions of the women were evaluated with Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Data were analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's Exact, Shapiro Wilk, Kruskal Wallis and Dunnett's tests where appropriate. The Pvalues < .05 were considered statistically significant. Mean age in both groups were comparable (P = .053). Median total FSFI scores in the pregnant women were significantly lower than those non-pregnant (18.9 vs. 22.7; P < .05). Additionally, the subgroup analyses of the FSFI scores were found that, total FSFI score is significantly lower in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant group (P < .05). Furthermore, rate of sexual dysfunction in pregnant women was significantly higher than those non-pregnant women (91.08% vs. 67.61%, P = .0001). However, in pregnant women, no meaningful difference in rate of sexual dysfunction was found according to the trimesters (P = .632). Moreover, gravidity and parity exhibited negative impacts on the sexual functions. But number of abortions did not affect sexual function. These data demonstrate that pregnancy significantly diminishes sexual function in women. We believe that, couples need to be counseled regarding the impact of pregnancy on sexual functions.

  18. Gestation-Specific Changes in the Anatomy and Physiology of Healthy Pregnant Women: An Extended Repository of Model Parameters for Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dallmann, André; Ince, Ibrahim; Meyer, Michaela; Willmann, Stefan; Eissing, Thomas; Hempel, Georg

    2017-04-11

    In the past years, several repositories for anatomical and physiological parameters required for physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in pregnant women have been published. While providing a good basis, some important aspects can be further detailed. For example, they did not account for the variability associated with parameters or were lacking key parameters necessary for developing more detailed mechanistic pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic models, such as the composition of pregnancy-specific tissues. The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide an updated and extended database of anatomical and physiological parameters in healthy pregnant women that also accounts for changes in the variability of a parameter throughout gestation and for the composition of pregnancy-specific tissues. A systematic literature search was carried out to collect study data on pregnancy-related changes of anatomical and physiological parameters. For each parameter, a set of mathematical functions was fitted to the data and to the standard deviation observed among the data. The best performing functions were selected based on numerical and visual diagnostics as well as based on physiological plausibility. The literature search yielded 473 studies, 302 of which met the criteria to be further analyzed and compiled in a database. In total, the database encompassed 7729 data. Although the availability of quantitative data for some parameters remained limited, mathematical functions could be generated for many important parameters. Gaps were filled based on qualitative knowledge and based on physiologically plausible assumptions. The presented results facilitate the integration of pregnancy-dependent changes in anatomy and physiology into mechanistic population physiologically based pharmacokinetic models. Such models can ultimately provide a valuable tool to investigate the pharmacokinetics during pregnancy in silico and support informed decision making regarding

  19. Use of novel inhalation kinetic studies to refine physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic models for ethanol in non-pregnant and pregnant rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol (EtOH) exposure induces a variety of concentration-dependent neurological and developmental effects in the rat. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been used to predict the inhalation exposure concentrations necessary to produce blood EtOH concentrat...

  20. Use of novel inhalation kinetic studies to refine physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic models for ethanol in non-pregnant and pregnant rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol (EtOH) exposure induces a variety of concentration-dependent neurological and developmental effects in the rat. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been used to predict the inhalation exposure concentrations necessary to produce blood EtOH concentrat...

  1. Implementation and evaluation of a harm-reduction model for clinical care of substance using pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) use during pregnancy is associated with many pregnancy complications, including preterm birth, small for gestational age, preeclampsia, and abruption. Hawaii has lead the nation in MA use for many years, yet prior to 2007, did not have a comprehensive plan to care for pregnant substance-using women. In 2006, the Hawaii State Legislature funded a pilot perinatal addiction clinic. The Perinatal Addiction Treatment Clinic of Hawaii was built on a harm-reduction model, encompassing perinatal care, transportation, child-care, social services, family planning, motivational incentives, and addiction medicine. We present the implementation model and results from our first one hundred three infants (103) seen over 3 years of operation of the program. Methods Referrals came from community health centers, hospitals, addiction treatment facilities, private physician offices, homeless outreach services and self-referral through word-of-mouth and bus ads. Data to describe sample characteristics and outcome was obtained prospectively and retrospectively from chart abstraction and delivery data. Drug use data was obtained from the women's self-report and random urine toxicology during the pregnancy, as well as urine toxicology at the time of birth on mothers, and urine and meconium toxicology on the infants. Post-partum depression was measured in mothers with the Edinburgh Post-Partum depression scale. Data from Path clinic patients were compared with a representative cohort of women delivering at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children during the same time frame, who were enrolled in another study of pregnancy outcomes. Ethical approval for this study was obtained through the University of Hawaii Committee for Human Studies. Results Between April 2007 and August 2010, 213 women with a past or present history of addiction were seen, 132 were pregnant and 97 delivered during that time. 103 live-born infants were delivered. There were 3 first

  2. Reducing Economic Disparities for Female Offenders: The Oxford House Model.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Sarah; Jason, Leonard A; Robinson, LaVome

    In the past 30 years the rate of increase in incarceration for females who abuse substances has outpaced that of men. Women have increased health and economic disparities, and face barriers to economic mobility, increasing their risk of returning to the criminal justice system. Past research suggests that there is a positive relationship between living in Oxford House and employment wages, yet the impact of having a criminal history on this relationship was unknown. This study used a nationwide sample of 136 women living in Oxford Houses in a regression analysis with length of stay in Oxford House predicting employment wages, and moderated by criminal history. There was a positive relationship between length of stay and wages. Criminal history modified the association between length of stay and wages, and length of stay had a significantly greater impact on wages for women with criminal convictions. The findings provide a contribution to alcohol and drug abuse and economic literature by identifying a setting that decreases economic disparities for formerly incarcerated women. Results can inform future policy, research, and the development of gender sensitive aftercare programs that address the needs of women, assisting transitioning women in reentering mainstream society, and increasing their chances of obtaining and retaining employment.

  3. Psychobiobehavioral Model for Preterm Birth in Pregnant Women in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Premji, Shahirose S.; Yim, Ilona S.; Dosani (Mawji), Aliyah; Kanji, Zeenatkhanu; Sulaiman, Salima; Musana, Joseph W.; Samia, Pauline; Shaikh, Kiran; Letourneau, Nicole; MiGHT Group

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a final common outcome resulting from many interrelated etiological pathways; of particular interest is antenatal psychosocial distress (i.e., stress, anxiety, and depression). In LMI countries, both exposure to severe life stressors and rate of PTB are on average greater when compared with high-income countries. In LMI countries women are exposed to some of the most extreme psychosocial stress worldwide (e.g., absolute poverty, limited social resources). High prevalence of antenatal stress and depression have been observed in some studies from LMI countries. We propose a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral model for investigating the complex multisystem interactions in stress responses leading to PTB and explain the basis of this approach. We discuss ethical considerations for a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral screening tool to predict PTB from a LMI country perspective. PMID:26413524

  4. Children of female sex workers and drug users: a review of vulnerability, resilience and family-centred models of care.

    PubMed

    Beard, Jennifer; Biemba, Godfrey; Brooks, Mohamad I; Costello, Jill; Ommerborn, Mark; Bresnahan, Megan; Flynn, David; Simon, Jonathon L

    2010-06-23

    Injection drug users and female sex workers are two of the populations most at risk for becoming infected with HIV in countries with concentrated epidemics. Many of the adults who fall into these categories are also parents, but little is known about the vulnerabilities faced by their children, their children's sources of resilience, or programmes providing services to these often fragile families. This review synthesizes evidence from disparate sources describing the vulnerabilities and resilience of the children of female sex workers and drug users, and documents some models of care that have been put in place to assist them. A large literature assessing the vulnerability and resilience of children of drug users and alcoholics in developed countries was found. Research on the situation of the children of sex workers is extremely limited. Children of drug users and sex workers can face unique risks, stigma and discrimination, but both child vulnerability and resilience are associated in the drug use literature with the physical and mental health of parents and family context. Family-centred interventions have been implemented in low- and middle-income contexts, but they tend to be small, piecemeal and struggling to meet demand; they are poorly documented, and most have not been formally evaluated. We present preliminary descriptive data from an organization working with pregnant and new mothers who are drug users in Ukraine and from an organization providing services to sex workers and their families in Zambia. Because parents' drug use or sex work is often illegal and hidden, identifying their children can be difficult and may increase children's vulnerability and marginalization. Researchers and service providers, therefore, need to proceed with caution when attempting to reach these populations, but documentation and evaluation of current programmes should be prioritized.

  5. Metagenomic Analysis of Antibiotic-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiota in a Pregnant Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran; Azhar, Esam I.; Abbas, Aymn T.; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie K.; Raoult, Didier; Yasir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Food and Drug Administration (FDA, USA)-approved category B antibiotics are commonly prescribed to treat infections during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate antibiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota (GM) that occur during pregnancy. The 16S rRNA amplicon deep-sequencing method was used to analyze the effect of category B antibiotics (azithromycin, amoxicillin and cefaclor) on GM during pregnancy using a rat model. The GM composition was substantially modulated by pregnancy and antibiotics administration. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Chlamydiae, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria were the dominant phyla. Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy increased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and reduced Firmicutes. The genera Shigella, Streptococcus, Candidatus Arthromitus, and Helicobacter were significantly (p < 0.05) more abundant during pregnancy. Antibiotics significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the relative abundance of Lactobacillus but increased that of Enterobacter. There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus gallinarum and Lactobacillus crispatus during pregnancy. Antibiotic treatment reduced bacterial diversity; the lowest number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected in the cefaclor-treated groups. Antibiotics significantly (p < 0.05) promoted weight gain during pregnancy, and increased relative abundance of Shigella sonnei, Enterococcus hormaechei, and Acinetobacter sp. GM perturbations were accompanied by increases in Proteobacteria abundance and weight gain in pregnancy following antibiotic treatment. PMID:27199748

  6. Narrative Exposure Therapy: A Proposed Model to Address Intimate Partner Violence-Related PTSD in Parenting and Pregnant Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Ellen M; Quinn, Camille R; Resch, Kathryn; Sommers, Marilyn S; Wieling, Elizabeth; Cerulli, Catherine

    2015-09-29

    Pregnant and parenting adolescents experience high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its sequelae posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Narrative exposure therapy (NET) is an innovative intervention that has demonstrated strong preliminary evidence in improving mental health. The specific aims of this article are 3-fold: (1) provide a brief background about IPV-related PTSD and depression among pregnant and parenting adolescents; (2) describe NET's theoretical principles, its therapeutic process, and provide a review of existing evidence; and (3) discuss NET as a potential treatment to address the mental health burden among adolescents experiencing IPV-related PTSD and depression.

  7. Narrative Exposure Therapy: A Proposed Model to Address IPV-related PTSD in Parenting and Pregnant Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Ellen M.; Quinn, Camille R.; Resch, Kathryn; Sommers, Marilyn S.; Wieling, Elizabeth; Cerulli, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Pregnant and parenting adolescents often experience high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its sequelae posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) is an innovative intervention that has demonstrated strong preliminary evidence in improving mental health. The specific aims of this article are threefold: a) provide a brief background about IPV-related PTSD and depression among pregnant and parenting adolescents, b) describe NET’s theoretical principals, its therapeutic process, and provide review of existing evidence and c) to discuss NET as a potential treatment to address that mental health burden among adolescents experiencing IPV-related PTSD and depression. PMID:26422231

  8. Models to increase enrollment of minority females in science-based careers.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, V. S.; Erwin, K. W.; Ghose, M.; Perry-Thornton, E.

    2001-01-01

    Enrollment of African-American females in academic pathways that lead to science based-careers may be limited by gender discrepancies in standardized test scores, academic preparation, selecting "college-prep" course work in the high school curriculum, and lack of mentors or role models. Barriers related to teacher characteristics are: (a) lack of self-confidence, (b) learning environment, (c) teacher behavior, (d) lack of female role models, and (e) failure to see the relevance between the classes and a female's expected role in life. Other limiting factors include differences in access to educational resources, differences in economic status, differences in interest or choice, cultural barriers, and lack of encouragement. Confidence building models that improve enrollment of minority females in science-based careers include equitable teaching instruction, inquiry-based pedagogy, and cooperative learning. Practices that correlate with achievement and success include challenging curricula, a nurturing learning environment, high expectations, community service, research experiences, and mentoring relationships. PMID:12653386

  9. Modelling female fertility traits in beef cattle using linear and non-linear models.

    PubMed

    Naya, H; Peñagaricano, F; Urioste, J I

    2017-06-01

    Female fertility traits are key components of the profitability of beef cattle production. However, these traits are difficult and expensive to measure, particularly under extensive pastoral conditions, and consequently, fertility records are in general scarce and somehow incomplete. Moreover, fertility traits are usually dominated by the effects of herd-year environment, and it is generally assumed that relatively small margins are kept for genetic improvement. New ways of modelling genetic variation in these traits are needed. Inspired in the methodological developments made by Prof. Daniel Gianola and co-workers, we assayed linear (Gaussian), Poisson, probit (threshold), censored Poisson and censored Gaussian models to three different kinds of endpoints, namely calving success (CS), number of days from first calving (CD) and number of failed oestrus (FE). For models involving FE and CS, non-linear models overperformed their linear counterparts. For models derived from CD, linear versions displayed better adjustment than the non-linear counterparts. Non-linear models showed consistently higher estimates of heritability and repeatability in all cases (h(2 ) < 0.08 and r < 0.13, for linear models; h(2 ) > 0.23 and r > 0.24, for non-linear models). While additive and permanent environment effects showed highly favourable correlations between all models (>0.789), consistency in selecting the 10% best sires showed important differences, mainly amongst the considered endpoints (FE, CS and CD). In consequence, endpoints should be considered as modelling different underlying genetic effects, with linear models more appropriate to describe CD and non-linear models better for FE and CS. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Factors associated with physical violence against pregnant women from São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil: an approach using structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Costa, Danielle Cristina Silva; Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Valente, Camila Maia; Ribeiro, João Victor Fonseca; Almeida, Laysa Andrade; Costa, Ludmilla Emilia Martins; Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto E; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da

    2017-01-23

    The factors associated with physical violence against pregnant women were analyzed in a cross-sectional study of 1,446 pregnant women from a prenatal cohort who were interviewed in 2010 and 2011 in São Luís, Brazil. In the initial model, socioeconomic status occupied the most distal position, determining sociodemographic factors, social support and the behavioral factors that ultimately determined physical violence, which was investigated as a latent variable. Structural equation modeling was used in the analysis. Pregnant women who were from more disadvantaged backgrounds (p = 0.027), did not reside with intimate partners (p = 0.005), had low social support (p < 0.001) and had a high number of lifetime intimate partners (p = 0.001) reported more episodes of physical violence. Low social support was the primary mediator of the effect of socioeconomic status on physical violence. The effect of marital status was mainly mediated by a high number of lifetime intimate partners.

  11. A Poisson common factor model for projecting mortality and life expectancy jointly for females and males.

    PubMed

    Li, Jackie

    2013-01-01

    We examine the application of a Poisson common factor model for the projection of mortality jointly for females and males. The model structure is an extension of the classical Lee-Carter method in which there is a common factor for the aggregate population, while a number of additional sex-specific factors can also be incorporated. The Poisson distribution is a natural choice for modelling the number of deaths, and its use provides a formal statistical framework for model selection, parameter estimation, and data analysis. Our results for Australian data show that this model leads to projected life expectancy values similar to those produced by the separate projection of mortality for females and males, but possesses the additional advantage of ensuring that the projected male-to-female ratio for death rates at each age converges to a constant. Moreover, the randomness of the corresponding residuals indicates that the model fit is satisfactory.

  12. Personality profiles of male and female positive role models in medicine.

    PubMed

    Magee, M; Hojat, M

    1998-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the personality profile of positive role models in medicine. Participants were a national sample of 188 physicians (164 men, 24 women) who had been nominated by the chief executive officers of their institutions as positive role models and who completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. Compared to the general population, these 188 male and female positive role models in medicine scored higher on Conscientious factor, and on Achievement Striving, Activity, Competence, Dutifulness, Trust, Assertiveness, and Altruism facets, but they scored lower on the Vulnerability facet than the general population. In addition, the male role models scored significantly higher than men in the general population on the Agreeableness factor, and the female role models obtained significantly higher scores than the population norms on Extraversion and Openness factors, and on Feelings, Ideas, Positive Emotions, Values, Warmth, Aesthetics, and Fantasy facets. The female role models scored far below their sex-related norms on Neuroticism factor and on Angry Hostility facet. Comparisons between the male and female role models showed that the female role models scored higher on the Openness factor, and on the Feelings, Positive Emotions, Aesthetics, and Fantasy facets of personality. Implications in medical education and in explaining, assessing, and improving the qualities that contribute to professional success and in promoting the concept of "positive medicine" are discussed.

  13. Predicator of Pregnant Women’s Self-care Behavior against Air Pollution: An explanation based on the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM)

    PubMed Central

    Jasemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Jaafarzadeh, Nematallah; Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif; Malehi, Amal Saki; Araban, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Air pollution is one of the most important problems of metropolitan cities. The level of air pollution in the city of Ahvaz is so much higher than the standard level, that it can create risks, particularly for pregnant women in the area. The aim of the study was to examine the predictors of self-care behavior of pregnant women against air pollution according to Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) in Ahvaz. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 330 pregnant women who were referred to health care centers in western Ahvaz in 2015 were examined. The data collection tool was a reliable and valid researcher-made questionnaire consisting of three parts: The first part was demographic information, the second part according to the extended parallel process model, included perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, response efficacy, and self-efficacy. The third part examined self-care behavior. Then, the collected data was analyzed by using the software SPSS 16. Data analysis was done by using Spearman’s correlation coefficient and linear regression. Results The average age of study subjects was 26.07 ± 2.3 years, and most (45.5%) were in the second trimester of pregnancy. These findings showed that self-efficacy constructs (β = 0.41) and response efficacy (β= 0.15) have predictive power of self-care behavior (p < 0.05). Conclusion The findings showed that self-efficacy and response efficacy, are important factors to predict air pollution self-care behavior. Therefore, to develop a theory-based behavioral modification program for pregnant women, more emphasis on these constructs is recommended. PMID:27790338

  14. Predicator of Pregnant Women's Self-care Behavior against Air Pollution: An explanation based on the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM).

    PubMed

    Jasemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Jaafarzadeh, Nematallah; Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif; Malehi, Amal Saki; Araban, Marzieh

    2016-09-01

    Air pollution is one of the most important problems of metropolitan cities. The level of air pollution in the city of Ahvaz is so much higher than the standard level, that it can create risks, particularly for pregnant women in the area. The aim of the study was to examine the predictors of self-care behavior of pregnant women against air pollution according to Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) in Ahvaz. In this cross-sectional study, 330 pregnant women who were referred to health care centers in western Ahvaz in 2015 were examined. The data collection tool was a reliable and valid researcher-made questionnaire consisting of three parts: The first part was demographic information, the second part according to the extended parallel process model, included perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, response efficacy, and self-efficacy. The third part examined self-care behavior. Then, the collected data was analyzed by using the software SPSS 16. Data analysis was done by using Spearman's correlation coefficient and linear regression. The average age of study subjects was 26.07 ± 2.3 years, and most (45.5%) were in the second trimester of pregnancy. These findings showed that self-efficacy constructs (β = 0.41) and response efficacy (β= 0.15) have predictive power of self-care behavior (p < 0.05). The findings showed that self-efficacy and response efficacy, are important factors to predict air pollution self-care behavior. Therefore, to develop a theory-based behavioral modification program for pregnant women, more emphasis on these constructs is recommended.

  15. Mathematical modeling of mammary ducts in lactating human females.

    PubMed

    Negin Mortazavi, S; Hassiotou, Foteini; Geddes, Donna; Hassanipour, Fatemeh

    2015-07-01

    This work studies a model for milk transport through lactating human breast ducts and describes mathematically the mass transfer from alveolar sacs through the mammary ducts to the nipple. In this model, both the phenomena of diffusion in the sacs and conventional flow in ducts have been considered. The ensuing analysis reveals that there is an optimal range of bifurcation numbers leading to the easiest milk flow based on the minimum flow resistance. This model formulates certain difficult-to-measure values like diameter of the alveolar sacs and the total length of the milk path as a function of easy-to-measure properties such as milk fluid properties and macroscopic measurements of the breast. Alveolar dimensions from breast tissues of six lactating women are measured and reported in this paper. The theoretically calculated alveoli diameters for optimum milk flow (as a function of bifurcation numbers) show excellent match with our biological data on alveolar dimensions. Also, the mathematical model indicates that for minimum milk flow resistance the glandular tissue must be within a short distance from the base of the nipple, an observation that matches well with the latest anatomical and physiological research.

  16. [Fertility and female employment in Greece: a microeconomic model].

    PubMed

    Symeonidou, H; Magdalinos, M

    1993-01-01

    The National Social Research Center of Greece applied November 1984-February 1985 data on 3193 women to a micro-economic model which achieves more efficacious estimation and test procedures and separates useful information from political decisions. The researchers compared the behavior of women from three areas: Athens, other urban regions, and rural areas. Specifically, they wanted to examine the relationship between fertility and women's employment in greater Athens. The model assumes that each woman maximizes her utility which is a function of three factors: family size, free time (leisure), and consumer goods. The test to detect specification errors indicated structural differences between urban and rural areas and heteroscedasticity in the supply equation for work and the demand equation for children. The final model with five structural and four variance equations confirmed that employment affects fertility directly and through women's sex-role attitudes. The mean number of live births, desired family size, and ideal family size were lower in Athens, greater in rural areas, and at an intermediary level in other urban regions. Fertility in Athens and women's employment were not significantly different than that in other urban area. The differences in women's employment were much greater between towns and rural areas, probably because many women in rural areas work without a salary in the family's business. The final model did not find fertility to have an overall significant direct effect on employment but did find it had a significant indirect effect in rural areas due to attitudes toward sexual roles.

  17. Developmental Implications for Prenatal Exposure to Environmental Toxins: Consumption Habits of Pregnant Women and Prenatal Nicotine Exposure in a Mouse Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, Sarah Emily

    This dissertation provides a discussion of the effects of maternal consumption of environmental toxins, and will hopefully contribute to the prevention and understanding of developmental disorders and physiological deficits. Developing systems are particularly susceptible to toxic insults, and small changes in utero can result in long-term deficits. Chapter one of this dissertation reviews the potential teratogenicity of nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, MeHg, PCBs, BPA, and tap water contaminants, so as to characterize the current body of literature detailing the effects and implications of prenatal exposure to toxins. In chapter two, research on maternal consumption habits is presented, with an emphasis on commonly-consumed, potentially-teratogenic substances. Occurrences and frequencies of maternal intake of healthy and unhealthy foods, beverages, and medications in a population of predominantly Hispanic women in Southern California were assessed using the Food, Beverage, and Medication Intake Questionnaire (FBMIQ). The described study reveals that a proportion of pregnant women consumed BPA, MeHg, caffeine, and alcohol at varied levels during pregnancy. The following chapters provide an in-depth analysis of the postnatal effects of a particular neuroteratogen, nicotine, which has been shown to impart various detrimental postnatal effects on exposed offspring. A CD-1 mouse model of prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) was used to analyze aspects of the brain and neocortex that may underly some of the cognitive and behavioral phenotypes seen with PNE. Analyses included postnatal measurements of brain weight, brain widths and lengths, development of neocortical circuitry, and cortical thickness measures. Exposed mice were found to exhibit reduced brain and body weights at birth, a phenotype that recovered by postnatal day 10. No changes in neocortical circuity or thickness in sensory and motor areas were found. PNE also resulted in persistent behavioral effects, including

  18. Exposure of high resolution fetuses in advanced pregnant woman models at different stages of pregnancy to uniform magnetic fields at the frequency of 50 Hz.

    PubMed

    Liorni, Ilaria; Parazzini, Marta; Fiocchi, Serena; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) have been considered as a possible risk factor for childhood leukemia by several epidemiological studies. In this work the exposure assessment of fetuses at 3, 7 and 9 months of Gestational Age (GA) to differently polarized uniform magnetic fields at the frequency of 50 Hz by means of high resolution numerical models of pregnant women is carried out. This set of models is used to analyze the fetal tissue-specific induced electric fields and current densities as a function of both the incident magnetic field polarization and the GA.

  19. A DXA validated geometric model for the calculation of body segment inertial parameters of young females.

    PubMed

    Winter, Samantha Lee; Forrest, Sarah Michelle; Wallace, Joanne; Challis, John H

    2017-08-08

    The purpose of this study was to validate a new geometric solids model, developed to address the lack of female specific models for body segment inertial parameter estimation. A second aim was to determine the effect of reducing the number of geometric solids used to model the limb segments on model accuracy. The 'full' model comprised 56 geometric solids, the 'reduced' 31, and the 'basic' 16. Predicted whole-body inertial parameters were compared with direct measurements (reaction board, scales), and predicted segmental parameters with those estimated from whole-body DXA scans for 28 females. The percentage root mean square error (%RMSE) for whole-body volume was <2.5% for all models, and 1.9% for the full model. The %RMSE for whole-body center of mass location was <3.2% for all models. The %RMSE whole-body mass was <3.3% for the full model. The RMSE for segment masses was <0.5 kg (<0.5%) for all segments; Bland-Altman analysis showed the full and reduced models could adequately model thigh, forearm, foot and hand segments, but the full model was required for the trunk segment. The proposed model was able to accurately predict body segment inertial parameters for females, more geometric solids are required to more accurately model the trunk.

  20. Waif goodbye! Average-size female models promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

    PubMed

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2011-10-01

    Despite consensus that exposure to media images of thin fashion models is associated with poor body image and disordered eating behaviours, few attempts have been made to enact change in the media. This study sought to investigate an effective alternative to current media imagery, by exploring the advertising effectiveness of average-size female fashion models, and their impact on the body image of both women and men. A sample of 171 women and 120 men were assigned to one of three advertisement conditions: no models, thin models and average-size models. Women and men rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as thin and no models. For women with average and high levels of internalisation of cultural beauty ideals, exposure to average-size female models was associated with a significantly more positive body image state in comparison to exposure to thin models and no models. For men reporting high levels of internalisation, exposure to average-size models was also associated with a more positive body image state in comparison to viewing thin models. These findings suggest that average-size female models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

  1. The impact of education intervention on the Health Belief Model constructs regarding anxiety of nulliparous pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Shahnazi, Hossein; Sabooteh, Sahar; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Mirkarimi, Kamal; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to investigations, pregnant women hypothesized that anxiety is a common factor that will improve spontaneously; they are not aware of its side effects on the fetus, baby, and pregnancy outcome, as a whole. Other studies have also not tried to design a theoretical framework based on Health Education Models (HBMs) to overcome this problem. The current study aimed at exploring the effectiveness of education on the anxiety of nulliparous women based on a HBM. Materials and Methods: An experimental study on 88 eligible nulliparous women (n = 44 per group), from Doroud city, was performed in 2012. The data was collected using a researcher made questionnaire. Education was conducted in three sessions tailored with HBM constructs with the help of lectures, group discussions, inquiries, Power Point presentations, and booklets. Evaluation performed using a posttest four and eight weeks after last session. The collected data were analyzed using statistical tests, including Chi-square, independent t-test, and repeated measure Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) by the significance level of 0.05. Results: The mean score of knowledge, perceived sensitivity, perceived severity, perceived benefits and barriers, cues to action, self efficacy, and behavior, four weeks after intervention (P < 0.001) and eight weeks after intervention (P < 0.001) were significantly more in the case group Than the control group. ANOVA with repeated measures showed a significant increase in the case group in knowledge (from 32.1 to 89.1), perceived sensitivity (from 34.8 to 91.5), perceived severity (from 31.82 to 88.48), perceived benefits (from 39.28 to 92.41), perceived barriers (from 26.93 to 88.61), cues to action (from24.65 to 92.03), self efficacy (from 29.71 to 88.75), and behavior (from 28.83 to 94.63). Changes were not significant in the control group. Conclusion: The effect of HBM and education on increasing knowledge and changing people's beliefs and behavior, in terms of

  2. Reproductive risk factors assessment for anaemia among pregnant women in India using a multinomial logistic regression model.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Vanamail

    2014-07-01

    To assess reproductive risk factors for anaemia among pregnant women in urban and rural areas of India. The International Institute of Population Sciences, India, carried out third National Family Health Survey in 2005-2006 to estimate a key indicator from a sample of ever-married women in the reproductive age group 15-49 years. Data on various dimensions were collected using a structured questionnaire, and anaemia was measured using a portable HemoCue instrument. Anaemia prevalence among pregnant women was compared between rural and urban areas using chi-square test and odds ratio. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors. Anaemia prevalence was assessed among 3355 pregnant women from rural areas and 1962 pregnant women from urban areas. Moderate-to-severe anaemia in rural areas (32.4%) is significantly more common than in urban areas (27.3%) with an excess risk of 30%. Gestational age specific prevalence of anaemia significantly increases in rural areas after 6 months. Pregnancy duration is a significant risk factor in both urban and rural areas. In rural areas, increasing age at marriage and mass media exposure are significant protective factors of anaemia. However, more births in the last five years, alcohol consumption and smoking habits are significant risk factors. In rural areas, various reproductive factors and lifestyle characteristics constitute significant risk factors for moderate-to-severe anaemia. Therefore, intensive health education on reproductive practices and the impact of lifestyle characteristics are warranted to reduce anaemia prevalence. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Modelling effective diagnosis of risk complications in gestational diabetes mellitus: an e-diabetic expert system for pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreedevi, E.; Vijaya Lakshmi, K.; Chaitanya Krishna, E.; Padmavathamma, M.

    2012-04-01

    Diabetes is a chronic illness that requires continuous medical care and patient self-management education to prevent acute complications and to reduce the risk of long-term complications. This paper deals with study and development of algorithm to develop an initial stage expert system to provide diagnosis to the pregnant women who are suffering from Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) by means of Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT).

  4. Modelling ranging behaviour of female orang-utans: a case study in Tuanan, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Wartmann, Flurina M; Purves, Ross S; van Schaik, Carel P

    2010-04-01

    Quantification of the spatial needs of individuals and populations is vitally important for management and conservation. Geographic information systems (GIS) have recently become important analytical tools in wildlife biology, improving our ability to understand animal movement patterns, especially when very large data sets are collected. This study aims at combining the field of GIS with primatology to model and analyse space-use patterns of wild orang-utans. Home ranges of female orang-utans in the Tuanan Mawas forest reserve in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia were modelled with kernel density estimation methods. Kernel results were compared with minimum convex polygon estimates, and were found to perform better, because they were less sensitive to sample size and produced more reliable estimates. Furthermore, daily travel paths were calculated from 970 complete follow days. Annual ranges for the resident females were approximately 200 ha and remained stable over several years; total home range size was estimated to be 275 ha. On average, each female shared a third of her home range with each neighbouring female. Orang-utan females in Tuanan built their night nest on average 414 m away from the morning nest, whereas average daily travel path length was 777 m. A significant effect of fruit availability on day path length was found. Sexually active females covered longer distances per day and may also temporarily expand their ranges.

  5. A Skinfold Model to Predict Fat-Free Mass in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Evelyn R.; Fornetti, Willa C.; Jallo, Jennifer J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Despite widespread use of skinfolds to estimate body fatness, few prediction models have been validated on female athletes. Most skinfold models have been validated with hydrodensitometry, which does not account for the variability in bone density that may exist among female athletes. Our purpose was to develop a skinfold model that predicts fat-free mass (FFM) in female collegiate athletes. Design and Setting: A skinfold model was developed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the criterion method. Four skinfold measures (abdominal, suprailiac, thigh, triceps), height, and weight were entered into a regression model. The best model was developed and validated by calculating the predicted error sum of squares statistic. Subjects: Study participants included 101 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female athletes (age = 20.3 ± 1.4 years, height = 166.7 ± 7.8 cm, mass = 63.1 ± 8.1 kg) from several sports. Measurements: Each participant's FFM was measured via DEXA. Skinfold thicknesses were measured and entered into the regression model. Results: The final regression model included mass and abdominal and thigh skinfolds: FFM = 8.51 + (0.809 × mass) − (0.178 × abdominal skinfold) − (0.225 × thigh skinfold). The model showed excellent predictive ability (R = 0.98, standard error of the estimate = 1.1 kg). Pairwise comparisons indicated that prediction error showed no overprediction or underprediction bias. Conclusions: In female collegiate athletes, FFM can be predicted accurately from body mass and abdominal and thigh skinfolds. This model is practical and can be used in most athletic settings. PMID:15496996

  6. A Skinfold Model to Predict Fat-Free Mass in Female Athletes.

    PubMed

    Warner, Evelyn R; Fornetti, Willa C; Jallo, Jennifer J; Pivarnik, James M

    2004-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite widespread use of skinfolds to estimate body fatness, few prediction models have been validated on female athletes. Most skinfold models have been validated with hydrodensitometry, which does not account for the variability in bone density that may exist among female athletes. Our purpose was to develop a skinfold model that predicts fat-free mass (FFM) in female collegiate athletes. DESIGN AND SETTING: A skinfold model was developed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the criterion method. Four skinfold measures (abdominal, suprailiac, thigh, triceps), height, and weight were entered into a regression model. The best model was developed and validated by calculating the predicted error sum of squares statistic. SUBJECTS: Study participants included 101 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female athletes (age = 20.3 +/- 1.4 years, height = 166.7 +/- 7.8 cm, mass = 63.1 +/- 8.1 kg) from several sports. MEASUREMENTS: Each participant's FFM was measured via DEXA. Skinfold thicknesses were measured and entered into the regression model. RESULTS: The final regression model included mass and abdominal and thigh skinfolds: FFM = 8.51 + (0.809 x mass) - (0.178 x abdominal skinfold) - (0.225 x thigh skinfold). The model showed excellent predictive ability (R = 0.98, standard error of the estimate = 1.1 kg). Pairwise comparisons indicated that prediction error showed no overprediction or underprediction bias. CONCLUSIONS: In female collegiate athletes, FFM can be predicted accurately from body mass and abdominal and thigh skinfolds. This model is practical and can be used in most athletic settings.

  7. Development of a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Chest Model for the 5(th) Percentile Female.

    PubMed

    Kimpara, Hideyuki; Lee, Jong B; Yang, King H; King, Albert I; Iwamoto, Masami; Watanabe, Isao; Miki, Kazuo

    2005-11-01

    Several three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the human body have been developed to elucidate injury mechanisms due to automotive crashes. However, these models are mainly focused on 50(th) percentile male. As a first step towards a better understanding of injury biomechanics in the small female, a 3D FE model of a 5(th) percentile female human chest (FEM-5F) has been developed and validated against experimental data obtained from two sets of frontal impact, one set of lateral impact, two sets of oblique impact and a series of ballistic impacts. Two previous FE models, a small female Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS-AF05) occupant version 1.0Beta (Kimpara et al. 2002) and the Wayne State University Human Thoracic Model (WSUHTM, Wang 1995 and Shah et al. 2001) were integrated and modified for this model development. The model incorporated not only geometrical gender differences, such as location of the internal organs and structure of the bony skeleton, but also the biomechanical differences of the ribs due to gender. It includes a detailed description of the sternum, ribs, costal cartilage, thoracic spine, skin, superficial muscles, intercostal muscles, heart, lung, diaphragm, major blood vessels and simplified abdominal internal organs and has been validated against a series of six cadaveric experiments on the small female reported by Nahum et al. (1970), Kroell et al. (1974), Viano (1989), Talantikite et al. (1998) and Wilhelm (2003). Results predicted by the model were well-matched to these experimental data for a range of impact speeds and impactor masses. More research is needed in order to increase the accuracy of predicting rib fractures so that the mechanisms responsible for small female injury can be more clearly defined.

  8. Maternal Smoke Exposure Impairs the Long-Term Fertility of Female Offspring in a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Camlin, Nicole J; Sobinoff, Alexander P; Sutherland, Jessie M; Beckett, Emma L; Jarnicki, Andrew G; Vanders, Rebecca L; Hansbro, Philip M; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Holt, Janet E

    2016-02-01

    The theory of fetal origins of adult disease was first proposed in 1989, and in the decades since, a wide range of other diseases from obesity to asthma have been found to originate in early development. Because mammalian oocyte development begins in fetal life it has been suggested that environmental and lifestyle factors of the mother could directly impact the fertility of subsequent generations. Cigarette smoke is a known ovotoxicant in active smokers, yet disturbingly 13% of Australian and 12% of US women continue to smoke throughout pregnancy. The focus of our investigation was to characterize the adverse effects of smoking on ovary and oocyte quality in female offspring exposed in utero. Pregnant mice were nasally exposed to cigarette smoke for 12 wk throughout pregnancy/lactation, and ovary and oocyte quality of the F1 (maternal smoke exposed) generation was examined. Neonatal ovaries displayed abnormal somatic cell proliferation and increased apoptosis, leading to a reduction in follicle numbers. Further investigation found that altered somatic cell proliferation and reduced follicle number continued into adulthood; however, apoptosis did not. This reduction in follicles resulted in decreased oocyte numbers, with these oocytes found to have elevated levels of oxidative stress, altered metaphase II spindle, and reduced sperm-egg interaction. These ovarian and oocyte changes ultimately lead to subfertility, with maternal smoke-exposed animals having smaller litters and also taking longer to conceive. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that in utero and lactational exposure to cigarette smoke can have long-lasting effects on the fertility of the next generation of females.

  9. Effect of exposure to photographs of thin models on self-consciousness in female college students.

    PubMed

    Wegner, B S; Hartmann, A M; Geist, C R

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the immediate influence of brief exposure to images taken from print media on the general self-consciousness and body self-consciousness of 67 college women. After viewing photographs of either thin female models or control photographs, the women completed the Self-consciousness Scale and the Body Self-consciousness Questionnaire. Although alpha was .45, the college women who looked at images of thin female models gave immediate ratings significantly (p < .001) higher on both general Self-consciousness and Body Self-consciousness than those who looked at control images.

  10. Psychological models of female teachers'functioning in their professional role.

    PubMed

    Poraj, Grazyna

    2010-01-01

    The research was aimed at searching for diversified models of female teachers' functioning that could be determined by their individual traits, psychological variables, and professional adaptation factors. Three hundred eleven female teachers aged from 26 to 60 were examined. The following tools were used in the research: The Hope Scale, NEO-FFI Inventory, IPSA Inventory, Work Description Inventory and Maslach Burnout Inventory. Models of psychological functioning of female teachers were distinguished by means of cluster analysis. The classification was based upon similarities and differences in the obtained results. Three groups of female teachers characterised by distinct traits were identified and named according to the research results: 'passive teachers', 'frustrated teachers', and 'adapted teachers'. The first group (93 persons) included women who were not distinctive in any way. The second group (74 persons) comprised women characterised by very unfavourable traits. The third group consisted of women with favourable characteristics, women who are full of energy and enthusiasm for work, those who are satisfied with their job. Psychological models of female teachers' functioning are determined by their individual psychological traits. These traits constitute their important personal resources that influence their professional adaptation and the levels of job and life satisfaction.

  11. Establishment of a repeated social defeat stress model in female mice.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Aki; Chung, Jia-Ru; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Hongxing; Grossman, Yael; Aleyasin, Hossein; Flanigan, Meghan E; Pfau, Madeline L; Menard, Caroline; Dumitriu, Dani; Hodes, Georgia E; McEwen, Bruce S; Nestler, Eric J; Han, Ming-Hu; Russo, Scott J

    2017-10-09

    Numerous studies have employed repeated social defeat stress (RSDS) to study the neurobiological mechanisms of depression in rodents. An important limitation of RSDS studies to date is that they have been conducted exclusively in male mice due to the difficulty of initiating attack behavior directed toward female mice. Here, we establish a female mouse model of RSDS by inducing male aggression toward females through chemogenetic activation of the ventrolateral subdivision of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl). We demonstrate that females susceptible to RSDS display social avoidance, anxiety-like behavior, reduction of body weight, and elevated levels of circulating interleukin 6. In contrast, a subset of mice we term resilient only display anxiety-like behaviors after RSDS. This model allows for investigation of sex differences in the neurobiological mechanisms of defeat‒induced depression‒like behaviors. A robust female social defeat model is a critical first step in the identification and development of novel therapeutic compounds to treat depression and anxiety disorders in women.

  12. Computational human model VHP-FEMALE derived from datasets of the national library of medicine.

    PubMed

    Noetscher, Gregory M; Yanamadala, Janakinadh; Tankaria, Harshal; Louie, Sara; Prokop, Alexander; Nazarian, Ara; Makarov, Sergey N

    2016-08-01

    Simulation of the electromagnetic response of the human body relies upon efficient computational models. The objective of this paper is to describe a new platform-independent and computationally-efficient full-body electromagnetic model, the Visible Human Project® (VHP)-Female v.3.0 and to outline its distinct features. We also report model performance results using two leading commercial electromagnetic antenna simulation packages: ANSYS HFSS and CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®.

  13. Growth curve by Gompertz nonlinear regression model in female and males in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum).

    PubMed

    De Mello, Fernanda; Oliveira, Carlos A L; Ribeiro, Ricardo P; Resende, Emiko K; Povh, Jayme A; Fornari, Darci C; Barreto, Rogério V; McManus, Concepta; Streit, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Was evaluated the pattern of growth among females and males of tambaqui by Gompertz nonlinear regression model. Five traits of economic importance were measured on 145 animals during the three years, totaling 981 morphometric data analyzed. Different curves were adjusted between males and females for body weight, height and head length and only one curve was adjusted to the width and body length. The asymptotic weight (a) and relative growth rate to maturity (k) were different between sexes in animals with ± 5 kg; slaughter weight practiced by a specific niche market, very profitable. However, there was no difference between males and females up to ± 2 kg; slaughter weight established to supply the bigger consumer market. Females showed weight greater than males (± 280 g), which are more suitable for fish farming purposes defined for the niche market to larger animals. In general, males had lower maximum growth rate (8.66 g / day) than females (9.34 g / day), however, reached faster than females, 476 and 486 days growth rate, respectively. The height and length body are the traits that contributed most to the weight at 516 days (P <0.001).

  14. In utero phthalate effects in the female rat: A model for MRKH syndrome✩

    PubMed Central

    Hannas, Bethany R.; Howdeshell, Kembra L.; Furr, Johnathan; Gray, L. Earl

    2014-01-01

    Mayer–Rokitansky–Kuster–Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by uterine and vaginal canal aplasia in normal karyotype human females and is a syndrome with poorly defined etiology. Reproductive toxicity of phthalate esters (PEs) occurs in rat offspring exposed in utero, a phenomenon that is better studied in male offspring than females. The current study reports female reproductive tract malformations in the Sprague–Dawley rat similar to those characteristic of MRKH syndrome, following in utero exposure to a mixture of 5 PEs. We determined that females are ~2-fold less sensitive to the effects of the 5-PE mixture than males for reproductive tract malformations. We were not fully successful in defining the critical exposure period for females; however, incidence of malformations was 88% following dosing from GD8 to 19 versus 22% and 0% for GD8–13 and GD14–19, respectively. Overall, this study provides valuable information regarding female vulnerability to in utero phthalate exposure and further characterizes a potential model for the human MRKH syndrome. PMID:23542816

  15. In utero phthalate effects in the female rat: a model for MRKH syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hannas, Bethany R; Howdeshell, Kembra L; Furr, Johnathan; Gray, L Earl

    2013-12-16

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by uterine and vaginal canal aplasia in normal karyotype human females and is a syndrome with poorly defined etiology. Reproductive toxicity of phthalate esters (PEs) occurs in rat offspring exposed in utero, a phenomenon that is better studied in male offspring than females. The current study reports female reproductive tract malformations in the Sprague-Dawley rat similar to those characteristic of MRKH syndrome, following in utero exposure to a mixture of 5 PEs. We determined that females are ∼2-fold less sensitive to the effects of the 5-PE mixture than males for reproductive tract malformations. We were not fully successful in defining the critical exposure period for females; however, incidence of malformations was 88% following dosing from GD8 to 19 versus 22% and 0% for GD8-13 and GD14-19, respectively. Overall, this study provides valuable information regarding female vulnerability to in utero phthalate exposure and further characterizes a potential model for the human MRKH syndrome. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Modeling the Cost-Effectiveness of Home-Based HIV Testing and Education (HOPE) for Pregnant Women and Their Male Partners in Nyanza Province, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monisha; Farquhar, Carey; Ying, Roger; Krakowiak, Daisy; Kinuthia, John; Osoti, Alfred; Asila, Victor; Gone, Molly; Mark, Jennifer; Barnabas, Ruanne V

    2016-08-01

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa face a 2-fold higher risk of HIV acquisition during pregnancy and postpartum and the majority do not know the HIV status of their male partner. Home-based couple HIV testing for pregnant women can reduce HIV transmission to women and infants while increasing antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage in men. However, the cost-effectiveness of this program has not been evaluated. We modeled the health and economic impact of implementing a home-based partner education and HIV testing (HOPE) intervention for pregnant women and their male partners in a region of Western Kenya (formally Nyanza Province). We used data from the HOPE randomized clinical trial conducted in Kisumu, Kenya, to parameterize a mathematical model of HIV transmission. We conducted an in-country microcosting of the HOPE intervention (payer perspective) to estimate program costs as well as a lower cost scenario of task-shifting to community health workers. The incremental cost of adding the HOPE intervention to standard antenatal care was $31-37 and $14-16 USD per couple tested with program and task-shifting costs, respectively. At 60% coverage of male partners, HOPE was projected to avert 6987 HIV infections and 2603 deaths in Nyanza province over 10 years with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $886 and $615 per disability-adjusted life year averted for the program and task-shifting scenario, respectively. ICERs were robust to changes in intervention coverage, effectiveness, and ART initiation and dropout rates. The HOPE intervention can moderately decrease HIV-associated morbidity and mortality by increasing ART coverage in male partners of pregnant women. ICERs fall below Kenya's per capita gross domestic product ($1358) and are therefore considered cost-effective. Task-shifting to community health workers can increase intervention affordability and feasibility.

  17. Modeling the Cost-Effectiveness of Home-Based HIV Testing and Education (HOPE) for Pregnant Women and Their Male Partners in Nyanza Province, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Farquhar, Carey; Ying, Roger; Krakowiak, Daisy; Kinuthia, John; Osoti, Alfred; Asila, Victor; Gone, Molly; Mark, Jennifer; Barnabas, Ruanne V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Women in sub-Saharan Africa face a 2-fold higher risk of HIV acquisition during pregnancy and postpartum and the majority do not know the HIV status of their male partner. Home-based couple HIV testing for pregnant women can reduce HIV transmission to women and infants while increasing antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage in men. However, the cost-effectiveness of this program has not been evaluated. Methods: We modeled the health and economic impact of implementing a home-based partner education and HIV testing (HOPE) intervention for pregnant women and their male partners in a region of Western Kenya (formally Nyanza Province). We used data from the HOPE randomized clinical trial conducted in Kisumu, Kenya, to parameterize a mathematical model of HIV transmission. We conducted an in-country microcosting of the HOPE intervention (payer perspective) to estimate program costs as well as a lower cost scenario of task-shifting to community health workers. Results: The incremental cost of adding the HOPE intervention to standard antenatal care was $31–37 and $14–16 USD per couple tested with program and task-shifting costs, respectively. At 60% coverage of male partners, HOPE was projected to avert 6987 HIV infections and 2603 deaths in Nyanza province over 10 years with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $886 and $615 per disability-adjusted life year averted for the program and task-shifting scenario, respectively. ICERs were robust to changes in intervention coverage, effectiveness, and ART initiation and dropout rates. Conclusions: The HOPE intervention can moderately decrease HIV-associated morbidity and mortality by increasing ART coverage in male partners of pregnant women. ICERs fall below Kenya's per capita gross domestic product ($1358) and are therefore considered cost-effective. Task-shifting to community health workers can increase intervention affordability and feasibility. PMID:27355506

  18. The Effectiveness of a New Model in Managing Pregnant Women with Iron Deficiency Anemia in Indonesia: A Nonrandomized Controlled Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Widyawati, Widyawati; Jans, Suze; Bor, Hans H J; van Dillen, Jeroen; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia has a major problem with iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women. A new model named the Four Pillars Approach was designed to improve antenatal care for these women. This study aimed to measure the effectiveness of the model in managing pregnant women with iron deficiency anemia. We used a nonrandomized controlled intervention study. The study, with the Four Pillars Approach as intervention versus usual care as its control, was conducted in two provinces in Java (Indonesia) during the period from March 2012 until May 2013. Main outcome measures were a difference of Hb level ≥ 0.5 g/dL, the number of women who attended five or more antenatal care visits, and birthing with a skilled birth attendant. Three hundred fifty-four participants were enrolled in the study. Participants in the intervention group had an adjusted odds ratio of 25.0 (95% CI 12.03-52.03, p = 0.001) for increased hemoglobin of ≥ 0.5 g/dL at 35-37 weeks of gestation, compared with the control group. In the intervention group, 95.0 percent of women had five or more antenatal care visits, compared with 57.2 percent (p = 0.001) in the control group. All births in both groups were assisted by skilled birth attendants. The Four Pillars Approach is effective in increasing the hemoglobin level and the frequency of antenatal care visits of participants when compared with the usual care for pregnant women with anemia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The lonely mouse: verification of a separation-induced model of depression in female mice.

    PubMed

    Martin, Alison L; Brown, Richard E

    2010-02-11

    Animal models of depression seldom test females, even though women are twice as likely as men to suffer from major depressive disorder. Since female mice are sensitive to social isolation, we tested a separation-based model of depression in three experiments. In experiment 1 female C57BL/6J mice were housed in three conditions: isolated (housed individually from 8 weeks of age), separated (housed in groups and then separated and housed individually at 23 weeks of age) and grouped (housed in groups from 8 weeks of age). At 24 weeks of age, there was a significant increase in weight and in immobility in individually housed mice in the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), a reduction in transitions in the L/D box, a reduced startle response and reduced prepulse inhibition, but no differences in cued or context fear conditioning. Experiment 2 showed that fluoxetine treatment administered via drinking water attenuated depressive-like behaviour in the FST and TST in individually housed female C57BL/6J mice, but had no effect on anxiety-like behaviour. Experiment 3 found that group-housed females had higher baseline corticosterone (CORT) levels than isolated females and fluoxetine had no effect on CORT levels. Thus, separation from group housing is a reliable and valid method for inducing depression-like behaviour in female mice. This procedure is both versatile, allowing for the study of genetic and environmental interactions, and accessible, making it useful for studying depression and testing new drugs for its treatment.

  20. Estimating natal dispersal movement rates of female European ducks with multistate modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Lindberg, M.S.; Mednis, A.

    2003-01-01

    1. We used up to 34 years of capture-recapture data from about 22,100 new releases of day-old female ducklings and multistate modelling to test predictions about the influence of environmental, habitat and management factors on natal dispersal probability of three species of ducks within the Engure Marsh, Latvia. 2. The mean natal dispersal distances were very similar (c . 0?6-0?7 km) for all three species and were on average 2?7 times greater than breeding dispersal distances recorded within the same study system. 3. We were unable to confirm the kinship hypothesis and found no evidence that young first-nesting females nested closer to their relatives (either mother or sister) than to the natal nest. 4. Young female northern shovelers, like adults, moved from small islands to the large island when water level was high and vice versa when water level was low before the construction of elevated small islands. Movement probabilities between the two strata were much higher for young shovelers than adults, suggesting that young birds had not yet developed strong fidelity to the natal site. Movements of young female tufted ducks, unlike those of shovelers, were not dependent on water level fluctuations and reflected substantial flexibility in choice of first nesting sites. 5. Data for young birds supported our earlier conclusion that common pochard nesting habitats in black-headed gull colonies were saturated during the entire study period. Young females, like the two adult age groups, moved into and out of colonies with similar probability. Fidelity probability of female pochards to each stratum increased with age, being the lowest (0?62) for young (DK) females, intermediate (0?78) for yearlings (SY) and the highest (0?84) for adult (ASY) females. 6. Young female tufted ducks, like adults, showed higher probabilities of moving from islands to emergent marshes when water levels were higher both before and after habitat management. The relationship between the spring

  1. Body composition by a three compartment model in adult Indian male and female subjects.

    PubMed

    Borgonha, S; Kuriyan, R; Shetty, P; Ferro-Luzzi, A; Kurpad, A V

    1997-07-01

    The body composition of 10 adult Indian male and female subjects was investigated by a three compartment model, using measurements of Total Body Water (TBW) by deuterium dilution, and of body density by hydrodensitometry. The three compartment model yielded significantly different (P < 0.005) estimates of percent body fat of 15.9+/-3.8 and 19.7+/-4.2% and of the Fat Free Mass (FFM) of 41+/-3.3 kg and 33.9+/-4.1 kg in the male and female subjects respectively. The hydration of the FFM was 0.704+/-0.032 in the males and 0.719+/-0.024 in the females; this difference was not signifcant between groups. The density of the FFM, measured from estimates of percent body fat by the 3 compartment approach and of body density by hydrodensitometry, was 1.107+/-0.014 in the males and 1.101+/-0.001 in the females with no significant differences between the groups. This study demonstrates differences in body composition between BMI matched healthy adult male and female subjects. Although there are significant differences for % Fat and FFM between the sexes, there are no significant differences in the hydration fraction and the density of the FFM.

  2. An empirical model of the optimal timing of reproduction for female amphipods infected by trematodes.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, D G; Boates, J S; Forbes, M R

    2001-02-01

    Life-history theory predicts that hosts should reproduce when first infected by parasites if hosts are capable and if parasites have a lower cost on current than on future reproduction of hosts. We constructed an empirical model to explore fitness of females of the intertidal amphipod Corophium volutator that reproduced soon versus long after infection by the trematode Gynaecotyla adunca. For uninfected females, the optimal time to reproduce was at their maximum body length. However, for females infected by low or high intensities of trematode metacercariae, reproductive potential (realized fecundity) was highest for females that mated immediately after becoming infected. Even after removing a high cost of delaying reproduction for infected amphipods (high likelihood of depredation by sandpipers, which are final hosts of G. adunca), realized fecundity remained highest if reproduction occurred immediately following infection by trematodes. Results from our model support the view that early reproduction of female amphipods following infection by G. adunca is an adaptive life-history response to parasitism.

  3. Modeling reproductive trajectories of roe deer females: fixed or dynamic heterogeneity?

    PubMed

    Plard, F; Bonenfant, C; Delormeb, D; Gaillard, J M

    2012-12-01

    The relative role of dynamic and fixed heterogeneity in shaping the individual heterogeneity observed in most life-history traits remains difficult to quantify. In a recent work, Tuljapurkar et al. (2009) suggested modeling individual heterogeneity in lifetime reproductive success by a null model building reproductive trajectories from a first-order Markov chain. According to this model, among-individual differences in reproductive trajectories would be generated by the stochastic transitions among reproductive states (such as breeder and non-breeder) due to dynamic heterogeneity. In this work, we analyze the individual variation in three reproductive metrics (reproductive status, fecundity, and reproductive success) in two populations of roe deer intensively monitored using Tuljapurkar et al. (2009)’s dynamic model. Moreover, we challenge the Tuljapurkar model previously used as a biological null model to test whether the observed distribution of reproductive success over the lifetime was generated by a stochastic process by modifying two steps of the previous model to build a full stochastic model. We show that a distribution generated by the full dynamic model proposed by Tuljapurkar et al. (2009) can be consistently interpreted as only generated from a stochastic biological process provided that the probabilities of transition among reproductive states used are independent of the current reproductive state and that the positive covariation that usually occurs between survival and reproduction among individuals is removed. Only the reproductive status of roe deer females could be restricted to a stochastic process described by the full stochastic model, probably because most females (>90%) were breeders in a given year. The fecundity of roe deer females could not be adequately described by the full dynamic and full stochastic model, and the observed distribution of female reproductive success differed from the one generated by a full dynamic model in which

  4. Female-Headed Families: An Ecological Model of Residential Concentration in a Small City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Roncek, Dennis W.

    1980-01-01

    Proposed an ecological model to explain the concentration of female-headed families in a small city. Data for city blocks provided patterns of concentration. Of the physical variables, only historical development of the city and market decisions by nonresidential consumers were important predictors of concentration; spatial concentration was not…

  5. Influence of Role Models and Mentors on Female Graduate Students' Choice of Science as a Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Toni; MacCleave, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the source, nature, and degree of influence of role models and mentors on female graduate students' choice of science as a career. Also examined was the existence of gender or area-of-study (engineering, biological science, physical sciences) differences. Results of a factor analysis of the Influence of…

  6. Effects of Successful Female Role Models on Young Women's Attitudes toward Traditionally Male Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jean

    A study was conducted to examine the effects on young women of reading about nontraditional role models in the sciences and engineering, and discussing various aspects of participating in science and engineering careers with a trained instructor. Subjects for the study were 153 female students enrolled in advanced, elective science courses (10th…

  7. A Model Comparison of Career Indecision among Females Enrolled in Vocational and College Preparatory Tracks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulff, Mary Beth; Ethington, Corinna A.

    1999-01-01

    A path model study of 167 high school females in college prep and 133 in vocational education identified career self-efficacy as the only variable with direct effect on career indecision in both groups. Self-efficacy was also the primary mediator of the indirect effects of other variables. (SK)

  8. Adaptive Response in Female Modeling of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal Axis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic computational model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose-response and time-course ...

  9. Adaptive Response in Female Modeling of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal Axis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic computational model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose-response and time-course ...

  10. A Student's Perspective: Fictional Characters in Books as Positive Role Models for Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnick, Samantha

    2002-01-01

    Any girl who watches TV or listens to the radio is bombarded not only with negative stereotypes of females, but also with the message that the most important qualities to possess are physical and aesthetic. From where, then, are girls supposed to derive positive role models? The author began asking herself this question two years ago as an eighth…

  11. Hollow-Fiber Pharmacodynamic Studies and Mathematical Modeling To Predict the Efficacy of Amoxicillin for Anthrax Postexposure Prophylaxis in Pregnant Women and Children

    PubMed Central

    VanScoy, Brian; Liu, Weiguo; Kulawy, Robert; Drusano, G. L.

    2013-01-01

    Amoxicillin is considered an option for postexposure prophylaxis of Bacillus anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women who are breastfeeding and in children because of the potential toxicities of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline to the fetus and child. The amoxicillin regimen that effectively kills B. anthracis and prevents resistance is unknown. Fourteen-day dose range and dose fractionation studies were conducted in in vitro pharmacodynamic models to identify the exposure intensity and pharmacodynamic index of amoxicillin that are linked with optimized killing of B. anthracis and resistance prevention. Studies with dicloxacillin, a drug resistant to B. anthracis beta-lactamase, evaluated the role of beta-lactamase production in the pharmacodynamic indices for B. anthracis killing and resistance prevention. Dose fractionation studies showed that trough/MIC and not time above MIC was the index for amoxicillin that was linked to successful outcome through resistance prevention. Failure of amoxicillin regimens was due to inducible or stable high level expression of beta-lactamases. Studies with dicloxacillin demonstrated that a time above MIC of ≥94% was linked with treatment success when B. anthracis beta-lactamase activity was negated. Recursive partitioning analysis showed that amoxicillin regimens that produced peak concentrations of <10.99 μg/ml and troughs of >1.75 μg/ml provided a 100% success rate. Other amoxicillin peak and trough values produced success rates of 28 to 67%. For postpartum and pregnant women and children, Monte Carlo simulations predicted success rates for amoxicillin at 1 g every 8 h (q8h) of 53, 33, and 44% (30 mg/kg q8h), respectively. We conclude that amoxicillin is suboptimal for postexposure prophylaxis of B. anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women and in children. PMID:24041894

  12. The pregnant ferret as a model for studying the congenital effects of influenza virus infection in utero: infection of foetal tissues in organ culture and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, C.; Toms, G. L.; Smith, H.

    1977-01-01

    Organ cultures of ferret foetal tissues showed a similar pattern of susceptibility to influenza virus to that already observed for human foetal tissues (Rosztoczy et al., 1975); respiratory, alimentary and urogenital tissues supported the replication of influenza virus but nervous and lymphopoietic tissues (those which, in man, are associated with foetal or postnatal abnormalities) were insusceptible. In contrast to corresponding human tissues, ferret foetal placenta and amnion readily supported viral replication although both human and ferret umbilical cord were susceptible. In limited experiments, neither the membranes nor the susceptible foetal tissues became infected after intranasal inoculation of pregnant ferrets of various gestational ages. However, after intracardial inoculation of pregnant ferrets with high titre virus (ca 10(9) EBID50) virus was isolated from both foetal membranes and foetuses. The membranes became infected at early, middle and late gestation, but virus appeared to cross the placental barrier to infect foetal tissues only in late gestation. At this stage virus could be isolated not only from those foetal tissues (respiratory, alimentary and urogenital) susceptible in organ culture, but also in small amounts from tissues which were insusceptible in organ culture (heart, lymphopoietic and nervous tissue). Virus was also isolated from foetal membranes and foetuses of late gestation ferrets following intracardial inoculation with a one hundred-fold lower dose of virus which, unlike the higher dose, did not induce a maternal febrile response. The pregnant ferret appears to be a suitable model for investigating the effects on development of foetal infection with influenza virus but it may have disadvantages with regard to the nature and strength of the placental barrier. PMID:861161

  13. Hollow-fiber pharmacodynamic studies and mathematical modeling to predict the efficacy of amoxicillin for anthrax postexposure prophylaxis in pregnant women and children.

    PubMed

    Louie, Arnold; Vanscoy, Brian; Liu, Weiguo; Kulawy, Robert; Drusano, G L

    2013-12-01

    Amoxicillin is considered an option for postexposure prophylaxis of Bacillus anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women who are breastfeeding and in children because of the potential toxicities of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline to the fetus and child. The amoxicillin regimen that effectively kills B. anthracis and prevents resistance is unknown. Fourteen-day dose range and dose fractionation studies were conducted in in vitro pharmacodynamic models to identify the exposure intensity and pharmacodynamic index of amoxicillin that are linked with optimized killing of B. anthracis and resistance prevention. Studies with dicloxacillin, a drug resistant to B. anthracis beta-lactamase, evaluated the role of beta-lactamase production in the pharmacodynamic indices for B. anthracis killing and resistance prevention. Dose fractionation studies showed that trough/MIC and not time above MIC was the index for amoxicillin that was linked to successful outcome through resistance prevention. Failure of amoxicillin regimens was due to inducible or stable high level expression of beta-lactamases. Studies with dicloxacillin demonstrated that a time above MIC of ≥94% was linked with treatment success when B. anthracis beta-lactamase activity was negated. Recursive partitioning analysis showed that amoxicillin regimens that produced peak concentrations of <10.99 μg/ml and troughs of >1.75 μg/ml provided a 100% success rate. Other amoxicillin peak and trough values produced success rates of 28 to 67%. For postpartum and pregnant women and children, Monte Carlo simulations predicted success rates for amoxicillin at 1 g every 8 h (q8h) of 53, 33, and 44% (30 mg/kg q8h), respectively. We conclude that amoxicillin is suboptimal for postexposure prophylaxis of B. anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women and in children.

  14. The pregnant ferret as a model for studying the congenital effects of influenza virus infection in utero: infection of foetal tissues in organ culture and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sweet, C; Toms, G L; Smith, H

    1977-04-01

    Organ cultures of ferret foetal tissues showed a similar pattern of susceptibility to influenza virus to that already observed for human foetal tissues (Rosztoczy et al., 1975); respiratory, alimentary and urogenital tissues supported the replication of influenza virus but nervous and lymphopoietic tissues (those which, in man, are associated with foetal or postnatal abnormalities) were insusceptible. In contrast to corresponding human tissues, ferret foetal placenta and amnion readily supported viral replication although both human and ferret umbilical cord were susceptible. In limited experiments, neither the membranes nor the susceptible foetal tissues became infected after intranasal inoculation of pregnant ferrets of various gestational ages. However, after intracardial inoculation of pregnant ferrets with high titre virus (ca 10(9) EBID50) virus was isolated from both foetal membranes and foetuses. The membranes became infected at early, middle and late gestation, but virus appeared to cross the placental barrier to infect foetal tissues only in late gestation. At this stage virus could be isolated not only from those foetal tissues (respiratory, alimentary and urogenital) susceptible in organ culture, but also in small amounts from tissues which were insusceptible in organ culture (heart, lymphopoietic and nervous tissue). Virus was also isolated from foetal membranes and foetuses of late gestation ferrets following intracardial inoculation with a one hundred-fold lower dose of virus which, unlike the higher dose, did not induce a maternal febrile response. The pregnant ferret appears to be a suitable model for investigating the effects on development of foetal infection with influenza virus but it may have disadvantages with regard to the nature and strength of the placental barrier.

  15. Modeling of palatable food intake in female young adults. Effects of perceived body size.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Roel C J; Larsen, Junilla K; Herman, C Peter; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2008-11-01

    Laboratory taste-test studies have shown that social modeling effects on food intake are powerful. The aim of the present study was to examine the degree to which people model food intake in a more naturalistic eating setting. After completing a cover task, female participants (N=102) spent a 15-min break with a female confederate who ate a large amount or a small amount of M&Ms or no M&Ms at all. Further, the confederate had a slim or (subtly manipulated) normal-weight appearance. Females who were exposed to a confederate who ate much consumed more than those who were confronted with a confederate who ate only a little or nothing at all. Although the manipulation of the confederate's appearance had no significant main effect on the amount of food that participants consumed, a significant interaction effect was found, such that the modeling effect of eating was present only in the normal-weight appearance condition. Our findings suggest that normal-weight young women are more inclined to imitate the food intake of a female confederate if they are more similar to the confederate.

  16. A Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model to Predict Disposition of CYP2D6 and CYP1A2 Metabolized Drugs in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Alice Ban; Nallani, Srikanth C.; Zhao, Ping; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Isoherranen, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Conducting pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in pregnant women is challenging. Therefore, we asked if a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model could be used to evaluate different dosing regimens for pregnant women. We refined and verified our previously published pregnancy PBPK model by incorporating cytochrome P450 CYP1A2 suppression (based on caffeine PK) and CYP2D6 induction (based on metoprolol PK) into the model. This model accounts for gestational age–dependent changes in maternal physiology and hepatic CYP3A activity. For verification, the disposition of CYP1A2–metabolized drug theophylline (THEO) and CYP2D6–metabolized drugs paroxetine (PAR), dextromethorphan (DEX), and clonidine (CLO) during pregnancy was predicted. Our PBPK model successfully predicted THEO disposition during the third trimester (T3). Predicted mean postpartum to third trimester (PP:T3) ratios of THEO area under the curve (AUC), maximum plasma concentration, and minimum plasma concentration were 0.76, 0.95, and 0.66 versus observed values 0.75, 0.89, and 0.72, respectively. The predicted mean PAR steady-state plasma concentration (Css) ratio (PP:T3) was 7.1 versus the observed value 3.7. Predicted mean DEX urinary ratio (UR) (PP:T3) was 2.9 versus the observed value 1.9. Predicted mean CLO AUC ratio (PP:T3) was 2.2 versus the observed value 1.7. Sensitivity analysis suggested that a 100% induction of CYP2D6 during T3 was required to recover the observed PP:T3 ratios of PAR Css, DEX UR, and CLO AUC. Based on these data, it is prudent to conclude that the magnitude of hepatic CYP2D6 induction during T3 ranges from 100 to 200%. Our PBPK model can predict the disposition of CYP1A2, 2D6, and 3A drugs during pregnancy. PMID:23355638

  17. Explanatory models and openness about dementia in migrant communities: A qualitative study among female family carers.

    PubMed

    van Wezel, Nienke; Francke, Anneke L; Kayan Acun, Emine; Devillé, Walter Ljm; van Grondelle, Nies J; Blom, Marco M

    2016-06-15

    The prevalence of dementia is increasing among people with a Turkish, Moroccan and Surinamese-Creole background. Because informal care is very important in these communities, it is pertinent to see what explanations female family carers have for dementia and whether they can discuss dementia openly within the community and the family. Forty-one individual interviews and six focus group interviews (n = 28) were held with female Turkish, Moroccan and Surinamese Creole family carers who are looking after a close relative with dementia, and who live in The Netherlands. Qualitative analysis has been carried out, supported by the software MaxQda. The dominant explanations of dementia given by the female family carers interviewed are in line with what Downs et al. describe as the explanatory models 'dementia as a normal ageing process' and 'dementia as a spiritual experience'. In addition, some female family carers gave explanations that were about an interplay between various factors. Turkish and Moroccan informal caregivers ascribe the causes of dementia relatively often to life events or personality traits, whereas Surinamese Creole caregivers frequently mention physical aspects, such as past dehydration. However, the explanatory model 'dementia as a neuropsychiatric condition', which is dominant in Western cultures, was rarely expressed by the informal caregivers. The female family carers generally talked openly about the dementia with their close family, whereas particularly in the Turkish and Moroccan communities open communication within the broader communities was often hampered, e.g. by feelings of shame. Female family carers of Turkish, Moroccan or Surinamese Creole backgrounds often consider dementia as a natural consequence of ageing, as a spiritual experience, and/or as an interplay between various factors. They feel they can talk openly about dementia within their close family, while outside the close family this is often more difficult. © The Author

  18. Animal Models for Studying Female Genital Tract Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Kalmar, Isabelle; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen. It is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world, with more than 100 million new cases of genital tract infections with C. trachomatis occurring each year. Animal models are indispensable for the study of C. trachomatis infections and the development and evaluation of candidate vaccines. In this paper, the most commonly used animal models to study female genital tract infections with C. trachomatis will be reviewed, namely, the mouse, guinea pig, and nonhuman primate models. Additionally, we will focus on the more recently developed pig model. PMID:23836817

  19. Modeling Diet-Induced Obesity with Obesity-Prone Rats: Implications for Studies in Females

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Erin D.; Jackman, Matthew R.; MacLean, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic, and the comorbidities associated with obesity are numerous. Over the last two decades, we and others have employed an outbred rat model to study the development and persistence of obesity, as well as the metabolic complications that accompany excess weight. In this review, we summarize the strengths and limitations of this model and how it has been applied to further our understanding of human physiology in the context of weight loss and weight regain. We also discuss how the approach has been adapted over time for studies in females and female-specific physiological conditions, such as menopause and breast cancer. As excess weight and the accompanying metabolic complications have become common place in our society, we expect that this model will continue to provide a valuable translational tool to establish physiologically relevant connections to the basic science studies of obesity and body weight regulation. PMID:27933296

  20. Financial implications of RHD genotyping of pregnant women with a serologic weak D phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Kacker, Seema; Vassallo, Ralph; Keller, Margaret A.; Westhoff, Connie M.; Frick, Kevin D.; Sandler, S. Gerald; Tobian, Aaron A.R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, classically caused by maternal–fetal incompatibility of the Rh blood group D antigen, can be prevented by RhIG prophylaxis. While prophylactic practices for pregnant women with serologic weak D phenotypes vary widely, RHD genotyping could provide clear guidance for management. This analysis evaluated the financial implications of using RHD genotyping to guide RhIG prophylaxis among pregnant females. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A Markov-based model was constructed to evaluate the costs of RHD genotyping for pregnant females with serologic weak D phenotypes to inform RhIG prophylaxis. Using a comparison strategy of managing these women conservatively as D−, direct medical costs were assessed over 10- and 20-year periods for a simulated population of US women. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used to assess the robustness of conclusions. RESULTS Using base-case variables, RHD genotyping for pregnant women with serologic weak D phenotypes is expected to marginally reduce overall costs. RHD genotyping these patients, rather than conservatively managing them as D−, would be cost-saving when the cost of genotyping is below $256. Genotyping would decrease net costs among non-Hispanic Caucasian females (−$0.17/pregnancy), but would increase costs among non-Hispanic African Americans (+$0.51/pregnancy), non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaskans (+$0.10/pregnancy), and Hispanics (+$0.37/pregnancy). Incorporating RHD genotyping would not significantly impact costs among Asians and Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders. CONCLUSIONS Using RHD genotyping to guide RhIG prophylaxis among pregnant women with serologic weak D phenotypes may be clinically beneficial without increasing overall costs. PMID:25808011

  1. Financial implications of RHD genotyping of pregnant women with a serologic weak D phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kacker, Seema; Vassallo, Ralph; Keller, Margaret A; Westhoff, Connie M; Frick, Kevin D; Sandler, S Gerald; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2015-09-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, classically caused by maternal-fetal incompatibility of the Rh blood group D antigen, can be prevented by RhIG prophylaxis. While prophylactic practices for pregnant women with serologic weak D phenotypes vary widely, RHD genotyping could provide clear guidance for management. This analysis evaluated the financial implications of using RHD genotyping to guide RhIG prophylaxis among pregnant females. A Markov-based model was constructed to evaluate the costs of RHD genotyping for pregnant females with serologic weak D phenotypes to inform RhIG prophylaxis. Using a comparison strategy of managing these women conservatively as D-, direct medical costs were assessed over 10- and 20-year periods for a simulated population of US women. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used to assess the robustness of conclusions. Using base-case variables, RHD genotyping for pregnant women with serologic weak D phenotypes is expected to marginally reduce overall costs. RHD genotyping these patients, rather than conservatively managing them as D-, would be cost-saving when the cost of genotyping is below $256. Genotyping would decrease net costs among non-Hispanic Caucasian females (-$0.17/pregnancy), but would increase costs among non-Hispanic African Americans (+$0.51/pregnancy), non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaskans (+$0.10/pregnancy), and Hispanics (+$0.37/pregnancy). Incorporating RHD genotyping would not significantly impact costs among Asians and Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders. Using RHD genotyping to guide RhIG prophylaxis among pregnant women with serologic weak D phenotypes may be clinically beneficial without increasing overall costs. © 2015 AABB.

  2. Establishment of the Detailed Breast Model of Chinese Adult Female and Application in External Radiation Protection.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Rui; Jiang, Chenxing; Ren, Li; Li, Chunyan; Wu, Zhen; Li, Junli

    2016-05-03

    Breast is one of the most sensitive organs to radiation. In 2007, International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) increased the tissue weighting factor for the breast from 0.05 to 0.12, which made the accurate evaluation of breast dose more important. But in the existing human voxel phantom, the structure of breast is not elaborate enough because of the limitation of image resolution used for phantom modeling. This will probably affect the accuracy of breast dose calculated in simulation. Some researches on detailed breast modeling have been carried out, but there is no such research in this field in China. A detailed breast model for Chinese adult female is established in this article using the mathematical modeling method. It is voxelized and merged with the Chinese reference adult female voxel model for breast dosimetry. Dose conversion coefficients of breast gland for external photon exposures in antero-posterior geometry are calculated as an example of the application and the results are compared with those calculated by the old voxel phantom and ICRP reference adult female voxel phantom.

  3. Experimental models for the study of female and male sexual function.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Francois; Pfaus, James; Srilatha, Balasubramanian; Balasubramanian, Srilatha; Hedlund, Petter; Hisasue, Shin-ichi; Marson, Lesley; Wallen, Kim

    2010-09-01

    Significant progress has been made in the understanding of physiological and pharmacological mechanisms of human sexual functioning through preclinical research in animal models. To provide an evidence-based documentation of the experimental models evaluating male and female sexual function for useful clinical translation. Consensus discussion over the past 18 months leading to summarized views of seven experts from six countries. Report was based on the critical analysis of scientific information available in literature and subcommittee presentations, discussions, and exchanges of ideas and feedback. Fundamental research in animal models has led to considerable understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying desire, arousal, genital, and other sexual responses and the design of rational pharmacological treatments for certain sexual dysfunctions in the male and female. Tissue and cellular in vitro systems have provided critical information on the in vivo interactions and modulations in the presence and absence of chemical, biological, vascular, neurologic, endocrine, and genetic inputs. The animal models seem indispensable for elucidating the biophysiological and etiopathological aspects of male and female sexual disorders. Useful insights into the human experience have been derived from basic research in ways that are far more difficult to obtain in humans, both scientifically and ethically. The animal model with a good predictive value can be used as a successful preclinical tool so long as the functional end points are homologous or analogous. The key issue is whether further evaluations are warranted to extrapolate the results in a clinical setting. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  4. Factors Predicting the Physical Activity Behavior of Female Adolescents: A Test of the Health Promotion Model

    PubMed Central

    Mohamadian, Hashem

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Physical activity behavior begins to decline during adolescence and continues to decrease throughout young adulthood. This study aims to explain factors that influence physical activity behavior in a sample of female adolescents using a health promotion model framework. Methods This cross-sectional survey was used to explore physical activity behavior among a sample of female adolescents. Participants completed measures of physical activity, perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, social support, perceived barriers, and perceived affect. Interactions among the variables were examined using path analysis within a covariance modeling framework. Results The final model accounted for an R2 value of 0.52 for physical activity and offered a good model-data fit. The results indicated that physical activity was predicted by self-esteem (β=0.46, p<0.001), perceived self-efficacy (β=0.40, p<0.001), social support (β=0.24, p<0.001), perceived barriers (β=-0.19, p<0.001), and perceived affect (β=0.17, p<0.001). Conclusions The findings of this study showed that the health promotion model was useful to predict physical activity behavior among the Iranian female adolescents. Information related to the predictors of physical activity behavior will help researchers plan more tailored culturally relevant health promotion interventions for this population. PMID:24570808

  5. Infertility in females with cystic fibrosis is multifactorial: evidence from mouse models.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Craig A; Palmert, Mark R; Drumm, Mitchell L

    2008-06-01

    Infertility is commonly associated with cystic fibrosis (CF). Although infertility in men with CF has been thoroughly investigated, the infertility observed in women with CF has not been well studied. To investigate female infertility associated with CF, we used two independently derived mouse models of CF. Both of these models displayed decreased fertility characterized by a reduction in litter number and litter size. Our findings suggest that much of the reduced fertility in these mice originates from decreased fertilization due to inadequate sperm transport within the female reproductive tract. However, our data indicate that additional reproductive phenotypes in the CF female mice also contribute to the reduced fertility including small ovarian and uterine size, aberrant estrous cycles, and decreased oocyte ovulation rates. These data, along with previous work demonstrating that the gene mutated in CF, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), is normally expressed in tissues vital to reproduction, raises the possibility that CFTR may have a direct effect on fertility. If so, CFTR may also play an important role in normal female fertility within the general population.

  6. Electrical impedance spectroscopy of the cervix in non-pregnant and pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Saurabh V; Walker, Dawn; Milnes, Pete; Mukherjee, Soma; Brown, Brian H; Anumba, Dilly O C

    2006-12-01

    We sought to validate and measure the electrical impedance of the uterine cervix in non-pregnant and pregnant women by spectroscopy. Cervical stromal impedance (CSI) was measured in 50 non-pregnant, 20 1st, 20 2nd and 50 3rd trimester pregnant women. The technique was also validated by comparing in vivo data to a finite element (FE) model of cervical tissue. CSI agreed well with the FE model and was highly reproducible in all study groups. Mean (S.E.) CSI at 4-819 kHz was higher in pregnant (2.78 +/- 0.09 Omega m) compared to non-pregnant (2.38 +/- 0.07, p < 0.01) women, and in the 3rd trimester (3.08 +/- 0.13) compared to non-pregnant (p < 0.01), 1st trimester (2.42 +/- 0.12, p < 0.001) and 2nd trimester (2.20 +/- 0.05, p < 0.001) pregnant women. Measurement of CSI provides a non-invasive method of assessing cervical tissue characteristics. Cervical extracellular matrix synthesis and leukocyte infiltration may account for the increased tissue impedance noted in the 3rd trimester.

  7. The effectiveness of education using the health belief model in preventing osteoporosis among female students.

    PubMed

    Sanaeinasab, H; Tavakoli, R; Karimizarchi, A; Amini, Z Haji; Farokhian, A; Najarkolaei, F Rahmati

    2014-01-09

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of education using the Health Belief Model on preventing osteoporosis among female students. This interventional study (quasi-experimental) was performed on 45 female students aged 15-16 years old who resided in a town near Tehran. The females participated in a threeweek educational programme based on the Health Belief Model. The data collection instrument was a validated and reliable questionnaire in five sections: demographics, knowledge, Health Belief Model constructs, physical activity and consumption of foods containing calcium. The mean scores of students' knowledge were significantly different before and after the educational intervention (P < 0.05). The mean scores of some Health Belief Model structures changed significantly after the intervention (P < 0.05). Also post-intervention, physical activity increased (P = 0.041) but calcium intake did not. The use of an educational intervention on osteoporosis seems to improve knowledge and health beliefs and may positively impact physical activity-related behaviour.

  8. Pregnant Guppy in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    The Pregnant Guppy is a modified Boeing B-377 Stratocruiser used to transport the S-IV (second) stage for the Saturn I launch vehicle between manufacturing facilities on the West coast, and testing and launch facilities in the Southeast. The fuselage of the B-377 was lengthened to accommodate the S-IV stage and the plane's cabin section was enlarged to approximately double its normal volume. The idea was originated by John M. Conroy of Aero Spaceliners, Incorporated, in Van Nuys, California. The former Stratocruiser became a B-377 PG: the Pregnant Guppy. This photograph depicts the Pregnant Guppy in flight.

  9. Animal models of female sexual dysfunction: basic considerations on drugs, arousal, motivation and behavior.

    PubMed

    Ågmo, Anders

    2014-06-01

    Female sexual dysfunctions are a heterogeneous group of symptoms with unknown but probably varying etiology. Social factors may contribute both to the prevalence and to the origin of these dysfunctions. The present review focuses on female hypoactive sexual desire disorder, sexual arousal disorder and orgasmic disorder. These disorders are generally the most common, according to epidemiological studies, and they can all be considered as disorders of motivation. An incentive motivational model of sexual behavior, applicable to humans as well as to non-human animals, is described and the dysfunctions placed into the context of this model. It is shown that endocrine alterations as well as observable alterations in neurotransmitter activity are unlikely causes of the disorders. A potential role of learning is stressed. Nevertheless, the role of some transmitters in female rodent sexual behavior is analyzed, and compared to data from women, whenever such data are available. The conclusion is that there is no direct coincidence between effects on rodent copulatory behavior and sexual behavior in women. Based on these and other considerations, it is suggested that sexual approach behaviors rather than copulatory reflexes in rodents might be of some relevance for human sexual behavior, and perhaps even for predicting the effects of interventions, perhaps even the effects of drugs. Female copulatory behaviors, including the proceptive behaviors, are less appropriate. The common sexual dysfunctions in women are not problems with the performance of copulatory acts, but with the desire for such acts, by feeling aroused by such acts and experiencing the pleasure expected to be caused by such acts. Finally, it is questioned whether female sexual dysfunctions are appropriate targets for pharmacological treatment.

  10. The female gametophyte: an emerging model for cell type-specific systems biology in plant development

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Marc W.; Schmidt, Anja; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2015-01-01

    Systems biology, a holistic approach describing a system emerging from the interactions of its molecular components, critically depends on accurate qualitative determination and quantitative measurements of these components. Development and improvement of large-scale profiling methods (“omics”) now facilitates comprehensive measurements of many relevant molecules. For multicellular organisms, such as animals, fungi, algae, and plants, the complexity of the system is augmented by the presence of specialized cell types and organs, and a complex interplay within and between them. Cell type-specific analyses are therefore crucial for the understanding of developmental processes and environmental responses. This review first gives an overview of current methods used for large-scale profiling of specific cell types exemplified by recent advances in plant biology. The focus then lies on suitable model systems to study plant development and cell type specification. We introduce the female gametophyte of flowering plants as an ideal model to study fundamental developmental processes. Moreover, the female reproductive lineage is of importance for the emergence of evolutionary novelties such as an unequal parental contribution to the tissue nurturing the embryo or the clonal production of seeds by asexual reproduction (apomixis). Understanding these processes is not only interesting from a developmental or evolutionary perspective, but bears great potential for further crop improvement and the simplification of breeding efforts. We finally highlight novel methods, which are already available or which will likely soon facilitate large-scale profiling of the specific cell types of the female gametophyte in both model and non-model species. We conclude that it may take only few years until an evolutionary systems biology approach toward female gametogenesis may decipher some of its biologically most interesting and economically most valuable processes. PMID:26579157

  11. The female gametophyte: an emerging model for cell type-specific systems biology in plant development.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Marc W; Schmidt, Anja; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2015-01-01

    Systems biology, a holistic approach describing a system emerging from the interactions of its molecular components, critically depends on accurate qualitative determination and quantitative measurements of these components. Development and improvement of large-scale profiling methods ("omics") now facilitates comprehensive measurements of many relevant molecules. For multicellular organisms, such as animals, fungi, algae, and plants, the complexity of the system is augmented by the presence of specialized cell types and organs, and a complex interplay within and between them. Cell type-specific analyses are therefore crucial for the understanding of developmental processes and environmental responses. This review first gives an overview of current methods used for large-scale profiling of specific cell types exemplified by recent advances in plant biology. The focus then lies on suitable model systems to study plant development and cell type specification. We introduce the female gametophyte of flowering plants as an ideal model to study fundamental developmental processes. Moreover, the female reproductive lineage is of importance for the emergence of evolutionary novelties such as an unequal parental contribution to the tissue nurturing the embryo or the clonal production of seeds by asexual reproduction (apomixis). Understanding these processes is not only interesting from a developmental or evolutionary perspective, but bears great potential for further crop improvement and the simplification of breeding efforts. We finally highlight novel methods, which are already available or which will likely soon facilitate large-scale profiling of the specific cell types of the female gametophyte in both model and non-model species. We conclude that it may take only few years until an evolutionary systems biology approach toward female gametogenesis may decipher some of its biologically most interesting and economically most valuable processes.

  12. Travelers' Health: Pregnant Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Premature rupture of membranes Suspected ectopic pregnancy Threatened abortion, vaginal bleeding Toxemia, past or present Relative Contraindications ... infection will cross the placenta and cause spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, or congenital or neonatal infection. The pregnant ...

  13. Silver nanoparticles cause complications in pregnant mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Park, Jung-Hyun; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kang, Min-Hee; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted much interest and have been used for antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, and antiangiogenic applications because of their unique properties. The increased usage of AgNPs leads to a potential hazard to human health. However, the potential effects of AgNPs on animal models are not clear. This study was designed to investigate the potential impact of AgNPs on pregnant mice. Methods The synthesis of AgNPs was performed using culture extracts of Bacillus cereus. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. AgNPs were administrated into pregnant mice via intravenous infusion at 1.0 mg/kg doses at 6.5 days postcoitum (dpc). At 13.5, 15.5, and 17.5 dpc, the pregnant mice were euthanized, and the embryo and placenta were isolated. The meiotic status of oocytes was evaluated. DNA methylation studies were performed, and aberrant imprinting disrupted fetal, placental, and postnatal development. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and Western blot were used to analyze various gene expressions. Results The synthesized AgNPs were uniformly distributed and were spherical in shape with an average size of 8 nm. AgNPs exposure increased the meiotic progression of female germ cells in the fetal mouse ovaries, and maternal AgNP exposure significantly disrupted imprinted gene expression in 15.5 dpc embryos and placentas, such as Ascl2, Snrpn, Kcnq1ot1, Peg3, Zac1, H19, Igf2r, and Igf2; DNA methylation studies revealed that AgNPs exposure significantly altered the methylation levels of differentially methylated regions of Zac1. Conclusion The results from this study indicated that early exposure to AgNPs has the potential to disrupt fetal and postnatal health through epigenetic changes in the embryo and abnormal development of the placenta. These results can contribute to research involved in the safe use of

  14. Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils Are Necessary for the Recruitment of CD8+ T Cells in the Liver in a Pregnant Mouse Model of Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci Serotype 1) Infection

    PubMed Central

    de Oca, Roberto Montes; Buendía, Antonio J.; Del Río, Laura; Sánchez, Joaquín; Salinas, Jesús; Navarro, Jose A.

    2000-01-01

    The role of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the development of the specific immune response against Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci serotype 1) infection was studied in a pregnant mouse model involving treatment with RB6-8C5 monoclonal antibody. PMN depletion significantly affected the immune response in the liver, in which the T-lymphocyte and F4/80+ cell populations decreased, particularly the CD8+ T-cell population. A Th1-like response, characterized by high levels of gamma interferon without detectable levels of interleukin 4 (IL-4) in serum, was observed in both depleted and nondepleted mice, although an increased production of IL-10 was detected in the depleted group. Our results suggest that PMNs play a very important role in the recruitment of other leukocyte populations to the inflammatory foci but have little influence in the polarization of the immune specific response toward a Th1-like response. PMID:10679002

  15. Intimate Partner Violence among Pregnant and Parenting Latina Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Bernie Sue; Campbell, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and extent of mutual violence among a sample of pregnant and parenting Latina adolescent females and their partners. The sample consisted of 73 Latina adolescent females between the ages of 14 and 20 who were referred to a community-based organization for case management, education, and…

  16. [Differences in the use of family planning methods by adolescent females according to the education model utilized during pregnancy. Monterrey, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Núñez Rocha, Georgina Mayela; Alanís Alanís, María de Jesús; Alanís Salazar, Jorge; Salinas Martínez, Ana María; Garza Elizondo, M E; Villarreal Ríos, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to compare the use of family planning methods during the immediate postpartum period and two years following childbirth among the adolescent females who had followed two different intervention programs during their pregnancies. A quasi-experimental study was designed. A total of 62 pregnant adolescents were selected to comprised two intervention groups, the PRECEDE model and the Health Belief model (MCS) groups. Non-parametric statistical tests were employed and 95% confidence intervals estimated. The average starting knowledge in the MCS groups was 69.12 points (95% CI 63.27-74.97) and ending 89.71 points (95% CI 86.24-93.17), while the starting knowledge for the PRECEDE group was 49.39 points (95% Cl 42.24-56.54) and ending 75.25 points (95% CI 71.12-79.38). IN the immediate postpartum, 93% (95% CI 83.5-100) of the adolescents in the PRECED group accepted the use of a family planning method similar to that employed by the MCS group, of 94.2 (95% CI 86.3-100). As regards the continued use of the method, that is, two years later, the PRECEDE strategy had a greater effect that the MCS strategy, respectively 92% (95% Cl 82-100) and 72% (95% CI 56.9-87.1). A difference was found to exist between models as regards the use of family planning methods 2 years following childbirth. The PRECEDE program is proposed as the education strategy for preventing a second pregnancy among adolescent females.

  17. Evaluation of breast self-examination program using Health Belief Model in female students

    PubMed Central

    Moodi, Mitra; Mood, Mahdi Baladi; Sharifirad, Gholam Reza; Shahnazi, Hossein; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer has been considered as a major health problem in females, because of its high incidence in recent years. Due to the role of breast self-examination (BSE) in early diagnosis and prevention of morbidity and mortality rate of breast cancer, promoting student knowledge, capabilities and attitude are required in this regard. This study was conducted to evaluation BSE education in female University students using Health Belief Model. METHODS: In this semi-experimental study, 243 female students were selected using multi-stage randomized sampling in 2008. The data were collected by validated and reliable questionnaire (43 questions) before intervention and one week after intervention. The intervention program was consisted of one educational session lasting 120 minutes by lecturing and showing a film based on HBM constructs. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS (version11.5) using statistical paired t-test and ANOVA at the significant level of α = 0.05. RESULTS: 243 female students aged 20.6 ± 2.8 years old were studied. Implementing the educational program resulted in increased knowledge and HBM (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefit and barrier) scores in the students (p ≤ 0.01). Significant increases were also observed in knowledge and perceived benefit after the educational program (p ≤ 0.05). ANOVA statistical test showed significant difference in perceived benefit score in students of different universities (p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Due to the positive effects of education on increasing knowledge and attitude of university students about BSE, the efficacy of the HBM in BSE education for female students was confirmed. PMID:22091251

  18. Evaluation of breast self-examination program using Health Belief Model in female students.

    PubMed

    Moodi, Mitra; Mood, Mahdi Baladi; Sharifirad, Gholam Reza; Shahnazi, Hossein; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer has been considered as a major health problem in females, because of its high incidence in recent years. Due to the role of breast self-examination (BSE) in early diagnosis and prevention of morbidity and mortality rate of breast cancer, promoting student knowledge, capabilities and attitude are required in this regard. This study was conducted to evaluation BSE education in female University students using Health Belief Model. In this semi-experimental study, 243 female students were selected using multi-stage randomized sampling in 2008. The data were collected by validated and reliable questionnaire (43 questions) before intervention and one week after intervention. The intervention program was consisted of one educational session lasting 120 minutes by lecturing and showing a film based on HBM constructs. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS (version11.5) using statistical paired t-test and ANOVA at the significant level of α = 0.05. 243 female students aged 20.6 ± 2.8 years old were studied. Implementing the educational program resulted in increased knowledge and HBM (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefit and barrier) scores in the students (p ≤ 0.01). Significant increases were also observed in knowledge and perceived benefit after the educational program (p ≤ 0.05). ANOVA statistical test showed significant difference in perceived benefit score in students of different universities (p = 0.05). Due to the positive effects of education on increasing knowledge and attitude of university students about BSE, the efficacy of the HBM in BSE education for female students was confirmed.

  19. Congenital Chagas disease as an ecological model of interactions between Trypanosoma cruzi parasites, pregnant women, placenta and fetuses.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Yves; Truyens, Carine

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the main ecological interactions between the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and its hosts, the mother and the fetus, leading to the transmission and development of congenital Chagas disease. One or several infecting strains of T. cruzi (with specific features) interact with: (i) the immune system of a pregnant woman whom responses depend on genetic and environmental factors, (ii) the placenta harboring its own defenses, and, finally, (iii) the fetal immune system displaying responses also susceptible to be modulated by maternal and environmental factors, as well as his own genetic background which is different from her mother. The severity of congenital Chagas disease depends on the magnitude of such final responses. The paper is mainly based on human data, but integrates also complementary observations obtained in experimental infections. It also focuses on important gaps in our knowledge of this congenital infection, such as the role of parasite diversity vs host genetic factors, as well as that of the maternal and placental microbiomes and the microbiome acquisition by infant in the control of infection. Investigations on these topics are needed in order to improve the programs aiming to diagnose, manage and control congenital Chagas disease. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychometric properties of the "sport satisfaction instrument (SSI)" in female athletes: predictive model of sport commitment.

    PubMed

    Granero-Gallegos, A; Baena-Extremera, A; Gómez-López, M; Abraldes, J A

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the psychometric properties of the Sport Satisfaction Instrument (SSI) in a Spanish sample of female athletes in team sports federations, to decide whether it constitutes a valid and reliable instrument to be used in the context of female competitive sport in future research. The SSI was administered to a total of 615 athletes from 12 to 38 yr. of age. Confirmatory procedures and psychometric analysis supported the hypothesized theoretical model of two factors (Satisfaction/fun and Boredom). For female athletes, the 7-item model showed better goodness-of-fit indexes upon eliminating Item 2 from the Boredom subscale. Concurrent validity was explored through the correlations with the Perception of Success Questionnaire and Sport Commitment, obtaining positive correlations between Satisfaction/fun and Task Orientation and Sport Commitment, whereas Boredom correlated positively but less closely with Ego Orientation. The importance of Satisfaction/fun in the prediction of Sport Commitment, starting from task orientation, is emphasized.

  1. An evaluation of high-risk behaviors among female drug users based on Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Ilika, F; Jamshidimanesh, M; Hoseini, M; Saffari, M; Peyravi, H

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Because of the physiological nature of the female reproductive system, women are susceptible to infectious diseases, especially STD and AIDS. Addiction and high-risk behaviors also grow danger of these diseases. The reason of this paper was to examine high-risk behaviors among female drug users based on the Health Belief Model. Methods. Participants of this study were 106 female drug users aged 18 years and older; by the undermost level of literacy skills and been involved in sexual relationships. They came to Drop-In-Centers (DIC) in Tehran, the capital of Iran. Data study was controlled by using a logistic reflux investigation and Pearson correlation analysis. Results. The conclusion showed that women's overall awareness was moderate. There were a considerable relationship among awareness and years old (p=0.006), awareness and education (p> 0.0001), and awareness and conjugal situation (p=0.062). Perceived sensitivity and severity were clearly compared by education level (p=0.007) and (p=0.014), respectively. Mean scores of perceived benefits and perceived severity of high-risk behaviors were estimated to be superior to other components. Conclusion. Awareness and perceived susceptibility must be raised regarding the educational schedule, which is according to the health belief model in the addiction field, to reduce perceived barriers to risky behavior prevention of women who use drugs.

  2. Development of a microfluidics model for studying migration of sperm in the female reproductive tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Ardón, Florencia; Wu, Mingming; Suárez, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Infertility is a significant issue, both for humans and dairy cattle. In order for fertilization to happen, sperm must migrate through the female reproductive tract to reach the egg in the oviduct (fallopian tube). There is strong evidence that sperm interact with the female tract via both chemical and physical mechanisms. In this work, we focus on how the physical environment of the female tract influences the migration of bull sperm, which also serve as models for human sperm. In order for bull and human sperm to pass from the vagina into the uterus, they must swim through the cervical canal, which is lined by microchannels. Then, sperm must swim through the uterotubal junction, which also contains microchannels, in order to reach the oviduct. In both passageways, sperm must swim against a fluid flow, which would be less in the microchannels than in the central passageways. We have developed a microfluidic model for studying the sperm migration effects of the geometry of the cervix and uterotubal junction and the fluid flow within. Supported by NIH grant 1R01HD070038.

  3. Modeling the suppression of sea lamprey populations by the release of sterile males or sterile females

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klassen, Waldemar; Adams, Jean V.; Twohey, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    The suppressive effects of trapping adult sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, and releasing sterile males (SMRT) or females (SFRT) into a closed system were expressed in deterministic models. Suppression was modeled as a function of the proportion of the population removed by trapping, the number of sterile animals released, the reproductive rate and sex ratio of the population, and (for the SFRT) the rate of polygyny. Releasing sterile males reduced populations more quickly than did the release of sterile females. For a population in which 30% are trapped, sterile animals are initially released at ratio of 10 sterile to 1 fertile animal, 5 adult progeny are produced per fertile mating, 60% are male, and males mate with an average of 1.65 females, the initial population is reduced 87% by SMRT and 68% by SFRT in one generation. The extent of suppression achieved is most sensitive to changes in the initial sterile release ratio. Given the current status of sea lamprey populations and trapping operations in the Great Lakes, the sterile-male-release technique has the best chance for success on a lake-wide basis if implemented in Lake Michigan. The effectiveness of the sterile-female-release technique should be investigated in a controlled study. Advancing trapping technology should be a high priority in the near term, and artificial rearing of sea lampreys to the adult stage should be a high priority in the long term. The diligent pursuit of sea lamprey suppression over a period of several decades can be expected to yield great benefits.

  4. Evaluating social defeat as a model for psychopathology in adult female rodents.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Matia B

    2017-01-02

    Social conflict is a predominant stressor in humans and is associated with increased risk for developing psychological illnesses including depression and anxiety. Overwhelmingly, more women suffer from these disorders, which may be due to increased stress sensitivity. Like humans, rodents experience a myriad of physiological and behavioral sequelae due to prolonged stress exposure. Although the motivation for social conflict may differ between humans and rodents, female rodents may provide an opportunity to explore the underlying mechanisms by which stress confers risk for psychopathology in women. Because most female rodents do not express spontaneous aggression, the majority of basic research examines the physiological and behavioral outcomes of social conflict in male rodents. However, there are instances where female rodents exhibit territorial (California mice and Syrian hamsters) and maternal aggression (rats, mice, and hamsters) creating a venue to examine sex differences in physiology and behavior in response to stress. While many studies rely upon nonsocial behavioral assays (e.g., elevated plus maze, forced swim test) to assess the impact of stress on emotionality, here we primarily focus on behavioral outcomes in social-based assays in rodents. This is critically important given that disruptions in social relationships can be a cause and consequence of neuropsychiatric diseases. Next, we briefly discuss how sex differences in the recruitment of neural circuitry and/or neurochemistry in response to stress may underlie sex differences in neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responses. Finally, the translational value of females in rodent stress models and considerations regarding behavioral interpretations of these models are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The 'Fish Trader+' model: reducing female fish traders' vulnerability to HIV.

    PubMed

    Hüsken, Saskia Mc; Heck, Simon

    2012-03-01

    Analysis from research and practice in Africa shows that fishing communities are hardly reached by HIV-related services, education, and business services, partly because of the efforts and costs involved and a lack of good practice in reaching out to these often remote areas. At the same time, fish traders, especially women, travel regularly to remote fishing camps to purchase fish. Although female fish traders may be exposed to HIV, violence and abuse in their interactions and relationships with fishermen, economic necessity keeps them in this trade. Good health among fisherfolk is a basic mainstay of productive and sustainable fisheries, providing food and income to fishing communities and the nation at large. However, these benefits are severely at risk as per-capita fish supplies in several African countries are declining, and fisherfolk are among the populations most vulnerable to HIV and AIDS. Under the regional programme 'Fisheries and HIV/AIDS in Africa: Investing in sustainable solutions,' the WorldFish Center conducted a socioeconomic assessment in the Kafue Flats fishery in Zambia to identify factors related to HIV/AIDS vulnerability among people in the fishing communities, particularly female fish traders. The study identified a variety of factors, hence the 'Fish Trader+' model of intervention was developed to reduce female fish traders' vulnerability to HIV by building on their economic rationale through the formation of savings groups. This article outlines the implementation of the Fish Trader+ model in Zambia and examines its potential to empower female fish traders so as to reduce poverty and vulnerability to HIV in fishing communities.

  6. Modeling the development of drug addiction in male and female animals.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Wendy J

    2017-06-15

    An increasing emphasis has been placed on the development and use of animal models of addiction that capture defining features of human drug addiction, including escalation/binge drug use, enhanced motivation for the drug, preference for the drug over other reward options, use despite negative consequences, and enhanced drug-seeking/relapse vulnerability. The need to examine behavior in both males and females has also become apparent given evidence demonstrating that the addiction process occurs differently in males and females. This review discusses the procedures that are used to model features of addiction in animals, as well as factors that influence their development. Individual differences are also discussed, with a particular focus on sex differences. While no one procedure consistently produces all characteristics, different models have been developed to focus on certain characteristics. A history of escalating/binge patterns of use appears to be critical for producing other features characteristic of addiction, including an enhanced motivation for the drug, enhanced drug seeking, and use despite negative consequences. These characteristics tend to emerge over abstinence, and appear to increase rather than decrease in magnitude over time. In females, these characteristics develop sooner during abstinence and/or following less drug exposure as compared to males, and for psychostimulant addiction, may require estradiol. Although preference for the drug over other reward options has been demonstrated in non-human primates, it has been more difficult to establish in rats. Future research is needed to define the parameters that optimally induce each of these features of addiction in the majority of animals. Such models are essential for advancing our understanding of human drug addiction and its treatment in men and women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Female mating preferences determine system-level evolution in a gene network model.

    PubMed

    Fierst, Janna L

    2013-06-01

    Environmental patterns of directional, stabilizing and fluctuating selection can influence the evolution of system-level properties like evolvability and mutational robustness. Intersexual selection produces strong phenotypic selection and these dynamics may also affect the response to mutation and the potential for future adaptation. In order to to assess the influence of mating preferences on these evolutionary properties, I modeled a male trait and female preference determined by separate gene regulatory networks. I studied three sexual selection scenarios: sexual conflict, a Gaussian model of the Fisher process described in Lande (in Proc Natl Acad Sci 78(6):3721-3725, 1981) and a good genes model in which the male trait signalled his mutational condition. I measured the effects these mating preferences had on the potential for traits and preferences to evolve towards new states, and mutational robustness of both the phenotype and the individual's overall viability. All types of sexual selection increased male phenotypic robustness relative to a randomly mating population. The Fisher model also reduced male evolvability and mutational robustness for viability. Under good genes sexual selection, males evolved an increased mutational robustness for viability. Females choosing their mates is a scenario that is sufficient to create selective forces that impact genetic evolution and shape the evolutionary response to mutation and environmental selection. These dynamics will inevitably develop in any population where sexual selection is operating, and affect the potential for future adaptation.

  8. [3D modeling of the female pelvis by Computer-Assisted Anatomical Dissection: Applications and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Balaya, V; Uhl, J-F; Lanore, A; Salachas, C; Samoyeau, T; Ngo, C; Bensaid, C; Cornou, C; Rossi, L; Douard, R; Bats, A-S; Lecuru, F; Delmas, V

    2016-05-01

    To achieve a 3D vectorial model of a female pelvis by Computer-Assisted Anatomical Dissection and to assess educationnal and surgical applications. From the database of "visible female" of Visible Human Project(®) (VHP) of the "national library of medicine" NLM (United States), we used 739 transverse anatomical slices of 0.33mm thickness going from L4 to the trochanters. The manual segmentation of each anatomical structures was done with Winsurf(®) software version 4.3. Each anatomical element was built as a separate vectorial object. The whole colored-rendered vectorial model with realistic textures was exported in 3Dpdf format to allow a real time interactive manipulation with Acrobat(®) pro version 11 software. Each element can be handled separately at any transparency, which allows an anatomical learning by systems: skeleton, pelvic organs, urogenital system, arterial and venous vascularization. This 3D anatomical model can be used as data bank to teach of the fundamental anatomy. This 3D vectorial model, realistic and interactive constitutes an efficient educational tool for the teaching of the anatomy of the pelvis. 3D printing of the pelvis is possible with the new printers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal Models of Risk: Links between Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in African American Female Caregivers and Daughters

    PubMed Central

    Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri

    2012-01-01

    African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers’ risky sexual behavior and substance use to adolescent girls’ risky sexual behavior and substance use in a sample of 214 low-income, urban AA female caregivers and daughters recruited from outpatient mental health clinics in Chicago. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that sexual risk reported by female caregivers was associated with adolescent sexual risk, and illicit drug use reported by female caregivers was related to adolescent-reported substance use, which was in turn associated with adolescent-reported sexual risk behavior. These findings suggest that female caregivers’ sexual behavior and substance use both relate to girls’ sexual risk. Thus, results emphasize the role of female caregivers in transmitting risk. PMID:22353241

  10. Dietary behaviour of pregnant versus non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates dietary behaviour and the perceived role of food for health of pregnant versus non-pregnant women. Data were collected between 15 January 2003 and 15 March 2003 in Belgium. One hundred and forty-eight pregnant and 130 non-pregnant women aged between 20 and 40 years completed a self-administered questionnaire about their dietary behaviour and nutritional attitudes. Both sub-samples match with respect to individual factors such as relevant socio-demographics and general food perceptions. Pregnant women report higher consumption of fruits, which results in a better score for fibre intake. They also report higher consumption of beef and dairy products, as well as a higher fat intake. No difference in fish consumption between pregnant and non-pregnant women is observed. In line with recommendations, pregnant women report reduced consumption of food products with heightened safety-related risks, lower use of alcohol and tobacco, and safer food handling practices. Reduced intake of raw vegetables for food safety reasons is not compensated by higher intake of cooked vegetables. Pregnant women also report a lower frequency of moderate physical activity. Most differences in food choice by pregnant versus non-pregnant women pertain to the avoidance of specific, potentially harmful food groups. A substantial share of pregnant women does not follow upon recommendations with respect to alcohol use and exposure to tobacco. Personal medical sources for pregnant women and personal social sources for non-pregnant women are reported as the most attended sources of diet-related information. The perceived role of food for health is not different between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and there were no significant interaction effects between pregnancy and presence of children, which indicates that the observed differences in dietary behaviour can be attributed to the state of being pregnant.

  11. Modified activity-stress paradigm in an animal model of the female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Dimarco, Nancy M; Dart, Lyn; Sanborn, Charlotte Barney

    2007-11-01

    The exercising woman with nutritional deficits and related menstrual irregularities is at risk of compromising long-term bone health, i.e., the female athlete triad. There is no animal model of the female athlete triad. The purpose of this study was to examine long-term energy restriction in voluntary wheel-running female rats on estrous cycling, bone mineral content, and leptin levels. Twelve female Sprague-Dawley rats (age 34 days) were fed ad libitum and given access to running wheels during an initial 14-wk period, providing baseline and age-related data. Daily collection included dietary intake, body weight, estrous cycling, and voluntary running distance. At 4 mo, rats were randomized into two groups, six restrict-fed rats (70% of ad libitum intake) and six rats continuing as ad libitum-fed controls. Energy intake, energy expenditure, and energy availability (energy intake - energy expenditure) were calculated for each animal. Serum estradiol and leptin concentrations were measured by RIA. Femoral and tibial bone mineral density and bone mineral content (BMC) were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Restrict-fed rats exhibited a decrease in energy availability during Weight Loss and Anestrous phases (P = 0.002). Compared with controls after 12 wk, restrict-fed rats showed reduced concentrations of serum estradiol (P = 0.002) and leptin (P = 0.002), lower ovarian weight (P = 0.002), and decreased femoral (P = 0.041) and tibial (P = 0.05) BMC. Decreased energy availability resulted in anestrus and significant decreases in BMC, estrogen and leptin levels, and body weight. Finally, there is a critical level of energy availability to maintain estrous cycling.

  12. Bioenergetics model for estimating food requirements of female Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noren, S.R.; Udevitz, M.S.; Jay, C.V.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific walruses Odobenus rosmarus divergens use sea ice as a platform for resting, nursing, and accessing extensive benthic foraging grounds. The extent of summer sea ice in the Chukchi Sea has decreased substantially in recent decades, causing walruses to alter habitat use and activity patterns which could affect their energy requirements. We developed a bioenergetics model to estimate caloric demand of female walruses, accounting for maintenance, growth, activity (active in-water and hauled-out resting), molt, and reproductive costs. Estimates for non-reproductive females 0–12 yr old (65−810 kg) ranged from 16359 to 68960 kcal d−1 (74−257 kcal d−1 kg−1) for years with readily available sea ice for which we assumed animals spent 83% of their time in water. This translated into the energy content of 3200–5960 clams per day, equivalent to 7–8% and 14–9% of body mass per day for 5–12 and 2–4 yr olds, respectively. Estimated consumption rates of 12 yr old females were minimally affected by pregnancy, but lactation had a large impact, increasing consumption rates to 15% of body mass per day. Increasing the proportion of time in water to 93%, as might happen if walruses were required to spend more time foraging during ice-free periods, increased daily caloric demand by 6–7% for non-lactating females. We provide the first bioenergetics-based estimates of energy requirements for walruses and a first step towards establishing bioenergetic linkages between demography and prey requirements that can ultimately be used in predicting this population’s response to environmental change.

  13. Modeling of Longitudinal Changes in Left Ventricular Dimensions among Female Adolescent Runners.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Norimitsu; Katsukawa, Fuminori; Yamazaki, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) enlargement has been linked to sudden cardiac death among young athletes. This study aimed to model the effect of long-term incessant endurance training on LV dimensions in female adolescent runners. Japanese female adolescent competitive distance runners (n = 36, age: 15 years, height: 158.1 ± 4.6 cm, weight: 44.7 ± 6.1 kg, percent body fat: 17.0 ± 5.2%) underwent echocardiography and underwater weighing every 6 months for 3 years. Since the measurement occasions varied across subjects, multilevel analysis was used for curvilinear modeling of changes in running performance (velocities in 1500 m and 3000 m track race), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), body composition, and LV dimensions. Initially, LV end-diastolic dimension (LVEDd) and LV mass were 47.0 ± 3.0 mm and 122.6 ± 15.7 g, respectively. Running performance and VO2max improved along with the training duration. The trends of changes in fat-free mass (FFM) and LVEDd were similarly best described by quadratic polynomials. LVEDd did not change over time in the model including FFM as a covariate. Increases in LV wall thicknesses were minimal and independent of FFM. LV mass increased according to a quadratic polynomial trend even after adjusting for FFM. FFM was an important factor determining changes in LVEDd and LV mass. Although running performance and VO2max were improved by continued endurance training, further LV cavity enlargement hardly occurred beyond FFM gain in these adolescent female runners, who already demonstrated a large LVEDd.

  14. Development and Full Body Validation of a 5th Percentile Female Finite Element Model.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew L; Koya, Bharath; Schap, Jeremy M; Gayzik, F Scott

    2016-11-01

    To mitigate the societal impact of vehicle crash, researchers are using a variety of tools, including finite element models (FEMs). As part of the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) project, comprehensive medical image and anthropometrical data of the 5th percentile female (F05) were acquired for the explicit purpose of FEM development. The F05-O (occupant) FEM model consists of 981 parts, 2.6 million elements, 1.4 million nodes, and has a mass of 51.1 kg. The model was compared to experimental data in 10 validation cases ranging from localized rigid hub impacts to full body sled cases. In order to make direct comparisons to experimental data, which represent the mass of an average male, the model was compared to experimental corridors using two methods: 1) post-hoc scaling the outputs from the baseline F05-O model and 2) geometrically morphing the model to the body habitus of the average male to allow direct comparisons. This second step required running the morphed full body model in all 10 simulations for a total of 20 full body simulations presented. Overall, geometrically morphing the model was found to more closely match the target data with an average ISO score for the rigid impacts of 0.76 compared to 0.67 for the scaled responses. Based on these data, the morphed model was then used for model validation in the vehicle sled cases. Overall, the morphed model attained an average weighted score of 0.69 for the two sled impacts. Hard tissue injuries were also assessed and the baseline F05-O model was found to predict a greater occurrence of pelvic fractures compared to the GHBMC average male model, but predicted fewer rib fractures.

  15. A preliminary evaluation of causal models of male and female acquisition of pilot skills.

    PubMed

    Carretta, T R; Ree, M J

    1997-01-01

    Based on a previous study, a causal model of acquisition of pilot job knowledge and flying skills was tested on separate samples of male and female students. Causal model parameters were estimated separately for each sample and, due to the small sample size for women, no between-groups statistical tests were conducted. The results are viewed as tentative because of the small sample of female students; however, the path coefficient parameter estimates are still useful. The model showed a direct influence of general cognitive ability (g) on the acquisition of job knowledge and an indirect influence on the acquisition of flying skills. The direct and indirect influence of cognitive ability on flying skills was a little stronger for women than for men. Additionally, the path between prior job knowledge (JKp) and flying performance was somewhat stronger for women than for men. Consistent with previous findings, the influence of early flying skills on later flying skills was very strong. No argument for a sex-separated training syllabus is supported.

  16. Posttraumatic stress disorder among female Vietnam veterans: a causal model of etiology.

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, A; Schwartz, L S; Rosenheck, R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Vietnam and Persian Gulf wars have awakened people to the realization that military service can be traumatizing for women as well as men. This study investigated the etiological roles of both war and sexual trauma in the development of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder among female Vietnam veterans. METHODS: Data from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study for 396 Vietnam theater women and 250 Vietnam era women were analyzed with structural equation modeling. RESULTS: An etiological model with highly satisfactory fit and parsimony was developed. Exposure to war trauma contributed to the probability of posttraumatic stress disorder in theater women, as did sexual trauma in both theater and era women. Lack of social support at the time of homecoming acted as a powerful mediator of trauma for both groups of women. CONCLUSIONS: Within the constraints and assumptions of causal modeling, there is evidence that both war trauma and sexual trauma are powerful contributors to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder among female Vietnam veterans. PMID:9103092

  17. Comparing Smoking Topography and Subjective Measures of Usual Brand Cigarettes Between Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Smokers.

    PubMed

    Bergeria, Cecilia L; Heil, Sarah H; Bunn, Janice Y; Sigmon, Stacey C; Higgins, Stephen T

    2017-06-27

    Most pregnant smokers report abruptly reducing their cigarettes per day (CPD) by ~50% after learning of pregnancy and making further smaller reductions over the remainder of their pregnancy. Laboratory and naturalistic studies with non-pregnant smokers have found that these types of reductions often lead to changes in smoking topography (i.e., changes in smoking intensity to maintain a desired blood-nicotine level). If pregnant women smoke more intensely, they may expose themselves and their offspring to similar levels of toxicants despite reporting reductions in CPD. Pregnant and non-pregnant female smokers (n = 20 and 89, respectively) participated. At the experimental session, after biochemical confirmation of acute abstinence, participants smoked one usual brand cigarette ad lib through a Borgwaldt CReSS Desktop Smoking Topography device. Carbon monoxide (CO) and measures of nicotine withdrawal, craving, and reinforcement derived from smoking were also collected. The two groups did not differ on demographic or smoking characteristics at screening, except nicotine metabolism rate, which as expected, was faster in pregnant smokers. Analyses suggest that none of the smoking topography parameters differed between pregnant and non-pregnant smokers, although pregnant smokers had a significantly smaller CO boost. Both groups reported similar levels of relief of withdrawal and craving after smoking, but other subjective effects suggest that pregnant smokers find smoking less reinforcing than non-pregnant smokers. Pregnant smokers do not smoke cigarettes differently than non-pregnant women, but appear to find smoking comparatively less pleasurable. This is the first study to assess smoking topography in pregnant women. Pregnant women appear to be at increased risk for smoking cigarettes with more intensity because of (1) their tendency to make significant abrupt reductions in the number of cigarettes they smoke each day after learning of pregnancy and (2) an increase in

  18. Stressful life events and the tripartite model: relations to anxiety and depression in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jeremy K; Halpern, Leslie F; Ryan, Julie L; Lowe, Kelly A

    2010-02-01

    Although the tripartite model reliably distinguishes anxiety and depression in adolescents, it remains unclear how negative affectivity (NA) and positive affectivity (PA) influence developmental pathways to internalizing problems. Based on models which propose that affectivity shapes how youth react to stress, the present study attempted to investigate the relative roles of NA, PA, and stressful life events in characterizing and differentiating adolescent anxiety and depression. A sample of adolescent females (N=63), including a sub-sample of adolescent mothers, completed measures of NA, PA, negative life event (NLE) occurrence, anxiety, and depression. Findings supported the tripartite model as a "temperamental reactivity to stress" approach. Anxious and depressive symptoms were predicted by a combination of high NA and high NLE occurrence. However, a combination of low PA and high NLE occurrence was uniquely linked to greater depressive symptoms. Implications of these findings for early identification and prevention programs are discussed.

  19. Sport commitment among competitive female athletes: test of an expanded model.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Windee M; Weiss, Maureen R; Amorose, Anthony J

    2010-02-01

    In the present study, we examined an expanded model of sport commitment by adding two determinants (perceived costs and perceived competence) and behavioural commitment as a consequence of psychological commitment, as well as identifying psychological commitment as a mediator of relationships between determinants and behavioural commitment. Competitive female gymnasts (N = 304, age 8-18 years) completed relevant measures while coaches rated each gymnast's training behaviours as an indicator of behavioural commitment. Path analysis revealed that the best fitting model was one in which original determinants (enjoyment, involvement opportunities, investments, attractive alternatives) and an added determinant (perceived costs) predicted psychological commitment, in addition to investments and perceived costs directly predicting behavioural commitment. These results provide further, but partial, support for the sport commitment model and also suggest that additional determinants and behavioural consequences be considered in future research.

  20. Organ dose conversion coefficients for external photon irradiation of male and female voxel models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zankl, M.; Fill, U.; Petoussi-Henss, N.; Regulla, D.

    2002-07-01

    New organ equivalent dose conversion coefficients are presented for whole body irradiation with monoenergetic photons of energies between 10 keV and 10 MeV for idealized geometries and seven adult male and female voxel models. The geometries are broad parallel photon beams in anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, left- and right-lateral direction and a full 360° rotation around the body length axis. Dose differences between the different voxel models are below approximately 30% for some organs and geometries in the energy range between 60 and 200 keV, but they can be up to 100% or more in single cases, due to differences in stature and individual anatomical details. For low photon energies, the differences may amount to hundreds of per cent. Extensive comparisons of the dose conversion coefficients with respective values calculated using mathematical body models revealed various degrees of unrealistic positioning of single organs in the latter models. Examples are the kidneys, spleen and stomach that are located too superficially in the mathematical models. Over- or underestimations of several tens of per cent may, thus, occur for the mathematical models, compared to the voxel models considered. In contrast to previous assumptions, when the mathematical models have been used to establish reference organ dose conversion coefficients, it can be concluded that they do not properly represent a large population of individuals.

  1. A Model of Female Sexual Desire: Internalized Working Models of Parent-Child Relationships and Sexual Body Self-Representations.

    PubMed

    Cherkasskaya, Eugenia; Rosario, Margaret

    2017-01-24

    The etiology of low female sexual desire, the most prevalent sexual complaint in women, is multi-determined, implicating biological and psychological factors, including women's early parent-child relationships and bodily self-representations. The current study evaluated a model that hypothesized that sexual body self-representations (sexual subjectivity, self-objectification, genital self-image) explain (i.e., mediate) the relation between internalized working models of parent-child relationships (attachment, separation-individuation, parental identification) and sexual desire in heterosexual women. We recruited 614 young, heterosexual women (M = 25.5 years, SD = 4.63) through social media. The women completed an online survey. Structural equation modeling was used. The hypotheses were supported in that the relation between internalized working models of parent-child relationships (attachment and separation-individuation) and sexual desire was mediated by sexual body self-representations (sexual body esteem, self-objectification, genital self-image). However, parental identification was not related significantly to sexual body self-representations or sexual desire in the model. Current findings demonstrated that understanding female sexual desire necessitates considering women's internalized working models of early parent-child relationships and their experiences of their bodies in a sexual context. Treatment of low or absent desire in women would benefit from modalities that emphasize early parent-child relationships as well as interventions that foster mind-body integration.

  2. Evaluation of Transtheoretical Model-Based Family Education Among Females of Zahedan (Southeast of Iran).

    PubMed

    Kamalikhah, Tahereh; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Rahmati Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Gholian Avval, Mehdi

    2015-10-01

    It cannot be denied that many improvements in female and child health have been achieved worldwide through international family planning programs. More than half of the females (57%) with unintended pregnancy admitted that they had not used birth control the month before conception. The aim of this study was to promote family planning practice among females of Zahedan (southeast of Iran) through the transtheoretical model (TTM). The current quasi-experimental study was conducted on 96 eligible females, who were allocated either to the case or the control group and were selected from homes in the border of Zahedan city (southeast of Iran) during 2010. Convenience sampling by door-to-door visits was used for finding eligible cases. A TTM-based self-administrated family planning questionnaire was used for data collection. Participants in the intervention group received education in two groups, based on their stage of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and all groups were followed for three months. The result of the chi-square test did not show any significant difference in the stage of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance before education between the control and intervention groups (P = 0.55). After education, subjects in the intervention group moved forward through stage of change and got at least one step closer to the family planning behavior., with this change being significant (P < 0.001), while the movement of participants through stage of change not being significant in control group (P = 1). The results of statistical tests illustrated that the mean knowledge of the intervention group was 7.5 ± 7.1 versus 0.5 ± 4 for the control group (P < 0.001), mean of attitude of the intervention group was 5.5 ± 5.41 versus 0.09 ± 2.04 for the control group (P < 0.001), and practicing family planning methods (P < 0.007) in the intervention group was higher than the control group after

  3. Predictors of breast self - examination among female teachers in Ethiopia using health belief model.

    PubMed

    Birhane, Negussie; Mamo, Abebe; Girma, Eshetu; Asfaw, Shifera

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is by far the most frequent cancer of women. It is the second leading cause of death in women worldwide. Approximately one out of eight women develops breast cancer all over the world. Majority of cases of cancer of the breast are detected by women themselves, stressing the importance of breast self-examination. The main objective of this study was to assess predictors of breast self-examination among female teachers in Kafa Zone, South West part of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected 315 female teachers. Self administered a structured questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge about breast cancer and perception of teachers on breast self examination using the Champion's revised Health Belief Model sub scales used as data collection instrument. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors of breast self -examination performance. Three hundred and fifteen female teachers were participated in this study. Their mean age was 33 SD [±7] years. Only 52 (16.5 %) participants ever heard about breast self examination and from those who heard about breast self examination 38 (73.07 %) of them ever performed breast self examination. After controlling for possible confounding factors, the result showed that knowledge towards breast self examination, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity and the net perceived benefit were found to be the major predictors of breast self examination. This study revealed that breast self examination performance among female teachers was very low. Therefore, behavior change communication and interventions that emphasize different domains that increase the perceived threat to breast cancer as well as on the benefits of breast self-examination to increase the perception of the teachers in an integrated manner may be the most effective strategies that should be considered by the health offices and educational offices. These

  4. [Obesity and female reproduction].

    PubMed

    Sarfati, J; Young, J; Christin-Maitre, S

    2010-09-01

    Weight, fat mass and obesity have been shown to play a major role in female reproduction. Obese women have a greater risk than nonobese women of infertility and they fail to become pregnant in both natural and assisted conception cycles. This cannot be explained only by their lack of ovulation. There are several potential mechanisms. On one hand, the endometrium seems to be partially responsible for this low fecundity in obese women. On the other hand, the oocyte seems to be implied. In a model of obese mouse, maternal obesity prior to conception is associated with altered mitochondria in mouse oocytes and an increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, compared with controls, obese mice have significantly more decreased embryonic IGF-IR staining, smaller fetuses and smaller pups. In this model, all weaned pups have been fed with a regular diet. At 13 weeks, pups delivered from obese mice were significantly larger, and these pups demonstrated early development of a metabolic-type syndrome. These findings suggest that maternal obesity has adverse effects as early as the oocyte and preimplantation embryo stages and that these effects may contribute to lasting morbidity in offspring, underscoring the importance of optimal maternal weight and nutrition before conception. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Are skeletally mature female rats a suitable model to study osteoporosis?

    PubMed

    Netto, Claudia Cardoso; Vieira, Vivian Cristine Correia; Marinheiro, Lizanka Paola Figueiredo; Agellon, Sherry; Weiler, Hope; Maróstica, Mário Roberto

    2012-06-01

    To analyze if female Wistar rats at 56 weeks of age are a suitable model to study osteoporosis. Female rats with 6 and 36 weeks of age (n = 8 per group) were kept over a 20-week period and fed a diet for mature rodents complete in terms of Ca, phosphorous, and vitamin D. Excised femurs were measured for bone mass using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, morphometry, and biomechanical properties. The following serum markers of bone metabolism were analyzed: parathyroid hormone (PTH), osteocalcin (OC), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor Κappa B ligand (RANKL), C-terminal peptides of type I collagen (CTX-I), total calcium, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Rats at 56 weeks of age showed important bone metabolism differences when compared with the younger group, such as, highest diaphysis energy to failure, lowest levels of OC, CTX-I, and ALP, and elevated PTH, even with adequate dietary Ca. Rats at 26-week-old rats may be too young to study age-related bone loss, whereas the 56-week-old rats may be good models to represent the early stages of age-related changes in bone metabolism.

  6. Conceptual Model of Weight Management in Overweight and Obese African-American Females.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Suzanne M; Magwood, Gayenell S; Nemeth, Lynne S; Jenkins, Carolyn M

    2017-04-01

    Weight management of overweight and obese (OWO) African-American females (AAFs) is a poorly defined concept, leading to ineffective treatment of overweight and obesity, prevention of health sequelae, and risk reduction. A conceptual model of the phenomenon of weight management in OWO AAFs was developed through dimensional analysis of the literature. Constructs were identified and sorted into the dimensions of perspective, context, conditions, process, and consequences and integrated into an explanatory matrix. Through dimensional analysis, weight management in OWO AAFs was characterized as a multidimensional concept, defined from the perspective of weight loss in community-dwelling AAFs. Behaviors associated with weight management are strongly influenced by intrinsic factors and extrinsic conditions, which influence engagement in the processes and consequences of weight management. The resulting conceptual model of weight management in OWO AAFs provides a framework for research interventions applicable in a variety of settings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. History and development of an integrated model of care for female pelvic medicine and surgery.

    PubMed

    Daneshgari, Firouz; Hijaz, Adonis; Mahajan, Sangeeta; Liu, James; Demetriou, Achilles A

    2014-05-01

    Urologists and gynecologists manage most of the patients with female pelvic floor disorders. However, lack of a single focused approach among these two disciplines and other related fields may hinder advances in clinical care and research. Herein, along with describing the background of birth of the new subspeciality, we present a practical approach by which we established an integrated model of care and discovery for FPFD at our institution. With the recent approval of this subspeciality by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), it is plausible that other institutions would wish to initiate similar steps toward establishment of an integrated model of care for FPFD, and hence move this new subspecialty to its new frontiers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Morphological Alterations in Gastrocnemius and Soleus Muscles in Male and Female Mice in a Fibromyalgia Model.

    PubMed

    Bonaterra, Gabriel Alejandro; Then, Hanna; Oezel, Lisa; Schwarzbach, Hans; Ocker, Matthias; Thieme, Kati; Di Fazio, Pietro; Kinscherf, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic musculoskeletal pain disorder, characterized by chronic widespread pain and bodily tenderness and is often accompanied by affective disturbances, however often with unknown etiology. According to recent reports, physical and psychological stress trigger FM. To develop new treatments for FM, experimental animal models for FM are needed to be development and characterized. Using a mouse model for FM including intermittent cold stress (ICS), we hypothesized that ICS leads to morphological alterations in skeletal muscles in mice. Male and female ICS mice were kept under alternating temperature (4 °C/room temperature [22 °C]); mice constantly kept at room temperature served as control. After scarification, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were removed and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen-cooled isopentane or fixed for electron microscopy. In gastrocnemius/soleus muscles of male ICS mice, we found a 21.6% and 33.2% decrease of fiber cross sectional area (FCSA), which in soleus muscle concerns the loss of type IIa and IIx FCSA. This phenomenon was not seen in muscles of female ICS mice. However, this loss in male ICS mice was associated with an increase in gastrocnemius of the density of MIF+ (8.6%)-, MuRF+ (14.7%)-, Fbxo32+ (17.8%)-cells, a 12.1% loss of capillary contacts/muscle fiber as well as a 30.7% increase of damaged mitochondria in comparison with male control mice. Moreover, significant positive correlations exist among densities (n/mm(2)) of MIF+, MuRF+, Fbxo32+-cells in gastrocnemius/ soleus muscles of male ICS mice; these cell densities inversely correlate with FCSA especially in gastrocnemius muscle of male ICS mice. The ICS-induced decrease of FCSA mainly concerns gastrocnemius muscle of male mice due to an increase of inflammatory and atrogenic cells. In soleus muscle of male ICS and soleus/gastrocnemius muscles of female ICS mice morphological alterations seem to occur not at all or delayed. The sex-specificity of findings

  9. Morphological Alterations in Gastrocnemius and Soleus Muscles in Male and Female Mice in a Fibromyalgia Model

    PubMed Central

    Oezel, Lisa; Schwarzbach, Hans; Ocker, Matthias; Thieme, Kati; Di Fazio, Pietro; Kinscherf, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic musculoskeletal pain disorder, characterized by chronic widespread pain and bodily tenderness and is often accompanied by affective disturbances, however often with unknown etiology. According to recent reports, physical and psychological stress trigger FM. To develop new treatments for FM, experimental animal models for FM are needed to be development and characterized. Using a mouse model for FM including intermittent cold stress (ICS), we hypothesized that ICS leads to morphological alterations in skeletal muscles in mice. Methods Male and female ICS mice were kept under alternating temperature (4°C/room temperature [22°C]); mice constantly kept at room temperature served as control. After scarification, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were removed and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen–cooled isopentane or fixed for electron microscopy. Results In gastrocnemius/soleus muscles of male ICS mice, we found a 21.6% and 33.2% decrease of fiber cross sectional area (FCSA), which in soleus muscle concerns the loss of type IIa and IIx FCSA. This phenomenon was not seen in muscles of female ICS mice. However, this loss in male ICS mice was associated with an increase in gastrocnemius of the density of MIF+ (8.6%)-, MuRF+ (14.7%)-, Fbxo32+ (17.8%)-cells, a 12.1% loss of capillary contacts/muscle fiber as well as a 30.7% increase of damaged mitochondria in comparison with male control mice. Moreover, significant positive correlations exist among densities (n/mm2) of MIF+, MuRF+, Fbxo32+-cells in gastrocnemius/ soleus muscles of male ICS mice; these cell densities inversely correlate with FCSA especially in gastrocnemius muscle of male ICS mice. Conclusion The ICS-induced decrease of FCSA mainly concerns gastrocnemius muscle of male mice due to an increase of inflammatory and atrogenic cells. In soleus muscle of male ICS and soleus/gastrocnemius muscles of female ICS mice morphological alterations seem to occur not at all or

  10. The influence of female social models in corporate STEM initiatives on girls' math and science attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, Donald J.

    The United States' Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) workforce is growing slower than in the past, in comparison to demand, and in comparison to other countries. Competitive talent conditions require the United States to develop a strong pipeline of STEM talent within its own citizens. Given the number of female college graduates and their underrepresentation in the STEM workforce, women provide the greatest opportunity for fulfilling this need. The term social model represents the individuals and media that shape children's self-perceptions. Social models have been shown to positively influence girl's perceptions of the value of math and science as well as their expectations of success. This study examined differences in attitudes towards math and science among student participants in corporate STEM programs. Differences were measured based on participant gender and ethnicity, their mentor's gender and ethnicity, and program design differences. The research purpose was to inform the design of corporate STEM programs to improve female participants' attitudes towards math and science and eventually increase the number of women in the STEM workforce. Over three hundred students in differing corporate STEM programs completed math and science attitudinal scales at the start and end of their programs. Study results revealed, prior to program start, female participants had a better attitude towards math and science than male participants. Analysis of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study data showed similar results. Overall program results demonstrated higher post program math and science attitudes with no differences based on gender, age, or ethnicity of the participant or mentor. Participants with high program or mentor satisfaction were found to have higher attitudes towards math and science. These results may suggest improving female academic choice requires more focus on their expectations of success than perceived task

  11. Pregnant Field Students' Guilt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Nehami

    2006-01-01

    This study examined guilt feelings among social work students who were pregnant for the first time during field work training. Semi-structured interviews were conducted either in the 9th month (n=5) or 2-12 months after delivery (n=5). Content analysis revealed 6 main triggers, illustrated by excerpts, which stimulated field students' guilt…

  12. Maternal liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) stores are increased via higher serum unesterified DHA uptake in pregnant long Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Metherel, Adam H; Kitson, Alex P; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Lacombe, R J Scott; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Alashmali, Shoug M; Lin, Lin; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-08-01

    Maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) supplies the developing fetus during pregnancy; however, the mechanisms are unclear. We utilized pregnant rats to determine rates of DHA accretion, tissue unesterified DHA uptake and whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion. Female rats maintained on a DHA-free, 2% α-linolenic acid diet were either:1) sacrificed at 56 days for baseline measures, 2) mated and sacrificed at 14-18 days of pregnancy or 3) or sacrificed at 14-18 days as age-matched virgin controls. Maternal brain, adipose, liver and whole body fatty acid concentrations was determined for balance analysis, and kinetic modeling was used to determine brain and liver plasma unesterified DHA uptake and whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion rates. Total liver DHA was significantly higher in pregnant (95±5 μmol) versus non-pregnant (49±5) rats with no differences in whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion rates. However, liver uptake of plasma unesterified DHA was 3.8-fold higher in pregnant animals compared to non-pregnant controls, and periuterine adipose DHA was lower in pregnant (0.89±0.09 μmol/g) versus non-pregnant (1.26±0.06) rats. In conclusion, higher liver DHA accretion during pregnancy appears to be driven by higher unesterified DHA uptake, potentially via DHA mobilization from periuterine adipose for delivery to the fetus during the brain growth spurt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A physiologically based toxicokinetic model for methylmercury in female American kestrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.W.; Bennett, R.S.; Rossmann, R.; French, J.B.; Sappington, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    A physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model was developed to describe the uptake, distribution, and elimination of methylmercury (CH 3Hg) in female American kestrels. The model consists of six tissue compartments corresponding to the brain, liver, kidney, gut, red blood cells, and remaining carcass. Additional compartments describe the elimination of CH3Hg to eggs and growing feathers. Dietary uptake of CH 3Hg was modeled as a diffusion-limited process, and the distribution of CH3Hg among compartments was assumed to be mediated by the flow of blood plasma. To the extent possible, model parameters were developed using information from American kestrels. Additional parameters were based on measured values for closely related species and allometric relationships for birds. The model was calibrated using data from dietary dosing studies with American kestrels. Good agreement between model simulations and measured CH3Hg concentrations in blood and tissues during the loading phase of these studies was obtained by fitting model parameters that control dietary uptake of CH 3Hg and possible hepatic demethylation. Modeled results tended to underestimate the observed effect of egg production on circulating levels of CH3Hg. In general, however, simulations were consistent with observed patterns of CH3Hg uptake and elimination in birds, including the dominant role of feather molt. This model could be used to extrapolate CH 3Hg kinetics from American kestrels to other bird species by appropriate reassignment of parameter values. Alternatively, when combined with a bioenergetics-based description, the model could be used to simulate CH 3Hg kinetics in a long-term environmental exposure. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  14. A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Chu, Xun-Xun; Dominic Rizak, Joshua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Hong; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2014-05-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction-similar to humans-as well as much greater homology to humans

  15. Haemodynamics using transthoracic echocardiography in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant baboons (Papio hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Dennis, Alicia T; Castro, Julian M; Heffernan, Scott; Hennessy, Annemarie

    2012-04-01

    To determine systolic and diastolic function using transthoracic echocardiography in the baboon (Papio hamadryas). Transthoracic echocardiography was performed in eight non-pregnant female and six pregnant baboons according to American Society of Echocardiography recommendations. Haemodynamic measurements were obtained from fourteen baboons. Compared to non-pregnant baboons, pregnant baboons demonstrated: (mean ± SD, pregnant vs. healthy) increased cardiac output (1615 ± 121 ml/minutes vs. 1317 ± 134 ml/minutes P = 0.001) due to an increased heart rate [120 ± 11 beats per minute (BPM) vs. 105 ± 6 BPM P = 0.018]. The inter-observer and intra-observer variability (mean difference ± SD) for the left ventricular outflow tract diameter was 0.05 ± 0.07 cm and 0.01 ± 0.03 cm respectively. There was minimal impact to the animal's daily activities. Transthoracic echocardiography was applicable and reproducible for the assessment of haemodynamics in baboons thus enabling translation of animal results to human studies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Towards elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: performance of different models of care for initiating lifelong antiretroviral therapy for pregnant women in Malawi (Option B+)

    PubMed Central

    van Lettow, Monique; Bedell, Richard; Mayuni, Isabell; Mateyu, Gabriel; Landes, Megan; Chan, Adrienne K; van Schoor, Vanessa; Beyene, Teferi; Harries, Anthony D; Chu, Stephen; Mganga, Andrew; van Oosterhout, Joep J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Malawi introduced a new strategy to improve the effectiveness of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT), the Option B+ strategy. We aimed to (i) describe how Option B+ is provided in health facilities in the South East Zone in Malawi, identifying the diverse approaches to service organization (the “model of care”) and (ii) explore associations between the “model of care” and health facility–level uptake and retention rates for pregnant women identified as HIV-positive at antenatal (ANC) clinics. Methods A health facility survey was conducted in all facilities providing PMTCT/antiretroviral therapy (ART) services in six of Malawi's 28 districts to describe and compare Option B+ service delivery models. Associations of identified models with program performance were explored using facility cohort reports. Results Among 141 health facilities, four “models of care” were identified: A) facilities where newly identified HIV-positive women are initiated and followed on ART at the ANC clinic until delivery; B) facilities where newly identified HIV-positive women receive only the first dose of ART at the ANC clinic, and are referred to the ART clinic for follow-up; C) facilities where newly identified HIV-positive women are referred from ANC to the ART clinic for initiation and follow-up of ART; and D) facilities serving as ART referral sites (not providing ANC). The proportion of women tested for HIV during ANC was highest in facilities applying Model A and lowest in facilities applying Model B. The highest retention rates were reported in Model C and D facilities and lowest in Model B facilities. In multivariable analyses, health facility factors independently associated with uptake of HIV testing and counselling (HTC) in ANC were number of women per HTC counsellor, HIV test kit availability, and the “model of care” applied; factors independently associated with ART retention were district location, patient volume and the “model

  17. An ecological process model of female sex offending: the role of victimization, psychological distress, and life stressors.

    PubMed

    DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Rowland, Sarah E; Kaplan, Stephanie P; Lynch, Shannon M

    2015-06-01

    Female sex offenders may be implicated in up to one fifth of all sex crimes committed in the United States. Despite previous research findings that suggest unique patterns of offending among female sex offenders, limited empirical research has investigated the motivations and processes involved. The present study qualitatively examined female sex offenders' offense-related experiences and characterized the internal and external factors that contributed to offending. Semi-structured interviews with 24 female sex offenders were analyzed by a team of coders with limited exposure to the existing literature using grounded theory analysis. A conceptual framework emerged representing distinctive processes for solo- and co-offending, contextualized within ecological layers of social and environmental influence. This model extends previous work by offering an example of nested vulnerabilities proximal to female sexual offending. Implications for future research, prevention, and treatment are discussed.

  18. “Love Hurts”: Romantic Attachment and Depressive Symptoms in Pregnant Adolescent and Young Adult Couples

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, Alethea; Sipsma, Heather; Callands, Tamora; Hansen, Nathan; Divney, Anna; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current study investigates the relationship between romantic attachment style and depressive symptoms between both members of pregnant adolescent and young adult couples. Method Participants were 296 pregnant young females (mean age = 18.7) and their male partners (mean age = 21.3; 592 total participants) who were recruited from obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Connecticut. The dimensions of avoidant and anxious romantic attachment were assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. Results Results showed that avoidant attachment and anxious attachment were significantly positively related to depressive symptoms. Multilevel modeling for partner effects revealed that anxious attachment and depressive symptoms in partners were significantly positively associated with depressive symptoms Conclusion Findings underscore the importance of considering couples-based approaches to supporting the transition to parenthood and developing the necessary self and relationship skills to manage attachment needs and relationship challenges. PMID:23794358

  19. "Love hurts": romantic attachment and depressive symptoms in pregnant adolescent and young adult couples.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Alethea; Sipsma, Heather; Callands, Tamora; Hansen, Nathan; Divney, Anna; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigates the relationship between romantic attachment style and depressive symptoms between both members of pregnant adolescent and young adult couples. Participants were 296 pregnant young females (mean age = 18.7) and their male partners (mean age = 21.3; 592 total participants) who were recruited from obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Connecticut. The dimensions of avoidant and anxious romantic attachment were assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. Results showed that avoidant attachment and anxious attachment were significantly positively related to depressive symptoms. Multilevel modeling for partner effects revealed that anxious attachment and depressive symptoms in partners were significantly positively associated with depressive symptoms Findings underscore the importance of considering couples-based approaches to supporting the transition to parenthood and developing the necessary self and relationship skills to manage attachment needs and relationship challenges. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Consequences for posterity of two generations of an irradiation pregnant from females rats Wistar in small doses during a bookmark of reproduction system of fetuses development of posterity of the second generation and it reproduction function].

    PubMed

    Palyga, G F; Chibisova, O F

    2006-01-01

    With the purpose of study of consequences for development and reproduction functions of posterity of the second generation from females rats Wistar of a total unitary gamma-irradiation in dozes 0.25; 0.5 and 1 Gy (capacity of a doze 0.03 sGy/s) on 10th day of pregnancy (the period of the onset of fetuses reproduction system development) is investigated more than 630 females, 1400 with the age of 19th days, and about 3200 young rats. The revealed deviations(rejections) in development of posterity of two generations parents, antenatal irradiated in not sterilizing dozes, in he period of a beginning of formation of reproduction system, them a variety at different dozes of radiating influence, shown as at posterity of the irradiated mothers, and fathers, testify about instability genoms in a line of generations requiring the account and acceptance of necessary measures for preservation normal genofund.

  1. A developmental-contextual model of depressive symptoms in Mexican-origin female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Gayles, Jochebed G

    2012-03-01

    The current study tested a developmental-contextual model of depressive symptomatology among Mexican-origin, female early and middle adolescents and their mothers. The final sample comprised 271 dyads. We examined the interrelations among cultural (i.e., acculturation dissonance), developmental (i.e., pubertal development and autonomy expectation discrepancies), and interpersonal (i.e., mother-daughter conflict and maternal supportive parenting) factors in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms. For both early and middle adolescents, maternal support was negatively associated with mother-daughter conflict and depressive symptoms. Mother-daughter autonomy expectation discrepancies were positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but this association was found only among early adolescents. Further, mother-daughter acculturation dissonance was positively associated with mother-daughter conflict but only among middle adolescents. Findings call for concurrently examining the interface of developmental, relational, and cultural factors in predicting female adolescents' depressive symptomatology and the potential differences by developmental stage (e.g., early vs. middle adolescence). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Antiphospholipid syndrome induction exacerbates a transgenic Alzheimer disease model on a female background.

    PubMed

    Katzav, Aviva; Faust-Socher, Achinoam; Kvapil, Filip; Michaelson, Daniel M; Blank, Miri; Pick, Chaim G; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Korczyn, Amos D; Chapman, Joab

    2011-02-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and vascular brain disease which is often associated with dementia. We examined the neurodegenerative pathological processes underlying APS by inducing APS in a transgenic animal model of Alzheimer's disease. Female C57B6/SJL mice carrying the APP(695)SWE mutation (Tg2576) and wild-type (wt) controls were immunized with β₂-glycoprotein-I (APS mice) or adjuvant alone (controls) at 4 months of age. At the age of 8 months the APP-APS mice developed high levels of aPL associated with motor hypoactivity in a staircase test (p<0.03 by t-test) and impaired performance in the cognitive T-maze (p<0.02 for main effect of treatment by repeated measures ANOVA) relative to APP-CFA mice and controls. wt-APS and wt-control did not differ significantly in their behavior or cognition. Histological studies revealed mature plaques only in the APP-APS group which also had higher amyloid load and number of activated microglia compared to all other groups. The results indicate a significant interaction between APP genotype and the induction of APS on a female background. The mechanisms involved may also be important in human APS-AD co-morbidity. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Developmental-Contextual Model of Depressive Symptoms in Mexican-Origin Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gayles, Jochebed G.

    2011-01-01

    The current study tested a developmental-contextual model of depressive symptomatology among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin females and their mothers. The final sample was comprised of 271 dyads. We examined the interrelations among cultural (i.e., acculturation dissonance), developmental (i.e., pubertal development and autonomy expectation discrepancies), and interpersonal (i.e., mother-daughter conflict and maternal supportive parenting) factors in predicting adolescents’ depressive symptoms. For both early and middle adolescents, maternal support was negatively associated with mother-daughter conflict and depressive symptoms. Importantly, mother-daughter autonomy expectation discrepancies were positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but this association was found only among early adolescents. Further, mother-daughter acculturation dissonance was positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but only among middle adolescents. Findings call for concurrently examining the interface of developmental, relational, and cultural factors in predicting female adolescents’ depressive symptomatology and the potential differences by developmental stage (e.g., early vs. middle adolescence) PMID:21967564

  4. Deficient Purposeful Use of Forepaws in Female Mice Modelling Rett Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    De Filippis, Bianca; Musto, Mattia; Altabella, Luisa; Romano, Emilia; Canese, Rossella; Laviola, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by severe behavioural and physiological symptoms. Mutations in the methyl CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) cause more than 95% of classic cases. Motor abnormalities represent a significant part of the spectrum of RTT symptoms. In the present study we investigated motor coordination and fine motor skill domains in MeCP2-308 female mice, a validated RTT model. This was complemented by the in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) analysis of metabolic profile in behaviourally relevant brain areas. MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice (Het, 10-12 months of age) were impaired in tasks validated for the assessment of purposeful and coordinated forepaw use (Morag test and Capellini handling task). A fine-grain analysis of spontaneous behaviour in the home-cage also revealed an abnormal handling pattern when interacting with the nesting material, reduced motivation to explore the environment, and increased time devoted to feeding in Het mice. The brain MRS evaluation highlighted decreased levels of bioenergetic metabolites in the striatal area in Het mice compared to controls. Present results confirm behavioural and brain alterations previously reported in MeCP2-308 males and identify novel endpoints on which the efficacy of innovative therapeutic strategies for RTT may be tested. PMID:26185689

  5. Effects of the model androgen methyltestosterone on vitellogenin in male and female eelpout, Zoarces viviparus (L).

    PubMed

    Korsgaard, B

    2006-07-01

    In the present experiment male and female eelpout, Zoarces viviparus were exposed to different doses of the model androgen 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT) and the effects on the plasma level of vitellogenin and the gonadosomatic index were investigated. In females exposed to different doses of MT (nominal concentrations 10, 25, 50, 100 and 500 ng/L) in the ambient seawater, the concentrations of the circulating yolk-precursor protein vitellogenin (vtg) were shown to decrease in all groups but only significantly in the MT-100 group when compared to controls. No significant effects could be observed on the GSI during early vitellogenesis (April/May). Males exposed to E2 under flow through conditions during 10 days showed an induced synthesis of vtg as depicted by a high level of circulating vtg. When the estrogen-exposed males were subsequently exposed to different doses of MT only, during another 10 days, the levels of vtg decreased significantly in three of the MT-treated groups when compared with the level of vtg in plasma of the estrogen-treated group after the first 10 days. The gonadosomatic index was observed to decrease by the estradiol-treatment but to increase in a dose-dependent manner in the MT-exposed groups, indicating that MT had the capacity to override the effect of the preceding exposure to estradiol-17beta.

  6. Deficient Purposeful Use of Forepaws in Female Mice Modelling Rett Syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Bianca; Musto, Mattia; Altabella, Luisa; Romano, Emilia; Canese, Rossella; Laviola, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by severe behavioural and physiological symptoms. Mutations in the methyl CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) cause more than 95% of classic cases. Motor abnormalities represent a significant part of the spectrum of RTT symptoms. In the present study we investigated motor coordination and fine motor skill domains in MeCP2-308 female mice, a validated RTT model. This was complemented by the in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) analysis of metabolic profile in behaviourally relevant brain areas. MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice (Het, 10-12 months of age) were impaired in tasks validated for the assessment of purposeful and coordinated forepaw use (Morag test and Capellini handling task). A fine-grain analysis of spontaneous behaviour in the home-cage also revealed an abnormal handling pattern when interacting with the nesting material, reduced motivation to explore the environment, and increased time devoted to feeding in Het mice. The brain MRS evaluation highlighted decreased levels of bioenergetic metabolites in the striatal area in Het mice compared to controls. Present results confirm behavioural and brain alterations previously reported in MeCP2-308 males and identify novel endpoints on which the efficacy of innovative therapeutic strategies for RTT may be tested.

  7. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay of dexmedetomidine in plasma, urine and amniotic fluid samples for pregnant ewe model.

    PubMed

    Cui, Z; Chow, D S-L; Wu, L; Lazar, D A; Rodrigo, R; Olutoye, O O; Olutoye, O A

    2014-06-15

    Dexmedetomidine (DEX; Precedex(®)), approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1999 as a sedative for use in the intensive care unit, is a potent and highly selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist with significant sedative, analgesic and anxiolytic effects. However, the research of DEX use during pregnancy is limited and the impact of DEX on the fetal development is unclear. This article describes a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) assay suitable for various biomatrices of plasma, urine and amniotic fluid, as a prerequisite for pharmacokinetic characterization of DEX in the pregnant ewe model. DEX and testosterone (internal standard; IS) were extracted from 200μL of plasma, urine or amniotic fluid with ethyl acetate. The HPLC resolution was achieved on an Agilent ZORBAX SB-CN column with a gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.5mL/min using a mobile phase of 5-100% of acetonitrile with 0.5% formic acid (mobile phase B) in water (mobile phase A). The detection was performed by a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer with positive electrospray ionization. The precursor/product transitions (m/z) in the positive ion mode [M+H](+) were m/z 201.5→95.4 for DEX and m/z 289.2→109.1 for IS. The method was validated in the concentration range of 25 (lower limit of quantification; LLOQ)-5000pg/mL for both maternal and fetal plasma, and of 50 (LLOQ)-5000pg/mL for urine and amniotic fluid, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within ±9%. The overall recoveries of DEX were 82.9-87.2%, 85.7-88.4%, 86.2-89.7% and 83.7-88.1% for maternal plasma, urine, fetal plasma and amniotic fluid, respectively. The percentage matrix factors in different biomatrices were less than 120%. Stability studies demonstrated that DEX was stable after three freeze/thaw cycles, in the autosampler tray at 20°C for 24h and during the 3h sample preparation at room temperature. The validated HPLC-MS/MS method has been

  8. Comparison of the BOD POD with the four-compartment model in adult females.

    PubMed

    Fields, D A; Wilson, G D; Gladden, L B; Hunter, G R; Pascoe, D D; Goran, M I

    2001-09-01

    This study was designed to compare the accuracy and bias in estimates of total body density (Db) by hydrostatic weighing (HW) and the BOD POD, and percent body fat (%fat) by the BOD POD with the four-compartment model (4C model) in 42 adult females. Furthermore, the role of the aqueous and mineral fractions in the estimation of body fat by the BOD POD was examined. Total body water was determined by isotope dilution ((2)H(2)0) and bone mineral was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Db and %fat were determined by the BOD POD and HW. The 4C model of Baumgartner was used as the criterion measure of body fat. HW Db (1.0352 g x cm(-3)) was not statistically different (P = 0.35) from BOD POD Db (1.0349 g x cm(-3)). The regression between Db by HW and the BOD POD significantly deviated from the line of identity (Db by HW = 0.90 x Db by BOD POD + 0.099; R(2) = 0.94). BOD POD %fat (28.8%) was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than %fat by the 4C model (30.6%). The regression between %fat by the 4C model and the BOD POD significantly deviated from the line of identity (%fat by 4C model = 0.88 x %fat by BOD POD + 5.41%; R(2) = 0.92). BOD POD Db and %fat showed no bias across the range of fatness. Only the aqueous fraction of the fat-free mass (FFM) had a significant correlation with the difference in %fat between the 4C model and the BOD POD. These data indicate that the BOD POD underpredicted body fat as compared with the 4C model, and the aqueous fraction of the FFM had a significant effect on estimates of %fat by the BOD POD.

  9. Biotransformations of bisphenol A in a mammalian model: answers and new questions raised by low-dose metabolic fate studies in pregnant CD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Zalko, Daniel; Soto, Ana M; Dolo, Laurence; Dorio, Céline; Rathahao, Estelle; Debrauwer, Laurent; Faure, Robert; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre

    2003-03-01

    We investigated the metabolic fate of a low dose (25 micro g/kg) of bisphenol A [2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-phenyl)propane] (BPA) injected subcutaneously in CD1 pregnant mice using a tritium-labeled molecule. Analytic methods were developed to allow a radio-chromatographic profiling of BPA residues in excreta and tissues, as well as in mothers' reproductive tracts and fetuses, that contained more than 4% of the administered radioactivity. BPA was extensively metabolized by CD1 mice. Identified metabolite structures included the glucuronic acid conjugate of BPA, several double conjugates, and conjugated methoxylated compounds, demonstrating the formation of potentially reactive intermediates. Fetal radioactivity was associated with unchanged BPA, BPA glucuronide, and a disaccharide conjugate. The latter structure, as well as that of a dehydrated glucuronide conjugate of BPA (a major metabolite isolated from the digestive tract), showed that BPA metabolic routes were far more complex than previously thought. The estrogenicity of the metabolites that were identified but not tested for hormonal activity cannot be ruled out; however, in general, conjugated BPA metabolites have significantly lower potency than that of the parent compound. Thus, these data suggest the parental compound is responsible for the estrogenic effects observed in fetuses exposed to BPA during gestation in this mammalian model.

  10. Biotransformations of bisphenol A in a mammalian model: answers and new questions raised by low-dose metabolic fate studies in pregnant CD1 mice.

    PubMed Central

    Zalko, Daniel; Soto, Ana M; Dolo, Laurence; Dorio, Céline; Rathahao, Estelle; Debrauwer, Laurent; Faure, Robert; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the metabolic fate of a low dose (25 micro g/kg) of bisphenol A [2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-phenyl)propane] (BPA) injected subcutaneously in CD1 pregnant mice using a tritium-labeled molecule. Analytic methods were developed to allow a radio-chromatographic profiling of BPA residues in excreta and tissues, as well as in mothers' reproductive tracts and fetuses, that contained more than 4% of the administered radioactivity. BPA was extensively metabolized by CD1 mice. Identified metabolite structures included the glucuronic acid conjugate of BPA, several double conjugates, and conjugated methoxylated compounds, demonstrating the formation of potentially reactive intermediates. Fetal radioactivity was associated with unchanged BPA, BPA glucuronide, and a disaccharide conjugate. The latter structure, as well as that of a dehydrated glucuronide conjugate of BPA (a major metabolite isolated from the digestive tract), showed that BPA metabolic routes were far more complex than previously thought. The estrogenicity of the metabolites that were identified but not tested for hormonal activity cannot be ruled out; however, in general, conjugated BPA metabolites have significantly lower potency than that of the parent compound. Thus, these data suggest the parental compound is responsible for the estrogenic effects observed in fetuses exposed to BPA during gestation in this mammalian model. PMID:12611660

  11. Evolution of female multiple mating: A quantitative model of the "sexually selected sperm" hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bocedi, Greta; Reid, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the evolution and maintenance of polyandry remains a key challenge in evolutionary ecology. One appealing explanation is the sexually selected sperm (SSS) hypothesis, which proposes that polyandry evolves due to indirect selection stemming from positive genetic covariance with male fertilization efficiency, and hence with a male's success in postcopulatory competition for paternity. However, the SSS hypothesis relies on verbal analogy with "sexy-son" models explaining coevolution of female preferences for male displays, and explicit models that validate the basic SSS principle are surprisingly lacking. We developed analogous genetically explicit individual-based models describing the SSS and "sexy-son" processes. We show that the analogy between the two is only partly valid, such that the genetic correlation arising between polyandry and fertilization efficiency is generally smaller than that arising between preference and display, resulting in less reliable coevolution. Importantly, indirect selection was too weak to cause polyandry to evolve in the presence of negative direct selection. Negatively biased mutations on fertilization efficiency did not generally rescue runaway evolution of polyandry unless realized fertilization was highly skewed toward a single male, and coevolution was even weaker given random mating order effects on fertilization. Our models suggest that the SSS process is, on its own, unlikely to generally explain the evolution of polyandry. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Evolution of female multiple mating: A quantitative model of the “sexually selected sperm” hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Bocedi, Greta; Reid, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the evolution and maintenance of polyandry remains a key challenge in evolutionary ecology. One appealing explanation is the sexually selected sperm (SSS) hypothesis, which proposes that polyandry evolves due to indirect selection stemming from positive genetic covariance with male fertilization efficiency, and hence with a male's success in postcopulatory competition for paternity. However, the SSS hypothesis relies on verbal analogy with “sexy-son” models explaining coevolution of female preferences for male displays, and explicit models that validate the basic SSS principle are surprisingly lacking. We developed analogous genetically explicit individual-based models describing the SSS and “sexy-son” processes. We show that the analogy between the two is only partly valid, such that the genetic correlation arising between polyandry and fertilization efficiency is generally smaller than that arising between preference and display, resulting in less reliable coevolution. Importantly, indirect selection was too weak to cause polyandry to evolve in the presence of negative direct selection. Negatively biased mutations on fertilization efficiency did not generally rescue runaway evolution of polyandry unless realized fertilization was highly skewed toward a single male, and coevolution was even weaker given random mating order effects on fertilization. Our models suggest that the SSS process is, on its own, unlikely to generally explain the evolution of polyandry. PMID:25330405

  13. Sexual Conspecific Aggressive Response (SCAR): A Model of Sexual Trauma that Disrupts Maternal Learning and Plasticity in the Female Brain

    PubMed Central

    Shors, Tracey J.; Tobόn, Krishna; DiFeo, Gina; Durham, Demetrius M.; Chang, Han Yan M.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual aggression can disrupt processes related to learning as females emerge from puberty into young adulthood. To model these experiences in laboratory studies, we developed SCAR, which stands for Sexual Conspecific Aggressive Response. During puberty, a rodent female is paired daily for 30-min with a sexually-experienced adult male. During the SCAR experience, the male tracks the anogenital region of the female as she escapes from pins. Concentrations of the stress hormone corticosterone were significantly elevated during and after the experience. Moreover, females that were exposed to the adult male throughout puberty did not perform well during training with an associative learning task nor did they learn well to express maternal behaviors during maternal sensitization. Most females that were exposed to the adult male did not learn to care for offspring over the course of 17 days. Finally, females that did not express maternal behaviors retained fewer newly-generated cells in their hippocampus whereas those that did express maternal behaviors retained more cells, most of which would differentiate into neurons within weeks. Together these data support SCAR as a useful laboratory model for studying the potential consequences of sexual aggression and trauma for the female brain during puberty and young adulthood. PMID:26804826

  14. Violence, stigma and mental health among female sex workers in China: A structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bo; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Xu, Jinping; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita

    2017-07-01

    Intimate partner violence is prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) in China, and it is significantly associated with mental health problems among FSWs. However, limited studies have explored the mechanisms/process by which violence affects mental health. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among partner violence, internalized stigma, and mental health problems among FSWs. Data were collected using a self-administered cross-sectional survey administered to 1,022 FSWs in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Guangxi), China during 2008-2009. We used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized relationships. Results indicated that violence perpetrated by either stable sexual partners or clients was directly and positively associated with mental health problems. Violence also had an indirect relation to mental health problems through stigma. Results highlight the need for interventions on counseling and care for FSWs who have experienced violence and for interventions to increase FSWs' coping skills and empowerment strategies.

  15. Innate immune performance and steroid hormone profiles of pregnant versus nonpregnant cottonmouth snakes (Agkistrodon piscivorus).

    PubMed

    Graham, Sean P; Earley, Ryan L; Guyer, Craig; Mendonça, Mary T

    2011-12-01

    Squamates (lizards and snakes) have independently evolved viviparity over 100 times, and exhibit a wide range of maternal investment in developing embryos from the extremes of lecithotrophic oviparity to matrotrophic viviparity. This group therefore provides excellent comparative opportunities for studying endocrine and immune involvement during pregnancy, and their possible interactions. We studied the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus), since they exhibit limited placentation (e.g., ovoviviparity), allowing comparison with squamate species hypothesized to require considerable maternal immune modulation due to the presence of a more extensive placental connection. Furthermore, the cottonmouth's biennial reproductive cycle provides an opportunity for simultaneously comparing pregnant and non-pregnant females in the wild. We document significantly elevated concentrations of progesterone (P4) and significantly lower concentrations of estradiol (E2) in pregnant females relative to non-pregnant females. Pregnant females had lower plasma bacteria lysis capacity relative to non-pregnant females. This functional measure of innate immunity is a proxy for complement performance, and we also determined significant correlations between P4 and decreased complement performance in pregnant females. These findings are consistent with studies that have determined P4's role in complement modulation during pregnancy in mammals, and thus this study joins a growing number of studies that have demonstrated convergent and/or conserved physiological mechanisms regulating viviparous reproduction in vertebrates.

  16. Pregnant phenotype in aquaporin 8-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Xiao-yan; Xiong, Zheng-fang; Liu, Hui-shu; Zheng, Zheng; Ma, Tong-hui

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Aquaporin 8 (AQP8) is expressed within the female reproductive system but its physiological function reminds to be elucidated. This study investigates the role of AQP8 during pregnancy using AQP8-knockout (AQP8-KO) mice. Methods: Homozygous AQP8-KO mice were mated, and the conception rate was recorded. AQP8-KO pregnant mice or their offspring were divided into 5 subgroups according to fetal gestational day (7, 13, 16, 18 GD) and newborn. Wild type C57 pregnant mice served as the control group. The number of pregnant mice, total embryos and atrophic embryos, as well as fetal weight, placental weight and placental area were recorded for each subgroup. The amount of amniotic fluid in each sac at 13, 16, and 18 GD was calculated. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance of factorial design and chi-square tests. Results: Conception rates did not differ significantly between AQP8-KO and wild type mice. AQP8-KO pregnant mice had a significantly higher number of embryos compared to wild type controls. Fetal/neonatal weight was also significantly greater in the AQP8-KO group compared to age-matched wild type controls. The amount of amniotic fluid was greater in AQP8-KO pregnant mice than wild type controls, although the FM/AFA (fetal weight/amniotic fluid amount) did not differ. While AQP8-KO placental weight was significantly larger than wild type controls, there was no evidence of placental pathology in either group. Conclusion: The results suggest that AQP8 deficiency plays an important role in pregnancy outcome. PMID:21602842

  17. Development of Multi-Route Physiologically-based Pharmacokinetic Models for Ethanol in the Adult, Pregnant, and Neonatal Rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuel blends of 10% ethanol (EtOH) and gasoline are common in the United States, and higher EtOH concentrations are being considered (15-85%). Currently, no physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are available to describe the kinetics of EtOH-based biofuels. PBPK...

  18. Development of Multi-Route Physiologically-based Pharmacokinetic Models for Ethanol in the Adult, Pregnant, and Neonatal Rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuel blends of 10% ethanol (EtOH) and gasoline are common in the United States, and higher EtOH concentrations are being considered (15-85%). Currently, no physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are available to describe the kinetics of EtOH-based biofuels. PBPK...

  19. Community-based science education for fourth to sixth graders: Influences of a female role model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acklie, Deanna S.

    Women in the United States are underrepresented in science related careers. The Wonderwise curriculum was designed to encourage young women to become more involved in science and science careers. The Wonderwise kits have won numerous awards for quality science curriculum for formal educational environments. In 2000 the kits were adapted and new kits were developed to meet the needs of a nonformal Teaming environment (i.e., 4-H). The kits contain a video field trip with a featured female scientist demonstrating her work, an activity guidebook with five activities based on this scientist's work, and a CD-Rom serving as an additional resource. This study contributes to our understanding of a group of 4H youth who used the Wonderwise curriculum. It describes their view on science, their perspective about people who do science, the importance of role models within their lives, and their career visions. This study was a multi-method case study design. The subjects were youth ages 9--11 involved in 4H events in a three state area. Events such as overnight camps, day camps, special events and after school programs featuring the Wonderwise curriculum were used as sites for this study. The subjects studied in the Wonderwise 4-H project were primarily female youth who had some interest in science. Nearly half were Caucasian; the remainder were Hispanic, African American and Native American. The 25 youth involved in this study took part in a semi-structure interview process including four research methodologies: open-ended questions, drawing or writing a story about the featured scientist, a card sort activity and a relationship map drawn by the youth. Youths' prior experiences in formal, informal and nonformal settings impacted how they made sense of and incorporated Wonderwise experiences in their frame of reference. Through the experiential learning process youth experienced science activities and connected to individuals with science backgrounds, particularly those

  20. Angiogenesis in the caprine caruncles in non-pregnant and pregnant normal and swainsonine-treated does.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microvascular corrosion casts of caruncles from non-pregnant and pregnant goats were examined in great detail by scanning electron microscopy at 4, 7, 10, 13, 16 and 18 weeks of gestation. This model was used to evaluate the effects of the locoweed toxin, swainsonine, on placental angiogenesis. Sw...

  1. Helping pregnant teenagers.

    PubMed

    Bluestein, D; Starling, M E

    1994-08-01

    Teenagers who are pregnant face many difficult issues, and counseling by physicians can be an important source of help. We suggest guidelines for this counseling, beginning with a review of the scope and consequences of adolescent pregnancy. Communication strategies should be aimed at building rapport with techniques such as maintaining confidentiality, avoiding judgmental stances, and gearing communication to cognitive maturity. Techniques for exploring family relationships are useful because these relationships are key influences on subsequent decisions and behaviors. We discuss topics related to abortion and childbearing, such as safety, facilitation of balanced decision making, the use of prenatal care, and the formulation of long-term plans. Physicians who can effectively discuss these topics can help pregnant teenagers make informed decisions and improve their prospects for the future.

  2. The reasoned/reactive model: A new approach to examining eating decisions among female college dieters and nondieters.

    PubMed

    Ruhl, Holly; Holub, Shayla C; Dolan, Elaine A

    2016-12-01

    Female college students are prone to unhealthy eating patterns that can impact long-term health. This study examined female students' healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors with three decision-making models. Specifically, the theory of reasoned action, prototype/willingness model, and new reasoned/reactive model were compared to determine how reasoned (logical) and reactive (impulsive) factors relate to dietary decisions. Females (N=583, Mage=20.89years) completed measures on reasoned cognitions about foods (attitudes, subjective norms, nutrition knowledge, intentions to eat foods), reactive cognitions about foods (prototypes, affect, willingness to eat foods), dieting, and food consumption. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed the new reasoned/reactive model to be the preeminent model for examining eating behaviors. This model showed that attitudes were related to intentions and willingness to eat healthy and unhealthy foods. Affect was related to willingness to eat healthy and unhealthy foods, whereas nutrition knowledge was related to intentions and willingness to eat healthy foods only. Intentions and willingness were related to healthy and unhealthy food consumption. Dieting status played a moderating role in the model and revealed mean-level differences between dieters and nondieters. This study highlights the importance of specific factors in relation to female students' eating decisions and unveils a comprehensive model for examining health behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Men and women with bisexual identities show bisexual patterns of sexual attraction to male and female "swimsuit models".

    PubMed

    Lippa, Richard A

    2013-02-01

    Do self-identified bisexual men and women actually show bisexual patterns of sexual attraction and interest? To answer this question, I studied bisexual men's and women's sexual attraction to photographed male and female "swimsuit models" that varied in attractiveness. Participants (663 college students and gay pride attendees, including 14 self-identified bisexual men and 17 self-identified bisexual women) rated their degree of sexual attraction to 34 male and 34 female swimsuit models. Participants' viewing times to models were unobtrusively assessed. Results showed that bisexual men and women showed bisexual patterns of attraction and viewing times to photo models, which strongly distinguished them from same-sex heterosexual and homosexual participants. In contrast to other groups, which showed evidence of greater male than female category specificity, bisexual men and women did not differ in category specificity. Results suggest that there are subsets of men and women who display truly bisexual patterns of sexual attraction and interest.

  4. Multivariate model of female black bear habitat use for a Geographic Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Joseph D.; Dunn, James E.; Smith, Kimberly G.

    1993-01-01

    Simple univariate statistical techniques may not adequately assess the multidimensional nature of habitats used by wildlife. Thus, we developed a multivariate method to model habitat-use potential using a set of female black bear (Ursus americanus) radio locations and habitat data consisting of forest cover type, elevation, slope, aspect, distance to roads, distance to streams, and forest cover type diversity score in the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas. The model is based on the Mahalanobis distance statistic coupled with Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. That statistic is a measure of dissimilarity and represents a standardized squared distance between a set of sample variates and an ideal based on the mean of variates associated with animal observations. Calculations were made with the GIS to produce a map containing Mahalanobis distance values within each cell on a 60- × 60-m grid. The model identified areas of high habitat use potential that could not otherwise be identified by independent perusal of any single map layer. This technique avoids many pitfalls that commonly affect typical multivariate analyses of habitat use and is a useful tool for habitat manipulation or mitigation to favor terrestrial vertebrates that use habitats on a landscape scale.

  5. Anthropometric specifications, development, and evaluation of EvaRID--a 50th percentile female rear impact finite element dummy model.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Anna; Chang, Fred; Lemmen, Paul; Kullgren, Anders; Schmitt, Kai-Uwe; Linder, Astrid; Svensson, Mats Y

    2014-01-01

    Whiplash-associated disorders (WADs), or whiplash injuries, due to low-severity vehicle crashes are of great concern in motorized countries and it is well established that the risk of such injuries is higher for females than for males, even in similar crash conditions. Recent protective systems have been shown to be more beneficial for males than for females. Hence, there is a need for improved tools to address female WAD prevention when developing and evaluating the performance of whiplash protection systems. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a finite element model of a 50th percentile female rear impact crash test dummy. The anthropometry of the 50th percentile female was specified based on literature data. The model, called EvaRID (female rear impact dummy), was based on the same design concept as the existing 50th percentile male rear impact dummy, the BioRID II. A scaling approach was developed and the first version, EvaRID V1.0, was implemented. Its dynamic response was compared to female volunteer data from rear impact sled tests. The EvaRID V1.0 model and the volunteer tests compared well until ∼250 ms of the head and T1 forward accelerations and rearward linear displacements and of the head rearward angular displacement. Markedly less T1 rearward angular displacement was found for the EvaRID model compared to the female volunteers. Similar results were received for the BioRID II model when comparing simulated responses with experimental data under volunteer loading conditions. The results indicate that the biofidelity of the EvaRID V1.0 and BioRID II FE models have limitations, predominantly in the T1 rearward angular displacement, at low velocity changes (7 km/h). The BioRID II model was validated against dummy test results in a loading range close to consumer test conditions (EuroNCAP) and lower severity levels of volunteer testing were not considered. The EvaRID dummy model demonstrated the potential of becoming a valuable tool

  6. Treatment of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Female Infertility.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dan; Li, Lily; Zeng, Bai-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Female infertility is when a woman of reproductive age and sexual active, without contraception, cannot get pregnant after a year and more or keeps having miscarriages. Although conventional treatments for infertility such as hormone therapy, in vitro fertilization and many more, helped many female patients with infertility get pregnant during past a few decades, it is far from satisfactory with prolonging treatment time frames and emotional and financial burden. In recent years, more patients with infertile problems are seeking to alternative and complementary medicines to achieve a better outcome. In particular, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is increasingly popular for treating infertility due to its effectiveness and complimentary with conventional treatments. However, the mechanisms of action of CHM in treating female infertility are not well understood. In this chapter authors reviewed research development of CHM applied in many infertile models and CHM clinical studies in many conditions associated with female infertility, published in past 15 years. The data of review showed that CHM has either specific target mechanisms of action or multitarget mechanisms of action, via regulating relevant hormone levels in female reproductive system, improving ovary function, enhancing uterine receptivity. More studies are warranted to explore the new drugs from CHM and ensure safety, efficacy, and consistency of CHM. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pregnant Students in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory: Policies and Practices at Chiropractic Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duray, Stephen M.; Mekow, Craig L.

    2011-01-01

    Chiropractic and medical colleges have experienced a significant increase in the number of female applicants in recent years, a percentage of whom are pregnant or become pregnant following admission. It is therefore important to ask the question: How do institutions that educate future health care providers address the issue of pregnancy and the…

  8. Pregnant Students in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory: Policies and Practices at Chiropractic Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duray, Stephen M.; Mekow, Craig L.

    2011-01-01

    Chiropractic and medical colleges have experienced a significant increase in the number of female applicants in recent years, a percentage of whom are pregnant or become pregnant following admission. It is therefore important to ask the question: How do institutions that educate future health care providers address the issue of pregnancy and the…

  9. Heterologous Infection of Pregnant Mice Induces Low Birth Weight and Modifies Offspring Susceptibility to Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ankur; Conteh, Solomon; Langhorne, Jean; Duffy, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy malaria (PM) is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, and can arise due to relapse, recrudescence or a re-infection with heterologous parasites. We have used the Plasmodium chabaudi model of pregnancy malaria in C57BL/6 mice to examine recrudescence and heterologous infection using CB and AS parasite strains. After an initial course of patent parasitemia and first recrudescence, CB but not AS parasites were observed to recrudesce again in most animals that became pregnant. Pregnancy exacerbated heterologous CB infection of AS-experienced mice, leading to mortality and impaired post-natal growth of pups. Parasites were detected in placental blood without evidence of sequestration, unlike P. falciparum but similar to other malaria species that infect pregnant women. Inflammatory cytokine levels were elevated in pregnant females during malaria, and associated with intensity of infection and with poor outcomes. Pups born to dams during heterologous infection were more resistant to malaria infections at 6–7 weeks of age, compared to pups born to malaria-experienced but uninfected dams or to malaria-naïve dams. In summary, our mouse model reproduces several features of human PM, including recrudescences, heterologous infections, poor pregnancy outcomes associated with inflammatory cytokines, and modulation of offspring susceptibility to malaria. This model should be further studied to explore mechanisms underlying PM pathogenesis. PMID:27467392

  10. The Impact of Syphilis Screening among Female Sex Workers in China: A Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kate M.; Cox, Andrew P.; Mabey, David; Tucker, Joseph D.; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Vickerman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background In China, female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk of syphilis infection, but are hard to reach for interventions. Point-of-care testing introduces opportunities for expanding syphilis control measures. Modelling is used to estimate the impact of using rapid tests to screen FSWs for syphilis. In other settings, modelling has predicted large rebounds in infectious syphilis following screening, which may undermine any impact achieved. Methods A deterministic syphilis transmission model among FSWs and clients was fitted to data from Yunnan Province (FSW syphilis prevalence = 7.5%), and used to estimate the impact of rapid syphilis testing and treatment for FSWs. Impact projections were compared for different model structures that included risk heterogeneity amongst FSWs, incoming syphilis infections amongst new FSWs and clients and re-infection from FSWs' regular non-commercial partners. The rebound in syphilis prevalence after screening ceased was explored. Results All model structures suggest yearly syphilis screening could substantially reduce (by 72–88%) syphilis prevalence amongst FSWs in this setting over five years. However, incoming syphilis infections amongst new FSWs and clients or re-infections from regular non-commercial partners of FSWs can considerably reduce (>30%) the proportion of infections averted. Including heterogeneity in risk amongst FSWs had little effect upon the proportion of infections averted. In this setting, the rebound in syphilis prevalence after screening ceased is predicted to be slight, but it could be large in high prevalence settings. Conclusions Rapid test screening could dramatically reduce syphilis prevalence amongst hard-to-reach groups, but strategies to reduce re-infection from regular non-commercial partners are needed to maximise impact. PMID:23383249

  11. Explorable Three-Dimensional Digital Model of the Female Pelvis, Pelvic Contents, and Perineum for Anatomical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergovich, Aimee; Johnson, Marjorie; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2010-01-01

    The anatomy of the pelvis is complex, multilayered, and its three-dimensional organization is conceptually difficult for students to grasp. The aim of this project was to create an explorable and projectable stereoscopic, three-dimensional (3D) model of the female pelvis and pelvic contents for anatomical education. The model was created using…

  12. Explorable Three-Dimensional Digital Model of the Female Pelvis, Pelvic Contents, and Perineum for Anatomical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergovich, Aimee; Johnson, Marjorie; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2010-01-01

    The anatomy of the pelvis is complex, multilayered, and its three-dimensional organization is conceptually difficult for students to grasp. The aim of this project was to create an explorable and projectable stereoscopic, three-dimensional (3D) model of the female pelvis and pelvic contents for anatomical education. The model was created using…

  13. Changing Attitudes toward the Male Breadwinner, Female Homemaker Model: Influences of Women's Employment and Education over the Lifecourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Mick

    2008-01-01

    Declines in support for the male breadwinner, female homemaker family model in recent decades have been thoroughly documented, but research into the way such attitudes change over the life course remains limited. Drawing on panel data and latent growth curve modeling techniques, the study identifies patterns and predictors of attitude change from…

  14. Understanding Female Sport Attrition in a Stereotypical Male Sport within the Framework of Eccles's Expectancy-Value Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillet, Emma; Sarrazin, Philippe; Fontayne, Paul; Brustad, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    An empirical research study based upon the expectancy-value model of Eccles and colleagues (1983) investigated the effect of gender-role orientations on psychological dimensions of female athletes' sport participation and the likelihood of their continued participation in a stereotypical masculine activity. The model (Eccles et al., 1983) posits…

  15. Understanding Female Sport Attrition in a Stereotypical Male Sport within the Framework of Eccles's Expectancy-Value Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillet, Emma; Sarrazin, Philippe; Fontayne, Paul; Brustad, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    An empirical research study based upon the expectancy-value model of Eccles and colleagues (1983) investigated the effect of gender-role orientations on psychological dimensions of female athletes' sport participation and the likelihood of their continued participation in a stereotypical masculine activity. The model (Eccles et al., 1983) posits…

  16. Development of a 9-months pregnant hybrid phantom and its internal dosimetry for thyroid agents.

    PubMed

    Hoseinian-Azghadi, E; Rafat-Motavalli, L; Miri-Hakimabad, H

    2014-07-01

    As a consequence of fetal radiosensitivity, the estimation of internal dose received by a fetus from radiopharmaceuticals applied to the mother is often important in nuclear medicine. A new 9-months pregnant phantom based on magnetic resonance (MR) images tied to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference voxel phantom has been developed. Maternal and fetal organs were segmented from a set of pelvic MR images of a 9-months pregnant subject using 3D-DOCTOR(TM) and then imported into the 3D modeling software package Rhinoceros(TM) for combining with the adult female ICRP voxel phantom and further modeling. Next, the phantom organs were rescaled to match with reference masses described in ICRP Publications. The internal anatomy of previous pregnant phantom models had been limited to the fetal brain and skeleton only, but the fetus model developed in this study incorporates 20 different organs. The current reference phantom has been developed for application in comprehensive dosimetric study in nuclear medicine. The internal dosimetry calculations were performed for thyroid agents using the Monte Carlo transport method. Biokinetic data for these radiopharmaceuticals were used to estimate cumulated activity during pregnancy and maternal and fetal organ doses at seven different maximum thyroid uptake levels. Calculating the dose distribution was also presented in a sagittal view of the pregnant model utilizing the mesh tally function. The comparisons showed, in general, an overestimation of the absorbed dose to the fetus and an underestimation of the fetal thyroid dose in previous studies compared with the values based on the current hybrid phantom.

  17. Development of a 9-months pregnant hybrid phantom and its internal dosimetry for thyroid agents

    PubMed Central

    Hoseinian-Azghadi, E.; Rafat-Motavalli, L.; Miri-Hakimabad, H.

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of fetal radiosensitivity, the estimation of internal dose received by a fetus from radiopharmaceuticals applied to the mother is often important in nuclear medicine. A new 9-months pregnant phantom based on magnetic resonance (MR) images tied to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference voxel phantom has been developed. Maternal and fetal organs were segmented from a set of pelvic MR images of a 9-months pregnant subject using 3D-DOCTORTM and then imported into the 3D modeling software package RhinocerosTM for combining with the adult female ICRP voxel phantom and further modeling. Next, the phantom organs were rescaled to match with reference masses described in ICRP Publications. The internal anatomy of previous pregnant phantom models had been limited to the fetal brain and skeleton only, but the fetus model developed in this study incorporates 20 different organs. The current reference phantom has been developed for application in comprehensive dosimetric study in nuclear medicine. The internal dosimetry calculations were performed for thyroid agents using the Monte Carlo transport method. Biokinetic data for these radiopharmaceuticals were used to estimate cumulated activity during pregnancy and maternal and fetal organ doses at seven different maximum thyroid uptake levels. Calculating the dose distribution was also presented in a sagittal view of the pregnant model utilizing the mesh tally function. The comparisons showed, in general, an overestimation of the absorbed dose to the fetus and an underestimation of the fetal thyroid dose in previous studies compared with the values based on the current hybrid phantom. PMID:24515254

  18. Modeling parameters that characterize pacing of elite female 800-m freestyle swimmers.

    PubMed

    Lipińska, Patrycja; Allen, Sian V; Hopkins, Will G

    2016-01-01

    Pacing offers a potential avenue for enhancement of endurance performance. We report here a novel method for characterizing pacing in 800-m freestyle swimming. Websites provided 50-m lap and race times for 192 swims of 20 elite female swimmers between 2000 and 2013. Pacing for each swim was characterized with five parameters derived from a linear model: linear and quadratic coefficients for effect of lap number, reductions from predicted time for first and last laps, and lap-time variability (standard error of the estimate). Race-to-race consistency of the parameters was expressed as intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). The average swim was a shallow negative quadratic with slowest time in the eleventh lap. First and last laps were faster by 6.4% and 3.6%, and lap-time variability was ±0.64%. Consistency between swimmers ranged from low-moderate for the linear and quadratic parameters (ICC = 0.29 and 0.36) to high for the last-lap parameter (ICC = 0.62), while consistency for race time was very high (ICC = 0.80). Only ~15% of swimmers had enough swims (~15 or more) to provide reasonable evidence of optimum parameter values in plots of race time vs. each parameter. The modest consistency of most of the pacing parameters and lack of relationships between parameters and performance suggest that swimmers usually compensated for changes in one parameter with changes in another. In conclusion, pacing in 800-m elite female swimmers can be characterized with five parameters, but identifying an optimal pacing profile is generally impractical.

  19. Monte Carlo model of the female RANDO phantom irradiation with an Elekta Precise linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abella, V.; Miró, R.; Juste, B.; Santos, A.; Verdú, G.

    2010-07-01

    Anthropomorphic laboratory phantoms are a very useful aid in radiotherapy treatment planning. Such phantoms allow estimating detailed mapping of dose distribution. The phantom utilized in this work is the female RANDO ® Phantom, which represents a 163 cm tall and 54 kg figure that does not have arms or legs. It is constructed with a natural human skeleton which is cast inside soft tissue-simulating material and lung-simulating material. A set of computer tomography images of the RANDO ® Phantom was obtained and segmented. Once the slices were segmented and the pixel intensities related with the phantom materials, they were input to a Matlab algorithm developed by the authors and validated in previous works, which uses the CT slices to build up a three-dimensional numerical voxelized phantom by pixel and material identification, and writes it in the MCNP5 input deck format utilizing the lattice card, together with an MCNP5 model for the Elekta Precise Linear Accelerator. The Linear Accelerator model has also been also validated in previous works. The simulation results in mapping of dose distribution inside the phantom, utilizing the MCNP5 tool FMESH, superimposed mesh tally, which allows registering the results over the problem geometry.

  20. A Novel Letrozole Model Recapitulates Both the Reproductive and Metabolic Phenotypes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Alexander S; Thackray, Varykina G; Ryan, Genevieve E; Tolson, Kristen P; Glidewell-Kenney, Christine A; Semaan, Sheila J; Poling, Matthew C; Iwata, Nahoko; Breen, Kellie M; Duleba, Antoni J; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Shimasaki, Shunichi; Webster, Nicholas J; Mellon, Pamela L

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) pathophysiology is poorly understood, due partly to lack of PCOS animal models fully recapitulating this complex disorder. Recently, a PCOS rat model using letrozole (LET), a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, mimicked multiple PCOS phenotypes, including metabolic features absent in other models. Given the advantages of using genetic and transgenic mouse models, we investigated whether LET produces a similar PCOS phenotype in mice. Pubertal female C57BL/6N mice were treated for 5 wk with LET, which resulted in increased serum testosterone and normal diestrus levels of estradiol, similar to the hyperandrogenemia and follicular phase estrogen levels of PCOS women. As in PCOS, ovaries from LET mice were larger, polycystic, and lacked corpora lutea versus controls. Most LET females were acyclic, and all were infertile. LET females displayed elevated serum LH levels and higher Lhb mRNA in the pituitary. In contrast, serum FSH and Fshb were significantly reduced in LET females, demonstrating differential effects on gonadotropins, as in PCOS. Within the ovary, LET females had higher Cyp17, Cyp19, and Fsh receptor mRNA expression. In the hypothalamus, LET females had higher kisspeptin receptor mRNA expression but lower progesterone receptor mRNA levels. LET females also gained more weight than controls, had increased abdominal adiposity and adipocyte size, elevated adipose inflammatory mRNA levels, and impaired glucose tolerance, mirroring the metabolic phenotype in PCOS women. This is the first report of a LET paradigm in mice that recapitulates both reproductive and metabolic PCOS phenotypes and will be useful to genetically probe the PCOS condition.

  1. A Novel Letrozole Model Recapitulates Both the Reproductive and Metabolic Phenotypes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Female Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Kauffman, Alexander S.; Thackray, Varykina G.; Ryan, Genevieve E.; Tolson, Kristen P.; Glidewell-Kenney, Christine A.; Semaan, Sheila J.; Poling, Matthew C.; Iwata, Nahoko; Breen, Kellie M.; Duleba, Antoni J.; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Shimasaki, Shunichi; Webster, Nicholas J.; Mellon, Pamela L.

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) pathophysiology is poorly understood, due partly to lack of PCOS animal models fully recapitulating this complex disorder. Recently, a PCOS rat model using letrozole (LET), a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, mimicked multiple PCOS phenotypes, including metabolic features absent in other models. Given the advantages of using genetic and transgenic mouse models, we investigated whether LET produces a similar PCOS phenotype in mice. Pubertal female C57BL/6N mice were treated for 5 wk with LET, which resulted in increased serum testosterone and normal diestrus levels of estradiol, similar to the hyperandrogenemia and follicular phase estrogen levels of PCOS women. As in PCOS, ovaries from LET mice were larger, polycystic, and lacked corpora lutea versus controls. Most LET females were acyclic, and all were infertile. LET females displayed elevated serum LH levels and higher Lhb mRNA in the pituitary. In contrast, serum FSH and Fshb were significantly reduced in LET females, demonstrating differential effects on gonadotropins, as in PCOS. Within the ovary, LET females had higher Cyp17, Cyp19, and Fsh receptor mRNA expression. In the hypothalamus, LET females had higher kisspeptin receptor mRNA expression but lower progesterone receptor mRNA levels. LET females also gained more weight than controls, had increased abdominal adiposity and adipocyte size, elevated adipose inflammatory mRNA levels, and impaired glucose tolerance, mirroring the metabolic phenotype in PCOS women. This is the first report of a LET paradigm in mice that recapitulates both reproductive and metabolic PCOS phenotypes and will be useful to genetically probe the PCOS condition. PMID:26203175

  2. Ketamine-induced brain activation in awake female nonhuman primates: a translational functional imaging model.

    PubMed

    Maltbie, Eric; Gopinath, Kaundinya; Urushino, Naoko; Kempf, Doty; Howell, Leonard

    2016-03-01

    There is significant interest in the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine due to its efficacy in treating depressive disorders and its induction of psychotic-like symptoms that make it a useful tool for modeling psychosis. The present study extends the successful development of an apparatus and methodology to conduct pharmacological MRI studies in awake rhesus monkeys in order to evaluate the CNS effects of ketamine. Functional MRI scans were conducted in four awake adult female rhesus monkeys during sub-anesthetic intravenous (i.v.) infusions of ketamine (0.345 mg/kg bolus followed by 0.256 mg/kg/h constant infusion) with and without risperidone pretreatment (0.06 mg/kg). Statistical parametric maps of ketamine-induced blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activation were obtained with appropriate general linear regression models (GLMs) incorporating motion and hemodynamics of ketamine infusion. Ketamine infusion induced and sustained robust BOLD activation in a number of cortical and subcortical regions, including the thalamus, cingulate gyrus, and supplementary motor area. Pretreatment with the antipsychotic drug risperidone markedly blunted ketamine-induced activation in many brain areas. The results are remarkably similar to human imaging studies showing ketamine-induced BOLD activation in many of the same brain areas, and pretreatment with risperidone or another antipsychotic blunting the ketamine response to a similar extent. The strong concordance of the functional imaging data in humans with these results from nonhuman primates highlights the translational value of the model and provides an excellent avenue for future research examining the CNS effects of ketamine. This model may also be a useful tool for evaluating the efficacy of novel antipsychotic drugs.

  3. The development, validation and application of a multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanner model for assessing organ doses to the pregnant patient and the fetus using Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, J.; Bednarz, B.; Caracappa, P. F.; Xu, X. G.

    2009-05-01

    The latest multiple-detector technologies have further increased the popularity of x-ray CT as a diagnostic imaging modality. There is a continuing need to assess the potential radiation risk associated with such rapidly evolving multi-detector CT (MDCT) modalities and scanning protocols. This need can be met by the use of CT source models that are integrated with patient computational phantoms for organ dose calculations. Based on this purpose, this work developed and validated an MDCT scanner using the Monte Carlo method, and meanwhile the pregnant patient phantoms were integrated into the MDCT scanner model for assessment of the dose to the fetus as well as doses to the organs or tissues of the pregnant patient phantom. A Monte Carlo code, MCNPX, was used to simulate the x-ray source including the energy spectrum, filter and scan trajectory. Detailed CT scanner components were specified using an iterative trial-and-error procedure for a GE LightSpeed CT scanner. The scanner model was validated by comparing simulated results against measured CTDI values and dose profiles reported in the literature. The source movement along the helical trajectory was simulated using the pitch of 0.9375 and 1.375, respectively. The validated scanner model was then integrated with phantoms of a pregnant patient in three different gestational periods to calculate organ doses. It was found that the dose to the fetus of the 3 month pregnant patient phantom was 0.13 mGy/100 mAs and 0.57 mGy/100 mAs from the chest and kidney scan, respectively. For the chest scan of the 6 month patient phantom and the 9 month patient phantom, the fetal doses were 0.21 mGy/100 mAs and 0.26 mGy/100 mAs, respectively. The paper also discusses how these fetal dose values can be used to evaluate imaging procedures and to assess risk using recommendations of the report from AAPM Task Group 36. This work demonstrates the ability of modeling and validating an MDCT scanner by the Monte Carlo method, as well as

  4. The development, validation and application of a multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanner model for assessing organ doses to the pregnant patient and the fetus using Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Gu, J; Bednarz, B; Caracappa, P F; Xu, X G

    2009-05-07

    The latest multiple-detector technologies have further increased the popularity of x-ray CT as a diagnostic imaging modality. There is a continuing need to assess the potential radiation risk associated with such rapidly evolving multi-detector CT (MDCT) modalities and scanning protocols. This need can be met by the use of CT source models that are integrated with patient computational phantoms for organ dose calculations. Based on this purpose, this work developed and validated an MDCT scanner using the Monte Carlo method, and meanwhile the pregnant patient phantoms were integrated into the MDCT scanner model for assessment of the dose to the fetus as well as doses to the organs or tissues of the pregnant patient phantom. A Monte Carlo code, MCNPX, was used to simulate the x-ray source including the energy spectrum, filter and scan trajectory. Detailed CT scanner components were specified using an iterative trial-and-error procedure for a GE LightSpeed CT scanner. The scanner model was validated by comparing simulated results against measured CTDI values and dose profiles reported in the literature. The source movement along the helical trajectory was simulated using the pitch of 0.9375 and 1.375, respectively. The validated scanner model was then integrated with phantoms of a pregnant patient in three different gestational periods to calculate organ doses. It was found that the dose to the fetus of the 3 month pregnant patient phantom was 0.13 mGy/100 mAs and 0.57 mGy/100 mAs from the chest and kidney scan, respectively. For the chest scan of the 6 month patient phantom and the 9 month patient phantom, the fetal doses were 0.21 mGy/100 mAs and 0.26 mGy/100 mAs, respectively. The paper also discusses how these fetal dose values can be used to evaluate imaging procedures and to assess risk using recommendations of the report from AAPM Task Group 36. This work demonstrates the ability of modeling and validating an MDCT scanner by the Monte Carlo method, as well as

  5. VHP-Female full-body human CAD model for cross-platform FEM simulations: recent development and validations.

    PubMed

    Tankaria, Harshal; Jackson, Xavier J; Borwankar, Raunak; Srichandhru, Goutham N K; Le Tran, Anh; Yanamadala, Janakinadh; Noetscher, Gregory M; Nazarian, Ara; Louie, Sara; Makarov, Sergey N

    2016-08-01

    Simulation of the electromagnetic response of the human body relies heavily upon efficient computational models or phantoms. The first objective of this paper is to present an improved platform-independent full-body electromagnetic computational model (computational phantom), the Visible Human Project® (VHP)-Female v. 3.1 and to describe its distinct features and enhancements compared to VHP-Female v. 2.0. The second objective is to report phantom simulation for electric stimulation studies using the commercial FEM electromagnetic solver ANSYS MAXWELL.

  6. Incorporating Gender Specific Approaches for Incarcerated Female Adolescents: Multilevel Risk Model for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Chiquitia L.; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Parker, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The rise in female delinquency has resulted in large numbers of girls being incarcerated in Youth Development Centers (YDC). However, there are few gender specific treatment programs for incarcerated female adolescent offenders, particularly for those with a history of substance dependency. In this article, we present a Multi-level Risk Model…

  7. Incorporating Gender Specific Approaches for Incarcerated Female Adolescents: Multilevel Risk Model for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Chiquitia L.; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Parker, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The rise in female delinquency has resulted in large numbers of girls being incarcerated in Youth Development Centers (YDC). However, there are few gender specific treatment programs for incarcerated female adolescent offenders, particularly for those with a history of substance dependency. In this article, we present a Multi-level Risk Model…

  8. [Low back pain in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Majchrzycki, Marian; Mrozikiewicz, Przemysław M; Kocur, Piotr; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Hoffmann, Marcin; Stryła, Wanda; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2010-11-01

    Pain of lumbosacral segment of the vertebral column and the pelvis concerns about 45% of all pregnant women. The change of the body posture during pregnancy is the result of gravity centre relocation, which affects the musculosceletal system. Development of the joint, ligament and myofascial dysfunctions, as well as the pain in the lumbosacral segment and the pelvis, are the most common reasons of spine pain. The aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge about lumbar spine pain in pregnant women with special focus on the pain connected with muscular, joint and ligament disorders. Pregnancy is a serious burden for the female osteo-skeletal system. Lumbar pain with different location and intensification is the negative consequence of the position changes during pregnancy. Pharmacotherapy could be useful only in cases of intensive low back pain, with possible application of small spectrum of drugs that are safe during pregnancy. Physical therapy including manual therapy exercises, massage and techniques of local anesthesia are alternative methods in case of low back pain in pregnant women.

  9. Maternal models of risk: links between substance use and risky sexual behavior in African American female caregivers and daughters.

    PubMed

    Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri

    2012-08-01

    African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers' risky sexual behavior and substance use to adolescent girls' risky sexual behavior and substance use in a sample of 214 low-income, urban AA female caregivers and daughters recruited from outpatient mental health clinics in Chicago. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that sexual risk reported by female caregivers was associated with adolescent sexual risk, and illicit drug use reported by female caregivers was related to adolescent-reported substance use, which was in turn associated with adolescent-reported sexual risk behavior. These findings suggest that female caregivers' sexual behavior and substance use both relate to girls' sexual risk. Thus, results emphasize the role of female caregivers in transmitting risk. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Hypericum perforatum Extract in an Experimental Model of Binge Eating in Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Vitale, Giovanni; Massi, Maurizio; Cifani, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The present study evaluated the effect of Hypericum perforatum dry extract in an experimental model of binge eating (BE). Methods. BE for highly palatable food (HPF) was evoked in female rats by three 8-day cycles of food restriction/re-feeding and acute stress on the test day (day 25). Stress was induced by preventing access to HPF for 15 min, while rats were able to see and smell it. Hypericum perforatum dry extract was given by gavage. Results. Only rats exposed to both food restrictions and stress exhibited BE. The doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of Hypericum perforatum extract significantly reduced the BE episode, while 125 mg/kg was ineffective. The same doses did not affect HPF intake in the absence of BE. The dose of 250 mg/kg did not significantly modify stress-induced increase in serum corticosterone levels, suggesting that the effect on BE is not due to suppression of the stress response The combined administration of 125 mg/kg of Hypericum perforatum together with Salidroside, active principle of Rhodiola rosea, produced a synergic effect on BE. Conclusions. The present results indicate for the first time that Hypericum perforatum extracts may have therapeutic properties in bingeing-related eating disorders.

  11. Effect of Hypericum perforatum Extract in an Experimental Model of Binge Eating in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Vitale, Giovanni; Massi, Maurizio; Cifani, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The present study evaluated the effect of Hypericum perforatum dry extract in an experimental model of binge eating (BE). Methods. BE for highly palatable food (HPF) was evoked in female rats by three 8-day cycles of food restriction/re-feeding and acute stress on the test day (day 25). Stress was induced by preventing access to HPF for 15 min, while rats were able to see and smell it. Hypericum perforatum dry extract was given by gavage. Results. Only rats exposed to both food restrictions and stress exhibited BE. The doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of Hypericum perforatum extract significantly reduced the BE episode, while 125 mg/kg was ineffective. The same doses did not affect HPF intake in the absence of BE. The dose of 250 mg/kg did not significantly modify stress-induced increase in serum corticosterone levels, suggesting that the effect on BE is not due to suppression of the stress response The combined administration of 125 mg/kg of Hypericum perforatum together with Salidroside, active principle of Rhodiola rosea, produced a synergic effect on BE. Conclusions. The present results indicate for the first time that Hypericum perforatum extracts may have therapeutic properties in bingeing-related eating disorders. PMID:22997570

  12. The Legal Rights of Pregnant Students and Pregnant Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Irving C.

    This speech presents an analysis of court cases dealing with the rights of pregnant students and pregnant employees. The discussion of these rights, such as the right to maternity leave, focuses around the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and its implications for equal employment opportunity. The court cases discussed consider the application of the equal…

  13. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies.

  14. Systemic Delivery of MeCP2 Rescues Behavioral and Cellular Deficits in Female Mouse Models of Rett Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Saurabh K.; Lioy, Daniel T.; Cheval, Hélène; McGann, James C.; Bissonnette, John M.; Murtha, Matthew J.; Foust, Kevin D.; Kaspar, Brian K.; Bird, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    De novo mutations in the X-linked gene encoding the transcription factor methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) are the most frequent cause of the neurological disorder Rett syndrome (RTT). Hemizygous males usually die of neonatal encephalopathy. Heterozygous females survive into adulthood but exhibit severe symptoms including microcephaly, loss of purposeful hand motions and speech, and motor abnormalities, which appear after a period of apparently normal development. Most studies have focused on male mouse models because of the shorter latency to and severity in symptoms, yet how well these mice mimic the disease in affected females is not clear. Very few therapeutic treatments have been proposed for females, the more gender-appropriate model. Here, we show that self-complementary AAV9, bearing MeCP2 cDNA under control of a fragment of its own promoter (scAAV9/MeCP2), is capable of significantly stabilizing or reversing symptoms when administered systemically into female RTT mice. To our knowledge, this is the first potential gene therapy for females afflicted with RTT. PMID:23966684

  15. Prediction of seizure incidence probability in PTZ model of kindling through spatial learning ability in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Haeri, Narges-Al-Sadat; Palizvan, Mohammad Reza; Sadegh, Mehdi; Aghaei, Zohre; Rafiei, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disease characterized by periodic seizures. Cognitive deficits and impairments in learning and memory are also associated with epilepsy. Neuronal changes and synaptic modifications in kindling model of epilepsy are similar to those occur during the learning procedure and memory formation. Herein we investigated whether seizure susceptibility in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) model of kindling is predictable based on the learning ability in the Morris water maze (MWM) task in male and female rats. Allocentric learning was tested using MWM in present of light while egocentric learning was evaluated by MWM in dark room. The results indicated no significant differences in allocentric learning abilities between male and female rats. However, male rats were able to memorize the location of the platform more effectively compared to females in egocentric test. In addition, a statistically significant negative correlation between learning abilities (working memory) and seizure susceptibility in male rats was found while this correlation was positive in female rats. On the other hand, although there was no significant correlation between retrieval (reference memory) of spatial memories and seizure parameters in male rats, female rats showed a significant negative correlation. These findings may provide some evidences for prediction of seizure susceptibility according to learning ability and memory retention.

  16. The sex difference in tumor incidence is related to the female condition: models for Europe and Italy.

    PubMed

    Benigni, R; Giaimo, R; Matranga, D; Giuliani, A

    2001-07-01

    A remarkable aspect of cancer distribution in Europe is the large spatial variability of the male-female incidence ratio, from no difference up to 50%. Given the evidence of the predominantly environmental origin of cancer, we studied the ability of a set of socioeconomic indicators of the female condition to model the spatial variability of the sex difference in tumor incidence at two different scales: between countries (Europe) and between provinces (Italy). The sex difference in tumor incidence correlated with female socioeconomic condition indicators at the same extent (r = 0.73) in both situations, but in opposite directions. In the European study the higher the sexual social equality the lower the differential tumor incidence, whereas the opposite result was shown by the between-provinces Italian study. We also investigated the relation of the female condition indicator with other social and cultural descriptors of the same populations, and we suggest explanatory models linking female condition and pathology at the continental and local scales. Overall, our analysis supports the predominantly environmental origin of cancer and stresses the importance of relating cancer patterns to societal determinants. Our analysis also suggests that the sex difference in tumor incidence is a very useful probe for exploring the social-economic cultural correlates of cancer in human populations. We emphasize the need for a thorough analysis of the empirical correlations highlighted in ecologic studies.

  17. Systemic delivery of MeCP2 rescues behavioral and cellular deficits in female mouse models of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Garg, Saurabh K; Lioy, Daniel T; Cheval, Hélène; McGann, James C; Bissonnette, John M; Murtha, Matthew J; Foust, Kevin D; Kaspar, Brian K; Bird, Adrian; Mandel, Gail

    2013-08-21

    De novo mutations in the X-linked gene encoding the transcription factor methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) are the most frequent cause of the neurological disorder Rett syndrome (RTT). Hemizygous males usually die of neonatal encephalopathy. Heterozygous females survive into adulthood but exhibit severe symptoms including microcephaly, loss of purposeful hand motions and speech, and motor abnormalities, which appear after a period of apparently normal development. Most studies have focused on male mouse models because of the shorter latency to and severity in symptoms, yet how well these mice mimic the disease in affected females is not clear. Very few therapeutic treatments have been proposed for females, the more gender-appropriate model. Here, we show that self-complementary AAV9, bearing MeCP2 cDNA under control of a fragment of its own promoter (scAAV9/MeCP2), is capable of significantly stabilizing or reversing symptoms when administered systemically into female RTT mice. To our knowledge, this is the first potential gene therapy for females afflicted with RTT.

  18. Determinants of puberty health among female adolescents residing in boarding welfare centers in Tehran: An application of health belief model.

    PubMed

    Shirzadi, Shayesteh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Nadrian, Haidar; Mahmoodi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a critical stage of growth and development. That is associated with changes in body shape and appearance. Issues such as irregular menstrual periods, amenorrhea, and menstrual cycle are major issues in women's health. The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of physical puberty health based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among female adolescents. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study was conducted in welfare boarding centers in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected in 2011 by a structured and valid questionnaire. Total 61 female adolescents (age range: 12-19 yrs) participated in this study from welfare boarding centers in Iran, Tehran, by using convenience sampling method. The questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, health belief model constructs and physical puberty health behaviors gathered by using interview. A series of univariate general linear models were used to assess the relationship between puberty health and health belief model constructs. Results: According to the results of this study there were positive significant relationships between perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action and increased puberty health in female adolescents (p<0.05). Perceived benefits, perceived barriers and cues to action were predictors of physical puberty health behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study to improve the physical Puberty health behaviors of female adolescents should make them aware of the benefits of health behaviors, and remove or reform the perceived barriers of health behaviors. Also, the appropriate information resources should be introduced for obtaining information about puberty health.

  19. Adaptive Response in Female Fathead Minnows Exposed to an Aromatase Inhibitor: Computational Modeling of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic computational model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose-response and time-course ...

  20. Adaptive Response in Female Fathead Minnows Exposed to an Aromatase Inhibitor: Computational Modeling of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic computational model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose-response and time-course ...

  1. Two-Dimensional Sectioned Images and Three-Dimensional Surface Models for Learning the Anatomy of the Female Pelvis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Dong Sun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Hwang, Sung Bae; Har, Dong-Hwan; Moon, Young Lae; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-01-01

    In the Visible Korean project, serially sectioned images of the pelvis were made from a female cadaver. Outlines of significant structures in the sectioned images were drawn and stacked to build surface models. To improve the accessibility and informational content of these data, a five-step process was designed and implemented. First, 154 pelvic…

  2. Determinants of puberty health among female adolescents residing in boarding welfare centers in Tehran: An application of health belief model

    PubMed Central

    Shirzadi, Shayesteh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Nadrian, Haidar; Mahmoodi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a critical stage of growth and development. That is associated with changes in body shape and appearance. Issues such as irregular menstrual periods, amenorrhea, and menstrual cycle are major issues in women's health. The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of physical puberty health based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among female adolescents. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study was conducted in welfare boarding centers in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected in 2011 by a structured and valid questionnaire. Total 61 female adolescents (age range: 12-19 yrs) participated in this study from welfare boarding centers in Iran, Tehran, by using convenience sampling method. The questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, health belief model constructs and physical puberty health behaviors gathered by using interview. A series of univariate general linear models were used to assess the relationship between puberty health and health belief model constructs. Results: According to the results of this study there were positive significant relationships between perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action and increased puberty health in female adolescents (p<0.05). Perceived benefits, perceived barriers and cues to action were predictors of physical puberty health behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study to improve the physical Puberty health behaviors of female adolescents should make them aware of the benefits of health behaviors, and remove or reform the perceived barriers of health behaviors. Also, the appropriate information resources should be introduced for obtaining information about puberty health. PMID:28210597

  3. Two-Dimensional Sectioned Images and Three-Dimensional Surface Models for Learning the Anatomy of the Female Pelvis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Dong Sun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Hwang, Sung Bae; Har, Dong-Hwan; Moon, Young Lae; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-01-01

    In the Visible Korean project, serially sectioned images of the pelvis were made from a female cadaver. Outlines of significant structures in the sectioned images were drawn and stacked to build surface models. To improve the accessibility and informational content of these data, a five-step process was designed and implemented. First, 154 pelvic…

  4. Recruiting Female Faculty Members in Science and Engineering: Preliminary Evaluation of One Intervention Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Abigail J.; La Vaque-Manty, Danielle; Malley, Janet E.

    The representation of female faculty members in science and engineering fields lags behind that of their counterparts in the social sciences and humanities and also fails to keep pace with the production of female science and engineering doctorates. Research has shown that equity cannot be achieved by waiting for women to fill the applicant pool; instead, institutions must intervene by changing hiring practices and retention policies. This article describes and evaluates early results of one intervention at the University of Michigan: the creation of a faculty committee designed to improve the recruitment and hiring of female faculty members through peer education. One hiring cycle after the committee's creation, the authors found (a) reports of changed practices in some search committees and departments, (b) an increase in the number and proportion of new hires who were women, and (c) a substantial increase in the knowledge and motivation of the members of the recruitment committee with respect to improving the climate for female faculty members.

  5. Five-Factor Model Personality Profiles: The Differences between Alcohol and Opiate Addiction among Females.

    PubMed

    Raketic, Diana; Barisic, Jasmina V; Svetozarevic, Snezana M; Gazibara, Tatjana; Tepavcevic, Darija Kisic; Milovanovic, Srdjan D

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of female alcohol and substance abusers has markedly increased. The main objective of this research was to explore personality profiles among females who had alcohol and opiate dependence. The aim of the study is to analyse if there is differences in personality profiles of females addicted to alcohol and opiates. We hypothesized that there might be significant differences in personality profiles among subgroups of women who present with alcohol and opiate use disorders. Of 157 consecutive women with diagnosis of alcohol/opiate addiction, 62 fulfilled following inclusion criteria: age 19-45 years, abstinence from alcohol and opiates for at least 10 days prior to enrollment. Alcohol-dependent group consisted of 30 females, while opiate-dependent group consisted of 32 females. The control group involved 30 age-matched randomly chosen healthy women. The data were collected using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). The multiple stepwise discriminant analysis was used to determine relations between personality traits and the probability of belonging to one of the study groups. Significant differences in the NEO-PI-R scores were observed between groups for all main personality traits except for Openness to Experience. Compared with controls, substance-dependent women scored significantly higher on Neuroticism and lower on Conscientiousness. Opiate-dependent females scored the highest on Neuroticism and on Extraversion and lowest on Agreeableness and on Conscientiousness. Alcohol-dependent females scored higher on Conscientiousness and lower on Neuroticism compared to opiate-dependent women. The results of our study confirmed significant characteristics in personality profiles among females with alcohol and opiate dependence, as well as the difference between these two groups of substance abusers and their healthy controls. The distinct personality characteristics among different groups of substance addicted women should be taken into account

  6. Development and biological function of the female gonads and genitalia in IGF-I deficiency -- Laron syndrome as a model.

    PubMed

    Laron, Zvi

    2006-01-01

    Laron syndrome (LS) or primary GH insensitivity is a unique human model to study the effects of congenital IGF-I deficiency. Within our cohort of 63 patients with LS, 15 female patients were regularly followed since birth or infancy, throughout puberty. We observed that they were short at birth, with small genitalia and gonads -- during puberty, developed delayed puberty but eventually reached between 16 and 19 1/2 years full sexual development. Reproduction is unaffected at a young adult age. It is concluded that IGF-I in concert with the sex hormones has a modulatory but not essential function on female sexual development and maturation.

  7. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003466.htm Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant To use the sharing features on this ... is broken) Alternative Names Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test; ...

  8. Identifying factors predicting iron deficiency in United States adolescent females using the ferritin and the body iron models

    PubMed Central

    Sekhar, Deepa L.; Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Paul, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the United States affecting 9–16% of female adolescents. With the primary purpose of detecting iron deficiency, primary care screening consists of a hemoglobin or hematocrit laboratory test. This method is simple and inexpensive, but tests for anemia, and is neither sensitive nor specific for iron deficiency. Alternate methods for diagnosing iron deficiency using the ferritin and body iron models are not widely utilized. The study objective was to compare iron deficiency risk factors among adolescent females defined by the ferritin and body iron models to better characterize those who may benefit from iron deficiency testing as opposed to the current anemia-based screen. Methods This cross-sectional study of female adolescents aged 12–21 years utilized National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006 data. Anemia was defined by standard hemoglobin cutoffs. The ferritin model defines iron deficiency through transferrin saturation, ferritin and erythrocyte protoporphyrin laboratory testing. Body iron calculates iron status with a formula involving transferrin receptor and ferritin. Bivariate and multivariable analyses examined associations between questionnaire responses and iron deficiency defined by each model. Results Among 1765 participants, 2.7% were anemic. Iron deficiency prevalence was 13.1% and 9.1% by the ferritin and body iron models, respectively. Based on the model, anemia-based screening had a sensitivity of 15.6–18.8% for iron deficiency. Multivariable associations for ferritin model iron deficiency included age, race/ethnicity, activity level and medroxyprogresterone acetate injection. Age and food insecurity were significant using the body iron model. Conclusions Universal anemia-based screening misses the majority of iron-deficient adolescent females. The common risk factor identified here, adolescent age, may both inform preventive care guidelines on

  9. Impaired contraction and decreased detrusor innervation in a female rat model of pelvic neuropraxia

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Johanna L.; Powers, Shelby A.; Wang, Vinson M.; Castiglione, Fabio; Hedlund, Petter; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis Bilateral pelvic nerve injury (BPNI) is a model of post-radical hysterectomy neuropraxia, a common sequelae. This study assessed the time course of changes to detrusor autonomic innervation, smooth muscle (SM) content and cholinergic-mediated contraction post-BPNI. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent BPNI or sham surgery and were evaluated 3, 7, 14 and 30 days post-BPNI (n=8/group). Electrical field stimulated (EFS) and carbachol-induced contractions were measured. Gene expression was assessed by qPCR for muscarinic receptor types 2 (M2) and 3 (M3), collagen type 1α1 and 3α1 and SM actin. Western blots measured M2 and M3 protein expression. Bladder sections were stained with Masson’s trichrome for SM content and immunofluorescence staining for nerve terminals expressing vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Results BPNI caused larger bladders with less SM content and increased collagen type 1α1 and 3α1 gene expression. At early time points, cholinergic-mediated contraction increased, while EFS-mediated contraction decreased and returned to baseline by 30 days. Protein and gene expression of M3 was decreased 3 and 7 days post-BPNI while M2 was unchanged. TH nerve terminals surrounding the detrusor decreased in all BPNI groups while VAChT and nNOS terminals decreased 14 and 30 days post-BPNI. Conclusions BPNI increased bladder size, impaired contractility and decreased SM and autonomic innervation. Therapeutic strategies preventing nerve injury-mediated decline in neuronal input and SM content may prevent the development of a neurogenic bladder and improve quality of life after invasive pelvic surgery. PMID:27987021

  10. Impaired contraction and decreased detrusor innervation in a female rat model of pelvic neuropraxia.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Johanna L; Powers, Shelby A; Wang, Vinson M; Castiglione, Fabio; Hedlund, Petter; Bivalacqua, Trinity J

    2017-07-01

    Bilateral pelvic nerve injury (BPNI) is a model of post-radical hysterectomy neuropraxia, a common sequela. This study assessed the time course of changes to detrusor autonomic innervation, smooth muscle (SM) content and cholinergic-mediated contraction post-BPNI. Female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent BPNI or sham surgery and were evaluated 3, 7, 14, and 30 days post-BPNI (n = 8/group). Electrical field-stimulated (EFS) and carbachol-induced contractions were measured. Gene expression was assessed by qPCR for muscarinic receptor types 2 (M2) and 3 (M3), collagen type 1α1 and 3α1, and SM actin. Western blots measured M2 and M3 protein expression. Bladder sections were stained with Masson's trichrome for SM content and immunofluorescence staining for nerve terminals expressing vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Bilateral pelvic nerve injury caused larger bladders with less SM content and increased collagen type 1α1 and 3α1 gene expression. At early time points, cholinergic-mediated contraction increased, whereas EFS-mediated contraction decreased and returned to baseline by 30 days. Protein and gene expression of M3 was decreased 3 and 7 days post-BPNI, whereas M2 was unchanged. TH nerve terminals surrounding the detrusor decreased in all BPNI groups, whereas VAChT and nNOS terminals decreased 14 and 30 days post-BPNI. Bilateral pelvic nerve injury increased bladder size, impaired contractility, and decreased SM and autonomic innervation. Therapeutic strategies preventing nerve injury-mediated decline in neuronal input and SM content may prevent the development of a neurogenic bladder and improve quality of life after invasive pelvic surgery.

  11. Efficacy of Sustained-Release Buprenorphine in an Experimental Laparotomy Model in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Lon V; Wegenast, Daniel J; Smith, Brian J; Dorsey, Kathryn M; Kang, Sooah; Lee, Na Young; Hess, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Mice purportedly require dosing with the opioid buprenorphine (Bup-HCl) at least every 8 to 12 h to maintain an adequate plane of analgesia. Here we used an experimental laparotomy model to determine the clinical efficacy of sustained-release formulations of buprenorphine (Bup-SR) after surgery in mice. Female CD1 mice underwent laparotomy and received either Bup-SR (0.6 mg/kg), Bup-HCl (0.1 mg/kg every 12 h), or saline (every 12 h). Pain was assessed at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h according to the frequency of several behaviors (general activity, wheel-running activity, rearing, grooming, wound licking, orbital tightening, and percentage of integrated nest material) and daily body weight. Over time, wheel running was increased and wound licking was decreased in Bup-SR-treated mice compared with Bup-HCl- and saline-treated mice. Compared with Bup-HCl- and saline-treated mice, Bup-SR-treated mice had increased general activity and percentage of integrated nest material and decreased orbital tightening for 1 to 6 h after surgery. The Bup-HCl- and saline-treated mice had similar general activity, orbital tightening scores, and wheel running activity. Rearing activity and body weight did not differ throughout the study, and none of the observed behaviors differed between groups at 24, 48, and 72 h after surgery. These results suggest that Bup-SR at 0.6 mg/kg provides adequate analgesia after laparotomy in mice and can be used as an alternative analgesic in this context. Furthermore, Bup-HCl at 0.1 mg/kg every 12 h may be inadequate in providing analgesia for abdominal procedures in mice.

  12. Development and Validation of a Vitamin D Status Prediction Model in Danish Pregnant Women: A Study of the Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bjørn Jensen, Camilla; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Vadgård Hansen, Linda; Strøm, Marin; Odgaard Nielsen, Nina; Cohen, Arieh; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D has been hypothesized to reduce risk of pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, and preterm delivery. However, many of these outcomes are rare and require a large sample size to study, representing a challenge for cohorts with a limited number of preserved samples. The aims of this study were to (1) identify predictors of serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) among pregnant women in a subsample (N = 1494) of the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and (2) develop and validate a score predicting 25(OH)D-status in order to explore associations between vitamin D and maternal and offspring health outcomes in the DNBC. In our study sample, 42.3% of the population had deficient levels of vitamin D (<50 nmol/L 25(OH)D) and average levels of 25(OH)D-status were 56.7(s.d. 24.6) nmol/L. A prediction model consisting of intake of vitamin D from diet and supplements, outdoor physical activity, tanning bed use, smoking, and month of blood draw explained 40.1% of the variance in 25(OH)D and mean measured 25(OH)D-level increased linearly by decile of predicted 25(OH)D-score. In total 32.2% of the women were placed in the same quintile by both measured and predicted 25(OH)D-values and 69.9% were placed in the same or adjacent quintile by both methods. Cohen's weighted kappa coefficient (Κ = 0.3) reflected fair agreement between measured 25(OH)D-levels and predicted 25(OH)D-score. These results are comparable to other settings in which vitamin D scores have shown similar associations with disease outcomes as measured 25(OH)D-levels. Our findings suggest that predicted 25(OH)D-scores may be a useful alternative to measured 25(OH)D for examining associations between vitamin D and disease outcomes in the DNBC cohort, but cannot substitute for measured 25(OH)D-levels for estimates of prevalence. PMID:23326380

  13. Radio role models for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and HIV testing among pregnant women in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Sebert Kuhlmann, Anne K; Kraft, Joan Marie; Galavotti, Christine; Creek, Tracy L; Mooki, Maungo; Ntumy, Raphael

    2008-09-01

    Although Botswana supports a program for the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV (PMTCT), many women initially did not take advantage of the program. Using data from a 2003 survey of 504 pregnant and post-partum women, we assessed associations between exposure to a long-running radio serial drama that encourages use of the PMTCT program and HIV testing during pregnancy. Controlling for demographic, pregnancy and other variables, women who spontaneously named a PMTCT character in the serial drama as their favorite character were nearly twice as likely to test for HIV during pregnancy as those who did not. Additionally, multiparity, knowing a pregnant woman taking AZT, having a partner who tested, higher education and PMTCT knowledge were associated with HIV testing during pregnancy. Identification with characters in the radio serial drama is associated with testing during pregnancy. Coupled with other supporting elements, serial dramas could contribute to HIV prevention, treatment and care initiatives.

  14. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease: Is Sex-Based Creatinine Correction a Viable Strategy for Black Females?

    PubMed

    Mariante-Neto, Guilherme; Brandão, Ajacio Bm

    2015-11-01

    The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) is based on objective variables, including serum creatinine (SCr). This study assesses the influence of skin color on MELD scores calculated using SCr or corrected creatinine (CrC) in female candidates for liver transplantation (LTx). White and black women were eligible. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated by means of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula, using SCr. The GFR was then used for reverse calculation of CrC considering each female as male. The MELD scores were calculated using both creatinine values and compared between white and black candidates. SCr-based and CrC-based scores were similar between groups. Calculated GFR was significantly higher in black women than in white women (P < 0.001). Use of CrC yielded 1-point, 2-point, and 3-point increases in the MELD score in 20.2%, 25.7%, and 17.5% of white patients, respectively. None of the black patients had a MELD score increase greater than 1 point. The CrC-based MELD calculation would benefit 63.4% of white females and only 26.1% of black females. Use of CrC for MELD calculation would prioritize white females for liver allocation, but does not seem feasible, as it would not ensure equitable allocation across different ethnicities.

  15. HIV Prevalence and Antenatal Care Attendance among Pregnant Women in a Large Home-Based HIV Counseling and Testing Program in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ndege, Samson; Washington, Sierra; Kaaria, Alice; Prudhomme-O'Meara, Wendy; Were, Edwin; Nyambura, Monica; Keter, Alfred K; Wachira, Juddy; Braitstein, Paula

    2016-01-01

    To describe the uptake of and factors associated with HIV prevalence among pregnant women in a large-scale home-based HIV counseling and testing (HBCT) program in western Kenya. In 2007, the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare Program (AMPATH) initiated HBCT to all individuals aged ≥13 years and high-risk children <13 years. Included in this analysis were females aged 13-50 years, from 6 catchment areas (11/08-01/12). We used descriptive statistics and logistic regression to describe factors associated with HIV prevalence. There were 119,678 women eligible for analysis; median age 25 (interquartile range, IQR: 18-34) years. Of these, 7,396 (6.2%) were pregnant at the time of HBCT; 4,599 (62%) had ever previously tested for HIV and 2,995 (40.5%) had not yet attended ANC for their current pregnancy. Testing uptake among pregnant women was high (97%). HBCT newly identified 241 (3.3%) pregnant HIV-positive women and overall HIV prevalence among all pregnant women was 6.9%. HIV prevalence among those who had attended ANC in this pregnancy was 5.4% compared to 9.0% among those who had not. Pregnant women were more likely to newly test HIV-positive in HBCT if they had not attended ANC in the current pregnancy (AOR: 6.85, 95% CI: 4.49-10.44). Pregnant women who had never attended ANC were about 6 times more likely to newly test HIV-positive compared to those who had attended ANC, suggesting that the cascade of services for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission should optimally begin at the home and village level if elimination of perinatal HIV transmission is to be achieved.

  16. A multiscale computational modelling approach predicts mechanisms of female sex risk in the setting of arousal‐induced arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Pei‐Chi; Perissinotti, Laura L.; López‐Redondo, Fernando; Wang, Yibo; DeMarco, Kevin R.; Jeng, Mao‐Tsuen; Vorobyov, Igor; Kurokawa, Junko

    2017-01-01

    Key points This study represents a first step toward predicting mechanisms of sex‐based arrhythmias that may lead to important developments in risk stratification and may inform future drug design and screening.We undertook simulations to reveal the conditions (i.e. pacing, drugs, sympathetic stimulation) required for triggering and sustaining reentrant arrhythmias.Using the recently solved cryo‐EM structure for the Eag‐family channel as a template, we revealed potential interactions of oestrogen with the pore loop hERG mutation (G604S).Molecular models suggest that oestrogen and dofetilide blockade can concur simultaneously in the hERG channel pore. Abstract Female sex is a risk factor for inherited and acquired long‐QT associated torsade de pointes (TdP) arrhythmias, and sympathetic discharge is a major factor in triggering TdP in female long‐QT syndrome patients. We used a combined experimental and computational approach to predict ‘the perfect storm’ of hormone concentration, I Kr block and sympathetic stimulation that induces arrhythmia in females with inherited and acquired long‐QT. More specifically, we developed mathematical models of acquired and inherited long‐QT syndrome in male and female ventricular human myocytes by combining effects of a hormone and a hERG blocker, dofetilide, or hERG mutations. These ‘male’ and ‘female’ model myocytes and tissues then were used to predict how various sex‐based differences underlie arrhythmia risk in the setting of acute sympathetic nervous system discharge. The model predicted increased risk for arrhythmia in females when acute sympathetic nervous system discharge was applied in the settings of both inherited and acquired long‐QT syndrome. Females were predicted to have protection from arrhythmia induction when progesterone is high. Males were protected by the presence of testosterone. Structural modelling points towards two plausible and distinct mechanisms of oestrogen action

  17. Resonance behaviour of whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in the female voxel model, NAOMI.

    PubMed

    Dimbylow, Peter

    2005-09-07

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a female voxel model, NAOMI, under isolated and grounded conditions from 10 MHz to 3 GHz. The 2 mm resolution voxel model, NAOMI, was scaled to a height of 1.63 m and a mass of 60 kg, the dimensions of the ICRP reference adult female. Comparison was made with SAR values from a reference male voxel model, NORMAN. A broad SAR resonance in the NAOMI values was found around 900 MHz and a resulting enhancement, up to 25%, over the values for the male voxel model, NORMAN. This latter result confirmed previously reported higher values in a female model. The effect of differences in anatomy was investigated by comparing values for 10-, 5- and 1-year-old phantoms rescaled to the ICRP reference values of height and mass which are the same for both sexes. The broad resonance in the NAOMI child values around 1 GHz is still a strong feature. A comparison has been made with ICNIRP guidelines. The ICNIRP occupational reference level provides a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction. The linear scaling of the adult phantom using different factors in longitudinal and transverse directions, in order to match the ICRP stature and weight, does not exactly reproduce the anatomy of children. However, for public exposure the calculations with scaled child models indicate that the ICNIRP reference level may not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction, above 1.2 GHz for scaled 5- and 1-year-old female models, although any underestimate is by less than 20%.

  18. Resonance behaviour of whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in the female voxel model, NAOMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimbylow, Peter

    2005-09-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a female voxel model, NAOMI, under isolated and grounded conditions from 10 MHz to 3 GHz. The 2 mm resolution voxel model, NAOMI, was scaled to a height of 1.63 m and a mass of 60 kg, the dimensions of the ICRP reference adult female. Comparison was made with SAR values from a reference male voxel model, NORMAN. A broad SAR resonance in the NAOMI values was found around 900 MHz and a resulting enhancement, up to 25%, over the values for the male voxel model, NORMAN. This latter result confirmed previously reported higher values in a female model. The effect of differences in anatomy was investigated by comparing values for 10-, 5- and 1-year-old phantoms rescaled to the ICRP reference values of height and mass which are the same for both sexes. The broad resonance in the NAOMI child values around 1 GHz is still a strong feature. A comparison has been made with ICNIRP guidelines. The ICNIRP occupational reference level provides a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction. The linear scaling of the adult phantom using different factors in longitudinal and transverse directions, in order to match the ICRP stature and weight, does not exactly reproduce the anatomy of children. However, for public exposure the calculations with scaled child models indicate that the ICNIRP reference level may not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction, above 1.2 GHz for scaled 5- and 1-year-old female models, although any underestimate is by less than 20%.

  19. Who's asking the important questions? Sexual topics discussed among young pregnant couples.

    PubMed

    Albritton, Tashuna; Fletcher, Kyla Day; Divney, Anna; Gordon, Derrick; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S

    2014-12-01

    The aim was to examine gender differences in sexual risk communication among young couples and factors influencing communication. Sample consisted of 296 young pregnant couples. We assessed individual, interpersonal, and community factors on sexual risk communication. The Actor-Partner Independence Model was used to assess actor and partner effects on sexual risk communication. For actor effects, being female, older, not being Hispanic, and higher condom use self-efficacy was associated with sexual risk communication. The significant partner effect was avoidant romantic attachment. Gender interactions were significant for high risk behaviors and family functioning. High risk behaviors and family functioning were associated with sexual risk communication for females but not for males. The study emphasizes the need to promote sexual risk communication among young high risk couples, particularly for males. Family support could serve as a catalyst for sexual risk communication and other sexual protective behaviors among young couples.

  20. RF dosimetry: a comparison between power absorption of female and male numerical models from 0.1 to 4 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrini, L.; Vaccari, A.; Malacarne, C.; Cristoforetti, L.; Pontalti, R.

    2004-11-01

    Realistic numerical models of human subjects and their surrounding environment represent the basic points of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic dosimetry. This also involves differentiating the human models in men and women, possibly with different body shapes and postures. In this context, the aims of this paper are, firstly, to propose a female dielectric anatomical model (fDAM) and, secondly, to compare the power absorption distributions of a male and a female model from 0.1 to 4 GHz. For realizing the fDAM, a magnetic resonance imaging tomographer to acquire images and a recent technique which avoids the discrete segmentation of body tissues into different types have been used. Simulations have been performed with the FDTD method by using a novel filtering-based subgridding algorithm. The latter is applied here for the first time to dosimetry, allowing an abrupt mesh refinement by a factor of up to 7. The results show that the whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (WBA-SAR) of the female model is higher than that of the male counterpart, mainly because of a thicker subcutaneous fat layer. In contrast, the maximum averaged SAR over 1 g (1gA-SAR) and 10 g (10gA-SAR) does not depend on gender, because it occurs in regions where no subcutaneous fat layer is present.

  1. Through the smoke: Use of in vivo and in vitro cigarette smoking models to elucidate its effect on female fertility

    SciTech Connect

    Camlin, Nicole J.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.; Holt, Janet E.

    2014-12-15

    A finite number of oocytes are established within the mammalian ovary prior to birth to form a precious ovarian reserve. Damage to this limited pool of gametes by environmental factors such as cigarette smoke and its constituents therefore represents a significant risk to a woman's reproductive capacity. Although evidence from human studies to date implicates a detrimental effect of cigarette smoking on female fertility, these retrospective studies are limited and present conflicting results. In an effort to more clearly understand the effect of cigarette smoke, and its chemical constituents, on female fertility, a variety of in vivo and in vitro animal models have been developed. This article represents a systematic review of the literature regarding four of experimental model types: 1) direct exposure of ovarian cells and follicles to smoking constituents’ in vitro, 2) direct exposure of whole ovarian tissue with smoking constituents in vitro, 3) whole body exposure of animals to smoking constituents and 4) whole body exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. We summarise key findings and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each model system, and link these to the molecular mechanisms identified in smoke-induced fertility changes. - Highlights: • In vivo exposure to individual cigarette smoke chemicals alters female fertility. • The use of in vitro models in determining molecular mechanisms • Whole cigarette smoke inhalation animal models negatively affect ovarian function.

  2. Female condoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... women; Contraception - female condom; Family planning - female condom; Birth control - female condom ... care provider or pharmacy for information about emergency contraception (Plan B) if the condom tears or the ...

  3. Neuropsychiatric Symptom Modeling in Male and Female C57BL/6J Mice after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Laura B.; Burke, John F.; Fu, Amanda H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety and depression are frequent and persistent complaints following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Modeling these symptoms in animal models of TBI affords the opportunity to determine mechanisms underlying behavioral pathologies and to test potential therapeutic agents. However, testing these symptoms in animal models of TBI has yielded inconsistent results. The goal of the current study was to employ a battery of tests to measure multiple anxiety- and depressive-like symptoms following TBI in C57BL/6J mice, and to determine if male and female mice are differentially affected by the injury. Following controlled cortical impact (CCI) at a parietal location, neither male nor female mice showed depressive-like symptoms as measured by the Porsolt forced-swim test and sucrose preference test. Conclusions regarding anxiety-like behaviors were dependent upon the assay employed; CCI-induced thigmotaxis in the open field suggested an anxiogenic effect of the injury; however, results from the elevated zero maze, light-dark box, and marble-burying tests indicated that CCI reduced anxiety-like behaviors. Fewer anxiety-like behaviors were also associated with the female sex. Increased levels of activity were also measured in female mice and injured mice in these tests, and conclusions regarding anxiety should be taken with caution when experimental manipulations induce changes in baseline activity. These results underscore the irreconcilability of results from studies attempting to model TBI-induced neuropsychiatric symptoms. Changes in injury models or better attempts to replicate the clinical syndrome may improve the translational applicability of rodent models of TBI-induced anxiety and depression. PMID:27149139

  4. Using the theory of planned behaviour and prototype willingness model to target binge drinking in female undergraduate university students.

    PubMed

    Todd, Jemma; Mullan, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    The current study investigated whether binge drinking in female undergraduates could be reduced by the mere measurement effect (MME), and by altering binge drinker prototypes from the prototype willingness model (PWM). Whether willingness added to the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was also explored. Female undergraduates aged 17-25 (N=122) were randomly allocated to a prototype manipulation, mere measurement, or control group, and completed two online questionnaires separated by 14-21 days. Controlling for past behaviour, MME group consumed less alcohol than the control group, and this effect was more extreme for those who previously consumed more alcohol. However, the prototype manipulation had no effect. The TPB variables were predictive of intentions and behaviour, but willingness was not. Despite limitations, the MME could be utilised to reduce binge drinking in female undergraduates. The TPB appears to model binge drinking in female undergraduates better than the PWM, implying that binge drinking can be a reasoned behaviour. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Female preference and predation risk models can explain the maintenance of a fallow deer (Dama dama) lek and its 'handy' location.

    PubMed

    Apollonio, Marco; De Cena, Fabio; Bongi, Paolo; Ciuti, Simone

    2014-01-01

    We tested the predictions of three models (female preference; hotspot; predator avoidance) on lek formation in the fallow deer population of San Rossore, Tuscany. We collected behavioural observations in two leks and radiotracking data on 67 deer over 7 years. Two deer sub-populations were present in the northern and southern sides of the area, respectively, the two sectors being delimited by a river and including one lek each. Predictions were tested for one lek (SG), located in the south-side where we set up our 7-year radiotracking program. Data from a second lek (FO, north-side) were used to test those predictions which imply the occurrence of multiple leks in the same population. We showed that the majority of females made one single visit to one lek, only during the rut. The lek was located outside areas of higher female traffic and home range overlap, and females increased home range sizes during the rut to reach it. Twilight routes of females never crossed the lek; instead, females walked atypical routes and at a faster pace to reach the lek and mate. The distance between the two leks was higher than the average diameter of female home ranges, and only one lek was present within female home ranges. Males reached the lek one month before the arrival of females, corroborating that lekking is a female-initiated process (females moving towards large clumped male aggregations) rather than a male-initiated process (males moving towards female hotspots). Our results supported the female preference model, and rejected the predictions of the hotspot model. Also, leks were located far from areas with higher predation risk, supporting the predator avoidance model. The position of lek SG resulted 'handy' at the sub-population level because of the optimal trade-off between travel costs for females to reach it and avoidance of human predators.

  6. A field experiment: reducing interpersonal discrimination toward pregnant job applicants.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Whitney Botsford; Walker, Sarah Singletary; Hebl, Michelle Mikki R; King, Eden B

    2013-09-01

    The current research targets 4 potential stereotypes driving hostile attitudes and discriminatory behaviors toward pregnant women: incompetence, lack of commitment, inflexibility, and need for accommodation. We tested the relative efficacy of reducing concerns related to each of the stereotypes in a field experiment in which female confederates who sometimes wore pregnancy prostheses applied for jobs in a retail setting. As expected, ratings from 3 perspectives (applicants, observers, and independent coders) converged to show that pregnant applicants received more interpersonal hostility than did nonpregnant applicants. However, when hiring managers received (vs. did not receive) counterstereotypic information about certain pregnancy-related stereotypes (particularly lack of commitment and inflexibility), managers displayed significantly less interpersonal discrimination. Explicit comparisons of counterstereotypic information shed light on the fact that certain information may be more effective in reducing discrimination than others. We conclude by discussing how the current research makes novel theoretical contributions and describe some practical organizational implications for understanding and improving the experiences of pregnant workers.

  7. Using the product threshold model for estimating separately the effect of temperature on male and female fertility.

    PubMed

    Tusell, L; David, I; Bodin, L; Legarra, A; Rafel, O; López-Bejar, M; Piles, M

    2011-12-01

    Animals under environmental thermal stress conditions have reduced fertility due to impairment of some mechanisms involved in their reproductive performance that are different in males and females. As a consequence, the most sensitive periods of time and the magnitude of effect of temperature on fertility can differ between sexes. The objective of this study was to estimate separately the effect of temperature in different periods around the insemination time on male and on female fertility by using the product threshold model. This model assumes that an observed reproduction outcome is the result of the product of 2 unobserved variables corresponding to the unobserved fertilities of the 2 individuals involved in the mating. A total of 7,625 AI records from rabbits belonging to a line selected for growth rate and indoor daily temperature records were used. The average maximum daily temperature and the proportion of days in which the maximum temperature was greater than 25°C were used as temperature descriptors. These descriptors were calculated for several periods around the day of AI. In the case of males, 4 periods of time covered different stages of the spermatogenesis, the transit through the epididymus of the sperm, and the day of AI. For females, 5 periods of time covered the phases of preovulatory follicular maturation including day of AI and ovulation, fertilization and peri-implantational stage of the embryos, embryonic and early fetal periods of gestation, and finally, late gestation until birth. The effect of the different temperature descriptors was estimated in the corresponding male and female liabilities in a set of threshold product models. The temperature of the day of AI seems to be the most relevant temperature descriptor affecting male fertility because greater temperature records on the day of AI caused a decrease in male fertility (-6% in male fertility rate with respect to thermoneutrality). Departures from the thermal zone in temperature

  8. Males have Inferior Achilles Tendon Material Properties Compared to Females in a Rodent Model.

    PubMed

    Pardes, A M; Freedman, B R; Fryhofer, G W; Salka, N S; Bhatt, P R; Soslowsky, L J

    2016-10-01

    The Achilles tendon is the most commonly ruptured tendon in the human body. Numerous studies have reported incidence of these injuries to be upwards of five times as common in men than women. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the sex- and hormone-specific differences between Achilles tendon and muscle between female, ovariectomized female (ovarian hormone deficient), and male rats. Uninjured tissues were collected from all groups for mechanical, structural, and histological analysis. Our results showed that while cross-sectional area and failure load were increased in male tendons, female tendons exhibited superior tendon material properties and decreased muscle fiber size. Specifically, linear and dynamic moduli were increased while viscoelastic properties (e.g., hysteresis, percent relaxation) were decreased in female tendons, suggesting greater resistance to deformation under load and more efficient energy transfer, respectively. No differences were identified in tendon organization, cell shape, cellularity, or proteoglycan content. Additionally, no differences in muscle fiber type distribution were observed between groups. In conclusion, inferior tendon mechanical properties and increased muscle fiber size may explain the increased susceptibility for Achilles tendon injury observed clinically in men compared to women.

  9. In Utero Phthalate Effects in the Female Rat: A Model for MRKH Syndrome

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by uterine and vaginal canal aplasia in normal karyotype human females and is a syndrome with poorly define etiology. Reproductive toxicity of phthlate esters (PEs) occurs in rat offspring exposed in utero. a phenome...

  10. In utero phthalate effects in the female rat: a model for MRKH syndrome##

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by uterine and vaginal canal aplasia in normal karyotype human females and is a syndrome with poorly defined etiology. Reproductive toxicity of phthalate esters (PEs) occurs in rat offspring exposed in utero, a phen...

  11. Providing Educational Support for Female Ex-Inmates: Project PROVE as a Model for Social Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Patricia; Fasenfest, David; Sarri, Rosemary; Phillips, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The number of female prisoners continues to grow in the United States, yet most examinations of how to increase reintegration and reduce recidivation focus on the needs of the predominantly male prisoner population. As a result, prison education programs and post-release environments often leave women unprepared and facing special risks. This…

  12. In Utero Phthalate Effects in the Female Rat: A Model for MRKH Syndrome

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by uterine and vaginal canal aplasia in normal karyotype human females and is a syndrome with poorly define etiology. Reproductive toxicity of phthlate esters (PEs) occurs in rat offspring exposed in utero. a phenome...

  13. Postnatal development of Mongolian gerbil female prostate: An immunohistochemical and 3D modeling study.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Bruno D A; Zani, Bruno C; Maldarine, Juliana S; Biancardi, Manoel F; Santos, Fernanda C A; Góes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2016-05-01

    The development of the prostate in male rodents, which involves complex epithelial-mesenchymal interactions between the urogenital sinus epithelium (UGE) and the urogenital sinus mesenchyme (UGM), has been deeply studied. In females, however, this process is not very clear. In this study, the postnatal development of the prostate in female Mongolian gerbils employing three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, histochemical, and immunohistochemical techniques was characterized. It was observed that prostatic branching and differentiation in females was induced by a single mesenchyme localized at a ventrolateral position, which was named as ventrolateral mesenchyme (VLM); furthermore, the canalization of solid buds began on the third postnatal day (P3) and the branching morphogenesis on P5. We observed secretions in the acini at the end of the first month, and, on P45, the acini were completely differentiated. The strong cell proliferation phase in the first week coincided with the mesenchymal expression of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1). The expression of androgen receptor (AR) paralleled cell differentiation, and, on P30, immunolabelling with p63 was restricted to basal cells. This study serves as a baseline parameter for future research on disruptions that could affect the development of the female prostate. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Influence of Female Social Models in Corporate STEM Initiatives on Girls' Math and Science Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medeiros, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    The United States' Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) workforce is growing slower than in the past, in comparison to demand, and in comparison to other countries. Competitive talent conditions require the United States to develop a strong pipeline of STEM talent within its own citizens. Given the number of female college…

  15. Providing Educational Support for Female Ex-Inmates: Project PROVE as a Model for Social Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Patricia; Fasenfest, David; Sarri, Rosemary; Phillips, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The number of female prisoners continues to grow in the United States, yet most examinations of how to increase reintegration and reduce recidivation focus on the needs of the predominantly male prisoner population. As a result, prison education programs and post-release environments often leave women unprepared and facing special risks. This…

  16. In utero phthalate effects in the female rat: a model for MRKH syndrome##

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by uterine and vaginal canal aplasia in normal karyotype human females and is a syndrome with poorly defined etiology. Reproductive toxicity of phthalate esters (PEs) occurs in rat offspring exposed in utero, a phen...

  17. The Influence of Female Social Models in Corporate STEM Initiatives on Girls' Math and Science Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medeiros, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    The United States' Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) workforce is growing slower than in the past, in comparison to demand, and in comparison to other countries. Competitive talent conditions require the United States to develop a strong pipeline of STEM talent within its own citizens. Given the number of female college…

  18. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Marquis; Kim, Youngdeok; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Rockette-Wagner, Bonny Jane; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234) women and non-pregnant (n = 1146) women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥ 4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥ 10 h/day. A count threshold of < 100 cpm was used to describe sedentary behavior as: 1) total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2) accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3) mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4) and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less) were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting < 10 min. The women averaged less than two prolonged sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥ 30 min) per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.

  19. Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor and Fragile X Signaling in a Female Model of Escalated Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Been, Laura E.; Moore, Kelsey M.; Kennedy, Bruce C.; Meisel, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Escalated aggression is a behavioral sign of numerous psychiatric disorders characterized by a loss of control. The neurobiology underlying escalated aggression is unknown and is particularly understudied in females. Research in our laboratory demonstrated that repeated aggressive experience in female hamsters resulted in an escalated response to future aggressive encounters and an increase in dendritic spine density on NAc neurons. We hypothesized that the activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors signaling though the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) pathway may underlie synaptic plasticity associated with aggression escalation. Methods Female hamsters were given 5 daily aggression tests with or without prior treatment with the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP. Following aggression testing, mRNA expression and protein levels were measured in the nucleus accumbens for PSD-95 and SAPAP-3, as well as the levels of phosphorylated FMRP. Results Experience-dependent escalation of aggression in female hamsters depends on activation of mGluR5 receptors. Furthermore, aggressive experience decreases phosphorylation of FMRP in the NAc which is coupled to a long-term increase in the expression of the synaptic scaffolding proteins, PSD-95 and SAPAP-3. Finally, the experience-dependent increase in PSD-95 is prevented by antagonism of the mGluR5 receptor. Conclusions Activation of the FMRP pathway by group I metabotropic glutamate receptors is involved in regulating synaptic plasticity following aggressive experience. The NAc is a novel target for preclinical studies of the treatment of escalated aggression, with the added benefit that emerging therapeutic approaches are likely to be effective in treating pathological aggression in both females and males. PMID:26342498

  20. Effect of Dietary Iron on Fetal Growth in Pregnant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Andrea C; Bandyopadhyay, Sheila; Wojczyk, Boguslaw S; Spitalnik, Steven L; Hod, Eldad A; Prestia, Kevin A

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder. Children and pregnant women are at highest risk for developing iron deficiency because of their increased iron requirements. Iron-deficiency anemia during pregnancy is associated with adverse effects on fetal development, including low birth weight, growth retardation, hypertension, intrauterine fetal death, neurologic impairment, and premature birth. We hypothesized that pregnant mice fed an iron-deficient diet would have a similar outcome regarding fetal growth to that of humans. To this end, we randomly assigned female C57BL/6 mice to consume 1 of 4 diets (high-iron–low-bioavailability, high-iron–high-bioavailability, iron-replete, and iron-deficient) for 4 wk before breeding, followed by euthanasia on day 17 to 18 of gestation. Compared with all other groups, dams fed the high-iron–high-bioavailability diet had significantly higher liver iron. Hct and Hgb levels in dams fed the iron-deficient diet were decreased by at least 2.5 g/dL as compared with those of all other groups. In addition, the percentage of viable pups among dams fed the iron-deficient diet was lower than that of all other groups. Finally, compared with all other groups, fetuses from dams fed the iron-deficient diet had lower fetal brain iron levels, shorter crown–rump lengths, and lower weights. In summary, mice fed an iron-deficient diet had similar hematologic values and fetal outcomes as those of iron-deficient humans, making this a useful model for studying iron-deficiency anemia during pregnancy. PMID:23582419

  1. Evaluation of the risk of perchlorate exposure in a population of late-gestation pregnant women in the United States: Application of probabilistic biologically-based dose response modeling.

    PubMed

    Lumen, A; George, N I

    2017-05-01

    The risk of ubiquitous perchlorate exposure and the dose-response on thyroid hormone levels in pregnant women in the United States (U.S.) have yet to be characterized. In the current work, we integrated a previously developed perchlorate submodel into a recently developed population-based pregnancy model to predict reductions in maternal serum free thyroxine (fT4) levels for late-gestation pregnant women in the U.S. Our findings indicated no significant difference in geometric mean estimates of fT4 when perchlorate exposure from food only was compared to no perchlorate exposure. The reduction in maternal fT4 levels reached statistical significance when an added contribution from drinking water (i.e., 15μg/L, 20μg/L, or 24.5μg/L) was assumed in addition to the 90th percentile of food intake for pregnant women (0.198μg/kg/day). We determined that a daily intake of 0.45 to 0.50μg/kg/day of perchlorate was necessary to produce results that were significantly different than those obtained from no perchlorate exposure. Adjusting for this food intake dose, the relative source contribution of perchlorate from drinking water (or other non-dietary sources) was estimated to range from 0.25-0.3μg/kg/day. Assuming a drinking water intake rate of 0.033L/kg/day, the drinking water concentration allowance for perchlorate equates to 7.6-9.2μg/L. In summary, we have demonstrated the utility of a probabilistic biologically-based dose-response model for perchlorate risk assessment in a sensitive life-stage at a population level; however, there is a need for continued monitoring in regions of the U.S. where perchlorate exposure may be higher. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Disruption of the Glutamate–Glutamine Cycle Involving Astrocytes in an Animal Model of Depression for Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Rappeneau, Virginie; Blaker, Amanda; Petro, Jeff R.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.; Shimamoto, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women are twice as likely as men to develop major depression. The brain mechanisms underlying this sex disparity are not clear. Disruption of the glutamate–glutamine cycle has been implicated in psychiatric disturbances. This study identifies sex-based impairments in the glutamate–glutamine cycle involving astrocytes using an animal model of depression. Methods: Male and female adult Long-Evans rats were exposed to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) for 21 days, using a modified resident-intruder paradigm. Territorial aggression was used for males and maternal aggression was used for females to induce depressive-like deficits for intruders. The depressive-like phenotype was assessed with intake for saccharin solution, weight gain, estrous cycle, and corticosterone (CORT). Behaviors displayed by the intruders during daily encounters with residents were characterized. Rats with daily handling were used as controls for each sex. Ten days after the last encounter, both the intruders and controls were subjected to a no-net-flux in vivo microdialysis to assess glutamate accumulation and extracellular glutamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The contralateral hemispheres were used for determining changes in astrocytic markers, including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1). Results: Both male and female intruders reduced saccharin intake over the course of CSDS, compared to their pre-stress period and to their respective controls. Male intruders exhibited submissive/defensive behaviors to territorial aggression by receiving sideways threats and bites. These males showed reductions in striatal GLT-1 and spontaneous glutamine in the NAc, compared to controls. Female intruders exhibited isolated behaviors to maternal aggression, including immobility, rearing, and selfgrooming. Their non-reproductive days were extended. Also, they showed reductions in prefrontal and accumbal GFAP+ cells and prefrontal GLT-1, compared to

  3. The free-exploratory paradigm as a model of trait anxiety in female rats: test-retest reliability.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Débora Ramiro de; Goes, Tiago Costa; Teixeira-Silva, Flavia

    2014-09-19

    The free-exploratory paradigm has been proposed as a model of trait anxiety and as such has been proven stable over time, which is a sine qua non condition for any model proposing to evaluate a personality trait. However this stability has only been shown for male rats. Considering that anxiety disorders are most prevalent in women, it's crucial that females are tested in animal models. With this in mind, the stability over time of female rats in the free-exploratory paradigm was evaluated using a test-retest procedure. The behaviour of drug-naive, adult, female, Wistar rats was measured in the free-exploratory apparatus on two occasions two months apart. The following parameters were evaluated: percentage of distance travelled in the novel compartment; number of attempts to enter the novel compartment; percentage of time spent in the novel compartment; and percentage of time rearing in the novel compartment. Subsequently, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the kappa index (κ) were calculated for each of these parameters. The "percentage of time spent in the novel compartment" (ICC=0.727; κ=0.457), the "percentage of distance travelled in the novel compartment" (ICC=0.680; κ=0.370), and the "percentage of time rearing in the novel compartment" (ICC=0.648; κ=0.309) were found to be stable over time. Analysis of these parameters indicated fair to substantial reliability over time in two-month inter-trial interval. Therefore, our results support the idea of the free-exploratory paradigm as an animal model of trait anxiety for female rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Stressors affect the response of male and female rats to clomipramine in a model of behavioral despair (forced swim test).

    PubMed

    Consoli, Daniele; Fedotova, Julia; Micale, Vincenzo; Sapronov, Nikolay S; Drago, Filippo

    2005-09-27

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of physical stressors (electric foot-shocks) on effect of the antidepressant drug, clomipramine and plasma corticosterone levels in male and female rats tested in a model of behavioral despair (forced swim test,). Male and female rats of the Wistar strain were injected with clomipramine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline. A group of animals also received electric shocks of different intensity and duration of 24, 5 and 1 h before being subjected to forced swim test. At the end of behavioral procedures, vaginal smears were assessed in all female animals and data on immobility time were plotted according to the ovarian cycle phase. After decapitation, corticosterone plasma levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in both male and female rats. Application of mild shocks (5 ms, 0.1 mA) significantly reduced immobility time in forced swim test of untreated male rats and augmented clomipramine effect on this parameter. Moderate shocks of higher intensity or duration (5 ms, 1.0 mA) also resulted in decreased immobility time of untreated male rats, but in reduced effect of clomipramine treatment. Furthermore, application of severe shocks (10 ms, 1.0 mA) increased the immobility time in untreated animals and totally abolished clomipramine effect in forced swim test. Untreated non-shocked female rats in proestrous and estrous phases exhibited a longer immobility time as compared to diestrous animals. Immobility time appeared to be generally higher when mild, moderate or severe shocks were applied prior to behavioral testing in proestrous and estrous animals, while the behavioral response of diestrous and metestrous animals did not differ from that of controls. Clomipramine effect on immobility time was generally reduced by application of shocks of every strengths. Stress-induced plasma corticosterone levels surge correlated with intensity and duration of shocks in both male and female rats, but clomipramine treatment generally

  5. Lymph drainage in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Cataldo Oportus, Sylvia; de Paiva Rodrigues, Lilian; Pereira de Godoy, José Maria; Guerreiro Godoy, Maria de Fátima

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lymph drainage to reduce edema of pregnant women. Method. Pregnant women (30 limbs) from the Obstetrics Outpatient Clinic of the Medical School of Santa Casa in São Paulo in the period December 2009 to May 2010 were enrolled in this quantitative, prospective study. The patients, in the 5th to 8th months of gestation, were submitted to one hour of manual lymph drainage of the legs. The volume of the legs was measured by water displacement volumetry before and after one hour of drainage using the Godoy & Godoy manual lymph drainage technique. The paired t-test was used for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% being considered significant. Results. Manual lymph drainage significantly reduced swelling of the legs of pregnant women during the day (P = 0.04). Conclusion. Manual lymph drainage helps to reduce limb size during the day of pregnant women.

  6. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Pregnant Women & Influenza (Flu) Language: English (US) Español Recommend on ...

  7. Prenatal Education for Pregnant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timberlake, Bobbi; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes prenatal education classes offered at Teen Pregnancy Service. Outcome data for 66 pregnant teens shows significant changes in prenatal knowledge following the classes. (Author/MT)

  8. Difference in ponderal growth and body composition among pregnant vs. never-pregnant adolescents varies by birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rah, Jee H; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Klemm, Rolf D W; Rashid, Mahbubur; Christian, Parul

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we showed that following pregnancy and 6 months of lactation, adolescents cease linear growth and have reduced fat and lean mass in rural Bangladesh. Here, we examined whether these changes varied by pregnancy outcomes such as fetal loss, low birthweight (LBW) and neonatal mortality. Anthropometric measurements were taken among 12-19-year-old primigravidae (n = 229) in early pregnancy and at 6 months post-partum. Never-pregnant adolescents (n = 456) matched on age and time since menarche were also measured at the same time. Change in anthropometry among pregnant vs. never-pregnant adolescents was compared by pregnancy outcome adjusting for confounders using mixed effects regression models. Pregnant girls, irrespective of birth outcome, did not gain in stature, while never-pregnant girls increased in height by 0.36 +/- 0.04 cm year(-1) (P < 0.05). Body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and % body fat among pregnant adolescents whose infants survived the neonatal period had decreased at 6 months post-partum, whereas those who experienced a fetal loss or neonatal death did not change in any of the measurements. Consequently, the difference in change in ponderal size and body composition measures between pregnant and never-pregnant girls was higher among those whose neonates survived vs. those who experienced a fetal loss/neonatal death (BMI: -0.64 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.01 +/- 0.16 kg m(-2) year(-1); MUAC: -0.96 +/- 0.12 vs. -0.35 +/- 0.17 cm year(-1), both P < 0.05). LBW and preterm birth did not have a similar effect modification. Linear growth ceased among pregnant girls regardless of birth outcome. Maternal weight loss and depletion of fat and lean mass at 6 months post-partum were more pronounced when the infants survived through the neonatal period.

  9. Changes in foot plantar pressure in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Enas; Devreux, Isabelle; Embaby, Heba; Alsayed, Amani; Alshehri, Maram

    2017-01-01

    During pregnancy, the body undergoes many hormonal and anatomical changes causing several medical problems as the musculoskeletal system problems. To investigate the plantar pressure distribution during pregnancy. Twenty two pregnant and non-pregnant females were selected from the King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah. All females were evaluated by inspection regarding their deformities of the spine, pelvis, lower extremities and feet. Pain was assessed by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and the weight and height were recorded using a calibrated weighing scale. Finally, the plantar pressure distribution was examined by a Global Postural Analysis device (GPA). The results revealed significant asymmetry of weight bearing in the study group (pregnant) compared to the control group (non-pregnant) (p< 0.05). In addition, there was a significant increase in pain intensity in the study group (p= 0.02). On the other hand, the results showed a non-significant difference between study and control groups regarding the three points of pressure (calcaneus, 1st metatarasal and 5th metatarsal) (p> 0.05). Moreover, there was a significant direct relationship between the month of pregnancy and increased weight bearing on the 5th metatarsal in the study group (p= 0.04). There is an effect of pregnancy on plantar pressure distribution as well as weight symmetry which should be considered when designing an antenatal program.

  10. Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents: A Study of Ethnic Identity, Emotional and Behavioral Functioning, Child Characteristics, and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieger, Karin; Renk, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships among the ethnic identity, behavior problems, self-esteem, and social support of 166 ethnically diverse pregnant and parenting adolescents, the majority of whom were African American and Hispanic American, and their infants. Results indicated that pregnant and parenting adolescent females were experiencing…

  11. Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents: A Study of Ethnic Identity, Emotional and Behavioral Functioning, Child Characteristics, and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieger, Karin; Renk, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships among the ethnic identity, behavior problems, self-esteem, and social support of 166 ethnically diverse pregnant and parenting adolescents, the majority of whom were African American and Hispanic American, and their infants. Results indicated that pregnant and parenting adolescent females were experiencing…

  12. Japan Women's University Multi-Career Path Support Model for Female Researchers (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyama, Yoshikazu; Kodate, Kashiko

    2009-04-01

    The overall goal of this project, funded by MEXT-Japan (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, and Technology), is to implement prototypical programs to foster and proactively engage female researchers. The project aims to provide comprehensive support for female researchers who wish to raise a family and pursue an academic career, and increase opportunities for female researchers to play more active roles. To achieve these objectives, three core actions are taken. First, with out-of-office/out-of-lab research support (ubiquitous research support), an assistant researcher is provided to help perform experiments while the ubiquitous researcher is out of the laboratory. A communication network is introduced to connect the laboratory with home to facilitate in-home research. Second, with human resources support, researchers' career paths, abilities, and experiences are accumulated in e-portfolios. This enables researchers coming from different fields of employment to pursue other career paths. Third, a follow-up survey and project planning are conducted. We believe through science education, science can be demystified, and made more accessible and fascinating for children. This would bode well for future generations. Alumni questionnaires show that 80% of respondents were very satisfied to have graduated with a science background.

  13. Antithrombotic therapy for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Coagulability increases during pregnancy, and thromboembolism can easily occur. Venous thromboembolism is a cause of death in pregnant women, but arterial thrombosis such as ischemic stroke in pregnancy is also not uncommon. In pharmacotherapy for thromboembolism in pregnant women, fetal toxicity and teratogenicity must be carefully considered. As anticoagulants in pregnant women, unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin are recommended, but warfarin is not recommended since it has a low molecular weight and crosses the placenta. Various types of new oral anticoagulant drugs have been available in Japan since 2011. However, the Japanese package inserts for these anticoagulants advise quite cautious administration in pregnant women. The guidelines on pregnant women include less information about antiplatelet drugs than anticoagulant drugs. Aspirin may cause teratogenicity and fetal toxicity, and perinatal mortality is increased. However, when low doses of aspirin are administered as antiplatelet therapy, the US Food and Drug Administration has assigned pregnancy category C, and treatment is relatively safe. Neurosurgeons and neurologists commonly encounter pregnant women with thromboembolism, such as ischemic stroke. Up-to-date information and correct selection of drugs are necessary in consultation with specialists in perinatal care.

  14. Perioperative Betamethasone Treatment Reduces Signs of Bladder Dysfunction in a Rat Model for Neurapraxia in Female Urogenital Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Castiglione, Fabio; Bergamini, Alice; Bettiga, Arianna; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Benigni, Fabio; Strittmatter, Frank; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Rigatti, Patrizio; Montorsi, Francesco; Hedlund, Petter

    2014-01-01

    Background Information on autonomic neurapraxia in female urogenital surgery is scarce, and a model to study it is not available. Objective To develop a model to study the impact of autonomic neurapraxia on bladder function in female rats, as well as to assess the effects of corticosteroid therapy on the recovery of bladder function in this model. Design, setting, and participants Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to bilateral pelvic nerve crush (PNC) and perioperatively treated with betamethasone or vehicle. Bladder function and morphology of bladder tissue were evaluated and compared with sham-operated rats. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Western blot, immunohistochemistry, organ bath experiments, and cystometry. Results and limitations Sham-operated rats exhibited regular micturitions without nonvoiding contractions (NVCs). Crush of all nerve branches of the pelvic plexus or PNC resulted in overflow incontinence and/or NVCs. Betamethasone treatment improved recovery of regular micturitions (87.5% compared with 27% for vehicle; p < 0.05), reduced lowest bladder pressure (8 ± 2 cm H2O compared with 21 ± 5 cm H2O for vehicle; p < 0.05), and reduced the amplitude of NVCs but had no effect on NVC frequency in PNC rats. Compared with vehicle, betamethasone-treated PNC rats had less CD68 (a macrophage marker) in the pelvic plexus and bladder tissue. Isolated bladder from betamethasone-treated PNC rats exhibited better nerve-induced contractions, contained more cholinergic and sensory nerves, and expressed lower amounts of collagen III than bladder tissue from vehicle-treated rats. Conclusions PNC causes autonomic neurapraxia and functional and morphologic changes of isolated bladder tissue that can be recorded as bladder dysfunction during awake cystometry in female rats. Perioperative systemic betamethasone treatment reduced macrophage contents of the pelvic plexus and bladder, partially counteracted changes in the bladder tissue, and had

  15. Pathways to Postsecondary Education for Pregnant and Parenting Teens. Working Paper #C418

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Cynthia B.

    2014-01-01

    This report focuses on pathways to postsecondary education (PSE), including high school completion, for pregnant and parenting teens. Although birth rates among teens have declined in the United States over the last 20 years, one in seven adolescent females (14.4 percent) is expected to give birth before age 20 with females of color (24 percent of…

  16. Fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation in TE-671 cells and inhibition of fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model by optical isomers of the piperidine alkaloid coniine.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Panter, Kip E

    2013-01-01

    Coniine is an optically active toxic piperidine alkaloid and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist found in poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.). Coniine teratogenicity is hypothesized to be attributable to the binding, activation, and prolonged desensitization of fetal muscle-type nAChR, which results in the complete inhibition of fetal movement. However, pharmacological evidence of coniine actions at fetal muscle-type nAChR is lacking. The present study compared (-)-coniine, (+)-coniine, and nicotine for the ability to inhibit fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model and in TE-671 cells that express fetal muscle-type nAChR. Furthermore, α-conotoxins (CTx) EI and GI were used to antagonize the actions of (+)- and (-)-coniine in TE-671 cells. (-)-Coniine was more effective at eliciting electrical changes in TE-671 cells and inhibiting fetal movement than was (+)-coniine, suggesting stereoselectivity by the receptor. The pyridine alkaloid nicotine did not inhibit fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model, suggesting agonist specificity for the inhibition of fetal movement. Low concentrations of both CTxs potentiated the TE-671 cell response and higher concentrations of CTx EI, and GI antagonized the actions of both coniine enantiomers demonstrating concentration-dependent coagonism and selective antagonism. These results provide pharmacological evidence that the piperidine alkaloid coniine is acting at fetal muscle-type nAChR in a concentration-dependent manner.

  17. Role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal motility in pregnant and non-pregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Juliana Fernandes; Americo, Madileine Francely; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu; Corá, Luciana Aparecida; Calabresi, Marcos Felipe Freitas; Oliveira, Ricardo Brandt; Damasceno, Debora Cristina; Miranda, Jose Ricardo Arruda

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To correlate gastric contractility, gastrointestinal transit, and hormone levels in non-pregnant (estrous cycle) and pregnant rats using noninvasive techniques. METHODS: Female rats (n = 23) were randomly divided into (1) non-pregnant, (contractility, n = 6; transit, n = 6); and (2) pregnant (contractility, n = 5; transit, n = 6). In each estrous cycle phase or at 0, 7, 14, and 20 d after the confirmation of pregnancy, gastrointestinal transit was recorded by AC biosusceptometry (ACB), and gastric contractility was recorded by ACB and electromyography. After each recording, blood samples were obtained for progesterone and estradiol determination. RESULTS: In the estrous cycle, despite fluctuations of sex hormone levels, no significant changes in gastrointestinal motility were observed. Days 7 and 14 of pregnancy were characterized by significant changes in the frequency of contractions (3.90 ± 0.42 cpm and 3.60 ± 0.36 cpm vs 4.33 ± 0.25 cpm) and gastric emptying (168 ± 17 min and 165 ± 15 min vs 113 ± 15 min) compared with day 0. On these same days, progesterone levels significantly increased compared with control (54.23 ± 15.14 ng/mL and 129.96 ± 30.52 ng/mL vs 13.25 ± 6.31 ng/mL). On day 14, we observed the highest level of progesterone and the lowest level of estradiol compared with day 0 (44.3 ± 15.18 pg/mL vs 24.96 ± 5.96 pg/mL). CONCLUSION: Gastrointestinal motility was unaffected by the estrous cycle. In our data, high progesterone and low estradiol levels can be associated with decreased contraction frequency and slow gastric emptying. PMID:27433089

  18. The response of Dahl salt-sensitive and salt-resistant female rats to a space flight model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Cleek, Tammy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2003-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism in the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat, a model of salt-induced hypertension, differs from that in the Dahl salt-resistant (R) rat. We have tested the hypothesis that differences in vitamin D metabolism would render the Dahl S rat more susceptible than the Dahl R rat to the effects of a space flight model. Dahl female rats were tail suspended (hind limb unloaded) for 28 days, while fed a low salt (3 g/kg sodium chloride) diet. Plasma 25-OHD concentrations of S rats were significantly lower than that of R rats. Plasma 1,25-(OH)2D concentration was 50% lower in unloaded than in loaded S rats, but was unaffected in unloaded R rats. The left soleus muscle weight and breaking strength of the left femur (torsion test) were 50% and 25% lower in unloaded than in loaded S and R rats. The mineral content of the left femur, however, was significantly lower (by 11%) only in unloaded S rats. We conclude that female S rats are more vulnerable than female R rats to decreases in plasma 1,25-(OH)2D concentration and femur mineral content during hind limb unloading, but equally vulnerable to muscle atrophy and reduced breaking strength of the femur.

  19. 96-hour methamphetamine self-administration in male and female rats: a novel model of human methamphetamine addiction.

    PubMed

    Cornett, Elyse M; Goeders, Nicholas E

    2013-10-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug of abuse for which no FDA-approved treatment exists. While high on MA, both male and female MA users report engaging in risky behaviors and are more likely to be involved in violent criminal activities and to engage in domestic and sexual violence. A unique aspect of MA is that it is typically used in binges. However, there is no animal model of MA self-administration that appears to represent a human MA self-administration binge. We recently developed a 96-hour MA self-administration paradigm in rats that more closely resembles how human MA users take the drug. Male and female rats were trained to self-administer MA for 96 consecutive hours for 5 weeks. Responding by female and male rats tended to escalate to binge-like behavior, as the animals responded continuously during their normal periods of activity as well as during their inactive periods for up to 72 h, followed by a crash of 6 or more hours. Thus, this 96-hour model of MA self-administration is a novel way to study MA addition in rats that may contribute to the development of improved treatments for recovering human MA users.

  20. The response of Dahl salt-sensitive and salt-resistant female rats to a space flight model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Cleek, Tammy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2003-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism in the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat, a model of salt-induced hypertension, differs from that in the Dahl salt-resistant (R) rat. We have tested the hypothesis that differences in vitamin D metabolism would render the Dahl S rat more susceptible than the Dahl R rat to the effects of a space flight model. Dahl female rats were tail suspended (hind limb unloaded) for 28 days, while fed a low salt (3 g/kg sodium chloride) diet. Plasma 25-OHD concentrations of S rats were significantly lower than that of R rats. Plasma 1,25-(OH)2D concentration was 50% lower in unloaded than in loaded S rats, but was unaffected in unloaded R rats. The left soleus muscle weight and breaking strength of the left femur (torsion test) were 50% and 25% lower in unloaded than in loaded S and R rats. The mineral content of the left femur, however, was significantly lower (by 11%) only in unloaded S rats. We conclude that female S rats are more vulnerable than female R rats to decreases in plasma 1,25-(OH)2D concentration and femur mineral content during hind limb unloading, but equally vulnerable to muscle atrophy and reduced breaking strength of the femur.

  1. Selenium-vitamin E combination and melatonin modulates diabetes-induced blood oxidative damage and fetal outcomes in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Guney, Mehmet; Erdemoglu, Evrim; Mungan, Tamer

    2011-11-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to be the main cause of diabetic complications. In the current study, we investigated the effect of selenium-vitamin E combination and melatonin on lipid peroxidation (LPO) and scavenging enzyme activity in the blood of streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic pregnant rats. Forty female Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. The first and second groups were used as the non-pregnant control and pregnant control groups, respectively. The third group was the pregnant diabetic group. Vitamin E plus selenium and melatonin were administered to the diabetic pregnant rats consisting fourth and fifth groups, respectively. Diabetes was induced on day 0 of the study by STZ. Blood samples were taken from all animals on the 20th day of pregnancy. LPO level was higher in diabetic pregnant rats than in control, although superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities were lower in diabetic pregnant animals than in control. LPO levels were lower both in the two treatment groups than in the diabetic pregnant rats, whereas selenium-vitamin E combination and melatonin caused a significant increase in the activities of these antioxidant enzymes (p<0.01). In conclusion, vitamin E plus selenium seems to be a more potent antioxidant compared to melatonin in diabetic pregnant rats. Melatonin did not significantly affect the elevated glucose concentration of diabetic pregnant treated with melatonin group. Vitamin E plus selenium may play a role in preventing diabetes-related diseases of pregnant subjects.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Oral Health Knowledge, Practices and Attitude of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women, and Their Awareness Regarding Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ashish; Mohan, Sugandha; Bhaskar, Nandini; Walia, Prabhjot Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Background Adverse pregnancy outcomes are undesirable events occurring during pregnancy and childbirth in mother or child, such as Preterm Low Birth Weight (PLBW) and preeclampsia. There is growing evidence that periodontitis may be a risk factor for preterm birth even after adjusting for known risk factors. Aim 1. To determine the knowledge and attitude of pregnant females about oral health. 2. To evaluate the oral hygiene practices of pregnant females. 3. To evaluate their awareness regarding effect of oral health on adverse pregnancy outcomes. 4. To assess whether there was any significant difference from their non pregnant counter parts. 5. To evaluate whether their awareness towards dental treatment had increased after conceiving. Materials and Methods 200 pregnant and 200 non-pregnant women filled up a validated questionnaire which comprised of questions on personal data, oral hygiene knowledge, attitude, oral hygiene practices and their awareness regarding the correlation of oral health to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Statistical Analysis Analyses were conducted using SPSS for Windows (version 15.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results The results indicate no statistically significant differences in the variables assessed in both the groups, indicating that no further knowledge had been imparted to the women after they conceived. 96% women of both groups (p>0.05) had received no knowledge from the gynaecologist regarding the impact of oral health on pregnancy outcomes. 93.9% of pregnant women, and 89.5% of non pregnant women (p>0.05) did not go for routine dental check-ups. Only 3% of pregnant women were aware of oral health having a correlation with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Conclusion In our study, pregnancy did little to change future attitudes to dental care. To provide better oral health care, more knowledge needs to be made available to the pregnant women and the medical community. PMID:26674176

  3. HIV Testing and Engagement in Care among Highly Vulnerable Female Sex Workers: Implications for Treatment as Prevention Models

    PubMed Central

    Surratt, Hilary L.; O’Grady, Catherine; Kurtz, Steven P.; Buttram, Mance E.; Levi-Minzi, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although emerging Treatment as Prevention models can be effective in reducing HIV incidence among high-risk populations, many HIV infected individuals remain undiagnosed or fail to engage in HIV care. Methods This study examined the factors associated with HIV testing and care among a population of substance using female sex workers. Results Recent HIV testing was associated with higher education level, having a regular health care provider or clinic, recent crack use, and higher sexual risk behaviors; HIV treatment utilization was associated with higher levels of social support, having a regular health care provider or clinic, housing stability and insurance coverage. Qualitative data revealed HIV-related stigma, denial, social isolation, and substance use as barriers to HIV testing and treatment; social support and accessibility of services were key enablers. Conclusions Improving HIV testing and linkage to treatment among female sex workers will require structural initiatives to reduce stigma and increase service seeking support. PMID:25130245

  4. Two-dimensional sectioned images and three-dimensional surface models for learning the anatomy of the female pelvis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Sun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Hwang, Sung Bae; Har, Dong-Hwan; Moon, Young Lae; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-01-01

    In the Visible Korean project, serially sectioned images of the pelvis were made from a female cadaver. Outlines of significant structures in the sectioned images were drawn and stacked to build surface models. To improve the accessibility and informational content of these data, a five-step process was designed and implemented. First, 154 pelvic structures were outlined with additional surface reconstruction to prepare the image data. Second, the sectioned and outlined images (in a browsing software) as well as the surface models (in a PDF file) were placed on the Visible Korean homepage in a readily-accessible format. Third, all image data were visualized with interactive elements to stimulate creative learning. Fourth, two-dimensional (2D) images and three-dimensional (3D) models were superimposed on one another to provide context and spatial information for students viewing these data. Fifth, images were designed such that structure names would be shown when the mouse pointer hovered over the 2D images or the 3D models. The state-of-the-art sectioned images, outlined images, and surface models, arranged and systematized as described in this study, will aid students in understanding the anatomy of female pelvis. The graphic data accompanied by corresponding magnetic resonance images and computed tomographs are expected to promote the production of 3D simulators for clinical practice.

  5. Analysis of FMR1 gene expression in female premutation carriers using robust segmented linear regression models

    PubMed Central

    García-Alegría, Eva; Ibáñez, Berta; Mínguez, Mónica; Poch, Marisa; Valiente, Alberto; Sanz-Parra, Arantza; Martinez-Bouzas, Cristina; Beristain, Elena; Tejada, Maria-Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is caused by the absence or reduction of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) because FMR1 gene expression is reduced. Alleles with repeat sizes of 55–200 are classified as premutations, and it has been demonstrated that FMR1 expression is elevated in the premutation range. However, the majority of the studies reported were performed in males. We studied FMR1 expression in 100 female fragile X family members from the northern region of Spain using quantitative (fluorescence) real-time polymerase chain reaction. Of these 100 women, 19 had normal alleles, 19 were full mutation carriers, and 62 were premutation carriers. After confirming differences between the three groups of females, and increased levels of the FMR1 transcript among premutation carriers, we found that the relationship between mRNA levels and repeat size is nonlinear. These results were obtained using a novel methodology that, based on the size of the CGG repeats, allows us to find out the most probable threshold from which the relationship between CGG repeat number and mRNA levels changes. Using this approach, a significant positive correlation between CGG repeats and total mRNA levels has been found in the premutation range <100 CGG, but this correlation diminishes from 100 onward. However, when correcting by the X inactivation ratio, mRNA levels increase as the number of CGG repeats increases, and this increase is highly significant over 100 CGG. We suggest that due to skewed X inactivation, mRNA levels tend to normalize in females when the number of CGG repeats increases. PMID:17449730

  6. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult female-internal electron sources.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Shannon E; DeWeese, Lindsay S; Maynard, Matthew R; Rajon, Didier A; Wayson, Michael B; Marshall, Emily L; Bolch, Wesley E

    2016-12-21

    An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for internal electron sources was created for the ICRP-defined reference adult female. Many previous skeletal dosimetry models, which are still employed in commonly used internal dosimetry software, do not properly account for electron escape from trabecular spongiosa, electron cross-fire from cortical bone, and the impact of marrow cellularity on active marrow self-irradiation. Furthermore, these existing models do not employ the current ICRP definition of a 50 µm bone endosteum (or shallow marrow). Each of these limitations was addressed in the present study. Electron transport was completed to determine specific absorbed fractions to both active and shallow marrow of the skeletal regions of the University of Florida reference adult female. The skeletal macrostructure and microstructure were modeled separately. The bone macrostructure was based on the whole-body hybrid computational phantom of the UF series of reference models, while the bone microstructure was derived from microCT images of skeletal region samples taken from a 45 years-old female cadaver. The active and shallow marrow are typically adopted as surrogate tissue regions for the hematopoietic stem cells and osteoprogenitor cells, respectively. Source tissues included active marrow, inactive marrow, trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone surfaces, cortical bone volume, and cortical bone surfaces. Marrow cellularity was varied from 10 to 100 percent for active marrow self-irradiation. All other sources were run at the defined ICRP Publication 70 cellularity for each bone site. A total of 33 discrete electron energies, ranging from 1 keV to 10 MeV, were either simulated or analytically modeled. The method of combining skeletal macrostructure and microstructure absorbed fractions assessed using MCNPX electron transport was found to yield results similar to those determined with the PIRT model applied to the UF adult male skeletal dosimetry model. Calculated

  7. Vitamin D deficiency among healthy Egyptian females.

    PubMed

    Botros, Raif M; Sabry, Inas M; Abdelbaky, Rania S; Eid, Yara M; Nasr, Merihan S; Hendawy, Laila M

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is becoming endemic in many parts of the world. To study vitamin D status in Egyptian females of different age groups. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 404 females, who were categorized into group 1 (51 nursing females); group 2 (50 pregnant females); group 3 (208 females of childbearing age); group 4 (38 elderly females); and group 5 (57 geriatric females). Females completed a questionnaire regarding dietary calcium and vitamin D intake, sun exposure, and clothing habits, and performed laboratory tests including calcium, PO4, alkaline phosphatase, intact PTH, and 25-OH vitamin D levels. Median and IQR of vitamin D levels across groups 1, 2, 3 and 5 were in the deficient range, being lowest in groups 3, 5, and 1, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 72.6% of the nursing group, 54% of the pregnant group, 72% of the childbearing age group, 39.5% of the elderly group, and 77.2% of the geriatric group. Vitamin D was significantly higher in non-veiled females [23ng/dl] as compared to veiled females [16.7ng/dl]. Vitamin D levels with poor, fair, and good sun exposure were 14.1, 14, and 37ng/dl, respectively. These results show a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy Egyptian females. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Lifestyle practices of Jordanian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, M; Al-Ma'aitah, R; Al Jada, N

    2005-06-01

    Although many improvements have been made in the area of women's health in Jordan, women during pregnancy still face many health problems that put their lives at risk. This is evident in the relatively high Maternal Mortality Rate, anaemia, low birth weight and other problems related to their lifestyle practices during pregnancy (Jordanian Ministry of Health 1998). To describe the health-promoting lifestyle behaviours of Jordanian pregnant women. The Maternal Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (MHPLP), based on the Health Promotion Model, was modified to measure maternal practices. A representative sample of 400 Jordanian pregnant women in their 20th week of gestation or beyond were recruited from five public Maternal and Child Health Centres in the city of Irbid, in the northern part of Jordan. The MHPLP measures six dimensions: physical activity, stress management, self-actualization, nutrition, health responsibility and interpersonal support. Data were analysed by using descriptive analysis. The women reported high scores on health responsibility and self-actualization, moderate scores on interpersonal support and nutrition, and low scores on physical activity and stress management behaviours. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY, PRACTICE AND RESEARCH: The findings have implications for the quality of care delivered through the maternal and child health services. Health promotion and healthy lifestyle need to be an integral part of health services provided for pregnant women. Further research is needed to develop an instrument that integrates the cultural beliefs relating to lifestyle practices of Jordanian pregnant women mainly in the areas of physical activities and stress management. Policy implications of the findings are discussed.

  9. Interpretation of Opposite-Sex Friendship Based on Social Ecology Model in Iranian Females

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Keramat, Afsaneh; Vakilian, Katayon; Chaman, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Objective: One of the main cultural issues in universities is relationships between male and female students. Due to the adverse consequences of this issue, explaining of the beyond the causes of friendship with opposite-sex, is one of the first steps in planning for youth issues. Methods: This qualitative research was conducted based on content analysis. Nineteen female university students were enrolled. Semi-structured questions through four sessions were used to gather required data. Two themes were extracted. One was the behaviors leading friendship which consisted of 5 subsets including self and extra-self, meso, exo-, and macro-systems. The other theme was the actions against with consequences of sex which are made of 2 subsets of the quality and the consequences of sex. Results: Various factors such as person attitude, felling lonely, and community atmosphere, including the university environment, family, friends, religious beliefs and media that promote the Western culture can be effective in friendship before marriage. Conclusion: Since the society of our country is considered a young populated one and the culture of the West through the media currently influences on our culture, reproductive health programs should be developed in a high priority focusing on youth fitted with their current needs according to Islamic-Iranian culture. PMID:24644485

  10. Industrial shifts, female employment, and occupational differentiation: a dynamic model for American cities, 1960-1970.

    PubMed

    Semyonov, M; Scott, R I

    1983-05-01

    Sex-linked occupational differentiation has been seen as influenced by both the industrial structure of the economy and the sex composition of the labor force. Here, with a sample of 70 SMSAs, it was found (a) that the odds of men relative to women of joining professional and managerial occupations increased between 1960 and 1970, and (b) that this increase was dependent on the growth of tertiary industries and the greater number of women joining the cash economy. The observed effect of industrial shifts on sex-occupational differentiation, however, is argued to be a spurious consequence of the gender-composition of the work force. Specifically, the development of tertiary industries generates greater demand for female labor. Intensive recruitment of women to the labor force in turn increases occupational differentiation because females, in sex-typed labor markets, are likely to be channeled in disproportionate numbers away from upper-status occupations. The findings demonstrate that traditional modernization theory is unable to account for this. However, the results lend support to expectations derived from a labor market sex-segmentation approach.

  11. Mathematical modelling of decline in follicle pool during female reproductive ageing.

    PubMed

    Thilagam, Alagu

    2016-03-01

    The factors which govern the subtle links between follicle loss and mammalian female reproductive ageing remain unclear despite extensive studies undertaken to understand the critical physiological and biochemical mechanisms that underly the accelerated decline in follicle numbers in women older than 37 years. It is not certain whether there is a sole control by the ovary or whether other factors which affect ageing also intersect with the ovarian effect. There is convincing experimental evidence for an interplay of several processes that seem to influence the follicle loss-female reproductive ageing links, with specific hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, anti-Müllerian hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone) noted to play important roles in follicular dynamics and ovarian ageing. In this work, we examine the subtle links between the rate of follicular decline with ageing and the role of hormones via a series of non-autonomous equations. Simulation results based on the time evolution of the number of ovarian follicles and biochemical changes in the ovarian environment influenced by hormone levels is compared with empirical data based on follicle loss-reproductive ageing correlation studies. © Crown copyright 2015.

  12. Short communication: Validation of two animal models for estimation of genetic trends for female fertility in Norwegian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Andersen-Ranberg, I M; Klemetsdal, G; Heringstad, B

    2003-12-01

    Two animal models were compared with respect to potential bias in genetic trend estimates for female fertility and for their predictive ability. In addition to either a fixed effect for month of first insemination or for month-year of first insemination, the models had fixed effects of age and double insemination and random effects of herd-year and animal. The model with a fixed effect of month of first insemination had a larger positive genetic trend for 56-d nonreturn rate in virgin heifers (0.16% yr), smaller downward bias, and somewhat higher predictive ability. These results demonstrate the importance of verifying models to be used in the calculation of breeding values.

  13. A test of the intergenerational conflict model in Indonesia shows no evidence of earlier menopause in female-dispersing groups.

    PubMed

    Snopkowski, Kristin; Moya, Cristina; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-08-07

    Menopause remains an evolutionary puzzle, as humans are unique among primates in having a long post-fertile lifespan. One model proposes that intergenerational conflict in patrilocal populations favours female reproductive cessation. This model predicts that women should experience menopause earlier in groups with an evolutionary history of patrilocality compared with matrilocal groups. Using data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test this model at multiple timescales: deep historical time, comparing age at menopause in ancestrally patrilocal Chinese Indonesians with ancestrally matrilocal Austronesian Indonesians; more recent historical time, comparing age at menopause in ethnic groups with differing postmarital residence within Indonesia and finally, analysing age at menopause at an individual-level, assuming a woman facultatively adjusts her age at menopause based on her postmarital residence. We find a significant effect only at the intermediate timescale where, contrary to predictions, ethnic groups with a history of multilocal postnuptial residence (where couples choose where to live) have the slowest progression to menopause, whereas matrilocal and patrilocal ethnic groups have similar progression rates. Multilocal residence may reduce intergenerational conflicts between women, thus influencing reproductive behaviour, but our results provide no support for the female-dispersal model of intergenerational conflict as an explanation of menopause. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. A test of the intergenerational conflict model in Indonesia shows no evidence of earlier menopause in female-dispersing groups

    PubMed Central

    Snopkowski, Kristin; Moya, Cristina; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Menopause remains an evolutionary puzzle, as humans are unique among primates in having a long post-fertile lifespan. One model proposes that intergenerational conflict in patrilocal populations favours female reproductive cessation. This model predicts that women should experience menopause earlier in groups with an evolutionary history of patrilocality compared with matrilocal groups. Using data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test this model at multiple timescales: deep historical time, comparing age at menopause in ancestrally patrilocal Chinese Indonesians with ancestrally matrilocal Austronesian Indonesians; more recent historical time, comparing age at menopause in ethnic groups with differing postmarital residence within Indonesia and finally, analysing age at menopause at an individual-level, assuming a woman facultatively adjusts her age at menopause based on her postmarital residence. We find a significant effect only at the intermediate timescale where, contrary to predictions, ethnic groups with a history of multilocal postnuptial residence (where couples choose where to live) have the slowest progression to menopause, whereas matrilocal and patrilocal ethnic groups have similar progression rates. Multilocal residence may reduce intergenerational conflicts between women, thus influencing reproductive behaviour, but our results provide no support for the female-dispersal model of intergenerational conflict as an explanation of menopause. PMID:24966311

  15. Dynamic stability control during perturbed walking can be assessed by a reduced kinematic model across the adult female lifespan.

    PubMed

    Süptitz, Florian; Moreno Catalá, María; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Karamanidis, Kiros

    2013-12-01

    The current study aimed to determine potential differences in dynamic stability control during perturbed walking across the adult female lifespan and to test the hypothesis that such differences can be assessed by a reduced kinematic model. 11 young-aged (22-30years), 9 middle-aged (41-59years) and 14 old-aged (62-75years) female adults walked on a treadmill while the right leg was unexpectedly perturbed once during the swing phase. Margin of stability (MS) at touchdown was investigated using a full body and a reduced kinematic model. After the perturbation, all age groups showed a lower MS compared to non-perturbed gait (baseline), leading to negative MS. Four old-aged adults failed to cope with the task (only preventing a fall by grasping). The remaining ten old-aged and the middle-aged subjects required three more recovery steps than the young-aged adults to get back to baseline MS. Moreover, there were no differences between kinematic models, and both methods demonstrated similar age-related findings. We concluded that the ability to control dynamic stability during perturbed walking by enlarging the base of support has already begun to deteriorate by middle age. Further, the valid agreement between kinematic models shows that such differences can be assessed by using just four body markers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Intimate partner violence among pregnant and parenting Latina adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sue Newman, Bernie; Campbell, Caroline

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and extent of mutual violence among a sample of pregnant and parenting Latina adolescent females and their partners. The sample consisted of 73 Latina adolescent females between the ages of 14 and 20 who were referred to a community-based organization for case management, education, and psychosocial support for pregnant and parenting adolescents. They completed the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS-2) as part of a pretest to evaluate this intervention program. A small number (12 out of 73; 16%) reported no use of aggressive conflict tactics. Eighty-four percent (61 out of 73) of the study respondents reported using at least one form of minor psychological aggression and 62% (45 out of 73) reported using at least one form of minor physical assault over the past 6 months. Mutuality of conflict was high, especially in cases of minor assault by partner. There was no difference in severity or chronicity of conflict between those who were pregnant and those who were not. Female respondents reported that they and their partners engaged in comparable levels of sexual coercion. Discussion of the context of psychological, physical, and sexual aggression in adolescent relationships suggests alternative approaches to prevention of intimate partner violence among adolescents.

  17. Oestrogen and progesterone concentrations in peripheral blood in pregnant red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Bonnin, M; Mondain-Monval, M; Dutourné, B

    1978-09-01

    Oestrogen levels were low during most of gestation, but there was a significant increase (P less than 0.05) in oestradiol concentrations at implantation. Early pregnancy was characterized by high levels of progesterone which decreased significantly (P less than 0.001) thereafter, but there was no decline in progesterone or rise in oestrogen levels at parturition. There was no difference in the length of progesterone secretion between pregnant and non-pregnant females.

  18. Spinal curvature and characteristics of postural change in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Okanishi, Natsuko; Kito, Nobuhiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamamoto, Masako

    2012-07-01

    Pregnant women often report complaints due to physiological and postural changes. Postural changes during pregnancy may cause low back pain and pelvic girdle pain. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of postural changes in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women. Prospective case-control study. Pregnancy care center. Fifteen women at 17-34 weeks pregnancy comprised the study group, while 10 non-pregnant female volunteers comprised the control group. Standing posture was evaluated in the sagittal plane with static digital pictures. Two angles were measured by image analysis software: (1) between the trunk and pelvis; and (2) between the trunk and lower extremity. Spinal curvature was measured with Spinal Mouse® to calculate the means of sacral inclination, thoracic and lumbar curvature and inclination. The principal components were calculated until eigenvalues surpassed 1. Three distinct factors with eigenvalues of 1.00-2.49 were identified, consistent with lumbosacral spinal curvature and inclination, thoracic spine curvature, and inclination of the body. These factors accounted for 77.2% of the total variance in posture variables. Eleven pregnant women showed postural characteristics of lumbar kyphosis and sacral posterior inclination. Body inclination showed a variety of patterns compared with those in healthy women. Spinal curvature demonstrated a tendency for lumbar kyphosis in pregnant women. Pregnancy may cause changes in spinal curvature and posture, which may in turn lead to relevant symptoms. Our data provide a basis for investigating the effects of spinal curvature and postural changes on symptoms during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Reproductive State and Rank Influence Patterns of Meat Consumption in Wild Female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Margaret A.; Gilby, Ian C.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Pusey, Anne; Markham, A. Catherine; Murray, Carson M.

    2015-01-01

    An increase in faunivory is a consistent component of human evolutionary models. Animal matter is energy- and nutrient-dense and can provide macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins that are limited or absent in plant foods. For female humans and other omnivorous primates, faunivory may be of particular importance during the costly periods of pregnancy and early lactation. Yet, because animal prey is often monopolizable, access to fauna among group-living primates may be mediated by social factors such as rank. Wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) across Africa habitually consume insects and/or vertebrates. However, no published studies have examined patterns of female chimpanzee faunivory during pregnancy and early lactation relative to non-reproductive periods, or by females of different rank. In this study, we assessed the influence of reproductive state and dominance rank on the consumption of fauna (meat and insects) by female chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Using observational data collected over 38 years, we tested (a) whether faunivory varied by reproductive state, and (b) if high-ranking females spent more time consuming fauna than lower-ranking females. In single-factor models, pregnant females consumed more meat than lactating and baseline (meaning not pregnant and not in early lactation) females, and high-ranking females consumed more meat than lower-ranking females. A two-factor analysis of a subset of well-sampled females identified an interaction between rank and reproductive state: lower-ranking females consumed more meat during pregnancy than lower-ranking lactating and baseline females did. High-ranking females did not significantly differ in meat consumption between reproductive states. We found no relationships between rank or reproductive state with insectivory. We conclude that, unlike insectivory, meat consumption by female chimpanzees is mediated by both reproductive state and social rank. We outline several possible mechanisms for

  20. Reproductive state and rank influence patterns of meat consumption in wild female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Robert C; Stanton, Margaret A; Gilby, Ian C; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Pusey, Anne; Markham, A Catherine; Murray, Carson M

    2016-01-01

    An increase in faunivory is a consistent component of human evolutionary models. Animal matter is energy- and nutrient-dense and can provide macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins that are limited or absent in plant foods. For female humans and other omnivorous primates, faunivory may be of particular importance during the costly periods of pregnancy and early lactation. Yet, because animal prey is often monopolizable, access to fauna among group-living primates may be mediated by social factors such as rank. Wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) across Africa habitually consume insects and/or vertebrates. However, no published studies have examined patterns of female chimpanzee faunivory during pregnancy and early lactation relative to non-reproductive periods, or by females of different rank. In this study, we assessed the influence of reproductive state and dominance rank on the consumption of fauna (meat and insects) by female chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Using observational data collected over 38 years, we tested (a) whether faunivory varied by reproductive state, and (b) if high-ranking females spent more time consuming fauna than lower-ranking females. In single-factor models, pregnant females consumed more meat than lactating and baseline (meaning not pregnant and not in early lactation) females, and high-ranking females consumed more meat than lower-ranking females. A two-factor analysis of a subset of well-sampled females identified an interaction between rank and reproductive state: lower-ranking females consumed more meat during pregnancy than lower-ranking lactating and baseline females did. High-ranking females did not significantly differ in meat consumption between reproductive states. We found no relationships between rank or reproductive state with insectivory. We conclude that, unlike insectivory, meat consumption by female chimpanzees is mediated by both reproductive state and social rank. We outline possible mechanisms for these

  1. Internal dosimetry with the Monte Carlo code GATE: validation using the ICRP/ICRU female reference computational model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villoing, Daphnée; Marcatili, Sara; Garcia, Marie-Paule; Bardiès, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to validate GATE-based clinical scale absorbed dose calculations in nuclear medicine dosimetry. GATE (version 6.2) and MCNPX (version 2.7.a) were used to derive dosimetric parameters (absorbed fractions, specific absorbed fractions and S-values) for the reference female computational model proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in ICRP report 110. Monoenergetic photons and electrons (from 50 keV to 2 MeV) and four isotopes currently used in nuclear medicine (fluorine-18, lutetium-177, iodine-131 and yttrium-90) were investigated. Absorbed fractions, specific absorbed fractions and S-values were generated with GATE and MCNPX for 12 regions of interest in the ICRP 110 female computational model, thereby leading to 144 source/target pair configurations. Relative differences between GATE and MCNPX obtained in specific configurations (self-irradiation or cross-irradiation) are presented. Relative differences in absorbed fractions, specific absorbed fractions or S-values are below 10%, and in most cases less than 5%. Dosimetric results generated with GATE for the 12 volumes of interest are available as supplemental data. GATE can be safely used for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry at the clinical scale. This makes GATE a viable option for Monte Carlo modelling of both imaging and absorbed dose in nuclear medicine.

  2. Maturity associated variance in physical activity and health-related quality of life in adolescent females: a mediated effects model.

    PubMed

    Smart, Joan E Hunter; Cumming, Sean P; Sherar, Lauren B; Standage, Martyn; Neville, Helen; Malina, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    This study tested a mediated effects model of psychological and behavioral adaptation to puberty within the context of physical activity (PA). Biological maturity status, physical self-concept, PA, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were assessed in 222 female British year 7 to 9 pupils (mean age = 12.7 years, SD = .8). Structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation and bootstrapping procedures supported the hypothesized model. Maturation status was inversely related to perceptions of sport competence, body attractiveness, and physical condition; and indirectly and inversely related to physical self-worth, PA, and HRQoL. Examination of the bootstrap-generated bias-corrected confidence intervals representing the direct and indirect paths between suggested that physical self-concept partially mediated the relations between maturity status and PA, and maturity status and HRQoL. Evidence supports the contention that perceptions of the physical self partially mediate relations maturity, PA, and HRQoL in adolescent females.

  3. RISK and the Pregnant Body

    PubMed Central

    LYERLY, ANNE DRAPKIN; MITCHELL, LISA M.; ARMSTRONG, ELIZABETH MITCHELL; HARRIS, LISA H.; KUKLA, REBECCA; KUPPERMANN, MIRIAM; LITTLE, MARGARET OLIVIA

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning well about risk is most challenging when a woman is pregnant, for patient and doctor alike. During pregnancy, we tend to note the risks of medical interventions without adequately noting those of failing to intervene, yet when it’s time to give birth, interventions are seldom questioned, even when they don’t work. Meanwhile, outside the clinic, advice given to pregnant women on how to stay healthy in everyday life can seem capricious and overly cautious. This kind of reasoning reflects fear, not evidence. PMID:20050369

  4. Risk and the pregnant body.

    PubMed

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Mitchell, Lisa M; Armstrong, Elizabeth Mitchell; Harris, Lisa H; Kukla, Rebecca; Kuppermann, Miriam; Little, Margaret Olivia

    2009-01-01

    Reasoning well about risk is most challenging when a woman is pregnant, for patient and doctor alike. During pregnancy, we tend to note the risks of medical interventions without adequately noting those of failing to intervene, yet when it's time to give birth, interventions are seldom questioned, even when they don't work. Meanwhile, outside the clinic, advice given to pregnant women on how to stay healthy in everyday life can seem capricious and overly cautious. This kind of reasoning reflects fear, not evidence.

  5. Comparison of two experimental models of urodynamic evaluation in female rats.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Beatriz Gomes de; Suaid, Haylton Jorge; Suaid, Carla Adelino; Tucci, Silvio; Cologna, Adauto José; Martins, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Urodynamic studies in small animals can be performed through urethral sounding or cystostomy. To compare the two methods of urodynamic evaluation in female rats. Ten female rats weighing on average 250 g, under anesthesia with urethane (1.25 mg/kg) were submitted in three repeats to an urethal catheter of 0,64 mm in external diameter for cystometric measurements of vesicle pressure(VP1) and contraction time (CT1). The catheter was extracted at a constant velocity of 0.05 cm/minute until complete exteriorization and determinations of maximal urethral pressure (UP1) and functional urethral length (FUL1). This was followed by a cystostomy with catheter PE50 and a new determination of the vesical pressure (VP2). After bladder denervation, a new cystometric record indirectly infered the maximum urethral closure pressure (UP2). The peak urethal pressure (UP3) and the functional urethral length (FUL2) were determined in another urethral sounding. The pressure registration system consisted of a continuous infusion pump regulated to a flow of 0.1 ml/minute connected both to the cystostomy catheter (PE-50) or the urethal catheter (0.64 mm) and the polygraph Narco-Biosystem. Statistical analysis employed the Wilcoxon non-parametric test Mean VP1= 48.2 mmHg (11,8 SD); Mean VP2 = 38.2 mmHg (9.0 SD) "p" (VP1 X VP2) = 0.0039. Mean CT1=30.2 s (21.5 SD); Mean CT2=20.0 s(7 SD) p (CT1 X CT2) = 1.28. Mean UP1 = 47.2 mmHg (6.5 SD); Mean UP2 = 21.3 mmHg (6.6 SD), mean UP3 = 40.7 mmHg(13.3 SD) p (UP1 X UP2) = 0.002; "p" (UP1 X UP3) = 0.084; p (UP2 X UP3) = 0.002. Mean FUL1=14.2 mm (1.9 SD); Mean FUL2= 14.1 mm (1.9 SD); p (FUL1 X FUL2) = 0.64. The methods employed to evaluate vesical and urethral pressures are different. The presence of the urethral catheter may be an obstructive factor. Surgical denervation up to the bladder neck level does not compromise urethral function.

  6. Effects of maternal exposure to aflatoxin B1 during pregnancy on fertility output of dams and developmental, behavioral and reproductive consequences in female offspring using a rat model.

    PubMed

    Supriya, Ch; Akhila, B; Pratap Reddy, K; Girish, B P; Sreenivasula Reddy, P

    2016-01-01

    A suboptimal in utero environment can have detrimental effects on the pregnancy and long-term adverse "programing" effects on the offspring. Aflatoxin B1 is one of the potent reproductive toxicants and currently detected in both milk and tissues. This article focuses on the effects of prenatal exposure to graded doses of aflatoxin B1 on the pregnancy outcomes of dams and postnatal developments of the female offspring, since these issues have ethological relevance in both animals and humans. Pregnant Wistar rats were injected intramuscularly with vehicle or aflatoxin B1 (10, 20, 50 or 100 μg/kg body weight/day) on days 12-19 of gestation. At parturition, newborns were observed for clinical signs of toxicity and survival. The female offspring were examined through a battery of tests in order to evaluate their developmental, behavioral and reproductive end points. All animals were born alive. The litter size of the aflatoxin B1 treated rats was comparable to the controls. However, the birth weight of the pups in the experimental group was significantly lower when compared to controls. Significant and persistent lags in cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, surface rightening activity and ascending wire mesh, with a delay in elapsed time for vaginal opening were detected in the female progeny exposed to aflatoxin B1 during embryonic development. The locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in experimental females were significantly decreased than that of controls. Embryonic exposure to aflatoxin B1 also resulted in prolonged stress response, irregular estrus and suppressed fertility output in the progeny at their adulthood. These results indicate that in utero exposure to aflatoxin B1 severely compromised postnatal development of neonatal rats and caused irregular estrus that was accompanied by suppressed fertility output.

  7. A female black bear denning habitat model using a geographic information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, J.D.; Hayes, S.G.; Pledger, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    We used the Mahalanobis distance statistic and a raster geographic information system (GIS) to model potential black bear (Ursus americanus) denning habitat in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. The Mahalanobis distance statistic was used to represent the standard squared distance between sample variates in the GIS database (forest cover type, elevation, slope, aspect, distance to streams, distance to roads, and forest cover richness) and variates at known bear dens. Two models were developed: a generalized model for all den locations and another specific to dens in rock cavities. Differences between habitat at den sites and habitat across the study area were represented in 2 new GIS themes as Mahalanobis distance values. Cells similar to the mean vector derived from the known dens had low Mahalanobis distance values, and dissimilar cells had high values. The reliability of the predictive model was tested by overlaying den locations collected subsequent to original model development on the resultant den habitat themes. Although the generalized model demonstrated poor reliability, the model specific to rock dens had good reliability. Bears were more likely to choose rock den locations with low Mahalanobis distance values and less likely to choose those with high values. The model can be used to plan the timing and extent of management actions (e.g., road building, prescribed fire, timber harvest) most appropriate for those sites with high or low denning potential. 

  8. Stressful Life Events and the Tripartite Model: Relations to Anxiety and Depression in Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jeremy K.; Halpern, Leslie F.; Ryan, Julie L.; Lowe, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the tripartite model reliably distinguishes anxiety and depression in adolescents, it remains unclear how negative affectivity (NA) and positive affectivity (PA) influence developmental pathways to internalizing problems. Based on models which propose that affectivity shapes how youth react to stress, the present study attempted to…

  9. Stressful Life Events and the Tripartite Model: Relations to Anxiety and Depression in Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jeremy K.; Halpern, Leslie F.; Ryan, Julie L.; Lowe, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the tripartite model reliably distinguishes anxiety and depression in adolescents, it remains unclear how negative affectivity (NA) and positive affectivity (PA) influence developmental pathways to internalizing problems. Based on models which propose that affectivity shapes how youth react to stress, the present study attempted to…

  10. Testing models of female reproductive migratory behaviour and population structure in the Caribbean hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata, with mtDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Bass, A L; Good, D A; Bjorndal, K A; Richardson, J I; Hillis, Z M; Horrocks, J A; Bowen, B W

    1996-06-01

    Information on the reproductive behaviour and population structure of female hawksbill turtles, Eretmochelys imbricata, is necessary to define conservation priorities for this highly endangered species. Two hypotheses to explain female nest site choice, natal homing and social facilitation, were tested by analyzing mtDNA control region sequences of 103 individuals from seven nesting colonies in the Caribbean and western Atlantic. Under the social facilitation model, newly mature females follow older females to a nesting location, and subsequently use this site for future nesting. This model generates an expectation that female lineages will be homogenized among regional nesting colonies. Contrary to expectations of the social facilitation model, mtDNA lineages were highly structured among western Atlantic nesting colonies. These analyses identified at least 6 female breeding stocks in the Caribbean and western Atlantic and support a natal homing model for recruitment of breeding females. Reproductive populations are effectively isolated over ecological time scales, and recovery plans for this species should include protection at the level of individual nesting colonies.

  11. A cognitive-perceptual model of symptom perception in males and females: the roles of negative affect, selective attention, health anxiety and psychological job demands.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Laura; Fairclough, Stephen H; Poole, Helen M

    2013-06-01

    Kolk et al.'s model of symptom perception underlines the effects of trait negative affect, selective attention and external stressors. The current study tested this model in 263 males and 498 females from an occupational sample. Trait negative affect was associated with symptom reporting in females only, and selective attention and psychological job demands were associated with symptom reporting in both genders. Health anxiety was associated with symptom reporting in males only. Future studies might consider the inclusion of selective attention, which was more strongly associated with symptom reporting than negative affect. Psychological job demands appear to influence symptom reporting in both males and females.

  12. Heredity of restless legs syndrome in a pregnant population.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Mary Dawn; De La Torre, Frances Aimee

    2013-01-01

    To synthesize published research on genetic and heredity findings related to restless legs syndrome (RLS) in a pregnant population. PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases and reference lists from published articles. Literature searches were conducted for primary research studies published in English on the genetic and heredity findings of RLS in pregnant populations. Study characteristics and findings related to genetic and heredity aspects of RLS in a pregnant population. Five data-based articles met the criteria for study inclusion. Study findings comprised Level-2 and Level-3 evidence. Four of the five studies were larger population studies and contained a subset of pregnant participants. Parity and family history were important predictors of RLS proband status. Probands reported symptoms were often initiated during or after pregnancy. Symptoms of RLS for female probands are often initiated during pregnancy or after childbirth. A history of RLS in a previous pregnancy and family history of RLS were strong predictors of RLS in the current pregnancy. Future research on genetic associations of RLS in pregnancy is warranted. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  13. Female circumcision.

    PubMed

    Abu Daia, J M

    2000-10-01

    It is uncertain when female circumcision was first practiced, but it certainly preceded the founding of both Christianity and Islam. A review of past and current historical, popular and professional literature was undertaken, and 4 types of female circumcision were identified. Typically female circumcision is performed by a local village practitioner, lay person or by untrained midwives. Female genital mutilation is not accepted by any religious or medical opinion, and is a violation of human rights against helpless individuals who are unable to provide informed consent and who must therefore be protected through education and legislation. Complications of female circumcision can present after many years. Any medical practitioner (either for adult or pediatric) can be confronted with this issue of female circumcision, even in countries where this custom is not present, thus mandating the understanding of this complex issue.

  14. Examination of a sociocultural model of excessive exercise among male and female adolescents.

    PubMed

    White, James; Halliwell, Emma

    2010-06-01

    There is substantial evidence that sociocultural pressures and body image disturbances can lead to disordered eating, yet few studies have examined their impact on excessive exercise. The study adapted a sociocultural model for disordered eating to predict excessive exercise using data from boys and girls in early adolescence (N=421). Perceived sociocultural pressures to lose weight and build muscle, body image disturbance and appearance investment were associated with a compulsive need to exercise. Adolescents' investment in appearance and body image disturbance fully mediated the relationship between sociocultural pressures and a compulsive need for exercise. There was no support for the meditational model in predicting adolescents' frequency or duration of exercise. Results support the sociocultural model as an explanatory model for excessive exercise, but suggest appearance investment and body image disturbance are important mediators of sociocultural pressures. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Achala; Baral, Ratna; Basnet, Pritha; Rai, Rubina; Agrawal, Ajay; Regmi, Mohan Chandra; Uprety, Dhruba Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in urine of an individual without symptoms. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. This study was a prospective study conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. The duration of the study was six months from January to June 2012. A total of 600 pregnant women were enrolled. All women were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into a sterile vial. The urine samples were examined for microscopic and culture sensitivity test. Out of 600 pregnant women, 52 were positive for significant bacteriuria with a prevalence rate of 8.7%. There was a significant difference in prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to trimester (p=0.005). Age did not show any significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (p=0.807). There was not any significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to parity (p=0.864) and booking status (p=0.397). Escherichia coli (35%), Acinetobacter species (15%), Enterococcus species (12%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10%) were the common isolates. Most of the isolates were sensitive either to Nitrofurantoin, Norfloxacin or Amikacin. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in pregnancy. Urine culture sensitivity should be carried out routinely on all pregnant patients in order to prevent the dangerous complications associated with it.

  16. Nutrition and the Pregnant Teen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Vicki; McCamey, Jody

    This illustrated guide for pregnant teenagers discusses the nutritional needs of the mother and her unborn child in a month-by-month format. The information presented for each of the 9 months typically includes a sample daily menu; a checklist of recommended servings per day for each of four food groups; a description of the usual emotional and…

  17. Depression severity evaluation for female patients based on a functional MRI model.

    PubMed

    Qing, Lu; Haiteng, Jiang; Haiyan, Liu; Gang, Liu; Gaojun, Teng; Zhijian, Yao

    2010-05-01

    To develop a functional MRI (fMRI) signal based model that can evaluate depression severity in a numeric form; therefore, depressed patients can be identified during the course of illness, independent from symptoms. Data from 20 medication-free depressed patients and 16 healthy subjects were analyzed. The event-related fMRI scanning features under sad facial emotional stimuli were extracted as model inputs. Fuzzy logic and a genetic algorithm were used to provide suitable model outputs for numeric estimations of depression. The correlation value r between the model estimations and the professional Hamilton Depression Rating Scales (HAMD) was 0.7886 with P < 0.00016. A typical tracking history for a particular subject has also promised the possibility for early disease warning, when the clinal symptoms are ambiguous or recessive. A numeric and objective estimation for the course of illness can be provided. The model can be used by psychiatrists to track the recovery process. As a simple extended application, the proposed model can be applied to classify subjects into different patterns: major depression, moderate depression, or healthy. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Estimating the magnitude of female genital mutilation/cutting in Norway: an extrapolation model.

    PubMed

    Ziyada, Mai M; Norberg-Schulz, Marthe; Johansen, R Elise B

    2016-02-02

    With emphasis on policy implications, the main objective of this study was to estimate the numbers of two main groups affected by FGM/C in Norway: 1) those already subjected to FGM/C and therefore potentially in need for health care and 2) those at risk of FGM/C and consequently the target of preventive and protective measures. Special attention has been paid to type III as it is associated with more severe complications. Register data from Statistics Norway (SSB) was combined with population-based survey data on FGM/C in the women/girls' countries of origin. As of January 1(st) 2013, there were 44,467 first and second-generation female immigrants residing in Norway whose country of origin is one of the 29 countries where FGM/C is well documented. About 40 pct. of these women and girls are estimated to have already been subjected to FGM/C prior to immigration to Norway. Type III is estimated in around 50 pct. of those already subjected to FGM/C. Further, a total of 15,500 girls are identified as potentially at risk, out of which an approximate number of girls ranging between 3000 and 7900 are estimated to be at risk of FGM/C. Reliable estimates on FGM/C are important for evidence-based policies. The study findings indicate that about 17,300 women and girls in Norway can be in need of health care, in particular the 9100 who are estimated to have type III. Preventive and protective measures are also needed to protect girls at risk (3000 to 7900) from being subjected to FGM/C. Nevertheless, as there are no appropriate tools at the moment that can single these girls out of all who are potentially at risk, all girls in the potentially at risk group (15,500) should be targeted with preventive measures.

  19. Using discrete choice modeling to generate resource selection functions for female polar bears in the Beaufort Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, George M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Nielson, Ryan M.; McDonald, Trent; Huzurbazar, Snehalata

    2004-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) depend on ice-covered seas to satisfy life history requirements. Modern threats to polar bears include oil spills in the marine environment and changes in ice composition resulting from climate change. Managers need practical models that explain the distribution of bears in order to assess the impacts of these threats. We explored the use of discrete choice models to describe habitat selection by female polar bears in the Beaufort Sea. Using stepwise procedures we generated resource selection models of habitat use. Sea ice characteristics and ocean depths at known polar bear locations were compared to the same features at randomly selected locations. Models generated for each of four seasons confirmed complexities of habitat use by polar bears and their response to numerous factors. Bears preferred shallow water areas where different ice types intersected. Variation among seasons was reflected mainly in differential selection of total ice concentration, ice stages, floe sizes, and their interactions. Distance to the nearest ice interface was a significant term in models for three seasons. Water depth was selected as a significant term in all seasons, possibly reflecting higher productivity in shallow water areas. Preliminary tests indicate seasonal models can predict polar bear distribution based on prior sea ice data.

  20. The pregnant guinea-pig as a model for studying influenza virus infection in utero: infection of foetal tissues in organ culture and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sweet, C; Collie, M H; Toms, G L; Smith, H

    1977-04-01

    Organ cultures of guinea-pig foetal tissues showed a similar pattern of susceptibility to influenza virus to that already observed for human (Rosztoczy et al., 1975) and ferret (Sweet, Toms and Smith, 1977) foetal tissues. Respiratory, alimentary and urogenital tract tissues were susceptible whereas neural and lymphopoietic tissues were insusceptible. However, of the foetal membranes (amnion, chorion, umbilical cord and placenta) only the chorion was susceptible, in contrast to the corresponding ferret tissues, all of which were susceptible. The insusceptibility of the placenta paralleled that of human placenta which is similarly haemomonochorial in structure. Following intracardial inoculation of high titre virus (ca 10(9-4) EBID50) into pregnant guinea-pigs virus was isolated from all foetal membranes (amnion, chorion, umbilical cord and placenta), but in low titre. Although sporadic isolations were made from foetal tissues (intestine, kidney, heart, liver and spleen) there was no evidence for viral replication in these tissues. These results are discussed in relation to possible infection of the human foetus in utero with influenza virus.