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Sample records for pregnant human cervix-the

  1. Proteoglycan metabolism in the connective tissue of pregnant and non-pregnant human cervix. An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Norman, M; Ekman, G; Ulmsten, U; Barchan, K; Malmström, A

    1991-04-15

    Profound changes occur in the cervix during pregnancy. In particular, the connective tissue is remodelled. To elucidate the mechanisms behind this process, the metabolism of cervical connective tissue was studied using tissue cultures. Cervical biopsies from non-pregnant and pregnant women were incubated with [35S]sulphate. The proteoglycans of the tissue specimens were purified by ion-exchange and gel chromatography and characterized by SDS/PAGE and by enzymic degradation. In the non-pregnant cervix, the incorporation of [35S]sulphate into the proteoglycans was linear for 48 h. During the first 6 h of incubation the accumulation of chiefly one small labelled proteoglycan (apparent Mr 110,000) substituted with dermatan sulphate was recorded. This is in accordance with the known proteoglycan composition of non-pregnant cervical tissue. In addition, small amounts of two larger radioactive dermatan/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (apparent Mr values 220,000 and greater than 500,000) were recorded. After longer periods of incubation the proportion of heparan sulphate proteoglycans increased considerably. The pregnant tissue showed a clearly different composition of labelled proteoglycans. An increased accumulation of the two larger dermatan/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans was seen in addition to the dominant small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan of the non-pregnant cervix. The rate of accumulation of these two proteoglycans was about 3 times higher in the pregnant tissue, whereas that of the small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan was only increased 2-fold. The fact that the concentration of proteoglycans in the pregnant cervix is approximately one-half of that in the non-pregnant cervix indicates that the turnover of proteoglycans in pregnant cervical tissue is significantly increased. The major effect of this profound change of metabolism was a 50% decrease in proteoglycan content and a 2-fold increased proportion of a dermatan sulphate proteoglycan with an

  2. Proteoglycan metabolism in the connective tissue of pregnant and non-pregnant human cervix. An in vitro study.

    PubMed Central

    Norman, M; Ekman, G; Ulmsten, U; Barchan, K; Malmström, A

    1991-01-01

    Profound changes occur in the cervix during pregnancy. In particular, the connective tissue is remodelled. To elucidate the mechanisms behind this process, the metabolism of cervical connective tissue was studied using tissue cultures. Cervical biopsies from non-pregnant and pregnant women were incubated with [35S]sulphate. The proteoglycans of the tissue specimens were purified by ion-exchange and gel chromatography and characterized by SDS/PAGE and by enzymic degradation. In the non-pregnant cervix, the incorporation of [35S]sulphate into the proteoglycans was linear for 48 h. During the first 6 h of incubation the accumulation of chiefly one small labelled proteoglycan (apparent Mr 110,000) substituted with dermatan sulphate was recorded. This is in accordance with the known proteoglycan composition of non-pregnant cervical tissue. In addition, small amounts of two larger radioactive dermatan/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (apparent Mr values 220,000 and greater than 500,000) were recorded. After longer periods of incubation the proportion of heparan sulphate proteoglycans increased considerably. The pregnant tissue showed a clearly different composition of labelled proteoglycans. An increased accumulation of the two larger dermatan/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans was seen in addition to the dominant small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan of the non-pregnant cervix. The rate of accumulation of these two proteoglycans was about 3 times higher in the pregnant tissue, whereas that of the small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan was only increased 2-fold. The fact that the concentration of proteoglycans in the pregnant cervix is approximately one-half of that in the non-pregnant cervix indicates that the turnover of proteoglycans in pregnant cervical tissue is significantly increased. The major effect of this profound change of metabolism was a 50% decrease in proteoglycan content and a 2-fold increased proportion of a dermatan sulphate proteoglycan with an

  3. Risk Assessment for Human Immunodeficiency Virus among Pregnant Hispanic Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, David K.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Assessed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk status of pregnant Hispanic adolescents in New York City. One-third of 87 adolescents were identified as being at increased risk for HIV infection. Sexual risk-taking behavior was most common factor that increased HIV risk. Birthplace and nationality were significantly associated with HIV risk…

  4. The influence of multiple human papillomavirus types on the risk of genotype-concordant incident infections of the anus and cervix: the Hawaii HPV cohort study.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Marc T; McDuffie, Katharine; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Wilkens, Lynne R; Zhu, Xuemei; Thompson, Pamela J; Killeen, Jeffrey; Kamemoto, Lori; Shvetsov, Yurii B

    2011-02-01

    The influence of multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) types on detection of concordant incident HPV infections of the cervix or anus following infection at the other anatomic site was examined in a cohort of 897 women. Multiple HPV infections at the anus were not significantly associated with subsequent acquisition of a concordant cervical infection, whereas prior coinfections in the cervix increased risk of a new cervical HPV infection. Incident anal HPV infections following concordant cervical HPV infections increased significantly among women with preexisting cervical or anal coinfections. Potential synergy in acquisition of cervical and anal HPV infections has implications for prophylactic vaccine effectiveness.

  5. Lipidomic analysis reveals prostanoid profiles in human term pregnant myometrium.

    PubMed

    Durn, J H; Marshall, K M; Farrar, D; O'Donovan, P; Scally, A J; Woodward, D F; Nicolaou, A

    2010-01-01

    Prostanoids modulate the activity of human pregnant myometrium and their functional role can be appreciated through characterisation of prostanoid receptors and tissue concentration of prostanoids. We have applied a lipidomic approach to elucidate the profile of prostanoids in human non-labouring and labouring myometrium. We have identified a total of nineteen prostanoids including prostacyclin, thromboxanes, prostaglandins and dihydro-prostaglandins. Prostacyclin was the predominant prostanoid in both non-labouring and labouring myometria, with PGD(2) and PGF(2alpha) being the second most abundant. Although the total amount of prostanoids was increased in the labouring tissue, PGE(2) and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGE(2) were the only prostanoids to increase significantly at early and late labour (p< or =0.001). Our data suggest that PGF(2alpha) plays an important role in parturition, whilst the increase in PGE(2) could occur to facilitate cervical dilation and relaxation of the lower myometrium during labour. Although the elevation in TXA(2) was less marked than expected, in terms of translation to function even a relatively small increase in the level of this potent spasmogen may have significant effects. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modulation of Progesterone Receptor Isoform Expression in Pregnant Human Myometrium

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background. Regulation of myometrial progesterone receptor (PR) expression is an unresolved issue central to understanding the mechanism of functional progesterone withdrawal and initiation of labor in women. Objectives. To determine whether pregnant human myometrium undergoes culture-induced changes in PR isoform expression ex situ and, further, to determine if conditions approaching the in vivo environment stabilise PR isoform expression in culture. Methods. Term nonlaboring human myometrial tissues were cultured under specific conditions: serum supplementation, steroids, stretch, cAMP, PMA, PGF2α, NF-κB inhibitors, or TSA. Following 48 h culture, PR-T, PR-A, and PR-B mRNA levels were determined using qRT-PCR. PR-A/PR-B ratios were calculated. Results. PR-T and PR-A expression and the PR-A/PR-B ratio significantly increased in culture. Steroids prevented the culture-induced increase in PR-T and PR-A expression. Stretch blocked the effects of steroids on PR-T and PR-A expression. PMA further increased the PR-A/PR-B ratio, while TSA blocked culture-induced increases of PR-A expression and the PR-A/PR-B ratio. Conclusion. Human myometrial tissue in culture undergoes changes in PR gene expression consistent with transition toward a laboring phenotype. TSA maintained the nonlaboring PR isoform expression pattern. This suggests that preserving histone and/or nonhistone protein acetylation is critical for maintaining the progesterone dependent quiescent phenotype of human myometrium in culture. PMID:28540297

  7. High prevalence of human papillomaviruses in Ghanaian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Marco H; Völker, Fabian M; Lugert, Raimond; Cooper, Paul; Hasenclever, Kai; Groß, Uwe; Pfister, Herbert; Silling, Steffi

    2016-12-01

    Data about the prevalence of human papillomaviruses (HPV) in African women with normal and abnormal cervical cytology are still scarce. Current HPV vaccines contain HPV types, which mainly represent the HPV epidemiology of industrial countries. As further developments of HPV vaccines are going on, it is necessary to regard regional differences in HPV type prevalence to ensure optimal protection by the vaccine. Vaginal swabs of Ghanaian pregnant women, routinely collected before delivery to rule out bacterial infections causing early onset sepsis, were screened for 12 high-risk (HR), 13 probably/possibly (pHR), and 18 low-risk (LR) HPV types. Most pregnant women come for delivery to the hospital. This was considered as appropriate possibility to have an unselected group of women. HPV DNA were detected in 55/165 women (33.3, 95 % CI 26.3-41.1 %). Thirty-four out of fifty-five (61.8, 95 % CI 47.7-74.3 %) of HPV-positive women were infected with HR and/or pHR HPV types. The five most prevalent HR or pHR HPV types were HPV-52 and HPV-67 (7 women each, 4.2, 95 % CI 1.9-8.9 %), HPV-53 (six women, 3.6, 95 % CI 1.5-8.1 %), HPV-45 (five women, 3.0, 95 % CI 1.1-7.3 %), and HPV-18 (four women, 2.4, 95 % CI 0.8-6.5 %), respectively. HPV-16 was found in two women only (1.2, 95 % CI 0.2-4.8 %). Future HPV vaccine research may devote special interest to HPV-67 and HPV-53 provided further studies confirm their high prevalence in the general population of Sub-Saharan African countries. The true carcinogenic potential of HPV-67, which is a member of species alpha9 including HPV-16, and so far categorized as pHR, should be clarified.

  8. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to study human relaxin in human pregnancy and in pregnant rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lucas, C; Bald, L N; Martin, M C; Jaffe, R B; Drolet, D W; Mora-Worms, M; Bennett, G; Chen, A B; Johnston, P D

    1989-03-01

    A sensitive and specific double-antibody enzyme-linked immunoassay, using a synthetic analogue of human relaxin for standard and immunogen, was developed for the measurement of human relaxin (hRLX) in serum and plasma. No cross-reactivity was observed for human insulin, human insulin-like growth factor-I, hGH, human chorionic gonadotropin, hFSH, hLH or human prolactin. The assay was used to monitor RLX concentrations in samples from men, non-pregnant and pregnant women, and in pregnant rhesus monkeys infused with hRLX. RLX was not detected in serum from men nor from non-pregnant women, while a concentration of 600 ng/l was measured in pooled sera from two pregnant women (pregnancies achieved by in-vitro fertilization). Immunoreactive RLX (1.1 micrograms/g) was found in human corpora lutea taken from ectopic pregnancies at 7 weeks. In an experiment with a pregnant rhesus monkey infused with human RLX analogue, less than 1.5% of the maternal concentration was measured in the fetal circulation. Even though preliminary, these data suggest a low level of transfer of human analogue relaxin across the placenta in a rhesus monkey. Further studies of the physiology of RLX in human pregnancy will be facilitated by the availability of this immunoassay.

  9. Knowledge of Human Cytomegalovirus Infection and Prevention in Pregnant Women: A Baseline, Operational Survey

    PubMed Central

    Micieli, Mariella; Votino, Carmela; Visconti, Federica; Quaresima, Paola; Torti, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the only efficient way to prevent human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in pregnancy is primary prophylaxis through hygienic measures. So, we evaluated knowledge of HCMV and its prevention in a group of pregnant women. An anonymous questionnaire with multiple-choice answers was administered to all pregnant women who were followed up at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit of “Pugliese-Ciaccio Hospital,” a third-level hospital in Catanzaro (Southern Italy), from November 2015 to March 2016. Previously prescribed serology results for HCMV were also evaluated. Three hundred and fifty women participated in the study and the results clearly demonstrated that knowledge of pregnant women about HCMV is poor. Moreover, prescribed screening procedures need to be optimized, since one out of three pregnant women has not been tested for HCMV or the screening was not performed adequately. For this reason, it is important to implement informative campaign in both pregnant women and providing physicians. PMID:28831237

  10. Seroprevalence of Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in pregnant women and outcomes of pregnancies with active infection.

    PubMed

    Mujtaba, Ghulam; Shaukat, Shahzad; Angez, Mehar; Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Hasan, Fariha; Zahoor Zaidi, Syed Sohail; Shah, Aamer Ali

    2016-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of cytomegalovirus in pregnant women and types of overt congenital infection in neonates. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences and Federal Government Services Hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan, from March 2010 to June 2011, and comprised blood samples of pregnant women. Seroprevalence of human cytomegalovirus, immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay while its deoxyribonucleic acid was detected by nested polymerase chain reaction.The congenital human cytomegalovirus infection was also identified in newborn babies from actively infected pregnant women. SPSS 18 was used for data analysis. Of the 409 pregnant women enrolled, 399(97.55%) were seropositive for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulinG and 52(12.71%) for immunoglobulinM, while cytomegalovirus deoxyribonucleic acid was detected in 82(20%). Of the cytomegalovirus immunoglobulinM-positive women, sera of 40(80%) had immunoglobulinG avidity >50%. The remaining 12(23%) sera had avidity assay value <50%. Among the 82(20%) infected pregnant women, 70(85.4%) were successfully followed up. Among them, the virus was isolated from 41(58.5%) newborns babies, of which 15(21%) were symptomatic while 26(47.2%) were asymptomatic. Of the former, 4(26.6%) had hepatosplenomegaly. Human cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women was the main reason of congenital defects among neonates.

  11. Dye-coupling between term pregnant human myometrial cells before labor: carboxyfluorescein versus lucifer yellow.

    PubMed

    Ciray, H N; Persson, B E; Roomans, G M; Ulmsten, U

    1995-07-01

    Term pregnant human myometrial cells in whole mounts were microinjected by pressure with the fluorescent probes Lucifer Yellow and carboxyfluorescein. Tissues obtained from acute and elective sections displayed weak dye-coupling when injected with Lucifer Yellow. Injection of carboxyfluorescein into cells from the elective sections resulted in a more extensive dye-coupling than that observed with Lucifer Yellow. These results indicate that term pregnant human myometrial cells are metabolically coupled before labor and carboxyfluorescein is superior to Lucifer Yellow in detecting the coupling.

  12. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before...

  13. 40 CFR 26.1203 - Prohibition of research involving intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant woman (and therefore her fetus), a nursing woman... Pesticide of Human Subjects who are Children or Pregnant or Nursing Women § 26.1203 Prohibition of research... nursing woman, or a child. Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, under no circumstances shall...

  14. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before...

  15. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after...

  16. 40 CFR 26.1203 - Prohibition of research involving intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant woman (and therefore her fetus), a nursing woman... Pesticide of Human Subjects who are Children or Pregnant or Nursing Women § 26.1203 Prohibition of research... nursing woman, or a child. Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, under no circumstances shall...

  17. 40 CFR 26.1203 - Prohibition of research involving intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant woman (and therefore her fetus), a nursing woman... Exposure of Human Subjects who are Children or Pregnant or Nursing Women § 26.1203 Prohibition of research... nursing woman, or a child. Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, under no circumstances shall...

  18. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated after...

  19. 40 CFR 26.1203 - Prohibition of research involving intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant woman (and therefore her fetus), a nursing woman... Exposure of Human Subjects who are Children or Pregnant or Nursing Women § 26.1203 Prohibition of research... nursing woman, or a child. Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, under no circumstances shall...

  20. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after...

  1. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before...

  2. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after...

  3. 40 CFR 26.1203 - Prohibition of research involving intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant woman (and therefore her fetus), a nursing woman... Exposure of Human Subjects who are Children or Pregnant or Nursing Women § 26.1203 Prohibition of research... nursing woman, or a child. Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, under no circumstances shall...

  4. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated after...

  5. Working with Pregnant and Parenting Teenage Clients. A Resource Guide for Human Service Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervera, Neil, Ed.; Videka-Sherman, Lynn, Ed.

    Each year in the United States, approximately one million adolescents become pregnant. This guide, the seventh in a series of resource guides for human service professionals, features a collection of articles that explores and explains the different facets of teenage pregnancy, while offering strategies for intervention. The volume begins with an…

  6. Primary human cytomegalovirus infections: kinetics of ELISA-IgG and neutralizing antibody in pauci/asymptomatic pregnant women vs symptomatic non-pregnant subjects.

    PubMed

    Fornara, Chiara; Furione, Milena; Lilleri, Daniele; Cane, Ilaria; Revello, M Grazia; Zavattoni, Maurizio; Gerna, Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    Human cytomegalovirus infections are mostly asymptomatic in infants and young children, while they are often associated with overt clinical symptoms in adults. To verify whether the antibody response to HCMV is more potent in symptomatic non-pregnant adults as compared to asymptomatic/paucisymptomatic pregnant women. Overall, 36 consecutive pregnant women with primary HCMV infection were compared with 10 consecutive symptomatic non-pregnant subjects with primary HCMV infection and overt clinical symptoms. Levels of IgG antibody responses to HCMV-infected cell lysate and the pentamer gH/gL/pUL128L, gH/gL and gB HCMV glycoprotein complexes as well as neutralizing antibodies preventing infection of epithelial cells (ARPE-19) and human embryonic lung fibroblast (HELF) cells were compared at intervals of 1-30, 31-60, 61-90, 91-180 and 181-360 days after onset of infection. In parallel, viral load was quantified by real-time PCR. In symptomatic non-pregnant subjects, the IgG responses to HCMV lysate as well as to gH/gL and ARPE-19 neutralizing antibodies were significantly higher from 31 to 60 through 180 days after infection onset. In the same patients, the IgG antibody responses to the pentamer and HELF-neutralizing antibody were significantly higher starting 90 days post-infection. The presence of overt clinical symptoms is associated with a significantly higher antibody response (concomitantly with a higher viral load) in non-pregnant subjects with symptomatic primary HCMV infection as compared to pregnant women with paucisymptomatic/ asymptomatic primary infection (and lower viral load). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The use of hormones indicators in human saliva in diagnosing parodontitis in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Dolomatov, S. I.; Zukow, W.; Atmazhov, I. D.; Muszkieta, R.; Skaliy, A.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: The purpose of this work– was to study the dynamics of biochemical parameters of human saliva and analyze the features of the chemical composition of the saliva of women with abnormal pregnancy and in periodontitis against pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included four groups of women: a control group of nonpregnant women of childbearing age (10), pregnant women with physiological pregnancy (24-28 weeks) without any signs of periodontal disease (10), pregnant with a generalized periodontitis I--II degrees in remission (10), women with pathological pregnancy with no signs of periodontal inflammation (10). In each of the groups over two samples of saliva were collected, the first collection of saliva in the morning on an empty stomach. Then mouthwash 0.9% sodium chloride solution was assigned and after 30 minutes the second portion of saliva. By enzyme immunoassay in samples of saliva of control groups of nonpregnant and pregnant women, as well as women with signs of a pathological course of pregnancy, the content of estriol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was determined. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Statistical data analysis was performed by the standard technique using Student's t-test. RESULTS: The results of biochemical analysis of saliva samples collected before rinsing the mouth with saline in groups of healthy nonpregnant and pregnant women were compared. It was established that during pregnancy the concentration of salivary estriol increases, but in pregnant women with periodontitis, the amount of this hormone in the saliva was significantly reduced. The highest content of testosterone in saliva samples, observed in healthy pregnant women, was significantly higher than nonpregnant women. In pregnant women with periodontitis concentration of testosterone in saliva is reduced, while remaining significantly higher than its level in the saliva of nonpregnant women. The highest concentration of testosterone is observed in the

  8. Expression of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in human pregnant myometrium

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Potassium channels play critical roles in the regulation of cell membrane potential, which is central to the excitability of myometrium. The ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel is one of the most abundant potassium channels in myometrium. The objectives of this study were to investigate the protein expression of KATP channel in human myometrium and determine the levels of KATP channel in lower and upper segmental myometrium before and after onset of labour. Methods Both lower segmental (LS) and upper segmental (US) myometrial biopsies were collected at cesarean section from pregnant women not-in-labour (TNL) or in-labour (TL) at term. Protein expression level and cellular localization of four KATP channel subunits in US and LS myometrium were determined by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The contractile activity of myometrial strip was measured under isometric conditions. Results Four KATP channel subunits, namely Kir6.1, Kir6.2, SUR1 and SUR2B were identified in pregnant myometrium. While found in vascular myocytes, these subunits appear to be preferentially expressed in myometrial myocytes. Diazoxide, a KATP channel opener, inhibited the spontaneous contractility of pregnant myometrium, suggesting that the KATP channels are functional in human pregnant myometrium. Diazoxide was less potent in TL strips than that in TNL strips. Interestingly, expression of SUR1 was greater in TL than TNL tissues, although no differences were found for SUR2B in these two tissues. For both lower and upper segmental myometrium, Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 were less in TL compared with TNL tissues. Conclusions Functional KATP channels are expressed in human pregnant myometrium. Down-regulation of Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 expression in myometrium may contribute to the enhanced uterine contractility associated with the onset of labour. PMID:21418633

  9. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. 26.1704 Section 26.1704 Protection of Environment... research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. (a) This section applies to research subject to this...

  10. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. 26.1704 Section 26.1704 Protection of Environment... research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. (a) This section applies to research subject to this...

  11. Seroprevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I among pregnant women in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Armah, Henry B; Narter-Olaga, Edwin G; Adjei, Andrew A; Asomaning, Kofi; Gyasi, Richard K; Tettey, Yao

    2006-06-01

    Infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) occurs mainly in Japan, Central and West Africa and the Caribbean Basin. Although antibody to HTLV-I has been reported among pregnant women in several endemic countries, there is no information regarding the seroprevalence in pregnant Ghanaian women. The reported seroprevalence of HTLV-I among healthy Ghanaian blood donors is between 0.5 and 4.2 %. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-I among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at the 37 Military Hospital, Accra, Ghana, between the months of January and December 2003. The presence of antibodies specific for HTLV-I/II was tested using a particle agglutination test (PAT) kit and confirmed by Western blotting (WB). Of the 960 sera tested, HTLV-I/II antibodies were detected in 24 samples using the PAT kit. WB results indicated that, of the 24 positive PAT specimens, 20 specimens (83.3 %) were HTLV-I positive, one (4.2 %) was HTLV-II positive, two (8.3 %) were HTLV positive and one (4.2 %) was indeterminate. Therefore, the overall seroprevalence of HTLV-I was 2.1 %. Seroprevalence increased with age, suggesting sexual contact as the primary mode of transmission among women of childbearing age, rather than breastfeeding during infancy. The seroprevalence of 2.1 % reported here for HTLV-I in pregnant women in Accra is comparable to that of human immunodeficiency virus among the same population. In conclusion, the results indicate that HTLV-I is prevalent among asymptomatic Ghanaian pregnant women and thus there is a need to consider introducing antenatal screening for HTLV-I in Ghana.

  12. The regulation of myosin phosphatase in pregnant human myometrium.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Claire A; Bernal, Andrés López

    2012-02-01

    Myometrial smooth muscle contractility is regulated predominantly through the reversible phosphorylation of MYLs (myosin light chains), catalysed by MYLK (MYL kinase) and MYLP (MYL phosphatase) activities. MYLK is activated by Ca2+-calmodulin, and most uterotonic agonists operate through myometrial receptors that increase [Ca2+]i (intracellular Ca2+ concentration). Moreover, there is substantial evidence for Ca2+-independent inhibition of MYLP in smooth muscle, leading to generation of increased MYL phosphorylation and force for a given [Ca2+]i, a phenomenon known as 'Ca2+-sensitization'. ROCK (Rho-associated kinase)-mediated phosphorylation and inhibition of MYLP has been proposed as a mechanism for Ca2+-sensitization in smooth muscle. However, it is unclear to date whether the mechanisms that sensitize the contractile machinery to Ca2+ are important in the myometrium, as they appear to be in vascular and respiratory smooth muscle. In the present paper, we discuss the signalling pathways regulating MYLP activity and the involvement of ROCK in myometrial contractility, and present recent data from our laboratory which support a role for Ca2+-sensitization in human myometrium.

  13. Prebiotic consumption in pregnant and lactating women increases IL-27 expression in human milk.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Takayuki; Shimojo, Naoki; Nonaka, Ken; Yamashita, Masakatsu; Ohara, Osamu; Igoshi, Yuka; Ozawa, Naoko; Nakano, Taiji; Morita, Yoshinori; Inoue, Yuzaburo; Arima, Takayasu; Chiba, Kohki; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Ikegami, Shuji; Masuda, Kentaro; Suzuki, Shuichi; Kohno, Yoichi

    2014-02-01

    The consumption of probiotics by pregnant and lactating women may prevent the onset of allergic disorders in their children by increasing the concentrations of immunoactive agents such as cytokines in breast milk. Prebiotics such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) increase the number of beneficial organisms such as bifidobacteria. Thus, prebiotics may have an effect similar to that of probiotics. The objective of the present study was to carry out a comprehensive analysis of mRNA expression in human milk cells to identify changes in the concentrations of cytokines in breast milk after the consumption of FOS (4 g × 2 times/d) by pregnant and lactating women. The microarray analysis of human milk cells demonstrated that the expression levels of five genes in colostrum samples and fourteen genes in 1-month breast milk samples differed more than 3-fold between the FOS and control groups (sucrose group). The mRNA expression level of IL-27, a cytokine associated with immunoregulatory function, was significantly higher in 1-month breast milk samples obtained from the FOS group than in those obtained from the control group. In addition, the protein concentrations of IL-27 in colostrum and 1-month breast milk samples were significantly higher in the FOS group than in the control group. In conclusion, the consumption of FOS by pregnant and lactating women increases the production of IL-27 in breast milk. Future studies will address the association of this phenomenon with the onset of allergic disorders in children.

  14. Detection of human papillomavirus in dental biofilm and the uterine cervix of a pregnant adolescent.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Édila Figuerêdo Feitosa; Silva, Célia Regina; Ferreira, Dennis Carvalho; Ferreira, Mariana Vasconcellos Martins; Vanderborght, Patrícia Rosa; Torres, Maria Cynésia Medeiros Barros; Torres, Sandra Regina

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence and pregnancy are considered to be risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The relationship between this infection in the uterine cervix and oral HPV infection is controversial. This report describes a case of a pregnant 16-year-old adolescent who presented HPV infection in the uterine cervix and the mouth. Smears were collected from the cervix and the tongue/palate. Dental biofilm samples were also collected. The microarray technique was used to detect HPV. The HPV 56 subtype was observed in the cervical smear and HPV 6 in dental biofilm. In this pregnant adolescent, HPV infection was present in both the cervix and the mouth, but the HPV subtypes infecting these two areas were different.

  15. Pregnant woman and road safety: experimental crash test with post mortem human subject.

    PubMed

    Delotte, Jerome; Behr, Michel; Thollon, Lionel; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Baque, Patrick; Bongain, Andre; Brunet, Christian

    2008-05-01

    Trauma affect between 3 and 7% of all pregnancies in industrialized countries, and the leading cause of these traumas is car crashes. The difficulty to appreciate physiologic and anatomic changes occurring during pregnancy explain that majority of studies were not based on anatomical data. We present a protocol to create a realistic anatomical model of pregnant woman using a post mortem human subject (PMHS). We inserted a physical model of the gravid uterus into the pelvis of a PMHS. 3D acceleration sensors were placed on the subject to measure the acceleration on different body segments. We simulated three frontal impact situations at 20 km/h between two average European cars. Two main kinematics events were identified as possible causes of injuries: lap belt loading and backrest impact. Cadaver experiments provide one interesting complementary approach to study injury mechanisms related to road accidents involving pregnant women. This anatomical accuracy makes it possible to progress in the field of safety devices.

  16. An investigation of the effect of the prostaglandin EP2 receptor agonist, butaprost, on the human isolated myometrium from pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, N; Marshall, K; Clayton, J K

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two known spasmogens, oxytocin and the stable thromboxane receptor mimetic, U46619, on human myometrium treated with the prostaglandin E receptor (EP2) agonist, butaprost (selective for the EP2 receptor). Strips of myometrium from pregnant and non-pregnant donors were set up in a superfusion apparatus. Butaprost was administered as a bolus dose and via infusion. During the infusion of 10(-6) M butaprost, spasmogens were administered as bolus doses. Butaprost caused dose-related inhibition of myometrial activity when administered as a bolus dose (3-100 nmol) and concentration-dependent inhibition during infusion studies (10(-8)-10(-5 )M). Butaprost (10(-6 )M) attenuated the response to U46619 (0.l-10 nmol) in pregnant myometrium, but this difference was not statistically significant. Responses of pregnant myometrium to oxytocin (0.01-0.1 nmol) were significantly attenuated (P<0.05) in the presence of butaprost (10(-6)M). Butaprost physiologically antagonised the oxytocin response, possibly by increasing intracellular cAMP levels. This antagonism was much more marked than that seen with butaprost and U46619. It is unclear why these two types of antagonism differ and this effect is currently being investigated further using other prostanoid and non-prostanoid agents.

  17. Spatial analysis of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus among pregnant women1

    PubMed Central

    de Holanda, Eliane Rolim; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Pedrosa, Nathália Lima; Paiva, Simone de Sousa; de Almeida, Rosa Lívia Freitas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze the spatial distribution of reported cases of pregnant women infected by the human immunodeficiency virus and to identify the urban areas with greater social vulnerability to the infection among pregnant women. METHOD: ecological study, developed by means of spatial analysis techniques of area data. Secondary data were used from the Brazilian National Disease Notification System for the city of Recife, Pernambuco. Birth data were obtained from the Brazilian Information System on Live Births and socioeconomic data from the 2010 Demographic Census. RESULTS: the presence of spatial self-correlation was verified. Moran's Index was significant for the distribution. Clusters were identified, considered as high-risk areas, located in grouped neighborhoods, with equally high infection rates among pregnant women. A neighborhood located in the Northwest of the city was distinguished, considered in an epidemiological transition phase. CONCLUSION: precarious living conditions, as evidenced by the indicators illiteracy, absence of prenatal care and poverty, were relevant for the risk of vertical HIV transmission, converging to the grouping of cases among disadvantaged regions. PMID:26155005

  18. Collagen Fiber Orientation and Dispersion in the Upper Cervix of Non-Pregnant and Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kristin M.; Vink, Joy Y.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Hendon, Christine P.

    2016-01-01

    The structural integrity of the cervix in pregnancy is necessary for carrying a pregnancy until term, and the organization of human cervical tissue collagen likely plays an important role in the tissue’s structural function. Collagen fibers in the cervical extracellular matrix exhibit preferential directionality, and this collagen network ultrastructure is hypothesized to reorient and remodel during cervical softening and dilation at time of parturition. Within the cervix, the upper half is substantially loaded during pregnancy and is where the premature funneling starts to happen. To characterize the cervical collagen ultrastructure for the upper half of the human cervix, we imaged whole axial tissue slices from non-pregnant and pregnant women undergoing hysterectomy or cesarean hysterectomy respectively using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and implemented a pixel-wise fiber orientation tracking method to measure the distribution of fiber orientation. The collagen fiber orientation maps show that there are two radial zones and the preferential fiber direction is circumferential in a dominant outer radial zone. The OCT data also reveal that there are two anatomic regions with distinct fiber orientation and dispersion properties. These regions are labeled: Region 1—the posterior and anterior quadrants in the outer radial zone and Region 2—the left and right quadrants in the outer radial zone and all quadrants in the inner radial zone. When comparing samples from nulliparous vs multiparous women, no differences in these fiber properties were noted. Pregnant tissue samples exhibit an overall higher fiber dispersion and more heterogeneous fiber properties within the sample than non-pregnant tissue. Collectively, these OCT data suggest that collagen fiber dispersion and directionality may play a role in cervical remodeling during pregnancy, where distinct remodeling properties exist according to anatomical quadrant. PMID:27898677

  19. Expectations of pregnant women and partners concerning their participation in humanized births.

    PubMed

    Basso, Joéli Fernanda; Monticelli, Marisa

    2010-01-01

    Through the theoretical-methodological support of the Liberation Pedagogy, this convergent-care study identified the expectations of pregnant women and their respective partners concerning their participation in humanized birth. Five categories emerged during an educational intervention carried out with groups: choosing the type of delivery; selecting the type of obstetrical care; acknowledging oneself as a critical subject of ones own reality; negotiating with the health team; and acquiring knowledge concerning the delivery process. The study reveals that even though power relations permeate the interactions experienced within healthcare facilities, liberating educational practices can strengthen individuals so they are able to overcome the status quo and transform their obstetrical situation.

  20. Population Pharmacokinetics of Emtricitabine in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Pregnant Women and Their Neonates▿

    PubMed Central

    Hirt, Déborah; Urien, Saik; Rey, Elisabeth; Arrivé, Elise; Ekouévi, Didier K.; Coffié, Patrick; Leang, Sim Kruy; Lalsab, Sarita; Avit, Divine; Nerrienet, Eric; McIntyre, James; Blanche, Stéphane; Dabis, François; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate emtricitabine (FTC) pharmacokinetics in pregnant women and their neonates and to determine the optimal prophylactic dose for neonates after birth to prevent mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A total of 38 HIV-infected pregnant women were administered tenofovir disoproxyl fumarate (300 mg)-FTC (200 mg) tablets—two tablets at the initiation of labor and one daily for 7 days postpartum. By pair, 11 maternal, one cord blood, and two neonatal FTC concentrations were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry validated method and analyzed by a population approach. Model and mean estimates (interpatient variability) were a two-compartment model for mothers, with an absorption rate constant of 0.54 h−1 (61%), apparent elimination and intercompartmental clearances of 23.2 (17%) and 6.04 liters·h−1, and apparent central and peripheral volumes of 127 and 237 liters, respectively; an effect compartment linked to maternal circulation for cord blood and a neonatal compartment disconnected, after delivery, with a 10.6-h half-life (30%). After the 400-mg FTC administration, the median population area under the concentration-time curve and the minimal and maximal plasma FTC concentrations in pregnant women were 14.3 mg·liter−1·h and 1.68 and 0.076 mg/liter, respectively. At delivery, median (range) predicted maternal and cord blood FTC concentrations were, respectively, 1.16 (0.14 to 1.99) and 0.72 (0.05 to 1.19) mg·liter−1. We concluded that the 400-mg FTC administration in pregnant women produces higher exposition than does the 200-mg administration in other adults, at steady state. FTC was shown to have good placental transfer (80%). Administering 1 mg FTC/kg as soon as possible after birth or 2 mg/kg 12 h after birth should produce neonatal concentrations comparable to the concentrations observed in adults. PMID:19104016

  1. Population pharmacokinetics of emtricitabine in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected pregnant women and their neonates.

    PubMed

    Hirt, Déborah; Urien, Saik; Rey, Elisabeth; Arrivé, Elise; Ekouévi, Didier K; Coffié, Patrick; Leang, Sim Kruy; Lalsab, Sarita; Avit, Divine; Nerrienet, Eric; McIntyre, James; Blanche, Stéphane; Dabis, François; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc

    2009-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate emtricitabine (FTC) pharmacokinetics in pregnant women and their neonates and to determine the optimal prophylactic dose for neonates after birth to prevent mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A total of 38 HIV-infected pregnant women were administered tenofovir disoproxyl fumarate (300 mg)-FTC (200 mg) tablets-two tablets at the initiation of labor and one daily for 7 days postpartum. By pair, 11 maternal, one cord blood, and two neonatal FTC concentrations were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry validated method and analyzed by a population approach. Model and mean estimates (interpatient variability) were a two-compartment model for mothers, with an absorption rate constant of 0.54 h(-1) (61%), apparent elimination and intercompartmental clearances of 23.2 (17%) and 6.04 liters x h(-1), and apparent central and peripheral volumes of 127 and 237 liters, respectively; an effect compartment linked to maternal circulation for cord blood and a neonatal compartment disconnected, after delivery, with a 10.6-h half-life (30%). After the 400-mg FTC administration, the median population area under the concentration-time curve and the minimal and maximal plasma FTC concentrations in pregnant women were 14.3 mg x liter(-1) x h and 1.68 and 0.076 mg/liter, respectively. At delivery, median (range) predicted maternal and cord blood FTC concentrations were, respectively, 1.16 (0.14 to 1.99) and 0.72 (0.05 to 1.19) mg x liter(-1). We concluded that the 400-mg FTC administration in pregnant women produces higher exposition than does the 200-mg administration in other adults, at steady state. FTC was shown to have good placental transfer (80%). Administering 1 mg FTC/kg as soon as possible after birth or 2 mg/kg 12 h after birth should produce neonatal concentrations comparable to the concentrations observed in adults.

  2. Increased frequency of bacterial vaginosis and Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women with human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cléber Sérgio; Adad, Sheila Jorge; Hazarabedian de Souza, Maria Azniv; Macêdo Barcelos, Ana Cristina; Sarreta Terra, Ana Paula; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the presence of bacterial vaginosis (BV), Candida sp, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, to determine the prevalence of tobacco use and measure vaginal pH (VpH) in pregnant women with (n = 26) and without (n = 26) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and make comparisons between these 2 groups. HPV, C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae were diagnosed using hybrid capture, BV using clinical criteria, and Candida sp via cultures. A digital pH meter was used to measure VpH. The frequencies of Candida sp were 19.2 and 23.1% (p = 1), and VpH was 4.4 +/- 0.4 and 4.3 +/- 0.4 (p = 0.23), in the HPV-positive and HPV-negative groups, respectively. Compared to the group of pregnant women without HPV infection, those with HPV infection had a significantly higher prevalence of tobacco use (50 vs. 11.5%; p = 0.006), BV (53.8 vs. 15.4%; p = 0.007), and C. trachomatis (34.6 vs. 7.7%; p = 0.039). No case of N. gonorrhoeae was diagnosed. All cases of C. trachomatis and BV had high-grade HPV infection. Copyright (c) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Delivery After 40 Weeks of Gestation in Pregnant Women With Well-Controlled Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rachel K; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Burke, Margaret M; Cohen, Rachel A; Kreitchmann, Regis

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate whether there is increased mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 associated with deliveries at 40 weeks of estimated gestational age (EGA) or greater in pregnant women with HIV-1 viral loads of 1,000 copies/mL or less. We performed a secondary analysis of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal and Longitudinal Study in Latin American Countries and International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials P1025 cohorts. We included pregnant women with HIV-1 with recent viral loads of 1,000 copies/mL or less at the time of delivery and compared delivery outcomes at between 38 and less than 40 weeks EGA with delivery outcomes at 40 weeks EGA or greater, the exposure of interest. Our primary outcome of interest was mother-to-child transmission, and secondary outcomes included indicators of maternal and neonatal morbidity. We examined the association between EGA and mother-to-child transmission using Poisson distribution. Associations between EGA and secondary outcomes were examined through bivariate analyses using Pearson χ and Fisher exact test or the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. Among the 2,250 eligible neonates, eight neonates were infected with HIV-1 (overall transmission rate 0.4%, 95% CI 0.2-8.1%, 40 weeks EGA or greater 0.5% [3/621, 95% CI 0.2-1.4%], less than 40 weeks EGA 0.3% [5/1,629, 95% CI 0.1-0.7%]); there was no significant difference in transmission by EGA (rate ratio 1.57, 95% CI 0.24-8.09, P=.77). There was no difference in maternal viral load between the two groups nor was there a difference in timing of transmission among neonates born with HIV-1. In pregnant women with well-controlled HIV-1, the risk of mother-to-child transmission did not differ significantly by EGA at delivery, although we were not powered to demonstrate equivalence of proportions of mother-to-child transmission between EGA

  4. High-risk human papillomavirus detection and related risk factors among pregnant and nonpregnant women in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Girón, Carlos; Smith, Jennifer S; Lorincz, Attila; Lazcano, Eduardo; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Salmerón, Jorge

    2005-10-01

    Significant differences in human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence between pregnant and nonpregnant women have been reported. Some studies suggest that physiological processes during pregnancy modify the host-immune response, increasing detectability of high-risk HPV infection as a result of viral reactivation. It remains uncertain, however, whether pregnancy has an effect on HPV DNA positivity as a result of a general lack of data and based on contradictory results found in previous epidemiologic studies. We conducted an epidemiologic study to identify differences in the prevalence of HPV infection between pregnant and nonpregnant women in Mexico. We also investigated the relationship of HPV DNA positivity with socioeconomic, gynecologic, and obstetric risk factors. We screened pregnant and age-matched nonpregnant women for high-risk HPV infection. The study population was clients of the family medicine healthcare services of the Mexican Institute of Social Security in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. A total of 274 pregnant and 1060 nonpregnant study participants were screened for the presence of high-risk HPV DNA in self-collected specimens by the Hybrid Capture 2 test (HC2; Digene Corp., Gaithersburg, MD). High-risk HPV DNA was detected in 37.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 31-43%) of pregnant women and in 14.2% (95% CI, 12-16%) of nonpregnant women. Combining both groups for the multivariate analysis, pregnancy was associated with an increased risk for HPV infection (odds ratio, 3.5; CI, 2.7-4.9). Our results are consistent with other studies reporting increased high-risk HPV detection rates among pregnant women. HPV-positive status in pregnant and nonpregnant women appears to be influenced by age. The decrease in HPV positivity by number of pregnancies in both currently pregnant and nonpregnant women is consistent with a possible effect of immune protection as a result of earlier HPV infections. Despite lack of information about a woman's history of sexual

  5. Social interventions in the care of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Levine, C; Allen, M H

    1995-08-01

    The incidence of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is increasing among women of childbearing age. Women now account for 18% of the total number of cases of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), compared with 9% a decade ago. The medical care of pregnant HIV-infected women must take into account the high prevalence of substance abuse, preceded and often accompanied by significant levels of physical, emotional, and sexual trauma, and the concomitant stigmatization of these women in their families and communities. Pregnancy is often a time when women are motivated to make major positive behavioral and life-style changes. To do this, they need ongoing, multidisciplinary counseling and support, with recognition that progress may be intermittent and slow. The Special Prenatal Care Program at Bellevue Hospital is described to show the level of resource commitment that is needed as well as the nearly universal acceptance of voluntary HIV counseling and testing in these conditions. Trends in permanency planning for the children of HIV-infected women are described. Future research needs are outlined, including female-specific drug treatment and more effective contraceptive technology for both men and women.

  6. Steroid hormone effects on intercellular communication between term pregnant human myometrial cells before labor.

    PubMed

    Ciray, H N; Bäckström, T; Ulmsten, U; Roomans, G M

    1996-08-01

    The appearance of gap junctions (GJs) between myometrial smooth muscle cells is one of the major events associated with the onset of labor. We have employed dye-coupling and electrical-current injection techniques to study the mechanisms by which steroid hormones regulate GJs in term pregnant myometrium of women before labor. Progesterone (P4) did not alter the input resistance (Ro) of the tissues when added to Tyrode's solution, which was used as control treatment. Octanol, the putative gap junctional uncoupling agent, increased the Ro of the cells compared to the control and P4-treated groups. The membrane potential (Em) did not differ between these groups. However, when P4 was applied after the tissue was perfused with estradiol (E2), the results changed dramatically: the Em hyperpolarized, and the Ro increased. Octanol increased the Ro in E2-treated tissues, but did not affect the Em. Consecutive application of E2, octanol, E2, and P4 resulted in rapid changes in the Ro of the cells. Dye-coupling was mostly detected between cells from controls and E2-treated tissues. These results indicate that P4 exerts its effects in the presence of E2 and that P4 has rapid effects on the intercellular communication between human myometrial cells.

  7. Co-infection of human herpesvirus type 2 (HHV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Lyana Rodrigues Pinto; Fernandes, Luis Eduardo Barros Costa; Villela, Daniel A M; Morgado, Mariza Gonçalves; Pilotto, José Henrique; de Paula, Vanessa Salete

    2017-09-15

    Pregnant women who are infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are particularly vulnerable to severe and recurrent infections with Human Herpesvirus 2 (HHV-2). Neonatal transmission of HHV-2 has been associated with malformations and neurological sequelae in infants, which makes it very important to perform antenatal monitoring for genital herpes. In the study, 134 pregnant women infected with HIV were tested for HHV-2 IgM and IgG using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and had HHV-2 DNA analyzed by Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). Fisher's exact test was applied to analyze the epidemiological dates (p < 0.05). A total of 59.7% of the pregnant women infected with HIV had HHV-2 IgG and 3.75% of them showed HHV-2 viremia. HHV-2 IgM was found in 6% of the pregnant women and 25% of them had HHV-2 viremia. The risk factors associated with HHV-2 seropositive were age under 20 and a CD4/CD8 ratio > 1. Our study found high HHV-2/HIV coinfection prevalence and HHV-2 viremia among patients with recurrent and primary genital infection, reinforcing the need of prevention and control of HHV-2 infection in order to avoid this virus transmission.

  8. HIV testing among pregnant women living with HIV in India: are private healthcare providers routinely violating women's human rights?

    PubMed

    Madhivanan, Purnima; Krupp, Karl; Kulkarni, Vinay; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Vaidya, Neha; Shaheen, Reshma; Philpott, Sean; Fisher, Celia

    2014-03-24

    In India, approximately 49,000 women living with HIV become pregnant and deliver each year. While the government of India has made progress increasing the availability of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services, only about one quarter of pregnant women received an HIV test in 2010, and about one-in-five that were found positive for HIV received interventions to prevent vertical transmission of HIV. Between February 2012 to March 2013, 14 HIV-positive women who had recently delivered a baby were recruited from HIV positive women support groups, Government of India Integrated Counseling and Testing Centers, and nongovernmental organizations in Mysore and Pune, India. In-depth interviews were conducted to examine their general experiences with antenatal healthcare; specific experiences around HIV counseling and testing; and perceptions about their care and follow-up treatment. Data were analyzed thematically using the human rights framework for HIV testing adopted by the United Nations and India's National AIDS Control Organization. While all of the HIV-positive women in the study received HIV and PMTCT services at a government hospital or antiretroviral therapy center, almost all reported attending a private clinic or hospital at some point in their pregnancy. According to the participants, HIV testing often occurred without consent; there was little privacy; breaches of confidentiality were commonplace; and denial of medical treatment occurred routinely. Among women living with HIV in this study, violations of their human rights occurred more commonly in private rather than public healthcare settings. There is an urgent need for capacity building among private healthcare providers to improve standards of practice with regard to informed consent process, HIV testing, patient confidentiality, treatment, and referral of pregnant women living with HIV.

  9. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) promotes inflammation in human pregnant myometrium: the evidence of CRH initiating parturition?

    PubMed

    You, Xingji; Liu, Jie; Xu, Chen; Liu, Weina; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Yuan; Sun, Qianqian; Gu, Hang; Ni, Xin

    2014-02-01

    An increasing body of evidence indicates that human labor, either term or preterm, is an inflammatory event. CRH has been implicated to be a trigger of human parturition. To investigate whether CRH induces the cascades of inflammation in human pregnant myometrium, thereby leading to activation of uterus. The myometrial tissues were obtained from pregnant women who were in labor or not in labor at term. The output of cytokines and prostaglandins (PGs) was determined by Multiplex and ELISA. Western blot analysis was used to determine the levels of uterine activation proteins (UAPs). The levels of chemokines and cytokines as well as activated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were increased in the term labor group more than the not term labor group. CRH stimulated production of a number of chemokines and cytokines in cultured uterine smooth muscle cells (USMCs), which induced chemotaxis of monocytes. These effects were mediated by CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) and dependent on adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase (PKA) and NF-κB signaling. Cocultures of CRH-treated USMCs with monocytes greatly enhanced the output of cytokines and chemokines as well as PGs in cultures and increased the expression of uterine activation proteins (UAPs) in USMCs. IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α stimulated the expression of UAPs and output of PGs in USMCs. CRH induces the production of chemokines and cytokines in myometrium at term and subsequently results in the cascade of inflammation in uterus. The inflammation induced by CRH can lead to activation of uterus.

  10. Activation of the estrogen receptor by human serum extracts containing mixtures of perfluorinated alkyl acids from pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Bjerregaard-Olesen, Christian; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C

    2016-11-01

    Humans are exposed to a wide variety of perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). Several studies have found xenoestrogenic activity of single PFAAs. Studies on mixture effects of the PFAAs are however sparse. In the present study, we aimed to determine the xenoestrogenic activity in human serum extracts containing mixtures of PFAAs. Recently we developed a method to extract the PFAAs from human serum with simultaneous removal of endogenous hormones and interfering steroid metabolites. We used this method to extract the PFAAs from serum of 397 Danish nulliparous pregnant women followed by analysis of estrogen receptor (ER) transactivation using MVLN cells carrying an estrogen response element luciferase reporter vector. Using 17β-estradiol (E2) concentration-transactivation curves, we calculated the estradiol equivalents (EEQ) for the extracts containing the PFAAs. Fifty-two percent of the PFAA serum extracts agonized the ER transactivation, and 46% enhanced the E2-induced ER transactivation. We found positive linear concentration-response associations between the ER transactivation and the PFAA serum levels. For the relatively few PFAA extracts that antagonized the ER in the presence of 24 pM E2 (n=38, 10%), we found inverse linear associations between the ER transactivation and the PFAA serum levels. The results indicated that the serum extracts induced the ER in a non-monotonic concentration dependent manner. The median EEQ of the extracts containing the PFAAs corresponds to the effect of 0.5pg E2 per mL serum. In conclusion, we observed that most of the extracts containing the PFAA mixtures from pregnant women's serum agonized the ER and enhanced the E2-induced effects in non-monotonic concentration-dependent manners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Virulence of human and bovine isolates of group B streptococci (types Ia and III) in experimental pregnant mouse models.

    PubMed Central

    Poutrel, B; Dore, J

    1985-01-01

    Two experimental mouse models were tested for their suitability in measuring virulence of two human and two bovine isolates (types Ia and III) of group B streptococci. In the first model, the kinetics of the number of bacteria in the spleen, liver, and placenta of mice inoculated intravenously on day 16 of pregnancy were monitored for 48 h after infection. In the second model, lethality and abortion were recorded for mice inoculated on day 13 of pregnancy. Levels of colonization in spleens or livers and lethality were significantly greater (P less than 0.001) for human isolates than for bovine isolates. In contrast, no statistically significant differences in the ability to colonize placentas and to induce abortions were noted between human and bovine isolates. The results showed that pregnant mice were more sensitive than nonpregnant mice to a challenge with group B streptococci. The results also suggest that placental colonization and abortion could be a suitable mouse model in evaluating the virulence of human and bovine isolates of group B streptococci. PMID:3880731

  12. Interactions between inflammatory signals and the progesterone receptor in regulating gene expression in pregnant human uterine myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun; Sooranna, Suren R; Terzidou, Vasso; Christian, Mark; Brosens, Jan; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Poutanen, Matti; Barton, Geraint; Johnson, Mark R; Bennett, Phillip R

    2012-01-01

    The absence of a fall in circulating progesterone levels has led to the concept that human labour is associated with ‘functional progesterone withdrawal’ caused through changes in the expression or function of progesterone receptor (PR). At the time of labour, the human uterus is heavily infiltrated with inflammatory cells, which release cytokines to create a ‘myometrial inflammation’ via NF-κB activation. The negative interaction between NF-κB and PR, may represent a mechanism to account for ‘functional progesterone withdrawal’ at term. Conversely, PR may act to inhibit NF-κB function and so play a role in inhibition of myometrial inflammation during pregnancy. To model this inter-relationship, we have used small interfering (si) RNA-mediated knock-down of PR in human pregnant myocytes and whole genome microarray analysis to identify genes regulated through PR. We then activated myometrial inflammation using IL-1β stimulation to determine the role of PR in myometrial inflammation regulation. Through PR-knock-down, we found that PR regulates gene networks involved in myometrial quiescence and extracellular matrix integrity. Activation of myometrial inflammation was found to antagonize PR-induced gene expression, of genes normally upregulated via PR. We found that PR does not play a role in repression of pro-inflammatory gene networks induced by IL-1β and that only MMP10 was significantly regulated in opposite directions by IL-1β and PR. We conclude that progesterone acting through PR does not generally inhibit myometrial inflammation. Activation of myometrial inflammation does cause ‘functional progesterone withdrawal’ but only in the context of genes normally upregulated via PR. PMID:22435466

  13. Community Norms and Human Rights: Supervising Haitian Colleagues on Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) With a Depressed and Abused Pregnant Woman.

    PubMed

    Verdeli, Helen; Therosme, Tatiana; Eustache, Eddy; Hilaire, Olissaint St; Joseph, Benissois; Sönmez, Cemile Ceren; Raviola, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    After the 2010 Haiti earthquake, Zanmi Lasante, a local health care organization, implemented a collaborative stepped-care model to address depression in community and primary care settings in rural Haiti. Specialized community health workers, the ajans santé, collaborate with local psychologists and primary care doctors to offer home-based evaluation, support, and follow-up. The services include brief interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and/or medication to persons who met locally defined criteria for depression. A cross-national (Haiti-United States) expert mental health team has been overseeing the program. The present IPT supervision case of a severely depressed, physically abused, and pregnant young woman illustrates the U.S.-based supervisor's internal struggle to reconcile awareness of and respect for local norms while maintaining a human rights-based framework. It also highlights the critical role of community health workers in addressing the mental health treatment gap in regions plagued by extreme poverty and adversity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Viral Load Rebound Near Delivery in Previously Suppressed, Combination Antiretroviral Therapy-Treated Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Boucoiran, Isabelle; Albert, Arianne Y K; Tulloch, Karen; Wagner, Emily C; Pick, Neora; van Schalkwyk, Julie; Harrigan, P Richard; Money, Deborah

    2017-09-01

    To assess the stability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load suppression within 1 month before birth in pregnant women receiving antenatal combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). This is a retrospective cohort study of a Canadian provincial perinatal HIV database from 1997 to 2015. Inclusion criteria were live birth and CART received for at least 4 weeks. Viral load rebound, defined as viral load greater than 50 copies/mL (or greater than 400 copies/mL for 1997-1998) and measured within 1 month before delivery, was identified in women who had at least one previous undetectable viral load during pregnancy. Logistic regressions were conducted to identify the risk factors for viral load rebound. Among the 470 women in the database, 318 met inclusion criteria. Viral load rebound was experienced by 19 women (6.0%, 95% CI 3.7-9.3%) with a mean log10 viral load near delivery of 2.71 copies/mL (=513 copies/mL). Six (32%) had a viral load above 1,000 copies/mL. The rebound was detected within 1 day before delivery in 50% of the women. Aboriginal ethnicity, cocaine use, and hepatitis C virus polymerase chain reaction positivity were significantly associated with viral load rebound. There were no HIV vertical transmissions. Even women attending for HIV care and achieving viral suppression in pregnancy can experience viral load rebound predelivery.

  15. Forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) in pregnant human myometrial cells: a role as a pro-inflammatory mediator in human parturition.

    PubMed

    Lappas, Martha

    2013-09-01

    Prematurity is the most important complication contributing to neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is the untimely activation of the terminal events of human parturition that lead to preterm birth, with inflammation playing a driving role in initiating uterine contractions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Forkhead box O1 (FOXO1), a pro-inflammatory modulator, during human parturition. FOXO1 mRNA expression was quantified using qRT-PCR, and protein expression using Western blotting in myometrial biopsies from pregnant non-labouring and labouring women at term. In addition, the effect of FOXO1 knockdown in human myometrial cells on IL-β-stimulated expression of pro-inflammatory mediators was investigated. Levels of FOXO1, at both the gene and protein levels, were higher in myometrium obtained from women in labour compared with samples taken from non-labouring women. FOXO1 deletion in myometrial cells attenuated the capacity of IL-1β to induce inflammatory gene expression. Specifically, FOXO1 knockdown significantly decreased IL-1β-induced IL-6 and IL-8 expression; production and COX-2 expression and subsequent prostaglandin (PGE2 and PGF2α) release; and MMP-9 mRNA expression and activity. In summary, this study demonstrates for the first time the potential role of FOXO1 inflammatory events of both physiological and pathological labour in human myometrium, and may provide a therapeutic target in the management of preterm labour.

  16. [HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTION IN PREGNANT WOMEN OF I AND II TRIMESTER].

    PubMed

    Cheshik, S G; Kisteneva, L B

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was the evaluation of the frequency of human CMV infection among the women, whose pregnancy ended in miscarriage, detection of active forms of infection and treatment before pregnancy. Virological and sero-immunological techniques were used. A total of 116 women who had miscarriages before the 28 week of pregnancy were submitted to the CMV test. 109 women (94.0%) demonstrated positive results. 49 women (42.2%) had active form of the cytomegalovirus infection. 13 women (26.5%) had the recurrent form and 36 patients (73.5%) had the persistent form of CMV infection (stage of productive replication). All the women with active CMVI were treated before the next pregnancy. Immunomodulatory therapy for the treatment was used.

  17. Loss of prostaglandin F2alpha, but not thromboxane, responsiveness in pregnant human myometrium during labour.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Deborah P; Hutchinson, Jonathon A; Farrar, Diane; O'Donovan, Peter J; Woodward, David F; Marshall, Kay M

    2008-04-01

    Prostaglandins (PG) E2, PGF2alpha and thromboxane (TX) mediate uterine contractility by targeting prostonoid EP, FP and TP receptors respectively. The aim of this study was to elucidate the function of these receptors in isolated human myometrium taken at term gestation prior to and following labour onset. Lower segment myometrial strips were immersed in organ baths in oxygenated Krebs' solution at 37 degrees C and connected to isometric force transducers. After equilibration, spontaneous activity and concentration responses to PGE2, PGF2alpha and U46619 (a stable TX mimetic) were measured as area under the curve and expressed as a percentage of the final contraction induced by hypotonic shock. Results were expressed as arithmetic means+/-s.e.m. and analysed using two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni's post hoc test. Myometrium excised at late gestation displayed the greatest spontaneous activity compared with the tissues taken during labour (P<0.001). Excitation evoked by PGF2alpha (P<0.01) and PGE2 at 10(-5) mol/l were attenuated after labour onset. U46619 consistently stimulated concentration-dependent contractions (P<0.001) and selective antagonists confirmed TP-mediated effects. The maintained responses to TX indicate crucial roles for TP receptors in the muscular tonus of the parturient uterus. This receptor and its secondary messenger system represent effective myometrial targets for tocolytic agents in both pregnancy and labour-associated disorders.

  18. First report of human parechovirus type 3 infection in a pregnant woman.

    PubMed

    Shinomoto, Makiko; Kawasaki, Tatsuya; Sugahara, Takuya; Nakata, Keiko; Kotani, Tomoya; Yoshitake, Hidetaka; Yuasa, Kento; Saeki, Masashi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro

    2017-03-24

    Human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV3) can cause serious conditions, such as sepsis and encephalitis, in neonates, but available data are lacking in adults. Here, we report a case of pregnancy with HPeV3 infection. A 28-year-old woman at 36 weeks' gestation was admitted because of myalgia and muscle weakness. The grip strength was 6.0kg on her right hand, and 2.5kg on her left hand. The symptoms, probably due not to myositis but to fasciitis, gradually improved with conservative treatment, but labor pains with genital bleeding unexpectedly developed three days after admission. Obstetric consultation was obtained and cesarean section was performed with no complication. A real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of viral genomic ribonucleic acid against HPeV showed positive results in pharyngeal swabs, feces, and blood, and negative results in the placenta, umbilical cord, umbilical cord blood, amniotic fluid, and breast milk. The HPeV3 was genotyped by sequencing of the VP1 region. She had recovered fully and was discharged with her infant in a stable condition.

  19. Endocrine-Immune Interactions in Pregnant Non-Human Primates With Intrauterine Infection

    PubMed Central

    Novy, Miles J.

    1997-01-01

    Preterm birth remains the most common cause of perinatal mortality. Although the causes of preterm labor are multifactorial and vary according to gestational age, preterm labor and term labor share common cellular and molecular mechanisms, including stimulation of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and endocrine/immune system interactions. We have developed a non-human primate experimental model for intrauterine infection and preterm labor using chronically instrumented rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with timed gestations. We have documented the temporal and quantitative relationships among intrauterine infection, the synthesis and release of proinflammatory cytokines, prostaglandins, and fetal-placental steroid biosynthesis in this model. Infection-induced preterm parturition is characterized by significant elevations in amniotic fluid proinflammatory cytokines and by increases in fetal adrenal steroid biosynthesis, but not by corresponding increases in placental estrogen biosynthesis characteristic of spontaneous parturition. This suggests that activation of the fetal HPA axis by the stress of infection is accompanied by placental dysfunction and also that infection-induced preterm parturition is not dependent upon the increased estrogen biosynthesis observed in spontaneous parturition. These different endocrine and immune responses have important diagnostic and therapeutic implications in the management of preterm labor. PMID:18476167

  20. High endemicity of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 among pregnant women in peru.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Jorge O; Friedman, Heidi B; Montano, Silvia M; Zunt, Joseph R; Holmes, King K; Quinnan, Gerald V

    2006-08-15

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1(HTLV-1) is associated with adult T-cell leukemia, tropical spastic paraparesis, and other immune-mediated diseases. There are reports of groups with high prevalences of HTLV-1 infection in Peru, but there is limited knowledge of the epidemiology of infection or which routes of infection are most important. We studied 2,492 women presenting to a large maternity hospital in Lima for prenatal, delivery, or abortion services. HTLV-1 seropositivity was confirmed in 42 women (1.7%; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.2). Seroprevalence increased with age but did not vary by region of birth or recency of migration to Lima. Age greater than 30 years and sexual intercourse before 20 years of age were strongly and independently associated with infection. History of abortion and history of transfusion were of borderline significance. Women whose male partner had a characteristic that might be a marker for risk of sexually transmitted infections were also more likely to be infected. HTLV-1 is common among Peruvians throughout the country and is maintained by a low level of neonatally acquired infection that is amplified by sexual transmission. In addition to screening of the blood supply, instituted in 1997, programs designed to reduce neonatal and sexual transmission should be effective.

  1. Uptake of Home-Based Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing Among Male Partners of Pregnant Women in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mark, Jennifer; Kinuthia, John; Roxby, Alison C; Krakowiak, Daisy; Osoti, Alfred; Richardson, Barbra A; Gone, Molly Ann; Asila, Victor; Parikh, Saloni; Farquhar, Carey

    2017-09-01

    Few men are tested for syphilis or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during their partner's pregnancy, a high-risk period for HIV and syphilis transmission. Offering home-based rapid testing of syphilis to couples during pregnancy can support prevention efforts to reduce transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We assessed men's uptake of paired (separate tests, single blood draw) point-of-care syphilis and HIV tests within a randomized controlled trial of pregnant women who received clinic or home partner HIV testing. We evaluated acceptance of paired HIV-syphilis testing during pregnancy or at 6 months postpartum, and evaluated whether addition of syphilis testing affected the uptake of HIV testing among men. Of 601 women, we were unable to meet 101 male partners, and 180 tested before syphilis tests were available. Paired syphilis and HIV testing was offered at home to 80 men during pregnancy and to 230 men postpartum. For syphilis, 93% of men agreed to test during pregnancy and 98% agreed postpartum. For paired syphilis and HIV testing, 91% of men tested for both during pregnancy and 96% tested postpartum. Before syphilis test introduction, 96% of men accepted HIV testing, compared with 95% of men who accepted HIV testing when paired testing was offered. Uptake of syphilis and HIV testing was high among male partners offered couple testing at home. Introducing syphilis testing did not adversely affect HIV testing among men. Point-of-care diagnostics outside facilities can increase testing of male partners who rarely accompany women to antenatal clinics.

  2. CRH activation of different signaling pathways results in differential calcium signaling in human pregnant myometrium before and during labor.

    PubMed

    You, Xingji; Gao, Lu; Liu, Jie; Xu, Chen; Liu, Chunmin; Li, Yuan; Hui, Ning; Gu, Hang; Ni, Xin

    2012-10-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that CRH has differential effects on human uterine contractility before and after onset of labor. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) mobilization plays an important role in the control of uterine contraction. Our objective was to investigate the effects of CRH on [Ca2+]i homeostasis in laboring and nonlaboring myometrial cells and determine subsequent signaling involved in [Ca2+]i regulation by CRH. The myometrial tissues were obtained from pregnant women who were undergoing or not undergoing labor at term. [Ca2+]i was determined by Ca2+ imaging system using the fluorescent dye fura-2-acetoxymethyl ester. Western blot analysis, ELISA, and RIA were used to determine the signaling pathways induced by CRH. CRH induced Ca2+ transient in laboring cells, which was blocked by CRH receptor type 1 (CRHR1) antagonist antalarmin. CRHR1 knockdown impaired this effect of CRH. CRH activated Gi protein, decreased cAMP production, and induced phosphorylated phospholipase C-β3 and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate production. Phospholipase C and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptor inhibitors blocked the CRH-induced Ca2+ transient in laboring cells. CRH did not induce whereas antalarmin induced the Ca2+ transient in nonlaboring cells. Knockdown of CRHR1 impaired the effect of antalarmin. CRH acted on CRHR1 to activate Gs in nonlaboring cells. Forskolin blocked antalarmin-induced Ca2+ transient. CRH acts on CRHR1 to activate different signaling pathways before and after onset of labor, thereby resulting in differential calcium signaling in response to CRH. The signaling pathways of CRHR1 might serve as a target for the development of new therapeutic strategies for preterm birth.

  3. Bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics with daily oral bolus or continuous exposure via silastic capsules in pregnant rhesus monkeys: Relevance for human exposures.

    PubMed

    Vom Saal, Frederick S; VandeVoort, Catherine A; Taylor, Julia A; Welshons, Wade V; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Hunt, Patricia A

    2014-06-01

    We measured serum dBPA in non-pregnant and pregnant female rhesus monkeys, fetuses and amniotic fluid. dBPA was administered by a daily oral bolus or sc implantation of Silastic capsules; both resulted in daily average serum unconjugated dBPA concentrations of <1ng/ml. We observed lower serum concentrations of unconjugated dBPA in pregnant females relative to pre-pregnancy values, and generally lower concentrations in fetal serum than in maternal serum. Differences in pharmacokinetics of dBPA were evident between pre-pregnancy, early and late pregnancy, likely reflecting changes in maternal, fetal and placental physiology. The serum ratio of conjugated to unconjugated dBPA after continuous sc release of dBPA was similar to values reported in human biomonitoring studies and markedly lower than with oral administration, suggesting oral bolus exposure is not an appropriate human exposure model. We report elsewhere that there were numerous adverse effects on fetuses exposed to very low serum dBPA in these studies.

  4. Sero-prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus infection among pregnant women in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are the two most important agents of infectious diseases. Both HBV and HIV share common modes of transmission and have serious effects on both pregnant women and infants. In Bahir Dar city administration, there is a scarcity of information on sero-prevalence of HIV and HBV infection among pregnant women. The main objective of this study was to assess sero-prevalence and risk factors of HIV and HBV infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2013 to April 2013. Socio-demographic and explanatory variables were collected using a structured questionnaire by face to face interview. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was detected using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HIV infection was also detected using the national HIV test algorithms. The results were analyzed with descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. The odds ratio and 95% Confidence intervals were calculated. Results A total of 318 pregnant women with the mean age of 25.72 (SD. ±5.14) years old were enrolled. Overall, 21/318 (6.6%) and 12 /318 (3.8%) of the pregnant women were positive for HIV and HBsAg, respectively. Of these, HIV/HBV co-infection rate was 4 (19.0%). Previous history of blood transfusion (AOR = 3.7, 95% CI, 9.02-14.84), body tattooing (AOR = 5.7, 95% CI, 1.24-26.50), history of surgery (AOR = 11.1, 95% CI, 2.64-46.88) and unsafe injection (AOR = 5.6, 95% CI, 1.44-22.19) were significantly associated with HBV infection. Previous history of piercing with sharp materials (AOR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.17-7.80) and history of abortion (AOR = 6.6, 95% CI 2.50-17.71) were also statistically significant for HIV infection. Conclusions This study indicates that HIV and HBV infections are important public health issues in our region that need to be addressed. All pregnant women need

  5. Human placenta-derived stromal cells decrease inflammation, placental injury and blood pressure in hypertensive pregnant mice.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Chiasson, Valorie L; Pinzur, Lena; Raveh, Shani; Abraham, Eytan; Jones, Kathleen A; Bounds, Kelsey R; Ofir, Racheli; Flaishon, Liat; Chajut, Ayelet; Mitchell, Brett M

    2016-04-01

    Pre-eclampsia, the development of hypertension and proteinuria or end-organ damage during pregnancy, is a leading cause of both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, and there are no effective clinical treatments for pre-eclampsia aside from delivery. The development of pre-eclampsia is characterized by maladaptation of the maternal immune system, excessive inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. We have reported that detection of extracellular RNA by the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 3 and 7 is a key initiating signal that contributes to the development of pre-eclampsia. PLacental eXpanded (PLX-PAD) cells are human placenta-derived, mesenchymal-like, adherent stromal cells that have anti-inflammatory, proangiogenic, cytoprotective and regenerative properties, secondary to paracrine secretion of various molecules in response to environmental stimulation. We hypothesized that PLX-PAD cells would reduce the associated inflammation and tissue damage and lower blood pressure in mice with pre-eclampsia induced by TLR3 or TLR7 activation. Injection of PLX-PAD cells on gestational day 14 significantly decreased systolic blood pressure by day 17 in TLR3-induced and TLR7-induced hypertensive mice (TLR3 144-111 mmHg; TLR7 145-106 mmHg; both P<0.05), and also normalized their elevated urinary protein:creatinine ratios (TLR3 5.68-3.72; TLR7 5.57-3.84; both P<0.05). On gestational day 17, aortic endothelium-dependent relaxation responses improved significantly in TLR3-induced and TLR7-induced hypertensive mice that received PLX-PAD cells on gestational day 14 (TLR3 35-65%; TLR7 37-63%; both P<0.05). In addition, markers of systemic inflammation and placental injury, increased markedly in both groups of TLR-induced hypertensive mice, were reduced by PLX-PAD cells. Importantly, PLX-PAD cell therapy had no effects on these measures in pregnant control mice or on the fetuses. These data demonstrate that PLX-PAD cell therapy can safely reverse pre-eclampsia-like features during

  6. A human immunodeficiency virus screening algorithm to address the high rate of false-positive results in pregnant women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shima-Sano, Takako; Yamada, Rika; Sekita, Kazuyo; Hankins, Raleigh W; Hori, Hiromasa; Seto, Hiroshi; Sudo, Koji; Kondo, Makiko; Kawahara, Kazuo; Tsukahara, Yuki; Inaba, Noriyuki; Kato, Shingo; Imai, Mitsunobu

    2010-02-23

    Prenatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is essential for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission. However, false-positive results of screening testing are a concern as they may cause unnecessary emotional stress to pregnant women waiting for confirmatory test results. In regions with an extremely low prevalence, the positive predictive values of screening are unacceptably low rate. Here, we propose a HIV screening algorithm consisting of serial two fourth-generation enzyme immunoassays to reduce the number of false-positive screening results. When 6461 pregnant women presenting to two maternity hospitals located in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan from September, 2004 to January, 2006 were tested using Enzygnost HIV Integral as a first screening test, 27 showed positive reactions. When these positive reaction samples were tested using VIDAS HIV DUO Quick as a second screening test, only one of them had a positive reaction, and the remaining 26 were nonreactive. Confirmatory Western blots and nucleic acid amplification test also showed that one was positive and the remaining 26 were negative; the subject who was positive with the confirmatory tests was identical to the subject who was positive with the second screening test. Thus, by adding the second screening test, the false-positive rate was improved from 0.4% to 0%, and the positive predictive value from 3.7% to 100%, compared with the single screening test. By applying our serial screening algorithm to HIV testing in maternity hospitals, many uninfected pregnant women would not need to receive confirmatory tests and be subjected to emotional turmoil while waiting for their confirmatory test results. This algorithm would be suitable for HIV testing of pregnant women living in low prevalence regions such as Japan.

  7. Corticotropin-releasing hormone, its binding protein and receptors in human cervical tissue at preterm and term labor in comparison to non-pregnant state

    PubMed Central

    Klimaviciute, Aurelija; Calciolari, Jacopo; Bertucci, Emma; Abelin-Tornblöm, Susanne; Stjernholm-Vladic, Ylva; Byström, Birgitta; Petraglia, Felice; Ekman-Ordeberg, Gunvor

    2006-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is still the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The level of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is known to be significantly elevated in the maternal plasma at preterm birth. Although, CRH, CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP), CRH-receptor 1 (CRH-R1) and CRH-R2 have been identified both at mRNA and protein level in human placenta, deciduas, fetal membranes, endometrium and myometrium, no corresponding information is yet available on cervix. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the levels of the mRNA species coding for CRH, CRH-BP, CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 in human cervical tissue and myometrium at preterm and term labor and not in labor as well as in the non-pregnant state, and to localize the corresponding proteins employing immunohistochemical analysis. Methods Cervical, isthmic and fundal (from non-pregnant subjects only) biopsies were taken from 67 women. Subjects were divided in 5 groups: preterm labor (14), preterm not in labor (7), term labor (18), term not in labor (21) and non-pregnant (7). Real-time RT-PCR was employed for quantification of mRNA levels and the corresponding proteins were localized by immunohistochemical analysis. Results The levels of CRH-BP, CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 mRNA in the pregnant tissues were lower than those in non-pregnant subjects. No significant differences were observed between preterm and term groups. CRH-BP and CRH-R2 mRNA and the corresponding proteins were present at lower levels in the laboring cervix than in the non-laboring cervix, irrespective of gestational age. In most of the samples, with the exception of four myometrial biopsies the level of CRH mRNA was below the limit of detection. All of these proteins could be detected and localized in the cervix and the myometrium by immunohistochemical analysis. Conclusion Expression of CRH-BP, CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 in uterine tissues is down-regulated during pregnancy. The most pronounced down-regulation of CRH-BP and CRH-R2 occurred in laboring

  8. CRH acts on CRH-R1 and -R2 to differentially modulate the expression of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in human pregnant myometrium.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Gao, Lu; You, Xingji; Dai, Ling; Li, Yuan; Gu, Hang; Slater, Donna M; Olson, David M; Ni, Xin

    2011-11-01

    CRH has been implicated to play a key role in the control of human pregnancy and parturition. Large-conductance potassium channels (BKCa) play a pivotal role in the modulation of uterine contractility during pregnancy. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of CRH on BKCa expression in human pregnant myometrial cells. Myometrial tissues were collected at cesarean section from pregnant women not-in-labor (TNL) or in-labor (TL) at term, and myocytes were isolated and cultured. CRH was identified in human pregnant myometrium and mainly expressed in myometrial myocytes. Cultured myometrial cells were able to secrete CRH. In TNL myometrial cells, CRH treatment increased the expression of BKCa α- and β-subunits. CRH receptor type 1 (CRH-R1) antagonist, antalarmin, decreased whereas CRH receptor type 2 (CRH-R2) antagonist, astressin2b, increased the expression of BKCa. CRH-R2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) caused an increase, but CRH-R1 siRNA resulted in a decrease, in BKCa expression. In contrast to TNL cells, CRH exhibited an opposite effect on BKCa expression in TL myometrial cells, i.e. decreased BKCa expression. Antalarmin enhanced but astressin2b reduced BKCa expression. CRH-R2 siRNA decreased whereas CRH-R1 siRNA increased BKCa expression. 1,3-Dihydro-1-[2-hydroxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-benzimidazol-2-one significantly inhibited the frequency of spontaneous contractions of myometrial strips, and this effect was significantly decreased in TL strips compared with TNL ones. Our data suggest that CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 show differential regulation of BKCa expression. These effects mediated by CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 are changed after the onset of labor. This leads us to suggest that CRH may fine-tune myometrial contractility by modulating the expression of BKCa during pregnancy and labor.

  9. Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling in health facilities--what does this mean for the health and human rights of pregnant women?

    PubMed

    Gruskin, Sofia; Ahmed, Shahira; Ferguson, Laura

    2008-04-01

    Since the introduction of drugs to prevent vertical transmission of HIV, the purpose of and approach to HIV testing of pregnant women has increasingly become an area of major controversy. In recent years, many strategies to increase the uptake of HIV testing have focused on offering HIV tests to women in pregnancy-related services. New global guidance issued by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) specifically notes these services as an entry point for provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC). The guidance constitutes a useful first step towards a framework within which PITC sensitive to health, human rights and ethical concerns can be provided to pregnant women in health facilities. However, a number of issues will require further attention as implementation moves forward. It is incumbent on all those involved in the scale up of PITC to ensure that it promotes long-term connection with relevant health services and does not result simply in increased testing with no concrete benefits being accrued by the women being tested. Within health services, this will require significant attention to informed consent, pre- and post-test counseling, patient confidentiality, referrals and access to appropriate services, as well as reduction of stigma and discrimination. Beyond health services, efforts will be needed to address larger societal, legal, policy and contextual issues. The health and human rights of pregnant women must be a primary consideration in how HIV testing is implemented; they can benefit greatly from PITC but only if it is carried out appropriately.

  10. HIV testing among pregnant women living with HIV in India: are private healthcare providers routinely violating women’s human rights?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In India, approximately 49,000 women living with HIV become pregnant and deliver each year. While the government of India has made progress increasing the availability of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services, only about one quarter of pregnant women received an HIV test in 2010, and about one-in-five that were found positive for HIV received interventions to prevent vertical transmission of HIV. Methods Between February 2012 to March 2013, 14 HIV-positive women who had recently delivered a baby were recruited from HIV positive women support groups, Government of India Integrated Counseling and Testing Centers, and nongovernmental organizations in Mysore and Pune, India. In-depth interviews were conducted to examine their general experiences with antenatal healthcare; specific experiences around HIV counseling and testing; and perceptions about their care and follow-up treatment. Data were analyzed thematically using the human rights framework for HIV testing adopted by the United Nations and India’s National AIDS Control Organization. Results While all of the HIV-positive women in the study received HIV and PMTCT services at a government hospital or antiretroviral therapy center, almost all reported attending a private clinic or hospital at some point in their pregnancy. According to the participants, HIV testing often occurred without consent; there was little privacy; breaches of confidentiality were commonplace; and denial of medical treatment occurred routinely. Among women living with HIV in this study, violations of their human rights occurred more commonly in private rather than public healthcare settings. Conclusions There is an urgent need for capacity building among private healthcare providers to improve standards of practice with regard to informed consent process, HIV testing, patient confidentiality, treatment, and referral of pregnant women living with HIV. PMID:24656059

  11. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected pregnant women in Malawi: the BAN study.

    PubMed

    Chasela, Charles S; Wall, Patrick; Drobeniuc, Jan; King, Caroline C; Teshale, Eyasu; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Ellington, Sascha R; Codd, Mary; Jamieson, Denise J; Knight, Rodney J; Fitzpatrick, Patricia; Kourtis, Athena P; Hoffman, Irving F; Kayira, Dumbani; Mumba, Noel; Kamwendo, Deborah D; Martinson, Francis; Powderly, William; van der Horst, Charles; Kamili, Saleem

    2012-08-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, prevalence estimates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) vary widely. To assess the prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected, pregnant women screened for a large clinical trial in Lilongwe, Malawi. Plasma from 2041 HIV-infected, pregnant women was screened for anti-HCV IgG using a chemiluminiscent immunometric assay (CIA). Specimens with a signal-cut-off ratio≥1.00 were considered reactive and those with S/Co ratio<1.00 non-reactive. All CIA-reactive specimens were tested by a recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) for anti-HCV and by PCR for HCV RNA. Of 2041 specimens, 110 (5.3%, 95% CI: 4.5-6.5%) were CIA reactive. Of the 109 CIA reactive specimens available for RIBA testing, 2 (1.8%) were positive, 28 (25.7%) were indeterminate, and 79 (72.5%) were negative. All CIA-reactive specimens were HCV RNA negative (n=110). The estimated HCV prevalence based on the screening assay alone was 5.3%; based on supplemental RIBA testing, the status of HCV infection remained indeterminate in 1.4% (28/2040, 95% CI: 0.1-2.0) and the prevalence of confirmed HCV infections was 0.1% (2/2040, 95% CI: 0-0.4%). HCV seroprevalence among HIV-infected, pregnant women in Malawi confirmed by supplemental RIBA HCV 3.0 is low (0.1%); CIA showed a high false-reactivity rate in this population. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. A New Slow Releasing, H2S Generating Compound, GYY4137 Relaxes Spontaneous and Oxytocin-Stimulated Contractions of Human and Rat Pregnant Myometrium

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Hayley; Wray, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Better tocolytics are required to help prevent preterm labour. The gaseotransmitter Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) has been shown to reduce myometrial contractility and thus is of potential interest. However previous studies used NaHS, which is toxic and releases H2S as a non-physiological bolus and thus alternative H2S donors are sought. GYY4137 has been developed to slowly release H2S and hence better reflect endogenous physiological release. We have examined its effects on spontaneous and oxytocin-stimulated contractility and compared them to NaHS, in human and rat myometrium, throughout gestation. The effects on contractility in response to GYY4137 (1 nM–1 mM) and NaHS (1 mM) were examined on myometrial strips from, biopsies of women undergoing elective caesarean section or hysterectomy, and from non-pregnant, 14, 18, 22 day (term) gestation or labouring rats. In pregnant rat and human myometrium dose-dependent and significant decreases in spontaneous contractions were seen with increasing concentrations of GYY4137, which also reduced underlying Ca transients. GYY4137 and NaHS significantly reduced oxytocin-stimulated and high-K depolarised contractions as well as spontaneous activity. Their inhibitory effects increased as gestation advanced, but were abruptly reversed in labour. Glibenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, abolished the inhibitory effect of GYY4137. These data suggest (i) H2S contributes to uterine quiescence from mid-gestation until labor, (ii) that H2S affects L-type calcium channels and KATP channels reducing Ca entry and thereby myometrial contractions, (iii) add to the evidence that H2S plays a physiological role in relaxing myometrium, and thus (iv) H2S is an attractive target for therapeutic manipulation of human myometrial contractility. PMID:23029460

  13. Does infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus affect the antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigenic determinants in asymptomatic pregnant women?

    PubMed

    Ayisi, J G; Branch, OraLee H; Rafi-Janajreh, A; van Eijk, A M; ter Kuile, F O; Rosen, D H; Kager, P A; Lanar, D E; Barbosa, A; Kaslow, D; Nahlen, B L; Lal, A A

    2003-04-01

    HIV-seropositive pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria than HIV-seronegative women. We assessed whether HIV infection alters maternal and cord plasma malarial antibody responses and the mother-to-infant transfer of malaria antibodies. We determined plasma levels of maternal and cord antibodies [Immunoglobulin (IgG)] to recombinant malarial proteins [merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1(19kD)), the erythrocyte binding antigen (EBA-175)], the synthetic peptides [MSP-2, MSP-3, rhoptry associated protein 1 (RAP-1), and the pre-erythrocytic stage, circumsporozoite protein (NANP)(5)] antigenic determinants of Plasmodium falciparum; and tetanus toxoid (TT) by ELISA among samples of 99 HIV-seropositive mothers, 69 of their infants, 102 HIV-seronegative mothers and 62 of their infants. The prevalence of maternal antibodies to the malarial antigenic determinants ranged from 18% on MSP3 to 91% on EBA-175; in cord plasma it ranged from 13% to 91%, respectively. More than 97% of maternal and cord samples had antibodies to TT. In multivariate analysis, HIV infection was only associated with reduced antibodies to (NANP)(5) in maternal (P=0.001) and cord plasma (P=0.001); and reduced mother-to-infant antibody transfer to (NANP)(5) (P=0.012). This effect of HIV was independent of maternal age, gravidity and placental malaria. No consistent HIV-associated differences were observed for other antigenic determinants. An effect of HIV infection was only observed on one malarial antigenic determinant, suggesting that the increased susceptibility to malaria among HIV-infected pregnant women may not be explained on the basis of their reduced antibody response to malaria antigens.

  14. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may be...

  15. Identification and electrophysiological characteristics of isoforms of T-type calcium channel Ca(v)3.2 expressed in pregnant human uterus.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Tsuyako; Inoue, Yoshihito; Kawarabayashi, Tatsuhiko; Kitamura, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    Electrophysiological characteristics were compared among four cloned human alpha1H isoforms transcripted by alternative splicings of exons 25B and 26 [Delta25B/+26 (native form; alpha1H-a), Delta25B/Delta?6 (alpha1H-b), +25B/Delta26, and +25B/+26] in the intracellular loop between domains III and IV (III-IV linker) of a human T-type calcium channel (Ca(v)3.2). The native isoform Delta25B/+26 predominated in ovary and non-pregnant uterus, while isoform Delta25B/Delta26 (alpha1H-b) predominated in pregnant uterus and testis. Expressions of the newly identified +25B/Delta26 and +25B/+26 isoforms were greater in the uterus at gestation than in the non-pregnant uterus. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, all isoforms produced transient inward currents with low voltage-dependent activation and inactivation characterized in typical T-type Ca2+ currents. Each isoform possessing exon 25B (+25B/?Delta26 or +25B/+26) showed current activation and inactivation at a more negative membrane potential than the respective isoform (Delta25B/Delta26 or Delta25B/+26) lacking it. Moreover, the current activation and inactivation rates were faster for the two isoforms possessing exon 25B than for the respective isoforms lacking it. By itself, exon 26 seemed not to affect any electrophysiological characteristics. Increasing the net positive charge (relative to the native form), as occurred in isoforms Delta25B/Delta26, +25B/Delta26, and +25B/+26, caused recovery from short-term inactivation to become faster. Our results show that molecular-structure variations within the III-IV linker influence the voltage-dependence and kinetics of both activation and inactivation. Although the role of T-type Ca2+ channels in uterine tissue remains unknown, changes in the uterine expression of these alpha1H isoforms may influence physiological functions during pregnancy. (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Analysis of nifedipine in human plasma and amniotic fluid by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to clinical pharmacokinetics in hypertensive pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Filgueira, Gabriela Campos de Oliveira; Filgueira, Osmany Alberto Silva; Carvalho, Daniela Miarelli; Marques, Maria Paula; Moisés, Elaine Christine Dantas; Duarte, Geraldo; Lanchote, Vera Lucia; Cavalli, Ricardo Carvalho

    2015-07-01

    Nifedipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used for the treatment of hypertension in pregnant women. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for analysis of nifedipine in human plasma and amniotic fluid. Separation of nifedipine and nitrendipine (IS) was performed using a LiChroCART(®) RP-Select B column and a mixture of water:acetonitrile:glacial acetic acid (30:70:0.5 v/v) as the mobile phase. Aliquots of 500μL of biological samples were extracted at pH 13 using dichloromethane:n-pentane (3:7 v/v). The validated method was applied to a study of the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine in human plasma and amniotic fluid samples collected up to 12h after administration of the last slow-release nifedipine (20mg/12h) dose to 12 hypertensive pregnant women. The estimated pharmacokinetic parameters of nifedipine showed a mean AUC(0-12) of 250.2ngh/mL, ClT/F of 89.2L/h, Vd/F of 600.0L and t1/2 5.1h. The mean amniotic fluid/plasma concentration ratio was 0.05. The methods proved to be highly sensitive by showing a lower quantification limit of 0.1ng/mL for both matrices. And this study reports for the first time the complete development and validation of the method to quantify nifedipine in amniotic fluid using LC-MS-MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection among pregnant women in resource-limited high endemic setting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: implications for prevention and control measures.

    PubMed

    Desalegn, Zelalem; Wassie, Liya; Beyene, Habtamu Bedimo; Mihret, Adane; Ebstie, Yehenew A

    2016-04-14

    Hepatitis, a highly contagious viral infection, is one of the leading killer diseases globally caused by hepatitis virus. Among the existing viral causes for hepatic failure, hepatitis B virus (HBV) plays a significant role with devastating implications, especially when combined with other viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Co-infection with hepatitis B virus and HIV leads to increased morbidity and mortality as compared to independent HIV and HBV infections. In this study, we aimed to assess the seroprevalence of HBV and HIV coinfection and associated risk factors among pregnant women in a selected hospital facility around Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 215 pregnant women were recruited between July and October 2014 from Tirunesh Beijing General Hospital. A pretested and structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic characteristics and possible risk factors. In addition, 5 ml venous blood was collected and centrifuged to estimate the seroprevalence of HBV and HIV. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were done and a P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection was 13 (6%). This positivity was different across different age categories: 1 (11.1%), 3 (4.5%), 6 (6%), 1 (3.2%), and 2 (25%) among those between 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, and 35-39 years, respectively. However, a statistically significant association was not established between age and HBV. Among the total, 9 (4.2%) of the positive cases were detected among primary school completed. Multivariate analyses indicated that history of abortion (p = 0.003), history of surgery (p = 0.0.022), and tattooing (p = 0.033) were significantly associated with HBV infection. A total of 9 (4.2%) women were found to be HIV seropositive, of whom 2 (22.2%) were co-infected with HBV. We observed a relatively higher seroprevalence of HBV infection among pregnant women in the study area, in

  18. Seroprevalence and Co-Infection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Among Pregnant Women in Lokoja, North-Central Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kolawole, Olatunji Matthew; Amuda, Oluwatomi Olufunke; Nzurumike, Charles; Suleiman, Muhammed Mustapha; Ikhevha Ogah, Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is normally associated with orofacial (orolabial) infections and encephalitis, whereas HSV-2 usually causes genital infections and can be transmitted from infected mothers to neonates. The evidence suggesting that HSV is facilitating the spread of the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and the risk posed by these synergies to neonates in developing countries informed this study. Objectives To determine the seroprevalence and co-infection of HIV and HSV, as well as their associated risk factors, in Lokoja, Nigeria. Methods This was a hospital-based cross-sectional, prospective study, which was carried out among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at the federal medical centre in Lokoja, Nigeria. sociodemographic characteristics and HIV-HSV status were determined by the use of a structured questionnaire and immunoassay kits, respectively. All data were analyzed using Stata statistical software (version 12), and the level of significance was determined to be P < 0.05 using the chi-square test. Results Of the 250 pregnant women screened for HIV and HSV, 154 (61.6%) were in the 2nd trimester of gestation, and all of the co-infected respondents were in their 2nd trimester. Only six (2.4%) of the respondents tested positive for HIV, with all six (100%) showing positivity for HSV so the co-infection rate was six (2.4%). Co-infection was found to occur between the ages of 15 and 35 years, while higher age groups did not show any co-infection. Parity, level of education, and history of painful genital ulcers had no significant association with co-infection. Conclusions Advocacy and publicity to raise awareness of the potential public health impact of HSV and HIV co-infection in Nigeria, where anti-HSV testing is not generally performed in all populations, is therefore recommended. PMID:28180012

  19. Bonafide, type-specific human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-positive pregnant women: predictive value for cytological abnormalities, a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Meyrelles, Angela Ri; Siqueira, Juliana D; Santos, Pâmela P Dos; Hofer, Cristina B; Luiz, Ronir R; Seuánez, Héctor N; Almeida, Gutemberg; Soares, Marcelo A; Soares, Esmeralda A; Machado, Elizabeth S

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence, associated risk factors, and predictors of cytological alteration outcomes in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women over an 18-month period. HPV was typed through L1 gene sequencing in cervical smears collected during gestation and at 12 months after delivery. Outcomes were defined as nonpersistence (clearance of the HPV in the 2nd sample), re-infection (detection of different types of HPV in the 2 samples), and type-specific HPV persistence (the same HPV type found in both samples). An unfavourable cytological outcome was considered when the second exam showed progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion or high squamous intraepithelial lesion. Ninety patients were studied. HPV DNA persistence occurred in 50% of the cases composed of type-specific persistence (30%) or re-infection (20%). A low CD4+T-cell count at entry was a risk factor for type-specific, re-infection, or HPV DNA persistence. The odds ratio (OR) was almost three times higher in the type-specific group when compared with the re-infection group (OR = 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-22.79). Our findings show that bonafide (type-specific) HPV persistence is a stronger predictor for the development of cytological abnormalities, highlighting the need for HPV typing as opposed to HPV DNA testing in the clinical setting.

  20. Bonafide, type-specific human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-positive pregnant women: predictive value for cytological abnormalities, a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Meyrelles, Angela RI; Siqueira, Juliana D; dos Santos, Pâmela P; Hofer, Cristina B; Luiz, Ronir R; Seuánez, Héctor N; Almeida, Gutemberg; Soares, Marcelo A; Soares, Esmeralda A; Machado, Elizabeth S

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence, associated risk factors, and predictors of cytological alteration outcomes in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women over an 18-month period. HPV was typed through L1 gene sequencing in cervical smears collected during gestation and at 12 months after delivery. Outcomes were defined as nonpersistence (clearance of the HPV in the 2nd sample), re-infection (detection of different types of HPV in the 2 samples), and type-specific HPV persistence (the same HPV type found in both samples). An unfavourable cytological outcome was considered when the second exam showed progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion or high squamous intraepithelial lesion. Ninety patients were studied. HPV DNA persistence occurred in 50% of the cases composed of type-specific persistence (30%) or re-infection (20%). A low CD4+T-cell count at entry was a risk factor for type-specific, re-infection, or HPV DNA persistence. The odds ratio (OR) was almost three times higher in the type-specific group when compared with the re-infection group (OR = 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-22.79). Our findings show that bonafide (type-specific) HPV persistence is a stronger predictor for the development of cytological abnormalities, highlighting the need for HPV typing as opposed to HPV DNA testing in the clinical setting. PMID:26872340

  1. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus among pregnant women using injecting drugs in Ukraine, 2000–10

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Claire; Semenenko, Igor; Malyuta, Ruslan

    2012-01-01

    Aims To compare clinical status, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rates, use of prevention of (PMTCT) interventions and pregnancy outcomes between HIV-infected injecting drug users (IDUs) and non-IDUs. Design and setting Prospective cohort study conducted in seven human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) Centres in Ukraine, 2000–10. Participants Pregnant HIV-infected women, identified before/during pregnancy or intrapartum, and their live-born infants (n = 6200); 1028 women followed post-partum. Measurements Maternal and delivery characteristics, PMTCT prophylaxis, MTCT rates, preterm delivery (PTD) and low birth weight (LBW). Findings Of 6200 women, 1111 (18%) reported current/previous IDU. The proportion of IDUs diagnosed with HIV before conception increased from 31% in 2000/01 to 60% in 2008/09 (P < 0.01). Among women with undiagnosed HIV at conception, 20% of IDUs were diagnosed intrapartum versus 4% of non-IDUs (P < 0.01). At enrolment, 14% of IDUs had severe/advanced HIV symptoms versus 6% of non-IDUs (P < 0.001). IDUs had higher rates of PTD and LBW infants than non-IDUs, respectively, 16% versus 7% and 22% versus 10% (P < 0.001). IDUs were more likely to receive no neonatal or intrapartum PMTCT prophylaxis compared with non-IDUs (OR 2.81, p < 0.001). MTCT rates were 10.8% in IDUs versus 5.9% in non-IDUs; IDUs had increased MTCT risk (adjusted odds ratio 1.32, P = 0.049). Fewer IDUs with treatment indications received HAART compared with non-IDUs (58% versus 68%, P = 0.03). Conclusions Pregnant human immunodeficiency virus-infected injecting drug users in Ukraine have worse clinical status, poorer access to prevention of mother-to-child transmission prophylaxis and highly active antiretroviral therapy, more adverse pregnancy outcomes and higher risk of mother-to-child transmission than non-injecting drug user women. PMID:21819473

  2. The expression of genes involved in myometrial contractility changes during ex situ culture of pregnant human uterine smooth muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Ilicic, Marina; Butler, Trent; Zakar, Tamas; Paul, Jonathan W

    2017-01-01

    Ex situ analyses of human myometrial tissue has been used to investigate the regulation of uterine quiescence and transition to a contractile phenotype. Following concerns about the validity of cultured primary cells, we examined whether myometrial tissue undergoes culture-induced changes ex situ that may affect the validity of in vitro models. To determine whether human myometrial tissue undergoes culture-induced changes ex situ in Estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) and Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) expression. Additionally, to determine whether culture conditions approaching the in vivo environment influence the expression of these key genes. Term non-laboring human myometrial tissues were cultured in the presence of specific treatments, including; serum supplementation, progesterone and estrogen, cAMP, PMA, stretch or NF-κB inhibitors. ESR1, PTGS2 and OXTR mRNA abundance after 48 h culture was determined using quantitative RT-PCR. Myometrial tissue in culture exhibited culture-induced up-regulation of ESR1 and PTGS2 and down-regulation of OXTR mRNA expression. Progesterone prevented culture-induced increase in ESR1 expression. Estrogen further up-regulated PTGS2 expression. Stretch had no direct effect, but blocked the effects of progesterone and estrogen on ESR1 and PTGS2 expression. cAMP had no effect whereas PMA further up-regulated PTGS2 expression and prevented decline of OXTR expression. Human myometrial tissue in culture undergoes culture-induced gene expression changes consistent with transition toward a laboring phenotype. Changes in ESR1, PTGS2 and OXTR expression could not be controlled simultaneously. Until optimal culture conditions are determined, results of in vitro experiments with myometrial tissues should be interpreted with caution.

  3. AMPA, NMDA and kainate glutamate receptor subunits are expressed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) where the expression of GluK4 is altered by pregnancy and GluN2D by depression in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Bhandage, Amol K; Jin, Zhe; Hellgren, Charlotte; Korol, Sergiy V; Nowak, Krzysztof; Williamsson, Louise; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger; Birnir, Bryndis

    2017-04-15

    The amino acid glutamate opens cation permeable ion channels, the iGlu receptors. These ion channels are abundantly expressed in the mammalian brain where glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter. The neurotransmitters and their receptors are being increasingly detected in the cells of immune system. Here we examined the expression of the 18 known subunits of the iGlu receptors families; α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), kainate, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and delta in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We compared the expression of the subunits between four groups: men, non-pregnant women, healthy pregnant women and depressed pregnant women. Out of 18 subunits of the iGlu receptors, mRNAs for 11 subunits were detected in PBMCs from men and non-pregnant women; AMPA: GluA3, GluA4, kainate: GluK2, GluK4, GluK5, NMDA: GluN1, GluN2C, GluN2D, GluN3A, GluN3B, and delta: GluD1. In the healthy and the depressed pregnant women, in addition, the delta GluD2 subunit was identified. The mRNAs for GluK4, GluK5, GluN2C and GluN2D were expressed at a higher level than other subunits. Gender, pregnancy or depression during pregnancy altered the expression of GluA3, GluK4, GluN2D, GluN3B and GluD1 iGlu subunit mRNAs. The greatest changes recorded were the lower GluA3 and GluK4 mRNA levels in pregnant women and the higher GluN2D mRNA level in healthy but not in depressed pregnant women as compared to non-pregnant individuals. Using subunit specific antibodies, the GluK4, GluK5, GluN1, GluN2C and GluN2D subunit proteins were identified in the PBMCs. The results show expression of specific iGlu receptor subunit in the PBMCs and support the idea of physiology-driven changes of iGlu receptors subtypes in the immune cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sodium leak channel, non-selective contributes to the leak current in human myometrial smooth muscle cells from pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Reinl, Erin L; Cabeza, Rafael; Gregory, Ismail A; Cahill, Alison G; England, Sarah K

    2015-10-01

    Uterine contractions are tightly regulated by the electrical activity of myometrial smooth muscle cells (MSMCs). These cells require a depolarizing current to initiate Ca(2+) influx and induce contraction. Cationic leak channels, which permit a steady flow of cations into a cell, are known to cause membrane depolarization in many tissue types. Previously, a Gd(3+)-sensitive, Na(+)-dependent leak current was identified in the rat myometrium, but the presence of such a current in human MSMCs and the specific ion channel conducting this current was unknown. Here, we report the presence of a Na(+)-dependent leak current in human myometrium and demonstrate that the Na(+)-leak channel, NALCN, contributes to this current. We performed whole-cell voltage-clamp on fresh and cultured MSMCs from uterine biopsies of term, non-laboring women and isolated the leak currents by using Ca(2+) and K(+) channel blockers in the bath solution. Ohmic leak currents were identified in freshly isolated and cultured MSMCs with normalized conductances of 14.6 pS/pF and 10.0 pS/pF, respectively. The myometrial leak current was significantly reduced (P < 0.01) by treating cells with 10 μM Gd(3+) or by superfusing the cells with a Na(+)-free extracellular solution. Reverse transcriptase PCR and immunoblot analysis of uterine biopsies from term, non-laboring women revealed NALCN messenger RNA and protein expression in the myometrium. Notably, ∼90% knockdown of NALCN protein expression with lentivirus-delivered shRNA reduced the Gd(3+)-sensitive leak current density by 42% (P < 0.05). Our results reveal that NALCN, in part, generates the leak current in MSMCs and provide the basis for future research assessing NALCN as a potential molecular target for modulating uterine excitability. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. NF-κB regulates a cassette of immune/inflammatory genes in human pregnant myometrium at term

    PubMed Central

    Khanjani, Shirin; Kandola, Mandeep K; Lindstrom, Tamsin M; Sooranna, Suren R; Melchionda, Manuela; Lee, Yun S; Terzidou, Vasso; Johnson, Mark R; Bennett, Phillip R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The onset of human labour resembles inflammation with increased synthesis of prostaglandins and cytokines. There is evidence from rodent models for an important role for nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity in myometrium which both up-regulates contraction-associated proteins and antagonizes the relaxatory effects of progesterone. Here we show that in the human, although there are no differences in expression of NF-κB p65, or IκB-α between upper- or lower-segment myometrium or before or after labour, there is nuclear localization of serine-256-phospho-p65 and serine-536-phospho-p65 in both upper- and lower-segment myometrium both before and after the onset of labour at term. This shows that NF-κB is active in both upper and lower segment prior to the onset of labour at term. To identify the range of genes regulated by NF-κB we overexpressed p65 in myocytes in culture. This led to NF-κB activation identical to that seen following interleukin (IL)-1β stimulation, including phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 and p50. cDNA microarray analysis showed that NF-κB increased expression of 38 genes principally related to immunity and inflammation. IL-1β stimulation also resulted in an increase in the expression of the same genes. Transfection with siRNA against p65 abolished the response to IL-1β proving a central role for NF-κB. We conclude that NF-κB is active in myocytes in both the upper and lower segment of the uterus prior to the onset of labour at term and principally regulates a group of immune/inflammation associated genes, demonstrating that myocytes can act as immune as well as contractile cells. PMID:20406326

  6. Sodium leak channel, non-selective contributes to the leak current in human myometrial smooth muscle cells from pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Reinl, Erin L.; Cabeza, Rafael; Gregory, Ismail A.; Cahill, Alison G.; England, Sarah K.

    2015-01-01

    Uterine contractions are tightly regulated by the electrical activity of myometrial smooth muscle cells (MSMCs). These cells require a depolarizing current to initiate Ca2+ influx and induce contraction. Cationic leak channels, which permit a steady flow of cations into a cell, are known to cause membrane depolarization in many tissue types. Previously, a Gd3+-sensitive, Na+-dependent leak current was identified in the rat myometrium, but the presence of such a current in human MSMCs and the specific ion channel conducting this current was unknown. Here, we report the presence of a Na+-dependent leak current in human myometrium and demonstrate that the Na+-leak channel, NALCN, contributes to this current. We performed whole-cell voltage-clamp on fresh and cultured MSMCs from uterine biopsies of term, non-laboring women and isolated the leak currents by using Ca2+ and K+ channel blockers in the bath solution. Ohmic leak currents were identified in freshly isolated and cultured MSMCs with normalized conductances of 14.6 pS/pF and 10.0 pS/pF, respectively. The myometrial leak current was significantly reduced (P < 0.01) by treating cells with 10 μM Gd3+ or by superfusing the cells with a Na+-free extracellular solution. Reverse transcriptase PCR and immunoblot analysis of uterine biopsies from term, non-laboring women revealed NALCN messenger RNA and protein expression in the myometrium. Notably, ∼90% knockdown of NALCN protein expression with lentivirus-delivered shRNA reduced the Gd3+-sensitive leak current density by 42% (P < 0.05). Our results reveal that NALCN, in part, generates the leak current in MSMCs and provide the basis for future research assessing NALCN as a potential molecular target for modulating uterine excitability. PMID:26134120

  7. NF-κB regulates a cassette of immune/inflammatory genes in human pregnant myometrium at term.

    PubMed

    Khanjani, Shirin; Kandola, Mandeep K; Lindstrom, Tamsin M; Sooranna, Suren R; Melchionda, Manuela; Lee, Yun S; Terzidou, Vasso; Johnson, Mark R; Bennett, Phillip R

    2011-04-01

    The onset of human labour resembles inflammation with increased synthesis of prostaglandins and cytokines. There is evidence from rodent models for an important role for nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity in myometrium which both up-regulates contraction-associated proteins and antagonizes the relaxatory effects of progesterone. Here we show that in the human, although there are no differences in expression of NF-κB p65, or IκB-α between upper- or lower-segment myometrium or before or after labour, there is nuclear localization of serine-256-phospho-p65 and serine-536-phospho-p65 in both upper- and lower-segment myometrium both before and after the onset of labour at term. This shows that NF-κB is active in both upper and lower segment prior to the onset of labour at term. To identify the range of genes regulated by NF-κB we overexpressed p65 in myocytes in culture. This led to NF-κB activation identical to that seen following interleukin (IL)-1β stimulation, including phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 and p50. cDNA microarray analysis showed that NF-κB increased expression of 38 genes principally related to immunity and inflammation. IL-1β stimulation also resulted in an increase in the expression of the same genes. Transfection with siRNA against p65 abolished the response to IL-1β proving a central role for NF-κB. We conclude that NF-κB is active in myocytes in both the upper and lower segment of the uterus prior to the onset of labour at term and principally regulates a group of immune/inflammation associated genes, demonstrating that myocytes can act as immune as well as contractile cells. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Strong Cell-Mediated Immune Response to Human Cytomegalovirus Is Associated With Increased Risk of Fetal Infection in Primarily Infected Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Saldan, Alda; Forner, Gabriella; Mengoli, Carlo; Gussetti, Nadia; Palù, Giorgio; Abate, Davide

    2015-10-15

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) represents one of the leading causes of congenital infections worldwide. Early diagnosis of fetal infection and consequent rapid therapeutic intervention with immunoglobulin treatment may prevent fetal transmission and virus-related sequelae. In this study, the cell-mediated immunity and immunoglobulin avidity were evaluated as potential predictors of congenital transmission of the infection. CMV immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity and CMV enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays were employed in 80 pregnant women including 57 primary and 23 nonprimary CMV infections. Congenital infection was assessed using CMV DNA quantitative polymerase chain reaction on amniotic fluid or offspring urine. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic statistical methods were employed to determine the association with congenital infection. Low CMV IgG avidity (25%) alone correlated with a probability of congenital transmission of 18.2% (95% confidence interval, 7.7%-28.8%). In contrast to the expectations, an increase in CMV ELISpot levels was statistically associated with congenital transmission (P = .006). The combined use of CMV ELISpot and low CMV IgG avidity resulted in a higher level of association than either method alone with the incidence of fetal transmission (area under the curve, 0.8685). CMV-specific cell-mediated immunity represents a relevant marker in assessing the likelihood of congenital CMV transmission, particularly in combination with CMV IgG avidity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Pregnant Guppy in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    The Pregnant Guppy is a modified Boeing B-377 Stratocruiser used to transport the S-IV (second) stage for the Saturn I launch vehicle between manufacturing facilities on the West coast, and testing and launch facilities in the Southeast. The fuselage of the B-377 was lengthened to accommodate the S-IV stage and the plane's cabin section was enlarged to approximately double its normal volume. The idea was originated by John M. Conroy of Aero Spaceliners, Incorporated, in Van Nuys, California. The former Stratocruiser became a B-377 PG: the Pregnant Guppy. This photograph depicts the Pregnant Guppy in flight.

  10. Travelers' Health: Pregnant Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Premature rupture of membranes Suspected ectopic pregnancy Threatened abortion, vaginal bleeding Toxemia, past or present Relative Contraindications ... infection will cross the placenta and cause spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, or congenital or neonatal infection. The pregnant ...

  11. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity and volume regulating factors in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Usselman, Charlotte W; Skow, Rachel J; Staab, Jeffery S; Julian, Colleen Glyde; Stickland, Michael K; Chari, Radha S; Khurana, Rshmi; Davidge, Sandra T; Davenport, Margie H; Steinback, Craig D

    2017-07-21

    Healthy, normotensive human pregnancies are associated with striking increases in both plasma volume and vascular sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). In non-pregnant humans, volume regulatory factors including plasma osmolality, vasopressin and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have important modulatory effects on control of sympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that pregnancy would be associated with changes in the relationships between SNA (measured as muscle SNA) and volume regulating factors, including plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin (AVP). We studied 46 healthy, normotensive young women (23 pregnant and 23 non-pregnant). We measured SNA, arterial pressure, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity, AVP and other volume regulatory factors in resting, semi-recumbent posture. Pregnant women had significantly higher resting SNA (38 ± 12 vs. non-pregnant: 23 ± 6 bursts/minute), lower osmolality and higher plasma renin activity and aldosterone (all P < 0.05). Group mean values for AVP were not different between groups (4.64 ± 2.57 [non-pregnant] vs. 5.17 ± 2.03 [pregnant], P > 0.05). However, regression analysis detected a significant relationship between individual values for SNA and AVP in pregnant (r = 0.71, P < 0.05) but not non-pregnant women (r = 0.04). No relationships were found for other variables. These data suggest that the link between AVP release and resting SNA becomes stronger in pregnancy, which may contribute importantly to blood pressure regulation in healthy women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  12. A linear study of pulmonary function tests in normal pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Lata; Dixit, R

    2013-10-01

    Pregnancy is principally a phenomenon of maternal adaptation to the increasing demands of the growing foetus. Pregnancy causes many visible and invisible changes in human body and it represents one of the best example of selective adaptation in terms of respiratory physiology. To evaluate the changes in dynamic pulmonary function tests in all three trimesters of pregnancy and compare the results between normal pregnant women (case group) and normal non-pregnant women (control group) and also to compare the results of the study with other studies, 50 subjects were selected and divided into two groups, non-pregnant women (n = 20, mean age = 26.5 +/- 2.69 years) and normal pregnant women of all three trimesters (n = 30, mean age = 24.84 +/- 3.00 years). Pulmonary function tests were done by medspiror. Significant decrease in all the parameters of pulmonary function tests like forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, peak expiratory flow rate, maximum ventilation volume, were noticed in all trimesters of normal pregnant women as compared to normal non-pregnant women. The data suggest that there is alteration in pulmonary function tests in pregnant women. Continuous Monitoring of pulmonary function tests may prove to be of great value in maternal healthcare as cases of restriction and obstruction in lungs during pregnancy can be identified early and its deterioration can be prevented by proper management.

  13. Dietary behaviour of pregnant versus non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates dietary behaviour and the perceived role of food for health of pregnant versus non-pregnant women. Data were collected between 15 January 2003 and 15 March 2003 in Belgium. One hundred and forty-eight pregnant and 130 non-pregnant women aged between 20 and 40 years completed a self-administered questionnaire about their dietary behaviour and nutritional attitudes. Both sub-samples match with respect to individual factors such as relevant socio-demographics and general food perceptions. Pregnant women report higher consumption of fruits, which results in a better score for fibre intake. They also report higher consumption of beef and dairy products, as well as a higher fat intake. No difference in fish consumption between pregnant and non-pregnant women is observed. In line with recommendations, pregnant women report reduced consumption of food products with heightened safety-related risks, lower use of alcohol and tobacco, and safer food handling practices. Reduced intake of raw vegetables for food safety reasons is not compensated by higher intake of cooked vegetables. Pregnant women also report a lower frequency of moderate physical activity. Most differences in food choice by pregnant versus non-pregnant women pertain to the avoidance of specific, potentially harmful food groups. A substantial share of pregnant women does not follow upon recommendations with respect to alcohol use and exposure to tobacco. Personal medical sources for pregnant women and personal social sources for non-pregnant women are reported as the most attended sources of diet-related information. The perceived role of food for health is not different between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and there were no significant interaction effects between pregnancy and presence of children, which indicates that the observed differences in dietary behaviour can be attributed to the state of being pregnant.

  14. Happiness and related factors in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Jayasvasti, Kanthika; Kanchanatawan, Buranee

    2005-09-01

    Pregnancy is a crisis in the human life cycle as an important turning point in aspects of anatomical, physiological and psychosocial changes. An unhappy pregnanus could influence the fetal growth and development and sense of maternal competence as well as bonding with the fetus which profoundly affect the nurture of the infant after delivery. The authors'purposes were to study happiness and related factors in pregnant women having antenatal care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Four hundred and thirty-eight pregnant women from the antenatal clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomly selected to complete a set of questionnaires that consisted of personal information, pregnant information, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), The Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and The Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Prevalence of happiness level was classified by descriptive analysis. Unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation analyzed related factors to happiness in pregnant woman. Also Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to define predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women. The sample had a high level of happiness of 57.3%. Significant related factors to happiness were age between 31-35 years, high education level, high individual and family income, having saving deposition, no drug abuse, improved marital relationship, no conflict with relatives, extrovert and stable personality types and no concerns about post-partum body image. Four predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women were extrovert personality, stable personality, high family income and improved marital relationship. Level of happiness in pregnant women could be predicted by type of personality, family income and marital relationship.

  15. Pregnant women's knowledge and attitude to mother to child transmission of human immuno-deficiency virus in a rural community in Northwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ashimi, A O; Omole-Ohonsi, A; Amole, T G; Ugwa, E A

    2014-01-01

    The high seroprevalence of HIV in Nigeria contributing to a huge burden of paediatric infection and with wide disparities in the various zones of the country needs to be addressed. The main strategy involves the prevention of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV which remains the cornerstone of preventing the next generation from acquiring HIV. To ascertain the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women in Northwest Nigeria to HIV and MTCT despite the low literacy level in the rural community. This was a cross sectional study in which 450 pregnant women attending the booking clinic of a tertiary institution were recruited and interviewed using an interviewer administered semi-structured pre-tested questionnaires. The questionnaire assessed the pregnant women's knowledge related to HIV, MTCT of HIV, its prevention and respondents' attitude towards it. Of the 450 respondents, majority (96.2%) were aware of HIV. Most of them (78%) had adequate knowledge of MTCT of HIV. About half of the respondents knew that MTCT of HIV could be prevented by not breastfeeding, few agreed with taking of antiretroviral during pregnancy (28%) and giving new born antiretroviral (20.2%) as ways of preventing MTCT. The respondents in this study had a high level of awareness of HIV/AIDS, a good general knowledge of MTCT and attitude towards PMTCT but a below average knowledge of specific interventions on prevention of MTCT of HIV.

  16. Pregnant Field Students' Guilt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Nehami

    2006-01-01

    This study examined guilt feelings among social work students who were pregnant for the first time during field work training. Semi-structured interviews were conducted either in the 9th month (n=5) or 2-12 months after delivery (n=5). Content analysis revealed 6 main triggers, illustrated by excerpts, which stimulated field students' guilt…

  17. Characterisation of the human uterine microbiome in non-pregnant women through deep sequencing of the V1-2 region of the 16S rRNA gene

    PubMed Central

    Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Desimpel, Fabian; Jauregui, Ruy; Vankeirsbilck, Nele; Weyers, Steven; Verhelst, Rita; De Sutter, Petra; Pieper, Dietmar H.; Van De Wiele, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Background. It is widely assumed that the uterine cavity in non-pregnant women is physiologically sterile, also as a premise to the long-held view that human infants develop in a sterile uterine environment, though likely reflecting under-appraisal of the extent of the human bacterial metacommunity. In an exploratory study, we aimed to investigate the putative presence of a uterine microbiome in a selected series of non-pregnant women through deep sequencing of the V1-2 hypervariable region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Methods. Nineteen women with various reproductive conditions, including subfertility, scheduled for hysteroscopy and not showing uterine anomalies were recruited. Subjects were highly diverse with regard to demographic and medical history and included nulliparous and parous women. Endometrial tissue and mucus harvesting was performed by use of a transcervical device designed to obtain endometrial biopsy, while avoiding cervicovaginal contamination. Bacteria were targeted by use of a barcoded Illumina MiSeq paired-end sequencing method targeting the 16S rRNA gene V1-2 region, yielding an average of 41,194 reads per sample after quality filtering. Taxonomic annotation was pursued by comparison with sequences available through the Ribosomal Database Project and the NCBI database. Results. Out of 183 unique 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences, 15 phylotypes were present in all samples. In some 90% of the women included, community architecture was fairly similar inasmuch B. xylanisolvens, B. thetaiotaomicron, B. fragilis and an undetermined Pelomonas taxon constituted over one third of the endometrial bacterial community. On the singular phylotype level, six women showed predominance of L. crispatus or L. iners in the presence of the Bacteroides core. Two endometrial communities were highly dissimilar, largely lacking the Bacteroides core, one dominated by L. crispatus and another consisting of a highly diverse community, including Prevotella spp

  18. Helping pregnant teenagers.

    PubMed

    Bluestein, D; Starling, M E

    1994-08-01

    Teenagers who are pregnant face many difficult issues, and counseling by physicians can be an important source of help. We suggest guidelines for this counseling, beginning with a review of the scope and consequences of adolescent pregnancy. Communication strategies should be aimed at building rapport with techniques such as maintaining confidentiality, avoiding judgmental stances, and gearing communication to cognitive maturity. Techniques for exploring family relationships are useful because these relationships are key influences on subsequent decisions and behaviors. We discuss topics related to abortion and childbearing, such as safety, facilitation of balanced decision making, the use of prenatal care, and the formulation of long-term plans. Physicians who can effectively discuss these topics can help pregnant teenagers make informed decisions and improve their prospects for the future.

  19. Exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Shields, Kristine E; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2013-11-01

    The lack of human data available to inform evidence-based treatment for illness during pregnancy has led to calls for greater inclusion of pregnant women in research, but the extent of their current representation is poorly characterized. Our objective was to measure the current exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials as a baseline for future comparison. We compiled data from studies enrolling women of childbearing potential posted on www.ClinicalTrials.gov between 1 October 2011 and 31 January 2012. The review was limited to open United States-based phase IV interventional studies sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry evaluating treatment of conditions that may be experienced by but are not limited to pregnant women and did not involve a medication classified as potentially teratogenic. If there was no mention of pregnancy in the inclusion or exclusion criteria, we contacted a study representative to confirm that pregnant women could be enrolled. Of 558 qualifying industry-sponsored studies, five (1%) were designed specifically for pregnant women. Of 367 phase IV clinical trials with verified inclusion and exclusion criteria, 348 (95%) excluded pregnant women and 19 (5%) did not. We found the exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials to be common practice. Moving beyond reflexive exclusion and developing thoughtful criteria for inclusion of pregnant women in clinical research would likely advance the evidence base to inform treatment decisions during pregnancy and lead to better health outcomes for women and children.

  20. [Sexuality of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Malarewicz, Andrzej; Szymkiewicz, Jadwiga; Rogala, Jerzy

    2006-09-01

    Over the time when the sexual intercourse has been considered merely one of a number of forms of sexual contact, views on sexuality during pregnancy have undergone considerable transformation. A great many of authors emphasise, that the pregnancy is a stimulus for partners to search for ways to maintain mutual emotional bond, close physical affinity and satisfy sexual needs not necessarily finished with an intercourse. The fact, that one of the two partners is pregnant, imposes some restrictions on sexual life. Not rarely, in particular in the first trimester of pregnancy, a female is little interested in sex. It is due to, inter alia, hormonal changes resulting in nausea, fatigue and increased nervosity. These symptoms contribute to general feebleness and reduction of the level of sexual needs and difficulty to become aroused and sexually ready. In spite of that, a lot of women have the need to keep physical and emotional contact with their partners. For a number of couples, pregnancy becomes a stimulus to search for new ways of pleasing each other in love play, that does not necessarily leads with an intercourse. Most studies concerning sexuality during pregnancy focus on observing sexual activity, physiological changes, mutual relationship of partners, analysis of sexual intercourses and investigation of so-called sexual satisfaction. Examination of sexual satisfaction ruchedes the frequency of sexual contacts, intercourses, foreplay, concurrence of orgasms in the two partners, partners' happiness, sexual satisfaction and mutual heartiness. In some researchers' opinion, sexual satisfaction correlates with the feeling of happiness resulting form being pregnant, pregnant woman's feeling still attractive and experience of orgasm. However, some researchers observe reduced sexual activity during pregnancy, except for the second trimester, when sexual activity is similar to the one outside pregnancy. Pregnant women prefer the following types of sexual activity: non

  1. Haemodynamics using transthoracic echocardiography in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant baboons (Papio hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Dennis, Alicia T; Castro, Julian M; Heffernan, Scott; Hennessy, Annemarie

    2012-04-01

    To determine systolic and diastolic function using transthoracic echocardiography in the baboon (Papio hamadryas). Transthoracic echocardiography was performed in eight non-pregnant female and six pregnant baboons according to American Society of Echocardiography recommendations. Haemodynamic measurements were obtained from fourteen baboons. Compared to non-pregnant baboons, pregnant baboons demonstrated: (mean ± SD, pregnant vs. healthy) increased cardiac output (1615 ± 121 ml/minutes vs. 1317 ± 134 ml/minutes P = 0.001) due to an increased heart rate [120 ± 11 beats per minute (BPM) vs. 105 ± 6 BPM P = 0.018]. The inter-observer and intra-observer variability (mean difference ± SD) for the left ventricular outflow tract diameter was 0.05 ± 0.07 cm and 0.01 ± 0.03 cm respectively. There was minimal impact to the animal's daily activities. Transthoracic echocardiography was applicable and reproducible for the assessment of haemodynamics in baboons thus enabling translation of animal results to human studies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. The Legal Rights of Pregnant Students and Pregnant Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Irving C.

    This speech presents an analysis of court cases dealing with the rights of pregnant students and pregnant employees. The discussion of these rights, such as the right to maternity leave, focuses around the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and its implications for equal employment opportunity. The court cases discussed consider the application of the equal…

  3. The human autonomous karyotype and the origins of prenatal testing: children, pregnant women and early Down's syndrome cytogenetics, Madrid 1962-1975.

    PubMed

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2014-09-01

    Through their ability to reveal and record abnormal chromosomes, whether inherited or accidentally altered, chromosomal studies, known as karyotyping, became the basis upon which medical genetics was constructed. The techniques involved became the visual evidence that confirmed a medical examination and were configured as a material culture for redefining health and disease, or the normal and the abnormal, in cytological terms. I will show that the study of foetal cells obtained by amniocentesis led to the stabilisation of karyotyping in its own right, while also keeping pregnant women under the vigilant medical eye. In the absence of any other examination, prenatal diagnosis by foetal karyotyping became autonomous from the foetal body. Although medical cytogenetics was practiced on an individual basis, data collected about patients over time contributed to the construction of population figures regarding birth defects. I study this complex trajectory by focussing on a Unit for Cytogenetics created in 1962 at the Clínica de la Concepción in Madrid. I incorporate the work and training of the clinicians who created the unit, and worked there as well as at other units in the large new hospitals of the national health care system built in Madrid during the mid-1960s and early 1970s. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  5. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned to...

  6. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  7. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare Department of Health... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  8. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  9. New insights into prevalence, genetic diversity, and proviral load of human T-cell leukemia virus types 1 and 2 in pregnant women in Gabon in equatorial central Africa.

    PubMed

    Etenna, Sonia Lekana-Douki; Caron, Mélanie; Besson, Guillaume; Makuwa, Maria; Gessain, Antoine; Mahé, Antoine; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2008-11-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is highly endemic in areas of central Africa; mother-to-child transmission and sexual transmission are considered to be the predominant routes. To determine the prevalence and subtypes of HTLV-1/2 in pregnant women in Gabon, we conducted an epidemiological survey in the five main cities of the country. In 907 samples, the HTLV-1 seroprevalence was 2.1%, which is lower than that previously reported. Only one case of HTLV-2 infection was found. The HTLV-1 seroprevalence increased with age and differed between regions (P pregnant women.

  10. Birth Weight and Preterm Delivery Outcomes of Perinatally vs Nonperinatally Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Pregnant Women in the United States: Results From the PHACS SMARTT Study and IMPAACT P1025 Protocol.

    PubMed

    Jao, Jennifer; Kacanek, Deborah; Williams, Paige L; Geffner, Mitchell E; Livingston, Elizabeth G; Sperling, Rhoda S; Patel, Kunjal; Bardeguez, Arlene D; Burchett, Sandra K; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Scott, Gwendolyn B; Van Dyke, Russell B; Abrams, Elaine J

    2017-09-15

    Pregnancy outcomes of perinatally human immunodeficiency virus-infected women (PHIV) are poorly defined. We compared preterm delivery and birth weight (BW) outcomes (low BW [LBW], <2500 g), small-for-gestational-age [SGA], and BW z scores [BWZ]) in HIV-exposed uninfected infants of PHIV vs nonperinatally HIV-infected (NPHIV) pregnant women in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study Surveillance Monitoring of ART Toxicities or International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials P1025 studies. Mixed effects models and log binomial models were used to assess the association of maternal PHIV status with infant outcomes. Age-stratified analyses were performed. From 1998 to 2013, 2270 HIV-infected pregnant women delivered 2692 newborns (270 born to PHIV and 2422 to NPHIV women). PHIV women were younger, (mean age 21 vs 25 years, P < .01) and more likely to have a pregnancy CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 (19% vs 11%, P = .01). No associations between maternal PHIV status and preterm delivery, SGA, or LBW were observed. After adjustment, BWZ was 0.12 lower in infants of PHIV vs NPHIV women (adjusted mean, -0.45 vs -0.33; P = .04). Among women aged 23-30 years (n = 1770), maternal PHIV was associated with LBW (aRR = 1.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.18, 2.58; P < .01). The overall lack of association between maternal PHIV status and preterm delivery or infant BW outcomes is reassuring. The higher rates of LBW observed in PHIV women aged 23-30 years warrants further mechanism-based investigations as this is a rapidly growing and aging population worldwide. PHACS SMARTT study, NCT01310023. IMPAACT 1025, NCT00028145.

  11. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003466.htm Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant To use the sharing features on this ... is broken) Alternative Names Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test; ...

  12. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Marquis; Kim, Youngdeok; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Rockette-Wagner, Bonny Jane; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234) women and non-pregnant (n = 1146) women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥ 4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥ 10 h/day. A count threshold of < 100 cpm was used to describe sedentary behavior as: 1) total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2) accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3) mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4) and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less) were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting < 10 min. The women averaged less than two prolonged sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥ 30 min) per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.

  13. Prostaglandin E and F2 alpha receptors in human myometrium during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy and labor

    SciTech Connect

    Giannopoulos, G.; Jackson, K.; Kredentser, J.; Tulchinsky, D.

    1985-12-15

    The binding of prostaglandins E1 and F2 alpha has been studied in the human myometrium and cervix during the menstrual cycle and in the myometrium of pregnant patients at term before and during labor. Tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 and F2 alpha binding was saturable and reversible. Scatchard analysis of tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding was linear, which suggests a single class of high-affinity binding sites with an estimated apparent equilibrium dissociation constant of 2.5 to 5.4 nmol/L and inhibitor affinities of 0.9, 273, 273, and 217 nmol/L for prostaglandins E2, A1, B1, and F2 alpha, respectively. Scatchard analysis of tritium-labeled prostaglandin F2 alpha, binding was also linear, but the affinity of these binding sites was much lower, with an average dissociation constant of 50 nmol/L and inhibitor affinities of 1.6, 2.2, and 11.2 nmol/L for prostaglandins E1, E2, and A1, respectively. In nonpregnant patients, the concentrations and affinities of tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding sites were similar in the myometrium during the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle, but the concentration of these sites was much lower in the cervix. The concentration of the tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding sites was significantly lower in the myometrium of pregnant patients at term than in the myometrium of nonpregnant patients. The concentrations and affinities of tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding sites were not significantly different in the upper and lower myometrium of pregnant patients at term or in the myometrium of such patients before and during labor. The concentrations of the tritium-labeled prostaglandin F2 alpha binding sites during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy at term were similar to those of tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding sites.

  14. Lymph drainage in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Cataldo Oportus, Sylvia; de Paiva Rodrigues, Lilian; Pereira de Godoy, José Maria; Guerreiro Godoy, Maria de Fátima

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lymph drainage to reduce edema of pregnant women. Method. Pregnant women (30 limbs) from the Obstetrics Outpatient Clinic of the Medical School of Santa Casa in São Paulo in the period December 2009 to May 2010 were enrolled in this quantitative, prospective study. The patients, in the 5th to 8th months of gestation, were submitted to one hour of manual lymph drainage of the legs. The volume of the legs was measured by water displacement volumetry before and after one hour of drainage using the Godoy & Godoy manual lymph drainage technique. The paired t-test was used for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% being considered significant. Results. Manual lymph drainage significantly reduced swelling of the legs of pregnant women during the day (P = 0.04). Conclusion. Manual lymph drainage helps to reduce limb size during the day of pregnant women.

  15. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Pregnant Women & Influenza (Flu) Language: English (US) Español Recommend on ...

  16. Prenatal Education for Pregnant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timberlake, Bobbi; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes prenatal education classes offered at Teen Pregnancy Service. Outcome data for 66 pregnant teens shows significant changes in prenatal knowledge following the classes. (Author/MT)

  17. Antithrombotic therapy for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Coagulability increases during pregnancy, and thromboembolism can easily occur. Venous thromboembolism is a cause of death in pregnant women, but arterial thrombosis such as ischemic stroke in pregnancy is also not uncommon. In pharmacotherapy for thromboembolism in pregnant women, fetal toxicity and teratogenicity must be carefully considered. As anticoagulants in pregnant women, unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin are recommended, but warfarin is not recommended since it has a low molecular weight and crosses the placenta. Various types of new oral anticoagulant drugs have been available in Japan since 2011. However, the Japanese package inserts for these anticoagulants advise quite cautious administration in pregnant women. The guidelines on pregnant women include less information about antiplatelet drugs than anticoagulant drugs. Aspirin may cause teratogenicity and fetal toxicity, and perinatal mortality is increased. However, when low doses of aspirin are administered as antiplatelet therapy, the US Food and Drug Administration has assigned pregnancy category C, and treatment is relatively safe. Neurosurgeons and neurologists commonly encounter pregnant women with thromboembolism, such as ischemic stroke. Up-to-date information and correct selection of drugs are necessary in consultation with specialists in perinatal care.

  18. Safety and pharmacokinetics of hyperimmune anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunoglobulin administered to HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 185 Pharmacokinetic Study Group.

    PubMed

    Lambert, J S; Mofenson, L M; Fletcher, C V; Moye, J; Stiehm, E R; Meyer, W A; Nemo, G J; Mathieson, B J; Hirsch, G; Sapan, C V; Cummins, L M; Jimenez, E; O'Neill, E; Kovacs, A; Stek, A

    1997-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics and safety of hyperimmune anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intravenous immunoglobulin (HIVIG) were evaluated in the first 28 maternal-infant pairs enrolled in a randomized, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)-controlled trial of HIVIG maternal-infant HIV transmission prophylaxis. Using 200 mg/kg, mean half-life and volume of distribution (Vd) in women were 15 days and 72 mL/kg, respectively, after one and 32 days and 154 mL/kg after three monthly infusions, with stable 4 mL/kg/day clearance. Transplacental passage occurred. Newborn single-dose half-life, Vd, and clearance were 30 days, 143 mL/kg, and 4 mL/kg/day, respectively. HIVIG rapidly cleared maternal serum immune complex-dissociated p24 antigen, and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels were stable. Mild to moderate adverse clinical effects occurred in 2 of 103 maternal and 2 of 25 infant infusions. No adverse hematologic, blood chemistry, or immunologic effects were seen. HIVIG is well-tolerated in HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns, clears antigenemia, crosses the placenta, and exhibits pharmacokinetics similar to those of other immunoglobulin preparations.

  19. Effect of feeding solanidine, solasodine and tomatidine to non-pregnant and pregnant mice.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel; Henika, P R; Mackey, B E

    2003-01-01

    The aglycone forms of three steroidal glycoalkaloids-solanidine (derived by hydrolytic removal of the carbohydrate side chain from the potato glycoalkaloids alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine), solasodine (derived from solasonine in eggplants) and tomatidine (derived from alpha-tomatine in tomatoes)-were evaluated for their effects on liver weight increase (hepatomegaly) in non-pregnant and pregnant mice and on fecundity in pregnant mice fed for 14 days on a diet containing 2.4 mmol/kg of aglycone. In non-pregnant mice, observed ratios of % liver weights to body weights (%LW/BWs) were significantly greater than those of the control values as follows (all values in % vs matched controls+/-S.D.): solanidine, 25.5+/-13.2; solasodine 16.8+/-12.0; and tomatidine, 6.0+/-7.1. The corresponding increases in pregnant mice were: solanidine, 5.3+/-10.7; solasodine, 33.1+/-15.1; tomatidine, 8.4+/-9.1. For pregnant mice (a) body weight gains were less with the algycones than with controls: solanidine, -36.1+/-14.5; solasodine, -17.9+/-14.3; tomatidine, -11.9+/-18.1; (b) litter weights were less than controls: solanidine, -27.0+/-17.1; solasodine, -15.5+/-16.8; tomatidine, no difference; (c) the %LTW/BW ratio was less than that of the controls and was significant only for solasodine, -8.7+/-13.7; and (d) the average weight of the fetuses was less than the controls: solanidine, -11.2+/-15.2; solasodine, -11.4+/-9.4; tomatidine, no difference. Abortion of fetuses occurred in five of 24 pregnant mice on the solanidine and none on the other diets. To obtain evidence for possible mechanisms of the observed in vivo effects, the four glycoalkaloids (alpha-chaconine, alpha-solanine, solasonine and alpha-tomatine) mentioned above and the aglycones solanidine and tomatidine were also evaluated in in vitro assays for estrogenic activity. Only solanidine at 10 microM concentration exhibited an increase in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell proliferation assay. Generally, the biological

  20. Estimate of the attenuation coefficient using a clinical array transducer for the detection of cervical ripening in human pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Labyed, Yassin; Bigelow, Timothy A.; McFarlin, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Premature delivery is the leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. Currently, premature delivery cannot be prevented and new treatments are difficult to develop due to the inability to diagnose symptoms prior to uterine contractions. Cervical ripening is a long period that precedes the active phase of uterine contractions and cervical dilation. The changes in the microstructure of the cervix during cervical ripening suggest that the ultrasonic attenuation should decrease. The objective of this study is to use the reference phantom algorithm to estimate the ultrasonic attenuation in the cervix of pregnant human patients. Prior to applying the algorithm to in vivo human data, two homogeneous phantoms with known attenuation coefficients were used to validate the algorithm and to find the length and the width of the region of interest (ROI) that achieves the smallest error in the attenuation coefficient estimates. In the phantom data, we found that the errors in the attenuation coefficients estimates are less than 12% for ROIs that contain 40 wavelengths or more axially and 30 echo lines or more laterally. The reference phantom algorithm was then used to obtain attenuation maps of the echoes from two human pregnant cervices at different gestational ages. It was observed that the mean of the attenuation coefficient estimates in the cervix of the patient at a more advanced gestational age is smaller than the mean of the attenuation coefficient estimates in the cervix of the patient at an earlier gestational age which suggests that ultrasonic attenuation decreases with increasing gestational age. We also observed a large variance between the attenuation coefficient estimates in the different regions of the cervix due to the natural variation in tissue microstructures across the cervix. The preliminary results indicate that the algorithm could potentially provide an important diagnostic tool for diagnosing the risk of premature delivery. PMID:20570308

  1. Estimate of the attenuation coefficient using a clinical array transducer for the detection of cervical ripening in human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Labyed, Yassin; Bigelow, Timothy A; McFarlin, Barbara L

    2011-01-01

    Premature delivery is the leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. Currently, premature delivery cannot be prevented and new treatments are difficult to develop due to the inability to diagnose symptoms prior to uterine contractions. Cervical ripening is a long period that precedes the active phase of uterine contractions and cervical dilation. The changes in the microstructure of the cervix during cervical ripening suggest that the ultrasonic attenuation should decrease. The objective of this study is to use the reference phantom algorithm to estimate the ultrasonic attenuation in the cervix of pregnant human patients. Prior to applying the algorithm to in vivo human data, two homogeneous phantoms with known attenuation coefficients were used to validate the algorithm and to find the length and the width of the region of interest (ROI) that achieves the smallest error in the attenuation coefficient estimates. In the phantom data, we found that the errors in the attenuation coefficients estimates are less than 12% for ROIs that contain 40 wavelengths or more axially and 30 echo lines or more laterally. The reference phantom algorithm was then used to obtain attenuation maps of the echoes from two human pregnant cervices at different gestational ages. It was observed that the mean of the attenuation coefficient estimates in the cervix of the patient at a more advanced gestational age is smaller than the mean of the attenuation coefficient estimates in the cervix of the patient at an earlier gestational age which suggests that ultrasonic attenuation decreases with increasing gestational age. We also observed a large variance between the attenuation coefficient estimates in the different regions of the cervix due to the natural variation in tissue micro-structures across the cervix. The preliminary results indicate that the algorithm could potentially provide an important diagnostic tool for diagnosing the risk of premature delivery. Copyright © 2010

  2. RISK and the Pregnant Body

    PubMed Central

    LYERLY, ANNE DRAPKIN; MITCHELL, LISA M.; ARMSTRONG, ELIZABETH MITCHELL; HARRIS, LISA H.; KUKLA, REBECCA; KUPPERMANN, MIRIAM; LITTLE, MARGARET OLIVIA

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning well about risk is most challenging when a woman is pregnant, for patient and doctor alike. During pregnancy, we tend to note the risks of medical interventions without adequately noting those of failing to intervene, yet when it’s time to give birth, interventions are seldom questioned, even when they don’t work. Meanwhile, outside the clinic, advice given to pregnant women on how to stay healthy in everyday life can seem capricious and overly cautious. This kind of reasoning reflects fear, not evidence. PMID:20050369

  3. Risk and the pregnant body.

    PubMed

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Mitchell, Lisa M; Armstrong, Elizabeth Mitchell; Harris, Lisa H; Kukla, Rebecca; Kuppermann, Miriam; Little, Margaret Olivia

    2009-01-01

    Reasoning well about risk is most challenging when a woman is pregnant, for patient and doctor alike. During pregnancy, we tend to note the risks of medical interventions without adequately noting those of failing to intervene, yet when it's time to give birth, interventions are seldom questioned, even when they don't work. Meanwhile, outside the clinic, advice given to pregnant women on how to stay healthy in everyday life can seem capricious and overly cautious. This kind of reasoning reflects fear, not evidence.

  4. Cervical collagen is reduced in non-pregnant women with a history of cervical insufficiency and a short cervix.

    PubMed

    Sundtoft, Iben; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Sandager, Puk; Sommer, Steffen; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2017-08-01

    Preterm cervical shortening and cervical insufficiency may be caused by a constitutional weakness of the cervix. The aim of this study was to assess the cervical collagen concentration in non-pregnant women with a history of cervical insufficiency or of a short cervix in the second trimester of pregnancy. In this case-control study we included non-pregnant women one year or more after pregnancy: 55 controls with a history of normal delivery; 27 women with a history of cervical insufficiency; and 10 women with a history of a short cervix (<5th percentile) and 10 women with a history of a long cervix (>95th percentile) at gestational weeks 18-20. We obtained biopsies (3 × 3-4 mm) from the ectocervix and determined the collagen concentration by measuring the hydroxyproline concentration. Women with cervical insufficiency had lower collagen concentrations (63.5 ± 5.1%; mean ± SD) compared with controls (68.2 ± 5.4%; p = 0.0004); area under the ROC curve 0.73 (95% CI 0.62-0.84). A cut-off value at 67.6% collagen resulted in a positive likelihood ratio of 3.2, a sensitivity of 60%, and a specificity of 81%. Also, women with a short cervix in the second trimester had lower collagen concentrations in a non-pregnant state (62.1% ± 4.9%) compared with women with a long cervix (67.8% ± 5.0%; p = 0.02). Both cervical insufficiency and a short cervix in the second trimester of pregnancy are associated with low cervical collagen concentrations in a non-pregnant state more than one year after pregnancy. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Pregnant Women's perceptions of exposure to brominated flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Lane, A; Goodyer, C G; Rab, F; Ashley, J M; Sharma, S; Hodgson, A; Nisker, J

    2016-12-01

    Recent media reports on human studies associating brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in household products in pregnancy with urogenital anomalies in boys and endocrine disruption in both sexes. We sought to explore the perceptions of pregnant women of brominated flame retardant (BFR) exposure, in light of recent media reports on the adverse health effects of BFR exposure prenatally. Pregnant women were recruited for interviews through posters and pamphlets in prenatal clinics, prenatal fairs and community centres. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim for Charmaz-based qualitative analysis supported by NVIVO 10™. Theoretical sufficiency was reached after analyzing the interviews of 23 pregnant women. Themes co-constructed were: I-Lack of Awareness of BFRs; II-Factors Influencing BFR Exposure; III-Responsibility; IV-Informed Choice. Almost all participants felt it was difficult to make informed choices to avoid BFRs, and wanted communication from clinicians and regulation from governments regarding decreasing BFR exposure. Pregnant women in Canada may be unaware of the potential risks of exposure to BFRs. Professional organizations and governments should further study risk associated with BFR exposure in pregnancy and provide educational materials for pregnant women and clinicians regarding BFR exposure.

  6. Tuberculosis care for pregnant women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hang Thanh; Pandolfini, Chiara; Chiodini, Peter; Bonati, Maurizio

    2014-11-19

    Tuberculosis (TB) during pregnancy may lead to severe consequences affecting both mother and child. Prenatal care could be a very good opportunity for TB care, especially for women who have limited access to health services. The aim of this review was to gather and evaluate studies on TB care for pregnant women. We used a combination of the terms "tuberculosis" and "pregnancy", limited to human, to search for published articles. Studies reflecting original data and focusing on TB care for pregnant women were included. All references retrieved were collected using the Reference Manager software (Version 11). Thirty five studies were selected for review and their data showed that diagnosis was often delayed because TB symptoms during pregnancy were not typical. TB prophylaxis and anti-TB therapy appeared to be safe and effective for pregnant women and their babies when suitable follow up and early initiation were present, but the compliance rate to TB prophylaxis is still low due to lack of follow up and referral services. TB care practices in the reviewed studies were in line in principle with the WHO International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC). Integration of TB care within prenatal care would improve TB diagnosis and treatment for pregnant women. To improve the quality of TB care, it is necessary to develop national level guidelines based on the ISTC with detailed guidelines for pregnant women.

  7. Virtual traumatology of pregnant women: the PRegnant car Occupant Model for Impact Simulations (PROMIS).

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Peres, J; Delotte, J; Kayvantash, K; Brunet, C; Behr, M

    2014-01-03

    This study report documents the development of a finite element (FE) model for analyzing trauma in pregnant women involved in road accidents and help the design of a specific safety device. The model is representative of a 50th percentile pregnant woman at 26 weeks of pregnancy in sitting position. To achieve this, the HUMOS 2 model, which has been validated in a wide range of dynamic tests, was scaled to the morphology of a woman in the 50th percentile and coupled with a model of gravid uterus. During scaling, special attention was paid to the pelvic region which is known to differ considerably in morphological terms between men and women. The gravid uterus model includes a placenta, a fetus, uterosacral ligaments and the amniotic fluid by means of fluid structure interaction formulation. The uterus and the female model were coupled using an original method whereby the growth of an uterus was simulated to compress the abdominal organs in a realistic manner. The model was validated based on experimental tests described in the literature. Additional tests based on abdominal loadings with a seatbelt on Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) coupled to silicone uterus were also performed. Results highlighted the role of the possible interaction of the fetus in the pregnant woman abdominal response. Experimental corridors taking into account the presence of this fetus could therefore be proposed.

  8. PRRSV and the pregnant female

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Pregnant Gilt Model (PGM) is substantially complete and has provided substantive deliverables for the swine industry in Canada and beyond. The success of the PGM was largely dependent on a team of more than 30 researchers, students and technicians, along with external collaborators and instituti...

  9. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Achala; Baral, Ratna; Basnet, Pritha; Rai, Rubina; Agrawal, Ajay; Regmi, Mohan Chandra; Uprety, Dhruba Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in urine of an individual without symptoms. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. This study was a prospective study conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. The duration of the study was six months from January to June 2012. A total of 600 pregnant women were enrolled. All women were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into a sterile vial. The urine samples were examined for microscopic and culture sensitivity test. Out of 600 pregnant women, 52 were positive for significant bacteriuria with a prevalence rate of 8.7%. There was a significant difference in prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to trimester (p=0.005). Age did not show any significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (p=0.807). There was not any significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to parity (p=0.864) and booking status (p=0.397). Escherichia coli (35%), Acinetobacter species (15%), Enterococcus species (12%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10%) were the common isolates. Most of the isolates were sensitive either to Nitrofurantoin, Norfloxacin or Amikacin. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in pregnancy. Urine culture sensitivity should be carried out routinely on all pregnant patients in order to prevent the dangerous complications associated with it.

  10. Nutrition and the Pregnant Teen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Vicki; McCamey, Jody

    This illustrated guide for pregnant teenagers discusses the nutritional needs of the mother and her unborn child in a month-by-month format. The information presented for each of the 9 months typically includes a sample daily menu; a checklist of recommended servings per day for each of four food groups; a description of the usual emotional and…

  11. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  12. Injuries to Pregnant Occupants in Automotive Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Klinich, Kathleen DeSantis; Schneider, Lawrence W.; Moore, Jamie L.; Pearlman, Mark D.

    1998-01-01

    Injuries unique to pregnant occupants involved in motor-vehicle crashes include placental abruption, uterine rupture or laceration, and direct fetal injury. The mechanisms and characteristics of these injuries are discussed using examples from a literature review and from recent investigations of crashes involving pregnant occupants. In addition, a review of the relationship between the pregnant driver and automotive restraints and the steering wheel illustrates how injury potential may differ from the non-pregnant occupant.

  13. Toxicity and recovery in the pregnant mouse after gestational exposure to the cyanobacterial toxin, cylindrospermopsin.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a tricyclic alkaloid toxin produced by fresh water cyanobacterial species worldwide. CYN has been responsible for both livestock and human poisoning after oral exposure. This study investigated the toxicity of CYN to pregnant mice exposed during differ...

  14. Toxicity and recovery in the pregnant mouse after gestational exposure to the cyanobacterial toxin, cylindrospermopsin.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a tricyclic alkaloid toxin produced by fresh water cyanobacterial species worldwide. CYN has been responsible for both livestock and human poisoning after oral exposure. This study investigated the toxicity of CYN to pregnant mice exposed during differ...

  15. 42 CFR 435.116 - Pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... waiver of the State plan covering pregnant women, as of March 23, 2010 or December 31, 2013, if higher... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pregnant women. 435.116 Section 435.116 Public..., AND AMERICAN SAMOA Mandatory Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 19,...

  16. 42 CFR 435.116 - Pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... waiver of the State plan covering pregnant women, as of March 23, 2010 or December 31, 2013, if higher... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pregnant women. 435.116 Section 435.116 Public..., AND AMERICAN SAMOA Mandatory Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 19,...

  17. The Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Pregnant Women in Labour with Unknown Status and those with Negative Status Early in the Index Pregnancy in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ukaire, Binyerem C; Agboghoroma, Chris O; Durojaiye, Korede W

    2015-09-01

    Rapid HIV test in labour provide an opportunity for the identification of HIV positive pregnant women who should benefit from interventions to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Between November 2013 and June 2014 we conducted rapid HIV testing of pregnant women in labour at the National Hospital Abuja to determine the HIV seroconversion rate in pregnancy and the prevalence of HIV in pregnant women in labour with previously unknown status. HIV testing and counseling (HTC) was acceptable to 224 (99.6%) of the pregnant women who met the study criteria. The mean 'turnaround' time for test result was 288 minutes and 16.2 minutes for tests performed in the hospital laboratory and those performed at the point-of-care (labour ward) respectively. HIV seroconversion was detected in 2(1.2%) of the 165 parturients with initial HIV negative result early in the index pregnancy. HIV infection was detected in four (2.7%) of the 59 parturients with unknown HIV status. Secondary school level education was significantly associated with HIV seroconversion in pregnancy P < 0.001. HTC in labour using rapid testing strategy is feasible and acceptable in our setting. The introduction of HCT will lead to the diagnosis of HIV positive women in labour, appropriate interventions and prevention of MTCT of HIV.

  18. Methodological differences account for inconsistencies in reported free VEGF concentrations in pregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    McConico, Andrea; Knudsen, Bruce E.; Butters, Kim A.; Hayman, Suzanne R.; White, Wendy M.; Milic, Natasa; Miller, Virginia M.; Garovic, Vesna D.

    2014-01-01

    Free vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is undetectable in plasma during human pregnancy. However, studies examining pregnant rats have reported both low (8–29 pg/ml) and high (527–1,030 pg/ml) free VEGF. These discrepancies cast uncertainty over the use of rat models to study angiogenic factors in pregnancy and preeclampsia. This study investigates methodological factors that may explain these discrepancies. Plasma VEGF in nonpregnant, day 7 pregnant, and day 19 pregnant rats was measured using rat and mouse ELISAs (R&D Systems). The rat ELISA detected VEGF in plasma from nonpregnant rats but not in plasma from day 19 pregnant rats. The mouse ELISA detected higher VEGF concentrations than the rat ELISA in every sample tested. This discrepancy was greater in day 19 pregnant rats (median: 2,273 vs. 0 pg/ml) than in nonpregnant (97 vs. 20 pg/ml) and day 7 pregnant (66 vs. 2 pg/ml) rats. Recovery of recombinant rat VEGF (rrVEGF) spiked into plasma from nonpregnant and day 7 pregnant rats was high for the rat ELISA (82–105%) but low for the mouse ELISA (17–22%). The rat ELISA did not recover rrVEGF in plasma from day 19 pregnant rats, suggesting that this ELISA measures free VEGF. The use of the rat versus mouse ELISA likely explains the differences in reported VEGF concentrations in pregnant rats. While the rat ELISA appears to measure free VEGF, plasma concentrations in nonpregnant and pregnant rats are below the assay sensitivity limit. As most previous studies of pregnant rats used the mouse VEGF ELISA, these data should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:24622973

  19. ELECTROPHORETIC HOMOGENEITY OF PREGNANT MARE SERUM GONADOTROPHIN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Choh Hao; Evans, Herbert M.; Wonder, Donald H.

    1940-01-01

    A highly purified and potent gonadotrophin in pregnant mare serum has been prepared. The preparation has been shown to be electrophoretically homogeneous in the Tiselius apparatus. The mobilities of the substance have been determined over a wide range of hydrogen ion concentrations. The isoelectric point lies at pH 2.60–2.65 and the value of See PDF for Equation is 4.0 x 10–5. Some chemical constituents have been studied. From the tryptophane and tyrosine content the molecular weight of the hormone is estimated to be 30,000. The hormone has been subjected to acetylation by ketene in aqueous solution at room temperature and the result suggests again the essentiality of free amino groups for the biological activity of the hormone. In this respect it is to be contrasted with human chorionic gonadotrophin. PMID:19873189

  20. Imaging Pregnant and Lactating Patients.

    PubMed

    Tirada, Nikki; Dreizin, David; Khati, Nadia J; Akin, Esma A; Zeman, Robert K

    2015-10-01

    As use of imaging in the evaluation of pregnant and lactating patients continues to increase, misperceptions of radiation and safety risks have proliferated, which has led to often unwarranted concerns among patients and clinicians. When radiologic examinations are appropriately used, the benefits derived from the information gained usually outweigh the risks. This review describes appropriateness and safety issues, estimated doses for imaging examinations that use iodizing radiation (ie, radiography, computed tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and fluoroscopically guided interventional radiology), radiation risks to the mother and conceptus during various stages of pregnancy, and use of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast agents and radiotracers in pregnant and lactating women. Maternal radiation risk must be weighed with the potential consequences of missing a life-threatening diagnosis such as pulmonary embolus. Fetal risks (ie, spontaneous abortion, teratogenesis, or carcinogenesis) vary with gestational age and imaging modality and should be considered in the context of the potential benefit of medically necessary diagnostic imaging. When feasible and medically indicated, modalities that do not use ionizing radiation (eg, magnetic resonance imaging) are preferred in pregnant and lactating patients. Radiologists should strive to minimize risks of radiation to the mother and fetus, counsel patients effectively, and promote a realistic understanding of risks related to imaging during pregnancy and lactation.

  1. The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. Results A retrospective case–control longitudinal study was designed and included non-pregnant women (n = 32) and pregnant women who delivered at term (38 to 42 weeks) without complications (n = 22). Serial samples of vaginal fluid were collected from both non-pregnant and pregnant patients. A 16S rRNA gene sequence-based survey was conducted using pyrosequencing to characterize the structure and stability of the vaginal microbiota. Linear mixed effects models and generalized estimating equations were used to identify the phylotypes whose relative abundance was different between the two study groups. The vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women was different from that of non-pregnant women (higher abundance of Lactobacillus vaginalis, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii and lower abundance of 22 other phylotypes in pregnant women). Bacterial community state type (CST) IV-B or CST IV-A characterized by high relative abundance of species of genus Atopobium as well as the presence of Prevotella, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Ruminococcaceae, Parvimonas, Mobiluncus and other taxa previously shown to be associated with bacterial vaginosis were less frequent in normal pregnancy. The stability of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women was higher than that of non-pregnant women; however, during normal pregnancy, bacterial communities shift almost exclusively from one CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. to another CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. Conclusion We report the first longitudinal study of the vaginal microbiota in normal pregnancy. Differences in the composition and stability of the microbial community between pregnant and non-pregnant women were observed. Lactobacillus spp. were the

  2. Pregnant teenagers' group: contributions to prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Menezes, Giselle Maria Duarte; Silva, Thaís Jormanna Pereira; Brasil, Eysler Gonçalves Maia; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da

    2017-06-05

    To describe changes in nurses' care following the implementation of a group of pregnant teenagers in prenatal care based on the expectations and experiences of pregnant teenagers. Qualitative and descriptive study conducted from February to November 2013 at a Primary Care Unit in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, through focus groups with 16 adolescents from the group of pregnant women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The analysis identified central ideas and units of meanings that formed the categories. The strategy of a group of pregnant teenagers, which provides a space for coexistence and the establishment of ties encourages these individuals to talk about their needs, re-signifying their ties. Educational strategies to promote self-care of pregnant teenagers and care for their babies involve the sharing of experiences, doubts and beliefs. Considerations and suggestions of the adolescents contributed to guide nurses' practice and provide a strategic space of care and support for pregnant adolescents in primary care.

  3. Silver nanoparticles cause complications in pregnant mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Park, Jung-Hyun; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kang, Min-Hee; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted much interest and have been used for antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, and antiangiogenic applications because of their unique properties. The increased usage of AgNPs leads to a potential hazard to human health. However, the potential effects of AgNPs on animal models are not clear. This study was designed to investigate the potential impact of AgNPs on pregnant mice. Methods The synthesis of AgNPs was performed using culture extracts of Bacillus cereus. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. AgNPs were administrated into pregnant mice via intravenous infusion at 1.0 mg/kg doses at 6.5 days postcoitum (dpc). At 13.5, 15.5, and 17.5 dpc, the pregnant mice were euthanized, and the embryo and placenta were isolated. The meiotic status of oocytes was evaluated. DNA methylation studies were performed, and aberrant imprinting disrupted fetal, placental, and postnatal development. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and Western blot were used to analyze various gene expressions. Results The synthesized AgNPs were uniformly distributed and were spherical in shape with an average size of 8 nm. AgNPs exposure increased the meiotic progression of female germ cells in the fetal mouse ovaries, and maternal AgNP exposure significantly disrupted imprinted gene expression in 15.5 dpc embryos and placentas, such as Ascl2, Snrpn, Kcnq1ot1, Peg3, Zac1, H19, Igf2r, and Igf2; DNA methylation studies revealed that AgNPs exposure significantly altered the methylation levels of differentially methylated regions of Zac1. Conclusion The results from this study indicated that early exposure to AgNPs has the potential to disrupt fetal and postnatal health through epigenetic changes in the embryo and abnormal development of the placenta. These results can contribute to research involved in the safe use of

  4. [Case report of the first world death due to a new strain of human influenza A H1N1 virus and behavior of human influenzae in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Noguera Sánchez, Marcelo Fidias; Karchmer Krivitzky, Samuel; EsliRabadán, Martínez Cesar; Antonio Sánchez, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A H1N1 is an acute respiratory illness caused by a new strain of H1N1. Human influenza is a subtype of influenza Avirus, from the family of Orthomyxoviridae. This strain is the cause of new influenza pandemic declared by the World Health Organization in June, 2009. This paper reports the first case occurred in Mexico: a 39-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus type 2 and obesity grade II, which suffered atypical and aggressive pneumonia positive to coronavirus. Patient died 98 hours after her admission to the hospital unit. Due to the clinical presentation of the case, the doctors sent samples to the Instituto Nacional de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológica that sent an aliquot of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases of theAgency of Public Health in Canada, that reported positivity to influenza virus, and catalogued it as a new global strain called influenza A virus H1N1. The notice of 229E/NL63 coronavirus and its relationship to the recent outbreaks of avian influenza in humans and the clinical presentation of the case were the epidemiological circumstances that prevented the nation epidemiology system to establish global containment strategies to prevent the spread of this emerging infection. The consequence was the declaration of WHO pandemic alert level 6. Its behavior in pregnancy, reported by Assistant General Direction of Epidemiology in Mexico, has placed this infection as a risk factor for women.

  5. Pregnant Teenagers' Knowledge of Infant Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Ann S.

    This study investigated pregnant teenagers' knowledge about infant development during the period of their pregnancy. The sample consisted of 98 teenagers between 14 and 19 years old who were pregnant with their first child; all were planning to keep their babies. The group was approximately 50% black and 50% white, 50% middle class and 50% working…

  6. Nutritional Guide for Pregnant and Lactating Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelbard, Nancy

    Designed to provide accurate and up-to-date information about nutrition and health, this booklet is centered on the nutritional needs of pregnant and lactating adolescents and on the role of schools and the California State Department of Education in meeting those needs. The first section presents information for pregnant adolescents regarding…

  7. An Alternative Program for Pregnant Schoolgirls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Patricia W.

    The paper describes the Lafayette Parish Homebound Program (Louisiana) for students in grades K-12, with particular emphasis on the program's services for pregnant girls. Procedures for admitting students into the program, objectives for the pregnant girls (12-18 years old), and program components are considered. It is explained that the special…

  8. Pregnant Teenagers' Knowledge of Infant Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Ann S.

    This study investigated pregnant teenagers' knowledge about infant development during the period of their pregnancy. The sample consisted of 98 teenagers between 14 and 19 years old who were pregnant with their first child; all were planning to keep their babies. The group was approximately 50% black and 50% white, 50% middle class and 50% working…

  9. Life Events of Pregnant and Nonpregnant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Records, Kathryn A.

    1993-01-01

    Compared life events of 23 pregnant and 23 nonpregnant adolescents. Pregnancy of sister of close friend, increased number of arguments between parents, change in parents' financial status, and trouble with brother or sister were reported by 50% or more of total sample. Pregnant group reported changing to new school more frequently than did…

  10. Foetal stress responses to euthanasia of pregnant sheep.

    PubMed

    Peisker, Nina; Preissel, Anne-Kathrin; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Schuster, Tibor; Henke, Julia

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate foetal stress responses in midgestational (G1) and near-term (G2) pregnant ewes euthanized either by intravenous administration of pentobarbital (group P) or electrical current (group E). After the ewe's death foetal lambs were delivered by caesarean section and remained attached to the ewe by the umbilical cord. Foetal vitality, reflexes, heart rate, blood pressure, rectal body temperature, venous pCO2, pH and lactic acid were monitored. Additionally, foetal plasma concentrations of pentobarbital were determined in group P. Neither electrocution of the pregnant ewe nor euthanasia of the dam by pentobarbital caused cardiac arrest in foetuses within 25 minutes. G1-foetuses of group P lost significantly faster all body movements and reflexes whereas G2-foetuses of group P took significantly longer in reaching a venous pH < 7.0 and a pCO2 > 13.33 kPa as well as a blood lactate concentration of > 8 mmol/l. Since no scientific evidence has been found yet to what extent the foetal lamb can experience pain and can suffer, the prolonged process of dying for group-E-foetuses due to hypoxia is inconsistent with criteria for humane euthanasia and animal welfare. The administration of pentobarbital to the pregnant ewe, however, might have the potential to induce foetal anaesthesia thereby satisfying the main aspects of the definition of humane euthanasia to a greater extent.

  11. Treatment of Opioid Dependent Pregnant Women: Clinical and Research Issues

    PubMed Central

    Jones, H.E.; Martin, P.R.; Heil, S.H.; Stine, S.M.; Kaltenbach, K.; Selby, P.; Coyle, M.G.; O’Grady, K.E.; Arria, A.M.; Fischer, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses common questions that clinicians face when treating pregnant women with opioid dependence. Guidance is provided to aid clinical decision-making, based on both research evidence and the collective clinical experience of the authors which include investigators in the Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research (MOTHER) project. MOTHER is a double-blind, double-dummy, flexible–dosing, parallel-group clinical trial examining the comparative safety and efficacy of methadone and buprenorphine for the opioid dependence treatment among pregnant women and their neonates. The paper begins with a discussion of appropriate assessment during pregnancy, and then addresses clinical management stages, including maintenance medication selection, induction and stabilization, opioid agonist medication management before, during and after delivery, pain management, breast-feeding, and transfer to aftercare. Lastly, other important clinical issues including managing co-occurring psychiatric disorders and medication interactions are discussed. PMID:18248941

  12. Reference intervals for thyroid hormones in pregnant Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Panesar, N S; Li, C Y; Rogers, M S

    2001-07-01

    To establish gestation-related reference intervals for thyroid hormones in a Chinese population. A prospective study with 343 healthy pregnant women (5-41 weeks) and 63 non-pregnant controls. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) (and human chorionic gonadotrophin) were measured by immunoassays. The median, 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles at 4-week intervals were calculated. Data were also analysed for significant trends using ANOVA. Free T3 decreased during pregnancy, whereas free T4 initially increased, peaking between 9-13 weeks and then decreased, the decline becoming significant by week 21. TSH mirrored changes in free T4. The gestation-related reference intervals for thyroid hormones should alleviate the misinterpretation of thyroid function in pregnancy.

  13. Characterization of Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Transcriptome and Biological Pathways in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: Evidence for Pregnancy-Related Regional-Specific Differences in Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Vaisbuch, Edi; Tarca, Adi L.; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Than, Nandor Gabor; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Dong, Zhong; Hassan, Sonia S.; Romero, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the transcriptome of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Study Design The transcriptome of paired visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissues from pregnant women at term and matched non-pregnant women (n = 11) was profiled with the Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST array. Differential expression of selected genes was validated with the use of quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Results Six hundred forty-four transcripts from 633 known genes were differentially expressed (false discovery rate (FDR) <0.1; fold-change >1.5), while 42 exons from 36 genes showed differential usage (difference in FIRMA scores >2 and FDR<0.1) between the visceral and subcutaneous fat of pregnant women. Fifty-six known genes were differentially expressed between pregnant and non-pregnant subcutaneous fat and three genes in the visceral fat. Enriched biological processes in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of pregnant women were mostly related to inflammation. Conclusion The transcriptome of visceral and subcutaneous fat depots reveals pregnancy-related gene expression and splicing differences in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Furthermore, for the first time, alternative splicing in adipose tissue has been associated with regional differences and human parturition. PMID:26636677

  14. Metabolism and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of flumioxazin in pregnant animals

    SciTech Connect

    Takaku, Tomoyuki Nagahori, Hirohisa; Sogame, Yoshihisa

    2014-06-15

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to predict the concentration of flumioxazin, in the blood and fetus of pregnant humans during a theoretical accidental intake (1000 mg/kg). The data on flumioxazin concentration in pregnant rats (30 mg/kg po) was used to develop the PBPK model in pregnant rats using physiological parameters and chemical specific parameters. The rat PBPK model developed was extrapolated to a human model. Liver microsomes of female rats and a mixed gender of humans were used for the in vitro metabolism study. To determine the % of flumioxazin absorbed after administration at a dose of 1000 mg/kg assuming maximum accidental intake, the biliary excretion study of [phenyl-U-{sup 14}C]flumioxazin was conducted in bile duct-cannulated female rats (Crl:CD (SD)) to collect and analyze the bile, urine, feces, gastrointestinal tract, and residual carcass. The % of flumioxazin absorbed at a dose of 1000 mg/kg in rats was low (12.3%) by summing up {sup 14}C of the urine, bile, and residual carcass. The pregnant human model that was developed demonstrated that the maximum flumioxazin concentration in the blood and fetus of a pregnant human at a dose of 1000 mg/kg po was 0.86 μg/mL and 0.68 μg/mL, respectively, which is much lower than K{sub m} (202.4 μg/mL). Because the metabolism was not saturated and the absorption rate was low at a dose of 1000 mg/kg, the calculated flumioxazin concentration in pregnant humans was thought to be relatively low, considering the flumioxazin concentration in pregnant rats at a dose of 30 mg/kg. For the safety assessment of flumioxazin, these results would be useful for further in vitro toxicology experiments. - Highlights: • A PBPK model of flumioxazin in pregnant humans was developed. • Simulated flumioxazin concentration in pregnant humans was relatively low. • The results would be useful for further in vitro toxicology experiments.

  15. [Parasitic and viral marker detection in pregnant adolescents and their newborn infants at risk].

    PubMed

    Contreras, M C; Escaff, V; Salinas, P; Saavedra, T; Suárez, M

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzzi, Hepatitis B virus, cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, and human immunodeficiency virus in 139 adolescent pregnant women and in their high risk newborn children. The methods employed were the Sabin and Feldman reaction, complement fixation reaction, ELISA, and xenodiagnostic 30.9% of the pregnant group were seropositive for T. gondii, both mothers and newborns were IgM-negative. Two mothers (1.4%) presented anti T. cruzii antibodies, and one newborn child had circulating parasites. Related to the virological studies, 93.5% of the population were anti CMV antibodies positive and all their newborns were IgM (-) 90.6% of the adolescents were rubella positive and one was seropositive to VIH. We conclude that the prevalence found in this group of adolescent pregnant women are not significantly different to the one reported for the general pregnant women population.

  16. Comparison of Sexual Functions in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Mustafa; Cayonu, Neval; Kadihasanoglu, Mustafa; Irkilata, Lokman; Atilla, Mustafa Kemal; Kendirci, Muammer

    2015-11-14

    The physiology and anatomy of pregnant women change during pregnancy. Pregnancy is an anatomically and physiologically amended process experienced by women and as a result of these changes, sexual life of pregnant women alters during pregnancy. We aimed to compare sexual functions of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Sexually active 246 pregnant women were included into this cross-sectional controlled study. A total of 210 non-pregnant women were served as control. Both groups were compared in terms of age, gestational age, presence of urinary incontinence, body mass index, and obstetrical history. Sexual functions of the women were evaluated with Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Data were analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's Exact, Shapiro Wilk, Kruskal Wallis and Dunnett's tests where appropriate. The Pvalues < .05 were considered statistically significant. Mean age in both groups were comparable (P = .053). Median total FSFI scores in the pregnant women were significantly lower than those non-pregnant (18.9 vs. 22.7; P < .05). Additionally, the subgroup analyses of the FSFI scores were found that, total FSFI score is significantly lower in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant group (P < .05). Furthermore, rate of sexual dysfunction in pregnant women was significantly higher than those non-pregnant women (91.08% vs. 67.61%, P = .0001). However, in pregnant women, no meaningful difference in rate of sexual dysfunction was found according to the trimesters (P = .632). Moreover, gravidity and parity exhibited negative impacts on the sexual functions. But number of abortions did not affect sexual function. These data demonstrate that pregnancy significantly diminishes sexual function in women. We believe that, couples need to be counseled regarding the impact of pregnancy on sexual functions.

  17. Chronic hyperleptinemia results in the development of hypertension in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Palei, Ana C; Spradley, Frank T; Granger, Joey P

    2015-05-15

    Despite the fact that obesity is a major risk factor for preeclampsia (PE), the pathophysiological mechanisms whereby obesity and metabolic factors such as leptin increase this risk are unclear. While human data have shown that hyperleptinemia is associated with PE, the long-term effect of hyperleptinemia on blood pressure during pregnancy is unknown. Thus we tested the hypothesis whether chronic circulating leptin elevations in pregnant rats increase blood pressure and placental factors known to play a role in PE. On gestational day (GD)14, rats were assigned to the normal pregnant group with food intake ad libitum (control), leptin-treated (0.5 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1) ip) pregnant group with food intake ad libitum (pregnant+LEP), and normal pregnant group with food intake adjusted to the food intake of pregnant+LEP rats (pregnant-FR). On GD19, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was assessed and tissues were collected. Serum leptin concentration was elevated in pregnant+LEP compared with control and pregnant-FR (18.0 ± 2.8 vs. 0.8 ± 0.1 vs. 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/ml; P < 0.05), which was associated with increased MAP (121.3 ± 8.1 vs. 102.4 ± 2.4 vs. 101.3 ± 1.8 mmHg; P < 0.05). Food intake and body weight were reduced in pregnant+LEP and pregnant-FR by the end of gestation. Additionally, placentas and fetuses of these groups were lighter than those of control. However, placental expression of tumor necrosis factor-α was significantly greater in pregnant+LEP compared with controls (1.6 ± 0.1 vs. 1.1 ± 0.1 pg/mg; P < 0.05). In conclusion, leptin increases blood pressure and placental tumor necrosis factor-α during pregnancy despite its effect of reducing food intake and body weight, and represents a mechanism whereby obesity can promote the development of hypertension in PE.

  18. Chronic hyperleptinemia results in the development of hypertension in pregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    Palei, Ana C.; Spradley, Frank T.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that obesity is a major risk factor for preeclampsia (PE), the pathophysiological mechanisms whereby obesity and metabolic factors such as leptin increase this risk are unclear. While human data have shown that hyperleptinemia is associated with PE, the long-term effect of hyperleptinemia on blood pressure during pregnancy is unknown. Thus we tested the hypothesis whether chronic circulating leptin elevations in pregnant rats increase blood pressure and placental factors known to play a role in PE. On gestational day (GD)14, rats were assigned to the normal pregnant group with food intake ad libitum (control), leptin-treated (0.5 μg·kg−1·min−1 ip) pregnant group with food intake ad libitum (pregnant+LEP), and normal pregnant group with food intake adjusted to the food intake of pregnant+LEP rats (pregnant-FR). On GD19, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was assessed and tissues were collected. Serum leptin concentration was elevated in pregnant+LEP compared with control and pregnant-FR (18.0 ± 2.8 vs. 0.8 ± 0.1 vs. 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/ml; P < 0.05), which was associated with increased MAP (121.3 ± 8.1 vs. 102.4 ± 2.4 vs. 101.3 ± 1.8 mmHg; P < 0.05). Food intake and body weight were reduced in pregnant+LEP and pregnant-FR by the end of gestation. Additionally, placentas and fetuses of these groups were lighter than those of control. However, placental expression of tumor necrosis factor-α was significantly greater in pregnant+LEP compared with controls (1.6 ± 0.1 vs. 1.1 ± 0.1 pg/mg; P < 0.05). In conclusion, leptin increases blood pressure and placental tumor necrosis factor-α during pregnancy despite its effect of reducing food intake and body weight, and represents a mechanism whereby obesity can promote the development of hypertension in PE. PMID:25761697

  19. Fundamentals of Clinical Pharmacology With Application for Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Patil, Avinash S; Sheng, Jessica; Dotters-Katz, Sarah K; Schmoll, Maria S; Onslow, Mitchell; Pierson, Rebecca C

    2017-05-01

    Medication use is common in pregnancy, yet for most medications the optimal formulation and dosage have not been described specifically for pregnant women. Often, adverse effects are only discovered anecdotally or after extensive off-label use occurs. Since pharmacologic research that includes pregnant women is sparse and animal studies are often not applicable to the human fetus, providers must use knowledge of drug behavior and normal physiologic changes of pregnancy to personalize treatment for pregnant women. In this review, we present an overview of the basic concepts of clinical pharmacology: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenomics. The normal physiologic changes of pregnancy are presented as a framework to understand alterations in drug behavior. A clinical vignette that addresses 4 pregnancy scenarios involving medications-preterm birth, vaccination, herpes simplex virus infection, and codeine toxicity-is provided to illustrate application of core clinical pharmacologic concepts. Discussion of relevant literature illustrates the challenges of offering individualized pharmacologic therapy in pregnancy. © 2017 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  20. [Iron status in pregnant women and its changes during preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Malek-mellouli, Monia; Amara, Fethi Ben; Loussaief, Wafa; Reziga, Hédi

    2013-10-01

    Micronutrients or trace elements are minerals essential for growth and development of the body human. To analyze changes in normal pregnancy and during preeclampsia, serum iron and its main proteins: ferritin and soluble transferrin receptors. This is a prospective study of case- control study of 56 pregnant women and 30 non-pregnant women selected as controls. Pregnant women received a quarterly dosing paramètres. The same assays were performed once in controls. The comparative assay of various parameters in normal pregnancy and in control women showed a significant decrease in serum iron from 1 to the third quarter, a slight decline in reserves ferritin in 1st and 2nd quarter increases and becomes significant in the third quarter and an increase of soluble receptors trasferrine during pregnancy, which becomes significant in the third quarter. We noted a disturbance of these parameters in preeclampsia. Iron is essential for fetal development. His involvement in several maternal- fetal complications is not to dismantle .

  1. Estimation of DMFT, Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count, Flow Rate, Ph, and Salivary Total Calcium Content in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Kamate, Wasim Ismail; Vibhute, Nupura Aniket; Baad, Rajendra Krishna

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area. The aim of the present study was to assess the severity of dental caries in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women by evaluating parameters like Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, flow rate, pH and total calcium content. A total of 50 first time pregnant women in the first trimester were followed during their second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period for the evaluation of DMFT by World Health Organization (WHO) scoring criteria, salivary flow rate by drooling method, salivary pH by pH meter, salivary total calcium content by bioassay test kit and salivary Streptococcus mutans count by semiautomatic counting of colonies grown on Mitis Salivarius (MS) agar supplemented by 0.2U/ml of bacitracin and 10% sucrose. The observations of pregnant women were then compared with same parameters evaluated in the 50 non-pregnant women. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon sign rank test were performed to assess the association between the study parameters. Evaluation of different caries risk factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women clearly showed that pregnant women were at a higher risk for dental caries. Comparison of caries risk parameters during the three trimesters and postpartum period showed that the salivary Streptococcus mutans count had significantly increased in the second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period while the mean pH and mean salivary total calcium content decreased in the third trimester and postpartum period. These changes

  2. [HIV infection in pregnant women in Dakar (Senegal)].

    PubMed

    Diouf, A; Kebe, F; Faye, E O; Diallo, D; Ndour Sarr, A; Mboup, S; Diadhiou, F

    1996-01-01

    The epidemiologic and sociodemographic characteristics of human deficiency virus (HIV) infection vary from one country to another. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women in Dakar and associated factors. Systematic anonymous screening was performed in pregnant women admitted to the maternity ward. Women whose seropositivity was confirmed by Western blot retroviral serology were included. One woman out of four was assigned by simple random selection to the case control group. Over a 24 month period, 12,498 women were tested. 104 were seropositive (44 HIV1, 58HIV2, and 2 HIV1-HIV2 giving a prevalence of 0.8%. Factors associated with HIV1 and HIV2 were different: mean age 21.7 years for HIV1 versus 30.6 for HIV 2 (p = 0.05); origin in Guinea-Bissau for HIV2 (p = 0.001); mean number of pregnancies 2.6 for HIV1 versus 5.9 for HIV2 (p = 0.001); mean parity 1.5 for HIV1 versus 4.5 for HIV2 (p < 0.01); vitality of the conception product in 85.1% for HIV2 versus 67.5% for HIV1 (p = 0.0001). These data confirm the low prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women, with a predominance for HIV2. The factors identified in associated with virus type suggest a different mode of transmission and/or reduced virulence or HIV2 compared with HIV1. Knowledge of these factors helps orient management strategies, especially in pregnant women.

  3. Thyroid function and thyroid autoimmunity in apparently healthy pregnant and non-pregnant Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Frank A; Reyes-Mendez, Miguel A; Nicholson, Lisa; Compean, Lourdes Puerto; Tavera, Miriam Lugo

    2014-09-01

    Thyroid disorders are common in women of reproductive age, and thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy has been associated with adverse outcomes for mother and child. Thyroid function and thyroid function tests (TFTs) can be influenced by a variety of factors, such as ethnicity, the presence of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), dietary iodine intake, pregnancy, and methodological differences. However, no large-scale studies have been published which examine TFTs and prevalence of AITD in Mexican pregnant women and women of reproductive age. TFTs and thyroid autoantibody testing were performed on 660 pregnant and 104 non-pregnant women from Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico. After removal of thyroid autoantibody positive individuals and women with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) >4.94 mIU/L, reference intervals were calculated for TFT for non-pregnant women and pregnant women by trimester. Anti-thyroidperoxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) and/or anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab) were positive in 14.4% and 13.5% of non-pregnant and pregnant women, respectively. TSH values were significantly higher in women who were positive for TPO-Ab and co-positive for TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab. TSH values were also significantly higher in Tg-Ab positive pregnant women. Other TFTs were not significantly different based on antibody status. Using antibody negative women, reference intervals were determined for TFTs in pregnant (gestational age-specific) and non-pregnant women. Laboratory evidence of AITD is common in this population of Mexican pregnant and non-pregnant women. TFT results and reference intervals are influenced by pregnancy and thyroid autoimmunity. For optimal interpretation of TFT results, gestational age-specific reference intervals established using a local patient population should be used.

  4. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... on eating seafood while you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Learn more from the link below. Check with ... or concern. Food safety advice while you are breastfeeding your baby: Follow the food safety advice for ...

  5. Steps to take before you get pregnant

    MedlinePlus

    ... in pregnancy. Stop Smoking, Alcohol, and Drugs. Limit Caffeine If you smoke, drink alcohol, or use drugs, ... your life. You should also cut down on caffeine when you are trying to get pregnant. Women ...

  6. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adults Moms/ Moms-to-Be Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Feb 9, 2017 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...

  7. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Zika Virus Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies Language: English ( ... Pregnancy Registry (50 US states and DC) Problem Zika infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects ...

  8. Counselor Values and the Pregnant Adolescent Client.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Bebe C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews options counselors can suggest to pregnant adolescents, including abortion, adoption, marriage, and single parenthood. Discusses the need for counselors to be aware of their own values and help the client explore her values. (JAC)

  9. Designing Drug Trials: Considerations for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Siegel, David; Mirochnick, Mark; Heine, R. Phillips; Nguyen, Christine; Bergman, Kimberly L.; Savic, Rada M.; Long, Jill; Dooley, Kelly E.; Nesin, Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Clinical pharmacology studies that describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in pregnant women are critical for informing on the safe and effective use of drugs during pregnancy. That being said, multiple factors have hindered the ability to study drugs in pregnant patients. These include concerns for maternal and fetal safety, ethical considerations, the difficulty in designing appropriate trials to assess the study objectives, and funding limitations. This document summarizes the recommendations of a panel of experts convened by the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. These experts were charged with reviewing the issues related to the development of preclinical and clinical drug studies in pregnant women and to develop strategies for addressing these issues. These findings may also be utilized in the development of future drug studies involving pregnant women and their fetus/neonate. PMID:25425722

  10. Counselor Values and the Pregnant Adolescent Client.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Bebe C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews options counselors can suggest to pregnant adolescents, including abortion, adoption, marriage, and single parenthood. Discusses the need for counselors to be aware of their own values and help the client explore her values. (JAC)

  11. The Pregnant Client: Understanding and Counseling Her.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassoff, Evelyn Silten

    1983-01-01

    Discusses counseling techniques for pregnant clients, emphasizing the need to understand the normal psychological changes of pregnancy, i.e., issues of oneness and separation, restructuring relationships, and fantasies. Suggests counseling goals of facilitating personal reorganization and decreasing stress. (WAS)

  12. Pregnant Children: A Socio-Educational Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrixson, Linda L.

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on the extent of teenage pregnancy in the United States, describes programs for pregnant teenagers in New Jersey, and offers suggestions for change in the way the problem of teenage pregnancy is being handled. (IRT)

  13. Use of Herbal Medicine Among Pregnant Women on Antenatal Care at Nekemte Hospital, Western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bayisa, Bodena; Tatiparthi, Ramanjireddy; Mulisa, Eshetu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Investigations across the world confirm dramatic increment in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnant women. The most important aspect is lack of awareness of pregnant women about potential effects of using traditional medicine on fetus; some herbal products may be teratogenic in human and animal models. In this area, so far, no research has been conducted in Ethiopia to assess traditional medicine use in pregnant women. Objectives: Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and use of herbal drugs among pregnant women attending Nekemte Hospital to provide baseline information for future studies. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by quantitative and qualitative approaches to identify the prevalence of using herbal medicines among pregnant women. About 50.4% of study participants used herbal drugs during their pregnancy. The proportion of herbal drug usage was gradually decreased along with the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The most and least commonly used herbs were ginger (44.36%) and tenaadam (9.15 %), respectively. The common indications of herbal remedies use during pregnancy were nausea (23.90%) and morning sickness (21.05%). Results: The result of the present study confirmed wide use of herbal drugs use during pregnancy that need to report the safety concerns of these drugs during pregnancy. Conclusions: To achieve the requirements of pregnant women, it is vital for health care workers to be familiar with the effect of herbal medicine in pregnancy. PMID:25625049

  14. Immunohistochemical localization of specific relaxin-binding cells in the cervix, mammary glands, and nipples of pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Kuenzi, M J; Sherwood, O D

    1995-04-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that endogenous circulating relaxin promotes the growth and softening of the cervix, the development of the mammary glands, and the growth and development of nipples. Due to the remarkably similar modifications in the histological appearance of the extracellular matrix in the cervix, mammary glands, and nipples, we hypothesized that there may be a common mechanism(s) of action of relaxin in these tissues. A fundamental step toward understanding this mechanism is to identify specific cells that contain relaxin receptors, that is to identify those cells that initiate relaxin's effects within relaxin target tissues. To identify specific relaxin-binding cells in the cervix, mammary glands, and nipples of the pregnant rat, a biologically active biotinylated relaxin probe was prepared. This probe for putative relaxin receptors was administered to intact rats on day 18 of pregnancy. After 1 h, the animals were killed, and tissues were fixed by immersion in 4% paraformaldehyde for 10 h. Fixed tissues were rinsed in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and cryoprotected in an ascending series of 5%, 10%, and 20% sucrose solutions. The tissues were frozen in Tissue-Tek O.C.T. compound and stored at -70 C until sectioning. Frozen sections (12 microns) were cut on a Tissue Tek II cryostat at -24 C and thaw mounted on slides coated with 0.01% poly-l-lysine (mol wt, 300-6000). The biotinylated relaxin was localized in cryosections with an antibiotin immunoglobulin G conjugated to colloidal gold, which was subsequently visualized for light microscopy with silver intensification. Specific binding of the biotinylated relaxin was localized in the epithelial and smooth muscle cells of the cervix, the epithelial cells of the mammary glands, and the epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and skin of the nipples. We conclude that those cells exhibiting specific relaxin binding probably contain relaxin receptors and, therefore, mediate relaxin's effects in these

  15. An observational assessment of the sublingual microcirculation of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    George, R B; Munro, A; Abdo, I; McKeen, D M; Lehmann, C

    2014-02-01

    The microcirculation is responsible for distribution of blood within tissues, delivery of oxygen and other nutrients, and regulation of blood pressure. The objective of this study was to compare the sublingual microcirculation of pregnant participants to that of comparable non-pregnant volunteers. Two groups of participants were recruited: a group of pregnant, non-laboring women with singleton pregnancies at term gestation and a control group of age-comparable non-pregnant volunteers. A sidestream dark field imaging device was applied to the sublingual mucosal surface obtaining a steady image for at least 20 s duration, in five visual fields. The resultant five video clips per participant were analyzed blindly and at random to prevent coupling between images. The mean microvascular flow index values for each group were compared using a paired t-test. Thirty-seven participants were recruited (19 pregnant, 18 non-pregnant); a single pregnant participant was withdrawn because of technical issues. Baseline characteristics were similar with the exception of weight and body mass index. The mean microvascular flow index was significantly higher in the pregnant group 2.7 ± 0.2 compared to the non-pregnant group 2.5 ± 0.3 (P = 0.021), while the perfused vessel density and proportion of perfused vessels were not significantly different (P = 0.707 and 0.403, respectively). The microvascular flow index of pregnant women is higher than a comparable non-pregnant group, which appears to correlate with the physiological changes of pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Urinary metabolomics revealed arsenic exposure related to metabolic alterations in general Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Wang, Mu; Liang, Qiande; Jin, Shuna; Sun, Xiaojie; Jiang, Yangqian; Pan, Xingyun; Zhou, Yanqiu; Peng, Yang; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Aifen; Zhang, Yiming; Chen, Zhong; Cao, Jiangxia; Zhang, Hongling; Xia, Wei; Zheng, Tongzhang; Cai, Zongwei; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Shunqing

    2017-01-06

    Arsenic exposure is considered a major environmental threat to human health. It is already known that high-level arsenic exposure has adverse effects on human health. Since the pregnant women are known to be more susceptible to some chemical exposures than ordinary people, the understanding regarding the health effects of low-level arsenic exposure on pregnant women is critical and remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the urinary metabolic changes of pregnant women exposed to low-dose arsenic, and to identify biomarkers from metabolomics analysis. Urine samples of 246 pregnant women were collected in the first trimester of pregnancy and were divided into three groups based on the tertile distribution of urinary arsenic concentrations which were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Changes in the metabolite profile were measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS). Arsenic- related metabolic biomarkers were investigated by comparing the samples of the first and third tertiles of arsenic exposure classifications using a partial least-squares discriminant model (PLS-DA). Nine urine potential biomarkers were putatively identified, including LysoPC (14:0), glutathione, 18-carboxy-dinor-LTE4, 20-COOH-LTE4, cystathionine ketimin, 1-(beta-d-ribofuranosyl)-1,4-dihydronicotinamide, thiocysteine, p-cresol glucuronide and vanillactic acid. The obtained results showed that environmental arsenic exposure, even at low levels, could cause metabolite alterations in pregnant women which might be associated with adverse health outcomes. This is the first report on metabolic changes in pregnant women for arsenic exposure. The findings may be valuable for the arsenic risk assessment for pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of fenoterol in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    von Mandach, U; Böni, R; Danko, J; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1995-02-01

    The beta 2-sympathomimetic drug fenoterol (fenoterol hydrobromide, CAS 1944-12-3, Partusisten) is routinely used to inhibit uterine contractions (tocolysis). Investigations of plasma concentrations of those receiving i.v. or oral tocolysis often show different results, both within particular groups of pregnant women and in comparison with non-pregnant persons. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of fenoterol in pregnant women, an important factor which so far had not been known. Four healthy pregnant women with similar weight and gestational age and all with premature labor were administered a continuous intravenous infusion of 4 micrograms fenoterol/min. During and up to 24 hours after the end of the infusion, venous blood samples were taken in order to determine the fenoterol plasma concentrations by radioimmunoassay. From a steady state concentration (css) of 2242 +/- 391 pg/ml (x +/- S.E.), a non-linear two-phased plasma elimination was seen with half-lives t1/2 of 11.40 min and 4.87 h. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-12h) was 6.27 ng/ml x h. The total clearance (Cltot) was 114.8 l/h. These data are nearly the same as the data already known for healthy non-pregnant (male) volunteers. The deviations which are seen in the plasma concentrations in pregnant women in comparison to non-pregnant persons during or after continuous i.v. infusion can therefore not be caused by differences in the pharmacokinetics. Other factors, however, such as body weight and/or gestational age, might influence the results.

  18. Iodine deficiency in Danish pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Sørensen, Louise Kolding; Krejbjerg, Anne; Møller, Margrethe; Laurberg, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Maternal iodine requirements increase during pregnancy. Studies performed before the introduction of mandatory iodine fortification of salt in Denmark in 2000 showed that pregnant women with no intake of iodine-containing supplements were moderately iodine-deficient and showed signs of thyroidal stress. We investigated the intake of iodine-containing supplements and urinary iodine excretion in Danish pregnant women after the introduction of iodine fortification of salt. We conducted a cross-sectional study between June and August 2012 in an area of Denmark where iodine deficiency had previously been moderate. Pregnant women coming to Aalborg University Hospital for obstetric ultrasound were recruited consecutively. Participants filled in a questionnaire and handed in a spot urine sample for measurement of iodine and creatinine. Among the pregnant women included (n = 245) 84.1% reported an intake of iodine-containing supplements, and compared with those not taking iodine supplements the median urinary iodine concentration was significantly higher in this group: 109 g/l (25th-75th percentile: 66-191 µg/l). On the other hand, the median urinary iodine concentration was considerably below the recommended level, even for the non-pregnant state in pregnant women with no iodine supplement intake: 68 µg/l (35-93 µg/l), p < 0.001. The majority of pregnant women took iodine-containing supplements, but the subgroup of non-users was still iodine-deficient after the introduction of iodine fortification of salt. Iodine supplement intake during pregnancy in Denmark should be officially recommended. The study was supported by a grant from Musikforlæggerne Agnes og Knut Mørks Fond and from Speciallæge Heinrich Kopps Legat. not relevant.

  19. Electrical impedance spectroscopy of the cervix in non-pregnant and pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Saurabh V; Walker, Dawn; Milnes, Pete; Mukherjee, Soma; Brown, Brian H; Anumba, Dilly O C

    2006-12-01

    We sought to validate and measure the electrical impedance of the uterine cervix in non-pregnant and pregnant women by spectroscopy. Cervical stromal impedance (CSI) was measured in 50 non-pregnant, 20 1st, 20 2nd and 50 3rd trimester pregnant women. The technique was also validated by comparing in vivo data to a finite element (FE) model of cervical tissue. CSI agreed well with the FE model and was highly reproducible in all study groups. Mean (S.E.) CSI at 4-819 kHz was higher in pregnant (2.78 +/- 0.09 Omega m) compared to non-pregnant (2.38 +/- 0.07, p < 0.01) women, and in the 3rd trimester (3.08 +/- 0.13) compared to non-pregnant (p < 0.01), 1st trimester (2.42 +/- 0.12, p < 0.001) and 2nd trimester (2.20 +/- 0.05, p < 0.001) pregnant women. Measurement of CSI provides a non-invasive method of assessing cervical tissue characteristics. Cervical extracellular matrix synthesis and leukocyte infiltration may account for the increased tissue impedance noted in the 3rd trimester.

  20. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for bisphenol A in pregnant mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamoto, Yuko; Matsuyama, Wakoto; Wada, Masahiro; Hishikawa, Junko; Chan, Melissa Pui Ling; Nakayama, Aki; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2007-10-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a weakly estrogenic monomer used to produce polymers for food contact and other applications, so there is potential for oral exposure of humans to trace amounts via ingestion. To date, no physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model has been located for BPA in pregnant mice with or without fetuses. An estimate by a mathematical model is essential since information on humans is difficult to obtain experimentally. The PBPK model was constructed based on the pharmacokinetic data of our experiment following single oral administration of BPA to pregnant mice. The risk assessment of bisphenol A (BPA) on the development of human offspring is an important issue. There have been limited data on the exposure level of human fetuses to BPA (e.g. BPA concentration in cord blood) and no information is available on the pharmacokinetics of BPA in humans with or without fetuses. In the present study, we developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model describing the pharmacokinetics of BPA in a pregnant mouse with the prospect of future extrapolation to humans. The PBPK model was constructed based on the pharmacokinetic data of an experiment we executed on pregnant mice following single oral administration of BPA. The model could describe the rapid transfer of BPA through the placenta to the fetus and the slow disappearance from fetuses. The simulated time courses after three-time repeated oral administrations of BPA by the constructed model fitted well with the experimental data, and the simulation for the 10 times lower dose was also consistent with the experiment. This suggested that the PBPK model for BPA in pregnant mice was successfully verified and is highly promising for extrapolation to humans who are expected to be exposed more chronically to lower doses.

  1. Comparative magnitude and kinetics of human cytomegalovirus-specific CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-cell responses in pregnant women with primary versus remote infection and in transmitting versus non-transmitting mothers: Its utility for dating primary infection in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Fornara, Chiara; Furione, Milena; Arossa, Alessia; Gerna, Giuseppe; Lilleri, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    To discriminate between primary (PI) and remote (RI) human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, several immunological parameters were monitored for a 2-year period in 53 pregnant women with PI, and 33 pregnant women experiencing HCMV PI at least 5 years prior. Cytokine (IFN-γ and IL-2) production by and phenotype (effector/memory CD45RA(+)) of HCMV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells as well as the lymphoproliferative responses (LPR) were evaluated, with special reference to the comparison between a group of women transmitting (T) and a group of non-transmitting (NT) the infection to fetus. While HCMV-specific CD4(+) T-cells reached at 90 days post-infection (p.i.) values comparable to RI, CD8(+) T-cells reached at 60 days p.i. levels significantly higher and persisting throughout the entire follow-up. Instead, IL-2 production and lymphoproliferative responses were lower in PI than RI for the entire follow-up period. Effector memory CD45RA(+) CD4(+) and CD8(+) HCMV-specific T-cells increased until 90 days p.i., reaching and maintaining levels higher than RI. The comparison between T and NT women showed that, at 30 days p.i., in NT women there was a significantly higher IL-2 production by HCMV-specific CD4(+) T-cells, and at 60 days p.i. a significantly higher frequency of both specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) CD45RA(+) T-cells. HCMV T-cell response appears to correlate with virus transmission to fetus and some parameters (CD4(+) lymphoproliferation, and frequency of HCMV-specific CD8(+) IL2(+) T-cells) may help in dating PI during pregnancy.

  2. Everyday life memory deficits in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Cuttler, Carrie; Graf, Peter; Pawluski, Jodi L; Galea, Liisa A M

    2011-03-01

    Converging evidence indicates that pregnant women report experiencing problems with memory, but the results of studies using objective measures are ambiguous. The present study investigated potential reason(s) for the discrepancy between findings of subjective and objective memory deficits, as well as potential source(s) of pregnant women's problems with memory. Sixty-one pregnant and 24 nonpregnant women completed a series of memory tests which included field and laboratory measures of prospective memory. Three standardized questionnaires were used to assess subjective aspects of memory. The influence of cortisol, depressed mood, anxiety, physical symptoms, sleep/fatigue, and busyness on pregnancy-related deficits was also examined. The findings revealed objective pregnancy-related deficits on two of the field measures of prospective memory. Pregnancy-related subjective deficits were also detected on all of the questionnaires. In contrast, no objective pregnancy-related deficits were found on the laboratory measures of memory. Increased physical symptoms accounted for one of the objective deficits in memory, while depressed mood and physical symptoms accounted for two of the subjective memory deficits. Collectively, these findings suggest that pregnant women experience everyday life problems with memory that are not readily detected in the laboratory environment. The predominant use of laboratory tests may explain the myriad of previous failures to detect objective deficits in pregnant women's memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Management of pregnant patient in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Sophia; Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Sriram, Roopa Rani; Sriram, Sanjay Krishna; Rao V K, Prabhakara; Bhupathi, Anitha; Bodduru, Rupa Rani; N Patil, Namrata

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to update general dentists and maxillofacial surgeons in the perioperative management of the pregnant patient. Pregnancy results in physiologic changes in almost all organ systems in the body mediated mainly by hormones; which influences the treatment schedule. Understanding these normal changes is essential for providing quality care for pregnant women. The general principles that apply in this situation are discussed, followed by the relevant physiologic changes and their treatment implications, the risks of various medications to the mother and fetus, the management of concomitant medical problems in the pregnant patient, appropriate timing of oral and maxillofacial surgery during pregnancy, and management of emergencies during pregnancy. Information about the compatibility, complications, and excretion of the common drugs during pregnancy is provided. Guidelines for the management of a pregnant patient in the dental office are summarized. How to cite this article: Kurien S, Kattimani V S, Sriram R, Sriram S K, Prabhakar Rao V K, Bhupathi A, Bodduru R, Patil N N. Management of Pregnant Patient in Dentistry. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):88-97.

  4. Comparison of pregnant and non-pregnant occupant crash and injury characteristics based on national crash data.

    PubMed

    Manoogian, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide specific characteristics of injuries and crash characteristics for pregnant occupants from the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) database for pregnant women as a group, broken down by trimester, and compared to non-pregnant women. Using all NASS/CDS cases collected between the years 2000 and 2012 with at least one pregnant occupant, the entire pregnant data set included 321,820 vehicles, 324,535 occupants, and 640,804 injuries. The pregnant occupant data were compared to the characteristics of NASS/CDS cases for 14,719,533 non-pregnant females 13-44 years old in vehicle crashes from 2000 to 2012. Sixty five percent of pregnant women were located in the front left seat position and roughly the same percentage of pregnant women was wearing a lap and shoulder belt. The average change in velocity was 11.6 mph for pregnant women and over 50% of crashes for pregnant women were frontal collisions. From these collisions, less than seven percent of pregnant women sustained MAIS 2+ injuries. Minor differences between the pregnant and non-pregnant occupants were identified in the body region and source of injuries sustained. However, the data indicated no large differences in injury or crash characteristics based on trimester of pregnancy. Moreover, the risk of an MAIS 2+ level injury for pregnant occupants is similar to the risk of injury for non-pregnant occupants based on the total vehicle change in velocity. Overall this study provides useful data for researchers to focus future efforts in pregnant occupant research. Additionally, this study reinforces that more detailed and complete data on pregnant crashes needs to be collected to understand the risk for pregnant occupants.

  5. [Secretory immunoglobulin A in the amniotic fluid of healthy pregnant females].

    PubMed

    Briese, V; Straube, W; Brock, J; Stark, K H; Lorenz, U

    1983-01-01

    Amniotic fluid levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-AgA) were measured by simple radial immunodiffusion according to the method of Mancini using a monospecific antiserum against the human secretory component. 256 samples from healthy pregnant women were examined. Amniotic fluid S-IgA concentration increases significantly during normal pregnancy and shows a loose correlation to the phospholipid level.

  6. Challenges in Interventional Radiology: The Pregnant Patient

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eunice K.; Wang, Weiping; Newman, James S.; Bayona-Molano, Maria Del Pilar

    2013-01-01

    A pregnant patient presenting to interventional radiology (IR) has a different set of needs from any other patient requiring a procedure. Often, the patient's care can be in direct conflict with the growth and development of the fetus, whether it be optimal fluoroscopic imaging, adequate sedation of the mother, or the timing of the needed procedure. Despite the additional risks and complexities associated with pregnancy, IR procedures can be performed safely for the pregnant patient with knowledge of the special and general needs of the pregnant patient, use of acceptable medications and procedures likely to be encountered during pregnancy, in addition to strategies to protect the patient and her fetus from the hazards of radiation. PMID:24436567

  7. [Cartography of healthcare for pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da; Costa, Milena Silva; Matsue, Regina Yoshie; Sousa, Girliani Silva de; Catrib, Ana Maria Fontenelle; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza

    2012-03-01

    This work uses cartography as a method for mapping the trajectory of primary healthcare provided to pregnant women. The scope of the study comprises 9 Basic Healthcare Units located in the city of Juazeiro do Norte in the State of Ceará. In all, fifteen women in the 37th to 39th week of pregnancy were selected. Interviews were conducted with these women during the period from January to June 2010. The cartographic findings were depicted in stages in the flowchart, which exposed lacunas in prenatal healthcare, such as the low number of oncotic cytology exams conducted and the lack of educational counseling. Nevertheless, in the interviews, a significant number of pregnant women expressed satisfaction with the prenatal care provided. The good relationships developed between the healthcare professionals and the pregnant women were the main reason that led them to continue the treatment. This fact reinforces the importance of dialogue between these two actors for the success of prenatal healthcare.

  8. Assisting pregnant women to prepare for disaster.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Bonnie; Buchholtz, Susan; Rotanz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Disasters are natural or man-made life-altering events that require preplanning to save lives. Pregnant women are a particularly vulnerable population in such events, because they have special physical and psychosocial needs. Preparations made for labor and birth might have to be drastically altered in the event of an emergency, especially if a woman is separated from her familiar healthcare providers and facilities. The issue of breastfeeding also must be considered in disaster planning for pregnant women, along with occurrences such as food shortages and outbreak of illnesses caused by overcrowding of displaced persons. Recent events such as hurricane Katrina have demonstrated that maternal/child nurses need to become more aware of disaster planning and help to empower pregnant women with knowledge of how to handle their special needs in times of crisis.

  9. Syphilis in pregnant women in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Liljestrand, J; Bergström, S; Nieuwenhuis, F; Hederstedt, B

    1985-12-01

    To establish the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women in Mozambique and evaluate present diagnostic methods, 1468 pregnant women in eight of the country's 10 provinces were examined using the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. Positive serum samples were also analysed using the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA) assay and one group was also analysed using the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorbed (FTA-ABS) test. The prevalence of VDRL seroreactivity was found to be between 4.5% and 14.6%, whereas the prevalence of treponemal disease as verified by TPHA or FTA-ABS tests was between 1.6% and 9.8%. It is concluded that syphilis is relatively common among pregnant women in Mozambique. The predictive value of a positive VDRL test, when adequately performed, was

  10. [Epidemiological characteristics of depressed Mexican pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Ceballos-Martínez, Inés; Sandoval-Jurado, Luis; Jaimes-Mundo, Erika; Medina-Peralta, Gloria; Madera-Gamboa, Joel; Fernández-Arias, Yuri Francisco

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of depression in pregnant women, the epidemiological characteristics and associated factors. A cross-comparison, with a sample of 220 pregnant women between 18 and 32 weeks gestation. We excluded patients with depression six months before the current pregnancy. Depressed women were 6.4 %, mean age 26 years and 21.4 % were adolescent. The majority women were high school students (50 %); 71.4 % belong to a low medium socioeconomic status; 21.4 % were without a partner; 35.7 % had depression history in the family and 28.6 % had a history of prior antidepressant treatment. The prevalence of depression in Mexican pregnant women was low. Risk factors associated to depression were young age, low socio-economical status, a lack of a partner, a history of depression in the family.

  11. Effects of zinc deficiency and supplementation on leptin and leptin receptor expression in pregnant mice.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Hidenori; Nakai, Taketo; Konishi, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Keiichi; Sakazaki, Fumitoshi; Min, Kyong-Son

    2014-01-01

    Leptin is an adipose-derived hormone that primarily regulates energy balance in response to nutrition. Human placental cells produce leptin, whereas murine placental cells produce soluble leptin receptors (Ob-R). However, the roles of these proteins during pregnancy have not been elucidated completely. As an essential metal, zinc (Zn) is central to insulin biosynthesis and energy metabolism. In the present study, the effects of Zn deficiency and supplementation on maternal plasma leptin and soluble Ob-R regulation in pregnant mice placentas were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. Nutritional Zn deficiency significantly reduced plasma insulin concentrations and fetal and placental weights in pregnant mice. Plasma leptin concentrations in pregnant mice also increased 20- to 40-fold compared with those in non-pregnant mice. Although dietary Zn deficiency and supplementation did not affect plasma leptin concentrations in non-pregnant mice, Zn-deficient pregnant mice had significantly reduced plasma leptin concentrations and adipose leptin mRNA expression. In contrast, Zn-supplemented pregnant mice had increased plasma leptin concentrations without increased adipose leptin mRNA expression. Placental soluble Ob-R mRNA expression also decreased in Zn-deficient mice and tended to increase in Zn-supplemented mice. These results indicate that Zn influences plasma leptin concentrations by modulating mRNA expression of soluble Ob-R in the placenta, and leptin in visceral fat during pregnancy. These data suggest that both adipose and placenta-derived leptin system are involved in the regulation of energy metabolism during fetal growth.

  12. The pregnant heart: cardiac emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Alyson J; Barron, Rebecca; Rosene-Montella, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular emergencies in pregnant patients are often considered a rare event; however, heart disease as a cause of maternal mortality is steadily increasing. In this article, we review 3 common cardiovascular emergencies and the important subtle differences in their treatment in the pregnant patient: peripartum/postpartum cardiomyopathy, acute myocardial infarction, and cardiac resuscitation. Managing these conditions in the emergency department setting requires a high index of suspicion, knowledge of anatomical and physiologic changes associated with pregnancy, and updated management strategies related to optimizing maternal and fetal health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Multivitamin supplements for pregnant women. New insights.

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Eric; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A.; Koren, Gideon

    2004-01-01

    QUESTION: One of my patients is planning pregnancy and has started taking multivitamin supplements. She is experiencing gastric discomfort. What are the alternatives? ANSWER: Gastric discomfort is usually related to iron intake; pregnant women could use supplements with less iron. Pregnant women need 0.4 to 1.0 mg of folic acid daily. If they have a family history of neural tube defects (NTDs), insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, or epilepsy, or are currently taking valproic acid, carbamazepine, or antifolates (eg, sulfonamides), they are at intermediate-to-high risk of having babies with NTDs and need 4.0 to 5.0 mg of folic acid daily. PMID:15171671

  14. Anesthetic management of pregnant women with stroke.

    PubMed

    Yoshitani, Kenji; Inatomi, Yuzuru; Kuwajima, Ken; Ohnishi, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Stroke during pregnancy is rare, but after occurring, most patients develop serious neurological conditions. Hemorrhagic stroke, including intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage, often requires emergency surgical intervention. In addition to significant maternal physiological changes, the potential for fetal harm should be considered during anesthetic management of these patients. Whether cesarean section or neurosurgical intervention should be prioritized or performed simultaneously in pregnant women with stroke is an important issue. Whether the patients receive general or spinal and epidural anesthesia is another clinically significant issue. Finally neurosurgeons, anesthesiologists, and obstetricians should cooperate to manage pregnant women with stroke.

  15. Antiviral therapy for hepatitis C: Has anything changed for pregnant/lactating women?

    PubMed

    Spera, Anna Maria; Eldin, Tarek Kamal; Tosone, Grazia; Orlando, Raffaele

    2016-04-28

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects about 3% of the world's population, with the highest prevalence in individuals under 40. The prevalence in pregnant women varies with geographical distribution (highest in developing countries). Prevalence also increases in sub-populations of women at high risk for blood-transmitted infections. HCV infection in pregnancy represents a non-negligible problem. However, most of the past antiviral regimens cannot be routinely offered to pregnant or breastfeeding women because of their side effects. We briefly reviewed the issue of treatment of HCV infection in pregnant/breastfeeding women focusing on the effects of the new direct-acting antivirals on fertility, pregnancy and lactation in animal studies and on the potential risk for humans based on the pharmacokinetic properties of each drug. Currently, all new therapy regimens are contraindicated in this setting because of lack of sufficient safety information and adequate measures of contraception are still routinely recommended for female patients of childbearing potential.

  16. The dissemination of smoking cessation methods for pregnant women: achieving the year 2000 objectives.

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, R A; Li, C Q; Lowe, J B; Perkins, L L; Ershoff, D; Glynn, T

    1993-01-01

    The smoking prevalence rate among adult women and pregnant women has decreased only 0.3 to 0.5% per year since 1969. Without a nationwide dissemination of efficacious smoking cessation methods based on these trends, by the year 2000 the smoking prevalence among pregnant women will be approximately 18%. This estimate is well above the US Department of Health and Human Services Year 2000 Objective of 10%. The US dissemination of tested smoking cessation methods could help an additional 12,900 to 155,000 pregnant smokers annually and 600,000 to 1,481,000 cumulatively to quit smoking during the 1990s. Dissemination could help achieve 31 to 78% of the Year 2000 Objectives for pregnancy smoking prevalence. (With dissemination, at best a 15% smoking prevalence during pregnancy, rather than the 10% objective, is likely to be observed.) Our results confirm a well-documented need for a national campaign to disseminate smoking cessation methods. PMID:8427318

  17. Urinary antibiotics of pregnant women in Eastern China and cumulative health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hexing; Wang, Na; Qian, Junhua; Hu, Lingyun; Huang, Peixin; Su, Meifang; Yu, Xin; Fu, Chaowei; Jiang, Feng; Zhao, Qi; Zhou, Ying; Lin, Haijiang; He, Gengsheng; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qingwu

    2017-02-23

    Exposure to antibiotics during pregnancy can pose a systematic effect on human health. A few bio-monitoring studies have demonstrated an extensive exposure of children to antibiotics, but there is still lack of data for pregnant women. To assess the exposure of pregnant women to antibiotics and potential health risk, we investigated 536 pregnant women aged 16-42 years from two geographically different study sites in Eastern China in 2015. We measured 21 antibiotics of five categories (seven fluoroquinolones, three phenicols, four tetracyclines, three macrolides, and four sulfonamides) in urines by using the isotope dilution ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of-flight mass spectrometry. Hazard index (HI) was calculated based on estimated daily exposure dose and acceptable daily intakes. Sixteen antibiotics were found in urines with detection frequencies between 0.2% and 16.0%. Antibiotics were overall detected in 41.6% of urines, and two or more antibiotics were detected in 13.1% of urines. Ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were most frequently detected in urine with detection frequencies between 10% and 20%. The majority of the antibiotics tested had an estimated daily exposure dose less than 1μg/kg/day and 4.3% of pregnant women had a HI value more than one. These findings indicated that pregnant women were frequently exposed to antibiotics and some individuals were in the potential risk of adverse microbiological effects induced by antibiotics.

  18. Heat produces uteroplacental circulatory disturbance in pregnant rats through action of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH).

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Nagase, H; Ogino, K; Hatta, K; Matsuzaki, I

    2000-01-01

    There is some evidence showing an existence of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and opioid peptides, including beta-endorphin (betaEP), in human placenta, whereas physiological roles of the placental peptides in response to stress remain to be elucidated. To clarify the involvement of CRH and opioid system in the uteroplacental circulation in the pregnant rats exposed to heat, we examined the effects of heat and intravenous administration of CRH receptor antagonist alpha-helical CRH (9-41) on the uteroplacental blood flow, as well as blood CRH, and blood and placental betaEP in pregnant rats. Heat did not change uterine blood flow in virgin rats, but reduced uteroplacental blood flow in pregnant rats. The reduced uteroplacental blood flow induced by heat in pregnant rats was reversed by the administration of alpha-helical CRH. Independent of the status of pregnancy, heat increased blood CRH, which was not reversed by alpha-helical CRH. Although heat did not change placental betaEP, alpha-helical CRH reduced blood and placenta betaEP in pregnant rats. These results suggest that the uteroplacental circulatory disturbance caused by heat is mediated by CRH, possibly through the involvement of CRH receptor in rat placenta. The placental opioid system seems unlikely to be involved in the mediation of uteroplacental circulation.

  19. Tumor necrosis factor α induces a model of preeclampsia in pregnant baboons (Papio hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Neroli S; Thomson, Sally E; Heffernan, Scott J; Lim, Shirlene; Thompson, John; Ogle, Robert; McKenzie, Paul; Kirwan, Paul J; Makris, Angela; Hennessy, Annemarie

    2011-11-01

    Preeclampsia is a common disease of pregnancy characterised by maternal hypertension and proteinuria. Abnormal placentation in early pregnancy and abnormal cytokine and anti-angiogenic factor expression are thought to contribute to the clinical syndrome of endothelial dysfunction evident in the second half of gestation. The mechanisms underlying both the placental pathology and its translation to the maternal clinical syndrome are not fully understood. A model of preeclampsia manifest by clinically evident endothelial dysfunction (increased blood pressure and proteinuria) was induced by administration of low-dose TNF-α for 2weeks at mid-gestation in pregnant baboons (Papio hamadryas). Blood pressure was monitored continuously and remotely by intra-arterial radiotelemetry. Following TNF-α infusion, there was an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and development of proteinuria in pregnant treated animals, but not in pregnant saline controls nor in non-pregnant TNF-α treated animals. The treated pregnant animals also developed elevated plasma soluble FMS-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT-1) and increased placental mRNA expression of sFLT-1 and soluble endoglin (sEng). These results clearly demonstrate that the cytokine TNF-α can induce the clinical and biochemical features of human preeclampsia. The results identify a link between cytokines, placental dysfunction and endothelial dysfunction resulting in a loss of maternal blood pressure control.

  20. Vaccinating Pregnant Moms Protects Babies from Whooping Cough

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Vaccinating Pregnant Moms Protects Babies From Whooping Cough Benefit is dramatic for newborns who are too ... Babies are far less likely to develop whooping cough if their mother was vaccinated while pregnant, a ...

  1. HIV testing for pregnant women: a rights-based analysis of national policies.

    PubMed

    King, Elizabeth J; Maman, Suzanne; Wyckoff, Sarah C; Pierce, Matthew W; Groves, Allison K

    2013-01-01

    Ethical and human rights concerns have been expressed regarding the global shift in policies on HIV testing of pregnant women. The main purpose of this research was to conduct a policy analysis using a human rights-based approach of national policies for HIV testing of pregnant women. We collected HIV testing policies from 19 countries including: Cambodia, China, Guyana, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Moldova, Papua New Guinea, Russian Federation, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Ukraine, United States, Uzbekistan, Zambia and Zimbabwe. We analysed the HIV testing policies using a standardised framework that focused on government obligations to respect, protect and fulfil. Our results highlight the need for more attention to issues of pregnant women's autonomy in consenting to HIV testing, confidentiality in antenatal care settings and provision of counselling and care services. We conclude with a discussion about potential implications of the current testing policies and provide recommendations for ways that HIV testing policies can more effectively uphold the human rights of pregnant women.

  2. Population pharmacokinetics of abacavir in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Fauchet, Floris; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Préta, Laure-Helene; Valade, Elodie; Pannier, Emmanuelle; Urien, Saik; Hirt, Déborah

    2014-10-01

    For the first time, a population approach was used to describe abacavir (ABC) pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant and nonpregnant women. A total of 266 samples from 150 women were obtained. No covariate effect (from age, body weight, pregnancy, or gestational age) on ABC pharmacokinetics was found. Thus, it seems unnecessary to adapt the ABC dosing regimen during pregnancy.

  3. Pharmacotherapy for pregnant women with addictions.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, William F; Bogenschutz, Michael P

    2004-12-01

    Dependence on alcohol, nicotine, or illicit drugs during pregnancy continues to be a problem of major medical, social, and fetal consequences. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize current experience that pertains to pharmacotherapy for pregnant women with specific chemical addictions. Studies were identified through Medline and HealthSTAR (1979-2003) that linked specific pharmacotherapy with pregnancy. This article reviews the English language literature for clinical studies that link the 2 conditions. In addition, reference lists of all articles that were obtained were evaluated for other potential citations. Pregnant women are excluded systematically from almost all drug trials. Most knowledge about the fetal effects from maternal substance and medication use comes from animal data and from case reports and small clinical series. With the exception of methadone and nicotine replacement, clinical experience with antiaddictive medications in pregnant women is either very limited (alcohol, stimulants) or nonexistent (cannabis, hallucinogens). Antiaddiction medications are important in the treatment of pregnant women with opioid and nicotine dependence and are of growing importance in the treatment of alcohol and stimulant dependence. Future directions will be toward increasing knowledge about current drug therapy and in developing new antiaddiction medications.

  4. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    MedlinePlus

    ... have not been shown to cause harm to pregnant women or their developing babies. If you have your baby before getting your flu shot, you still need to get vaccinated. The flu is spread from person to person. You, or others who care for ...

  5. Update: New Rights for Pregnant Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lines, Patricia M.

    1979-01-01

    The 1978 amendment to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 provides that pregnant women may claim any disability and medical benefits extended to other employees for non-job-related disabilities. The author examines the legislation and prior court decisions, noting the distinction between pregnancy benefits and sex discrimination. (MF)

  6. Who is telling pregnant women about listeriosis?

    PubMed

    Smith, Mary Anne E; MacLaurin, Tanya L

    2011-01-01

    During pregnancy, a woman's immune system is compromised and she is at an increased risk of infection and illness. In particular, the risk of contracting foodborne listeriosis is 20 times greater for pregnant women than for other women of reproductive age. Considering the negative effects of listeriosis on the developing fetus and that more than 380,000 babies were born in Canada in 2010, listeriosis is an important public health concern. And yet, in Canada, it is not clear who is responsible for educating pregnant women on the importance of safe food handling and the avoidance of high-risk foods. Not all women attend prenatal education classes and the circle of care during pregnancy is highly variable. Physicians, however, are very often included in the care circle and may represent a consistent, reliable and trustworthy source of food safety information. At present, only one province has prenatal records that prompt physicians to counsel pregnant women on food safety issues, though all include some assessment of nutrition, diet or supplement use. Improving provincial and territorial prenatal records may be one important way of helping to ensure that critical food safety information is reaching pregnant Canadians.

  7. Sympathetic baroreflex gain in normotensive pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Usselman, Charlotte W.; Skow, Rachel J.; Matenchuk, Brittany A.; Chari, Radha S.; Julian, Colleen G.; Stickland, Michael K.; Davenport, Margie H.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle sympathetic nerve activity is increased during normotensive pregnancy while mean arterial pressure is maintained or reduced, suggesting baroreflex resetting. We hypothesized spontaneous sympathetic baroreflex gain would be reduced in normotensive pregnant women relative to nonpregnant matched controls. Integrated muscle sympathetic burst incidence and total sympathetic activity (microneurography), blood pressure (Finometer), and R-R interval (ECG) were assessed at rest in 11 pregnant women (33 ± 1 wk gestation, 31 ± 1 yr, prepregnancy BMI: 23.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2) and 11 nonpregnant controls (29 ± 1 yr; BMI: 25.2 ± 1.7 kg/m2). Pregnant women had elevated baseline sympathetic burst incidence (43 ± 2 vs. 33 ± 2 bursts/100 heart beats, P = 0.01) and total sympathetic activity (1,811 ± 148 vs. 1,140 ± 55 au, P < 0.01) relative to controls. Both mean (88 ± 3 vs. 91 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.4) and diastolic (DBP) (72 ± 3 vs. 73 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.7) pressures were similar between pregnant and nonpregnant women, respectively, indicating an upward resetting of the baroreflex set point with pregnancy. Baroreflex gain, calculated as the linear relationship between sympathetic burst incidence and DBP, was reduced in pregnant women relative to controls (−3.7 ± 0.5 vs. −5.4 ± 0.5 bursts·100 heart beats−1·mmHg−1, P = 0.03), as was baroreflex gain calculated with total sympathetic activity (−294 ± 24 vs. −210 ± 24 au·100 heart beats−1·mmHg−1; P = 0.03). Cardiovagal baroreflex gain (sequence method) was not different between nonpregnant controls and pregnant women (49 ± 8 vs. 36 ± 8 ms/mmHg; P = 0.2). However, sympathetic (burst incidence) and cardiovagal gains were negatively correlated in pregnant women (R = −0.7; P = 0.02). Together, these data indicate that the influence of the sympathetic nervous system over arterial blood pressure is reduced in normotensive pregnancy, in terms of both long-term and beat-to-beat regulation of arterial pressure

  8. Pregnant phenotype in aquaporin 8-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Xiao-yan; Xiong, Zheng-fang; Liu, Hui-shu; Zheng, Zheng; Ma, Tong-hui

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Aquaporin 8 (AQP8) is expressed within the female reproductive system but its physiological function reminds to be elucidated. This study investigates the role of AQP8 during pregnancy using AQP8-knockout (AQP8-KO) mice. Methods: Homozygous AQP8-KO mice were mated, and the conception rate was recorded. AQP8-KO pregnant mice or their offspring were divided into 5 subgroups according to fetal gestational day (7, 13, 16, 18 GD) and newborn. Wild type C57 pregnant mice served as the control group. The number of pregnant mice, total embryos and atrophic embryos, as well as fetal weight, placental weight and placental area were recorded for each subgroup. The amount of amniotic fluid in each sac at 13, 16, and 18 GD was calculated. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance of factorial design and chi-square tests. Results: Conception rates did not differ significantly between AQP8-KO and wild type mice. AQP8-KO pregnant mice had a significantly higher number of embryos compared to wild type controls. Fetal/neonatal weight was also significantly greater in the AQP8-KO group compared to age-matched wild type controls. The amount of amniotic fluid was greater in AQP8-KO pregnant mice than wild type controls, although the FM/AFA (fetal weight/amniotic fluid amount) did not differ. While AQP8-KO placental weight was significantly larger than wild type controls, there was no evidence of placental pathology in either group. Conclusion: The results suggest that AQP8 deficiency plays an important role in pregnancy outcome. PMID:21602842

  9. I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shyness I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? KidsHealth > For Teens > I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? Print A A A I just found ... weeks pregnant. Do I need to get the flu vaccine or will it affect my pregnancy? – Eliza* ...

  10. The pregnant patient: considerations for dental management and drug use.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Servi Burcak

    2007-03-01

    The pregnant woman who presents for dental care requires special consideration. This article reviews physiologic changes associated with pregnancy and current considerations for the dental treatment of pregnant dental patients, as well as for pregnant dental professionals. The limitations and safety of commonly used drugs and anesthetics are discussed. Recommendations for prenatal oral counseling are presented.

  11. I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? KidsHealth > For Teens > I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? A A A I just found out that I'm 6 weeks pregnant. Do I need to get ...

  12. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Hinwood, A.L.; Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M.; Heyworth, J.; McCafferty, P.; Odland, J.Ø.

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  13. [Factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Fan, Ling; Zou, Li-ying; Wu, Yu-mei; Zhang, Wei-yuan

    2010-02-01

    .84, OR(HSIL) = 1.77) were remarkable variables. The infection of human papilloma virus (HPV) and trichomonas vaginitis were correlated with abnormal cervical cytology (including ASCUS, AGUS, LSIL and HSIL) significantly (P < 0.01). Columnar epithelium dystopia were also significantly correlated with abnormal cervical cytology (chi(2) = 43.269, P = 0.000). However, abnormal cervical cytology was uncorrelated with degrees of Columnar epithelium dystopia. The risk factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology in pregnant women were the same with those of non-pregnant women.

  14. Treatment of sexually transmitted bacterial diseases in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Donders, G G

    2000-03-01

    twice daily for 7 days as earlier fears of teratogenesis in humans have not been confirmed by recent data. Bacterial vaginosis is also associated with preterm delivery in certain risk groups, such as women with a history of preterm birth or of low maternal weight. Such an association is yet to be convincingly proven in other women. The current advice is to treat only women diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis who also present other risk factors for preterm delivery. The treatment of choice is oral metronidazole 1 g/day for 5 days. The possible reduction of preterm birth by vaginally applied metronidazole or clindamycin is still under investigation. In general, both test of cure and re-testing after several weeks are advisable in most pregnant patients with STDs, because partner notification and treatment are likely to be less efficient than outside pregnancy and the impact of inadequately treated or recurrent disease is greater because of the added risk to the fetus. Every diagnosis of an STD warrants a full screen for concomitant genital disease. Most ulcerative genital infections, as well as abnormal vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis, increase the sexual transmission efficiency of HIV, necessitating even more stringent screening for and treating of STD during pregnancy.

  15. CE: Original Research: The Experiences of Pregnant Smokers and Their Providers.

    PubMed

    Britton, Geraldine Rose; Collier, Rosemary; McKitrick, Sean; Sprague, Lori Marie; Rhodes-Keefe, Joyce; Feeney, Ann; James, Gary D

    2017-06-01

    : Background: The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' initiative Healthy People 2020 targets tobacco use, including smoking during pregnancy, as a continuing major health concern in this country. Yet bringing the U.S. Public Health Service's 2008 clinical practice guideline, Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence, into routine prenatal care remains challenging. Our previous nurse-managed intervention study of rural pregnant women found no significant cessation effect and significant discordance between self-reported smoker status and urinary cotinine levels. The overall purpose of this follow-up study was to increase our understanding of the experiences of pregnant smokers and their providers. No qualitative studies could be found that simultaneously explored the experiences of both groups. This qualitative descriptive study used focus group methodology. Nine focus groups were held in two counties in upper New York State; six groups consisted of providers and three consisted of pregnant women. Four semistructured questions guided the group discussions, which were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were read and coded independently by six investigators. Themes were identified using constant comparative analysis and were validated using the consensus process. The total sample consisted of 66 participants: 45 providers and 21 pregnant women. Most of the providers were white (93%) and female (93%). A majority worked as RNs (71%); the sample included perinatal and neonatal nursery nurses, midwives, and physicians. The pregnant women were exclusively white (reflecting the rural demographic); the average age was 24 years. All the pregnant women had smoked at the beginning of their pregnancies. Four common themes emerged in both the provider and the pregnant women groups: barriers to quitting, mixed messages, approaches and attitudes, and program modalities. These themes corroborate previous findings that cigarette smoking is used for stress relief

  16. Pesticide exposure among pregnant women in Jerusalem, Israel: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Berman, Tamar; Hochner-Celnikier, Drorit; Barr, Dana Boyd; Needham, Larry L; Amitai, Yona; Wormser, Uri; Richter, Elihu

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides have been shown to disrupt neurodevelopment in laboratory animals and in human populations. To date, there have been no studies on exposure to pesticides in pregnant women in Israel, despite reports of widespread exposure in other populations of pregnant women and the importance of evaluating exposure in this susceptible sub-population. We measured urinary concentrations of organophosphorus (OP) insecticide metabolites and plasma concentrations of OP and other pesticides in 20 pregnant women, recruited in Jerusalem, Israel in 2006, and collected questionnaire data on demographic factors and consumer habits from these women. We compared geometric mean concentrations in subgroups using the Mann-Whitney U-test for independent samples. We compared creatinine-adjusted OP pesticide metabolite concentrations, as well as plasma pesticide concentrations, with other populations of pregnant women. Creatinine-adjusted total dimethyl (DM) metabolite concentrations were between 4 and 6 times higher in this population compared to other populations of pregnant women in the United States while total diethyl (DE) metabolite concentrations were lower. Dimethylphosphate (DMP) was detected in 74% of the urine samples whereas dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) was detected in 90% of the urine samples. The carbamate bendiocarb was detected in 89% of the plasma samples, while the OP insecticide chlorpyrifos was detected in 42% of the samples. Mean plasma concentrations of bendiocarb and chlorpyrifos in our sample were 4.4 and 3.9 times higher, respectively, than that of an urban minority cohort from New York City. Twelve women (63%) reported using some form of household pest control during their pregnancy and five (26%) reported using household pest control during the past month. Women with a graduate degree had significantly higher geometric mean concentrations of total urinary DM metabolite concentrations compared to other women (P=0.006). Finally, one woman in the study had

  17. Egg Contribution Towards the Diet of Pregnant Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez-Millán, Ángela; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Damio, Grace; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Proper nutrition during gestation is important to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. Eggs contain many important nutrients necessary for fetal development and human survival. Three focus groups were conducted with Latina women living in Connecticut to identify cultural beliefs toward egg consumption during pregnancy, traditional egg dishes, and methods of preparation. A cross-sectional study was then carried out with a sample of predominately Puerto Rican pregnant Latinas (N = 241) to identify the frequency of consumption of eggs and egg-containing dishes as well as methods of preparation using a tailored food frequency questionnaire modified for this population. Paired sample t-tests were used to examine if there were differences in weekly mean egg intake patterns between the year prior to the pregnancy and during pregnancy based on a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Women were categorized into eggs consumers and non-consumers if they consumed or did not consume eggs during the previous day based on 24-hour recall data. Independent-sample t-test and chi-square cross-tabulation analyses were conducted to examine the association between egg consumption and nutrient intake categories. Results showed that eggs and egg-containing traditional dishes are consumed by Latinas before and during pregnancy. Egg consumers had higher intakes of protein, fat, vitamin K, vitamin E, selenium, beta carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin, cholesterol, total polyunsaturated fatty acids, and docosahexaenoic acid. Eggs contribute significantly to the diet of pregnant Latinas. PMID:21883065

  18. Gestational Pityriasis Rosea: Suggestions for Approaching Affected Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Monastirli, Alexandra; Pasmatzi, Efstathia; Badavanis, George; Tsambaos, Dionysios

    2016-12-01

    Dear Editor, Pityriasis rosea is a common, acute, and self-limiting dermatosis, which is associated with the endogenous systemic reactivation of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 and/or HHV-7 (1). It predominantly affects individuals of both sexes in their second or third decade of life and is clinically characterized by the occurrence of an initial erythematosquamous plaque followed by the appearance of disseminated similar but smaller lesions one or two weeks later. Several patients develop systemic symptoms such as nausea, anorexia, malaise, headache, fever, arthralgia, and lymphadenopathy that may precede or accompany the eruption; the latter follows the cleavage lines of the trunk creating the configuration of a Christmas tree and spontaneously resolves within 4 to 8 weeks. Mainly based on the nature of the underlying viral reactivation, pityriasis rosea is classified into five different forms (2): 1) Classic and 2) Relapsing (characterized by sporadic and relapsing HHV-6/7 systemic reactivation, respectively), 3) Persistent (persistence of HHV-6/7 viremia), 4) Pediatric (longer activity of HHV-6/7 infection; recent primary infection) and 5) Gestational (HHV-6/7 reactivation and possible intrauterine transmission). Clearly, the inevitable impairment of immune response in pregnancy favors viral reactivation and possibly also the intrauterine transmission of HHV-6/7. Indeed, it is well known and documented that pityriasis rosea more frequently occurs in pregnant women (18%) as compared to the general population (6%) (3). However, the literature concerning the possible effect of pityriasis rosea on the outcome of pregnancy is surprisingly sparse. Only an Italian group, Drago et al (4,5), has systematically investigated the impact of this disorder on pregnant women. They found that 22 out of 61 women (36%) who developed pityriasis rosea during pregnancy had unfavorable outcomes, whereas 8 others miscarried (13%). None of the latter had any risk factors, other than

  19. Seroprevalence and Seroconversion Rates of Cytomegalovirus pp65 Antigen and Cord Blood Screening of Pregnant Women in Malatya, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Keziban; Kafkasli, Ayse; Kaya, Cihan; Cengiz, Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The rates of seropositivity, seroconversion and fetal infection with human cytomegalovirus were analyzed in pregnant women and newborn cord blood in this study. The relationships between maternal age, parity, cytomegalovirus serology and polymerase chain reaction results were evaluated. Materials and Methods: A total of 217 pregnant women attended our pregnancy clinic between April 2004 and October 2005. During each trimester, 5 cc of maternal blood was obtained and 5 cc of cord blood was collected after birth. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess these samples for the presence of human cytomegalovirus protein pp65 antigen (in leukocytes) and cytomegalovirus DNA (in plasma). Results: The mean age of the pregnant women in our study was 28.1±5.3 years. No seroconversion was observed. Among the pregnant women, 212 (97.7%) were IgG positive, and 29 (13.4%) were IgM positive. Five of the pregnant women were positive for IgM alone (2.3%), whereas 24 (11.3%) were positive for both IgM and IgG. The 29 IgM-positive patients were reevaluated using the polymerase chain reaction, and no seropositivity was found. None of the cord blood samples were IgM positive, whereas 211 (97.3%) were IgG positive. There was no significant correlation between parity and seropositivity (p=0.487). The relationship between human cytomegalovirus seropositivity and maternal age was evaluated by dividing the pregnant women into two groups, with a cut-off age of 35 years. There was a significant difference in seropositivity between these two groups (p=0.045). Conclusion: Clearly, there is no need to screen pregnant women for Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the Malatya region. Confirming serology results using the polymerase chain reaction and antigenemia testing to detect false positive results offers the advantage of avoiding unnecessary invasive interventions. PMID:25610259

  20. Distribution of Methylene Blue after Injection into the Epidural Space of Anaesthetized Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Xavier; García, Felix; Ferrer, Rosa Isabel; Santos, Laura; Aguilar, Adrià; Andaluz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the distribution of different volumes of methylene blue solution injected into the epidural space in anaesthetized pregnant and non-pregnant sheep, to evaluate its cranial distribution and to compare between them. Fifteen pregnant and fifteen non-pregnant sheep were included in the study. Sheep were anaesthetized and received 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2 mL/kg of a lumbosacral epidural solution containing 0.12% methylene blue in 0.9% saline. Thirty minutes after the epidural injection, the ewes were euthanized. The extension of the dye within the epidural space was measured, and the correlation between the volume of the dye injected and the number of stained vertebrae was evaluated. The cranial migration of the dye between pregnant and non-pregnant sheep was also compared. The results show that the volume of methylene blue injected epidurally into pregnant and non-pregnant sheep correlated directly with its cephalic distribution into the epidural space; and a volume of 0.1 mL/kg or 0.2 mL/kg stained up to the first lumbar segment in pregnant and non-pregnant sheep, respectively. Also, the results suggest that the volume of drugs administered into the epidural space of pregnant sheep should be half the volume that would be used in non-pregnant sheep. PMID:24709655

  1. Demographic and substance abuse trends among pregnant and non-pregnant women: eleven years of treatment admission data.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Jennifer E; Arndt, Stephan

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify demographic and substance abuse trends among pregnant women entering treatment over eleven years. This study compiled the publicly available Treatment Episode Datasets from the Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration from 1998 to 2008. Subjects included 1,724,479 women entering publicly funded substance abuse treatment for the first time, 81,818 of whom were pregnant. Compared to non-pregnant women, pregnant women were more likely to be younger, minority, never married, less educated, homeless, and on public-assistance or have no income. Referrals from health care providers (HCPs) among pregnant women entering treatment have stayed consistently low while referrals from the criminal justice system accounted for the largest portion of pregnant women entering treatment. Over the past eleven years, there has been a general decline in alcohol abuse and an increase in drug abuse among women entering treatment; this trend was more pronounced in pregnant women. Unlike their non-pregnant counterparts, pregnant women were more likely to report marijuana, not alcohol, as their primary problem substance as well as other drugs like methamphetamine and cocaine. Over the past eleven years, trends in the demographics and patterns of substance abuse among women have changed; some of these trends were unique to pregnant women. A large proportion of pregnant women entering treatment are referred by the criminal justice system. Knowledge surrounding the demographics and abuse patterns of pregnant women entering treatment can inform HCPs and community programs in their screening and outreach efforts.

  2. Dental caries and gingivitis among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rakchanok, Noochpoung; Amporn, Dejpitak; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2010-02-01

    The aims of this study were to identify dental caries and gingivitis among pregnant women, and to compare it with those in non-pregnant women in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Data were collected from 197 women (94 pregnant and 103 non-pregnant) from June to August, 2008. Dental caries and gingivitis was defined clinically according to the World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria. Over 74.0% of pregnant women had caries, and 86.2% had gingivitis. There were significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women with regard to dental caries (p < 0.001) and gingivitis (p = 0.021). The pregnant women were 2.9 times more likely to suffer from dental caries (95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.6-5.4), and 2.2 times more (95% CI, 1.1-4.7) from gingivitis compared to non-pregnant women. Farmers (Odd ratio (OR), 7.0; 95% CI, 1.8-26.3), high school graduation (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.2-7.3), and universal health insurance coverage (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0-4.3) were significant predictors for gingivitis. Only high school graduates were found to be significant predictors of dental caries with an OR of 2.8 (95% CI, 1.2-6.3). Poor oral hygiene (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.8-6.5), lack of knowledge (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 0.6-6.3), and poor oral hygiene habits (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.1-8.6) were important risk factors for dental caries. Similarly, inadequate oral hygiene status (OR, 24.8; 95% CI, 5.5-112.2), and poor oral health habits (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.1-25.2) were found to be significant risk factors for gingivitis among pregnant women indicating, that most women should be trained in proper oral hygiene practices. Community awareness programs should be conducted to increase women's awareness of such hygienic practices.

  3. Minor pathological changes are induced by naltrexone-poly(DL-lactide) implants in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Farid, W O; McCallum, D; Tait, R J; Dunlop, S A; Hulse, G K

    2009-12-15

    Oral naltrexone is used to treat alcohol and heroin dependence but is associated with poor patient compliance. Sustained-release preparations have been developed to overcome noncompliance. Many sustained-release preparations are composed of polymers combined with naltrexone. Limited data indicate that polymers induce variable levels of tissue reactivity and that naltrexone may increase this effect. A slow-release subcutaneous naltrexone-poly (DL-lactide) implant is currently being trialed to treat heroin dependence in Western Australia. A minority of women fall pregnant and, although tissue reactivity in nonpregnant humans is relatively minor, detailed chronological data during pregnancy are lacking. Histological changes in pregnant rats were assessed; a single active tablet containing poly[trans-3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxyane-2,5-dione] (DL-lactide) loaded with 25 mg of naltrexone was implanted subcutaneously, and tissue response was compared with inactive polymer implantation. Rats were timed mated at 13-26 days postimplant. Tissue assessment up to 75 days by a pathologist showed that naltrexone induced chronic inflammatory response in a dose-dependent manner, although still at a low level. Furthermore, for inactive implants, minimal foreign body reaction and fibrosis, together with low-level inflammation, suggested good long-term biocompatibility. We conclude that the Australian naltrexone-poly(DL-lactide) implant is tolerated in pregnant rats, reinforcing its potential role for managing alcohol and heroin dependence in pregnant humans.

  4. Human placental glutathione S-transferase activity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon DNA adducts as biomarkers for environmental oxidative stress in placentas from pregnant women living in radioactivity- and chemically-polluted regions

    PubMed Central

    Obolenskaya, Maria Yu.; Teplyuk, Nadiya M.; Divi, Rao L.; Poirier, Miriam C.; Filimonova, Nataliya B.; Zadrozna, Monika; Pasanen, Markku J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the effect of environmental oxidative stress on human placental monooxygenases, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)–DNA adducts in human term placentas from radioactivity-contaminated and chemically-polluted areas of the Ukraine and Belarus, and to compare these biomarkers to the newborn’s general health status. Placental PAH–DNA adduct formation, GST activity, 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD) activity, and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), an index of lipid peroxidation, were measured in groups of women exposed to different levels of radioactivity and PAH pollution. The in vitro metabolism data, obtained from 143 human placental samples at term, were compared to indices of maternal and newborn health. The highest ECOD activity was recorded in placentas obtained from chemically-polluted areas and a radioactivity-contaminated area; the ECOD activity was 7-fold and 2-fold higher compared to the region considered to be “clean”. Newborns with the most compromised health status displayed the greatest down-regulation of GST activity (144–162 mU mg protein−1 vs. 258–395 mU mg protein−1), enhanced ECOD activity and the highest level of PAH–DNA adduct formation. The highest level of TBARS was observed in women exposed to the highest levels of radiation. The efficiency of placental detoxification negatively correlated with maternal age and the health status of the newborn. Environmental oxidative stress was related to an increase in anemia, threatened abortions, toxemia, fetal hypoxia, spontaneous abortions and fetal hypotrophy. Our data suggest that chemically- or radioactivity-induced oxidative stress enhance cytochrome P450-mediated enzymatic activities potentially resulting in increased formation of reactive metabolites. The activity of GSH-transferase is not enhanced. This imbalance in detoxification capacity can be measured as increased production of PAH

  5. The pregnant and breast-feeding patient.

    PubMed

    Rieken, Susan E; Terezhalmy, Geza T

    2006-06-01

    The pregnant or breast-feeding patient presents a number of unique management problems for oral health care providers. Clinicians are responsible for providing safe and effective care for the mother, while also considering the safety of the fetus or newborn. They must consider the effects of medications, which may be distributed from the maternal plasma through the placenta to the fetus, or to breast milk, exposing the nursing infant to potentially dangerous concentrations. In addition, a number of maternal oral changes, requiring the attention of oral health care providers, may be observed as a consequence of the multiple physiologic changes associated with pregnancy. In view of the dual responsibility that oral health care providers face in treating the pregnant or breast-feeding patient, understanding the physiology of pregnancy, fetal development, potential oral complications of pregnancy, and the effects that dental intervention may have on the woman, her fetus, or her neonate are imperative.

  6. Renal scans in pregnant transplant patients

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.A.; Ziessman, H.A.; Fahey, F.H.; Collea, J.V.; Alijani, M.R.; Helfrich, G.B.

    1988-08-01

    This study demonstrates the normal technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA) renal scan in pregnant patients with transplanted kidneys. Five pregnant renal transplant patients had seven (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA renal studies to assess allograft perfusion and function. All scans showed the uteroplacental complex. The bladder was always compressed and distorted. The transplanted kidney was frequently rotated to a more vertical position. In all patients allograft flow and function were maintained. There was calyceal retention on all studies and ureteral retention activity in three of five patients. Using the MIRD formalism, the total radiation absorbed dose to the fetus was calculated to be 271 mrad. This radiation exposure is well within NRCP limits for the fetus of radiation workers and an acceptable low risk in the management of these high risk obstetric patients.

  7. Iron supplementation studies among pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kuizon, M D; Platon, T P; Ancheta, L P; Angeles, J C; Nunez, C B; Macapinlac, M P

    1979-12-01

    The effect of iron supplementation alone or in combination with ascorbic acid as a preventive and or corrective measure against anemia were tested using pregnant women seeking pre-natal consultation at various health centers in Greater Manila Area. One tablet containing 65 mg iron alone or in combination with ascorbic acid per day during a supplementation period which varied from 16.5 to 17.8 weeks maintained initial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in non-anemic women. Three tablets of the same iron preparation (total of 195 mg iron) daily resulted in significant increases in hemoglobin and hematocrit in anemic women. Ascorbic acid had no apparent beneficial effect. Considering the positive response to iron treatment, it is recommended that a nationwide program of iron supplementation of pregnant Filipinos be undertaken.

  8. The employability of pregnant and breastfeeding servicewomen.

    PubMed

    Croft, A M

    1995-10-01

    The Army Medical Services are responsible for promoting health in the military workplace. A survey of the potential health risks in the workplace to British Army servicewomen who are pregnant, or who breastfeed, was carried out. It was found that there was a total of 30 major workplace hazards to pregnant or breastfeeding servicewomen, and that medical guidance in this area was lacking. A Medline literature search on these hazards, was compiled, and an overview of the nature and extent of the military problem, together with a brief policy recommendation applying to each hazard. Guidelines based on these recommendations were distributed to primary care and obstetric unit medical officers in all three Armed Services. It is intended that the guidelines will assist Service doctors in giving informed advice on the avoidance of military occupational risks to pregnancy and to lactation.

  9. Risk profile of pregnant mothers in Kelantan.

    PubMed

    Zulkifli, A; Rogayah, J; Hashim, M H; Shukri, O; Azmi, H

    1995-12-01

    A demographic and obstetric profile of pregnant mothers attending antenatal clinics in kelantan over period of one year was determined by a retrospective study of 10,032 registered pregnant mothers. The prevalence of risk factors related to the age of the mother, parity, weight, haemoglobin level, bad obstetric history and pregnancy related diseases were determined. Prevalence of teenage pregnancy and primigravida accounted for 4.3 and 17.2 percent respectively. Nearly 3.9 percent of the mothers weighed less than 40 kg and 44.5 percent of mothers were found to be anaemic (Hb less than 11g/d) at the first antenatal visit. Only 3.2 percent of the mothers did not have any designated risk factor. Previous bad obstetric history and pregnancy related disease accounted for 17.1 and 3.5 percent of mothers respectively.

  10. [Concentration of heavy metals in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Jacyszyn, K; Walas, J; Malinowski, A; Latkowski, T; Cwynar, L

    1982-01-01

    Copper, zinc, and lead concentrations were measured in two groups 72 pregnant women. Twenty-one of them, making up the control group, lived and worked in Wrocław. The other 51 women, the second group, had lived more than five years in Lubin-Polkowice and worked in the local non-ferrous metal plants. They were particularly endangered by their exposure to copper, zinc, and lead concentrations. Pregnancy was normal in all cases. Maternal blood, umbilical cord blood, placenta homogenate, and amniotic fluid were examined by techniques of atom-absorption spectrometry. The metals tested were conspicuously absorbed by placental tissue, but no danger to the pregnant women could be established.

  11. Investigations of Crashes Involving Pregnant Occupants

    PubMed Central

    Klinich, Kathleen DeSantis; Schneider, Lawrence W.; Moore, Jamie L.; Pearlman, Mark D.

    2000-01-01

    Case reports of 16 crashes involving pregnant occupants are presented that illustrate the main conclusions of a crash-investigation program that includes 42 crashes investigated to date. Some unusual cases that are exceptions to the overall trends are also described. The study indicates a strong association between adverse fetal outcome and both crash severity and maternal injury. Proper restraint use, with and without airbag deployment, generally leads to acceptable fetal outcomes in lower severity crashes, while it does not affect fetal outcome in high-severity crashes. Compared to properly restrained pregnant occupants, improperly restrained occupants have a higher risk of adverse fetal outcome in lower severity crashes, which comprise the majority of all motor-vehicle collisions. PMID:11558095

  12. [Knowledge produced about assistance to pregnant adolescents].

    PubMed

    Clapis, Maria José; Parenti, Patricia Wottrich

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at getting to know the work of nurses concerning pregnant adolescents, we have opted to develop a study to identify the characteristics of scientific production made by nurses about adolescence pregnancy by means of national and international indexed articles, between 1996 and 2000. The bibliographic survey resulted in a sample of 27 indexed articles. The participation of nurses in assisting pregnant adolescents is highlighted by taking part in adolescence pregnancy prevention programs, by assisting in the gravidic-puerperal period and by providing social support. As possibilities of participation for nurses, we have identified the important role of sexual education and adolescence pregnancy prevention programs, prenatal and post-delivery assistance programs. Also, we have emphasized the need to organize the nurse's work to facilitate access to contraceptive methods and to prevent sexually transmissible diseases.

  13. [Children and pregnant women at high altitude].

    PubMed

    Rehakova, P; Rexhaj, E; Farron, F; Duplain, H

    2014-05-07

    Nowadays, high altitude resorts have become popular destinations for family vacations. Based on a limited number of publications and international guidelines, this article summarizes the effects of high altitude on children and pregnant women. Children also suffer from high altitude-related diseases, however their presentation and clinical significance are different from their adult counterparts. Careful planning of the itinerary with respect to altitude of the overnight stays, access to medical services and potential evacuation routes is the cornerstone of a successful vacation.

  14. Wanted: better care for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kestler, E

    1993-01-01

    In three prenatal clinics in Latin America the average attendance time by pregnant women was 129 minutes but the average time spent with a doctor was only 8-10 minutes. In order to improve prenatal care, providers should analyse what happens during visits. Assessments should be made of the usefulness of the services offered and some thought should be given as to who might best provide them.

  15. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Taghipour, Ali; Sadat Borghei, Narjes; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Keramat, Afsaneh; Jabbari Nooghabi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW) model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965) bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during pregnancy. PMID

  16. Lifestyle practices of Jordanian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, M; Al-Ma'aitah, R; Al Jada, N

    2005-06-01

    Although many improvements have been made in the area of women's health in Jordan, women during pregnancy still face many health problems that put their lives at risk. This is evident in the relatively high Maternal Mortality Rate, anaemia, low birth weight and other problems related to their lifestyle practices during pregnancy (Jordanian Ministry of Health 1998). To describe the health-promoting lifestyle behaviours of Jordanian pregnant women. The Maternal Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (MHPLP), based on the Health Promotion Model, was modified to measure maternal practices. A representative sample of 400 Jordanian pregnant women in their 20th week of gestation or beyond were recruited from five public Maternal and Child Health Centres in the city of Irbid, in the northern part of Jordan. The MHPLP measures six dimensions: physical activity, stress management, self-actualization, nutrition, health responsibility and interpersonal support. Data were analysed by using descriptive analysis. The women reported high scores on health responsibility and self-actualization, moderate scores on interpersonal support and nutrition, and low scores on physical activity and stress management behaviours. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY, PRACTICE AND RESEARCH: The findings have implications for the quality of care delivered through the maternal and child health services. Health promotion and healthy lifestyle need to be an integral part of health services provided for pregnant women. Further research is needed to develop an instrument that integrates the cultural beliefs relating to lifestyle practices of Jordanian pregnant women mainly in the areas of physical activities and stress management. Policy implications of the findings are discussed.

  17. Plasma immunoreactive relaxin levels in pregnant and nonpregnant women.

    PubMed

    O'Byrne, E M; Carriere, B T; Sorensen, L; Segaloff, A; Schwabe, C; Steinetz, B G

    1978-11-01

    Immunoreactive relaxin was measured in plasma samples obtained from human volunteers utilizing the RIA procedure of Sherwood et al., as modified by O'Byrne and Steinetz for heterologous plasma samples. Immunoreactive hormone was not detected in samples obtained from men, and only rarely in plasma of nonpregnant women. Immunoreactive relaxin was present as early as the fourth week of pregnancy and was detectable throughout the course of gestation. Immunoreactive relaxin tended to be higher early in pregnancy, and there was no peak just before parturition as occurs in many other species. Our results are at variance with those of Bryant and coworkers, who reported high levels of immunoreactive relaxin in men and nonpregnant as well as pregnant women. The possible reasons for this discrepancy are presented.

  18. [Relaxin in amniotic fluid and serum of pregnant patients].

    PubMed

    Wiest, E; Armbruster, F P; Loeser, E L; Seeger, H; Voelter, W; Lippert, T H

    1997-01-01

    Relaxin was measured in serum and amniotic fluid of 136 pregnant women between the 12th and 38th gestational week by means of a new human relaxin-RIA. The pregnancies consisted of 111 pathology-free single fetuses, 10 with rhesus incompatibility, 7 with chromosomal aberration and 8 with sonographic diagnosed abnormalities. Relaxin could be detected in all samples tested the levels being ten times lower in amniotic fluid compared to serum. Serum relaxin levels showed a slight but not statistically significant decrease with increasing gestational age, in amniotic fluid relaxin values were consistent over the course of pregnancy. The ratio of amniotic fluid to serum relaxin displayed a statistically significant increase from the 12th to 23rd week of pregnancy. Individual courses of relaxin concentration in amniotic fluid revealed only low intra-individual variations but distinct inter-individual differences.

  19. Anemia treatment with erythropoietin in pregnant renal recipients.

    PubMed

    Cyganek, A; Pietrzak, B; Kociszewska-Najman, B; Sanko-Resmer, J; Paczek, L; Wielgos, M

    2011-10-01

    Pregnancies in renal transplant patients are considered to be high risk. Anemia is one of the major complications of pregnancy occurring among 65% to 85% of cases in this setting, especially since these patients carry additional risk factors. Herein we have presented five renal transplant recipients who were women who were treated with human recombinant erythropoietin due to severe anemia that developed during pregnancy. Hemoglobin levels below 9 g/dL after 3 weeks of oral iron administration were assumed to be qualifying criteria for erythropoietin treatment. No complication was observed to be associated with the treatment. Two of the five patients required blood transfusions despite erythropoietin administration. Two cases delivered small for gestational fetus age. Erythropoietin therapy in pregnant kidney transplant recipients should be considered to be a safe method to reduce the need for blood transfusions.

  20. [Listeriosis in pregnant women and newborns in Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Smíšková, Dita; Karpíšková, Renata; Džupová, Olga; Marešová, Vilma

    2010-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is ubiquitous in nature, being commonly present in faecal flora of otherwise healthy human population or animals. Clinical manifestation of listeria infection may vary widely from mild to invasive, life-threatening disease. In an immunocompromised host, a rather serious course should be expected. Due to cell-mediated immune insufficiency associated with pregnancy even a short bacteraemia in pregnant women can result in transplacental infection. Most listeria infections are sporadic but outbreaks may occur. An outbreak of listeriosis in the Czech Republic in the autumn of 2006 and winter of 2007 was associated with an increased incidence of perinatal listeriosis. More information on listeriosis prevention in pregnancy should be given and each febrile episode during pregnancy should be carefully examined. Early treatment of listeriosis reduces the risk of vertical transmission.

  1. [Low back pain in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Majchrzycki, Marian; Mrozikiewicz, Przemysław M; Kocur, Piotr; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Hoffmann, Marcin; Stryła, Wanda; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2010-11-01

    Pain of lumbosacral segment of the vertebral column and the pelvis concerns about 45% of all pregnant women. The change of the body posture during pregnancy is the result of gravity centre relocation, which affects the musculosceletal system. Development of the joint, ligament and myofascial dysfunctions, as well as the pain in the lumbosacral segment and the pelvis, are the most common reasons of spine pain. The aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge about lumbar spine pain in pregnant women with special focus on the pain connected with muscular, joint and ligament disorders. Pregnancy is a serious burden for the female osteo-skeletal system. Lumbar pain with different location and intensification is the negative consequence of the position changes during pregnancy. Pharmacotherapy could be useful only in cases of intensive low back pain, with possible application of small spectrum of drugs that are safe during pregnancy. Physical therapy including manual therapy exercises, massage and techniques of local anesthesia are alternative methods in case of low back pain in pregnant women.

  2. School importance and dropout among pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, W; Maton, K I; Teti, D M

    1998-05-01

    This study examined the relationship of psychological well-being, social support, and demographic variables to school importance and school dropout among pregnant teens. Fifty-one Caucasians and 68 African-Americans (mean age = 16.7 years, mean weeks pregnant = 23) were recruited from two Baltimore area prenatal teen clinics. The adolescents completed questionnaires measuring depression, self-esteem, mastery, parental and friend support, demographic characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, ethnicity, socioeconomic status), school importance, and status. Most adolescents were enrolled in school or had graduated (69.7%), were receiving at least passing grades (78.7%), and perceived finishing high school as very important (76.7%). Blacks were more likely to say school was important (p < 0.001), were less likely to drop out (p < 0.01), and received higher grades (p < 0.01) than whites. Dropouts had lower family incomes than current school attenders and graduates (p < 0.05). One measure of psychological well-being (mastery, p < 0.01) was positively correlated with school importance. Social support did not correlate with school importance or dropout. These findings suggest that dropping out of school among pregnant teens may be more strongly related to sociocultural factors than to individual characteristics such as emotional support and psychological well-being. Overall, this study reveals a positive picture of educational continuation and performance during pregnancy, with most adolescents recognizing the importance of education and remaining in school.

  3. Folic acid supplementation in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius; Clemmensen, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) deficiency is associated with neural tube defects (NTD). In a non-risk pregnancy, The Danish National Board of Health recommends FA supplementation from planned pregnancy until three months after conception. We explored pregnant women's knowledge about and actual supplementation with FA and related this to education, number of pregnancies and age. Eighty-four consecutive pregnant women with a midwife consultation were included in the period 25-28 August 2008. All filled in a unified questionnaire. 82% had knowledge of FA supplementation and 89% received FA supplementation. 51% followed national recommendations. We found a statistically significant correlation between higher educational level and knowledge about FA supplementation, actual supplementation of FA and FA supplementation in accordance with national recommendations. No statistical associations were found between number of pregnancies or age and any FA-related parameters. Family, friends, general practitioner (GP) and the internet were the main information sources. Correct FA supplementation is quite low; conversely, knowledge about and actual FA supplementation are fairly high. Further intervention is necessary to increase the level of correct FA supplementation. Women with a low educational level--which may herald low socio-economic status--seem to form a suitable target group for information campaigns. Multiple pregnancies or higher age should not be perceived as indicators of a higher information level. Dissemination of information to the pregnant women including family, friends, GPs or the internet is recommended.

  4. The pregnant healthcare worker: fact and fiction.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Laura; Spivak, Emily Sydnor

    2015-08-01

    A pregnant healthcare worker (HCW) may be at risk of occupational exposure to pathogens associated with increased maternal morbidity and mortality as well as perinatal complications. In this article, we review recent literature on infectious diseases commonly encountered in the healthcare setting and of highest concern for a pregnant HCW, focusing on prevention and management of exposures. Pregnancy does not seem to be an independent risk factor for occupationally acquired infectious diseases. Vaccination and standard precautions continue to be the most effective means of preventing transmission to HCWs. Pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) is associated with increased risk of fetal death, highlighting the importance of influenza vaccination. A recent meta-analysis highlights the safety of influenza vaccination during pregnancy. New treatments for hepatitis C have not been studied in pregnancy but pose an important area for research and advancement. Cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin may play a role in postexposure prophylaxis but recent results are inconclusive. Primary prevention with vaccination and use of appropriate infection control precautions is imperative for prevention of occupationally acquired infectious diseases. Pregnant HCWs with occupational exposure to communicable diseases should be evaluated immediately for appropriate postexposure prophylaxis and followed for development of active infection.

  5. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Al Nahid, Abdullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Degen, Gisela H

    2015-09-24

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32) and in a suburban (n = 22) area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD) for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18-7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL) and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL) cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON exposure in the

  6. PLASMA ADIPONECTIN CONCENTRATIONS IN NON PREGNANT, NORMAL PREGNANCY AND OVERWEIGHT PREGNANT WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Nien, Jyh Kae; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Erez, Offer; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gotsch, Francesca; Pineles, Beth L.; Gomez, Ricardo; Edwin, Samuel; Mazor, Moshe; Espinoza, Jimmy; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2008-01-01

    Aims Adiponectin is an adipokine that has anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic properties. This hormone has been implicated in both the physiological adaptation to normal pregnancy and obstetrical complications. The aims of this study were to determine normal maternal plasma concentrations of adiponectin throughout gestation and to explore the relationships between plasma adiponectin concentration, pregnancy, and maternal overweight. Study design A cross-sectional study was designed to include normal pregnant women (normal weight and overweight; 11–42 weeks of gestation), and non-pregnant women. Plasma adiponectin concentration was determined by immunoassay. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results (1) Adiponectin was detectable in the plasma of all patients; (2) there was no significant difference in the median adiponectin concentrations between pregnant and non-pregnant women; (3) plasma adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age only among normal weight pregnant women; and (4) overweight patients had significantly lower adiponectin concentrations than normal weight women. Conclusion Consistent with the increased insulin resistance and weight gain that occur in pregnancy, adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age. The results of this study and the nomogram herein presented can serve as the basis to explore the relationship between adiponectin and pregnancy complications and facilitate the clinical use of this important adipokine. Condensation Plasma adiponectin concentrations decrease with advancing gestational age only in nonobese women. PMID:17919116

  7. Effect of Dietary Iron on Fetal Growth in Pregnant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Andrea C; Bandyopadhyay, Sheila; Wojczyk, Boguslaw S; Spitalnik, Steven L; Hod, Eldad A; Prestia, Kevin A

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder. Children and pregnant women are at highest risk for developing iron deficiency because of their increased iron requirements. Iron-deficiency anemia during pregnancy is associated with adverse effects on fetal development, including low birth weight, growth retardation, hypertension, intrauterine fetal death, neurologic impairment, and premature birth. We hypothesized that pregnant mice fed an iron-deficient diet would have a similar outcome regarding fetal growth to that of humans. To this end, we randomly assigned female C57BL/6 mice to consume 1 of 4 diets (high-iron–low-bioavailability, high-iron–high-bioavailability, iron-replete, and iron-deficient) for 4 wk before breeding, followed by euthanasia on day 17 to 18 of gestation. Compared with all other groups, dams fed the high-iron–high-bioavailability diet had significantly higher liver iron. Hct and Hgb levels in dams fed the iron-deficient diet were decreased by at least 2.5 g/dL as compared with those of all other groups. In addition, the percentage of viable pups among dams fed the iron-deficient diet was lower than that of all other groups. Finally, compared with all other groups, fetuses from dams fed the iron-deficient diet had lower fetal brain iron levels, shorter crown–rump lengths, and lower weights. In summary, mice fed an iron-deficient diet had similar hematologic values and fetal outcomes as those of iron-deficient humans, making this a useful model for studying iron-deficiency anemia during pregnancy. PMID:23582419

  8. [Lead exposure in pregnant women and newborns: a screening update].

    PubMed

    Yazbeck, C; Cheymol, J; Dandres, A-M; Barbéry-Courcoux, A-L

    2007-01-01

    Human lead exposure has many sources. Relative importance of these sources varies widely according to geographic regions and human lifestyle. The impact of lead exposure on health has been well studied and public health interventions have been conducted. The aim of this study was to evaluate current prevalence of lead burden in neonates, and seek for sources of maternal and fetal intoxication. A prospective multicentre study was conducted by the "Réseau périnatal 92" on a population of pregnant women attending 3 maternal wards in the north of 'Hauts-de-Seine' department in France. Between December 2003 and May 2004, a total of 1021 pregnant women were included. All patients signed an informed consent before participating in the study. Cord blood samples were collected at delivery for lead measurements. The mean cord blood lead concentration was 23.2 microg/l. Eighteen neonates over 1021 (1.8%) had lead levels above 100 microg/l. An environmental query was conducted by the social and public health office of the department (DDASS), and data were collected regarding the state of the housing and the lifestyle of the concerned family. Main sources of lead intoxication were 'tagine' food plates in 83.3% of cases, 'khôl' powder (used as eyeliner) in 88.9% of cases and substandard housings in 22.2% of cases. A specialized paediatric follow-up for the 18 neonates was performed. With the exception of substandard housing (old lead painting), other sources of lead intoxication were discovered: 'tagine' plates and 'khôl' powder. Almost all of these products came from Morocco. A public health intervention would be able to inform the population about these yet unknown sources of lead intoxication.

  9. A prospective cohort study comparing the reactogenicity of trivalent influenza vaccine in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Regan, Annette K; Tracey, Lauren; Blyth, Christopher C; Mak, Donna B; Richmond, Peter C; Shellam, Geoffrey; Talbot, Caroline; Effler, Paul V

    2015-03-18

    Influenza vaccination during pregnancy can prevent serious illness in expectant mothers and provide protection to newborns; however, historically uptake has been limited due to a number of factors, including safety concerns. Symptomatic complaints are common during pregnancy and may be mistakenly associated with reactions to trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). To investigate this, we compared post-vaccination events self-reported by pregnant women to events reported by non-pregnant women receiving TIV. A prospective cohort of 1,086 pregnant women and 314 non-pregnant female healthcare workers (HCWs) who received TIV between March-May 2014 were followed-up seven days post-vaccination to assess local and systemic adverse events following immunisation (AEFIs). Women were surveyed by text message regarding perceived reactions to TIV. Those reporting an AEFI completed an interview by telephone or mobile phone to ascertain details. Logistic regression models adjusting for age and residence were used to compare reactions reported by pregnant women and non-pregnant HCWs. Similar proportions of pregnant women and non-pregnant, female HCWs reported ≥1 reaction following vaccination with TIV (13.0% and 17.3%, respectively; OR = 1.2 [95% CI: 0.8-1.8]). Non-pregnant, female HCWs were more likely to report fever or headache compared to pregnant women (OR: 4.6 [95% CI 2.1-10.3] and OR: 2.2 [95% CI 1.0-4.6], respectively). No other significant differences in reported symptoms were observed. No serious vaccine-associated adverse events were reported, and less than 2% of each group sought medical advice for a reaction. We found no evidence suggesting pregnant women are more likely to report adverse events following influenza vaccination when compared to non-pregnant female HCWs of similar age, and in some cases, pregnant women reported significantly fewer adverse events. These results further support the safety of TIV administered in pregnant women.

  10. Clinical malaria in African pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Bardají, Azucena; Sigauque, Betuel; Bruni, Laia; Romagosa, Cleofé; Sanz, Sergi; Mabunda, Samuel; Mandomando, Inacio; Aponte, John; Sevene, Esperança; Alonso, Pedro L; Menéndez, Clara

    2008-01-30

    There is a widespread notion, based on limited information, that in areas of stable malaria transmission most pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum infection are asymptomatic. This study aim to characterize the clinical presentation of malaria in African pregnant women and to evaluate the adequacy of case management based on clinical complaints. A hospital-based descriptive study between August 2003 and November 2005 was conducted at the maternity clinic of a rural hospital in Mozambique. All women attending the maternity clinic were invited to participate. A total of 2,330 women made 3,437 eligible visits, 3129 were analysed, the remainder were excluded because diagnostic results were unavailable or they were repeat visits. Women gave a standardized clinical history and had a medical exam. Malaria parasitaemia and haematocrit in capillary blood was determined for all women with signs or symptoms compatible with malaria including: presence and history of fever, arthromyalgias, headache, history of convulsions and pallor. Outcome measure was association of malaria symptoms or signs with positive blood slide for malaria parasitaemia. In 77.4% of visits pregnant women had symptoms suggestive of malaria; 23% (708/3129) were in the first trimester. Malaria parasitaemia was confirmed in 26.9% (842/3129) of visits. Headache, arthromyalgias and history of fever were the most common symptoms (86.5%, 74.8% and 65.4%) presented, but their positive predictive values for malaria parasitaemia were low [28% (27-30), 29% (28-31), and 33% (31-35), respectively]. Symptoms suggestive of malaria were very frequent among pregnant women attending a rural maternity clinic in an area of stable malaria transmission. However, less than a third of them were parasitaemic. In the absence of microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests, a large proportion of women, including those in the first trimester of gestation, would be unnecessarily receiving antimalarial drugs, often those with unknown

  11. Possible Zika Virus Infection Among Pregnant Women - United States and Territories, May 2016.

    PubMed

    Simeone, Regina M; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Petersen, Emily E; Galang, Romeo R; Oduyebo, Titilope; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Newsome, Kimberly B; Pérez-Padilla, Janice; Williams, Tonya R; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-05-27

    Zika virus is a cause of microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1), and it is the first known mosquito-borne infection to cause congenital anomalies in humans. The establishment of a comprehensive surveillance system to monitor pregnant women with Zika virus infection will provide data to further elucidate the full range of potential outcomes for fetuses and infants of mothers with asymptomatic and symptomatic Zika virus infection during pregnancy. In February 2016, Zika virus disease and congenital Zika virus infections became nationally notifiable conditions in the United States (2). Cases in pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection who have either 1) symptomatic infection or 2) asymptomatic infection with diagnosed complications of pregnancy can be reported as cases of Zika virus disease to ArboNET* (2), CDC's national arboviral diseases surveillance system. Under existing interim guidelines from the Council for State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE), asymptomatic Zika virus infections in pregnant women who do not have known pregnancy complications are not reportable. ArboNET does not currently include pregnancy surveillance information (e.g., gestational age or pregnancy exposures) or pregnancy outcomes. To understand the full impact of infection on the fetus and neonate, other systems are needed for reporting and active monitoring of pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Thus, in collaboration with state, local, tribal, and territorial health departments, CDC established two surveillance systems to monitor pregnancies and congenital outcomes among women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection(†) in the United States and territories: 1) the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR),(§) which monitors pregnant women residing in U.S. states and all U.S. territories except Puerto Rico, and 2) the Zika Active Pregnancy Surveillance System (ZAPSS), which monitors pregnant women

  12. Increased levels of cell-free human placental lactogen mRNA at 28-32 gestational weeks in plasma of pregnant women with placenta previa and invasive placenta.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Akihiro; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Ventura, Walter; Koide, Keiko; Hori, Kyouko; Okai, Takashi; Masashi, Yoshida; Furuya, Kenichi; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

    2014-02-01

    We compared the levels of cell-free human placental lactogen (hPL) messenger RNA (mRNA) in maternal plasma at 28 to 32 weeks of gestation between women with diagnosis of placenta previa or invasive placenta and women with an uneventful pregnancy. Sensitivity and specificity of hPL mRNA for the prediction of invasive placenta were further explored. Plasma hPL mRNA were quantified by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in women with placenta previa (n = 13), invasive placenta (n = 5), and normal pregnancies (n = 92). Median (range) hPL mRNA was significantly higher in women with placenta previa, 782 (10-2301) copies/mL of plasma, and in those with invasive placenta, 615 (522-2102) copies/mL of plasma, when compared to normal pregnancies, 90 (4-4407) copies/mL of plasma, P < .01 and P < .05, respectively. We found a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 61.5% for the prediction of invasive placenta among women with placenta previa. In conclusion, expression of hPL mRNA is increased in plasma of women with placenta previa and invasive placenta at 28 to 32 weeks of gestation.

  13. Increased Levels of Cell-Free Human Placental Lactogen mRNA at 28-32 Gestational Weeks in Plasma of Pregnant Women With Placenta Previa and Invasive Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Sekizawa, Akihiko; Ventura, Walter; Koide, Keiko; Hori, Kyouko; Okai, Takashi; Masashi, Yoshida; Furuya, Kenichi; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    We compared the levels of cell-free human placental lactogen (hPL) messenger RNA (mRNA) in maternal plasma at 28 to 32 weeks of gestation between women with diagnosis of placenta previa or invasive placenta and women with an uneventful pregnancy. Sensitivity and specificity of hPL mRNA for the prediction of invasive placenta were further explored. Plasma hPL mRNA were quantified by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in women with placenta previa (n = 13), invasive placenta (n = 5), and normal pregnancies (n = 92). Median (range) hPL mRNA was significantly higher in women with placenta previa, 782 (10-2301) copies/mL of plasma, and in those with invasive placenta, 615 (522-2102) copies/mL of plasma, when compared to normal pregnancies, 90 (4-4407) copies/mL of plasma, P < .01 and P < .05, respectively. We found a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 61.5% for the prediction of invasive placenta among women with placenta previa. In conclusion, expression of hPL mRNA is increased in plasma of women with placenta previa and invasive placenta at 28 to 32 weeks of gestation. PMID:23744883

  14. A psychiatric medication decision support guide for social work practice with pregnant and postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Kia J; Price, Sarah Kye; Cummings, Cory R

    2014-10-01

    In their work in human services organizations and community agencies across service sectors, social workers encounter pregnant and postpartum women experiencing mental health challenges. This article offers an evidence-informed Decision Support Guide designed for use by social workers working with pregnant and postpartum women who are struggling with complicated decisions about psychiatric medication use. The guide is built on contemporary notions of health literacy and shared decision making and is informed by three areas: (1) research into the lived experiences of pregnant and postpartum women and health care providers around psychiatric medication decision making, (2) a critical review of existing decision aids, and (3) feedback on the strategy from social work practitioners who work with pregnant and postpartum women. Emphasizing the relational nature of social work in supporting effective health-related decision making, the guide relies on maintaining a collaborative practice milieu and using a decision aid that engages clients in discussions about mental health during and around the time of pregnancy. The guide offers social workers a practice tool to support responsive and compassionate care by embracing their roles in problem solving and decision making, providing emotional and psychosocial support, and making appropriate referrals to prescribers.

  15. PROXIMITY TO DELIVERY ALTERS INSULIN SENSITIVITY AND GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN PREGNANT MICE

    PubMed Central

    Musial, Barbara; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; Vaughan, Owen R.; Ozanne, Susan E.; Voshol, Peter; Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N.; Fowden, Abigail L.

    2016-01-01

    In late pregnancy, maternal insulin resistance occurs to support fetal growth but little is known about insulin-glucose dynamics close to delivery. This study measured insulin sensitivity in mice in late pregnancy, day (D) 16, and near term, D19, (term 20.5D). Non-pregnant (NP) and pregnant mice were assessed for metabolite and hormone concentrations, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, tissue insulin signalling protein abundance by Western blotting, glucose tolerance and utilisation, and insulin sensitivity using acute insulin administration and hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps with 3H-glucose infusion. Whole body insulin resistance occurred in D16 pregnant dams in association with basal hyperinsulinaemia, insulin-resistant endogenous glucose production and downregulation of several proteins in hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin signalling pathways relative to NP and D19 values. Insulin resistance was less pronounced at D19 with restoration of NP insulin concentrations, improved hepatic insulin sensitivity and increased abundance of hepatic insulin signalling proteins. At D16, insulin resistance at whole body, tissue and molecular levels will favour fetal glucose acquisition while improved D19 hepatic insulin sensitivity will conserve glucose for maternal use in anticipation of lactation. Tissue sensitivity to insulin, therefore, alters differentially with proximity to delivery in pregnant mice with implications for human and other species. PMID:26740602

  16. Evaluation of a public health nurse visiting program for pregnant and parenting teens.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Marjorie A; Goodhue, Amy; Stennes, Kaye; Lanigan, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    A visiting nurse agency created the Pregnant and Parenting Team Program, an innovative program for serving pregnant and parenting teen mothers to promote family and child health and family self-sufficiency. Public health nurses (PHNs) provide home visits that offer social, emotional, educational, and health care support to pregnant and parenting teen mothers 19 years of age and younger and their children. Foundational program pillars include: (1) a trusting relationship between teen mothers and a PHN through home visits; (2) outreach and coordination with schools, hospital, clinics, and human service agencies; (3) a comprehensive and intensive maternal mental health curriculum; and (4) community support and caring through provision of essential items needed for success in parenting. Measures of program effectiveness included identification of pregnant and parenting adolescent mothers, birth outcomes, active enrollment in school, delay of repeat pregnancy, maternal-infant bonding and attachment, use of community resources, and infant growth and development. Participants in the program were more likely to be enrolled in school and had better birth outcomes in comparison with nonparticipants. Outcome data collected from January 1, 2008 to July 23, 2010 demonstrated progress toward stated goals.

  17. Inability of newborns' or pregnant women's monocytes to suppress pokeweed mitogen-induced responses

    SciTech Connect

    Durandy, A.; Fischer, A.; Griscelli, C.

    1982-02-01

    Although an excess of human adult blood adherent cells inhibits the pokeweed mitogen- (PWM) induced normal adult lymphocyte proliferation and B cell maturation into immunoglobulin-containing cells (ICC), adherent cells collected from newborn infants or pregnant women at time of delivery were unable to exert a similar suppressor activity. After activation by Concanavalin A (Con A), newborns' and pregnant women's adherent cells acquired a suppressor activity comparable to that of control adult adherent cells. The adherent suppressor cell was shown to be radioresistant (3000 rad), indicating its probable monocytic orgin. Both monocyte-suppressor activities (MSA) observed in adulthood (spontaneously) and in the neonatal period (after activation) were dependent on prostaglandin E/sub 2/ (PGE/sub 2/) secretion, because they were abolished by indomethacin or a specific anti-PGE/sub 2/ anti-serum. Expression of MSA appeared to be under a negative regulation exerted by naturally occurring T suppressor lymphocytes present in the blood of newborns or pregnant women, because incubation of adult monocytes or Con A-activated newborn monocytes with newborns' or pregnant women's T lymphocytes resulted in a dramatic decrease of their MSA. These results strongly suggest that the lack of MSA in the neonatal period and in late pregnancy is a consequence of activation of T suppressor lymphocytes.

  18. Cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy for anxiety: treatment preferences and credibility among pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Arch, Joanna J

    2014-01-01

    Relatively little is known about women's anxiety-related treatment preferences and no studies have examined potential differences between pregnant versus non-pregnant women. Treatment credibility and willingness are particularly important to understand regarding exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy, the leading evidence-based treatments. A large U.S. sample of pregnant (n = 377) and matched non-pregnant (n = 399) women (total N = 776) rated overall treatment preferences and treatment credibility, concerns, and willingness to have CBT and pharmacotherapy if suffering from anxiety. Women preferred anxiety-related treatment that included psychotherapy. Preference for psychotherapy alone was stronger among pregnant (74%) than non-pregnant (47%) women, p < .001. In response to treatment descriptions, both groups rated CBT more favorably than pharmacotherapy on treatment willingness, credibility, and concerns, ps < .001, with the magnitude of this preference significantly greater among pregnant than non-pregnant women, ps < .001. Pregnancy status was unrelated to CBT ratings. Treatment credibility and to a lesser extent total concerns mediated the relationship between pregnancy status and pharmacotherapy willingness. Non-pregnant and especially pregnant women rated exposure-based CBT for anxiety more favorably than pharmacotherapy. Pregnancy status predicted general treatment preferences and pharmacotherapy, but not CBT, ratings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of radiofrequency radiation on DNA and lipid damage in non-pregnant and pregnant rabbits and their newborns.

    PubMed

    Guler, Goknur; Tomruk, Arin; Ozgur, Elcin; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2010-03-01

    The concerns of people on possible adverse health effects of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) generated from mobile phones as well as their supporting transmitters (base stations) have increased markedly. RFR effect on oversensitive people, such as pregnant women and their developing fetuses, and older people is another source of concern that should be considered. In this study, oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation levels in the brain tissue of pregnant and non-pregnant New Zealand White rabbits and their newborns exposed to RFR were investigated. Thirteen-month-old rabbits were studied in four groups as non-pregnant-control, non-pregnant-RFR exposed, pregnant-control and pregnant-RFR exposed. They were exposed to RFR (1800 MHz GSM; 14 V/m as reference level) for 15 min/day during 7 days. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were analyzed. MDA and 8-OHdG levels of non-pregnant and pregnant-RFR exposed animals significantly increased with respect to controls (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney test). No difference was found in the newborns (p > 0.05, Mann-Whitney). There exist very few experimental studies on the effects of RFR during pregnancy. It would be beneficial to increase the number of these studies in order to establish international standards for the protection of pregnant women from RFR.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine in pregnant baboons (Papio spp.).

    PubMed

    Shoulson, Rivka L; Stark, Raymond L; Garland, Marianne

    2014-11-01

    Fluoxetine is used to treat a number of psychiatric conditions in humans and behavioral problems in animals. Its use in pregnancy must balance maternal benefit with potential risk to the fetus. Knowledge of adult and fetal drug disposition can assist clinicians in selecting therapy that minimizes adverse effects to the fetus. Nonhuman primate models are used frequently in drug dose-translation studies, and pregnancy in baboons has many similarities to human pregnancy. Accordingly, pharmacokinetic analysis of a series of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine administrations to pregnant baboons was performed. The mean maternal baboon steady-state clearance of fluoxetine (42 mL/min/kg) was considerably higher than that in humans. Norfluoxetine, the major active metabolite, had a higher metabolite-to-drug ratio (8.7) than that found in humans, particularly with oral dosing. These results are consistent with more extensive metabolism in baboons than in humans and leads to a higher clearance than would be expected from allometric scaling. Fetal-to-maternal fluoxetine and norfluoxetine ratios under steady-state conditions were similar to those in humans, with fetal concentrations of fluoxetine 42% and norfluoxetine 47% of maternal concentrations. The fetal clearance of fluoxetine (303 ± 176 mL/min) and norfluoxetine (450 mL/min) exceeded reported placental blood flow. Understanding these species-associated differences in metabolism is a prerequisite to extrapolating data between species. Nonetheless, nonhuman primates are likely to remain valuable models for pharmacokinetic studies during pregnancy, particularly those directed toward fetal neurodevelopmental effects. Our results also are applicable to determining appropriate dosing of nonhuman primates in clinical settings.

  1. Field Evaluation of a Rapid Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Serial Serologic Testing Algorithm for Diagnosis and Differentiation of HIV Type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and Dual HIV-1-HIV-2 Infections in West African Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Rouet, François; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Inwoley, André; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Burgard, Marianne; Bequet, Laurence; Viho, Ida; Leroy, Valériane; Simon, François; Dabis, François; Rouzioux, Christine

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated a two-rapid-test serial algorithm using the Determine and Genie II rapid assays, performed on-site in four peripheral laboratories during the French Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA (ANRS) 1201/1202 Ditrame Plus cohort developed for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Côte d'Ivoire. A total of 1,039 specimens were retested by two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The following specimens were tested: 315 specimens found on-site to be infected with HIV type 1 (HIV-1), 8 specimens found on-site to be infected with HIV-2, 71 specimens found on-site to be infected with both HIV-1 and HIV-2, 40 specimens found on-site to have indeterminate results for HIV infection, and 605 specimens taken during a quality assurance program. For HIV discrimination, 99 positive serum samples (20 with HIV-1, 8 with HIV-2, and 71 with HIV-1 and HIV-2 on the basis of our rapid test algorithm) were retested by the Peptilav test, Western blot (WB) assays, and homemade monospecific ELISAs. Real-time DNA PCRs for the detection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 were performed with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 35 women diagnosed on-site with HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. Compared to the results of the ELISAs, the sensitivities of the Determine and Genie II assays were 100% (95% lower limit [95% LL], 99.1%) and 99.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 98.2 to 99.9%), respectively. The specificities were 98.4% (95% CI, 96.9 to 99.3%) and 100% (95% LL, 99.3%), respectively. All serological assays gave concordant results for infections with single types. By contrast, for samples found to be infected with dual HIV types by the Genie II assay, dual reactivity was detected for only 37 samples (52.1%) by WB assays, 34 samples (47.9%) by the Peptilav assay, and 23 samples (32.4%) by the monospecific ELISAs. For specimens with dual reactivity by the Genie II assay, the rates of concordance between the real

  2. Antibodies against oxidized low density lipoproteins in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Fialová, L; Mikulíková, L; Malbohan, I; Benesová, O; Stípek, S; Zima, T; Zwinger, A

    2002-01-01

    Oxidized low density lipoproteins (oxLDL) formed in vivo induce a humoral immune response. Oxidative modification of LDL renders it immunogenic and a heterogeneous population of specific anti-oxLDL antibodies is produced. These antibodies could represent a biological marker of oxidative stress and serve as markers of atherosclerosis. Autoantibodies against oxLDL (oLAb) have been detected in human subjects practically of every age. oLAb also appear in the blood of pregnant women. Some studies have shown that the levels of antibodies to oxLDL were elevated in women with established preeclampsia. The present study was aimed to estimate the oLAb IgG levels in the first and second trimester of pregnancy. Furthermore, we estimated the correlation between maternal serum (MS) levels of oLAb and alpha-1-fetoprotein (MS AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (MS HCG) and trophoblast-specific-beta-1-glycoprotein (MS SP1), because these proteins are determined as a part of prenatal biochemical screening for fetal congenital abnormalities. Our study deals with the oLAb changes in women with pregnancy-induced hypertension. We also investigated the correlation between oLAb IgG and anticardiolipin antibodies IgG (ACA) in the serum of pregnant women. We examined 40 pregnant women attending Institute for Mother and Child Care for their antenatal care as outpatients. Routine blood samplings between the 9-13th week of pregnancy and 16-18th week of pregnancy were performed as a part of biochemical prenatal screening for fetal congenital abnormalities (Group 1). Their mean age was 27 +/- 4.1 years. Furthermore, we examined 26 women in the second or third trimester with pregnancy-induced hypertension (Group 2). Group 2 was compared with 49 pregnant women in the second or third trimester who were normotensive (Group 3). We used commercial standardized ELISA kits for determination of oLAb IgG, ACA IgG, MS AFP and MS HCG, MS SP1 was analyzed by single radial immunodiffusion. We did not find

  3. Gastrointestinal endoscopy in the pregnant woman

    PubMed Central

    Friedel, David; Stavropoulos, Stavros; Iqbal, Shahzad; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2014-01-01

    About 20000 gastrointestinal endoscopies are performed annually in America in pregnant women. Gastrointestinal endoscopy during pregnancy raises the critical issue of fetal safety in addition to patient safety. Endoscopic medications may be potentially abortifacient or teratogenic. Generally, Food and Drug Administration category B or C drugs should be used for endoscopy. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) seems to be relatively safe for both mother and fetus based on two retrospective studies of 83 and 60 pregnant patients. The diagnostic yield is about 95% when EGD is performed for gastrointestinal bleeding. EGD indications during pregnancy include acute gastrointestinal bleeding, dysphagia > 1 wk, or endoscopic therapy. Therapeutic EGD is experimental due to scant data, but should be strongly considered for urgent indications such as active bleeding. One study of 48 sigmoidoscopies performed during pregnancy showed relatively favorable fetal outcomes, rare bad fetal outcomes, and bad outcomes linked to very sick mothers. Sigmoidoscopy should be strongly considered for strong indications, including significant acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding, chronic diarrhea, distal colonic stricture, suspected inflammatory bowel disease flare, and potential colonic malignancy. Data on colonoscopy during pregnancy are limited. One study of 20 pregnant patients showed rare poor fetal outcomes. Colonoscopy is generally experimental during pregnancy, but can be considered for strong indications: known colonic mass/stricture, active lower gastrointestinal bleeding, or colonoscopic therapy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) entails fetal risks from fetal radiation exposure. ERCP risks to mother and fetus appear to be acceptable when performed for ERCP therapy, as demonstrated by analysis of nearly 350 cases during pregnancy. Justifiable indications include symptomatic or complicated choledocholithiasis, manifested by jaundice, cholangitis, gallstone

  4. Are pregnant adolescents stigmatized by pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Wiemann, Constance M; Rickert, Vaughn I; Berenson, Abbey B; Volk, Robert J

    2005-04-01

    To identify prevalence and correlates, including substance use and exposure to violence, of feeling stigmatized by being pregnant as an adolescent. A total of 925 low-income African-American, Mexican-American, and Caucasian pregnant adolescents aged pregnant adolescents feel stigmatized by pregnancy and are at increased risk of social isolation and abuse. These young women may need special attention during and after pregnancy to develop concrete strategies to care for themselves and their children to complete their education and avoid becoming clinically depressed.

  5. [FEATURES MORPHOLOGICAL PICTURE FACIES ORAL LIQUID IN PREGNANT].

    PubMed

    Iakovets, O V

    2015-01-01

    The features of morphological picture facies oral fluid of pregnant women with intact periodontal inflammatory diseases periodontal tissues. Results of the study were compared with the clinical picture. The features of morphological picture of the oral liquid with a healthy non-pregnant and periodontal inflammatory periodontal diseases in pregnant women. Revealed signs of inflammation markers in oral fluid facies in inflammatory processes in periodontal tissues.

  6. [Specific features of emergency dental care in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Anisimova, E N; Axamit, L A; Manukhina, E I; Letunova, N Yu; Golikova, A M; Fedotova, T M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the algorithm of safe emergency dental care in pregnant patients. Eighty-five pregnant women aged 20-35 were included in the study. The paper presents elaborated state-of-the-art guidelines for emergency dental care in pregnant patients. Articaine 4% with epinephrine 1:200,000 is recommended as a choice agent for local anesthesia in these patients.

  7. Breast cancer in pregnant and lactating women.

    PubMed

    Usmani, K; Moran, E M; Haider, W; Afzal, H; Ahmad, N

    1995-01-01

    Between 1988 and 1991, we treated 595 women with breast cancer in the Breast Disease Section of the Cancer Research Foundation of Pakistan. We report here on 61 patients who were pregnant or lactating. Most patients presented at a late stage of disease because of ignorance, social taboos, or fear of hospitalization and operation. The largest diameter of the breast mass at presentation was 15 cm. Lymph nodes were involved in 70.5% of cases. Multiparity, young marriages, malnutrition, and unhygienic conditions are ripe in the rural environment of Pakistan. No oral contraceptives are used. Modern and conventional methods of treatment did not increase the survival rate of these cancer patients.

  8. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women in Austria.

    PubMed

    Lindorfer, H; Krebs, M; Kautzky-Willer, A; Bancher-Todesca, D; Sager, M; Gessl, A

    2015-03-01

    In Austria, iodine deficiency has been considered to be eliminated owing to table salt fortification with iodine, but whether this also applies to pregnant women is unclear. Even mild iodine deficiency during gestation may lead to neurocognitive sequelae in the offspring. This is a cross-sectional investigation of urinary iodine excretion in 246 pregnant women (first trimester n=2, second trimester n=53, third trimester n=191, gestational diabetes mellitus n=115, no gestational diabetes mellitus n=131). The iodine content of morning spot urine samples was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Pregnant women in the Vienna area had a median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of 87 μg/l. Only 13.8% of the cohort were in the recommended range of 150-249 μg/l, whereas 21.5% had a UIC of 0-49 μg/l, 40.2% had a UIC of 50-99 μg/l and 19.5% had a UIC of 100-149 μg/l. In all, 4.9% had a UIC over 250 μg/l. A total of 137 women of foreign origin had a significantly higher iodine excretion compared with Austrian-born women. Maternal or gestational age had no influence on UIC. Although 79 women on iodine supplementation had a significantly higher iodine concentration compared with women without iodine supplementation (97.3 vs 80.1 μg/l, P=0,006), their UIC was below the recommended range, indicating that doses of 100-150 μg per day are not sufficient to normalize iodine excretion. Sodium and iodine concentrations in the urine were tightly correlated (R=0.539, n=61), suggesting that low intake of iodized salt might contribute to insufficient iodine supply. This study shows that pregnant women in the Vienna area have a potentially clinically significant iodine deficiency and that currently recommended doses of iodine supplementation may not be sufficient.

  9. [Anti-smoking propaganda among pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Kosenko, E V

    1989-01-01

    The study was designed to analyze the work of women's consultation clinics and maternity homes on antitobacco propaganda among pregnant women. 428 physicians were interviewed. It was shown that 21.7% of physicians at women's consultation clinics and 22.9% of those of maternity homes were constantly engaged in such propaganda activities. The majority of physicians discussed tobacco smoking only in case when the patients had some smoking-associated problems. It was recommended to intensify antitobacco propaganda, to develop the movement under the slogan "Smoking and doctors are incompatible", to raise the responsibility of physicians for health education.

  10. The expectations of pregnant women regarding antenatal care.

    PubMed

    Mathibe-Neke, J M

    2008-09-01

    From a feminist perspective, research on childbirth and women's health is a means to a positive change that is conducted in partnership with women for their benefit. A patient-led National Health System (NHS) (Hillan, 1999) also calls for consultation with patients and the wider public for shaping the current and future health services. This study was aimed at exploring and describing the expectations that pregnant women have regarding antenatal care service by the midwife practitioner. In-depth interviews were conducted in an antenatal unit of an Academic Hospital in Gauteng Povince. Data saturation was reached with a sample of eighteen pregnant women who were conveniently selected. Data analysis ran concurrently with data collection. A manual content analysis as described by Tesch was used. Lincoln and Guba's method of ensuring trustworthiness was adopted (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:328) Literature was undertaken to compare the findings of this study with those of other previous studies. Women displayed several common expectations that led to the saturation of data. It also became apparent from the findings that each woman had varied expectations. There were also some commonalities within the women's expectations. Health care, as the major expectation and a basic human right, appeared to be basically fulfilled, with the exception of interactional characteristics such as the communication of information, guidance, involvement, the understanding and explanation of aspects, freedom of choice, punctuality, individualized care and continuity of care. The conclusions that were reached let to recommendations for nursing practice, education, research and the formulation of guidelines for the midwife practitioner for the implementation of effective antenatal care, based on the identified expectations.

  11. Fibrinolytic changes in pregnant women on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Osime, Odaburhine E; Ese-Onakewhor, Joseph U; Kolade, Samson O

    2015-02-01

    To report on the changes in fibrinolytic activity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected pregnant women who are undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Blood was collected from 50 HIV positive women on HAART (test subjects), and 50 HIV positive women not on HAART (controls). These women were attending the prevention of mother to child clinic (PMTCT) of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria from January to June 2014. Standard manual techniques were used to estimate plasma fibrinogen concentration (PFC), euglobulin lysis time (ELT), packed cell volume (PCV), and plasma viscosity (PV). The mean ± standard error of mean (SEM) of PFC was 4.02±0.13 g/l and ELT from the test subjects was 378±15 mins was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared with the control subjects (PFC 3.46±0.12 g/l and ELT 267±9.0 mins). The PCV or hematocrit values in the test subject was 29.1±0.38%, which was significantly lower (p<0.05) compared with the control subject (31.3±0.43%). The PV in the test subject was 1.76±0.02 mPa/s, while the control subjects was higher (1.73±0.02 mPa/s). This increase was not statistically significant (p>0.05). There were differences in the various parameters investigated when the various trimesters were compared. These differences did not, however, follow a particular pattern. Highly active antiretroviral therapy can cause changes in fibrinolytic activity that may predispose pregnant women to hyperfibrinogenemia and anemia.

  12. Achieving body weight adjustments for feeding status and pregnant or non-pregnant condition in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Gionbelli, Mateus P; Duarte, Marcio S; Valadares Filho, Sebastião C; Detmann, Edenio; Chizzotti, Mario L; Rodrigues, Felipe C; Zanetti, Diego; Gionbelli, Tathyane R S; Machado, Marcelo G

    2015-01-01

    Beef cows herd accounts for 70% of the total energy used in the beef production system. However, there are still limited studies regarding improvement of production efficiency in this category, mainly in developing countries and in tropical areas. One of the limiting factors is the difficulty to obtain reliable estimates of weight variation in mature cows. This occurs due to the interaction of weight of maternal tissues with specific physiological stages such as pregnancy. Moreover, variation in gastrointestinal contents due to feeding status in ruminant animals is a major source of error in body weight measurements. Develop approaches to estimate the individual proportion of weight from maternal tissues and from gestation in pregnant cows, adjusting for feeding status and stage of gestation. Dataset of 49 multiparous non-lactating Nellore cows (32 pregnant and 17 non-pregnant) were used. To establish the relationships between the body weight, depending on the feeding status of pregnant and non-pregnant cows as a function of days of pregnancy, a set of general equations was tested, based on theoretical suppositions. We proposed the concept of pregnant compound (PREG), which represents the weight that is genuinely related to pregnancy. The PREG includes the gravid uterus minus the non-pregnant uterus plus the accretion in udder related to pregnancy. There was no accretion in udder weight up to 238 days of pregnancy. By subtracting the PREG from live weight of a pregnant cow, we obtained estimates of the weight of only maternal tissues in pregnant cows. Non-linear functions were adjusted to estimate the relationship between fasted, non-fasted and empty body weight, for pregnant and non-pregnant cows. Our results allow for estimating the actual live weight of pregnant cows and their body constituents, and subsequent comparison as a function of days of gestation and feeding status.

  13. Lactoferrin efficacy versus ferrous sulfate in curing iron disorders in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Paesano, R; Berlutti, F; Pietropaoli, M; Goolsbee, W; Pacifici, E; Valenti, P

    2010-01-01

    Iron homeostasis in pregnancy compensates for increased iron requirements and in women of child-bearing age for iron loss in menses. Oral administration of ferrous sulfate, prescribed to cure iron deficiency (ID) and ID anemia (IDA), often fails to increase hematological parameters and causes adverse effects. Recently, we demonstrated safety and efficacy of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) in pregnant women suffering from ID/IDA. Two clinical trials were conducted on pregnant and non-pregnant women of child-bearing age suffering from ID/IDA. In both trials, women received oral administration of bLf 100 mg/twice/day (Arm A), or ferrous sulfate 520 mg/day (Arm B). Hematological parameters, serum IL-6 and prohepcidin were assayed before and after therapy. Unlike ferrous sulfate, bLf increased hematological parameters (P less than 0.0001). In pregnant women, bLf decreased serum IL-6 (P less than 0.0001), and increased prohepcidin (P=0.0007). In non-pregnant women bLf did not change the low IL-6 levels while it increased prohepcidin (P less than 0.0001). Ferrous sulfate increased IL-6 (P less than 0.0001) and decreased prohepcidin (P=0.093). bLf established iron homeostasis by modulating serum IL-6 and prohepcidin synthesis, whereas ferrous sulfate increased IL-6 and failed to increase hematological parameters and prohepcidin. bLf is a more effective and safer alternative than ferrous sulfate for treating ID and IDA.

  14. Effects of dexamethasone on the glucogenic capacity of fetal, pregnant, and non-pregnant adult sheep.

    PubMed

    Franko, K L; Giussani, D A; Forhead, A J; Fowden, A L

    2007-01-01

    Fetal glucocorticoids have an important role in the pre-partum maturation of physiological systems essential for neonatal survival such as glucogenesis. Consequently, in clinical practice, synthetic glucocorticoids, like dexamethasone, are given routinely to pregnant women threatened with pre-term delivery to improve the viability of their infants. However, little is known about the effects of maternal dexamethasone treatment on the glucogenic capacity of either the fetus or mother. This study investigated the effects of dexamethasone treatment using a clinically relevant dose and regime on glycogen deposition and the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver and kidney of pregnant ewes and their fetuses, and of non-pregnant ewes. Dexamethasone administration increased the glycogen content of both the fetal and adult liver within 36 h of beginning treatment. It also increased G6Pase activity in the liver and kidney of the fetuses but not of their mothers or the non-pregnant ewes. Neither hepatic nor renal PEPCK activity was affected by dexamethasone in any group of animals. These changes in glycogen content and G6Pase activity were accompanied by rises in the plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and by a fall in the plasma cortisol level in the fetus and both groups of adult animals. In addition, dexamethasone treatment raised fetal plasma tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) concentrations and reduced maternal levels of plasma T(3) and thyroxine, but had no effect on thyroid hormone concentrations in the non-pregnant ewes. These findings show that maternal dexamethasone treatment increases the glucogenic capacity of both the mother and fetus and has major implications for glucose availability both before and after birth.

  15. Assessment of Macular Peripapillary Nerve Fiber Layer and Choroidal Thickness Changes in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Healthy Pregnant Women, and Healthy Non-Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Acmaz, Gokhan; Atas, Mustafa; Gulhan, Ahmet; Acmaz, Banu; Atas, Fatma; Aksoy, Huseyin; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Gokce, Gokcen

    2015-06-18

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a risk factor for the development of type II diabetes and it causes maternal and child morbidity. Screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) is important because patients who develop DR have no symptoms until macular edema and/or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) are already present. The aim of this study was to determine the early retinal findings of GDM. This study was conducted in a tertiary research center. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study with 3 groups: Group 1 consisted of 36 pregnant women with GDM, Group 2 consisted of 24 healthy pregnant women, and Group 3 consisted of 38 healthy non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used for the assessment. Macular, choroid, and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses were evaluated in patients with GDM and comparisons were made among pregnant women with GDM, healthy pregnant women, and healthy non-pregnant women for these parameters. The nasal part of the RNFL was significantly thinner in the GDM group than in the healthy pregnant group. None of the patients had retinopathy or macular edema at the time of examination. Decreased nasal part of RNFL thickness may be the first retinal change in patients with GDM. Our study suggests that OCT should be performed for the patients with GDM for detection of early retinal changes associated with GDM.

  16. Acute kidney injury in the pregnant patient.

    PubMed

    Nwoko, Rosemary; Plecas, Darko; Garovic, Vesna D

    2012-12-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is costly and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. An understanding of the renal physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy is essential for proper evaluation, diagnosis, and management of AKI. As in the general population, AKI can occur from prerenal, intrinsic, and post-renal causes. Major causes of pre-renal azotemia include hyperemesis gravidarum and uterine hemorrhage in the setting of placental abruption. Intrinsic etiologies include infections from acute pyelonephritis and septic abortion, bilateral cortical necrosis, and acute tubular necrosis. Particular attention should be paid to specific conditions that lead to AKI during the second and third trimesters, such as preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and TTP-HUS. For each of these disorders, delivery of the fetus is the recommended therapeutic option, with additional therapies indicated for each specific disease entity. An understanding of the various etiologies of AKI in the pregnant patient is key to the appropriate clinical management, prevention of adverse maternal outcomes, and safe delivery of the fetus. In pregnant women with pre-existing kidney disease, the degree of renal dysfunction is the major determining factor of pregnancy outcomes, which may further be complicated by a prior history of hypertension.

  17. [Psychotherapy for pregnant women with psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Cyranka, Katarzyna; Smiatek-Mazgaj, Bogna; Mielimąka, Michał; Sobański, Jerzy; Rutkowski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is a major life change for many women. The related biological changes, especially complications in its course and in the course of delivery, carry a risk of developing a variety of psychological problems and mental disorders. However, their treatment is challenging due to the teratogenic effects of most psychoactive drugs and specific requirements for entering different psychotherapeutic programs. Mental disorders during pregnancy are undoubtedly an important issue for both gynecology and psychiatry. There is still a discussion considering the question whether psychotherapy during pregnancy is safe, although no scientifically valid data contradicting the safety of psychotherapy during pregnancy has been published so far. Together with psychotherapy - as a treatment of choice - clinicians approve some other relatively safe treatment methods for psychiatric disorders in pregnant women. Light therapy, limited pharmacotherapy, ECT are included. The goal of this paper is to review current opinions of clinicians and researches concerning possibilities, indications and outcome of psychological treatments as a way to help pregnant women who suffer from different psychiatric conditions, and also because this subject is not yet present in Polish psychiatric journals.

  18. [Intracranial arteriovenous malformations in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Perquin, D A; Kloet, A; Tans, J T; Witte, G N; Dörr, P J

    1999-03-06

    Three women, aged 27, 32 and 30 years, respectively, suffered from headache, nausea and neurological abnormalities and were found to have an intracranial arteriovenous malformation (AVM). One of them after diagnosis had two pregnancies, both ended by caesarean section with good results. Another woman was 32 weeks pregnant when the AVM manifested itself with a haemorrhage; she recovered well and was delivered by caesarean section. After the AVM proved radiologically to have been obliterated, she delivered after her subsequent pregnancy by the vaginal route with vacuum extraction. The third woman was 15 weeks pregnant when major abnormalities developed. There was a large intracerebral haematoma with break-through to the ventricular system; this patient died. Intracranial haemorrhage during pregnancy is rate. It can result in maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. It appears that pregnancy does not increase the rate of first cerebral haemorrhage from an AVM. The management of AVM rupture during pregnancy should be based primarily on neurosurgical rather than on obstetric considerations. Close collaboration with a team of neurologists, neurosurgeons, obstetricians and anaesthesiologists is mandatory.

  19. Weight gain attitudes among pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Simon, C; Nakashima, I; Andrews, D

    1993-07-01

    Maternal weight gain is the most important, manageable determinant of infant birth weight among adolescents. Negative attitudes toward weight gain may adversely affect maternal weight gain. We hypothesized that (a) negative attitudes toward pregnancy weight gain are more common among younger pregnant adolescents, and (b) negative attitudes toward pregnancy weight gain adversely affect adolescent maternal weight gain. The study subjects, 99, radially diverse, pregnant 13 through 18 year olds, completed the 18-item, Likert-format, Pregnancy and Weight Gain Attitude Scale. Responses to the questionnaire indicated that most (83.8%) of the adolescents we interviewed had a positive attitude toward pregnancy weight gain when they entered prenatal care. Univariate analyses revealed that attitudes toward weight gain were unrelated to the respondents' ages but inversely related to their prepregnant weights (-0.16; p = 0.06) and the severity of their symptoms of depression (r = -0.26; p = 0.004). Attitudes toward weight gain were also directly related to their family support (r = 0.17; p = 0.06). Weight gain was significantly related to 4 of the 18 scale items but not to the total attitude scale score. We conclude that (a) the developmental task of formulating a positive body image does not foster more negative attitudes toward pregnancy weight gain among younger adolescents; (b) negative weight gain attitudes are most common among heavier adolescents, depressed adolescents, and adolescents who do not perceive their families as supportive; and (c) negative weight gain attitudes could adversely affect pregnancy weight gain.

  20. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pregnant women: peculiarities].

    PubMed

    Grau Gandía, S; Martínez Ramón, M A

    1998-01-01

    This review main purpose is to show nursing the present knowledge about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in pregnant women because of the scarce information published by Spanish Nursing Publications. The bibliographical research was made using both the Medline (from January 1982 to March 1998) and Index de Enfermería databases. There, we can find 32 references from which only 23 were selected (all of them belong to the Medline database) in spite of 3 chapters that had already been selected from other different books. Although maternal cardiac arrest rarely happens during pregnancy, it is very important for sanitary staff to be familiarized with the specifics thecnics and equipment (ultrasound and cardiotocograph monitoring). This review describes the physiological changes that take place during pregnancy and have an incidence into CPR. The article also includes the conclusions about the checked papers and the peculiarities that have to be taken into account in each CPR, such as the fetal viability evaluation, right CPR position, airway and breathing, desfibrillation, external cardiac compression and use of pharmacologic therapy and intravenous fluids. Moreover, there is a special mention of the perimortem cesarean delivery features: antecedents, foetus-maternals consequences and managements, due to the fact that this surgical operation should be included inside the CPR protocols of the pregnant.

  1. Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus among pregnant women and hospitalized children in Palestine.

    PubMed

    Neirukh, Tahani; Qaisi, Ayda; Saleh, Niveen; Rmaileh, Areej Abu; Zahriyeh, Eman Abu; Qurei, Lina; Dajani, Firas; Nusseibeh, Taghreed; Khamash, Hatem; Baraghithi, Sabri; Azzeh, Maysa

    2013-11-09

    Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common cause of congenital infections. The maternal immune status plays a major role in the likelihood of congenital infection. The aim of this study is to shed light on the seroprevalence of HCMV in pregnant women, hospitalized children and newborns including cases of congenital infections in Palestine. We analyzed HCMV IgG and IgM test results that had been ordered for pregnant women, hospitalized children and newborns in the years 2006-2012 at Al-Makassed Islamic Charitable Hospital (MICH) in East Jerusalem. Furthermore, we reviewed the medical charts of newborns and HCMV IgM-positive children. HCMV IgG was positive in 96.6% of pregnant women, in 88% of hospitalized children and in 98.4% of hospitalized newborns. HCMV IgM was positive in 11.5% of pregnant women, in 11.7% of hospitalized children and in 2% of hospitalized newborns respectively. The HCMV avidity assay revealed that 95% of IgM-positive pregnant women had high avidity (>60%) indicating that most Palestinian women were undergoing a recurrent HCMV infection. Real time PCR on limited number of cases indicated that 62.5% of infants, mostly born to IgM-positive mothers and 83.3% of HCMV IgM-positive children had detectable HCMV DNA in their urine. Out of the 249 newborns tested during this study period, four (1.6%) were subjected to Gancyclovir treatment because of symptomatic congenital HCMV infection. This is the first report to provide an insight into HCMV seroprevalence in Palestine. Despite the high rate of seropositivity, the importance of HCMV testing during pregnancy should not be underestimated. A comprehensive study with a long term follow-up examination of offspring born to HCMV IgM-positive mothers would be required to provide estimates of an accurate percentage of symptomatic congenital HCMV infection in Palestine.

  2. Comparing Smoking Topography and Subjective Measures of Usual Brand Cigarettes Between Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Smokers.

    PubMed

    Bergeria, Cecilia L; Heil, Sarah H; Bunn, Janice Y; Sigmon, Stacey C; Higgins, Stephen T

    2017-06-27

    Most pregnant smokers report abruptly reducing their cigarettes per day (CPD) by ~50% after learning of pregnancy and making further smaller reductions over the remainder of their pregnancy. Laboratory and naturalistic studies with non-pregnant smokers have found that these types of reductions often lead to changes in smoking topography (i.e., changes in smoking intensity to maintain a desired blood-nicotine level). If pregnant women smoke more intensely, they may expose themselves and their offspring to similar levels of toxicants despite reporting reductions in CPD. Pregnant and non-pregnant female smokers (n = 20 and 89, respectively) participated. At the experimental session, after biochemical confirmation of acute abstinence, participants smoked one usual brand cigarette ad lib through a Borgwaldt CReSS Desktop Smoking Topography device. Carbon monoxide (CO) and measures of nicotine withdrawal, craving, and reinforcement derived from smoking were also collected. The two groups did not differ on demographic or smoking characteristics at screening, except nicotine metabolism rate, which as expected, was faster in pregnant smokers. Analyses suggest that none of the smoking topography parameters differed between pregnant and non-pregnant smokers, although pregnant smokers had a significantly smaller CO boost. Both groups reported similar levels of relief of withdrawal and craving after smoking, but other subjective effects suggest that pregnant smokers find smoking less reinforcing than non-pregnant smokers. Pregnant smokers do not smoke cigarettes differently than non-pregnant women, but appear to find smoking comparatively less pleasurable. This is the first study to assess smoking topography in pregnant women. Pregnant women appear to be at increased risk for smoking cigarettes with more intensity because of (1) their tendency to make significant abrupt reductions in the number of cigarettes they smoke each day after learning of pregnancy and (2) an increase in

  3. Central sleep apnea in pregnant women with sleep disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    Bourjeily, Ghada; Sharkey, Katherine M; Mazer, Jeffrey; Moore, Robin; Martin, Susan; Millman, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Physiologic changes in the cardiac, respiratory, and renal systems in pregnancy likely impact ventilatory control. Though obstructive sleep apnea and snoring are common in the pregnant population, the predisposition to central respiratory events during sleep and the prevalence of such events is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of central apneas during sleep in pregnant women and non-pregnant controls suspected of sleep disordered breathing. Twenty-five pregnant women referred for polysomnography for sleep disordered breathing were compared with non-pregnant controls matched for age, body mass index, gender, and apnea hypopnea index (AHI). Central apnea index was defined as the number of central apneas per hour of sleep, and mixed apnea index was defined as the number of mixed apneas per hour of sleep. Sixty-four percent of pregnant women had a respiratory disturbance index >5 events per hour of sleep. Mean body mass index was 44.1 ± 6.9 kg/m(2) pregnant compared to 44.0 ± 7.3 kg/m(2) in controls. The total number of central apneas observed during sleep in the pregnant group consisted of two central apneas in one patient, and of 98 central apneas in 11 patients in the control group (p = 0.05). Median central apnea index was low in both groups (pregnant 0, interquartile range (IQR) 0, 0 vs. non-pregnant 0, IQR 0, 0.2, p = 0.04). Mixed apnea index was similarly low in both groups. Despite some physiologic changes of pregnancy that impact ventilatory control, the prevalence of central sleep apnea was low in our sample of overweight pregnant women with sleep-disordered breathing.

  4. The relationship between environmental exposures and hormonal abnormalities in pregnant women: An epidemiological study in Yazd, Iran.

    PubMed

    Askari, Sahar Ghale; Khatbasreh, Masomeh; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan; Sheikhha, Mohammad Hassan; Eslami, Hadi; Taghavi, Mahmoud; Shahrokhi, Samira; Andishmand, Sodeh

    2017-09-25

    The process of industrialization and lifestyle changes have gradually exposed human ‎societies to a larger number of environmental risk factors, which may cause hormonal ‎abnormalities and congenital anomalies. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship ‎between environmental factors and hormonal abnormalities among pregnant women in Yazd, ‎Iran. A hundred participants were randomly selected from among a group of pregnant women. According to the screening tests (AFP, free β-‎HCG, uE3, PAPP-A, and inhibin-A) performed at the genome clinic in Yazd in 2016, the risk of Down Syndrome (DS) was sufficiently high in this group of pregnant women from which the participants were selected. A ‎questionnaire was used to collect data on the degree of the participants' exposure to pesticides ‎at home, use of canned and fast foods, and consumption of greenhouse fruits. The collected data were ‎analyzed by One-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis Test. The mean of Multiple of Median (MoM) for inhibin-A was significantly higher among pregnant ‎women who often or always used pesticides at home (p=0.047). The mean MoM ‎for free β-HCG was significantly higher among pregnant women who often or always used canned ‎foods (p=0.024). Finally, the mean MoM for uE3 (1.85±1.30) was significantly higher among ‎pregnant women who never consumed greenhouse fruits (p=0.003). It can be concluded that it is possible to reduce environmental exposures affecting hormonal abnormalities among pregnant women by improving nutritional patterns, minimizing the use of pesticides at home, and reducing the intake of canned foods and greenhouse fruits. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Eating habits of pregnant and non-pregnant women: are there differences?].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Caroline de Barros; Malta, Maíra Barreto; Martiniano, Ana Carolina de Almeida; Di Bonifácio, Luiza Pereira; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite

    2015-07-01

    To determine the eating behavior of pregnant women assisted by primary health care and to compare it with women at childbearing age in Brazilian capitals. A cross-sectional study conducted on 256 pregnant women in the second trimester of gestation, selected by drawing lots from those assisted by primary health care units of a municipality in the state of São Paulo in 2009/2010. Eating habits were investigated via a questionnaire adapted from the VIGITEL system, consisting of questions about eating habits in general and the frequency and consumption characteristics of food groups/specific foods. For tis comparison, we used the indicators reported by the VIGITEL system for women at childbearing age in Brazilian capitals in 2010. The analyses involved the presentation of frequency distribution and descriptive statistics with comparisons according to the age group. Most patients had breakfast every day (86.7%) and 45.7% habitually exchanged a main meal for a snack once or twice a week. A daily consumption of fruit, raw salad and vegetables was not reported by 48.8%, 41.8% and 55.1% of the women, respectively. Fish was reported to never or almost never be consumed by 64.4% of the pregnant women. At least once a week, 69.9% of them reported the consumption of soda, and 86.4% of wafers/cookies. The comparison between the pregnant women and women at childbearing age in capitals showed a close similar prevalence of overweight, and no difference in the regular consumption of fruit and vegetables. Meat containing excess of fat and whole milk were more consumed by pregnant women, with differences reported in all the age groups analyzed. On the other hand, the pregnant women reported a less regular intake of soft drinks. The actions that need to be performed in prenatal care are various and very important, promoting the consumption of specific foods and providing guidelines about eating behavior, while reinforcing healthy eating habits already present.

  6. Brief Report: Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Pregnant Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitsuhiro, Sandro Sendin; Chalem, Elisa; Barros, Marina Carvalho Moraes; Guinsburg, Ruth; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of ICD-10 psychiatric disorders in a population of pregnant teenage women from a Brazilian public hospital. Method: 1000 pregnant teenage women were evaluated using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, a structured interview which establishes diagnoses according to the International Classification…

  7. Interpersonal Psychotherapy with Pregnant Adolescents: Two Pilot Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lisa; Gur, Merav; Shanok, Arielle; Weissman, Myrna

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the feasibility, acceptability and helpfulness of group Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT-PA) for depression in pregnant adolescents. Method: Two open clinical trials were conducted of IPT-PA delivered in group format in a New York City public school for pregnant girls. Study 1 tests IPT-PA for management of…

  8. Brief Report: Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Pregnant Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitsuhiro, Sandro Sendin; Chalem, Elisa; Barros, Marina Carvalho Moraes; Guinsburg, Ruth; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of ICD-10 psychiatric disorders in a population of pregnant teenage women from a Brazilian public hospital. Method: 1000 pregnant teenage women were evaluated using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, a structured interview which establishes diagnoses according to the International Classification…

  9. Pregnant? Drugs and Alcohol Can Hurt Your Unborn Baby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This brochure, directed towards pregnant women, describes the dangers of alcohol, street drugs, smoking, and prescription drugs or over-the-counter medicines. It presents a story (in the mother's words) of a woman who took drugs to get high while pregnant and the ill effects on her son. The brochure claims being drug free means being a better…

  10. Histories of Child Maltreatment and Psychiatric Disorder in Pregnant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Elisa; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated histories of child maltreatment and psychiatric disorder in a high-risk sample of pregnant adolescents. Method: Cross-sectional data were obtained for 252 pregnant adolescents from high school, hospital, and group home settings in Montreal (Canada). Adolescents completed a child maltreatment questionnaire and a…

  11. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation of pregnant women in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Lavecchia, Melissa; Abenhaim, Haim A

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic value of pregnancy in women receiving CPR in the emergency department (ED). We conducted a population-based, matched cohort study using the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) from 2006 to 2010. A cohort of pregnant women receiving CPR in the ED was compared to an age-matched cohort of non-pregnant women at a 1:10 ratio. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for variables of interest and survival. Among 8162 women requiring CPR in the ED, we identified 157 pregnant women. Pregnancy was associated with better overall survival of 36.9% compared to 25.9% in non-pregnant women, OR 1.89 (1.32-2.70), p < 0.01. Traumatic injury was identified as a significant predictor of outcome in pregnancy. In non-trauma patients, pregnant women had significantly better odds of surviving CPR than non-pregnant women, OR 2.10 (1.41-3.13), p < 0.01. In cases of trauma, no significant difference was observed between groups. Although further studies are needed, CPR in pregnancy is associated with a better prognosis compared to non-pregnant women, with trauma status being a key factor predicting outcome in the pregnant patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interpersonal Psychotherapy with Pregnant Adolescents: Two Pilot Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lisa; Gur, Merav; Shanok, Arielle; Weissman, Myrna

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the feasibility, acceptability and helpfulness of group Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT-PA) for depression in pregnant adolescents. Method: Two open clinical trials were conducted of IPT-PA delivered in group format in a New York City public school for pregnant girls. Study 1 tests IPT-PA for management of…

  13. Schools for Pregnant Girls in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Daniel; Day, Ruby J.

    New York City's former policy of excluding pregnant girls from school is briefly reviewed, and the rationale underlying the current program is presented. Six schools for pregnant students are described as multi-disciplined centers which allow the student to continue her full-time education with provision for special health and counseling needs.…

  14. Acute headache diagnosis in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Farmakidis, Constantine; Dayal, Ashlesha K.; Lipton, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To characterize demographic and clinical features in pregnant women presenting with acute headache, and to identify clinical features associated with secondary headache. Methods: We conducted a 5-year, single-center, retrospective study of consecutive pregnant women presenting to acute care with headache receiving neurologic consultation. Results: The 140 women had a mean age of 29 ± 6.4 years and often presented in the third trimester (56.4%). Diagnoses were divided into primary (65.0%) and secondary (35.0%) disorders. The most common primary headache disorder was migraine (91.2%) and secondary headache disorders were hypertensive disorders (51.0%). The groups were similar in demographics, gestational ages, and most headache features. In univariate analysis, secondary headaches were associated with a lack of headache history (36.7% vs 13.2%, p = 0.0012), seizures (12.2% vs 0.0%, p = 0.0015), elevated blood pressure (55.1% vs 8.8%, p < 0.0001), fever (8.2% vs 0.0%, p = 0.014), and an abnormal neurologic examination (34.7% vs 16.5%, p = 0.014). In multivariate logistic regression, elevated blood pressure (odds ratio [OR] 17.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.2–56.0) and a lack of headache history (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.7–14.5) had an increased association with secondary headache, while psychiatric comorbidity (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.021–0.78) and phonophobia (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09–0.91) had a reduced association with secondary headache. Conclusions: Among pregnant women receiving inpatient neurologic consultation, more than one-third have secondary headache. Diagnostic vigilance should be heightened in the absence of a headache history and if seizures, hypertension, or fever are present. Attack features may not adequately distinguish primary vs secondary disorders, and low thresholds for neuroimaging and monitoring for preeclampsia are justified. PMID:26291282

  15. Toward Earlier Inclusion of Pregnant and Postpartum Women in Tuberculosis Drug Trials: Consensus Statements From an International Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amita; Mathad, Jyoti S.; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M.; Albano, Jessica D.; Botgros, Radu; Brown, Vikki; Browning, Renee S.; Dawson, Liza; Dooley, Kelly E.; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Kim, Peter; Lyerly, Anne D.; Mirochnick, Mark; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Montepiedra, Grace; Piper, Jeanna; Sahin, Leyla; Savic, Radojka; Smith, Betsy; Spiegel, Hans; Swaminathan, Soumya; Watts, D. Heather; White, Amina

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women of childbearing age (15–44 years). Despite increased tuberculosis risk during pregnancy, optimal clinical treatment remains unclear: safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic data for many tuberculosis drugs are lacking, and trials of promising new tuberculosis drugs exclude pregnant women. To advance inclusion of pregnant and postpartum women in tuberculosis drug trials, the US National Institutes of Health convened an international expert panel. Discussions generated consensus statements (>75% agreement among panelists) identifying high-priority research areas during pregnancy, including: (1) preventing progression of latent tuberculosis infection, especially in women coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus; (2) evaluating new agents/regimens for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; and (3) evaluating safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of tuberculosis drugs already in use during pregnancy and postpartum. Incorporating pregnant women into clinical trials would extend evidence-based tuberculosis prevention and treatment standards to this special population. PMID:26658057

  16. High plasma adenosine levels in overweight/obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Badillo, Priscila; Salgado, Paola; Bravo, Patricia; Guevara, Katherine; Acurio, Jesenia; Gonzalez, Maria Angelica; Oyarzun, Carlos; San Martin, Rody; Escudero, Carlos

    2017-07-18

    We aim to investigate whether overweight/obese pregnant women have elevated plasma levels of adenosine associated with increased consumption of high-calorie food. Sixty women were included. They were divided into lean (n = 23 and n = 12) or overweight/obese (n = 7 and n = 18) non-pregnant and pregnant women, respectively. Clinical records and maternal blood samples were collected after informed consent. A self-reported dietary questionnaire was also completed. Plasma adenosine levels were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography. Biochemical parameters, including glucose, total protein, and lipid profile, were determined using standard colorimetric assays. Adenosine levels were higher in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women (18.7 ± 1.6 vs 10.8 ± 1.3 nM/μg protein, respectively, p < 0.0001). Overweight/obese pregnant women (21.9 ± 2.5 nM/μg protein) exhibited higher adenosine levels than lean pregnant (14.5 ± 1.0 nM/μg protein, p = 0.04) or non-pregnant women (11.7 ± 1.5 nM/μg protein, p = 0.0005). Also, pregnant women with elevated weight gain exhibited higher (26.2 ± 3.7 nM/μg protein) adenosine levels than those with adequate weight gain (14.9 ± 1.4 nM/μg protein, p = 0.03). These differences were not statistically significant compared with those of pregnant women with reduced weight gain (17.4 ± 2.1 nM/μg protein, p = 0.053). Body mass index and adenosine only in pregnant women were positively correlated (r = 0.39, p = 0.02). While, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption was negatively correlated with plasma adenosine levels only in non-pregnant women (r = -0.33, p = 0.03). Pregnancy is associated with high plasma adenosine levels, which are further elevated in pregnant women who are overweight/obese. High PUFA intake might reduce plasma adenosine levels in non-pregnant women.

  17. Circulating Fatty Acid Synthase in pregnant women: Relationship to blood pressure, maternal metabolism and newborn parameters

    PubMed Central

    Carreras-Badosa, Gemma; Prats-Puig, Anna; Puig, Teresa; Vázquez-Ruíz, Montserrat; Bruel, Monserrat; Mendoza, Ericka; de Zegher, Francis; Ibáñez, Lourdes; López-Bermejo, Abel; Bassols, Judit

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme FASN (fatty acid synthase) is potentially related with hypertension and metabolic dysfunction. FASN is highly expressed in the human placenta. We aimed to investigate the relationship circulating FASN has with blood pressure, maternal metabolism and newborn parameters in healthy pregnant women. Circulating FASN was assessed in 115 asymptomatic pregnant women in the second trimester of gestation along with C-peptide, fasting glucose and insulin, post-load glucose lipids, HMW-adiponectin and blood pressure (the latter was assessed in each trimester of gestation). At birth, newborns and placentas were weighed. FASN expression was also able to be assessed in 80 placentas. Higher circulating FASN was associated with lower systolic blood pressure (SBP), with a more favourable metabolic phenotype (lower fasting glucose and insulin, post load glucose, HbAc1, HOMA-IR and C-peptide), and with lower placental and birth weight (all p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Placental FASN expression related positively to circulating FASN (p < 0.005) and negatively to placental weight (p < 0.05). Our observations suggest a physiological role of placental FASN in human pregnancy. Future studies will clarify whether circulating FASN of placental origin does actually regulate placental and fetal growth, and (thereby) has a favourable influence on the pregnant mother’s insulin sensitivity and blood pressure. PMID:27090298

  18. Circulating Fatty Acid Synthase in pregnant women: Relationship to blood pressure, maternal metabolism and newborn parameters.

    PubMed

    Carreras-Badosa, Gemma; Prats-Puig, Anna; Puig, Teresa; Vázquez-Ruíz, Montserrat; Bruel, Monserrat; Mendoza, Ericka; de Zegher, Francis; Ibáñez, Lourdes; López-Bermejo, Abel; Bassols, Judit

    2016-04-19

    The enzyme FASN (fatty acid synthase) is potentially related with hypertension and metabolic dysfunction. FASN is highly expressed in the human placenta. We aimed to investigate the relationship circulating FASN has with blood pressure, maternal metabolism and newborn parameters in healthy pregnant women. Circulating FASN was assessed in 115 asymptomatic pregnant women in the second trimester of gestation along with C-peptide, fasting glucose and insulin, post-load glucose lipids, HMW-adiponectin and blood pressure (the latter was assessed in each trimester of gestation). At birth, newborns and placentas were weighed. FASN expression was also able to be assessed in 80 placentas. Higher circulating FASN was associated with lower systolic blood pressure (SBP), with a more favourable metabolic phenotype (lower fasting glucose and insulin, post load glucose, HbAc1, HOMA-IR and C-peptide), and with lower placental and birth weight (all p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Placental FASN expression related positively to circulating FASN (p < 0.005) and negatively to placental weight (p < 0.05). Our observations suggest a physiological role of placental FASN in human pregnancy. Future studies will clarify whether circulating FASN of placental origin does actually regulate placental and fetal growth, and (thereby) has a favourable influence on the pregnant mother's insulin sensitivity and blood pressure.

  19. Kinetic analysis of the immunity in a pregnant patient infected with avian influenza H7N9

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Wei; Jiang, Peng-Cheng; Qian, Jun; Jin, Zhao-Chen; Yang, Jing; Lin, Jiang; Wen, Xiang-Mei; Han, Fang-An; Mao, ling-Xiang; Yang, Jing; Deng, Zhao-Qun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human infection with avian influenza A H7N9 has emerged in China since February, 2013. The immunologic changes in pregnant women infected with H7N9 are not known. Objective: To report the clinical data and kinetic changes of immunity in a pregnant woman infected with H7N9 virus in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China. Methods: The clinical data were collected and immunity status was monitored in this patient. Results: H7N9 virus became undetectable in sputum from 14 days since onset of symptoms after effective antiviral therapy with oseltamivir and symptomatic/supporting treatments. The symptoms and signs in this patient gradually improved from 15 days since onset of symptoms. Peripheral lymphocytes initially decreased and gradually increased. The percentage of CD4+ T cells increased since 16 days after onset of symptoms. The kinetic changes of cytokines including IFN-γ, IFN-α, TNF-α, IL-10 and TGF-β1 matched the development and recovery of illness. Her family members, including her parents exposed to H7N9 positive materials in poultry market, were H7N9 negative. Conclusions: Our results indicate that pregnant women are susceptible to H7N9 virus and H7N9 infection in pregnant women is curable without significant impact on fetus. Kinetic changes of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines play a role in the pathogenesis and clinical outcome in the pregnant patient with H7N9 infection. PMID:25126178

  20. Treatment of opioid-dependent pregnant women: clinical and research issues.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hendree E; Martin, Peter R; Heil, Sarah H; Kaltenbach, Karol; Selby, Peter; Coyle, Mara G; Stine, Susan M; O'Grady, Kevin E; Arria, Amelia M; Fischer, Gabriele

    2008-10-01

    This article addresses common questions that clinicians face when treating pregnant women with opioid dependence. Guidance, based on both research evidence and the collective clinical experience of the authors, which include investigators in the Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research (MOTHER) project, is provided to aid clinical decision making. The MOTHER project is a double-blind, double-dummy, flexible-dosing, parallel-group clinical trial examining the comparative safety and efficacy of methadone and buprenorphine for the treatment of opioid dependence in pregnant women and their neonates. The article begins with a discussion of appropriate assessment during pregnancy and then addresses clinical management stages including maintenance medication selection, induction, and stabilization; opioid agonist medication management before, during, and after delivery; pain management; breast-feeding; and transfer to aftercare. Lastly, other important clinical issues including managing co-occurring psychiatric disorders and medication interactions are discussed.

  1. What are pregnant women's information needs and information seeking behaviors prior to their prenatal genetic counseling?

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yichuan; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2005-01-01

    As a result of the Human Genome Project, more genetic diagnostic tests have become available to the public and genetic-related information has also grown exponentially. Pregnant women are now routinely offered tests for chromosomal disorders and screenings for genetic conditions that are relevant to their situations. In order to facilitate the information system (IS) development to support their informed decision-making, it is imperative for the IS designer to recognize their unique information needs and patterns of information seeking behavior (ISB) first. This paper presents results of a pilot study that examined pregnant women's information needs, ISBs, and information resources used prior to their prenatal genetic counseling. Findings suggest three distinctive areas, content, format, and timing, for IS design considerations.

  2. Utero-fetal unit and pregnant woman modeling using a computer graphics approach for dosimetry studies.

    PubMed

    Anquez, Jérémie; Boubekeur, Tamy; Bibin, Lazar; Angelini, Elsa; Bloch, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Potential sanitary effects related to electromagnetic fields exposure raise public concerns, especially for fetuses during pregnancy. Human fetus exposure can only be assessed through simulated dosimetry studies, performed on anthropomorphic models of pregnant women. In this paper, we propose a new methodology to generate a set of detailed utero-fetal unit (UFU) 3D models during the first and third trimesters of pregnancy, based on segmented 3D ultrasound and MRI data. UFU models are built using recent geometry processing methods derived from mesh-based computer graphics techniques and embedded in a synthetic woman body. Nine pregnant woman models have been generated using this approach and validated by obstetricians, for anatomical accuracy and representativeness.

  3. Immunohistochemical demonstration of relaxin in the genital tract of pregnant and nonpregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yki-Järvinen, H; Wahlström, T; Seppälä, M

    1983-09-01

    The biotin-avidin immunoperoxidase staining method and antisera against highly purified porcine relaxin were used to localize relaxin in the genital tract of pregnant and nonpregnant women. Formalin-fixed tissue specimens from normal placenta, decidua, myometrium, vagina, corpus luteum, and Fallopian tubes were studied. In pregnant women, relaxin was found in the placental syncytiotrophoblast, decidua, and corpus luteum. In nonpregnant women, relaxin was identified in the corpus luteum and endometrium in the secretory, but not in the proliferative, phase. Myometrium, cervix, vagina, and Fallopian tubes were negative for relaxin. This is the first report describing relaxin in the nonpregnant corpus luteum, and we also confirm results of an early disputed study claiming that endometrium in the secretory phase contains relaxin. The origin and biological role of human endometrial relaxin remain to be studied.

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women and cats in Grenada, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Asthana, Sumita P; Macpherson, Calum N L; Weiss, Stanley H; Stephens, Richard; Denny, Thomas N; Sharma, R N; Dubey, J P

    2006-06-01

    Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii was studied in 534 pregnant women and 40 domestic cats in Grenada, West Indies. Antibodies (IgG) for T. gondii were sought in human sera by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and in cat sera by using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies were found in 57 % of pregnant women. Seroprevalence increased with age; 51% of 15- to 19-yr-old women (100 total) had antibodies versus 60% of 20- to 24-yr-old women (127 total). Antibodies to T. gondii (MAT, 1:25 serum dilution) were found in 35% of cats; titers were 1:25 in 7 cats, 1:50 in 4 cats, and 1:500 in 3 cats. Epidemiological data suggested that the ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocysts was an important mode of transmission of T. gondii to women.

  5. SAR Computation inside Fetus by RF Coil during MR Imaging Employing Realistic Numerical Pregnant Woman Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Satoru; Saito, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Masaharu; Ito, Koichi; Ikehira, Hiroo

    This paper presents the computational electromagnetic dosimetry inside an anatomically based pregnant woman models exposed to electromagnetic wave during magnetic resonance imaging. The two types of pregnant woman models corresponding to early gestation and 26 weeks gestation were used for this study. The specific absorption rate (SAR) in and around a fetus were calculated by radiated electromagnetic wave from highpass and lowpass birdcage coil. Numerical calculation results showed that high SAR region is observed at the body in the vicinity of gaps of the coil, and is related to concentrated electric field in the gaps of human body such as armpit and thigh. Moreover, it has confirmed that the SAR in the fetus is less than International Electrotechnical Commission limit of 10W/kg, when whole-body average SARs are 2W/kg and 4W/kg, which are the normal operating mode and first level controlled operating mode, respectively.

  6. Lead toxicity in the pregnant rat

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, M.

    1983-02-01

    A study was made of the effects of administration of 500 ppm of lead in the drinking water of pregnant rats and their fetuses. The delta-aminolevulinic acid dehyratase (ALAD) activity of erythrocytes in the lead-treated fetuses showed 59.7 and 73.0% inhibition on Days 18 and 21 of pregnancy, respectively. ALAD activities in the liver and placenta were not significantly different between the lead-treated and control animals. The lead concentrations of blood and liver in the lead-treated dams and fetuses were higher than in the control animals, but the lead level of amniotic fluid was not significantly different from that of the control animals. Significant correlations were observed between maternal and fetal blood lead, liver lead, and erythrocyte ALAD, but there was no significant correlation between maternal and fetal liver ALAD.

  7. Pregnant heroin addict: what about the baby?

    PubMed Central

    Namboodiri, Vasudevan; George, Sanju; Boulay, Sylvie; Fair, Mandy

    2010-01-01

    Heroin misuse in pregnancy is a significant health and social problem, and it can have an adverse effect on the mother and the baby. Although heroin and methadone have no specific teratogenic potential, 48–94% of children exposed in utero will have neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). The primary aim of this case report is to raise awareness of NAS among clinicians and to remind them that although very common, it is not inevitable. The risk of NAS can be further minimised by offering comprehensive and co-ordinated antenatal care that addresses the various biopsychosocial needs of the pregnant woman. Further, a brief description of NAS and a review of evidence in the field of management of opioid misuse in pregnancy, as relevant to this case, are provided. We have also included the patient’s own reflections on her pregnancy and treatment. PMID:22328902

  8. Connectedness of pregnant adolescents who smoke.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Susan A; Reynolds, Maureen D; Cornelius, Marie D; Heidinger, Joely; Armfield, Caroline

    2002-01-01

    To examine the relationship of the constructs from the family and school environments and protective individual characteristics to health risk behaviors among pregnant adolescents who smoke. Inner-city adolescents (N = 53), aged 14-19 years, who were participating in a smoking cessation intervention program, completed self-report demographic, social, and behavioral questionnaires. Independent variables included family connectedness, school connectedness, and individual characteristics of religiosity, self-esteem, and grade-point average. Three areas of health risk behavior were dependent variables: delinquent behavior, substance, and precocious sexual behavior. Positive self-esteem served as a protectivefactorfor alcohol use. In contrast to past studies, school connectedness was a risk, not a protective, factor for substance abuse. Neither school nor family connectedness were protective against delinquent or precocious sexual behavior.

  9. Obstetricians and the rights of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Minkoff, Howard; Paltrow, Lynn M

    2007-05-01

    At times, obstetricians are called upon to assist pregnant women in making clinical choices between options that may selectively disadvantage either the mother or the fetus. If a mother chooses a therapeutic course that disadvantages the fetus the physician may feel distressed. In this paper we argue that the choices made by mothers are almost always in the interests of the fetus, and supported by physicians. When there is disagreement it is often due to poor communication. While acknowledging that the rare circumstances in which the physician and patient wish to pursue different clinical paths can be stressful for the provider, we explain why obstetricians should accept the judgment of their patient in all instances. Finally, we will maintain that positing a choice between maternal and fetal interests is, in fact, creating a false choice, in as much as options are presented as being exclusive, when in fact that is not the case.

  10. Angiogenesis in the caprine caruncles in non-pregnant and pregnant normal and swainsonine-treated does.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microvascular corrosion casts of caruncles from non-pregnant and pregnant goats were examined in great detail by scanning electron microscopy at 4, 7, 10, 13, 16 and 18 weeks of gestation. This model was used to evaluate the effects of the locoweed toxin, swainsonine, on placental angiogenesis. Sw...

  11. Changes in blood glucose, plasma non-esterified fatty acids and insulin in pregnant and non-pregnant goats.

    PubMed

    Khan, J R; Ludri, R S

    2002-02-01

    The blood glucose and the plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and insulin concentrations were estimated in jugular blood samples from 18 Alpine x Beetal and Sannen x Beetal goats during pregnancy and compared with samples from non-pregnant goats and from goats during the periparturient period. The blood glucose levels in the pregnant goats rose to a peak of about 60 +/- 1.36 mg/ml at 42-56 days and then declined to about 46 +/- 2.37 mg/ml at 112-126 days. In non-pregnant goats, the blood glucose levels were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than in pregnant goats, except between days 42 and 70 (59 +/- 1.36 mg/ml). On the day of kidding, the levels declined significantly (p < 0.01), increasing again thereafter. The plasma NEFA concentrations were significantly higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant goats from days 56 to 126. The NEFA concentration increased on the day of kidding, followed by a transient fall by day 3. The plasma insulin concentration was usually higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant goats, except between days 56 and 70 and from day 126 onwards. The insulin concentration fell late in pregnancy, but there was a transient increase 2 days after parturition. The blood glucose and plasma NEFA concentrations can be used as indices of nutritional status during pregnancy in goats.

  12. Role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal motility in pregnant and non-pregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Juliana Fernandes; Americo, Madileine Francely; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu; Corá, Luciana Aparecida; Calabresi, Marcos Felipe Freitas; Oliveira, Ricardo Brandt; Damasceno, Debora Cristina; Miranda, Jose Ricardo Arruda

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To correlate gastric contractility, gastrointestinal transit, and hormone levels in non-pregnant (estrous cycle) and pregnant rats using noninvasive techniques. METHODS: Female rats (n = 23) were randomly divided into (1) non-pregnant, (contractility, n = 6; transit, n = 6); and (2) pregnant (contractility, n = 5; transit, n = 6). In each estrous cycle phase or at 0, 7, 14, and 20 d after the confirmation of pregnancy, gastrointestinal transit was recorded by AC biosusceptometry (ACB), and gastric contractility was recorded by ACB and electromyography. After each recording, blood samples were obtained for progesterone and estradiol determination. RESULTS: In the estrous cycle, despite fluctuations of sex hormone levels, no significant changes in gastrointestinal motility were observed. Days 7 and 14 of pregnancy were characterized by significant changes in the frequency of contractions (3.90 ± 0.42 cpm and 3.60 ± 0.36 cpm vs 4.33 ± 0.25 cpm) and gastric emptying (168 ± 17 min and 165 ± 15 min vs 113 ± 15 min) compared with day 0. On these same days, progesterone levels significantly increased compared with control (54.23 ± 15.14 ng/mL and 129.96 ± 30.52 ng/mL vs 13.25 ± 6.31 ng/mL). On day 14, we observed the highest level of progesterone and the lowest level of estradiol compared with day 0 (44.3 ± 15.18 pg/mL vs 24.96 ± 5.96 pg/mL). CONCLUSION: Gastrointestinal motility was unaffected by the estrous cycle. In our data, high progesterone and low estradiol levels can be associated with decreased contraction frequency and slow gastric emptying. PMID:27433089

  13. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, and HTLV among Pregnant Women in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Igboama, Magdalene C; Ojo, Johnson Adeyemi; Odewale, Gbolabo

    2016-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major public health challenge especially in developing countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and Human T-cell lymphotropic Virus type I (HTLV-I) among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic, in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, and South-Western Nigeria. One hundred and eighty two randomly selected pregnant women were screened for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and HTLV-1 IgM antibodies using commercially available ELISA kit. Of the 182 blood samples of pregnant women screened whose age ranged from 15-49 years, 13 (7.1%), 5 (2.7%), 9 (4.9%), and 44 (24.2%) were positive for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV, and HTLV-1 IgM antibodies, respectively. The co-infection rate of 0.5% was obtained for HBV/HCV, HBV/HIV, HIV/HTLV-1, and HCV/HTLV-1 while 1.1% and 0% was recorded for HBV/HTLV-1 and HCV/HIV co-infections, respectively. Expected risk factors such as history of surgery, circumcision, tattooing and incision showed no significant association with any of the viral STIs (P > 0.05). This study shows that there is the need for a comprehensive screening of all pregnant women for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and HTLV-1 to prevent mother to child transmission of these viral infections and its attending consequences.

  14. Towards prenatal biomonitoring in North Carolina: assessing arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead levels in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Alison P; Flood, Kaye; Chiang, Shu; Herring, Amy H; Wolf, Leslie; Fry, Rebecca C

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to toxic metals during the prenatal period carries the potential for adverse developmental effects to the fetus, yet such exposure remains largely unmonitored in the United States. The aim of this study was to assess maternal exposure to four toxic metals (arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb)) in a cohort of pregnant women in North Carolina. We analyzed blood samples submitted to the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services for blood typing to assess toxic metal levels in pregnant women (n = 211) across six North Carolina counties. Whole blood metal concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The association between maternal characteristics, including county of residence, age, and race, and metal exposure was analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. A large fraction of the blood samples showed detectable levels for each of the four metals. Specifically, As (65.7%), Cd (57.3%), Hg (63.8%), and Pb (100%) were detected in blood samples. Moreover, compared with adult females participating in the Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals and guidelines for pregnant women, some women in the sample population exceeded benchmark levels of Cd, Hg, and Pb. Evidence from this pilot study indicates that pregnant women in North Carolina are exposed to As, Cd, Hg, and Pb and suggests that factors related to maternal county of residence and race may impact maternal exposure levels. As increased levels of one or more of these metals in utero have been associated with detrimental developmental and reproductive outcomes, further study is clearly warranted to establish the impacts to newborns.

  15. Towards Prenatal Biomonitoring in North Carolina: Assessing Arsenic, Cadmium, Mercury, and Lead Levels in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Alison P.; Flood, Kaye; Chiang, Shu; Herring, Amy H.; Wolf, Leslie; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to toxic metals during the prenatal period carries the potential for adverse developmental effects to the fetus, yet such exposure remains largely unmonitored in the United States. The aim of this study was to assess maternal exposure to four toxic metals (arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb)) in a cohort of pregnant women in North Carolina. We analyzed blood samples submitted to the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services for blood typing to assess toxic metal levels in pregnant women (n = 211) across six North Carolina counties. Whole blood metal concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The association between maternal characteristics, including county of residence, age, and race, and metal exposure was analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. A large fraction of the blood samples showed detectable levels for each of the four metals. Specifically, As (65.7%), Cd (57.3%), Hg (63.8%), and Pb (100%) were detected in blood samples. Moreover, compared with adult females participating in the Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals and guidelines for pregnant women, some women in the sample population exceeded benchmark levels of Cd, Hg, and Pb. Evidence from this pilot study indicates that pregnant women in North Carolina are exposed to As, Cd, Hg, and Pb and suggests that factors related to maternal county of residence and race may impact maternal exposure levels. As increased levels of one or more of these metals in utero have been associated with detrimental developmental and reproductive outcomes, further study is clearly warranted to establish the impacts to newborns. PMID:22427803

  16. Dose-response of Listeria monocytogenes after oral exposure in pregnant guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Williams, Denita; Irvin, Elizabeth A; Chmielewski, Revis A; Frank, Joseph F; Smith, Mary A

    2007-05-01

    Listeriosis, a severe disease that results from exposure to the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, is responsible for approximately 2500 illnesses and 500 deaths in the United States each year. Pregnant women are 20 times more likely to develop listeriosis than the general population, with adverse pregnancy outcomes that include spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and neonatal meningitis. The objective of this study was to determine an infective dose that resulted in stillbirths and infectivity of selected tissues in pregnant guinea pigs. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed orally on gestation day 35 to 10(4) to 10(8) L. monocytogenes CFU in sterile whipping cream. L. monocytogenes was recovered at 64, 73, 90, and 100% from the livers of animals infected with 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), and 10(8) CFU, respectively. In dams exposed to > or =10(6) CFU, L. monocytogenes was cultured from 50% of the spleen samples and 33% of the gallbladder samples. Eleven of 34 dams infected with > or =10(6) CFU delivered stillborn pups. L. monocytogenes was cultured from the placenta, liver, and brain tissue of all stillbirths. Dams that delivered nonviable fetuses after treatment with > or =10(7) L. monocytogenes CFU had fecal samples positive for L. monocytogenes at every collection posttreatment. On the basis of a log-logistic model, the dose that adversely affected 50% of the pregnancies was approximately 10(7) L. monocytogenes CFU compared with that estimated from a human outbreak of 106 CFU. Listeriosis in pregnant guinea pigs can result in stillbirths, and the overall disease is similar to that described in nonhuman primates and in humans.

  17. Characterization of B cells in healthy pregnant women from late pregnancy to post-partum: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Lima, Jorge; Martins, Catarina; Leandro, Maria J; Nunes, Glória; Sousa, Maria-José; Branco, Jorge C; Borrego, Luís-Miguel

    2016-06-06

    B cells play a role in pregnancy due to their humoral and regulatory activities. To our knowledge, different maturational stages (from transitional to memory) of circulating B cell subsets have not yet been characterized (cell quantification and phenotype identification) in healthy pregnant women. Thus, the objective of our study was to characterize these subsets (as well as regulatory B cells) from late pregnancy to post-partum and to compare them with the circulating B cells of non-pregnant women. In all of the enrolled women, flow cytometry was used to characterize the circulating B cell subsets according to the expression of IgD and CD38 (Bm1-Bm5 classification system). Regulatory B cells were characterized based on the expression of surface antigens (CD24, CD27, and CD38) and the production of IL-10 after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Compared to the absolute counts of B cells in the non-pregnant women (n = 35), those in the pregnant women (n = 43) were significantly lower (p < 0.05) during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy and on delivery day (immediately after delivery). The percentages of these cells on delivery day and at post-partum were significantly lower than those in the non-pregnant women. In general, the absolute counts and percentages of the majority of the B cell subsets were significantly lower in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy and on delivery day than in the non-pregnant women. However, these counts and percentages did not differ significantly between the post-partum and the non-pregnant women. The most notable exceptions to the above were the percentages of naïve B cells (which were significantly higher in the 3rd trimester and on delivery day than in the non-pregnant women) and of CD24(hi)CD38(hi) regulatory B cells (which were significantly higher in the post-partum than in the non-pregnant women). According to our study, the peripheral B cell compartment undergoes quantitative changes during normal late pregnancy and post

  18. Gentle vs. aversive handling of pregnant ewes: II. Physiology and behavior of the lambs.

    PubMed

    Coulon, M; Hild, S; Schroeer, A; Janczak, A M; Zanella, A J

    2011-07-06

    We compared the effects of aversive and gentle handling in late pregnant ewes on fearfulness, heart rate variability and spatial learning in lambs. Twenty-four Norwegian-Dala ewes were studied. Ewes were subjected to gentle (i.e. soft talking and calm behavior) or aversive handling (i.e. swift movements and shouting) for 10 min twice a day during the last five weeks of pregnancy. Lambs from aversively (AVS) or gently (GEN) treated ewes were tested at 4 weeks of age. Lamb behavior was recorded during a) a human approach test, composed of 4 min of isolation and 4 min of exposure to an unfamiliar human, b) an umbrella startle test followed by 5-min recording, and c) two repetitions of a maze test. In addition, heart rate variability was recorded telemetrically before and after the human and startle tests. The baseline heart rate variability measures suggested a lower influence of vagal stimulation in AVS lambs. In the human approach test, AVS lambs vocalized and explored the environment less, and were slower to approach the human. They also tended to have higher flight distances during the startle test than the GEN lambs. The prenatal treatment had no significant effect in the maze test. In conclusion, we showed that aversive handling of pregnant ewes increased fearfulness and reduced vagal tone in their progeny compared to GEN lambs. These effects can have consequences for how lambs cope with rearing conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastrointestinal symptoms on Chilean pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Poveda, Gina Ferrer; Carrillo, Katia Sáez; Monje, Marcela Espinoza; Cruz, Carlos Alvarez; Cancino, Apolinaria García

    2014-07-01

    the aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection on Chilean pregnant women and its relationship with the appearance and severity of hyperemesis and dyspepsia. quantitative study of prevalence in a transversal cut with variable analysis. The sample was taken from 274 Chilean pregnant women from the Bío Bío province through vein puncture between June and December, 2005. Pregnant women were informed of this study, interviewed and signed an informed consent. The samples were processed using ImmunoComb II Helicobacter pylori IgG kit. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Program. out of the total number of pregnant women, 68.6% showed infection by Helicobacter pylori. 79.6% of the total sample had symptoms of dyspepsia, and 72.5% of this group presented Helicobacter pylori infection. 12.4% showed pregnancy hyperemesis; among them, 79.4% were infected with Helicobacter pylori. 73.4% of the pregnant women that showed gastric discomfort during the first three months had Helicobacter pylori infection. 53.7% of them continued with gastric discomfort after the first three months; of those, 95.8% were infected. Helicobacter pylori infection was present only in 1.5% of pregnant women without gastric discomfort. both, gastric discomfort of pregnant women and the continuity of severe symptoms of dyspepsia and hyperemesis after the first three months of gestation are significantly correlated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  20. Advancing HIV research with pregnant women: navigating challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Krubiner, Carleigh B; Faden, Ruth R; Cadigan, R Jean; Gilbert, Sappho Z; Henry, Leslie M; Little, Margaret O; Mastroianni, Anna C; Namey, Emily E; Sullivan, Kristen A; Lyerly, Anne D

    2016-09-24

    Concerns about including pregnant women in research have led to a dearth of evidence to guide safe and effective treatment and prevention of HIV in pregnancy. To better understand why these evidence gaps persist and inform guidance for responsible inclusion of pregnant women in the HIV research agenda, we aimed to learn what HIV experts perceive as barriers and constraints to conducting this research. We conducted a series of group and one-on-one consultations with 62 HIV investigators and clinicians to elicit their views and experiences conducting HIV research involving pregnant women. Thematic analysis was used to identify priorities and perceived barriers to HIV research with pregnant women. Experts discussed a breadth of needed research, including safety, efficacy, and appropriate dosing of: newer antiretrovirals for pregnant women, emerging preventive strategies, and treatment for coinfections. Challenges to conducting research on pregnancy and HIV included ethical concerns, such as how to weigh risks and benefits in pregnancy; legal concerns, such as restrictive interpretations of current regulations and liability issues; financial and professional disincentives, including misaligned funder priorities and fear of reputational damage; and analytical and logistical complexities, such as challenges recruiting and retaining pregnant women to sufficiently power analyses. Investigators face numerous challenges to conducting needed HIV research with pregnant women. Advancing such research will require clearer guidance regarding ethical and legal uncertainties; incentives that encourage rather than discourage investigators to undertake such research; and a commitment to earlier development of safety and efficacy data through creative trial designs.

  1. Plasminogen activator activity in tears of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Csutak, Adrienne; Steiber, Zita; Tőzsér, József; Jakab, Attila; Berta, András; Silver, David M

    2017-01-01

    Plasminogen activator activity (PAA) in tears of pregnant women was investigated at various gestation times to assess the availability of plasminogen activator for aiding potential corneal wound healing processes during pregnancy. PAA was measured by a spectrophotometric method. The analysis used 91 tear samples from pregnant and non-pregnant women, supplemented with 10 additional tear PAA measurements from non-pregnant women obtained in a previous study. Tear levels of PAA in pregnant women formed a bimodal distribution. Either the tear PAA level was zero or non-zero during pregnancy. When non-zero, the tear PAA level was dissociated from gestation time and not different than non-pregnant and post-pregnant levels. The frequency of occurrence of zero level tear PAA increased with gestation: 16%, 17% and 46% had zero tear PAA in samples taken from women in the first, second and third trimester, respectively. Overall, of the tear samples taken from women during pregnancy, a total of 26% were at zero tear PAA. The remaining tear samples had non-zero tear PAA values throughout gestation equivalent to non-pregnant tear PAA values, suggesting local control of the source of PAA in tears. Given the importance of the plasminogen activator system in tears to wound healing in the cornea, and the high occurrence of zero tear PAA in our sample of pregnant women, elective corneal surgery would be contraindicated. If corneal surgery is nevertheless necessary, the tear PAA level would be worth checking and patients with low level should be closely observed during the postoperative period.

  2. [Effects of cold on triiodothyronine metabolism in the pregnant rat].

    PubMed

    Blanco, M R; Cageao, L; Rivera, O E; Belmonte, N; Zaninovich, A A

    1991-01-01

    Sixteen Wistar rats were studied in the last week of pregnancy. Another group of 6 nonpregnant animals served as control. Eight pregnant and 6 control ratas were kept in the cold room at 4 degrees C for 4 days, while 8 pregnant rats remained at 22 degrees C. After blocking the thyroid gland with potassium perchlorate to prevent iodine reutilization, a dose of 4 microCi of 125I-T3 was injected i.p. Thereafter, animals were placed in individual metabolic cages for separate 24 h collection of urine and feces. Heparinized blood samples were obtained at 4, 14, 24 and 28 h following tracer injection. Pregnant rats exposed to cold had a significant increase in T3 fractional turnover as compared to pregnants at 22 degrees C (p < 0.005) and to controls at 4 degrees C (p < 0.02). No changes were observed in space of distribution, serum concentration and body pool of T3. Degradation of this hormone, however, was significantly augmented (p < 0.05) in pregnants at 4 degrees C as compared to pregnants at 22 degrees C, although not when compared to controls at 4 degrees C. The urinary excretion of 125I was increased in pregnants in the cold (p <0.005) versus pregnants at 22 degrees C. The metabolic (p < 0.005), urinary (p < 0.001) and fecal (p < 0.05) clearances in pregnants at 4 degrees C were augmented with respect to the other two groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Eliassen, Anna M; Hauff, Samantha J; Tang, Alice L; Thomas, Dafydd H; McHugh, Jonathan B; Walline, Heather M; Stoerker, Jay; Maxwell, Jessica H; Worden, Francis P; Eisbruch, Avraham; Czerwinski, Michael J; Papagerakis, Silvana M; Chepeha, Douglas B; Bradford, Carol R; Hanauer, David A; Carey, Thomas E; Prince, Mark E

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate oral cancer in pregnant women, a rare but therapeutically challenging patient subset. After institutional review board approval, an EMERSE search was used to identify all women treated at the University of Michigan from 1998 to 2010 with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) during pregnancy. This identified 4 patients with tongue cancer. Biomarkers and human papillomavirus (HPV) were assessed by immunohistochemistry and multiplex PCR/mass spectrometry, respectively. Two patients responded well to therapy and are alive more than 10 years after diagnosis; 2 patients died of disease. All tumors overexpressed EGFR and Bcl-xL, 3 of 4 overexpressed c-Met, both tumors that progressed overexpressed p53. All tumors were negative for HPV, p16, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER-2. Biomarkers of aggressive tumors (high EGFR, c-Met; high Bcl-xL-low p53) did not correlate with outcome. Additional studies are needed to determine whether perineural invasion, delay in diagnosis, and p53 overexpression are factors in poor survival. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Fetal responses to different methods of electrocution of pregnant sows].

    PubMed

    Peisker, Nina; Preissel, Anne-Kathrin; Ritzmann, Mathias; Schuster, Tibor; Thomes, Rainer; Henke, Julia

    2008-01-01

    The fetal stress responses in sows euthanized by electrical current during their second and last trimester of pregnancy (G1 and G2) were evaluated. Three methods of euthanasia of pregnant sows generally applicable to cases of epizootic or emergency slaughter were investigated: 1. conventional application of electrical current to the head and heart (HH); 2. application of electrical current to the head, heart and the uterus (HHU); 3. application of electrical current to the head, heart and from the upper body to the vagina (HHV). Fetuses were delivered by cesarean section at intervals of 3 to 4 minutes and remained attached to the sow by the umbilical cord. Fetal vitality, reflexes, heart rate, blood pressure, rectal body temperature, intracardial arteriovenous pCO2, pH and lactic acid were monitored for a period of 30 minutes. No method was found to kill the fetal pigs immediately. In fetuses at G1 there were no significant differences between the HH and HHU and HHV methods. Fetuses at G2 showed a significantly faster decrease in heart rate and blood pressure as well as a shorter period of time for the absence of fetal body movements and reflexes for the HHT method, compared to the other methods. Since it is not yet known to what extent the fetal pig experiences pain and suffering, the prolonged process of dying for the in utero fetus due to hypoxia which includes struggling and gasps is inconsistent with criteria for humane euthanasia and animal welfare.

  5. Hodgkin lymphoma in the elderly, pregnant, and HIV-infected

    PubMed Central

    Bachanova, Veronika; Connors, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) presenting in patients with co-incidental advanced age, pregnancy, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is uniquely challenging to manage. In this article we integrate recent evidence and clinical expertise to present recommendations for diagnosis and therapeutic management. Older patients with HL need to be carefully evaluated for comorbidies after which judicious choice of chemotherapy should minimize functional compromise. A pregnant patient with concurrent HL should be staged with minimal use of imaging requiring ionizing radiation and treated in an individualized manner optimally combining the strategies of treatment deferral when appropriate, use of single-agent vinblastine for symptomatic disease and reservation of multi-agent chemotherapy for the small minority of patients with aggressive clinical presentation. Treatment of HL coincident with HIV infection requires a combination of highly active anti-retroviral agents (HAART), standard multi-agent chemotherapy with meticulous attention to drug–drug interactions, and vigorous supportive care to ensure the best chance of cure. PMID:27496312

  6. Adoption as an option for unmarried pregnant teens.

    PubMed

    Custer, M

    1993-01-01

    Adolescent parenthood reduces the opportunities and optimal outcomes for both mother and child, yet pregnant teenagers rarely consider adoption. This paper reports a qualitative study that explored the reasons this option is so rarely examined. Twenty-one unmarried pregnant adolescents and their significant others were interviewed twice to determine the meaning adoption has for them. Four phenomena were found to be pivotal to the their willingness to consider adoption: (1) societal sanctions, (2) low level of knowledge, (3) anticipated psychological discomfort, and (4) lack of support from helping professionals. Information generated should be useful at health and social policy levels as well as to professionals who work with pregnant teenagers.

  7. Policies and attitudes toward the pregnant radiology resident

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, S.; Freedman, M.T.; Arak, G.

    1985-07-01

    To evaluate attitudes and policies toward pregnant radiology residents, a questionnaire was sent to the chiefs of radiology residency programs across the country. A return rate of 76.4% and a response rate of 75.4% were achieved. A large majority of the respondents indicated that schedule changes would be made to avoid excessive exposure of a pregnant resident to radiation. The accommodations they suggest are reviewed, and suggestions are made that would help alleviate some of the stress and conflicts that invariably arise when a resident becomes pregnant.

  8. Health care to immigrant and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Emília de Carvalho; Silva, Alcione Leite da; Pereira, Carlos Manuel Figueiredo Pereira; Almeida, Alexandra Isabel; Nelas, Paula Alexandra Batista; Parreira, Vitória Barros Castro; Amaral, Maria Odete

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the care received and the barriers faced by immigrants and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal. This is an exploratory qualitative study, resorting to applying semi-structured interviews to 60 immigrant and 22 Portuguese women. Content analysis supported by QSR Nvivo10 program was used. The study was approved by an Ethics Committee. The results showed four categories related to affective dimensions-relational, cognitive, technical-instrumental and health care policy for pregnant women. As for the barriers in health care, these were mentioned by some of the expectant mothers, especially immigrant women. Almost all, both immigrant and Portuguese, pregnant women were satisfied with the health care.

  9. Knowledge of pregnant women about birth defects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Occurrence of birth defects (BD) remains an important public health issue. Inadequate knowledge about the defects among prospective mothers could result in delayed interventions. The study determined the knowledge of BD among pregnant women in relation to their socio-demographic profile. Method Four hundred and forty-three (443) pregnant women gave their consent to participate in this study. A researcher-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic characteristics from the participants and their knowledge about BD. The questionnaire was assessed for test re-test reliability before been administered. The possible scores on the knowledge domain of the questionnaire were categorized into three levels: low knowledge (0–4), moderate knowledge (5–8) and high knowledge (9–12) levels. Data were analyzed using percentages while Spearman’s rank correlation was used to determine the relationship between the knowledge of BD among the participants and their socio-demographic profile. Alpha level was set at p < 0.05. Results A greater proportion of the participants, 235(53.0%) were found in the age range 21 to 30 years, and 234(52.8%) attained secondary level of education. Majority of the participants, 205(46.3%) had high knowledge on the risk factors while 213(48.1%) and 224(50.6%) had moderate overall knowledge and specific knowledge about BD respectively. Most of the participants (48.1%) believed that BD were of supernatural origin. The age, level of education, number of antenatal visits and parity of the participants were not significantly correlated (p > 0.05) with their specific and overall knowledge. Conclusions Particpants generally had moderate knowledge about BD. However, this had no bearing on their socio-demographic profile. The knowledge base about BD seems to be influenced by traditional belief of the participants. This finding should therefore serve as a guide for health care providers while planning

  10. Infections and obstetrical outcomes in opioid-dependent pregnant women maintained on methadone or buprenorphine

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, Amber M.; Baxter, Jason K.; Jones, Hendrée E.; Heil, Sarah H.; Coyle, Mara G.; Martin, Peter R.; Stine, Susan M.; Kaltenbach, Karol

    2014-01-01

    Aims To characterize infections and compare obstetrical outcomes in opioid-dependent pregnant women who participated in a randomized controlled trial comparing agonist medications, methadone and buprenorphine. Design Incidence of infections was identified as part of the screening medical assessment. As part of a planned secondary analysis, ANOVA and polytomous logistic regressions were conducted on obstetrical outcome variables using treatment randomization condition (maternal maintenance with either methadone or buprenorphine) as the predictor variable, controlling for differences between study sites. Setting Six United States sites and one European site that provided comprehensive treatment to opioid-dependent pregnant women. Participants Pregnant opioid-dependent women (n = 131) who delivered while participating in the Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research (MOTHER) study. Measurements Obstetrical, infectious, and other maternal medical complications captured by medical records, physical exam, blood tests, and self-report. Neonatal medical complications captured by medical records. Findings Hepatitis C (HCV) was the most common infection (32.3%), followed by hepatitis B (7.6%) and Chlamydia (6.1%) among participants at study enrollment. Maternal methadone versus buprenorphine maintenance was associated with a higher incidence of preterm labor (P = 0.04) and a significantly higher percentage of signs of respiratory distress in neonates at delivery (P = 0.05). Other medical and obstetrical complications were infrequent in the total sample, as well as in both methadone and buprenorphine conditions. Conclusions Buprenorphine appears to have an acceptable safety profile for use during pregnancy. PMID:23106930

  11. Piperidine, pyridine alkaloid inhibition of fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Panter, Kip E

    2013-08-01

    Inhibition of fetal movement is one mechanism behind the development of multiple congenital contracture-type defects in developing fetuses of humans and animals. We tested the alkaloids anabasine, lobeline, and myosmine for agonist actions, and sensitivity to alpha conotoxins EI and GI blockade at fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) expressed by TE-671 cells. We also determined if the alkaloids decreased fetal movement in an IV dosed, day 40 pregnant goat model. In TE-671 cells, all three alkaloids elicited concentration-dependent changes in membrane potential sensing dye fluorescence. 1.0 μM alpha conotoxin GI shifted the concentration-effect curves of anabasine and myosmine to the right, and decreased maximal responses. Neither of the conotoxins blocked the actions of lobeline in TE-671 cells. In the day 40 pregnant goats, 0.8 mg/kg anabasine abolished fetal movement at 30 and 60 min after dosing and fetal movement was reduced by lobeline and myosmine. The blockade of anabasine and myosmine actions in TE-671 cells by alpha conotoxin GI indicates that they are agonists at fetal muscle-type nAChR. All three alkaloids did significantly decrease fetal movement in the day 40 pregnant goat model suggesting a potential for these alkaloids to cause multiple congenital contracture-type defects in developing fetuses.

  12. Antiviral therapy for hepatitis C: Has anything changed for pregnant/lactating women?

    PubMed Central

    Spera, Anna Maria; Eldin, Tarek Kamal; Tosone, Grazia; Orlando, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects about 3% of the world’s population, with the highest prevalence in individuals under 40. The prevalence in pregnant women varies with geographical distribution (highest in developing countries). Prevalence also increases in sub-populations of women at high risk for blood-transmitted infections. HCV infection in pregnancy represents a non-negligible problem. However, most of the past antiviral regimens cannot be routinely offered to pregnant or breastfeeding women because of their side effects. We briefly reviewed the issue of treatment of HCV infection in pregnant/breastfeeding women focusing on the effects of the new direct-acting antivirals on fertility, pregnancy and lactation in animal studies and on the potential risk for humans based on the pharmacokinetic properties of each drug. Currently, all new therapy regimens are contraindicated in this setting because of lack of sufficient safety information and adequate measures of contraception are still routinely recommended for female patients of childbearing potential. PMID:27134703

  13. Heterologous Infection of Pregnant Mice Induces Low Birth Weight and Modifies Offspring Susceptibility to Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ankur; Conteh, Solomon; Langhorne, Jean; Duffy, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy malaria (PM) is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, and can arise due to relapse, recrudescence or a re-infection with heterologous parasites. We have used the Plasmodium chabaudi model of pregnancy malaria in C57BL/6 mice to examine recrudescence and heterologous infection using CB and AS parasite strains. After an initial course of patent parasitemia and first recrudescence, CB but not AS parasites were observed to recrudesce again in most animals that became pregnant. Pregnancy exacerbated heterologous CB infection of AS-experienced mice, leading to mortality and impaired post-natal growth of pups. Parasites were detected in placental blood without evidence of sequestration, unlike P. falciparum but similar to other malaria species that infect pregnant women. Inflammatory cytokine levels were elevated in pregnant females during malaria, and associated with intensity of infection and with poor outcomes. Pups born to dams during heterologous infection were more resistant to malaria infections at 6–7 weeks of age, compared to pups born to malaria-experienced but uninfected dams or to malaria-naïve dams. In summary, our mouse model reproduces several features of human PM, including recrudescences, heterologous infections, poor pregnancy outcomes associated with inflammatory cytokines, and modulation of offspring susceptibility to malaria. This model should be further studied to explore mechanisms underlying PM pathogenesis. PMID:27467392

  14. Putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in pregnant women: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haixia; Zhu, Ce; Li, Fei; Xu, Wei; Tao, Danying; Feng, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about herpesvirus and putative periodontopathic bacteria in maternal chronic periodontitis. The present case-control study aimed to explore the potential relationship between putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in maternal chronic periodontitis.Saliva samples were collected from 36 pregnant women with chronic periodontitis (cases) and 36 pregnant women with healthy periodontal status (controls). Six putative periodontopathic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis [Pg], Aggregatibacer actinomycetemcomitans [Aa], Fusobacterium nucleatum [Fn], Prevotella intermedia [Pi], Tannerella forsythia [Tf], and Treponema denticola [Td]) and three herpesviruses (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], human cytomegalovirus [HCMV], and herpes simplex virus [HSV]) were detected. Socio-demographic data and oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels were also collected. The results showed no significant differences in socio-demographic background, oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels between the two groups (all P > 0.05). The detection rates of included periodontopathic microorganisms were not significantly different between the two groups (all P > 0.05), but the coinfection rate of EBV and Pg was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group (P = 0.028). EBV and Pg coinfection may promote the development of chronic periodontitis among pregnant women. PMID:27301874

  15. Normal range and lateral symmetry in the skin temperature profile of pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Tânia; Nogueira-Silva, Cristina; Simoes, Ricardo

    2016-09-01

    Body skin temperature is a useful parameter for diagnosing diseases and infrared thermography can be a powerful tool in providing important information to detect body temperature changes in a noninvasive way. The aim of this work was to study the pattern of skin temperature during pregnancy, to establish skin temperature reference values and to find correlations between these and the pregnant population characteristics. Sixty-one healthy pregnant women (mean age 30.6 ± 5.1 years) in the 8th-40th gestational week with normal pregnancies were examined in 31 regions of interest (ROI). The ROIs were defined all over the body in order to determine the most influenced by factors such as age or body mass index (BMI). The results obtained in this work highlight that in normal pregnant women the skin temperature is symmetrically distributed, with the symmetrical areas differing less than 0.5 °C , with a mean value of 0.25 ± 0.23 °C . This study identified a significant negative correlation between the BMI and temperature. Age has been shown to have great influence on the skin temperature, with a significant increase of temperature observed with age. This work explores a novel medical application of infrared thermography and provides a characterization of thermal skin profile in human pregnancy for a large set of ROIs while also evaluating the effects of age and BMI.

  16. Infections and obstetric outcomes in opioid-dependent pregnant women maintained on methadone or buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Amber M; Baxter, Jason K; Jones, Hendrée E; Heil, Sarah H; Coyle, Mara G; Martin, Peter R; Stine, Susan M; Kaltenbach, Karol

    2012-11-01

    To characterize infections and compare obstetric outcomes in opioid-dependent pregnant women who participated in a randomized clinical trial comparing agonist medications, methadone and buprenorphine. Incidence of infections was identified as part of the screening medical assessment. As part of a planned secondary analysis, analysis of variance and polytomous logistic regressions were conducted on obstetric outcome variables using treatment randomization condition (maternal maintenance with either methadone or buprenorphine) as the predictor variable, controlling for differences between study sites. Six United States sites and one European site that provided comprehensive treatment to opioid-dependent pregnant women. Pregnant opioid-dependent women (n = 131) who delivered while participating in the Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research (MOTHER) study. Obstetric, infectious and other maternal medical complications captured by medical records, physical examination, blood tests and self-report. Neonatal medical complications captured by medical records. Hepatitis C was the most common infection (32.3%), followed by hepatitis B (7.6%) and chlamydia (6.1%) among participants at study enrollment. Maternal methadone versus buprenorphine maintenance was associated with a higher incidence of preterm labor (P = 0.04) and a significantly higher percentage of signs of respiratory distress in neonates at delivery (P = 0.05). Other medical and obstetric complications were infrequent in the total sample, as well as in both methadone and buprenorphine conditions. Buprenorphine appears to have an acceptable safety profile for use during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Difference in ponderal growth and body composition among pregnant vs. never-pregnant adolescents varies by birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rah, Jee H; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Klemm, Rolf D W; Rashid, Mahbubur; Christian, Parul

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we showed that following pregnancy and 6 months of lactation, adolescents cease linear growth and have reduced fat and lean mass in rural Bangladesh. Here, we examined whether these changes varied by pregnancy outcomes such as fetal loss, low birthweight (LBW) and neonatal mortality. Anthropometric measurements were taken among 12-19-year-old primigravidae (n = 229) in early pregnancy and at 6 months post-partum. Never-pregnant adolescents (n = 456) matched on age and time since menarche were also measured at the same time. Change in anthropometry among pregnant vs. never-pregnant adolescents was compared by pregnancy outcome adjusting for confounders using mixed effects regression models. Pregnant girls, irrespective of birth outcome, did not gain in stature, while never-pregnant girls increased in height by 0.36 +/- 0.04 cm year(-1) (P < 0.05). Body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and % body fat among pregnant adolescents whose infants survived the neonatal period had decreased at 6 months post-partum, whereas those who experienced a fetal loss or neonatal death did not change in any of the measurements. Consequently, the difference in change in ponderal size and body composition measures between pregnant and never-pregnant girls was higher among those whose neonates survived vs. those who experienced a fetal loss/neonatal death (BMI: -0.64 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.01 +/- 0.16 kg m(-2) year(-1); MUAC: -0.96 +/- 0.12 vs. -0.35 +/- 0.17 cm year(-1), both P < 0.05). LBW and preterm birth did not have a similar effect modification. Linear growth ceased among pregnant girls regardless of birth outcome. Maternal weight loss and depletion of fat and lean mass at 6 months post-partum were more pronounced when the infants survived through the neonatal period.

  18. Characterization and differential expression of microRNAs in the ovaries of pregnant and non-pregnant goats (Capra hircus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ovarian follicular development and hormone secretion are complex and coordinated biological processes which will usually be altered during pregnancy. Ovarian function is tightly regulated by a multitude of genes, and also by some specific miRNAs. It is necessary to identify the differentially expressed miRNAs in the ovaries of pregnant and non-pregnant mammals, in order to further understand the role of miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation in mammalian reproduction. Here, we performed a comprehensive search for hircine miRNAs using two small RNA sequencing libraries prepared from the ovaries of pregnant and non-pregnant goats. Results 617 conserved and 7 putative novel miRNAs were identified in the hircine ovaries. A total of 471 conserved miRNAs (76.34%) were co-expressed in both pregnant and non-pregnant libraries, and 90 pregnancy-specific and 56 non-pregnancy-specific conserved miRNAs were identified. Additionally, 407 unique miRNAs (65.96%) were significantly differentially expressed in the pregnant and non-pregnant libraries, of which 294 were upregulated and 113 were downregulated in the pregnant library compared to the non-pregnant library. Further analysis showed that miR-143 was predicted to bind to the target sequences of Frizzled-6 and -3 receptor genes in the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway, and let-7b may target the Activin receptor I and Smad 2/3 genes in the TGF-beta signaling pathway. The expression level of 5 randomly selected miRNAs were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR), and the results demonstrated that the expression patterns were consistent with the Solexa sequencing results. Conclusions The identification and characterization of differentially expressed miRNAs in the ovaries of pregnant and non-pregnant goats provides important information on the role of miRNA in the regulation of the ovarian development and function. This data will be helpful to facilitate studies on the regulation of miRNAs during

  19. [Social support to pregnant adolescents: clarifying perceptions].

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Tatiane; Vieira, Renata; Geib, Lorena Teresinha Consalter

    2011-05-01

    This descriptive-exploratory study using a qualitative approach was undertaken to describe the perceptions of pregnant adolescents in relation to social support provided during pregnancy. Twelve adolescents in their first pregnancy who frequented the outpatient health service in Passo Fundo in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) participated in the study. The data was obtained by semi-structured interviews, genograms and ecomaps and was assessed by thematic analysis. It highlighted the need for support to overcome the fears and challenges of motherhood. The mothers and partners were perceived as the main sources of support in affective and material terms. Common sense knowledge prevailed in the information dimension and pregnancy as a mediator in the reconciliation with the father fulfilled the emotional dimension. The perception of the dimension of positive social interaction was blurred by self-imposed isolation. Thus the adolescent's perception of the social support received is clear in relation to the family nucleus and includes the people in the family circle. The network of care outside the family, including the healthcare services, is tenuous and generated the perception of psychosocial difficulties. This reveals the need for greater investment of primary healthcare professionals in the inclusion of first-time-pregnancy adolescents in social care groups, which ensure the healthy progress of the pregnancy.

  20. Reducing morbidity and mortality among pregnant obese.

    PubMed

    Harper, Ann

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is increasing; in the UK, almost 20% of pregnant women have a body mass index (BMI) of ≥30 kg/m(2). Obese mothers have increased risks of pregnancy complications including miscarriage, congenital anomaly, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, macrosomia, induction of labour, caesarean section, anaesthetic and surgical complications, post-partum haemorrhage, infection and venous thromboembolism. Complications tend to be greater in those with the highest BMIs. In recent triennia, obesity (27-29%) was over-represented in maternal mortality figures. Strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality include calculating BMI at booking visit to identify obese mothers and plan their antenatal care and delivery. This should include nutritional and lifestyle advice, screening for gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia, thromboembolism risk assessment, antenatal anaesthetic review if BMI is ≥ 40 kg/m(2), ensuring availability of robust theatre tables and other equipment and involving senior doctors, especially in the labour ward. Afterwards, continuing weight reduction should be encouraged to reduce future pregnancy and health risks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hemoglobin levels in normal Filipino pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kuizon, M D; Natera, M G; Ancheta, L P; Platon, T P; Reyes, G D; Macapinlac, M P

    1981-09-01

    The hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy in Filipinos belonging to the upper income group, who were prescribed 105 mg elemental iron daily, and who had acceptable levels of transferrin saturation, were examined in an attempt to define normal levels. The hemoglobin concentrations for each trimester followed a Gaussian distribution. The hemoglobin values equal to the mean minus one standard deviation were 11.4 gm/dl for the first trimester and 10.4 gm/dl for the second and third trimesters. Using these values as the lower limits of normal, in one group of pregnant women the prevalence of anemia during the last two trimesters was found lower than that obtained when WHO levels for normal were used. Groups of women with hemoglobin of 10.4 to 10.9 gm/dl (classified anemic by WHO criteria but normal in the present study) and those with 11.0 gm/dl and above could not be distinguished on the basis of their serum ferritin levels nor on the degree of decrease in their hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy. Many subjects in both groups, however, had serum ferritin levels less than 12 ng/ml which indicate poor iron stores. It might be desirable in future studies to determine the hemoglobin cut-off point that will delineate subjects who are both non-anemic and adequate in iron stores using serum ferritin levels as criterion for the latter.

  2. Treatment of acne vulgaris in pregnant patients.

    PubMed

    Pugashetti, Rupa; Shinkai, Kanade

    2013-01-01

    The management of acne vulgaris in the setting of pregnancy raises important clinical considerations regarding the efficacy and safety of acne treatments in this special patient population. Particular challenges include the absence of safety data, discrepancy in safety data between different safety rating systems, and lack of evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of acne during pregnancy. Nonetheless, many therapeutic options exist, and the treatment of acne in pregnant women can be safely and often effectively accomplished. For mild or moderate disease, patients can be treated with topical antimicrobial agents, anti-inflammatory agents, as well as glycolic and salicylic acid. Several topical agents, notably benzoyl peroxide, previously viewed as potentially dangerous are cited by many sources as being considered safe. When necessary, systemic therapies that can be safely added include penicillins, amoxicillin, cephalosporins, erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracyclines or sulfonamides, depending on the stage of fetal development. Adjunct therapy may include phototherapy or laser treatments. Physicians should work with this often highly motivated, safety-conscious patient population to tailor an individualized treatment regimen. This treatment regimen will likely shift throughout the different stages of fetal development, as distinct safety considerations are raised prior to conception as well as during each of the trimesters of pregnancy. Important considerations regarding acne management in breast-feeding mothers is also discussed.

  3. Dietary Intake of Choline and Plasma Choline Concentrations in Pregnant Women in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Gossell-Williams, M; Fletcher, H; McFarlane-Anderson, N; Jacob, A; Patel, J; Zeisel, S

    2008-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient for humans and its availability during pregnancy is important for optimal fetal development. The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine in the United States of America has set the adequate choline intake during pregnancy at 450 mg/day. There is limited data available on normal plasma choline concentrations in pregnancy. Moreover, there are neither documented studies of choline intake among pregnant women in the Jamaican population nor of free plasma choline concentrations during pregnancy. Sixteen women presenting to the antenatal clinic of the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) at 10−15 weeks of gestation were selected for this pilot study. A food frequency questionnaire was administered to estimate frequency of consumption of foods rich in choline. Fasting blood samples were collected by venepuncture and plasma assayed for choline using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization isotopic dilution mass spectrometry. Most of the women reported consumption of diets that delivered less than the recommended choline intake (mean ± SEM, 278.5 ± 28.9 mg). Mean plasma choline concentration was 8.4 ± 0.4 μmol/L. This falls below the normal concentration (10 μmol/L) reported for individuals that are not pregnant and pregnant (14.5 μmol/L). The results of this study may be an indication that the choline included in the diet of pregnant women in Jamaica may not be adequate to meet both the needs of the mother and fetus and that further studies are warranted to determine clinical implications. PMID:16642650

  4. Hair mercury levels in pregnant women in Mahshahr, Iran: fish consumption as a determinant of exposure.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Zohreh; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

    2010-09-15

    MeHg is a well-documented neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure. Developing brain, in particular, is vulnerable to that. Through bioaccumulating to differing degrees in various fish species, it can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate mercury concentration in hair samples of pregnant women living in Mahshahr located in Khuzestan province, Iran. It assessed the association between fish consumption and specific characteristics that can influence exposure. From April to June 2008, 149 pregnant women were invited to participate in this study. An interview administered questionnaire was used to collect information about age, body weight, height, fish (fresh, canned and shrimp) consumption, pregnancy stage, residence duration, education level, family income and number of dental amalgam fillings. The obtained results showed that the geometric mean and range for hair total Hg concentration was 3.52 microg/g (0.44-53.56 microg/g). About 5.4% of mothers had hair total Hg levels in excess of 10 microg/g. Maternal hair mercury level was less than threshold level of WHO (5 microg/g). As expected, there was a clear increase in hair Hg with reported fresh marine fish consumption (p=0.04). The highest mean for hair mercury level in a group who consumed fish several times per week, was 4.93 microg/g. Moreover, a significant effect of age and residential time on Hg concentration in the hair of the women was found. Pregnant women in Mahshahr consumed large amounts of fish; consequently, most of their offspring were prenatally exposed to moderately high levels of mercury. The results found suggest that pregnant women should decrease their fish consumption.

  5. [Pandemic influenza caused by A(H1N1) in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Torres-Ramírez, Armando

    2010-02-01

    Pandemic influenza caused byA H1N1 virus, that started in Mexico in 2009 and that persist though with mortality and morbidity much lower rates, did not have the repercussions of the other pandemias in the 20th Century, this is because the members of the World Health Organization anticipated everything that was necessary to fight it since 1997, when that international organism suggested to be prepared because the bird flu H5N1 was suffering mutations and was creating a new type of virus that have already caused human deaths. This information allowed the creation of strategies to protect the world population and mainly the most vulnerable groups such as pregnant women. In this group the lung complications specially the pneumonia cases, leads to the patient hospitalization with a higher perinatal mortality rates. The signs and symptoms of seasonal influenza as well as A H1N1 influenza in pregnant women are always more serious, and this is why they need intensive treatments. However, not all patients need to be hospitalized nor to check with sophisticated exams the presence of the virus. Every unhealthy women need to be classified by their signs and symptoms according Triage scale, and their hospitalization has to be only if the situation gets worse or if a chronic disease complicate it such as diabetes, AIDS, heart condition, asthma, obesity, etc. According to the scale in which the patient has been classified, she needs to be isolated in her home and start a symptomatic treatment and add antiviral medications only in suspicious pandemic influenza cases. However if respiratory pathology gets worse the patient should be hospitalized immediately in a unit with the proper equipment. Every citizen must receive the A H1N1 vaccine, but pregnant women and breastfeeding women particularly. Pregnant women should receive the vaccine in any trimester of pregnancy, but especially in the last to prevent maternal and fetal complications as well as elevation of perinatal mortality.

  6. Low Molecular Weight Heparin Improves Endothelial Function in Pregnant Women at High Risk of Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Kelsey; Baczyk, Dora; Potts, Audrey; Hladunewich, Michelle; Parker, John D; Kingdom, John C P

    2017-01-01

    Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has been investigated for the prevention of severe preeclampsia, although the mechanisms of action are unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of LMWH in pregnant women at high risk of preeclampsia. Pregnant women at high risk of preeclampsia (n=25) and low-risk pregnant controls (n=20) at 22 to 26 weeks' gestation underwent baseline cardiovascular assessments. High-risk women were then randomized to LMWH or saline placebo (30 mg IV bolus and 1 mg/kg subcutaneous dose). Cardiovascular function was assessed 1 and 3 hours post randomization. The in vitro endothelial effects of patient serum and exogenous LMWH on human umbilical venous endothelial cells were determined. High-risk women demonstrated a reduced cardiac output, high resistance hemodynamic profile with impaired radial artery flow-mediated dilation compared with controls. LMWH increased flow-mediated dilation in high-risk women 3 hours after randomization compared with baseline and increased plasma levels of placental growth factor, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, and myeloperoxidase. Serum from high-risk women impaired endothelial cell angiogenesis and increased PlGF-1 and PlGF-2 transcription compared with serum from low-risk controls. Coexposure of high-risk serum with LMWH improved the in vitro angiogenic response such that it was equivalent to that of low-risk serum and promoted placental growth factor secretion. LMWH improves maternal endothelial function in pregnant women at high risk of developing preeclampsia, possibly mediated through increased placental growth factor bioavailability. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Prevention and treatment strategy in pregnant women with group B streptococcal infection.

    PubMed

    Tevdorashvili, G; Tevdorashvili, D; Andghuladze, M; Tevdorashvili, M

    2015-04-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) are encapsulated gram-positive cocci belonging to Lancefield group B, that frequently colonizes the human genital and gastrointestinal tracts. It is an important cause of illness in three categories of population: infants, pregnant women, and adults with underlying medical conditions. In pregnant women and postpartum women, GBS is a frequent cause of asymptomatic bacteriuria, urinary tract infection, upper genital tract infection (i.e. intraamniotic infection or chorioamnionitis), postpartum endometritis (8%), pneumonia (2%), puerperal sepsis (2%), and bacteremia without a focal site (31%). It also can cause focal infections such as pneumonia, meningitis, and endocarditis, albeit rarely. Invasive maternal infection with GBS is associated with pregnancy loss and preterm delivery. Prior to the widespread use of maternal intrapartum chemoprophylaxis, maternal colonization with GBS conferred an increased risk of chorioamnionitis, and early postpartum infection. The serotype distribution of invasive GBS infection in pregnant women is similar to that of early-onset neonatal disease. The most common GBS serotypes causing invasive disease in adults and neonates are Ia, Ib, III, and V. Vaccination of adolescent women is considered an ideal solution. However, recent reports (April 2015) have shown that serotype IV GBS is emerging in pregnant carriers and causing infections in neonates and adults. This emergence is of concern because GBS conjugate vaccines that are being developed to prevent invasive disease may protect only against serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V, or combinations thereof. Though research for the development of such a vaccine is underway, a good candidate vaccine has yet to surface.

  8. Strontium biokinetic model for the pregnant woman and fetus: application to Techa River studies.

    PubMed

    Shagina, N B; Fell, T P; Tolstykh, E I; Harrison, J D; Degteva, M O

    2015-09-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium (Sr) for the pregnant woman and fetus (Sr-PWF model) has been developed for use in the quantification of doses from internal radiation exposures following maternal ingestion of Sr radioisotopes before or during pregnancy. The model relates in particular to the population of the Techa River villages exposed to significant amounts of ingested Sr radioisotopes as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak plutonium production facility (Russia) in the early 1950s. The biokinetic model for Sr metabolism in the pregnant woman was based on a biokinetic model for the adult female modified to account for changes in mineral metabolism during pregnancy. The model for non-pregnant females of all ages was developed earlier with the use of extensive data on (90)Sr-body measurements in the Techa Riverside residents. To determine changes in model parameter values to take account of changing mineral metabolism during pregnancy, data from longitudinal studies of calcium homeostasis during human pregnancy were analysed and applied. Exchanges between maternal and fetal circulations and retention in fetal skeleton and soft tissues were modelled as adaptations of previously published models, taking account of data on Sr and calcium (Ca) metabolism obtained in Russia (Southern Urals and Moscow) relating to dietary calcium intakes, calcium contents in maternal and fetal skeletons and strontium transfer to the fetus. The model was validated using independent data on (90)Sr in the fetal skeleton from global fallout as well as unique data on (90)Sr-body burden in mothers and their still-born children for Techa River residents. While the Sr-PWF model has been developed specifically for ingestion of Sr isotopes by Techa River residents, it is also more widely applicable to maternal ingestion of Sr radioisotopes at different times before and during pregnancy and different ages of pregnant women in a general population.

  9. Cigarette exposure induces changes in maternal vascular function in a pregnant mouse model.

    PubMed

    Gandley, Robin E; Jeyabalan, Arun; Desai, Ketaki; McGonigal, Stacy; Rohland, Jennifer; DeLoia, Julie A

    2010-05-01

    Smoking is associated with multiple adverse pregnancy outcomes, including fetal growth restriction. The objective of this study was to determine whether cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy in a mouse model affects the functional properties of maternal uterine, mesenteric, and renal arteries as a possible mechanism for growth restriction. C57Bl/CJ mice were exposed to whole body sidestream smoke for 4 h/day. Smoke particle exposure was increased from day 4 of gestation until late pregnancy (day 16-19), with mean total suspended particle levels of 63 mg/m(3), representative of moderate-to-heavy smoking in humans. Uterine, mesenteric, and renal arteries from late-pregnant and virgin mice were isolated and studied in a pressure-arteriograph system (n = 23). Plasma cotinine was measured by ELISA. Fetal weights were significantly reduced in smoke-exposed compared with control fetuses (0.88 +/- 0.1 vs. 1.0 +/- 0.08 g, P < 0.02), while litter sizes were not different. Endothelium-mediated relaxation responses to methacholine were significantly impaired in both the uterine and mesenteric vasculature of pregnant mice exposed to cigarette smoke during gestation. This difference was not apparent in isolated renal arteries from pregnant mice exposed to cigarette smoke; however, relaxation was significantly reduced in renal arteries from smoke-exposed virgin mice. In conclusion, we found that passive cigarette smoke exposure is associated with impaired vascular relaxation of uterine and mesenteric arteries in pregnant mice. Functional maternal vascular perturbations during pregnancy, specifically impaired peripheral and uterine vasodilation, may contribute to a mechanism by which smoking results in fetal growth restriction.

  10. Pregnant & Lactating Populations Research - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Cancer.gov

    Identifying and studying additional biomarkers of energy and nutrient intake will advance validation efforts and lead to a better understanding of the biases and sources of measurement error in dietary assessment instruments in pregnant or lactating populations.

  11. Caring for Pets When You're Pregnant

    MedlinePlus

    ... March of Dimes Premature Birth Report Card Grades Cities, Counties; Focuses on Racial and Ethnic Disparities March ... a family member who isn't pregnant to clean out the litter box every day. Keep your ...

  12. More Pregnant Women Getting Flu Shot, But Improvement Needed

    MedlinePlus

    ... who are or might become pregnant during flu season be vaccinated," according to a team led by ... 2005. The investigators found that in the flu seasons before the 2009-2010 H1N1 flu pandemic, only ...

  13. FDA Issues Anesthesia Warning for Pregnant Women, Kids Under 3

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162543.html FDA Issues Anesthesia Warning for Pregnant Women, Kids Under 3 A long ... latest published studies, the agency announced that these warnings need to be added to the labels of ...

  14. Increasing Numbers of Pregnant Women Also Have Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Increasing Numbers of Pregnant Women Also Have Heart Disease Multiple specialists may be needed to care for ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Many more American women with heart disease are choosing to have babies, a new study ...

  15. Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_162573.html Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC Advisory follows reports of ... border with Mexico, because five cases of local Zika infection have been reported there, U.S. health officials ...

  16. Introduction and history of the Hungarian project for monitoring suicide attempts in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Christian, M S; Czeizel, A E

    2008-01-01

    The introduction describes the series of manuscripts resulting from the Hungarian Project for monitoring suicide attempts in pregnant women, as well as a history of the project, its various phases and participating individuals. This unique database contains information on all patients who attempted suicide by "self-poisoning" and were cared for at central toxicological inpatient clinic in Budapest, between 1960 and 1993. A total of 1044 patients were pregnant women, of which 19 died and 411 delivered live-born babies. Of these 411 live-born children, 367 exposed children were examined and/or evaluated. This is the first report of data on the human teratogenic potential of 93 medicinal products separately used for a suicide attempt during pregnancy. Each manuscript presents results for drugs used by at least 10 pregnant women for a suicide attempt, whereas the final paper summarizes the data of drugs used rarely for suicide attempt by pregnant women. Each patient consented to participate in the study. Critical information collected under medical supervision included examination of the patients upon admittance, stage of pregnancy at suicide attempt, blood levels of the drug(s) taken for the suicide attempt (at admittance), evaluation of the infant at birth for gestational age, weight and congenital abnormalities, and follow-up studies for 2 years after a child's birth. These studies provide insight into the potential effects of a high dose of a drug or drugs taken during pregnancy because it is well accepted that "pulse high doses" of a drug during the initial susceptible period of pregnancy are those most likely to result in congenital abnormality. Although it is obvious that these data are not sufficient to ensure safety, and that it is necessary to have a larger population of exposed children, to achieve better statistical power, as well as to include data on other populations, this collection of papers provides an important introduction of the so-called disaster

  17. When it comes to pregnant women sleeping, is left right?

    PubMed

    Farine, Dan; Seaward, P Gareth

    2007-10-01

    Pregnant women who lie in a supine position may develop syncopal symptoms. However, of those women who become symptomatic, only 2% to 4% have significant aortocaval compression. Even in this small minority of symptomatic women, there is no evidence of fetal compromise. The advice often given to pregnant women to lie on the left side is therefore not relevant. In some women, experiencing a pre-syncopal episode will cause them to avoid lying in the supine position.

  18. [Surgical treatment of a pregnant female with AVM hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Kheireddin, A S; Lubnin, A Yu; Kaftanov, A N; Akhvlediani, K N; Belousova, O B; Dmitriev, A V; Kuchina, O B

    2017-01-01

    Hemorrhages from arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in pregnant females are rare, but they are known to lead to high maternal and infant mortality. There are no standards for AVM treatment in pregnant females. Many authors believe that AVM resection before delivery improves the prognosis for life and health of the mother and fetus. In this paper, we present a case of successful surgical treatment of a female patient with AVM hemorrhage at 20 weeks and address management issues of these patients.

  19. Heart failure in pregnant women: is it peripartum cardiomyopathy?

    PubMed

    Dennis, Alicia Therese

    2015-03-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare but important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Women with peripartum cardiomyopathy often present with symptoms and signs of heart failure. The diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy is made after all other causes of heart failure are excluded. Emphasis is on the immediate recognition of an unwell pregnant or recently pregnant woman, early diagnosis with the use of echocardiography, and the correct treatment of heart failure.

  20. Ventricular dyssynchrony in pregnant women: A tissue Doppler study.

    PubMed

    Mahfouz, Ragab A; El-Awady, Waleed S; Dewedar, Ashraf

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the left ventricular (LV) synchronicity in pregnant women and to identify the main determinants of LV dyssynchrony in asymptomatic pregnant women. One hundred sixty-seven pregnant women consecutively and 48 age-matched nonpregnant controls were enrolled. For the assessment of LV systolic dyssynchrony, the standard deviation of the time from QRS onset to peak systolic (Tps-LV- standard deviation [SD]) velocity and the maximal difference of the time from QRS onset to peak systolic velocity (Tps-LV) from 12 segments at the apical views. For the LV diastolic dyssynchrony, the standard deviation of the time from QRS onset to peak diastolic (Tpe-LV-SD) velocity and the maximal difference of the time from QRS onset to peak diastolic velocity (Tpe-LV) were calculated. Both systolic and diastolic dyssynchrony indexes were significantly higher in pregnant women than in the normal controls (Tps-LV; P<.01, Tps-LV-SD; P<.03, Tpe-LV, P<.05 and Tpe-LV-SD; P<.02). A total of 28 (16.8%) of the pregnant women had a dyssynchrony index above the accepted value for LV dyssynchrony (>34.4 msec). There was a significant correlation between LV dyssynchrony indexes with, multiparty, multifetal pregnancies, systolic blood pressure in pregnant women with LV dyssynchrony. Additionally LV dyssynchrony was significantly associated with elevated E/e" and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Both systolic synchronicity and diastolic synchronicity were affected in pregnant women compared to nonpregnant women. LV dyssynchrony was significantly correlated with age, multiparity, and BNP level. Early detectable changes in systolic and diastolic synchrony may be present in pregnant women at higher risk of peripartum cardiomyopathy. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Dysfunctions among Indian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Maiya, Arun G.; Kumar, Pratap; Kamath, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Pregnancy triggers a wide range of changes in a woman's body leading to various musculoskeletal dysfunctions. Most commonly reported musculoskeletal discomforts by pregnant women are low back pain and symphysis pubis pain. The culture and the environmental factors may influence the discomforts experienced by a pregnant woman. There is a dearth of literature in India, regarding the common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by a pregnant woman, and hence this study. Method. A questionnaire to identify the musculoskeletal dysfunction was developed; content was validated and was translated to local languages through parallel back translation. 261 primiparous pregnant women participated in the study and filled the questionnaire in their native language. Results. Among the musculoskeletal dysfunctions reported by the pregnant women, 64.6% reported calf muscle cramps, 37.1% reported foot pain, and 33.7% experienced low back pain in their third trimester. In the second trimester, common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by the women were that of calf pain (47.8%), low back pain (42%), and pelvic girdle pain (37%). Conclusion. Musculoskeletal dysfunctions and general discomforts very commonly affect the activities of daily living of pregnant women. Understanding the common discomforts during various trimesters of pregnancy will help to develop a comprehensive program for prevention and cure. PMID:25642349

  2. Quality of pregnant women's diet in Poland - macro-elements.

    PubMed

    Bojar, Iwona; Owoc, Alfred; Humeniuk, Ewa; Fronczak, Adam; Walecka, Irena

    2014-05-12

    The objective was to assess the quality of pregnant women's diet in Poland concerning macro-elements and to analyze reasons for low or high quality diets. Five hundred and twelve pregnant women in their 20(th) to 30(th) week of pregnancy took part in the research conducted by means of a 7-day observation of diet. Consumed products were analyzed by means of DIETETYK software developed by the Polish National Food and Nutrition Institute. Obtained macro values were averaged. The results were compared with the recommendations from the World Health Organization, European Union and Polish National Food and Nutrition Institute and analyzed statistically (χ(2) test). The pregnant women consumed an average of 1898 ±380 kcal daily. Average value of macro components supplied with the diet did not deviate from EU and NFNI nutrition recommendations: protein - 72.1 g/person daily, fats overall - 72.8 g, polyunsaturated fatty acids - 10.93 g, cholesterol - 283 mg, carbohydrates - 257 g. The study proved a significant relation between a higher quality diet of pregnant women and tertiary or secondary education (p = 0.05) as well as urban residence (p = 0.01). Pregnant women's diet in Poland is not significantly different from diet quality of pregnant women from other countries. A lower quality diet was observed among women who smoked during pregnancy and lived in rural areas.

  3. Strategies for Successful Recruitment of Pregnant Patients Into Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Elizabeth F; Cain, Loren E; Vallo, Porsha M; Redman, Leanne M

    2017-03-01

    Clinical research in the pregnant population allows for delivery of quality, evidence-based care in obstetrics. However, in recent years, the field of obstetrics has faced severe challenges in the recruitment of the pregnant population into clinical trials, a struggle also shared by several other medical disciplines. We candidly describe our failure to recruit a healthy population of overweight and obese pregnant women in their first trimester. We were then able to glean unsuccessful and successful recruitment approaches and improve our recruitment effort by autopsy of failed strategies and with guidance from a survey disseminated to improve our understanding of community feelings about participating in research while pregnant. These "lessons learned" taught us that active recruitment within this population is a necessity; that is, direct (face-to-face discussions at obstetric appointments) compared with indirect (flyers and general emails) modalities and that prenatal care provider support of the proposed research study is vital to a patient's willingness to participate. By implementation of "lessons learned," we describe how we successfully recruited a similar pregnant population 1 year later. The Clinical Trials related to our article are as follows: 1) Expecting Success: NCT01610752, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01610752; 2) MomEE: NCT01954342, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01954342; and 3) Participate While Pregnant Survey: NCT02699632, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02699632.

  4. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies.

  5. Prevalence of musculoskeletal dysfunctions among Indian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Preetha; Maiya, Arun G; Kumar, Pratap; Kamath, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy triggers a wide range of changes in a woman's body leading to various musculoskeletal dysfunctions. Most commonly reported musculoskeletal discomforts by pregnant women are low back pain and symphysis pubis pain. The culture and the environmental factors may influence the discomforts experienced by a pregnant woman. There is a dearth of literature in India, regarding the common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by a pregnant woman, and hence this study. A questionnaire to identify the musculoskeletal dysfunction was developed; content was validated and was translated to local languages through parallel back translation. 261 primiparous pregnant women participated in the study and filled the questionnaire in their native language. Among the musculoskeletal dysfunctions reported by the pregnant women, 64.6% reported calf muscle cramps, 37.1% reported foot pain, and 33.7% experienced low back pain in their third trimester. In the second trimester, common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by the women were that of calf pain (47.8%), low back pain (42%), and pelvic girdle pain (37%). Musculoskeletal dysfunctions and general discomforts very commonly affect the activities of daily living of pregnant women. Understanding the common discomforts during various trimesters of pregnancy will help to develop a comprehensive program for prevention and cure.

  6. Antiviral treatment among pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lin; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Schillie, Sarah F; Murphy, Trudy V

    2014-01-01

    To describe the antiviral treatment patterns for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) among pregnant and nonpregnant women. Using 2011 MarketScan claims, we calculated the rates of antiviral treatment among women (aged 10-50 years) with CHB. We described the pattern of antiviral treatment during pregnancy and ≥1 month after delivery. We identified 6274 women with CHB during 2011. Among these, 64 of 507 (12.6%) pregnant women and 1151 of 5767 (20.0%) nonpregnant women received antiviral treatment (P < 0.01). Pregnant women were most commonly prescribed tenofovir (73.4%) and lamivudine (21.9%); nonpregnant women were most commonly prescribed tenofovir (50.2%) and entecavir (41.3%) (P < 0.01). Among 48 treated pregnant women with an identifiable delivery date, 16 (33.3%) were prescribed an antiviral before pregnancy and continued treatment for at least one month after delivery; 14 (29.2%) started treatment during the third trimester and continued at least one month after delivery. Among this insured population, pregnant women with CHB received an antiviral significantly less often than nonpregnant women. The most common antiviral prescribed for pregnant women was tenofovir. These data provide a baseline for assessing changes in treatment patterns with anticipated increased use of antivirals to prevent breakthrough perinatal hepatitis B virus infection.

  7. Antiviral Treatment among Pregnant Women with Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lin; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Schillie, Sarah F.; Murphy, Trudy V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To describe the antiviral treatment patterns for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) among pregnant and nonpregnant women. Methods. Using 2011 MarketScan claims, we calculated the rates of antiviral treatment among women (aged 10–50 years) with CHB. We described the pattern of antiviral treatment during pregnancy and ≥1 month after delivery. Results. We identified 6274 women with CHB during 2011. Among these, 64 of 507 (12.6%) pregnant women and 1151 of 5767 (20.0%) nonpregnant women received antiviral treatment (P < 0.01). Pregnant women were most commonly prescribed tenofovir (73.4%) and lamivudine (21.9%); nonpregnant women were most commonly prescribed tenofovir (50.2%) and entecavir (41.3%) (P < 0.01). Among 48 treated pregnant women with an identifiable delivery date, 16 (33.3%) were prescribed an antiviral before pregnancy and continued treatment for at least one month after delivery; 14 (29.2%) started treatment during the third trimester and continued at least one month after delivery. Conclusion. Among this insured population, pregnant women with CHB received an antiviral significantly less often than nonpregnant women. The most common antiviral prescribed for pregnant women was tenofovir. These data provide a baseline for assessing changes in treatment patterns with anticipated increased use of antivirals to prevent breakthrough perinatal hepatitis B virus infection. PMID:25548510

  8. [Seroprevalance Differences of Toxoplasma Between Syrian Refugees Pregnants and Indigenous Turkish Pregnants in Kahramanmaraş].

    PubMed

    Bakacak, Murat; Serin, Salih; Aral, Murat; Ercan, Önder; Köstü, Bülent; Kireçci, Ahmet; Bostancı, Mehmet Sühha; Bakacak, Zeyneb

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the Syrian refugees and resident Turkish pregnant population in terms of Toxoplasma seroprevalence. Data acquired from Kahramanmaraş Necip Fazıl City Hospital Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology between 2012 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Results of 7201 Toxoplasma IgM tests and 4113 Toxoplasma IgG tests were evaluated. For 2012 and 2013 Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was found in Syrian refugees 4.76% and 4.84% respectively in our study. In the same population Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity rates were 80% and 62.6%, respectively. Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity rates for the native peoples in Turkey in 2012 and 2013 was 1.96% and 2.34%, while in the same population Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity was detected 49.7% and 45.7% respectively. Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was statistically higher in Syrian refugees for each year (p <0.001 and 0.019, respectively). Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity of Syrian refugees was statistically higher (p <0.001 and <0.001 respectively). Since it was found in our study that toxoplasma seropositivity rates of Syrian refugees living in the region of Kahramanmaraş were statistically higher than the rates of local inhabitants, we consider that this condition should be taken into account in the follow-ups of Syrian pregnant refugees outnumbering in Kahramanmaraş and its vicinity.

  9. Social Licking in Pregnant Dairy Heifers

    PubMed Central

    Tresoldi, Grazyne; Weary, Daniel M.; Pinheiro Machado Filho, Luiz Carlos; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Social licking is often associated with good animal welfare, but little is known about this behavior in cattle. Licking behavior was compared in heifers housed indoors versus on pasture. Licking frequency was four-fold higher when heifers were indoors. However, when considering all social interactions recorded (licking and aggressions) licking events represented about 10% of all interactions regardless of housing. This behavior happened more frequently between heifers that were observed more repeatedly in close vicinity of each other. Provision of smaller indoor floor spaces likely brought animals into closer proximity thus facilitating social interactions. Abstract Housing affects social behaviors, such as competition, but little work has addressed affiliative behaviors. This study compared social licking (SL) in pregnant heifers housed indoors (in a free-stall barn) versus outdoors (on pasture), and relationships with competition, feeding and physical proximity to others. Six heifer groups were observed during two six-hour-periods in both treatments. The total number of social events (SL and agonistic interactions) was four times higher when heifers were housed indoors compared to pasture (546 ± 43 vs. 128 ± 7 events/group; P < 0.05). SL as a ratio of the total number of social events was similar in the two treatments (12% vs. 8% of interactions, free-stall and pasture, respectively; P > 0.05). Housing did not affect how the SL bout was initiated and terminated, the duration, the body part licked and behavior preceding licking (P > 0.05). Animals in close proximity showed higher rates of SL (P < 0.0001) but not agonistic interactions (P > 0.05). A previous agonistic event did not predict occurrence or the role of heifers in the following licking event. The higher stocking density indoors likely resulted in increased social interactions. PMID:26610578

  10. Correlates of Stress among Pregnant Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Marushka Leanne; Pekow, Penelope S.; Dole, Nancy; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Prenatal psychosocial stress has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, even after controlling for known risk factors. This paper aims to evaluate correlates of high perceived stress among Hispanic women, a group with elevated rates of stress during pregnancy. Methods We conducted this analysis among 1426 pregnant Hispanic women using data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted in Western Massachusetts. Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) validated in English and Spanish was administered in early (mean=12.4 wks gestation), mid (mean=21.3 wks gestation) and late (mean=30.8 wks gestation) pregnancy at which time bilingual interviewers collected data on socio-demographic, acculturation, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. High perceived stress was defined as a PSS score>30. Results Young maternal age (odds ratio (OR) =0.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-0.9 for <19 vs. 19-23yrs), pre-pregnancy consumption of alcohol (OR=2.2; 95% CI 1.4-3.5 for >12 drinks/mo. vs. none) and smoking (OR=2.2; 95% CI 1.3-3.7 for >10 cigarettes/day vs. none) were associated with high perceived stress during early pregnancy. Furthermore, higher annual household income (OR=0.4; 95% CI 0.1-0.9 for >$30,000 vs. <$15,000), greater number of adults in the household (OR=1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.0 for ≥3 vs. 1) and language preference (OR=0.6; 95% CI 0.4-0.9 for Spanish vs. English) were associated with high stress during mid-pregnancy. Likewise, annual household income was inversely associated with high stress during late pregnancy. Conclusion Our results have important implications for incorporation of routine screening for psychosocial stress during prenatal visits and implementation of psychosocial counseling services for women at high risk. PMID:23010861

  11. How Metformin Acts in PCOS Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Romualdi, Daniela; De Cicco, Simona; Gagliano, Donatella; Busacca, Matteo; Campagna, Giuseppe; Lanzone, Antonio; Guido, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Metformin has been reported to reduce the risk of gestational diabetes (GD) in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). However, little is known about the mechanisms of action of this drug during pregnancy. In the attempt to fill this gap, we performed a prospective longitudinal study providing a detailed examination of glucose and insulin metabolism in pregnant women with PCOS undergoing metformin therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We enrolled 60 women with PCOS who conceived while undergoing metformin treatment. An oral glucose tolerance test and a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp were performed at each trimester of gestation in 47 ongoing pregnancies. RESULTS Twenty-two of the study subjects had development of GD despite the treatment. At baseline, insulin sensitivity was comparable between women who had development of GD and women who did not. A progressive decline in this parameter occurred in all subjects, independently of the trimester of GD diagnosis. Insulin secretion was significantly higher during the first trimester in patients with an early failure of metformin treatment. Women with third trimester GD and women with no GD exhibited a significant increase in insulin output as gestation proceeded. All newborns were healthy and only one case of macrosomia was observed. CONCLUSIONS Women with PCOS who enter pregnancy in a condition of severe hyperinsulinemia have development of GD earlier, independently of metformin treatment. The physiologic deterioration of insulin sensitivity is not affected by the drug and does not predict the timing and severity of the glycemic imbalance. Despite the high incidence of GD observed, the drug itself or the intensive monitoring probably accounted for the good neonatal outcome. PMID:23315599

  12. Ocular changes in pregnant Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Ebeigbe, J A; Ebeigbe, P N; Ighoroje, Ada

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy results in a lot of hormonal changes in the body and the eyes are no exception. These ocular changes could be physiologic, pathologic or a modification of a pre-existing condition. The aim of this study was to determine physiologic ocular changes that are associated with pregnancy in healthy Nigerian women. A total of 100 women were followed longitudinally through out the course of their pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. The women were recruited at 8 weeks of pregnancy at the anti-natal clinic in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. The women were aged between 20 and 35 years. Tests carried out included visual acuity, ophthalmoscopy, retinoscopy, and tonometry. The tests were carried out in each of the three trimesters of pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. There was a fall in intraocular pressure across the trimesters and this was very significant (P<0.0001). Postpartum, the intraocular pressure began to rise. The difference between the third trimester and post-partum values was also statistically significant (P< 0.0001). The difference in visual acuity through out the pregnancy was not significant (P= 0.8477). Although, there was a fall in refractive error across the different trimesters, it was not statistically significant (P=0.3). There was also no difference in the third trimester and the 6 weeks postpartum values of both visual acuity and refractive error. Ocular changes associated with pregnancy are transient and most tend to resolve postpartum, with values returning to near pre-pregnant state.

  13. A call for science preparedness for pregnant women during public health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Faherty, Laura J; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Lurie, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Science preparedness, or the ability to conduct scientific research early in a public health emergency, is essential to increase the likelihood that important research questions regarding pregnant women will be addressed during future public health emergencies while the window of opportunity for data collection is open. Science preparedness should include formulation and human subject approval of generic protocols, which could be rapidly updated at the time of the public health emergency; development of a preexisting study network to coordinate time-sensitive research during a public health emergency; and identification of mechanisms for funding these studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP) for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study based on data from a national Danish registry on smoking cessation interventions. The study population included 10,682 women of a fertile age. The pregnancy status of the study population was identified using the National Patient Registry. Results: The response rate to follow up was 76%. The continuous abstinence rate for both pregnant and non-pregnant smokers was 24–32%. The following prognostic factors for continuous abstinence were identified: programme format (individual/group), older age, heavy smoking, compliance with the programme, health professional recommendation, and being a disadvantaged smoker. Conclusions: The GSP seems to be as effective among pregnant smokers as among non-pregnant smoking women. Due to the relatively high effect and clinical significance, the GSP would be an attractive element in smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women. PMID:23959083

  15. Effects of DEHP on endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation in pregnant mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Yu, Chao; Gao, Rufei; Liu, Xueqing; Lu, Jing; Zhao, Letian; Chen, Xuemei; Ding, Yubin; Wang, Yingxiong; He, Junlin

    2012-11-30

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and endocrine disruptor (ED) that causes serious adverse effects on animal and human health. The harmful effects of DEHP on human reproduction are increasingly recognized, especially in women. However, it is not known how endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation, which play important roles in the establishment of pregnancy, are affected by DEHP. This study was aimed towards investigating the effects of DEHP on endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation in pregnant mice. The pregnant mice received DEHP at 0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day from day 1 (D1) of gestation until sacrifice. Administration of DEHP led to compromised endometrial receptivity and decreased number of implantation sites. The mRNA and protein expression levels of ERα, PR and E-cadherin, but not those of HoxA10 and MMP-2, were up-regulated by DEHP in the mouse endometrium. The results further suggested that DEHP disrupts the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. This was maybe one of paths which influenced the E-cadherin expression. In conclusion, DEHP reduced endometrial receptivity and impaired embryo implantation by influencing the expression of hormone receptors and E-cadherin. Therefore, determining the full extent of the hazards of DEHP to human reproduction will be vital to developing and implementing effective protective measures.

  16. Geophagy (Soil-eating) in relation to Anemia and Helminth infection among HIV-infected pregnant women in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kosuke; Saathoff, Elmar; Antelman, Gretchen; Msamanga, Gernard; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2009-01-01

    Geophagy, the regular and deliberate consumption of soil, is prevalent among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the associations of geophagy with anemia and helminth infection among 971 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive pregnant women in Tanzania. About 29% of pregnant women regularly consumed soil. Occupation, marital status, and gestational age were associated with geophagy. Ascaris lumbricoides infection was associated with the prevalence of geophagy (adjusted-prevalence ratio 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37-2.40); however, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, and Strongyloides stercoralis showed no association. Anemia and red blood cell characteristics suggestive of iron deficiency were strongly correlated with geophagy at baseline. In longitudinal analyses, we found evidence suggesting that soil consumption may be associated with an increased risk of anemia (adjusted-relative risk 1.16; 95% CI = 0.98-1.36) and a lower hemoglobin concentration (adjusted-mean difference -3.8 g/L; 95% CI [-7.3, -0.4]). Pregnant women should be informed about the potential risks associated with soil consumption.

  17. Violence against pregnant women: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Audi, Celene Aparecida Ferrari; Segall-Corrêa, Ana M; Santiago, Silvia M; Andrade, Maria da Graça G; Pèrez-Escamila, Rafael

    2008-10-01

    To identify the factors associated with domestic violence against pregnant women. Interviews were conducted with 1,379 pregnant women undergoing antenatal care in basic health care units of the Brazilian Health System, within the municipality of Campinas (Southeastern Brazil). A structured questionnaire on domestic violence, validated in Brazil, was applied between July 2004 and July 2006. The first and second interviews in a cohort study were analyzed. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression analysis of the data were conducted. Psychological violence was reported by 19.1% (n=263) of the total sample of pregnant women and physical/sexual violence was reported by 6.5% (n=89) of them. The factors associated to psychological violence were: adolescent intimate partner (p<0.019) and the pregnant woman had witnessed physical aggression before she was 15 years old (p<0.001). The factors associated to physical/sexual violence were: difficulties encountered by the pregnant woman in attending her antenatal appointments (p<0.014), intimate partner uses drugs (p<0.015) and does not work (p<0.048). The factors associated to psychological and physical/ sexual violence were: low level of education of the interviewee (p<0.013 and p<0.020, respectively), the pregnant woman being responsible for the family (p<0.001 and p=0.017, respectively) pregnant woman had suffered physical aggression during childhood (p<0.029 and p<0.038, respectively), presence of common mental disorder (p<0.001) and intimate partner consumes alcoholic beverage twice or more weekly. (p<0.001). A high prevalence of different categories of domestic violence by an intimate partner during pregnancy was found as well as different factors associated with them. Appropriate mechanisms are necessary, particularly in primary health care, to identify and deal with domestic violence during pregnancy.

  18. Prolonged Detection of Zika Virus RNA in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Meaney-Delman, Dana; Oduyebo, Titilope; Polen, Kara N D; White, Jennifer L; Bingham, Andrea M; Slavinski, Sally A; Heberlein-Larson, Lea; St George, Kirsten; Rakeman, Jennifer L; Hills, Susan; Olson, Christine K; Adamski, Alys; Culver Barlow, Lauren; Lee, Ellen H; Likos, Anna M; Muñoz, Jorge L; Petersen, Emily E; Dufort, Elizabeth M; Dean, Amy B; Cortese, Margaret M; Santiago, Gilberto A; Bhatnagar, Julu; Powers, Ann M; Zaki, Sherif; Petersen, Lyle R; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-10-01

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other fetal brain abnormalities. Reports indicate that the duration of detectable viral RNA in serum after symptom onset is brief. In a recent case report involving a severely affected fetus, Zika virus RNA was detected in maternal serum 10 weeks after symptom onset, longer than the duration of RNA detection in serum previously reported. This report summarizes the clinical and laboratory characteristics of pregnant women with prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA in serum that were reported to the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry. Data were obtained from the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry, an enhanced surveillance system of pregnant women with laboratory evidence of confirmed or possible Zika virus infection. For this case series, we defined prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA as Zika virus RNA detection in serum by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) 14 or more days after symptom onset or, for women not reporting signs or symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease (asymptomatic), 21 or more days after last possible exposure to Zika virus. Prolonged Zika virus RNA detection in serum was identified in four symptomatic pregnant women up to 46 days after symptom onset and in one asymptomatic pregnant woman 53 days postexposure. Among the five pregnancies, one pregnancy had evidence of fetal Zika virus infection confirmed by histopathologic examination of fetal tissue, three pregnancies resulted in live births of apparently healthy neonates with no reported abnormalities, and one pregnancy is ongoing. Zika virus RNA was detected in the serum of five pregnant women beyond the previously estimated timeframe. Additional real-time RT-PCR testing of pregnant women might provide more data about prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA and the possible diagnostic, epidemiologic, and clinical implications for pregnant women.

  19. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in pregnant and lactating rats.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Masahiro; Shimizu, Satomi; Urasoko, Yoshinaka; Umeshita, Kazuhiko; Kamata, Takashi; Kitazawa, Takahiro; Nakamura, Daichi; Nishihata, Yoshito; Ohishi, Takumi; Edamoto, Hiroshi

    2009-04-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is well known to induce hepatotoxicity after being metabolized to trichloromethyl free radical ((.)CCl3) by CYP2E1. In the present study, the hepatotoxicity induced by a single oral dose (2,000 mg/kg) of CCl4 was compared between pregnant (gestation days (GD) 13 and 19) or postpartum (postpartum days (PPD) 1, 13 and 27) and non-pregnant rats. Hepatotoxicity in CCl4-treated pregnant rats evaluated by blood chemistry (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities) and histopathological finding (area of damaged hepatocytes) was minimal on GD19, being weaker than that in non-pregnant rats. CYP2E1 expression in non-treated pregnant rats decreased as pregnancy progressed and reached minimum level on GD19. Thus, the degree of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity roughly corresponded to CYP2E1 levels during pregnancy. After delivery, hepatotoxicity in CCl4-treated lactating rats was maximal on PPD13, being stronger than that in non-pregnant rats, and then it decreased slightly on PPD27. The CYP2E1 level in the non-treated lactating rats tended to increase but remained at lower levels until PPD13 compared with that in non-pregnant rats. Thus, the degree of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity did not correspond to CYP2E1 levels during lactation. This suggests that during lactation, there may be certain factors other than CYP2E1 expression responsible for the degree of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity.

  20. [Oral health status of pregnant women in Kumamoto Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Chiga, Sakura; Ohba, Takashi; Miyoshi, Junya; Tanoue, Daisuke; Kawase, Hiromi; Katoh, Takahiko; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

    2015-01-01

    As part of Kumamoto RAINBOW Project, which is a multifaceted implementation for the prevention of premature labor, we investigated pregnant women's oral health status and assessed the effects of dental care and oral hygiene instruction. We examined the oral health status of pregnant women both in the first and the second half of pregnancy in Kumamoto Prefecture from 2012 to 2014. The Community Periodontal Index (CPI) was used to assess the periodontal condition, and women having periodontal pockets with a depth ≥4 mm were defined as suffering from periodontitis. This project covered the cost of dental checkups. Of the 20,702 pregnant women enrolled in this project, 9,527 (46.0%) received dental checkups during the first half of pregnancy. The response rate of dental examinations in Kumamoto City (63.3%), the capital city of Kumamoto Prefecture, was significantly higher than that of the other local areas (32.0%). In Kumamoto City, 4,890 women (83.4%) had dental examinations at the city office when they received a maternal handbook. Three thousand forty-five women (32.0%) had periodontitis. Among 1,605 women who received oral examinations twice at dental clinics, 698 received nonsurgical interventions. Dental interventions significantly decreased the prevalence of periodontitis in pregnant women (55.1% to 45.1%). Dental examinations without interventions also significantly decreased the prevalence of periodontitis (44.6% to 39.9%). Pregnant women living in Kumamoto City had higher rate of visits to dental clinics for checkups than those in other areas. Periodontitis was found in one-third of pregnant women. Not only dental interventions, but also dental examinations improve pregnant women's oral health status.

  1. Factors influencing brain natriuretic peptide levels in healthy pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Mayama, Michinori; Yoshihara, Masato; Uno, Kaname; Tano, Sho; Takeda, Takehiko; Ukai, Mayu; Kishigami, Yasuyuki; Oguchi, Hidenori

    2017-02-01

    The normal range of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in pregnant women is still unclear. Moreover, pregnant women experience dynamic body weight changes and suffer from anemia, but effects on maternal BNP have not been investigated. This study aimed to reveal the normal plasma BNP range and examine the effects of physiological changes on BNP among pregnant women. Plasma BNP, hemoglobin, plasma creatinine and BMI were measured in 58 non-pregnant control women and in 773 normal pregnant women at late pregnancy, early postpartum and 1-month postpartum. Mean plasma BNP (in pg/mL) was 11.8 (95% confidence interval: 0-27.5) in non-pregnant women, 17.9 (0-44.7, p<0.001) at late pregnancy, 42.5 (0-112.6, p<0.001) early postpartum and 16.1 (0-43.9, p=0.001) 1-month postpartum. Multiple regression analysis revealed that pre-delivery BNP levels were negatively correlated with BMI (p<0.001) and hemoglobin (p=0.002) and positively correlated with creatinine (p<0.001). Post-delivery BNP was positively associated with body weight change during pregnancy (p=0.001) and post-delivery creatinine (p=0.010) but negatively associated with body weight loss at delivery (p<0.001) and post-delivery hemoglobin (p=0.004). Even normal pregnancy affects plasma BNP, particularly in the early postpartum period, indicative of cardiac stress. Plasma BNP levels are affected by BMI, body weight changes, creatinine and hemoglobin levels; therefore, these factors should be considered when analysing cardiac function and the physiological implications of BNP levels in pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phenotypic and genotypic comparison of ESBL production by vaginal Escherichia coli isolates from pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Al-Mayahie, Sareaa M G

    2013-04-25

    Vaginal Escherichia coli is a reservoir along the fecal-vaginal-urinary/neonatal course of transmission in extraintestinal E. coli infections. They also causes genital tract infections especially vaginitis, so that detection of their antibiotic resistance is an important approach to control these infections. One important mechanism of resistance is ESBL production by Enterobacteriaceae especially Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli, which is now a worldwide problem that limits therapeutic options. Sixty one vaginal E. coli isolates from pregnant and non-pregnant women, were detected phenotypically and genotypically for ESBL production. Most of pregnant and non-pregnant women's isolates, were resistant to cefotaxime (100% vs. 81.5%, respectively) and more than half of them to ceftazidime (56.5% vs. 71.0%, respectively). One hundred percent each, 52.1% vs. 68.4%, and 73.9% vs. 60.5%%, were ESBL producers by screening, confirmatory, and PCR tests, respectively. Pregnant women's isolates had: CTX-M- (69.5%), SHV- and OXA-type (each 4.3%) ESBLs. Only one isolate (4.3%) had two types of ESBLs. All 16 CTX-M-positive (100%) isolates had CTX-M-1. Non-pregnant women's isolates were predominated by SHV and CTX-M -type (44.7% vs. 39.4%, respectively), followed by OXA- (15.7%), and TEM-type (2.6%). Of these isolates, 42.1% had two types of ESBL genes. All 15 CTX-M-positive (100%) isolates had CTX-M-1. Pregnant and non-pregnant women's isolates differed significantly (P≤ 0.05) regarding the expression of SHV- (4.3% vs. 44.7%, respectively) and CTX-M-type (69.5% vs. 39.4%, respectively) ESBLs. In both, CTX-M-1 was the predominant CTX-M group (each 100%). All of the isolates were susceptible to imipenem and meropenem, while the highest rate of resistance was against β-lactams. Multidrug resistance was noted in 56.2% of ESBL-producing isolates. Ggenital tracts of pregnant and non-pregnant women represent different environments for propagation of ESBL-producing E. coli. In Iraq

  3. Changes in cytomegalovirus seroprevalence in pregnant Japanese women-a 10-year single center study.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Kosuke; Watanabe, Noriyoshi; Sato, Anna; Jwa, Seung Chik; Suzuki, Tomo; Yamanobe, Yuji; Sago, Haruhiko; Kozuka, Kazuto

    2014-03-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes congenital infections during pregnancy, and seroepidemiological data are important for estimating the risk of infection. However, only a few reports of CMV seroprevalence exist for pregnant Japanese women. The purpose of this study was to assess CMV seroprevalence in pregnant Japanese women. This cross-sectional study involved pregnant Japanese women who delivered from 2003 to 2012 at our hospital (n=15,616). Among these women, 14,099 (90.3%) underwent tests for the presence of CMV IgG. Those with an equivocal test result were excluded (n=195) from this analysis, leaving a study sample of 13,904 Japanese pregnant women. The prevalence of CMV IgG was also assessed by calendar year, age, and parity. The overall CMV IgG prevalence rate was 66.0%. CMV IgG prevalence significantly decreased over the course of 10 years from 2003 to 2012 (from 69.9% in 2003 to 65.2% in 2012) (p<0.001). Adjusted odds ratios for CMV IgG positivity in women aged <25, 25-30, 35-40, and >40 years were 1.66 (95%CI: 1.25-2.20), 1.20 (95%CI: 1.07-1.35), 1.16 (95%CI: 1.07-1.26), and 1.44 (95%CI: 1.28-1.62), respectively, compared to women aged 30-35 years. Adjusted odds ratios for CMV IgG positivity for a parity of 1, 2, and ≥3 were 1.14 (95%CI: 1.06-1.23), 1.52 (95%CI: 1.32-1.77), and 2.54 (95%CI: 2.69-3.84), respectively, compared to nulliparous women. We found that 34% of pregnant Japanese women were susceptible to CMV infection. Calendar year, maternal age, and parity were significantly associated with changes in CMV seroprevalence among this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Standard Intravenous Immunoglobulins in Pregnant Women with Primary Cytomegalovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Polilli, Ennio; D'Arcangelo, Francesca; Tracanna, Elisa; Clerico, Luigi; Savini, Vincenzo; D'Antonio, Francesco; Rosati, Maurizio; Manzoli, Lamberto; D'Antonio, Domenico; Nigro, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Hyperimmune globulins were reported to prevent and treat fetal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy. Here, we report that infusions of standard human intravenous immunoglobulin significantly increase CMV IgG titers and avidity indexes in pregnant women, paving the way to their use for passive transfer of maternal CMV humoral immunity to fetuses. Preliminary data on perinatal outcomes of the first 67 newborns are encouraging. PMID:23100477

  5. Maraviroc Pharmacokinetics in HIV-1–Infected Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Colbers, Angela; Best, Brookie; Schalkwijk, Stein; Wang, Jiajia; Stek, Alice; Hidalgo Tenorio, Carmen; Hawkins, David; Taylor, Graham; Kreitchmann, Regis; Burchett, Sandra; Haberl, Annette; Kabeya, Kabamba; van Kasteren, Marjo; Smith, Elizabeth; Capparelli, Edmund; Burger, David; Mirochnick, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe the pharmacokinetics of maraviroc in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected women during pregnancy and post partum. Methods. HIV-infected pregnant women receiving maraviroc as part of clinical care had intensive steady-state 12-hour pharmacokinetic profiles performed during the third trimester and ≥2 weeks after delivery. Cord blood samples and matching maternal blood samples were taken at delivery. The data were collected in 2 studies: P1026 (United States) and PANNA (Europe). Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Results. Eighteen women were included in the analysis. Most women (12; 67%) received 150 mg of maraviroc twice daily with a protease inhibitor, 2 (11%) received 300 mg twice daily without a protease inhibitor, and 4 (22%) had an alternative regimen. The geometric mean ratios for third-trimester versus postpartum maraviroc were 0.72 (90% confidence interval, .60–.88) for the area under the curve over a dosing interval (AUCtau) and 0.70 (0.58–0.85) for the maximum maraviroc concentration. Only 1 patient showed a trough concentration (Ctrough) below the suggested target of 50 ng/mL, both during pregnancy and post partum. The median ratio of maraviroc cord blood to maternal blood was 0.33 (range, 0.03–0.56). The viral load close to delivery was <50 copies/mL in 13 women (76%). All children were HIV negative at testing. Conclusions. Overall maraviroc exposure during pregnancy was decreased, with a reduction in AUCtau and maximum concentration of about 30%. Ctrough was reduced by 15% but exceeded the minimum Ctrough target concentration. Therefore, the standard adult dose seems sufficient in pregnancy. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00825929 and NCT000422890. PMID:26202768

  6. Metabolism and disposition of bupropion in pregnant baboons (Papio cynocephalus).

    PubMed

    Rytting, Erik; Wang, Xiaoming; Vernikovskaya, Daria I; Zhan, Ying; Bauer, Cassondra; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M; Ahmed, Mahmoud S; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N

    2014-10-01

    Recent in vitro data obtained in our laboratory revealed similarities between baboons and humans in the biotransformation of bupropion (BUP) by both hepatic and placental microsomes. These data supported the use of baboons to study BUP biotransformation during pregnancy. The aim of this investigation was to determine the pharmacokinetics of BUP in baboons during pregnancy and postpartum, as well as fetal exposure to the drug after intravenous administration. Pregnant baboons (n = 5) received a single intravenous bolus dose of bupropion hydrochloride (1 mg/kg) at gestational ages 94-108 days (midpregnancy), 142-156 days (late pregnancy), and 6 weeks postpartum. Blood and urine samples were collected for 12 and 24 hours, respectively. The concentrations of BUP, hydroxybupropion (OH-BUP), threohydrobupropion, and erythrohydrobupropion in plasma were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Relative to the postpartum period, the average midpregnancy clearance of BUP trended higher (3.6 ± 0.15 versus 2.7 ± 0.28 l/h per kg) and the average C(max) (294 ± 91 versus 361 ± 64 ng/ml) and the area under the curve (AUC) of BUP values (288 ± 22 versus 382 ± 42 h·ng/ml) trended lower. AUC(OH-BUP) also tended to be lower midpregnancy compared with postpartum (194 ± 76 versus 353 ± 165 h·ng/ml). Whereas the observed trend toward increased clearance of BUP during baboon pregnancy could be associated with a pregnancy-induced increase in its biotransformation, the trend toward increased renal elimination of OH-BUP may overshadow any corresponding change in the hydroxylation activity of CYP2B.

  7. Ondansetron Exposure Changes in a Pregnant Woman.

    PubMed

    Lemon, Lara S; Zhang, Hongfei; Hebert, Mary F; Hankins, Gary D; Haas, David M; Caritis, Steve N; Venkataramanan, Raman

    2016-09-01

    Pregnancy results in many physiologic changes that can alter the pharmacokinetic profiles of medications used during pregnancy. One of the primary factors leading to these pharmacokinetic changes is altered activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Ondansetron is a substrate of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 (primary metabolic pathway), 2D6, and 1A2, all of which are altered during pregnancy. We evaluated the pharmacokinetics of ondansetron at three different gestational time points in a 26-year-old, pregnant, Caucasian woman with normal liver and kidney function, who was maintained on ondansetron 8 mg administered orally 3 times/day throughout her pregnancy. Serial plasma samples were collected from the subject over one 8-hour dosing interval at 14, 24, and 35 weeks' gestation (representing early-, mid-, and late-pregnancy time points, respectively). Ondansetron plasma concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ondansetron area under the plasma concentration-time curve decreased progressively across gestation (634 ng hr/ml in early pregnancy, 553 ng hr/ml in mid-pregnancy, and 387 ng hr/ml in late pregnancy), with a corresponding increase in apparent oral clearance (12.6 L/hr in early-pregnancy, 14.5 L/hr in mid-pregnancy, and 20.7 L/hr in late-pregnancy). The decreased area under the plasma concentration-time curve and exposure to ondansetron across gestation is likely due to increased activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 during pregnancy. We were not able to study this patient during the postpartum period; however, as with other CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 substrates, the apparent activities of these isoenzymes are likely return to baseline. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe ondansetron pharmacokinetics across gestation. Additional pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data are needed to confirm our results and to evaluate clinical impact; however, in the meantime, clinicians should be aware of these pharmacokinetic changes in

  8. Maternal-fetal disposition of glyburide in pregnant mice is dependent on gestational age.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Diana L; Risler, Linda J; Liang, Chao-Kang J; Rice, Kenneth M; Shen, Danny D; Hebert, Mary F; Thummel, Kenneth E; Mao, Qingcheng

    2014-08-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is a major complication of human pregnancy. The oral clearance (CL) of glyburide, an oral antidiabetic drug, increases 2-fold in pregnant women during late gestation versus nonpregnant controls. In this study, we examined gestational age-dependent changes in maternal-fetal pharmacokinetics (PK) of glyburide and metabolites in a pregnant mouse model. Nonpregnant and pregnant FVB mice were given glyburide by retro-orbital injection. Maternal plasma was collected over 240 minutes on gestation days (gd) 0, 7.5, 10, 15, and 19; fetuses were collected on gd 15 and 19. Glyburide and metabolites were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and PK analyses were performed using a pooled data bootstrap approach. Maternal CL of glyburide increased approximately 2-fold on gd 10, 15, and 19 compared with nonpregnant controls. Intrinsic CL of glyburide in maternal liver microsomes also increased as gestation progressed. Maternal metabolite/glyburide area under the curve ratios were generally unchanged or slightly decreased throughout gestation. Total fetal exposure to glyburide was <5% of maternal plasma exposure, and was doubled on gd 19 versus gd 15. Fetal metabolite concentrations were below the limit of assay detection. This is the first evidence of gestational age-dependent changes in glyburide PK. Increased maternal glyburide clearance during gestation is attributable to increased hepatic metabolism. Metabolite elimination may also increase during pregnancy. In the mouse model, fetal exposure to glyburide is gestational age-dependent and low compared with maternal plasma exposure. These results indicate that maternal glyburide therapeutic strategies may require adjustments in a gestational age-dependent manner if these same changes occur in humans. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  9. Q Fever in Pregnant Goats: Pathogenesis and Excretion of Coxiella burnetii

    PubMed Central

    Roest, Hendrik-Jan; van Gelderen, Betty; Dinkla, Annemieke; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; van Zijderveld, Fred; Rebel, Johanna; van Keulen, Lucien

    2012-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Q fever. Infected pregnant goats are a major source of human infection. However, the tissue dissemination and excretion pathway of the pathogen in goats are still poorly understood. To better understand Q fever pathogenesis, we inoculated groups of pregnant goats via the intranasal route with a recent Dutch outbreak C. burnetii isolate. Tissue dissemination and excretion of the pathogen were followed for up to 95 days after parturition. Goats were successfully infected via the intranasal route. PCR and immunohistochemistry showed strong tropism of C. burnetii towards the placenta at two to four weeks after inoculation. Bacterial replication seemed to occur predominantly in the trophoblasts of the placenta and not in other organs of goats and kids. The amount of C. burnetii DNA in the organs of goats and kids increased towards parturition. After parturition it decreased to undetectable levels: after 81 days post-parturition in goats and after 28 days post-parturition in kids. Infected goats gave birth to live or dead kids. High numbers of C. burnetii were excreted during abortion, but also during parturition of liveborn kids. C. burnetii was not detected in faeces or vaginal mucus before parturition. Our results are the first to demonstrate that pregnant goats can be infected via the intranasal route. C. burnetii has a strong tropism for the trophoblasts of the placenta and is not excreted before parturition; pathogen excretion occurs during birth of dead as well as healthy animals. Besides abortions, normal deliveries in C. burnetii-infected goats should be considered as a major zoonotic risk for Q fever in humans. PMID:23152826

  10. Current exposure of 200 pregnant Danish women to phthalates, parabens and phenols.

    PubMed

    Tefre de Renzy-Martin, Katrine; Frederiksen, Hanne; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Boye Kyhl, Henriette; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Husby, Steffen; Barington, Torben; Main, Katharina M; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2014-01-01

    Many phthalates, parabens and phenols are suspected to have endocrine-disrupting properties in humans. They are found in consumer products, including food wrapping, cosmetics and building materials. The foetus is particularly vulnerable and exposure to these chemicals therefore is of concern for pregnant women. We investigated current exposure to several commonly used phthalates, parabens and phenols in healthy, pregnant Danish women. A total of 200 spot urine samples were collected between 8 and 30 weeks of gestation and analysed for metabolites of ten phenols, seven parabens and 16 phthalate by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry representing 26 non-persistent compounds. The majority of analytes were present in the urine sample collected from most women who participated. Thus, in 174 of the 200 women, metabolites of more than 13 (>50%) of 26 compounds were detected simultaneously. The number of compounds detected per woman (either as the parent compound or its metabolite(s)) ranged from 7 to 21 with a median of 16. The majority of compounds correlated positively with each other within and between chemical groups, suggesting combined exposure sources. Estimated daily intakes (DIs) of phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) were below their individual tolerable DI (TDI) and with hazard quotients below 1. In conclusion, we found detectable levels of phthalate metabolites, parabens and phenols in almost all pregnant women, suggesting combined multiple exposures. Although the estimated DI of phthalates and BPA for an individual was below TDI, our results still raise concern, as current toxicological risk assessments in humans do not take into account simultaneous exposure. The true cumulative risk for the foetus may therefore be underestimated.

  11. Severe embryotoxicity of artemisinin derivatives in experimental animals, but possibly safe in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Li, Qigui; Weina, Peter J

    2009-12-25

    Preclinical studies in rodents have demonstrated that artemisinins, especially injectable artesunate, can induce fetal death and congenital malformations at a low dose range. The embryotoxicity can be induced in those animals only within a narrow window in early embryogenesis. Evidence was presented that the mechanism by which embryotoxicity of artemisinins occurs seems to be limited to fetal erythropoiesis and vasculogenesis/ angiogenesis on the very earliest developing red blood cells, causing severe anemia in the embryos with higher drug peak concentrations. However, this embryotoxicity has not been convincingly observed in clinical trials from 1,837 pregnant women, including 176 patients in the first trimester exposed to an artemisinin agent or artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) from 1989 to 2009. In the rodent, the sensitive early red cells are produced synchronously over one day with single or multiple exposures to the drug can result in a high proportion of cell deaths. In contrast, primates required a longer period of treatment of 12 days to induce such embryonic loss. In humans only limited information is available about this stage of red cell development; however, it is known to take place over a longer time period, and it may well be that a limited period of treatment of 2 to 3 days for malaria would not produce serious toxic effects. In addition, current oral intake, the most commonly used route of administration in pregnant women with an ACT, results in lower peak concentration and shorter exposure time of artemisinins that demonstrated that such a concentration-course profile is unlikely to induce the embryotoxicity. When relating the animal and human toxicity of artemisinins, the different drug sensitive period and pharmacokinetic profiles as reviewed in the present report may provide a great margin of safety in the pregnant women.

  12. [WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES IN PREGNANT ADOLESCENTS WITH A HISTORY OF SEXUAL ABUSE].

    PubMed

    Sam-Soto, Selene; Sámano, Reyna; Flores-Ramos, Mónica; Rodríguez-Bosch, Mario; García-Salazar, Danae; Hernández-Mohar, Gabriela; García-Espinosa, Verónica

    2015-09-01

    the purpose of the present study was to describe some perinatal outcomes in two groups of pregnant adolescents: one group with history of sexual abuse and one group without sexual abuse antecedent. we designed an observational, retrolective study. Participants were primigravid adolescents between 10 to 16 years, with a singleton pregnancy, and at least three prenatal medical evaluations. Participants were grouped according to sexual abuse antecedent: 55 adolescents had sexual abuse antecedent, and 110 participants had not sexual abuse antecedent. We obtained the clinical data from medical records: socio-demographic characteristics, sexually transmitted infections, illicit drugs use, pre-gestational body mass index, gestational weight gain, and newborn weight. The data were analyzed using association tests and mean comparisons. the adolescents with sexual abuse history had higher prevalence of human papilloma virus infection. The newborns weight of mothers without sexual abuse antecedent was about 200 grams higher than the newborns of mothers with sexual abuse antecedent (p = 0.002); while the length of the first group was 2 centimeters longer than the length of the newborns on the second group (p = 0.001). Gestational weight increase was 5 kilograms lower in adolescents with sexual abuse antecedent compared to adolescent without the antecedent (p = 0.005). Illicit drug use was similar in the two groups and it was associated to low newborn weight. the sexual abuse antecedent in pregnant adolescents was associated to higher frequency of human papilloma virus infections, lower newborn weight, and lower gestational weight increase on pregnant adolescents. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Dream-associated Behaviors Affecting Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tore; Paquette, Tyna

    2007-01-01

    Study objectives: Evaluate the prevalence and phenomenology of dream-associated behaviors affecting pregnant and postpartum mothers. Episodes consist of anxious dreams and nightmares about the new infant that are accompanied by complex behaviors (motor activity, speaking, expressing emotion). Design: Three-group design (postpartum, pregnant, null gravida), self-report, and repeated measures. Setting: Pregnancy and postpartum groups: completion of questionnaires in hospital room within 48 hours of giving birth and home telephone interviews; null gravida group: completion of questionnaires and interview in person or by telephone. Participants: Two hundred seventy-three women in 3 groups: postpartum: n = 202 (mean age = 29.7 ± 4.94 years; 95 primiparas, 107 multiparas); pregnant: n = 50 (mean age = 31.1 ± 5.44 years); null gravida: n = 21 (mean age = 28.5 ± 6.34 years). Interventions: Subjects completed questionnaires about pregnancy and birth factors, personality, and sleep and participated in interviews concerning the prevalence of recent infant dreams and nightmares, associated behaviors, anxiety, depression, and other psychopathologic factors. Measurements and Results: Most women in all groups recalled dreams (88%-91%). Postpartum and pregnant women recalled infant dreams and nightmares with equal prevalence, but more postpartum women reported they contained anxiety (75%) and the infant in peril (73%) than did pregnant women (59%, P < 0.05 and 42%, P < 0.0001). More postpartum (63%) than pregnant (40%) women reported dream-associated behaviors (P < 0.01), but neither group differed from null gravida women (56%). This was due to different distributions over groups of the behavior subtypes. Motor activity was present in twice as many postpartum (57%) as pregnant (24%) or null gravida (25%) women (all P < 0.0001). Expressing emotion was more prevalent among null gravida (56%) than postpartum women (27%) (P < 0.05) but was not different from pregnant women (37

  14. Parenting and concerns of pregnant women in buprenorphine treatment.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Rachel A; Neumann, Anne M; King, Stella O C; Hoey, Robert F; Finnell, Deborah S; Blondell, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Opioid-dependent pregnant women are characterized by drug use during pregnancy and deficits in knowledge of newborn care and feeding, and of child development. We assessed parenting skills and concerns among pregnant women in buprenorphine treatment for prescription opioid dependence. We interviewed 32 pregnant women who received buprenorphine treatment for prescription opioid dependence in a primary care setting and administered questionnaires, including the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory version 2 (AAPI-2) and Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. AAPI-2 scores revealed medium risk of abuse for all five scales: inappropriate expectations of the child, low level of empathy, strong belief in corporal punishment, reversal of parent-child roles, and oppression of children's power and independence. Primary concerns of participants were neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) and their child's health. Pregnant women who received buprenorphine for treatment of prescription opioid dependence showed a lack of appropriate parenting skills, but did not express concern about their ability to parent. Our findings suggest a need for nurses to assist prescription opioid-dependent pregnant women in acquiring additional parenting skills, to refer for educational parenting intervention, and to educate patients about NAS.

  15. Parenting and Concerns of Pregnant Women in Buprenorphine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Rachel A; Neumann, Anne M; King, Stella OC; Hoey, Robert F; Finnell, Deborah S; Blondell, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Opioid-dependent pregnant women are characterized by drug use during pregnancy and deficits in knowledge of newborn care and feeding, and of child development. We assessed parenting skills and concerns among pregnant women in buprenorphine treatment for prescription opioid-dependence. Study Design and Methods We interviewed 32 pregnant women who received buprenorphine treatment for prescription opioid dependence in a primary care setting and administered questionnaires, including the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory version 2 (AAPI-2) and Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Results AAPI-2 scores revealed medium risk of abuse for all five scales: inappropriate expectations of the child, low level of empathy, strong belief in corporal punishment, reversal of parent-child roles, and oppression of children’s power and independence. Primary concerns of participants were neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) and their child’s health. Pregnant women who received buprenorphine for treatment of prescription opioid dependence showed a lack of appropriate parenting skills, but did not express concern about their ability to parent. Clinical Implications Our findings suggest need for nurses to assist prescription opioid-dependent pregnant women in acquiring additional parenting skills, to refer for educational parenting intervention, and to educate patients about NAS. PMID:25137081

  16. Iodine status among pregnant women in rural Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kuang Kuay; Chan, Ying Ying; Teh, Chien Huey; Ismail, Hasimah; Yusof, Rafidah; Muhi, Jamail; Lim, Kuang Hock; Foo, Leng Huat

    2017-01-01

    In 2000, legislation on mandatory universal salt iodisation was enacted in Sabah, Malaysia, to reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency disorders among its population. To evaluate the iodine levels among pregnant women from selected rural divisions in Sabah 13 years after the enactment of the universal salt iodisation programme. This cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 May to 30 June, 2013, in three rural divisions of Sabah (the Interior, the West Coast, and Kudat). Data regarding domestic iodised salt use and iodine-containing supplement consumption were obtained from respondents through face-to-face interviews; goitre enlargement was examined through palpation and graded according to the World Health Organization classification. Spot urine samples were also obtained to assess urinary iodine levels by using an in-house modified micromethod. In total, 534 pregnant women participated. The prevalence of goitre was 1.0% (n=5), noted only in the West Coast and Kudat divisions. Although all pregnant women consumed iodised salt, overall median urinary iodine concentration was only 106 μg/L, indicating insufficient iodine intake, with nearly two-thirds of the women (60%) having a median urinary iodine concentrations of <150 μg/L. Pregnant women from the rural divisions in Sabah still exhibit iodine deficiency disorder despite the mandatory universal salt iodisation programme. Iodine supplementation programmes targeting pregnant women are warranted.

  17. Is Passive Smoking Associated With Sleep Disturbance Among Pregnant Women?

    PubMed Central

    Ohida, Takashi; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Harano, Satoru; Tanihata, Takeo; Takemura, Shinji; Wada, Kiyoshi; Kanda, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Kenji; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Study Objective: Pregnant women suffer from sleep disturbance, which may be aggravated by passive smoking. In this study we investigated the effects of passive smoking on sleep disturbance during pregnancy. Design: Two cross-sectional questionnaire surveys conducted in 2002 and 2006. Setting: Clinical institutions specializing in obstetrics and gynecology that participated in the nationwide surveys: 260 in the 2002 survey and 344 in the 2006 survey. Participants: 16,396 and 19,386 pregnant women in Japan surveyed in 2002 and 2006, respectively. Intervention: N/A. Measurements and Results: Pregnant women exposed to passive smoking were likely to have sleep disturbances, such as subjective insufficient sleep, difficulty in initiating sleep, short sleep duration, and snoring loudly/breathing uncomfortably. Smoking pregnant women had the same sleep disturbances and also experienced excessive daytime sleepiness and early morning awakening. The prevalence of 5 types of sleep disturbance (insufficient sleep, difficulty in initiating sleep, short sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness, and snoring loudly/breathing uncomfortably) among nonsmokers with environmental tobacco smoke showed a mean value intermediate between that of active smokers and that of nonsmokers without environmental tobacco smoke. Conclusion: Passive smoking is independently associated with increased sleep disturbance during pregnancy. Citation: Ohida T; Kaneita Y; Osaki Y; Harano S; Tanihata T; Takemura S; Wada K; Kanda H; Hayashi K; Uchiyama M. Is passive smoking associated with sleep disturbance among pregnant women? SLEEP 2007;30(9):1155-1161. PMID:17910387

  18. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P < .01). Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  19. Nutritional status and weight gain in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study described the nutritional status of 228 pregnant women and the influence of this on birth weight. This is a retrospective study, developed in a health center in the municipality of São Paulo, with data obtained from medical records. Linear regression analysis was carried out. An association was verified between the initial and final nutritional status (p<0.001). The mean of total weight gain in the pregnant women who began the pregnancy underweight was higher compared those who started overweight/obese (p=0.005). Weight gain was insufficient for 43.4% of the pregnant women with adequate initial weight and for 36.4% of all the pregnant women studied. However, 37.1% of those who began the pregnancy overweight/obese finished with excessive weight gain, a condition that ultimately affected almost a quarter of the pregnant women. Anemia and low birth weight were uncommon, however, in the linear regression analysis, birth weight was associated with weight gain (p<0.05). The study highlights the importance of nutritional care before and during pregnancy to promote maternal-infant health.

  20. Relationship Between Quality of Life and Depression in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadeh, Fatemeh; Kafaei Atrian, Mahboobe; Masoudi Alavi, Negin; Bagheri, Azam; Sadat, Zohreh; Karimian, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Quality of life differs for different people in different situations and is related to one's self-satisfaction with life. Quality of life is affected by health status. Objectives: The current study examined the relationship between quality of life and depression in pregnant women in Kashan city. Patients and Methods: A Case - control study was performed on 112 depressed pregnant women (Case Group) and 353 Non-depressed pregnant women (Control Group) who referred to the prenatal health care centers of Kashan University of Medical Sciences .They completed Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) to assess the quality of life and the Beck Depression Inventory to assess the level of depressive symptoms. T-test, chi-square and Pearson correlation coefficient statistical tests were used for data analysis. Results: The findings showed that there was an inverse relationship between quality of life and depression in pregnancy (P = 0.0001). Average scores in all eight domains of quality of life were significantly lower in depressed pregnant women compared to non- depressed women. The strongest relationship was observed between depression and vitality (r =-0.52, P = 0.0001), mental health (r = -0.50, P = 0.001) and social functioning (r =-0.38, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Depressed pregnant women had a lower quality of life. The proper management of depression during pregnancy can improve the quality of life in women. It is recommended that antenatal services integrate screening for depression into routine antenatal care. PMID:25414858

  1. Racial Discrimination and Psychological Wellbeing of Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Engeland, Christopher G; Garfield, Lindsey; Templin, Thomas N

    African American women are more likely to be exposed to racial discrimination and to experience psychological distress compared with white women. Although studies have shown that social support is positively related to psychological wellbeing, little is known about the potential buffering effect of social support on the relationship between racial discrimination and psychological wellbeing of pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to determine if social support moderates effects of racial discrimination on psychological wellbeing among pregnant African American women. Using a cross-sectional design, 107 African American women between 15 and 26 weeks gestation from an urban university-based midwifery practice completed questionnaires. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also reported lower levels of social support and psychological wellbeing (p <.05). Maternal child nurses should be aware that experiences of racial discrimination have negative effects on psychological wellbeing of pregnant African American women regardless of their levels of social support. However, social support can reduce psychological distress and improve wellbeing of pregnant women. Therefore, nurses need to provide pregnant women with positive and supportive experiences that may improve their psychological wellbeing.

  2. Bile Acid Determination after Standardized Glucose Load in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Adams, April; Jacobs, Katherine; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Lupo, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a rare liver disorder, usually manifesting in the third trimester and associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. The hallmark laboratory abnormality in ICP is elevated fasting serum bile acids; however, there are limited data on whether a nonfasting state affects a pregnant woman's total bile acids. This study assesses fasting and nonfasting bile acid levels in 10 healthy pregnant women after a standardized glucose load to provide insight into the effects of a glucose load on bile acid profiles. Study Design Pilot prospective cohort analysis of serum bile acids in pregnant women. A total of 10 healthy pregnant women from 28 to 32 weeks' gestation were recruited for the study before undergoing a glucose tolerance test. Total serum bile acids were collected for each subject in the overnight fasting state, and 1 and 3 hours after the 100-g glucose load. Results There was a statistically significant difference between fasting versus 3-hour values. There was no statistically significant difference between fasting versus 1-hour and 1-hour versus 3-hour values. Conclusion There is a difference between fasting and nonfasting total serum bile acids after a 100-g glucose load in healthy pregnant women. PMID:26495178

  3. Zika virus and pregnant women: A psychological approach.

    PubMed

    Filgueiras Meireles, Juliana Fernandes; Neves, Clara Mockdece; Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Caputo Ferreira, Maria Elisa

    2017-07-01

    Zika virus presents risk of physical harm to pregnant women, but the fear of infection is also affecting women around the world. There is a gap in the research on Zika virus in the areas involving the impact on the psychosocial well-being of pregnant women. Therefore, this study is aimed at the investigation of the psychosocial adjustment of pregnant women to the risks of Zika virus infection during pregnancy. We investigated 14 pregnant women who were classified in three different groups: six in the first trimester, five in the second trimester and three in the third trimester, aged from 28 to 40 years (33.43 ± 3.76 years). Content analysis was used to interpret data. Our results show that the psychosocial adjustment of participants was significantly negative and included five aspects: (1) negative feelings, (2) changes in family planning, (3) adopting new customs (avoiding places of risk, use of specific clothes and use of repellent), (4) changed attitudes regarding body image and (5) feeling of external demand regarding prevention. The fear of Zika virus infection and all its associated risks have a negative biopsychosocial impact on the pregnant women in this study.

  4. Benefits of influenza vaccination during pregnancy for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Denise J; Kissin, Dmitry M; Bridges, Carolyn B; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2012-09-01

    Influenza vaccination is a cornerstone of influenza prevention efforts among pregnant women. Prior to 2005, data from studies conducted on pregnant women were limited, with much of the supporting evidence coming from influenza vaccine studies conducted among nonpregnant, age-matched populations. Since 2005, however, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated the safety and immunogenicity of influenza vaccine for pregnant women, including evidence of maternal transfer of antibody. In addition, the clinical benefit of influenza vaccination, both for the mother and infant, was demonstrated in a landmark randomized clinical trial conducted in Bangladesh. Additional randomized clinical trials with laboratory-confirmed influenza as the primary outcome are underway in countries without a current influenza vaccination program, but such trials are unlikely to be conducted in the United States or other countries that already recommend the vaccination of pregnant women. However, current evidence supports the safety and immunogenicity of inactivated influenza vaccine and its effectiveness in reducing the risk of influenza-related illness among pregnant women. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. M-cholinoreactivity of erythrocytes of non-pregnant and pregnant women evaluated by changes in the rate of erythrocyte agglutination under the influence of acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Strelnikova, A I; Tsirkin, V I; Krysova, A V; Hlybova, S V; Dmitrieva, S L

    2012-12-01

    Acetylcholine (5.5×10(-10)-5.5×10(-6)M) accelerated erythrocyte agglutination in men, non-pregnant women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, and pregnant women in the first trimester. The effect was blocked with atropine (5.5×10(-6)M). Acetylcholine had no effect on the rate of erythrocyte agglutination in non-pregnant women in the luteal phase and pregnant women in the second and third trimesters, which coincided with the development of myometrium refractoriness to acetylcholine in pregnant women. The results indicate that erythrocytes can reflect M-cholinoreactivity of internal organs.

  6. The Course of Toxicity in the Pregnant Mouse after Exposure to the Cyanobacterial Toxin, Cylindrospermopsin: Clinical Effects, Serum Chemistries, Hematology and Histopathology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a toxin produced by a wide variety of fresh water cyanobacterial species worldwide and induces significant adverse effects in both livestock and humans. This study investigated the course of CYN-induced toxicity in pregnant mice exposed during either t...

  7. Analysis of PFOA in Dosed CD1 Mice Part 1: Methods Development for the Analysis of Tissues and Fluids from Pregnant and Lactating Mice and Their Pups

    EPA Science Inventory

    The number of studies involving the analysis of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has 33 increased recently because PFOA is routinely detected in human blood samples from around the world. Recent studies with mice have shown that dosing pregnant dams with PFOA during gestation gives ...

  8. Analysis of PFOA in Dosed CD1 Mice Part 1: Methods Development for the Analysis of Tissues and Fluids from Pregnant and Lactating Mice and Their Pups

    EPA Science Inventory

    The number of studies involving the analysis of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has 33 increased recently because PFOA is routinely detected in human blood samples from around the world. Recent studies with mice have shown that dosing pregnant dams with PFOA during gestation gives ...

  9. The Course of Toxicity in the Pregnant Mouse after Exposure to the Cyanobacterial Toxin, Cylindrospermopsin: Clinical Effects, Serum Chemistries, Hematology and Histopathology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a toxin produced by a wide variety of fresh water cyanobacterial species worldwide and induces significant adverse effects in both livestock and humans. This study investigated the course of CYN-induced toxicity in pregnant mice exposed during either t...

  10. Highly efficient maternal-fetal Zika virus transmission in pregnant rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Heather A.; Salamat, M. Shahriar; Thoong, Troy H.; Weiler, Andrea M.; Barry, Gabrielle L.; Weisgrau, Kim L.; Vosler, Logan J.; Mohns, Mariel S.; Breitbach, Meghan E.; Stewart, Laurel M.; Newman, Christina M.; Graham, Michael E.; Turski, Patrick A.; Post, Jennifer; Hayes, Jennifer M.; Schotzko, Michele L.; Permar, Sallie R.; Rakasz, Eva G.; Capuano, Saverio; Tarantal, Alice F.; Osorio, Jorge E.; O’Connor, Shelby L.

    2017-01-01

    Infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) is associated with human congenital fetal anomalies. To model fetal outcomes in nonhuman primates, we administered Asian-lineage ZIKV subcutaneously to four pregnant rhesus macaques. While non-pregnant animals in a previous study contemporary with the current report clear viremia within 10–12 days, maternal viremia was prolonged in 3 of 4 pregnancies. Fetal head growth velocity in the last month of gestation determined by ultrasound assessment of head circumference was decreased in comparison with biparietal diameter and femur length within each fetus, both within normal range. ZIKV RNA was detected in tissues from all four fetuses at term cesarean section. In all pregnancies, neutrophilic infiltration was present at the maternal-fetal interface (decidua, placenta, fetal membranes), in various fetal tissues, and in fetal retina, choroid, and optic nerve (first trimester infection only). Consistent vertical transmission in this primate model may provide a platform to assess risk factors and test therapeutic interventions for interruption of fetal infection. The results may also suggest that maternal-fetal ZIKV transmission in human pregnancy may be more frequent than currently appreciated. PMID:28542585

  11. Urinary paraben concentrations among pregnant women and their matching newborn infants of Korea, and the association with oxidative stress biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sungeun; Kim, Sunmi; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hae-Joong; Lee, Jeongjae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Kho, Young Lim; Choi, Kyungho

    2013-09-01

    Parabens have been used in multiple products including personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foods for more than 50 years but increasing numbers of studies have raised concerns on their safety. The present study was designed to determine urinary paraben levels among pregnant women and their matching newborn infants (<48 h after delivery), and the association between paraben levels and stress markers. Pregnant women (n=46) and their matching newborn infants were recruited from four university hospitals located in Seoul, Ansan and Jeju of Korea, 2011. Parabens including methyl paraben (MP), ethyl paraben (EP), n-propyl paraben (PP), and n-butyl paraben (BP) were measured in the urine using an automatic, high throughput online SPE-LC-MS/MS method. Urinary concentrations were normalized with specific gravity (SG). Free cortisol, malondealdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured in the urine as stress marker. Urinary MP was detected as the highest, and BP was detected as the lowest paraben in the urine samples of both pregnant women and their infants. Significant correlations between paraben concentrations of maternal and their newborn infant's urine were observed. The levels of urinary parabens among Korean pregnant women are comparable to those reported elsewhere, except for EP which were 4-9 folds higher than pregnant women of other countries. The ratios of infant to maternal urinary paraben concentrations varied between 0.5 and 0.6 for MP and PP, but approximately 10 fold lower for EP. Urinary MP or EP levels were associated with several oxidative stress related biomarkers such as urinary 8-OHdG and MDA, even after the adjustment of relevant covariates such as maternal age, mode of delivery, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational age and parity. This is the first study that reported the levels of major parabens in the first urine of newborn infants. Further studies are warranted to understand the implications of paraben exposure among

  12. A field experiment: reducing interpersonal discrimination toward pregnant job applicants.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Whitney Botsford; Walker, Sarah Singletary; Hebl, Michelle Mikki R; King, Eden B

    2013-09-01

    The current research targets 4 potential stereotypes driving hostile attitudes and discriminatory behaviors toward pregnant women: incompetence, lack of commitment, inflexibility, and need for accommodation. We tested the relative efficacy of reducing concerns related to each of the stereotypes in a field experiment in which female confederates who sometimes wore pregnancy prostheses applied for jobs in a retail setting. As expected, ratings from 3 perspectives (applicants, observers, and independent coders) converged to show that pregnant applicants received more interpersonal hostility than did nonpregnant applicants. However, when hiring managers received (vs. did not receive) counterstereotypic information about certain pregnancy-related stereotypes (particularly lack of commitment and inflexibility), managers displayed significantly less interpersonal discrimination. Explicit comparisons of counterstereotypic information shed light on the fact that certain information may be more effective in reducing discrimination than others. We conclude by discussing how the current research makes novel theoretical contributions and describe some practical organizational implications for understanding and improving the experiences of pregnant workers.

  13. Cholinesterase and self-reported pesticide exposure among pregnant women.

    PubMed

    De Peyster, A; Willis, W O; Molgaard, C A; MacKendrick, T M; Walker, C

    1993-01-01

    Ascertainment of exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides in pregnant subjects is complicated by altered enzyme activity that results from metabolic changes associated with pregnancy. Nevertheless, this study found a high correlation (Pearson chi-square = 13.67, p = .008) between classification of pesticide exposure using self-reported interview information and plasma cholinesterase activity for 203 pregnant women for whom three trimester cholinesterase values were available. All plasma cholinesterase activity values were referenced, by trimester, to a larger sample of 1,050 plasma cholinesterase values from 535 pregnant women. Subjects who lived nearest to agricultural land and who reported that they worked with pesticides in agricultural and other occupations tended to have lower plasma cholinesterase activity than those who reported use of household pesticides only.

  14. Should all pregnant women be screened for syphilis?

    PubMed

    Buvé, Anne

    2007-09-01

    In industrialized countries, the incidence of syphilis has decreased dramatically since the discovery of penicillin in the 1940s. However, syphilis and congenital syphilis are far from eradicated, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Syphilis in pregnant women is a cause of adverse pregnancy outcomes that can be prevented by screening for syphilis and early treatment in pregnancy. Several studies have found screening of pregnant women for syphilis to be a highly cost-effective intervention, even if the prevalence of syphilis is low. Obstacles to universal screening of pregnant women include low awareness of syphilis and low quality of antenatal care and healthcare in general in many low- and middle-income countries. For these settings, we need simpler and more reliable serological tests for syphilis, but we also need to strengthen health services in general to ensure sustainable antenatal care services to ensure sustainability of syphilis screening programmes.

  15. Hepatitis B Management in the Pregnant Patient: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Walid S.; Cohen, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chronic hepatitis B is a worldwide disease, with significant burden on health care systems. While universal vaccination programs have led to an overall decrease in incidence of transmission of hepatitis B, unfortunately, there remain large areas in the world where vaccination against hepatitis B is not practiced. In addition, vertical transmission of hepatitis B persists as a major concern. Hepatitis B treatment of the pregnant patient requires a thorough assessment of disease activity and close monitoring for flares, regardless of initiation of antiviral therapy. We discuss, in this article, the current and emergent strategies which aim to reduce the rate of transmission of hepatitis B from the pregnant mother to the infant and we review the updated guidelines regarding management of liver disease in pregnant women with hepatitis B. PMID:27777892

  16. Improving Nutrition in Pregnant Adolescents: Recommendations for Clinical Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Kristen S.

    2003-01-01

    Pregnancy represents an ideal time for health promotion activities. Many women, including adolescents, are interested and willing to change health behaviors to improve the chance that they will deliver a healthy infant. This paper focuses on improving nutrition in pregnant adolescents. Seven recommendations are presented to help achieve this goal: 1) Focus on foods, not nutrients; 2) individualize and work within the pregnant adolescent's current eating habits; 3) consider the context of family and peer groups; 4) reward efforts; 5) make it easy; 6) focus on weight gain patterns for optimal birth outcomes; and 7) refer to a dietician, as needed. Use of these recommendations comprehensively addresses adolescent developmental needs to improve nutrition during pregnancy. These recommendations are not meant to be all-inclusive; rather, they are meant to serve as a guide for clinical management of nutrition for pregnant adolescents. PMID:17273337

  17. Immunization of pregnant women: Future of early infant protection

    PubMed Central

    Faucette, Azure N; Pawlitz, Michael D; Pei, Bo; Yao, Fayi; Chen, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Children in early infancy do not mount effective antibody responses to many vaccines against commons infectious pathogens, which results in a window of increased susceptibility or severity infections. In addition, vaccine-preventable infections are among the leading causes of morbidity in pregnant women. Immunization during pregnancy can generate maternal immune protection as well as elicit the production and transfer of antibodies cross the placenta and via breastfeeding to provide early infant protection. Several successful vaccines are now recommended to all pregnant women worldwide. However, significant gaps exist in our understanding of the efficacy and safety of other vaccines and in women with conditions associated with increased susceptible to high-risk pregnancies. Public acceptance of maternal immunization remained to be improved. Broader success of maternal immunization will rely on the integration of advances in basic science in vaccine design and evaluation and carefully planned clinical trials that are inclusive to pregnant women. PMID:26366844

  18. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF Streptococcus agalactiae ISOLATED FROM PREGNANT WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    de MELO, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; SANTOS, Nathally Claudiane de Souza; de OLIVEIRA, Marcia; SCODRO, Regiane Bertin de Lima; CARDOSO, Rosilene Fressatti; PÁDUA, Rúbia Andreia Falleiros; SILVA, Flavia Teixeira Ribeiro; COSTA, Aline Balandis; CARVALHO, Maria Dalva de Barros; PELLOSO, Sandra Marisa

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Introduction: Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae can colonize the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts and has been considered one of the most important risk factors for the development of neonatal disease. The present study evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of GBS isolates from pregnant women who were attended at a public health service in Northern Paraná, Brazil. Methods: A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was performed with 544 pregnant women, at ≥ 35 weeks of gestation. One hundred and thirty-six GBS isolates from pregnant women were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Results: All of the GBS isolates showed susceptibility to the drug that is most frequently used for intrapartum prophylaxis: penicillin. Resistance to clindamycin and erythromycin was detected, thus decreasing the options of prophylaxis in women who are allergic to penicillin. Conclusions: Additional studies should be conducted to increase the knowledge of GBS sensitivity profile to antimicrobials in other health centers. PMID:27828624

  19. Coexistence of preeclampsia and inherited thrombophilia in Turkish pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Polat, Mehtap; Biberoğlu, Ebru Hacer; Güler, İsmail; Biberoğlu, Ömer Kutay

    2016-06-23

    To examine the relationship of inherited thrombophilia and other thrombotic risk factors with preeclampsia (PE) in a population of pregnant Turkish women. This was a case cross-sectional study in which 70 women with PE and 60 normal pregnant women were studied to find out the frequency of women with risk factors including inherited thrombophilia among preeclamptic cases. Hemoglobin, platelet count, uric acid, vitamin B12, folic acid, copper, homocysteine, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, fibrinogen, protein S, protein C, activated protein C resistance values show significant differences in women with PE in comparison to women with normal pregnancy. There may be a link between inherited thrombophilia and PE, at least in a sample of Turkish pregnant women. We also propose that the association between thrombophilia and PE is stronger than suggested previously. Furthermore, copper is selectively elevated in women with PE as an independent marker.

  20. Dietary supplementation with proline confers a positive effect in both porcine circovirus-infected pregnant and non-pregnant mice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wenkai; Wu, Miaomiao; Luo, Wei; Huang, Ruilin; Yin, Yulong; Li, Yinghui; Li, Teijun; Yu, Xinglong

    2013-10-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with various diseases that impose a significant economic burden on the swine industry. We hypothesised that nutritional supplementation with proline to enhance the immune response might be a useful prophylactic measure against PCV2 infection. To test this hypothesis, in the present study, we measured clinical data, including blood parameters, serum cytokine profile, PCV2 virus load in organs and serum, and microscopic lesions in the lung, liver and spleen, in both PCV2-infected pregnant and non-pregnant mice. Dietary supplementation with proline had no effect (P>0·05) on abortion rates in PCV2-infected pregnant mice, although a numerically lower abortion rate (22·2 v. 44·4%) was observed compared with the control. Dietary supplementation with proline significantly increased serum C-reactive protein levels (P= 0·03) in PCV2-infected pregnant mice, and increased serum TNF-α levels (P= 0·01), leucocytes (P< 0·05), lymphocytes (P< 0·05) and neutrophilic granulocytes (P< 0·05) in PCV2-infected non-pregnant mice. Meanwhile, dietary proline significantly (P< 0·05) decreased the PCV2 virus load in the lung. Furthermore, mice in the dietary proline group showed a significant (P< 0·01) decrease in microscopic lesion scores in the lung, liver and spleen compared with those in the alanine group. Collectively, dietary proline supplementation confers a functional role in PCV2-infected mice.

  1. Supporting pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to quit smoking: views of antenatal care providers and pregnant indigenous women.

    PubMed

    Passey, Megan E; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Stirling, Janelle M

    2014-12-01

    To assess support for 12 potential smoking cessation strategies among pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers. Cross-sectional surveys of staff and women in antenatal services providing care for Indigenous women in the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which each of a list of possible strategies would be helpful in supporting pregnant Indigenous women to quit smoking. Current smokers (n = 121) were less positive about the potential effectiveness of most of the 12 strategies than the providers (n = 127). For example, family support was considered helpful by 64 % of smokers and 91 % of providers; between 56 and 62 % of smokers considered advice and support from midwives, doctors or Aboriginal Health Workers likely to be helpful, compared to 85-90 % of providers. Rewards for quitting were considered helpful by 63 % of smokers and 56 % of providers, with smokers rating them more highly and providers rating them lower, than most other strategies. Quitline was least popular for both. This study is the first to explore views of pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers on strategies to support smoking cessation. It has identified strategies which are acceptable to both providers and Indigenous women, and therefore have potential for implementation in routine care. Further research to explore their feasibility in real world settings, uptake by pregnant women and actual impact on smoking outcomes is urgently needed given the high prevalence of smoking among pregnant Indigenous women.

  2. A survey on undiagnosed active pulmonary tuberculosis among pregnant mothers in mekelle and surrounding Districts in Tigray, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebreegziabiher, Dawit; Adane, Kelemework; Abebe, Markos

    2017-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of undiagnosed active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases and sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of symptom combinations for undiagnosed TB infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative pregnant mothers attending antenatal care (ANC) clinics. Mycobacterium TB and HIV are the leading causes of death among women of reproductive age worldwide. Symptom screening is the first step in the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended TB intensified case finding algorithm for people living with HIV. However, the symptom-based PTB screening method for pregnant mothers is suboptimal and needs further optimization as some of the symptoms are obscured by the physiological changes during pregnancy. This was a cross-sectional study, which was conducted from June 2014 to May 2015 at 16 public health institutions in Mekelle and its surrounding areas. All pregnant mothers who visited the maternity clinics for routine ANC follow-up examinations were screened for PTB symptoms. Those who had at least 2 weeks of cough, in addition to other symptoms, were enrolled in the study. Sociodemographic and clinical data and sputum samples were collected by midwives and nurses. The sputum samples were shipped to the Tigray Regional Laboratory and stored at -80°C until TB culture was performed. Between June 2014 and May 2015, 9600 pregnant mothers were screened for PTB symptoms. We collected 174 sputum samples from pregnant mothers who had ≥2 weeks of productive cough. The participant's median age was 27.5 years (interquartile range, 24-31 years). During enrollment, 604 (6.28%) participants were HIV seropositive. Among the HIV-positive mothers, 17 (38.1%) were informed about their HIV status when they visited the health institutions for ANC follow-up, whereas the remaining 27 (61.9%) were already on antiretroviral therapy. All sputum samples (n = 174) were cultured using Löwenstein-Jensen medium at the

  3. Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Moos, Merry-K; Carrier, Kathryn; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria

    2008-01-01

    Objective Physical activity generally declines during pregnancy, but barriers to activity during this time period are not well understood. The objective was to examine barriers to physical activity in a large cohort of pregnant women and to explore these barriers in more depth with qualitative data derived from a separate focus group study using a socioecologic framework. Method A total of 1535 pregnant women (27–30 weeks’ gestation) enrolled in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study were asked an open-ended question about their primary barrier to physical activity; responses were coded into categories according to the socioecologic framework. To further elucidate, 13 focus groups of a total of 58 pregnant women (20–37 weeks’ gestation) were conducted among Hispanic, African American, and White participants. Results Among the 1535 pregnant women participating in the survey, 85% reported an intrapersonal barrier to physical activity, of which almost two-thirds were health related. Only 2% of the women reported their main barrier to physical activity as interpersonal and 3% reported a neighborhood or environmental barrier. These results were supported by the focus group data, overall and by race/ethnicity and body mass index. Although women discussed barriers to physical activity at a variety of levels, the intrapersonal level was the most frequently cited and discussed factor in both studies. Conclusions Since pregnancy may trigger the development of obesity and since physical activity is recommended for healthy pregnant women, it is imperative to promote physical activity in a more relevant way. These quantitative and qualitative studies revealed many barriers to physical activity among pregnant women and some suggestions for interventions. PMID:18478322

  4. Group B Streptococcal Colonization Among Pregnant Women in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Manu; Rench, Marcia A; Baker, Carol J; Singh, Pushpa; Hans, Charoo; Edwards, Morven S

    2017-07-01

    Little is known regarding maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization prevalence and capsular (CPS) serotype distribution among pregnant women in India. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine GBS recto-vaginal colonization prevalence in pregnant women at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital in Delhi, India. Literature review identified reports from India assessing GBS colonization prevalence in pregnant women. Rectal and vaginal swabs were inoculated into Strep B Carrot Broth (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA) and subcultured onto GBS Detect plates (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA). Isolates were serotyped using ImmuLex Strep-B latex kits (Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark). Thirteen studies were identified citing GBS colonization prevalence during pregnancy as 0.47%-16%. Among 300 pregnant women (mean age: 26.9 years; mean gestation: 34 weeks) enrolled (August 2015 to April 2016), GBS colonization prevalence was 15%. Fifteen percent of women had vaginal only, 29% had rectal only and 56% had both sites colonized. CPS types were Ia (13.3%), Ib (4.4%), II (20%), III (22.2%), V (20%) and VII (6.7%); 13.3% were nontypable. Fetal loss in a prior pregnancy at ≥20-weeks gestation was more common in colonized than noncolonized women (15.6% vs. 3.5%; P = 0.004). Employing recent census data for the birth cohort and estimating that 1%-2% of neonates born to colonized women develop early-onset disease, at least 39,000 cases of early-onset disease may occur yearly in India. Using optimal methods, 15% of third trimester pregnant women in India are GBS colonized. A multivalent vaccine containing 6 CPS types (Ia, Ib, II, III, V and VII) would encompass ~87% of GBS carried by pregnant women in India.

  5. [Antiparasitic treatments in pregnant women and in children in 2003].

    PubMed

    Richard-Lenoble, D; Chandenier, J; Duong, T H

    2003-01-01

    Like antibacterial agents, antiparasite drugs for pregnant women and children must be chosen in function of the stage of pregnancy, age of the child, and expected benefit-risk ratio. While no agent is totally safe, there are few absolute contraindications. Most zones of serious endemic parasite disease are located in developing countries where parasite, bacterial, or viral conditions combined with poor nutrition treatment make it necessary to treat disease in a complex pathogenic environment that weakens pregnant women and children with multiple parasite infections. In both temperate and tropical zones, there have been few real therapeutic advances involving release of new products on the market or development of new indications for existing products. Constant appearance and extension of hematozoa resistance to conventional and even more recent antimalarial agents have prompted research to find new active drugs and long-lasting treatment combinations. Real therapeutic breakthroughs have resulted from the need to develop safe drugs without substantial side-effects for single-dose use in control programs against endemic parasite diseases in mass populations including pregnant women and young children in tropical zones. There are several notable examples in the field of major verminous diseases. Ivermectin is a versatile drug that can be used against filariasis as well as for management of intestinal worms or ectoparasitosis in temperate and tropical countries. Praziquantel is an important advance in platyhelminthiasis, especially bilharziais. Triclabendazole, the latest addition to the benzimidazole family, has shown promise as a substitute for bithionol, that is difficult to procure and not recommended in pregnant women, for treatment distomiasis occurring in pregnant women and children. Other examples include albendazole against giardiasis, nitazoxamide against cryptosporidiosis, artemisinine against bilharziasis, and paramomycine, not recommended in pregnant women

  6. The changing self-concept of pregnant and parenting teens.

    PubMed

    Alpers, R R

    1998-01-01

    Self-concept has been recognized and researched as a powerful variable in relation to teenage pregnancy. Low self-concept frequently has been identified as a cause and consequence of teenage pregnancy as well as a factor in participation and compliance with health care recommendations. Most of the research on self-concept and teenage pregnancy occurred in the 1970s to mid-1980s, and all found lower self-concept in pregnant and parenting teens when compared with their nonpregnant contemporaries and normative data. This study found the opposite to be true. The 126 pregnant and parenting teens in this study had higher self-concepts than the reported normative group. Also, important variations in self-concept were found in relation to sociodemographics. This potentially suggests that what was once known about this aggregate is no longer true, and a reinvestigation is warranted. The purpose of this study was to reinvestigate the self-concept of pregnant and parenting teens and compare them with published normative data and to examine the relationship between sociodemographics and self-concept. The study employed a survey methodology. Data were analyzed using frequencies, percentages, measures of central tendency and dispersion, t test, chi-square test, and analysis of variance. This study found that pregnant and parenting teens had a higher self-concept than the normative data on nonpregnant teens reported by the research instrument authors. Furthermore, this older sample of pregnant and parenting teens (mean age, 17.83 years) had self-concepts more similar to the junior high school normative sample than their senior high school-age contemporaries. Also, this study found that self-concept varies according to the pregnant and parenting teens; ages, years of schooling, types of schools attended, income sources, and receipt of public assistance. This study has implications for health care providers, health and public educators, and nursing researchers in terms of program

  7. Influenza and pertussis vaccination coverage in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Laenen, Jolien; Roelants, Mathieu; Devlieger, Roland; Vandermeulen, Corinne

    2015-04-27

    Pregnant women have an increased risk for complications and hospitalizations when infected with the influenza virus in the second or third trimester. Additionally, infants under six months of age are most vulnerable when contracting pertussis. Immunization against influenza and pertussis during pregnancy provides protection for mother and neonate against influenza and for neonates against pertussis pending protection through infant immunization. In Belgium, a gradual increase in pertussis cases over the past decade was observed. This study was undertaken to document vaccination coverage for influenza and pertussis and factors related to vaccination status in pregnant women. Two hundred and fifty pregnant women completed a questionnaire during their third trimester. Vaccination data were collected and reasons for non-vaccination were noted as well as socio-demographic data which are known to influence vaccination coverage. A documented vaccination coverage of 42.8% for influenza and 39.2% for pertussis was observed. Taking into account doses which were not documented, but administered according to the expectant mother, coverage for influenza would increase to 62% and for pertussis to 46%. The most important reasons for non-vaccination were the absence of a recommendation by medical staff (9.6%) and delay in vaccination (8.4%). The GP was the most important vaccinator. Pregnant women with a lower education and those with a foreign origin were more vulnerable for non-vaccination. Incomplete documentation is the most important barrier in determining the vaccination status of pregnant women. Immunization during pregnancy needs further integration through vaccination campaigns aimed at both health care providers and pregnant women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preferences and related factors for postpartum contraception in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yilmazel, Gülay; Balci, Elçin

    2013-10-01

    The postpartum period is a time of transition for a pregnant woman and her new family. In this period many pregnant women are in search about the family planning methods. But contraceptive options differ depending on women's desires such as cultural and religious believes, partner attitudes, previous contraceptive experiences. This study was conducted to identify status of using a contraceptive method before pregnancy and the factors associated with preferences of contraception in postpartum period. The descriptive research was conducted in a State Hospital March-May 2012 in Turkey. The population of study was formed with 200 pregnant women who applied follow-up pregnant clinics. We took permissions from local authorities and participants. 182 voluntary pregnant women were surveyed. We prepared a 20 item question are form which was asking socio-demographic futures, contraceptives methods before-after delivery and the factors related with using contraceptives after screening literatures related with subject. The 49.5% of women reported that they didn't use any methods before. There was a significant relation between using contraceptives before pregnancy with the idea of using contraceptive during the postpartum period and receiving contraception counseling during pregnancy (p=0.004, p=0.035 respectively). The 86.4% of pregnant implied that they would use a contraceptive method in postpartum period. IUD was the most preferred method. Status of using contraceptive before and receiving contraception counseling in pregnancy were the effective variables on thoughts about using a contraceptive method. To achieve desired goals for maternal and child health in our country health professionals should be more focused on postpartum contraception in antenatal care programs.

  9. Spinal curvature and characteristics of postural change in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Okanishi, Natsuko; Kito, Nobuhiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamamoto, Masako

    2012-07-01

    Pregnant women often report complaints due to physiological and postural changes. Postural changes during pregnancy may cause low back pain and pelvic girdle pain. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of postural changes in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women. Prospective case-control study. Pregnancy care center. Fifteen women at 17-34 weeks pregnancy comprised the study group, while 10 non-pregnant female volunteers comprised the control group. Standing posture was evaluated in the sagittal plane with static digital pictures. Two angles were measured by image analysis software: (1) between the trunk and pelvis; and (2) between the trunk and lower extremity. Spinal curvature was measured with Spinal Mouse® to calculate the means of sacral inclination, thoracic and lumbar curvature and inclination. The principal components were calculated until eigenvalues surpassed 1. Three distinct factors with eigenvalues of 1.00-2.49 were identified, consistent with lumbosacral spinal curvature and inclination, thoracic spine curvature, and inclination of the body. These factors accounted for 77.2% of the total variance in posture variables. Eleven pregnant women showed postural characteristics of lumbar kyphosis and sacral posterior inclination. Body inclination showed a variety of patterns compared with those in healthy women. Spinal curvature demonstrated a tendency for lumbar kyphosis in pregnant women. Pregnancy may cause changes in spinal curvature and posture, which may in turn lead to relevant symptoms. Our data provide a basis for investigating the effects of spinal curvature and postural changes on symptoms during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Choroidal thickness in pregnant women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ru; Kuang, Guo-Ping; Luo, Di-Xian; Lu, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate choroidal thickness in pregnant women and compare the measurements with those of normal nonpregnant women. METHODS Using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea and at 1 mm and 3 mm superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal to the fovea in both healthy pregnant women and nonpregnant women. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and the demographic and ocular parameters. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed-effects model when Meta-analyses were conducted. RESULTS Comparison of choroidal thickness between the groups showed that it was significantly greater in healthy pregnant women's eyes than in normal nonpregnant women's eyes at all locations except at 3 mm superior and 3 mm temporal from the fovea (P<0.05). The mean SFCT was 344.13±50.94 µm in healthy pregnant women's eyes and 315.03±60.57 µm in normal nonpregnant women's eyes, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.008). Pearson correlation analysis showed that age and axial length were significantly related to SFCT in healthy pregnant women, normal nonpregnant women, and all subjects. The results of our cross-sectional study were consistent with the results of the further Meta-analysis, with a pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) of 33.66 µm (95% CI: 26.16 to 41.15) for SFCT. CONCLUSION Our results, along with the comprehensive Meta-analysis, suggest that choroidal thickness in healthy pregnant women is greater than that in normal nonpregnant women. PMID:27588276

  11. Evaluation of the macula, retinal nerve fiber layer and choroid in preeclampsia, healthy pregnant and healthy non-pregnant women using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Ataş, Mustafa; Açmaz, Gökhan; Aksoy, Hüseyin; Demircan, Süleyman; Ataş, Fatma; Gülhan, Ahmet; Zararsız, Gökmen

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the macular, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and choroidal thickness alterations by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in preeclampsia and compare with healthy pregnant and healthy non-pregnant controls. The study population included healthy pregnant control group (n: 25), healthy non-pregnant control group (n: 26) and study group with preeclampsia (n: 27). Retinal thickness parameters were measured by SD-OCT. There was a statistically significant difference among all of the groups for choroidal thickness (p < 0.001). Choroidal thickness in preeclamptic women was significantly thinner than healthy pregnant women. The most thick choroid layer was detected in healthy pregnant group, and also the most thin choroidal thickness was detected in healthy non-pregnant group (p < 0.001). Macular central subfield and foveal center thickness were significantly thinner in preeclamptic study and healthy pregnant groups than healthy non-pregnant group (p < 0.001). However, there was no statistically significant difference between preeclamptic study group and healthy pregnant group for both macular central subfield and foveal center thickness. Average of RNFL thickness was significantly thicker in healthy pregnant group than healthy non-pregnant group (p = 0.004). This study revealed that choroidal thickness measured using SD-OCT increased in women with preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women but the increase in choroidal thickness in preeclampsia was lower than the healthy pregnant controls. This lower rise in choroidal thickness can be generally attributed to the markedly increased systemic vascular vasospasm secondary to preeclampsia.

  12. Pemphigus vulgaris in a pregnant woman and her neonate

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Sameera Begum Kader; BM, Yashodhara; Umakanth, Shashikiran; Kanagasabai, Sachchithanatham

    2012-01-01

    A 23-year-old pregnant woman in her second trimester of pregnancy presented with blisters on the face, abdomen and the leg. Based on the clinical presentation and skin biopsy (histopathology and direct immunofluorescence) the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris was established. The child born to this patient also had similar skin lesions. The lesions in the mother and the child improved after treatment. The authors report a rare case of pemphigus vulgaris in a pregnant lady and neonatal pemphigus in her child, both of whom were treated successfully. PMID:22744241

  13. Local anesthetic use in the pregnant and postpartum patient.

    PubMed

    Fayans, Edgar P; Stuart, Hunter R; Carsten, David; Ly, Quen; Kim, Hanna

    2010-10-01

    The use of systemically absorbed drugs in the gravid and in the lactating patient is of concern to the dentist. This article reviews concerns for the health and safety of the mother, developing fetus, and neonate involving local anesthetics. The available literature on the use of local anesthetics for dentistry in the pregnant and postpartum patient is also reviewed. In addition, the physiology of the pregnant and postpartum woman is discussed because this is essential to understanding potential interplay with local anesthesia and the stress of a dental appointment.

  14. Plasma homocysteine levels in cycling, pregnant, and spayed bitches.

    PubMed

    Trisolini, C; Minoia, G; Manca, R; Rizzo, A; Robbe, D; Valentini, L; Sciorsci, R L

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological range of homocysteine (Hcy) exhibited by bitches during the follicular (pro-oestrus), luteal (dioestrus) and anoestrus phases of cycling animals, and in pregnant and spayed bitches. The lowest concentrations of Hcy were observed during dioestrus (3.2+/-1.27micromol/L) and in pregnant bitches (3.9+/-1.72micromol/L), and the highest concentrations during anoestrus (7.8+/-0.6micromol/L) and in spayed bitches (12.1+/-5.16micromol/L).

  15. Predictors of anemia among pregnant women in Westmoreland, Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Alyson M.; Campbell-Stennett, Dianne; Yatich, Nelly; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2010-01-01

    Anemia in pregnancy is a worldwide problem, but it is most prevalent in the developing world. This research project was conducted to determine the predictors of anemia in pregnant women in Westmoreland, Jamaica. A cross-sectional study design was conducted and descriptive, bivariate, and multiple logistic regression analyses were used. Body mass index, Mid-upper arm circumference, and the number of antenatal care visits showed a statistically significant association with anemia. Based on the results, we believe that maintaining a healthy body weight, and frequently visiting an antenatal clinic, will help to lower the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women in Westmoreland. PMID:20526925

  16. [International recommandations on physical exercise for pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Filhol, G; Bernard, P; Quantin, X; Espian-Marcais, C; Ninot, G

    2014-12-01

    Benefits of physical exercise on the physical and psychological health lead to specifics guidelines during pregnancy. For pregnant women, to take part in aerobics exercise (walking, biking) (i.e. 30 minutes, three times per week at 60-90% of the maximal heart rate) and strength training (i.e. one to two times per week) is recommended. Physical exercise programs during pregnancy have shown benefits for preventing and treating complications pregnancy (e.g. gestational diabetes mellitus, overweight). Benefits of exercise and risks associated with sedentary should be widely diffused among pregnant women and prenatal caregivers.

  17. The Door's Perinatal Program for Pregnant and Parenting Teens

    PubMed Central

    Dewart, Tracey; Zaengle, Donna

    2000-01-01

    The perinatal program for urban youth at The Door, located in New York City, provides accessible, comprehensive, high-quality prenatal services to pregnant teens. Through a holistic, family-centered, youth-development approach, the program seeks to counteract the adverse medical risks and psychosocial consequences of early childbirth and child rearing in order to improve the immediate and long-term futures of the mother and her new family. The Door's services are presented, along with a description of the agency's service model and an analysis of 100 pregnant teens enrolled in its perinatal program. PMID:17273204

  18. Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis in a Pregnant Woman.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Park, Seung Ha; Jung, Yu Ri; Park, Soon Won; Jung, Dae Soo

    2015-06-01

    Anti N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is one of the most common types of autoimmune synaptic encephalitis. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis commonly occurs in young women with ovarian teratoma. It has variable clinical manifestations and treatment responses. Sometimes it is misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder or viral encephalitis. To the best of our knowledge, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is a rare condition in pregnant women. We report a case of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis in a pregnant woman who presented with abnormal behavior, epileptic seizure, and hypoventilation.

  19. Need of tetraiodothyronine supplemental therapy in pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for fetal development. Normal thyroid function in pregnant women adjusts by itself in cases of pregnancy, phenomenon that is deficient in cases of previous maternal thyroid disease. The study group was represented by 120 females, with reproductive age, with known thyroid disease, that had a up to delivery pregnancy. Thyroid ultrasound parameters and functional parameters were follow-up during the 9-month of gestation. The study proposes a mathematical model of predicting the need and the amount of tetraiodothyronine treatment in pregnant women with prevalent thyroid disease.

  20. [Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Rabat, Morocco].

    PubMed

    El Mansouri, B; Rhajaoui, M; Sebti, F; Amarir, F; Laboudi, M; Bchitou, R; Hamad, M; Lyagoubi, M

    2007-10-01

    In Morocco, the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women living in Rabat, was estimated by analyzing antibodies (IgG, IgM) levels using an ELISA test. The analysis of 2456 serums at the Institut National d'Hygiène showed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis is about 50.6%. According to the questionnaire, the lack of knowledge about this disease and soil contact could be the main causes of toxoplasmosis infection. The use of IgG avidity test has excluded a recent infection in 93.5% of pregnant women with IgM positive sera.

  1. Simplified pregnant woman models for the fetus exposure assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jala, Marjorie; Conil, Emmanuelle; Varsier, Nadège; Wiart, Joe; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Moulines, Éric; Lévy-Leduc, Céline

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce a study that we carried out in order to validate the use of a simplified pregnant woman model for the assessment of the fetus exposure to radio frequency waves. This simplified model, based on the use of a homogeneous tissue to replace most of the inner organs of the virtual mother, would allow us to deal with many issues that are raised because of the lack of pregnant woman models for numerical dosimetry. Using specific absorption rate comparisons, we show that this model could be used to estimate the fetus exposure to plane waves.

  2. Identifying and treating pregnant patients at risk from alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Rosett, H. L.; Weiner, L.

    1981-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption during pregnancy has been associated with retardation of fetal growth and abnormal fetal development. Pregnant women whose offspring are at risk because of alcohol abuse can be identified and counselled by health professional providing prenatal care. Offspring born to women who had been drinking heavily and subsequently abstained from or reduced their intake of alcohol before the third trimester demonstrated improvements in growth and in regulation of sleep-awake states. The existing health care delivery system can be modified in a cost-effective manner to treat pregnant women who are problem drinkers. Physicians' attitudes and behaviour are critical for the success of this strategy. PMID:7272865

  3. Abnormal vaginal flora in symptomatic non-pregnant and pregnant women in a Greek hospital: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tansarli, G S; Skalidis, T; Legakis, N J; Falagas, M E

    2017-02-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV), candidiasis, and trichomoniasis were the three established types of vaginal conditions until aerobic vaginitis (AV) was defined in the early 2000s. We sought to study the prevalence of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF) with inflammation in our hospital and to correlate it with AV. We prospectively collected vaginal smear specimens originated from symptomatic women who were examined at Iaso Obstetrics, Gynecology and Children's Hospital of Athens from April 2014 until September 2015. Amsel's criteria were used for the diagnosis of BV. The presence of leukocytes and lactobacillary grade were evaluated to classify a condition as AVF with inflammation; subsequently, bacterial cultures were performed. A total of 761 women were included. Five hundred and seventy-nine women were diagnosed with candidiasis, BV, trichomoniasis, or other types of vaginitis in which no pathogenic bacterial growth occurred in cultures. One hundred and eighty-two women (23.9 %) were diagnosed with AVF with inflammation (116 non-pregnant, 66 pregnant). Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen among these women (non-pregnant: 45.7 %, pregnant: 34.8 %). Other common pathogens were Group-B-Streptococcus (non-pregnant: 20.7 %, pregnant: 22.7 % respectively), Enterococcus faecalis (14.7 %, 18.2 %), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.9 %, 12.1 %). The prevalence of AVF with inflammation may be high. Since inflammation criteria were applied, most cases of BV were eliminated and the majority of cases of AVF are AV. Therefore, clinicians should include AV in the differential diagnosis of vaginitis, while microbiologists should take into account the growth of aerobic bacteria in vaginal cultures originating from women with microscopic findings of AV.

  4. Plasma levels of antiprogestin RU 486 following oral administration to non-pregnant and early pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Swahn, M.L.; Wang, G.; Aedo, A.R.; Cekan, S.Z.; Bygdeman, M.

    1986-11-01

    RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy.

  5. Sexually transmitted pathogens in pregnant women in a rural South African community.

    PubMed Central

    O'Farrell, N; Hoosen, A A; Kharsany, A B; van den Ende, J

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and ninety three consecutive pregnant women attending peripheral antenatal clinics attached to Ngwelezana Hospital, Empangeni, Kwa-Zulu, were examined for evidence of sexually transmitted pathogens. The following incidences were found: Trichomonas vaginalis 49.2% (95), Candida spp 38.3% (74), Chlamydia trachomatis 11.4% (22), Gardnerella vaginalis 6.2% (12), Neisseria gonorrhoeae 5.7% (11), positive syphilis serology results 11.9% (23), hepatitis B surface antigen 4.1% (eight). No woman had antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Dyskaryotic smears were found in 20 (10.4%). Human papillomavirus (HPV) was detected cytologically in 11 (5.7%). The range of sexually transmitted pathogens found in this rural community was similar to that found in urban groups studied in South Africa. PMID:2807289

  6. Prevalence and genotyping ofToxoplasma gondii among Saudi pregnant women in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Jawahir; Elamin, Maha Hussein; Alhabib, Samia

    2016-11-01

    Introduction: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an intracellular protozoan that can infect all mammals, who serve as intermediate host. It causes congenital, neurological, eyes complications and mild or asymptomatic infections in humans. Purpose of this study: To investigate not only the prevalence of T. gondii, but also to find out its genotyping using multiple sequential molecular methods to predict exactly the precise genotyping of T. gondii among Saudi pregnant women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using multi-stage methods. Initial stage involved enrolment of 250 Saudi pregnant women from multi-centre healthcare and community based settings in the capital of Saudi Arabia Riyadh. The second stage was embracement of the laboratory investigation that included Enzyme immunoassay (ELISA), DNA extraction, PCR, nested-PCR assay, and genotyping of the seropositive cases. Results: 203 women agreed to take part in our study with a response rate of 81.2% (203/250). Using ELISA, we found that the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies was 32.5% and 6.4%, respectively. We found that 29 samples (80.6%) were of genotype II; however 7 samples (19.4%) were of genotype III. Conclusion: Defining the population structure of T. gondii from Saudi Arabia has important implications for transmission, immunogenicity, pathogenesis, and in planning preventive strategies. Relationship between such variation in structure and disease manifestation in pregnant women is still difficult to assess due to the role of host immune status and genetic background on the control of infection, and of other parasitic features such as the infecting dose or parasite stage. Our finding of the genotyping of T. gondii might facilitate and inform future studies on comparative genomics and identification of genes that control important biological phenotypes including pathogenesis and transmission among Saudi women.

  7. A comparison of cigarette smoking profiles in opioid-dependent pregnant patients receiving methadone or buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Chisolm, Margaret S; Fitzsimons, Heather; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Acquavita, Shauna P; Heil, Sarah H; Wilson-Murphy, Molly; Tuten, Michelle; Kaltenbach, Karol; Martin, Peter R; Winklbaur, Bernadette; Jansson, Lauren M; Jones, Hendrée E

    2013-07-01

    Little is known about the relationship between cigarette smoking and agonist treatment in opioid-dependent pregnant patients. The objective of this study is to examine the extent to which cigarette smoking profiles differentially changed during the course of pregnancy in opioid-dependent patients receiving either double-blind methadone or buprenorphine. Patients were participants in the international, randomized controlled Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research (MOTHER) study. A sample of opioid-maintained pregnant patients (18-41 years old) with available smoking data who completed a multisite, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized controlled trial of methadone (n = 67) and buprenorphine (n = 57) between 2005 and 2008. Participants were compared on smoking variables based on opioid agonist treatment condition. Overall, 95% of the sample reported cigarette smoking at treatment entry. Participants in the two medication conditions were similar on pretreatment characteristics including smoking rates and daily cigarette amounts. Over the course of the pregnancy, no meaningful changes in cigarette smoking were observed for either medication condition. The fitted difference in change in adjusted cigarettes per day between the two conditions was small and nonsignificant (β = -0.08, SE = 0.05, p = .132). Results support high rates of smoking with little change during pregnancy among opioid-dependent patients, regardless of the type of agonist medication received. These findings are consistent with evidence that suggests nicotine effects, and interactions may be similar for buprenorphine compared with methadone. The outcomes further highlight that aggressive efforts are needed to reduce/eliminate smoking in opioid-dependent pregnant women.

  8. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women with known HIV status in northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Msuya, Sia E; Uriyo, Jacqueline; Hussain, Akhtar; Mbizvo, Elizabeth M; Jeansson, Stig; Sam, Noel E; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among pregnant women in Moshi, Tanzania and to compare the occurrence of STIs/RTIs among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and uninfected women. Methods Pregnant women in their 3rd trimester (N = 2654) were recruited from two primary health care clinics between June 2002 and March 2004. They were interviewed, examined and genital and blood samples were collected for diagnosis of STIs/RTIs and HIV. Results The prevalence of HIV, active syphilis and herpes simplex virus – type 2 (HSV-2) were 6.9%, 0.9% and 33.6%, respectively, while 0.5% were positive for N gonorrhoeae, 5.0% for T vaginalis and 20.9% for bacterial vaginosis. Genital tract infections were more prevalent in HIV-seropositive than seronegative women, statistically significant for syphilis (3.3% vs 0.7%), HSV-2 (43.2% vs 32.0%), genital ulcers (4.4% vs 1.4%) and bacterial vaginosis (37.2% vs 19.6%). In comparison with published data, a declining trend for curable STIs/RTIs (syphilis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis) was noted. Conclusion Rates of STIs and RTIs are still high among pregnant women in Moshi. Where resources allow, routine screening and treatment of STIs/RTIs in the antenatal care setting should be offered. Higher STIs/RTIs in HIV-seropositive women supports the expansion of HIV-counseling and testing services to all centers offering antenatal care. After identification, STIs/RTIs need to be aggressively addressed in HIV-seropositive women, both at antenatal and antiretroviral therapy care clinics. PMID:19243592

  9. Haemoglobin status and predictors of anaemia among pregnant women in Mpigi, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ononge, Sam; Campbell, Oona; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-10-10

    Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem especially in the low-income countries where it is highly prevalent. There has been no recent study in Uganda about the factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy. We aimed to assess the current haemoglobin (Hb) status and factors associated with anaemia (Hb < 11.0 g/dl) in pregnant women in Mpigi, Uganda. We assessed Hb levels of 2436 pregnant women at 28+ weeks of gestation at six health facilities, who were approached to participate in a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised trial of antenatal distribution of misoprostol (for self-administration after home birth or when oxytocin is not available). Women were administered a questionnaire and their baseline blood haemoglobin was examined using portable HemoCueR Hb 301 system. Predictors of anaemia were estimated using linear and logistic regression analysis. The mean Hb was 11.5 (± 1.38) g/dl and prevalence of anaemia (Hb < 11.0 g/dl) was 32.5% (95% CI 30.6%, 34.3%). After adjusting for measured confounders, factors associated with increased risk of anaemia in pregnancy were malaria infection (OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.58), Human Immuno-deficiency Virus infection (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.90) and lack of iron supplementation (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.03). Intermittent presumptive treatment of malaria, maternal age and parity showed a weak association with anaemia in pregnancy The high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy in our setting highlights the need to put more effort in the fight against malaria and HIV, and also ensure that pregnant women access iron supplements early in pregnancy.

  10. Characteristics of blood chemistry, hematology, and lymphocyte subsets in pregnant rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Ling; Gong, Li; Qian, Can; Liang, Zhi-Gang; Zeng, Wen

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to characterize the blood chemistry, hematology, and lymphocyte subsets in pregnant rhesus monkeys and provide baseline parameters for future studies of reproductive and developmental toxicity and developmental immunotoxicity. Harem-mating was used in 96 female and 16 male rhesus monkeys. Pregnancy was confirmed on gestation day (GD)18 by ultrasound. The blood samples of rhesus monkeys were collected at various times (20 days before pregnancy and GD20, 100 and 150). The analyses of blood chemistry, hematology, and lymphocyte subsets were performed. Compared with 20 days before pregnancy, Significant decreases (P < 0.05) were observed in HCT and RBC on GD20, GD150 and in HGB on GD150, Significant increases in NEUT and decreases in LYMPH on GD20 were observed. Significant decreases in ALB from GD20 to GD150 were observed, significant decreases in TP was observed on GD100. Significant increases in mean GLU were observed on GD20 and GD150 during pregnancy. Significant decreases (P < 0.05) in CD20(+) subsets on GD100, GD150 and CD4(+)/CD8(+)ratio on GD150 were observed, The significant changes of MCV, MCHC, RDW-SD, MCV, MONO, ALT, AST, GLB, ALP, TBIL, DBIL, IBIL, GGT, CR-S, URIC, TC, TG and CK were observed during the pregnant period, but no biologic change were observed, There were no significant changes in MCH, RDW-CV, MPV, BUN, CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) during pregnancy. These data provide a database for preclinical study in rhesus monkeys. Physiological anemia, hyperglycemia, and immune suppression may occur in pregnant rhesus monkey which is similar to that found in human, and it is essential to distinguish the physiological changes from the pharmacological effects in reproductive and developmental toxicity and developmental immunotoxicity studies of pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Beneficial effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower aqueous extract in pregnant rats with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Afiune, Luana Alves Freitas; Leal-Silva, Thaís; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Moraes-Souza, Rafaianne Queiroz; Soares, Thaigra Sousa; Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Herrera, Emilio; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu

    2017-01-01

    The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower is widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and has shown antifertility activity in female Wistar rats. However, there is no scientific confirmation of its effect on diabetes and pregnancy. The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of H. rosa-sinensis flowers on maternal-fetal outcome in pregnant rats with diabetes. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg) in virgin, adult, female Wistar rats. After diabetes induction, the rats were mated. The pregnant rats were distributed into four groups (n minimum = 11 animals/group): non-diabetic, non-diabetic treated, diabetic, and diabetic treated. Oral aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was administered to rats in the treatment groups during pregnancy. At term pregnancy, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal parameters, and biochemical parameters were analyzed. The non-diabetic treated group showed decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased atherogenic index (AI) and coronary artery risk index (CRI), and increased preimplantation loss rate compared to the non-diabetic group. Although treatment with H. rosa-sinensis led to no toxicity, it showed deleterious effects on cardiac and reproductive functions. However, the diabetic treated group showed increased maternal and fetal weights, reduced AI and CRI, and reduced preimplantation loss rate compared to the untreated diabetic group. Our results demonstrate beneficial effects of this flower only in pregnant rats with diabetes and their offspring. Although these findings cannot be extrapolated to human clinical use, they show that the indiscriminate intake of H. rosa-sinensis may be harmful to healthy individuals and its use should be completely avoided in pregnancy.

  12. A Comparison of Cigarette Smoking Profiles in Opioid-Dependent Pregnant Patients Receiving Methadone or Buprenorphine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the relationship between cigarette smoking and agonist treatment in opioid-dependent pregnant patients. The objective of this study is to examine the extent to which cigarette smoking profiles differentially changed during the course of pregnancy in opioid-dependent patients receiving either double-blind methadone or buprenorphine. Patients were participants in the international, randomized controlled Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research (MOTHER) study. Methods: A sample of opioid-maintained pregnant patients (18–41 years old) with available smoking data who completed a multisite, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized controlled trial of methadone (n = 67) and buprenorphine (n = 57) between 2005 and 2008. Participants were compared on smoking variables based on opioid agonist treatment condition. Results: Overall, 95% of the sample reported cigarette smoking at treatment entry. Participants in the two medication conditions were similar on pretreatment characteristics including smoking rates and daily cigarette amounts. Over the course of the pregnancy, no meaningful changes in cigarette smoking were observed for either medication condition. The fitted difference in change in adjusted cigarettes per day between the two conditions was small and nonsignificant (β = −0.08, SE = 0.05, p = .132). Conclusions: Results support high rates of smoking with little change during pregnancy among opioid-dependent patients, regardless of the type of agonist medication received. These findings are consistent with evidence that suggests nicotine effects, and interactions may be similar for buprenorphine compared with methadone. The outcomes further highlight that aggressive efforts are needed to reduce/eliminate smoking in opioid-dependent pregnant women. PMID:23288871

  13. Pharmacokinetics of Efavirenz and Treatment of HIV-1 Among Pregnant Women With and Without Tuberculosis Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, Kelly E.; Denti, Paolo; Martinson, Neil; Cohn, Silvia; Mashabela, Fildah; Hoffmann, Jennifer; Haas, David W.; Hull, Jennifer; Msandiwa, Regina; Castel, Sandra; Wiesner, Lubbe; Chaisson, Richard E.; McIlleron, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy and tuberculosis treatment or prophylaxis can affect efavirenz pharmacokinetics, maternal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) treatment outcomes, and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) risk. Methods We evaluated a prospective cohort of pregnant, HIV-infected women with and without tuberculosis in Soweto, South Africa. Pharmacokinetic sampling was performed at gestation week 37 and during the postpartum period. Efavirenz trough concentrations (Cmin) were predicted using population pharmacokinetic models. HIV-viral load was measured at delivery for mothers and at 6 weeks of age for infants. Results Ninety-seven women participated; 44 had tuberculosis. Median efavirenz Cmin during pregnancy was 1.35 µg/mL (interquartile range [IQR], 0.90–2.07 µg/mL; 27% had an efavirenz Cmin of < 1 µg/mL), compared with a median postpartum value of 2.00 µg/mL (IQR, 1.40–3.59 µg/mL; 13% had an efavirenz Cmin of < 1 µg/mL). A total of 72% of pregnant women with extensive CYP2B6 genotypes had an efavirenz Cmin of <1 µg/mL. Rifampin did not reduce the efavirenz Cmin. Isoniazid (for prophylaxis or treatment), though, reduced the rate of efavirenz clearance. At delivery, median durations of ART were 13 weeks (IQR, 9–18 weeks) and 21 weeks (IQR, 13–64 weeks) for women with and those without tuberculosis, respectively; 55% and 83%, respectively, had a viral load of <20 copies/mL (P = .021). There was 1 case of MTCT. Conclusions Pregnancy increased the risk of low efavirenz concentrations, but MTCT was rare. A detectable HIV-viral load at delivery was more common among pregnant women with tuberculosis, in whom ART was generally initiated later. PMID:25081933

  14. Pharmacokinetics of efavirenz and treatment of HIV-1 among pregnant women with and without tuberculosis coinfection.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Kelly E; Denti, Paolo; Martinson, Neil; Cohn, Silvia; Mashabela, Fildah; Hoffmann, Jennifer; Haas, David W; Hull, Jennifer; Msandiwa, Regina; Castel, Sandra; Wiesner, Lubbe; Chaisson, Richard E; McIlleron, Helen

    2015-01-15

    Pregnancy and tuberculosis treatment or prophylaxis can affect efavirenz pharmacokinetics, maternal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) treatment outcomes, and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) risk. We evaluated a prospective cohort of pregnant, HIV-infected women with and without tuberculosis in Soweto, South Africa. Pharmacokinetic sampling was performed at gestation week 37 and during the postpartum period. Efavirenz trough concentrations (Cmin) were predicted using population pharmacokinetic models. HIV-viral load was measured at delivery for mothers and at 6 weeks of age for infants. Ninety-seven women participated; 44 had tuberculosis. Median efavirenz Cmin during pregnancy was 1.35 µg/mL (interquartile range [IQR], 0.90-2.07 µg/mL; 27% had an efavirenz Cmin of < 1 µg/mL), compared with a median postpartum value of 2.00 µg/mL (IQR, 1.40-3.59 µg/mL; 13% had an efavirenz Cmin of < 1 µg/mL). A total of 72% of pregnant women with extensive CYP2B6 genotypes had an efavirenz Cmin of <1 µg/mL. Rifampin did not reduce the efavirenz Cmin. Isoniazid (for prophylaxis or treatment), though, reduced the rate of efavirenz clearance. At delivery, median durations of ART were 13 weeks (IQR, 9-18 weeks) and 21 weeks (IQR, 13-64 weeks) for women with and those without tuberculosis, respectively; 55% and 83%, respectively, had a viral load of <20 copies/mL (P = .021). There was 1 case of MTCT. Pregnancy increased the risk of low efavirenz concentrations, but MTCT was rare. A detectable HIV-viral load at delivery was more common among pregnant women with tuberculosis, in whom ART was generally initiated later. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. [Treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis who desire to become pregnant--successful pregnancy in three cases treated with etanercept].

    PubMed

    Murashima, Atsuko

    2008-11-01

    We report 3 cases with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who successfully gave birth just after etanercept was introduced for the treatment of RA. All of them had worried about infertility for a long time. It is difficult to confirm the safety of any medication during pregnancy. We sometimes hear that patients stop their medicines owing to the fear of side effects, such as birth defects; this fear is especially prevalent for disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). But it often takes a long time before women can become pregnant after discontinuation of DMARDs, and the activity of RA could become worse during this period. During this period, patients tend to take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which is not recommended during infertility. Etanercept has never been shown to be teratogenic in either animals or humans. We propose that etanercept may be a suitable drug for patients with RA who desire to become pregnant.

  16. Salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA in Brazilian pregnant and non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Rockenbach, Maria I; Marinho, Sandra A; Veeck, Elaine B; Lindemann, Laura; Shinkai, Rosemary S

    2006-01-01

    Background Studies on salivary variables and pregnancy in Latin America are scarce. This study aimed to compare salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA of unstimulated whole saliva in pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians. Methods Cross-sectional study. Sample was composed by 22 pregnant and 22 non-pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre city, South region of Brazil. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected to determine salivary flow rate, pH, and biochemical composition. Data were analyzed by Student t test and ANCOVA (two-tailed α = 0.05). Results No difference was found for salivary flow rates and concentrations of total calcium and phosphate between pregnant and non-pregnant women (p > 0.05). Pregnant women had lower pH (6.7) than non-pregnant women (7.5) (p < 0.001), but higher sIgA level (118.9 mg/L) than the latter (90.1 mg/L) (p = 0.026). Conclusion Some of the tested variables of unstimulated whole saliva were different between pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians in this sample. Overall, the values of the tested salivary parameters were within the range of international references of normality. PMID:17132167

  17. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host–microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1–V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:26846451

  18. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-02-05

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host-microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy.

  19. Economic Evaluation of Health Services Costs During Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Pdm09 Infection in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women in Spain

    PubMed Central

    MORALES-SUÁREZ-VARELA, María; LLOPIS-GONZÁLEZ, Agustín; GONZÁLEZ-CANDELA, Fernando; ASTRAY, Jenaro; ALONSO, Jordi; GARIN, Olatz; CASTRO, Ady; GALAN, Juan Carlos; SOLDEVILA, Nuria; CASTILLA, Jesús; GODOY, Pere; DELGADO-RODRÍGUEZ, Miguel; MARTIN, Vicente; MAYORAL, Jose María; PUMAROLA, Tomas; QUINTANA, José Maria; TAMAMES, Sonia; RUBIO-LÓPEZ, Nuria; DOMINGUEZ, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Background: The healthcare and socio-economic burden resulting from influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 in Spain was considerable. Our aim was to estimate and compare the management (resource utilization) and economic healthcare impact in an at-risk group of unvaccinated pregnant women with an unvaccinated group of non-pregnant woman of childbearing age (15–44 yr old). Methods: We addressed this question with a longitudinal, observational, multicentre study. Inputs were the requirements in managing both groups of women. Outcome measures were healthcare costs. Direct healthcare (including medical utilisation, prescriptions of antivirals, medication, diagnostic tests, and hospitalisation) costs and indirect (productivity loss) costs were considered. Unit of cost was attributed to the frequency of health service resources utilisation. The mean cost per patient was calculated in this group of women. Results: We found that the influenza clinical pattern was worse in non-pregnant women as they had a high medical risk of 20.4% versus 6.1% of pregnant women. Non-pregnant required more antipyretics and antibiotics, and needed more health service resource utilisation (338 medical visits in non-pregnant women vs. 42 in pregnant women). The total cost of non-pregnant women was higher (€4,689.4/non-pregnant and €2,945.07/pregnant). Conclusions: Cost per (H1N1) pdm09 was lower for pregnant women, probably due to more preventive measures adopted for their protection in Spain. The highest costs were incurred by hospitalisations/day and work absenteeism for non-pregnant than for pregnant women. These data will allow better future pandemic influenza planning. PMID:27252911

  20. Kinetics of CMV seroconversion in a Swiss pregnant women population.

    PubMed

    Maine, Gregory T; Stricker, René; Stricker, Reto

    2012-07-01

    Retrospective evaluation of the kinetics of cytomegalovirus (CMV) seroconversion with CMV IgM, IgG, and IgG avidity assays, in a Swiss pregnant women population, has shown that the current published CMV serologic diagnostic algorithms were valid and fit for use. In 19% of the cases analyzed, CMV-specific IgM was detected before IgG.

  1. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The... Director for Substance Abuse Services. (f) The State shall develop effective strategies for monitoring.... Programs which serve an injecting drug abuse population and who receive Block Grant funds shall...

  2. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The... Director for Substance Abuse Services. (f) The State shall develop effective strategies for monitoring.... Programs which serve an injecting drug abuse population and who receive Block Grant funds shall...

  3. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The... Director for Substance Abuse Services. (f) The State shall develop effective strategies for monitoring.... Programs which serve an injecting drug abuse population and who receive Block Grant funds shall...

  4. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The... Director for Substance Abuse Services. (f) The State shall develop effective strategies for monitoring.... Programs which serve an injecting drug abuse population and who receive Block Grant funds shall...

  5. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The... Director for Substance Abuse Services. (f) The State shall develop effective strategies for monitoring.... Programs which serve an injecting drug abuse population and who receive Block Grant funds shall...

  6. Lack of efficacy of pyrimethamine prophylaxis in pregnant Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Nahlen, B L; Akintunde, A; Alakija, T; Nguyen-Dinh, P; Ogunbode, O; Edungbola, L D; Adetoro, O; Breman, J G

    1989-10-07

    To evaluate the efficacy of pyrimethamine on the blood stage (suppressive prophylaxis) and liver stage (causal prophylaxis) of Plasmodium falciparum in pregnant women, in vivo and in vitro field studies were conducted in Ilorin, Nigeria, from Jan 1 to June 30, 1988. For pregnant women with P falciparum infections who received 25 mg of pyrimethamine weekly for suppressive prophylaxis, 67% (59/88) of in vivo and 60% (6/10) of in vitro tests showed pyrimethamine resistance. A second group of parasitaemic and parasite-free pregnant women was enrolled to evaluate the efficacy of pyrimethamine as a primary tissue schizonticide; after receiving a curative dose of chloroquine (25 mg/kg), half the women were given 25 mg of pyrimethamine weekly and half received no prophylaxis. Parasitologic failure rates did not differ between the pyrimethamine-treated (8/34) and the control (11/37) groups during the 16-week follow-up. Thus, pyrimethamine is not effective for suppressive or causal prophylaxis in pregnant women in Ilorin.

  7. Dietary melatonin alters uterine artery hemodynamics in pregnant holstein heifers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective was to examine uterine artery hemodynamics and maternal serum profiles in pregnant heifers supplemented with dietary melatonin (MEL) or no supplementation (CON). In addition, melatonin receptor–mediated responses in steroid metabolism were examined using a bovine endometrial epithelial...

  8. Current Concepts in Nutrition--Pregnant Women and Premature Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Janet C.; Charlet, Sara

    1978-01-01

    Discusses energy and nutrient requirements of pregnant women with respect to kcal needs and vitamins B-6, folacin, vitamin E, and intake of certain trace elements. Also discusses nutritional needs of the premature infant and the ways of supplying these nutrients. (MA)

  9. Intimate Partner Violence among Pregnant and Parenting Latina Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Bernie Sue; Campbell, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and extent of mutual violence among a sample of pregnant and parenting Latina adolescent females and their partners. The sample consisted of 73 Latina adolescent females between the ages of 14 and 20 who were referred to a community-based organization for case management, education, and…

  10. Intimate partner violence and correlates in pregnant HIV positive Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Ezechi, Oliver Chukwujekwu; Gab-Okafor, Chidinma; Onwujekwe, Dan I; Adu, Rosemary A; Amadi, Eva; Herbertson, Ebiere

    2009-11-01

    To determine the prevalence, types and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) in pregnant Nigerian living with HIV. Cross sectional study. HIV positive pregnant women. A large HIV comprehensive treatment centre. A cross sectional study of 652 HIV positive pregnant Nigerians seen at Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Lagos, Nigeria over a 24 months period. Prevalence of intimate partner violence after HIV diagnosis. Among the women interviewed, 423 (65.8%) reported abuse. In 74.0% of abused women, the abuse started after HIV diagnosis. Though having a HIV negative spouse and disclosure of HIV status were associated with abuse, only having a HIV negative partner retained its association with IPV (OR 3.1; CI 2.4-5.3) after controlling for confounding variables. Sixty-two (9.6%) women have not disclosed their HIV status because of fear of rejection. Verbal abuse (51.7%), threat of violence in 97 (22.9%) and sexual deprivation in 91 (21.5%) were the common forms of abuse reported. IPV is common among HIV positive pregnant Nigerians; with a threefold increased risk in women in HIV serodiscordant relationship.

  11. Association between perceived social support and anxiety in pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Peter, Patrícia J; de Mola, Christian L; de Matos, Mariana B; Coelho, Fábio M; Pinheiro, Karen A; da Silva, Ricardo A; Castelli, Rochele D; Pinheiro, Ricardo T; Quevedo, Luciana A

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the association between perceived social support and anxiety disorders in pregnant adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample of 871 pregnant women aged 10 to 19 years who received prenatal care in the national public health care system in the urban area of Pelotas, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. We assessed perceived social support and anxiety disorders using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. A self-report questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic information. The prevalence of any anxiety disorder was 13.6%. Pregnant adolescents with an anxiety disorder reported less perceived social support in all domains (affectionate, emotional, tangible, informational, and positive social interaction). Older teenagers reported lower perceived support in the emotional, informational, and positive social interaction domains, whereas those with low socioeconomic status reported lower perceived social support in the material domain. Women who did not live with a partner had less perceived social support in the affectionate and positive social interaction domains. Perceived social support seems to be a protective factor against anxiety disorders in pregnant adolescents, with a positive effect on mental health.

  12. EVALUATION OF A PUBLIC SCHOOL PROGRAM FOR PREGNANT GIRLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RICHARDSON, ANN

    TO ASSESS THE SHORT RANGE EFFECTS OF PARTICIPATION IN A SPECIAL SCHOOL PROGRAM ESTABLISHED IN 1963 FOR PREGNANT SCHOOL AGE GIRLS, INTERVIEWERS IN 1965 OBTAINED INFORMATION FROM 109 GIRLS WHO HAD ATTENDED THE PROGRAM IN ITS FIRST YEAR, 123 GIRLS WHO HAD BEEN REFERRED BUT HAD NOT ATTENDED, AND MOTHERS OF THE GIRLS. THE SPECIAL PROGRAM FOCUSED ON…

  13. Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Women and Their Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Abbasian, Maryam; Chaman, Reza; Amiri, Mohammad; Ajami, Mohammad Esmaeil; Jafari-Koshki, Tohid; Rohani, Hossein; Taghavi-Shahri, Seyed Mahmood; Sadeghi, Erfan; Raei, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is a worldwide problem. Studies have reported prevalence ranged 18-84% in pregnant women. Receiving adequate calcium and vitamin D during pregnancy period is necessary for calcium homeostasis, fetal growth and bone mineralization. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women and their neonates in Shahroud city in the northeast Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 284 pregnant women and their neonates referred to Fatemiyeh Hospital of Shahroud were included. Blood samples of mothers and umbilical cords were collected during the delivery and were sent to laboratory in order to measure calcium and 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Findings: Amounts of Vitamin D insufficiency (20-30 ng/mL) and deficiency (<20 ng/mL) in (mothers, neonates) were found to be (60.2%, 48.9%) and (1.1%, 2.5%) respectively. Calcium deficiency (<8.5 mg/dL) was present in 33.5% of mothers and 25% of neonates. There was a weak correlation between maternal serum and cord blood 25-hydroxy vitamin D (r=0.12, p=0.053). Conclusion: More than half of the mothers and their neonates had some degrees of vitamin D deficiency. It is recommended to evaluate the nutritional status of vitamin D in pregnant women along with public health interventions to be carried out. PMID:27157170

  14. Parenting or Placing: Decision Making by Pregnant Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Rosalind J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines teenage decision making for resolution of an unplanned pregnancy and the predictors of both the initial plan and the consistency of the adoption plan. Data from 162 pregnant adolescents reveal that the mother's preference strongly predicts the initial plan, and the birthfather's preference affects the consistency of adoption. (GLR)

  15. Can I Be Excused from Gym?--I'm Pregnant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solberg, Eileen

    1988-01-01

    Appropriate physical conditioning can improve the physical and psychological health of pregnant students, ease delivery, aid recovery, and contribute to fetal health. This article discusses the importance of exercise during pregnancy, effects of exercise on maternal and fetal systems, and outlines precautions and guidelines for an exercise plan.…

  16. The treatment of alcohol and opioid dependence in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Heberlein, Annemarie; Leggio, Lorenzo; Stichtenoth, Dirk; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    This article addresses the question of 'best treatment options', which clinicians face when treating pregnant women with alcohol and opioid dependence. Studies show that alcohol consumption is associated with fetal abnormalities and long-term cognitive problems depending on the amount consumed, drinking pattern, and time of gestation. Screening and evaluation of specific interventions are important to reduce alcohol consumption during pregnancy and associated problems in infants. Opioid detoxification is only recommended beyond the first trimester and only in those pregnant women who refuse opioid maintenance therapy. Methadone is the most established treatment of pregnant opioid-dependent women, though recent results indicate some advantages of buprenorphine, slow-release oral methadone and diamorphine compared with methadone. Benzodiazepines seem to be the most recommendable option for managing alcohol withdrawal, and psychosocial interventions succeed in reducing alcohol consumption or in maintaining abstinence in alcohol-dependent pregnant women. Regarding opioid dependence, current results suggest that factors like the health status of the mother, the need for additional medications (e.g. treatment for HIV), comorbid drug dependence, and concurrent drug use need to be considered in order to find the 'best opioid substitute'.

  17. Parenting or Placing: Decision Making by Pregnant Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Rosalind J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines teenage decision making for resolution of an unplanned pregnancy and the predictors of both the initial plan and the consistency of the adoption plan. Data from 162 pregnant adolescents reveal that the mother's preference strongly predicts the initial plan, and the birthfather's preference affects the consistency of adoption. (GLR)

  18. Exercising for Two. What's Safe for the Active Pregnant Woman?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jacqueline

    1992-01-01

    Clinical experience and recent research challenge the current standards of exercise duration and intensity for pregnant women. By carefully assessing patients' self-monitoring techniques, physicians can work with active women to create safe exercise programs during pregnancy. Safety guidelines for developing home exercise programs are included.…

  19. You are Pregnant! Food for Two. Workbook 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohrmann, Harriet

    This workbook is designed for use by girls enrolled in special classes for pregnant minors in high school. Through experiments and quizzes, it teaches the girls about food values, balanced meals, calories, and nutrition; and instructs the girls, through examples, what they should and should not eat to keep themselves healthy throughout their…

  20. Current Concepts in Nutrition--Pregnant Women and Premature Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Janet C.; Charlet, Sara

    1978-01-01

    Discusses energy and nutrient requirements of pregnant women with respect to kcal needs and vitamins B-6, folacin, vitamin E, and intake of certain trace elements. Also discusses nutritional needs of the premature infant and the ways of supplying these nutrients. (MA)

  1. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  2. Dilemmas in Managing Pregnant Women With Ebola: 2 Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Caluwaerts, Séverine; Fautsch, Tessy; Lagrou, Daphne; Moreau, Michel; Modet Camara, Alseny; Günther, Stephan; Di Caro, Antonino; Borremans, Benny; Raymond Koundouno, Fara; Akoi Bore, Joseph; Logue, Christopher H; Richter, Martin; Wölfel, Roman; Kuisma, Eeva; Kurth, Andreas; Thomas, Stephen; Burkhardt, Gillian; Erland, Elin; Lionetto, Fanshen; Lledo Weber, Patricia; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Macpherson, Hassan; Van Herp, Michel

    2016-04-01

    We report 2 cases of Ebola viral disease (EVD) in pregnant women who survived, initially with intact pregnancies. Respectively 31-32 days after negativation of the maternal blood EVD-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) both patients delivered a stillborn fetus with persistent EVD-PCR amniotic fluid positivity.

  3. Oxidative stress increased in pregnant women with iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Zendy Evelyn Olivo; Rufino, Sergio Cuellar; Tlaxcalteco, Esteban Hernández; Trejo, Cirenia Hernández; Campos, Raúl Martínez; Meza, Mónica Navarro; Rodríguez, Rocío Coutiño; Arroyo-Helguera, Omar

    2014-03-01

    Iodine is an essential element trace for the synthesis of maternal thyroid hormones needed to support normal fetal development; it also acts as an antioxidant directly or induce antioxidant enzymes indirectly. Iodine deficiency and oxidative stress are associated with pregnancy complications. This study aimed to assess the urinary iodine concentration and its relationship with the antioxidant and oxidative stress status during gestation. Pregnant women were consecutively recruited from an obstetric clinic during all gestation trimesters, and urinary iodine concentration, antioxidant, and oxidative stress were determined. Results showed that 70 % of pregnant women have optimal iodine levels (150-200 μg/L), while approximately 30 % showed mild iodine deficiency (50-99 μg/L). Oxidative stress was significantly higher, and the antioxidant status was also compromised as evidenced by decreased total antioxidant status and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in pregnant women with mild iodine deficiency than pregnant women with optimal iodine levels. Significant positive correlations were noted between optimal iodine levels and total antioxidant status. Oxidative stress was significantly correlated with mild iodine deficiency. However, no significant correlation was found between iodine levels and SOD and catalase activities. In conclusion, for the first time, these data suggest a correlation between iodine levels and the antioxidant status during pregnancy.

  4. [Prevalence of obesity in pregnant women of Canary Islands, Spain].

    PubMed

    Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Alemán-Perez, Nestor; García-Salvador, Jose Juan; González-Quesada, Alicia; García-Hernández, Jose Angel; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2011-04-23

    Different epidemiological studies have shown that maternal excess of weight during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy, childbirth and morbidity of the neonate. Prevalence of obesity in a pregnant population of Canary Islands is reported here. The group studied was an integrated cohort of all the pregnant women being followed-up at the Materno-Infant University Hospital of the Canarias [Hospital Universitario Materno-Infantil de Canarias; HUMIC] and who concluded their gestation during the year 2008 (n=6693). BMI was measured at the beginning of the pregnancy. 25.0% of the sample of pregnant women were overweight and 17.1% were obese, increasing both with age and not influenced with the educational level. The prevalence of obesity and overweight among pregnant women from the Canary Islands is high. Among the values available from other European countries, only the UK reported values greater than our study sample. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Exercising for Two. What's Safe for the Active Pregnant Woman?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jacqueline

    1992-01-01

    Clinical experience and recent research challenge the current standards of exercise duration and intensity for pregnant women. By carefully assessing patients' self-monitoring techniques, physicians can work with active women to create safe exercise programs during pregnancy. Safety guidelines for developing home exercise programs are included.…

  6. Health Care Resources for Children and Pregnant Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perloff, Janet D.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews evidence about health care resources currently available to children and pregnant women in the United States. Evidence suggests that the maldistribution of resources remains a serious threat to health care access for women and children at greatest risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and child morbidity and mortality. (SLD)

  7. Benznidazole Treatment of Chagasic Encephalitis in Pregnant Woman with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Altcheh, Jaime; Lattner, Jorge; Moscatelli, Guillermo; Fink, Valeria; Burgos, Juan M.; Bournissen, Facundo García; Schijman, Alejandro G.; Freilij, Héctor

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of chagasic meningoencephalitis reactivation in a pregnant woman co-infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and HIV that was successfully managed with benznidazole and highly active antiretroviral therapy. Early diagnosis enabled rapid specific treatment that improved the health of the patient and her baby. PMID:23965334

  8. Fear of inability to conceive in pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    White, Emily; Rosengard, Cynthia; Weitzen, Sherry; Meers, Ann; Phipps, Maureen G

    2006-12-01

    To estimate the demographic and health history differences between pregnant adolescents who had fears that they would not be able to conceive and those without these fears. Three hundred pregnant adolescents presenting for their first prenatal visit participated in a cohort study that addressed attitudes about pregnancy. All participants were aged younger than 20 years and gave informed consent. The outcome of interest was a positive response to the question "Did you have any fears that you wouldn't be able to get pregnant?" Independent measures included health history and demographic variables. Among participants, 42% stated they had fears about not being able to conceive. The total sample included 20% 12-15 year olds, 39% 16-17 year olds and 41% 18-19 year-olds. There was no statistically significant difference in fear of not being able to conceive by maternal age, reported sexually transmitted disease rates, or age at first intercourse. More adolescents who expressed fear of infertility had a previous spontaneous abortion, previous pelvic examination, and were sexually active for a longer period of time compared with those without this fear. A large proportion of pregnant adolescents in this study expressed fear that they would not be able to conceive. Understanding the basis of the fear is critical to appreciating its association with current and future adolescent pregnancy and contraceptive use. III.

  9. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  10. Herpes simplex virus oesophagitis in a pregnant woman.

    PubMed

    Remmelts, H H F; van den Brink, J-W; Laan, R; Bac, D-J

    2011-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) oesophagitis is well described in immunocompromised patients. In immunocompetent individuals HSV oesophagitis is rare. We present a case of HSV oesophagitis in a pregnant woman. A possible explanation for HSV oesophagitis during pregnancy is the decreased cellular immunity, leading to an increased frequency and severity of viral infections. Antiviral therapy is advocated in pregnancy.

  11. Prenatal Vitamins: OK for Women Who Aren't Pregnant?

    MedlinePlus

    ... plan to become pregnant? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. You may be tempted to take ... any sort isn't necessary. With Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. References 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for ...

  12. Pregnancy resolutions among pregnant teens: termination, parenting or adoption?

    PubMed

    Loke, Alice Yuen; Lam, Pui-Ling

    2014-12-19

    Teenagers are unprepared to face or to deal with an unexpected pregnancy. Adolescents do not necessarily possess the cognitive ability needed to clearly evaluate such a situation or to determine how to resolve their pregnancy. This study seeks to shed light on what pregnant adolescents consider when coming to a decision about what to do about their pregnancy. In-depth interviews were conducted among a purposive sample of Hong Kong Chinese women recruited from a Maternal and Child Health Centre, who had a history of being pregnant in their teens and out of wedlock. Interviews were conducted to explore the considerations surrounding their decision on how to resolve their pregnancy. A total of nine women were interviewed. An analysis of the interview transcripts revealed that to arrive at a decision on what to do about their pregnancy, pregnant teens took into consideration their relationship with their boyfriend, their family's advice or support, practical considerations, their personal values in life, and views on adoption. The results of this study results highlighted that during this life-altering event for adolescents, an open discussion should take place among all of the parties concerned. A better understanding of each party's perspective would allow for better decision making on the resolution of the pregnancy. Health professionals or social workers are there to help pregnant adolescents, romantic partners, and family members make informed choices on how to resolve the pregnancy.

  13. A Socioecological Framework to Assessing Depression Among Pregnant Teens.

    PubMed

    Buzi, Ruth S; Smith, Peggy B; Kozinetz, Claudia A; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Wiemann, Constance M

    2015-10-01

    To examine individual, interpersonal, family, and community correlates associated with moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms among pregnant adolescents. A total of 249 primarily African American and Hispanic pregnant adolescents ages 15-18 years were recruited into either an intervention group utilizing Centering Pregnancy prenatal care and case management, or to a comparison group receiving case management only. Moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms were defined as a score ≥16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Intervention and comparison groups did not significantly differ on demographic characteristics or depression scores at baseline. A total of 115 (46.1 %) participants met criteria for moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms at entry into the program. Pregnant adolescents who were moderately-to-severely depressed were more likely to be African American, to have reported limited contact with the father of the baby, and to have experienced prior verbal, physical or sexual abuse. Depressed adolescents also experienced high levels of family criticism, low levels of general support, and exposure to community violence. A significant number of pregnant adolescents were affected by depression and other challenges that could affect their health. Comprehensive interventions addressing these challenges and incorporating partners and families are needed.

  14. Yeast Infection and Diabetes Mellitus among Pregnant Mother in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Sopian, Iylia Liyana; Shahabudin, Sa’adiah; Ahmed,