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Sample records for prehistoric hunter-gatherer mobility

  1. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World

    PubMed Central

    Haas, W. Randall; Klink, Cynthia J.; Maggard, Greg J.; Aldenderfer, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare—behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation. PMID:26536241

  2. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    PubMed

    Haas, W Randall; Klink, Cynthia J; Maggard, Greg J; Aldenderfer, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.

  3. The ecological and evolutionary energetics of hunter-gatherer residential mobility.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Marcus J; Lobo, José; Rupley, Eric; Youn, Hyejin; West, Geoffrey B

    2016-05-06

    Residential mobility is a key aspect of hunter-gatherer foraging economies and therefore is an issue of central importance in hunter-gatherer studies. Hunter-gatherers vary widely in annual rates of residential mobility. Understanding the sources of this variation has long been of interest to anthropologists and archeologists. The vast majority of hunter-gatherers who are dependent on terrestrial plants and animals move camp multiple times a year because local foraging patches become depleted and food, material, and social resources are heterogeneously distributed through time and space. In some environments, particularly along coasts, where resources are abundant and predictable, hunter-gatherers often become effectively sedentary. But even in these special cases, a central question is how these societies have maintained viable foraging economies while reducing residential mobility to near zero.

  4. Hunter-gatherer residential mobility and the marginal value of rainforest patches.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, Vivek V; Kraft, Thomas S; Dominy, Nathaniel J; Endicott, Kirk M

    2017-03-21

    The residential mobility patterns of modern hunter-gatherers broadly reflect local resource availability, but the proximate ecological and social forces that determine the timing of camp movements are poorly known. We tested the hypothesis that the timing of such moves maximizes foraging efficiency as hunter-gatherers move across the landscape. The marginal value theorem predicts when a group should depart a camp and its associated foraging area and move to another based on declining marginal return rates. This influential model has yet to be directly applied in a population of hunter-gatherers, primarily because the shape of gain curves (cumulative resource acquisition through time) and travel times between patches have been difficult to estimate in ethnographic settings. We tested the predictions of the marginal value theorem in the context of hunter-gatherer residential mobility using historical foraging data from nomadic, socially egalitarian Batek hunter-gatherers (n = 93 d across 11 residential camps) living in the tropical rainforests of Peninsular Malaysia. We characterized the gain functions for all resources acquired by the Batek at daily timescales and examined how patterns of individual foraging related to the emergent property of residential movements. Patterns of camp residence times conformed well with the predictions of the marginal value theorem, indicating that communal perceptions of resource depletion are closely linked to collective movement decisions. Despite (and perhaps because of) a protracted process of deliberation and argument about when to depart camps, Batek residential mobility seems to maximize group-level foraging efficiency.

  5. Origin and Diet of the Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers on the Mediterranean Island of Favignana (Ègadi Islands, Sicily)

    PubMed Central

    Mannino, Marcello A.; Catalano, Giulio; Talamo, Sahra; Mannino, Giovanni; Di Salvo, Rosaria; Schimmenti, Vittoria; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Messina, Andrea; Petruso, Daria; Caramelli, David; Richards, Michael P.; Sineo, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Hunter-gatherers living in Europe during the transition from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene intensified food acquisition by broadening the range of resources exploited to include marine taxa. However, little is known on the nature of this dietary change in the Mediterranean Basin. A key area to investigate this issue is the archipelago of the Ègadi Islands, most of which were connected to Sicily until the early Holocene. The site of Grotta d’Oriente, on the present-day island of Favignana, was occupied by hunter-gatherers when Postglacial environmental changes were taking place (14,000-7,500 cal BP). Here we present the results of AMS radiocarbon dating, palaeogenetic and isotopic analyses undertaken on skeletal remains of the humans buried at Grotta d’Oriente. Analyses of the mitochondrial hypervariable first region of individual Oriente B, which belongs to the HV-1 haplogroup, suggest for the first time on genetic grounds that humans living in Sicily during the early Holocene could have originated from groups that migrated from the Italian Peninsula around the Last Glacial Maximum. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses show that the Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers of Favignana consumed almost exclusively protein from terrestrial game and that there was only a slight increase in marine food consumption from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene. This dietary change was similar in scale to that at sites on mainland Sicily and in the rest of the Mediterranean, suggesting that the hunter-gatherers of Grotta d’Oriente did not modify their subsistence strategies specifically to adapt to the progressive isolation of Favignana. The limited development of technologies for intensively exploiting marine resources was probably a consequence both of Mediterranean oligotrophy and of the small effective population size of these increasingly isolated human groups, which made innovation less likely and prevented transmission of fitness

  6. High mobility explains demand sharing and enforced cooperation in egalitarian hunter-gatherers

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Hannah M.; Vinicius, Lucio; Strods, Janis; Mace, Ruth; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2014-01-01

    ‘Simple’ hunter-gatherer populations adopt the social norm of ‘demand sharing’, an example of human hyper-cooperation whereby food brought into camps is claimed and divided by group members. Explaining how demand sharing evolved without punishment to free riders, who rarely hunt but receive resources from active hunters, has been a long-standing problem. Here we show through a simulation model that demand-sharing families that continuously move between camps in response to their energy income are able to survive in unpredictable environments typical of hunter-gatherers, while non-sharing families and sedentary families perish. Our model also predicts that non-producers (free riders, pre-adults and post-productive adults) can be sustained in relatively high numbers. As most of hominin pre-history evolved in hunter-gatherer settings, demand sharing may be an ancestral manifestation of hyper-cooperation and inequality aversion, allowing exploration of high-quality, hard-to-acquire resources, the evolution of fluid co-residence patterns and egalitarian resource distribution in the absence of punishment or warfare. PMID:25511874

  7. High mobility explains demand sharing and enforced cooperation in egalitarian hunter-gatherers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Hannah M; Vinicius, Lucio; Strods, Janis; Mace, Ruth; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2014-12-16

    'Simple' hunter-gatherer populations adopt the social norm of 'demand sharing', an example of human hyper-cooperation whereby food brought into camps is claimed and divided by group members. Explaining how demand sharing evolved without punishment to free riders, who rarely hunt but receive resources from active hunters, has been a long-standing problem. Here we show through a simulation model that demand-sharing families that continuously move between camps in response to their energy income are able to survive in unpredictable environments typical of hunter-gatherers, while non-sharing families and sedentary families perish. Our model also predicts that non-producers (free riders, pre-adults and post-productive adults) can be sustained in relatively high numbers. As most of hominin pre-history evolved in hunter-gatherer settings, demand sharing may be an ancestral manifestation of hyper-cooperation and inequality aversion, allowing exploration of high-quality, hard-to-acquire resources, the evolution of fluid co-residence patterns and egalitarian resource distribution in the absence of punishment or warfare.

  8. Modelling mechanisms of social network maintenance in hunter-gatherers

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Eiluned

    2014-01-01

    Due to decreasing resource densities, higher latitude hunter-gatherers need to maintain their social networks over greater geographic distances than their equatorial counterparts. This suggests that as latitude increases, the frequency of face-to-face interaction decreases for ‘weak tie’ relationships in the outer mating pool (~500-strong) and tribal (~1500-strong) layers of a hunter-gatherer social network. A key question, then, is how a hunter-gatherer tribe sustains coherence as a single identifiable unit given that members are distributed across a large geographic area. The first step in answering this question is to establish whether the expectation that network maintenance raises a challenge for hunter-gatherers is correct, or whether sustaining inter-group contact is in fact trivial. Here I present a null model that represents mobile groups as randomly and independently moving gas particles. The aim of this model is to examine whether face-to-face contact can be maintained with every member of an individual’s tribe at all latitudes even under the baseline assumption of random movement. Contrary to baseline expectations, the number of encounters between groups predicted by the gas model cannot support tribal cohesion and is significantly negatively associated with absolute latitude. In addition, above ~40 degrees latitude random mobility no longer produces a sufficient number of encounters between groups to maintain contact across the 500-strong mating pool. These model predictions suggest that the outermost layers of hunter-gatherers’ social networks may require additional mechanisms of support in the form of strategies that either enhance encounter rates, such as coordinated mobility patterns, or lessen the need for face-to-face interaction, such as the use of symbolic artefacts to represent social affiliations. Given the predicted decline in encounters away from the equator, such additional supports might be most strongly expressed at high

  9. Inter-group violence among early Holocene hunter-gatherers of West Turkana, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mirazón Lahr, M; Rivera, F; Power, R K; Mounier, A; Copsey, B; Crivellaro, F; Edung, J E; Maillo Fernandez, J M; Kiarie, C; Lawrence, J; Leakey, A; Mbua, E; Miller, H; Muigai, A; Mukhongo, D M; Van Baelen, A; Wood, R; Schwenninger, J-L; Grün, R; Achyuthan, H; Wilshaw, A; Foley, R A

    2016-01-21

    The nature of inter-group relations among prehistoric hunter-gatherers remains disputed, with arguments in favour and against the existence of warfare before the development of sedentary societies. Here we report on a case of inter-group violence towards a group of hunter-gatherers from Nataruk, west of Lake Turkana, which during the late Pleistocene/early Holocene period extended about 30 km beyond its present-day shore. Ten of the twelve articulated skeletons found at Nataruk show evidence of having died violently at the edge of a lagoon, into which some of the bodies fell. The remains from Nataruk are unique, preserved by the particular conditions of the lagoon with no evidence of deliberate burial. They offer a rare glimpse into the life and death of past foraging people, and evidence that warfare was part of the repertoire of inter-group relations among prehistoric hunter-gatherers.

  10. Macrophysical climate models and Holocene hunter-gatherer subsistence shifts in Central Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauldin, R. P.; Munoz, C.

    2013-12-01

    We use stable carbon isotopic values from bone collagen, as well as carbon values from carbonate extracted from bone apatite from 69 prehistoric human skeletal samples to investigate past resource use and climate relationships over the Middle and Late Holocene in Central Texas. Bone samples come from seven archaeological sites and samples date from 6,900 BP to the close of the prehistoric sequence at about 350 BP. Carbon isotopes from these samples suggest four broad dietary trends. From 6,900 through about 3,800 BP, carbon isotopes suggest a gradual increase in the consumption of resources that ultimately use a C3 photosynthetic pathway. A decline in δ13C in both collagen and carbonate values follows, suggesting a decrease in C3 resource use through roughly 2,900 BP. A variable, but once again increasing pattern on C3 resource use by prehistoric hunter-gatherers is indicated in bone isotopes through about 1,000 BP. After that date, a decrease in C3 resource dependence, with hints at greater subsistence diversity, is suggested through the close of the sequence at 350 BP. To assess the impact of climate shifts on this isotopic pattern, we developed a series of macrophysical climate models (MCM) for several locations in Central Texas focusing on fall, winter, and early spring precipitation. This fall-spring rainfall should closely determine C3 production. If subsistence shifts are responding to climate-induced changes in resource availability, then the measured hunter-gatherer carbon isotope trends summarized above should pattern with C3 production as monitored by the modeled fall-spring precipitation values. For the Middle Holocene portion of the sequence, the precipitation models suggest increasing C3 production, consistent with increasing C3 dependence shown in the isotopic data. A decline in C3 production between 3,900 and 3,000 BP in the models is also consistent with the isotopic decline at that point. After 3,000 BP, however, the coupling between fall

  11. Play as a Foundation for Hunter-Gatherer Social Existence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The author offers the thesis that hunter-gatherers promoted, through cultural means, the playful side of their human nature and this made possible their egalitarian, nonautocratic, intensely cooperative ways of living. Hunter-gatherer bands, with their fluid membership, are likened to social-play groups, which people could freely join or leave.…

  12. Gradients of occlusal wear in hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists.

    PubMed

    Deter, Christina A

    2009-03-01

    Occlusal wear was recorded in maxillary teeth from three North American late Archaic (3385 +/- 365 cal BC) hunter-gatherer sites (n = 306) and late Anasazi-early Zuni agricultural sites ( approximately 1300 AD) (n = 87). Comparisons were undertaken using descriptive and inferential statistics to determine differences between these groups, and along the maxillary tooth row. The hunter-gatherers had a significantly greater percentage of occlusal wear than the agriculturalists. For both hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists, occlusal wear was greatest on the central incisors and first molars. The third molars had the least amount of wear. It was inferred from these results that the hunter-gatherers had a more abrasive diet, and different daily task activities compared to the agriculturalists. One further finding was that wear patterns on anterior and posterior teeth are influenced by the order that teeth erupt into the jaw, as well as diet and behavior.

  13. Hunter-gatherers have less famine than agriculturalists.

    PubMed

    Berbesque, J Colette; Marlowe, Frank W; Shaw, Peter; Thompson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The idea that hunter-gatherer societies experience more frequent famine than societies with other modes of subsistence is pervasive in the literature on human evolution. This idea underpins, for example, the 'thrifty genotype hypothesis'. This hypothesis proposes that our hunter-gatherer ancestors were adapted to frequent famines, and that these once adaptive 'thrifty genotypes' are now responsible for the current obesity epidemic. The suggestion that hunter-gatherers are more prone to famine also underlies the widespread assumption that these societies live in marginal habitats. Despite the ubiquity of references to 'feast and famine' in the literature describing our hunter-gatherer ancestors, it has rarely been tested whether hunter-gatherers suffer from more famine than other societies. Here, we analyse famine frequency and severity in a large cross-cultural database, in order to explore relationships between subsistence and famine risk. This is the first study to report that, if we control for habitat quality, hunter-gatherers actually had significantly less--not more--famine than other subsistence modes. This finding challenges some of the assumptions underlying for models of the evolution of the human diet, as well as our understanding of the recent epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  14. Ancient DNA reveals lack of continuity between neolithic hunter-gatherers and contemporary Scandinavians.

    PubMed

    Malmström, Helena; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Thomas, Mark G; Brandström, Mikael; Storå, Jan; Molnar, Petra; Andersen, Pernille K; Bendixen, Christian; Holmlund, Gunilla; Götherström, Anders; Willerslev, Eske

    2009-11-03

    The driving force behind the transition from a foraging to a farming lifestyle in prehistoric Europe (Neolithization) has been debated for more than a century [1-3]. Of particular interest is whether population replacement or cultural exchange was responsible [3-5]. Scandinavia holds a unique place in this debate, for it maintained one of the last major hunter-gatherer complexes in Neolithic Europe, the Pitted Ware culture [6]. Intriguingly, these late hunter-gatherers existed in parallel to early farmers for more than a millennium before they vanished some 4,000 years ago [7, 8]. The prolonged coexistence of the two cultures in Scandinavia has been cited as an argument against population replacement between the Mesolithic and the present [7, 8]. Through analysis of DNA extracted from ancient Scandinavian human remains, we show that people of the Pitted Ware culture were not the direct ancestors of modern Scandinavians (including the Saami people of northern Scandinavia) but are more closely related to contemporary populations of the eastern Baltic region. Our findings support hypotheses arising from archaeological analyses that propose a Neolithic or post-Neolithic population replacement in Scandinavia [7]. Furthermore, our data are consistent with the view that the eastern Baltic represents a genetic refugia for some of the European hunter-gatherer populations.

  15. Wealth Transmission and Inequality Among Hunter-Gatherers

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kim; Marlowe, Frank; Nolin, David; Wiessner, Polly; Gurven, Michael; Bowles, Samuel; Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Hertz, Tom; Bell, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    We report quantitative estimates of intergenerational transmission and population-wide inequality for wealth measures in a set of hunter-gatherer populations. Wealth is defined broadly as factors that contribute to individual or household well-being, ranging from embodied forms such as weight and hunting success to material forms such household goods, as well as relational wealth in exchange partners. Intergenerational wealth transmission is low to moderate in these populations, but is still expected to have measurable influence on an individual’s life chances. Wealth inequality (measured with Gini coefficients) is moderate for most wealth types, matching what qualitative ethnographic research has generally indicated (if not the stereotype of hunter-gatherers as extreme egalitarians). We discuss some plausible mechanisms for these patterns, and suggest ways in which future research could resolve questions about the role of wealth in hunter-gatherer social and economic life. PMID:21151711

  16. Human behavior. Sex equality can explain the unique social structure of hunter-gatherer bands.

    PubMed

    Dyble, M; Salali, G D; Chaudhary, N; Page, A; Smith, D; Thompson, J; Vinicius, L; Mace, R; Migliano, A B

    2015-05-15

    The social organization of mobile hunter-gatherers has several derived features, including low within-camp relatedness and fluid meta-groups. Although these features have been proposed to have provided the selective context for the evolution of human hypercooperation and cumulative culture, how such a distinctive social system may have emerged remains unclear. We present an agent-based model suggesting that, even if all individuals in a community seek to live with as many kin as possible, within-camp relatedness is reduced if men and women have equal influence in selecting camp members. Our model closely approximates observed patterns of co-residence among Agta and Mbendjele BaYaka hunter-gatherers. Our results suggest that pair-bonding and increased sex egalitarianism in human evolutionary history may have had a transformative effect on human social organization.

  17. Camp stability predicts patterns of hunter-gatherer cooperation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel; Dyble, Mark; Thompson, James; Major, Katie; Page, Abigail E; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Salali, Gul Deniz; Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg; Mace, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    Humans regularly cooperate with non-kin, which has been theorized to require reciprocity between repeatedly interacting and trusting individuals. However, the role of repeated interactions has not previously been demonstrated in explaining real-world patterns of hunter-gatherer cooperation. Here we explore cooperation among the Agta, a population of Filipino hunter-gatherers, using data from both actual resource transfers and two experimental games across multiple camps. Patterns of cooperation vary greatly between camps and depend on socio-ecological context. Stable camps (with fewer changes in membership over time) were associated with greater reciprocal sharing, indicating that an increased likelihood of future interactions facilitates reciprocity. This is the first study reporting an association between reciprocal cooperation and hunter-gatherer band stability. Under conditions of low camp stability individuals still acquire resources from others, but do so via demand sharing (taking from others), rather than based on reciprocal considerations. Hunter-gatherer cooperation may either be characterized as reciprocity or demand sharing depending on socio-ecological conditions.

  18. Librarians as Hunter-Gatherers: Lessons Learned from an Excursion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Mindy M.

    2013-01-01

    Fueled by the pressing need for electronic resource usage statistics, librarians are finding themselves being thrust into the role of hunter-gatherer. This article discusses the work done at University Library at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis to provide usage statistics for all its paid subscriptions for a 3-year period. The…

  19. Using obsidian transfer distances to explore social network maintenance in late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Eiluned; Moutsiou, Theodora

    2014-01-01

    Social behaviour is notoriously difficult to study archaeologically and it is unclear how large the networks of prehistoric humans were, or how they remained connected. Maintaining social cohesion was crucial for early humans because social networks facilitate cooperation and are imperative for survival and reproduction. Recent hunter-gatherer social organisation typically comprises a number of nested layers, ranging from the nuclear family through to the ~1500-strong ethnolinguistic tribe. Here we compare maximum obsidian transfer distances from the late Pleistocene with ethnographic data on the size of the geographic areas associated with each of these social grouping layers in recent hunter-gatherers. The closest match between the two is taken to indicate the maximum social layer within which contact could be sustained by Pleistocene hominins. Within both the (sub)tropical African and Subarctic biomes, the maximum obsidian transfer distances for Pleistocene modern humans (~200km and ~400km respectively) correspond to the geographic ranges of the outermost tribal layer in recent hunter-gatherers. This suggests that modern humans could potentially sustain the cohesion of their entire tribe at all latitudes, even though networks are more dispersed nearer the poles. Neanderthal obsidian transfer distances (300km) indicate that although Neanderthal home ranges are larger than those of low latitude hominins, Neanderthals travelled shorter distances than modern humans living at the same high latitudes. We argue that, like modern humans, Neanderthals could have maintained tribal cohesion, but that their tribes were substantially smaller than those of contemporary modern humans living in similar environments. The greater time taken to traverse the larger modern human tribal ranges may have limited the frequency of their face-to-face interactions and thus necessitated additional mechanisms to ensure network connectivity, such as the exchange of symbolic artefacts

  20. Using obsidian transfer distances to explore social network maintenance in late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Eiluned; Moutsiou, Theodora

    2014-12-01

    Social behaviour is notoriously difficult to study archaeologically and it is unclear how large the networks of prehistoric humans were, or how they remained connected. Maintaining social cohesion was crucial for early humans because social networks facilitate cooperation and are imperative for survival and reproduction. Recent hunter-gatherer social organisation typically comprises a number of nested layers, ranging from the nuclear family through to the ~1500-strong ethnolinguistic tribe. Here we compare maximum obsidian transfer distances from the late Pleistocene with ethnographic data on the size of the geographic areas associated with each of these social grouping layers in recent hunter-gatherers. The closest match between the two is taken to indicate the maximum social layer within which contact could be sustained by Pleistocene hominins. Within both the (sub)tropical African and Subarctic biomes, the maximum obsidian transfer distances for Pleistocene modern humans (~200km and ~400km respectively) correspond to the geographic ranges of the outermost tribal layer in recent hunter-gatherers. This suggests that modern humans could potentially sustain the cohesion of their entire tribe at all latitudes, even though networks are more dispersed nearer the poles. Neanderthal obsidian transfer distances (300km) indicate that although Neanderthal home ranges are larger than those of low latitude hominins, Neanderthals travelled shorter distances than modern humans living at the same high latitudes. We argue that, like modern humans, Neanderthals could have maintained tribal cohesion, but that their tribes were substantially smaller than those of contemporary modern humans living in similar environments. The greater time taken to traverse the larger modern human tribal ranges may have limited the frequency of their face-to-face interactions and thus necessitated additional mechanisms to ensure network connectivity, such as the exchange of symbolic artefacts

  1. Hunter-Gatherers and the Origins of Religion.

    PubMed

    Peoples, Hervey C; Duda, Pavel; Marlowe, Frank W

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies of the evolution of religion have revealed the cognitive underpinnings of belief in supernatural agents, the role of ritual in promoting cooperation, and the contribution of morally punishing high gods to the growth and stabilization of human society. The universality of religion across human society points to a deep evolutionary past. However, specific traits of nascent religiosity, and the sequence in which they emerged, have remained unknown. Here we reconstruct the evolution of religious beliefs and behaviors in early modern humans using a global sample of hunter-gatherers and seven traits describing hunter-gatherer religiosity: animism, belief in an afterlife, shamanism, ancestor worship, high gods, and worship of ancestors or high gods who are active in human affairs. We reconstruct ancestral character states using a time-calibrated supertree based on published phylogenetic trees and linguistic classification and then test for correlated evolution between the characters and for the direction of cultural change. Results indicate that the oldest trait of religion, present in the most recent common ancestor of present-day hunter-gatherers, was animism, in agreement with long-standing beliefs about the fundamental role of this trait. Belief in an afterlife emerged, followed by shamanism and ancestor worship. Ancestor spirits or high gods who are active in human affairs were absent in early humans, suggesting a deep history for the egalitarian nature of hunter-gatherer societies. There is a significant positive relationship between most characters investigated, but the trait "high gods" stands apart, suggesting that belief in a single creator deity can emerge in a society regardless of other aspects of its religion.

  2. Metagenome Sequencing of the Hadza Hunter-Gatherer Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Rampelli, Simone; Schnorr, Stephanie L; Consolandi, Clarissa; Turroni, Silvia; Severgnini, Marco; Peano, Clelia; Brigidi, Patrizia; Crittenden, Alyssa N; Henry, Amanda G; Candela, Marco

    2015-06-29

    Through human microbiome sequencing, we can better understand how host evolutionary and ontogenetic history is reflected in the microbial function. However, there has been no information on the gut metagenome configuration in hunter-gatherer populations, posing a gap in our knowledge of gut microbiota (GM)-host mutualism arising from a lifestyle that describes over 90% of human evolutionary history. Here, we present the first metagenomic analysis of GM from Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania, showing a unique enrichment in metabolic pathways that aligns with the dietary and environmental factors characteristic of their foraging lifestyle. We found that the Hadza GM is adapted for broad-spectrum carbohydrate metabolism, reflecting the complex polysaccharides in their diet. Furthermore, the Hadza GM is equipped for branched-chain amino acid degradation and aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. Resistome functionality demonstrates the existence of antibiotic resistance genes in a population with little antibiotic exposure, indicating the ubiquitous presence of environmentally derived resistances. Our results demonstrate how the functional specificity of the GM correlates with certain environment and lifestyle factors and how complexity from the exogenous environment can be balanced by endogenous homeostasis. The Hadza gut metagenome structure allows us to appreciate the co-adaptive functional role of the GM in complementing the human physiology, providing a better understanding of the versatility of human life and subsistence.

  3. Twenty Thousand-Year-Old Huts at a Hunter-Gatherer Settlement in Eastern Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Lisa A.; Richter, Tobias; Macdonald, Danielle; Jones, Matthew D.; Martin, Louise; Stock, Jay T.

    2012-01-01

    Ten thousand years before Neolithic farmers settled in permanent villages, hunter-gatherer groups of the Epipalaeolithic period (c. 22–11,600 cal BP) inhabited much of southwest Asia. The latest Epipalaeolithic phase (Natufian) is well-known for the appearance of stone-built houses, complex site organization, a sedentary lifestyle and social complexity—precursors for a Neolithic way of life. In contrast, pre-Natufian sites are much less well known and generally considered as campsites for small groups of seasonally-mobile hunter-gatherers. Work at the Early and Middle Epipalaeolithic aggregation site of Kharaneh IV in eastern Jordan highlights that some of these earlier sites were large aggregation base camps not unlike those of the Natufian and contributes to ongoing debates on their duration of occupation. Here we discuss the excavation of two 20,000-year-old hut structures at Kharaneh IV that pre-date the renowned stone houses of the Natufian. Exceptionally dense and extensive occupational deposits exhibit repeated habitation over prolonged periods, and contain structural remains associated with exotic and potentially symbolic caches of objects (shell, red ochre, and burnt horn cores) that indicate substantial settlement of the site pre-dating the Natufian and outside of the Natufian homeland as currently understood. PMID:22355366

  4. Gut microbiome of the Hadza hunter-gatherers

    PubMed Central

    Schnorr, Stephanie L.; Candela, Marco; Rampelli, Simone; Centanni, Manuela; Consolandi, Clarissa; Basaglia, Giulia; Turroni, Silvia; Biagi, Elena; Peano, Clelia; Severgnini, Marco; Fiori, Jessica; Gotti, Roberto; De Bellis, Gianluca; Luiselli, Donata; Brigidi, Patrizia; Mabulla, Audax; Marlowe, Frank; Henry, Amanda G.; Crittenden, Alyssa N.

    2014-01-01

    Human gut microbiota directly influences health and provides an extra means of adaptive potential to different lifestyles. To explore variation in gut microbiota and to understand how these bacteria may have co-evolved with humans, here we investigate the phylogenetic diversity and metabolite production of the gut microbiota from a community of human hunter-gatherers, the Hadza of Tanzania. We show that the Hadza have higher levels of microbial richness and biodiversity than Italian urban controls. Further comparisons with two rural farming African groups illustrate other features unique to Hadza that can be linked to a foraging lifestyle. These include absence of Bifidobacterium and differences in microbial composition between the sexes that probably reflect sexual division of labour. Furthermore, enrichment in Prevotella, Treponema and unclassified Bacteroidetes, as well as a peculiar arrangement of Clostridiales taxa, may enhance the Hadza’s ability to digest and extract valuable nutrition from fibrous plant foods. PMID:24736369

  5. Food Sharing among Hadza Hunter-Gatherer Children.

    PubMed

    Crittenden, Alyssa N; Zes, David A

    2015-01-01

    Human prosociality is one of the defining characteristics of our species, yet the ontogeny of altruistic behavior remains poorly understood. The evolution of widespread food sharing in humans helped shape cooperation, family formation, life history, language, and the development of economies of scale. While the behavioral and ecological correlates of food sharing among adults are widely studied, very little is known about food sharing among children. Here, in the first study to analyze the food sharing patterns of hunter-gatherer children, we show that while sharing may be biased towards kin, reciprocity characterizes the majority of all sharing dyads, both related and unrelated. These data lend support to the recent claim that discrimination among kin might be linked with reciprocal altruism theory. Furthermore, we show that age positively correlates with an increase in sharing, both in frequency and amount, supporting recent suggestions that prosocial behaviors and egalitarianism develop strongly in middle childhood when children acquire the normative rules of their society.

  6. Gut microbiome of the Hadza hunter-gatherers.

    PubMed

    Schnorr, Stephanie L; Candela, Marco; Rampelli, Simone; Centanni, Manuela; Consolandi, Clarissa; Basaglia, Giulia; Turroni, Silvia; Biagi, Elena; Peano, Clelia; Severgnini, Marco; Fiori, Jessica; Gotti, Roberto; De Bellis, Gianluca; Luiselli, Donata; Brigidi, Patrizia; Mabulla, Audax; Marlowe, Frank; Henry, Amanda G; Crittenden, Alyssa N

    2014-04-15

    Human gut microbiota directly influences health and provides an extra means of adaptive potential to different lifestyles. To explore variation in gut microbiota and to understand how these bacteria may have co-evolved with humans, here we investigate the phylogenetic diversity and metabolite production of the gut microbiota from a community of human hunter-gatherers, the Hadza of Tanzania. We show that the Hadza have higher levels of microbial richness and biodiversity than Italian urban controls. Further comparisons with two rural farming African groups illustrate other features unique to Hadza that can be linked to a foraging lifestyle. These include absence of Bifidobacterium and differences in microbial composition between the sexes that probably reflect sexual division of labour. Furthermore, enrichment in Prevotella, Treponema and unclassified Bacteroidetes, as well as a peculiar arrangement of Clostridiales taxa, may enhance the Hadza's ability to digest and extract valuable nutrition from fibrous plant foods.

  7. Costs and benefits in hunter-gatherer punishment.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    Hunter-gatherer punishment involves costs and benefits to individuals and groups, but the costs do not necessarily fit with the assumptions made in models that consider punishment to be altruistic--which brings in the free-rider problem and the problem of second-order free-riders. In this commentary, I present foragers' capital punishment patterns ethnographically, in the interest of establishing whether such punishment is likely to be costly; and I suggest that in many cases abstentions from punishment that might be taken as defections by free-riders are actually caused by social-structural considerations rather than being an effect of free-rider genes. This presentation of data supplements the ethnographic analysis provided by Guala.

  8. Social networks and cooperation in hunter-gatherers.

    PubMed

    Apicella, Coren L; Marlowe, Frank W; Fowler, James H; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2012-01-25

    Social networks show striking structural regularities, and both theory and evidence suggest that networks may have facilitated the development of large-scale cooperation in humans. Here, we characterize the social networks of the Hadza, a population of hunter-gatherers in Tanzania. We show that Hadza networks have important properties also seen in modernized social networks, including a skewed degree distribution, degree assortativity, transitivity, reciprocity, geographic decay and homophily. We demonstrate that Hadza camps exhibit high between-group and low within-group variation in public goods game donations. Network ties are also more likely between people who give the same amount, and the similarity in cooperative behaviour extends up to two degrees of separation. Social distance appears to be as important as genetic relatedness and physical proximity in explaining assortativity in cooperation. Our results suggest that certain elements of social network structure may have been present at an early point in human history. Also, early humans may have formed ties with both kin and non-kin, based in part on their tendency to cooperate. Social networks may thus have contributed to the emergence of cooperation.

  9. Food Sharing among Hadza Hunter-Gatherer Children

    PubMed Central

    Crittenden, Alyssa N.; Zes, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Human prosociality is one of the defining characteristics of our species, yet the ontogeny of altruistic behavior remains poorly understood. The evolution of widespread food sharing in humans helped shape cooperation, family formation, life history, language, and the development of economies of scale. While the behavioral and ecological correlates of food sharing among adults are widely studied, very little is known about food sharing among children. Here, in the first study to analyze the food sharing patterns of hunter-gatherer children, we show that while sharing may be biased towards kin, reciprocity characterizes the majority of all sharing dyads, both related and unrelated. These data lend support to the recent claim that discrimination among kin might be linked with reciprocal altruism theory. Furthermore, we show that age positively correlates with an increase in sharing, both in frequency and amount, supporting recent suggestions that prosocial behaviors and egalitarianism develop strongly in middle childhood when children acquire the normative rules of their society. PMID:26151637

  10. Enterocyte-Associated Microbiome of the Hadza Hunter-Gatherers

    PubMed Central

    Turroni, Silvia; Rampelli, Simone; Centanni, Manuela; Schnorr, Stephanie L.; Consolandi, Clarissa; Severgnini, Marco; Peano, Clelia; Soverini, Matteo; Falconi, Mirella; Crittenden, Alyssa N.; Henry, Amanda G.; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

    2016-01-01

    By means of a recently developed non-invasive ex vivo minimal model based on the interaction of the human enterocyte-like HT29 cell line and fecal slurries, we explored the enterocyte-associated microbiome of 21 Hadza hunter-gatherers and nine urban living Italians. Though reductionist, this model allows inferring the microbiota structural and functional arrangement as it interacts with enterocytes. Microbial suspensions obtained from Hadza or Italian stools were first evaluated for structural integrity by high resolution-scanning electron microscopy and co-incubated with HT29 cell monolayers. The enterocyte adherent microbiota fraction was then characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and predictive functional profiling using PICRUSt. Compared to Italians, the Hadza enterocyte-associated microbiome was characterized by a greater amount of adhesive microorganisms with pathogenic potential, such as Proteobacteria, Erysipelotrichaceae, Enterococcus, Clostridium and Sarcina. These compositional characteristics were reflected in a functional enrichment in membrane transport, signal transduction, signaling molecules and interaction. Our results depict a new interesting mutualistic configuration of the enterocyte-associated microbiome in Hadza, stressing the importance of microbe-host interaction at the mucosal surface along the course of human evolution. PMID:27375586

  11. Adaptive memory: fitness relevance and the hunter-gatherer mind.

    PubMed

    Nairne, James S; Pandeirada, Josefa N S; Gregory, Karie J; Van Arsdall, Joshua E

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that human memory systems are "tuned" to remember information that is processed in terms of its fitness value. When people are asked to rate the relevance of words to a survival scenario, performance on subsequent surprise memory tests exceeds that obtained after most other known encoding techniques. The present experiments explored this effect using survival scenarios designed to mimic the division of labor thought to characterize early hunter-gatherer societies. It has been suggested that males and females have different cognitive specializations due to the unique survival tasks (hunting and gathering, respectively) they typically performed during periods of human evolution; the present experiments tested whether such specializations might be apparent in memory for words rated for relevance to these activities. Males and females were asked to rate the relevance of random words to prototypical hunting and gathering scenarios or to matched, non-fitness-relevant control scenarios (gathering food on a scavenger hunt or in a hunting contest). Surprise retention tests revealed superior memory for the words when they were rated for relevance to hunting and gathering scenarios, compared with when they were rated for relevance to the control scenarios, but no sex differences were found in memory performance.

  12. Inferring the demographic history of African farmers and pygmy hunter-gatherers using a multilocus resequencing data set.

    PubMed

    Patin, Etienne; Laval, Guillaume; Barreiro, Luis B; Salas, Antonio; Semino, Ornella; Santachiara-Benerecetti, Silvana; Kidd, Kenneth K; Kidd, Judith R; Van der Veen, Lolke; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Gessain, Antoine; Froment, Alain; Bahuchet, Serge; Heyer, Evelyne; Quintana-Murci, Lluís

    2009-04-01

    The transition from hunting and gathering to farming involved a major cultural innovation that has spread rapidly over most of the globe in the last ten millennia. In sub-Saharan Africa, hunter-gatherers have begun to shift toward an agriculture-based lifestyle over the last 5,000 years. Only a few populations still base their mode of subsistence on hunting and gathering. The Pygmies are considered to be the largest group of mobile hunter-gatherers of Africa. They dwell in equatorial rainforests and are characterized by their short mean stature. However, little is known about the chronology of the demographic events-size changes, population splits, and gene flow--ultimately giving rise to contemporary Pygmy (Western and Eastern) groups and neighboring agricultural populations. We studied the branching history of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and agricultural populations from Africa and estimated separation times and gene flow between these populations. We resequenced 24 independent noncoding regions across the genome, corresponding to a total of approximately 33 kb per individual, in 236 samples from seven Pygmy and five agricultural populations dispersed over the African continent. We used simulation-based inference to identify the historical model best fitting our data. The model identified included the early divergence of the ancestors of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and farming populations approximately 60,000 years ago, followed by a split of the Pygmies' ancestors into the Western and Eastern Pygmy groups approximately 20,000 years ago. Our findings increase knowledge of the history of the peopling of the African continent in a region lacking archaeological data. An appreciation of the demographic and adaptive history of African populations with different modes of subsistence should improve our understanding of the influence of human lifestyles on genome diversity.

  13. The roles and impacts of human hunter-gatherers in North Pacific marine food webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, Jennifer A.; Maschner, Herbert; Betts, Matthew W.; Huntly, Nancy; Russell, Roly; Williams, Richard J.; Wood, Spencer A.

    2016-02-01

    There is a nearly 10,000-year history of human presence in the western Gulf of Alaska, but little understanding of how human foragers integrated into and impacted ecosystems through their roles as hunter-gatherers. We present two highly resolved intertidal and nearshore food webs for the Sanak Archipelago in the eastern Aleutian Islands and use them to compare trophic roles of prehistoric humans to other species. We find that the native Aleut people played distinctive roles as super-generalist and highly-omnivorous consumers closely connected to other species. Although the human population was positioned to have strong effects, arrival and presence of Aleut people in the Sanak Archipelago does not appear associated with long-term extinctions. We simulated food web dynamics to explore to what degree introducing a species with trophic roles like those of an Aleut forager, and allowing for variable strong feeding to reflect use of hunting technology, is likely to trigger extinctions. Potential extinctions decreased when an invading omnivorous super-generalist consumer focused strong feeding on decreasing fractions of its possible resources. This study presents the first assessment of the structural roles of humans as consumers within complex ecological networks, and potential impacts of those roles and feeding behavior on associated extinctions.

  14. The roles and impacts of human hunter-gatherers in North Pacific marine food webs

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Jennifer A.; Maschner, Herbert; Betts, Matthew W.; Huntly, Nancy; Russell, Roly; Williams, Richard J.; Wood, Spencer A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a nearly 10,000-year history of human presence in the western Gulf of Alaska, but little understanding of how human foragers integrated into and impacted ecosystems through their roles as hunter-gatherers. We present two highly resolved intertidal and nearshore food webs for the Sanak Archipelago in the eastern Aleutian Islands and use them to compare trophic roles of prehistoric humans to other species. We find that the native Aleut people played distinctive roles as super-generalist and highly-omnivorous consumers closely connected to other species. Although the human population was positioned to have strong effects, arrival and presence of Aleut people in the Sanak Archipelago does not appear associated with long-term extinctions. We simulated food web dynamics to explore to what degree introducing a species with trophic roles like those of an Aleut forager, and allowing for variable strong feeding to reflect use of hunting technology, is likely to trigger extinctions. Potential extinctions decreased when an invading omnivorous super-generalist consumer focused strong feeding on decreasing fractions of its possible resources. This study presents the first assessment of the structural roles of humans as consumers within complex ecological networks, and potential impacts of those roles and feeding behavior on associated extinctions. PMID:26884149

  15. A Radiocarbon Chronology of Hunter-Gatherer Occupation from Bodega Bay, California, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, M A; Russell, A D; Guilderson, T P

    2005-04-27

    The evolution of hunter-gatherer maritime adaptations in western North America has been a prominent topic of discussion among archaeologists in recent years (e.g. Arnold 1992; Erlandson and Colten 1991; Erlandson and Glassow 1997; Lightfoot 1993). Although vast coastal regions of the northeastern Pacific (for example, southern California) have been investigated in detail, our understanding of hunter-gatherer developments along the coast of northern California is limited. Previous research indicates that humans have exploited marine mammals, fish and shellfish along the northern California shoreline since the early Holocene (Schwaderer 1992). By the end of the late Holocene, some groups remained year-round on the coast subsisting primarily on marine resources (e.g. Gould 1975; Hildebrandt and Levulett 2002). However, a paucity of well-dated cultural deposits has hindered our understanding of these developments, particularly during the early and middle Holocene. The lack of a long and reliable chronological sequence has restricted our interpretations of behavioral change, including the adaptive strategies (such as foraging, mobility and settlement) used by human foragers to colonize and inhabit the coastal areas of this region. These shortcomings have also hindered comparative interpretations with other coastal and inland regions in western North America. Here we present a Holocene radiocarbon chronology of hunter-gatherer occupation based on contemporaneous samples of charcoal and Mytilus californianus (California sea mussel) shell recovered from seven archaeological sites near Bodega Bay, California. A series of 127 {sup 14}C ages reveal a chronological sequence that spans from ca. 8940-110 cal BP (1{sigma}) (7890-160 {sup 14}C yr BP = charcoal; 8934-101 {sup 14}C yr BP = shell). As part of this sequence, we report new {sup 14}C dates from the stratified cave and open-air midden deposits at Duncan's Landing (CA-SON-348/H). In addition, we present {sup 14}C ages

  16. Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer diets.

    PubMed

    Cordain, L; Miller, J B; Eaton, S B; Mann, N; Holt, S H; Speth, J D

    2000-03-01

    Both anthropologists and nutritionists have long recognized that the diets of modern-day hunter-gatherers may represent a reference standard for modern human nutrition and a model for defense against certain diseases of affluence. Because the hunter-gatherer way of life is now probably extinct in its purely un-Westernized form, nutritionists and anthropologists must rely on indirect procedures to reconstruct the traditional diet of preagricultural humans. In this analysis, we incorporate the most recent ethnographic compilation of plant-to-animal economic subsistence patterns of hunter-gatherers to estimate likely dietary macronutrient intakes (% of energy) for environmentally diverse hunter-gatherer populations. Furthermore, we show how differences in the percentage of body fat in prey animals would alter protein intakes in hunter-gatherers and how a maximal protein ceiling influences the selection of other macronutrients. Our analysis showed that whenever and wherever it was ecologically possible, hunter-gatherers consumed high amounts (45-65% of energy) of animal food. Most (73%) of the worldwide hunter-gatherer societies derived >50% (> or =56-65% of energy) of their subsistence from animal foods, whereas only 14% of these societies derived >50% (> or =56-65% of energy) of their subsistence from gathered plant foods. This high reliance on animal-based foods coupled with the relatively low carbohydrate content of wild plant foods produces universally characteristic macronutrient consumption ratios in which protein is elevated (19-35% of energy) at the expense of carbohydrates (22-40% of energy).

  17. Genetic discontinuity between local hunter-gatherers and central Europe's first farmers.

    PubMed

    Bramanti, B; Thomas, M G; Haak, W; Unterlaender, M; Jores, P; Tambets, K; Antanaitis-Jacobs, I; Haidle, M N; Jankauskas, R; Kind, C-J; Lueth, F; Terberger, T; Hiller, J; Matsumura, S; Forster, P; Burger, J

    2009-10-02

    After the domestication of animals and crops in the Near East some 11,000 years ago, farming had reached much of central Europe by 7500 years before the present. The extent to which these early European farmers were immigrants or descendants of resident hunter-gatherers who had adopted farming has been widely debated. We compared new mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from late European hunter-gatherer skeletons with those from early farmers and from modern Europeans. We find large genetic differences between all three groups that cannot be explained by population continuity alone. Most (82%) of the ancient hunter-gatherers share mtDNA types that are relatively rare in central Europeans today. Together, these analyses provide persuasive evidence that the first farmers were not the descendants of local hunter-gatherers but immigrated into central Europe at the onset of the Neolithic.

  18. Reproductive trade-offs in extant hunter-gatherers suggest adaptive mechanism for the Neolithic expansion.

    PubMed

    Page, Abigail E; Viguier, Sylvain; Dyble, Mark; Smith, Daniel; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Salali, Gul Deniz; Thompson, James; Vinicius, Lucio; Mace, Ruth; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-04-26

    The Neolithic demographic transition remains a paradox, because it is associated with both higher rates of population growth and increased morbidity and mortality rates. Here we reconcile the conflicting evidence by proposing that the spread of agriculture involved a life history quality-quantity trade-off whereby mothers traded offspring survival for increased fertility, achieving greater reproductive success despite deteriorating health. We test this hypothesis by investigating fertility, mortality, health, and overall reproductive success in Agta hunter-gatherers whose camps exhibit variable levels of sedentarization, mobility, and involvement in agricultural activities. We conducted blood composition tests in 345 Agta and found that viral and helminthic infections as well as child mortality rates were significantly increased with sedentarization. Nonetheless, both age-controlled fertility and overall reproductive success were positively affected by sedentarization and participation in cultivation. Thus, we provide the first empirical evidence, to our knowledge, of an adaptive mechanism in foragers that reconciles the decline in health and child survival with the observed demographic expansion during the Neolithic.

  19. Proving communal warfare among hunter-gatherers: The Quasi-Rousseauan error.

    PubMed

    Gat, Azar

    2015-01-01

    Was human fighting always there, as old as our species? Or is it a late cultural invention, emerging after the transition to agriculture and the rise of the state, which began, respectively, only around ten thousand and five thousand years ago? Viewed against the life span of our species, Homo sapiens, stretching back 150,000-200,000 years, let alone the roughly two million years of our genus Homo, this is the tip of the iceberg. We now have a temporal frame and plenty of empirical evidence for the "state of nature" that Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacque Rousseau discussed in the abstract and described in diametrically opposed terms. All human populations during the Pleistocene, until about 12,000 years ago, were hunter-gatherers, or foragers, of the simple, mobile sort that lacked accumulated resources. Studying such human populations that survived until recently or still survive in remote corners of the world, anthropology should have been uniquely positioned to answer the question of aboriginal human fighting or lack thereof. Yet access to, and the interpretation of, that information has been intrinsically problematic. The main problem has been the "contact paradox." Prestate societies have no written records of their own. Therefore, documenting them requires contact with literate state societies that necessarily affects the former and potentially changes their behavior, including fighting.

  20. Reproductive trade-offs in extant hunter-gatherers suggest adaptive mechanism for the Neolithic expansion

    PubMed Central

    Viguier, Sylvain; Dyble, Mark; Smith, Daniel; Salali, Gul Deniz; Thompson, James; Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-01-01

    The Neolithic demographic transition remains a paradox, because it is associated with both higher rates of population growth and increased morbidity and mortality rates. Here we reconcile the conflicting evidence by proposing that the spread of agriculture involved a life history quality–quantity trade-off whereby mothers traded offspring survival for increased fertility, achieving greater reproductive success despite deteriorating health. We test this hypothesis by investigating fertility, mortality, health, and overall reproductive success in Agta hunter-gatherers whose camps exhibit variable levels of sedentarization, mobility, and involvement in agricultural activities. We conducted blood composition tests in 345 Agta and found that viral and helminthic infections as well as child mortality rates were significantly increased with sedentarization. Nonetheless, both age-controlled fertility and overall reproductive success were positively affected by sedentarization and participation in cultivation. Thus, we provide the first empirical evidence, to our knowledge, of an adaptive mechanism in foragers that reconciles the decline in health and child survival with the observed demographic expansion during the Neolithic. PMID:27071109

  1. Future Discounting in Congo Basin Hunter-Gatherers Declines with Socio-Economic Transitions.

    PubMed

    Salali, Gul Deniz; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2015-01-01

    Humans have a tendency to discount the future; that is we value small, short-term rewards over larger, long-term rewards. The degree of future discounting, however, changes in response to socio-ecological factors. Here, we study Mbendjele BaYaka hunter-gatherers of northern Congo and their farmer neighbours to investigate adaptations in inter-temporal preferences in humans. We argue that in immediate-return systems, where food storage is absent and egalitarianism is enforced through levelling mechanisms, future discounting is an adaptive strategy to prevent wealth accumulation and the emergence of hierarchies. This ensures food sharing and allows for survival in unpredictable environments where there is risk of an energy shortfall. On the other hand, when food storage is made possible by the emergence of agriculture or as seen in some delayed-return hunter-gatherer populations, wealth accumulation, hierarchies and lower discount rates become the adaptive strategy. Therefore, individuals in immediate-return, egalitarian societies will discount the future more than those in non-egalitarian, delayed-return societies. Consistent with the predictions we found that market integration and socio-economic transitions decrease the future discounting in Mbendjele hunter-gatherers. Our measures of socio-economic differences marked this transition in hunter-gatherers living in a logging town. The degree of future-discounting was the same between more market-integrated hunter-gatherers and their farmer neighbours.

  2. Future Discounting in Congo Basin Hunter-Gatherers Declines with Socio-Economic Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Salali, Gul Deniz; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2015-01-01

    Humans have a tendency to discount the future; that is we value small, short-term rewards over larger, long-term rewards. The degree of future discounting, however, changes in response to socio-ecological factors. Here, we study Mbendjele BaYaka hunter-gatherers of northern Congo and their farmer neighbours to investigate adaptations in inter-temporal preferences in humans. We argue that in immediate-return systems, where food storage is absent and egalitarianism is enforced through levelling mechanisms, future discounting is an adaptive strategy to prevent wealth accumulation and the emergence of hierarchies. This ensures food sharing and allows for survival in unpredictable environments where there is risk of an energy shortfall. On the other hand, when food storage is made possible by the emergence of agriculture or as seen in some delayed-return hunter-gatherer populations, wealth accumulation, hierarchies and lower discount rates become the adaptive strategy. Therefore, individuals in immediate-return, egalitarian societies will discount the future more than those in non-egalitarian, delayed-return societies. Consistent with the predictions we found that market integration and socio-economic transitions decrease the future discounting in Mbendjele hunter-gatherers. Our measures of socio-economic differences marked this transition in hunter-gatherers living in a logging town. The degree of future-discounting was the same between more market-integrated hunter-gatherers and their farmer neighbours. PMID:26381883

  3. Hunter-gatherer genomic diversity suggests a southern African origin for modern humans

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Brenna M.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Jobin, Matthew; Granka, Julie M.; Macpherson, J. M.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Rodríguez-Botigué, Laura; Ramachandran, Sohini; Hon, Lawrence; Brisbin, Abra; Lin, Alice A.; Underhill, Peter A.; Comas, David; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Norman, Paul J.; Parham, Peter; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Mountain, Joanna L.; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2011-01-01

    Africa is inferred to be the continent of origin for all modern human populations, but the details of human prehistory and evolution in Africa remain largely obscure owing to the complex histories of hundreds of distinct populations. We present data for more than 580,000 SNPs for several hunter-gatherer populations: the Hadza and Sandawe of Tanzania, and the ≠Khomani Bushmen of South Africa, including speakers of the nearly extinct N|u language. We find that African hunter-gatherer populations today remain highly differentiated, encompassing major components of variation that are not found in other African populations. Hunter-gatherer populations also tend to have the lowest levels of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium among 27 African populations. We analyzed geographic patterns of linkage disequilibrium and population differentiation, as measured by FST, in Africa. The observed patterns are consistent with an origin of modern humans in southern Africa rather than eastern Africa, as is generally assumed. Additionally, genetic variation in African hunter-gatherer populations has been significantly affected by interaction with farmers and herders over the past 5,000 y, through both severe population bottlenecks and sex-biased migration. However, African hunter-gatherer populations continue to maintain the highest levels of genetic diversity in the world. PMID:21383195

  4. Biological diversity and population history of Middle Holocene hunter-gatherers from the Cis-Baikal region of Siberia.

    PubMed

    Movsesian, Alla A; Bakholdina, Varvara Yu; Pezhemsky, Denis V

    2014-12-01

    In the past decades, prehistoric hunter-gatherers of the Cis-Baikal region has been a subject of multidisciplinary research. In this study, we used nonmetric cranial traits to assess the genetic relationships between various spatial and temporal groups of Cis-Baikal Middle Holocene hunter-gatherers and to reveal genetic continuity between the Cis-Baikal Neolithic-Bronze Age population and modern native Siberians. Cranial series belonging to the bearers of the Early Neolithic Kitoi (n = 72), Late Neolithic Serovo (n = 54), and Early Bronze Glazkovo (n = 98) cultures were examined. Phenotypic differentiation was analyzed by the mean measure of divergence and Nei's genetic distances. Our results revealed several patterns of spatiotemporal biodiversity among the Cis-Baikal Middle Holocene populations, including biological similarity between the Early and Late Neolithic-Bronze Age groups, which suggests that the temporal hiatus between the Early and Late Neolithic does not necessarily imply genetic discontinuity in the region. The following possible scenarios of population history in the Cis-Baikal region are proposed: 1) continuous occupation with outside invasion of new migrant groups in the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age and 2) migration of the Early Neolithic groups to the nearby regions and subsequent return of their descendants to the ancestral territory. A comparison of Cis-Baikal Neolithic populations with modern Siberian natives suggests that the Сis-Baikal region could have been a source area for population expansions into different parts of Siberia in the Neolithic and Bronze Age times.

  5. Recent origin and cultural reversion of a hunter-gatherer group.

    PubMed

    Oota, Hiroki; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Weiss, Gunter; von Haeseler, Arndt; Pookajorn, Surin; Settheetham-Ishida, Wannapa; Tiwawech, Danai; Ishida, Takafumi; Stoneking, Mark

    2005-03-01

    Contemporary hunter-gatherer groups are often thought to serve as models of an ancient lifestyle that was typical of human populations prior to the development of agriculture. Patterns of genetic variation in hunter-gatherer groups such as the Kung and African Pygmies are consistent with this view, as they exhibit low genetic diversity coupled with high frequencies of divergent mtDNA types not found in surrounding agricultural groups, suggesting long-term isolation and small population sizes. We report here genetic evidence concerning the origins of the Mlabri, an enigmatic hunter-gatherer group from northern Thailand. The Mlabri have no mtDNA diversity, and the genetic diversity at Y-chromosome and autosomal loci are also extraordinarily reduced in the Mlabri. Genetic, linguistic, and cultural data all suggest that the Mlabri were recently founded, 500-800 y ago, from a very small number of individuals. Moreover, the Mlabri appear to have originated from an agricultural group and then adopted a hunting-gathering subsistence mode. This example of cultural reversion from agriculture to a hunting-gathering lifestyle indicates that contemporary hunter-gatherer groups do not necessarily reflect a pre-agricultural lifestyle.

  6. Adaptive, convergent origins of the pygmy phenotype in African rainforest hunter-gatherers.

    PubMed

    Perry, George H; Foll, Matthieu; Grenier, Jean-Christophe; Patin, Etienne; Nédélec, Yohann; Pacis, Alain; Barakatt, Maxime; Gravel, Simon; Zhou, Xiang; Nsobya, Sam L; Excoffier, Laurent; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Dominy, Nathaniel J; Barreiro, Luis B

    2014-09-02

    The evolutionary history of the human pygmy phenotype (small body size), a characteristic of African and Southeast Asian rainforest hunter-gatherers, is largely unknown. Here we use a genome-wide admixture mapping analysis to identify 16 genomic regions that are significantly associated with the pygmy phenotype in the Batwa, a rainforest hunter-gatherer population from Uganda (east central Africa). The identified genomic regions have multiple attributes that provide supporting evidence of genuine association with the pygmy phenotype, including enrichments for SNPs previously associated with stature variation in Europeans and for genes with growth hormone receptor and regulation functions. To test adaptive evolutionary hypotheses, we computed the haplotype-based integrated haplotype score (iHS) statistic and the level of population differentiation (FST) between the Batwa and their agricultural neighbors, the Bakiga, for each genomic SNP. Both |iHS| and FST values were significantly higher for SNPs within the Batwa pygmy phenotype-associated regions than the remainder of the genome, a signature of polygenic adaptation. In contrast, when we expanded our analysis to include Baka rainforest hunter-gatherers from Cameroon and Gabon (west central Africa) and Nzebi and Nzime neighboring agriculturalists, we did not observe elevated |iHS| or FST values in these genomic regions. Together, these results suggest adaptive and at least partially convergent origins of the pygmy phenotype even within Africa, supporting the hypothesis that small body size confers a selective advantage for tropical rainforest hunter-gatherers but raising questions about the antiquity of this behavior.

  7. Altruistic punishment as an explanation of hunter-gatherer cooperation: how much has experimental economics achieved?

    PubMed

    Sugden, Robert

    2012-02-01

    The discovery of the altruistic punishment mechanism as a replicable experimental result is a genuine achievement of behavioural economics. The hypothesis that cooperation in hunter-gatherer societies is sustained by altruistic punishment is a scientifically legitimate conjecture, but it must be tested against real-world observations. Guala's doubts about the evidential support for this hypothesis are well founded.

  8. Hunter-gatherers in southeast Asia: from prehistory to the present.

    PubMed

    Higham, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Anatomically modern hunter-gatherers expanded from Africa into Southeast Asia at least 50,000 years ago, where they probably encountered and interacted with populations of Homo erectus and Homo floresiensis and the recently discovered Denisovans. Simulation studies suggest that these hunter-gatherers may well have followed a coastal route that ultimately led to the settlement of Sahul, while archaeology confirms that they also crossed significant seas and explored well into the interior. They also adapted to marked environmental changes that alternated between relatively cool and dry conditions and warmer, wetter interludes. During the former, the sea fell by up to 120 m below its present level, which opened up a vast low-lying area known as Sundaland. Three principal alignments can be identified: the first involved the occupation of rock shelters in upland regions, the second has identified settlement on broad riverine floodplains, and the last concentrated on the raised beaches formed from about five millennia ago when the sea level was elevated above its present position. This cultural sequence was dislocated about 4 kya when rice and millet farmers infiltrated the lowlands of Southeast Asia ultimately from the Yangtze River valley. It is suggested that this led to two forms of interaction. In the first, the indigenous hunter-gatherers integrated with intrusive Neolithic communities and, while losing their cultural identity, contributed their genes to the present population of Southeast Asia. In the second, hunter-gatherers withdrew to rainforest refugia and, through selective pressures inherent in such an environment, survived as the small-bodied, dark-skinned humans found to this day in the Philippines, Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand, and the Andaman Islands. Beyond the impact of expansive rice farmers in Melanesia and Australia, hunter-gatherers continued to dominate until they encountered European settlement.

  9. Origins and genetic legacy of Neolithic farmers and hunter-gatherers in Europe.

    PubMed

    Skoglund, Pontus; Malmström, Helena; Raghavan, Maanasa; Storå, Jan; Hall, Per; Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Götherström, Anders; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2012-04-27

    The farming way of life originated in the Near East some 11,000 years ago and had reached most of the European continent 5000 years later. However, the impact of the agricultural revolution on demography and patterns of genomic variation in Europe remains unknown. We obtained 249 million base pairs of genomic DNA from ~5000-year-old remains of three hunter-gatherers and one farmer excavated in Scandinavia and find that the farmer is genetically most similar to extant southern Europeans, contrasting sharply to the hunter-gatherers, whose distinct genetic signature is most similar to that of extant northern Europeans. Our results suggest that migration from southern Europe catalyzed the spread of agriculture and that admixture in the wake of this expansion eventually shaped the genomic landscape of modern-day Europe.

  10. The behavioral ecology of modern hunter-gatherers, and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, K; O'Connell, J F; Rogers, L

    1997-01-01

    Modern day hunter-gatherers are an obvious source of information about human life in the past. But can modern people really tell us anything about other hominids, those represented only in the fossil record? In a world of state governments and a global economy, can present-day foragers even tell us much about life before agriculture? Some behavioral ecologists think so. Their findings show (1) that foraging practices are closely related to the character and distribution of local resources, (2) that men, women and children react to foraging opportunities quite differently, and (3) that sex and age difference in these reactions have important social causes and consequences. Some results directly challenge long-held views about hunter-gatherer economics and social organization, and the scenarios of human evolution based on them.

  11. Adaptive, convergent origins of the pygmy phenotype in African rainforest hunter-gatherers

    PubMed Central

    Perry, George H.; Foll, Matthieu; Grenier, Jean-Christophe; Patin, Etienne; Nédélec, Yohann; Pacis, Alain; Barakatt, Maxime; Gravel, Simon; Zhou, Xiang; Nsobya, Sam L.; Excoffier, Laurent; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Dominy, Nathaniel J.; Barreiro, Luis B.

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary history of the human pygmy phenotype (small body size), a characteristic of African and Southeast Asian rainforest hunter-gatherers, is largely unknown. Here we use a genome-wide admixture mapping analysis to identify 16 genomic regions that are significantly associated with the pygmy phenotype in the Batwa, a rainforest hunter-gatherer population from Uganda (east central Africa). The identified genomic regions have multiple attributes that provide supporting evidence of genuine association with the pygmy phenotype, including enrichments for SNPs previously associated with stature variation in Europeans and for genes with growth hormone receptor and regulation functions. To test adaptive evolutionary hypotheses, we computed the haplotype-based integrated haplotype score (iHS) statistic and the level of population differentiation (FST) between the Batwa and their agricultural neighbors, the Bakiga, for each genomic SNP. Both |iHS| and FST values were significantly higher for SNPs within the Batwa pygmy phenotype-associated regions than the remainder of the genome, a signature of polygenic adaptation. In contrast, when we expanded our analysis to include Baka rainforest hunter-gatherers from Cameroon and Gabon (west central Africa) and Nzebi and Nzime neighboring agriculturalists, we did not observe elevated |iHS| or FST values in these genomic regions. Together, these results suggest adaptive and at least partially convergent origins of the pygmy phenotype even within Africa, supporting the hypothesis that small body size confers a selective advantage for tropical rainforest hunter-gatherers but raising questions about the antiquity of this behavior. PMID:25136101

  12. Looking at the Camp: Paleolithic Depiction of a Hunter-Gatherer Campsite

    PubMed Central

    García-Diez, Marcos; Vaquero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Landscapes and features of the everyday world were scarcely represented in Paleolithic art, especially those features associated with the human landscape (huts and campsites). On the contrary, other figurative motifs (especially animals) and signs, traditionally linked to the magic or religious conceptions of these hunter-gatherer societies, are the predominant themes of Upper Paleolithic art. This paper seeks to present an engraved schist slab recently found in the Molí del Salt site (North-eastern Iberia) and dated at the end of the Upper Paleolithic, ca. 13,800 years ago. This slab displays seven semicircular motifs that may be interpreted as the representation of dome-shaped huts. The analysis of individual motifs and the composition, as well as the ethnographic and archeological contextualization, suggests that this engraving is a naturalistic depiction of a hunter-gatherer campsite. Campsites can be considered the first human landscape, the first area of land whose visible features were entirely constructed by humans. Given the social meaning of campsites in hunter-gatherer life-styles, this engraving may be considered one of the first representations of the domestic and social space of a human group. PMID:26629824

  13. Looking at the Camp: Paleolithic Depiction of a Hunter-Gatherer Campsite.

    PubMed

    García-Diez, Marcos; Vaquero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Landscapes and features of the everyday world were scarcely represented in Paleolithic art, especially those features associated with the human landscape (huts and campsites). On the contrary, other figurative motifs (especially animals) and signs, traditionally linked to the magic or religious conceptions of these hunter-gatherer societies, are the predominant themes of Upper Paleolithic art. This paper seeks to present an engraved schist slab recently found in the Molí del Salt site (North-eastern Iberia) and dated at the end of the Upper Paleolithic, ca. 13,800 years ago. This slab displays seven semicircular motifs that may be interpreted as the representation of dome-shaped huts. The analysis of individual motifs and the composition, as well as the ethnographic and archeological contextualization, suggests that this engraving is a naturalistic depiction of a hunter-gatherer campsite. Campsites can be considered the first human landscape, the first area of land whose visible features were entirely constructed by humans. Given the social meaning of campsites in hunter-gatherer life-styles, this engraving may be considered one of the first representations of the domestic and social space of a human group.

  14. Early and middle holocene hunter-gatherer occupations in western Amazonia: the hidden shell middens.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Umberto; Szabo, Katherine; Capriles, José M; May, Jan-Hendrik; Amelung, Wulf; Hutterer, Rainer; Lehndorff, Eva; Plotzki, Anna; Veit, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    We report on previously unknown early archaeological sites in the Bolivian lowlands, demonstrating for the first time early and middle Holocene human presence in western Amazonia. Multidisciplinary research in forest islands situated in seasonally-inundated savannahs has revealed stratified shell middens produced by human foragers as early as 10,000 years ago, making them the oldest archaeological sites in the region. The absence of stone resources and partial burial by recent alluvial sediments has meant that these kinds of deposits have, until now, remained unidentified. We conducted core sampling, archaeological excavations and an interdisciplinary study of the stratigraphy and recovered materials from three shell midden mounds. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, sedimentary proxies (elements, steroids and black carbon), micromorphology and faunal analysis, we demonstrate the anthropogenic origin and antiquity of these sites. In a tropical and geomorphologically active landscape often considered challenging both for early human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, the newly discovered shell middens provide evidence for early to middle Holocene occupation and illustrate the potential for identifying and interpreting early open-air archaeological sites in western Amazonia. The existence of early hunter-gatherer sites in the Bolivian lowlands sheds new light on the region's past and offers a new context within which the late Holocene "Earthmovers" of the Llanos de Moxos could have emerged.

  15. Global human mandibular variation reflects differences in agricultural and hunter-gatherer subsistence strategies.

    PubMed

    von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen

    2011-12-06

    Variation in the masticatory behavior of hunter-gatherer and agricultural populations is hypothesized to be one of the major forces affecting the form of the human mandible. However, this has yet to be analyzed at a global level. Here, the relationship between global mandibular shape variation and subsistence economy is tested, while controlling for the potentially confounding effects of shared population history, geography, and climate. The results demonstrate that the mandible, in contrast to the cranium, significantly reflects subsistence strategy rather than neutral genetic patterns, with hunter-gatherers having consistently longer and narrower mandibles than agriculturalists. These results support notions that a decrease in masticatory stress among agriculturalists causes the mandible to grow and develop differently. This developmental argument also explains why there is often a mismatch between the size of the lower face and the dentition, which, in turn, leads to increased prevalence of dental crowding and malocclusions in modern postindustrial populations. Therefore, these results have important implications for our understanding of human masticatory adaptation.

  16. Early and Middle Holocene Hunter-Gatherer Occupations in Western Amazonia: The Hidden Shell Middens

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Umberto; Szabo, Katherine; Capriles, José M.; May, Jan-Hendrik; Amelung, Wulf; Hutterer, Rainer; Lehndorff, Eva; Plotzki, Anna; Veit, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    We report on previously unknown early archaeological sites in the Bolivian lowlands, demonstrating for the first time early and middle Holocene human presence in western Amazonia. Multidisciplinary research in forest islands situated in seasonally-inundated savannahs has revealed stratified shell middens produced by human foragers as early as 10,000 years ago, making them the oldest archaeological sites in the region. The absence of stone resources and partial burial by recent alluvial sediments has meant that these kinds of deposits have, until now, remained unidentified. We conducted core sampling, archaeological excavations and an interdisciplinary study of the stratigraphy and recovered materials from three shell midden mounds. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, sedimentary proxies (elements, steroids and black carbon), micromorphology and faunal analysis, we demonstrate the anthropogenic origin and antiquity of these sites. In a tropical and geomorphologically active landscape often considered challenging both for early human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, the newly discovered shell middens provide evidence for early to middle Holocene occupation and illustrate the potential for identifying and interpreting early open-air archaeological sites in western Amazonia. The existence of early hunter-gatherer sites in the Bolivian lowlands sheds new light on the region’s past and offers a new context within which the late Holocene “Earthmovers” of the Llanos de Moxos could have emerged. PMID:24013964

  17. Ancient DNA from Hunter-Gatherer and Farmer Groups from Northern Spain Supports a Random Dispersion Model for the Neolithic Expansion into Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hervella, Montserrat; Izagirre, Neskuts; Alonso, Santos; Fregel, Rosa; Alonso, Antonio; Cabrera, Vicente M.; de la Rúa, Concepción

    2012-01-01

    Background/Principal Findings The phenomenon of Neolithisation refers to the transition of prehistoric populations from a hunter-gatherer to an agro-pastoralist lifestyle. Traditionally, the spread of an agro-pastoralist economy into Europe has been framed within a dichotomy based either on an acculturation phenomenon or on a demic diffusion. However, the nature and speed of this transition is a matter of continuing scientific debate in archaeology, anthropology, and human population genetics. In the present study, we have analyzed the mitochondrial DNA diversity in hunter-gatherers and first farmers from Northern Spain, in relation to the debate surrounding the phenomenon of Neolithisation in Europe. Methodology/Significance Analysis of mitochondrial DNA was carried out on 54 individuals from Upper Paleolithic and Early Neolithic, which were recovered from nine archaeological sites from Northern Spain (Basque Country, Navarre and Cantabria). In addition, to take all necessary precautions to avoid contamination, different authentication criteria were applied in this study, including: DNA quantification, cloning, duplication (51% of the samples) and replication of the results (43% of the samples) by two independent laboratories. Statistical and multivariate analyses of the mitochondrial variability suggest that the genetic influence of Neolithisation did not spread uniformly throughout Europe, producing heterogeneous genetic consequences in different geographical regions, rejecting the traditional models that explain the Neolithisation in Europe. Conclusion The differences detected in the mitochondrial DNA lineages of Neolithic groups studied so far (including these ones of this study) suggest different genetic impact of Neolithic in Central Europe, Mediterranean Europe and the Cantabrian fringe. The genetic data obtained in this study provide support for a random dispersion model for Neolithic farmers. This random dispersion had a different impact on the various

  18. Did warfare among ancestral hunter-gatherers affect the evolution of human social behaviors?

    PubMed

    Bowles, Samuel

    2009-06-05

    Since Darwin, intergroup hostilities have figured prominently in explanations of the evolution of human social behavior. Yet whether ancestral humans were largely "peaceful" or "warlike" remains controversial. I ask a more precise question: If more cooperative groups were more likely to prevail in conflicts with other groups, was the level of intergroup violence sufficient to influence the evolution of human social behavior? Using a model of the evolutionary impact of between-group competition and a new data set that combines archaeological evidence on causes of death during the Late Pleistocene and early Holocene with ethnographic and historical reports on hunter-gatherer populations, I find that the estimated level of mortality in intergroup conflicts would have had substantial effects, allowing the proliferation of group-beneficial behaviors that were quite costly to the individual altruist.

  19. First molar size and wear within and among modern hunter-gatherers and agricultural populations.

    PubMed

    Górka, Katarzyna; Romero, Alejandro; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    Apart from reflecting modern human dental variation, differences in dental size among populations provide a means for studying continuous evolutionary processes and their mechanisms. Dental wear, on the other hand, has been widely used to infer dietary adaptations and variability among or within diverse ancient human populations. Few such studies have focused on modern foragers and farmers, however, and diverse methods have been used. This research aimed to apply a single, standardized, and systematic quantitative procedure to measure dental size and dentin exposure in order to analyze differences among several hunter-gatherer and agricultural populations from various environments and geographic origins. In particular, we focused on sexual dimorphism and intergroup differences in the upper and lower first molars. Results indicated no sexual dimorphism in molar size and wear within the studied populations. Despite the great ethnographic variation in subsistence strategies among these populations, our findings suggest that differences in sexual division of labor do not affect dietary wear patterns.

  20. The epigenomic landscape of African rainforest hunter-gatherers and farmers

    PubMed Central

    Fagny, Maud; Patin, Etienne; MacIsaac, Julia L.; Rotival, Maxime; Flutre, Timothée; Jones, Meaghan J.; Siddle, Katherine J.; Quach, Hélène; Harmant, Christine; McEwen, Lisa M.; Froment, Alain; Heyer, Evelyne; Gessain, Antoine; Betsem, Edouard; Mouguiama-Daouda, Patrick; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Perry, George H.; Barreiro, Luis B.; Kobor, Michael S.; Quintana-Murci, Lluis

    2015-01-01

    The genetic history of African populations is increasingly well documented, yet their patterns of epigenomic variation remain uncharacterized. Moreover, the relative impacts of DNA sequence variation and temporal changes in lifestyle and habitat on the human epigenome remain unknown. Here we generate genome-wide genotype and DNA methylation profiles for 362 rainforest hunter-gatherers and sedentary farmers. We find that the current habitat and historical lifestyle of a population have similarly critical impacts on the methylome, but the biological functions affected strongly differ. Specifically, methylation variation associated with recent changes in habitat mostly concerns immune and cellular functions, whereas that associated with historical lifestyle affects developmental processes. Furthermore, methylation variation—particularly that correlated with historical lifestyle—shows strong associations with nearby genetic variants that, moreover, are enriched in signals of natural selection. Our work provides new insight into the genetic and environmental factors affecting the epigenomic landscape of human populations over time. PMID:26616214

  1. The epigenomic landscape of African rainforest hunter-gatherers and farmers.

    PubMed

    Fagny, Maud; Patin, Etienne; MacIsaac, Julia L; Rotival, Maxime; Flutre, Timothée; Jones, Meaghan J; Siddle, Katherine J; Quach, Hélène; Harmant, Christine; McEwen, Lisa M; Froment, Alain; Heyer, Evelyne; Gessain, Antoine; Betsem, Edouard; Mouguiama-Daouda, Patrick; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Perry, George H; Barreiro, Luis B; Kobor, Michael S; Quintana-Murci, Lluis

    2015-11-30

    The genetic history of African populations is increasingly well documented, yet their patterns of epigenomic variation remain uncharacterized. Moreover, the relative impacts of DNA sequence variation and temporal changes in lifestyle and habitat on the human epigenome remain unknown. Here we generate genome-wide genotype and DNA methylation profiles for 362 rainforest hunter-gatherers and sedentary farmers. We find that the current habitat and historical lifestyle of a population have similarly critical impacts on the methylome, but the biological functions affected strongly differ. Specifically, methylation variation associated with recent changes in habitat mostly concerns immune and cellular functions, whereas that associated with historical lifestyle affects developmental processes. Furthermore, methylation variation--particularly that correlated with historical lifestyle--shows strong associations with nearby genetic variants that, moreover, are enriched in signals of natural selection. Our work provides new insight into the genetic and environmental factors affecting the epigenomic landscape of human populations over time.

  2. Emergence of social complexity among coastal hunter-gatherers in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Marquet, Pablo A.; Santoro, Calogero M.; Latorre, Claudio; Standen, Vivien G.; Abades, Sebastián R.; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M.; Arriaza, Bernardo; Hochberg, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of complex cultural practices in simple hunter-gatherer groups poses interesting questions on what drives social complexity and what causes the emergence and disappearance of cultural innovations. Here we analyze the conditions that underlie the emergence of artificial mummification in the Chinchorro culture in the coastal Atacama Desert in northern Chile and southern Peru. We provide empirical and theoretical evidence that artificial mummification appeared during a period of increased coastal freshwater availability and marine productivity, which caused an increase in human population size and accelerated the emergence of cultural innovations, as predicted by recent models of cultural and technological evolution. Under a scenario of increasing population size and extreme aridity (with little or no decomposition of corpses) a simple demographic model shows that dead individuals may have become a significant part of the landscape, creating the conditions for the manipulation of the dead that led to the emergence of complex mortuary practices. PMID:22891345

  3. HUNTER-GATHERER: Three search techniques integrated for natural language semantics

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, S.; Nirenburg, S.; Mahesh, K.

    1996-12-31

    This work integrates three related Al search techniques - constraint satisfaction, branch-and-bound and solution synthesis - and applies the result to semantic processing in natural language (NL). We summarize the approach as {open_quote}Hunter-Gatherer:{close_quotes} (1) branch-and-bound and constraint satisfaction allow us to {open_quote}hunt down{close_quotes} non-optimal and impossible solutions and prune them from the search space. (2) solution synthesis methods then {open_quote}gather{close_quotes} all optimal solutions avoiding exponential complexity. Each of the three techniques is briefly described, as well as their extensions and combinations used in our system. We focus on the combination of solution synthesis and branch-and-bound methods which has enabled near-linear-time processing in our applications. Finally, we illustrate how the use of our technique in a large-scale MT project allowed a drastic reduction in search space.

  4. Firewood, food and human niche construction: the potential role of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in actively structuring Scotland's woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Rosie R.; Church, Mike J.; Rowley-Conwy, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades the potential role of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in actively constructing their own niches, through the management of wild plants, has frequently been discussed. It is probable that Mesolithic hunter-gatherers systematically exploited specific woodland resources for food and fuel and influenced the 'natural' abundance or distribution of particular species within Mesolithic environments. Though there has been considerable discussion of the pollen evidence for potential small-scale human-woodland manipulation in Mesolithic Scotland, the archaeobotanical evidence for anthropogenic firewood and food selection has not been discussed in this context. This paper assesses the evidence for the active role of Mesolithic hunter-gatherer communities in systematically exploiting and managing woodlands for food and fuel in Scotland. While taphonomic factors may have impacted on the frequency of specific species in archaeobotanical assemblages, it is suggested that hunter-gatherers in Mesolithic Scotland were systematically using woodland plants, and in particular hazel and oak, for food and fuel. It is argued that the pollen evidence for woodland management is equivocal, but hints at the role of hunter-gatherers in shaping the structure of their environments, through the maintenance or creation of woodland clearings for settlement or as part of vegetation management strategies. It is proposed that Mesolithic hunter-gatherers may have actively contributed to niche construction and that the systematic use of hazel and oak as a fuel may reflect the deliberate pruning of hazel trees to increase nut-yields and the inadvertent - or perhaps deliberate - coppicing of hazel and oak during greenwood collection.

  5. Mount Pinatubo, inflammatory cytokines, and the immunological ecology of Aeta hunter-gatherers.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Robin M; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2013-01-01

    Early growth cessation and reproduction are predicted to maximize fitness under conditions of high adult mortality, factors that could explain the pygmy phenotype of many rainforest hunter-gatherers. This life-history hypothesis is elegant but contentious in part because it lacks a clear biological mechanism. One mechanism stems from the field of human immunological ecology and the concept of inflammation "memory" across the life cycle and into subsequent generations. Maternal exposures to disease can influence immunological cues present in breast milk; because maternal provisioning via lactation occurs during critical periods of development, it is plausible that these cues can also mediate early growth cessation and small body size. Such epigenetic hypotheses are difficult to test, but the concept of developmental programming is attractive because it could explain how the stature of a population can change over time, in terms of both secular increases and rapid intergenerational decreases. Here we explore this concept by focusing on the Aeta, a population of former hunter-gatherers, and the Ilocano, a population of rice farmers. We predicted that Aeta mothers would produce breast milk with higher concentrations of four bioactive factors due to high infectious burdens. Further, we predicted that the concentrations of these factors would be highest in the cohort of women born in the early 1990s, when exposure to infectious disease was acute following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991. We analyzed levels of adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and epidermal growth factor in the milk of 24 Aeta and 31 Ilocano women and found no detectable differences, whereas levels of transforming growth factor-?2 were elevated among the Aeta, particularly as a function of maternal age. We found no difference between cohorts divided by the volcanic eruption (n = 43 born before, n = 12 born after). We discuss the implications of our findings for the terminal investment

  6. Schooling, Local Knowledge and Working Memory: A Study among Three Contemporary Hunter-Gatherer Societies.

    PubMed

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Pyhälä, Aili; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Duda, Romain; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Gallois, Sandrine; Guèze, Maximilien; Napitupulu, Lucentezza

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have analysed whether school and local knowledge complement or substitute each other, but have paid less attention to whether those two learning models use different cognitive strategies. In this study, we use data collected among three contemporary hunter-gatherer societies with relatively low levels of exposure to schooling yet with high levels of local ecological knowledge to test the association between i) schooling and ii) local ecological knowledge and verbal working memory. Participants include 94 people (24 Baka, 25 Punan, and 45 Tsimane') from whom we collected information on 1) schooling and school related skills (i.e., literacy and numeracy), 2) local knowledge and skills related to hunting and medicinal plants, and 3) working memory. To assess working memory, we applied a multi-trial free recall using words relevant to each cultural setting. People with and without schooling have similar levels of accurate and inaccurate recall, although they differ in their strategies to organize recall: people with schooling have higher results for serial clustering, suggesting better learning with repetition, whereas people without schooling have higher results for semantic clustering, suggesting they organize recall around semantically meaningful categories. Individual levels of local ecological knowledge are not related to accurate recall or organization recall, arguably due to overall high levels of local ecological knowledge. While schooling seems to favour some organization strategies this might come at the expense of some other organization strategies.

  7. Traditional diet and food preferences of Australian aboriginal hunter-gatherers.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, K

    1991-11-29

    Until European settlement of Australia 200 years ago, Aborigines lived as nomadic hunter-gatherers all over the continent under widely varying geographic and climatic conditions. Successful survival depended on a comprehensive knowledge of the flora and fauna of their territory. Available data suggest that they were physically fit and lean, and consumed a varied diet in which animal foods were a major component. Despite this, the diet was not high in fat, as wild animal carcasses have very low fat contents through most of the year, and the meat is extremely lean. Everything on an animal carcass was eaten, including the small fat depots and organ meats (which were highly prized), bone marrow, some stomach contents, peritoneal fluid and blood. A wide variety of uncultivated plant foods was eaten in the traditional diet: roots, starchy tubers, seeds, fruits and nuts. The plant foods were generally high in fibre and contained carbohydrates, which was slowly digested and absorbed. Traditional methods of food preparation (usually baked whole or eaten raw) ensured maximum retention of nutrients. In general, traditional foods had a low energy density but high density of some nutrients. The low energy density of the diet and the labour intensity of food procurement provided a natural constraint on energy intake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Schooling, Local Knowledge and Working Memory: A Study among Three Contemporary Hunter-Gatherer Societies

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Pyhälä, Aili; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Duda, Romain; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Gallois, Sandrine; Guèze, Maximilien; Napitupulu, Lucentezza

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have analysed whether school and local knowledge complement or substitute each other, but have paid less attention to whether those two learning models use different cognitive strategies. In this study, we use data collected among three contemporary hunter-gatherer societies with relatively low levels of exposure to schooling yet with high levels of local ecological knowledge to test the association between i) schooling and ii) local ecological knowledge and verbal working memory. Participants include 94 people (24 Baka, 25 Punan, and 45 Tsimane’) from whom we collected information on 1) schooling and school related skills (i.e., literacy and numeracy), 2) local knowledge and skills related to hunting and medicinal plants, and 3) working memory. To assess working memory, we applied a multi-trial free recall using words relevant to each cultural setting. People with and without schooling have similar levels of accurate and inaccurate recall, although they differ in their strategies to organize recall: people with schooling have higher results for serial clustering, suggesting better learning with repetition, whereas people without schooling have higher results for semantic clustering, suggesting they organize recall around semantically meaningful categories. Individual levels of local ecological knowledge are not related to accurate recall or organization recall, arguably due to overall high levels of local ecological knowledge. While schooling seems to favour some organization strategies this might come at the expense of some other organization strategies. PMID:26735297

  9. Competition for Cooperation: variability, benefits and heritability of relational wealth in hunter-gatherers

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Nikhil; Salali, Gul Deniz; Thompson, James; Rey, Aude; Gerbault, Pascale; Stevenson, Edward Geoffrey Jedediah; Dyble, Mark; E. Page, Abigail; Smith, Daniel; Mace, Ruth; Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-01-01

    Many defining human characteristics including theory of mind, culture and language relate to our sociality, and facilitate the formation and maintenance of cooperative relationships. Therefore, deciphering the context in which our sociality evolved is invaluable in understanding what makes us unique as a species. Much work has emphasised group-level competition, such as warfare, in moulding human cooperation and sociality. However, competition and cooperation also occur within groups; and inter-individual differences in sociality have reported fitness implications in numerous non-human taxa. Here we investigate whether differential access to cooperation (relational wealth) is likely to lead to variation in fitness at the individual level among BaYaka hunter-gatherers. Using economic gift games we find that relational wealth: a) displays individual-level variation; b) provides advantages in buffering food risk, and is positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and female fertility; c) is partially heritable. These results highlight that individual-level processes may have been fundamental in the extension of human cooperation beyond small units of related individuals, and in shaping our sociality. Additionally, the findings offer insight in to trends related to human sociality found from research in other fields such as psychology and epidemiology. PMID:27404514

  10. Use of domesticated pigs by Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in northwestern Europe.

    PubMed

    Krause-Kyora, Ben; Makarewicz, Cheryl; Evin, Allowen; Flink, Linus Girdland; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger; Hartz, Sönke; Schreiber, Stefan; von Carnap-Bornheim, Claus; von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Nebel, Almut

    2013-01-01

    Mesolithic populations throughout Europe used diverse resource exploitation strategies that focused heavily on collecting and hunting wild prey. Between 5500 and 4200 cal BC, agriculturalists migrated into northwestern Europe bringing a suite of Neolithic technologies including domesticated animals. Here we investigate to what extent Mesolithic Ertebølle communities in northern Germany had access to domestic pigs, possibly through contact with neighbouring Neolithic agricultural groups. We employ a multidisciplinary approach, applying sequencing of ancient mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (coat colour-coding gene MC1R) as well as traditional and geometric morphometric (molar size and shape) analyses in Sus specimens from 17 Neolithic and Ertebølle sites. Our data from 63 ancient pig specimens show that Ertebølle hunter-gatherers acquired domestic pigs of varying size and coat colour that had both Near Eastern and European mitochondrial DNA ancestry. Our results also reveal that domestic pigs were present in the region ~500 years earlier than previously demonstrated.

  11. Competition for Cooperation: variability, benefits and heritability of relational wealth in hunter-gatherers.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Nikhil; Salali, Gul Deniz; Thompson, James; Rey, Aude; Gerbault, Pascale; Stevenson, Edward Geoffrey Jedediah; Dyble, Mark; E Page, Abigail; Smith, Daniel; Mace, Ruth; Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-07-12

    Many defining human characteristics including theory of mind, culture and language relate to our sociality, and facilitate the formation and maintenance of cooperative relationships. Therefore, deciphering the context in which our sociality evolved is invaluable in understanding what makes us unique as a species. Much work has emphasised group-level competition, such as warfare, in moulding human cooperation and sociality. However, competition and cooperation also occur within groups; and inter-individual differences in sociality have reported fitness implications in numerous non-human taxa. Here we investigate whether differential access to cooperation (relational wealth) is likely to lead to variation in fitness at the individual level among BaYaka hunter-gatherers. Using economic gift games we find that relational wealth: a) displays individual-level variation; b) provides advantages in buffering food risk, and is positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and female fertility; c) is partially heritable. These results highlight that individual-level processes may have been fundamental in the extension of human cooperation beyond small units of related individuals, and in shaping our sociality. Additionally, the findings offer insight in to trends related to human sociality found from research in other fields such as psychology and epidemiology.

  12. Hunter-Gatherer Color Naming Provides New Insight into the Evolution of Color Terms.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Delwin T; Brown, Angela M; Brainard, David H; Apicella, Coren L

    2015-09-21

    Most people name the myriad colors in the environment using between two and about a dozen color terms, with great variation within and between languages. Investigators generally agree that color lexicons evolve from fewer terms to more terms, as technology advances and color communication becomes increasingly important. However, little is understood about the color naming systems at the least technologically advanced end of the continuum. The Hadza people of Tanzania are nomadic hunter-gatherers who live a subsistence lifestyle that was common before the advent of agriculture (see Supplemental Experimental Procedures, section I;), suggesting that the Hadzane language should be at an early stage of color lexicon evolution. When Hadza, Somali, and US informants named 23 color samples, Hadza informants named only the black, white, and red samples with perfect consensus. Otherwise, they used low-consensus terms or responded "don't know." However, even low-consensus color terms grouped test colors into lexical categories that aligned with those found in other world languages. Furthermore, information-theoretic analysis showed that color communication efficiency within the Hadza, Somali, and US language communities falls on the same continuum as other world languages. Thus, the structure of color categories is in place in Hadzane, even though words for many of the categories are not in general use. These results suggest that even very simple color lexicons include precursors of many color categories but that these categories are initially represented in a diverse and distributed fashion.

  13. Macronutrient contributions of insects to the diets of hunter-gatherers: a geometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M; Pontzer, Herman; Simpson, Stephen J

    2014-06-01

    We present a geometric model for examining the macronutrient contributions of insects in the diets of pre-agricultural humans, and relate the findings to some contemporary societies that regularly eat insects. The model integrates published data on the macronutrient composition of insects and other foods in the diets of humans, recommended human macronutrient intakes, and estimated macronutrient intakes to examine the assumption that insects provided to pre-agricultural humans an invertebrate equivalent of vertebrate-derived meats, serving primarily as a source of protein. Our analysis suggests that insects vary more widely in their macronutrient content than is likely to be the case for most wild vertebrate meats, spanning a broad range of protein, fat and carbohydrate concentrations. Potentially, therefore, in terms of their proportional macronutrient composition, insects could serve as equivalents not only of wild meat, but of a range of other foods including some shellfish, nuts, pulses, vegetables and even fruits. Furthermore, humans might systematically manipulate the composition of edible insects to meet specific needs through pre-ingestive processing, such as cooking and selective removal of body parts. We present data suggesting that in modern societies for which protein is the more limiting macronutrient, pre-ingestive processing of edible insects might serve to concentrate protein. It is likely, however, that the dietary significance of insects was different for Paleolithic hunter-gatherers who were more limited in non-protein energy. Our conclusions are constrained by available data, but highlight the need for further studies, and suggest that our model provides an integrative framework for conceiving these studies.

  14. Hunter-gatherer color naming provides new insight into the evolution of color terms

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Delwin T.; Brown, Angela M.; Brainard, David H.; Apicella, Coren L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Most people name the myriad colors in the environment using between two and about a dozen color terms [1], with great variation within and between languages [2]. Investigators generally agree that color lexicons evolve from fewer terms to more terms, as technology advances and color communication becomes increasingly important [3]. However, little is understood about the color naming systems at the least technologically-advanced end of the continuum. The Hadza people of Tanzania are nomadic hunter-gatherers who live a subsistence lifestyle that was common before the advent of agriculture (see SM-I, [4]), suggesting that the Hadzane language should be at an early stage of color lexicon evolution. When Hadza, Somali, and U.S. informants named 23 color samples, Hadza informants named only the black, white and red samples with perfect consensus. Otherwise, they used low-consensus terms, or responded “don’t know”. However, even low-consensus color terms grouped test colors into lexical categories that aligned with those found in other world languages [5]. Furthermore, information-theoretic analysis showed that color communication efficiency within the Hadza, Somali, and U.S. language communities falls on the same continuum as other world languages. Thus, the structure of color categories is in place in Hadzane, even though words for many of the categories are not in general use. These results suggest that even very simple color lexicons include precursors of many color categories, but that these categories are initially represented in a diverse and distributed fashion. PMID:26365254

  15. Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Michael F; Karafet, Tatiana M; Park, Hwayong; Omoto, Keiichi; Harihara, Shinji; Stoneking, Mark; Horai, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    Historic Japanese culture evolved from at least two distinct migrations that originated on the Asian continent. Hunter-gatherers arrived before land bridges were submerged after the last glacial maximum (>12,000 years ago) and gave rise to the Jomon culture, and the Yayoi migration brought wet rice agriculture from Korea beginning approximately 2,300 years ago. A set of 81 Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was used to trace the origins of Paleolithic and Neolithic components of the Japanese paternal gene pool, and to determine the relative contribution of Jomon and Yayoi Y chromosome lineages to modern Japanese. Our global sample consisted of >2,500 males from 39 Asian populations, including six populations sampled from across the Japanese archipelago. Japanese populations were characterized by the presence of two major (D and O) and two minor (C and N) clades of Y chromosomes, each with several sub-lineages. Haplogroup D chromosomes were present at 34.7% and were distributed in a U-shaped pattern with the highest frequency in the northern Ainu and southern Ryukyuans. In contrast, haplogroup O lineages (51.8%) were distributed in an inverted U-shaped pattern with a maximum frequency on Kyushu. Coalescent analyses of Y chromosome short tandem repeat diversity indicated that haplogroups D and C began their expansions in Japan approximately 20,000 and approximately 12,000 years ago, respectively, while haplogroup O-47z began its expansion only approximately 4,000 years ago. We infer that these patterns result from separate and distinct genetic contributions from both the Jomon and the Yayoi cultures to modern Japanese, with varying levels of admixture between these two populations across the archipelago. The results also support the hypothesis of a Central Asian origin of Jomonese ancestors, and a Southeast Asian origin of the ancestors of the Yayoi, contra previous models based on morphological and genetic evidence.

  16. Re-evaluating the resource potential of lomas fog oasis environments for Preceramic hunter-gatherers under past ENSO modes on the south coast of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beresford-Jones, David; Pullen, Alexander G.; Whaley, Oliver Q.; Moat, Justin; Chauca, George; Cadwallader, Lauren; Arce, Susana; Orellana, Alfonso; Alarcón, Carmela; Gorriti, Manuel; Maita, Patricia K.; Sturt, Fraser; Dupeyron, Agathe; Huaman, Oliver; Lane, Kevin J.; French, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Lomas - ephemeral seasonal oases sustained by ocean fogs - were critical to ancient human ecology on the desert Pacific coast of Peru: one of humanity's few independent hearths of agriculture and "pristine" civilisation. The role of climate change since the Late Pleistocene in determining productivity and extent of past lomas ecosystems has been much debated. Here we reassess the resource potential of the poorly studied lomas of the south coast of Peru during the long Middle Pre-ceramic period (c. 8000-4500 BP): a period critical in the transition to agriculture, the onset of modern El Niño Southern Oscillation ('ENSO') conditions, and eustatic sea-level rise and stabilisation and beach progradation. Our method combines vegetation survey and herbarium collection with archaeological survey and excavation to make inferences about both Preceramic hunter-gatherer ecology and the changed palaeoenvironments in which it took place. Our analysis of newly discovered archaeological sites - and their resource context - show how lomas formations defined human ecology until the end of the Middle Preceramic Period, thereby corroborating recent reconstructions of ENSO history based on other data. Together, these suggest that a five millennia period of significantly colder seas on the south coast induced conditions of abundance and seasonal predictability in lomas and maritime ecosystems, that enabled Middle Preceramic hunter-gatherers to reduce mobility by settling in strategic locations at the confluence of multiple eco-zones at the river estuaries. Here the foundations of agriculture lay in a Broad Spectrum Revolution that unfolded, not through population pressure in deteriorating environments, but rather as an outcome of resource abundance.

  17. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) in the Okhotsk culture (5th-10th century AD) of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter-gatherer economies.

    PubMed

    Leipe, Christian; Sergusheva, Elena A; Müller, Stefanie; Spengler, Robert N; Goslar, Tomasz; Kato, Hirofumi; Wagner, Mayke; Weber, Andrzej W; Tarasov, Pavel E

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval) of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440-890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island), the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter-gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures) of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley) associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley) associated with Early-Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the "Satsumon type" barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the "Okhotsk type" spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley domains possibly

  18. The impact of agricultural emergence on the genetic history of African rainforest hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists.

    PubMed

    Patin, Etienne; Siddle, Katherine J; Laval, Guillaume; Quach, Hélène; Harmant, Christine; Becker, Noémie; Froment, Alain; Régnault, Béatrice; Lemée, Laure; Gravel, Simon; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Van der Veen, Lolke; Dominy, Nathaniel J; Perry, George H; Barreiro, Luis B; Verdu, Paul; Heyer, Evelyne; Quintana-Murci, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of agriculture in West-Central Africa approximately 5,000 years ago, profoundly modified the cultural landscape and mode of subsistence of most sub-Saharan populations. How this major innovation has had an impact on the genetic history of rainforest hunter-gatherers-historically referred to as 'pygmies'-and agriculturalists, however, remains poorly understood. Here we report genome-wide SNP data from these populations located west-to-east of the equatorial rainforest. We find that hunter-gathering populations present up to 50% of farmer genomic ancestry, and that substantial admixture began only within the last 1,000 years. Furthermore, we show that the historical population sizes characterizing these communities already differed before the introduction of agriculture. Our results suggest that the first socio-economic interactions between rainforest hunter-gatherers and farmers introduced by the spread of farming were not accompanied by immediate, extensive genetic exchanges and occurred on a backdrop of two groups already differentiated by their specialization in two ecotopes with differing carrying capacities.

  19. A review: dietary restrictions on hunter-gatherer women and the implications for fertility and infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Spielmann, K A

    1989-09-01

    In many hunter gatherer societies, food taboos dictate the diets of females. These taboos often happen during their most critical reproductive times in their life, e.g., pregnancy. Among some subarctic Athapaskan societies, females at menarche cannot eat fresh meat. They, like other hunter gatherer societies, also restrict fresh meat consumption for menstruating women. Young women of the Aranda society in Australia cannot eat protein rich foods, e.g., lizards, until they have a child. Australian aboriginal societies restrict protein and fat foods for pregnant and lactating women. Even though the literature shows that the undernourished are inclined to reach menarche at a later age than those who eat a well balanced diet, it does not clearly establish whether differences in age at menarche significantly affect overall fertility. Research done on many different under or marginally nourished populations indicates that maternal nutritional health influences birth spacing significantly. Specifically, undernutrition causes longer postpartum amenorrhea. Therefore, lower fertility rates follow longer birth intervals. Research shows that poor maternal nutritional health does not prevent the fetus from surviving and growing. Yet mothers who do not consume many calories often have low birth weight infants. These infants are at high risk of dying because they have little to no fat reserves and they consume inadequate amounts of nutrition since the mothers cannot make insufficient amounts of milk. Since contemporary research shows that maternal nutritional health does effect fertility and infant mortality, food taboos do have the ability to influence population size. More research is needed to understand the factors that influenced the reproductive rates of past hunter-gatherer societies, so anthropologists can identify the demographically significant changes which sedentism and agriculture caused 10,000 years ago.

  20. Musculoskeletal stress markers in Natufian hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers in the Levant: the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Eshed, Vered; Gopher, Avi; Galili, Ehud; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2004-04-01

    This paper attempts to quantify the changes in activity patterns of early farming populations in the Levant through the musculoskeletal stress markers (MSM) of the upper limb as seen in skeletal remains. The transition to an agricultural way of life resulted in higher loads on the upper limb in Neolithic populations compared to the Natufian hunter-gatherer populations that preceded them. The MSM pattern for males and females indicates a gender-based division of labor both in the Natufian and the Neolithic. It may also suggest that people in the Neolithic period were engaged in different (new) activities and occupations compared to the Natufian.

  1. Genome-wide evidence of Austronesian–Bantu admixture and cultural reversion in a hunter-gatherer group of Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Pierron, Denis; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Pagani, Luca; Ricaut, François-Xavier; Antao, Tiago; Capredon, Mélanie; Sambo, Clément; Radimilahy, Chantal; Rakotoarisoa, Jean-Aimé; Blench, Roger M.; Letellier, Thierry; Kivisild, Toomas

    2014-01-01

    Linguistic and cultural evidence suggest that Madagascar was the final point of two major dispersals of Austronesian- and Bantu-speaking populations. Today, the Mikea are described as the last-known Malagasy population reported to be still practicing a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. It is unclear, however, whether the Mikea descend from a remnant population that existed before the arrival of Austronesian and Bantu agriculturalists or whether it is only their lifestyle that separates them from the other contemporary populations of South Madagascar. To address these questions we have performed a genome-wide analysis of >700,000 SNP markers on 21 Mikea, 24 Vezo, and 24 Temoro individuals, together with 50 individuals from Bajo and Lebbo populations from Indonesia. Our analyses of these data in the context of data available from other Southeast Asian and African populations reveal that all three Malagasy populations are derived from the same admixture event involving Austronesian and Bantu sources. In contrast to the fact that most of the vocabulary of the Malagasy speakers is derived from the Barito group of the Austronesian language family, we observe that only one-third of their genetic ancestry is related to the populations of the Java-Kalimantan-Sulawesi area. Because no additional ancestry components distinctive for the Mikea were found, it is likely that they have adopted their hunter-gatherer way of life through cultural reversion, and selection signals suggest a genetic adaptation to their new lifestyle. PMID:24395773

  2. Genome-wide evidence of Austronesian-Bantu admixture and cultural reversion in a hunter-gatherer group of Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Pierron, Denis; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Pagani, Luca; Ricaut, François-Xavier; Antao, Tiago; Capredon, Mélanie; Sambo, Clément; Radimilahy, Chantal; Rakotoarisoa, Jean-Aimé; Blench, Roger M; Letellier, Thierry; Kivisild, Toomas

    2014-01-21

    Linguistic and cultural evidence suggest that Madagascar was the final point of two major dispersals of Austronesian- and Bantu-speaking populations. Today, the Mikea are described as the last-known Malagasy population reported to be still practicing a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. It is unclear, however, whether the Mikea descend from a remnant population that existed before the arrival of Austronesian and Bantu agriculturalists or whether it is only their lifestyle that separates them from the other contemporary populations of South Madagascar. To address these questions we have performed a genome-wide analysis of >700,000 SNP markers on 21 Mikea, 24 Vezo, and 24 Temoro individuals, together with 50 individuals from Bajo and Lebbo populations from Indonesia. Our analyses of these data in the context of data available from other Southeast Asian and African populations reveal that all three Malagasy populations are derived from the same admixture event involving Austronesian and Bantu sources. In contrast to the fact that most of the vocabulary of the Malagasy speakers is derived from the Barito group of the Austronesian language family, we observe that only one-third of their genetic ancestry is related to the populations of the Java-Kalimantan-Sulawesi area. Because no additional ancestry components distinctive for the Mikea were found, it is likely that they have adopted their hunter-gatherer way of life through cultural reversion, and selection signals suggest a genetic adaptation to their new lifestyle.

  3. The Ecological basis of hunter-gatherer subsistence in African Rain Forests: the Mbuti of eastern Zaire

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, T.B.; Hart, J.A.

    1986-03-01

    The Mbuti pygmies, hunter-gathers of the Ituri Forest of Zaire, trade forest products and labor for agricultural foods. It has been assumed that the Mbuti lived independently in the equatorial forest prior to its penetration by shifting cultivators. We assessed forest food resources (plant and animal) to determine their adequacy to support a hunting and gathering economy. For five months of the year, essentially none of the calorically important forest fruits and seeds are available. Honey is not abundant during this season of scarcity. Wild game meat is available year round, but the main animals caught have low fat content. This makes them a poor substitute for starch-dense agricultural foods, now staples in Mbuti diet. In general, in the closed evergreen forest zone, edible wild plant species are more abundant in agriculturally derived secondary forest than in primary forest. Similarly, they are more common at the savanna ecotone and in gallery forests. We suggest that it is unlikely that hunter-gatherers would have lived independently in the forest interior with its precarious resource base, when many of the food species they exploit are more abundant toward the savanna border.

  4. Phenotypic plasticity of climbing-related traits in the ankle joint of great apes and rainforest hunter-gatherers.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, Vivek V; Kraft, Thomas S; Desilva, Jeremy M; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2013-01-01

    The "negrito" and African "pygmy" phenotypes are predominately exhibited by hunter-gatherers living in rainforest habitats. Foraging within such habitats is associated with a unique set of locomotor behaviors, most notably habitual vertical climbing during the pursuit of honey, fruit, and game. When performed frequently, this behavior is expected to correlate with developmentally plastic skeletal morphologies that respond to mechanical loading. Using six measurements in the distal tibia and talus that discriminate nonhuman primates by vertical climbing frequency, we tested the prediction that intraspecific variation in this behavior is reflected in the morphology of the ankle joint of habitually climbing human populations. First, to explore the plasticity of climbing-linked morphologies, we made comparisons between chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans from wild and captive settings. The analysis revealed significant differences in two climbing-linked traits (anterior expansion of the articular surface of the distal tibia and increased degree of talar wedging), indicating that these traits are sensitive to climbing behavior. However, our analyses did not reveal any signatures of climbing behavior in the ankles of habitually climbing hunter-gatherers. These results suggest that the detection of fine-grained differences in human locomotor behaviors at the ankle joint, particularly those associated with arboreality, may be obscured by the functional demands of terrestrial bipedalism. Accordingly, it may be difficult to use population-level characteristics of ankle morphology to make inferences about the climbing behavior of hominins in the fossil record, even when facultative arborealism is associated with key fitness benefits.

  5. The skeletal phenotype of "negritos" from the Andaman Islands and Philippines relative to global variation among hunter-gatherers.

    PubMed

    Stock, Jay T

    2013-01-01

    The "negrito hypothesis" suggests that populations of small-bodied foragers in South and Southeast Asia who share common phenotypic characteristics may also share a common, ancient origin. The key defining characteristics of the "negrito" phenotype, small body size, dark skin, and tightly curled hair, have been interpreted as linking these populations to sub-Saharan Africans. The underlying assumption of this interpretation is that the observed phenotypic similarities likely reflect shared ancestry rather than phenotypic convergence. Current genetic evidence is inconclusive, as it both demonstrates that negrito populations have genetic affinities with neighboring populations but also rare and ancient variation that suggests considerable isolation. This study investigates the skeletal phenotype of Andaman Islanders and Aeta foragers from the Philippines in the context of the phenotypic variation among other hunter-gatherers globally, to test whether they show a common, unique physique apart from small body size. Particular emphasis is placed on the comparison of negrito phenotypes to African, Asian, and Australian hunter-gatherer diversity to investigate phenotypic similarities to other populations globally. The results demonstrate that despite sharing small adult stature, the Andaman Islanders and Aeta show variation in body dimensions. In particular, the Andaman Islanders share a pattern of narrow bi-iliac breadth and short upper limbs with the Khoisan (Later Stone Age Southern Africans), whereas the Aeta and Efé show broader bi-iliac breadths relative to lower limb lengths. Although general similarities in size and proportions remain between the Andamanese and Aeta, differences in humero-femoral indices and arm length between these groups and the Efé demonstrate that there is not a generic "pygmy" phenotype. Our interpretations of negrito origins and adaptation must account for this phenotypic variation.

  6. Hunter-Gatherer Responses to the 8.2 Ka Cold Event in the Fennoscandian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Because of a marked influence of warm Atlantic water to primary productivity in the Barents Sea, the marine ecosystem in northernmost Fennoscandia is sensitive to disturbances in the North Atlantic oceanographic system. The 8.2 ka climate event, according to current knowledge, was triggered by a disturbance in the North Atlantic Thermohaline circulation. This suggests concurrent and strong climatic and marine cooling in the area covering the northernmost parts of Finland, Norway, and Sweden during the climate event. In this area ecosystem response to the 8.2 ka event can therefore be expected to have been prominent, which in turn should be reflected in the contemporary human socio-economic systems. A study that employs lithic technological, statistical, and spatial analyses of Late Mesolithic (ca. 8450-6850 cal BP) lithic technology and settlement configuration in the area indicates that lithic technology and settlement patterns were reorganised following the climatic and marine cooling. The studied groups changed their lithic technology as a result of developments that led to increased use of terrestrial resources and an accompanying long-distance coast/inland residential mobility pattern. Besides lithic technological changes and long-distance mobility on land, decreased marine productivity probably also explains the disappearance of semi-subterranean houses from the coast at ca. 8200 cal BP, while their reappearance after ca. 7500 cal BP can be linked to a increased influx of warm salty water into the Barents Sea. The results suggest that in the past a long period of decreased influx of Atlantic water into the Barents Sea has had disastrous consequences for the marine ecosystem. At present the Barents Sea fisheries have notable economic importance and produce, for example, over 90% of the Norwegian Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) catch.

  7. Whole-genome sequence analyses of Western Central African Pygmy hunter-gatherers reveal a complex demographic history and identify candidate genes under positive natural selection

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, PingHsun; Veeramah, Krishna R.; Lachance, Joseph; Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Wall, Jeffrey D.; Hammer, Michael F.; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.

    2016-01-01

    African Pygmies practicing a mobile hunter-gatherer lifestyle are phenotypically and genetically diverged from other anatomically modern humans, and they likely experienced strong selective pressures due to their unique lifestyle in the Central African rainforest. To identify genomic targets of adaptation, we sequenced the genomes of four Biaka Pygmies from the Central African Republic and jointly analyzed these data with the genome sequences of three Baka Pygmies from Cameroon and nine Yoruba famers. To account for the complex demographic history of these populations that includes both isolation and gene flow, we fit models using the joint allele frequency spectrum and validated them using independent approaches. Our two best-fit models both suggest ancient divergence between the ancestors of the farmers and Pygmies, 90,000 or 150,000 yr ago. We also find that bidirectional asymmetric gene flow is statistically better supported than a single pulse of unidirectional gene flow from farmers to Pygmies, as previously suggested. We then applied complementary statistics to scan the genome for evidence of selective sweeps and polygenic selection. We found that conventional statistical outlier approaches were biased toward identifying candidates in regions of high mutation or low recombination rate. To avoid this bias, we assigned P-values for candidates using whole-genome simulations incorporating demography and variation in both recombination and mutation rates. We found that genes and gene sets involved in muscle development, bone synthesis, immunity, reproduction, cell signaling and development, and energy metabolism are likely to be targets of positive natural selection in Western African Pygmies or their recent ancestors. PMID:26888263

  8. Khoisan hunter-gatherers have been the largest population throughout most of modern-human demographic history

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hie Lim; Ratan, Aakrosh; Perry, George H.; Montenegro, Alvaro; Miller, Webb; Schuster, Stephan C.

    2014-01-01

    The Khoisan people from Southern Africa maintained ancient lifestyles as hunter-gatherers or pastoralists up to modern times, though little else is known about their early history. Here we infer early demographic histories of modern humans using whole-genome sequences of five Khoisan individuals and one Bantu speaker. Comparison with a 420 K SNP data set from worldwide individuals demonstrates that two of the Khoisan genomes from the Ju/’hoansi population contain exclusive Khoisan ancestry. Coalescent analysis shows that the Khoisan and their ancestors have been the largest populations since their split with the non-Khoisan population ~100–150 kyr ago. In contrast, the ancestors of the non-Khoisan groups, including Bantu-speakers and non-Africans, experienced population declines after the split and lost more than half of their genetic diversity. Paleoclimate records indicate that the precipitation in southern Africa increased ~80–100 kyr ago while west-central Africa became drier. We hypothesize that these climate differences might be related to the divergent-ancient histories among human populations. PMID:25471224

  9. Access to Electric Light Is Associated with Shorter Sleep Duration in a Traditionally Hunter-Gatherer Community.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Fernández-Duque, Eduardo; Golombek, Diego A; Lanza, Norberto; Duffy, Jeanne F; Czeisler, Charles A; Valeggia, Claudia R

    2015-08-01

    Access to electric light might have shifted the ancestral timing and duration of human sleep. To test this hypothesis, we studied two communities of the historically hunter-gatherer indigenous Toba/Qom in the Argentinean Chaco. These communities share the same ethnic and sociocultural background, but one has free access to electricity while the other relies exclusively on natural light. We fitted participants in each community with wrist activity data loggers to assess their sleep-wake cycles during one week in the summer and one week in the winter. During the summer, participants with access to electricity had a tendency to a shorter daily sleep bout (43 ± 21 min) than those living under natural light conditions. This difference was due to a later daily bedtime and sleep onset in the community with electricity, but a similar sleep offset and rise time in both communities. In the winter, participants without access to electricity slept longer (56 ± 17 min) than those with access to electricity, and this was also related to earlier bedtimes and sleep onsets than participants in the community with electricity. In both communities, daily sleep duration was longer during the winter than during the summer. Our field study supports the notion that access to inexpensive sources of artificial light and the ability to create artificially lit environments must have been key factors in reducing sleep in industrialized human societies.

  10. Access to Electric Light Is Associated with Shorter Sleep Duration in a Traditionally Hunter-Gatherer Community

    PubMed Central

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O.; Fernández-Duque, Eduardo; Golombek, Diego A.; Lanza, Norberto; Duffy, Jeanne F.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Valeggia, Claudia R.

    2017-01-01

    Access to electric light might have shifted the ancestral timing and duration of human sleep. To test this hypothesis, we studied two communities of the historically hunter-gatherer indigenous Toba/Qom in the Argentinean Chaco. These communities share the same ethnic and sociocultural background, but one has free access to electricity while the other relies exclusively on natural light. We fitted participants in each community with wrist activity data loggers to assess their sleep-wake cycles during one week in the summer and one week in the winter. During the summer, participants with access to electricity had a tendency to a shorter daily sleep bout (43 ± 21 min) than those living under natural light conditions. This difference was due to a later daily bedtime and sleep onset in the community with electricity, but a similar sleep offset and rise time in both communities. In the winter, participants without access to electricity slept longer (56 ± 17 min) than those with access to electricity, and this was also related to earlier bedtimes and sleep onsets than participants in the community with electricity. In both communities, daily sleep duration was longer during the winter than during the summer. Our field study supports the notion that access to inexpensive sources of artificial light and the ability to create artificially lit environments must have been key factors in reducing sleep in industrialized human societies. PMID:26092820

  11. Reevaluating a model of gender-biased gene flow among Sub-Saharan Hunter-gatherers and farmers.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Paolo; Battaggia, Cinzia; Capocasa, Marco; Boschi, Ilaria; Brisighelli, Francesca; Batini, Chiara; Spedini, Gabriella; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni

    2013-08-01

    In a previous study, we proposed a model for genetic admixture between African hunter-gatherers and food producers, in which we integrated demographic and genetic aspects together with ethnographic knowledge (Destro-Bisol et al. 2004b). In that study it was possible to test the model only using genetic information from widely dispersed and genetically heterogeneous populations. Here we reevaluate the congruence between the model and patterns of genetic variation using an anthropologically and geographically more homogeneous data set that includes Pygmies and farmers from Cameroon, Congo, and the Central African Republic. As implied by the model, the ratios of mtDNA to Y chromosome Nm estimates (effective population size, N, times the migration rate, m; 0.154 in Pygmies and 6.759 in farmers), support an asymmetric gene flow, with a higher Bantu-to-Pygmy gene flow for paternal than for maternal lineages, and vice versa for farmers. Analyses of intra- and interpopulation genetic variation further support the above observation, showing a prevailing effect of genetic drift on maternal lineages and gene flow on paternal lineages among Pygmies, and an opposite pattern among farmers. We also detected differences between patterns for classical and molecular measures of Y chromosome intrapopulation variation, which likely represent signatures of the introgression of Bantu lineages into the gene pool of Pygmy populations. On the whole, our results seem to reflect differences in the demographic history and the degree of patrilocality and polygyny between the two population groups, thus providing further support to our microevolutionary model in an anthropologically coherent framework.

  12. Maternal traces of deep common ancestry and asymmetric gene flow between Pygmy hunter-gatherers and Bantu-speaking farmers.

    PubMed

    Quintana-Murci, Lluís; Quach, Hélène; Harmant, Christine; Luca, Francesca; Massonnet, Blandine; Patin, Etienne; Sica, Lucas; Mouguiama-Daouda, Patrick; Comas, David; Tzur, Shay; Balanovsky, Oleg; Kidd, Kenneth K; Kidd, Judith R; van der Veen, Lolke; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Gessain, Antoine; Verdu, Paul; Froment, Alain; Bahuchet, Serge; Heyer, Evelyne; Dausset, Jean; Salas, Antonio; Behar, Doron M

    2008-02-05

    Two groups of populations with completely different lifestyles-the Pygmy hunter-gatherers and the Bantu-speaking farmers-coexist in Central Africa. We investigated the origins of these two groups and the interactions between them, by analyzing mtDNA variation in 1,404 individuals from 20 farming populations and 9 Pygmy populations from Central Africa, with the aim of shedding light on one of the most fascinating cultural transitions in human evolution (the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture). Our data indicate that this region was colonized gradually, with an initial L1c-rich ancestral population ultimately giving rise to current-day farmers, who display various L1c clades, and to Pygmies, in whom L1c1a is the only surviving clade. Detailed phylogenetic analysis of complete mtDNA sequences for L1c1a showed this clade to be autochthonous to Central Africa, with its most recent branches shared between farmers and Pygmies. Coalescence analyses revealed that these two groups arose through a complex evolutionary process characterized by (i) initial divergence of the ancestors of contemporary Pygmies from an ancestral Central African population no more than approximately 70,000 years ago, (ii) a period of isolation between the two groups, accounting for their phenotypic differences, (iii) long-standing asymmetric maternal gene flow from Pygmies to the ancestors of the farming populations, beginning no more than approximately 40,000 years ago and persisting until a few thousand years ago, and (iv) enrichment of the maternal gene pool of the ancestors of the farming populations by the arrival and/or subsequent demographic expansion of L0a, L2, and L3 carriers.

  13. Earliest evidence for caries and exploitation of starchy plant foods in Pleistocene hunter-gatherers from Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Louise T.; De Groote, Isabelle; Morales, Jacob; Barton, Nick; Collcutt, Simon; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is an infectious disease that causes tooth decay. The high prevalence of dental caries in recent humans is attributed to more frequent consumption of plant foods rich in fermentable carbohydrates in food-producing societies. The transition from hunting and gathering to food production is associated with a change in the composition of the oral microbiota and broadly coincides with the estimated timing of a demographic expansion in Streptococcus mutans, a causative agent of human dental caries. Here we present evidence linking a high prevalence of caries to reliance on highly cariogenic wild plant foods in Pleistocene hunter-gatherers from North Africa, predating other high caries populations and the first signs of food production by several thousand years. Archaeological deposits at Grotte des Pigeons in Morocco document extensive evidence for human occupation during the Middle Stone Age and Later Stone Age (Iberomaurusian), and incorporate numerous human burials representing the earliest known cemetery in the Maghreb. Macrobotanical remains from occupational deposits dated between 15,000 and 13,700 cal B.P. provide evidence for systematic harvesting and processing of edible wild plants, including acorns and pine nuts. Analysis of oral pathology reveals an exceptionally high prevalence of caries (51.2% of teeth in adult dentitions), comparable to modern industrialized populations with a diet high in refined sugars and processed cereals. We infer that increased reliance on wild plants rich in fermentable carbohydrates and changes in food processing caused an early shift toward a disease-associated oral microbiota in this population. PMID:24395774

  14. Site Formation Processes and Hunter-Gatherers Use of Space in a Tropical Environment: A Geo-Ethnoarchaeological Approach from South India

    PubMed Central

    Friesem, David E.; Lavi, Noa; Madella, Marco; Ajithprasad, P.; French, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Hunter-gatherer societies have distinct social perceptions and practices which are expressed in unique use of space and material deposition patterns. However, the identification of archaeological evidence associated with hunter-gatherer activity is often challenging, especially in tropical environments such as rainforests. We present an integrated study combining ethnoarchaeology and geoarchaeology in order to study archaeological site formation processes related to hunter-gatherers’ ways of living in tropical forests. Ethnographic data was collected from an habitation site of contemporary hunter-gatherers in the forests of South India, aimed at studying how everyday activities and way of living dictate patterns of material deposition. Ethnoarchaeological excavations of abandoned open-air sites and a rock-shelter of the same group located deep in the forests, involved field observations and sampling of sediments from the abandoned sites and the contemporary site. Laboratory analyses included geochemical analysis (i.e., FTIR, ICP-AES), phytolith concentration analysis and soil micromorphology. The results present a dynamic spatial deposition pattern of macroscopic, microscopic and chemical materials, which stem from the distinctive ways of living and use of space by hunter-gatherers. This study shows that post-depositional processes in tropical forests result in poor preservation of archaeological materials due to acidic conditions and intensive biological activity within the sediments. Yet, the multiple laboratory-based analyses were able to trace evidence for activity surfaces and their maintenance practices as well as localized concentrations of activity remains such as the use of plants, metals, hearths and construction materials. PMID:27783683

  15. A phytochemical-rich diet may explain the absence of age-related decline in visual acuity of Amazonian hunter-gatherers in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    London, Douglas S; Beezhold, Bonnie

    2015-02-01

    Myopia is absent in undisturbed hunter-gatherers but ubiquitous in modern populations. The link between dietary phytochemicals and eye health is well established, although transition away from a wild diet has reduced phytochemical variety. We hypothesized that when larger quantities and greater variety of wild, seasonal phytochemicals are consumed in a food system, there will be a reduced prevalence of degenerative-based eye disease as measured by visual acuity. We compared food systems and visual acuity across isolated Amazonian Kawymeno Waorani hunter-gatherers and neighboring Kichwa subsistence agrarians, using dietary surveys, dietary pattern observation, and Snellen Illiterate E visual acuity examinations. Hunter-gatherers consumed more food species (130 vs. 63) and more wild plants (80 vs. 4) including 76 wild fruits, thereby obtaining larger variety and quantity of phytochemicals than agrarians. Visual acuity was inversely related to age only in agrarians (r = -.846, P < .001). As hypothesized, when stratified by age (<40 and ≥ 40 years), Mann-Whitney U tests revealed that hunter-gatherers maintained high visual acuity throughout life, whereas agrarian visual acuity declined (P values < .001); visual acuity of younger participants was high across the board, however, did not differ between groups (P > .05). This unusual absence of juvenile-onset vision problems may be related to local, organic, whole food diets of subsistence food systems isolated from modern food production. Our results suggest that intake of a wider variety of plant foods supplying necessary phytochemicals for eye health may help maintain visual acuity and prevent degenerative eye conditions as humans age.

  16. Role of wild plant foods among late Holocene hunter-gatherers from Central and North Patagonia (South America): an approach from dental evidence.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Valeria; Novellino, Paula; Gonzalez, Paula N; Perez, S Ivan

    2007-08-01

    This study evaluates the role of plant foods in the subsistence of hunter-gatherers that inhabited the Central East, Northwest, and Northeast Patagonia (Argentina) during the late Holocene (ca. 3,000-500 years BP). The goal of the present study is to assess the temporal variation of dental caries ratio and wear rate in skeletal samples to ascertain if the biological information supports the dietary shift toward greater consumption of wild plant foods around 1,500 years BP, suggested by other types of evidence. The authors registered caries, antemortem and postmortem tooth loss, and tooth wear from eight samples belonging to hunter-gatherers from Patagonia for which chronological sequences from early late Holocene (ca. 3,000-1,500 years BP) up to final late Holocene (ca. 1,500-500 years BP) are available. The results indicate that caries percentages in Patagonian samples fall within the range established for hunter-gatherers but there are significant geographical differences. In addition, caries ratio does not change significantly through time, so the amount of carbohydrates consumed seems to have remained fairly constant since 3,000 years BP. In contrast, there is a marked temporal trend toward the reduction of wear rates in the three areas, suggesting a faster rate in early late Holocene than in final late Holocene. These results would reflect a change to less hard and/or abrasive diets in the final late Holocene, probably owing to differences in food processing methods employed.

  17. An examination of gender bias on the eighth-grade MEAP science test as it relates to the Hunter Gatherer Theory of Spatial Sex Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong-Hall, Judy Gail

    The purpose of this study was to apply the Hunter-Gatherer Theory of sex spatial skills to responses to individual questions by eighth grade students on the Science component of the Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) to determine if sex bias was inherent in the test. The Hunter-Gatherer Theory on Spatial Sex Differences, an original theory, that suggested a spatial dimorphism concept with female spatial skill of pattern recall of unconnected items and male spatial skills requiring mental movement. This is the first attempt to apply the Hunter-Gatherer Theory on Spatial Sex Differences to a standardized test. An overall hypothesis suggested that the Hunter-Gatherer Theory of Spatial Sex Differences could predict that males would perform better on problems involving mental movement and females would do better on problems involving the pattern recall of unconnected items. Responses to questions on the 1994-95 MEAP requiring the use of male spatial skills and female spatial skills were analyzed for 5,155 eighth grade students. A panel composed of five educators and a theory developer determined which test items involved the use of male and female spatial skills. A MANOVA, using a random sample of 20% of the 5,155 students to compare male and female correct scores, was statistically significant, with males having higher scores on male spatial skills items and females having higher scores on female spatial skills items. Pearson product moment correlation analyses produced a positive correlation for both male and female performance on both types of spatial skills. The Hunter-Gatherer Theory of Spatial Sex Differences appears to be able to predict that males could perform better on the problems involving mental movement and females could perform better on problems involving the pattern recall of unconnected items. Recommendations for further research included: examination of male/female spatial skill differences at early elementary and high school levels to

  18. Patterns of prehistoric human mobility in Polynesia indicated by mtDNA from the Pacific rat

    PubMed Central

    Matisoo-Smith, E.; Roberts, R. M.; Irwin, G. J.; Allen, J. S.; Penny, D.; Lambert, D. M.

    1998-01-01

    Human settlement of Polynesia was a major event in world prehistory. Despite the vastness of the distances covered, research suggests that prehistoric Polynesian populations maintained spheres of continuing interaction for at least some period of time in some regions. A low level of genetic variation in ancestral Polynesian populations, genetic admixture (both prehistoric and post-European contact), and severe population crashes resulting from introduction of European diseases make it difficult to trace prehistoric human mobility in the region by using only human genetic and morphological markers. We focus instead on an animal that accompanied the ancestral Polynesians on their voyages. DNA phylogenies derived from mitochondrial control-region sequences of Pacific rats (Rattus exulans) from east Polynesia are presented. A range of specific hypotheses regarding the degree of interaction within Polynesia are tested. These include the issues of multiple contacts between central east Polynesia and the geographically distinct archipelagos of New Zealand and Hawaii. Results are inconsistent with models of Pacific settlement involving substantial isolation after colonization and confirm the value of genetic studies on commensal species for elucidating the history of human settlement. PMID:9844030

  19. Preferences for symmetry in human faces in two cultures: data from the UK and the Hadza, an isolated group of hunter-gatherers.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Apicella, Coren L; Marlowe, Frank W

    2007-12-22

    Many studies show agreement within and between cultures for general judgements of facial attractiveness. Few studies, however, have examined the attractiveness of specific traits and few have examined preferences in hunter-gatherers. The current study examined preferences for symmetry in both the UK and the Hadza, a hunter-gatherer society of Tanzania. We found that symmetry was more attractive than asymmetry across both the cultures and was more strongly preferred by the Hadza than in the UK. The different ecological conditions may play a role in generating this difference. Such variation in preference may be adaptive if it reflects adaptation to local conditions. Symmetry is thought to indicate genetic quality, which may be more important among the Hadza with much higher mortality rates from birth onwards. Hadza men who were more often named as good hunters placed a greater value on symmetry in female faces. These results suggest that high quality Hadza men are more discriminating in their choice of faces. Hadza women had increased preferences for symmetry in men's faces when they were pregnant or nursing, perhaps due to their increased discrimination and sensitivity to foods and disease harmful to a foetus or nursing infant. These results imply that symmetry is an evolutionarily relevant trait and that variation in symmetry preference appears strategic both between cultures and within individuals of a single culture.

  20. Violence in the prehistoric period of Japan: the spatio-temporal pattern of skeletal evidence for violence in the Jomon period.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Hisashi; Tamura, Kohei; Arimatsu, Yui; Nakagawa, Tomomi; Matsumoto, Naoko; Matsugi, Takehiko

    2016-03-01

    Whether man is predisposed to lethal violence, ranging from homicide to warfare, and how that may have impacted human evolution, are among the most controversial topics of debate on human evolution. Although recent studies on the evolution of warfare have been based on various archaeological and ethnographic data, they have reported mixed results: it is unclear whether or not warfare among prehistoric hunter-gatherers was common enough to be a component of human nature and a selective pressure for the evolution of human behaviour. This paper reports the mortality attributable to violence, and the spatio-temporal pattern of violence thus shown among ancient hunter-gatherers using skeletal evidence in prehistoric Japan (the Jomon period: 13 000 cal BC-800 cal BC). Our results suggest that the mortality due to violence was low and spatio-temporally highly restricted in the Jomon period, which implies that violence including warfare in prehistoric Japan was not common.

  1. Balinese Y-chromosome perspective on the peopling of Indonesia: genetic contributions from pre-neolithic hunter-gatherers, Austronesian farmers, and Indian traders.

    PubMed

    Karafet, Tatiana M; Lansing, J S; Redd, Alan J; Reznikova, Svetlana; Watkins, Joseph C; Surata, S P K; Arthawiguna, W A; Mayer, Laura; Bamshad, Michael; Jorde, Lynn B; Hammer, Michael F

    2005-02-01

    The island of Bali lies near the center of the southern chain of islands in the Indonesian archipelago, which served as a stepping-stone for early migrations of hunter-gatherers to Melanesia and Australia and for more recent migrations of Austronesian farmers from mainland Southeast Asia to the Pacific. Bali is the only Indonesian island with a population that currently practices the Hindu religion and preserves various other Indian cultural, linguistic, and artistic traditions (Lansing 1983). Here, we examine genetic variation on the Y chromosomes of 551 Balinese men to investigate the relative contributions of Austronesian farmers and pre-Neolithic hunter-gatherers to the contemporary Balinese paternal gene pool and to test the hypothesis of recent paternal gene flow from the Indian subcontinent. Seventy-one Y-chromosome binary polymorphisms (single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) and 10 Y-chromosome-linked short tandem repeats (STRs) were genotyped on a sample of 1,989 Y chromosomes from 20 populations representing Indonesia (including Bali), southern China, Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Near East, and Oceania. SNP genotyping revealed 22 Balinese lineages, 3 of which (O-M95, O-M119, and O-M122) account for nearly 83.7% of Balinese Y chromosomes. Phylogeographic analyses suggest that all three major Y-chromosome haplogroups migrated to Bali with the arrival of Austronesian speakers; however, STR diversity patterns associated with these haplogroups are complex and may be explained by multiple waves of Austronesian expansion to Indonesia by different routes. Approximately 2.2% of contemporary Balinese Y chromosomes (i.e., K-M9*, K-M230, and M lineages) may represent the pre-Neolithic component of the Indonesian paternal gene pool. In contrast, eight other haplogroups (e.g., within H, J, L, and R), making up approximately 12% of the Balinese paternal gene pool, appear to have migrated to Bali from India. These results indicate that the Austronesian expansion had a

  2. Climate-driven environmental changes around 8,200 years ago favoured increases in cetacean strandings and Mediterranean hunter-gatherers exploited them

    PubMed Central

    Mannino, Marcello A.; Talamo, Sahra; Tagliacozzo, Antonio; Fiore, Ivana; Nehlich, Olaf; Piperno, Marcello; Tusa, Sebastiano; Collina, Carmine; Di Salvo, Rosaria; Schimmenti, Vittoria; Richards, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Cetacean mass strandings occur regularly worldwide, yet the compounded effects of natural and anthropogenic factors often complicate our understanding of these phenomena. Evidence of past stranding episodes may, thus, be essential to establish the potential influence of climate change. Investigations on bones from the site of Grotta dell’Uzzo in North West Sicily (Italy) show that the rapid climate change around 8,200 years ago coincided with increased strandings in the Mediterranean Sea. Stable isotope analyses on collagen from a large sample of remains recovered at this cave indicate that Mesolithic hunter-gatherers relied little on marine resources. A human and a red fox dating to the 8.2-kyr-BP climatic event, however, acquired at least one third of their protein from cetaceans. Numerous carcasses should have been available annually, for at least a decade, to obtain these proportions of meat. Our findings imply that climate-driven environmental changes, caused by global warming, may represent a serious threat to cetaceans in the near future. PMID:26573384

  3. Climate-driven environmental changes around 8,200 years ago favoured increases in cetacean strandings and Mediterranean hunter-gatherers exploited them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannino, Marcello A.; Talamo, Sahra; Tagliacozzo, Antonio; Fiore, Ivana; Nehlich, Olaf; Piperno, Marcello; Tusa, Sebastiano; Collina, Carmine; di Salvo, Rosaria; Schimmenti, Vittoria; Richards, Michael P.

    2015-11-01

    Cetacean mass strandings occur regularly worldwide, yet the compounded effects of natural and anthropogenic factors often complicate our understanding of these phenomena. Evidence of past stranding episodes may, thus, be essential to establish the potential influence of climate change. Investigations on bones from the site of Grotta dell’Uzzo in North West Sicily (Italy) show that the rapid climate change around 8,200 years ago coincided with increased strandings in the Mediterranean Sea. Stable isotope analyses on collagen from a large sample of remains recovered at this cave indicate that Mesolithic hunter-gatherers relied little on marine resources. A human and a red fox dating to the 8.2-kyr-BP climatic event, however, acquired at least one third of their protein from cetaceans. Numerous carcasses should have been available annually, for at least a decade, to obtain these proportions of meat. Our findings imply that climate-driven environmental changes, caused by global warming, may represent a serious threat to cetaceans in the near future.

  4. Climate-driven environmental changes around 8,200 years ago favoured increases in cetacean strandings and Mediterranean hunter-gatherers exploited them.

    PubMed

    Mannino, Marcello A; Talamo, Sahra; Tagliacozzo, Antonio; Fiore, Ivana; Nehlich, Olaf; Piperno, Marcello; Tusa, Sebastiano; Collina, Carmine; Di Salvo, Rosaria; Schimmenti, Vittoria; Richards, Michael P

    2015-11-17

    Cetacean mass strandings occur regularly worldwide, yet the compounded effects of natural and anthropogenic factors often complicate our understanding of these phenomena. Evidence of past stranding episodes may, thus, be essential to establish the potential influence of climate change. Investigations on bones from the site of Grotta dell'Uzzo in North West Sicily (Italy) show that the rapid climate change around 8,200 years ago coincided with increased strandings in the Mediterranean Sea. Stable isotope analyses on collagen from a large sample of remains recovered at this cave indicate that Mesolithic hunter-gatherers relied little on marine resources. A human and a red fox dating to the 8.2-kyr-BP climatic event, however, acquired at least one third of their protein from cetaceans. Numerous carcasses should have been available annually, for at least a decade, to obtain these proportions of meat. Our findings imply that climate-driven environmental changes, caused by global warming, may represent a serious threat to cetaceans in the near future.

  5. Ancient lipids document continuity in the use of early hunter-gatherer pottery through 9,000 years of Japanese prehistory.

    PubMed

    Lucquin, Alexandre; Gibbs, Kevin; Uchiyama, Junzo; Saul, Hayley; Ajimoto, Mayumi; Eley, Yvette; Radini, Anita; Heron, Carl P; Shoda, Shinya; Nishida, Yastami; Lundy, Jasmine; Jordan, Peter; Isaksson, Sven; Craig, Oliver E

    2016-04-12

    The earliest pots in the world are from East Asia and date to the Late Pleistocene. However, ceramic vessels were only produced in large numbers during the warmer and more stable climatic conditions of the Holocene. It has long been assumed that the expansion of pottery was linked with increased sedentism and exploitation of new resources that became available with the ameliorated climate, but this hypothesis has never been tested. Through chemical analysis of their contents, we herein investigate the use of pottery across an exceptionally long 9,000-y sequence from the Jōmon site of Torihama in western Japan, intermittently occupied from the Late Pleistocene to the mid-Holocene. Molecular and isotopic analyses of lipids from 143 vessels provides clear evidence that pottery across this sequence was predominantly used for cooking marine and freshwater resources, with evidence for diversification in the range of aquatic products processed during the Holocene. Conversely, there is little indication that ruminant animals or plants were processed in pottery, although it is evident from the faunal and macrobotanical remains that these foods were heavily exploited. Supported by other residue analysis data from Japan, our results show that the link between pottery and fishing was established in the Late Paleolithic and lasted well into the Holocene, despite environmental and socio-economic change. Cooking aquatic products in pottery represents an enduring social aspect of East Asian hunter-gatherers, a tradition based on a dependable technology for exploiting a sustainable resource in an uncertain and changing world.

  6. Cultural ecology of prehistoric parasitism on the Colorado Plateau as evidenced by coprology.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, K J

    1988-11-01

    The study of coprolites (desiccated feces) is recognized as a viable method for analyzing parasitism of prehistoric peoples. Eight species of helminth parasites, including nematodes, cestodes, and acanthcephalans, have been recovered from archaeological sites on the Colorado Plateau. The comparative analysis of parasitological findings illustrates the effects of changing subsistence strategies and varying life-style on prehistoric human parasitism. This comparative study is based on the analysis of coprolites recovered from one Archaic hunter-gatherer site and two Anasazi agricultural villages. Hunter-gatherers are represented by coprolites from Dust Devil Cave in south-eastern Utah. Coprolites of prehistoric agriculturalists from Antelope House in Canyon de Chelly, Arizona, and from Salmon Ruin in northwestern New Mexico were studied. The results demonstrate that helminth parasitism increased with the advent of agriculture. Between the agricultural sites, differences in patterns of excreta disposal, foraging behavior, and local ecology resulted in pronounced variations in both percentage of coprolites containing parasite remains and the number of parasite species represented.

  7. Prehistoric human colonization of India.

    PubMed

    Misra, V N

    2001-11-01

    Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation. Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar-Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500-1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers. With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide and

  8. Phytoliths in Pottery Reveal the Use of Spice in European Prehistoric Cuisine

    PubMed Central

    Saul, Hayley; Madella, Marco; Fischer, Anders; Glykou, Aikaterini; Hartz, Sönke; Craig, Oliver E.

    2013-01-01

    Here we present evidence of phytoliths preserved in carbonised food deposits on prehistoric pottery from the western Baltic dating from 6,100 cal BP to 5750 cal BP. Based on comparisons to over 120 European and Asian species, our observations are consistent with phytolith morphologies observed in modern garlic mustard seed (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb) Cavara & Grande). As this seed has a strong flavour, little nutritional value, and the phytoliths are found in pots along with terrestrial and marine animal residues, these findings are the first direct evidence for the spicing of food in European prehistoric cuisine. Our evidence suggests a much greater antiquity to the spicing of foods than is evident from the macrofossil record, and challenges the view that plants were exploited by hunter-gatherers and early agriculturalists solely for energy requirements, rather than taste. PMID:23990910

  9. Tooth enamel oxygen “isoscapes” show a high degree of human mobility in prehistoric Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Maura; Pouncett, John; Jay, Mandy; Pearson, Mike Parker; Richards, Michael P.

    2016-10-01

    A geostatistical model to predict human skeletal oxygen isotope values (δ18Op) in Britain is presented here based on a new dataset of Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age human teeth. The spatial statistics which underpin this model allow the identification of individuals interpreted as ‘non-local’ to the areas where they were buried (spatial outliers). A marked variation in δ18Op is observed in several areas, including the Stonehenge region, the Peak District, and the Yorkshire Wolds, suggesting a high degree of human mobility. These areas, rich in funerary and ceremonial monuments, may have formed focal points for people, some of whom would have travelled long distances, ultimately being buried there. The dataset and model represent a baseline for future archaeological studies, avoiding the complex conversions from skeletal to water δ18O values–a process known to be problematic.

  10. Tooth enamel oxygen “isoscapes” show a high degree of human mobility in prehistoric Britain

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Maura; Pouncett, John; Jay, Mandy; Pearson, Mike Parker; Richards, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    A geostatistical model to predict human skeletal oxygen isotope values (δ18Op) in Britain is presented here based on a new dataset of Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age human teeth. The spatial statistics which underpin this model allow the identification of individuals interpreted as ‘non-local’ to the areas where they were buried (spatial outliers). A marked variation in δ18Op is observed in several areas, including the Stonehenge region, the Peak District, and the Yorkshire Wolds, suggesting a high degree of human mobility. These areas, rich in funerary and ceremonial monuments, may have formed focal points for people, some of whom would have travelled long distances, ultimately being buried there. The dataset and model represent a baseline for future archaeological studies, avoiding the complex conversions from skeletal to water δ18O values–a process known to be problematic. PMID:27713538

  11. Tooth enamel oxygen "isoscapes" show a high degree of human mobility in prehistoric Britain.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Maura; Pouncett, John; Jay, Mandy; Pearson, Mike Parker; Richards, Michael P

    2016-10-07

    A geostatistical model to predict human skeletal oxygen isotope values (δ(18)Op) in Britain is presented here based on a new dataset of Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age human teeth. The spatial statistics which underpin this model allow the identification of individuals interpreted as 'non-local' to the areas where they were buried (spatial outliers). A marked variation in δ(18)Op is observed in several areas, including the Stonehenge region, the Peak District, and the Yorkshire Wolds, suggesting a high degree of human mobility. These areas, rich in funerary and ceremonial monuments, may have formed focal points for people, some of whom would have travelled long distances, ultimately being buried there. The dataset and model represent a baseline for future archaeological studies, avoiding the complex conversions from skeletal to water δ(18)O values-a process known to be problematic.

  12. A Unique Assemblage of Engraved Plaquettes from Ein Qashish South, Jezreel Valley, Israel: Figurative and Non-Figurative Symbols of Late Pleistocene Hunters-Gatherers in the Levant.

    PubMed

    Yaroshevich, Alla; Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Boaretto, Elisabeta; Caracuta, Valentina; Greenbaum, Noam; Porat, Naomi; Roskin, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Three engraved limestone plaquettes from the recently excavated Epipaleolithic open-air site Ein Qashish South in the Jezreel Valley, Israel comprise unique evidence for symbolic behavior of Late Pleistocene foragers in the Levant. The engravings, uncovered in Kebaran and Geometric Kebaran deposits (ca. 23ka and ca. 16.5ka BP), include the image of a bird-the first figurative representation known so far from a pre-Natufian Epipaleolithic-along with geometric motifs such as chevrons, crosshatchings and ladders. Some of the engravings closely resemble roughly contemporary European finds interpreted as "systems of notations" or "artificial memory systems"-records related to timing of seasonal resources and associated aggregation events of nomadic groups. Moreover, similarly looking signs and patterns are well known from the context of the local Natufian-a final Epipaleolithic culture of sedentary or semi-sedentary foragers who started practicing agriculture. The investigation of the engravings found in Ein Qashish South involves conceptualizations developed in studies of European and local parallels, a selection of ethnographic examples and preliminary microscopic observations of the plaquettes. This shows that the figurative and non-figurative images comprise a coherent assemblage of symbols that might have been applied in order to store, share and transmit information related to social and subsistence realms of mobile bands. It further suggests that the site functioned as a locality of groups' aggregation and indicates social complexity of pre-Natufian foragers in the Levant. While alterations in social and subsistence strategies can explain the varying frequency of image use characterizing different areas of the Late Pleistocene world-the apparent similarity in graphics and the mode of their application support the possibility that symbol-mediated behavior has a common and much earlier origin.

  13. A Unique Assemblage of Engraved Plaquettes from Ein Qashish South, Jezreel Valley, Israel: Figurative and Non-Figurative Symbols of Late Pleistocene Hunters-Gatherers in the Levant

    PubMed Central

    Yaroshevich, Alla; Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Boaretto, Elisabeta; Caracuta, Valentina; Greenbaum, Noam; Porat, Naomi; Roskin, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Three engraved limestone plaquettes from the recently excavated Epipaleolithic open-air site Ein Qashish South in the Jezreel Valley, Israel comprise unique evidence for symbolic behavior of Late Pleistocene foragers in the Levant. The engravings, uncovered in Kebaran and Geometric Kebaran deposits (ca. 23ka and ca. 16.5ka BP), include the image of a bird—the first figurative representation known so far from a pre-Natufian Epipaleolithic—along with geometric motifs such as chevrons, crosshatchings and ladders. Some of the engravings closely resemble roughly contemporary European finds interpreted as "systems of notations" or "artificial memory systems"–records related to timing of seasonal resources and associated aggregation events of nomadic groups. Moreover, similarly looking signs and patterns are well known from the context of the local Natufian—a final Epipaleolithic culture of sedentary or semi-sedentary foragers who started practicing agriculture. The investigation of the engravings found in Ein Qashish South involves conceptualizations developed in studies of European and local parallels, a selection of ethnographic examples and preliminary microscopic observations of the plaquettes. This shows that the figurative and non-figurative images comprise a coherent assemblage of symbols that might have been applied in order to store, share and transmit information related to social and subsistence realms of mobile bands. It further suggests that the site functioned as a locality of groups' aggregation and indicates social complexity of pre-Natufian foragers in the Levant. While alterations in social and subsistence strategies can explain the varying frequency of image use characterizing different areas of the Late Pleistocene world—the apparent similarity in graphics and the mode of their application support the possibility that symbol-mediated behavior has a common and much earlier origin. PMID:27557110

  14. Dietary reconstruction of the El Sidrón Neandertal familial group (Spain) in the context of other Neandertal and modern hunter-gatherer groups. A molar microwear texture analysis.

    PubMed

    Estalrrich, Almudena; El Zaatari, Sireen; Rosas, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Here, we present the analysis of occlusal molar microwear textures of eight individuals from the El Sidrón Neandertal group (Spain). The aims of the study were: 1) to document potential age-, sex-, and maternal lineage-related differences in diet within a Neandertal familial group, and 2) to place the diet of El Sidrón individuals in the context of those of other Neandertal groups. This study also offers an interpretation of the diet of the El Sidrón Neandertals by comparing their microwear signatures to those of recent hunter-gatherer populations with diverse but known diets. The intra-group examination of the microwear signatures are consistent with the females of the El Sidrón group having had more abrasive diets or having used their teeth in more para-masticatory activities than did the males. Aside from the potential sex-related differences in diet, no additional intra-group dietary separation, such as by age group or maternal lineage, was observed. In comparison to other Neandertals, El Sidrón individuals, as a group, have microwear signatures most similar to those of other Neandertals from wooded habitats and different from those that lived in more open habitats. This result is expected based on the available paleoenvironmental reconstructions from El Sidrón Cave. The diet of the El Sidrón Neandertals, just like their Neandertal counterparts from similar wooded habitats, is interpreted as having been mixed, consisting of both meat and vegetable foods.

  15. Diet and nutrition of prehistoric populations at the alluvial banks of the Parana River.

    PubMed

    Cornero, S; Puche, R C

    2000-01-01

    This study attempts to characterize the health status and diet of prehistoric populations (1,000-2,000 years BP), dwelling at both banks of Parana River, between 29 degrees S and 32 degrees S. The data obtained suggest that these prehistoric populations had an adequate nutritional status, with complete proteins in the diet, as suggested by the ratio strontium/calcium in their bone mineral (0.71 +/- 0.04 microgram Srx1,000/mg Ca). The overall frequency of dental caries (4.9%) coincides with that reported for hunters-gatherers. The average mineral densities of the tibiae of adult subjects exhumed at two sites (males: 1.51 +/- 0.07 gr/cm2; females: 1.24 +/- 0.06 gr/cm2) suggested that they had significant bone mass, an asset compatible with adequate nutrition. In metacarpals, the amount of cortical tissue also suggests bone mass comparable to contemporaneous controls. The growth and development of the prehistoric populations studied are deemed normal as shown by the clear sexual dimorphism of their estimated heights at adult age (males: 177-183 cm; females 152-166 cm) and their bone mass.

  16. Biogeochemical inferences of mobility of early Holocene fisher-foragers from the Southern Sahara Desert.

    PubMed

    Stojanowski, Christopher M; Knudson, Kelly J

    2011-09-01

    North Africa is increasingly seen as an important context for understanding modern human evolution and reconstructing biocultural adaptations. The Sahara, in particular, witnessed a fluorescence of hunter-gatherer settlement at the onset of the Holocene after an extended occupational hiatus. Subsequent subsistence changes through the Holocene are contrary to those documented in other areas where mobile foraging gave way to settled agricultural village life. In North Africa, extractive fishing and hunting was supplanted by cattle and caprine pastoralism under deteriorating climatic conditions. Therefore, the initial stage of food production in North Africa witnessed a likely increase in mobility. However, there are few studies of paleomobility in Early Holocene hunter-gatherer Saharan populations and the degree of mobility is generally assumed. Here, we present radiogenic strontium isotope ratios from Early Holocene fisher-forager peoples from the site of Gobero, central Niger, southern Sahara Desert. Data indicate a relatively homogeneous radiogenic strontium isotope signature for this hunter-gather population with limited variability exhibited throughout the life course or among different individuals. Although the overall signature was local, some variation in the radiogenic strontium isotope data likely reflects transhumance into the nearby Aïr Massif. Data from Gobero were significantly less variable than in other worldwide hunter-gatherer populations, including those thought to be fairly sedentary. Strontium data from Gobero were also significantly different from contemporaneous sites in southwestern Libya. These patterns are discussed with respect to archaeological models of community organization and technological evolution.

  17. Relative tibia long bone growth in the Libben and Bt-5 prehistoric skeletal populations.

    PubMed

    Mensforth, R P

    1985-10-01

    Patterns of tibia long bone growth were examined for the Libben Late Woodland and Bt-5 Late Archaic hunter-gatherer skeletal groups. Subadults included in the analyses ranged in age from birth to 10 years. The primary goals were to identify potential differences in relative tibia growth and evaluate the extent to which such differences were concordant with demographic and epidemiological characteristics of the two groups. Methods used were designed to minimize the shortcomings of unknown age and sex of the skeleton, small sample sizes, and population differences in adult size attained. Results showed that Bt-5 preadolescent growth performance and health status in general were superior to those of the Libben group. Modifications in the rate and timing of Libben tibia growth occurred early and were primarily restricted to the weaning period. It is suggested that high levels of infectious disease experienced in the first years of life at Libben played a substantial role in the etiology of early long bone growth retardation, a greater prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in the childhood years, and elevated levels of subadult morbidity and mortality compared to Bt-5. Paleodemographic, paleoepidemiological, and modern comparative population data that support these inferences are discussed. No evidence of chronic malnutrition owing to dietary inadequacy was observed for either group. Alternatively, higher population density and greater degree of sedentism alone may have been responsible for elevated disease loads at Libben compared to low levels that were observed for the seasonally mobile semisedentary Bt-5 hunter-gatherers.

  18. Ancient DNA Reveals Prehistoric Gene-Flow from Siberia in the Complex Human Population History of North East Europe

    PubMed Central

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W.; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across

  19. Ancient DNA reveals prehistoric gene-flow from siberia in the complex human population history of North East Europe.

    PubMed

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across

  20. Digging into Prehistoric Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaim, Ginalie, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    A theme issue of the Iowa State Historical Department magazine focuses on elementary readings and activities about prehistoric Iowa. The issue contains a total of 16 articles. In "History Makers," a ten-year-old recounts his family's discovery of a mammoth bone on their farm. "Imagine a Camping Trip Long Ago" looks at how the…

  1. Edward B. D. Neuhauser Lecture. Paleoradiology of the prehistoric Australian aborigines.

    PubMed

    Kricun, M E

    1994-08-01

    Prehistoric populations suffered the rigors of everyday survival as hunter-gatherers, and some of the individuals had osseous manifestations as a result both of these stresses and of aging. Paleomedical scientists usually seek out osseous abnormalities found in skeletal remains, thus stressing the morbidity of a population [4]. In so doing, they portray those populations as less healthy than their own. This may not necessarily be the case. Specimens without signs of injury should be considered as evidence of the population's vitality; bones with evidence of injury that has healed during life should be considered as evidence of debility; and bones with evidence of conditions that are occupational in origin should be considered as evidence of social, economic, and ecological environmental conditions [4]. This is more useful than singling out specimens with abnormalities as signs of the population's morbidity [4]. This is confirmed by the majority of bones appearing osteologically healthy, except for the characteristic findings of biomechanical wear and tear arising from acquiring food and from combat (osteoarthritis, fractures). Although a number of children may have been infected by the treponematoses, which were manifested by cutaneous lesions, only a small percentage of children actually experienced osseous infection. Also, bone metastases were extremely rare.

  2. Symbolism in prehistoric man.

    PubMed

    Facchini, F

    2000-12-01

    The aptitude for symbolization, characteristic of man, is revealed not only in artistic representations and funerary practices. It is exhibited by every manifestation of human activity or representation of natural phenomena that assumes or refers to a meaning. We can recognize functional symbolism (tool-making, habitative or food technology), social symbolism, (language and social communication) and spiritual symbolism (funerary practices and artistic expressions). On the basis of these concepts, research into symbolism in prehistoric man allows us to recognize forms of symbolism already in the manifestations of the most ancient humans, starting with Homo habilis (or rudolfensis). Toolmaking, social organization and organization of the territory are oriented toward survival and the life of the family group. They attest to symbolic behaviors and constitute symbolic systems by means of which man expresses himself, lives and transmits his symbolic world. The diverse forms of symbolism are discussed with reference to the different phases of prehistoric humanity.

  3. Prehistoric New Zealanders.

    PubMed

    Houghton, P

    1978-03-22

    The physical condition of prehistoric man in New Zealand is briefly surveyed. These were tall, robust Polynesian people living an active existence, and having an adequate diet. The mean life span of about 30 years for adults was short only by modern Western standards. A number of skeletal features, notably aspects of skull and long bone form, set them apart from other races of mankind.

  4. Last hunter-gatherers and first farmers of Europe.

    PubMed

    Tresset, Anne; Vigne, Jean-Denis

    2011-03-01

    The Neolithisation of Europe has seen the transformation of hunting-gathering societies into farming communities. At least partly exogenous in its origins, this process led to major transformations in many aspects of life-styles, such as social structures, land use or diet. It involved the arrival of new human populations and gave way to the importation, intentional or unwanted of many non-European animal and plant species. It also provoked important changes in interactions between humans and natural environments. In many respects, it set the foundations of long-term European peasantry developments and prefigured later agropastoral colonizations. As such, it must be seen as a major turning point in the history of European populations.

  5. [Spiritual manifestations in prehistoric images].

    PubMed

    Kolmer, H

    1975-01-01

    Having visited the places of prehistoric cult and cave paintings of the Franco-Cantabrian region, central Sahara, Monte Bego and Val Camonica as well as Switzerland and Austria, the author attempts to outline a chronological profile of the occidental prehistoric art. The evolution is marked by a progressive extension of the mental horizon and of the ability to abstract, the emergence of a more analytical and composed way of thinking, the development of an anesthetic representation power which no doubt were the basis of the invention of writing.

  6. Prehistoric astronomy in the Southwest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McK. Malville, J.; Putnam, C.

    Many sites in the southwestern United States have yielded evidence of the prehistoric Anasazi's intense interest in astronomy, similar to that of the megalithic cultures of Europe. The authors describe the astronomical alignments at the well-known sites of Chaco Canyon and Hovenweep and present new evidence, based on recent field work of alignments at Yellow Jacket and Chimney Rock. Drawing on the archeological evidence, ethnographical parallels with historic pueblo peoples, and mythology from other cultures, the authors present theories about the meaning and function of the mysterious stone alignments and architectural orientations of the prehistoric Southwest.

  7. Holocene Demographic Changes and the Emergence of Complex Societies in Prehistoric Australia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Alan N.; Ulm, Sean; Turney, Chris S. M.; Rohde, David; White, Gentry

    2015-01-01

    A continental-scale model of Holocene Australian hunter-gatherer demography and mobility is generated using radiocarbon data and geospatial techniques. Results show a delayed expansion and settlement of much of Australia following the termination of the late Pleistocene until after 9,000 years ago (or 9ka). The onset of the Holocene climatic optimum (9-6ka) coincides with rapid expansion, growth and establishment of regional populations across ~75% of Australia, including much of the arid zone. This diffusion from isolated Pleistocene refugia provides a mechanism for the synchronous spread of pan-continental archaeological and linguistic attributes at this time (e.g. Pama-Nyungan language, Panaramitee art style, backed artefacts). We argue longer patch residence times were possible at the end of the optimum, resulting in a shift to more sedentary lifestyles and establishment of low-level food production in some parts of the continent. The onset of El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO; 4.5-2ka) restricted low-level food production, and resulted in population fragmentation, abandonment of marginal areas, and reduction in ranging territory of ~26%. Importantly, climate amelioration brought about by more pervasive La Niña conditions (post-2ka), resulted in an intensification of the mobility strategies and technological innovations that were developed in the early- to mid-Holocene. These changes resulted in population expansion and utilization of the entire continent. We propose that it was under these demographically packed conditions that the complex social and religious societies observed at colonial contact were formed. PMID:26083101

  8. Holocene Demographic Changes and the Emergence of Complex Societies in Prehistoric Australia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Alan N; Ulm, Sean; Turney, Chris S M; Rohde, David; White, Gentry

    2015-01-01

    A continental-scale model of Holocene Australian hunter-gatherer demography and mobility is generated using radiocarbon data and geospatial techniques. Results show a delayed expansion and settlement of much of Australia following the termination of the late Pleistocene until after 9,000 years ago (or 9ka). The onset of the Holocene climatic optimum (9-6ka) coincides with rapid expansion, growth and establishment of regional populations across ~75% of Australia, including much of the arid zone. This diffusion from isolated Pleistocene refugia provides a mechanism for the synchronous spread of pan-continental archaeological and linguistic attributes at this time (e.g. Pama-Nyungan language, Panaramitee art style, backed artefacts). We argue longer patch residence times were possible at the end of the optimum, resulting in a shift to more sedentary lifestyles and establishment of low-level food production in some parts of the continent. The onset of El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO; 4.5-2ka) restricted low-level food production, and resulted in population fragmentation, abandonment of marginal areas, and reduction in ranging territory of ~26%. Importantly, climate amelioration brought about by more pervasive La Niña conditions (post-2ka), resulted in an intensification of the mobility strategies and technological innovations that were developed in the early- to mid-Holocene. These changes resulted in population expansion and utilization of the entire continent. We propose that it was under these demographically packed conditions that the complex social and religious societies observed at colonial contact were formed.

  9. Modeling the prehistoric Maori population.

    PubMed

    Brewis, A A; Molloy, M A; Sutton, D G

    1990-03-01

    Skeletal and comparative evidence of mortality is combined with fertility estimates for the precontact Maori population of New Zealand to determine the implied rate of precontact population growth. This rate is found to be too low to populate New Zealand within the time constraints of its prehistoric sequence, the probable founding population size, and the probable population size at contact. Rates of growth necessary to populate New Zealand within the accepted time span are calculated. The differences between this minimum necessary rate and the skeletally derived rate are too large to result solely from inadequacies in the primary data. Four alternative explanations of this conundrum are proposed: 1) skeletal evidence of precontact mortality is highly inaccurate; 2) skeletal evidence of fertility is severely underestimating actual levels; 3) there was very rapid population growth in the earliest part of the sequence up to 1150 A.D., from which no skeletal evidence currently is available; or 4) the prehistoric sequence of New Zealand may have been longer than the generally accepted 1,000-1,200 years. These alternatives are examined, and a combination of the last two is found to be the most probable. The implications of this model for New Zealand prehistory and Oceanic paleodemography are discussed.

  10. Aspects of prehistoric astronomy in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Kameswara

    2005-12-01

    Some archeoastronomical aspects regarding the development of observational astronomy in India during prehistoric times are described. A plea is made for the preservation of megalithic monuments of possible astronomical significance.

  11. Maximum likelihood estimate of life expectancy in the prehistoric Jomon: Canine pulp volume reduction suggests a longer life expectancy than previously thought.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tomohiko; Kondo, Osamu

    2016-09-01

    Recent theoretical progress potentially refutes past claims that paleodemographic estimations are flawed by statistical problems, including age mimicry and sample bias due to differential preservation. The life expectancy at age 15 of the Jomon period prehistoric populace in Japan was initially estimated to have been ∼16 years while a more recent analysis suggested 31.5 years. In this study, we provide alternative results based on a new methodology. The material comprises 234 mandibular canines from Jomon period skeletal remains and a reference sample of 363 mandibular canines of recent-modern Japanese. Dental pulp reduction is used as the age-indicator, which because of tooth durability is presumed to minimize the effect of differential preservation. Maximum likelihood estimation, which theoretically avoids age mimicry, was applied. Our methods also adjusted for the known pulp volume reduction rate among recent-modern Japanese to provide a better fit for observations in the Jomon period sample. Without adjustment for the known rate in pulp volume reduction, estimates of Jomon life expectancy at age 15 were dubiously long. However, when the rate was adjusted, the estimate results in a value that falls within the range of modern hunter-gatherers, with significantly better fit to the observations. The rate-adjusted result of 32.2 years more likely represents the true life expectancy of the Jomon people at age 15, than the result without adjustment. Considering ∼7% rate of antemortem loss of the mandibular canine observed in our Jomon period sample, actual life expectancy at age 15 may have been as high as ∼35.3 years.

  12. Anthropocene rockfalls travel farther than prehistoric predecessors.

    PubMed

    Borella, Josh Walter; Quigley, Mark; Vick, Louise

    2016-09-01

    Human modification of natural landscapes has influenced surface processes in many settings on Earth. Quantitative data comparing the distribution and behavior of geologic phenomena before and after human arrival are sparse but urgently required to evaluate possible anthropogenic influences on geologic hazards. We conduct field and imagery-based mapping, statistical analysis, and numerical modeling of rockfall boulders triggered by the fatal 2011 Christchurch earthquakes (n = 285) and newly identified prehistoric (Holocene and Pleistocene) boulders (n = 1049). Prehistoric and modern boulders are lithologically equivalent, derived from the same source cliff, and yield consistent power-law frequency-volume distributions. However, a significant population of modern boulders (n = 26) traveled farther downslope (>150 m) than their most-traveled prehistoric counterparts, causing extensive damage to residential dwellings at the foot of the hillslope. Replication of prehistoric boulder distributions using three-dimensional rigid-body numerical models that incorporate lidar-derived digital topography and realistic boulder trajectories and volumes requires the application of a drag coefficient, attributed to moderate to dense slope vegetation, to account for their spatial distribution. Incorporating a spatially variable native forest into the models successfully predicts prehistoric rockfall distributions. Radiocarbon dating provides evidence for 17th to early 20th century deforestation at the study site during Polynesian and European colonization and after emplacement of prehistoric rockfall. Anthropocene deforestation enabled modern rockfalls to exceed the limits of their prehistoric predecessors, highlighting a shift in the geologic expression of rockfalls due to anthropogenic activity. Reforestation of hillslopes by mature native vegetation could help reduce future rockfall hazard.

  13. Anthropocene rockfalls travel farther than prehistoric predecessors

    PubMed Central

    Borella, Josh Walter; Quigley, Mark; Vick, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Human modification of natural landscapes has influenced surface processes in many settings on Earth. Quantitative data comparing the distribution and behavior of geologic phenomena before and after human arrival are sparse but urgently required to evaluate possible anthropogenic influences on geologic hazards. We conduct field and imagery-based mapping, statistical analysis, and numerical modeling of rockfall boulders triggered by the fatal 2011 Christchurch earthquakes (n = 285) and newly identified prehistoric (Holocene and Pleistocene) boulders (n = 1049). Prehistoric and modern boulders are lithologically equivalent, derived from the same source cliff, and yield consistent power-law frequency-volume distributions. However, a significant population of modern boulders (n = 26) traveled farther downslope (>150 m) than their most-traveled prehistoric counterparts, causing extensive damage to residential dwellings at the foot of the hillslope. Replication of prehistoric boulder distributions using three-dimensional rigid-body numerical models that incorporate lidar-derived digital topography and realistic boulder trajectories and volumes requires the application of a drag coefficient, attributed to moderate to dense slope vegetation, to account for their spatial distribution. Incorporating a spatially variable native forest into the models successfully predicts prehistoric rockfall distributions. Radiocarbon dating provides evidence for 17th to early 20th century deforestation at the study site during Polynesian and European colonization and after emplacement of prehistoric rockfall. Anthropocene deforestation enabled modern rockfalls to exceed the limits of their prehistoric predecessors, highlighting a shift in the geologic expression of rockfalls due to anthropogenic activity. Reforestation of hillslopes by mature native vegetation could help reduce future rockfall hazard. PMID:27652344

  14. Prehistoric bird extinctions and human hunting.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Richard P; Blackburn, Tim M; Worthy, Trevor H

    2002-03-07

    Holocene fossils document the extinction of hundreds of bird species on Pacific islands during prehistoric human occupation. Human hunting is implicated in these extinctions, but the impact of hunting is difficult to disentangle from the effects of other changes induced by humans, including habitat destruction and the introduction of other mammalian predators. Here, we use data from bones collected at a natural sand dune site and associated archaeological middens in New Zealand to show that, having controlled for differences in body mass and family membership (and hence for variation in life-history traits related to population growth rate), birds that were more intensively hunted by prehistoric humans had a higher probability of extinction. This result cannot be attributed to preservation biases and provides clear evidence that selective hunting contributed significantly to prehistoric bird extinctions at this site.

  15. Mythological and Prehistorical Origins of Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Anil; Filis, Andreas; Kalakoti, Piyush

    2016-05-01

    Mythology has a cultural appeal, and the description of some neurosurgical procedures in the Hindu, Greek, Egyptian, and Chinese mythology has a bearing to the origins of our professions. The traces to some of our modern-day practices also can be linked back to the ancient prehistoric eras of the Siberian, Persian, and the Andean region. In this historical perspective, we briefly dwell into individual accounts through the prism of different cultures to highlight the development of neurosurgery in mythology and prehistoric era.

  16. Prehistoric agricultural depletion of soil nutrients in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Hartshorn, A S; Chadwick, O A; Vitousek, P M; Kirch, P V

    2006-07-18

    We investigated the fate of soil nutrients after centuries of indigenous dryland agriculture in Hawai'i using a coupled geochemical and archaeological approach. Beginning approximately 500 years ago, farmers began growing dryland taro and sweet potato on the leeward slopes of East Maui. Their digging sticks pierced a subsurface layer of cinders, enhancing crop access to the soil water stored below the intact cinders. Cultivation also catalyzed nutrient losses, directly by facilitating leaching of mobile nutrients after disturbing a stratigraphic barrier to vertical water movement, and indirectly by increasing mineral weathering and subsequent uptake and harvest. As a result, centuries of cultivation lowered volumetric total calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus content by 49%, 28%, 75%, 37%, and 32%, respectively. In the absence of written records, we used the difference in soil phosphorus to estimate that prehistoric yields were sufficient to meet local demand over very long time frames, but the associated acceleration of nutrient losses could have compromised subsequent yields.

  17. Archaeogenomic evidence reveals prehistoric matrilineal dynasty

    PubMed Central

    Kennett, Douglas J.; Plog, Stephen; George, Richard J.; Culleton, Brendan J.; Watson, Adam S.; Skoglund, Pontus; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Stewardson, Kristin; Kistler, Logan; LeBlanc, Steven A.; Whiteley, Peter M.; Reich, David; Perry, George H.

    2017-01-01

    For societies with writing systems, hereditary leadership is documented as one of the hallmarks of early political complexity and governance. In contrast, it is unknown whether hereditary succession played a role in the early formation of prehistoric complex societies that lacked writing. Here we use an archaeogenomic approach to identify an elite matriline that persisted between 800 and 1130 CE in Chaco Canyon, the centre of an expansive prehistoric complex society in the Southwestern United States. We show that nine individuals buried in an elite crypt at Pueblo Bonito, the largest structure in the canyon, have identical mitochondrial genomes. Analyses of nuclear genome data from six samples with the highest DNA preservation demonstrate mother–daughter and grandmother–grandson relationships, evidence for a multigenerational matrilineal descent group. Together, these results demonstrate the persistence of an elite matriline in Chaco for ∼330 years. PMID:28221340

  18. Fecal metabolome of the Hadza hunter-gatherers: a host-microbiome integrative view

    PubMed Central

    Turroni, Silvia; Fiori, Jessica; Rampelli, Simone; Schnorr, Stephanie L.; Consolandi, Clarissa; Barone, Monica; Biagi, Elena; Fanelli, Flaminia; Mezzullo, Marco; Crittenden, Alyssa N.; Henry, Amanda G.; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The recent characterization of the gut microbiome of traditional rural and foraging societies allowed us to appreciate the essential co-adaptive role of the microbiome in complementing our physiology, opening up significant questions on how the microbiota changes that have occurred in industrialized urban populations may have altered the microbiota-host co-metabolic network, contributing to the growing list of Western diseases. Here, we applied a targeted metabolomics approach to profile the fecal metabolome of the Hadza of Tanzania, one of the world’s few remaining foraging populations, and compared them to the profiles of urban living Italians, as representative of people in the post-industrialized West. Data analysis shows that during the rainy season, when the diet is primarily plant-based, Hadza are characterized by a distinctive enrichment in hexoses, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and acylcarnitines, while deplete in the most common natural amino acids and derivatives. Complementary to the documented unique metagenomic features of their gut microbiome, our findings on the Hadza metabolome lend support to the notion of an alternate microbiome configuration befitting of a nomadic forager lifestyle, which helps maintain metabolic homeostasis through an overall scarcity of inflammatory factors, which are instead highly represented in the Italian metabolome. PMID:27624970

  19. Evidence for aging theories from the study of a hunter-gatherer people (Ache of Paraguay).

    PubMed

    Libertini, G

    2013-09-01

    In the late seventies, a small tribal population of Paraguay, the Ache, living under natural conditions, was studied. Data from this population turn out to be useful for considerations about evolutionary hypotheses on the aging phenomenon. 1) Ache show an age-related increasing mortality, which strongly limits the mean duration of life, as observed in other studies on mammal and bird species. 2) According to current theories on aging, in the wild very few or no individual reach old age and, so, aging cannot be directly influenced by natural selection. However, data from our population show that a significant proportion of the population reaches in the wild 60 and 70 years of age. 3) Data from Ache are also in agreement with the observation about an inverse correlation between extrinsic mortality and deaths due to the age-related increasing mortality. 4) For many gerontologists, the age-related decline of vital functions is a consequence of the gradual decline of cell turnover, genetically determined and regulated by the declining duplication capacities of stem cells. The current interpretation is that these restrictions are a general defense against the proliferation of any tumoral mass. However, among wild Ache cancer is virtually unknown in non-elderly subjects, and only among older individuals are there deaths attributable to oncological diseases. Moreover, fitness decline begins long before oncological diseases have fatal effects in significant numbers. This completely disproves the current hypothesis, because a supposed defense against a deadly disease cannot exterminate a population before the disease begins to kill. These data are consistent with similar data from other species studied under natural conditions, and they bring new arguments against the non-adaptive interpretation of aging and in support of the adaptive interpretation.

  20. Craniometric variation and homogeneity in prehistoric/protohistoric Rapa Nui (Easter Island) regional populations.

    PubMed

    Stefan, V H

    1999-12-01

    Discrete cranial morphological traits of prehistoric/protohistoric Rapa Nui (Easter Island) inhabitants have been examined and have illustrated distinct regional or tribal differences; however, craniometric traits have not been as extensively evaluated to determine if similar regional population differences exist. This study examines the range of variability of Rapa Nui craniometrics and utilizes population genetic techniques to evaluate the level of homogeneity/heterogeneity within the island populations. The data consist of 50 cranio-facial measurements of Rapanui (Easter Islanders) skeletal material from the Late Prehistoric (1680-1722) and Protohistoric (1722-1868) periods. The sample was divided into five tribal regions: North, Northeast, South, Southwest, and West. General linear models (GLM) statistical analyses revealed one variable significant for males and 10 for females across tribal regions, totaling 11 regionally significant variables. Discriminant function analyses utilizing crossvalidation provided classification error rates of 55.8% males and 59.0% for females when utilizing those eleven significant variables. Minimum F(ST) values for males (0.06378) and females (0.09409) were calculated from unbiased Mahalanobis D(2) values. These values indicate that males have greater between-group homogeneity than females. The determinant ratio for the Northeast tribal region was the only significant ratio, yet all but one of the regional determinant ratios displayed a pattern of greater male than female mobility. These results indicate that significant craniometric differences between the tribal regions did not exist in prehistoric/protohistoric Rapa Nui populations, supporting the findings of previous research which has documented the homogeneity of the craniometrics of those tribal populations. The calculated minimum F(ST) values indicate the existence of different levels of heterogeneity between the male and female Rapa Nui regional populations resulting

  1. Palaeolithic paintings. Evolution of prehistoric cave art.

    PubMed

    Valladas, H; Clottes, J; Geneste, J M; Garcia, M A; Arnold, M; Cachier, H; Tisnérat-Laborde, N

    2001-10-04

    Sophisticated examples of European palaeolithic parietal art can be seen in the caves of Altamira, Lascaux and Niaux near the Pyrenees, which date to the Magdalenian period (12,000-17,000 years ago), but paintings of comparable skill and complexity were created much earlier, some possibly more than 30,000 years ago. We have derived new radiocarbon dates for the drawings that decorate the Chauvet cave in Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Ardèche, France, which confirm that even 30,000 years ago Aurignacian artists, already known as accomplished carvers, could create masterpieces comparable to the best Magdalenian art. Prehistorians, who have traditionally interpreted the evolution of prehistoric art as a steady progression from simple to more complex representations, may have to reconsider existing theories of the origins of art.

  2. Adaptive transitions and environmental change in the northern Great Basin: A view from Diamond Swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Musil, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The presence of sedentary prehistoric occupations in association with wetland settings in the Great Basin has been the focus of continued debate. Theoretical discussions concerning the nature of hunter-gatherer adaptations to wetland environments have been based on two models: (1) Stress-based or push models, which argue that hunter-gatherer populations would reduce mobility as a response to less favorable conditions, and (2) abundance-based or pull models, which argue that hunter-gatherers would have been attracted to localized environments of diverse and plentiful resources. Archaeological evidence from Diamond Swamp provides insight into human adaptive transitions in wetland environments. Archaeological data from Diamond Swamp revealed a series of cultural components representing significant portions of the Holocene. The components at the Dunn and McCoy Creek sites consist of collections of artifactual, faunal, and floral materials, in association with semi-subterranean pithouse features dated between 3500 and 900 BP. These occupations correspond to periods of increased moisture and higher water tables. During periods of climatic amelioration semi-sedentary occupations occurred with the expansion of highly productive marsh and juniper grassland vegetation zones. The component at the McCoy Creek Site corresponds to a period of decreasing moisture punctuated by periodic drought, evidenced by the presence of a less substantial wickiup occupation dated at 500 BP. This occupation is indicative of a transition to a more mobile, less intensive occupational episode. The study provides evidence that transitions to sedentary pithouse villages in Diamond Swamp are best accounted for by the abundance-based model. A shift towards a less substantial, more mobile, occupation occurred with a decline in effective moisture. The research reflects adaptations made by local hunter-gatherer populations to long term environmental change within a typical Great Basin wetlands setting.

  3. A new population curve for prehistoric Australia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Alan N

    2013-06-22

    This paper presents a new reconstruction of prehistoric population of Australia for the last 50 ka, using the most comprehensive radiocarbon database currently available for the continent. The application of new techniques to manipulate radiocarbon data (including correction for taphonomic bias), gives greater reliability to the reconstructed population curve. This shows low populations through the Late Pleistocene, before a slow stepwise increase in population beginning during the Holocene transition (approx. 12 ka) and continuing in pulses (approx. 8.3-6.6, 4.4-3.7 and 1.6-0.4 ka) through the Holocene. These data give no support for an early saturation of the continent, although the estimated population following initial landfall was probably greater than previously allowed (comparable with the Early Holocene). The greatest increase in population occurred in the Late Holocene, but in contrast to existing intensification models, changes in demography and diversification of economic activities began much earlier. Some demographic changes appear to be in response to major climatic events, most notably during the last glacial maximum, where the curve suggests that population fell by about 60 per cent between 21 and 18 ka. An application of statistical demographic methods to Australian ethnographic and genetic data suggests that a founding group of 1000-2000 at 50 ka would result in a population high of approximately 1.2 million at approximately 0.5 ka. Data suggests an 8 per cent decline to approximately 770 000-1.1 million at the time of European contact, giving a figure consistent with ethnographic estimates and with historical observations of the impact of smallpox, and other diseases introduced by Macassans and Europeans during and after AD 1788.

  4. Dental enamel hypoplasias in prehistoric populations.

    PubMed

    Goodman, A H

    1989-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed an impressive increase in research on enamel hypoplasias in archaeological populations. By reviewing a series of studies of enamel hypoplasias at Dickson Mounds, Illinois, North America (950-1300 A.D.), a prehistoric site involved in the transition from gathering-hunting to agriculture, this paper provides an illustration of this type of research. The location of linear hypoplasias on labial tooth surfaces of 111 adults was studied with a thin-tipped caliper, and this location was converted to an age at development. Most defects developed between two and four years of developmental age. Hypoplasias increased in prevalence from 45% in the pre-agriculture group to 80% in the agricultural group (p less than 0.01). The transition to agriculture occurred at a cost to infant and childhood health. Defects are associated with decreased longevity. Individuals with defects have a life expectancy of nearly ten years fewer than those without defects, suggesting that the development of a defect marks a significant and lasting health event. Enamel hypoplasias occur most frequently on anterior teeth, polar teeth in developmental fields, and the middle developmental thirds of teeth. Analysis of these data suggests that enamel may be differentially susceptible to growth disruption and that susceptibility varies both within and among teeth. The study of enamel defects at Dickson provides insights into the health and nutritional consequences of the economic change from hunting and gathering to agriculture. More generally, with the availability of teeth from genetically homogeneous populations, studies of enamel hypoplasias in prehistory should provide a useful complement to research on this condition in contemporary peoples.

  5. Mobilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    istic and romantic emotionalism that typifies this genre. Longino, James C., et al. “A Study of World War Procurement and Industrial Mobilization...States. Harrisburg, PA: Military Service Publishing Co., 1941. CARL 355.22 J72b. Written in rough prose , this World War II era document explains the

  6. A GIS approach for predicting prehistoric site locations.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiper, J. A.; Wescott, K. L.

    1999-08-04

    Use of geographic information system (GIS)-based predictive mapping to locate areas of high potential for prehistoric archaeological sites is becoming increasingly popular among archaeologists. Knowledge of the environmental variables influencing activities of original inhabitants is used to produce GIS layers representing the spatial distribution of those variables. The GIS layers are then analyzed to identify locations where combinations of environmental variables match patterns observed at known prehistoric sites. Presented are the results of a study to locate high-potential areas for prehistoric sites in a largely unsurveyed area of 39,000 acres in the Upper Chesapeake Bay region, including details of the analysis process. The project used environmental data from over 500 known sites in other parts of the region and the results corresponded well with known sites in the study area.

  7. J1-M267 Y lineage marks climate-driven pre-historical human displacements.

    PubMed

    Tofanelli, Sergio; Ferri, Gianmarco; Bulayeva, Kazima; Caciagli, Laura; Onofri, Valerio; Taglioli, Luca; Bulayev, Oleg; Boschi, Ilaria; Alù, Milena; Berti, Andrea; Rapone, Cesare; Beduschi, Giovanni; Luiselli, Donata; Cadenas, Alicia M; Awadelkarim, Khalid Dafaallah; Mariani-Costantini, Renato; Elwali, Nasr Eldin; Verginelli, Fabio; Pilli, Elena; Herrera, Rene J; Gusmão, Leonor; Paoli, Giorgio; Capelli, Cristian

    2009-11-01

    The present day distribution of Y chromosomes bearing the haplogroup J1 M267(*)G variant has been associated with different episodes of human demographic history, the main one being the diffusion of Islam since the Early Middle Ages. To better understand the modes and timing of J1 dispersals, we reconstructed the genealogical relationships among 282 M267(*)G chromosomes from 29 populations typed at 20 YSTRs and 6 SNPs. Phylogenetic analyses depicted a new genetic background consistent with climate-driven demographic dynamics occurring during two key phases of human pre-history: (1) the spatial expansion of hunter gatherers in response to the end of the late Pleistocene cooling phases and (2) the displacement of groups of foragers/herders following the mid-Holocene rainfall retreats across the Sahara and Arabia. Furthermore, J1 STR motifs previously used to trace Arab or Jewish ancestries were shown unsuitable as diagnostic markers for ethnicity.

  8. Prehistoric Journey: Denver Museum of Natural History Educators' Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rebecca L.; Leigh, Vicki; Crew, Diana Lee

    This sourcebook prepares students for a visit to the "Prehistoric Journey" exhibit at the Denver Museum of Natural History. The exhibit opened October 23, 1995, and offered a dramatic exploration of 3.5 billion years of life on Earth. Dioramas and "enviroramas" depict seven critical points in life's history. In addition to the chronological…

  9. Isotopic evidence for residential mobility of farming communities during the transition to agriculture in Britain.

    PubMed

    Neil, Samantha; Evans, Jane; Montgomery, Janet; Scarre, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Development of agriculture is often assumed to be accompanied by a decline in residential mobility, and sedentism is frequently proposed to provide the basis for economic intensification, population growth and increasing social complexity. In Britain, however, the nature of the agricultural transition (ca 4000 BC) and its effect on residence patterns has been intensely debated. Some authors attribute the transition to the arrival of populations who practised a system of sedentary intensive mixed farming similar to that of the very earliest agricultural regimes in central Europe, ca 5500 BC, with cultivation of crops in fixed plots and livestock keeping close to permanently occupied farmsteads. Others argue that local hunter-gatherers within Britain adopted selected elements of a farming economy and retained a mobile way of life. We use strontium and oxygen isotope analysis of tooth enamel from an Early Neolithic burial population in Gloucestershire, England, to evaluate the residence patterns of early farmers. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that early farming communities in Britain were residentially mobile and were not fully sedentary. Results highlight the diverse nature of settlement strategies associated with early farming in Europe and are of wider significance to understanding the effect of the transition to agriculture on residence patterns.

  10. Hunter-gatherer adaptations and environmental change in the southern Great Basin: The evidence from Pahute and Rainier mesas

    SciTech Connect

    Pippin, L.C.

    1998-06-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for fluctuations in past environments in the southern Great Basin and examines how these changes may have affected the strategies followed by past hunter and gatherers in their utilization of the resources available on a highland in this region. The evidence used to reconstruct past environments for the region include botanical remains from packrat middens, pollen spectra from lake and spring deposits, faunal remains recovered from archaeological and geologic contexts, tree-ring indices from trees located in sensitive (tree-line) environments, and eolian, alluvial and fluvial sediments deposited in a variety of contexts. Interpretations of past hunter and gatherer adaptive strategies are based on a sample of 1,311 archaeological sites recorded during preconstruction surveys on Pahute and Rainier mesas in advance of the US Department of Energy`s nuclear weapons testing program. Projectile point chronologies and available tree-ring, radiocarbon, thermoluminescence and obsidian hydration dates were used to assign these archaeological sites to specific periods of use.

  11. Agent-based modeling for the landuse change of hunter-gather societies and the impacts on biodiversity in Guyana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamura, T.; Fragoso, J.; Lambin, E.

    2012-12-01

    The interactions with animals are vital to the Amerindian, indigenous people, of Rupunini savannah-forest in Guyana. Their connections extend from basic energy and protein resource to spiritual bonding through "paring" to a certain animal in the forest. We collected extensive dataset of 23 indigenous communities for 3.5 years, consisting 9900 individuals from 1307 households, as well as animal observation data in 8 transects per communities (47,000 data entries). In this presentation, our research interest is to model the driver of land use change of the indigenous communities and its impacts on the ecosystem in the Rupunini area under global change. Overarching question we would like to answer with this program is to find how and why "tipping-point" from hunting gathering society to the agricultural society occurs in the future. Secondary question is what is the implication of the change to agricultural society in terms of biodiversity and carbon stock in the area, and eventually the well-being of Rupunini people. To answer the questions regarding the society shift in agriculture activities, we built as simulation with Agent-Based Modeling (Multi Agents Simulation). We developed this simulation by using Netlogo, the programming environment specialized for spatially explicit agent-based modeling (ABM). This simulation consists of four different process in the Rupunini landscape; forest succession, animal population growth, hunting of animals, and land clearing for agriculture. All of these processes are carried out by a set of computational unit, called "agents". In this program, there are four types of agents - patches, villages, households, and animals. Here, we describe the impacts of hunting on the biodiversity based on actual demographic data from one village named Crush Water. Animal population within the hunting territory of the village stabilized but Agouti/Paca dominates the landscape with little population of armadillos and peccaries. White-tailed deers, Tapirs, Capybara exist but very low. This finding is well aligned with the hunting dataset - Agouti/Paca consists 27% of total hunting. Based on our simulation, it seems the dominance of Agouti/Paca among hunted animals shown in the field data can be explained solely by their high carrying capacity against human extraction (population density of the Paca/Agouti = 60 per square km, whereas other animals ranges 0.63 to 7). When we incorporate agriculture, the "rodentation" of the animal population toward Agouti/Paca becomes more obvious. This simulation shows the interactions of people and animals through land change and hunting, which were observed in our fields.

  12. Sex-biased weaning and early childhood diet among middle holocene hunter-gatherers in Central California.

    PubMed

    Eerkens, Jelmer W; Bartelink, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    This article evaluates age of weaning and early childhood diets of eight males and nine females from a Middle Holocene (4300-3000 BP) site in Central California, CA-CCO-548. All individuals died as adults. δ(15) N values from serial sections of dentin collagen in first molars suggest females were fully weaned, on average, by 3.6 years of age, about 0.4 years later than males in the sample, suggesting possible greater parental investment in female offspring. However, throughout childhood females consumed lower trophic-level foods than males. This could indicate greater investment in males through provisioning of higher quality foods, or alternatively, some degree of independent foraging by males starting as early as 2 to 3 years of age. Even as adults, these same males and females consumed a different range of foods as indicated by their bone collagen δ(13) C and δ(15) N values. Overall, the data suggest children were enculturated early into their respective gendered diets, with girls consuming greater amounts of plant foods and boys consuming greater amounts of higher-trophic level fish and meat protein.

  13. Provisioning offspring and others: risk-energy trade-offs and gender differences in hunter-gatherer foraging strategies.

    PubMed

    Codding, Brian F; Bird, Rebecca Bliege; Bird, Douglas W

    2011-08-22

    Offspring provisioning is commonly referenced as the most important influence on men's and women's foraging decisions. However, the provisioning of other adults may be equally important in determining gender differences in resource choice, particularly when the goals of provisioning offspring versus others cannot be met with the acquisition of the same resources. Here, we examine how resources vary in their expected daily energetic returns and in the variance or risk around those returns. We predict that when available resources impose no trade-off between risk and energy, the targets of men's and women's foraging will converge on high-energy, low-risk resources that allow for the simultaneous provisioning of offspring and others. However, when minimizing risk and maximizing energy trade-off with one another, we expect men's foraging to focus on provisioning others through the unreliable acquisition of large harvests, while women focus on reliably acquiring smaller harvests to feed offspring. We test these predictions with foraging data from three populations (Aché, Martu and Meriam). The results uphold the predictions, suggesting that men's and women's foraging interests converge when high-energy resources can be reliably acquired, but diverge when higher-energy resources are associated with higher levels of risk. Social factors, particularly the availability of alloparental support, may also play a major role.

  14. The Modern Obesity Epidemic, Ancestral Hunter-Gatherers, and the Sensory/Reward Control of Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Bruce M.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has become a true pandemic. In the United States, over two thirds of adults are obese or overweight. The prevalence of obesity has doubled since 1980. The increase in the prevalence of obese and overweight individuals has happened too rapidly for it to be due to an alteration in the genome. The gastrointestinal, sensory (taste and…

  15. Mössbauer studies of prehistoric Cherokee pottery sherds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whatley, K. M.; McKenzie, K. P.

    1994-12-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy is a very useful tool in the examination and characterization of ancient pottery sherds. In this study, Mössbauer spectra for sherds and clay from the Warren Wilson Site, a prehistoric Native American (Cherokee) settlement in western North Carolina, were measured. Data from one sherd and samples from two clay beds indicate that the sherd was not made from local clays and was originally fired to 350 ‡C.

  16. Prehistoric tuberculosis in america: adding comments to a literature review.

    PubMed

    Gómez i Prat, Jordi; de Souza, Sheila M F Mendonça

    2003-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a prehistoric American human disease. This paper reviews the literature and discusses hypotheses for origins and epidemiological patterns of prehistoric tuberculosis. From the last decades, 24 papers about prehistoric tuberculosis were published and 133 cases were reviewed. In South America most are isolated case studies, contrary to North America where more skeletal series were analyzed. Disease was usually located at the deserts of Chile and Peru, Central Plains in USA, and Lake Ontario in Canada. Skeletal remains represent most of the cases, but 16 mummies have also been described. Thirty individuals had lung disease, 19 of them diagnosed by the ribs. More then 100 individuals had osseous tuberculosis and 26 also had it in other organs. As today, transmission of the infection and establishment of the disease were favored by cultural and life-style changes such as sedentarization, crowding, undernutrition, use of dark and insulated houses, and by the frequency of interpersonal contacts. The papers confirm that despite previous perceptions, tuberculosis seems to have occurred in America for millennia. It only had epidemiological expression when special conditions favored its expansion. Occurring as epidemic bursts or low endemic disease, it had differential impact on groups or social segments in America for at least two millennia.

  17. Interisland and interarchipelago transfer of stone tools in prehistoric Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Weisler, M I; Kirch, P V

    1996-02-20

    Tracing interisland and interarchipelago movements of people and artifacts in prehistoric Polynesia has posed a challenge to archaeologists due to the lack of pottery and obsidian, two materials most readily used in studies of prehistoric trade or exchange. Here we report the application of nondestructive energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis to the sourcing of Polynesian artifacts made from basalt, one of the most ubiquitous materials in Polynesian archaeological sites. We have compared excavated and surface-collected basalt adzes and adze flakes from two sites in Samoa (site AS-13-1) and the Cook Islands (site MAN-44), with source basalts from known prehistoric quarries in these archipelagoes. In both cases, we are able to demonstrate the importing of basalt adzes from Tutuila Island, a distance of 100 km to Ofu Island, and of 1600 km to Mangaia Island. These findings are of considerable significance for Polynesian prehistory, as they demonstrate the movement of objects not only between islands in the same group (where communities were culturally and linguistically related) but also between distant island groups. Further applications of EDXRF analysis should greatly aid archaeologists in their efforts to reconstruct ancient trade and exchange networks, not only in Polynesia but also in other regions where basalt was a major material for artifact production.

  18. Psychoacoustic influences of the echoing environments of prehistoric art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Steven J.

    2002-11-01

    Cave paintings and ancient petroglyphs around the world are typically found in echo rich locations such as caves, canyons, and rocky cliff faces. Analysis of field data shows that echo decibel levels at a large number of prehistoric art sites are higher than those at nondecorated locations. The selection of these echoing environments by the artists appears not to be a mere coincidence. This paper considers the perception of an echoed sound as a psychoacoustic event that would have been inexplicable to ancient humans. A variety of ancient legends from cultures on several continents attribute the phenomenon of echoes to supernatural beings. These legends, together with the quantitative data, strongly implicate echoing as relevant to the artists of the past. The notion that the echoes were caused by spirits within the rock would explain not only the unusual locations of prehistoric art, but also the perplexing subject matter. For example, the common theme of hoofed animal imagery could have been inspired by echoes of percussion noises perceived as hoof beats. Further systematic acoustical studies of prehistoric art sites is warranted. Conservation of the natural acoustic properties of rock art environments--a previously unrecognized need--is urged.

  19. Interisland and interarchipelago transfer of stone tools in prehistoric Polynesia.

    PubMed Central

    Weisler, M I; Kirch, P V

    1996-01-01

    Tracing interisland and interarchipelago movements of people and artifacts in prehistoric Polynesia has posed a challenge to archaeologists due to the lack of pottery and obsidian, two materials most readily used in studies of prehistoric trade or exchange. Here we report the application of nondestructive energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis to the sourcing of Polynesian artifacts made from basalt, one of the most ubiquitous materials in Polynesian archaeological sites. We have compared excavated and surface-collected basalt adzes and adze flakes from two sites in Samoa (site AS-13-1) and the Cook Islands (site MAN-44), with source basalts from known prehistoric quarries in these archipelagoes. In both cases, we are able to demonstrate the importing of basalt adzes from Tutuila Island, a distance of 100 km to Ofu Island, and of 1600 km to Mangaia Island. These findings are of considerable significance for Polynesian prehistory, as they demonstrate the movement of objects not only between islands in the same group (where communities were culturally and linguistically related) but also between distant island groups. Further applications of EDXRF analysis should greatly aid archaeologists in their efforts to reconstruct ancient trade and exchange networks, not only in Polynesia but also in other regions where basalt was a major material for artifact production. PMID:8643640

  20. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations.

  1. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations. PMID:27355355

  2. Freud's prehistoric matrix--owing 'nature' a death.

    PubMed

    Raphael-Leff, Joan

    2007-12-01

    This paper is informed by contemporary literature in two fields--neonatal research, on the one hand, and the burgeoning interdisciplinary interest in Moses and monotheism, on the other. The author postulates that a cluster of traumatic events during the first two years of Freud's life compelled him to repeat what could not be remembered. Embedded in charged implicit schema, these affects remained unprocessed in Freud, who alone of all psychoanalysts did not have an analysis, manifesting in an uncanny dread/allure of the 'prehistoric' as a dark and dangerous era relating to the archaic feminine/maternal matrix and fratricidal murderousness. Furthermore, she cites evidence to suggest that for Freud this unconsciously excluded subtext of the preoedipal era became associated with ancient Egyptian and Minoan-Mycenaean cultures, a passionate fascination actualized in his collection of antiquities yet incongruously absent in his theoretical work, with three exceptions--Egyptian allusions in Leonardo's unconscious attachment to his archaic mother; the 'Minoan-Mycenaean' analogy on discovering the pre-oedipal mother shortly after the death of Freud's own mother; and Egypt as cradle of humanity in his uncharacteristically rambling, troubled text of Moses and monotheism. The author sees Freud's conceptual avoidance yet compulsive reworking of the prehistoric matrix as a symptomatic attempt to expose early unformulated representations that 'return to exert a powerful effect'.

  3. Craniometric variation and population history of the prehistoric Tewa.

    PubMed

    Schillaci, Michael A; Stojanowski, Christopher M

    2005-04-01

    Although the population history and social organization of the prehistoric Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest have received attention in the archaeological literature, little research on this topic has been conducted by biological anthropologists. Here, we examine postmarital residence at two ancestral Tewa Indian pueblos located in north-central New Mexico using determinant ratio analysis. In addition, we examine genetic relationships among pueblos, as well as levels of within-pueblo heterogeneity due to gene flow from extraregional sources, or regional aggregation. Results from determinant ratio analysis indicate greater within-pueblo male variation, consistent with matrilocal residence for at least one Tewa pueblo. Less than expected heterogeneity at two pueblos suggests that endogamy might have been practiced among some prehistoric Tewa pueblos. Gene flow from extraregional sources is indicated for two different pueblos by greater than expected within-group heterogeneity. Distance matrix correlation analyses indicate little if any relationship between phenotypic and geographic distances, suggesting that geography was not the primary basis of gene flow or mate exchange. The weak relationship between phenotypic and geographic distances may be the combined effects of endogamy at some pueblos, nonrandom extraregional gene flow or migration at other pueblos, and limited nonproximity-dependent regional gene flow or migration among pueblos, possibly structured on ritual exchange networks based on medicine society affiliation.

  4. Prehistoric Human Dispersal to the Tibetan Plateau and Adaptation to the High Altitude Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongju; Dong, Guanghui; Chen, Fahu

    2016-04-01

    Human history of the Tibetan Plateau and human adaptation to the high altitude environment is hotly debated in the past decade among archaeological, anthropological, genetic, and even past climate change studies. Based on previous studies on the Tibetan Plateau and our own archaeological studies in northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP), we propose that human migrated to the Tibetan Plateau from the last Deglacial period to late Holocene mainly from North China via Yellow River valley and its tributary valleys in NETP. This migration is constituted of four stages (Upper Paleolithic, Epi-Paleolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age) when human adapted to the high altitude environment and climate change with different strategies and techniques. Particularly, the prevail of microlithic technology in North China provoked hunter-gatherers' first visit to the NETP in relatively ameliorated last Deglacial period, and the quick development of millet farming and subsequent mixed barley-wheat farming and sheep herding facilitated farmers and herders permanently settled in NETP, even above 3000 masl, during mid- and late Holocene.

  5. A South American Prehistoric Mitogenome: Context, Continuity, and the Origin of Haplogroup C1d

    PubMed Central

    Sans, Mónica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hughes, Cris E.; Lindo, John; Hidalgo, Pedro C.; Malhi, Ripan S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it has been estimated that at least 15 founder haplogroups peopled the Americas. Subhaplogroup C1d3 was defined based on the mitogenome of a living individual from Uruguay that carried a lineage previously identified in hypervariable region I sequences from ancient and modern Uruguayan individuals. When complete mitogenomes were studied, additional substitutions were found in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Using a complete ancient mitogenome and three modern mitogenomes, we aim to clarify the ancestral state of subhaplogroup C1d3 and to better understand the peopling of the region of the Río de la Plata basin, as well as of the builders of the mounds from which the ancient individuals were recovered. The ancient mitogenome, belonging to a female dated to 1,610±46 years before present, was identical to the mitogenome of one of the modern individuals. All individuals share the mutations defining subhaplogroup C1d3. We estimated an age of 8,974 (5,748–12,261) years for the most recent common ancestor of C1d3, in agreement with the initial peopling of the geographic region. No individuals belonging to the defined lineage were found outside of Uruguay, which raises questions regarding the mobility of the prehistoric inhabitants of the country. Moreover, the present study shows the continuity of Native lineages over at least 6,000 years. PMID:26509686

  6. Cranial injuries as evidence of violence in prehistoric southern California.

    PubMed

    Walker, P L

    1989-11-01

    Crania from the Channel Island area of southern California were examined for evidence of traumatic injuries. Well-healed depressed fractures in the outer table of the cranial vault are common in skeletal remains from the northern Channel Islands (18.56% n = 598) but rare in those from the mainland coast (7.5% n = 146). This prevalence of traumatic injuries among the islanders may be a result of intense competition over resources in a geographically circumscribed environment. The frequency of cranial injuries increases significantly between the early and late prehistoric periods on the Channel Islands. This temporal variation appears to reflect changes in patterns of violence associated with population growth and environmental instability.

  7. Mussel remains from prehistoric salt works, clarke county, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGregor, S.W.; Dumas, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Archaeological research at salt springs in Clarke County, AL (Tombigbee River drainage), documented bivalve mollusk exploitation by late prehistoric American Indians. A total of 582 valves representing 19 species of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) and an estuarine clam (Mactridae) from the Lower Salt Works Site (ca. A.D. 900-1550) and 41 valve fragments representing 6 mussel species from the Stimpson Site (ca. A.D. 1200-1550) were documented. The Lower Salt Works fauna was dominated numerically by Fusconaia ebena and Quadrula asperata, the dominant species reported during recent local surveys. The mussel species represented are known from medium to large streams in sand and gravel habitats and include four federally protected species and other species of conservation concern in Alabama. Results offer comparative data for other archaeological and ecological studies in the region.

  8. The evolution of social behavior in the prehistoric American southwest.

    PubMed

    Gumerman, George J; Swedlund, Alan C; Dean, Jeffrey S; Epstein, Joshua M

    2003-01-01

    Long House Valley, located in the Black Mesa area of northeastern Arizona (USA), was inhabited by the Kayenta Anasazi from circa 1800 B.C. to circa A.D. 1300. These people were prehistoric precursors of the modern Pueblo cultures of the Colorado Plateau. A rich paleoenvironmental record, based on alluvial geomorphology, palynology, and dendroclimatology, permits the accurate quantitative reconstruction of annual fluctuations in potential agricultural production (kg maize/hectare). The archaeological record of Anasazi farming groups from A.D. 200 to 1300 provides information on a millennium of sociocultural stasis, variability, change, and adaptation. We report on a multi-agent computational model of this society that closely reproduces the main features of its actual history, including population ebb and flow, changing spatial settlement patterns, and eventual rapid decline. The agents in the model are monoagriculturalists, who decide both where to situate their fields and where to locate their settlements.

  9. Prehistoric Rock Structures of the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda R Pace

    2007-04-01

    Over the past 13,500 years, human populations have lived in and productively utilized the natural resources offered by the cold desert environment of the northeastern Snake River Plain in eastern Idaho. Within an overall framework of hunting and gathering, groups relied on an intimate familiarity with the natural world and developed a variety of technologies to extract the resources that they needed to survive. Useful items were abundant and found everywhere on the landscape. Even the basaltic terrain and the rocks, themselves, were put to productive use. This paper presents a preliminary classification scheme for rock structures built on the Idaho National Laboratory landscape by prehistoric aboriginal populations, including discussions of the overall architecture of the structures, associated artifact assemblages, and topographic placement. Adopting an ecological perspective, the paper concludes with a discussion of the possible functions of these unique resources for the desert populations that once called the INL home.

  10. Problems in archaeomagnetic reference curves elaboration in the prehistoric past.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramova, M.; Kovacheva, M.; Boyadziev, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Most important task of archaeomagnetic studies is the construction of the geomagnetic field secular variations in the past for a given territory. The obtained reference curves would be precise only when a large number of well-dated archaeological sites from different time periods are included as input data. Sofia Palaeomagnetic laboratory is the first one in the Balkans to accumulate a large number of data spanning the time interval of 3000 BP to 8000 BP. Many archaeological sites in Bulgaria are multilevel settlements with clear stratigraphy. Commonly the prehistoric sites are dated according to the relative chronology, the type of archaeological artifacts found and 14C dates, the latter being not always available. The biggest difficulty is that usually the radiocarbon dates are not well constrained, often contradictory to the vertical stratigraphy. The transformation of conventional 14C dates to absolute dates BC depends a lot on which part of dendrochronological calibration curve are they related. Besides, multiple dating intervals are often obtained and the calibrated intervals are usually very large (from 100 to 300 and more years). However, when archaeological discoveries of multilevel prehistoric sites are combined with archaeomagnetic investigations the corresponding archaeomagnetic profiles can be obtained. Currently we have archaeomagnetic data for fifteen prehistoric multilevel sites - two of them are Neolithic, nine - Eneolithic and four are from the Bronze Age. The next step is to juxtapose these stratigraphic profiles with the absolute scale of time having in mind that not all sites and layers have 14C dates. Thanks to abundance of 14C dates for most of Bulgarian prehistoric sites, multilayer sites connected with the absolute chronology exist and can be used as reference profiles. The time frames of each horizon for such reference site are based on series of 14C dates (not single measurements), the analysis of the thickness of layers, type of material

  11. Prehistoric Packrats Piled Up Clues to Climate Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and Northern Arizona University studying climate change in the Southwestern United States are getting a helping hand?or would that be paw??from prehistoric packrats. By hoarding parts of animals and plants, including seeds and leaves, in garbage piles or ?middens,? these bushy-tailed rodents preserved crucial ecological and environmental information about the past. From these middens, scientists are able to reconstruct plant communities and natural systems from as long ago as 50,000 years. The contents of middens allow scientists to understand how ecosystems responded to rapid, large-scale climate changes of the past. The insights gained from midden research could offer clues to future changes driven by rapid climate shifts.

  12. Direct chemical evidence for widespread dairying in prehistoric Britain

    PubMed Central

    Copley, M. S.; Berstan, R.; Dudd, S. N.; Docherty, G.; Mukherjee, A. J.; Straker, V.; Payne, S.; Evershed, R. P.

    2003-01-01

    Domesticated animals formed an important element of farming practices in prehistoric Britain, a fact revealed through the quantity and variety of animal bone typically found at archaeological sites. However, it is not known whether the ruminant animals were raised purely for their tissues (e.g., meat) or alternatively were exploited principally for their milk. Absorbed organic residues from pottery from 14 British prehistoric sites were investigated for evidence of the processing of dairy products. Our ability to detect dairy fats rests on the observation that the δ13C values of the C18:0 fatty acids in ruminant dairy fats are ≈2.3‰ lower than in ruminant adipose fats. This difference can be ascribed to (i) the inability of the mammary gland to biosynthesize C18:0; (ii) the biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids in the rumen; and (iii) differences (i.e., 8.1‰) in the δ13C values of the plant dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates. The lipids from a total of 958 archaeological pottery vessels were extracted, and the compound-specific δ13C values of preserved fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:0) were determined via gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The results provide direct evidence for the exploitation of domesticated ruminant animals for dairy products at all Neolithic, Bronze Age, and Iron Age settlements in Britain. Most significantly, studies of pottery from a range of key early Neolithic sites confirmed that dairying was a widespread activity in this period and therefore probably well developed when farming was introduced into Britain in the fifth millennium B.C. PMID:12574520

  13. Changing patterns of mobility as a response to climatic deterioration and aridification in the middle Holocene Southern Sahara.

    PubMed

    Stojanowski, Christopher M; Knudson, Kelly J

    2014-05-01

    The African Humid Period witnessed a rapid human re-occupation of the Sahara as numerous lakes formed during the Holocene climatic optimum circa 10-5 kya. Permanent waters attracted a variety of aquatic and terrestrial fauna allowing for long-term occupation of specific paleolake basins. The Gobero paleolake in central Niger was one such location that preserves a unique mortuary record from the southern Sahara. Here, we use radiogenic strontium isotope analysis to investigate how human communities adapted to aridification throughout the Holocene. In particular, we examine the effects of increasing climate instability on patterns of human mobility. Results of radiogenic strontium isotope analysis of enamel and bone samples from Middle Holocene burials (∼7.2-4.9 kya) indicate predominantly local values with no evidence for sex-based variation. Comparisons of radiogenic strontium isotope data with previously published (Stojanowski and Knudson: Am J Phys Anthropol 146 (2011) 49-61) Early Holocene burials (∼9.7-8.3 kya) indicate significant differences in both enamel and bone values. Middle Holocene individuals demonstrate a predominantly non-local signature for enamel values and a predominantly local signature for bone values. Those individuals with non-local bone values always demonstrated non-local enamel values; however, the opposite was not the case. This suggests a divergence of mobility strategies during the Middle Holocene with a minority of individuals maintaining a more mobile existence throughout their life and others maintaining a similar strategy as Early Holocene hunter-gatherers that was tied to the paleolake basin. The more mobile individuals likely lived during the terminal phase of the lake's occupation. One response to aridification by Saharan peoples, then, was increasing mobility.

  14. [Mycobacterium infection in prehistoric humans: co-evolution in remote ages].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, Sandro; Fiorini, Sirio

    2015-03-01

    The introduction of agriculture and animal husbandry at the end of the Mesolithic era, despite enabling a significant demographic growth through an increase in food storage and availability, caused new infectious noxae to enter the pathocoenosis. However in the Palaeolithic era, hunter-gatherers were already in contact with infectious diseases of animal origin, albeit episodically. Modern biomedical technologies allow us to estimate, with better approximation, how long mankind has been in contact with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Archaeological finds, including human and animal remains (especially the aurochs), are particularly studied by palaeopathologists, as mycobacteria frequently cause bone involvement and this characteristic is of particular interest for palaeopathological (even macroscopic) studies; the interest is to detect the ancient DNA of MT, which is the cause of bone tuberculosis in skeletal remains as well as in mummies. According to our present knowledge, palaeopathological findings, confirmed by molecular techniques, suggest that tuberculosis in human skeletons goes back at most to 9000 years ago, while, in a veterinary environment, the most ancient DNA of MTBC to be detected in an American bison dates back about 17,000 years. The possibility of discovering archaeological finds making even more ancient human remains available leaves opens up the possibility of dating back to previous eras the transmission of MTBC infection to mankind. Phylogenetic works examining the available materials (DNAa) suggest that Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the cause of tuberculosis infection in humans and cattle (Aurochs), would have had a co-evolutionary process. On the basis of recent phylogenetic studies, the MTBC genome would have had a wide span of time to reach a suitable adjustment, co-evolving in geographical environments both at high and low host density. It is likely that the strains that did not show this strong "flexibility" underwent extinction, in favour of

  15. Rapid prehistoric extinction of iguanas and birds in Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Steadman, David W; Pregill, Gregory K; Burley, David V

    2002-03-19

    The Tongoleleka archaeological site on Lifuka Island, Kingdom of Tonga, is a rich accumulation of pottery, marine mollusks, and nonhuman bones that represents first human contact on a small island in Remote Oceania approximately 2,850 years ago. The lower strata contain decorated Lapita-style pottery and bones of an extinct iguana (Brachylophus undescribed sp.) and numerous species of extinct birds. The upper strata instead feature Polynesian Plainware pottery and bones of extant species of vertebrates. A stratigraphic series of 20 accelerator-mass spectrometer radiocarbon dates on individual bones of the iguana, an extinct megapode (Megapodius alimentum), and the non-native chicken (Gallus gallus) suggests that anthropogenic loss of the first two species and introduction of the latter occurred on Lifuka within a time interval too short (a century or less) to be resolved by radiometric dating. The geologically instantaneous prehistoric collapse of Lifuka's vertebrate community contrasts with the much longer periods of faunal depletion on some other islands, thus showing that the elapse time between human arrival and major extinction events was highly variable on oceanic islands as well as on continents.

  16. Diet adaptation in dog reflects spread of prehistoric agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, M; Cairns, K M; Ballard, J W O; Savolainen, P; Axelsson, E

    2016-01-01

    Adaptations allowing dogs to thrive on a diet rich in starch, including a significant AMY2B copy number gain, constituted a crucial step in the evolution of the dog from the wolf. It is however not clear whether this change was associated with the initial domestication, or represents a secondary shift related to the subsequent development of agriculture. Previous efforts to study this process were based on geographically limited data sets and low-resolution methods, and it is therefore not known to what extent the diet adaptations are universal among dogs and whether there are regional differences associated with alternative human subsistence strategies. Here we use droplet PCR to investigate worldwide AMY2B copy number diversity among indigenous as well as breed dogs and wolves to elucidate how a change in dog diet was associated with the domestication process and subsequent shifts in human subsistence. We find that AMY2B copy numbers are bimodally distributed with high copy numbers (median 2nAMY2B=11) in a majority of dogs but no, or few, duplications (median 2nAMY2B=3) in a small group of dogs originating mostly in Australia and the Arctic. We show that this pattern correlates geographically to the spread of prehistoric agriculture and conclude that the diet change may not have been associated with initial domestication but rather the subsequent development and spread of agriculture to most, but not all regions of the globe. PMID:27406651

  17. Diet adaptation in dog reflects spread of prehistoric agriculture.

    PubMed

    Arendt, M; Cairns, K M; Ballard, J W O; Savolainen, P; Axelsson, E

    2016-11-01

    Adaptations allowing dogs to thrive on a diet rich in starch, including a significant AMY2B copy number gain, constituted a crucial step in the evolution of the dog from the wolf. It is however not clear whether this change was associated with the initial domestication, or represents a secondary shift related to the subsequent development of agriculture. Previous efforts to study this process were based on geographically limited data sets and low-resolution methods, and it is therefore not known to what extent the diet adaptations are universal among dogs and whether there are regional differences associated with alternative human subsistence strategies. Here we use droplet PCR to investigate worldwide AMY2B copy number diversity among indigenous as well as breed dogs and wolves to elucidate how a change in dog diet was associated with the domestication process and subsequent shifts in human subsistence. We find that AMY2B copy numbers are bimodally distributed with high copy numbers (median 2nAMY2B=11) in a majority of dogs but no, or few, duplications (median 2nAMY2B=3) in a small group of dogs originating mostly in Australia and the Arctic. We show that this pattern correlates geographically to the spread of prehistoric agriculture and conclude that the diet change may not have been associated with initial domestication but rather the subsequent development and spread of agriculture to most, but not all regions of the globe.

  18. Volcanic tsunamis and prehistoric cultural transitions in Cook Inlet, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beget, J.; Gardner, C.; Davis, K.

    2008-01-01

    The 1883 eruption of Augustine Volcano produced a tsunami when a debris avalanche traveled into the waters of Cook Inlet. Older debris avalanches and coeval paleotsunami deposits from sites around Cook Inlet record several older volcanic tsunamis. A debris avalanche into the sea on the west side of Augustine Island ca. 450??years ago produced a wave that affected areas 17??m above high tide on Augustine Island. A large volcanic tsunami was generated by a debris avalanche on the east side of Augustine Island ca. 1600??yr BP, and affected areas more than 7??m above high tide at distances of 80??km from the volcano on the Kenai Peninsula. A tsunami deposit dated to ca. 3600??yr BP is tentatively correlated with a southward directed collapse of the summit of Redoubt Volcano, although little is known about the magnitude of the tsunami. The 1600??yr BP tsunami from Augustine Volcano occurred about the same time as the collapse of the well-developed Kachemak culture in the southern Cook Inlet area, suggesting a link between volcanic tsunamis and prehistoric cultural changes in this region of Alaska. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Y chromosomes of prehistoric people along the Yangtze River.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Huang, Ying; Mustavich, Laura F; Zhang, Fan; Tan, Jing-Ze; Wang, Ling-E; Qian, Ji; Gao, Meng-He; Jin, Li

    2007-11-01

    The ability to extract mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from ancient remains has enabled the study of ancient DNA, a legitimate field for over 20 years now. Recently, Y chromosome genotyping has begun to be applied to ancient DNA. The Y chromosome haplogroup in East Asia has since caught the attention of molecular anthropologists, as it is one of the most ethnic-related genetic markers of the region. In this paper, the Y chromosome haplogroup of DNA from ancient East Asians was examined, in order to genetically link them to modern populations. Fifty-six human remains were sampled from five archaeological sites, primarily along the Yangtze River. Strict criteria were followed to eliminate potential contamination. Five SNPs from the Y chromosome were successfully amplified from most of the samples, with at least 62.5% of the samples belonging to the O haplogroup, similar to the frequency for modern East Asian populations. A high frequency of O1 was found in Liangzhu Culture sites around the mouth of the Yangtze River, linking this culture to modern Austronesian and Daic populations. A rare haplogroup, O3d, was found at the Daxi site in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, indicating that the Daxi people might be the ancestors of modern Hmong-Mien populations, which show only small traces of O3d today. Noticeable genetic segregation was observed among the prehistoric cultures, demonstrating the genetic foundation of the multiple origins of the Chinese Civilization.

  20. Basalt Pb isotope analysis and the prehistoric settlement of Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Weisler, M I; Woodhead, J D

    1995-03-14

    The prehistoric settlement of the Pacific Ocean has intrigued scholars and stimulated anthropological debate for the past two centuries. Colonized over a few millennia during the mid to late Holocene, the islands of the Pacific--displaying a wide diversity of geological and biotic variability--provided the stage for endless "natural experiments" in human adaptation. Crucial to understanding the evolution and transformation of island societies is documenting the relative degree of interisland contacts after island colonization. In the western Pacific, ideal materials for archaeologically documenting interisland contact--obsidian, pottery, and shell ornaments--are absent or of limited geographic distribution in Polynesia. Consequently, archaeologists have relied increasingly on fine-grained basalt artifacts as a means for documenting colonization routes and subsequent interisland contacts. Routinely used x-ray fluorescence characterization of oceanic island basalt has some problems for discriminating source rocks and artifacts in provenance studies. The variation in trace and major element abundances is largely controlled by near-surface magma-chamber processes and is broadly similar between most oceanic islands. We demonstrate that Pb isotope analysis accurately discriminates rock source and is an excellent technique for charting the scale, frequency, and temporal span of imported fine-grained basalt artifacts found throughout Polynesia. The technique adds another tool for addressing evolutionary models of interaction, isolation, and cultural divergence in the eastern Pacific.

  1. A Prehistorical Record of Cultural Eutrophication from Crawford Lake, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, E J; Teranes, J; Guilderson, T; Turton, C L; McAndrews, J H; Wittkop, C A; Stoermer, E F

    2004-08-05

    Cultural eutrophication--the process by which human activities increase nutrient input rates to aquatic ecosystems and thereby cause undesirable changes in surface-water quality--is generally thought to have begun with the start of the industrial era. The prehistoric dimension of human impacts on aquatic ecosystems remains relatively undescribed, particularly in North America. Here we present fossil plankton data (diatoms and rotifers), organic and inorganic carbon accumulations, and carbon isotope ratios from a 1000-yr sediment core record from Crawford Lake, Ontario, Canada. The data documents increased nutrient input to Crawford Lake caused by Iroquoian horticultural activity from A.D. 1268 to 1486 and shows how this increased nutrient input elevated lake productivity, caused bottom-water anoxia, and irreversibly altered diatom community structure within just a few years. Iroquoian settlement in the region declined in the fifteenth century, yet diatom communities and lake circulation never recovered to the predisturbance state. A second phase of cultural eutrophication starting in A.D. 1867, initiated by Canadian agricultural disturbance, increased lake productivity but had comparatively less of an impact on diatom assemblages and carbon-storage pathways than the initial Iroquoian disturbance. This study deepens our understanding of the impact of cultural eutrophication on lake systems, highlights the lasting influence of initial environmental perturbation, and contributes to the debate on the ecological impacts of density and agricultural practices of native North American inhabitants.

  2. Vertical stability of mercury in historic and prehistoric sediments from Clear Lake, California.

    PubMed

    Suchanek, Thomas H; Richerson, Peter J; Zierenberg, Robert A; Slotton, Darell G; Mullen, Lauri H

    2008-12-01

    Clear Lake, California, USA, is the site of the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine, now a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Site. Intermittent mining from 1873 to 1957 resulted in approximately 100 Mg of mercury (Hg) being deposited into the lake's ecosystem. Sediment cores to approximately 2.5 m depth (dated using 210Pb and 14C) represent approximately 3000 years of sedimentation. Clear Lake sediments have experienced Hg deposition from anthropogenic sources (mining) during historic times (to the mid-1900s) and geologic sources during prehistoric times (prior to the mid-1800s). This provides a unique opportunity to evaluate hypotheses relating to (1) the influence of the mine on Hg loading to the lake and (2) the potential upward mobilization of Hg by diagenetic processes proposed by some as an alternative explanation for increased Hg concentrations at the surface of the sediment column believed to be caused by increased global atmospheric deposition. Although Hg mining began in 1873, no significant evidence of anthropogenic Hg loading was detected in cores prior to open-pit mining ca. 1927, which also involved bulldozing mine waste rock and tailings into the lake. Exponential increases in total Hg (TotHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were observed above the 1927 horizon, where estimated sedimentation rates were 2.2-20.4 mm/yr and peaks of both forms of Hg maintained vertical stability within the sediment column. Below the 1927 horizon, a slow increase in both TotHg and MeHg with depth was observed from approximately 1000 to 3000 years before present, where sedimentation rates ranged from approximately 0.6 to 2.0 mm/yr and elevated Hg profiles appear stable. Vertical stability of Hg in the shallow and deep sediment column suggests that both TotHg and MeHg do not undergo diagenetic upward mobilization within the sediment column under rapid or slow sedimentation rates. Because (1) these data were collected at a site with known anthropogenic and geologic sources and

  3. Palaeotsunamis and their significance for prehistoric coastal communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    The damage caused by large tsunamis to human populations at the coast has been all too evident over the past few years. However, while we have seen the immediate after-effects of such events, we are less familiar with the longer term changes associated with them. Using prehistoric New Zealand as a case study, the talk first addresses the wider geological context associated with a tsunami - what caused it and what were the consequences for the physical environment? Prehistoric Maori lived predominantly in coastal settlements, particularly during their early settlement period. They had far ranging canoe trade routes and made widespread use of intertidal and coastal resources. As such it is possible to determine much of the ecological and societal ramifications of a 15th century tsunami inundation. The 15th century tsunami is recorded in numerous purakau or oral recordings. These form part of Maori Traditional Environmental Knowledge (TEK), but the event can also be identified through archaeological, geological and palaeo-ecological indicators. One of several purakau from the 15th century refers to the "Coming of the Sand". This centres on a place called Potiki-taua, where Potiki and his group settled. Mango-huruhuru, the old priest, built a large house on low land near the sea while Potiki-roa and his wife put theirs on higher ground further inland. Mango-huruhuru's house had a rocky beach in front of it that was unsuitable for landing canoes and so he decided to use his powers to bring sand from Hawaiki. After sunset he sat on his roof and recited a karakia (prayer/chant). On conclusion a dark cloud with its burden of sand reached the shore. The women called out "A! The sea rises; the waves and the sand will overwhelm us". The people fell where they stood and were buried in the sand along with the house and cultivations and all the surrounding country, and with them, the old priest and his youngest daughter (memorialised and turned into a rock which stands there

  4. Crafting a new science: defining paleoanthropology and its relationship to prehistoric archaeology, 1860-1890.

    PubMed

    Goodrum, Matthew R

    2014-12-01

    Paleoanthropology emerged as a science during the late nineteenth century. The discovery of prehistoric artifacts in Pleistocene deposits soon led to the excavation of fossilized human bones. The archaeologists and geologists who unearthed them were primarily concerned with determining whether the human fossils and the artifacts found with them actually dated from the Pleistocene, thus offering evidence for the geological antiquity of humans. Prehistoric archaeologists reconstructed the way of life of prehistoric peoples through the artifacts found, while anthropologists examined the human fossils. They wanted primarily to identify the races of prehistoric humans. It was within this context that French anthropologists began to use the term "paléo-anthropologie" to refer to a new scientific discipline devoted to the study of prehistoric human races and human paleontology. This essay examines how paleoanthropology was defined as a science during the 1870s and 1880s. It shows that a tension existed between the objectives and methods of archaeologists and anthropologists. Paul Topinard criticized archaeologists and argued that a new type of scientist; the paleoanthropologist trained in anatomy or zoology, was needed to study human fossils properly.

  5. Evidence of size-selective evolution in the fighting conch from prehistoric subsistence harvesting

    PubMed Central

    O'Dea, Aaron; Shaffer, Marian Lynne; Doughty, Douglas R.; Wake, Thomas A.; Rodriguez, Felix A.

    2014-01-01

    Intensive size-selective harvesting can drive evolution of sexual maturity at smaller body size. Conversely, prehistoric, low-intensity subsistence harvesting is not considered an effective agent of size-selective evolution. Uniting archaeological, palaeontological and contemporary material, we show that size at sexual maturity in the edible conch Strombus pugilis declined significantly from pre-human (approx. 7 ka) to prehistoric times (approx. 1 ka) and again to the present day. Size at maturity also fell from early- to late-prehistoric periods, synchronous with an increase in harvesting intensity as other resources became depleted. A consequence of declining size at maturity is that early prehistoric harvesters would have received two-thirds more meat per conch than contemporary harvesters. After exploring the potential effects of selection biases, demographic shifts, environmental change and habitat alteration, these observations collectively implicate prehistoric subsistence harvesting as an agent of size-selective evolution with long-term detrimental consequences. We observe that contemporary populations that are protected from harvesting are slightly larger at maturity, suggesting that halting or even reversing thousands of years of size-selective evolution may be possible. PMID:24648229

  6. Evidence of size-selective evolution in the fighting conch from prehistoric subsistence harvesting.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, Aaron; Shaffer, Marian Lynne; Doughty, Douglas R; Wake, Thomas A; Rodriguez, Felix A

    2014-05-07

    Intensive size-selective harvesting can drive evolution of sexual maturity at smaller body size. Conversely, prehistoric, low-intensity subsistence harvesting is not considered an effective agent of size-selective evolution. Uniting archaeological, palaeontological and contemporary material, we show that size at sexual maturity in the edible conch Strombus pugilis declined significantly from pre-human (approx. 7 ka) to prehistoric times (approx. 1 ka) and again to the present day. Size at maturity also fell from early- to late-prehistoric periods, synchronous with an increase in harvesting intensity as other resources became depleted. A consequence of declining size at maturity is that early prehistoric harvesters would have received two-thirds more meat per conch than contemporary harvesters. After exploring the potential effects of selection biases, demographic shifts, environmental change and habitat alteration, these observations collectively implicate prehistoric subsistence harvesting as an agent of size-selective evolution with long-term detrimental consequences. We observe that contemporary populations that are protected from harvesting are slightly larger at maturity, suggesting that halting or even reversing thousands of years of size-selective evolution may be possible.

  7. Radiocarbon-dating and ancient DNA reveal rapid replacement of extinct prehistoric penguins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Perry, George L. W.; Smith, Ian W. G.; Scofield, R. Paul; Tennyson, Alan J. D.; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; Boessenkool, Sanne; Austin, Jeremy J.; Waters, Jonathan M.

    2015-03-01

    Prehistoric faunal extinctions dramatically reshaped biological assemblages around the world. However, the timing of such biotic shifts is often obscured by the fragmentary nature and limited temporal resolution of fossil records. We use radiocarbon-dating and ancient-DNA analysis of prehistoric (ca A.D. 1450-1834) Megadyptes penguin specimens to assess the time-frame of biological turnover in coastal New Zealand following human settlement. These data suggest that the final extirpation of the endemic Megadyptes waitaha, and subsequent replacement by the previously sub-Antarctic-limited Megadyptes antipodes, likely occurred within a narrow temporal window (e.g. a century or less). This transition represents one of the most rapid prehistoric faunal turnover events documented, and is likely linked to human demographic and cultural transitions during the 15th Century. Our results suggest that anthropogenic forces can trigger rapid biogeographic shifts.

  8. Assessing the prehistoric shoreline changes of the Mekong delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, T.; Saito, Y.; Nguyen, V. L.; Ta, T. K. O.; Bateman, M. D.; Sato, A.

    2014-12-01

    The environment and sustainability of deltaic lowlands have been threatened by combined impacts of climate changes, human activities and land subsidence. The Mekong delta has also been disturbed by the construction of upstream river dams and fluvial dredging, and we have a limited knowledge of its morphodynamics response to fluctuations in Asian monsoons that governs the coastal sediment dynamics. In order to understand the recent shoreline changes of the Mekong delta, we attempted to reconstruct the prehistoric changes based on landform records and their chronology. Thirteen optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages of chenier, a record of past shoreline, were obtained from the Soc Trang coastal plain, southwestern part of the delta. The OSL ages are younger than 2770 yr BP, and become younger seawards concordantly with the coastal progradation that cheniers document. The progradation rate has changed drastically; it was 8 m/yr, 31 m/yr, and 5 m/yr during periods of 2770-1370 yr BP, 1370-590 yr BP, and 590 yr BP to present, respectively. The rapid progradation during 1370-590 yr BP did not form cheniers, resulting in an extensive inter-ridge swale. Cheniers generally form in relations to erosion of muddy coast. The chenier distribution and drastic changes in progradation rate were resulted from fluctuations in relative importance of longshore sediment removal to seaward sediment accretion. Beach ridges in the Tra Vinh coastal plain, northeast of the Soc Trang, also indicate similar and synchronous fluctuations in the longshore sediment transport. The dominance of the longshore sediment transport after 590 yr BP is thought caused by the strengthened winter monsoon that drives the southwestward longshore current, which is possibly related to the beginning of the Little Ice Age. Many cheniers occur along the present shoreline in relation to the low progradation rate, and possibly some sporadic erosion after 590 yr BP. Some evidences have suggested that the winter

  9. Dynamic Monitoring Reveals Motor Task Characteristics in Prehistoric Technical Gestures

    PubMed Central

    Pfleging, Johannes; Stücheli, Marius; Iovita, Radu; Buchli, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    . These results demonstrate that different gestures used in ‘common’ prehistoric tasks can be distinguished quantitatively based on their dynamic parameters. Future research needs to assess our ability to reconstruct these parameters from observed use-wear patterns. PMID:26284785

  10. EVIDENCE FOR THREE MODERATE TO LARGE PREHISTORIC HOLOCENE EARTHQUAKES NEAR CHARLESTON, S. C.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, Robert E.; Obermeier, Stephen F.; Pavich, Milan J.; Gohn, Gregory S.; Rubin, Meyer; Phipps, Richard L.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    1986-01-01

    Earthquake-induced liquefaction features (sand blows), found near Hollywood, S. C. , have yielded abundant clasts of humate-impregnated sand and sparse pieces of wood. Radiocarbon ages for the humate and wood provide sufficient control on the timing of the earthquakes that produced the sand blows to indicate that at least three prehistoric liquefaction-producing earthquakes (m//b approximately 5. 5 or larger) have occurred within the last 7,200 years. The youngest documented prehistoric earthquake occurred around 800 A. D. A few fractures filled with virtually unweathered sand, but no large sand blows, can be assigned confidently to the historic 1886 Charleston earthquake.

  11. The association between Harris lines and enamel hypoplasia in prehistoric California Indians.

    PubMed

    McHenry, H M; Schulz, P D

    1976-05-01

    Hypoplastic defects of tooth enamel and Harris lines in the long bones have been heralded as potentially useful indicators of health conditions in prehistoric populations. Both result from temporary cessation of growth processes due to similar types of disease, malnutrition, or other metabolic insult. An association test for the first six years of life was conducted on a large series of prehistoric California Indians, using femora and canines from young adults. No significant association was found. This is ascribable to differences in etiology and stability.

  12. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios of bone collagen reflect marine and terrestrial components of prehistoric human diet

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeninger, M.J.; DeNiro, M.J.; Tauber, H.

    1983-06-24

    delta/sup 15/N values of bone collagen from Eskimos and from Northwst Coast Indians dependent on salmon fishing are about 10 per mil more positive than those from agriculturalists in historic times. Among prehistoric humans, two groups dependent on marine food sources show bone collagen delta/sup 15/N values that are 4 to 6 per mil more positive than those from two agricultural groups. The nitrogen isotope ratios of bone collagen from prehistoric inhabitants of Bahamas are anomalously low for reasons that relate to the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in coral reefs.

  13. Probable fijian origin of quartzose temper sands in prehistoric pottery from tonga and the marquesas.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, W R; Shutler, R

    1974-08-02

    Quartzose temper sands included within fired clay bodies of certain prehistoric potsherds from Tonga and the Marquesas have mineralogical compositions wholly different from those of indigenous sands that occur as temper in other potsherds from the same sites but are indistinguishable from sands in potsherds collected from the Rewa Delta of Viti Levu in Fiji.

  14. Prehistoric blood residues: detection on tool surfaces and identification of species of origin.

    PubMed

    Loy, T H

    1983-06-17

    Blood residues from several animal species have been discovered on the surfaces of chert, basalt, and obsidian prehistoric tools (1000 to 6000 years old) from open-air sites along the western coast and in the northern boreal forest of Canada. A screening test has been developed to detect residual blood. Hemoglobin has been crystallized from the residues, and the species of origin determined.

  15. The hydrology of prehistoric farming systems in a central Arizona ecotone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gumerman, G. J.; Hanson, J. A.; Brew, D.; Tomoff, K.; Weed, C. S.

    1975-01-01

    The prehistoric land use and water management in the semi-arid Southwest was examined. Remote sensing data, geology, hydrology and biology are discussed along with an evaluation of remote sensing contributions, recommendations for applications, and proposed future remote sensing studies.

  16. Hype or Reality: Should Patients with Metabolic Syndrome-related NAFLD be on the Hunter-Gatherer (Paleo) Diet to Decrease Morbidity?

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Citro, Vincenzo; Finelli, Carmine

    2015-09-01

    The current Western diet figures centrally in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and the emerging major health problem nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, all of them negatively impacting on life expectancy. This type of diet is represented by a high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of fructose. On the contrary, a simplified way of eating healthily by excluding highly-processed foods, is presumed to be the Paleolithic diet (a diet based on vegetables, fruits, nuts, roots, meat, organ meats) which improves insulin resistance, ameliorates dyslipidemia, reduces hypertension and may reduce the risk of age-related diseases. The diet is the foundation of the treatment of obesity- and type 2 diabetes-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and a diet similar to those of pre-agricultural societies may be an effective option. To lend sufficient credence to this type of diet, well-designed studies are needed.

  17. The altitudinal mobility of wild sheep at the Epigravettian site of Kalavan 1 (Lesser Caucasus, Armenia): Evidence from a sequential isotopic analysis in tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Tornero, Carlos; Balasse, Marie; Bălăşescu, Adrian; Chataigner, Christine; Gasparyan, Boris; Montoya, Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Kalavan 1 is an Epigravettian hunting campsite in the Aregunyats mountain chain in northeastern Armenia (Lesser Caucasus). The site lies at an elevation of 1640 m in a bottleneck that controls the descent into the Barepat Valley from the alpine meadows above. The lithic and faunal assemblages show evidence of the production of hunting weapons, the hunting and targeting of wild sheep (Ovis orientalis), and the constitution of animal product reserves. A seasonal occupation of the site was proposed within a model of occupation by Epigravettian hunter-gatherers that involved a search for obsidian resources in high altitude sources from the spring to the summer and settling at Kalavan 1 at the end of summer or during autumn to coincide with the migration of wild herds from the alpine meadows to the valley. A key parameter of this model is wild sheep ethology, with a specifically seasonal vertical mobility, based on observations from contemporary mouflon populations from the surrounding areas. In this study, the vertical mobility of Paleolithic wild sheep was directly investigated through sequential isotope analysis (δ(18)O, δ(13)C) in teeth. A marked seasonality of birth is suggested that reflects a physiological adaptation to the strong environmental constraints of this mountainous region. Most importantly, a recurrent altitudinal mobility was demonstrated on a seasonal basis, which confirms that wild sheep migrated from lowland areas that they occupied in the winter and then moved to higher altitude meadows during the summer. Last, low inter-individual variability in the stable isotope sequences favors a hypothesis of accumulation for these faunal remains over a short time period. Overall, this new dataset strengthens the previous interpretations for Kalavan 1 and contributes to an understanding of the pattern of occupation of mountain territories by Epigravettian communities.

  18. 76 FR 28068 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Utah State University/College of Eastern Utah Prehistoric Museum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    .../Hisatsinom/Anasazi or Fremont prehistoric cultures. From approximately 1972 to 1977, following a flash flood... been painted over earlier Fremont figures. Also Ute tipi and wickiup sites, and some Ute game or...

  19. Use of collagenase to purify collagen from prehistoric bones for stable isotopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeNiro, Michael J.; Weiner, Stephen

    1988-10-01

    The low molecular weight hydrolysis products of the reaction between collagenase and the HCl insoluble organic fraction from modern and well-preserved prehistoric bones have the same stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions and amino acid composition as "collagen" extracted by dissolution in warm dilute acid. The hydrolysis products produced using the collagenase method from some poorly preserved fossil bones have the same amino acid composition as the products produced from modern bones, even though the "collagen" extracted from these bones by the conventional solubility method bears no similarity to modern collagen either in terms of amino acid or isotopic composition. These observations suggest that collagenase can possibly be used to purify a fraction from such poorly preserved prehistoric bones that retains its in vivo isotope ratios, thereby permitting isotopic paleodietary reconstruction for bones that cannot be studied with currently available techniques.

  20. Late Quaternary environments and prehistoric occupation in the lower White Nile valley, central Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Martin A. J.; Usai, Donatella; Salvatori, Sandro; Williams, Frances M.; Zerboni, Andrea; Maritan, Lara; Linseele, Veerle

    2015-12-01

    Despite the major contributions provided over fifty years ago by A.J. Arkell and J.D. Tothill to our understanding of late Quaternary environments and prehistoric occupation near the confluence of the Blue and White Nile in central Sudan, three key questions have remained unresolved since then. (a) Was the decline in Nile flood levels from early Holocene times onwards caused by a reduction in Nile discharge, or by channel incision, or both? (b) Was the regional climate wetter during times of high Nile floods and drier during times of low Nile floods? (c) Given the high degree of disturbance of Mesolithic and later prehistoric sites, is it possible to identify primary-context, stratified and undisturbed occupation? Drawing upon dated evidence from three sites to the east of and three to the west of the lower White Nile, we provide a qualified answer to the first question and documented affirmative answers to the second and third questions.

  1. The Lost Worlds of Messmore & Damon: Science, Spectacle & Prehistoric Monsters in early-twentieth century America.

    PubMed

    Manias, Chris

    2016-09-01

    In 1924, the model-making company Messmore & Damon, Inc. of New York unleashed their masterpiece: the Amphibious Dinosaurus Brontosaurus, a moving, breathing, roaring animatronic dinosaur, based on displays in the American Museum of Natural History. Over the 1920s and 1930s, this became the focus of an ever-increasing publicity campaign, as Messmore & Damon exhibited prehistoric automata in department stores, the media, and the Chicago World Fair of 1933-34. These displays were hugely popular and widely discussed, drawing from the increasing public appeal of paleontology. Mixing commercial entertainment with invocations of scientific value, Messmore & Damon's prehistoric creations offer a window into the meaning and popularity of the deep time sciences in early-twentieth century America, and the links between science and spectacle in this period.

  2. Palaeogenetic analysis of (pre)historic artifacts and its significance for anthropology.

    PubMed

    Burger, J; Hummel, S; Pfeiffer, I; Herrmann, B

    2000-03-01

    The possibility of isolating ancient DNA (aDNA) from all kinds of (pre)historic anthropogenetic artifacts opens new perspectives. This study applies palaeogenetic techniques to three anthropological issues: 1. Palaeodiet. DNA sequences from organic residues in vessels identify Precolumbian Aztec diet. 2. (Pre)historic husbandry and economic structures. aDNA data can reveal the species and the genetic evolutionary stage of animals and plants and show the manner and the extent of their growth, cultivation, or domestication. 3. Production techniques, use, and functionality. Identification of the plant or animal source of an archaeological find can reveal the use or the function of the find. Examples from a Celtic "sausage-end" and an Aztec "eye salve" are given.

  3. Neural-tube defects in a prehistoric south-western Indian population.

    PubMed

    Devor, E J; Cordell, L S

    1981-01-01

    Concern with the frequency and patterning of the occurrence of midline neural-tube defects among contemporary human populations is widespread. These defects are, however, quite old and occur in unusually high numbers of prehistoric skeletons. A common explanation offered for such high incidence has been inbreeding among small, reproductively isolated populations. In a sample of 54 skeletons from the prehistoric south-western Indian site of Tijeras Pueblo in New Mexico, failure of neural-tube closure occurs in 10% of sacra recovered. While a more homogeneous genetic background and inbreeding may account for a portion of this elevated prevalence, the cause appears to lie with cultural-environmental factors. It is suggested that the aetiology of these conditions has become more complex in recent human history.

  4. Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science - Tampa Bay Study - Historical and Prehistorical Record of Tampa Bay Environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edgar, Terry

    2005-01-01

    To study how Tampa Bay, Florida, has changed over time, the prehistorical conditions and natural variations in the bay environment are being evaluated. These variations can be tracked by examining the sediments that have accumulated in and around the bay. The prehistorical record, which pre-dates settlers' arrival in the Tampa Bay area around 1850, provides a baseline with which to compare and evaluate the magnitude and effects of sea-level, climate, biological, geochemical, and man-made changes. These data also are valuable for planning and conducting projects aimed at restoring wetlands and other estuarine habitats to their original state. In addition, the data provide a basis for judging efforts to improve the health of the bay.

  5. Prehistoric cave painting PIXE analysis for the identification of paint ``pots''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menu, Michel; Walter, Philippe

    1992-02-01

    Prior to the advent of modern analytical techniques, the methods of producing prehistoric paintings were a subject of conjecture. We have sampled and extensively analysed prehistoric paint in several French cave sites of the Upper Paleolithic. The results indicate that, more than 12000 years ago, artists working within a restricted area utilized a number of "paint recipes" which are chronologically significant and may thus assist in dating the paintings. These recipes consist of a precise manufacturing of the different elements: pigment, extender and sometimes binder. The chemical impurities associated with the paint (here the mineral part composed of pigment + extender) may determine the "paint pot". These impurities are characteristic of the sources of the minerals. Among the different sites that we analysed, three from the most important ones are presented here: Niaux, Gargas (French Pyrenees) and Lascaux (Perigord, France).

  6. Impact of prehistoric cooking practices on paleoenvironmental proxies in shell midden constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Peter; Staudigel, Philip; Murray, Sean T.; Westphal, Hildegard; Swart, Peter K.

    2016-04-01

    Paleoenvironmental proxy records such as oxygen isotopes of calcareous skeletal structures like fish otoliths or mollusk shells provide highest-resolution information about environmental conditions experienced by the organism. Accumulations of such skeletal structures by ancient coastal populations in so called "shell midden" deposits provide us with sub-seasonally resolved paleoclimate records covering time spans up to several millennia. Given their high temporal resolution, these deposits are increasingly used for paleoclimate reconstructions and complement our understanding of ancient climate changes. However, gathered as comestibles, most of these skeletal remains were subject to prehistoric cooking methods prior to deposition. The associated alteration of the chemical proxy signatures as well as the subsequent error for paleoenvironmental reconstructions remained almost entirely neglected so far. Here, we present clumped isotope, conventional oxygen and carbon isotopes as well as element:Ca ratios measured in modern bivalve shells after exposing them to different prehistoric cooking methods. Our data show that most cooking methods considerably alter commonly used paleoclimate proxy systems which can lead to substantial misinterpretations of ancient climate conditions. Since the magnitude of chemical alteration is not distinguishable from natural temperature variability in most coastal settings, the alteration of shell midden constituents by prehistoric cooking remains likely unnoticed in most cases. Thus, depending on the cooking method, pre-depositional heating might have introduced considerable errors into previous paleoclimate studies. However, our data also show that clumped isotope thermometry represents a suitable diagnostic tool to detect such pre-depositional cooking events and also allows differentiating between the most commonly applied prehistoric cooking methods.

  7. Sandstone weathering processes damaging prehistoric rock paintings at the Albarracin Cultural Park, NE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito, G.; Machado, M. J.; Sancho, C.

    1993-09-01

    The rock paintings in cliff-foot caves of the Albarracin Cultural Park are known as some of the most important evidences of the Levantine prehistoric art of Spain (8000 3000 BP). The paintings are on sandstone (Buntsandstein facies) of Triasic age, which may develop intense weathering. The analysis of the variables controlling the weathering indicate that salt and wetting-drying weathering are responsible for granular disintegration and flaking, which lead to rock painting deterioration.

  8. Evidence for large prehistoric earthquakes in the northern New Madrid Seismic Zone, central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Y.; Schweig, E.S.; Tuttle, M.P.; Ellis, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    We surveyed the area north of New Madris, Missouri, for prehistoric liquefaction deposits and uncovered two new sites with evidence of pre-1811 earthquakes. At one site, located about 20 km northeast of New Madrid, Missouri, radiocarbon dating indicates that an upper sand blow was probably deposited after A.D. 1510 and a lower sand blow was deposited prior to A.D. 1040. A sand blow at another site about 45 km northeast of New Madrid, Missouri, is dated as likely being deposited between A.D.55 and A.D. 1620 and represents the northernmost recognized expression of prehistoric liquefaction likely related to the New Madrid seismic zone. This study, taken together with other data, supports the occurrence of at least two earthquakes strong enough to indcue liquefaction or faulting before A.D. 1811, and after A.D. 400. One earthquake probably occurred around AD 900 and a second earthquake occurred around A.D. 1350. The data are not yet sufficient to estimate the magnitudes of the causative earthquakes for these liquefaction deposits although we conclude that all of the earthquakes are at least moment magnitude M ~6.8, the size of the 1895 Charleston, Missouri, earthquake. A more rigorous estimate of the number and sizes of prehistoric earthquakes in the New Madrid sesmic zone awaits evaluation of additional sites.

  9. Prehistoric contacts over the Straits of Gibraltar indicated by genetic analysis of Iberian Bronze Age cattle

    PubMed Central

    Anderung, Cecilia; Bouwman, Abigail; Persson, Per; Carretero, José Miguel; Ortega, Ana Isabel; Elburg, Rengert; Smith, Colin; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Ellegren, Hans; Götherström, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The geographic situation of the Iberian Peninsula makes it a natural link between Europe and North Africa. However, it is a matter of debate to what extent African influences via the Straits Gibraltar have affected Iberia's prehistoric development. Because early African pastoralist communities were dedicated to cattle breeding, a possible means to detect prehistoric African–Iberian contacts might be to analyze the origin of cattle breeds on the Iberian Peninsula. Some contemporary Iberian cattle breeds show a mtDNA haplotype, T1, that is characteristic to African breeds, generally explained as being the result of the Muslim expansion of the 8th century A.D., and of modern imports. To test a possible earlier African influence, we analyzed mtDNA of Bronze Age cattle from the Portalón cave at the Atapuerca site in northern Spain. Although the majority of samples showed the haplotype T3 that dominates among European breeds of today, the T1 haplotype was found in one specimen radiocarbon dated 1800 calibrated years B.C. Accepting T1 as being of African origin, this result indicates prehistoric African–Iberian contacts and lends support to archaeological finds linking early African and Iberian cultures. We also found a wild ox haplotype in the Iberian Bronze Age sample, reflecting local hybridization or backcrossing or that aurochs were hunted by these farming cultures. PMID:15941827

  10. Y Chromosome analysis of prehistoric human populations in the West Liao River Valley, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The West Liao River valley in Northeast China is an ecologically diverse region, populated in prehistory by human populations with a wide range of cultures and modes of subsistence. To help understand the human evolutionary history of this region, we performed Y chromosome analyses on ancient human remains from archaeological sites ranging in age from 6500 to 2700 BP. Results 47 of the 70 individuals provided reproducible results. They were assigned into five different Y sub-haplogroups using diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms, namely N1 (xN1a, N1c), N1c, C/C3e, O3a (O3a3) and O3a3c. We also used 17 Y short tandem repeat loci in the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome. There appears to be significant genetic differences between populations of the West Liao River valley and adjacent cultural complexes in the prehistoric period, and these prehistoric populations were shown to carry similar haplotypes as present-day Northeast Asians, but at markedly different frequencies. Conclusion Our results suggest that the prehistoric cultural transitions were associated with immigration from the Yellow River valley and the northern steppe into the West Liao River valley. They reveal the temporal continuity of Y chromosome lineages in populations of the West Liao River valley over 5000 years, with a concurrent increase in lineage diversity caused by an influx of immigrants from other populations. PMID:24079706

  11. Remote sensing and the assessment of prehistoric productivity in cultivation practices of Rapa Nui, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalchik, Jacob

    While there is a tradition that the population of Rapa Nui was large during prehistory, there is remarkably little evidence used to support to these claims. This study represents an empirically-based estimate of pre-contact agricultural productivity to create a sound evaluation of Rapa Nui's prehistoric population. In this study, I map the spatial distributions of lithic mulching using satellite imagery, RPV aerial photography, in situ spectral reflectance analyses, and supervised and sub-pixel image classification methods. Using the results of these analyses, I estimate the total mapped lithic mulch area and combine this estimate with previously documented distributions of manavai. Together these analyses provide an estimate of the extent of these two important cultivation practices and an upper-limit magnitude of prehistoric food production. The spatial data, when evaluated in conjunction with appropriate agricultural cultivation statistic proxies, are then used to conservatively quantify the island's carrying capacity. In my final analysis, I argue that the prehistoric productivity was insufficient to support the large populations that have been suggested.

  12. Mollusk collecting and environmental change during the Prehistoric Period in the Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amesbury, J. R.

    2007-12-01

    Archaeological research in the Mariana Islands has revealed changes in mollusk collecting during the Prehistoric Period (approximately 1500 BC to AD 1521). The earliest people at Tumon Bay, Guam and Chalan Piao, Saipan collected mostly bivalves, especially the arc clam Anadara antiquata. After several hundred years, they no longer collected A. antiquata, but collected smaller bivalves instead. By AD 1000, they collected mostly gastropods, primarily the coral reef species Strombus gibberulus gibbosus. One possible explanation is that the people preferred the large arc clam but overharvested it until they were forced to eat the smaller bivalves and then the snails. However, recent evidence in the form of mangrove wood and mangrove pollen supports another explanation, one of non-anthropogenic environmental change. In this case, the relative sea-level decline, which took place in the Marianas within the last 4,000 years, caused the demise of mangrove habitats and of the arc clam at Tumon Bay, Guam and Chalan Piao, Saipan. As mangrove habitats were diminished by sea-level decline, collecting effort shifted to coral reefs, and S. gibberulus gibbosus was harvested throughout the remainder of the Prehistoric Period and into the Historic Period. Southern Guam is the only area in the Marianas in which A. antiquata increased in abundance during the Prehistoric Period. The same types of evidence, mangrove wood and mangrove pollen, indicate that, in contrast to the situation at Tumon Bay and Chalan Piao, mangroves increased in abundance in southern Guam.

  13. Neandertal mobility and large-game hunting: the exploitation of reindeer during the Quina Mousterian at Chez-Pinaud Jonzac (Charente-Maritime, France).

    PubMed

    Niven, Laura; Steele, Teresa E; Rendu, William; Mallye, Jean-Baptiste; McPherron, Shannon P; Soressi, Marie; Jaubert, Jacques; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2012-10-01

    Neandertals were effective hunters of large ungulates throughout their geographic and temporal ranges. Equipped with this knowledge, researchers in paleoanthropology continue to seek insight on the relationships between hunting and subsistence strategies with other components of the Neandertals' niche, such as mobility, site use, and lithic technology. The Quina Mousterian deposits from the rockshelter site of Chez Pinaud Jonzac (Charente-Maritime, France; hereafter Jonzac) offer an excellent opportunity to pursue these issues. This paper focuses on the extensive and well-preserved skeletal remains of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) recovered from recent excavations of the site, representing at least 18 individuals that were hunted by Neandertals during the fall through winter. Our zooarchaeological results indicate that all ages of reindeer were hunted but adult individuals predominate. No bias is evident in the comparable frequencies of males and females. These prey were butchered on-site, with abundant evidence of meat filleting and marrow exploitation. In the excavated sample, the absence of hearths and the almost complete lack of burned bones or stones suggest that Neandertals were not using fire to assist with processing the reindeer carcasses. The zooarchaeological results presented here indicate that reindeer were hunted during a restricted window of time when they were seasonally abundant in the local area near Jonzac. Taken together with the lithic industry based on bifacial elements, the evidence is consistent with a pattern of site use by highly mobile hunter-gatherers making frequent, short-term visits. Ongoing research at Jonzac and other Quina Mousterian localities will contribute to a better understanding of Neandertal behavior during cold climate phases.

  14. Genomic diversity and admixture differs for Stone-Age Scandinavian foragers and farmers.

    PubMed

    Skoglund, Pontus; Malmström, Helena; Omrak, Ayça; Raghavan, Maanasa; Valdiosera, Cristina; Günther, Torsten; Hall, Per; Tambets, Kristiina; Parik, Jüri; Sjögren, Karl-Göran; Apel, Jan; Willerslev, Eske; Storå, Jan; Götherström, Anders; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2014-05-16

    Prehistoric population structure associated with the transition to an agricultural lifestyle in Europe remains a contentious idea. Population-genomic data from 11 Scandinavian Stone Age human remains suggest that hunter-gatherers had lower genetic diversity than that of farmers. Despite their close geographical proximity, the genetic differentiation between the two Stone Age groups was greater than that observed among extant European populations. Additionally, the Scandinavian Neolithic farmers exhibited a greater degree of hunter-gatherer-related admixture than that of the Tyrolean Iceman, who also originated from a farming context. In contrast, Scandinavian hunter-gatherers displayed no significant evidence of introgression from farmers. Our findings suggest that Stone Age foraging groups were historically in low numbers, likely owing to oscillating living conditions or restricted carrying capacity, and that they were partially incorporated into expanding farming groups.

  15. Ancient mitochondrial DNA from the northern fringe of the Neolithic farming expansion in Europe sheds light on the dispersion process.

    PubMed

    Malmström, Helena; Linderholm, Anna; Skoglund, Pontus; Storå, Jan; Sjödin, Per; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Holmlund, Gunilla; Willerslev, Eske; Jakobsson, Mattias; Lidén, Kerstin; Götherström, Anders

    2015-01-19

    The European Neolithization process started around 12 000 years ago in the Near East. The introduction of agriculture spread north and west throughout Europe and a key question has been if this was brought about by migrating individuals, by an exchange of ideas or a by a mixture of these. The earliest farming evidence in Scandinavia is found within the Funnel Beaker Culture complex (Trichterbecherkultur, TRB) which represents the northernmost extension of Neolithic farmers in Europe. The TRB coexisted for almost a millennium with hunter-gatherers of the Pitted Ware Cultural complex (PWC). If migration was a substantial part of the Neolithization, even the northerly TRB community would display a closer genetic affinity to other farmer populations than to hunter-gatherer populations. We deep-sequenced the mitochondrial hypervariable region 1 from seven farmers (six TRB and one Battle Axe complex, BAC) and 13 hunter-gatherers (PWC) and authenticated the sequences using postmortem DNA damage patterns. A comparison with 124 previously published sequences from prehistoric Europe shows that the TRB individuals share a close affinity to Central European farmer populations, and that they are distinct from hunter-gatherer groups, including the geographically close and partially contemporary PWC that show a close affinity to the European Mesolithic hunter-gatherers.

  16. Prehistoric land use in southern Loess Plateau reconstructed from archeological data by a new developed model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Wu, H.; Guo, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Estimation of land use during the Holocene is crucial to understand impacts of human activity on climate change in preindustrial period. Until now it is still a key issue to reconstruct amount and spatial distribution of prehistoric land use due to lack of data. Most reconstructions are simply extrapolations of population, cleared land amount per person and land suitability for agriculture. In this study, a new quantitative prehistoric land use model (PLUM) is developed based on semi-quantitative predictive models of archeological sites. The PLUM is driven by environmental and social parameters of archeological sites, which are objective evidences of prehistoric human activity, and produces realistic patterns of land use. After successful validations of the model with modern observed data, the PLUM was applied to reconstruct land use from 8 to 4 ka B.P. in Yiluo and Wei valleys, southern Loess Plateau. Both of them are the most important agriculture origin centers in northern China. Results reveal that about 9% of land areas in both valleys have been used by human activity from 8 to 4 ka B.P., expanding from gentle slopes along the river to hinterlands of the valleys. The land cover was affected by increasing agricultural land use during the middle Holocene. The extensive spreads of land use since 7 ka B.P. in both valleys were driven by the combined impacts of population increase and agriculture development, which was further favored by wet and warm climate conditions during middle Holocene; while the decreasing rates of land use expansions after 5 ka B.P. were mainly induced by improved agriculture technology. With the scaling up of PLUM to larger regional or global levels by a greater use of archeological data, the impact of human land use on global change can be studied more accurately.

  17. Human migration patterns in Yemen and implications for reconstructing prehistoric population movements.

    PubMed

    Miró-Herrans, Aida T; Al-Meeri, Ali; Mulligan, Connie J

    2014-01-01

    Population migration has played an important role in human evolutionary history and in the patterning of human genetic variation. A deeper and empirically-based understanding of human migration dynamics is needed in order to interpret genetic and archaeological evidence and to accurately reconstruct the prehistoric processes that comprise human evolutionary history. Current empirical estimates of migration include either short time frames (i.e. within one generation) or partial knowledge about migration, such as proportion of migrants or distance of migration. An analysis of migration that includes both proportion of migrants and distance, and direction over multiple generations would better inform prehistoric reconstructions. To evaluate human migration, we use GPS coordinates from the place of residence of the Yemeni individuals sampled in our study, their birthplaces and their parents' and grandparents' birthplaces to calculate the proportion of migrants, as well as the distance and direction of migration events between each generation. We test for differences in these values between the generations and identify factors that influence the probability of migration. Our results show that the proportion and distance of migration between females and males is similar within generations. In contrast, the proportion and distance of migration is significantly lower in the grandparents' generation, most likely reflecting the decreasing effect of technology. Based on our results, we calculate the proportion of migration events (0.102) and mean and median distances of migration (96 km and 26 km) for the grandparent's generation to represent early times in human evolution. These estimates can serve to set parameter values of demographic models in model-based methods of prehistoric reconstruction, such as approximate Bayesian computation. Our study provides the first empirically-based estimates of human migration over multiple generations in a developing country and these

  18. Argentinean prehistoric pigments' study by combined SEM/EDX and molecular spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Darchuk, L; Tsybrii, Z; Worobiec, A; Vázquez, C; Palacios, O M; Stefaniak, E A; Gatto Rotondo, G; Sizov, F; Van Grieken, R

    2010-05-01

    Composition of the prehistoric pigments' (from Carriqueo rock shelter, Rio Negro province, Argentina) has been analysed by means of molecular spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and micro-Raman) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Red and yellow pigments were recognized as red and yellow ochre. The matrix of the pigments is composed of one or more substances. According to the matrix composition yellow and red pigments were also divided into two groups-i.e. those containing kaolinite or sulphates. Green pigment was detected as green earth, made up of celadonite as a chromophore.

  19. Shrinking fish: comparisons of prehistoric and contemporary salmonids indicate decreasing size at age across millennia.

    PubMed

    Turrero, Pablo; García-Vázquez, Eva; de Leaniz, Carlos Garcia

    2014-10-01

    A comparison of Upper Palaeolithic and contemporary salmonid vertebrae from the Iberian Peninsula indicates that there has been a significant decrease in the mean body size for a given age among Atlantic salmon and brown trout inhabiting the southernmost range of their endemic distribution. Mean size at age was greater in prehistoric specimens for all age classes during the freshwater phase of their life histories. Fisheries-induced evolution (selection for smaller sizes) is an obvious explanation for the observed reduction in fish body size, but recent changes in the aquatic habitat affecting density-dependent growth cannot be ruled out.

  20. Shrinking fish: comparisons of prehistoric and contemporary salmonids indicate decreasing size at age across millennia

    PubMed Central

    Turrero, Pablo; García-Vázquez, Eva; de Leaniz, Carlos Garcia

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of Upper Palaeolithic and contemporary salmonid vertebrae from the Iberian Peninsula indicates that there has been a significant decrease in the mean body size for a given age among Atlantic salmon and brown trout inhabiting the southernmost range of their endemic distribution. Mean size at age was greater in prehistoric specimens for all age classes during the freshwater phase of their life histories. Fisheries-induced evolution (selection for smaller sizes) is an obvious explanation for the observed reduction in fish body size, but recent changes in the aquatic habitat affecting density-dependent growth cannot be ruled out. PMID:26064529

  1. Retention of lead and cadmium in prehistoric and modern human teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Grandjean, P.; Jorgensen, P.J. )

    1990-10-01

    In 5,000-year-old premolars from Nubia and in 500-year-old teeth from Greenland, the lead concentrations were very low; modern teeth contained 10-100 times more lead. In contrast, cadmium concentrations varied by 30-fold in the two prehistorical populations; modern-day cadmium levels were in the lower range of this interval. These data suggest that, when compared to preindustrial exposures, the impact of current environmental lead pollution is considerable, while that of cadmium pollution is much less.

  2. Tree ring correlation between prehistoric landslides and abrupt tectonic events in Seattle, washington.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, G C; Williams, P L; Buckley, B M

    1992-12-04

    Radiocarbon ages of submerged trees on landslide deposits in Lake Washington, Seattle, indicate that the most recent slides in three separate areas may have occurred simultaneously about 1000 years ago. Tree ring crossdating shows that seven bark-bearing trees from one of these recent slides and a tree 23 kilometers to the northwest in a probable tsunami deposit on the shore of Puget Sound died in the same season of the same year. The close coincidence among the most recent lake landslides, a probable tsunami, abrupt subsidence, and other possible seismic events gives evidence for a strong prehistoric earthquake in the Seattle region.

  3. Correlations between radiometric analysis of Quaternary deposits and the chronology of prehistoric settlements from the southeastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Anjos, R M; Macario, K D; Lima, T A; Veiga, R; Carvalho, C; Fernandes, P J F; Vezzone, M; Bastos, J

    2010-01-01

    Natural gamma radiation measurements of sand deposits were carried out in order to study the chronology of prehistoric colonization of the Brazilian coast during the Holocene. The method employs thorium, uranium and potassium as tracers of the geological provenance of Quaternary deposits, where artificial shellmounds are found. The so-called sambaquis are archaeological settlements, characteristic of fisher-gatherers, specialized in the exploitation of shellfish. Our results show a considerable positive correlation between the formation of coastal deposits, based on cross plots of eTh/eU and eTh/K, and the antiquity of its prehistoric human occupation.

  4. Prehistoric introduction of domestic pigs onto the Okinawa Islands: ancient mitochondrial DNA evidence.

    PubMed

    Watanobe, Takuma; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Nakano, Masuo; Takamiya, Hiroto; Matsui, Akira; Hongo, Hitomi

    2002-08-01

    Ancient DNAs of Sus scrofa specimens excavated from archaeological sites on the Okinawa islands were examined to clarify the genetic relationships among prehistoric Sus scrofa, modern wild boars and domestic pigs inhabiting the Ryukyu archipelago, the Japanese islands, and the Asian continent. We extracted remain DNA from 161 bone specimens excavated from 12 archaeological sites on the Okinawa islands and successfully amplified mitochondrial DNA control region fragments from 33 of 161 specimens. Pairwise difference between prehistoric and modern S. scrofa nucleotide sequences showed that haplotypes of the East Asian domestic pig lineage were found from archaeological specimens together with Ryukyu wild boars native to the Ryukyu archipelago. Phylogenetic analysis of 14 ancient sequences (11 haplotypes; 574 bp) indicated that S. scrofa specimens from two Yayoi-Heian sites (Kitahara and Ara shellmiddens) and two Recent Times sites (Wakuta Kiln and Kiyuna sites) are grouped with modern East Asian domestic pigs. Sus scrofa specimens from Shimizu shellmidden (Yayoi-Heian Period) were very closely related to modern Sus scrofa riukiuanus but had a unique nucleotide insertion, indicating that the population is genetically distinct from the lineage of modern Ryukyu wild boars. This genetic evidence suggests that domestic pigs from the Asian continent were introduced to the Okinawa islands in the early Yayoi-Heian period (1700-2000 BP), or earlier.

  5. New method development in prehistoric stone tool research: evaluating use duration and data analysis protocols.

    PubMed

    Evans, Adrian A; Macdonald, Danielle A; Giusca, Claudiu L; Leach, Richard K

    2014-10-01

    Lithic microwear is a research field of prehistoric stone tool (lithic) analysis that has been developed with the aim to identify how stone tools were used. It has been shown that laser scanning confocal microscopy has the potential to be a useful quantitative tool in the study of prehistoric stone tool function. In this paper, two important lines of inquiry are investigated: (1) whether the texture of worn surfaces is constant under varying durations of tool use, and (2) the development of rapid objective data analysis protocols. This study reports on the attempt to further develop these areas of study and results in a better understanding of the complexities underlying the development of flexible analytical algorithms for surface analysis. The results show that when sampling is optimised, surface texture may be linked to contact material type, independent of use duration. Further research is needed to validate this finding and test an expanded range of contact materials. The use of automated analytical protocols has shown promise but is only reliable if sampling location and scale are defined. Results suggest that the sampling protocol reports on the degree of worn surface invasiveness, complicating the ability to investigate duration related textural characterisation.

  6. Prehistoric Agriculture and Soil Fertility on Lava Flows in Northern Arizona, USA: Results from the San Francisco Volcanic Field REU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadman, E.; Anderson, K. C.

    2013-12-01

    The San Francisco Volcanic Field in northern Arizona is home to ~600 cinder cones, the youngest of which is Sunset Crater (erupted ~AD 1100). This study documents trends in available phosphate and nitrate content with time, testing whether lowered soil pH from the addition of Sunset cinders increased soil fertility and became a factor in Anasazi agricultural success. Soil fertility is examined both before and after Sunset's eruption in soils of different ages that have developed from eolian deposition on top of lava flows. An increase in phosphate and nitrate levels following acidification would suggest that the presence of Sunset cinders brought the soils to the optimal pH for mobilization of these nutrients. The combined effects of the cinder layer retaining nutrients and water, wetter climates, and increases in phosphate and nitrate (both limiting nutrients for plant growth), would have contributed to Anasazi agricultural success after Sunset's eruption. Samples for this study were taken from eolian-derived soils of different ages atop lava flows in the San Francisco Volcanic Field. OSL data from these soils on Strawberry and SP Craters' lava flows yielded age estimates of ~12.3 ka (Strawberry) and ~32.7 ka (SP), on which a soil chronosequence was based. Results from the chronosequence supported these OSL ages, indicating that soils on the SP flow are older than those on the Strawberry flow. Field descriptions, Harden Development Indices, particle size analysis, and nutrient content analysis were used for this aspect of the project. An experimental acid wash method will be used to simulate the addition of Sunset's acidic cinders, and will yield data for phosphate and nitrate content after Sunset erupted. Preliminary results indicate that phosphate and nitrate accumulate in upper, eolian-derived horizons (Av, Bw) and in more deeply buried carbonate horizons (Bk). Higher concentrations of phosphate and nitrate were found in older (SP) soils than younger

  7. Towards a strontium isoscape for the determination of provenance of prehistoric wooden findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsky, Monika; Tintner, Johannes; Bolka, Monika; Grabner, Michael; Kowarik, Kerstin; Reschreiter, Hans; Kern, Anton; Horacek, Micha; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Prehistoric wood artefacts have been excavated from ancient salt mine galleries in Hallstatt, Austria. These findings present a unique archive of information on Bronze and Iron Age mining and trade relations, as for certain tools a production elsewhere and transport to the mine is assumed. These wooden artefacts contain the geochemical information of their growth location, though masked by secondary salts due to the storage conditions. Consequently, the analysis of the biogenic 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios of the findings was carried out in comparison to the respective signatures of trees from possible regions of origin, in order to draw conclusions on prehistoric trade routes. Thus - in addition to Hallstatt - seven regions in the Alpine region of Austria as well as in the Northern and Southern lowlands were selected based on known settlements in the time period of interest. Within all regions, the geological bedrock variability was considered for the definition of sampling spots, which resulted in a total of 26 locations. Four tree species represented in the archaeological finds (i.e. Picea abies, Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus sp.) were sampled upon availability. Wood sample digests from eight replicate trees per location were analysed using multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). In order to reveal the biogenic signatures of the prehistoric findings, a decontamination method based on acid leaching was developed. We could successfully separate biogenic from secondary Sr and adopted a mixing theory to account for possibly incomplete removal of the latter. The Sr isotope ratio data obtained from modern trees (i.e. bioavailable Sr) reflect the geological heterogeneity of the Alps, which challenges the creation of an isoscape and its applicability to distinct provenance determination. Different geologic bedrock types can be clearly distinguished by their 87Sr/86Sr, e.g. marine sedimentary and igneous rocks. Furthermore, the data

  8. An assessment of health and disease in the prehistoric inhabitants of the Mariana Islands.

    PubMed

    Pietrusewsky, M; Douglas, M T; Ikehara-Quebral, R M

    1997-11-01

    Using a variety of skeletal and dental stress indicators, an assessment of the health and disease of the indigenous inhabitants of the Mariana Islands, the Chamorro, is made. The major hypothesis to be tested is that the Chamorro were relatively healthy and that deviations from the expected, as well as inter-island variation, may reflect environmental, ecological, and cultural differences. The major skeletal series surveyed include sites on Guam (N = 247 individuals), Rota (N = 14), Tinian (N = 20), and Saipan (N = 102). The majority of the specimens are from the transitional pre-Latte (AD 1-1000) and Latte (AD 1000-1521) periods. These data derive primarily from unpublished osteological reports. The indicators of health and disease surveyed include mortality and paleodemographic data, stature, dental paleopathology, cribra orbitalia, limb bone fractures, degenerative osteoarthritis, and infectious disease (including treponemal infection). Where appropriate, tests of significance are calculated to determine the presence of any patterning in the differences observed within and between the skeletal series. Information recorded in prehistoric Hawaiians provides a standard for external comparisons. Several of the larger skeletal series surveyed have paleodemographic features that are consistent with long-term cemetery populations. Females and subadults are typically underrepresented. Most subadult deaths occur in the 2-5 year age interval. Life expectancy at birth ranges from 26.4 to 33.7 years. A healthy fertility rate is indicated for these series. The prehistoric inhabitants of the Mariana Islands were relatively tall, exceeding living Chamorros measured in the early part of the present century. The greater prevalence of developmental defects in the enamel suggests that the Chamorro were exposed to more stress than prehistoric Hawaiians. The low frequency of cribra orbitalia further indicates iron deficiency anemia was not a problem. There are generally low

  9. [The mystery of prehistoric trepanations: Is neurosurgery the world eldest profession?].

    PubMed

    Chauvet, D; Sainte-Rose, C; Boch, A-L

    2010-10-01

    Trepanation is known to be the first surgical procedure ever performed. Its origins date from the Neolithic Age in Europe and the operation was particularly performed in South America at the Pre-Colombian era, a few thousand years later. Based on many archeological studies on trepanned skulls, we compare the differences and similarities of these two periods through epidemiological, topographical, and technical approaches. Signs of bony regeneration are assessed in an attempt to understand the postoperative survival of trepanned patients. The literature in surgery and archeology does not mention the possible relation between trepanations and growing skull fractures. However, it is reasonable to think that these cranial holes, occurring after a pediatric skull fracture, could mimic real trepanation orifices. The possible connections between these two entities are discussed. The etiological hypotheses on prehistoric trepanation are reviewed.

  10. The role of changing childhood diets in the prehistoric evolution of food production: An isotopic assessment.

    PubMed

    Schurr, Mark R; Powell, Mary Lucas

    2005-03-01

    Earlier weaning has often been suggested as a cause for population growth after the evolution of food production. However, evidence for weaning-time reduction is largely circumstantial. Collagen stable nitrogen- and carbon-isotope ratios from juvenile and adult burials from four sites in eastern North America were measured to estimate weaning onsets and durations before and after the appearance of intensive food production. Two preagricultural Late Archaic sites (Indian Knoll and Carlston Annis) are compared with two highly agricultural Middle Mississippian sites (Angel and Tinsley Hill). Isotopic data and paleodemographic measures of birth rates provide no evidence for changes in weaning behavior or fertility with the development of food production in the prehistoric Lower Ohio Valley. Birth rates and weaning behavior appear to have been roughly the same at all four sites. These results indicate that models attributing population growth after the appearance of food production to earlier weaning are not universally applicable.

  11. Prehistorical and historical declines in Caribbean coral reef accretion rates driven by loss of parrotfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, Katie L.; O'Dea, Aaron; Clark, Tara R.; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Norris, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    Caribbean coral reefs have transformed into algal-dominated habitats over recent decades, but the mechanisms of change are unresolved due to a lack of quantitative ecological data before large-scale human impacts. To understand the role of reduced herbivory in recent coral declines, we produce a high-resolution 3,000 year record of reef accretion rate and herbivore (parrotfish and urchin) abundance from the analysis of sediments and fish, coral and urchin subfossils within cores from Caribbean Panama. At each site, declines in accretion rates and parrotfish abundance were initiated in the prehistorical or historical period. Statistical tests of direct cause and effect relationships using convergent cross mapping reveal that accretion rates are driven by parrotfish abundance (but not vice versa) but are not affected by total urchin abundance. These results confirm the critical role of parrotfish in maintaining coral-dominated reef habitat and the urgent need for restoration of parrotfish populations to enable reef persistence.

  12. Biochemical evidence of cannibalism at a prehistoric Puebloan site in southwestern Colorado.

    PubMed

    Marlar, R A; Leonard, B L; Billman, B R; Lambert, P M; Marlar, J E

    2000-09-07

    The existence of cannibalism is one of the most controversial issues in the archaeology of the American Southwest. Disarticulated, cut-marked and heat-altered human remains from non-burial contexts at prehistoric Puebloan (Anasazi) archaeological sites in the Four Corners region of the American Southwest have been interpreted by some scholars as evidence of cannibalism. Osteological studies indicate that many of the disarticulated bodies found at these sites were processed in a manner consistent with food preparation. Opponents of this interpretation point out that non-cannibalistic practices such as secondary interment, corpse mutilation and ritualized witch executions might account for the assemblages. Osteological evidence alone does not document the actual ingestion of human flesh. Here we show consumption of human flesh did occur as demonstrated in preserved human waste containing identifiable human tissue remains from a site with osteological evidence of cannibalism.

  13. Prehistorical and historical declines in Caribbean coral reef accretion rates driven by loss of parrotfish

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Katie L.; O'Dea, Aaron; Clark, Tara R.; Zhao, Jian-xin; Norris, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    Caribbean coral reefs have transformed into algal-dominated habitats over recent decades, but the mechanisms of change are unresolved due to a lack of quantitative ecological data before large-scale human impacts. To understand the role of reduced herbivory in recent coral declines, we produce a high-resolution 3,000 year record of reef accretion rate and herbivore (parrotfish and urchin) abundance from the analysis of sediments and fish, coral and urchin subfossils within cores from Caribbean Panama. At each site, declines in accretion rates and parrotfish abundance were initiated in the prehistorical or historical period. Statistical tests of direct cause and effect relationships using convergent cross mapping reveal that accretion rates are driven by parrotfish abundance (but not vice versa) but are not affected by total urchin abundance. These results confirm the critical role of parrotfish in maintaining coral-dominated reef habitat and the urgent need for restoration of parrotfish populations to enable reef persistence. PMID:28112169

  14. Prehistorical and historical declines in Caribbean coral reef accretion rates driven by loss of parrotfish.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Katie L; O'Dea, Aaron; Clark, Tara R; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Norris, Richard D

    2017-01-23

    Caribbean coral reefs have transformed into algal-dominated habitats over recent decades, but the mechanisms of change are unresolved due to a lack of quantitative ecological data before large-scale human impacts. To understand the role of reduced herbivory in recent coral declines, we produce a high-resolution 3,000 year record of reef accretion rate and herbivore (parrotfish and urchin) abundance from the analysis of sediments and fish, coral and urchin subfossils within cores from Caribbean Panama. At each site, declines in accretion rates and parrotfish abundance were initiated in the prehistorical or historical period. Statistical tests of direct cause and effect relationships using convergent cross mapping reveal that accretion rates are driven by parrotfish abundance (but not vice versa) but are not affected by total urchin abundance. These results confirm the critical role of parrotfish in maintaining coral-dominated reef habitat and the urgent need for restoration of parrotfish populations to enable reef persistence.

  15. Using metrology in early prehistoric stone tool research: further work and a brief instrument comparison.

    PubMed

    Evans, A A; Macdonald, D

    2011-01-01

    Early prehistoric research aims to discover the activities of our ancestors and piece together the process of evolution and sociocultural development. A key element in this process is the study of stone tools, particularly how these tools functioned in prehistory. Currently, there are no established quantitative methods that address stone tool function. This article provides a summary of previous studies using metrological methods in stone tool research and details the use of laser scanning confocal microscopy to conduct areal surface analysis using three-dimensional data sets. Research to-date is preliminary but promising and shows that microscopic metrological approaches can provide a quantitative method to identify how stone tools were used. A limited comparison of two metrological systems is presented, the results of which highlight a need for caution and further investigation on the comparability of related data sets.

  16. Ancient mitochondrial genome reveals trace of prehistoric migration in the east Pamir by pastoralists.

    PubMed

    Ning, Chao; Gao, Shizhu; Deng, Boping; Zheng, Hongxiang; Wei, Dong; Lv, Haoze; Li, Hongjie; Song, Li; Wu, Yong; Zhou, Hui; Cui, Yinqiu

    2016-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of one 700-year-old individual found in Tashkurgan, Xinjiang was target enriched and sequenced in order to shed light on the population history of Tashkurgan and determine the phylogenetic relationship of haplogroup U5a. The ancient sample was assigned to a subclade of haplogroup U5a2a1, which is defined by two rare and stable transversions at 16114A and 13928C. Phylogenetic analysis shows a distribution pattern for U5a2a that is indicative of an origin in the Volga-Ural region and exhibits a clear eastward geographical expansion that correlates with the pastoral culture also entering the Eurasian steppe. The haplogroup U5a2a present in the ancient Tashkurgan individual reveals prehistoric migration in the East Pamir by pastoralists. This study shows that studying an ancient mitochondrial genome is a useful approach for studying the evolutionary process and population history of Eastern Pamir.

  17. Paleoepidemiolgical patterns of trauma in a prehistoric population from central California.

    PubMed

    Jurmain, R

    2001-05-01

    Skeletal trauma was investigated in a large collection of human remains from central California (N = 162 aged and sexed adults). Lesions investigated included cranial and long bone fractures, projectile wounds, and dislocation. Long bone fractures were found in 10.5% of individuals; overall, incidence by element was 2.3%. In addition, cranial injuries were found in 4.4% of complete adult crania. Projectile wounds were seen unambiguously in four individuals (with embedded obsidian fragments) and strongly suggested in two other individuals with partially healed lesions. Finally, one case of traumatic hip dislocation was also observed. In both incidence and patterning of injuries, this population is similar to other archeological groups from California. This evidence further supports earlier reports indicating that interpersonal aggression was quite common in prehistoric California.

  18. Determining the magnitude, frequency and source of prehistoric events - Is there a Holy Grail?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, James; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Chague-Goff, Catherine; Strotz, Luke; Anning, David; Bird, Deanne; Calgaro, Emma; Courtney, Claire

    2010-05-01

    Over the last five years there has been a growing body of literature on efforts to try and identify evidence for prehistoric precursors of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Similar work is also being carried out in many parts of the World and evidence for palaeotsunamis is slowly emerging - this is commendable. In some cases extensive databases for individual events have been, and continue to be, assembled. The Storegga Slide off Norway is probably the most comprehensive dataset collated for a single event and provides an excellent example of how the source and magnitude of a prehistoric tsunami can be assessed. As an increasing amount of information is gathered a growing number of palaeotsunamis are being recognised as "hybrids" - events that are historic in one country and prehistoric in another. The 1700AD Cascadia event is probably the most well-known of these, although the 1575AD Chilean tsunami is another one of increasing importance. Hybrid tsunamis help us to better understand the nature and extent of palaeotsunamis in regions with short historical records - Pacific Island nations are an excellent example. Globally, we are recognising that the study of contemporary tsunamis is a multi-disciplinary field. Not surprisingly, the same applies to palaeotsunamis. The collation and interpretation of data for these prehistoric events however, is fraught with difficulties and currently nearly every palaeotsunami database that has been developed consists almost entirely of geological data. In an increasingly multidisciplinary field this is severely limiting. We provide three examples from the New Zealand palaeotsunami database - one includes a range of multidisciplinary data for a local event, another is a distantly sourced hybrid, and the final one looks at regional source identification using multiple contemporaneous deposits. This is quite a remarkable dataset, but it throws up some interesting issues. To be able to effectively identify regional and distant

  19. Ancient jades map 3,000 years of prehistoric exchange in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Hsiao-Chun; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Bellwood, Peter; Nguyen, Kim Dung; Bellina, Bérénice; Silapanth, Praon; Dizon, Eusebio; Santiago, Rey; Datan, Ipoi; Manton, Jonathan H.

    2007-01-01

    We have used electron probe microanalysis to examine Southeast Asian nephrite (jade) artifacts, many archeologically excavated, dating from 3000 B.C. through the first millennium A.D. The research has revealed the existence of one of the most extensive sea-based trade networks of a single geological material in the prehistoric world. Green nephrite from a source in eastern Taiwan was used to make two very specific forms of ear pendant that were distributed, between 500 B.C. and 500 A.D., through the Philippines, East Malaysia, southern Vietnam, and peninsular Thailand, forming a 3,000-km-diameter halo around the southern and eastern coastlines of the South China Sea. Other Taiwan nephrite artifacts, especially beads and bracelets, were distributed earlier during Neolithic times throughout Taiwan and from Taiwan into the Philippines. PMID:18048347

  20. Stone tools from the ancient Tongan state reveal prehistoric interaction centers in the Central Pacific.

    PubMed

    Clark, Geoffrey R; Reepmeyer, Christian; Melekiola, Nivaleti; Woodhead, Jon; Dickinson, William R; Martinsson-Wallin, Helene

    2014-07-22

    Tonga was unique in the prehistoric Pacific for developing a maritime state that integrated the archipelago under a centralized authority and for undertaking long-distance economic and political exchanges in the second millennium A.D. To establish the extent of Tonga's maritime polity, we geochemically analyzed stone tools excavated from the central places of the ruling paramounts, particularly lithic artifacts associated with stone-faced chiefly tombs. The lithic networks of the Tongan state focused on Samoa and Fiji, with one adze sourced to the Society Islands 2,500 km from Tongatapu. To test the hypothesis that nonlocal lithics were especially valued by Tongan elites and were an important source of political capital, we analyzed prestate lithics from Tongatapu and stone artifacts from Samoa. In the Tongan state, 66% of worked stone tools were long-distance imports, indicating that interarchipelago connections intensified with the development of the Tongan polity after A.D. 1200. In contrast, stone tools found in Samoa were from local sources, including tools associated with a monumental structure contemporary with the Tongan state. Network analysis of lithics entering the Tongan state and of the distribution of Samoan adzes in the Pacific identified a centralized polity and the products of specialized lithic workshops, respectively. These results indicate that a significant consequence of social complexity was the establishment of new types of specialized sites in distant geographic areas. Specialized sites were loci of long-distance interaction and formed important centers for the transmission of information, people, and materials in prehistoric Oceania.

  1. Evidence for prehistoric origins of Egyptian mummification in late Neolithic burials.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jana; Higham, Thomas F G; Oldfield, Ron; O'Connor, Terry P; Buckley, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Traditional theories on ancient Egyptian mummification postulate that in the prehistoric period (i.e. the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, 5th and 4th millennia B.C.) bodies were naturally desiccated through the action of the hot, dry desert sand. Although molding of the body with resin-impregnated linen is believed to be an early Pharaonic forerunner to more complex processes, scientific evidence for the early use of resins in artificial mummification has until now been limited to isolated occurrences during the late Old Kingdom (c. 2200 B.C.), their use becoming more apparent during the Middle Kingdom (c. 2000-1600 BC). We examined linen wrappings from bodies in securely provenanced tombs (pit graves) in the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian cemeteries at Mostagedda in the Badari region (Upper Egypt). Our investigations of these prehistoric funerary wrappings using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thermal desorption/pyrolysis (TD/Py)-GC-MS have identified a pine resin, an aromatic plant extract, a plant gum/sugar, a natural petroleum source, and a plant oil/animal fat in directly AMS-dated funerary wrappings. Predating the earliest scientific evidence by more than a millennium, these embalming agents constitute complex, processed recipes of the same natural products, in similar proportions, as those utilized at the zenith of Pharaonic mummification some 3,000 years later. The antibacterial properties of some of these ingredients and the localized soft-tissue preservation that they would have afforded lead us to conclude that these represent the very beginnings of experimentation that would evolve into the famous mummification practice of the Pharaonic period.

  2. Evidence for Prehistoric Origins of Egyptian Mummification in Late Neolithic Burials

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jana; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Oldfield, Ron; O'Connor, Terry P.; Buckley, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional theories on ancient Egyptian mummification postulate that in the prehistoric period (i.e. the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, 5th and 4th millennia B.C.) bodies were naturally desiccated through the action of the hot, dry desert sand. Although molding of the body with resin-impregnated linen is believed to be an early Pharaonic forerunner to more complex processes, scientific evidence for the early use of resins in artificial mummification has until now been limited to isolated occurrences during the late Old Kingdom (c. 2200 B.C.), their use becoming more apparent during the Middle Kingdom (c. 2000-1600 BC). We examined linen wrappings from bodies in securely provenanced tombs (pit graves) in the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian cemeteries at Mostagedda in the Badari region (Upper Egypt). Our investigations of these prehistoric funerary wrappings using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thermal desorption/pyrolysis (TD/Py)-GC-MS have identified a pine resin, an aromatic plant extract, a plant gum/sugar, a natural petroleum source, and a plant oil/animal fat in directly AMS-dated funerary wrappings. Predating the earliest scientific evidence by more than a millennium, these embalming agents constitute complex, processed recipes of the same natural products, in similar proportions, as those utilized at the zenith of Pharaonic mummification some 3,000 years later. The antibacterial properties of some of these ingredients and the localized soft-tissue preservation that they would have afforded lead us to conclude that these represent the very beginnings of experimentation that would evolve into the famous mummification practice of the Pharaonic period. PMID:25118605

  3. Stone tools from the ancient Tongan state reveal prehistoric interaction centers in the Central Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Geoffrey R.; Reepmeyer, Christian; Melekiola, Nivaleti; Woodhead, Jon; Dickinson, William R.; Martinsson-Wallin, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Tonga was unique in the prehistoric Pacific for developing a maritime state that integrated the archipelago under a centralized authority and for undertaking long-distance economic and political exchanges in the second millennium A.D. To establish the extent of Tonga’s maritime polity, we geochemically analyzed stone tools excavated from the central places of the ruling paramounts, particularly lithic artifacts associated with stone-faced chiefly tombs. The lithic networks of the Tongan state focused on Samoa and Fiji, with one adze sourced to the Society Islands 2,500 km from Tongatapu. To test the hypothesis that nonlocal lithics were especially valued by Tongan elites and were an important source of political capital, we analyzed prestate lithics from Tongatapu and stone artifacts from Samoa. In the Tongan state, 66% of worked stone tools were long-distance imports, indicating that interarchipelago connections intensified with the development of the Tongan polity after A.D. 1200. In contrast, stone tools found in Samoa were from local sources, including tools associated with a monumental structure contemporary with the Tongan state. Network analysis of lithics entering the Tongan state and of the distribution of Samoan adzes in the Pacific identified a centralized polity and the products of specialized lithic workshops, respectively. These results indicate that a significant consequence of social complexity was the establishment of new types of specialized sites in distant geographic areas. Specialized sites were loci of long-distance interaction and formed important centers for the transmission of information, people, and materials in prehistoric Oceania. PMID:25002481

  4. Stone tools from the ancient Tongan state reveal prehistoric interaction centers in the Central Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Geoffrey R.; Reepmeyer, Christian; Melekiola, Nivaleti; Woodhead, Jon; Dickinson, William R.; Martinsson-Wallin, Helene

    2014-07-01

    Tonga was unique in the prehistoric Pacific for developing a maritime state that integrated the archipelago under a centralized authority and for undertaking long-distance economic and political exchanges in the second millennium A.D. To establish the extent of Tonga's maritime polity, we geochemically analyzed stone tools excavated from the central places of the ruling paramounts, particularly lithic artifacts associated with stone-faced chiefly tombs. The lithic networks of the Tongan state focused on Samoa and Fiji, with one adze sourced to the Society Islands 2,500 km from Tongatapu. To test the hypothesis that nonlocal lithics were especially valued by Tongan elites and were an important source of political capital, we analyzed prestate lithics from Tongatapu and stone artifacts from Samoa. In the Tongan state, 66% of worked stone tools were long-distance imports, indicating that interarchipelago connections intensified with the development of the Tongan polity after A.D. 1200. In contrast, stone tools found in Samoa were from local sources, including tools associated with a monumental structure contemporary with the Tongan state. Network analysis of lithics entering the Tongan state and of the distribution of Samoan adzes in the Pacific identified a centralized polity and the products of specialized lithic workshops, respectively. These results indicate that a significant consequence of social complexity was the establishment of new types of specialized sites in distant geographic areas. Specialized sites were loci of long-distance interaction and formed important centers for the transmission of information, people, and materials in prehistoric Oceania.

  5. Mobile Learning Using Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicente, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The participation in mobile learning programs is conditioned by having/using mobile communication technology. Those who do not have or use such technology cannot participate in mobile learning programs. This study evaluates who are the most likely participants of mobile learning programs by examining the demographic profile and mobile phone usage…

  6. Human induced prehistoric and historical soil erosion and landscape development in Southwestern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotterweich, Markus; Ivester, Andrew H.; Hanson, Paul R.; Daniel, Larsen; Dye, David H.; Foster, Thomas H., II

    2015-04-01

    The significance of soil erosion due to pre-historic land use and possible feedback mechanisms had been hardly recognized in the Southeastern USA. Here, the agricultural practices only began in the second half of the Holocene. Sedentary hunters and gatherers started to domesticate squash and sunflowers. Associated with the expansion of maize cultivation in the Mississippian period between AD 800 and 1100, significant forest clearings took place on the river floodplains. During this time, central settlements with up to 30,000 residences existed and the surrounding ridge and furrow fields extended to up to 30 ha. It is still open to question why these groups already declined in the 14/15th centuries already before the arrival of the Europeans. However, around AD 1540 the conquistador de Soto still reports extended fields with intensive cultivation of maize in the uplands of Northern Mississippi. Despite of this intensive land use by Native Americans, current research gives no indication that these activities had any significant impact on river channel form. Also, no clear evidence exists for distinct channel change occurring in response to any sort of middle Holocene Hypsithermal, Medieval warm period, or the Little Ice Age. We will present results of a project which aims to explore erosion forms, colluvial sediments and buried soils in selected 0-order and 1st-order watersheds in the southeastern USA in order to gain, solidify, and evaluate general data on soil erosion during the Native American land use period and its respective long-term effects on the environment. This will be achieved by 1) recording the stratigraphy of colluvial and alluvial sediments and buried soils, 2) mapping the extent of erosional and colluvial forms, 3) analyzing chemical and physical soil and sediment properties, 4) establishing chronological control using various dating techniques including radiocarbon and OSL dating, and 5) quantifying soil erosion using hillslope sediments. The

  7. Multielemental analysis of prehistoric animal teeth by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Galiova, Michaela; Kaiser, Jozef; Fortes, Francisco J.; Novotny, Karel; Malina, Radomir; Prokes, Lubomir; Hrdlicka, Ales; Vaculovic, Tomas; Nyvltova Fisakova, Miriam; Svoboda, Jiri; Kanicky, Viktor; Laserna, Javier J.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation (LA) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS) were utilized for microspatial analyses of a prehistoric bear (Ursus arctos) tooth dentine. The distribution of selected trace elements (Sr, Ba, Fe) was measured on a 26 mmx15 mm large and 3 mm thick transverse cross section of a canine tooth. The Na and Mg content together with the distribution of matrix elements (Ca, P) was also monitored within this area. The depth of the LIBS craters was measured with an optical profilometer. As shown, both LIBS and LA-ICP-MS can be successfully used for the fast, spatially resolved analysis of prehistoric teeth samples. In addition to microchemical analysis, the sample hardness was calculated using LIBS plasma ionic-to-atomic line intensity ratios of Mg (or Ca). To validate the sample hardness calculations, the hardness was also measured with a Vickers microhardness tester.

  8. A simulation model for migrations and dispersals of prehistoric human populations.

    PubMed

    Ohba, T; Masaki, M; Ohtsuka, R

    1990-01-01

    A new simulation model was constructed to estimate demographic processes of prehistoric human populations who migrated and dispersed, particularly to uninhabited habitats. The characteristics of the simulation model are: the minimum component is an individual with sex and age properties; each individual's death is determined in each year by comparing the age-specific probability of dying and a random number; childbirth of each woman of reproductive age in each year is determined by the age-specific probability of childbirth and a random number; sex ratio at birth is fixed at 1.05, and each newborn baby's sex is determined by a random number; people live in settlements; each settlement is located in a cell on a hexagonal-linkage land and the cells temporarily number 64 (8x8); each cell has its own optimal carrying capacity; and the net reproduction rate (NRR) is used for determining the speed of population increase in each cell. The preliminary trial applied the following conditions: 64 cells, carrying capacity of each cell is 160, age-specific probability of dying was based on the life table of prehistoric Maori in New Zealand (infant mortality rate of 157/1000 and life expectancy of 23.49 years). 500-year-interval changes of the total population of all cells increased almost exponentially to the year 2000 from 346 persons at year 500 to 2208 at year 2000. It gradually increased further and peaked at about 10,000 at the year 5000. By year 8000 all the cells were inhabited with a total population of 10,978. The population in the year 2000 was 27.6 times more than in year zero. The intergenerational interval of 25 years yielded a NRR of 1.042. During the period between the year 2000 and the year 4000 the population increased by 3.42 times corresponding to a NRR of 1.015. After the year 5000 population increase declined to almost zero with a NRR of almost 1.00. Preliminary trials have produced satisfactory results.

  9. Organic Fertilization and Sufficient Nutrient Status in Prehistoric Agriculture? – Indications from Multi-Proxy Analyses of Archaeological Topsoil Relicts

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Franziska; Prost, Katharina; Gerlach, Renate; Pätzold, Stefan; Wolf, Mareike; Urmersbach, Sarah; Lehndorff, Eva; Eckmeier, Eileen; Amelung, Wulf

    2014-01-01

    Neolithic and Bronze Age topsoil relicts revealed enhanced extractable phosphorus (P) and plant available inorganic P fractions, thus raising the question whether there was targeted soil amelioration in prehistoric times. This study aimed (i) at assessing the overall nutrient status and the soil organic matter content of these arable topsoil relicts, and (ii) at tracing ancient soil fertilizing practices by respective stable isotope and biomarker analyses. Prehistoric arable topsoils were preserved in archaeological pit fillings, whereas adjacent subsoils served as controls. One Early Weichselian humic zone represented the soil status before the introduction of agriculture. Recent topsoils served as an additional reference. The applied multi-proxy approach comprised total P and micronutrient contents, stable N isotope ratios, amino acid, steroid, and black carbon analyses as well as soil color measurements. Total contents of P and selected micronutrients (I, Cu, Mn, Mo, Se, Zn) of the arable soil relicts were above the limits for which nutrient deficiencies could be assumed. All pit fillings exhibited elevated δ15N values close to those of recent topsoils (δ15N>6 to 7‰), giving first hints for prehistoric organic N-input. Ancient legume cultivation as a potential source for N input could not be verified by means of amino acid analysis. In contrast, bile acids as markers for faecal input exhibited larger concentrations in the pit fillings compared with the reference and control soils indicating faeces (i.e. manure) input to Neolithic arable topsoils. Also black carbon contents were elevated, amounting up to 38% of soil organic carbon, therewith explaining the dark soil color in the pit fillings and pointing to inputs of burned biomass. The combination of different geochemical analyses revealed a sufficient nutrient status of prehistoric arable soils, as well as signs of amelioration (inputs of organic material like charcoal and faeces-containing manure). PMID

  10. Organic fertilization and sufficient nutrient status in prehistoric agriculture?--Indications from multi-proxy analyses of archaeological topsoil relicts.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Franziska; Prost, Katharina; Gerlach, Renate; Pätzold, Stefan; Wolf, Mareike; Urmersbach, Sarah; Lehndorff, Eva; Eckmeier, Eileen; Amelung, Wulf

    2014-01-01

    Neolithic and Bronze Age topsoil relicts revealed enhanced extractable phosphorus (P) and plant available inorganic P fractions, thus raising the question whether there was targeted soil amelioration in prehistoric times. This study aimed (i) at assessing the overall nutrient status and the soil organic matter content of these arable topsoil relicts, and (ii) at tracing ancient soil fertilizing practices by respective stable isotope and biomarker analyses. Prehistoric arable topsoils were preserved in archaeological pit fillings, whereas adjacent subsoils served as controls. One Early Weichselian humic zone represented the soil status before the introduction of agriculture. Recent topsoils served as an additional reference. The applied multi-proxy approach comprised total P and micronutrient contents, stable N isotope ratios, amino acid, steroid, and black carbon analyses as well as soil color measurements. Total contents of P and selected micronutrients (I, Cu, Mn, Mo, Se, Zn) of the arable soil relicts were above the limits for which nutrient deficiencies could be assumed. All pit fillings exhibited elevated δ15N values close to those of recent topsoils (δ15N>6 to 7‰), giving first hints for prehistoric organic N-input. Ancient legume cultivation as a potential source for N input could not be verified by means of amino acid analysis. In contrast, bile acids as markers for faecal input exhibited larger concentrations in the pit fillings compared with the reference and control soils indicating faeces (i.e. manure) input to Neolithic arable topsoils. Also black carbon contents were elevated, amounting up to 38% of soil organic carbon, therewith explaining the dark soil color in the pit fillings and pointing to inputs of burned biomass. The combination of different geochemical analyses revealed a sufficient nutrient status of prehistoric arable soils, as well as signs of amelioration (inputs of organic material like charcoal and faeces-containing manure).

  11. Recognizing and dating prehistoric liquefaction features: Lessons learned in the New Madrid seismic zone, central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, M.P.; Schweig, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    The New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ), which experienced severe liquefaction during the great New Madrid, Missouri, earthquakes of 1811 and 1812 as well as during several prehistoric earthquakes, is a superb laboratory for the study of world-class, arthquake-induced liquefaction features and their use in paleoseismology. In seismically active regions like the NMSZ, frequent large earthquakes can produce a complex record of liquefaction events that is difficult to interpret. Lessons learned studying liquefaction features in the NMSZ may help to unravel the paleoseismic record in other seismically active regions. Soil characteristics of liquefaction features, as well as their structural and sratigraphic relations to Native American occupation horizons and other cultural features, an help to distinguish prehistoric liquefaction features from historic features. In addition, analyses of artifact assemblages and botanical content of cultural horizons can help to narrow the age ranges of liquefaction features. Future research should focus on methods for defining source areas and estimating magnitudes of prehistoric earthquakes from liquefaction features. Also, new methods for dating liquefaction features are needed.

  12. Combining ER and GPR surveys for evidence of prehistoric landscape construction: case study at Mound City, Ohio, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, B. B.; Mandel, R. D.; Tsoflias, G. P.; De Vore, S. L.; Lynott, M.

    2016-06-01

    Mound City, located at the Hopewell Culture National Historical Park in south-central Ohio, USA, is a prehistoric earthwork (200 BC-500 AD) that consists of 24 mounds enclosed in a square embankment wall and is surrounded by eight pits. Recent excavation of two of these pits resulted in the discovery of a clay loam liner that appears to have been placed on the floor of the pits by a prehistoric society known as the Hopewell. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial pattern of this liner in one of the pits using non-invasive geophysical techniques, specifically electrical resistivity and ground-penetrating radar. Minimally invasive soil augers and a test trench yielded information that was used to corroborate interpretations of the geophysical data. The geophysical methods proved to be useful in locating and defining the remnants of the prehistoric clay loam liner, and the results of our investigation indicate that almost 50% of the liner still remains in the pit today. This discovery supports a new interpretation that the Hopewell excavated and preserved the pits at the Mound City site because they served as cultural landscape features.

  13. Some thoughts on the factors that controlled prehistoric maize production in the American Southwest with application to southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; Ramsey, D.K.; Stahle, D.W.; Petersen, K.L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a model of prehistoric southwestern Colorado maize productivity. The model is based on a tree-ring reconstruction of water-year precipitation for Mesa Verde for the period A.D. 480 to 2011. Correlation of historic Mesa Verde precipitation with historic precipitation at 11 other weather stations enabled the construction of an elevation-dependent precipitation function. Prehistoric water-year precipitation values for Mesa Verde together with the elevation-dependent precipitation function allowed construction of the elevation of southwest Colorado precipitation contours for each year since A.D. 480, including the 30-cm contour, which represents the minimum amount of precipitation necessary for the production of maize and the 50-cm contour, which represents the optimum amount of precipitation necessary for the production of maize. In this paper, calculations of prehistoric maize productivity and field life for any specific elevation are also demonstrated. These calculations were performed using organic nitrogen measurements made on seven southwestern Colorado soil groups together with values of reconstructed water-year precipitation and estimations of the organic nitrogen mineralization rate.

  14. Lake sediments record prehistoric lead pollution related to early copper production in North America.

    PubMed

    Pompeani, David P; Abbott, Mark B; Steinman, Byron A; Bain, Daniel J

    2013-06-04

    The mining and use of copper by prehistoric people on Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula is one of the oldest examples of metalworking. We analyzed the concentration of lead, titanium, magnesium, iron, and organic matter in sediment cores recovered from three lakes located near mine pits to investigate the timing, location, and magnitude of ancient copper mining pollution. Lead concentrations were normalized to lithogenic metals and organic matter to account for processes that can influence natural (or background) lead delivery. Nearly simultaneous lead enrichments occurred at Lake Manganese and Copper Falls Lake ∼8000 and 7000 years before present (yr BP), indicating that copper extraction occurred concurrently in at least two locations on the peninsula. The poor temporal coherence among the lead enrichments from ∼6300 to 5000 yr BP at each lake suggests that the focus of copper mining and annealing shifted through time. In sediment younger than ∼5000 yr BP, lead concentrations remain at background levels at all three lakes, excluding historic lead increases starting ∼150 yr BP. Our work demonstrates that lead emissions associated with both the historic and Old Copper Complex tradition are detectable and can be used to determine the temporal and geographic pattern of metal pollution.

  15. Testing a simulation model for reconstruction of prehistoric forest-stand dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, A.M.; Delcourt, H.R.; West, D.C.; Blasing, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    Three characteristics of the output of a forest-stand simulation model were matched to pollen records of actual vegetation in central Tennessee. Temporal shifts of individual pollen taxon frequencies were compared to shifts of individual plant species frequencies in simulated biomass for the last 16,000 y. Individual pollen profiles (temporally ordered species frequencies) were also compared to simulated biomass profiles during that period. Modern ratios of pollen to vegetation composition (R values) were compared with those calculated from simulated biomass percentages and fossil pollen percentages. The model output was similar to the comparable characteristics of the pollen record. The model output is therefore a plausible description of vegetation characteristics at the site of pollen deposition in central Tennessee. The model produced information unavailable from other sets of prehistoric data. This information describes the invasion and growth of the yellow-poplar which produces no windborne pollen, and of palynologically indistinguishable oak and pine species. These results suggest that many paleoecological questions can be answered through appropriate simulation modeling studies.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA from prehistoric canids highlights relationships between dogs and South-East European wolves.

    PubMed

    Verginelli, Fabio; Capelli, Cristian; Coia, Valentina; Musiani, Marco; Falchetti, Mario; Ottini, Laura; Palmirotta, Raffaele; Tagliacozzo, Antonio; De Grossi Mazzorin, Iacopo; Mariani-Costantini, Renato

    2005-12-01

    The question of the origins of the dog has been much debated. The dog is descended from the wolf that at the end of the last glaciation (the archaeologically hypothesized period of dog domestication) was one of the most widespread among Holarctic mammals. Scenarios provided by genetic studies range from multiple dog-founding events to a single origin in East Asia. The earliest fossil dogs, dated approximately 17-12,000 radiocarbon ((14)C) years ago (YA), were found in Europe and in the Middle East. Ancient DNA (a-DNA) evidence could contribute to the identification of dog-founder wolf populations. To gain insight into the relationships between ancient European wolves and dogs we analyzed a 262-bp mitochondrial DNA control region fragment retrieved from five prehistoric Italian canids ranging in age from approximately 15,000 to approximately 3,000 (14)C YA. These canids were compared to a worldwide sample of 547 purebred dogs and 341 wolves. The ancient sequences were highly diverse and joined the three major clades of extant dog sequences. Phylogenetic investigations highlighted relationships between the ancient sequences and geographically widespread extant dog matrilines and between the ancient sequences and extant wolf matrilines of mainly East European origin. The results provide a-DNA support for the involvement of European wolves in the origins of the three major dog clades. Genetic data also suggest multiple independent domestication events. East European wolves may still reflect the genetic variation of ancient dog-founder populations.

  17. Geoarchaeology of a 'drowning' island: geomorphologic formation and prehistoric human habitation of Funafuti Atoll, Tuvalu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Kobayashi, R.

    2012-12-01

    There seem to be a variety to vulnerability of atolls. In fact our archaeological investigations of Majuro in Marshall and Funafuti in Tuvalu revealed diverse duration of human settlement histories. The most reliable charcoal ages for earliest human habitation on Oceanic atolls were obtained from Majuro Atoll, which date back to 1800 - 2000 yr. BP, but radiocarbon ages of charcoal samples retrieved from Funafuti and Vaitupu suggest that Tuvalu were inhabited around ca. 500 yr. BP. It should be helpful to examine geomorphic formation of each atoll islet in considering this temporal difference of human settlement histories. During the mid-Holocene period, the paleoreef had grown up to reach the highstand sea level over the bedrock of Pleistocene limestone. The emergence of the Holocene reef is estimated around 2000 yr. BP in the central Pacific, which is viewed as a trigger of depositional process of atoll islets. There is, however, the possibility that the process was not uniform and sedimentation of foraminiferal sand and coral shingle was affected with more local conditions. Several results of our geoarchaeological excavations in Fongafale, Funafuti Atoll, would be related with this topic. Synthesizing them with the late 18th century's topographic information reported by the Royal Society of London, I then discuss a tentative scenario of geomorphologic formation and prehistoric human settlement of Fongafale. The diversity of human settlement histories could be an indicator of the relative vulnerability of atoll islets.

  18. Ancient mitochondrial lineages support the prehistoric maternal root of Basques in Northern Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Palencia-Madrid, Leire; Cardoso, Sergio; Keyser, Christine; López-Quintana, Juan Carlos; Guenaga-Lizasu, Amagoia; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2017-03-08

    The Basque population inhabits the Franco-Cantabrian region in southwest Europe where Palaeolithic human groups took refuge during the Last Glacial Maximum. Basques have been an isolated population, largely considered as one of the most ancient European populations and it is possible that they maintained some pre-Neolithic genetic characteristics. This work shows the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis of seven ancient human remains from the Cave of Santimamiñe in the Basque Country dated from Mesolithic to the Late Roman period. In addition, we compared these data with those obtained from a modern sample of Basque population, 158 individuals that nowadays inhabits next to the cave. The results support the hypothesis that Iberians might have been less affected by the Neolithic mitochondrial lineages carried from the Near East than populations of Central Europe and revealed the unexpected presence of prehistoric maternal lineages such as U5a2a and U3a in the Basque region. Comparison between ancient and current population samples upholds the hypothesis of continuity of the maternal lineages in the area of the Franco-Cantabrian region.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 8 March 2017; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2017.24.

  19. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of cave deposits at the Xiaogushan prehistoric site, northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Fu; Huang, Wei-Wen; Yuan, Bao-Yin; Fu, Ren-Yi; Zhou, Li-Ping

    2010-11-01

    The Xiaogushan cave site is one of the most important prehistoric sites in North China. The stone and bone artifacts found in the cave are similar to European contemporaneous artifacts. Cave deposits consist of five layers that have been dated from 46,353 ± 1179 to 4229 ± 135 cal. yr BP, using radiocarbon dating techniques on charcoal and bone samples collected from Layers 2-5. In this paper, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) techniques were applied to date six samples taken from Layers 1-3. The luminescence properties of the fine-grained and coarse-grained quartz extracts indicate that the materials are suitable for OSL dating using a single-aliquot regeneration-dose (SAR) protocol. The OSL ages obtained are broadly consistent with the stratigraphy and the associated calibrated radiocarbon ages. The dating results show that the cave was first occupied by humans about 70 ka. The human occupation of the cave may be related to climate change. An occupation hiatus is inferred to between ∼ 17 to ∼ 10 ka. The stone and bone artifacts found in Layers 2 and 3 may indicate the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transitions in the region.

  20. Breast cancer surgery: an historical narrative. Part I. From prehistoric times to Renaissance.

    PubMed

    Sakorafas, George H; Safioleas, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Cancer was known as a disease since prehistoric times. Management of breast cancer evolved slowly through centuries in the ancient world up to the Renaissance. This period is marked by the absence of any scientifically verifiable understanding of the true nature of cancer and its natural history and consequently by a lack of effective treatment. Breast has been considered as a symbol of femininity, fertility and beauty. Hippocrates proposed that breast cancer, among other neoplasms, was a 'systemic disease' caused by an excess of black bile. The humoral theory was further supported by Galen and dominated for centuries in medicine. Fulguration and breast amputation by using various instruments to achieve a rapid operation were widely used up to the 18th century. The Renaissance was a revolutionary period, since it stimulated medical practice; at that time physicians started to scientifically study medicine. Vesalius greatly contributed in the advancement of surgery, and he vigorously opposed Galen's doctrines. Many great surgeons of that time (including Paré, Cabrol, Servetto, Scultetus, Tulp, Fabry von Hilded, etc.) advanced the science of surgery. Interestingly, Bartoleny Gabrol (1590) in Montpellier advocated radical mastectomy, which was popularised by Halsted, 300 years later. However, the lack of anaesthesia and the problem of wound infections (due to the lack of the aseptic techniques) generated significance and often problems for the surgeons of that time. Surgery was often 'heroic' but primitive and even inhumane by current standards. Therapeutic nihilism was the prevailing altitude regarding breast cancer, at least among the vast majority of surgeons.

  1. Using seafaring simulations and shortest-hop trajectories to model the prehistoric colonization of Remote Oceania.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Álvaro; Callaghan, Richard T; Fitzpatrick, Scott M

    2016-10-24

    The prehistoric colonization of islands in Remote Oceania that began ∼3400 B.P. represents what was arguably the most expansive and ambitious maritime dispersal of humans across any of the world's seas or oceans. Though archaeological evidence has provided a relatively clear picture of when many of the major island groups were colonized, there is still considerable debate as to where these settlers originated from and their strategies/trajectories used to reach habitable land that other datasets (genetic, linguistic) are also still trying to resolve. To address these issues, we have harnessed the power of high-resolution climatic and oceanographic datasets in multiple seafaring simulation platforms to examine major pulses of colonization in the region. Our analysis, which takes into consideration currents, land distribution, wind periodicity, the influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, and "shortest-hop" trajectories, demonstrate that (i) seasonal and semiannual climatic changes were highly influential in structuring ancient Pacific voyaging; (ii) western Micronesia was likely settled from somewhere around the Maluku (Molucca) Islands; (iii) Samoa was the most probable staging area for the colonization of East Polynesia; and (iv) although there are major differences in success rates depending on time of year and the occurrence of ENSO events, settlement of Hawai'i and New Zealand is possible from the Marquesas or Society Islands, the same being the case for settlement of Easter Island from Mangareva or the Marquesas.

  2. EDXRF study of Prehistoric artefacts from Quinta do Almaraz (Cacilhas, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. Fátima; de Barros, Luís.; Teixeira, Ana Cristina; de Melo, Ana Ávila

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a non-destructive analytical study by secondary target energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry of selected artefacts found during excavations carried out since 1988, at the archaeological site of "Quinta do Almaraz", Estremadura, West Portugal. The analysed collection was composed by metallic artefacts ( fibulae, fish-hooks, needles, buckle, tweezers, knives, arrowheads), crucibles, slags and metallurgical residues. The chemical composition of the metallic artefacts have made possible to identify different groups belonging to distinct Prehistoric periods, from the Bronze (bronzes) till the Iron (iron-based alloys) Age. Variation in the Sn and Pb percentages in the bronzes pointed out to the existence of three different metallurgical processes, although they did not present different typological characteristics. Semi-quantitative analysis on fragments of crucibles have permitted to identify particular metallurgical operations, namely the preparation of gold alloys and the remains of the silver cupellation process, which was introduced in the Iberian Peninsula by the Phoenician [Early Metal Mining and Production, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, 1995].

  3. Prehistoric land use and Neolithisation in Europe in the context of regional climate events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmen, C.; Wirtz, K. W.; Gronenborn, D.

    2009-04-01

    We present a simple, adaptation-driven, spatially explicit model of pre-Bronze age socio-technological change, called the Global Land Use and Technological Evolution Simulator (GLUES). The socio-technological realm is described by three characteristic traits: available technology, subsistence style ratio, and economic diversity. Human population and culture develop in the context of global paleoclimate and regional paleoclimate events. Global paleoclimate is derived from CLIMBER-2 Earth System Model anomalies superimposed on the IIASA temperature and precipitation database. Regional a forcing is provided by abrupt climate deteriorations from a compilation of 138 long-term high-resolution climate proxy time series from mostly terrestrial and near-shore archives. The GLUES simulator provides for a novel way to explore the interplay between climate, climate change, and cultural evolution both on the Holocene timescale as well as for short-term extreme event periods. We sucessfully simulate the migration of people and the diffusion of Neolithic technology from the Near East into Europe in the period 12000-4000 a BP. We find good agreement with recent archeological compilations of Western Eurasian Neolithic sites. No causal relationship between climate events and cultural evolution could be identified, but the speed of cultural development is found to be modulated by the frequency of climate events. From the demographic evolution and regional ressource consumption, we estimate regional land use change and prehistoric greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. The Evolution of the Age at Menarche from Prehistorical to Modern Times.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Anastasios

    2016-12-01

    Menarche denotes the onset of the female reproductive capacity. The age that menarche occurs is mostly attributed to the interaction of genetics and various environmental factors. Herein, the author describes the evolution of the age at menarche from prehistoric to the present times. Data from skeletal remains suggest that in the Paleolithic woman menarche occurred at an age between 7 and 13 years, early sexual maturation being a trade-off for reduced life expectancy. In the classical, as well as in the medieval years, the age at menarche was generally reported to be at approximately 14 years, with a range from 12 to 15 years. A significant retardation of the age at menarche occurred in the beginning of the modern times, soon after the industrial revolution, due to the deterioration of the living conditions, with most studies reporting menarche to occur at 15-16 years. In the 20th century, especially in the second half of it, in the industrialized countries, the age at menarche decreased significantly, as a result of the improvement of the socioeconomic conditions, occurring at 12-13 years. In the present times, in the developed countries, this trend seems to slow down or level off.

  5. Prehistoric birds from New Ireland, Papua New Guinea: Extinctions on a large Melanesian island

    PubMed Central

    Steadman, David W.; White, J. Peter; Allen, Jim

    1999-01-01

    At least 50 species of birds are represented in 241 bird bones from five late Pleistocene and Holocene archaeological sites on New Ireland (Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea). The bones include only two of seabirds and none of migrant shorebirds or introduced species. Of the 50 species, at least 12 (petrel, hawk, megapode, quail, four rails, cockatoo, two owls, and crow) are not part of the current avifauna and have not been recorded previously from New Ireland. Larger samples of bones undoubtedly would indicate more extirpated species and refine the chronology of extinction. Humans have lived on New Ireland for ca. 35,000 years, whereas most of the identified bones are 15,000 to 6,000 years old. It is suspected that most or all of New Ireland’s avian extinction was anthropogenic, but this suspicion remains undetermined. Our data show that significant prehistoric losses of birds, which are well documented on Pacific islands more remote than New Ireland, occurred also on large, high, mostly forested islands close to New Guinea. PMID:10051683

  6. Chemical Analysis of Pottery Demonstrates Prehistoric Origin for High-Altitude Alpine Dairying.

    PubMed

    Carrer, Francesco; Colonese, André Carlo; Lucquin, Alexandre; Petersen Guedes, Eduardo; Thompson, Anu; Walsh, Kevin; Reitmaier, Thomas; Craig, Oliver E

    2016-01-01

    The European high Alps are internationally renowned for their dairy produce, which are of huge cultural and economic significance to the region. Although the recent history of alpine dairying has been well studied, virtually nothing is known regarding the origins of this practice. This is due to poor preservation of high altitude archaeological sites and the ephemeral nature of transhumance economic practices. Archaeologists have suggested that stone structures that appear around 3,000 years ago are associated with more intense seasonal occupation of the high Alps and perhaps the establishment of new economic strategies. Here, we report on organic residue analysis of small fragments of pottery sherds that are occasionally preserved both at these sites and earlier prehistoric rock-shelters. Based mainly on isotopic criteria, dairy lipids could only be identified on ceramics from the stone structures, which date to the Iron Age (ca. 3,000-2,500 BP), providing the earliest evidence of this practice in the high Alps. Dairy production in such a marginal environment implies a high degree of risk even by today's standards. We postulate that this practice was driven by population increase and climate deterioration that put pressure on lowland agropastoral systems and the establishment of more extensive trade networks, leading to greater demand for highly nutritious and transportable dairy products.

  7. Chemical Analysis of Pottery Demonstrates Prehistoric Origin for High-Altitude Alpine Dairying

    PubMed Central

    Carrer, Francesco; Colonese, André Carlo; Lucquin, Alexandre; Petersen Guedes, Eduardo; Thompson, Anu; Walsh, Kevin; Reitmaier, Thomas; Craig, Oliver E.

    2016-01-01

    The European high Alps are internationally renowned for their dairy produce, which are of huge cultural and economic significance to the region. Although the recent history of alpine dairying has been well studied, virtually nothing is known regarding the origins of this practice. This is due to poor preservation of high altitude archaeological sites and the ephemeral nature of transhumance economic practices. Archaeologists have suggested that stone structures that appear around 3,000 years ago are associated with more intense seasonal occupation of the high Alps and perhaps the establishment of new economic strategies. Here, we report on organic residue analysis of small fragments of pottery sherds that are occasionally preserved both at these sites and earlier prehistoric rock-shelters. Based mainly on isotopic criteria, dairy lipids could only be identified on ceramics from the stone structures, which date to the Iron Age (ca. 3,000–2,500 BP), providing the earliest evidence of this practice in the high Alps. Dairy production in such a marginal environment implies a high degree of risk even by today’s standards. We postulate that this practice was driven by population increase and climate deterioration that put pressure on lowland agropastoral systems and the establishment of more extensive trade networks, leading to greater demand for highly nutritious and transportable dairy products. PMID:27100391

  8. Remote Sensing for Detection of Prehistoric Landscape Use in NW Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, P.; Sabol, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    Optimal maize field locations possibly used by prehistoric agriculturalists in the Mt. Trumbull portion of the Colorado Plateau in NW AZ were modeled using remotely sensed data and ground based observations. Over 400 prehistoric archaeological sites have been recorded in the study area; in some areas site density is ~120 sites/mi2, including many 1-2 room structures traditionally referred to as "field houses" that archaeologists have long assumed were located on or immediately adjacent to maize fields. Other site types are larger C-shaped pueblos with up to 20 rooms and somewhat smaller multi room structures. We collected and used ground-based field measurements and satellite image data from ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) to produce GIS layers to predict ancient maize fields and compare these with known "field house" sites. Input data layers for the model included early spring maximum solar illumination, surface gradient, surface radiant temperature, water surface flow collection, water infiltration, and soil type. We constructed 2 types of optimality models: "restrictive" (or classification) models and "fuzzy logic" (or grouping) models. Highest values were assigned to pixels with more surface water, warmer temperature, better soils, etc. and then assigned a color for display. Analyses of patterns for the "green" restrictive model shows a disproportionate number of large sites found within 200 m of the green optimal zone; for the yellow optimal zone there is a statistically significant relationship between larger sites and the yellow zones at 100 m or less. For the blue fuzzy logic model, again there is a strong relationship between the number of large sites and a blue zone both at 100 m and 200 m distances. So-called "field houses" are not located preferentially close to our optimal areas. Rather, there is a clear preference for larger sites to be found closer to optimal areas. Using the proportion of site types from the

  9. Variable effects of cinder-cone eruptions on prehistoric agrarian human populations in the American southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ort, Michael H.; Elson, Mark D.; Anderson, Kirk C.; Duffield, Wendell A.; Samples, Terry L.

    2008-10-01

    Two ˜ 900 BP cinder-cone eruptions in the American Southwest affected prehistoric human populations in different ways, mostly because of differences in the eruption styles and area affected. Primary pre-eruption cultural factors that may have led to successful adaptation to the eruptions include decision-making at the family or household level, low investment in site structures, dispersion of agricultural sites in varied environments, and settlement spread over a large area so that those who were less affected could shelter and feed evacuees. Sunset Crater, near Flagstaff, Arizona, produced about 8 km 2 lava flow fields and a ˜ 2300-km 2 tephra blanket in an area that had been settled by prehistoric groups for at least 1000 years. Local subsistence relied on agriculture, primarily maize, and > 30 cm tephra cover rendered 265 km 2 of prime land unfarmable. This area was apparently abandoned for at least several generations. A > 500-km 2 area was probably marked by collapsed roofs and other structural damage from the fallout. If the eruption occurred during the agricultural season, the fallout would also have significantly damaged crops. The eruption did have some benefits to local groups because lower elevation land, which had previously been too dry to farm, became agriculturally productive due to 3-8 cm of tephra 'mulch' and some temporary soil nutrient improvements. This previously uninhabited land became the site of significant year-round settlement and farming, eventually containing some of the largest pueblo structures ever built in the region. New agricultural techniques were developed to manage the fallout mulch. The eruption also affected ceramic production and trading patterns, and volcano-related ritual behavior - the production of maize-impressed lava-spatter agglutinate - was initiated. Little Springs Volcano, about 200 km northwest of Sunset Crater, is a small spatter rampart around a series of vents that produced about 5 km 2 of lava flow fields

  10. Building and Applying "Insularity Theory": Review on Knapp's Prehistoric and Protohistoric Cyprus, 2008.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsarou-Tzeveleki, Stella

    Prehistoric and Protohistoric Cyprus by A. Bernard Knapp involves us in a highly creative reading. This is due mainly to the fact that the author engages in a holistic synthesis of Cyprus in the Bronze Age, not by emphasizing the events and descriptions of the material remains, but by concentrating upon the difficult question of the identity of the islanders of this period and the processes by which it was formed. The author's teaching of Mediterranean prehistory at the University of Glasgow fully accounts for his need to produce a comprehensive theoretical work of this kind: the basic questions asked by students give rise to theoretical concerns for any teacher aiming to 'distil' the essential synthesis that forms the starting point for any further detailed archaeological description. This essential answer seems to have troubled Knapp for some time, judging by the long list of his writings seeking to synthesize aspects of Cypriot economy, cult and society; the present book is thus the highly interesting outcome of the mature thinking of an experienced fieldworker as much as a theoretical archaeologist and teacher. What, then, is the essential question that Knapp seeks to answer through this book? His question focuses on the identity of the islanders of Cyprus during the 'most formative periods, from the village based culture to the international, town-centred, even state-level polity' (p. 1), the way in which this identity was formed, and how it is reflected in both any recorded event and the material culture of the island in this specific period. Moreover, he also explores more fully what the distinctive features of island identity in general are, how they are constituted and how they influence the material culture of any island population. In seeking the answers, the author avoids a number of the usual approaches to Cypriot archaeology and turns, instead, to new interpretive directions. The approaches he avoids are the citing of events of Cypriot prehistory, the

  11. A Study on Generic Representation of Skeletal Remains Replication of Prehistoric Burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, C.-W.; Chiu, H.-L.; Chang, S.-K.

    2015-08-01

    Generic representation of skeletal remains from burials consists of three dimensions which include physical anthropologists, replication technicians, and promotional educators. For the reason that archaeological excavation is irreversible and disruptive, detail documentation and replication technologies are surely needed for many purposes. Unearthed bones during the process of 3D digital scanning need to go through reverse procedure, 3D scanning, digital model superimposition, rapid prototyping, mould making, and the integrated errors generated from the presentation of colours and textures are important issues for the presentation of replicate skeleton remains among professional decisions conducted by physical anthropologists, subjective determination of makers, and the expectations of viewers. This study presents several cases and examines current issues on display and replication technologies for human skeletal remains of prehistoric burials. This study documented detail colour changes of human skeleton over time for the reference of reproduction. The tolerance errors of quantification and required technical qualification is acquired according to the precision of 3D scanning, the specification requirement of rapid prototyping machine, and the mould making process should following the professional requirement for physical anthropological study. Additionally, the colorimeter is adopted to record and analyse the "colour change" of the human skeletal remains from wet to dry condition. Then, the "colure change" is used to evaluate the "real" surface texture and colour presentation of human skeletal remains, and to limit the artistic presentation among the human skeletal remains reproduction. The"Lingdao man No.1", is a well preserved burial of early Neolithic period (8300 B.P.) excavated from Liangdao-Daowei site, Matsu, Taiwan , as the replicating object for this study. In this study, we examined the reproduction procedures step by step for ensuring the surface

  12. Modelling prehistoric terrain Models using LiDAR-data: a geomorphological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höfler, Veit; Wessollek, Christine; Karrasch, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    -genetic character and can be called a prehistoric terrain model.

  13. Optimization in differentiable manifolds in order to determine the method of construction of prehistoric wall paintings.

    PubMed

    Arabadjis, Dimitris; Rousopoulos, Panayiotis; Papaodysseus, Constantin; Exarhos, Michalis; Panagopoulos, Michail; Papazoglou-Manioudaki, Lena

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, a general methodology is introduced for the determination of potential prototype curves used for the drawing of prehistoric wall paintings. The approach includes 1) preprocessing of the wall-paintings contours to properly partition them, according to their curvature, 2) choice of prototype curves families, 3) analysis and optimization in 4-manifold for a first estimation of the form of these prototypes, 4) clustering of the contour parts and the prototypes to determine a minimal number of potential guides, and 5) further optimization in 4-manifold, applied to each cluster separately, in order to determine the exact functional form of the potential guides, together with the corresponding drawn contour parts. The methodology introduced simultaneously deals with two problems: 1) the arbitrariness in data-points orientation and 2) the determination of one proper form for a prototype curve that optimally fits the corresponding contour data. Arbitrariness in orientation has been dealt with a novel curvature based error, while the proper forms of curve prototypes have been exhaustively determined by embedding curvature deformations of the prototypes into 4-manifolds. Application of this methodology to celebrated wall paintings excavated at Tyrins, Greece, and the Greek island of Thera manifests that it is highly probable that these wall paintings were drawn by means of geometric guides that correspond to linear spirals and hyperbolae. These geometric forms fit the drawings’ lines with an exceptionally low average error, less than 0.39 mm. Hence, the approach suggests the existence of accurate realizations of complicated geometric entities more than 1,000 years before their axiomatic formulation in the Classical Ages.

  14. Prehistoric versus modern Baltic Sea cod fisheries: selectivity across the millennia

    PubMed Central

    Limburg, Karin E; Walther, Yvonne; Hong, Bongghi; Olson, Carina; Storå, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Combining Stone Age and modern data provides unique insights for management, extending beyond contemporary problems and shifting baselines. Using fish chronometric parts, we compared demographic characteristics of exploited cod populations from the Neolithic Period (4500 BP) to the modern highly exploited fishery in the central Baltic Sea. We found that Neolithic cod were larger (mean 56.4 cm, 95% confidence interval (CI)±0.9) than modern fish (weighted mean length in catch =49.5±0.2 cm in 1995, 48.2±0.2 cm in 2003), and older (mean ages =4.7±0.11, 3.1±0.02 and 3.6±0.02 years for Neolithic, 1995, and 2003 fisheries, respectively). Fishery-independent surveys in 1995 and 2003 show that mean sizes in the stock are 16–17 cm smaller than reflected in the fishery, and mean ages approximately 1–1.5 years younger. Modelled von Bertalanffy growth and back-calculated lengths indicated that Neolithic cod grew to smaller asymptotic lengths, but were larger at younger ages, implying rapid early growth. Very small Neolithic cod were absent and large individuals were rare as in modern times. This could be owing to selective harvests, the absence of small and large fish in the area or a combination. Comparing modern and prehistoric times, fishery selection is evident, but apparently not as great as in the North Atlantic proper. PMID:18755680

  15. Influence of cranial deformation on facial morphology among prehistoric South Central Andean populations.

    PubMed

    Rhode, Matthew P; Arriaza, Bernardo T

    2006-08-01

    Calculating biodistances among South American populations using cranial measurements is often hindered, as many available skeletal collections exhibit deformation. Acknowledging vault modifications, researchers have sought measurements in other regions which are unaffected by deformation. In the 1970s, a set of 10 "relatively" unaffected facial measurements was identified in Argentinean crania that later became the basis of numerous South American biodistance studies. These measurements include: minimum frontal breadth, bizygomatic breadth, orbit height, orbit breadth, palate breath, palate length, upper facial height, basion-prosthion length, nasal height, and nasal breadth. Palate length was excluded from the present analysis due to considerable measurement error. The suitability of these measurements in populations other than Argentineans has not been rigorously tested. Using a sample of 350 prehistoric crania from the Museo Arqueológico San Miguel de Azapa (MASMA, Arica, Chile), this project tested the hypothesis that these measurements are unaffected by either annular or tabular deformation. Results obtained from MANOVA analysis indicate this hypothesis cannot be fully supported. Among males, only 3 of the 9 measurements are unaffected by either form of deformation (palate breadth, basion-prosthion length, and nasal breadth), while analysis of females indicates that 4 of the 9 measurements remain unaltered (minimum frontal breadth, orbit breadth, basion-prosthion length, and nasal breadth). Additionally, analogous to the vault, facial measurements display patterns consistent with the deformation applied. Two implications can be drawn from this research: 1) previous studies using these measurements must be interpreted cautiously, and 2) researchers using these measurements must explicitly test their suitability in each population.

  16. Pre-excavation studies of prehistoric cave sites by magnetic prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itkis., Sonia; Matskevich, Zinovii; Meshveliani, Tengiz

    2014-05-01

    Detailed magnetic survey was performed for caves study in Israel (1995-1996) within the framework of the Beit Shemesh Regional Project (Judean Shephelah). The experience accumulated in Israel we applied later (2010) in two Georgian prehistoric cave sites: Cherula and Kotias-Klde. The magnetic method is based on the contrast in magnetic properties between a target object (e.g., buried archaeological feature) and the host medium (i.e, the surrounding bedrock and soil). The feasibility of the magnetic method for cave revealing was evaluated by magnetic susceptibility (κ) measurements of surrounding soil and rocks, and archaeological features: stones making up the walls, ceramic fragments and cave fill. According to data obtained, the κ of soil within caves (cave fill) is higher than that of surrounding soil. The enhancement of cave fill κ occurs because processes associated with human habitation: repeated heating and accumulation of organic debris. Both these processes provide good conditions for the conversion of the iron oxide found within the soil to a strongly ferromagnetic form (Mullins, 1977; Maher, 1986; Dalan and Banerjee, 1998, Itkis and Eppelbaum, 1999; Itkis, 2003) The presence of highly magnetic ceramics in caves also enhances magnetic contrast between practically non-magnetic bed rock (chalk in Ramat Beit Shemesh Site (Israel) and limestone (Georgian sites) and the cave fill, increasing the potential of the magnetic method to reveal caves (Itkis, 2011). Based on magnetic survey results, an excavation revealed a cave with a large amount of well preserved pottery and finds typical of the Early Bronze Age. Both studied cave sites in Georgia were located in Chiatura region of Imeretia province. Cherula site is a karstic rockshelter with a single chamber, ca 100 sq. m. The site was briefly tested in 1970s'. The area excavated in 2010 went to the depth of 60 cm below the present day surface; the limestone bedrock was not reached. The excavation revealed

  17. Revealing the prehistoric settlement of Australia by Y chromosome and mtDNA analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hudjashov, Georgi; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A.; Endicott, Phillip; Sanchez, Juan J.; Lin, Alice A.; Shen, Peidong; Oefner, Peter; Renfrew, Colin; Villems, Richard; Forster, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Published and new samples of Aboriginal Australians and Melanesians were analyzed for mtDNA (n = 172) and Y variation (n = 522), and the resulting profiles were compared with the branches known so far within the global mtDNA and the Y chromosome tree. (i) All Australian lineages are confirmed to fall within the mitochondrial founder branches M and N and the Y chromosomal founders C and F, which are associated with the exodus of modern humans from Africa ≈50–70,000 years ago. The analysis reveals no evidence for any archaic maternal or paternal lineages in Australians, despite some suggestively robust features in the Australian fossil record, thus weakening the argument for continuity with any earlier Homo erectus populations in Southeast Asia. (ii) The tree of complete mtDNA sequences shows that Aboriginal Australians are most closely related to the autochthonous populations of New Guinea/Melanesia, indicating that prehistoric Australia and New Guinea were occupied initially by one and the same Palaeolithic colonization event ≈50,000 years ago, in agreement with current archaeological evidence. (iii) The deep mtDNA and Y chromosomal branching patterns between Australia and most other populations around the Indian Ocean point to a considerable isolation after the initial arrival. (iv) We detect only minor secondary gene flow into Australia, and this could have taken place before the land bridge between Australia and New Guinea was submerged ≈8,000 years ago, thus calling into question that certain significant developments in later Australian prehistory (the emergence of a backed-blade lithic industry, and the linguistic dichotomy) were externally motivated. PMID:17496137

  18. [Dietary habits and the state of the human oral cavity in the prehistoric age].

    PubMed

    Kee, C D

    1990-06-01

    This is an age-by-age summation of literature on over 100 sites (of more than 250 excavated prehistoric ruins on the Korean Peninsula: about 160 places in South Korea--Paleolithic Age 15, Neolithic Age 21, Bronze Age 90 and Iron Age 35--and about 90 places in North Korea) which produced dietary-habit-related devices such as hunting tools, fishing instruments, farming equipments, tools of daily life, and human bones and teeth. 1) Various dietary-habit-related Old Stone-Age tools, instruments and other items were found. Among them were stone axes, stone hand axes, fish spears and hooks made of bone or horn, stone blades, stone scrapers and stone drills believed to have been used in daily life, and charcoal and sites of furnaces used for cooking. Furthermore, it was found that there were severe dental abrasions and dental caries among the inhabitants of the Korean Peninsula in the Old Stone Age. 2) Some evidences were found which lead us to believe that hunting was practiced with stone arrowheads in the New Stone Age. Stone net sinkers, which is the evidence of the use of fish nets, were also found. In addition, farming stone tools and charred cereals, both of which date back to the latter part of this period, were unearthed. Millstones, which began to be used in this age, and livestock bones were found. Where these items were discovered, 23 maxillae and mandibles with teeth and a total of 231 separate teeth of Neolithic period human beings were reported. However, there are no records indicating dental caries, but some records describe severe abrasion.

  19. Heterogeneity of Taiwan's indigenous population: possible relation to prehistoric Mongoloid dispersals.

    PubMed

    Lin, M; Chu, C C; Lee, H L; Chang, S L; Ohashi, J; Tokunaga, K; Akaza, T; Juji, T

    2000-01-01

    Taiwan's 9 indigenous tribes (Tsou, Bunun, Paiwan, Rukai, Atayal, Saisiat, Ami, Puyuma, Yami) are highly homogeneous within each tribe, but diversified among the different tribes due to long-term isolation, most probably since Taiwan became an island about 12,000 years ago. Homogeneity of each tribe is evidenced by many HLA-A,B,C alleles having the world's highest ever reported frequencies, e.g. A24 (86.3%), A26 (18.8%), Cw10 (36.8%), Cw7 (66%), Cw8 (32.1%), B13 (27.9%), B62 (37.4%), B75 (18%), B39 (53.5%), B60 (33.3%), and B48 (24%). Also, all of these tribes have HLA class I haplotype frequencies greater than 10%, with A24-Cw7-B39 in Saisiat (44.5%) being the highest, suggesting Taiwan's indigenous tribes are probably the most homogeneous ( the "purest") population in the world. A24-Cw8-B48, A24-Cw10-B60 and A24-Cw9-B61 found common to many Taiwan indigenous tribes, have also been observed in Maori, Papua New Guinea Highlanders, Orochons, Mongolians, Inuit, Japanese, Man, Buryat, Yakut, Tlingit, Tibetans and Thais. These findings suggest Taiwan's indigenous groups are more or less genetically related to both northern and southern Asians. Principal component analysis and the phylogenetic tree (using the neighbor-joining method) showed close relationship between the indigenous groups and Oceanians. This relationship supports the hypothesis that Taiwan was probably on the route of prehistoric Mongoloid dispersals that most likely took place along the coastal lowland of the Asian continent (which is under the sea today). Cultural anthropology also suggests a relationship between Taiwan's indigenous tribes and southern Asians and to a lesser extent, northern Asians. However, the indigenous groups show little genetic relationship to current southern and northern Han Chinese.

  20. Bone trace element pattern in an 18th century population sample of Tenerife (Canary Islands): comparison with a prehistoric one.

    PubMed

    Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M; Gonzalez-Reimers, E; Velasco-Vazquez, J; Barros-Lopez, N; Galindo-Martin, L

    1998-10-01

    We have determined bone strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), calcium (Ca), and zinc (Zn) content in 24 samples belonging to adult individuals who died toward the end of the 18th century and were interred in a church's floor on the island of Tenerife, comparing the results with those obtained in 14 prehistoric samples of the same island and also with those of 7 modern controls. No differences were observed between the two ancient groups, which showed higher bone strontium and barium than the modern sample, and a slightly lower Ba/Sr ratio, thus pointing to consumption of marine sources.

  1. The occurrence of lead in Antarctic recent snow, firn deposited over the last two centuries and prehistoric ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutron, Claude F.; Patterson, Clair C.

    1983-08-01

    Concentrations of lead have been measured by ultraclean Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry in snow cores covering the last two centuries collected at an inland site in East Antarctica using an ultra clean all plastic hand operated auger and in a prehistoric blue ice block collected at an Antarctic coastal site. Lead contamination of 16 to 200 pg Pb/g existed on the outside of the snow cores, but the measured concentrations decreased more or less abruptly along a radius from the outside to the centers of the snow cores, establishing interior values in the 1 to 5 pg Pb/g range. Some of these interior values are however possibly still slightly affected by lead contamination which could have intruded to the center of the cores because of slight melting of some of the snow cores before laboratory analysis. The interior of the blue ice block appears not to have been significantly contaminated, and contains about 1.7 pg Pb/g. These new data show that most previously published data on lead in Antarctic snow and ice were in high positive error because of contamination during field sampling, laboratory analysis or both. They show that lead concentrations could not have increased in Antarctic snows or ice from prehistoric times to present more than 2 to 3 fold, confirming that the remote polar areas of the Southern Hemisphere are still little affected by industrial lead pollution. Prehistoric Antarctic ice is shown to contain about 1 pg Pb/g natural excess lead above silicate dust lead; this excess cannot be entirely accounted for by volcanoes or sea spray, which suggests the possible existence of some other unknown natural source of prehistoric excess lead. Present day mean eolian fallout flux of lead in Antarctica is estimated to be about 0.07 ng Pb cm -2 yr -1, which stands in about the same proportion to that in the South Pacific Westerlies (about 1:30) as the flux in Greenland is observed to stand to those in the North Pacific and North Atlantic Westerlies.

  2. Violence in the prehistoric period of Japan: the spatio-temporal pattern of skeletal evidence for violence in the Jomon period

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Hisashi; Tamura, Kohei; Arimatsu, Yui; Nakagawa, Tomomi; Matsumoto, Naoko; Matsugi, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Whether man is predisposed to lethal violence, ranging from homicide to warfare, and how that may have impacted human evolution, are among the most controversial topics of debate on human evolution. Although recent studies on the evolution of warfare have been based on various archaeological and ethnographic data, they have reported mixed results: it is unclear whether or not warfare among prehistoric hunter–gatherers was common enough to be a component of human nature and a selective pressure for the evolution of human behaviour. This paper reports the mortality attributable to violence, and the spatio-temporal pattern of violence thus shown among ancient hunter–gatherers using skeletal evidence in prehistoric Japan (the Jomon period: 13 000 cal BC–800 cal BC). Our results suggest that the mortality due to violence was low and spatio-temporally highly restricted in the Jomon period, which implies that violence including warfare in prehistoric Japan was not common. PMID:27029838

  3. Evidence for surface rupture in 1868 on the Hayward fault in north Oakland and major rupturing in prehistoric earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lienkaemper, J.J.; Williams, P.L.

    1999-01-01

    WGCEP90 estimated the Hayward fault to have a high probability (0.45 in 30 yr) of producing a future M7 Bay Area earthquake. This was based on a generic recurrence time and an unverified segmentation model, because there were few direct observations for the southern fault and none for the northern Hayward fault. To better constrain recurrence and segmentation of the northern Hayward fault, we trenched in north Oakland. Unexpectedly, we observed evidence of surface rupture probably from the M7 1868 earthquake. This extends the limit of that surface rupture 13 km north of the segmentation boundary used in the WGCEP90 model and forces serious re-evaluation of the current two-segment paradigm. Although we found that major prehistoric ruptures have occurred here, we could not radiocarbon date them. However, the last major prehistoric event appears correlative with a recently recognized event 13 km to the north dated AD 1640-1776. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Berber genealogy and the politics of prehistoric archaeology and craniology in French Algeria (1860s-1880s).

    PubMed

    Effros, Bonnie

    2017-03-01

    Following the conquest of Algiers and its surrounding territory by the French army in 1830, officers noted an abundance of standing stones in this region of North Africa. Although they attracted considerably less attention among their cohort than more familiar Roman monuments such as triumphal arches and bridges, these prehistoric remains were similar to formations found in Brittany and other parts of France. The first effort to document these remains occurred in 1863, when Laurent-Charles Féraud, a French army interpreter, recorded thousands of dolmens and stone formations south-west of Constantine. Alleging that these constructions were Gallic, Féraud hypothesized the close affinity of the French, who claimed descent from the ancient Gauls, with the early inhabitants of North Africa. After Féraud's claims met with scepticism among many prehistorians, French scholars argued that these remains were constructed by the ancestors of the Berbers (Kabyles in contemporary parlance), whom they hypothesized had been dominated by a blond race of European origin. Using craniometric statistics of human remains found in the vicinity of the standing stones to propose a genealogy of the Kabyles, French administrators in Algeria thereafter suggested that their mixed origins allowed them to adapt more easily than the Arab population to French colonial governance. This case study at the intersection of prehistoric archaeology, ancient history and craniology exposes how genealogical (and racial) classification made signal contributions to French colonial ideology and policy between the 1860s and 1880s.

  5. Prehistoric Agricultural Communities in West Central Alabama. Volume 1. Excavations in the Lubbub Creek Archaeological Locality.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    It. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Heritage, Conservation & Recreation Service 1983 Interagency Archeological Services -- Atlanta...Conservation, and Recreation Service, Interagency Archeological Services -- Atlanta, with funds supplied by the U.S. Arwy Corps of Engineers, Mobile...Protohistoric features in Hectare 400N/-300E ............. . 350 22. Skull Cap Cache (USN 6310) .......... .................... 351 23. Skull Cap Cache (USN 6310

  6. Evidence of four prehistoric supernovae <250 pc from Earth during the past 50,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of the radiocarbon record for the past 50 ka indicates that four supernovae exploded near Earth 44 ka (~110 pc), 37 ka (~180 pc), 32 ka (~160 pc), and 22 ka (250 pc) ago. Each SN left a unique signature in the radiocarbon record consisting of a sudden increase in atmospheric radiocarbon at the time of the initial explosion due to the arrival of γ-rays and neutrinos, followed by a much larger increase in global radiocarbon spanning centuries due to cosmic rays produced by diffusive shock in the SN remnant, and concluding with the decay of the excess global 14C produced in these events. Temporal evolution of this signature is identical for each SN as if it were a “standard candle”. The ~22 ka SN is most likely the Vela SN that is known to have exploded 10-30 ka ago 250 pc from Earth. The distances of the other SNe are calculated from the relative amounts of radiocarbon produced on Earth with respect to the Vela SN assuming a 1/r2 relationship. The rate of these nearby prehistoric SNe is comparable to that expected from the more distant historical SNe observed during the past 1000 years and it is consistent with the galactic cosmic ray rate at Earth. Global radiocarbon doubled after the ~44 ka SN which exploded 110 pc from Earth, a distance consistent with the Upper Scorpius OB Association. It coincides with the advent of modern man, mutations leading to the development of type A and B blood, and major megafaunal extinctions in Southeast Asia. An exponential fit to the past 18 ka of INTCAL04 Δ14C data gives a half-life of 5700±700 yr, consistent with the half-life of 14C (5730 yr), and establishes an absolute scale of Δ14C=5±2% for T=0 in 1950. Small variations about the exponential decay curve correlate with observed changes in the strength of Earth’s virtual axial dipole moment (VADM). Analysis of the energy necessary to produce the excess global radiocarbon indicates that these SNe explosions released ~3x1050 ergs of energy into the production

  7. Biodeterioration agents: Bacterial and fungal diversity dwelling in or on the pre-historic rock-paints of Kabra-pahad, India

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Jayant; Sharma, Kavita; Harris, K.K.; Rajput, Yogita

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives In the last few decades, losses of our cultural heritage due to biodeteriorationare beinghighly recognized. From museum objects to rock monuments, the microbial biodeterioration agents are found to be the most destructive. Possibilities for proper preservative measure(s) are always more when it is only a monument, statue, museum article, or pre-historic art in any small subterranean cave. Nevertheless, preservation/protection of the footprints occupying a big area, lying scattered in a very negligible manner requires safeguard against several deterioration factors; right from various physical, chemical and biological agents which are indeed interrelated to each other. Materials and Methods In the present study, some microbial communities possibly responsible for deteriorating the rocks of Kabra-pahad, where the most famous pre-historic rock paints of India prevail have been identified. The diversity of fungi and bacteria present in the stone crust of the infected areas has been studied by employing standard laboratory methods. Results The cultivated cultures confirmed total fifteen fungal species, among which Aspergillus group were the most dominant. Among bacteria, total 80 numbers of colonies were observed that dominated by two major groups; Micrococcus.spp and Staphylococcus spp. Conclusion The pre-historic footprint in the form of rock paints in Kabra-pahad of district Raigarh, Chhattisgarh, India is lying in a very deteriorated manner. In the present study, we have tried to identify few major deteriorating factors that are responsible for such degradation of our existing pre-historic footprints. PMID:24475341

  8. A prehistoric lahar-dammed lake and eruption of Mount Pinatubo described in a Philippine aborigine legend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodolfo, Kelvin S.; Umbal, Jesse V.

    2008-10-01

    The prehistoric eruptions of Mount Pinatubo have followed a cycle: centuries of repose terminated by a caldera-forming eruption with large pyroclastic flows; a post-eruption aftermath of rain-triggered lahars in surrounding drainages and dome-building that fills the caldera; and then another long quiescent period. During and after the eruptions lahars descending along volcano channels may block tributaries from watersheds beyond Pinatubo, generating natural lakes. Since the 1991 eruption, the Mapanuepe River valley in the southwestern sector of the volcano has been the site of a large lahar-dammed lake. Geologic evidence indicates that similar lakes have occupied this site at least twice before. An Ayta legend collected decades before Mount Pinatubo was recognized as a volcano describes what is probably the younger of these lakes, and the caldera-forming eruption that destroyed it.

  9. mtDNA analysis of a prehistoric Oneota population: implications for the peopling of the New World.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, A C; Stoneking, M

    1998-01-01

    mtDNA was successfully extracted from 108 individuals from the Norris Farms Oneota, a prehistoric Native American population, to compare the mtDNA diversity from a pre-Columbian population with contemporary Native American and Asian mtDNA lineages and to examine hypotheses about the peopling of the New World. Haplogroup and hypervariable region I sequence data indicate that the lineages from haplogroups A, B, C, and D are the most common among Native Americans but that they were not the only lineages brought into the New World from Asia. The mtDNA evidence does not support the three-wave hypothesis of migration into the New World but rather suggests a single "wave" of people with considerable mtDNA diversity that exhibits a signature of expansion 23,000-37,000 years ago. PMID:9545408

  10. Earthquake catalog for estimation of maximum earthquake magnitude, Central and Eastern United States: Part A, Prehistoric earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Computation of probabilistic earthquake hazard requires an estimate of Mmax, the maximum earthquake magnitude thought to be possible within a specified geographic region. This report is Part A of an Open-File Report that describes the construction of a global catalog of moderate to large earthquakes, from which one can estimate Mmax for most of the Central and Eastern United States and adjacent Canada. The catalog and Mmax estimates derived from it were used in the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey national seismic-hazard maps. This Part A discusses prehistoric earthquakes that occurred in eastern North America, northwestern Europe, and Australia, whereas a separate Part B deals with historical events.

  11. Isotope sourcing of prehistoric willow and tule textiles recovered from western Great Basin rock shelters and caves - proof of concept

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; Hattori, E.M.; Taylor, H.E.; Poulson, S.R.; Jolie, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    Isotope and trace-metal analyses were used to determine the origin of plants used to manufacture prehistoric textiles (basketry and matting) from archaeological sites in the western Great Basin. Research focused on strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and oxygen (18O/16O) isotope ratios of willow (Salix sp.) and tule (Schoenoplectus sp.), the dominant raw materials in Great Basin textiles. The oxygen-isotope data indicated that the willow and tule used to produce the textiles were harvested from the banks of rivers or in marshes characterized by flowing water and not from lakes or sinks. The strontium-isotope data were useful in showing which plants came from the Humboldt River and which came from rivers headed in the Sierra Nevada.

  12. Technical synthesis of prehistoric archaeological investigations on the Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Sassaman, K.E.; Brooks, M.J.; Hanson, G.T.; Anderson, D.G.

    1989-12-01

    Archaeological investigations on the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) in south Carolina span 16 years and continue today through a cooperative agreement between DOE and the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology (SCIAA), University of South Carolina. The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) of SCIAA has been and continues to be the sole archaeological consultant for DOE-SRS. This report documents technical aspects of all prehistoric archaeological research conducted by the SRARP between 1973 and 1987. Further, this report provides interpretative contexts for archaeological resources as a basis for an archaeological resource plan reported elsewhere (SRARP 1989), and as a comprehensive statement of our current understanding of Native American prehistory and history.

  13. Study of a prehistoric landslide using seismic reflection methods integrated with geological data in the Wasatch Mountains, Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tingey, B.E.; McBride, J.H.; Thompson, T.J.; Stephenson, W.J.; South, J.V.; Bushman, M.

    2007-01-01

    An integration of geological and geophysical techniques characterizes the internal and basal structure of a landslide along the western margin of the Wasatch Mountains in northern Utah, USA. The study area is within a region of planned and continuing residential development. The Little Valley Landslide is a prehistoric landslide as old as 13??ka B.P. Drilling and trenching at the site indicate that the landslide consists of chaotic and disturbed weathered volcanic material derived from Tertiary age volcanic rocks that comprise a great portion of the Wasatch Range. Five short high-resolution common mid-point seismic reflection profiles over selected portions of the site examine the feasibility of using seismic reflection to study prehistoric landslides in the Wasatch Mountain region. Due to the expected complexity of the near-surface geology, we have pursued an experimental approach in the data processing, examining the effects of muting first arrivals, frequency filtering, model-based static corrections, and seismic migration. The results provide a framework for understanding the overall configuration of the landslide, its basal (failure) surface, and the structure immediately underlying this surface. A glide surface or de??collement is interpreted to underlie the landslide suggesting a large mass movement. The interpretation of a glide surface is based on the onset of coherent reflectivity, calibrated by information from a borehole located along one of the seismic profiles. The glide surface is deepest in the center portion of the landslide and shallows up slope, suggesting a trough-like feature. This study shows that seismic reflection techniques can be successfully used in complex alpine landslide regions to (1) provide a framework in which to link geological data and (2) reduce the need for an extensive trenching and drilling program. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mitochondrial genome diversity at the Bering Strait area highlights prehistoric human migrations from Siberia to northern North America.

    PubMed

    Dryomov, Stanislav V; Nazhmidenova, Azhar M; Shalaurova, Sophia A; Morozov, Igor V; Tabarev, Andrei V; Starikovskaya, Elena B; Sukernik, Rem I

    2015-10-01

    The patterns of prehistoric migrations across the Bering Land Bridge are far from being completely understood: there still exists a significant gap in our knowledge of the population history of former Beringia. Here, through comprehensive survey of mitochondrial DNA genomes retained in 'relic' populations, the Maritime Chukchi, Siberian Eskimos, and Commander Aleuts, we explore genetic contribution of prehistoric Siberians/Asians to northwestern Native Americans. Overall, 201 complete mitochondrial sequences (52 new and 149 published) were selected in the reconstruction of trees encompassing mtDNA lineages that are restricted to Coastal Chukotka and Alaska, the Canadian Arctic, Greenland, and the Aleutian chain. Phylogeography of the resulting mtDNA genomes (mitogenomes) considerably extends the range and intrinsic diversity of haplogroups (eg, A2a, A2b, D2a, and D4b1a2a1) that emerged and diversified in postglacial central Beringia, defining independent origins of Neo-Eskimos versus Paleo-Eskimos, Aleuts, and Tlingit (Na-Dene). Specifically, Neo-Eskimos, ancestral to modern Inuit, not only appear to be of the High Arctic origin but also to harbor Altai/Sayan-related ancestry. The occurrence of the haplogroup D2a1b haplotypes in Chukotka (Sireniki) introduces the possibility that the traces of Paleo-Eskimos have not been fully erased by spread of the Neo-Eskimos or their descendants. Our findings are consistent with the recurrent gene flow model of multiple streams of expansions to northern North America from northeastern Eurasia in late Pleistocene-early Holocene.

  15. Mitochondrial genome diversity at the Bering Strait area highlights prehistoric human migrations from Siberia to northern North America

    PubMed Central

    Dryomov, Stanislav V; Nazhmidenova, Azhar M; Shalaurova, Sophia A; Morozov, Igor V; Tabarev, Andrei V; Starikovskaya, Elena B; Sukernik, Rem I

    2015-01-01

    The patterns of prehistoric migrations across the Bering Land Bridge are far from being completely understood: there still exists a significant gap in our knowledge of the population history of former Beringia. Here, through comprehensive survey of mitochondrial DNA genomes retained in ‘relic' populations, the Maritime Chukchi, Siberian Eskimos, and Commander Aleuts, we explore genetic contribution of prehistoric Siberians/Asians to northwestern Native Americans. Overall, 201 complete mitochondrial sequences (52 new and 149 published) were selected in the reconstruction of trees encompassing mtDNA lineages that are restricted to Coastal Chukotka and Alaska, the Canadian Arctic, Greenland, and the Aleutian chain. Phylogeography of the resulting mtDNA genomes (mitogenomes) considerably extends the range and intrinsic diversity of haplogroups (eg, A2a, A2b, D2a, and D4b1a2a1) that emerged and diversified in postglacial central Beringia, defining independent origins of Neo-Eskimos versus Paleo-Eskimos, Aleuts, and Tlingit (Na-Dene). Specifically, Neo-Eskimos, ancestral to modern Inuit, not only appear to be of the High Arctic origin but also to harbor Altai/Sayan-related ancestry. The occurrence of the haplogroup D2a1b haplotypes in Chukotka (Sireniki) introduces the possibility that the traces of Paleo-Eskimos have not been fully erased by spread of the Neo-Eskimos or their descendants. Our findings are consistent with the recurrent gene flow model of multiple streams of expansions to northern North America from northeastern Eurasia in late Pleistocene–early Holocene. PMID:25564040

  16. The geological record of prehistorical tsunami at a coastal area of Beppu Bay in eastern Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, M.; Fujino, S.; Chiba, T.; Shinozaki, T.; Okuwaki, R.; Takeda, D.

    2015-12-01

    Tsunamis are typically generated by plate-boundary ruptures at subduction zones, but also vertical displacement associated with intraplate earthquakes. Historical written records documented that coasts of Beppu Bay, eastern Kyushu, Japan was devastated by a tsunami associated with the AD 1596 Keicho-Bungo earthquake (M7.0). It is considered that the earthquake occurred at submarine active faults in the bay. The aim of this study is to unravel the occurrence age and source of tsunamis that struck the coast of the bay in prehistorical ages. This study may also make a contribution to the understanding of tsunami-generating system at submarine active faults. We conducted a coring survey at paddy fields along the north coast of the bay. The 10 cm thick muddy sand layer with a few granules (hereinafter, sand layer), bounded by sharp contacts, was evident in the 1.7 m long sediment core taken at 700 m from the shoreline. Plant materials obtained from mud above the sand layer was dated to 1880-2000 cal. yr BP. Sharp contacts between sand and surrounding muds imply that the sand layer is formed by a sudden event. Existence of mud clast in the sand layer indicates erosion of surface mud. There were no brackish-marine diatoms in surrounding mud, but they accounted for 5-6% of the total within the sand layer, indicating that the sand grains were sourced at least in part from brackish-marine environment. Mean grain size/sorting of the sand layer and beach sand were 2.31/0.94 and 2.03/0.41 phi. The difference in sorting probably suggests that the sand layer partly contains the onshore sediments eroded in inundation process. Additional coring surveys would clarify the distribution of prehistorical tsunami deposits and source of past tsunamis.

  17. 3D Recording methodology applied to the Grotta Scritta Prehistoric Rock-Shelter in Olmeta-Di-Capocorso (Corsica, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grussenmeyer, P.; Burens, A.; Guillemin, S.; Alby, E.; Allegrini Simonetti, F.; Marchetti, M.-L.

    2015-08-01

    The Grotta Scritta I prehistoric site is located on the west side of Cap Corse, in the territory of the municipality of Olmeta-di- Capocorso (Haute-Corse, France). This rock shelter is located on a western spur of the mountains La Serra, at 412 m height above sea level. In the regional context of a broad set of megalithic burial sites (regions Nebbiu and Agriates) and a rich insular prehistoric rock art with several engraved patterns (mainly geometric), the Grotta Scritta is the only site with painted depictions of Corsica. Around twenty parietal depictions are arranged in the upper part of the rock-shelter and takes advantage of the microtopography of the wall. Today, the Grotta Scritta is a vulnerable site, made fragile by the action of time and man. The 3D scanning of the rockshelter and paintings of the Grotta Scritta was carried out by surveyors and archaeologists from INSA Strasbourg and from UMR 5602 GEODE (Toulouse), by combining accurate terrestrial laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques. These techniques are based on a full 3D documentation without contact of the rock-shelter paintings. The paper presents the data acquisition methodology followed by an overview of data processing solutions based on both imaging and laser scanning. Several deliverables as point clouds, meshed models, textured models and orthoimages are proposed for the documentation. Beyond their usefulness in terms of valorization, communication and virtual restitution, the proposed models also provide support tools for the analysis and perception of the complexity of the volumes of the shelter (namely for the folded forms of the dome housing the paintings) as well as for the accuracy of the painted depictions recorded on the orthophotos processed from the 3D model.

  18. Mobile healthcare.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Stephen A; Agee, Nancy Howell

    2012-01-01

    Mobile technology's presence in healthcare has exploded over the past five years. The increased use of mobile devices by all segments of the US population has driven healthcare systems, providers, and payers to accept this new form of communication and to develop strategies to implement and leverage the use of mobile healthcare (mHealth) within their organizations and practices. As healthcare systems move toward a more value-driven model of care, patient centeredness and engagement are the keys to success. Mobile healthcare will provide the medium to allow patients to participate more in their care. Financially, mHealth brings to providers the ability to improve efficiency and deliver savings to both them and the healthcare consumer. However, mHealth is not without challenges. Healthcare IT departments have been reluctant to embrace this shift in technology without fully addressing security and privacy concerns. Providers have been hesitant to adopt mHealth as a form of communication with patients because it breaks with traditional models. Our healthcare system has just started the journey toward the development of mHealth. We offer an overview of the mobile healthcare environment and our approach to solving the challenges it brings to healthcare organizations.

  19. Earliest evidence for the use of pottery.

    PubMed

    Craig, O E; Saul, H; Lucquin, A; Nishida, Y; Taché, K; Clarke, L; Thompson, A; Altoft, D T; Uchiyama, J; Ajimoto, M; Gibbs, K; Isaksson, S; Heron, C P; Jordan, P

    2013-04-18

    Pottery was a hunter-gatherer innovation that first emerged in East Asia between 20,000 and 12,000 calibrated years before present (cal bp), towards the end of the Late Pleistocene epoch, a period of time when humans were adjusting to changing climates and new environments. Ceramic container technologies were one of a range of late glacial adaptations that were pivotal to structuring subsequent cultural trajectories in different regions of the world, but the reasons for their emergence and widespread uptake are poorly understood. The first ceramic containers must have provided prehistoric hunter-gatherers with attractive new strategies for processing and consuming foodstuffs, but virtually nothing is known of how early pots were used. Here we report the chemical analysis of food residues associated with Late Pleistocene pottery, focusing on one of the best-studied prehistoric ceramic sequences in the world, the Japanese Jōmon. We demonstrate that lipids can be recovered reliably from charred surface deposits adhering to pottery dating from about 15,000 to 11,800 cal bp (the Incipient Jōmon period), the oldest pottery so far investigated, and that in most cases these organic compounds are unequivocally derived from processing freshwater and marine organisms. Stable isotope data support the lipid evidence and suggest that most of the 101 charred deposits analysed, from across the major islands of Japan, were derived from high-trophic-level aquatic food. Productive aquatic ecotones were heavily exploited by late glacial foragers, perhaps providing an initial impetus for investment in ceramic container technology, and paving the way for further intensification of pottery use by hunter-gatherers in the early Holocene epoch. Now that we have shown that it is possible to analyse organic residues from some of the world's earliest ceramic vessels, the subsequent development of this critical technology can be clarified through further widespread testing of hunter-gatherer

  20. Mineralogy as a function of depth in the prehistoric Makaopuhi tholeiitic lava lake, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, B.W.; Moore, J.G.

    1968-01-01

    The electron probe X-ray microanalyzer has been used to determine the compositional variability of the groundmass minerals and glass in 10 specimens from a complete 225-foot section of the prehistoric tholeiitic lava lake of Makaopuhi Crater, Hawaii. The order of beginning of crystallization was: (1) chromite, (2) olivine, (3) augite, (4) plagioclase, (5) pigeonite, (6) iron-titanium oxides and orthopyroxene, (7) alkali feldspar and apatite, and (8) glass. Although the lake is chemically tholeiitic throughout, the occurrence of ferromagnesian minerals is as though there were a gradation from alkali olivine basalt in the upper chill downwards to olivine tholeiite. Groundmass olivine decreases downwards and disappears at about 20 feet. Pigeonite is absent in the uppermost 5??2 feet, then increases in amount down to 20 feet, below which augite and pigeonite coexist in constant 2:1 proportions. Strong zoning and metastable compositions characterize the pyroxenes of the chilled zones, but these features gradually disappear towards the interior of the lake to give way to equilibrium pyroxenes. Relatively homogeneous poikilitic orthopyroxene (??? Ca4Mg70Fe26) occurs in the olivine cumulate zone, having formed partly at the expense of pre-existing olivine, augite, and pigeonite (??? Ca8Mg66Fe26). The growth of orthopyroxene is believed to have been facilitated by the slower cooling rate and higher volatile pressure at depth, and by the rise in Mg/Fe ratio of the liquid due to the partial dissolution of settled olivine. Unlike olivine and pyroxene, feldspar is least zoned in the upper and lower chilled regions. The greatest range of compositional zoning in feldspar occurs at 160 to 190 feet, where it extends continuously from Or1.0Ab22An77 to Or64Ab33An3. The feldspar fractionation trend in the An-Ab-Or triangle gradually shifts with depth toward more "equilibrium" trends, even though the zoning becomes more extreme. The variation with depth in the initial (core

  1. Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Migratory Behavior of Ungulates Using Isotopic Analysis of Tooth Enamel and Its Effects on Forager Mobility.

    PubMed

    Pilaar Birch, Suzanne E; Miracle, Preston T; Stevens, Rhiannon E; O'Connell, Tamsin C

    2016-01-01

    Zooarchaeological and paleoecological investigations have traditionally been unable to reconstruct the ethology of herd animals, which likely had a significant influence on the mobility and subsistence strategies of prehistoric humans. In this paper, we reconstruct the migratory behavior of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and caprids at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in the northeastern Adriatic region using stable oxygen isotope analysis of tooth enamel. The data show a significant change in δ18O values from the Pleistocene into the Holocene, as well as isotopic variation between taxa, the case study sites, and through time. We then discuss the implications of seasonal faunal availability as determining factors in human mobility patterns.

  2. Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Migratory Behavior of Ungulates Using Isotopic Analysis of Tooth Enamel and Its Effects on Forager Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Pilaar Birch, Suzanne E.; Miracle, Preston T.; Stevens, Rhiannon E.; O’Connell, Tamsin C.

    2016-01-01

    Zooarchaeological and paleoecological investigations have traditionally been unable to reconstruct the ethology of herd animals, which likely had a significant influence on the mobility and subsistence strategies of prehistoric humans. In this paper, we reconstruct the migratory behavior of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and caprids at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in the northeastern Adriatic region using stable oxygen isotope analysis of tooth enamel. The data show a significant change in δ18O values from the Pleistocene into the Holocene, as well as isotopic variation between taxa, the case study sites, and through time. We then discuss the implications of seasonal faunal availability as determining factors in human mobility patterns. PMID:27275784

  3. Mobility Demonstrator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-22

    Resilient Technologies (Polaris Defense) Technology: Non- Pneumatic Tire Description: Airless Tire/wheel with honeycombed shaped polymer supporting...self-adjusting track tensioners • The biggest advancement in these systems has been pneumatic external road-arm design (external suspensions...UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release. 90 Payoff:  Enabler for silent mobility, hybridization , and export power capabilities

  4. Using Stochastically Downscaled Climate Models and Multiproxy Lake Sediment Data to Connect Climatic Variations Over the Past 1000 Years and the History of Prehistoric Maize Farming in Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, M. J.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    We are investigating the relationship between climatic variations over the past 1000 years and the history of prehistoric maize farming expansion and decline in the American Southwest, with a focus on Utah. We are examining both the downscaled climate models and high resolution analyses of lake cores and dendrochronological data matched with occupation information. We are testing the specific utility of stochastically downscaled general circulation models (viz. ECHO-G) to reconstruct local conditions for sites with documented prehistoric dryland farming through the so-called Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and transition to the Little Ice Age (LIA). We are testing our model-based reconstructions with proxies of temperature and aridity from three subalpine lake sediment cores transecting Utah. We compare the patterns of climate change from the downscaled models and the paleoclimate records to a database of 837 radiocarbon dates over 169 locations of archaeological Native American maize-farmer site occupations in Utah.

  5. Mobile Customer Relationship Management and Mobile Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanayei, Ali; Mirzaei, Abas

    The purpose of this study is twofold. First, in order to guarantee a coherent discussion about mobile customer relationship management (mCRM), this paper presents a conceptualization of mCRM delineating its unique characteristics because of Among the variety of mobile services, considerable attention has been devoted to mobile marketing and in particular to mobile customer relationship management services. Second, the authors discusses the security risks in mobile computing in different level(user, mobile device, wireless network,...) and finally we focus on enterprise mobile security and it's subgroups with a series of suggestion and solution for improve mobile computing security.

  6. Mobility Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Abele, G.; Walker, D.A.; Brown, J .; Brewer, M.C.; Atwood, D.M. TI - Effects of low ground pressure vehicle traffic on tundra aL Lonely, Alaska SO...resistance, bulldozing resistance. NTIS ’ DT ’ . [ Acces. J "D-4 CONTENTS Chapter I Snow vehicles or snowmobiles Chapter II Rolling resistance Chapter III...Russian Swe Swedish Eng English Jap Japanese Ger German Pol Polish Czech Czechoslovakian Nor Norwegian P reface This mobility bibliography was

  7. Going mobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brus, Eric

    1987-12-01

    By 1990, all metropolitan areas in the U.S. and rural areas close to major cities or towns are expected to have cellular telephone service; 22 Canadian cities also feature cellular service. To supply mobile telecommunication services to sparsely-populated rural areas, a mobile satellite service (MSS) is now being developed. In this paper the projected possibilities of the MSS system are discussed, including a possibility that a piggyback-MSS payload be added to the GSTAR-4 satellite which is scheduled for a launch in 1988 or 1989; one in which some of the hardware from aborted direct-broadcast satellites would be used; and the possibility of building a new MSS satellite with large servicing capacity. Canada is planning to launch its own mobile satellite, MSAT, in the early 1990s. The MSS is expected to be 'generic', serving not only people on land but maritime and aeronautical users as well. It will also offer major benefits to truck and automobile drivers, making it possible for them to conduct business or to call for assistance from locations beyond the range of cellular systems.

  8. East, West, North, South: A look at a method available to prehistoric cultures to both determine cardinality and the date of the equinox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Anthony B.; Ambruster, C.; Jewell, E.

    2014-01-01

    Many prehistoric world cultures have public and sacred buildings and roads which may exhibit cardinality (alignment to the true cardinal directions) to impressive precision. Careful alignment of such buildings would seem a means to relate the ground hemisphere to the celestial hemisphere. Not all prehistoric cultures cared about true cardinality, but apparently many did. Even today, lacking surveying instruments or GPS, determination of the cardinal directions, even to ±1-2 degrees, is challenging. In this paper we examine how these directions could have been accurately determined by prehistoric peoples with attentive observation using simply a gnomon. While we will not examine here their models of the cosmos, nor why they would construct to these alignments, we do examine expected systematic and random errors in such determinations if a gnomon is used. Our models demonstrate that marking the shadow locus from a gnomon not only can inform on cardinality to remarkable precision, but also is capable of giving the date of equinox to perhaps ±1-2days

  9. First use of portable system coupling X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence for in-situ analysis of prehistoric rock art.

    PubMed

    Beck, L; Rousselière, H; Castaing, J; Duran, A; Lebon, M; Moignard, B; Plassard, F

    2014-11-01

    Study of prehistoric art is playing a major role in the knowledge of human evolution. Many scientific methods are involved in this investigation including chemical analysis of pigments present on artefacts or applied to cave walls. In the past decades, the characterization of coloured materials was carried on by taking small samples. This procedure had two main disadvantages: slight but existing damage of the paintings and limitation of the number of samples. Thanks to the advanced development of portable systems, in-situ analysis of pigment in cave can be now undertaken without fear for this fragile Cultural Heritage. For the first time, a portable system combining XRD and XRF was used in an underground and archaeological environment for prehistoric rock art studies. In-situ non-destructive analysis of black prehistoric drawings and determination of their composition and crystalline structure were successfully carried out. Original results on pigments used 13,000 years ago in the cave of Rouffignac (France) were obtained showing the use of two main manganese oxides: pyrolusite and romanechite. The capabilities of the portable XRD-XRF system have been demonstrated for the characterization of pigments as well as for the analysis of rock in a cave environment. This first in-situ experiment combining X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence open up new horizons and can fundamentally change our approach of rock art studies.

  10. Ochres from rituals of prehistoric human funerals at the Toca do Enoque site, Piauí, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcante, Luis Carlos Duarte; da Luz, Maria De Fátima; Guidon, Niéde; Fabris, José Domingos; Ardisson, José Domingos

    2011-11-01

    The archaeological site known as Toca do Enoque (geographical coordinates, 09° 14' 65.3″ S 43° 55' 62.5″ W) is a rock shelter located in the Serra das Andorinhas (Serra das Confusões National Park), rural area of the city of Guaribas, state of Piauí, Brazil. Several rupestrian paintings (anthropomorphic and zoomorphic motifs along with some pure graphisms), predominantly in red, are found on the sandstone walls. Charcoals, lithic materials, necklaces with teeth, animal bones, gastropod shells, ochres and human skeletons (dated from 6,220 ± 40 to 6,610 ± 40 years before present, BP) were identified in recent excavations in this shelter. Red and yellow ochre samples were collected from prehistoric funeral structures and analyzed with powder X-ray diffractometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and 57Fe transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy at 298 K and 80 K. Mössbauer data indicate that the red ochre do contain predominantly hematite ( α-Fe2O3) whereas goethite ( α-FeOOH) is the major mineral in the yellow ochre.

  11. A Dynamical Analysis of the Suitability of Prehistoric Spheroids from the Cave of Hearths as Thrown Projectiles

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Andrew D.; Zhu, Qin; Barham, Lawrence; Stanistreet, Ian; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    Spheroids are ball-shaped stone objects found in African archaeological sites dating from 1.8 million years ago (Early Stone Age) to at least 70,000 years ago (Middle Stone Age). Spheroids are either fabricated or naturally shaped stones selected and transported to places of use making them one of the longest-used technologies on record. Most hypotheses about their use suggest they were percussive tools for shaping or grinding other materials. However, their size and spherical shape make them potentially useful as projectile weapons, a property that, uniquely, humans have been specialised to exploit for millions of years. Here we show (using simulations of projectile motions resulting from human throwing) that 81% of a sample of spheroids from the late Acheulean (Bed 3) at the Cave of Hearths, South Africa afford being thrown so as to inflict worthwhile damage to a medium-sized animal over distances up to 25 m. Most of the objects have weights that produce optimal levels of damage from throwing, rather than simply being as heavy as possible (as would suit other functions). Our results show that these objects were eminently suitable for throwing, and demonstrate how empirical research on behavioural tasks can inform and constrain our theories about prehistoric artefacts. PMID:27506611

  12. Analysis of a prehistoric Egyptian iron bead with implications for the use and perception of meteorite iron in ancient Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Diane; Tyldesley, Joyce; Lowe, Tristan; Withers, Philip J.; Grady, Monica M.

    2013-06-01

    Tube-shaped beads excavated from grave pits at the prehistoric Gerzeh cemetery, approximately 3300 BCE, represent the earliest known use of iron in Egypt. Using a combination of scanning electron microscopy and micro X-ray microcomputer tomography, we show that microstructural and chemical analysis of a Gerzeh iron bead is consistent with a cold-worked iron meteorite. Thin fragments of parallel bands of taenite within a meteoritic Widmanstätten pattern are present, with structural distortion caused by cold-working. The metal fragments retain their original chemistry of approximately 30 wt% nickel. The bulk of the bead is highly oxidized, with only approximately 2.4% of the total bead volume remaining as metal. Our results show that the first known example of the use of iron in Egypt was produced from a meteorite, its celestial origin having implications for both the perception of meteorite iron by ancient Egyptians and the development of metallurgical knowledge in the Nile Valley.

  13. Evidence of prehistoric flooding and the potential for future extreme flooding at Coyote Wash, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glancy, Patrick A.

    1994-01-01

    Coyote Wash, east of Yucca Mountain and southwest of the Nevada Test Site, is the potential location for an exploratory shaft to investigate the feasibility of underground storage of radioactive waste. The potential for flooding and related fluvial-debris hazards was investigated with respect to the potential shaft location. Trenches excavated through fluvial sediment deposits revealed interstratified rock detritus emplaced by floods and debris flows. Most of the deposits are believed to be of late Quaternary age. Debros-flow deposits contain boulders as large as 3 feet in diameter. This evidence of intense prehistoric flooding and debris movement indicates the possibility of similar continuing activity. Empirical estimates of extreme flood flows in North Fork Coyote Wash, a 0.094- square-mile drainage to the shaft site, range from 900 to 2,600 cubic feet per second. Current (1992) knowledge indicates that flows of water and debris as much as 2,500 cubic feet per second can occur in the vicinity of the shaft from this drainage. Similar size flows from adjacent South Fork Coyote Wash, could arrive simultaneously in the vicinity of the shaft. Thus, cumulative water and debris from both tributaries could subject the alluvial flood plain near the shaft site to flows of as much as 5,000 cubic feet per second.

  14. Skull and limb morphology differentially track population history and environmental factors in the transition to agriculture in Europe.

    PubMed

    von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen; Stock, Jay T; Pinhasi, Ron

    2013-09-22

    The Neolithic transition in Europe was a complex mosaic spatio-temporal process, involving both demic diffusion from the Near East and the cultural adoption of farming practices by indigenous hunter-gatherers. Previous analyses of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and Early Neolithic farmers suggest that cranial shape variation preserves the population history signature of the Neolithic transition. However, the extent to which these same demographic processes are discernible in the postcranium is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, crania and postcranial elements from the same 11 prehistoric populations are analysed together in an internally consistent theoretical and methodological framework. Results show that while cranial shape reflects the population history differences between Mesolithic and Neolithic lineages, relative limb dimensions exhibit significant congruence with environmental variables such as latitude and temperature, even after controlling for geography and time. Also, overall limb size is found to be consistently larger in hunter-gatherers than farmers, suggesting a reduction in size related to factors other than thermoregulatory adaptation. Therefore, our results suggest that relative limb dimensions are not tracking the same demographic population history as the cranium, and point to the strong influence of climatic, dietary and behavioural factors in determining limb morphology, irrespective of underlying neutral demographic processes.

  15. Conservation of prehistoric caves and stability of their inner climate: lessons from Chauvet and other French caves.

    PubMed

    Bourges, F; Genthon, P; Genty, D; Lorblanchet, M; Mauduit, E; D'Hulst, D

    2014-09-15

    In the last 150 years, some prehistoric painted caves suffered irreversible degradations due to misperception of conservation issues and subsequent mismanagement. These sites presented naturally an exceptional stability of their internal climate allowing conservation in situ of outstanding fragile remains, some for nearly 40,000 years. This is for a large part due to exchanges of air, CO2, heat and water with the karstic system in which these caves are included. We introduce the concept of underground confinement, based on the stability of the inner cave climate parameters, especially its temperature. Confined caves present the best conservative properties. It is emphasized that this confined state implies slow exchanges with the surrounding karst and that a stable cave cannot be viewed as a closed system. This is illustrated on four case studies of French caves of various confinement states evidenced by long term continuous monitoring and on strategies to improve their conservation properties. The Chauvet cave presents optimal conservation properties. It is wholly confined as shown by the stability of its internal parameters since its discovery in 1994. In Marsoulas cave, archeological works removed the entrance scree and let a strong opening situation of the decorated zone. Remediation is expected by adding a buffer structure at the entrance. In Pech Merle tourist cave, recurrent painting fading was related to natural seasonal drying of walls. Improvement of the cave closure system restored a confined state insuring optimal visibility of the paintings. In Gargas tourist cave, optimization of closures, lighting system and number of visitors, allowed it to gradually reach a semi-confined state that improved the conservation properties. Conclusions are drawn on the characterization of confinement state of caves and on the ways to improve their conservation properties by restoring their initial regulation mechanisms and to avoid threats to their stability.

  16. Aspects of health in prehistoric mainland Southeast Asia: Indicators of stress in response to the intensification of rice agriculture.

    PubMed

    Clark, Angela L; Tayles, Nancy; Halcrow, Siân E

    2014-03-01

    Numerous bioarcheological investigations have suggested that as agriculture intensifies, levels of physiological stress and poor health increase. However, previous research in Southeast Asia suggests that a decline in health was not universal. This study aimed to provide the first investigation of human health during the intensification of rice agriculture in the large skeletal sample from the prehistoric site of Ban Non Wat, Northeast Thailand (1750-420 b.c.). Health was analysed using two indicators of childhood stress, the prevalence of linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH), a measure of early childhood stress, and stature, as a measure of late childhood stress, were collated for 190 adults. Sex-specific diachronic relationships between the prevalence of LEH and stature were explored. For both sexes, initially the prevalence of LEH was found to decrease and then increase over time. Stature remained constant over time for males, although for females stature increased initially, then decreased. Early childhood stress was not significantly correlated with stature in females (P = 0.185), but high levels of LEH were unexpectedly correlated with taller male stature (P = 0.017). Our findings suggest an initial improvement in health during agricultural intensification at this site, likely related to a reduction in physiological perturbations and maintenance of a nutritious diet during this time. The subsequent deterioration in health may reflect geomorphologically and archaeologically indicated variation in environmental conditions and consequential sociocultural changes. We suggest that the sex-differences in the relationship between stature and LEH may relate to the timing of stress and/or catch-up growth.

  17. Evidence of a Large-Magnitude Recent Prehistoric Earthquake on the Bear River Fault, Wyoming and Utah: Implications for Recurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecker, S.; Schwartz, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Trenching across the antithetic strand of the Bear River normal fault in Utah has exposed evidence of a very young surface rupture. AMS radiocarbon analysis of three samples comprising pine-cone scales and needles from a 5-cm-thick faulted layer of organic detritus indicates the earthquake occurred post-320 CAL yr. BP (after A.D. 1630). The dated layer is buried beneath topsoil and a 15-cm-high scarp on the forest floor. Prior to this study, the entire surface-rupturing history of this nascent normal fault was thought to consist of two large events in the late Holocene (West, 1994; Schwartz et al., 2012). The discovery of a third, barely pre-historic, event led us to take a fresh look at geomorphically youthful depressions on the floodplain of the Bear River that we had interpreted as possible evidence of liquefaction. The appearance of these features is remarkably similar to sand-blow craters formed in the near-field of the M6.9 1983 Borah Peak earthquake. We have also identified steep scarps (<2 m high) and a still-forming coarse colluvial wedge near the north end of the fault in Wyoming, indicating that the most recent event ruptured most or all of the 40-km length of the fault. Since first rupturing to the surface about 4500 years ago, the Bear River fault has generated large-magnitude earthquakes at intervals of about 2000 years, more frequently than most active faults in the region. The sudden initiation of normal faulting in an area of no prior late Cenozoic extension provides a basis for seismic hazard estimates of the maximum-magnitude background earthquake (earthquake not associated with a known fault) for normal faults in the Intermountain West.

  18. Maritime adaptations and dietary variation in prehistoric Western Alaska: stable isotope analysis of permafrost-preserved human hair.

    PubMed

    Britton, Kate; Knecht, Rick; Nehlich, Olaf; Hillerdal, Charlotta; Davis, Richard S; Richards, Michael P

    2013-07-01

    The reconstruction of diet and subsistence strategies is integral in understanding early human colonizations and cultural adaptations, especially in the Arctic-one of the last areas of North America to be permanently inhabited. However, evidence for early subsistence practices in Western Alaska varies, particularly with regards to the emergence, importance, and intensity of sea mammal hunting. Here, we present stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data from permafrost-preserved human hair from two new prehistoric sites in Western Alaska, providing a direct measure of diet. The isotope evidence indicates a heavy reliance on sea mammal protein among the earlier Norton-period group (1,750 ± 40 cal BP), confirming that the complex hunting technologies required to intensively exploit these animals were most likely already in place in this region by at least the beginning of 1st millennium AD. In contrast, analysis of the more recent Thule-period hair samples (650 ± 40 cal BP; 570 ± 30 cal BP) reveals a more mixed diet, including terrestrial animal protein. Sequential isotope analysis of two longer human hair locks indicates seasonal differences in diet in a single Norton-period individual but demonstrates little dietary variation in a Thule-period individual. These analyses provide direct evidence for dietary differences among Alaska's early Eskimo groups and confirm the antiquity of specialized sea mammal hunting and procurement technologies. The results of this study have implications for our understanding of human adaptation to maritime and high-latitude environments, and the geographical and temporal complexity in early Arctic subsistence.

  19. Volume 4 - Mobile Sources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mobile source reference material for activity data collection from the Emissions Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP). Provides complete methods for collecting key inputs to onroad mobile and nonroad mobile emissions models.

  20. Cooperating mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  1. Mobile Schools for a Mobile World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Overwhelmingly, independent schools are embracing mobile devices--laptops, iPads or other tablets, and smartphones--to enhance teaching and learning. This article describes the results of the "NAIS 2012 Mobile Learning Survey." Among its findings were that 75 percent of NAIS-member schools currently use mobile learning devices in at…

  2. The Iranian Prehistoric Project: New problems arise as more is learned of the first attempts at food production and settled village life.

    PubMed

    Braidwood, R J; Howe, B; Reed, C A

    1961-06-23

    Many indications point toward the hill flanks of the Fertile Crescent in southwestern Asia as the scene of the earliest development of effective food production and a village-farming-community way of life, some 10,000 years ago or less. In its 1959-60 field season, with a staff made up of both cultural and natural historians, the Iranian Prehistoric Project reclaimed further evidence of this important transitional step in human history. This is a short interim report, based entirely on an in-the-field assessment of the materials.

  3. Ethnomedicinal plants used to treat human ailments in the prehistoric place of Harla and Dengego valleys, eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional medicines remained as the most affordable and easily accessible source of treatment in the primary health care system among diverse communities in Ethiopia. The Oromo community living in the prehistoric Harla and Dengego valleys has long history of ethnomedicinal know-how and practice against human and livestock ailments. However, this rich ethnomedicinal knowledge had been remained unexplored hitherto. This study focus on the comprehensive ethnomedicinal investigation in an attempt to safeguard the deteriorating ethnomedicinal knowledge that can be used as a steppingstone for phytochemical and pharmacological analysis. Methods Fifty five (44 male and 11 female) systematically selected informants including ten traditional herbalists (key informants) were participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews, discussions and guided field walk constituted the data collection methods. Factor of informant consensus (Fic), frequency of citation (F%), and binomial test were employed in data analysis. Medicinal plant specimens were collected, identified and kept at Herbarium of Haramaya University (HHU). Results A total of 83 traditional medicinal plant species against human ailments in 70 genera and 40 Families were recorded. Twelve medicinal plants were marketable in open market places of the nearby towns. Formulations recorded added to 140 remedies for 81 human ailments. Concoction accounts 50.7% of the total preparations followed by fluids extraction (10.7%) and infusion (6.4%). Fifteen different plant parts were used for remedies preparation wherein leaves accounted 46.4%, stem 9.2%, fruits and roots each 7.8%. Most of the remedies (90.7%) were prepared from single plant species like, aphrodisiac fresh rhizome of Kleinia abyssinica (A. Rich.) A. Berger chewed and swallowed few hours before sexual performance for a man having problem of erectile dysfunction. The Fic value ranges between 1.0 (gastritis and heartburn/pyrosis) and 0.77 (swollen

  4. Prehistoric and Modern Stress Evolution and Seismicity in Central Idaho in Relation to the 1983 Borah Peak Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, B. A.; Puskas, C.; Phillips, D.

    2013-12-01

    The M7.3 1983 Borah Peak earthquake occurred along the Lost River fault and was the largest historic earthquake in Idaho. The Lost River fault is one of several large normal faults in the central Intermountain Seismic Belt. The stress evolution of this family of faults, including the Lost River, Lemhi, Beaverhead, and Sawtooth, is analyzed by computing Coulomb stress changes from paleoearthquakes and interseismic loading. The event can be understood with respect to prehistoric stress interactions between the brittle and creeping segments of the central Idaho fault system. Paleoseismic dates, offsets, and slip rates are acquired from published scarp and trench analyses. Coulomb stress change models are based on coseismic earthquake offsets in the upper seismogenic crust and on cumulative slip from fault creep in the lower crust. Models of Coulomb stress change are based on known current fault geometry and inferred geometry from the Borah Peak event. The time-lapse models commence at 9.5 ka. Mean dates and slip rates are used in a preliminary model in light of large age ranges on the order of thousands of years. Coulomb stresses from creeping segments are modeled as slipping fault planes from the brittle-ductile boundary down to the crust-mantle boundary. The Borah Peak earthquake and most paleoearthquakes occurred in regions of increased Coulomb stress of up to 5 bars. These stress changes are dominantly dictated by single-segment coseismic displacements rather than interseismic loading in this preliminary model. Coseismic stress drops on a segment are about 5 bars, while interseismic loading contributes to approximately 2-bar Coulomb stress increases in the overriding brittle lithosphere of the same segment. Coulomb stress increases from adjacent segment earthquakes are approximately 4 bars. Both the isolated Borah Peak model and the total stress model are consistent with the distribution of post-Borah Peak earthquakes north of the Lost River fault. Additional

  5. Prehistoric Iroquois Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosbach, Richard E.; Doyle, Robert E.

    1976-01-01

    Study of pre-1750 medicine reveals that Iroquois diagnosis and treatment of disease was more advanced than the medicine of their European counterparts. The Iroquois developed a cure for scurvy, treated hypertension, and head lice, and even designed sauna baths. Indian psychiatry also included modern day techniques such as dream analysis. (MR)

  6. Discovery of Prehistoric Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurshtein, A. A.

    1995-12-01

    It was Charles Francois Dupui, of France, who two centuries ago in his twelve-volume "Origine de tous les cults" (1795) worked out a proposition that all the different religious customs, stories, and dogmas will be found upon examination to have a cradle as one or another aspect of the natural, mainly, astronomical phenomena. It is absolutely correct but he and his spirited followers failed to develop a basic scientific quantitative argument focused on astronomy - chronological distribution of events. It is the first time that a combination of the up-to-date knowledge in archaic symbology and the professional astronomical data for precession and other regular astronomical events constitutes conditions for an absolutely new approach. An astronomical reconstruction of the evolution of the Zodiacal constellations was made, based on the Indo-european and Sumero-Akkadian religio-cultural data, including artifacts such as cult statuettes, cuneiform tablets, cylinder seals and boundary stones. It was argued that the development of 12 houses of the Zodiac in 3 groups of 4 over some six millennia was dictated by the changes made by precession in the positions of the vernal and autumnal equinoxes and the summer and winter solstices. The first quartet of the Zodiacal constellations (Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius, Pisces) was recognized by the first agriculturists from the Fertile Crescent to learn the four most important Sun positions and to predict the ongoing seasons; it was done as far back as 5,600 B.C. (with a formal error of this determination about +/- 150 years). The second one (Taurus, Leo, Scorpio, Aquarius) was introduced in 2,700 +/- 250 years B.C. by Egyptians with their own animal symbolism that was the etymological root for the term the Zodiac (a circle of animals). This event was followed with the acquaintance of the new calendar and erection of the great pyramids as an eternal sanctuary for their mental triumph. In the first half of 14 century B.C. the Egyptian pharaoh Ekhnaton (Amenhotep 1V) attempted to inaugurate a new four constellation set to fixate the Sun track. The attempt was in vain but it seems the knowledge to go via Moses and the tribes left Egypt for Canaan. According our precessional dating the final design of the Zodiac with 12 houses appeared at 1,200 +/- 400 years B.C. In opposite to the figure 7 which was from the Paleolithic, the first great opus where figure 12 appeared as a sacred one was the Holy Bible. Many other details of the concept proposed are discussed.

  7. Constructing a Prehistoric Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oden, Dirk

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the development and implementation of a project in which students work in groups of two or three to research, design, and build a display about a geologic time period or a topic related to the history of life on Earth. (DDR)

  8. Mobile Router Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.; Bell, Terry L.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Shell, Dan; Leung, Kent

    2002-01-01

    Cisco Systems and NASA have been performing joint research on mobile routing technology under a NASA Space Act Agreement. Cisco developed mobile router technology and provided that technology to NASA for applications to aeronautic and space-based missions. NASA has performed stringent performance testing of the mobile router, including the interaction of routing and transport-level protocols. This paper describes mobile routing, the mobile router, and some key configuration parameters. In addition, the paper describes the mobile routing test network and test results documenting the performance of transport protocols in dynamic routing environments.

  9. Tandem mobile robot system

    DOEpatents

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  10. Ion mobility sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

    2013-01-22

    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  11. ECG by mobile technologies.

    PubMed

    Guzik, Przemyslaw; Malik, Marek

    Mobile electrocardiographs consist of three components: a mobile device (e.g. a smartphone), an electrocardiographic device or accessory, and a mobile application. Mobile platforms are small computers with sufficient computational power, good quality display, suitable data storage, and several possibilities of data transmission. Electrocardiographic electrodes and sensors for mobile use utilize unconventional materials, e.g. rubber, e-textile, and inkjet-printed nanoparticle electrodes. Mobile devices can be handheld, worn as vests or T-shirts, or attached to patient's skin as biopatches. Mobile electrocardiographic devices and accessories may additionally record other signals including respiratory rate, activity level, and geolocation. Large-scale clinical studies that utilize electrocardiography are easier to conduct using mobile technologies and the collected data are suitable for "big data" processing. This is expected to reveal phenomena so far inaccessible by standard electrocardiographic techniques.

  12. Mobility and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue deals with the phenomenon of mobility or transience in India, Kenya, Greece, Ireland, Malaysia, Thailand and Israel. The primary focus is on mobility's effect on young children, specifically their health and education; some of the broader concerns also addressed by the newsletter are the causes of mobility and its…

  13. Mobile Student Information System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asif, Muhammad; Krogstie, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A mobile student information system (MSIS) based on mobile computing and context-aware application concepts can provide more user-centric information services to students. The purpose of this paper is to describe a system for providing relevant information to students on a mobile platform. Design/methodology/approach: The research…

  14. Dating of prehistoric caves sediments and flints using 10Be and 26Al in quartz from Tabun Cave (Israel): Progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boaretto, E.; Berkovits, D.; Hass, M.; Hui, S. K.; Kaufman, A.; Paul, M.; Weiner, S.

    2000-10-01

    There is an important need to develop additional dating methods beyond the 14C limit and independent of thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR). We propose to apply the method of burial dating to prehistoric sites using the decay of in situ produced radioisotopes 10Be and 26Al. The Tabun Cave, Mt. Carmel (Israel) has a sedimentary sequence which represents the type section for about the last 800,000 years in the Levant. The sediments in the cave are mainly of aeolian origin and are rich in quartz. Flint tools are also found in the sediments. Sediment samples and flint tools were selected from the same layer. Physical and chemical procedures to extract 10Be and 26Al atoms from the quartz fraction of the sediments and from the flint samples were developed, while measuring the natural Al levels as a monitor of the atmospheric component of the cosmogenic nuclides. AMS measurements were performed at the 14UD Pelletron Koffler Accelerator Laboratory, Weizmann Institute, and sensitivities of the order of 1×10 -14, in isotopic abundances for both 10Be and 26Al respectively (corresponding to ˜5 × 10 5 atoms) were obtained. First, measurements of a number of Tabun Cave sediment samples and flints show that 10Be and 26Al analyses have the potential for dating prehistoric cave sediments, provided problems relating to the presence of relatively large amounts of stable Al can be solved, as well as obtaining a better understanding of the burial history of the flints prior to being brought into the cave.

  15. Spatial and temporal variations in prehistoric human settlement and their influencing factors on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xin; Yi, Shuangwen; Sun, Yonggang; Wu, Shuangye; Lee, Harry F.; Wang, Lin; Lu, Huayu

    2017-03-01

    The West Liao River Basin is the hub of ancient civilizations as well as the birthplace of rain-fed agriculture in Northern China. In the present study, based on 276 archaeological sites on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China, we trace the changes in prehistoric cultures as well as the shifts in the spatial and temporal patterns of human settlement in the West Liao River Basin. Location information for those sites was obtained from fieldwork. Factors such as climate change, landform evolution of the Horqin Dunefield, and subsistence strategies practiced at the sites were extracted via the meta-analysis of published literature. Our results show that the Holocene Optimum promoted the emergence of Neolithic Culture on the south bank of the Xar Moron River. Monsoon failure might have caused the periodic collapse or transformation of prehistoric cultures at (6.5, 4.7, 3.9, and 3.0) kyr B.P., leaving spaces for new cultural types to develop after these gaps. The rise and fall of different cultures was also determined by subsistence strategies. The Xiaoheyan Culture, with mixed modes of subsistence, weakened after 4.7 kyr B.P., whereas the Upper Xiajiadian Culture, supported by sheep breeding, expanded after 3.0 kyr B.P. Global positioning system data obtained from the archaeological sites reveal that cultures with different subsistence strategies occupied distinct geographic regions. Humans who subsisted on hunting and gathering resided at higher altitudes during the Paleolithic Age (1074 m a.s.l.). Mixed subsistence strategies led humans to settle down at 600-1000 m a.s.l. in the Neolithic Age. Agricultural activities caused humans to migrate to 400-800 m a.s.l. in the early Bronze Age, whereas livestock production shifted human activities to 800-1200 m a.s.l. in the late Bronze Age.

  16. Small Scattered Fragments Do Not a Dwarf Make: Biological and Archaeological Data Indicate that Prehistoric Inhabitants of Palau Were Normal Sized

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Scott M.; Nelson, Greg C.; Clark, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    Current archaeological evidence from Palau in western Micronesia indicates that the archipelago was settled around 3000–3300 BP by normal sized populations; contrary to recent claims, they did not succumb to insular dwarfism. Background Previous and ongoing archaeological research of both human burial and occupation sites throughout the Palauan archipelago during the last 50 years has produced a robust data set to test hypotheses regarding initial colonization and subsequent adaptations over the past three millennia. Principal Findings Close examination of human burials at the early (ca. 3000 BP) and stratified site of Chelechol ra Orrak indicates that these were normal sized individuals. This is contrary to the recent claim of contemporaneous “small-bodied” individuals found at two cave sites by Berger et al. (2008). As we argue, their analyses are flawed on a number of different analytical levels. First, their sample size is too small and fragmentary to adequately address the variation inherent in modern humans within and outside of Palau. Second, the size and stature of all other prehistoric (both older and contemporaneous) skeletal assemblages found in Palau fall within the normal parameters of modern human variation in the region, indicating this was not a case of insular dwarfism or a separate migratory group. Third, measurements taken on several skeletal elements by Berger et al. may appear to be from smaller-bodied individuals, but the sizes of these people compares well with samples from Chelechol ra Orrak. Last, archaeological, linguistic, and historical evidence demonstrates a great deal of cultural continuity in Palau through time as expected if the same population was inhabiting the archipelago. Conclusions Prehistoric Palauan populations were normal sized and exhibit traits that fall within the normal variation for Homo sapiens—they do not support the claims by Berger et al. (2008) that there were smaller-bodied populations living in Palau or

  17. The incorporation of iodine in thyroid hormone may stem from its role as a prehistoric signal of ecologic opportunity: an evolutionary perspective and implications for modern diseases.

    PubMed

    Yun, Anthony J; Lee, Patrick Y; Bazar, Kimberly A; Daniel, Stephanie M; Doux, John D

    2005-01-01

    To optimize fitness under conditions of varying Darwinian opportunity, organisms demonstrate tremendous plasticity in their life-history strategies based on their perception of available resources. Higher-energy environments generally promote more aggressive life-history strategies, such as faster growth, larger adult size, greater genetic variation, shorter lifespan, larger brood sizes, and offspring ratio skewed towards the larger-sized gender. While numerous mechanisms regulate life-history plasticity including genetic imprinting, methylation, and growth factors, evidence suggests that thyroid hormone plays a central role. Given the pivotal adaptive role of thyroid hormone, the teleology of its dependence on dietary iodine for production remains unexplained. We hypothesize that iodine may have emerged as a substrate for production of thyroid hormone in prehistoric ecosystems because the former represented a reliable proxy for ecologic potential that enabled the latter to modulate growth, reproduction, metabolic rate, and lifespan. Such a scenario may have existed in early marine ecosystems where ocean-surface vegetation, which concentrates iodine for its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, formed the basis of the food chain. Teleologic parallels can be drawn to the food-chain accumulation of antimicrobials that also exhibit antioxidant properties and promote adult size, brood size, and offspring quality by modulating central hormonal axes. As each higher species in the food chain tunes its life-history strategy based on iodine intake, the coupling of this functional role of iodine with its value as a resource signal to the next member of the food-chain may promote runaway evolution. Whereas predators in prehistoric ecosystems successfully tuned their life-history strategy using iodine as a major input, the strategy may prove maladaptive in modern humans for whom the pattern of iodine intake is decoupled from resource availability. Iodine acquired through

  18. Spatial and temporal variations in prehistoric human settlement and their influencing factors on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xin; Yi, Shuangwen; Sun, Yonggang; Wu, Shuangye; Lee, Harry F.; Wang, Lin; Lu, Huayu

    2016-05-01

    The West Liao River Basin is the hub of ancient civilizations as well as the birthplace of rain-fed agriculture in Northern China. In the present study, based on 276 archaeological sites on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China, we trace the changes in prehistoric cultures as well as the shifts in the spatial and temporal patterns of human settlement in the West Liao River Basin. Location information for those sites was obtained from fieldwork. Factors such as climate change, landform evolution of the Horqin Dunefield, and subsistence strategies practiced at the sites were extracted via the meta-analysis of published literature. Our results show that the Holocene Optimum promoted the emergence of Neolithic Culture on the south bank of the Xar Moron River. Monsoon failure might have caused the periodic collapse or transformation of prehistoric cultures at (6.5, 4.7, 3.9, and 3.0) kyr B.P., leaving spaces for new cultural types to develop after these gaps. The rise and fall of different cultures was also determined by subsistence strategies. The Xiaoheyan Culture, with mixed modes of subsistence, weakened after 4.7 kyr B.P., whereas the Upper Xiajiadian Culture, supported by sheep breeding, expanded after 3.0 kyr B.P. Global positioning system data obtained from the archaeological sites reveal that cultures with different subsistence strategies occupied distinct geographic regions. Humans who subsisted on hunting and gathering resided at higher altitudes during the Paleolithic Age (1074 m a.s.l.). Mixed subsistence strategies led humans to settle down at 600-1000 m a.s.l. in the Neolithic Age. Agricultural activities caused humans to migrate to 400-800 m a.s.l. in the early Bronze Age, whereas livestock production shifted human activities to 800-1200 m a.s.l. in the late Bronze Age.

  19. Regional, holocene records of the human dimension of global change: sea-level and land-use change in prehistoric Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluyter, Andrew

    1997-02-01

    Regional, Holocene records hold particular relevance for understanding the reciprocal nature of global environmental change and one of its major human dimensions: "sustainable agriculture", i.e., food production strategies which entail fewer causes of and are less susceptible to environmental change. In an epoch of accelerating anthropogenic transformation, those records reveal the protracted regional causes and consequences of change (often agricultural) in the global system as well as informing models of prehistoric, intensive agriculture which, because of long tenures and high productivities, suggest strategies for sustainable agricultural in the present. This study employs physiographic analysis and the palynological, geochemical record from cores of basin fill to understand the reciprocal relation between environmental and land-use change in the Gulf of Mexico tropical lowland, focusing on a coastal basin sensitive to sea-level change and containing vestiges of prehistoric settlement and wetland agriculture. Fossil pollen reveals that the debut of maize cultivation in the Laguna Catarina watershed dates to ca. 4100 BC, predating the earliest evidence for that cultivar anywhere else in the lowlands of Middle America. Such an early date for a cultivar so central to Neotropical agroecology and environmental change, suggests the urgency of further research in the study region. Moreover, the longest period of continuous agriculture in the basin lasted nearly three millennia (ca. 2400 BC-AD 550) despite eustatic sea-level rise. Geochemical fluxes reveal the reciprocity between land-use and environmental change: slope destabilization, basin aggradation, and eutrophication. The consequent theoretical implications pertain to both applied and basic research. Redeploying ancient agroecologies in dynamic environments necessitates reconstructing the changing operational contexts of putative high productivity and sustainability. Adjusting land use in the face of global

  20. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  1. Residential mobility microsimulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yifei; Wu, Lun

    2010-09-01

    Residential mobility refers to the spatial movement of individuals and households between dwellings within an urban area. This considerable amount of intra-urban movement affects the urban structure and has significant repercussions for urban transportation. In order to understand and project related impacts, a considerable number of residential mobility models has been developed and used in the regional planning process. Within this context, the history and state-of-art residential mobility models are discussed and indicated. Meanwhile, a residential mobility Microsimulation model, called URM-Microsim (Urban Residential Mobility Microsimulation), is introduced and discussed.

  2. Ion mobility sensor

    DOEpatents

    Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

    2005-08-23

    An ion mobility sensor which can detect both ion and molecules simultaneously. Thus, one can measure the relative arrival times between various ions and molecules. Different ions have different mobility in air, and the ion sensor enables measurement of ion mobility, from which one can identify the various ions and molecules. The ion mobility sensor which utilizes a pair of glow discharge devices may be designed for coupling with an existing gas chromatograph, where various gas molecules are already separated, but numbers of each kind of molecules are relatively small, and in such cases a conventional ion mobility sensor cannot be utilized.

  3. Complete Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Iranians

    PubMed Central

    Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Denisova, Galina; Perkova, Maria; Farjadian, Shirin; Yepiskoposyan, Levon

    2013-01-01

    Due to its pivotal geographical location and proximity to transcontinental migratory routes, Iran has played a key role in subsequent migrations, both prehistoric and historic, between Africa, Asia and Europe. To shed light on the genetic structure of the Iranian population as well as on the expansion patterns and population movements which affected this region, the complete mitochondrial genomes of 352 Iranians were obtained. All Iranian populations studied here exhibit similarly high diversity values comparable to the other groups from the Caucasus, Anatolia and Europe. The results of AMOVA and MDS analyses did not associate any regional and/or linguistic group of populations in the Anatolia/Caucasus and Iran region pointing to close genetic positions of Persians and Qashqais to each other and to Armenians, and Azeris from Iran to Georgians. By reconstructing the complete mtDNA phylogeny of haplogroups R2, N3, U1, U3, U5a1g, U7, H13, HV2, HV12, M5a and C5c we have found a previously unexplored genetic connection between the studied Iranian populations and the Arabian Peninsula, India, Near East and Europe, likely the result of both ancient and recent gene flow. Our results for Persians and Qashqais point to a continuous increase of the population sizes from ∼24 kya to the present, although the phase between 14-24 kya is thought to be hyperarid according to the Gulf Oasis model. Since this would have affected hunter-gatherer ranges and mobility patterns and forced them to increasingly rely on coastal resources, this transition can explain the human expansion across the Persian Gulf region. PMID:24244704

  4. Late Quaternary geoarchaeology and geochronology of stratified aeolian deposits, Tar River, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Christopher R.

    Recent geoarchaeological work on relict aeolian deposits in the North Carolina Coastal Plain has shown the potential for understanding prehistoric hunter-gatherer adaptations to changing environmental conditions likely related to Holocene climate change. Archaeological surveys and testing along the Tar River has revealed numerous sites with stratified Early Archaic through Woodland occupations. Geophysical, archeostratigraphic and sedimentological analysis along with chronometric dating (OSL and 14C) of source-bordering aeolian sediments along the Tar River in North Carolina indicate dune drapes (˜1 meter thick) accreted throughout much of the Holocene. Aeolian burial events along the Tar River appear to reflect Holocene millennial-scale climatic cyclicity (e.g., Bond Events) and its related effects on the fluvial system. These events likely influenced both hunter-gatherer adaptation and site preservation along the Tar River. Combined radiocarbon and OSL ages from lower paleo-braidplain sites, indicate incision of the lower paleo-braidplain and initiation of dune deposition just before or during the Younger Dryas stadial. The presence of stratified archaeological remains in these sediments preserves a record of both prehistoric human adaptations to local conditions and changes in depositional processes marking large-scale climatic change in the southeastern United States.

  5. ACTS mobile SATCOM experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, Brian S.; Frye, Robert E.; Jedrey, Thomas C.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last decade, the demand for reliable mobile satellite communications (satcom) for voice, data, and video applications has increased dramatically. As consumer demand grows, the current spectrum allocation at L-band could become saturated. For this reason, NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are developing the Advanced Communications Technology Satellites (ACTS) mobile terminal (AMT) and are evaluating the feasibility of K/Ka-band (20/30 GHz) mobile satcom to meet these growing needs. U.S. industry and government, acting as co-partners, will evaluate K/Ka-band mobile satcom and develop new technologies by conducting a series of applications-oriented experiments. The ACTS and the AMT testbed will be used to conduct these mobile satcom experiments. The goals of the ACTS Mobile Experiments Program and the individual experiment configurations and objectives are further presented.

  6. Mobile learning in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serkan Güllüoüǧlu, Sabri

    2013-03-01

    This paper outlines the main infrastructure for implicating mobile learning in medicine and present a sample mobile learning application for medical learning within the framework of mobile learning systems. Mobile technology is developing nowadays. In this case it will be useful to develop different learning environments using these innovations in internet based distance education. M-learning makes the most of being on location, providing immediate access, being connected, and acknowledges learning that occurs beyond formal learning settings, in places such as the workplace, home, and outdoors. Central to m-learning is the principle that it is the learner who is mobile rather than the device used to deliver m learning. The integration of mobile technologies into training has made learning more accessible and portable. Mobile technologies make it possible for a learner to have access to a computer and subsequently learning material and activities; at any time and in any place. Mobile devices can include: mobile phone, personal digital assistants (PDAs), personal digital media players (eg iPods, MP3 players), portable digital media players, portable digital multimedia players. Mobile learning (m-learning) is particularly important in medical education, and the major users of mobile devices are in the field of medicine. The contexts and environment in which learning occurs necessitates m-learning. Medical students are placed in hospital/clinical settings very early in training and require access to course information and to record and reflect on their experiences while on the move. As a result of this paper, this paper strives to compare and contrast mobile learning with normal learning in medicine from various perspectives and give insights and advises into the essential characteristics of both for sustaining medical education.

  7. Mobile computing for radiology.

    PubMed

    Auffermann, William F; Chetlen, Alison L; Sharma, Arjun; Colucci, Andrew T; DeQuesada, Ivan M; Grajo, Joseph R; Kung, Justin W; Loehfelm, Thomas W; Sherry, Steven J

    2013-12-01

    The rapid advances in mobile computing technology have the potential to change the way radiology and medicine as a whole are practiced. Several mobile computing advances have not yet found application to the practice of radiology, while others have already been applied to radiology but are not in widespread clinical use. This review addresses several areas where radiology and medicine in general may benefit from adoption of the latest mobile computing technologies and speculates on potential future applications.

  8. Exploring the mobility of mobile phone users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csáji, Balázs Cs.; Browet, Arnaud; Traag, V. A.; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Huens, Etienne; Van Dooren, Paul; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Blondel, Vincent D.

    2013-03-01

    Mobile phone datasets allow for the analysis of human behavior on an unprecedented scale. The social network, temporal dynamics and mobile behavior of mobile phone users have often been analyzed independently from each other using mobile phone datasets. In this article, we explore the connections between various features of human behavior extracted from a large mobile phone dataset. Our observations are based on the analysis of communication data of 100,000 anonymized and randomly chosen individuals in a dataset of communications in Portugal. We show that clustering and principal component analysis allow for a significant dimension reduction with limited loss of information. The most important features are related to geographical location. In particular, we observe that most people spend most of their time at only a few locations. With the help of clustering methods, we then robustly identify home and office locations and compare the results with official census data. Finally, we analyze the geographic spread of users’ frequent locations and show that commuting distances can be reasonably well explained by a gravity model.

  9. Doctors going mobile.

    PubMed

    Romano, Ron; Baum, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Having a Web page and a blog site are the minimum requirements for an Internet presence in the new millennium. However, a Web page that loads on a personal computer or a laptop will be ineffective on a mobile or cellular phone. Today, with more existing and potential patients having access to cellular technology, it is necessary to reconfigure the appearance of your Web site that appears on a mobile phone. This article discusses mobile computing and suggestions for improving the appearance of your Web site on a mobile or cellular phone.

  10. Prehistoric demographic fluctuations in China inferred from radiocarbon data and their linkage with climate change over the past 50,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Can; Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Gu, Zhaoyan; He, Keyang

    2014-08-01

    Historic human-climate interactions have been of interest to scholars for a long time. However, exploring the long-term relation between prehistoric demography and climate change remains challenging because of the absence of an effective proxy for population reconstruction. Recently, the summed probability distribution of archaeological radiocarbon dates has been widely used as a proxy for human population levels, although researchers recognize that such usage must be cautious. This approach is rarely applied in China due to the lack of a comprehensive archaeological radiocarbon database, and thus the relation between human population and climate change in China remains ambiguous. Herein we systematically compile an archaeological 14C database (n = 4656) for China for the first time. Using the summed probability distributions of the radiocarbon dates alongside high-resolution palaeoclimatic records, we show that: 1) the commencement of major population expansion in China was at 9 ka cal BP, occurring after the appearance of agriculture and associated with the early Holocene climate amelioration; 2) the major periods of small population size and population decline, i.e., 46-43 ka cal BP, 41-38 ka cal BP, 31-28.6 ka cal BP, 25-23.5 ka cal BP, 18-15.2 ka cal BP, and 13-11.4 ka cal BP, correspond well with the dating of abrupt cold events in the Last Glacial (LG) such as the Heinrich and Younger Dryas (YD) events, while the major periods of high-level population in the Holocene, i.e., 8.5-7 ka cal BP, 6.5-5 ka cal BP and 4.3-2.8 ka cal BP, occur at the same times as warm-moist conditions and Neolithic cultural prosperity, suggesting that abrupt cooling in the climate profoundly limited population size and that mild climate episodes spurred a growth in prehistoric populations and advances in human cultures; and 3) populations in different regions experience different growth trajectories and that their responses to climate change are varied, due to both regional

  11. Petrology and geochemistry of ca. 2100-1000 a.B.P. magmas of Augustine volcano, Alaska, based on analysis of prehistoric pumiceous tephra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappen, Christine M.; Webster, James D.; Mandeville, Charles W.; Roderick, David

    2009-05-01

    Geochemical and textural features of whole-rock samples, phenocrysts, matrix glasses, and silicate melt inclusions from five prehistoric pumiceous tephra units of Augustine volcano, Alaska, were investigated to interpret processes of magma storage and evolution. The bulk-rock compositions of the tephra (designated G, erupted ca. 2100 a.B.P.; I ca. 1700 a.B.P.; H ca. 1400 a.B.P.; and C1 and C2 ca. 1000 a.B.P.) are silicic andesite; they contain rhyolitic matrix glasses and silicate melt inclusions with 74-79 wt.% SiO 2. The rocks are comprised of microlite-bearing matrix glass and phenocrysts of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, magnesio-hornblende, titanomagnetite, and ilmenite ± Al-rich amphibole with minor to trace apatite and rare sulfides and quartz. The felsic melt inclusions in plagioclase, pyroxenes, and amphibole are variably enriched in volatile components and contain 1.6-8.0 wt.% H 2O, 2100-5400 ppm Cl, < 40-1330 ppm CO 2, and 30-390 ppm S. Constraints from Fe-Ti oxides imply that magma evolution occurred at 796 ± 6 °C to 896 ± 8 °C and log ƒ O2 of NNO + 2.2 to + 2.6. This is consistent with conditions recorded for 1976, 1986, and 2006 eruptive materials and implies that magmatic and eruptive processes have varied little during the past 2100 years. Prehistoric Augustine magmas represented by these silicic andesites evolved via fractional crystallization, magma mingling and mixing, and/or chemical contamination due to magma-volcanic rock interaction. The occurrence of fractional crystallization is supported by the abundance of normally zoned phenocrysts, the presence of felsic matrix glass and melt inclusions within andesitic rock samples, trace-element data, and by geochemical modeling. The modeling constrains the influence of crystal fractionation on melt differentiation and is consistent with the evolution of the melt phase from felsic andesite to rhyodacite compositions. Magma mixing, mingling, and/or contamination by magma-volcanic rock

  12. Application of soil magnetometry on peat-bogs and soils in areas affected by historical and prehistoric ore mining and smelting.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magiera, Tadeusz; Mendakiewicz, Maria; Szuszkiewicz, Marcin; Chrost, Leszak

    2015-04-01

    The valleys of upper Brynica and Stoła located in northern part of Upper Silesia were areas of historical human activities since prehistoric times. Historically confirmed mining and smelting of iron, silver and lead ores on this areas has been dated back to early Middle Ages, however recently some geochemical and radiometric analyses suggest even prehistoric time of such activities. The aim of this study was to check if it is possible to find any magnetic signal suggesting such activities in peat-bogs and soils of this area. This magnetic properties would be a result of presence of historical Technogenic Magnetic Particles (TMPs) arisen during the primitive smelting processes in the past. Many different types of TMPs were separated from the depth of 15-30 cm of soil profiles and also were present in deeper parts of peat-bogs accompanied by fine charcoal particles. The peat-bog horizons dated by radiocarbon (C14) for 2000 BC were contaminated by some heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ag, Pb, Mn, Fe, Sr, Sc) and slightly increased magnetic susceptibility signal was also observed. On the base of soil surface magnetic measurement using MS2D Bartington sensor complemented by magnetic gradiometer system Grad 601-02 for the deeper soil penetration, some local magnetic anomalies were detected. In areas of local 'hot spots', the vertical cores up to 30 cm in depth were collected using the HUMAX core sampler. Vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility along the cores was measured in the laboratory using the MS2C Bartington core sensor. The core section with increased susceptibility values were analyzed and TMPs were separated using a hand magnet. The separation of fine fraction of TMPs was carried out in an ultrasonic bath from the fine soil material suspended in isopropanol to avoid their coagulation. Irregular ceramic particles, ash and ore particles, as well as strong magnetic particles of metallic iron; all with diameter up to 10 mm and almost regular shape and rounded

  13. Prehistoric "fish-eaters" along the eastern Arabian coasts: dental variation, morphology, and oral health in the Ra's al-Hamra community (Qurum, sultanate of Oman, 5th-4th millennia BC).

    PubMed

    Macchiarelli, R

    1989-04-01

    The Ra's al-Hamra prehistoric fishermen lived in isolation on the Qurum rocky promontorium in Oman during the 5th-4th millennia BC. To date, they represent the most ancient and numerous human fossil group excavated from the Arabian peninsula. Like other contemporaneous archaeologically documented small communities along the desert Arabian coasts, they intensively exploited ocean resources and collected molluscs from nearby mangrove swamps. The present study analyzes aspects of dental anthropology (including crown variation, morphology, dental wear, and oral health), in 600 permanent teeth from 49 individuals of both sexes excavated at the Mesolithic RH5-site by the Italian Archaeological Mission in Oman from 1981 to 1985. In association with a general low degree of morphometric variation, the Ra's al-Hamra dental crowns show low sexual dimorphism and are consistently reduced in size. These features are unexpected in a preagricultural population, especially when these data are compared to other eastern African and near Middle Eastern prehistoric populations. These data are discussed within the general context of human dental structural reduction occurring during the post-Pleistocene and are interpreted according to the "increasing population density effect" model. There are other significant differences that characterize the Ra's al-Hamra dentitions with respect to both eastern and western prehistoric human groups. The frequency of numerous nonmetric crown traits supports the hypothesis that a microdifferentiation phenomenon occurred in this marginal area. The preliminary skeletal analysis and the palaeodemographic profile show that the Omani prehistoric fishermen were affected by genetic isolation and inbreeding as well as strong environmental stress. Because of the grit assimilated with dried fish and the high shellfish consumption, dental wear was extreme in all age groups at Ra's al-Hamra and occasionally was responsible for serious hematogenously spread

  14. Mobile Goes Mainstream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisele-Dyrli, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Mobile learning--the use of mobile devices for educational purposes by students--is rapidly moving from an experimental initiative by a few innovative districts over the last five years to a broadly accepted concept in K12. The latest research and surveys, results of pilot programs, and analysis of trends in both public education and the broader…

  15. Mobile Christian - shuttle flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Erin Whittle, 14, (seated) and Brianna Johnson, 14, look on as Louis Stork, 13, attempts a simulated landing of a space shuttle at StenniSphere. The young people were part of a group from Mobile Christian School in Mobile, Ala., that visited StenniSphere on April 21.

  16. Mobile Learning Anytime, Anywhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlodan, Oksana

    2010-01-01

    Some educational institutions are taking the leap to mobile learning (m-learning) by giving out free iPods. For example, Abilene Christian University gave iPods or iPhones to freshman students and developed 15 Web applications specifically for the mobile devices. The iPod is not the only ubiquitous m-learning device. Any technology that connects…

  17. Increasing mobile radiography productivity.

    PubMed

    Wong, Edward; Lung, Ngan Tsz; Ng, Kris; Jeor, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Mobile radiography using computed radiography (CR) cassettes is a common equipment combination with a workflow bottleneck limited by location of CR readers. Advent of direct digital radiography (DDR) mobile x-ray machines removes this limitation by immediate image review and quality control. Through the use of key performance indicators (KPIs), the increase in efficiency can be quantified.

  18. Mastering Mobile Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    Without proper security, mobile devices are easy targets for worms, viruses, and so-called robot ("bot") networks. Hackers increasingly use bot networks to launch massive attacks against eCommerce websites--potentially targeting one's online tuition payment or fundraising/financial development systems. How can one defend his mobile systems against…

  19. Mobility Test Article (MTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    A concept of a possible Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) built for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This Mobility Test Article (MTA) is one of many that provided data contributing to the design of the LRV, developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  20. Mobile Apps for Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, June L.

    2013-01-01

    In an increasing mobile environment, library and reading-related activities often take place on a phone or tablet device. Not only does this mean that library Web sites must keep mobile navigability in mind, but also develop and utilize apps that allow patrons to interact with information and with libraries. While apps do not serve every purpose,…

  1. ACTS Mobile Terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, Brian S.; Agan, Martin J.; Jedrey, Thomas C.

    1997-01-01

    The development of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Mobile Terminal (AMT) and its follow-on, the Broadband Aeronautical Terminal (BAT), have provided an excellent testbed for the evaluation of K- and Ka-band mobile satellite communications systems. An overview of both of these terminals is presented in this paper.

  2. Skylab mobile laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primeaux, G. R.; Larue, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Skylab mobile laboratory was designed to provide the capability to obtain necessary data on the Skylab crewmen 30 days before lift-off, within 1 hour after recovery, and until preflight physiological baselines were reattained. The mobile laboratory complex consisted of six laboratories that supported cardiovascular, metabolic, nutrition and endocrinology, operational medicine, blood, and microbiology experiments; a utility package; and two shipping containers. The objectives and equipment requirements of the Skylab mobile laboratory and the data acquisition systems are discussed along with processes such as permanently mounting equipment in the individual laboratories and methods of testing and transporting the units. The operational performance, in terms of amounts of data collected, and the concept of mobile laboratories for medical and scientific experiments are evaluated. The Skylab mobile laboratory succeeded in facilitating the data collection and sample preservation associated with the three Skylab manned flights.

  3. Gone Mobile? (Mobile Libraries Survey 2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2010-01-01

    Librarians, like patrons and researchers, are caught between traditional library service models and the promise of evolving information technologies. In recent years, professional conferences have strategically featured programs and presentations geared toward building a mobile agenda and adapting or adopting services to meet new demands of mobile…

  4. Tracing prehistoric activities: musculoskeletal stress marker analysis of a Stone-Age population on the island of Gotland in the Baltic sea.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Petra

    2006-01-01

    The skeletal remains from the Middle Neolithic (2750-2300 BC) burial ground at Ajvide, Gotland, are analyzed in order to explore musculoskeletal patterns and to attempt to trace general as well as three specific prehistoric activities (archery, harpooning, and kayaking) that are likely to have been performed in this marine setting of fishing, hunting, and gathering. Scoring of muscular and ligament attachments is performed using the scoring method of Hawkey and Merbs ([1995] Int. J. Osteoarchaeol. 5:324-338) for muskuloskeletal stress markers (MSM). The skeletal material consists of 24 male and 15 female adult individuals divided into three age groups: young (<24 years), middle (25-39 years), and old (>40 years). Thirty upper body MSM sites, on both the left and right sides, are scored and form the basis of the study. Results show that males most frequently have higher mean MSM scores than females. Bilateral asymmetry was noted as low in both sexes. Age proved to be a contributing factor to increased MSM scores, with a greater age-related increase in females. MSM patterns were analyzed statistically in muscle groups associated with the three investigated activities. Significant positive correlations were observed in male individuals in muscle groups associated with archery and to some extent harpooning, an indication that these activities would mainly have been performed by men. Correlations in kayaking muscles were not evidently consistent with the kayaking motion. Furthermore, the costoclavicular ligament, often referred to in connection with "kayaker's clavicle," showed no positive statistical correlation with the kayaking muscles.

  5. The genetic drift of human papillomavirus type 16 is a means of reconstructing prehistoric viral spread and the movement of ancient human populations.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, L; Chan, S Y; Burk, R D; Das, B C; Fujinaga, K; Icenogle, J P; Kahn, T; Kiviat, N; Lancaster, W; Mavromara-Nazos, P

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the diversity of a hypervariable segment of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) genome among 301 virus isolates that were collected from 25 different ethnic groups and geographic locations. Altogether, we distinguished 48 different variants that had diversified from one another along five phylogenetic branches. Variants from two of these branches were nearly completely confined to Africa. Variants from a third branch were the only variants identified in Europeans but occurred at lower frequency in all other ethnic groups. A fourth branch was specific for Japanese and Chinese isolates. A small fraction of all isolates from Asia and from indigenous as well as immigrant populations in the Americas formed a fifth branch. Important patterns of HPV-16 phylogeny suggested coevolution of the virus with people of the three major human races, namely, Africans, Caucasians, and East Asians. But several minor patterns are indicative of smaller bottlenecks of viral evolution and spread, which may correlate with the migration of ethnic groups in prehistoric times. The colonization of the Americas by Europeans and Africans is reflected in the composition of their HPV-16 variants. We discuss arguments that today's HPV-16 genomes represent a degree of diversity that evolved over a large time span, probably exceeding 200,000 years, from a precursor genome that may have originated in Africa. The identification of molecular variants is a powerful epidemiological and phylogenetic tool for revealing the ancient spread of papillomaviruses, whose trace through the world has not yet been completely lost. PMID:8411343

  6. Brief communication: Additional cases of maxillary canine-first premolar transposition in several prehistoric skeletal assemblages from the Santa Barbara Channel Islands of California.

    PubMed

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Clement, Anna F; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S

    2010-09-01

    This article identifies and discusses seven new cases of complete maxillary canine-premolar transposition in ancient populations from the Santa Barbara Channel region of California. A high frequency of this tooth transposition has been previously documented within a single prehistoric cemetery on one of the Channel Islands. A total of 966 crania representing 30 local sites and about 7,000 years of human occupation were examined, revealing an abnormally high prevalence of this transposition trait among islanders during the Early period of southern California prehistory ( approximately 5500-600 B.C.). One of the affected crania is from a cemetery more than 7,000-years-old and constitutes the earliest case of tooth transposition in humans so far reported. The results are consistent with findings by other studies that have indicated inbreeding among the early Channel Islands groups. Together with the normal transposition rates among mainland populations, the decreasing prevalence of maxillary canine-first premolar transposition among island populations across the Holocene suggests that inbreeding on the northern Channel Islands had all but ceased by the end of the first millennium B.C., most likely as a result of increased cross-channel migration and interaction.

  7. Global distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroup C reveals the prehistoric migration routes of African exodus and early settlement in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hua; Shi, Hong; Qi, Xue-Bin; Xiao, Chun-Jie; Jin, Li; Ma, Runlin Z; Su, Bing

    2010-07-01

    The regional distribution of an ancient Y-chromosome haplogroup C-M130 (Hg C) in Asia provides an ideal tool of dissecting prehistoric migration events. We identified 465 Hg C individuals out of 4284 males from 140 East and Southeast Asian populations. We genotyped these Hg C individuals using 12 Y-chromosome biallelic markers and 8 commonly used Y-short tandem repeats (Y-STRs), and performed phylogeographic analysis in combination with the published data. The results show that most of the Hg C subhaplogroups have distinct geographical distribution and have undergone long-time isolation, although Hg C individuals are distributed widely across Eurasia. Furthermore, a general south-to-north and east-to-west cline of Y-STR diversity is observed with the highest diversity in Southeast Asia. The phylogeographic distribution pattern of Hg C supports a single coastal 'Out-of-Africa' route by way of the Indian subcontinent, which eventually led to the early settlement of modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia. The northward expansion of Hg C in East Asia started approximately 40 thousand of years ago (KYA) along the coastline of mainland China and reached Siberia approximately 15 KYA and finally made its way to the Americas.

  8. Limits of social mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Alex; Cebrian, Manuel; Dsouza, Sohan; Moro, Esteban; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad

    2013-01-01

    The Internet and social media have enabled the mobilization of large crowds to achieve time-critical feats, ranging from mapping crises in real time, to organizing mass rallies, to conducting search-and-rescue operations over large geographies. Despite significant success, selection bias may lead to inflated expectations of the efficacy of social mobilization for these tasks. What are the limits of social mobilization, and how reliable is it in operating at these limits? We build on recent results on the spatiotemporal structure of social and information networks to elucidate the constraints they pose on social mobilization. We use the DARPA Network Challenge as our working scenario, in which social media were used to locate 10 balloons across the United States. We conduct high-resolution simulations for referral-based crowdsourcing and obtain a statistical characterization of the population recruited, geography covered, and time to completion. Our results demonstrate that the outcome is plausible without the presence of mass media but lies at the limit of what time-critical social mobilization can achieve. Success relies critically on highly connected individuals willing to mobilize people in distant locations, overcoming the local trapping of diffusion in highly dense areas. However, even under these highly favorable conditions, the risk of unsuccessful search remains significant. These findings have implications for the design of better incentive schemes for social mobilization. They also call for caution in estimating the reliability of this capability. PMID:23576719

  9. Mobile Sensing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high. PMID:24351637

  10. Mobile sensing systems.

    PubMed

    Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-12-16

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high.

  11. Limits of social mobilization.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Alex; Cebrian, Manuel; Dsouza, Sohan; Moro, Esteban; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad

    2013-04-16

    The Internet and social media have enabled the mobilization of large crowds to achieve time-critical feats, ranging from mapping crises in real time, to organizing mass rallies, to conducting search-and-rescue operations over large geographies. Despite significant success, selection bias may lead to inflated expectations of the efficacy of social mobilization for these tasks. What are the limits of social mobilization, and how reliable is it in operating at these limits? We build on recent results on the spatiotemporal structure of social and information networks to elucidate the constraints they pose on social mobilization. We use the DARPA Network Challenge as our working scenario, in which social media were used to locate 10 balloons across the United States. We conduct high-resolution simulations for referral-based crowdsourcing and obtain a statistical characterization of the population recruited, geography covered, and time to completion. Our results demonstrate that the outcome is plausible without the presence of mass media but lies at the limit of what time-critical social mobilization can achieve. Success relies critically on highly connected individuals willing to mobilize people in distant locations, overcoming the local trapping of diffusion in highly dense areas. However, even under these highly favorable conditions, the risk of unsuccessful search remains significant. These findings have implications for the design of better incentive schemes for social mobilization. They also call for caution in estimating the reliability of this capability.

  12. Mobile sociology. 2000.

    PubMed

    Urry, John

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to develop a manifesto for a sociology concerned with the diverse mobilities of peoples, objects, images, information, and wastes; and of the complex interdependencies between, and social consequences of, such diverse mobilities. A number of key concepts relevant for such a sociology are elaborated: 'gamekeeping', networks, fluids, scapes, flows, complexity and iteration. The article concludes by suggesting that a 'global civil society' might constitute the social base of a sociology of mobilities as we move into the twenty-first century.

  13. Land mobile satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesling, John D.

    1990-07-01

    The general advantages and potential operating characteristics of the mobile satellite service (MSS) are described, and distinctions are made between radio telephone, which is interconnected to the public switched telephone network, and private mobile radio systems. Mobile satellite service offers voice, data, position location, and paging services, interconnection to the public switched telephone network, and the possibility of private networks. Performance and cost characteristics are given along with summaries of market needs and market demands. The space and ground systems of the MSS are described.

  14. Persuasive Mobile Health Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Wylie, Carlos; Coulton, Paul

    With many industrialized societies bearing the cost of an increasingly sedentary lifestyle on the health of their populations there is a need to find new ways of encouraging physical activity to promote better health and well being. With the increasing power of mobile phones and the recent emergence of personal heart rate monitors, aimed at dedicated amateur runners, there is now a possibility to develop “Persuasive Mobile Health Applications” to promote well being through the use of real-time physiological data and persuade users to adopt a healthier lifestyle. In this paper we present a novel general health monitoring software for mobile phones called Heart Angel. This software is aimed at helping users monitor, record, as well as improve their fitness level through built-in cardio-respiratory tests, a location tracking application for analyzing heart rate exertion over time and location, and a fun mobile-exergame called Health Defender.

  15. Mobile Tools | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    These mobile resources can help you quit when you're on the go. SmokefreeTXT SmokefreeTXT is a mobile text messaging service designed for adults across the United States who are trying to quit smoking. The program offers 24/7 encouragement, advice, and tips to help smokers quit smoking and stay quit. If you are interested in signing up, fill out this form.

  16. Stem cell mobilization.

    PubMed

    Cottler-Fox, Michele H; Lapidot, Tsvee; Petit, Isabelle; Kollet, Orit; DiPersio, John F; Link, Dan; Devine, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Successful blood and marrow transplant (BMT), both autologous and allogeneic, requires the infusion of a sufficient number of hematopoietic progenitor/stem cells (HPCs) capable of homing to the marrow cavity and regenerating a full array of hematopoietic cell lineages in a timely fashion. At present, the most commonly used surrogate marker for HPCs is the cell surface marker CD34, identified in the clinical laboratory by flow cytometry. Clinical studies have shown that infusion of at least 2 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg recipient body weight results in reliable engraftment as measured by recovery of adequate neutrophil and platelet counts approximately 14 days after transplant. Recruitment of HPCs from the marrow into the blood is termed mobilization, or, more commonly, stem cell mobilization. In Section I, Dr. Tsvee Lapidot and colleagues review the wide range of factors influencing stem cell mobilization. Our current understanding focuses on chemokines, proteolytic enzymes, adhesion molecules, cytokines and stromal cell-stem cell interactions. On the basis of this understanding, new approaches to mobilization have been designed and are now starting to undergo clinical testing. In Section II, Dr. Michele Cottler-Fox describes factors predicting the ability to mobilize the older patient with myeloma. In addition, clinical approaches to improving collection by individualizing the timing of apheresis and adjusting the volume of blood processed to achieve a desired product are discussed. Key to this process is the daily enumeration of blood CD34(+) cells. Newer methods of enumerating and mobilizing autologous blood HPCs are discussed. In Section III, Dr. John DiPersio and colleagues provide data on clinical results of mobilizing allogeneic donors with G-CSF, GM-CSF and the combination of both as relates to the number and type of cells collected by apheresis. Newer methods of stem cell mobilization as well as the relationship of graft composition on immune reconstitution

  17. Mobile Christian - shuttle flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Louis Stork, 13, and Erin Whittle, 14, look on as Brianna Johnson, 14, conducts a 'test' of a space shuttle main engine in the Test Control Center exhibit in StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Miss. The young people were part of a group from Mobile Christian School in Mobile, Ala., that visited StenniSphere on April 21.

  18. Mobile multiple access study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

  19. Early agriculture and crop transmission among Bronze Age mobile pastoralists of Central Eurasia

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, Robert; Frachetti, Michael; Doumani, Paula; Rouse, Lynne; Cerasetti, Barbara; Bullion, Elissa; Mar'yashev, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological research in Central Eurasia is exposing unprecedented scales of trans-regional interaction and technology transfer between East Asia and southwest Asia deep into the prehistoric past. This article presents a new archaeobotanical analysis from pastoralist campsites in the mountain and desert regions of Central Eurasia that documents the oldest known evidence for domesticated grains and farming among seasonally mobile herders. Carbonized grains from the sites of Tasbas and Begash illustrate the first transmission of southwest Asian and East Asian domesticated grains into the mountains of Inner Asia in the early third millennium BC. By the middle second millennium BC, seasonal camps in the mountains and deserts illustrate that Eurasian herders incorporated the cultivation of millet, wheat, barley and legumes into their subsistence strategy. These findings push back the chronology for domesticated plant use among Central Eurasian pastoralists by approximately 2000 years. Given the geography, chronology and seed morphology of these data, we argue that mobile pastoralists were key agents in the spread of crop repertoires and the transformation of agricultural economies across Asia from the third to the second millennium BC. PMID:24695428

  20. The first New Zealanders: patterns of diet and mobility revealed through isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Kinaston, Rebecca L; Walter, Richard K; Jacomb, Chris; Brooks, Emma; Tayles, Nancy; Halcrow, Sian E; Stirling, Claudine; Reid, Malcolm; Gray, Andrew R; Spinks, Jean; Shaw, Ben; Fyfe, Roger; Buckley, Hallie R

    2013-01-01

    Direct evidence of the environmental impact of human colonization and subsequent human adaptational responses to new environments is extremely rare anywhere in the world. New Zealand was the last Polynesian island group to be settled by humans, who arrived around the end of the 13th century AD. Little is known about the nature of human adaptation and mobility during the initial phase of colonization. We report the results of the isotopic analysis (carbon, nitrogen and strontium) of the oldest prehistoric skeletons discovered in New Zealand to assess diet and migration patterns. The isotope data show that the culturally distinctive burials, Group 1, had similar diets and childhood origins, supporting the assertion that this group was distinct from Group 2/3 and may have been part of the initial colonizing population at the site. The Group 2/3 individuals displayed highly variable diets and likely lived in different regions of the country before their burial at Wairau Bar, supporting the archaeological evidence that people were highly mobile in New Zealand since the initial phase of human settlement.

  1. The First New Zealanders: Patterns of Diet and Mobility Revealed through Isotope Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kinaston, Rebecca L.; Walter, Richard K.; Jacomb, Chris; Brooks, Emma; Tayles, Nancy; Halcrow, Sian E.; Stirling, Claudine; Reid, Malcolm; Gray, Andrew R.; Spinks, Jean; Shaw, Ben; Fyfe, Roger; Buckley, Hallie R.

    2013-01-01

    Direct evidence of the environmental impact of human colonization and subsequent human adaptational responses to new environments is extremely rare anywhere in the world. New Zealand was the last Polynesian island group to be settled by humans, who arrived around the end of the 13th century AD. Little is known about the nature of human adaptation and mobility during the initial phase of colonization. We report the results of the isotopic analysis (carbon, nitrogen and strontium) of the oldest prehistoric skeletons discovered in New Zealand to assess diet and migration patterns. The isotope data show that the culturally distinctive burials, Group 1, had similar diets and childhood origins, supporting the assertion that this group was distinct from Group 2/3 and may have been part of the initial colonizing population at the site. The Group 2/3 individuals displayed highly variable diets and likely lived in different regions of the country before their burial at Wairau Bar, supporting the archaeological evidence that people were highly mobile in New Zealand since the initial phase of human settlement. PMID:23691250

  2. Early agriculture and crop transmission among Bronze Age mobile pastoralists of Central Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Spengler, Robert; Frachetti, Michael; Doumani, Paula; Rouse, Lynne; Cerasetti, Barbara; Bullion, Elissa; Mar'yashev, Alexei

    2014-05-22

    Archaeological research in Central Eurasia is exposing unprecedented scales of trans-regional interaction and technology transfer between East Asia and southwest Asia deep into the prehistoric past. This article presents a new archaeobotanical analysis from pastoralist campsites in the mountain and desert regions of Central Eurasia that documents the oldest known evidence for domesticated grains and farming among seasonally mobile herders. Carbonized grains from the sites of Tasbas and Begash illustrate the first transmission of southwest Asian and East Asian domesticated grains into the mountains of Inner Asia in the early third millennium BC. By the middle second millennium BC, seasonal camps in the mountains and deserts illustrate that Eurasian herders incorporated the cultivation of millet, wheat, barley and legumes into their subsistence strategy. These findings push back the chronology for domesticated plant use among Central Eurasian pastoralists by approximately 2000 years. Given the geography, chronology and seed morphology of these data, we argue that mobile pastoralists were key agents in the spread of crop repertoires and the transformation of agricultural economies across Asia from the third to the second millennium BC.

  3. Mobility decline in old age.

    PubMed

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna; Rantanen, Taina

    2013-01-01

    Mobility is important for community independence. With increasing age, underlying pathologies, genetic vulnerabilities, physiological and sensory impairments, and environmental barriers increase the risk for mobility decline. Understanding how mobility declines is paramount to finding ways to promote mobility in old age.

  4. Mobile medical image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Samuel; Depeursinge, Adrien; Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

    2011-03-01

    Images are an integral part of medical practice for diagnosis, treatment planning and teaching. Image retrieval has gained in importance mainly as a research domain over the past 20 years. Both textual and visual retrieval of images are essential. In the process of mobile devices becoming reliable and having a functionality equaling that of formerly desktop clients, mobile computing has gained ground and many applications have been explored. This creates a new field of mobile information search & access and in this context images can play an important role as they often allow understanding complex scenarios much quicker and easier than free text. Mobile information retrieval in general has skyrocketed over the past year with many new applications and tools being developed and all sorts of interfaces being adapted to mobile clients. This article describes constraints of an information retrieval system including visual and textual information retrieval from the medical literature of BioMedCentral and of the RSNA journals Radiology and Radiographics. Solutions for mobile data access with an example on an iPhone in a web-based environment are presented as iPhones are frequently used and the operating system is bound to become the most frequent smartphone operating system in 2011. A web-based scenario was chosen to allow for a use by other smart phone platforms such as Android as well. Constraints of small screens and navigation with touch screens are taken into account in the development of the application. A hybrid choice had to be taken to allow for taking pictures with the cell phone camera and upload them for visual similarity search as most producers of smart phones block this functionality to web applications. Mobile information access and in particular access to images can be surprisingly efficient and effective on smaller screens. Images can be read on screen much faster and relevance of documents can be identified quickly through the use of images contained in

  5. Characterisation of Organic Matter Preserved in Earths Using Micromorphological and Chemical Analysis. Initial Results from Two Prehistoric French Sites : Les Bossats and Régismont-le-Haut.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejay, Mathieu; Alexis, Marie; Quenea, Katell; Sellami, Farid; Bodu, Pierre; Naton, Henri-Georges; Vassiliu, Ligia; Dumarçay, Gaëlle; Bon, François; Mensan, Romain

    2014-05-01

    The Upper Paleolithic (ca. 40 - 10 Ka BP) of Western Europe coincides with the emergence of what are often termed "fully modern" human cultures in a glacial environment (Late Pleistocene, Weichselian glaciation). During this period the increasing structuration of living-spaces, as well as favorable preservational contexts, allows for the investigation of the spatial organization of habitats. Within this field of research hearths have traditionally played a key interpretational role through the use of ethnographic analogy. While such analyses do provide reasonable hypotheses little is known about the precise use and function of hearths during remote prehistory and thus such analogies should be treated prudently.. Using two open-air sites currently being excavated in France, Régismont-le-Haut (Aurignacian) and Les Bossats (Gravettian), we applied a multi-scale and multi-step analysis to a sample of prehistoric hearths. The main objectives of this study were to underline mechanisms involved in the conservation (taphonomic processes) and the operation (anthropogenic technical processes) of these structures. Ultimately, the aim is both a chronological and evidence based palethnological interpretation of these remains through the integration of our results with ongoing research at sites. As hearths are a ubiquitous archaeological feature spanning a multiplicity of contexts and variables, we concentrated here only on those affected by organic matter conservation in the hopes of revealing activities previously invisible to standard archaeological investigation. Field observations of these hearths show the preservation of structured organic matter (eg. charcoal, burned bones) and in some cases a darkening of the associated sediments.. Micromorphological and experimental investigations led to the attribution of this to an impregnation by amorphous organic matter in a semi-liquid state as it percolates through sediments. Microcontextual observations confirm the in

  6. Late Archaic-Late Woodland adaptive stability and change in the Steel Creek watershed, South Carolina: Final report of the L-Lake prehistoric investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, M.J.; Hanson, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    This report documents the research conducted in conjunction with the excavation of four prehistoric archaeological sites (38BR259, 38BR495, 38BR527 and 38BR528) on the Upper Coastal Plain of the South Atlantic Slope in South Carolina. These predominantly Woodland period sites are located on the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant (SRP) in the L-Lake area of the Steel Creek watershed. The L-Lake area was surveyed during four different phases of research conducted by the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology. The second survey of the area was part of a 40% sample of the SRP, stratified by watersheds. This on-going, multi-year survey, completed in 1986, was implemented in order to inventory and assess the cultural resources contained in the SRP and to provide the SRP with a culture resource synthesis and management plan. The intensive survey of Steel Creek was conducted during 1981 and 1982. However, because portions of the L-Lake area were not included in the sample, no sites pertinent to this report were located. The third survey, which culminated in the present research effort, resulted from a project that began in 1980 when the Department of Energy initiated the reactivation of the L Reactor. The reactivation plan prescribed an increased discharge of thermal water. Consequently, in 1980 the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) was contracted to conduct an intensive archaeological survey of the Steel Creek terrace edge and bottomland as an initial step geared toward the mitigation of the effects of thermal water discharge on archaeological sites that would result from the restart of the L-Area Reactor. 204 refs.

  7. Efficient Mobility Management Signalling in Network Mobility Supported PMIPV6.

    PubMed

    Samuelraj, Ananthi Jebaseeli; Jayapal, Sundararajan

    2015-01-01

    Proxy Mobile IPV6 (PMIPV6) is a network based mobility management protocol which supports node's mobility without the contribution from the respective mobile node. PMIPV6 is initially designed to support individual node mobility and it should be enhanced to support mobile network movement. NEMO-BSP is an existing protocol to support network mobility (NEMO) in PMIPV6 network. Due to the underlying differences in basic protocols, NEMO-BSP cannot be directly applied to PMIPV6 network. Mobility management signaling and data structures used for individual node's mobility should be modified to support group nodes' mobility management efficiently. Though a lot of research work is in progress to implement mobile network movement in PMIPV6, it is not yet standardized and each suffers with different shortcomings. This research work proposes modifications in NEMO-BSP and PMIPV6 to achieve NEMO support in PMIPV6. It mainly concentrates on optimizing the number and size of mobility signaling exchanged while mobile network or mobile network node changes its access point.

  8. Efficient Mobility Management Signalling in Network Mobility Supported PMIPV6

    PubMed Central

    Jebaseeli Samuelraj, Ananthi; Jayapal, Sundararajan

    2015-01-01

    Proxy Mobile IPV6 (PMIPV6) is a network based mobility management protocol which supports node's mobility without the contribution from the respective mobile node. PMIPV6 is initially designed to support individual node mobility and it should be enhanced to support mobile network movement. NEMO-BSP is an existing protocol to support network mobility (NEMO) in PMIPV6 network. Due to the underlying differences in basic protocols, NEMO-BSP cannot be directly applied to PMIPV6 network. Mobility management signaling and data structures used for individual node's mobility should be modified to support group nodes' mobility management efficiently. Though a lot of research work is in progress to implement mobile network movement in PMIPV6, it is not yet standardized and each suffers with different shortcomings. This research work proposes modifications in NEMO-BSP and PMIPV6 to achieve NEMO support in PMIPV6. It mainly concentrates on optimizing the number and size of mobility signaling exchanged while mobile network or mobile network node changes its access point. PMID:26366431

  9. Mobile propeller dynamometer validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Mason Wade

    With growing interest in UAVs and OSU's interest in propeller performance and manufacturing, evaluating UAV propeller and propulsion system performance has become essential. In attempts to evaluate these propellers a mobile propeller dynamometer has been designed, built, and tested. The mobile dyno has been designed to be cost effective through the ability to load it into the back of a test vehicle to create simulated forward flight characteristics. This allows much larger propellers to be dynamically tested without the use of large and expensive wind tunnels. While evaluating the accuracy of the dyno, several improvements had to be made to get accurate results. The decisions made to design and improve the mobile propeller dyno will be discussed along with attempts to validate the dyno by comparing its results against known sources. Another large part of assuring the accuracy of the mobile dyno is determining if the test vehicle will influence the flow going into the propellers being tested. The flow into the propeller needs to be as smooth and uniform as possible. This is determined by characterizing the boundary layer and accelerated flow over the vehicle. This evaluation was accomplished with extensive vehicle aerodynamic measurements with the use of full-scale tests using a pitot-rake and the actual test vehicle. Additional tests were conducted in Oklahoma State University's low speed wind tunnel with a 1/8-scale model using qualitative flow visualization with smoke. Continuing research on the mobile dyno will be discussed, along with other potential uses for the dyno.

  10. Autonomous mobile communication relays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Everett, Hobart R.; Manouk, Narek; Verma, Ambrish

    2002-07-01

    Maintaining a solid radio communication link between a mobile robot entering a building and an external base station is a well-recognized problem. Modern digital radios, while affording high bandwidth and Internet-protocol-based automatic routing capabilities, tend to operate on line-of-sight links. The communication link degrades quickly as a robot penetrates deeper into the interior of a building. This project investigates the use of mobile autonomous communication relay nodes to extend the effective range of a mobile robot exploring a complex interior environment. Each relay node is a small mobile slave robot equipped with sonar, ladar, and 802.11b radio repeater. For demonstration purposes, four Pioneer 2-DX robots are used as autonomous mobile relays, with SSC-San Diego's ROBART III acting as the lead robot. The relay robots follow the lead robot into a building and are automatically deployed at various locations to maintain a networked communication link back to the remote operator. With their on-board external sensors, they also act as rearguards to secure areas already explored by the lead robot. As the lead robot advances and RF shortcuts are detected, relay nodes that become unnecessary will be reclaimed and reused, all transparent to the operator. This project takes advantage of recent research results from several DARPA-funded tasks at various institutions in the areas of robotic simulation, ad hoc wireless networking, route planning, and navigation. This paper describes the progress of the first six months of the project.

  11. Mobile systems capability plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This plan was prepared to initiate contracting for and deployment of these mobile system services. 102,000 cubic meters of retrievable, contact-handled TRU waste are stored at many sites around the country. Also, an estimated 38,000 cubic meters of TRU waste will be generated in the course of waste inventory workoff and continuing DOE operations. All the defense TRU waste is destined for disposal in WIPP near Carlsbad NM. To ship TRU waste there, sites must first certify that the waste meets WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The waste must be characterized, and if not acceptable, subjected to additional processing, including repackaging. Most sites plan to use existing fixed facilities or open new ones between FY1997-2006 to perform these functions; small-quantity sites lack this capability. An alternative to fixed facilities is the use of mobile systems mounted in trailers or skids, and transported to sites. Mobile systems will be used for all characterization and certification at small sites; large sites can also use them. The Carlsbad Area Office plans to pursue a strategy of privatization of mobile system services, since this offers a number of advantages. To indicate the possible magnitude of the costs of deploying mobile systems, preliminary estimates of equipment, maintenance, and operating costs over a 10-year period were prepared and options for purchase, lease, and privatization through fixed-price contracts considered.

  12. Mobile Phone Terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, an employee of a real estate firm is contacting his office by means of HICOM, an advanced central terminal for mobile telephones. Developed by the Orlando Division of Martin Marietta Aerospace, Orlando, Florida, and manufactured by Harris Corporation's RF Division, Rochester, N.Y., HICOM upgrades service to users, provides better system management to telephone companies, and makes more efficient use of available mobile telephone channels through a computerized central control terminal. The real estate man, for example, was able to dial his office and he could also have direct-dialed a long distance number. Mobile phones in most areas not yet served by HICOM require an operator's assistance for both local and long distance calls. HICOM improves system management by automatically recording information on all calls for accurate billing, running continual performance checks on its own operation, and reporting any malfunctions to a central office.

  13. Mobility of plasmids.

    PubMed

    Smillie, Chris; Garcillán-Barcia, M Pilar; Francia, M Victoria; Rocha, Eduardo P C; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2010-09-01

    Plasmids are key vectors of horizontal gene transfer and essential genetic engineering tools. They code for genes involved in many aspects of microbial biology, including detoxication, virulence, ecological interactions, and antibiotic resistance. While many studies have decorticated the mechanisms of mobility in model plasmids, the identification and characterization of plasmid mobility from genome data are unexplored. By reviewing the available data and literature, we established a computational protocol to identify and classify conjugation and mobilization genetic modules in 1,730 plasmids. This allowed the accurate classification of proteobacterial conjugative or mobilizable systems in a combination of four mating pair formation and six relaxase families. The available evidence suggests that half of the plasmids are nonmobilizable and that half of the remaining plasmids are conjugative. Some conjugative systems are much more abundant than others and preferably associated with some clades or plasmid sizes. Most very large plasmids are nonmobilizable, with evidence of ongoing domestication into secondary chromosomes. The evolution of conjugation elements shows ancient divergence between mobility systems, with relaxases and type IV coupling proteins (T4CPs) often following separate paths from type IV secretion systems. Phylogenetic patterns of mobility proteins are consistent with the phylogeny of the host prokaryotes, suggesting that plasmid mobility is in general circumscribed within large clades. Our survey suggests the existence of unsuspected new relaxases in archaea and new conjugation systems in cyanobacteria and actinobacteria. Few genes, e.g., T4CPs, relaxases, and VirB4, are at the core of plasmid conjugation, and together with accessory genes, they have evolved into specific systems adapted to specific physiological and ecological contexts.

  14. Mobile transporter path planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baffes, Paul; Wang, Lui

    1990-01-01

    The use of a genetic algorithm (GA) for solving the mobile transporter path planning problem is investigated. The mobile transporter is a traveling robotic vehicle proposed for the space station which must be able to reach any point of the structure autonomously. Elements of the genetic algorithm are explored in both a theoretical and experimental sense. Specifically, double crossover, greedy crossover, and tournament selection techniques are examined. Additionally, the use of local optimization techniques working in concert with the GA are also explored. Recent developments in genetic algorithm theory are shown to be particularly effective in a path planning problem domain, though problem areas can be cited which require more research.

  15. The Space Mobile Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, David

    2017-01-01

    The definition and development of the next generation space communications and navigation architecture is underway. The primary goals are to remove communications and navigations constraints from missions and to enable increased autonomy. The Space Mobile Network (SMN) is an architectural concept that includes new technology and operations that will provide flight systems with an similar user experience to terrestrial wireless mobile networks. This talk will describe the SMN and its proposed new features, such as Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN), optical communications, and User Initiated Services (UIS).

  16. Land mobile communications satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnebianca, C.; Pavesi, B.; Tuozzi, A.

    1986-09-01

    The economic value and salient technical and operational characteristics of a European Land Mobile Communication Satellite (LMCS) to complement and supplement the demand for mobile services of Western European countries in the 1995 to 2005 time frames were assessed. A significant future expansion of demand for LCMS services on the part of the public is anticipated. Important augmentations of current service capabilities could be achieved by a satellite service, improving the overall system performances and/or assisting the PTT's in containing their investments in the required infrastructure. The satellite service itself could represent a profitable revenue producer.

  17. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  18. Correlation ion mobility spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rohde, Steven B.

    2008-08-26

    Correlation ion mobility spectrometry (CIMS) uses gating modulation and correlation signal processing to improve IMS instrument performance. Closely spaced ion peaks can be resolved by adding discriminating codes to the gate and matched filtering for the received ion current signal, thereby improving sensitivity and resolution of an ion mobility spectrometer. CIMS can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio even for transient chemical samples. CIMS is especially advantageous for small geometry IMS drift tubes that can otherwise have poor resolution due to their small size.

  19. Mobile physician order entry.

    PubMed

    Ying, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Because both computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems and mobile technologies such as handheld devices have the potential to greatly impact the industry's future, IT vendors, hospitals, and clinicians are simply merging them into a logical convergence--"CPOE on a handheld"--with an expectation of full functionality on all platforms: computer workstations, rolling laptops, tablet PCs, and handheld devices. For these trends to succeed together, however, this expectation must be revised to establish a distinct category--mobile physician order entry (MPOE)--that is different from CPOE in form, function, and implementation.

  20. An aeronautical mobile satellite experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedrey, T. C.; Dessouky, K. I.; Lay, N. E.

    1990-01-01

    The various activities and findings of a NASA/FAA/COMSAT/INMARSAT collaborative aeronautical mobile satellite experiment are detailed. The primary objective of the experiment was to demonstrate and evaluate an advanced digital mobile satellite terminal developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under the NASA Mobile Satellite Program. The experiment was a significant milestone for NASA/JPL, since it was the first test of the mobile terminal in a true mobile satellite environment. The results were also of interest to the general mobile satellite community because of the advanced nature of the technologies employed in the terminal.

  1. Distributed Mobility Management Scheme for Mobile IPv6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakikawa, Ryuji; Valadon, Guillaume; Shigechika, Noriyuki; Murai, Jun

    Mobile IPv6 and Network Mobility (NEMO) have been standardized as IP extensions. While these technologies are planned to be adopted by several communities, such as the vehicle, aviation, and cellular industries, Mobile IPv6 has serious deployment issues such as scalability, protocol resilience, and redundancy. In these technologies, a special router called a home agent is introduced to support the movement of mobile nodes. This home agent introduces overlapping, inefficient routes, and becomes a single point of failure and a performance bottleneck. In this paper, a new concept for scalable and dependable mobility management scheme is proposed. Multiple home agents serve the same set of mobile nodes. The Home Agent Reliability protocol and Home Agent migration are introduced to achieve this concept. We also propose an overlay network named a Global Mobile eXchange (GMX) that efficiently handles data traffic from and to mobile nodes, and operates home agents as would an Internet eXchange Point (IXP).

  2. Dental wear patterns in early modern humans from Skhul and Qafzeh: A response to Sarig and Tillier.

    PubMed

    Fiorenza, Luca; Kullmer, Ottmar

    2015-10-01

    The use of teeth as tools for manipulating objects and simple food-processing methods was common among prehistoric and modern hunter-gatherer human populations. Paramasticatory uses of teeth frequently produce enamel chipping and distinctive types of dental wear that can readily be related to specific tool functions. In particular, the presence of unusual occlusal wear areas (named para-facets) on maxillary teeth of prehistoric, historic and modern hunter-gatherers has been associated with cultural habits involving extensive use of teeth (Fiorenza et al., 2011; Fiorenza and Kullmer, 2013). However, Sarig and Tillier (2014) believe that this wear had been caused by pathological occlusal relationships rather than by the use of teeth as tools. In this contribution, we show how occlusal contacts are created and how it is possible to distinguish between masticatory and non-masticatory wear facets by using an innovative digital approach called Occlusal Fingerprint Analysis. Statistical results from the analysis of comparative modern samples clearly demonstrate that described para-facets in Skhul and Qafzeh could not have been produced by dental occlusal anomalies such as malocclusions and crossbites. Moreover, dental pathologies in prehistoric humans were extremely rare. Only with the adoption of the modern lifestyle between 18th and 19th centuries, did the emergence of malocclusions become significantly more common. Because more than 50% of the Skhul and Qafzeh individuals analysed in our study are characterised by this distinctive type of wear, it is highly unlikely that their para-facets occurred as a result of dental pathologies.

  3. Indigenization of urban mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zimo; Lian, Defu; Yuan, Nicholas Jing; Xie, Xing; Rui, Yong; Zhou, Tao

    2017-03-01

    The identification of urban mobility patterns is very important for predicting and controlling spatial events. In this study, we analyzed millions of geographical check-ins crawled from a leading Chinese location-based social networking service (Jiepang.com), which contains demographic information that facilitates group-specific studies. We determined the distinct mobility patterns of natives and non-natives in all five large cities that we considered. We used a mixed method to assign different algorithms to natives and non-natives, which greatly improved the accuracy of location prediction compared with the basic algorithms. We also propose so-called indigenization coefficients to quantify the extent to which an individual behaves like a native, which depends only on their check-in behavior, rather than requiring demographic information. Surprisingly, the hybrid algorithm weighted using the indigenization coefficients outperformed a mixed algorithm that used additional demographic information, suggesting the advantage of behavioral data in characterizing individual mobility compared with the demographic information. The present location prediction algorithms can find applications in urban planning, traffic forecasting, mobile recommendation, and so on.

  4. Mobile Learning for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bestwick, Angel; Campbell, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Parents and educational professionals are asking the question, "Are schools preparing students for their future lives?" Mobile technologies such as smart phones, iPods, GPS systems, iPads, and a constant stream of information drive much of people's world and work. The use of such technologies increases with each passing day. But how often do…

  5. Mathematics and Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayed, Fayez

    2015-01-01

    The wide range of Mathematical Apps targeting different mathematical concepts and the various types of mobile devices available present a demanding and challenging problem to the teaching and learning in the field of mathematics. In an attempt to address this issue, a few Apps were selected, implemented and tested in this work. [For complete…

  6. Mobile Equipment Expands Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGough, Robert L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes the Mobile Equipment Modules (MEM) system in Duluth, Minnesota. MEM is a way to hold down costs and increase learning opportunities by consolidating purchases of expensive shop equipment within the school district, grouping the equipment in modules, and scheduling and moving it from school to school as needed. (MF)

  7. Developing Mobile Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Florence; Pastore, Raymond; Snider, Jean

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an instructional design class's experience developing instruction for the mobile web. The class was taught at a southeastern university in the United States in a master's level computer based instruction course. Two example projects are showcased and student reflections on design issues are highlighted. Additionally,…

  8. Mobile automatic metabolic analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bynum, B. G.; Currie, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    Two flexible pipes, attached to face mask, are connected to spirometers in mobile cart. Inhaled air volume is measured as it is drawn from one spirometer, and exhaled air volume is measured as it is breathed into second spirometer. Sensor is used to monitor heartbeat rate.

  9. Spousal Mobility and Earnings

    PubMed Central

    MCKINNISH, TERRA

    2008-01-01

    An important finding in the literature on migration has been that the earnings of married women typically decrease with a move, while the earnings of married men often increase with a move, suggesting that married women are more likely to act as the “trailing spouse.” This article considers a related but largely unexplored question: what is the effect of having an occupation that is associated with frequent migration on the migration decisions of a household and on the earnings of the spouse? Further, how do these effects differ between men and women? The Public Use Microdata Sample from the 2000 U.S. decennial census is used to calculate migration rates by occupation and education. The analysis estimates the effects of these occupational mobility measures on the migration of couples and the earnings of married individuals. I find that migration rates in both the husband’s and wife’s occupations affect the household migration decision, but mobility in the husband’s occupation matters considerably more. For couples in which the husband has a college degree (regardless of the wife’s educational level), a husband’s mobility has a large, significant negative effect on his wife’s earnings, whereas a wife’s mobility has no effect on her husband’s earnings. This negative effect does not exist for college-educated wives married to non-college-educated husbands. PMID:19110900

  10. Mathematics and Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Tobin; Martin, Lee

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues for an approach to mobile learning that leverages students' informal digital practices as resources for designing mathematics classrooms activities. We briefly describe two exploratory designs along these lines, one featuring the use of photos taken by students outside class and the other centered on their recording and…

  11. Mobile lighting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  12. The Uranus Mobile Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Schematics 26 Wi List of Figures 1 Neptune and Pluto .. .. .. .. .. ... .. ... ... ... ... .... 2 2 Uranus...began building our first mobile robot, Pluto (see Figure 1 a). We envisioned Pluto as the ultimate indoor robot within the grasp of current technology...smooth arced trajectory while rotating about its center. This omni-directionality combined with very precise positioning would allow Pluto to easily

  13. Gridless Overtone Mobility Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, Steven M.; Ewing, Michael A.; Clemmer, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A novel overtone mobility spectrometry (OMS) instrument utilizing a gridless elimination mechanism and cooperative radio frequency confinement is described. The gridless elimination region uses a set of mobility-discriminating radial electric fields that are designed so that the frequency of field application results in selective transmission and elimination of ions. To neutralize ions with mobilities that do not match the field application frequency, active elimination regions radially defocus ions towards the lens walls. Concomitantly, a lens-dependent radio frequency waveform is applied to the transmission regions of the drift tube resulting in radial confinement for mobility-matched ions. Compared with prior techniques, which use many grids for ion elimination, the new gridless configuration substantially reduces indiscriminate ion losses. A description of the apparatus and elimination process, including detailed simulations showing how ions are transmitted and eliminated is presented. A prototype 28 cm long OMS instrument is shown to have a resolving power of 20 and is capable of attomole detection limits of a model peptide (angiotensin I) spiked into a complex mixture (in this case peptides generated from digestion of β-casein with trypsin). PMID:24125033

  14. ORION mobile unit design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunn, D. L.; Wu, S. C.; Thom, E. H.; Mclaughlin, F. D.; Sweetser, B. M.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the design of the ORION mobile system is presented. System capability and performance characteristics are outlined. Functional requirements and key performance parameters are stated for each of the nine subsystems. A master design and implementation schedule is given.

  15. Mobile Applications for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…

  16. Autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Mattaboni, P.J.

    1987-01-20

    This patent describes a mobile robot of the type having (a) a vision system, (b) memory means for storing data derived from the robot vision system, and (c) a computer for processing data derived from the robot's vision system, the improvement wherein the robot's vision system comprises (i) a first array of ranging transducers for obtaining data on the position and distance of far objects in a volume of space, the transducers of the first array being symmetrically disposed on the mobile robot with respect to an axis of symmetry within the mobile robot. Each transducer of the first array is fixed in position with respect to that axis of symmetry and sees a portion of the volume of space seen by its entire array; (ii) a second array of ranging transducers for obtaining data of the position and distance of near objects in the same or an overlapping volume of space, the transducers of the second array being symmetrically disposed on the mobile robot with respect to the axis of symmetry. Each transducer of the second array is fixed in position with respect to the axis of symmetry and sees a portion of the volume of space seen by its entire array, the angle of view of the transducers of the second array being different from the angle of view of the transducers of the first array with respect to the same object in space; and (iii) means for polling the ranging transducers in sequences determined by the computer.

  17. Mobile PET Center Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhikova, O.; Naumov, N.; Sergienko, V.; Kostylev, V.

    2017-01-01

    Positron emission tomography is the most promising technology to monitor cancer and heart disease treatment. Stationary PET center requires substantial financial resources and time for construction and equipping. The developed mobile solution will allow introducing PET technology quickly without major investments.

  18. A Mobile Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2011-01-01

    Since 2008, when iStanford stormed onto the college scene as the first campus mobile app, schools from Amarillo College (Texas) to Vanderbilt University (Tennessee) have rushed to create their own offerings. Some have elected to do the work in-house; others have licensed the software from a vendor. Still others hope to bottle the same magic that…

  19. The Mobile Costume Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witherspoon, Cindy; Nelson, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties of costume construction for high school theater productions. Advances a plan (and provides a design) for a mobile costume shop which contains the basic needs of a functional costume facility, using only 60 square feet of space. Lists every element and implement needed. (PA)

  20. Mobility platform coupling device and method for coupling mobility platforms

    DOEpatents

    Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.; Buttz, James H.

    2002-01-01

    A coupling device for connecting a first mobility platform to a second mobility platform in tandem. An example mobility platform is a robot. The coupling device has a loose link mode for normal steering conditions and a locking position, tight link mode for navigation across difficult terrain and across obstacles, for traversing chasms, and for navigating with a reduced footprint in tight steering conditions.

  1. Are landslides in the New Madrid Seismic Zone the result of the 1811-1812 earthquake sequence or multiple prehistoric earthquakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, Ryan; Williams, Robert; Jibson, Randall

    2014-05-01

    result from episodic movements associated with a sequence of multiple prehistoric earthquake. This study highlights the value of high-resolution, bare-earth topographic data to investigate the secondary effects of groundshaking in stable continental regions, where primary tectonic deformation associated with large earthquakes is commonly obscure or subtle.

  2. Mobile Source Observation Database (MSOD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Mobile Source Observation Database (MSOD) is a relational database developed by the Assessment and Standards Division (ASD) of the U.S. EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality (formerly the Office of Mobile Sources).

  3. Social Mobility and Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, William H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines data related to social mobility and social participation of Americans. Topics include educational and occupational mobility; voting; volunteer work; charitable giving; community participation; views on religion; and anomie. For journal availability, see SO 506 144. (Author/DB)

  4. Advanced extravehicular mobility unit study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkins, W.

    1982-01-01

    Components of the advanced extravehicular mobility unit (suit) are described. Design considerations for radiation protection, extravehicular operational pressure, mobility effects, tool/glove/effector, anthropometric definition, lighting, and equipment turnaround are addressed.

  5. Agave Chewing and Dental Wear: Evidence from Quids

    PubMed Central

    Hammerl, Emily E.; Baier, Melissa A.; Reinhard, Karl J.

    2015-01-01

    Agave quid chewing is examined as a potential contributing behavior to hunter-gatherer dental wear. It has previously been hypothesized that the contribution of Agave quid chewing to dental wear would be observed in communities wherever phytolith-rich desert succulents were part of subsistence. Previous analysis of coprolites from a prehistoric agricultural site, La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos in Durango, Mexico, showed that Agave was a consistent part of a diverse diet. Therefore, quids recovered at this site ought to be useful materials to test the hypothesis that dental wear was related to desert succulent consumption. The quids recovered from the site were found to be largely derived from chewing Agave. In this study, the quids were found to be especially rich in phytoliths, and analysis of dental casts made from impressions left in the quids revealed flat wear and dental attrition similar to that of Agave-reliant hunter-gatherers. Based on evidence obtained from the analysis of quids, taken in combination with results from previous studies, it is determined that Agave quid chewing was a likely contributing factor to dental wear in this population. As such, our method provides an additional avenue of dental research in areas where quids are present. PMID:26230855

  6. Agave Chewing and Dental Wear: Evidence from Quids.

    PubMed

    Hammerl, Emily E; Baier, Melissa A; Reinhard, Karl J

    2015-01-01

    Agave quid chewing is examined as a potential contributing behavior to hunter-gatherer dental wear. It has previously been hypothesized that the contribution of Agave quid chewing to dental wear would be observed in communities wherever phytolith-rich desert succulents were part of subsistence. Previous analysis of coprolites from a prehistoric agricultural site, La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos in Durango, Mexico, showed that Agave was a consistent part of a diverse diet. Therefore, quids recovered at this site ought to be useful materials to test the hypothesis that dental wear was related to desert succulent consumption. The quids recovered from the site were found to be largely derived from chewing Agave. In this study, the quids were found to be especially rich in phytoliths, and analysis of dental casts made from impressions left in the quids revealed flat wear and dental attrition similar to that of Agave-reliant hunter-gatherers. Based on evidence obtained from the analysis of quids, taken in combination with results from previous studies, it is determined that Agave quid chewing was a likely contributing factor to dental wear in this population. As such, our method provides an additional avenue of dental research in areas where quids are present.

  7. Libraries and the Mobile Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnan, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of mobile phones--and smartphones in particular--people are slowly moving away from the notion that mobile phones are just for making calls and texting. This coupled with the fact that the uptake of mobile phones hit the 5 billion mark in 2010 has spurred many libraries to offer services that can be used by their patrons on these…

  8. Mobile satellite service for Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sward, David

    1988-01-01

    The Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system and a special program designed to provide interim mobile satellite services (IMSS) during the construction phase of MSAT are described. A mobile satellite system is a key element in extending voice and and data telecommunications to all Canadians.

  9. Mobile Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraga, Lucretia M.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method research study investigated the beliefs of university faculty regarding mobile learning. As well as to determine if providing technology professional development to university faculty supports the increase of mobile learning opportunities in higher education. This study used the Beliefs About Mobile Learning Inventory (BAMLI) to…

  10. Long range hopping mobility platform.

    SciTech Connect

    Spletzer, Barry Louis; Fischer, Gary John

    2003-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a mesoscale hopping mobility platform (Hopper) to overcome the longstanding problems of mobility and power in small scale unmanned vehicles. The system provides mobility in situations such as negotiating tall obstacles and rough terrain that are prohibitive for other small ground base vehicles. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Administration (DARPA) provided the funding for the hopper project.

  11. Mobile Technology in Educational Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jueming; Kinshuk

    2005-01-01

    The use of computers and the Internet has successfully enabled educational institutions to provide their students and staff members with various online educational services. With the recent developments in mobile technology, further possibilities are emerging to provide such services through mobile devices such as mobile phones and PDAs. By…

  12. Mobile Multicast in Hierarchical Proxy Mobile IPV6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafizah Mohd Aman, Azana; Hashim, Aisha Hassan A.; Mustafa, Amin; Abdullah, Khaizuran

    2013-12-01

    Mobile Internet Protocol Version 6 (MIPv6) environments have been developing very rapidly. Many challenges arise with the fast progress of MIPv6 technologies and its environment. Therefore the importance of improving the existing architecture and operations increases. One of the many challenges which need to be addressed is the need for performance improvement to support mobile multicast. Numerous approaches have been proposed to improve mobile multicast performance. This includes Context Transfer Protocol (CXTP), Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6), Fast Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) and Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6). This document describes multicast context transfer in hierarchical proxy mobile IPv6 (H-PMIPv6) to provide better multicasting performance in PMIPv6 domain.

  13. Technologies for Prehistoric & Historic Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Archaeological remains and historic structures and landscapes are important tangible reminders of the United States' rich and diverse cultural heritage. In recent years the stresses on these unique, nonrenewable cultural resources have increased dramatically. This report presents the primary findings of an assessment requested by the House of…

  14. Prehistoric deforestation at Chaco Canyon?

    PubMed

    Wills, W H; Drake, Brandon L; Dorshow, Wetherbee B

    2014-08-12

    Ancient societies are often used to illustrate the potential problems stemming from unsustainable land-use practices because the past seems rife with examples of sociopolitical "collapse" associated with the exhaustion of finite resources. Just as frequently, and typically in response to such presentations, archaeologists and other specialists caution against seeking simple cause-and effect-relationships in the complex data that comprise the archaeological record. In this study we examine the famous case of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, during the Bonito Phase (ca. AD 860-1140), which has become a prominent popular illustration of ecological and social catastrophe attributed to deforestation. We conclude that there is no substantive evidence for deforestation at Chaco and no obvious indications that the depopulation of the canyon in the 13th century was caused by any specific cultural practices or natural events. Clearly there was a reason why these farming people eventually moved elsewhere, but the archaeological record has not yet produced compelling empirical evidence for what that reason might have been. Until such evidence appears, the legacy of Ancestral Pueblo society in Chaco should not be used as a cautionary story about socioeconomic failures in the modern world.

  15. Prehistoric deforestation at Chaco Canyon?

    PubMed Central

    Wills, W. H.; Drake, Brandon L.; Dorshow, Wetherbee B.

    2014-01-01

    Ancient societies are often used to illustrate the potential problems stemming from unsustainable land-use practices because the past seems rife with examples of sociopolitical “collapse” associated with the exhaustion of finite resources. Just as frequently, and typically in response to such presentations, archaeologists and other specialists caution against seeking simple cause-and effect-relationships in the complex data that comprise the archaeological record. In this study we examine the famous case of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, during the Bonito Phase (ca. AD 860–1140), which has become a prominent popular illustration of ecological and social catastrophe attributed to deforestation. We conclude that there is no substantive evidence for deforestation at Chaco and no obvious indications that the depopulation of the canyon in the 13th century was caused by any specific cultural practices or natural events. Clearly there was a reason why these farming people eventually moved elsewhere, but the archaeological record has not yet produced compelling empirical evidence for what that reason might have been. Until such evidence appears, the legacy of Ancestral Pueblo society in Chaco should not be used as a cautionary story about socioeconomic failures in the modern world. PMID:25071220

  16. Seed storage oil mobilization.

    PubMed

    Graham, Ian A

    2008-01-01

    Storage oil mobilization starts with the onset of seed germination. Oil bodies packed with triacylglycerol (TAG) exist in close proximity with glyoxysomes, the single membrane-bound organelles that house most of the biochemical machinery required to convert fatty acids derived from TAG to 4-carbon compounds. The 4-carbon compounds in turn are converted to soluble sugars that are used to fuel seedling growth. Biochemical analysis over the last 50 years has identified the main pathways involved in this process, including beta-oxidation, the glyoxylate cycle, and gluconeogenesis. In the last few years molecular genetic dissection of the overall process in the model oilseed species Arabidopsis has provided new insight into its complexity, particularly with respect to the specific role played by individual enzymatic steps and the subcellular compartmentalization of the glyoxylate cycle. Both abscisic acid (ABA) and sugars inhibit storage oil mobilization and a substantial degree of the control appears to operate at the transcriptional level.

  17. Mobile Biomass Pelletizing System

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Mason

    2009-04-16

    This grant project examines multiple aspects of the pelletizing process to determine the feasibility of pelletizing biomass using a mobile form factor system. These aspects are: the automatic adjustment of the die height in a rotary-style pellet mill, the construction of the die head to allow the use of ceramic materials for extreme wear, integrating a heat exchanger network into the entire process from drying to cooling, the use of superheated steam for adjusting the moisture content to optimum, the economics of using diesel power to operate the system; a break-even analysis of estimated fixed operating costs vs. tons per hour capacity. Initial development work has created a viable mechanical model. The overall analysis of this model suggests that pelletizing can be economically done using a mobile platform.

  18. Mobile Autonomous Humanoid Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Tyree, K. S.; Goza, S. M.; Huber, E. L.

    2004-01-01

    A mobile autonomous humanoid robot is assisting human co-workers at the Johnson Space Center with tool handling tasks. This robot combines the upper body of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robonaut system with a Segway(TradeMark) Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid perfect for aiding human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereo vision to locate human team mates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form human assistant behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

  19. Miniaturized Ion Mobility Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaye, William J. (Inventor); Stimac, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    By utilizing the combination of a unique electronic ion injection control circuit in conjunction with a particularly designed drift cell construction, the instantly disclosed ion mobility spectrometer achieves increased levels of sensitivity, while achieving significant reductions in size and weight. The instant IMS is of a much simpler and easy to manufacture design, rugged and hermetically sealed, capable of operation at high temperatures to at least 250.degree. C., and is uniquely sensitive, particularly to explosive chemicals.

  20. Corps Mobilization Posture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    lation. The " one - stop " service concept is fundamental among these elements. Despite what the Corps’ internal structure may be, external customers (e.g...34 one - stop " service dictates that there be a total vertical and lateral communi- cations network between the lead district and all elements that must...should approve the " one - stop " service concept for application to advance mobilization planning and execution. b. COE should approve the concept of MC

  1. Mobile Data Access

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-11

    F19628-93-C-0193, the Intel Corporation, the National Science Foundation, AT&T, and Lucent Technologies . The views and conclusions contained herein...in other locations must resort to some alternative wireless technology ; moving between these technologies yields significant variation. There is one...supporting infrastructure, and poor security and robustness, are inherent to mobile systems and will not be ehminated by technological progress. The

  2. High-mobility diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landstrass, Maurice I.

    1994-04-01

    Recent improvements in the CVD diamond deposition process have made possible the fabrication of diamond photoconductive diodes with carrier mobility and lifetime exceeding the values typical of natural gemstones. One of the more surprising recent results is that the best room-temperature carrier properties have been measured on polycrystalline diamond films. The combined electron- hole mobility, as measured by transient photoconductivity at low carrier densities, is 4000 square centimeters per volt per second at electric field of 200 volts per centimeter and is comparable to that of the best single-crystal IIa natural diamonds. Carrier lifetimes measured under the same conditions are 150 picoseconds for the CVD diamond films. The collection distance within the diamond films, at the highest applied fields, is comparable to the average film grain size, indicative of little or no carrier scattering at grain boundaries. A comparison of SIMS measurements with electrical results suggest that impurity incorporation in the near grain boundary regions are responsible for controlling the carrier mobility.

  3. Mobile EEG in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Askamp, Jessica; van Putten, Michel J A M

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity of routine EEG recordings for interictal epileptiform discharges in epilepsy is limited. In some patients, inpatient video-EEG may be performed to increase the likelihood of finding abnormalities. Although many agree that home EEG recordings may provide a cost-effective alternative to these recordings, their use is still not introduced everywhere. We surveyed Dutch neurologists and patients and evaluated a novel mobile EEG device (Mobita, TMSi). Key specifications were compared with three other current mobile EEG devices. We shortly discuss algorithms to assist in the review process. Thirty percent (33 out of 109) of Dutch neurologists reported that home EEG recordings are used in their hospital. The majority of neurologists think that mobile EEG can have additional value in investigation of unclear paroxysms, but not in the initial diagnosis after a first seizure. Poor electrode contacts and signal quality, limited recording time and absence of software for reliable and effective assistance in the interpretation of EEGs have been important constraints for usage, but in recent devices discussed here, many of these problems have been solved. The majority of our patients were satisfied with the home EEG procedure and did not think that our EEG device was uncomfortable to wear, but they did feel uneasy wearing it in public.

  4. Networking a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Gerard T.

    1994-10-01

    Conventional mobile robotic systems are `stand alone'. Program development involves loading programs into the mobile, via an umbilical. Autonomous operation, in this context, means `isolation': the user cannot interact with the program as the robot is moving around. Recent research in `swarm robotics' has exploited wireless networks as a means of providing inter- robot communication, but the population is still isolated from the human user. In this paper we report on research we are conducting into the provision of mobile robots as resources on a local area computer network, and thus breaking the isolation barrier. We are making use of new multimedia workstation and wireless networking technology to link the robots to the network in order to provide a new type of resource for the user. We model the robot as a set of resources and propose a client-server architecture as the basis for providing user access to the robots. We describe the types of resources each robot can provide and we outline the potential for cooperative robotics, human-robot cooperation, and teleoperation and autonomous robot behavior within this context.

  5. Graphene mobility mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buron, Jonas D.; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Jepsen, Peter U.; Petersen, Dirch H.; Caridad, José M.; Jessen, Bjarke S.; Booth, Timothy J.; Bøggild, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Carrier mobility and chemical doping level are essential figures of merit for graphene, and large-scale characterization of these properties and their uniformity is a prerequisite for commercialization of graphene for electronics and electrodes. However, existing mapping techniques cannot directly assess these vital parameters in a non-destructive way. By deconvoluting carrier mobility and density from non-contact terahertz spectroscopic measurements of conductance in graphene samples with terahertz-transparent backgates, we are able to present maps of the spatial variation of both quantities over large areas. The demonstrated non-contact approach provides a drastically more efficient alternative to measurements in contacted devices, with potential for aggressive scaling towards wafers/minute. The observed linear relation between conductance and carrier density in chemical vapour deposition graphene indicates dominance by charged scatterers. Unexpectedly, significant variations in mobility rather than doping are the cause of large conductance inhomogeneities, highlighting the importance of statistical approaches when assessing large-area graphene transport properties.

  6. Studies on deaf mobile application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, Shelena Soosay; Hussain, Azham; Hashim, Nor Laily

    2016-08-01

    The deaf normally considered to be disabled that do not need any mobile technology due to the inabilities of hearing and talking. However, many deaf are using mobile phone in their daily life for various purposes such as communication and learning. Many studies have attempted to identify the need of deaf people in mobile application and level of usage of the applications. This study aims in studying the recent research conducted on deaf mobile application to understand the level of importance of mobile technology for this disabled community. This paper enable identification of studies conducted are limited and the need of more research done of this disabled people to ensure their privilege of using mobile technology and its application, which leads to the identification of deaf user requirement for mobile application as future study.

  7. Securing mobile code.

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

    2004-10-01

    If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called 'white-boxing'. We put forth some new attacks and improvements

  8. Historic and pre-historic tsunamis in the Mediterranean and its connected seas: a review on documentation, geological signatures, generation mechanisms and coastal impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Urgeles, Roger; Sallares, Valenti; De Martini, Paolo Marco; Pantosti, Daniela; González, Mauricio; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Mascle, Jean; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Salamon, Amos; Tinti, Stefano; Fokaefs, Anna; Camerlenghi, Angelo; Novikova, Tatyana; Papageorgiou, Antonia

    2013-04-01

    The origin of tsunamis in the Mediterranean region and its connected seas is reviewed. A variety of historical documentary sources combined with evidence from on-shore and off-shore geological signatures, geomorphological imprints, observations from selected coastal archaeological sites, as well as from instrumental records, clearly indicate that seismic and non-seismic (e.g. volcanism, landslides) tsunami sources can be found in all the seas of the region. Local, regional and basin-wide tsunamis have been documented. An improved map of 22 tsunamigenic zones and their relative potential for tsunami generation is presented. From west to east, the most tsunamigenic zones are situated offshore SW Iberia, in North Algeria, in the Tyrrhenian Calabria and Messina Straits, in the western and eastern segments of the Hellenic Arc, in Corinth Gulf (Central Greece), in the Levantine Sea off-shore the Dead Sea Transform Fault and in the eastern Marmara Sea. The mean recurrence of large (intensity≥8) tsunamis in the entire region is ~90 yrs and in the Mediterranean basin ~102 yrs. However, for most of the historical events it is still doubtful which one was the causative seismic fault and if the tsunami was caused by co-seismic fault dislocation or by earthquake-triggered submarine landslides or by a combined source mechanism (e.g. Lisbon 1755). Instrumentally recorded seismic tsunamis (e.g. Messina 1908, S. Aegean 1956) are still with debatable sources. Calculation of seismic slip slowness factor does not indicate that the 1908 and 1956 events were "tsunami earthquakes". In pre-historical times large tsunamis were caused by volcanic processes in Thera and Etna. A tsunami was supposedly generated in the Holocene by the so-called BIG'95 large submarine landslide in W. Mediterranean. The AD 1650 eruption of the submarine Columbo volcano, off-shore Thera, caused an important tsunami but very little is known about its source mechanism. We concluded that investigating further the

  9. Analysis of Silicate Melt Inclusions in Plagioclase Phenocrysts in Prehistoric Tephra ˜1400 Years B.P. From Augustine Volcano, Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappen, C. M.; Webster, J. D.; Mandeville, C. W.

    2003-12-01

    Augustine volcano, located in southern Cook Inlet, Alaska, has been historically active, erupting 6 times in the last 200 years. Eruptions first began prior to 40,000 years B.P. (Begét and Kienle, 1992). There are a minimum of 6 prehistoric tephra layers, G (oldest), I, H, C, M and B (youngest), present on Augustine Island (Waitt et al, 1996). In this study, we analyzed glassy silicate melt inclusions in plagioclase phenocrysts from tephra layer H ( ˜1400 years B.P.) for major and minor and some trace elements (Cl, F, S, Ba, and Sr) by electron microprobe. We use the data to determine the chemical variation of melt inclusions in specific locations within zoned plagioclase phenocrysts. Plagioclase phenocrysts (0.5 to 4 mm long) exhibit unzoned, oscillatory or patchy zoned regions. Unzoned phenocryst cores lack melt inclusions. Patchy zonation occurs in cores and is sometimes found in intermediate zones between the core and rim. Planar oscillatory zones are distinguished in BSE images by light (An56-90) and dark (An46-55) bands. In some phenocrysts light and dark layers differ only by 1% An. Most phenocrysts show 2-3 repeated oscillating pairs of light and dark plagioclase compositional layers. Normal and reverse zoning are apparent in phenocrysts. Rims tend to be more calcic than the cores, varying from 1-5% An. Large melt inclusions (60 to 70 μ m long) are located in patchy zoned cores. Small melt inclusions (2 to 10 μ m long) are located at the contact of high calcic and low calcic oscillatory layers. All melt inclusions are trapped along compositional boundaries and occur in the more calcic plagioclase. Petrography suggests that melt inclusions may have been formed by partial dissolution of a less calcic plagioclase layer. The composition of the melt inclusions are rhyolitic (71 to 75% SiO2). The chlorine concentrations range from 3020 to 6100 ppm with the more chlorine enriched concentrations occurring in the outer rims of the phenocryst. Sr and Ba vary from

  10. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kanu, Abu B; Dwivedi, Prabha; Tam, Maggie; Matz, Laura; Hill, Herbert H

    2008-01-01

    This review article compares and contrasts various types of ion mobility-mass spectrometers available today and describes their advantages for application to a wide range of analytes. Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), when coupled with mass spectrometry, offers value-added data not possible from mass spectra alone. Separation of isomers, isobars, and conformers; reduction of chemical noise; and measurement of ion size are possible with the addition of ion mobility cells to mass spectrometers. In addition, structurally similar ions and ions of the same charge state can be separated into families of ions which appear along a unique mass-mobility correlation line. This review describes the four methods of ion mobility separation currently used with mass spectrometry. They are (1) drift-time ion mobility spectrometry (DTIMS), (2) aspiration ion mobility spectrometry (AIMS), (3) differential-mobility spectrometry (DMS) which is also called field-asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) and (4) traveling-wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS). DTIMS provides the highest IMS resolving power and is the only IMS method which can directly measure collision cross-sections. AIMS is a low resolution mobility separation method but can monitor ions in a continuous manner. DMS and FAIMS offer continuous-ion monitoring capability as well as orthogonal ion mobility separation in which high-separation selectivity can be achieved. TWIMS is a novel method of IMS with a low resolving power but has good sensitivity and is well intergrated into a commercial mass spectrometer. One hundred and sixty references on ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IMMS) are provided.

  11. Adaptive mobility management scheme in hierarchical mobile IPv6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Bo; Song, Junde

    2004-04-01

    Hierarchical mobile IPv6 makes the mobility management localized. Registration with HA is only needed while MN moving between MAP domains. This paper proposed an adaptive mobility management scheme based on the hierarchical mobile IPv6. The scheme focuses on the MN operation as well as MAP operation during the handoff. Adaptive MAP selection algorithm can be used to select a suitable MAP to register with once MN moves into a new subnet while MAP can thus adaptively changing his management domain. Furthermore, MAP can also adaptively changes its level in the hierarchical referring on the service load or other related information. Detailed handoff algorithm is also discussed in this paper.

  12. From mobile mental health to mobile wellbeing: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The combination of smart phones, wearable sensor devices and social media offer new ways of monitoring and promoting mental and physical wellbeing. In this contribution, we describe recent developments in the field of mobile healthcare (or mHealth), by focusing in particular on mobile mental health applications. First, we examine the potential benefits associated with this approach, providing examples from existing projects. Next, we identify and explain possible differences in focus between mobile mental health and mobile wellbeing applications. Finally, we discuss some open challenges associated with the implementation of this vision, ranging from the lack of evidence-based validation to privacy, security and ethical concerns.

  13. Mobilizing Black America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    Hospital Charlotte, NC 1881 1966 Shaw Memorial Hospital Oxford, NC 1953 1967 Hunter Clinic Hospital Marlin, TX 1923 1967 St. Martin Pornes Hospital Mobile...D.C.: October 27, 1991), p. 12. 25 Ibid, p. 12. 18 "I didn’t have a babysitter for my other kids ." (5) "I didn’t have time." and (6) One addict...economy, including drug trafficking. He says: "Crack has created a new Horatio Alger myth for inner-city kids searching for meaning and upward

  14. Spacesuit mobility knee joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Pressure suit mobility joints are for use in interconnecting adjacent segments of an hermetically sealed spacesuit in which low torques, low leakage and a high degree of reliability are required. Each of the joints is a special purpose joint characterized by substantially constant volume and low torque characteristics and includes linkages which restrain the joint from longitudinal distension and includes a flexible, substantially impermeable diaphragm of tubular configuration spanning the distance between pivotally supported annuli. The diaphragms of selected joints include rolling convolutions for balancing the joints, while various joints include wedge-shaped sections which enhance the range of motion for the joints.

  15. The Terregator Mobile Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Configuration 17 4.3 Locomotor 19 4.3.1 Base Frame 20 4.3.2 Motors and Drive Train 21 4.3.3 Roll Frame 25 4.3.4 Rack Mount Enclosure 26 4.4 On-Board...Constraints The Terregator, designed to support various sensors, supplies a mounting surface on the maneuverable base vehicle. The real-time computer...mobile base to deploy and develop these navigation modes. The vehicle, therefore, had to supply a mounting surface on a maneuverable base vehicle; but

  16. Mobility and HIV.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Migrants, refugees, and internally displaced people are vulnerable to HIV because they live in poor areas with little privacy, have different sexual relationships, and lack information about sexual health and services. In response to these problems, HIV prevention and care programs were initiated. The programs include: 1) involving migrant workers as both interviewers and outreach workers to better understand the idea of the migrants per Coordination of Action Research on Mobility and AIDS; 2) improving living conditions; 3) access of migrants to information and services; 4) improving the rights of the people; 5) increasing income; and 6) access to sexual health information that concerns exposure of HIV through different sexual partners.

  17. Mobile Bay turbidity study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozier, G. F.; Schroeder, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The termination of studies carried on for almost three years in the Mobile Bay area and adjacent continental shelf are reported. The initial results concentrating on the shelf and lower bay were presented in the interim report. The continued scope of work was designed to attempt a refinement of the mathematical model, assess the effectiveness of optical measurement of suspended particulate material and disseminate the acquired information. The optical characteristics of particulate solutions are affected by density gradients within the medium, density of the suspended particles, particle size, particle shape, particle quality, albedo, and the angle of refracted light. Several of these are discussed in detail.

  18. Mobile Language Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-18

    Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 15 August 2001 - 15-Aug-03 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER F61775-01-C0006 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mobile...The proposed effort spans two years and is divided into four tasks. Tasks 1 and 2 will be completed in the first year and Tasks 3 and 4 are to be...of the first year’s research and availability of funding, the second years tasks include: Task 3: Security architecture Task 4 : Java Card and JCVM

  19. Mobilization Responses to Warning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    reluctance by those leaders to authorized some form of response (political, economic or military) to counter early warning indicators. Strategic...MOBILIZATION RESPONSES TO WARNING Jil This document has been aIpproved L.A INDUSTRIAL COLLEGE OF THE ARMED FORCES 83 12 29 034 4 N;. -nou-n_. -Aa- f",1...48 BILIZATION RESPONSES TO WARNING MSP #46 AY 82/83 A ERFORMING :)S REPR’~ ’.,MSEP - 8.ZNRZ ~R~AN% MBEQ,’ GREGORY W. MASON, LTC, USA S ~ SI% R NAN1ZA

  20. Trends in Mobile Application Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, Adrian; Ondrus, Jan

    Major software companies, such as Apple and Google, are disturbing the relatively safe and established actors of the mobile application business. These newcomers have caused significant structural changes by imposing and enforcing their own rules for the future of mobile application development. The implications of these changes do not only concern the mobile network operators and mobile phone manufacturers. This changed environment also brings additional opportunities and constraints for current mobile application developers. Therefore, developers need to assess what their options are and how they can take advantages of these current trends. In this paper, we take a developer’s perspective in order to explore how the structural changes will influence the mobile application development markets. Moreover, we discuss what aspects developers need to take into account in order to position themselves within the current trends.

  1. Creating a Mobile Library Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutshall, Tom C.; Blake, Lindsay; Bandy, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    The overwhelming results were iPhones and Android devices. Since the library wasn't equipped technologically to develop an in-house application platform and because we wanted the content to work across all mobile platforms, we decided to focus on creating a mobile web-based platform. From the NLM page of mobile sites we chose the basic PubMed/…

  2. The Mobile Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharfstein, Gregory; Cox, Russell

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses a simulation chamber that represents a shift from the thermal-vacuum chamber stereotype. This innovation, currently in development, combines the capabilities of space simulation chambers, the user-friendliness of modern-day electronics, and the modularity of plug-and-play computing. The Mobile Chamber is a customized test chamber that can be deployed with great ease, and is capable of bringing payloads at temperatures down to 20 K, in high vacuum, and with the desired metrology instruments integrated to the systems control. Flexure plans to lease Mobile Chambers, making them affordable for smaller budgets and available to a larger customer base. A key feature of this design will be an Apple iPad-like user interface that allows someone with minimal training to control the environment inside the chamber, and to simulate the required extreme environments. The feedback of thermal, pressure, and other measurements is delivered in a 3D CAD model of the chamber's payload and support hardware. This GUI will provide the user with a better understanding of the payload than any existing thermal-vacuum system.

  3. Space station mobile transporter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renshall, James; Marks, Geoff W.; Young, Grant L.

    1988-01-01

    The first quarter of the next century will see an operational space station that will provide a permanently manned base for satellite servicing, multiple strategic scientific and commercial payload deployment, and Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle/Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OMV/OTV) retrieval replenishment and deployment. The space station, as conceived, is constructed in orbit and will be maintained in orbit. The construction, servicing, maintenance and deployment tasks, when coupled with the size of the station, dictate that some form of transportation and manipulation device be conceived. The Transporter described will work in conjunction with the Orbiter and an Assembly Work Platform (AWP) to construct the Work Station. The Transporter will also work in conjunction with the Mobile Remote Servicer to service and install payloads, retrieve, service and deploy satellites, and service and maintain the station itself. The Transporter involved in station construction when mounted on the AWP and later supporting a maintenance or inspection task with the Mobile Remote Servicer and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer is shown.

  4. Mobile access control vestibule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DePoy, Jennifer M.

    1998-12-01

    The mobile access control vestibule (MACV) is an adaptation of techniques developed for mobile military command centers. The overall configuration of modules acts as an entry control/screening facility or transportable command center. The system would provide the following capabilities: (1) A key element for force protection, rapid deployment units sent to areas having no prepositioned equipment or where there has been a degradation of that equipment as a result of natural disasters or civil unrest. (2) A rapidly deployable security control center to upgrade the security at nonmilitary sites (e.g., diplomatic or humanitarian organizations). (3) Personnel screening, package screening, badge/identification card production for authorized personnel, centralized monitoring of deployed perimeter sensors, and centralized communications for law enforcement personnel. (4) Self-contained screening and threat detection systems, including explosives detection using the system developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the FAA. When coupled with transportable electric generators, the system is self-sufficient. The communication system for the MACV would be a combination of physically wired and wireless communication units that supports by ad hoc networking.

  5. Ghana social mobilization analysis.

    PubMed

    Tweneboa-Kodua, A; Obeng-Quaidoo, I; Abu, K

    1991-01-01

    In order to increase communication channels for child survival and development, the government and UNICEF Ghana undertook a "social mobilization analysis." This analysis included three studies that aimed to identify individuals and existing organizations with the potential to serve as health communicators and to determine the type of assistance that they needed to maximize their effectiveness in this role. The first study surveyed governmental institutions, trade unions, revolutionary organizations, traditional leaders, and others and found a largely untapped reservoir of capacities to promote child health, with varying levels of current involvement. The primary need identified was for information and training materials. The second study focused on the mass media and revealed a low coverage of maternal and child health topics and the need for better cooperation between journalists and health professionals. The third study assessed sources of health information for parents and found several sources, such as religious organizations, women's groups, and school teachers that could be mobilized to promote child health. Recommendations are made for the use of the findings.

  6. Mobility in old age.

    PubMed

    Walsh, K; Roberts, J; Bennett, G

    1999-12-01

    Immobility is common in older people and may impact on their dental care. Immobility in old age may have physical, psychological and environmental causes. Immobile elderly people often suffer from a number of diseases which worsen their mobility. Arthritis, osteoporosis, hip fracture, stroke and Parkinson's disease are among the most common causes of immobility in old age. Complications of immobility such as orthostatic hypotension may occur in the dental patient. Careful history-taking and a thorough physical examination by the physician are the most important parts of the assessment process. This assessment should lead to a list of active problems and treatment should then be aimed at these problems. Active management, carried out by the multidisciplinary team, will lead to improvements in mobility and lessen the frequency and severity of the complications of immobility. This broad description thus provides the basis for a wide understanding for the special problems that the immobile patient present to the practitioner and ways of overcoming the problems.

  7. Nuclear powerplants for mobile applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. This paper examines the technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  8. New agents in HSC mobilization.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Mélanie J; Nilsson, Susan K; Cao, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Mobilized peripheral blood (PB) is the most common source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) for autologous transplantation. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is the most commonly used mobilization agent, yet despite its widespread use, a considerable number of patients still fail to mobilize. Recently, a greater understanding of the interactions that regulate HSC homeostasis in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment has enabled the development of new molecules that mobilize HSC through specific inhibition, modulation or perturbation of these interactions. AMD3100 (plerixafor), a small molecule that selectively inhibits the chemokine receptor CXCR4 is approved for mobilization in combination with G-CSF in patients with Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Nevertheless, identifying mobilization strategies that not only enhance HSC number, but are rapid and generate an optimal "mobilized product" for improved transplant outcomes remains an area of clinical importance. In recent times, new agents based on recombinant proteins, peptides and small molecules have been identified as potential candidates for therapeutic HSC mobilization. In this review, we describe the most recent developments in HSC mobilization agents and their potential impact in HSC transplantation.

  9. Webizing mobile augmented reality content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sangchul; Ko, Heedong; Yoo, Byounghyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a content structure for building mobile augmented reality (AR) applications in HTML5 to achieve a clean separation of the mobile AR content and the application logic for scaling as on the Web. We propose that the content structure contains the physical world as well as virtual assets for mobile AR applications as document object model (DOM) elements and that their behaviour and user interactions are controlled through DOM events by representing objects and places with a uniform resource identifier. Our content structure enables mobile AR applications to be seamlessly developed as normal HTML documents under the current Web eco-system.

  10. Re-thinking residential mobility

    PubMed Central

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  11. Mobile Router Developed and Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center, under a NASA Space Act Agreement with Cisco Systems, has been performing joint networking research to apply Internet-based technologies and protocols to space-based communications. As a result of this research, NASA performed stringent performance testing of the mobile router, including the interaction of routing and the transport-level protocol. In addition, Cisco Systems developed the mobile router for both commercial and Government markets. The code has become part of the Cisco Systems Internetworking Operating System (IOS) as of release 12.2 (4) T--which will make this capability available to the community at large. The mobile router is software code that resides in a network router and enables entire networks to roam while maintaining connectivity to the Internet. This router code is pertinent to a myriad of applications for both Government and commercial sectors, including the "wireless battlefield." NASA and the Department of Defense will utilize this technology for near-planetary observation and sensing spacecraft. It is also a key enabling technology for aviation-based information applications. Mobile routing will make it possible for information such as weather, air traffic control, voice, and video to be transmitted to aircraft using Internet-based protocols. This technology shows great promise in reducing congested airways and mitigating aviation disasters due to bad weather. The mobile router can also be incorporated into emergency vehicles (such as ambulances and life-flight aircraft) to provide real-time connectivity back to the hospital and health-care experts, enabling the timely application of emergency care. Commercial applications include entertainment services, Internet protocol (IP) telephone, and Internet connectivity for cruise ships, commercial shipping, tour buses, aircraft, and eventually cars. A mobile router, which is based on mobile IP, allows hosts (mobile nodes) to seamlessly "roam" among various IP

  12. The Future of Mobile Technology and Mobile Wireless Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Jim; Hannan, Mike

    2004-01-01

    It is often stated that mobile wireless computing is going to be the next big technology revolution that will grip the world in the same way mobile telephones did in the 1990s. However, while the technology is rapidly improving, the rate of uptake has been lower than expected. This paper describes some of the reasons for this, and discusses some…

  13. Mobile Perspectives: On Websites. Mobile Matters--Communication Trumps Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Susan T.

    2011-01-01

    Mobile technology is a favorite discussion topic among senior IT leaders and higher education administrators. Mobile is the future for content delivery. Colleges and universities need to establish a strategy now and make the decisions necessary to take advantage of this communication opportunity. In this article, the author recommends making…

  14. Mobile Learning with a Mobile Game: Design and Motivational Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwabe, Gerhard; Goth, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    Mobile technologies offer the opportunity to embed learning in a natural environment. This paper describes the design of the MobileGame prototype, exploring the opportunities to support learning through an orientation game in a university setting. The paper first introduces the scenario and then describes the general architecture of the prototype.…

  15. Mobile Learning and Integration of Mobile Technologies in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Bhargava, Malini

    2014-01-01

    Mobile technologies have a huge potential to transform education provided these technologies are designed and implemented in such a way that they are relevant to the social and cultural context of learning. Clearly, the application, implementation, and design of mobile technology in the global educational context pose technological and…

  16. Identification of plant cells in black pigments of prehistoric Spanish Levantine rock art by means of a multi-analytical approach. A new method for social identity materialization using chaîne opératoire.

    PubMed

    López-Montalvo, Esther; Roldán, Clodoaldo; Badal, Ernestina; Murcia-Mascarós, Sonia; Villaverde, Valentín

    2017-01-01

    We present a new multi-analytical approach to the characterization of black pigments in Spanish Levantine rock art. This new protocol seeks to identify the raw materials that were used, as well as reconstruct the different technical gestures and decision-making processes involved in the obtaining of these black pigments. For the first of these goals, the pictorial matter of the black figurative motifs documented at the Les Dogues rock art shelter (Ares del Maestre, Castellón, Spain) was characterized through the combination of physicochemical and archeobotanical analyses. During the first stage of our research protocol, in situ and non-destructive analyses were carried out by means of portable Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF); during the second stage, samples were analyzed by Optical Microscopy (OM), Raman spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Two major conclusions have been drawn from these analyses: first, charred plant matter has been identified as a main component of these prehistoric black pigments; and second, angiosperm and conifer charcoal was a primary raw material for pigment production, identified by means of the archaeobotanical study of plant cells. For the second goal, black charcoal pigments were replicated in the laboratory by using different raw materials and binders and by reproducing two main chaînes opératoires. The comparative study of the structure and preservation of plant tissues of both prehistoric and experimental pigments by means of SEM-EDX underlines both a complex preparation process and the use of likely pigment recipes, mixing raw material with fatty or oily binders. Finally, the formal and stylistic analysis of the motifs portrayed at Les Dogues allowed us to explore the relationship between identified stylistic phases and black charcoal pigment use, raising new archaeological questions concerning the acquisition of know-how and the

  17. Ancient DNA reveals key stages in the formation of central European mitochondrial genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Guido; Haak, Wolfgang; Adler, Christina J; Roth, Christina; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Karimnia, Sarah; Möller-Rieker, Sabine; Meller, Harald; Ganslmeier, Robert; Friederich, Susanne; Dresely, Veit; Nicklisch, Nicole; Pickrell, Joseph K; Sirocko, Frank; Reich, David; Cooper, Alan; Alt, Kurt W

    2013-10-11

    The processes that shaped modern European mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation remain unclear. The initial peopling by Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers ~42,000 years ago and the immigration of Neolithic farmers into Europe ~8000 years ago appear to have played important roles but do not explain present-day mtDNA diversity. We generated mtDNA profiles of 364 individuals from prehistoric cultures in Central Europe to perform a chronological study, spanning the Early Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age (5500 to 1550 calibrated years before the common era). We used this transect through time to identify four marked shifts in genetic composition during the Neolithic period, revealing a key role for Late Neolithic cultures in shaping modern Central European genetic diversity.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genomes of ancient canids suggest a European origin of domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Thalmann, O; Shapiro, B; Cui, P; Schuenemann, V J; Sawyer, S K; Greenfield, D L; Germonpré, M B; Sablin, M V; López-Giráldez, F; Domingo-Roura, X; Napierala, H; Uerpmann, H-P; Loponte, D M; Acosta, A A; Giemsch, L; Schmitz, R W; Worthington, B; Buikstra, J E; Druzhkova, A; Graphodatsky, A S; Ovodov, N D; Wahlberg, N; Freedman, A H; Schweizer, R M; Koepfli, K-P; Leonard, J A; Meyer, M; Krause, J; Pääbo, S; Green, R E; Wayne, R K

    2013-11-15

    The geographic and temporal origins of the domestic dog remain controversial, as genetic data suggest a domestication process in East Asia beginning 15,000 years ago, whereas the oldest doglike fossils are found in Europe and Siberia and date to >30,000 years ago. We analyzed the mitochondrial genomes of 18 prehistoric canids from Eurasia and the New World, along with a comprehensive panel of modern dogs and wolves. The mitochondrial genomes of all modern dogs are phylogenetically most closely related to either ancient or modern canids of Europe. Molecular dating suggests an onset of domestication there 18,800 to 32,100 years ago. These findings imply that domestic dogs are the culmination of a process that initiated with European hunter-gatherers and the canids with whom they interacted.

  19. Ancient DNA reveals key stages in the formation of Central European mitochondrial genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Guido; Haak, Wolfgang; Adler, Christina J.; Roth, Christina; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Karimnia, Sarah; Möller-Rieker, Sabine; Meller, Harald; Ganslmeier, Robert; Friederich, Susanne; Dresely, Veit; Nicklisch, Nicole; Pickrell, Joseph K.; Sirocko, Frank; Reich, David; Cooper, Alan; Alt, Kurt W.

    2014-01-01

    The processes which shaped modern European mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation remain unclear. The initial peopling by Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers ~42kyrs ago and the immigration of Neolithic farmers into Europe ~8kyrs ago appear to have played important roles, but do not explain present-day mtDNA diversity. We generated mtDNA profiles of 364 individuals from prehistoric cultures in Central Europe to perform a chronological study, spanning the Early Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age (5,500–1,550 cal BC). We use this transect through time to identify four marked shifts in genetic composition during the Neolithic period, revealing a key role for Late Neolithic cultures in shaping modern Central European genetic diversity. PMID:24115443

  20. 30,000-year-old wild flax fibers.

    PubMed

    Kvavadze, Eliso; Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Belfer-Cohen, Anna; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Jakeli, Nino; Matskevich, Zinovi; Meshveliani, Tengiz

    2009-09-11

    A unique finding of wild flax fibers from a series of Upper Paleolithic layers at Dzudzuana Cave, located in the foothills of the Caucasus, Georgia, indicates that prehistoric hunter-gatherers were making cords for hafting stone tools, weaving baskets, or sewing garments. Radiocarbon dates demonstrate that the cave was inhabited intermittently during several periods dated to 32 to 26 thousand years before the present (kyr B.P.), 23 to 19 kyr B.P., and 13 to 11 kyr B.P. Spun, dyed, and knotted flax fibers are common. Apparently, climatic fluctuations recorded in the cave's deposits did not affect the growth of the plants because a certain level of humidity was sustained.

  1. A Mobile IPv6 based Distributed Mobility Management Mechanism of Mobile Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shi; Jiayin, Cheng; Shanzhi, Chen

    A flatter architecture is one of the trends of mobile Internet. Traditional centralized mobility management mechanism faces the challenges such as scalability and UE reachability. A MIPv6 based distributed mobility management mechanism is proposed in this paper. Some important network entities and signaling procedures are defined. UE reachability is also considered in this paper through extension to DNS servers. Simulation results show that the proposed approach can overcome the scalability problem of the centralized scheme.

  2. Mobile pastoralists in Central and West Africa: between conflict, mobile telephony and (im)mobility.

    PubMed

    De Bruijn, M; Amadou, A; Lewa Doksala, E; Sangaré, B

    2016-11-01

    The livelihoods of the Fulani mobile pastoralists in the Sahel, West and Central Africa are characterised by mobility (related to the needs of their animals), extensive social networks, and a focus on social ties as the basis of status and influence ('wealth in people'). The Sahel environment in which many Fulani nomads live has become embroiled in jihadism, conflict, and violence; at the same time, this region has experienced an increase in opportunities to connect through the wireless mobile communication system. This paper analyses the triangle of mobility, communication, and insecurity in order to understand the present-day situation of the nomadic and semi-nomadic Fulani pastoralists and their identity dynamics. The Fulani find themselves caught in between these conflicts, which end their mobility and often lead to the loss of their herds. Will they be able to keep their mobile lifestyle and identity? This article is based on qualitative case studies and the biographical narratives of nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoralists who have lived through conflict and violence in Cameroon, Chad and Mali. These case studies show that, despite the fact that mobile pastoralism has become difficult as a consequence of the conflicts and loss of cattle, the 'mobile' identity is very present and reinforced with the help of mobile telephony, through which social networks and 'wealth in people' are sustained.

  3. [Consideration of Mobile Medical Device Regulation].

    PubMed

    Peng, Liang; Yang, Pengfei; He, Weigang

    2015-07-01

    The regulation of mobile medical devices is one of the hot topics in the industry now. The definition, regulation scope and requirements, potential risks of mobile medical devices were analyzed and discussed based on mobile computing techniques and the FDA guidance of mobile medical applications. The regulation work of mobile medical devices in China needs to adopt the risk-based method.

  4. Modelling an Institutional Mobile Learning Readiness Analyser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireri, Bonface Ngari; Omwenga, Elijah I.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the affordability, ease of use and availability of mobile devices, many people in Africa and developing countries have acquired at least a mobile device. The penetration of mobile devices places many learning institution in a position to adopt mobile learning, however there are few tools for measuring mobile learning readiness for an…

  5. 76 FR 24051 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Mobile Tablets, Portable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... importation of certain electronic devices, including mobile phones, mobile tablets, portable music players... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Mobile Tablets, Portable Music Players, and Computers, and Components Thereof; Notice of Institution of Investigation AGENCY:...

  6. Mobile continuous lunar excavation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, John L.

    A novel approach to the concept of lunar mining and the use of in situ oxygen, metallics, and ceramics is presented. The EVA time required to set up, relocate, and maintain equipment, as well as the cost per pound of shipping the mining and processing equipment to the moon are considered. The proposed soil fracturing/loading mechanisms are all based loosely on using the Apollo Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) Frame. All use motor driven tracks for mobility in the forward/reverse and left/right direction. All mechanisms employ the concept of rototillers which are attached to a gantry which, through the use of motor-driven lead screws, provide the rototillers with an up/down capability. A self-reactant excavator, a local mass enhanced excavator, and a soil reactant excavator are illustrated.

  7. Phobos Mobility Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielski, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Phobos, the larger of Mars' moons, provides a potential staging location for human exploration of the Martian surface. Its low gravity (about 1/200th of Earth) and lack of atmosphere makes it an attractive destination before a more complex human landing on Mars is attempted. While easier to approach and depart than Mars itself, Phobos provides unique challenges to visiting crews. It is irregularly shaped, so its local gravitational field does not always point straight down with respect to the visible horizon. It is very close to Mars and tidally locked, so the Martian gravity gradient and applied acceleration greatly affect the perceived surface gravity direction and magnitude. This simulation allows the assessment of unique mobility approaches on the surface of Phobos, including hopping in particular.

  8. Mobile continuous lunar excavation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paterson, John L.

    1992-01-01

    A novel approach to the concept of lunar mining and the use of in situ oxygen, metallics, and ceramics is presented. The EVA time required to set up, relocate, and maintain equipment, as well as the cost per pound of shipping the mining and processing equipment to the moon are considered. The proposed soil fracturing/loading mechanisms are all based loosely on using the Apollo Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) Frame. All use motor driven tracks for mobility in the forward/reverse and left/right direction. All mechanisms employ the concept of rototillers which are attached to a gantry which, through the use of motor-driven lead screws, provide the rototillers with an up/down capability. A self-reactant excavator, a local mass enhanced excavator, and a soil reactant excavator are illustrated.

  9. Mobile electric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, Valerie J.; Bloomfield, David P.; Johnson, Bradley Q.

    1992-01-01

    Analytic Power has proven the feasibility of a mobile electric power unit in the form of a hydride fueled ion-exchange membrane (IEM) fuel cell stack. We have over 5 years experience building and testing IEM fuel cells. The power section of a 350 watt fuel cell stack weighs 4.65 pounds based on our five cell sub-stack component weights. The composite stack structure is fabricated from two components; a unitized flow field and catalyzed membrane. The lightweight unitized flow field concept was proven in the first three months of the contract. A single unit flow field weighs 0.155 pounds and can seal to 60 psi. The single cell catalyzed Nafion membrane exceeded our performance goal of 0.6 volts at 100 ASF. Stack performance points were 0.42 volts at 113 ASF and .75 volts at 96 ASF.

  10. ACTS mobile propagation campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Torrence, Geoffrey W.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for three propagation measurement campaigns involving a mobile receiving laboratory and 20 GHz transmissions from the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). Four 1994 campaigns were executed during weekly periods in and around Austin, Texas in February and May, in Central Maryland during March, and in Fairbanks, Alaska and environs in June. Measurements tested the following effects at 20 GHz: (1) attenuation due to roadside trees with and without foliage, (2) multipath effects for scenarios in which line-of-sight paths were unshadowed, (3) fades due to terrain and roadside obstacles, (4) fades due to structures in urban environs, (5) single tree attenuation, and (6) effects of fading at low elevation angles (8 deg in Fairbanks, Alaska) and high elevation angles (55 deg in Austin, Texas). Results presented here cover sampled measurements in Austin, Texas for foliage and non-foliage cases and in Central Maryland for non-foliage runs.

  11. Mobile electric power

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomfield, V.J.; Bloomfield, D.P.; Johnson, B.Q.

    1992-01-30

    Analytic Power has proven the feasibility of a mobile electric power unit in the form of a hydride fueled ion-exchange membrane (IEM) fuel cell stack. We have over 5 years experience building and testing IEM fuel cells. The power section of a 350 watt fuel cell stack weighs 4.65 pounds based on our five cell sub-stack component weights. The composite stack structure is fabricated from two components; a unitized flow field and catalyzed membrane. The lightweight unitized flow field concept was proven in the first three months of the contract. A single unit flow field weighs 0.155 pounds and can seal to 60 psi. The single cell catalyzed Nafion membrane exceeded our performance goal of 0.6 volts at 100 ASF. Stack performance points were 0.42 volts at 113 ASF and .75 volts at 96 asf.

  12. Intelligent Mobile Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Rick; Gilbaugh, Bruce; Glass, Brian; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Testing involves commercial radio equipment approved for export and use in Canada. Testing was conducted in the Canadian High Arctic, where hilly terrain provided the worst-case testing. SFU and Canadian governmental agencies made significant technical contributions. The only technical data related to radio testing was exchanged with SFU. Test protocols are standard radio tests performed by communication technicians worldwide. The Joint Fields Operations objectives included the following: (1) to provide Internet communications services for field science work and mobile exploration systems; (2) to evaluate the range and throughput of three different medium-range radio link technologies for providing coverage of the crater area; and (3) to demonstrate collaborative software such as NetMeeting with multi-point video for exchange of scientific information between remote node and base-base camp and science centers as part of communications testing.

  13. Why Mobile Is a Must

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaffrey, Mary

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a new educational model that makes learning personal and motivating, and helps secure students' future in the knowledge economy. Mobile technology opens the door to it. Mobile devices provide the platform and, as importantly, the incentive for students to take personal ownership of the learning experience. The lessons absorbed…

  14. Savannah: Mobile Gaming and Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facer, K.; Joiner, R.; Stanton, D.; Reid, J.; Hull, R.; Kirk, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports a study that attempts to explore how using mobile technologies in direct physical interaction with space and with other players can be combined with principles of engagement and self-motivation to create a powerful and engaging learning experience. We developed a mobile gaming experience designed to encourage the development of…

  15. OPACs and the Mobile Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liston, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Since the turn of the century, one of the hottest topics in the IT world has been the coming mobile revolution. While there's been some arguing over the details, the fundamental tenet of the mobile revolution is that lots and lots of people will start accessing web content from handheld portable devices instead of using a traditional laptop or…

  16. Mobility. Snapshot™ Report, Spring 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Just over 9% of all students attended more than one institution during the 2012-13 academic year. In each year studied, nearly three-fourths of all mobile students had at least one enrollment at a 2-year public institution. In each of the included years, students in the 20 and under age group had the highest mobility rates, followed by students in…

  17. The Sutton Trust: Mobility Manifesto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton Trust, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Ahead of the party conference season, the Sutton Trust is urging fairer admissions to comprehensives, grammar schools and independent schools as part of a 10-point Mobility Manifesto setting out ten practical policy steps designed to put social mobility at the heart of the 2015 election campaign. The manifesto urges greater use of ballots (random…

  18. Social Mobility and Educational Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Zefang; Wang, Yanbin; Chen, Wenjiao

    2009-01-01

    There is a close interactive relationship between social mobility and educational selection. On one side, the character, direction, speed, level, methods and trends of social mobility affect the aims, goals, functions, scope, strategy, content and methods of choice in education. On the other side, the goals, basis and means of choosing education…

  19. Social Properties of Mobile Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, April Slayden; O'Hara, Kenton; Vorbau, Alex

    Mobile video is now an everyday possibility with a wide array of commercially available devices, services, and content. These new technologies have created dramatic shifts in the way video-based media can be produced, consumed, and delivered by people beyond the familiar behaviors associated with fixed TV and video technologies. Such technology revolutions change the way users behave and change their expectations in regards to their mobile video experiences. Building upon earlier studies of mobile video, this paper reports on a study using diary techniques and ethnographic interviews to better understand how people are using commercially available mobile video technologies in their everyday lives. Drawing on reported episodes of mobile video behavior, the study identifies the social motivations and values underpinning these behaviors that help characterize mobile video consumption beyond the simplistic notion of viewing video only to kill time. This paper also discusses the significance of user-generated content and the usage of video in social communities through the description of two mobile video technology services that allow users to create and share content. Implications for adoption and design of mobile video technologies and services are discussed as well.

  20. Mobile theatres take centre stage.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2008-04-01

    Having started operations in March 2002 with just three mobile theatres and 12 staff, Vanguard Healthcare claims today not only to be the UK's largest supplier of mobile operating theatres, outpatient units and day surgery units, but also the only such operator of its kind. Jonathan Baillie reports.