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Sample records for prehospital emergency medicine

  1. Prehospital emergency medicine services in Europe: structure and equipment.

    PubMed

    Huemer, G; Pernerstorfer, T; Mauritz, W

    1994-06-01

    In order to get an update on prehospital emergency medicine practice all over Europe we submitted questionnaires with a total of 61 questions concerning prehospital emergency medicine in Europe, to 123 European members of the World Association of Emergency and Disaster Medicine (WAEDM). Sixty (49%) questionnaires were returned. One up to seven questionnaires from 22 European countries were analysed: 37 (62%) from urban and 23 (38%) suburban or rural areas; 12 being from former Eastern European countries. Sixteen of the questions--those concerning rescue systems and equipment--are analysed and presented in this paper. A fleet of ambulance cars staffed with paramedics/nurses based at the emergency organization is the most frequently used system in 59% (10/17) of the countries. The same percentage claims to have a ground-based coverage of its area of 80-100%. Airborne coverage between 80-100% and below 60% of the areas is given in the same percentage of 35% (6/17). Physicians are frequently involved in prehospital emergency care in the Eastern European Countries, France, Germany, Italy, Belgium and Turkey, rarely in Switzerland, Denmark, the United Kingdom, Greece, Ireland and Finland, never in the Netherlands and Sweden. In more than 50%, a combination of national, regional and local organizations provide emergency care, which results in large differences of standards. We discovered remarkable differences which could be overcome by enhanced co-ordination and information exchange provided by the European Society for Emergency Medicine, WAEDM, the European Red Cross or the European Academy of Anaesthesiologists.

  2. [Cooperation between emergency and forensic medicine - retrospective evaluation of pre-hospital emergency measures].

    PubMed

    Buschmann, Claas T; Kleber, Christian; Tsokos, Michael; Püschel, Klaus; Hess, Thorsten; Kerner, Thoralf; Stuhr, Markus

    2015-06-01

    Emergency medical research is subject to special conditions. Emergency patients e.g. are generally considered to be non-capable of giving consent. This results in sparse emergency medical data when compared to clinical observation studies under controlled conditions. After emergency medical treatment, deceased patients are not rarely subject to forensic investigation. The cooperation between emergency and forensic medicine has not only emergency medical training potential in individual cases, but also scientific innovation potential especially with respect to the retrospective evaluation of pre-hospital emergency measures. Such partnerships (like in Berlin at the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin between the Institute of Legal Medicine and the Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery or in Hamburg between the Institute for Legal Medicine at the University Hospital and the Municipal Fire Brigade with the Emergency Medical Service) are yet exceptional in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Improving medical students' understanding of prehospital care through a fourth year emergency medicine clerkship.

    PubMed

    Merlin, Mark A; Moon, Jeffery; Krimmel, Jessica; Liu, Junfeng; Marques-Baptista, Andreia

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to survey medical students for a measurable opinion or knowledge increase in prehospital care after a fourth-year clerkship in emergency medicine (EM). The goal of the mandatory prehospital care aspect of the clerkship was twofold: to diminish the prehospital knowledge gap in medical school by teaching students about prehospital protocols and disaster medicine and to increase student interest. The study setting was within a university-based academic EM department with a prehospital system of 250 prehospital personnel. Data were collected from two similar questionnaires administered pre- and post-rotation to 49 fourth-year medical students. Statistical analyses were applied to collected data to quantify the changes of opinion and knowledge. Questions used a Likert five-point Scale. The data verified the improvement of students' knowledge in multiple areas of assessment. Greater than 35% opinion change (two points on the Likert Scale) was found in areas of prehospital care, 911 dispatch and education differences in prehospital providers (all p<0.0001; 95% CI 0.90 to 1.02, 0.66 to 0.90 and 0.66 to 0.90, respectively). Greater than 35% opinion change was also found in understanding triage (p=0.03; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.58) and general teaching of prehospital care, fellowship opportunities and use of a monitor/defibrillator (p<0.0001, p<0.0001 and p=0.04, respectively). We found medical students developed a significantly improved understanding of prehospital care. Without extraordinary effort, academic emergency departments could easily include a significant experience and education within fourth-year EM clerkships.

  4. Use and implementation of standard operating procedures and checklists in prehospital emergency medicine: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chulin; Kan, Ting; Li, Shuang; Qiu, Chen; Gui, Li

    2016-12-01

    This review aimed to analyze published literature to introduce the use and implementation of standard operating procedures (SOPs) and checklists in prehospital emergency medicine and their impact on guideline adherence and patient outcome. An English literature search was carried out using the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Springer, Elsevier, and ProQuest databases. Original articles describing the use and implementation of SOPs or checklists in prehospital emergency medicine were included. Editorials, comments, letters, bulletins, news articles, conference abstracts, and notes were excluded from the analysis. Relevant information was extracted relating to application areas, development of SOPs/checklists, educational preparation and training regarding SOPs/checklists implementation, staff attitudes and the effects of SOPs/checklists use on guideline adherence and patient outcomes. The literature search found 2187 potentially relevant articles, which were narrowed down following an abstract review and a full text review. A final total of 13 studies were identified that described the use and implementation of SOPs (9 studies) and checklists (4 studies) in different areas of prehospital emergency medicine including prehospital management of patients with acute exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute coronary syndrome, prehospital airway management, medical documentation, Emergency Medical Services triage, and transportation of patients. The use and implementation of SOPs and checklists in prehospital emergency medicine have shown some benefits of improving guidelines adherence and patient outcomes in airway management, patient records, identification and triage, and other prehospital interventions. More research in this area is necessary to optimize the future use and implementation of SOPs and checklists to improve emergency personnel performance and patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Critical incident reporting in emergency medicine: results of the prehospital reports.

    PubMed

    Hohenstein, Christian; Hempel, Dorothea; Schultheis, Kerstin; Lotter, Oliver; Fleischmann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Medical errors frequently contribute to morbidity and mortality. Prehospital emergency medicine is prone to incidents that can lead to immediate deadly consequences. Critical incident reporting can identify typical problems and be the basis for structured risk management in order to reduce and mitigate these incidents. We set up a free access internet website for German-speaking countries, with an anonymous reporting system for emergency medical services personnel. After a 7-year study period, an expert team analysed and classified the incidents into staff related, equipment related, organisation and tactics, or other. 845 reports were entered in the study period. Physicians reported 44% of incidents, paramedics 42%. Most patients were in a life-threatening or potentially life-threatening situation (82%), and only 53% of all incidents had no influence on the outcome of the patient. Staff-related problems were responsible for 56% of the incidents, when it came to harm, 78% of these incidents were staff related. Incident reporting in prehospital emergency medicine can identify system weaknesses. Most of the incidents were reported during care of patients in life-threatening conditions with a high impact on patient outcome. Staff-related problems contributed to the most frequent and most severe incidents. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. The prehospital intravenous access assessment: a prospective study on intravenous access failure and access delay in prehospital emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Prottengeier, Johannes; Albermann, Matthias; Heinrich, Sebastian; Birkholz, Torsten; Gall, Christine; Schmidt, Joachim

    2016-12-01

    Intravenous access in prehospital emergency care allows for early administration of medication and extended measures such as anaesthesia. Cannulation may, however, be difficult, and failure and resulting delay in treatment and transport may have negative effects on the patient. Therefore, our study aims to perform a concise assessment of the difficulties of prehospital venous cannulation. We analysed 23 candidate predictor variables on peripheral venous cannulations in terms of cannulation failure and exceedance of a 2 min time threshold. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted for variables of predictive value (P<0.25) and evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC>0.6) of their respective receiver operating characteristic curve. A total of 762 intravenous cannulations were enroled. In all, 22% of punctures failed on the first attempt and 13% of punctures exceeded 2 min. Model selection yielded a three-factor model (vein visibility without tourniquet, vein palpability with tourniquet and insufficient ambient lighting) of fair accuracy for the prediction of puncture failure (AUC=0.76) and a structurally congruent model of four factors (failure model factors plus vein visibility with tourniquet) for the exceedance of the 2 min threshold (AUC=0.80). Our study offers a simple assessment to identify cases of difficult intravenous access in prehospital emergency care. Of the numerous factors subjectively perceived as possibly exerting influences on cannulation, only the universal - not exclusive to emergency care - factors of lighting, vein visibility and palpability proved to be valid predictors of cannulation failure and exceedance of a 2 min threshold.

  7. [Obesity in prehospital emergency care].

    PubMed

    Kruska, Patricia; Kappus, Stefan; Kerner, Thoralf

    2012-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased steadily in recent years. Obese people often suffer from diseases which acute decompensation requires a prompt prehospital therapy. The Emergency Medical Service will be confronted with difficulties in clinical diagnostic, therapy and especially with a delayed management of rescue and transport. It is most important to avoid prehospital depreciation in quality and time management. This article reviews the specific requirements of prehospital care of obese persons and discusses possible solutions to optimize the prehospital therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Can the critically ill consent to participation in commercial television programmes? An Australian prehospital and emergency medicine perspective.

    PubMed

    Mackenney, Jonathan N

    2015-08-01

    The fly-on-the-wall medical documentary is a popular television phenomenon. When patients can give appropriate consent to filming, the final product can be both educational for the public and rewarding for its subjects. However, in the dynamic world of emergency and prehospital medicine, consenting critically ill patients before filming is a significant challenge. The main barriers to gaining valid consent in the field and in the ED are limited time to inform the patient and the diminished capacity of the sick patient. Although there is an argument that involvement in a commercial film might be beneficial to several parties, including the patient, these benefits do not amount to therapeutic necessity if prior consent is not obtainable. Despite this, we still see acutely incapacitated patients featured in some television programmes. In these cases, the conventional process of consent might be being sidestepped in order to obtain permission for broadcast retrospectively. This alternative process fails to recognise that incapacitated patients require protection from an invasion of privacy that occurs when a crew is filming their resuscitations. This harm has already occurred by the time consent is sought. Ultimate responsibility for defending the patients' interests during their medical treatment rests with the medical practitioner. We argue that filming a patient without prior consent in both the prehospital and emergency environment is ethically unsound: it threatens trust in the healthcare relationship and might compromise the patient's dignity and privacy. Robust guidelines should be developed for all healthcare professionals who engage with commercial film crews. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  9. [Lightning strikes and lightning injuries in prehospital emergency medicine. Relevance, results, and practical implications].

    PubMed

    Hinkelbein, J; Spelten, O; Wetsch, W A

    2013-01-01

    Up to 32.2% of patients in a burn center suffer from electrical injuries. Of these patients, 2-4% present with lightning injuries. In Germany, approximately 50 people per year are injured by a lightning strike and 3-7 fatally. Typically, people involved in outdoor activities are endangered and affected. A lightning strike usually produces significantly higher energy doses as compared to those in common electrical injuries. Therefore, injury patterns vary significantly. Especially in high voltage injuries and lightning injuries, internal injuries are of special importance. Mortality ranges between 10 and 30% after a lightning strike. Emergency medical treatment is similar to common electrical injuries. Patients with lightning injuries should be transported to a regional or supraregional trauma center. In 15% of all cases multiple people may be injured. Therefore, it is of outstanding importance to create emergency plans and evacuation plans in good time for mass gatherings endangered by possible lightning.

  10. Retrospective analysis of the role and performance of family medicine versus emergency medical services in the pre-hospital management of patients with AMI in Banja Luka.

    PubMed

    Lakić, Biljana; Račić, Maja; Vulić, Duško

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in pre-hospital care of patients with acute myocardial infarction between emergency medical services and family medicine. This retrospective descriptive study included patients treated for acute myocardial infarction at the University Clinical Centre of Banja Luka, in the period from 1st January to 31st December 2011. The patients were divided into two groups: patients who received a hospital referral from the family medicine service and those who received one from the emergency medical service. The majority of patients (54.8%) received pre-hospital care from emergency medical services, while in 24.8% of cases the care was provided by family medicine physicians. The analysis showed that the time that passed from the onset of symptoms to the visit to the health institution of first medical contact was shorter in the emergency medical service (p<0.001). The average time from the onset of symptoms to arrival at the family practice was 24 hours, and to the emergency service 2 hours. The patients who established their first medical contact with the emergency service reported more severe symptoms than the ones who visited a family practice over the same period of time. The severity of symptoms affected the patients' decisions to seek help in a timely manner and to choose the facility of first medical contact. Interventions to decrease delay must focus on improving public awareness of acute myocardial infarction symptoms and increasing their knowledge of the benefits of early medical contact and treatment. Continuing education of family practitioners in this field is required. Copyright © 2016 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  11. Architecture of a prehospital emergency patient care report system (PEPRS).

    PubMed

    Majeed, Raphael W; Stöhr, Mark R; Röhrig, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, prehospital emergency care adapted to the technology shift towards tablet computers and mobile computing. In particular, electronic patient care report (e-PCR) systems gained considerable attention and adoption in prehospital emergency medicine [1]. On the other hand, hospital information systems are already widely adopted. Yet, there is no universal solution for integrating prehospital emergency reports into electronic medical records of hospital information systems. Previous projects either relied on proprietary viewing workstations or examined and transferred only data for specific diseases (e.g. stroke patients[2]). Using requirements engineering and a three step software engineering approach, this project presents a generic architecture for integrating prehospital emergency care reports into hospital information systems. Aim of this project is to describe a generic architecture which can be used to implement data transfer and integration of pre hospital emergency care reports to hospital information systems. In summary, the prototype was able to integrate data in a standardized manner. The devised methods can be used design generic software for prehospital to hospital data integration.

  12. What is dignity in prehospital emergency care?

    PubMed

    Abelsson, Anna; Lindwall, Lillemor

    2017-05-01

    Ethics and dignity in prehospital emergency care are important due to vulnerability and suffering. Patients can lose control of their body and encounter unfamiliar faces in an emergency situation. To describe what specialist ambulance nurse students experienced as preserved and humiliated dignity in prehospital emergency care. The study had a qualitative approach. Data were collected by Flanagan's critical incident technique. The participants were 26 specialist ambulance nurse students who described two critical incidents of preserved and humiliated dignity, from prehospital emergency care. Data consist of 52 critical incidents and were analyzed with interpretive content analysis. Ethical considerations: The study followed the ethical principles in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The result showed how human dignity in prehospital emergency care can be preserved by the ambulance nurse being there for the patient. The ambulance nurses meet the patient in the patient's world and make professional decisions. The ambulance nurse respects the patient's will and protects the patient's body from the gaze of others. Humiliated dignity was described through the ambulance nurse abandoning the patient and by healthcare professionals failing, disrespecting, and ignoring the patient. It is a unique situation when a nurse meets a patient face to face in a critical life or death moment. The discussion describes courage and the ethical vision to see another human. Dignity was preserved when the ambulance nurse showed respect and protected the patient in prehospital emergency care. The ambulance nurse students' ethical obligation results in the courage to see when a patient's dignity is in jeopardy of being humiliated. Humiliated dignity occurs when patients are ignored and left unprotected. This ethical dilemma affects the ambulance nurse students badly due to the fact that the morals and attitudes of ambulance nurses are reflected in their actions toward the patient.

  13. Severe sepsis and septic shock in pre-hospital emergency medicine: survey results of medical directors of emergency medical services concerning antibiotics, blood cultures and algorithms.

    PubMed

    Casu, Sebastian; Häske, David

    2016-06-01

    Delayed antibiotic treatment for patients in severe sepsis and septic shock decreases the probability of survival. In this survey, medical directors of different emergency medical services (EMS) in Germany were asked if they are prepared for pre-hospital sepsis therapy with antibiotics or special algorithms to evaluate the individual preparations of the different rescue areas for the treatment of patients with this infectious disease. The objective of the survey was to obtain a general picture of the current status of the EMS with respect to rapid antibiotic treatment for sepsis. A total of 166 medical directors were invited to complete a short survey on behalf of the different rescue service districts in Germany via an electronic cover letter. Of the rescue districts, 25.6 % (n = 20) stated that they keep antibiotics on EMS vehicles. In addition, 2.6 % carry blood cultures on the vehicles. The most common antibiotic is ceftriaxone (third generation cephalosporin). In total, 8 (10.3 %) rescue districts use an algorithm for patients with sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock. Although the German EMS is an emergency physician-based rescue system, special opportunities in the form of antibiotics on emergency physician vehicles are missing. Simultaneously, only 10.3 % of the rescue districts use a special algorithm for sepsis therapy. Sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock do not appear to be prioritized as highly as these deadly diseases should be in the pre-hospital setting.

  14. The pre-hospital administration of tranexamic acid to patients with multiple injuries and its effects on rotational thrombelastometry: a prospective observational study in pre-hospital emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Kunze-Szikszay, Nils; Krack, Lennart A; Wildenauer, Pauline; Wand, Saskia; Heyne, Tim; Walliser, Karoline; Spering, Christopher; Bauer, Martin; Quintel, Michael; Roessler, Markus

    2016-10-10

    Hyperfibrinolysis (HF) is a major contributor to coagulopathy and mortality in trauma patients. This study investigated (i) the rate of HF during the pre-hospital management of patients with multiple injuries and (ii) the effects of pre-hospital tranexamic acid (TxA) administration on the coagulation system. From 27 trauma patients with pre-hospital an estimated injury severity score (ISS) ≥16 points blood was obtained at the scene and on admission to the emergency department (ED). All patients received 1 g of TxA after the first blood sample was taken. Rotational thrombelastometry (ROTEM) was performed for both blood samples, and the results were compared. HF was defined as a maximum lysis (ML) >15 % in EXTEM. The median (min-max) ISS was 17 points (4-50 points). Four patients (15 %) had HF diagnosed via ROTEM at the scene, and 2 patients (7.5 %) had HF diagnosed via ROTEM on admission to the ED. The median ML before TxA administration was 11 % (3-99 %) vs. 10 % after TxA administration (4-18 %; p > 0.05). TxA was administered 37 min (10-85 min) before ED arrival. The ROTEM results before and after TxA administration did not significantly differ. No adverse drug reactions were observed after TxA administration. HF can be present in severely injured patients during pre-hospital care. Antifibrinolytic therapy administered at the scene is a significant time saver. Even in milder trauma fibrinogen can be decreased to critically low levels. Early administration of TxA cannot reverse or entirely stop this decrease. The pre-hospital use of TxA should be considered for severely injured patients to prevent the worsening of trauma-induced coagulopathy and unnecessarily high fibrinogen consumption. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01938768 (Registered 5 September 2013).

  15. Cortisol and alpha-amylase as stress response indicators during pre-hospital emergency medicine training with repetitive high-fidelity simulation and scenarios with standardized patients.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Bernd; Grottke, Oliver; Skorning, Max; Bergrath, Sebastian; Fischermann, Harold; Rörtgen, Daniel; Mennig, Marie-Therese; Fitzner, Christina; Müller, Michael P; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Rossaint, Rolf; Beckers, Stefan K

    2015-04-08

    In emergency medicine, the benefits of high-fidelity simulation (SIM) are widely accepted and standardized patients (SP) are known to mimic real patients accurately. However, only limited data are available concerning physicians' stress markers within these training environments. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate repetitive stress among healthcare professionals in simulated pre-hospital emergency scenarios using either SIM or SPs. Teams with one emergency medical services (EMS) physician and two paramedics completed three SIM scenarios and two SP scenarios consecutively. To evaluate stress, salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase were measured in saliva samples taken before, during and after the scenarios. A total of 14 EMS physicians (29% female; mean age: 36.8 ± 5.0 years; mean duration of EMS-experience: 9.1 ± 5.8 years) and 27 paramedics (11% female; age: 30.9 ± 6.9 years; EMS experience: 8.1 ± 6.0 years) completed the study. Alpha-amylase and cortisol levels did not differ significantly between the two professions. Cortisol values showed a gradual and statistically significant reduction over time but little change was observed in response to each scenario. In contrast, alpha-amylase activity increased significantly in response to every SIM and SP scenario, but there was no clear trend towards an overall increase or decrease over time. Increases in salivary alpha-amylase activity suggest that both SIM and SP training produce stress among emergency healthcare professionals. Corresponding increases in salivary cortisol levels were not observed. Among physicians in the emergency setting, it appears that alpha-amylase provides a more sensitive measure of stress levels than cortisol.

  16. Prehospital system delay in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction care: a novel linkage of emergency medicine services and in hospital registry data.

    PubMed

    Fosbøl, Emil L; Granger, Christopher B; Peterson, Eric D; Lin, Li; Lytle, Barbara L; Shofer, Frances S; Lohmeier, Chad; Mears, Greg D; Garvey, J Lee; Corbett, Claire C; Jollis, James G; Glickman, Seth W

    2013-03-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) are critical in the treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Prehospital system delays are an important target for improving timely STEMI care, yet few limited data are available. Using a deterministic approach, we merged EMS data from the North Carolina Pre-hospital Medical Information System (PreMIS) with data from the Reperfusion of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Carolina Emergency Departments-Emergency Response (RACE-ER) Project. Our sample included all patients with STEMI from June 2008 to October 2010 who arrived by EMS and who had primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Prehospital system delays were compared using both RACE-ER and PreMIS to examine agreement between the 2 data sources. Overall, 8,680 patients with STEMI in RACE-ER arrived at a PCI hospital by EMS; 21 RACE-ER hospitals and 178 corresponding EMS agencies across the state were represented. Of these, 6,010 (69%) patients were successfully linked with PreMIS. Linked and notlinked patients were similar. Overall, 2,696 patients were treated with PCI only and were taken directly to a PCI-capable hospital by EMS; 1,750 were transferred from a non-PCI facility. For those being transported directly to a PCI center, 53% reached the 90-minute target guideline goal. For those transferred from a non-PCI facility, 24% reached the 120-minute target goal for primary PCI. We successfully linked prehospital EMS data with in hospital clinical data. With this linked STEMI cohort, less than half of patients reach goals set by guidelines. Such a data source could be used for future research and quality improvement interventions. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Prehospital airway management of laryngeal tubes. Should the laryngeal tube S with gastric drain tube be preferred in emergency medicine?].

    PubMed

    Dengler, V; Wilde, P; Byhahn, C; Mack, M G; Schalk, R

    2011-02-01

    Laryngeal tubes (LT) are increasingly being used for emergency airway management. This article reports on two patients in whom out-of-hospital intubation with a single-lumen LT was associated with massive pulmonary aspiration in one patient and gastric overinflation in the other. In both cases peak inspiratory pressures exceeded the LT leak pressure of approximately 35 mbar. This resulted in gastric inflation and decreased pulmonary compliance and increased inspiratory pressure further, thereby creating a vicious circle. It is therefore recommended that laryngeal tube suction (LTS) should be used in all cases of emergency airway management and a gastric drain tube be inserted through the dedicated second lumen. Apart from gastric overinflation, incorrect LT/LTS placement must be detected and immediately corrected, e.g. in cases of difficult or impossible gastric tube placement, permanent drainage of air from the gastric tube, decreasing minute ventilation or an ascending capnography curve.

  18. Recommendations on pre-hospital & early hospital management of acute heart failure: a consensus paper from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology, the European Society of Emergency Medicine and the Society of Academic Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mebazaa, Alexandre; Yilmaz, M Birhan; Levy, Phillip; Ponikowski, Piotr; Peacock, W Frank; Laribi, Said; Ristic, Arsen D; Lambrinou, Ekaterini; Masip, Josep; Riley, Jillian P; McDonagh, Theresa; Mueller, Christian; deFilippi, Christopher; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Thiele, Holger; Piepoli, Massimo F; Metra, Marco; Maggioni, Aldo; McMurray, John; Dickstein, Kenneth; Damman, Kevin; Seferovic, Petar M; Ruschitzka, Frank; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Bellou, Abdelouahab; Anker, Stefan D; Filippatos, Gerasimos

    2015-06-01

    Acute heart failure is a fatal syndrome. Emergency physicians, cardiologists, intensivists, nurses and other health care providers have to cooperate to provide optimal benefit. However, many treatment decisions are opinion-based and few are evidenced-based. This consensus paper provides guidance to practicing physicians and nurses to manage acute heart failure in the pre-hospital and hospital setting. Criteria of hospitalization and of discharge are described. Gaps in knowledge and perspectives in the management of acute heart failure are also detailed. This consensus paper on acute heart failure might help enable contiguous practice. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2015 European Society of Cardiology.

  19. Pre-Hospital Emergency in Iran: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ghardashi, Fatemeh; Izadi, Ahmad Reza; Ravangard, Ramin; Mirhashemi, Sedigheh; Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba

    2016-05-01

    Pre-hospital care plays a vital role in saving trauma patients. This study aims to review studies conducted on the pre-hospital emergency status in Iran. Data were sourced from Iranian electronic databases, including SID, IranMedex, IranDoc, Magiran, and non-Iranian electronic databases, such as Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Google Scholar. In addition, available data and statistics for the country were used. All Persian-language articles published in Iranian scientific journals and related English-language articles published in Iranian and non-Iranian journals indexed on valid sites for September 2005 - 2014 were systematically reviewed. To review the selected articles, a data extraction form developed by the researchers as per the study's objective was adopted. The articles were examined under two categories: structure and function of pre-hospital emergency. A total of 19 articles were selected, including six descriptive studies (42%), four descriptive-analytical studies (21%), five review articles (16%), two qualitative studies (10.5%), and two interventional (experimental) studies (10.5%). In addition, of these, 14 articles (73.5%) had been published in the English language. The focus of these selected articles were experts (31.5%), bases of emergency medical services (26%), injured (16%), data reviews (16%), and employees (10.5%). A majority of the studies (68%) investigated pre-hospital emergency functions and 32% reviewed the pre-hospital emergency structure. The number of studies conducted on pre-hospital emergency services in Iran is limited. To promote public health, consideration of prevention areas, processes to provide pre-hospital emergency services, policymaking, foresight, systemic view, comprehensive research programs and roadmaps, and assessments of research needs in pre-hospital emergency seem necessary.

  20. Emergency medicine in modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Thomas; Fulde, Gordian

    2007-08-01

    Emergency medicine in the highly advanced world is traditionally performed in two different ways. The first is the well-known Anglo-American system with skilled EDs, and a pre-hospital emergency medical service utilizing paramedics. The second is the so-called Franco-German system, with a highly developed pre-hospital emergency physician service, but only a basic organization of hospital-based emergency medicine. This gap is now closing fast because of the rapid advancement of hospital-based emergency medicine in Europe. Four criteria might be used to measure this: the recognition as a specialty, the specialist training programme, the professional organization of emergency physicians and the presence of academic centres in Europe. Eleven of the 27 European countries recognize hospital-based emergency medicine as a specialty already. These include Belgium, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and the United Kingdom. Other nations are striving to do so, for example Sweden, France, Germany and Greece. There is no doubt that emergency medicine is gaining momentum and other countries will follow. Training for the specialty of emergency medicine is advanced already. Several curricula presently exist in the respective European countries. A task force, governed by the European Society for Emergency Medicine has been working hard to create a model curriculum for all of Europe, which is expected to be published in 2007. This comprises a 5-year specialty training, with three of them spent in an ED. The curriculum follows a symptom-oriented approach to emergency medicine, and includes a skilled description of the key competencies of the future trained emergency physicians. Given the century-long history of the pre-hospital emergency physician service in some European countries, a number of professional bodies exist representing pre-hospital emergency doctors. Within the last few years, ED physicians followed suit forming

  1. A Multi Agent Based Approach for Prehospital Emergency Management.

    PubMed

    Safdari, Reza; Shoshtarian Malak, Jaleh; Mohammadzadeh, Niloofar; Danesh Shahraki, Azimeh

    2017-07-01

    To demonstrate an architecture to automate the prehospital emergency process to categorize the specialized care according to the situation at the right time for reducing the patient mortality and morbidity. Prehospital emergency process were analyzed using existing prehospital management systems, frameworks and the extracted process were modeled using sequence diagram in Rational Rose software. System main agents were identified and modeled via component diagram, considering the main system actors and by logically dividing business functionalities, finally the conceptual architecture for prehospital emergency management was proposed. The proposed architecture was simulated using Anylogic simulation software. Anylogic Agent Model, State Chart and Process Model were used to model the system. Multi agent systems (MAS) had a great success in distributed, complex and dynamic problem solving environments, and utilizing autonomous agents provides intelligent decision making capabilities.  The proposed architecture presents prehospital management operations. The main identified agents are: EMS Center, Ambulance, Traffic Station, Healthcare Provider, Patient, Consultation Center, National Medical Record System and quality of service monitoring agent. In a critical condition like prehospital emergency we are coping with sophisticated processes like ambulance navigation health care provider and service assignment, consultation, recalling patients past medical history through a centralized EHR system and monitoring healthcare quality in a real-time manner. The main advantage of our work has been the multi agent system utilization. Our Future work will include proposed architecture implementation and evaluation of its impact on patient quality care improvement.

  2. A Multi Agent Based Approach for Prehospital Emergency Management

    PubMed Central

    Safdari, Reza; Shoshtarian Malak, Jaleh; Mohammadzadeh, Niloofar; Danesh Shahraki, Azimeh

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate an architecture to automate the prehospital emergency process to categorize the specialized care according to the situation at the right time for reducing the patient mortality and morbidity. Methods: Prehospital emergency process were analyzed using existing prehospital management systems, frameworks and the extracted process were modeled using sequence diagram in Rational Rose software. System main agents were identified and modeled via component diagram, considering the main system actors and by logically dividing business functionalities, finally the conceptual architecture for prehospital emergency management was proposed. The proposed architecture was simulated using Anylogic simulation software. Anylogic Agent Model, State Chart and Process Model were used to model the system. Results: Multi agent systems (MAS) had a great success in distributed, complex and dynamic problem solving environments, and utilizing autonomous agents provides intelligent decision making capabilities.  The proposed architecture presents prehospital management operations. The main identified agents are: EMS Center, Ambulance, Traffic Station, Healthcare Provider, Patient, Consultation Center, National Medical Record System and quality of service monitoring agent. Conclusion: In a critical condition like prehospital emergency we are coping with sophisticated processes like ambulance navigation health care provider and service assignment, consultation, recalling patients past medical history through a centralized EHR system and monitoring healthcare quality in a real-time manner. The main advantage of our work has been the multi agent system utilization. Our Future work will include proposed architecture implementation and evaluation of its impact on patient quality care improvement. PMID:28795061

  3. Prehospital paediatric emergencies treated by an Australian helicopter emergency medical service.

    PubMed

    Barker, Claire L; Weatherall, Andrew D

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the mechanism and severity of injuries in the paediatric population treated by an Australian helicopter emergency medical service and to examine the frequency and nature of interventions performed. This information is important for planning education and continuing professional development in prehospital medicine. The study is a retrospective cohort analysis of 349 patients under the age of 16 treated by CareFlight in Sydney, Australia, between April 2007 and April 2012. Data collected included age, type of incident, medication and fluid administered, procedures performed, receiving hospital, 24 h and 30-day mortality and injuries sustained. Falls (33%), motor vehicle incidents (30%), sport injury (14%) and immersion injury (12%) were the most common mechanisms. A total of 27 children died within 30 days; nontrauma cases were proportionally overrepresented in the deaths. With respect to tasking, 59% cases involved a severely or significantly injured child. Among the children, 97% with a traumatic mechanism were transferred directly to a paediatric trauma centre.In addition, 81% of children had at least one intervention by the helicopter emergency medical services team at the incident scene, most commonly intravenous cannulation (61%), crystalloid bolus (29%), intubation (21%) and intravenous analgesia administration (15%). Paediatric prehospital patients can be of high dependency, requiring urgent critical care procedures. Training in prehospital medicine should include paediatrics. It is essential that practitioners maintain skills in venous access, airway management and provision of adequate analgesia in children.

  4. Attitudes of prehospital emergency care professionals toward refusal of treatment: A regional survey in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erbay, Hasan; Alan, Sultan; Kadioglu, Selim

    2014-08-01

    Prehospital emergency medicine is a specific field of emergency medicine. The basic approach of prehospital emergency medicine is to provide patients with medical intervention at the scene of the incident. This special environment causes health professionals to encounter various problems. One of the most important problems in this field is ethics, in particular questions involving refusal of treatment and the processes associated with it. The objective of this study is to identify emergency health professionals' views regarding refusal of treatment. This study was conducted with 356 health professionals who were on active duty in prehospital emergency health services. The data were collected through a form which included 10 statements. The participants were asked to indicate their level of agreement with the statements given by rating them between 0 and 10. Before conducting the research, permission was received from the local ethics committee. Participants were given written information about the purpose of the study. Participants were assured that their participation was voluntary. The healthcare professionals with fewer years of experience in the profession and female participants adopted an attitude of giving priority to providing care. Young participants, in general, respected patient autonomy. However, paradoxically, when it comes to emergency medical cases, they expressed an opinion closer to paternalism. This study has found that prehospital emergency health professionals generally respect the patient's right to refuse treatment; however, they do not prioritize this right when there is a life-threatening situation or when the person does not have decision-making capacity. In these cases, prehospital emergency health professionals tended to adopt a more paternalistic approach. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Treatment of palliative care emergencies by prehospital emergency physicians in Germany: an interview based investigation.

    PubMed

    Wiese, C H R; Bartels, U E; Ruppert, D; Marung, H; Luiz, T; Graf, B M; Hanekop, G G

    2009-06-01

    Palliative care medical emergencies as a consequence of advanced cancer account for approximately 3% of all prehospital emergency cases. Therefore, prehospital emergency physicians (EP) are confronted with 'end of life decisions'. No educational content exists concerning palliative medicine in emergency medicine curricula. Over the course of 6 months, we interviewed 150 EPs about their experiences in 'end of life decisions' using a specific questionnaire. The total response rate was 69% (n = 104). Most of the interviewed EPs (89%, n = 93) had been confronted with palliative care medical emergencies and expressed uncertainties in dealing with these difficult situations, especially in the area of psychosocial care of the patients (50%). The emergency treatment of palliative care patients can become a particular challenge for any EP. A large percentage of interviewed EPs felt uncertain about aspects of social care and in the assessment of decisions at the end of life. Further information and training are necessary to amenable EPs to provide adequate patient-oriented care to palliative care patients and their relatives in emergency situations.

  6. Prehospital Emergencies in Illegal Gold Mining Sites in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Egmann, Gérald; Tattevin, Pierre; Palancade, Renaud; Nacher, Matthieu

    2018-03-01

    Illegal gold mining is flourishing in French Guiana, existing outside the law due to both the high cost of gold mining permits and the challenges of law enforcement within the Amazon forest. We report the characteristics of, and the medical responses to, medical emergencies in illegal gold mining sites. We performed a retrospective study of all medical emergencies reported from illegal gold mining sites to the centralized call office of SAMU 973 from 1998 through 2000 and from 2008 through 2010. According to the national health care system, any medical emergency within the territory is handled by the prehospital emergency medical service (SAMU 973), irrespective of the patients' legal status. Data were extracted from the SAMU 973 notebook registry (1998-2000) or the SAMU 973 computerized database (2008-2010) and werre collected using a standardized questionnaire. Of 71,932 calls for medical emergencies in French Guiana during the study periods, 340 (0.5%) originated from illegal gold mining sites. Of these, 196 (58%) led to medical evacuation by helicopter, whereas the overall rate of evacuation by helicopter after placing a call to SAMU 973 was only 4% (3020/71,932; P<0.0001 for comparison with illegal gold mining sites). Medical emergencies were classified as illness (48%, mostly infectious), trauma (44%, mostly weapon wounds), and miscellaneous (8%). Medical emergencies at illegal gold mining sites in the Amazon forest mostly include infectious diseases, followed by trauma, and often require medical evacuation by helicopter. Our study suggests that implementation of preventive medicine within gold mining sites, irrespective of their legal status, could be cost-effective and reduce morbidity. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Emergency Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Louis S.; Chappell, James A.

    1991-01-01

    The Scientific Board of the California Medical Association presents the following inventory of items of progress in emergency medicine. Each item, in the judgment of a panel of knowledgeable physicians, has recently become reasonably firmly established, both as to scientific fact and important clinical significance. The items are presented in simple epitome, and an authoritative reference, both to the item itself and to the subject as a whole, is generally given for those who may be unfamiliar with a particular item. The purpose is to assist busy practitioners, students, researchers, or scholars to stay abreast of these items of progress in emergency medicine that have recently achieved a substantial degree of authoritative acceptance, whether in their own field of special interest or another. The items of progress listed below were selected by the Advisory Panel to the Section on Emergency Medicine of the California Medical Association, and the summaries were prepared under its direction. PMID:1949777

  8. Development of key performance indicators for prehospital emergency care.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Adrian; Wakai, Abel; Walsh, Cathal; Cummins, Fergal; O'Sullivan, Ronan

    2016-04-01

    Key performance indicators (KPIs) are used to monitor and evaluate critical areas of clinical and support functions that influence patient outcome. Traditional prehospital emergency care performance monitoring has focused solely on response time metrics. The landscape of emergency care delivery in Ireland is in the process of significant national reconfiguration. The development of KPIs is therefore considered one of the key priorities in prehospital research. The aim of this study was to develop a suite of KPIs for prehospital emergency care in Ireland. A systematic literature review of prehospital care performance measurement was undertaken followed by a three-round Delphi consensus process facilitated by a broad-based multidisciplinary group of panellists. The consensus process was conducted between June 2012 and October 2013. Each candidate indicator on the Delphi survey questionnaire was rated using a 5-point Likert-type rating scale. Agreement was defined as at least 70% of responders rating an indicator as 'agree' or 'strongly agree' on the rating scale. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Sensitivity of the ratings was examined for robustness by bootstrapping the original sample. Of the 78 citations identified by the systematic review, 5 relevant publications were used to select candidate indicators for the Delphi round 1 questionnaire. Response rates in Delphi rounds 1 and 2 were 89% and 83%, respectively. Following the consensus development conference, 101 KPIs reached consensus. Based on the Donabedian framework for quality-of-care indicators, 7 of the KPIs which reached agreement were structure KPIs, 74 were process KPIs and 20 were outcome KPIs. The highest ranked indicator was a process KPI ('Direct transport of ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients to a primary percutaneous intervention (PCI)-capable facility for ECG to PCI time <90 min'). Improving the quality of prehospital care requires the development and implementation of

  9. [Recruitment and training of prehospital emergency care nurses in Paris].

    PubMed

    Pladec, Boris Martin le; Menoret, Romuald; Rodes, Raphaël

    2016-11-01

    In collaboration with the ambulance driver and the emergency doctor, the prehospital nurse provides care in a universe which is often difficult and sometimes hostile. Whether they are a nurse from the Samu (urgent medical aid service) or from the Paris fire service, how are they recruited and what training do these emergency care professionals receive? Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Taxi driver training in Madagascar: the first step in developing a functioning prehospital emergency care system.

    PubMed

    Geduld, Heike; Wallis, Lee

    2011-09-01

    Prehospital care in developing countries is severely lacking. Few countries can afford the relatively expensive formalised Western model of a prehospital emergency medical system. The WHO has highlighted the development of layperson first responder programmes as the most basic step in the development of a functioning prehospital system. To describe the first training programme of its kind, run in Mahajanga, Madagascar. The faculty was invited by Mahajanga Medical School. Local input was taken into account in developing the curriculum. 26 taxi drivers were invited to attend in cooperation with the local municipality. The faculty consisted of five instructors from the Division of Emergency Medicine and EMSSA, plus local doctors from University Hospital Mahajanga. The 1-day course included workshops on prehospital scene management, bleeding and broken bones, immobilisation and patient movement, and labour and delivery. The workshops made use of commonly available items only including packets, string and towels; French and Malagasy translators were available throughout. Both faculty and candidates deemed the course a success and plans for formal evaluation of knowledge and skill retention are underway. Future plans are to continue the training using local instructors and in rural districts.

  11. Prehospital Emergency Care in Childhood Arterial Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Stojanovski, Belinda; Monagle, Paul T; Mosley, Ian; Churilov, Leonid; Newall, Fiona; Hocking, Grant; Mackay, Mark T

    2017-04-01

    Immediately calling an ambulance is the key factor in reducing time to hospital presentation for adult stroke. Little is known about prehospital care in childhood arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). We aimed to determine emergency medical services call-taker and paramedic diagnostic sensitivity and to describe timelines of care in childhood AIS. This is a retrospective study of ambulance-transported children aged <18 years with first radiologically confirmed AIS, from 2008 to 2015. Interhospital transfers of children with preexisting AIS diagnosis were excluded. Twenty-three children were identified; 4 with unavailable ambulance records were excluded. Nineteen children were included in the study. Median age was 8 years (interquartile range, 3-14); median Pediatric National Institutes of Stroke Severity Scale score was 8 (interquartile range, 3-16). Emergency medical services call-taker diagnosis was stroke in 4 children (21%). Priority code 1 (lights and sirens) ambulances were dispatched for 13 children (68%). Paramedic diagnosis was stroke in 5 children (26%), hospital prenotification occurred in 8 children (42%), and 13 children (68%) were transported to primary stroke centers. Median prehospital timelines were onset to emergency medical services contact 13 minutes, call to scene 12 minutes, time at scene 14 minutes, transport time 43 minutes, and total prehospital time 71 minutes (interquartile range, 60-85). Emergency medical services call-taker and paramedic diagnostic sensitivity and prenotification rates are low in childhood AIS. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Case reports and case series in prehospital emergency care research.

    PubMed

    Patterson, P Daniel; Weaver, Matthew; Clark, Sunday; Yealy, Donald M

    2010-11-01

    Research begins with a clearly stated question, problem or hypothesis. The selection of a study design appropriate to the task is the next key step. This paper provides guidance for the use of case report and case series designs by describing the 'what', 'when' and 'how' of both designs. Also described is the use of case reports and case series study designs in prehospital emergency research and the quality of published literature from 2000 to mid-2008.

  13. The 2017 International Joint Working Group White Paper by INDUSEM, the Emergency Medicine Association and the Academic College of Emergency Experts on Establishing Standardized Regulations, Operational Mechanisms, and Accreditation Pathways for Education and Care Provided by the Prehospital Emergency Medical Service Systems in India

    PubMed Central

    Sikka, Veronica; Gautam, V.; Galwankar, Sagar; Guleria, Randeep; Stawicki, Stanislaw P.; Paladino, Lorenzo; Chauhan, Vivek; Menon, Geetha; Shah, Vijay; Srivastava, R. P.; Rana, B. K.; Batra, Bipin; Kalra, OP.; Aggarwal, P.; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Krishnan, S. Vimal

    2017-01-01

    The government of India has done remarkable work on commissioning a government funded prehospital emergency ambulance service in India. This has both public health implications and an economic impact on the nation. With the establishment of these services, there is an acute need for standardization of education and quality assurance regarding prehospital care provided. The International Joint Working Group has been actively involved in designing guidelines and establishing a comprehensive framework for ensuring high-quality education and clinical standards of care for prehospital services in India. This paper provides an independent expert opinion and a proposed framework for general operations and administration of a standardized, national prehospital emergency medical systems program. Program implementation, operational details, and regulations will require close collaboration between key stakeholders, including local, regional, and national governmental agencies of India. PMID:28855780

  14. Low oxygen saturation is associated with pre-hospital mortality among non-traumatic patients using emergency medical services: A national database of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sittichanbuncha, Yuwares; Savatmongkorngul, Sorrawit; Jawroongrit, Puchong; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2015-09-01

    Pre-hospital emergency medical services are an important network for Emergency Medicine. It has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality of patients by medical procedures. The Thai government established pre-hospital emergency medical services in 2008 to improve emergency medical care. Since then, there are limited data at the national level on mortality rates with pre-hospital care and the risk factors associated with mortality in non-traumatic patients. To study the pre-hospital mortality rate and factors associated with mortality in non-traumatic patients using the emergency medical service in Thailand. This study retrieved medical data from the National Institute for Emergency Medicine, NIEMS. The inclusion criteria were adult patients above the age of 15 who received medical services by the emergency medical services in Thailand (except Bangkok) from April 1st, 2011 to March 31st, 2012. Patients were excluded if there was no treatment during pre-hospital period, if they were trauma patients, or if their medical data was incomplete. Patients were categorized as either in the survival or non-survival group. Factors associated with mortality were examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. During the study period, there were 127,602 non-traumatic patients who used pre-hospital emergency medical services in Thailand. Of those, 98,587 patients met the study criteria. For the statistical analyses, there were 66,760 patients who had complete clinical investigations. The mortality rate in this group was 1.89%. Only oxygen saturation was associated with mortality by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The adjusted OR was 0.922 (95% CI 0.8550.994). Low oxygen saturation is significantly associated with pre-hospital mortality in a national database of non-traumatic patients using emergency medical services in Thailand. During pre-hospital care, oxygen level should be monitored and promptly treated. Pulse oximetry devices should be available in all

  15. The development of sustainable emergency care in ghana: physician, nursing and prehospital care training initiatives.

    PubMed

    Martel, John; Oteng, Rockefeller; Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Bell, Sue Anne; Zakariah, Ahmed; Oduro, George; Kowalenko, Terry; Donkor, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Ghana's first Emergency Medicine residency and nursing training programs were initiated in 2009 and 2010, respectively, at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in the city of Kumasi in association with Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology and the Universities of Michigan and Utah. In addition, the National Ambulance Service was commissioned initially in 2004 and has developed to include both prehospital transport services in all regions of the country and Emergency Medical Technician training. Over a decade of domestic and international partnership has focused on making improvements in emergency care at a variety of institutional levels, culminating in the establishment of comprehensive emergency care training programs. We describe the history and status of novel postgraduate emergency physician, nurse, and prehospital provider training programs as well as the prospect of creating a board certification process and formal continuing education program for practicing emergency physicians. Significant strides have been made in the development of emergency care and training in Ghana over the last decade, resulting in the first group of Specialist-level emergency physicians as of late 2012, as well as development of accredited emergency nursing curricula and continued expansion of a national Emergency Medical Service. This work represents a significant move toward in-country development of sustainable, interdisciplinary, team-based emergency provider training programs designed to retain skilled health care workers in Ghana and may serve as a model for similar developing nations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Emergency medicine in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It has been a decade since emergency medicine was recognized as a specialty in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this short time, emergency medicine has established itself and developed rapidly in the UAE. Large, well-equipped emergency departments (EDs) are usually located in government hospitals, some of which function as regional trauma centers. Most of the larger EDs are staffed with medically or surgically trained physicians, with board-certified emergency medicine physicians serving as consultants overseeing care. Prehospital care and emergency medical services (EMS) operate under the auspices of the police department. Standardized protocols have been established for paramedic certification, triage, and destination decisions. The majority of ambulances offer basic life support (BLS/Type 2) with a growing minority offering advanced life support (ALS/Type 3). Medicine residency programs were established 5 years ago and form the foundation for training emergency medicine specialists for UAE. This article describes the full spectrum of emergency medicine in the UAE: prehospital care, EMS, hospital-based emergency care, training in emergency medicine, and disaster preparedness. We hope that our experience, our understanding of the challenges faced by the specialty, and the anticipated future directions will be of importance to others advancing emergency medicine in their region and across the globe. PMID:24401695

  17. Rural emergency medical technician pre-hospital electrocardiogram transmission.

    PubMed

    Powell, A M; Halon, J M; Nelson, J

    2014-01-01

    Emergent care of the acute heart attack patient continues to be at the forefront of quality and cost reduction strategies throughout the healthcare industry. Although the average cardiac door-to-balloon (D2B) times have decreased substantially over the past few years, there are still vast disparities found in D2B times in populations that reside in rural areas. Such disparities are mostly related to prolonged travel time and subsequent delays in cardiac catherization lab team activation. Urban ambulance companies that are routinely staffed with paramedic level providers have been successful in the implementation of pre-hospital 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) protocols as a strategy to reduce D2B times. The authors sought to evaluate the evidence related to the risk and benefits associated with the replication of an ECG transmission protocol in a small rural emergency medical service. The latter is staffed with emergency medical technician-basics (EMT-B), emergency medical technician-advanced (EMT-A), and emergency medical technician-intermediate (EMT-I) level. The evidence reviewed was limited to studies with relevant data regarding the challenges and complexities of the ECG transmission process, the difficulties associated with ECG transmission in rural settings, and ECG transmission outcomes by provider level. The evidence supports additional research to further evaluate the feasibility of ECG transmission at the non-paramedic level. Multiple variables must be investigated including equipment cost, utilization, and rural transmission capabilities. Clearly, pre-hospital ECG transmission and early activation of the cardiac catheterization laboratory are critical components to successfully decreasing D2B times.

  18. Customers' satisfaction about prehospital emergency medical services in Lorestan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Heshmatolah; Kamran, Aziz; Zali, Morad Esmaiel; Novinmehr, Nasser; Safari, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    Patient's satisfaction with health care in ambulance services is an important quality indicator and a helpful tool for managers of prehospital emergency services. This study aimed to measure patient satisfaction with health provided by prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) in Lorestan, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on patients (n=450) transferred by EMS to hospitals of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences in a two-year period (2013-2014). Data collection was performed by patient questionnaire, which is a standard LKFR tool. Validity and reliability of the instrument was confirmed by scientific method. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS Version 19. Descriptive and inferential statistics such as Chi-square, paired-samples t-test, independent-samples t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient, and Fisher's exact test were used. One hundred ninety-two (42.8%) and 257 (57.2%) patients were female and male, respectively (mean: 41 years, r: 37-83). Patient satisfaction of the dispatcher was good, and satisfaction level in regards to the technicians' performance, physical situation, and facilities inside the ambulance was moderate. The Wilcoxon test did not show any significant difference between pain severity before and after arriving EMS in the cardiac and respiratory patients (p=0.691), but severity of pain in orthopedic patients after arriving EMS was decreased (p=0.001). Cardiac and respiratory patients had low satisfaction of EMS, and the Chi-square test was significant (p=0.001). Orthopedic patients had the most satisfaction of EMS. Generally, patients' satisfaction of EMS was low. Satisfaction with pain relief in orthopedic patients was better than pain relief in cardiac and respiratory patients. It is recommended to take necessary actions to improve the level of patient satisfaction of EMS.

  19. Prehospital telemedicine electrocardiogram triage for a regional public emergency medical service: is it worth it? A preliminary cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Dellegrottaglie, Giulia; Lopriore, Claudio; Di Giuseppe, Giuseppe; De Gennaro, Luisa; Lanzone, Saverio; Di Biase, Matteo

    2014-03-01

    Telemedicine has been shown to improve quality of health-care delivery in several fields of medicine; its cost-effectiveness, however, is still a matter of debate. Pre-hospital telemedicine electrocardiogram triage for regional public emergency medical service may reduce costs. An economic evaluation (cost analysis) was performed from the perspective of regional health-care system. Patients enrolled in the study and considered for cost analysis were those who called the local emergency medical service (EMS; dialing 1-1-8) during 2012 and underwent prehospital field triage with a telemedicine electrocardiogram (ECG) in the case of suspected acute cardiac disease (acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmia). The prehospital ECGs were read by a remote cardiologist, available 24/7. Cost savings associated with this method were calculated by subtracting the cost of prehospital triage with telemedicine support from the cost of conventional emergency department triage (ECG and consultation by a cardiologist). During 2012, the regional EMS performed 109 750 ECGs by telemedicine support. The associated total cost for the regional health-care system was €1 833 333, with a €16.70 cost per single ECG/consultation. Given the cost of similar conventional emergency department treatment from a regional rate list of €24.80 to €55.20, the savings was €8.10 to €38.40 per ECG/consultation (total savings, €891 759.50 to €4 219 379.50). The cost for ruling out an acute cardiac disease was €25.30; for a prehospital diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, €49.20. With 629 prehospital diagnoses of ST-elevation myocardial infarction and reported reductions in mortality thanks to prehospital diagnosis deduced from prior studies, 69 lives per year presumably could be saved, with a cost per quality-adjusted life year gained of €1927, €990/€ - 2508 after correction for potential savings. Prehospital EMS triage with telemedicine ECG in patients with suspected

  20. Novel wireless electroencephalography system with a minimal preparation time for use in emergencies and prehospital care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although clinical applications such as emergency medicine and prehospital care could benefit from a fast-mounting electroencephalography (EEG) recording system, the lack of specifically designed equipment restricts the use of EEG in these environments. Methods This paper describes the design and testing of a six-channel emergency EEG (emEEG) system with a rapid preparation time intended for use in emergency medicine and prehospital care. The novel system comprises a quick-application cap, a device for recording and transmitting the EEG wirelessly to a computer, and custom software for displaying and streaming the data in real-time to a hospital. Bench testing was conducted, as well as healthy volunteer and patient measurements in three different environments: a hospital EEG laboratory, an intensive care unit, and an ambulance. The EEG data was evaluated by two experienced clinical neurophysiologists and compared with recordings from a commercial system. Results The bench tests demonstrated that the emEEG system's performance is comparable to that of a commercial system while the healthy volunteer and patient measurements confirmed that the system can be applied quickly and that it records quality EEG data in a variety of environments. Furthermore, the recorded data was judged to be of diagnostic quality by two experienced clinical neurophysiologists. Conclusions In the future, the emEEG system may be used to record high-quality EEG data in emergency medicine and during ambulance transportation. Its use could lead to a faster diagnostic, a more accurate treatment, and a shorter recovery time for patients with neurological brain disorders. PMID:24886096

  1. CPAP Devices for Emergency Prehospital Use: A Bench Study.

    PubMed

    Brusasco, Claudia; Corradi, Francesco; De Ferrari, Alessandra; Ball, Lorenzo; Kacmarek, Robert M; Pelosi, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    CPAP is frequently used in prehospital and emergency settings. An air-flow output minimum of 60 L/min and a constant positive pressure are 2 important features for a successful CPAP device. Unlike hospital CPAP devices, which require electricity, CPAP devices for ambulance use need only an oxygen source to function. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare on a bench model the performance of 3 orofacial mask devices (Ventumask, EasyVent, and Boussignac CPAP system) and 2 helmets (Ventukit and EVE Coulisse) used to apply CPAP in the prehospital setting. A static test evaluated air-flow output, positive pressure applied, and FIO2 delivered by each device. A dynamic test assessed airway pressure stability during simulated ventilation. Efficiency of devices was compared based on oxygen flow needed to generate a minimum air flow of 60 L/min at each CPAP setting. The EasyVent and EVE Coulisse devices delivered significantly higher mean air-flow outputs compared with the Ventumask and Ventukit under all CPAP conditions tested. The Boussignac CPAP system never reached an air-flow output of 60 L/min. The EasyVent had significantly lower pressure excursion than the Ventumask at all CPAP levels, and the EVE Coulisse had lower pressure excursion than the Ventukit at 5, 15, and 20 cm H2O, whereas at 10 cm H2O, no significant difference was observed between the 2 devices. Estimated oxygen consumption was lower for the EasyVent and EVE Coulisse compared with the Ventumask and Ventukit. Air-flow output, pressure applied, FIO2 delivered, device oxygen consumption, and ability to maintain air flow at 60 L/min differed significantly among the CPAP devices tested. Only the EasyVent and EVE Coulisse achieved the required minimum level of air-flow output needed to ensure an effective therapy under all CPAP conditions. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  2. Time series modelling to forecast prehospital EMS demand for diabetic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Villani, Melanie; Earnest, Arul; Nanayakkara, Natalie; Smith, Karen; de Courten, Barbora; Zoungas, Sophia

    2017-05-05

    Acute diabetic emergencies are often managed by prehospital Emergency Medical Services (EMS). The projected growth in prevalence of diabetes is likely to result in rising demand for prehospital EMS that are already under pressure. The aims of this study were to model the temporal trends and provide forecasts of prehospital attendances for diabetic emergencies. A time series analysis on monthly cases of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia was conducted using data from the Ambulance Victoria (AV) electronic database between 2009 and 2015. Using the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) modelling process, different models were evaluated. The most parsimonious model with the highest accuracy was selected. Forty-one thousand four hundred fifty-four prehospital diabetic emergencies were attended over a seven-year period with an increase in the annual median monthly caseload between 2009 (484.5) and 2015 (549.5). Hypoglycemia (70%) and people with type 1 diabetes (48%) accounted for most attendances. The SARIMA (0,1,0,12) model provided the best fit, with a MAPE of 4.2% and predicts a monthly caseload of approximately 740 by the end of 2017. Prehospital EMS demand for diabetic emergencies is increasing. SARIMA time series models are a valuable tool to allow forecasting of future caseload with high accuracy and predict increasing cases of prehospital diabetic emergencies into the future. The model generated by this study may be used by service providers to allow appropriate planning and resource allocation of EMS for diabetic emergencies.

  3. Evolving prehospital, emergency department, and "inpatient" management models for geriatric emergencies.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Christopher R; Platts-Mills, Timothy F

    2013-02-01

    Alternative management methods are essential to ensure high-quality and efficient emergency care for the growing number of geriatric adults worldwide. Protocols to support early condition-specific treatment of older adults with acute severe illness and injury are needed. Improved emergency department care for older adults will require providers to address the influence of other factors on the patient's health. This article describes recent and ongoing efforts to enhance the quality of emergency care for older adults using alternative management approaches spanning the spectrum from prehospital care, through the emergency department, and into evolving inpatient or outpatient processes of care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Faculty of Prehospital Care, Royal College of Surgeons Edinburgh guidance for medical provision for wilderness medicine.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Adrian; Dodds, Naomi; Joshi, Raj; Hall, John; Dhillon, Sundeep; Hollis, Sarah; Davis, Pete; Hillebrandt, David; Howard, Eva; Wilkes, Matthew; Langdana, Burjor; Lee, David; Hinson, Nigel; Williams, Thomas Harcourt; Rowles, Joe; Pynn, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    To support leaders and those involved in providing medical care on expeditions in wilderness environments, the Faculty of Pre-Hospital Care (FPHC) of The Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh convened an expert panel of leading healthcare professionals and expedition providers. The aims of this panel were to: (1) provide guidance to ensure the best possible medical care for patients within the geographical, logistical and human factor constraints of an expedition environment. (2) Give aspiring and established expedition medics a 'benchmark' of skills they should meet. (3) Facilitate expedition organisers in selecting the most appropriate medical cover and provider for their planned activity. A system of medical planning is suggested to enable expedition leaders to identify the potential medical risks and their mitigation. It was recognised that the scope of practice for wilderness medicine covers elements of primary healthcare, pre-hospital emergency medicine and preventative medicine. Some unique competencies were also identified. Further to this, the panel recommends the use of a matrix and advisory expedition medic competencies relating to the remoteness and medical threat of the expedition. This advice is aimed at all levels of expedition medic, leader and organiser who may be responsible for delivering or managing the delivery of remote medical care for participants. The expedition medic should be someone equipped with the appropriate medical competencies, scope of practice and capabilities in the expedition environment and need not necessarily be a qualified doctor. In addition to providing guidance regarding the clinical competencies required of the expedition medic, the document provides generic guidance and signposting to the more pertinent aspects of the role of expedition medic.

  5. Geographical variation of diabetic emergencies attended by prehospital Emergency Medical Services is associated with measures of ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Villani, Melanie; Earnest, Arul; Smith, Karen; de Courten, Barbora; Zoungas, Sophia

    2018-03-23

    Geographical variation of diabetic emergencies attended by prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) and the relationship between area-level social and demographic factors and risk of a diabetic emergency were examined. All cases of hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia attended by Ambulance Victoria between 1/01/2009 and 31/12/2015 were tabulated by Local Government Area (LGA). Conditional autoregressive models were used to create smoothed maps of age and gender standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of prehospital EMS attendance for a diabetic emergency. Spatial regression models were used to examine the relationship between risk of a diabetic emergency and area-level factors. The areas with the greatest risk of prehospital EMS attendance for a diabetic emergency were disperse. Area-level factors associated with risk of a prehospital EMS-attended diabetic emergency were socioeconomic status (SIR 0.70 95% CrI [0.51, 0.96]), proportion of overseas-born residents (SIR 2.02 95% CrI [1.37, 2.91]) and motor vehicle access (SIR 1.47 95% CrI [1.08, 1.99]). Recognition of areas of increased risk of prehospital EMS-attended diabetic emergencies may be used to assist prehospital EMS resource planning to meet increased need. In addition, identification of associated factors can be used to target preventative interventions tailored to individual regions to reduce demand.

  6. Frailty in Older Adults Using Pre-hospital Care and the Emergency Department: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Judah P; Andrew, Melissa K; Travers, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    Older adults use more health-care services per capita than younger age groups and the older adult population varies greatly in its needs. Evidence suggests that there is a critical distinction between relative frailty and fitness in older adults. Here, we review how frailty is described in the pre-hospital literature and in the broader emergency medicine literature. PubMed was used as the primary database, but was augmented by searches of CINAHL and EMBASE. Articles were included if they focused on patients 60 years and older and implemented a definition of frailty or risk screening tool in the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) or Emergency Department setting. IN THE BROAD CLINICAL LITERATURE, THREE TYPES OF MEASURES CAN BE IDENTIFIED: frailty index measures, frailty scales, and a phenotypic definition. Each offers advantages and disadvantages for the EMS stakeholder. We identified no EMS literature on frailty conceptualization or management, although some risk measures from emergency medicine use terms that overlap with the frailty literature. There is a paucity of research on frailty in the Emergency Medical Services literature. No research was identified that specifically addressed frailty conceptualization or management in EMS patients. There is a compelling need for further research in this area.

  7. Quality Indicators for Evaluating Prehospital Emergency Care: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Howard, Ian; Cameron, Peter; Wallis, Lee; Castren, Maaret; Lindstrom, Veronica

    2018-02-01

    Introduction Historically, the quality and performance of prehospital emergency care (PEC) has been assessed largely based on surrogate, non-clinical endpoints such as response time intervals or other crude measures of care (eg, stakeholder satisfaction). However, advances in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems and services world-wide have seen their scope and reach continue to expand. This has dictated that novel measures of performance be implemented to compliment this growth. Significant progress has been made in this area, largely in the form of the development of evidence-informed quality indicators (QIs) of PEC. Problem Quality indicators represent an increasingly popular component of health care quality and performance measurement. However, little is known about the development of QIs in the PEC environment. The purpose of this study was to assess the development and characteristics of PEC-specific QIs in the literature. A scoping review was conducted through a search of PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA); EMBase (Elsevier; Amsterdam, Netherlands); CINAHL (EBSCO Information Services; Ipswich, Massachusetts USA); Web of Science (Thomson Reuters; New York, New York USA); and the Cochrane Library (The Cochrane Collaboration; Oxford, United Kingdom). To increase the sensitivity of the literature, a search of the grey literature and review of select websites was additionally conducted. Articles were selected that proposed at least one PEC QI and whose aim was to discuss, analyze, or promote quality measurement in the PEC environment. The majority of research (n=25 articles) was published within the last decade (68.0%) and largely originated within the USA (68.0%). Delphi and observational methodologies were the most commonly employed for QI development (28.0%). A total of 331 QIs were identified via the article review, with an additional 15 QIs identified via the website review. Of

  8. Adult Status Epilepticus: A Review of the Prehospital and Emergency Department Management

    PubMed Central

    Billington, Michael; Kandalaft, Osama R.; Aisiku, Imoigele P.

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are a common presentation in the prehospital and emergency department setting and status epilepticus represents an emergency neurologic condition. The classification and various types of seizures are numerous. The objectives of this narrative literature review focuses on adult patients with a presentation of status epilepticus in the prehospital and emergency department setting. In summary, benzodiazepines remain the primary first line therapeutic agent in the management of status epilepticus, however, there are new agents that may be appropriate for the management of status epilepticus as second- and third-line pharmacological agents. PMID:27563928

  9. [Miscommunication as a risk focus in patient safety : Work process analysis in prehospital emergency care].

    PubMed

    Wilk, S; Siegl, L; Siegl, K; Hohenstein, C

    2018-04-01

    In an analysis of a critical incident reporting system (CIRS) in out-of-hospital emergency medicine, it was demonstrated that in 30% of cases deficient communication led to a threat to patients; however, the analysis did not show what exactly the most dangerous work processes are. Current research shows the impact of poor communication on patient safety. An out-of-hospital workflow analysis collects data about key work processes and risk areas. The analysis points out confounding factors for a sufficient communication. Almost 70% of critical incidents are based on human factors. Factors, such as communication and teamwork have an impact but fatigue, noise levels and illness also have a major influence. (I) CIRS database analysis The workflow analysis was based on 247 CIRS cases. This was completed by participant observation and interviews with emergency doctors and paramedics. The 247 CIRS cases displayed 282 communication incidents, which are categorized into 6 subcategories of miscommunication. One CIRS case can be classified into different categories if more communication incidents were validated by the reviewers and four experienced emergency physicians sorted these cases into six subcategories. (II) Workflow analysis The workflow analysis was carried out between 2015 and 2016 in Jena and Berlin, Germany. The focal point of research was to find accumulation of communication risks in different parts of prehospital patient care. During 30 h driving with emergency ambulances, the author interviewed 12 members of the emergency medical service of which 5 were emergency physicians and 7 paramedics. A total of 11 internal medicine cases and one automobile accident were monitored. After patient care the author asked in a 15-min interview if miscommunication or communication incidents occurred. (I) CIRS analysis Between 2005 and 2015, 845 reports were reported to the database. The experts identified 247 incident reports with communication failure. All

  10. Evolving Prehospital, Emergency Department, and “Inpatient” Management Models for Geriatric Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Christopher R.; Platts-Mills, Timothy F.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative management methods are essential to ensure high quality and efficient emergency care for the growing number of geriatric adults worldwide. Protocols for case-finding and rapid diagnosis to support early condition-specific treatment for older adults with acute severe illness and injury are needed. Improved emergency department care for older adults will require providers to look beyond the diagnosis to address the influence of other factors on the patient's health: isolation and depression; finances and transportation; and chronic medical conditions and polypharmacy. This review article describes recent and ongoing efforts to enhance the quality of emergency care for older adults using alternative management approaches spanning the spectrum from prehospital care, through the emergency department, and into evolving inpatient or outpatient processes of care. PMID:23177599

  11. Positive Coping: A Unique Characteristic to Pre-Hospital Emergency Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Ebadi, Abbas; Froutan, Razieh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction It is important to gain a thorough understanding of positive coping methods adopted by medical emergency personnel to manage stressful situations associated with accidents and emergencies. Thus, the purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of positive coping strategies used by emergency medical service providers. Methods This study was conducted using a qualitative content analysis method. The study participants included 28 pre-hospital emergency personnel selected from emergency medical service providers in bases located in different regions of the city of Mashhad, Iran, from April to November 2016. The purposive sampling method also was used in this study, which was continued until data saturation was reached. To collect the data, semistructured open interviews, observations, and field notes were used. Results Four categories and 10 subcategories were extracted from the data on the experiences of pre-hospital emergency personnel related to positive coping strategies. The four categories included work engagement, smart capability, positive feedback, and crisis pioneering. All the obtained categories had their own subcategories, which were determined based on their distinctly integrated properties. Conclusion The results of this study show that positive coping consists of several concepts used by medical emergency personnel, management of stressful situations, and ultimately quality of pre-hospital clinical services. Given the fact that efficient methods such as positive coping can prevent debilitating stress in an individual, pre-hospital emergency authorities should seek to build and strengthen “positive coping” characteristics in pre-hospital medical emergency personnel to deal with accidents, emergencies, and injuries through adopting regular and dynamic policies. PMID:28243409

  12. Positive Coping: A Unique Characteristic to Pre-Hospital Emergency Personnel.

    PubMed

    Ebadi, Abbas; Froutan, Razieh

    2017-01-01

    It is important to gain a thorough understanding of positive coping methods adopted by medical emergency personnel to manage stressful situations associated with accidents and emergencies. Thus, the purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of positive coping strategies used by emergency medical service providers. This study was conducted using a qualitative content analysis method. The study participants included 28 pre-hospital emergency personnel selected from emergency medical service providers in bases located in different regions of the city of Mashhad, Iran, from April to November 2016. The purposive sampling method also was used in this study, which was continued until data saturation was reached. To collect the data, semistructured open interviews, observations, and field notes were used. Four categories and 10 subcategories were extracted from the data on the experiences of pre-hospital emergency personnel related to positive coping strategies. The four categories included work engagement, smart capability, positive feedback, and crisis pioneering. All the obtained categories had their own subcategories, which were determined based on their distinctly integrated properties. The results of this study show that positive coping consists of several concepts used by medical emergency personnel, management of stressful situations, and ultimately quality of pre-hospital clinical services. Given the fact that efficient methods such as positive coping can prevent debilitating stress in an individual, pre-hospital emergency authorities should seek to build and strengthen "positive coping" characteristics in pre-hospital medical emergency personnel to deal with accidents, emergencies, and injuries through adopting regular and dynamic policies.

  13. Emergency medical service attitudes toward geriatric prehospital care and continuing medical education in geriatrics.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Lars-Kristofer N; Fairbanks, Rollin J; Hettinger, Aaron Z; Shah, Manish N

    2009-03-01

    To understand the opinions of emergency medical service (EMS) providers regarding their ability to care for older adults, the domains of geriatric medicine in which they need more training, and the modality through which continuing education could be best delivered. Qualitative study using key informant interviews. Prehospital EMS system in Rochester, New York. EMS providers, EMS instructors and administrators, emergency physicians, and geriatricians. Semistructured interviews were conducted using an interview guide that addressed knowledge and skill deficiencies, recommendations for improvement of geriatrics continuing education, and delivery methods of education. Participant responses were generally congruous despite the diverse backgrounds, and redundancy was achieved rapidly. All participants perceived a deficit in EMS education on the care of older adults, particularly related to communications with patients and skilled nursing facility staff. All desired more geriatric continuing education for EMS providers, especially in communications and psychosocial issues. Education was desired in various modalities. Further geriatric continuing education for EMS providers is needed. Some specific topics relate to medical issues, but a large proportion involve communications and psychosocial issues. Education should be delivered in a variety of modalities to meet the needs of the EMS community. Emerging on-line video technologies may bridge the gap between learners preferring classroom-based modailities and those preferring self-study modules.

  14. Psychological consequences of aggression in pre-hospital emergency care: cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Bernaldo-De-Quirós, Mónica; Piccini, Ana T; Gómez, M Mar; Cerdeira, Jose C

    2015-01-01

    Pre-hospital emergency care is a particularly vulnerable setting for workplace violence. However, there is no literature available to date on the psychological consequences of violence in pre-hospital emergency care. To evaluate the psychological consequences of exposure to workplace violence from patients and those accompanying them in pre-hospital emergency care. A retrospective cross-sectional study. 70 pre-hospital emergency care services located in Madrid region. A randomized sample of 441 health care workers (135 physicians, 127 nurses and 179 emergency care assistants). Data were collected from February to May 2012. The survey was divided into four sections: demographic/professional information, level of burnout determined by Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), mental health status using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and frequency and type of violent behaviour experienced by staff members. The health care professionals who had been exposed to physical and verbal violence presented a significantly higher percentage of anxiety, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and burnout syndrome compared with those who had not been subjected to any aggression. Frequency of verbal violence (more than five times) was related to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Type of violence (i.e. physical aggression) is especially related to high anxiety levels and frequency of verbal aggression is associated with burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization). Psychological counselling should be made available to professional staff who have been subjected to physical aggression or frequent verbal violence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Emergency medicine in space.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lowan H; Trunkey, Donald; Rebagliati, G Steve

    2007-01-01

    Recent events, including the development of space tourism and commercial spaceflight, have increased the need for specialists in space medicine. With increased duration of missions and distance from Earth, medical and surgical events will become inevitable. Ground-based medical support will no longer be adequate when return to Earth is not an option. Pending the inclusion of sub-specialists, clinical skills and medical expertise will be required that go beyond those of current physician-astronauts, yet are well within the scope of Emergency Medicine. Emergency physicians have the necessary broad knowledge base as well as proficiency in basic surgical skills and management of the critically ill and injured. Space medicine shares many attributes with extreme conditions and environments that many emergency physicians already specialize in. This article is an introduction to space medicine, and a review of current issues in the emergent management of medical and surgical disease during spaceflight.

  16. Development and Testing of an Algorithm for Efficient Resource Positioning in Pre-hospital Emergency Care

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Devashish; Mazza, Giovanni; Shah, Najaf; Mirza, Muzna; Gori, Mandar M; Nandigam, Hari Krishna; Orthner, Helmuth F

    2006-01-01

    Response times for pre-hospital emergency care may be improved with the use of algorithms that analyzes historical patterns in incident location and suggests optimal places for prepositioning of emergency response units. We will develop such an algorithm based on cluster analysis and test whether it leads to significant improvement in mileage when compared to actual historical data of dispatching based on fixed stations. PMID:17238702

  17. Development and testing of an algorithm for efficient resource positioning in pre-hospital emergency care.

    PubMed

    Saini, Devashish; Mazza, Giovanni; Shah, Najaf; Mirza, Muzna; Gori, Mandar M; Nandigam, Hari Krishna; Orthner, Helmuth F

    2006-01-01

    Response times for pre-hospital emergency care may be improved with the use of algorithms that analyzes historical patterns in incident location and suggests optimal places for pre-positioning of emergency response units. We will develop such an algorithm based on cluster analysis and test whether it leads to significant improvement in mileage when compared to actual historical data of dispatching based on fixed stations.

  18. Severe sepsis in pre-hospital emergency care: analysis of incidence, care, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Christopher W; Rea, Thomas D; Kahn, Jeremy M; Walkey, Allan J; Yealy, Donald M; Angus, Derek C

    2012-12-15

    Severe sepsis is common and highly morbid, yet the epidemiology of severe sepsis at the frontier of the health care system-pre-hospital emergency care-is unknown. We examined the epidemiology of pre-hospital severe sepsis among emergency medical services (EMS) encounters, relative to acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Retrospective study using a community-based cohort of all nonarrest, nontrauma King County EMS encounters from 2000 to 2009 who were transported to a hospital. Overall incidence rate of hospitalization with severe sepsis among EMS encounters, as well as pre-hospital characteristics, admission diagnosis, and outcomes. Among 407,176 EMS encounters, we identified 13,249 hospitalizations for severe sepsis, of whom 2,596 died in the hospital (19.6%). The crude incidence rate of severe sepsis was 3.3 per 100 EMS encounters, greater than for acute myocardial infarction or stroke (2.3 per 100 and 2.2 per 100 EMS encounters, respectively). More than 40% of all severe sepsis hospitalizations arrived at the emergency department after EMS transport, and 80% of cases were diagnosed on admission. Pre-hospital care intervals, on average, exceeded 45 minutes for those hospitalized with severe sepsis. One-half or fewer of patients with severe sepsis were transported by paramedics (n = 7,114; 54%) or received pre-hospital intravenous access (n = 4,842; 37%). EMS personnel care for a substantial and increasing number of patients with severe sepsis, and spend considerable time on scene and during transport. Given the emphasis on rapid diagnosis and intervention for sepsis, the pre-hospital interval may represent an important opportunity for recognition and care of sepsis.

  19. An Introduction to Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Pre-Hospital Phase. Emergency Medical Services Orientation, Lesson Plan No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Derrick P.

    Designed for use with interested students at high schools, community colleges, and four-year colleges, this lesson plan was developed to provide an introduction to the pre-hospital phase of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and to serve as a recruitment tool for the EMS Program at Kapiolani Community College (KCC) in Hawaii. The objectives of the…

  20. Spinal immobilisaton in pre-hospital and emergency care: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hood, Natalie; Considine, Julie

    2015-08-01

    Spinal immobilisation has been a mainstay of trauma care for decades and is based on the premise that immobilisation will prevent further neurological compromise in patients with a spinal column injury. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence related to spinal immobilisation in pre-hospital and emergency care settings. In February 2015, we performed a systematic literature review of English language publications from 1966 to January 2015 indexed in MEDLINE and Cochrane library using the following search terms: 'spinal injuries' OR 'spinal cord injuries' AND 'emergency treatment' OR 'emergency care' OR 'first aid' AND immobilisation. EMBASE was searched for keywords 'spinal injury OR 'spinal cord injury' OR 'spine fracture AND 'emergency care' OR 'prehospital care'. There were 47 studies meeting inclusion criteria for further review. Ten studies were case series (level of evidence IV) and there were 37 studies from which data were extrapolated from healthy volunteers, cadavers or multiple trauma patients. There were 15 studies that were supportive, 13 studies that were neutral, and 19 studies opposing spinal immobilisation. There are no published high-level studies that assess the efficacy of spinal immobilisation in pre-hospital and emergency care settings. Almost all of the current evidence is related to spinal immobilisation is extrapolated data, mostly from healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2015 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 911 (nueve once): Spanish-speaking parents' perspectives on prehospital emergency care for children.

    PubMed

    Watts, Jennifer; Cowden, John D; Cupertino, A Paula; Dowd, M Denise; Kennedy, Chris

    2011-06-01

    Racial, ethnic and language-based disparities occur throughout the US health system. Pediatric prehospital emergency medical services are less likely to be used by Latinos. We identified perceptions of and barriers to prehospital pediatric emergency care (911) access among Spanish-speaking parents. A qualitative study involving six focus groups was conducted. Spanish-speaking parents participated with a bilingual moderator. Topics discussed included experiences, knowledge, beliefs, fears, barriers, and improvement strategies. All groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and reviewed for recurring themes. Forty-nine parents participated. Though parents believed 911 was available to all, many were uncertain how to use it, and what qualified as an emergency. Barriers included language discordance, fear of exposing immigration status, and fear of financial consequences. Parents strongly desired to learn more about 911 through classes, brochures, and media campaigns. Prehospital emergency care should be available to all children. Further quantitative studies may help solidify the identified barriers and uncover areas needing improvement within Emergency Medical Systems. Addressing barriers to 911 use in Spanish-speaking communities could improve the equity of health care delivery, while also decreasing the amount of non-emergency 911 use.

  2. Exploring implicit preventive strategies in prehospital emergency workers: a novel approach for preventing back problems.

    PubMed

    Arial, Marc; Benoît, Damien; Wild, Pascal

    2014-07-01

    Back problems are a major occupational health issue for prehospital emergency care professionals. The goals of this article are to: 1) provide descriptive data about the prevalence and the severity of lower back and upper back disorders in EMTs and paramedics; 2) identify some individual and collective strategies used by EMTs and paramedics to protect their health as they perform prehospital emergency missions; 3) assess the possible effectiveness of strategies in preventing back problems by exploring associations between the use of strategies and the presence and severity of symptoms. The method includes a questionnaire survey (sample n = 334; paramedics and emergency medical technicians) and ergonomics work practice analysis involving shadowing ambulance crews in 12 medical emergency services (over 400 h). A majority of ambulance professionals had experienced back pain in the twelve-month period before the survey. Work practice analysis revealed strategies and tricks of the trade used by ambulance professionals to reduce the chances of back strain while working. Multiple regression analyses showed that self-reported use of such strategies was associated with fewer back symptoms. Preventive strategies should be integrated into specialised training programs for prehospital medical emergency professionals. This approach could also be used in other work settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Organizational health and quality of life: survey among ambulance nurses in prehospital emergency care.

    PubMed

    Sili, A; Fida, Roberta; Vellone, E; Gianlorenzi, Alessandra; Alvaro, Rosaria

    2011-01-01

    The workplace plays a central role in causing stress and different kinds of syndromes and diseases. More generally, organizational procedures and practices could have an impact on nurses' quality of life. Although several studies have investigated this link, none of them considered nurses working in prehospital emergency care. To investigate the role of organizational health factors that affect the quality of life and psychosomatic complaints of ambulance nurses. Our sample included 411 ambulance nurses. Workers were administered two questionnaires to assess organizational health and quality of life. Descriptive and correlational analyses were used to test our assumptions. Several organizational health dimensions provided an explanation for the complaints reported by nurses working in prehospital emergency care in terms of quality of life and psychosomatic disorders. The results allowed identification of possible interventions focusing on specific duties and organizational aspects that would improve the quality of nurses' health.

  4. A strategy to implement and support pre-hospital emergency medical systems in developing, resource-constrained areas of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jared H; Shing, Rachel; Twomey, Michele; Wallis, Lee A

    2014-01-01

    Resource-constrained countries are in extreme need of pre-hospital emergency care systems. However, current popular strategies to provide pre-hospital emergency care are inappropriate for and beyond the means of a resource-constrained country, and so new ones are needed-ones that can both function in an under-developed area's particular context and be done with the area's limited resources. In this study, we used a two-location pilot and consensus approach to develop a strategy to implement and support pre-hospital emergency care in one such developing, resource-constrained area: the Western Cape province of South Africa. Local community members are trained to be emergency first aid responders who can provide immediate, on-scene care until a Transporter can take the patient to the hospital. Management of the system is done through local Community Based Organizations, which can adapt the model to their communities as needed to ensure local appropriateness and feasibility. Within a community, the system is implemented in a graduated manner based on available resources, and is designed to not rely on the whole system being implemented first to provide partial function. The University of Cape Town's Division of Emergency Medicine and the Western Cape's provincial METRO EMS intend to follow this model, along with sharing it with other South African provinces. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Caring for older people in prehospital emergency care: can nurses make a difference?

    PubMed

    Melby, Vidar; Ryan, Assumpta

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore older people's experiences in prehospital emergency care, and identify benefits and difficulties associated with developing a nurse-led ambulance service. Data were collected at sites in Sweden and Norway. Focus group interviews were conducted to enable the collection of data from paramedics, ambulance nurses and nursing students, while individual interviews were utilized to gather data from older people. There is little research on the quality of care older people over 65 years old receive in prehospital emergency care. Older people often present with multiple pathology and diverse needs that nurses are well equipped to deal with, but presently there is no clearly defined role for nurses in prehospital emergency care in the United Kingdom, although other countries such as Sweden and Norway are developing an ambulance nurse role. If the multiple needs of older people were addressed in the prehospital field, a reduction in readmissions and increased functional ability might be achieved. Comprehensive training is required for ambulance staff to enable them to meet such needs. While nurses have a great foundation for this care, additional specialist ambulance training is required alongside a need for education on older people's needs and attitudes to older people. The introduction of ambulance nurses will result in role differentiation between paramedics and ambulance nurses, which has the potential for creating role conflict. To ensure a smooth transition appropriate training and education for nurses and paramedics should be provided. The end result is a potentially greatly enhanced ambulance care provision, enabling high quality care to all patients.

  6. Where there are no emergency medical services-prehospital care for the injured in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nobhojit; Murlidhar, V; Chowdhury, Ritam; Patil, Sandeep B; Supe, Priyanka A; Vaishnav, Poonam D; Vatkar, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    In a populous city like Mumbai, which lacks an organized prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) system, there exists an informal network through which victims arrive at the trauma center. This baseline study describes the prehospital care and transportation that currently is available in Mumbai. A prospective trauma database was created by interviewing 170 randomly selected patients from a total of 454 admitted over a two-month period (July-August 2005) at a Level-I, urban, trauma center. The injured victim in Mumbai usually is rescued by a good Samaritan passer-by (43.5%) and contrary to popular belief, helped by the police (89.7%). Almost immediately after rescue, the victim begins transport to the hospital. No one waits for the EMS ambulance to arrive, as there is none. A taxi cab is the most popular substitute for the ambulance (39.3%). The trauma patient in India usually is a young man in his late-twenties, from a lower socioeconomic class. He mostly finds himself in a government hospital, as private hospitals are reluctant to provide trauma care to the seriously injured. The injured who do receive prehospital care receive inadequate and inappropriate care due to the high cost of consumables in resuscitation, and in part due to the providers' lack of training in emergency care. Those who were more likely to receive prehospital care suffered from road traffic injuries (odds ratio (OR) = 2.3) and those transported by government ambulances (OR = 10.83), as compared to railway accident victims (OR = 0 .41) and those who came by taxi (OR = 0.54). Currently, as a result of not having an EMS system, prehospital care is a citizen responsibility using societal networks. It is easy to eliminate this system and shift the responsibility to the state. The moot point is whether the state-funded EMS system will be robust enough in a resource-poor setting in which public hospitals are poorly funded. Considering the high funding cost of EMS systems in developed countries

  7. "We Are Strangers Walking Into Their Life-Changing Event": How Prehospital Providers Manage Emergency Calls at the End of Life.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, Deborah P; Clemency, Brian; Lindstrom, Heather A; Clemency Cordes, Colleen

    2015-09-01

    Emergency 911 calls are often made when the end stage of an advanced illness is accompanied by alarming symptoms and substantial anxiety for family caregivers, particularly when an approaching death is not anticipated. How prehospital providers (paramedics and emergency medical technicians) manage emergency calls near death influences how and where people will die, if their end-of-life choices are upheld and how appropriately health care resources are used. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe how prehospital providers assess and manage end-of-life emergency calls. In-depth and in-person interviews were conducted with 43 prehospital providers. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and entered into ATLAS.ti for data management and coding. Qualitative data analysis involved systematic and axial coding to identify and describe emergent themes. Four themes illustrate the nature and dynamics of emergency end-of-life calls: 1) multifocal assessment (e.g., of the patient, family, and environment), 2) family responses (e.g., emotional, behavioral), 3) conflicts (e.g., missing do-not-resuscitate order, patient-family conflicts), and 4) management of the dying process (e.g., family witnessed resuscitation or asking family to leave, decisions about hospital transport). After a rapid comprehensive multifocal assessment, family responses and the existence of conflicts mediate decision making about possible interventions. The importance of managing symptom crises and stress responses that accompany the dying process is particularly germane to quality care at life's end. The results suggest the importance of increasing prehospital providers' abilities to uphold advance directives and patients' end-of-life wishes while managing family emotions near death. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Burnout syndrome in pre-hospital and hospital emergency. Cognitive study in two cohorts of nurses].

    PubMed

    Cicchitti, Chiara; Cannizzaro, Giorgia; Rosi, Fabrizio; Maccaroni, Roberto; Menditto, Vincenzo G

    2014-01-01

    Burnout syndrome (BOS) associated with stress has been documented in health care professionals in many specialties. The emergency department and the pre-hospital healthcare services are highly stressful environments. Little is known about the BOS in critical care nursing staff. The objective of the study is to compare the incidence of BOS and its three domains, namely, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced professional accomplishment, in two cohorts of critical care nurses: a pre-hospital and a hospital emergency service. A survey using a questionnaire (the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, MBI-GS), among nurses of two Italian emergency services has been performed: a hospital emergency service (HES, Emergency Department or "Pronto Soccorso") and a pre-hospital emergency service (PHES, territorial healthcare service or "Centrale Operativa 118"). All 60 nurses surveyed (82% female) filled the questionnaires. BOS-related symptoms have been identified in at least 50% of the nurses in the HES: 50% suffered a medium-high emotional exhaustion, 75% had a medium-high depersonalization and 92.5% had a medium-high reduced professional accomplishment. Among the PEHS nurses, BOS-related symptoms have been identified in at least 60% of the respondents: 60% had a medium-high emotional exhaustion, 70% had a medium-high depersonalization and 95% had a medium-high reduced professional accomplishment. Moreover, the likelihood that a nurse has a severe BOS, that is at least one degree of high burnout or ≥2 degrees of medium burnout, is significantly higher in the group of the PHES than in the HES (90% vs 60%, p <0.02). At least two-thirds of critical care nursing staff had a severe BOS. The incidence of BOS appeared to be similar among PHES and HES nurses with a higher trend for the former. Further interventional studies are needed to investigate the determinants of BOS among critical care nurses and the potentially preventive strategies.

  9. The role of physician staffing of helicopter emergency medical services in prehospital trauma response.

    PubMed

    Garner, Alan A

    2004-08-01

    The crewing of Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) for scene response to trauma patients is generally considered to be controversial, particularly regarding the role of physicians. This is reflected in HEMS in Australia with some services utilizing physician crewing for all prehospital missions. Others however, use physicians for selected missions only whilst others do not use physicians at all. This review seeks to determine whether the literature supports using physicians in addition to paramedics in HEMS teams for prehospital trauma care. Studies were excluded if they compared physician teams with basic life support teams (BLS) teams rather than paramedics. Ambulance officers were considered to be paramedics where they were able to administer intravenous fluids and use a method of airway management beyond bag-valve-mask ventilation. Studies were excluded if the skill set of the ambulance team was not defined, the level of staffing of the helicopter service was not stated, team composition varied without reporting outcomes for each team type, patient outcome data were not reported, or the majority of the transports were interhospital rather than prehospital transports.

  10. Utilisation of prehospital emergency medical services for hyperglycaemia: A community-based observational study.

    PubMed

    Villani, Melanie; Nanayakkara, Natalie; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Earnest, Arul; Smith, Karen; Soldatos, Georgia; Teede, Helena; Zoungas, Sophia

    2017-01-01

    This study examines prehospital Emergency Medical Service (EMS) utilisation and patterns of demand for hyperglycaemia management, including characteristics of individuals and factors related to hospital transport. A state-wide, community-based observational study of all patients requiring prehospital EMS for hyperglycaemia during a 7 year study period (Jan 2009-Dec 2015) using electronic data from the Ambulance Victoria data warehouse was conducted. Pre-specified variables related to patient demographics, comorbidities, examination findings, paramedic treatment and transport outcomes were obtained. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with transport to hospital. There were 11,417 cases of hyperglycaemia attended by paramedics during the study period, accounting for 0.3-0.4% of the total annual EMS caseload, and equating to 0.54 attendances per 100 people with diabetes in the state of Victoria, Australia, per year. There was a significant increase in annual utilisation, with a rate ratio of 1.62 between 2009 (2.42 cases per 10,000 population) and 2015 (3.91 cases per 10,000 population). Fifty-one percent of cases had type 2 diabetes, 37% had type 1 diabetes, 4% had diabetes with the type unspecified and 8% had no recorded history of diabetes. Ninety percent of cases were transported to hospital. Factors associated with increased odds of transport to hospital included no known history of diabetes, regional/rural locations, case time between 0600 and <1800 hours, increasing number of comorbidities and increasingly unstable vital sign observations. There is substantial utilisation of prehospital EMS for hyperglycaemia. With increased population prevalence of diabetes predicted, further research on opportunities for prevention, as well as optimal management in the prehospital environment is warranted.

  11. Prehospital Emergency Inguinal Clamp Controls Hemorrhage in Cadaver Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    fit at anatomic pressure points needed in hemorrhage control. The CRoC was placed on trauma manikins at the U.S. Army Med- ical Department Center and...simulant was pumped to quantify device effective- ness in testing. Points of application included proximal pressure point control of popliteal...a casualty’s wound from the point of injury on the battlefield to the emergency department has been impractical; so a device was made to replace the

  12. Physician perceptions and recommendations about pre-hospital emergency medical services for patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction in Abu Dhabi

    PubMed Central

    Callachan, Edward L.; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A.; Bruijns, Stevan; Wallis, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Physician perceptions about emergency medical services (EMS) are important determinants of improving pre-hospital care for cardiac emergencies. No data exist on physician attitudes towards EMS care of patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. Objectives To describe the perceptions towards EMS among physicians caring for patients with STEMI in Abu Dhabi. Methods We surveyed a convenience sample of physicians involved in the care of patients with STEMI (emergency medicine, cardiology, cardiothoracic surgery and intensive care) in four government facilities with 24/7 Primary PCI in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. Surveys were distributed using dedicated email links, and used 5-point Likert scales to assess perceptions and attitudes to EMS. Results Of 106 physician respondents, most were male (82%), practicing in emergency medicine (47%) or cardiology (44%) and the majority (63%) had been in practice for >10 years. Less than half of the responders (42%) were “Somewhat Satisfied” (35%) or “Very Satisfied” (7%) with current EMS level of care for STEMI patients. Most respondents were “Very Likely” (67%) to advise a patient with a cardiac emergency to use EMS, but only 39% felt the same for themselves or their family. Most responders were supportive (i.e. “Strongly Agree”) of the following steps to improve EMS care: 12-lead ECG and telemetry to ED by EMS (69%), EMS triage of STEMI to PCI facilities (65%), and activation of PCI teams by EMS (58%). Only 19% were supportive of pre-hospital fibrinolytics by EMS. There were no significant differences in the responses among the specialties. Conclusions Most physicians involved in STEMI care in Abu Dhabi are very likely to advise patients to use EMS for a cardiac emergency, but less likely to do so for themselves or their families. Different specialties had concordant opinions regarding steps to improve pre-hospital EMS care for STEMI. PMID:26778900

  13. Clinical decision-making described by Swedish prehospital emergency care nurse students - An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Tomas; Lindström, Veronica

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the PECN students' clinical decision-making during a seven-week clinical rotation in the ambulance services. Developing expertise in prehospital emergency care practices requires both theoretical and empirical learning. A prehospital emergency care nurse (PECN) is a Registered Nurse (RN) with one year of additional training in emergency care. There has been little investigation of how PECN students describe their decision-making during a clinical rotation. A qualitative study design was used, and 12 logbooks written by the Swedish PECN students were analysed using content analysis. The students wrote about 997 patient encounters - ambulance assignments during their clinical rotation. Four themes emerged as crucial for the students' decision-making: knowing the patient, the context-situation awareness in the ambulance service, collaboration, and evaluation. Based on the themes, students made decisions on how to respond to patients' illnesses. The PECN students used several variables in their decision-making. The decision- making was an on-going process during the whole ambulance assignment. The university has the responsibility to guide the students during their transition from an RN to a PECN. The findings of the study can support the educators and clinical supervisors in developing the programme of study for becoming a PECN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Ambulance in emergency medicine].

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Fikret; Ergun, Alper

    2002-07-01

    The ambulance service is very important in emergency medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the new governing statuate of private ambulance service and to propose some new ideas. We examinated the new governing statuate of private ambulance service, rules of patient transporte between the hospitals and reports written by SSK Goztepe Educational Hospital ambulance drivers. We concluded that SSK Goztepe Educational Hospital ambulance drivers have a iot of problems especially at the rules of patient transport between the hospitals and there are some defiencies at the new governing statuate of private ambulance service. We concluded that it is necesssary to manage all the ambulance services in one center; all the private ambulance services have to have a specialist and all these must be determinated by the special rules. Key words: Regulation ofprivate ambulance, emergency head maintanence, ambulance services

  15. [Emergency care in the autonomous regions of Spain. Improvement in pre-hospital emergency care and welfare coordination. SESPAS Report 2012].

    PubMed

    Miguel García, Félix; Fernández Quintana, Ana Isabel; Díaz Prats, Amadeo

    2012-03-01

    The present article describes the general organization of pre-hospital emergency care in the autonomous regions and provides data on activity corresponding to 2010, drawn from the information available in the Primary Care Information System of the Ministry of Health, Social Policy and Equality. Emergency care is provided through various organizational structures covering 24-hour periods. Family medicine attended 17.8 million emergency consultations and nursing attended 10.2 million (year 2010, 14 autonomous communities, 79.7% of the National Health System population). Emergency department utilization ranged between 0.11 and 0.83 urgent family physician consultations per inhabitant/year and between 0.05 and 0.57 nursing consultations per inhabitant/year. Any reform in the management of pre-hospital emergency care will involve organizational changes and aims to produce measurable improvements in healthcare coordination. In the new organizational designs, most of the responsibility lies with human resources in order to achieve the new goals for the future aims to be presented in an operational teamwork structure. Undoubtedly, the main challenge is to achieve optimal coordination with other welfare levels, including the police, social services, nursing homes, etc. If optimal care of the population needs to count on the efforts of all these groups, mobility, individual differences, consistent achievement of high standards, and -most of all- the use of these services by citizens will determine the final result. The results can be quantified in various ways, but evaluation should concentrate on the resources used, the degree of satisfaction among all the parties involved and optimal management of demand, which will help to disseminate the need for a rational resource use. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Prehospital emergency care nurses' strategies while caring for patients with limited Swedish - English proficiency.

    PubMed

    Alm Pfrunder, A; Falk, A; Vicente, V; Lindström, V

    2018-04-20

    To explore the strategies of nurses working in the ambulance service while caring for patients with limited Swedish-English proficiency. Communication difficulties due to lack of mutual language is a challenge in health care systems around the world. Little is known about nurses' strategies while caring for patients with whom they do not share a mutual language in an unstructured, unplanned prehospital emergency environment, the ambulance service. A qualitative study design based on interviews was used and a purposeful sample and snowball technique was used to identify nurses with prehospital emergency experience of caring for patients with limited Swedish-English proficiency. Eleven nurses were interviewed, and the main strategy they used was adapting to the patients' need and the caring situation. The nurses used their own body, and tone of voice for creating a sense of trust and security. The nurses also used structured assessment in accordance with medical guidelines. Translation devices and relatives/bystanders were used as interpreters when possible. Another strategy was to transport the patient directly to the emergency department since they had not found a secure way of assessing and caring for the patients in the ambulance. The nurses used a palette of strategies while assessing and caring for patients when there was no mutual language between the caregiver and care seeker. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Exertional heat illness: emerging concepts and advances in prehospital care.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Riana R; Roth, Ronald N; Suyama, Joe; Hostler, David

    2015-06-01

    Exertional heat illness is a classification of disease with clinical presentations that are not always diagnosed easily. Exertional heat stroke is a significant cause of death in competitive sports, and the increasing popularity of marathons races and ultra-endurance competitions will make treating many heat illnesses more common for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers. Although evidence is available primarily from case series and healthy volunteer studies, the consensus for treating exertional heat illness, coupled with altered mental status, is whole body rapid cooling. Cold or ice water immersion remains the most effective treatment to achieve this goal. External thermometry is unreliable in the context of heat stress and direct internal temperature measurement by rectal or esophageal probes must be used when diagnosing heat illness and during cooling. With rapid recognition and implementation of effective cooling, most patients suffering from exertional heat stroke will recover quickly and can be discharged home with instructions to rest and to avoid heat stress and exercise for a minimum of 48 hours; although, further research pertaining to return to activity is warranted.

  18. Prehospital Medicine and the Future Will ECMO Ever Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Macku, David; Hedvicak, Pavel; Quinn, John; Bencko, Vladimir

    battlefield with ECMO as a major challenge and one worth the focus of further research. Medicine is controversial and constantly changing; for those who work in prehospital and battlefield medicine, change is the only constant on which we rely, and without provocative discussion that makes our systems and practice more robust, we will fail. 2018.

  19. Pediatric pre-hospital emergencies in Belgium: a 2-year national descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Demaret, Pierre; Lebrun, Frédéric; Devos, Philippe; Champagne, Caroline; Lemaire, Roland; Loeckx, Isabelle; Messens, Marie; Mulder, André

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to describe the pediatric physician-staffed EMS missions at a national level and to compare the pediatric and the adult EMS missions. Using a national database, we analyzed 254,812 interventions including 15,294 (6 %) pediatric emergencies. Less children than adults received an intravenous infusion (52.7 versus 77.1 %, p < 0.001), but the intra-osseous access was used more frequently in children (1.3 versus 0.8 %, p < 0.001). More children than adults benefited from a therapeutic immobilization (16.3 versus 13.2 %, p < 0.001). Endotracheal intubation was rare in children (2.1 %) as well as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (1.2 %). Children were more likely than adults to suffer from a neurological problem (32.4 versus 21.3 %, p < 0.001) or from a trauma (27.1 versus 16.8 %, p < 0.001). The prevalence of the pediatric diagnoses showed an age dependency: the respiratory problems were more prevalent in infants (40.3 % of the 0-12-months old), 52.1 % of the 1-4-year-old children suffered from a neurological problem, and the prevalence of trauma raised from 14.8 % of the infants to 47.1 % of the 11-15 year olds. Pre-hospital pediatric EMS missions are not frequent and differ from the adult interventions. The pediatric characteristics highlighted in this study should help EMS teams to be better prepared to deal with sick children in the pre-hospital setting. • Pediatric and adult emergencies differ. • Pediatric life-threatening emergencies are not frequent. What is New: • This study is the first to describe a European national cohort of pediatric physician-staffed EMS missions and to compare the pediatric and the adult missions at a national level. • This large cohort study confirms scarce regional data indicating that pediatric pre-hospital emergencies are not frequent and mostly non-life-threatening.

  20. Using ArcGIS software in the pre-hospital emergency medical system.

    PubMed

    Manole, M; Duma, Odetta; Custură, Maria Alexandra; Petrariu, F D; Manole, Alina

    2014-01-01

    To measure the accessibility to healtcare services in order to reveal their quality and to improve the overall coverage, continuity and other features. We used the software ESRI Arc GIS 9.3, the Network Analyst function and data provided by Ambulance Service of Iasi (A.S.I.) with emergencies statistics for the first four months of 2012, processed by Microsoft Office Excel 2010. As examples, we chose "St. Maria" Children's Emergency Hospital and "St. Spiridon" Emergency Hospital. ArcGIS Network Analyst finds the best route to get from one location to another or a route that includes multiple locations. Each route is characterized by three stops. The starting point is always the office of Ambulance Service of Iasi (A.S.I.), a second stop at the case address and the third to the hospital unit chosen according to the patient's diagnosis and age. Spatial distribution of emergency cases for the first four months of 2012 in these two examples is one unequable, with higher concentrations in districts located in two areas of the city. The presented examples highlight the poor coverage of healthcare services for the population of Iasi, Romania, especially the South-West area and its vulnerability in situations of emergency. Implementing such a broad project would lead to more complex analyses that would improve the situation of pre-hospital emergency medical services, with final goal to deserve the population, improve the quality of healthcare and develop the interdisciplinary relationships.

  1. Mobile prehospital emergency care: an analysis of implementation in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Gisele; Machado, Cristiani Vieira; Alves, Renan Paes; Salvador, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2016-06-01

    Mobile prehospital care is a key component of emergency care. The aim of this study was to analyze the implementation of the State of Rio de Janeiro's Mobile Emergency Medical Service (SAMU, acronym in Portuguese). The methodology employed included document analysis, visits to six SAMU emergency call centers, and semistructured interviews conducted with 12 local and state emergency care coordinators. The study's conceptual framework was based on Giddens' theory of structuration. Intergovernmental conflicts were observed between the state and municipal governments, and between municipal governments. Despite the shortage of hospital beds, the SAMUs in periphery regions were better integrated with the emergency care network than the metropolitan SAMUs. The steering committees were not very active and weaknesses were observed relating to the limited role played by the state government in funding, management, and monitoring. It was concluded that the SAMU implementation process in the state was marked by political tensions and management and coordination weaknesses. As a result, serious drawbacks remain in the coordination of the SAMU with the other health services and the regionalization of emergency care in the state.

  2. Lipid peroxidation, occupational stress and aging in workers of a prehospital emergency service.

    PubMed

    Casado, Angela; De Lucas, Nieves; López-Fernández, Encarnación; Sánchez, Alberto; Jimenez, José-Antonio

    2006-06-01

    Stressful conditions lead to formation of excessive free radicals, and lipid peroxidation is one of the major outcomes of free radical-mediated injury that directly damages membranes and generates a number of secondary products. To determine the levels of malondialdehyde, an end product of lipid peroxidation, according to demographic and occupational variables in workers of a prehospital emergency service and to analyse the relationship between malondialdehyde levels and burnout. One hundred and eleven healthy workers of a prehospital emergency service and eighty aged-matched healthy individuals of both sexes as a control group were surveyed. Malondialdehyde levels were measured by the Bull and Marnett method. To measure burnout, the Maslach Burnout Inventory was used. Professional category is associated with lipid peroxidation and burnout levels (Malondialdehyde levels were: physicians 338.10+/-14.47, nurses 329.17+/-12.62 and technicians 296.74+/-14.28; burnout levels were: physicians 41.29+/-3.59, nurses 37.38+/-6.05 and technicians 35.33+/-5.87). Working at night and in the evening increased malondialdehyde and burnout levels. Malondialdehyde levels increase with age. No significant variations with respect to sex were detected. Significant variations in malondialdehyde levels were detected between singles (303.13+/-12.74) and married people (344.43+/-13.43) but not with respect to divorcees (326.44+/-11.74). Significant differences were detected in erythrocyte malondialdehyde levels between smokers (341.37+/-17.09) and nonsmokers (302.21+/-12.38), but not for alcohol consumption. These findings suggest a positive correlation between malondialdehyde, a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and occupational stress, as estimated by elements of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and oxidative stress.

  3. Emergency medicine in Dubai, UAE.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Robert; Abbo, Michael; Virk, Alamjit

    2009-08-18

    Dubai has rapidly risen to prominence in the Persian Gulf region as a center of global commerce and tourism and as a cultural crossroad between East and West. The health-care infrastructure has undergone rapid development. Collaborations with academic medical centers now exist to advance clinical care, teaching and research. Emergency medicine has also advanced and is undergoing dynamic change. Dubai may soon emerge as a regional leader in emergency medicine training and practice.

  4. Emergency Medical Services Capacity for Prehospital Stroke Care in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Brice, Jane H.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Rose, Kathryn M.; Suchindran, Chirayath M.; Rosamond, Wayne D.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Prior assessments of emergency medical services (EMS) stroke capacity found deficiencies in education and training, use of protocols and screening tools, and planning for the transport of patients. A 2001 survey of North Carolina EMS providers found many EMS systems lacked basic stroke services. Recent statewide efforts have sought to standardize and improve prehospital stroke care. The objective of this study was to assess EMS stroke care capacity in North Carolina and evaluate statewide changes since 2001. Methods In June 2012, we conducted a web-based survey on stroke education and training and stroke care practices and policies among all EMS systems in North Carolina. We used the McNemar test to assess changes from 2001 to 2012. Results Of 100 EMS systems in North Carolina, 98 responded to our survey. Most systems reported providing stroke education and training (95%) to EMS personnel, using a validated stroke scale or screening tool (96%), and having a hospital prenotification policy (98%). Many were suboptimal in covering basic stroke educational topics (71%), always communicating stroke screen results to the destination hospital (46%), and always using a written destination plan (49%). Among 70 EMS systems for which we had data for 2001 and 2012, we observed significant improvements in education on stroke scales or screening tools (61% to 93%, P < .001) and use of validated stroke scales or screening tools (23% to 96%, P < .001). Conclusion Major improvements in EMS stroke care, especially in prehospital stroke screening, have occurred in North Carolina in the past decade, whereas other practices and policies, including use of destination plans, remain in need of improvement. PMID:24007677

  5. Emergency medical services capacity for prehospital stroke care in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mehul D; Brice, Jane H; Evenson, Kelly R; Rose, Kathryn M; Suchindran, Chirayath M; Rosamond, Wayne D

    2013-09-05

    Prior assessments of emergency medical services (EMS) stroke capacity found deficiencies in education and training, use of protocols and screening tools, and planning for the transport of patients. A 2001 survey of North Carolina EMS providers found many EMS systems lacked basic stroke services. Recent statewide efforts have sought to standardize and improve prehospital stroke care. The objective of this study was to assess EMS stroke care capacity in North Carolina and evaluate statewide changes since 2001. In June 2012, we conducted a web-based survey on stroke education and training and stroke care practices and policies among all EMS systems in North Carolina. We used the McNemar test to assess changes from 2001 to 2012. Of 100 EMS systems in North Carolina, 98 responded to our survey. Most systems reported providing stroke education and training (95%) to EMS personnel, using a validated stroke scale or screening tool (96%), and having a hospital prenotification policy (98%). Many were suboptimal in covering basic stroke educational topics (71%), always communicating stroke screen results to the destination hospital (46%), and always using a written destination plan (49%). Among 70 EMS systems for which we had data for 2001 and 2012, we observed significant improvements in education on stroke scales or screening tools (61% to 93%, P < .001) and use of validated stroke scales or screening tools (23% to 96%, P < .001). Major improvements in EMS stroke care, especially in prehospital stroke screening, have occurred in North Carolina in the past decade, whereas other practices and policies, including use of destination plans, remain in need of improvement.

  6. Defining Components of Team Leadership and Membership in Prehospital Emergency Medical Services.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Remle P; Wagoner, Robert L; Rodriguez, Severo A; Bentley, Melissa A; Page, David

    2017-01-01

    Teamwork is critical for patient and provider safety in high-stakes environments, including the setting of prehospital emergency medical services (EMS). We sought to describe the components of team leadership and team membership on a single patient call where multiple EMS providers are present. We conducted a two-day focus group with nine subject matter experts in crew resource management (CRM) and EMS using a structured nominal group technique (NGT). The specific question posed to the group was, "What are the specific components of team leadership and team membership on a single patient call where multiple EMS providers are present?" After round-robin submission of ideas and in-depth discussion of the meaning of each component, participants voted on the most important components of team leadership and team membership. Through the NGT process, we identified eight components of team leadership: a) creates an action plan; b) communicates; c) receives, processes, verifies, and prioritizes information; d) reconciles incongruent information; e) demonstrates confidence, compassion, maturity, command presence, and trustworthiness; f) takes charge; g) is accountable for team actions and outcomes; and h) assesses the situation and resources and modifies the plan. The eight essential components of team membership identified included: a) demonstrates followership, b) maintains situational awareness, c) demonstrates appreciative inquiry, d) does not freelance, e) is an active listener, f) accurately performs tasks in a timely manner, g) is safety conscious and advocates for safety at all times, and h) leaves ego and rank at the door. This study used a highly structured qualitative technique and subject matter experts to identify components of teamwork essential for prehospital EMS providers. These findings and may be used to help inform the development of future EMS training and assessment initiatives.

  7. The prehospital emergency care system in Mexico City: a system's performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Luis Mauricio Pinet

    2006-01-01

    Mexico City has one of the highest mortality rates in Mexico, with non-intentional injuries as a leading cause of death among persons 1-44 years of age. Emergency medical services (EMS) in Mexico can achieve high levels of efficiency by offering high quality medical care at a low cost through adequate system design. The objective of this study was to determine whether the prehospital EMS system in Mexico City meets the criteria standards established by the American Ambulance Association Guide for Contracting Emergency Medical Services (AAA Guide) for highly efficient EMS systems. This retrospective, descriptive study, evaluated the structure of Mexico City's EMS system and analyzed EMS response times, clinical capacity, economic efficiency, and customer satisfaction. These results were compared with the AAA guide, according to the soc ial, economic, and political context in Mexico. This paper describes the healthcare system structure in Mexico, followed by a description of the basic structure of EMS in Mexico City, and of each tenet described in the AAA guide. The p aper includesdata obtained from official documents and databases of government agencies, and operative and administrative data from public and private EMS providers. The quality of the data for response times (RT) were insufficient and widely varied among providers, with a minimum RT of 6.79 minutes (min) and a maximum RT of 61 min. Providers did not define RT clearly, and measured it with averages, which can hide potentially poor performance practices. Training institutions are not required to follow a standardized curriculum. Certifications are the responsibility of the individual training centers and have no government regulation. There was no evidence of active medical control involvement in direct patient care, and providers did not report that quality assurance programs were in place. There also are limited career advancement opportunities for EMS personnel. Small economies of scale may not allow

  8. The role of the emergency medical dispatch centre (EMDC) and prehospital emergency care safety: results from an incident report (IR) system.

    PubMed

    Mortaro, Alberto; Pascu, Diana; Zerman, Tamara; Vallaperta, Enrico; Schönsberg, Alberto; Tardivo, Stefano; Pancheri, Serena; Romano, Gabriele; Moretti, Francesca

    2015-07-01

    The role of the emergency medical dispatch centre (EMDC) is essential to ensure coordinated and safe prehospital care. The aim of this study was to implement an incident report (IR) system in prehospital emergency care management with a view to detecting errors occurring in this setting and guiding the implementation of safety improvement initiatives. An ad hoc IR form for the prehospital setting was developed and implemented within the EMDC of Verona. The form included six phases (from the emergency call to hospital admission) with the relevant list of potential error modes (30 items). This descriptive observational study considered the results from 268 consecutive days between February and November 2010. During the study period, 161 error modes were detected. The majority of these errors occurred in the resource allocation and timing phase (34.2%) and in the dispatch phase (31.0%). Most of the errors were due to human factors (77.6%), and almost half of them were classified as either moderate (27.9%) or severe (19.9%). These results guided the implementation of specific corrective actions, such as the adoption of a more efficient Medical Priority Dispatch System and the development of educational initiatives targeted at both EMDC staff and the population. Despite the intrinsic limits of IR methodology, results suggest how the implementation of an IR system dedicated to the emergency prehospital setting can act as a major driver for the development of a "learning organization" and improve both efficacy and safety of first aid care.

  9. Review article: Paediatric status epilepticus in the pre-hospital setting: An update.

    PubMed

    Furyk, Jeremy; Watt, Kerriane; Emeto, Theophilus I; Dalziel, Stuart; Bodnar, Daniel; Riney, Kate; Babl, Franz E

    2017-08-01

    Paediatric status epilepticus (SE) is a medical emergency and a common critical condition confronting pre-hospital providers. Management in the pre-hospital environment is challenging but considered extremely important as a potentially modifiable factor on outcome. Recent data from multicentre clinical trials, quality observational studies and consensus documents have influenced management in this area, and is important to both pre-hospital providers and emergency physicians. The objective of this review was to: (i) present an overview of the available evidence relevant to pre-hospital care of paediatric SE; and (ii) assess the current pre-hospital practice guidelines in Australia and New Zealand. The review outlines current definitions and guidelines of SE management, regional variability in pre-hospital protocols within Australasia and aspects of pre-hospital care that could potentially be improved. Contemporary data is required to determine current practice in our setting. It is important that paediatric neurologists, emergency physicians and pre-hospital care providers are all engaged in future endeavours to improve clinical care and knowledge translation efforts for this patient group. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  10. Prehospital and emergency care research at the US Army Institute of Surgical Research: enabling the next great leap in combat casualty survival.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Robert T

    2011-01-01

    Minimizing preventable death continues to be a primary focus of the combat casualty care research community, and of the Army Medical Department as a whole. Toward that end, tremendous successes have been realized in resuscitative surgery, critical care, rehabilitation, preventive medicine, and in our collective ability to project effective medical care into the most austere locations throughout the globe. Innovation in the care rendered outside of theater hospitals or strategic air evacuation conveyances, however, has not kept the same pace. The US military experience in World War II, Korea, and Vietnam served as a prime source for the development of the tactics, techniques, and procedures which spawned modern civilian sector trauma care and emergency medical services. But this ascendance was driven by the dedicated medics, corpsmen, physicians, nurses, and allied health practitioners from those conflicts who left the military for the civilian sector, leaving their replacements, in many cases, to repeat the same mistakes, and to relearn hard lessons that otherwise might have been assimilated had they been effectively captured and integrated into doctrine and training. A prime example of this phenomenon is the recent acknowledgement of the "en route care gap" existing in tactical medical evacuation. The US Army Institute of Surgical Research (USAISR) and the Army emergency medicine community have made a significant commitment toward elucidating the requirements, capability gaps, and a way-forward in search of the development of an integrated prehospital combat casualty care system, nested within the Joint Theater Trauma System. This paper examines specific research programs, concept development, and collaborations with other Army, joint, and civilian center organizations which comprise the USAISR Prehospital and Emergency Care Research Program, including the Remote Damage Control Resuscitation initiative, Emergency Telemedical Direction of Role-I providers, Combat

  11. International emergency medicine fellowships.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Philip D; Aschkenasy, Miriam; Lis, Julian

    2005-02-01

    The active interchange of intellectual ideas in the quest to improve healthcare globally will likely be best served by active interchange among physicians around the world. Subspecialty fellowship training programs for United States and foreign graduates will provide a focused path to development of a global network of physicians dedicated to the delivery of high-quality emergency health services.

  12. [Advance directives in prehospital emergency treatment : prospective questionnaire-based analysis].

    PubMed

    Brokmann, J C; Grützmann, T; Pidun, A K; Groß, D; Rossaint, R; Beckers, S K; May, A T

    2014-01-01

    The handling of advance directives (AD) in prehospital emergency treatment in Germany is characterized by instability. In the project "Advance directives in preclinical emergency medical aid" ("Patientenverfügungen in der präklinischen Notfallmedizin") the frequency and quality of ADs in emergency situations was investigated. The aim of this study was to fill the gaps in research and to collate data on how consideration of the self-determination of patients in emergency situations can be optimized. Over a period of 12 months from December 2007 to December 2008 a questionnaire was included in the emergency documentation of the medical emergency service in Aachen. Emergency patients were asked by emergency physicians to provide an AD and the quantitative as well as qualitative features of these ADs were examined. Furthermore, the study recorded what kinds of problems occurred with ADs in emergency situations and what measures were needed to correct this deficiency. The reactions of patients were documented on a numeral rating scale with a score of 1 reflecting a negative and 10 reflecting a positive reaction. In the 12-month period emergency doctors recorded 1,321 missions and after application of the exclusion criteria (e.g. missing signature, incomplete documentation and late delivery) 1,047 documented questionnaires were available for the analysis. A total of 127 out of 1,047 emergency patients provided an AD, 44 had a durable power of attorney and 27 had appointed a legal representative for healthcare. Of the emergency patients 20 had a legal attendant and 43 out of the 127 ADs could be presented to the emergency team during the emergency mission. The emergency team often encountered difficulties regarding the handling of the ADs due to the time factor and unclear wording. The latter included the following problems: misleading formulation (19.1 %), difficulty with the complexity (14.9 %) and contradicting information (4 %). Only 29 (61.7 %) of the

  13. [Prehospital emergency care injuries from external causes in a region of Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Herrera, Rafael; Bastidas, Daniel; Arteaga, Everilda; Bastidas, Gilberto

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 3 500 000 people die every year as a result of injuries from external causes, in Venezuela these arte the third leading cause of overall morbidity. Nevertheless, in the country there are no records of the defining aspects of prehospital emergency care as a tool to address this socio-health problem, the aim of this investigation. A descriptive, transversal, field study based on the information recorded daily for a year paramedics was performed. A total 1493 injured by external causes were reported, with a mean age of 29.5 ± 12 years, 84.5% male. Injuries mostly less-moderate (69.4%) were due to severe land transport accidents (70.9%) occurred during the day (75.9%), between monday and friday (72.9%), attended in 20 minutes or less, and transferred in 97.3% of cases. The economically productive young men in areas with higher population density and urbanism are mostly affected by injuries from external causes. In both genres land transport accidents are the most common causes of injury with lower-moderate severity. The care that paramedics provide can be considered adequate.

  14. Elder Abuse Identification in the Prehospital Setting: An Examination of State Emergency Medical Services Protocols.

    PubMed

    Namboodri, Brooke L; Rosen, Tony; Dayaa, Joseph A; Bischof, Jason J; Ramadan, Nadeem; Patel, Mehul D; Grover, Joseph; Brice, Jane H; Platts-Mills, Timothy F

    2018-03-22

    To describe statewide emergency medical service (EMS) protocols relating to identification, management, and reporting of elder abuse in the prehospital setting. Cross-sectional analysis. Statewide EMS protocols in the United States. Publicly available statewide EMS protocols identified from published literature, http://EMSprotocols.org, and each state's public health website. Protocols were reviewed to determine whether elder abuse was mentioned, elder abuse was defined, potential indicators of elder abuse were listed, management of older adults experiencing abuse was described, and instructions regarding reporting were provided. EMS protocols for child abuse were reviewed in the same manner for the purpose of comparison. Of the 35 publicly available statewide EMS protocols, only 14 (40.0%) mention elder abuse. Of protocols that mention elder abuse, 6 (42.9%) define elder abuse, 10 (71.4%) describe indicators of elder abuse, 8 (57.1%) provide instruction regarding management, and 12 (85.7%) provide instruction regarding reporting. Almost twice as many states met each of these metrics for child abuse. Statewide EMS protocols for elder abuse vary in regard to identification, management, and reporting, with the majority of states having no content on this subject. Expansion and standardization of protocols may increase the identification of elder abuse. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018, The American Geriatrics Society.

  15. Occupational Emergency Medicine - Introduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    ril lo r the bu ’ eml ..’ rgen • ph i ia n in ea reh or a pra ti al guide ro occupa tional l1wLiicil1l’ in the emerg ’ncy der a n · menl. Occu pa...prol e llvc eq uip me n t ( I )PI~ d o C’ ~ Jlnt u s u il ll 0 cu r ill th L: ’m ergcl l (kp~ r1Ill" I1 I . Jil emL ’ rgell cy pll ysi Ian ll1il Y n

  16. Patient Satisfaction with Pre-Hospital Emergency Services. A Qualitative Study Comparing Professionals’ and Patients’ Views

    PubMed Central

    García-Alfranca, Fernando; Puig, Anna; Galup, Carles; Aguado, Hortensia; Cerdá, Ismael; Guilabert, Mercedes; Pérez-Jover, Virtudes; Carrillo, Irene

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To describe patient satisfaction with pre-hospital emergency knowledge and determine if patients and professionals share a common vision on the satisfaction predictors. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted in two phases. First, a systematic review following the PRISMA protocol was carried out searching publications between January 2000 and July 2016 in Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane. Second, three focus groups involving professionals (advisers and healthcare providers) and a total of 79 semi-structured interviews involving patients were conducted to obtain information about what dimensions of care were a priority for patients. Results: Thirty-three relevant studies were identified, with a majority conducted in Europe using questionnaires. They pointed out a very high level of satisfaction of callers and patients. Delay with the assistance and the ability for resolution of the case are the elements that overlap in fostering satisfaction. The published studies reviewed with satisfaction neither the overall care process nor related the measurement of the real time in responding to an emergency. The patients and professionals concurred in their assessments about the most relevant elements for patient satisfaction, although safety was not a predictive factor for patients. Response capacity and perceived capacity for resolving the situation were crucial factors for satisfaction. Conclusions: Published studies have assessed similar dimensions of satisfaction and have shown high patient satisfaction. Expanded services resolving a wide number of issues that can concern citizens are also positively assessed. Delays and resolution capacity are crucial for satisfaction. Furthermore, despite the fact that few explanations may be given due to a lack of face-to-face attention, finding the patient’s location, taking into account the caller’s emotional needs, and maintaining phone contact until the emergency services arrive are high predictors of satisfaction

  17. Virtue in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Gregory Luke; Iserson, Kenneth; Kassutto, Zach; Freas, Glenn; Delaney, Kathy; Krimm, John; Schmidt, Terri; Simon, Jeremy; Calkins, Anne; Adams, James

    2009-01-01

    At a time in which the integrity of the medical profession is perceptibly challenged, emergency physicians (EPs) have an opportunity to reaffirm their commitment to both their patients and their practice through acceptance of a virtue-based ethic. The virtue-based ethic transcends legalistic rule following and the blind application of principles. Instead, virtue honors the humanity of patients and the high standards of the profession. Recognizing historical roots that are relevant to the modern context, this article describes 10 core virtues important for EPs. In addition to the long-recognized virtues of prudence, courage, temperance, and justice, 6 additional virtues are offered unconditional positive regard, charity, compassion, trustworthiness, vigilance, and agility. These virtues might serve as ideals to which all EPs can strive. Through these, the honor of the profession will be maintained, the trust of patients will be preserved, and the integrity of the specialty will be promoted.

  18. Does increased emergency medical services prehospital time affect patient mortality in rural motor vehicle crashes? A statewide analysis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Richard P; Cummings, Glenn R; Phelan, Herbert A; Mulekar, Madhuri S; Rodning, Charles B

    2009-01-01

    Fatality rates from rural vehicular trauma are almost double those found in urban settings. It has been suggested that increased prehospital time is a factor that adversely affects fatality rates in rural vehicular trauma. By linking and analyzing Alabama's statewide prehospital data, emergency medical services (EMS) prehospital time was assessed for rural and urban vehicular crashes. An imputational methodology permitted linkage of data from police motor vehicle crash (MVC) and EMS records. MVCs were defined as rural or urban by crash location using the United States Census Bureau criteria. Areas within Alabama that fell outside the Census Bureau definition of urban were defined as rural. Prehospital data were analyzed to determine EMS response time, scene time, and transport time in rural and urban settings. Over a 2-year period from January 2001 through December 2002, data were collected from EMS Patient Care Reports and police crash reports for the entire state of Alabama. By using an imputational methodology and join specifications, 45,763 police crash reports were linked to EMS Patient Care Reports. Of these, 34,341 (75%) were injured in rural settings and 11,422 (25%) were injured in urban settings. A total of 714 mortalities were identified, of which 611 (1.78%) occurred in rural settings and 103 (.90%) occurred in urban settings (P < .0001). When mortalities occurred, the mean EMS response time in rural settings was 10.67 minutes and 6.50 minutes in urban settings (P < .0001). When mortalities occurred, the mean EMS scene time in rural settings was 18.87 minutes and 10.83 minutes in urban settings (patients who were dead on scene and extrication patients were excluded from both settings) (P < .0001). When mortalities occurred, the mean EMS transport time in rural settings was 12.45 minutes and 7.43 minutes in urban settings (P < .0001). When mortalities occurred, the overall mean prehospital time in rural settings was 42.0 minutes and 24.8 minutes in urban

  19. Job Involvement and Organizational Commitment of Employees of Prehospital Emergency Medical System

    PubMed Central

    Rahati, Alireza; Sotudeh-Arani, Hossein; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Rostami, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies are available on organizational commitment of employees in different organizations. However, the organizational commitment and job involvement of the employees in the prehospital emergency medical system (PEMS) of Iran have largely been ignored. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the organizational commitment and job involvement of the employees of PEMS and the relationship between these two issues. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 160 employees of Kashan PEMS who were selected through a census method in 2014. A 3-part instrument was used in this study, including a demographic questionnaire, the Allen and Miller’s organizational commitment inventory, and the Lodahl and Kejner’s job involvement inventory. We used descriptive statistics, Spearman correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis, Friedman, analysis of variance, and Tukey post hoc tests to analyze the data. Results: The mean job involvement and organizational commitment scores were 61.78 ± 10.69 and 73.89 ± 13.58, respectively. The mean scores of job involvement and organizational commitment were significantly different in subjects with different work experiences (P = 0.043 and P = 0.012, respectively). However, no significant differences were observed between the mean scores of organizational commitment and job involvement in subjects with different fields of study, different levels of interest in the profession, and various educational levels. A direct significant correlation was found between the total scores of organizational commitment and job involvement of workers in Kashan PEMS (r = 0.910, P < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed that the employees in the Kashan PEMS obtained half of the score of organizational commitment and about two-thirds of the job involvement score. Therefore, the higher level managers of the emergency medical system are advised to implement some strategies to increase the employees’ job involvement

  20. Job Involvement and Organizational Commitment of Employees of Prehospital Emergency Medical System.

    PubMed

    Rahati, Alireza; Sotudeh-Arani, Hossein; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Rostami, Majid

    2015-12-01

    Several studies are available on organizational commitment of employees in different organizations. However, the organizational commitment and job involvement of the employees in the prehospital emergency medical system (PEMS) of Iran have largely been ignored. This study aimed to investigate the organizational commitment and job involvement of the employees of PEMS and the relationship between these two issues. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 160 employees of Kashan PEMS who were selected through a census method in 2014. A 3-part instrument was used in this study, including a demographic questionnaire, the Allen and Miller's organizational commitment inventory, and the Lodahl and Kejner's job involvement inventory. We used descriptive statistics, Spearman correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis, Friedman, analysis of variance, and Tukey post hoc tests to analyze the data. The mean job involvement and organizational commitment scores were 61.78 ± 10.69 and 73.89 ± 13.58, respectively. The mean scores of job involvement and organizational commitment were significantly different in subjects with different work experiences (P = 0.043 and P = 0.012, respectively). However, no significant differences were observed between the mean scores of organizational commitment and job involvement in subjects with different fields of study, different levels of interest in the profession, and various educational levels. A direct significant correlation was found between the total scores of organizational commitment and job involvement of workers in Kashan PEMS (r = 0.910, P < 0.001). This study showed that the employees in the Kashan PEMS obtained half of the score of organizational commitment and about two-thirds of the job involvement score. Therefore, the higher level managers of the emergency medical system are advised to implement some strategies to increase the employees' job involvement and organizational commitment.

  1. Accelerating time to reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction: prehospital and emergency department strategies, systems of care, and pharmacologic interventions.

    PubMed

    Ornato, Joseph P

    2006-01-01

    Although primary percutaneous coronary intervention has emerged as the preferred reperfusion strategy for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), it is available only in a minority of US hospitals. The fundamental problem is that there is presently no organized, uniform, national STEMI triage and treatment system that is comparable to the well-developed, highly successful system in the United States that directs major trauma victims to verified trauma centers. This article reviews prehospital and emergency department triage strategies, systems, and pharmacologic interventions for patients with STEMI that can help shorten the time to reperfusion in these patients.

  2. [Prehospital emergency care in Mexico City: the opportunities of the healthcare system].

    PubMed

    Pinet, Luis M

    2005-01-01

    Unintentional vehicle traffic injuries cause 1.2 million preventable deaths per year worldwide, mostly affecting the population in their productive years of life. In Mexico, unintentional vehicle traffic injuries are one of the main causes of death; in Mexico City they account for 8% of deaths. Prehospital systems are set up to provide hospital medical care to the population, by means of a complex network that includes transportation, communications, resources (material, financial and human), and public participation. These systems may be designed in a variety of ways, depending on availability, capacity and quality of resources, according to specific community needs, always abiding by laws and regulations. In Mexico, several institutions and organizations offer prehospital services without being overseen in terms of coordination, regulation and performance evaluation, despite the high rates of morbidity and mortality due to injuries and preventable conditions amenable to effective therapy during the prehospital period. Prehospital care may contribute to decrease the morbidity and mortality rates of injuries requiring prompt medical care. Emphasis is made on the importance of assessing the performance of prehospital care, as well as on identification of needs for future development.

  3. Space shuttle operations at the NASA Kennedy Space Center: the role of emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Rodenberg, H; Myers, K J

    1995-01-01

    The Division of Emergency Medicine at the University of Florida coordinates a unique program with the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to provide emergency medical support (EMS) for the United States Space Transportation System. This report outlines the organization of the KSC EMS system, training received by physicians providing medical support, logistic and operational aspects of the mission, and experiences of team members. The participation of emergency physicians in support of manned space flight represents another way that emergency physicians provide leadership in prehospital care and disaster management.

  4. Space shuttle operations at the NASA Kennedy Space Center: the role of emergency medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodenberg, H.; Myers, K. J.

    1995-01-01

    The Division of Emergency Medicine at the University of Florida coordinates a unique program with the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to provide emergency medical support (EMS) for the United States Space Transportation System. This report outlines the organization of the KSC EMS system, training received by physicians providing medical support, logistic and operational aspects of the mission, and experiences of team members. The participation of emergency physicians in support of manned space flight represents another way that emergency physicians provide leadership in prehospital care and disaster management.

  5. Academic emergency medicine in India.

    PubMed

    Pothiawala, Sohil; Anantharaman, Venkataraman

    2013-08-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) was recognized as a specialty by the Medical Council of India (MCI) in July 2009. As India undergoes urbanisation, cost-effective transition from managing infectious diseases to emergency management of trauma and cardio-respiratory diseases is crucial. Trained emergency healthcare workers are needed to respond effectively to these challenges. The objective was to determine the current status of academic EM training and related issues in India, and to discuss those that need to be addressed. The authors conducted electronic literature searches for articles published over an 18 year period from January 1994 to February 2013 using PubMed, Google and Yahoo databases. The references listed in the publications identified from these databases were also reviewed. Electronic literature searches revealed a multitude of 1 to 3 year training programmes, many affiliated with various foreign universities. The majority of these training programmes are offered in private healthcare institutions. MCI recognition has opened the doors for medical colleges to set up Indian specialty training programmes. Two separate Academic Councils are currently looking at EM training. The variety of programmes and separate efforts on academic development begets a need to address the issues of short-term courses being passed off as specialty training programmes, and a need for working together on national curriculum development, certification, accreditation systems and common examinations. The different organisations and academic councils could collaborate to give EM a unified scope for development. © 2013 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  6. (Non-)utilization of pre-hospital emergency care by migrants and non-migrants in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kietzmann, Diana; Knuth, Daniela; Schmidt, Silke

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the utilization and non-utilization of pre-hospital emergency care by migrants and non-migrants, and the factors that influence this behaviour. A cross-sectional representative German survey was conducted in a sample of 2.175 people, 295 of whom had a migration background. An additional sample of 50 people with Turkish migration background was conducted, partially in the Turkish language. Apart from socio-demographics, the utilization of emergency services and the reasons for non-utilization were assessed. Migrants had a higher utilization rate of pre-hospital emergency care (RR = 1.492) than non-migrants. Furthermore, migrants who were not born in Germany had a lower utilization rate (RR = 0.793) than migrants who were born in Germany. Regarding non-utilization, the most frequently stated reasons belonged to the categories initial misjudgment of the emergency situation and acting on one's own behalf, with the latter stated more frequently by migrants than by non-migrants. To prevent over-, under-, and lack of supply, it is necessary to transfer knowledge about the functioning of the medical emergency services, including first aid knowledge.

  7. Weaknesses and capacities affecting the Prehospital emergency care for victims of road traffic incidents in the greater Kampala metropolitan area: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Balikuddembe, Joseph Kimuli; Ardalan, Ali; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Nejati, Amir; Raza, Owais

    2017-10-03

    Pre-hospital emergency care is a vital and integral component of health systems particularly in the resource constrained countries like Uganda. It can help to minimize deaths, injuries, morbidities, disabilities and trauma caused by the road traffic incidents (RTIs). This study identifies the weaknesses and capacities affecting the pre-hospital emergency care for the victims of RTIs in the Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area (GKMA). A cross-sectional study was conducted in the GKMA using a three-part structured questionnaire. Data related to the demographics, nature of RTIs and victims' pre-hospital experience and existing Emergency Medical Services (EMS) were collected from victims and EMS specialists in 3 hospitals and 5 EMS institutions respectively. Data was descriptively analyzed, and after the principal component analysis was employed to identify the most influential weaknesses and capacities affecting the pre-hospital emergency care for the victims of RTI in the GKMA. From 459 RTI victims (74.7% males and 25.3% females) and 23 EMS specialists (91.3% males and 8.7% females) who participated in the study between May and June 2016, 4 and 5 key weaknesses and capacities respectively were identified to affect the pre-hospital emergency care for RTI victims in the GKMA. Although some strengths exist like ambulance facilitation, EMS structuring, coordination and others), the key weaknesses affecting the pre-hospital care for victims were noted to relate to absence of predefined EMS systems particularly in the GKMA and Uganda as a whole. They were identified to involve poor quality first aid treatment; insufficient skills/training of the first responders; inadequate EMS resources; and avoidable delays to respond and transport RTI victims to medical facilities. Though some strengths exist, the weaknesses affecting prehospital care for RTI victims primarily emanate from the absence of predefined and well-organized EMS systems in the GKMA and Uganda as a whole.

  8. Equipment for pre-hospital airway management on Helicopter Emergency Medical System helicopters in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Schmid, M; Schüttler, J; Ey, K; Reichenbach, M; Trimmel, H; Mang, H

    2011-05-01

    For advanced out-of-hospital airway management, skilled personnel and adequate equipment are key prerequisites. There are little data on the current availability of airway management equipment and standards of medical staff on Helicopter Emergency Medical System (HEMS) helicopters in central Europe. An internet search identified all HEMS helicopters in Austria, Switzerland and Luxembourg. We identified 15 HEMS helicopter bases in Switzerland, 28 in Austria and three in Luxembourg. A questionnaire was sent to all bases, asking both for the details of the clinical background and experience of participating staff, and details of airway management equipment carried routinely on board. Replies were received from 14 helicopter bases in Switzerland (93%), 25 bases in Austria (89%) and all three bases in Luxembourg. Anaesthesiologists were by far the most frequent attending physicians (68-85%). All except one bases reported to have at least one alternative supraglottic airway device. All bases had capnometry and succinylcholine. All bases in the study except two in Austria had commercial pre-packed sets for a surgical airway. All helicopters were equipped with automatic ventilators, although not all were suitable for non-invasive ventilation (NIV; Switzerland: 43%, Austria: 12%, Luxembourg: 100%). Masks for NIV were rarely available in Switzerland (two bases; 14%) and in Austria (three bases; 12%), whereas all three bases in Luxembourg carried those masks. Most HEMS helicopters carry appropriate equipment to meet the demands of modern advanced airway management in the pre-hospital setting. Further work is needed to ensure that appropriate airway equipment is carried on all HEMS helicopters.

  9. Emergency medical services and congestion : urban sprawl and pre-hospital emergency care time.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-01-01

    This research measured the association between urban sprawl and emergency medical service (EMS) response time. The purpose was to test the hypothesis that features of the built environment increase the probability of delayed ambulance arrival. Using ...

  10. Team-focused Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Prehospital Principles Adapted for Emergency Department Cardiac Arrest Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Blake; Runyon, Michael; Weekes, Anthony; Pearson, David

    2018-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest has high rates of morbidity and mortality, and a growing body of evidence is redefining our approach to the resuscitation of these high-risk patients. Team-focused cardiopulmonary resuscitation (TFCPR), most commonly deployed and described by prehospital care providers, is a focused approach to cardiac arrest care that emphasizes early defibrillation and high-quality, minimally interrupted chest compressions while de-emphasizing endotracheal intubation and intravenous drug administration. TFCPR is associated with statistically significant increases in survival to hospital admission, survival to hospital discharge, and survival with good neurologic outcome; however, the adoption of similar streamlined resuscitation approaches by emergency physicians has not been widely reported. In the absence of a deliberately streamlined approach, such as TFCPR, other advanced therapies and procedures that have not shown similar survival benefit may be prioritized at the expense of simpler evidence-based interventions. This review examines the current literature on cardiac arrest resuscitation. The recent prehospital success of TFCPR is highlighted, including the associated improvements in multiple patient-centered outcomes. The adaptability of TFCPR to the emergency department (ED) setting is also discussed in detail. Finally, we discuss advanced interventions frequently performed during ED cardiac arrest resuscitation that may interfere with early defibrillation and effective high-quality chest compressions. TFCPR has been associated with improved patient outcomes in the prehospital setting. The data are less compelling for other commonly used advanced resuscitation tools and procedures. Emergency physicians should consider incorporating the TFCPR approach into ED cardiac arrest resuscitation to optimize delivery of those interventions most associated with improved outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Introduction of a bar coding pharmacy stock replenishment system in a prehospital emergency medical unit: economical impact].

    PubMed

    Dupuis, S; Fecci, J-L; Noyer, P; Lecarpentier, E; Chollet-Xémard, C; Margenet, A; Marty, J; Combes, X

    2009-01-01

    To assess economical impact after introduction of a bar coding pharmacy stock replenishment system in a prehospital emergency medical unit. Observational before and after study. A computer system using specific software and bare-code technology was introduced in the pre hospital emergency medical unit (Smur). Overall activity and costs related to pharmacy were recorded annually during two periods: the first 2 years period before computer system introduction and the second one during the 4 years following this system installation. The overall clinical activity increased by 10% between the two periods whereas pharmacy related costs continuously decreased after the start of pharmacy management computer system use. Pharmacy stock management was easier after introduction of the new stock replenishment system. The mean pharmacy related cost of one patient management was 13 Euros before and 9 Euros after the introduction of the system. The overall cost savings during the studied period was calculated to reach 134,000 Euros. The introduction of a specific pharmacy management computer system allowed to do important costs savings in a prehospital emergency medical unit.

  12. A Cost-Effective Emergency Medicine Clerkship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shesser, Robert; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Programs in emergency medicine are expected to become increasingly organized with the development of emergency medicine teaching faculties. A clerkship design with clinical instruction, classroom instruction, and evaluation is described. (Author/MLW)

  13. Multi-level modeling of aspects associated with poor mental health in a sample of prehospital emergency professionals.

    PubMed

    Arial, Marc; Wild, Pascal; Benoit, Damien; Chouaniere, Dominique; Danuser, Brigitta

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate the respective influence of work characteristics, the effort-reward ratio, and overcommitment on the poor mental health of out-of-hospital care providers. 333 out-of-hospital care providers answered a questionnaire that included queries on mental health (GHQ-12), demographics, health-related information and work characteristics, questions from the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, and items about overcommitment. A two-level multiple regression was performed between mental health (the dependent variable) and the effort-reward ratio, the overcommitment score, weekly number of interventions, percentage of non-prehospital transport of patients out of total missions, gender, and age. Participants were first-level units, and ambulance services were second-level units. We also shadowed ambulance personnel for a total of 416 hr. With cutoff points of 2/3 and 3/4 positive answers on the GHQ-12, the percentages of potential cases with poor mental health were 20% and 15%, respectively. The effort-reward ratio was associated with poor mental health (P < 0.001), irrespective of age or gender. Overcommitment was associated with poor mental health; this association was stronger in women (β = 0.054) than in men (β = 0.020). The percentage of prehospital missions out of total missions was only associated with poor mental health at the individual level. Emergency medical services should pay attention to the way employees perceive their efforts and the rewarding aspects of their work: an imbalance of those aspects is associated with poor mental health. Low perceived esteem appeared particularly associated with poor mental health. This suggests that supervisors of emergency medical services should enhance the value of their employees' work. Employees with overcommitment should also receive appropriate consideration. Preventive measures should target individual perceptions of effort and reward in order to improve mental health in

  14. A regional prehospital electrocardiogram network with a single telecardiology "hub" for public emergency medical service: technical requirements, logistics, manpower, and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Natale Daniele; De Gennaro, Luisa; Dellegrottaglie, Giulia; Amoruso, Daniele; Antonelli, Gianfranco; Di Biase, Matteo

    2011-11-01

    In patients with a major cardiac event, the first priority is to minimize time-to-treatment. For many patients, the first and fastest contact with the health system is through emergency medical services (EMS). However, delay to treatment is still significant in developed countries, and international guidelines therefore recommend that EMS use prehospital electrocardiogram (ECG). Many communities are implementing prehospital ECG programs, with different technical solutions. We report on a region-wide prehospital ECG telecardiology program that involved 233,657 patients from all over Apulia (4 million inhabitants), Italy, who called the public regional free EMS telephone number "118." Prehospital ECG was transmitted by mobile phone to a single regional telecardiology "hub" where a cardiologist available 24/7 promptly reported the ECG, having a briefing with on-scene EMS personnel and EMS district central; patients were then directed to fibrinolysis or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as appropriate. Patients were >70 years in 51% of cases, and 55% of prehospital ECGs were unremarkable; the remaining 45% showed signs suggesting acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in 18%, arrhythmias in 20%, and minor findings in 62%. In cases of suspected ACS (chest pain), ECG findings were normal in 77% of patients; 74% of subjects with suspected ACS were screened within 30' from the onset of symptoms. A regional single telecardiology hub providing prehospital ECG for a sole regional public EMS provides an example of a prehospital ECG network optimizing quality of ECG report and uniformity of EMS assistance in a large region-wide network.

  15. Critical care medicine training and certification for emergency physicians.

    PubMed

    Huang, David T; Osborn, Tiffany M; Gunnerson, Kyle J; Gunn, Scott R; Trzeciak, Stephen; Kimball, Edward; Fink, Mitchell P; Angus, Derek C; Dellinger, R Phillip; Rivers, Emanuel P

    2005-09-01

    Demand for critical care services is increasing. Unless the supply of intensivists increases, critically ill patients will not have access to intensivists. Recent critical care society recommendations include increased graduate medical education support and expansion of the J-1 visa waiver program for foreign medical graduates. This article proposes additional recommendations, based on strengthening the relationship between emergency medicine and critical care medicine. Demand for critical care services is increasing. Unless the supply of intensivists increases, critically ill patients will not have access to intensivists. Recent critical care society recommendations include increased graduate medical education support and expansion of the J-1 visa waiver program for foreign medical graduates. This article proposes additional recommendations, based on strengthening the relationship between emergency medicine (EM) and critical care medicine (CCM). Critical care is a continuum that includes prehospital, emergency department (ED), and intensive care unit (ICU) care teams. Both EM and CCM require expertise in treating life-threatening acute illness, with many critically ill patients often presenting first to the ED. Increased patient volumes and acuity have resulted in longer ED lengths of stay and more critical care delivery in the ED. However, the majority of CCM fellowships do not accept EM residents, and those who successfully complete a fellowship do not have access to a U.S. certification exam in CCM. Despite these barriers, interest in CCM training among EM physicians is increasing. Dual EM/CCM-trained physicians not only will help alleviate the intensivist shortage but also will strengthen critical care delivery in the ED and facilitate coordination at the ED-ICU interface. We therefore propose that all accreditation bodies work cooperatively to create a route to CCM certification for emergency physicians who complete a critical care fellowship.

  16. Prehospital Trauma Care in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ho, Andrew Fu Wah; Chew, David; Wong, Ting Hway; Ng, Yih Yng; Pek, Pin Pin; Lim, Swee Han; Anantharaman, Venkataraman; Hock Ong, Marcus Eng

    2015-01-01

    Prehospital emergency care in Singapore has taken shape over almost a century. What began as a hospital-based ambulance service intended to ferry medical cases was later complemented by an ambulance service under the Singapore Fire Brigade to transport trauma cases. The two ambulance services would later combine and come under the Singapore Civil Defence Force. The development of prehospital care systems in island city-state Singapore faces unique challenges as a result of its land area and population density. This article defines aspects of prehospital trauma care in Singapore. It outlines key historical milestones and current initiatives in service, training, and research. It makes propositions for the future direction of trauma care in Singapore. The progress Singapore has made given her circumstances may serve as lessons for the future development of prehospital trauma systems in similar environments. Key words: Singapore; trauma; prehospital emergency care; emergency medical services.

  17. Barriers to Real-Time Medical Direction via Cellular Communication for Prehospital Emergency Care Providers in Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Benjamin; Strehlow, Matthew C; Rao, G V Ramana; Newberry, Jennifer A

    2016-07-08

    Many low- and middle-income countries depend on emergency medical technicians (EMTs), nurses, midwives, and layperson community health workers with limited training to provide a majority of emergency medical, trauma, and obstetric care in the prehospital setting. To improve timely patient care and expand provider scope of practice, nations leverage cellular phones and call centers for real-time online medical direction. However, there exist several barriers to adequate communication that impact the provision of emergency care. We sought to identify obstacles in the cellular communication process among GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute (GVK EMRI) EMTs in Gujarat, India. A convenience sample of practicing EMTs in Gujarat, India were surveyed regarding the barriers to call initiation and completion. 108 EMTs completed the survey. Overall, ninety-seven (89.8%) EMTs responded that the most common reason they did not initiate a call with the call center physician was insufficient time. Forty-six (42%) EMTs reported that they were unable to call the physician one or more times during a typical workweek (approximately 5-6 twelve-hour shifts/week) due to their hands being occupied performing direct patient care. Fifty-eight (54%) EMTs reported that they were unable to reach the call center physician, despite attempts, at least once a week. This study identified multiple barriers to communication, including insufficient time to call for advice and inability to reach call center physicians. Identification of simple interventions and best practices may improve communication and ensure timely and appropriate prehospital care.

  18. Incorporating teledermatology into emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Muir, Jim; Xu, Cathy; Paul, Sanjoy; Staib, Andrew; McNeill, Iain; Singh, Philip; Davidson, Samantha; Soyer, H Peter; Sinnott, Michael

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of using a store-and-forward Skin Emergency Telemedicine Service (SETS) to provide rapid specialist diagnostic and management advice for dermatological cases in an ED. This pilot study was conducted at the Princess Alexandra Hospital between August 2008 and August 2009. Study subjects were consenting patients over 18 years of age who presented with a dermatological condition to the ED. The ED doctor sent the patient's history, examination findings and the digital images of the skin conditions to a secure email address, which automatically forwarded this to the teledermatologist. The teledermatologist reviewed the cases and sent advice on diagnosis and management to the referring ED doctor via email and/or telephone. Face-to-face follow-up consultations with the patients were conducted within 2 weeks. The diagnostic and management concordance between ED doctors, teledermatologists and reviewing dermatologists were analysed. A total of 60 patients participated in the present study. SETS provided a rapid response with 56 (93%) of ED consultations receiving a dermatology opinion within 2 h. Face-to-face follow up occurred in 50 patients (83%). Statistical analysis showed significant levels of agreement between tele-diagnosis and ED diagnosis of 71.2% (Kappa 0.42) and tele-diagnosis and final clinical diagnosis of 98% (Kappa: 0.93). The clinical management concordance was 96% in complete agreement and 4% in relative agreement between the teledermatologists and reviewing dermatologists, based on chart review. The present study has shown that SETS can provide rapid and accurate diagnostic and treatment advice from a specialist for dermatological presentations to the ED. © 2011 The Authors. EMA © 2011 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  19. [Pre-hospital management of adults with life-threatening emergencies].

    PubMed

    Wattel, Francis; Dubois, François

    2012-01-01

    , fewer voluntary firemen, hospital reorganization, tight funding, difficulties of medical dispatching, and the varying skills of "first-on-the-scene "emergency workers. Grievances include late emergency responses, inappropriate medical care, and dispatching to the wrong facility. This raises the question of equal opportunity for all in a country with widely varying geographic features and population density. Improvement in the system's efficiency will require a series of objectives to be met in varied and complementary--Enhanced functional coordination, by speeding up the deployment of the ANTARES digital radio-frequency transmission network (Adaptation Nationale des Transmissions Aux Risques Et aux Secours).--Implementation of a network of emergency services with varying degrees of emergency healthcare management related to the technical nature of the facilities. Three levels of emergency healthcare must be made available: level 1 is provided by local hospitals, level 2 includes support facilities available in general hospitals (not necessarily the nearest hospital), and level 3 provides specialized healthcare in large and/or training hospitals with specialized departments. Life-threatening emergency situations are to be handled by level 2 or 3 facilities. Specific facilities must be selected as reference centers. In France, the ARS (Agences Régionales de Santé) is in charge of this procedure, as it provide funding for healthcare continuity--Reducing inequalities in access to emergency care. This will involve improving the network of SDIS brigades, making local medical facilities more responsive, delegating more medical procedures, on-site telemedicine, providing more helicopters equipped with healthcare facilities, more automated external defibrillators, and more dedicated neuro-vascular units.--First aid training must be made widely available. The French National Academy of Medicine has approved ten recommendations regarding organization and facilities.

  20. Review article: Efficacy and safety of methoxyflurane analgesia in the emergency department and prehospital setting.

    PubMed

    Grindlay, Joanne; Babl, Franz E

    2009-02-01

    This article reviews the evidence for the analgesic efficacy of methoxyflurane in both prehospital and ED settings, as well as the adverse event profile associated with methoxyflurane use. Although there are no published controlled trials of methoxyflurane in sub-anaesthetic doses, available data indicate that it is an efficacious analgesic. There is inadequate evidence regarding its use as an agent for procedural pain. Despite the potential for renal impairment evident when it was used in anaesthetic doses, no significant adverse effects have been reported in the literature, neither in patients nor occupationally, when the dose used is limited to that currently recommended.

  1. Curriculum for Undergraduate Education in Emergency Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charles G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    As emergency medicine became a specialty, it was realized that traditional training of physicians in urgent, emergent, and acute care problems was deficient. Surveys and studies demonstrate that the emergency medicine curricula in American medical schools remains at a minimum. (MLW)

  2. Prehospital trauma care: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Beuran, M; Paun, S; Gaspar, B; Vartic, N; Hostiuc, S; Chiotoroiu, A; Negoi, I

    2012-01-01

    There are many controversies related to the trauma patient care during the pre-hospital period nowadays. Due to the heterogeneity of the rescue personnel and variability of protocols used in various countries, the benefit of the prehospital advanced life support on morbidity and mortality has been not established. Systematic review of the literature using computer search of the Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health International PubMed Medline database using Entre interface.We reviewed the literature in what concerns the basic and advanced life support given to the trauma patients during the prehospital period. Although the organization of the medical emergency system varies from a country to another, the level of patient'scare can be classified into two main categories: Basic Life Support (BLS) and Advanced Life Support (ALS).There are many studies addressing what to be done at the scene.The prehospital care can be divided into two extremes: stay and play/treat then transfer or scoop and run/load and go. A balance between "scoop and run" and "stay and play" is probably the best approach for trauma patients. The chosen approach should be made according to the mechanism of injury (blunt versus penetrating trauma), distance to the trauma center (urban versus rural) and the available resources. RevistaChirurgia.

  3. Clinical audit of emergency unit before and after establishment of the emergency medicine department.

    PubMed

    Amini, Afshin; Dindoost, Payam; Moghimi, Mehrdad; Kariman, Hamid; Shahrami, Ali; Dolatabadi, Ali Arhami; Ali-Mohammadi, Hossein; Alavai-Moghaddam, Mostafa; Derakhshanfar, Hojjat; Hatamabadi, HamidReza; Heidari, Kamran; Alamdari, Shahram; Meibodi, Mohammad Kalantar; Shojaee, Majid; Foroozanfar, Mohammad Mehdi; Hashemi, Behrooz; Sabzeghaba, Anita; Kabir, Ali

    2012-02-01

    To assess the deficiencies and potential areas through a medical audit of the emergency departments, in six general hospitals affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences at Tehran, Iran, after preparing specific wards-based international standards. A checklist was completed for all hospitals which met our eligibility criteria mainly observation and interviews with head nurses and managers of the emergency medicine unit of the hospitals before (2003) and after (2008) the establishment of emergency departments there. Domains studied included staffing, education and continuing professional development (CPD), facility (design), equipment, ancillary services, medical records, manuals and references, research, administration, pre-hospital care, information systems, disaster planning, bench-marking and hospital accreditation. Education and CPD (p = 0.042), design and facility (p = 0.027), equipment (p = 0.028), and disaster (p = 0.026) had significantly improved after the establishment of emergency departments. Nearly all domains showed a positive change though it was non-significant in a few. In terms of observation, better improvement was seen in disaster, security, design, and research. According to the score for each domain compared to what it was in the earlier phase, better improvement was observed in hospital accreditation, information systems, security, disaster planning, and research. Security, disaster planning, research, design and facility had improved in hospitals that wave studied, while equipment, records, ancillary services, administration and bench-marking had the lowest improvement even after the establishment of emergency department, and, hence, needed specific attention.

  4. The implementation and evaluation of an evidence-based statewide prehospital pain management protocol developed using the national prehospital evidence-based guideline model process for emergency medical services.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kathleen M; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Alcorta, Richard; Weik, Tasmeen S; Lawner, Ben; Ho, Shiu; Wright, Joseph L

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration funded the development of a model process for the development and implementation of evidence-based guidelines (EBGs) for emergency medical services (EMS). We report on the implementation and evaluation of an evidence-based prehospital pain management protocol developed using this model process. An evidence-based protocol for prehospital management of pain resulting from injuries and burns was reviewed by the Protocol Review Committee (PRC) of the Maryland Institute for Emergency Medical Services Systems (MIEMSS). The PRC recommended revisions to the Maryland protocol that reflected recommendations in the EBG: weight-based dosing and repeat dosing of morphine. A training curriculum was developed and implemented using Maryland's online Learning Management System and successfully accessed by 3,941 paramedics and 15,969 BLS providers. Field providers submitted electronic patient care reports to the MIEMSS statewide prehospital database. Inclusion criteria were injured or burned patients transported by Maryland ambulances to Maryland hospitals whose electronic patient care records included data for level of EMS provider training during a 12-month preimplementation period and a 12-month postimplementation period from September 2010 through March 2012. We compared the percentage of patients receiving pain scale assessments and morphine, as well as the dose of morphine administered and the use of naloxone as a rescue medication for opiate use, before and after the protocol change. No differences were seen in the percentage of patients who had a pain score documented or the percent of patients receiving morphine before and after the protocol change, but there was a significant increase in the total dose and dose in mg/kg administered per patient. During the postintervention phase, patients received an 18% higher total morphine dose and a 14.9% greater mg/kg dose. We demonstrated that the implementation of a revised

  5. [Prehospital assessment of injury type and severity in severely injured patients by emergency physicians : An analysis of the TraumaRegister DGU®].

    PubMed

    Esmer, E; Derst, P; Lefering, R; Schulz, M; Siekmann, H; Delank, K-S

    2017-05-01

    Prehospital assessment of injury type and severity by emergency medical services physicians impacts treatment including appropriate destination hospital selection, especially in (potentially) life-threatening cases. Injuries which are underestimated or overlooked by the emergency physician can delay adequate therapy and thus significantly influence the overall outcome. The current study used data from the TraumaRegister DGU® to evaluate the reliability of prehospital injury assessments made by emergency physicians. Data of 30,777 patients from the TraumaRegister DGU® between 1993 and 2009 were retrospectively evaluated. Using the abbreviated injury scale (AIS), subjective prehospital assessments of injury severity by emergency physicians were correlated with objectively identified injuries diagnosed after admission to hospital. For this evaluation, prehospital injury assessments rated moderate or severe by the emergency physician as well as injuries diagnosed in hospital with an AIS score ≥3 points were deemed relevant. The 30,777 patients with an injury severity score (ISS) ≥ 9 suffered a total of 202,496 injuries and of these 26 % (51,839 out of 202,496) were considered relevant with an AIS ≥3 points. The most frequent relevant injuries were to the head (47 %) and chest (46 %). Of the 51,839 relevant injuries, the prehospital assessment by the emergency physician was accurate for 71 % and in 29 % of the cases relevant injuries were underestimated. Relevant injuries were unrecognized or underestimated in prehospital assessments for almost 1 out of every 7 cases of head trauma, almost 1 out of every 3 thoracic trauma and almost 1 out of every 2 abdominal and pelvic trauma. The assessment of injury severity by emergency medical services physicians based on physical examination at the scene of the trauma is not very reliable. Thus, mechanisms of injury and overall presentation as well as identifiable injuries and vital parameters should be

  6. Lay First Responder Training in Eastern Uganda: Leveraging Transportation Infrastructure to Build an Effective Prehospital Emergency Care Training Program.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Peter G; Bamuleke, Richard; Lee, Yang Jae

    2018-01-18

    Though road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major cause of mortality in East Africa, few countries have emergency medical services. The aim was to create a sustainable and efficient prehospital lay first responder program, creating a system with lay first responders spread through the 53 motorcycle taxi stages of Iganga Municipality. One hundred and fifty-four motorcycle taxi riders were taught a first aid curriculum in partnership with a local Red Cross first aid trainer and provided with a first aid kit following WHO guidelines for basic first aid. Pre- and post-survey tests measured first aid knowledge improvement over the course. Post-implementation incident report forms were collected from lay first responders after each patient encounter over 6 months. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 110 of 154 trainees, 9 months post-training. Improvement was measured across all five major first aid categories: bleeding control (56.9 vs. 79.7%), scene management (37.6 vs. 59.5%), airway and breathing (43.4 vs. 51.6%), recovery position (13.1 vs. 43.4%), and victim transport (88.2 vs. 94.3%). From the incident report findings, first responders treated 250 victims (82.8% RTI related) and encountered 24 deaths (9.6% of victims). Of the first aid skills, bleeding control and bandaging was used most often (55.2% of encounters). Lay first responders provided transport in 48.3% of encounters. Of 110 lay first responders surveyed, 70 of 76 who had used at least one skill felt "confident" in the care they provided. A prehospital care system composed of lay first responders can be developed leveraging existing transport organizations, offering a scalable alternative for LMICs, demonstrating usefulness in practice and measurable educational improvements in trauma skills for non-clinical lay responders.

  7. 'The first pulse you take is your own' - but don't forget your colleagues'. Emotion teamwork in pre-hospital emergency medical services.

    PubMed

    Henckes, Nicolas; Nurok, Michael

    2015-09-01

    This article examines the way that intense emotions, both positive and negative, are collectively regulated at work by pre-hospital emergency teams. We analyse the collective strategies and solutions that are developed in daily medical work by teams and individuals with a view to furthering the action. After a review of the literature on emotion work in work collectives, we discuss the nature of pre-hospital emergency work and the role of emotions in this work. We then examine the collective management of both disruptive and desired emotions by teams during interventions. The last section reflects on the long-term management of emotions at work using Randall Collins' concepts of interaction ritual and emotional energy. This study relies on fieldwork performed in emergency medical services in New York and Paris. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  8. Emergency medicine: beyond the basics.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S F

    1997-07-01

    Medical emergencies can arise in the dental office. Preparedness for these emergencies is predicated on an ability to rapidly recognize a problem and to effectively institute prompt and proper management. In all emergency situations, management is based on implementation of basic life support, as needed. The author describes the appropriate management of two common emergency situations: allergy and chest pain.

  9. Accuracy of Oxygen Flow Delivered by Compressed-Gas Cylinders in Hospital and Prehospital Emergency Care.

    PubMed

    Duprez, Frédéric; Michotte, Jean Bernard; Cuvelier, Gregory; Legrand, Alexandre; Mashayekhi, Sharam; Reychler, Gregory

    2018-03-01

    Oxygen cylinders are widely used both in hospital and prehospital care. Excessive or inappropriate F IO 2 may be critical for patients with hypercapnia or hypoxia. Moreover, over-oxygenation could be deleterious in ischemic disorders. Supplemental oxygen from oxygen cylinder should therefore be delivered accurately. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of oxygen flows for oxygen cylinder in hospital and prehospital care. A prospective trial was conducted to evaluate accuracy of delivered oxygen flows (2, 4, 6, 9 and 12 L/min) for different oxygen cylinder ready for use in different hospital departments. Delivered flows were analyzed randomly using a calibrated thermal mass flow meter. Two types of oxygen cylinder were evaluated: 78 oxygen cylinder with a single-stage regulator and 70 oxygen cylinder with a dual-stage regulator. Delivered flows were compared to the required oxygen flow. The residual pressure value for each oxygen cylinder was considered. A coefficient of variation was calculated to compare the variability of the delivered flow between the two types of oxygen cylinder. The median values of delivered flows were all ≥ 100% of the required flow for single stage (range 100-109%) and < 100% of required flow for dual stage (range 95-97%). The median values of the delivered flow differed between single and dual stage. It was found that single stage is significantly higher than dual stage ( P = .01). At low flow, the dispersion of the measures for single stage was higher than with a high oxygen flow. Delivered flow differences were also found between low and high residual pressures, but only with single stage ( P = .02). The residual pressure for both oxygen cylinders (no. = 148) ranged from 73 to 2,900 pounds per square inch, and no significant difference was observed between the 2 types ( P = .86). The calculated coefficient of variation ranged from 7% (±1%) for dual stage to 8% (±2%) for single stage. This study shows good accuracy of

  10. Are prehospital airway management resources compatible with difficult airway algorithms? A nationwide cross-sectional study of helicopter emergency medical services in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yuko; Shinohara, Kazuaki; Goto, Aya; Yano, Tetsuhiro; Sato, Lubna; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Jiro; Tase, Choichiro

    2016-04-01

    Immediate access to the equipment required for difficult airway management (DAM) is vital. However, in Japan, data are scarce regarding the availability of DAM resources in prehospital settings. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Japanese helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) are adequately equipped to comply with the DAM algorithms of Japanese and American professional anesthesiology societies. This nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2015. Base hospitals of HEMS were mailed a questionnaire about their airway management equipment and back-up personnel. Outcome measures were (1) call for help, (2) supraglottic airway device (SGA) insertion, (3) verification of tube placement using capnometry, and (4) the establishment of surgical airways, all of which have been endorsed in various airway management guidelines. The criteria defining feasibility were the availability of (1) more than one physician, (2) SGA, (3) capnometry, and (4) a surgical airway device in the prehospital setting. Of the 45 HEMS base hospitals questioned, 42 (93.3 %) returned completed questionnaires. A surgical airway was practicable by all HEMS. However, in the prehospital setting, back-up assistance was available in 14.3 %, SGA in 16.7 %, and capnometry in 66.7 %. No HEMS was capable of all four steps. In Japan, compliance with standard airway management algorithms in prehospital settings remains difficult because of the limited availability of alternative ventilation equipment and back-up personnel. Prehospital health care providers need to consider the risks and benefits of performing endotracheal intubation in environments not conducive to the success of this procedure.

  11. Field Assessment Stroke Triage for Emergency Destination: A Simple and Accurate Prehospital Scale to Detect Large Vessel Occlusion Strokes.

    PubMed

    Lima, Fabricio O; Silva, Gisele S; Furie, Karen L; Frankel, Michael R; Lev, Michael H; Camargo, Érica C S; Haussen, Diogo C; Singhal, Aneesh B; Koroshetz, Walter J; Smith, Wade S; Nogueira, Raul G

    2016-08-01

    Patients with large vessel occlusion strokes (LVOS) may be better served by direct transfer to endovascular capable centers avoiding hazardous delays between primary and comprehensive stroke centers. However, accurate stroke field triage remains challenging. We aimed to develop a simple field scale to identify LVOS. The Field Assessment Stroke Triage for Emergency Destination (FAST-ED) scale was based on items of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) with higher predictive value for LVOS and tested in the Screening Technology and Outcomes Project in Stroke (STOPStroke) cohort, in which patients underwent computed tomographic angiography within the first 24 hours of stroke onset. LVOS were defined by total occlusions involving the intracranial internal carotid artery, middle cerebral artery-M1, middle cerebral artery-2, or basilar arteries. Patients with partial, bihemispheric, and anterior+posterior circulation occlusions were excluded. Receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of FAST-ED were compared with the NIHSS, Rapid Arterial Occlusion Evaluation (RACE) scale, and Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Severity (CPSS) scale. LVO was detected in 240 of the 727 qualifying patients (33%). FAST-ED had comparable accuracy to predict LVO to the NIHSS and higher accuracy than RACE and CPSS (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: FAST-ED=0.81 as reference; NIHSS=0.80, P=0.28; RACE=0.77, P=0.02; and CPSS=0.75, P=0.002). A FAST-ED ≥4 had sensitivity of 0.60, specificity of 0.89, positive predictive value of 0.72, and negative predictive value of 0.82 versus RACE ≥5 of 0.55, 0.87, 0.68, and 0.79, and CPSS ≥2 of 0.56, 0.85, 0.65, and 0.78, respectively. FAST-ED is a simple scale that if successfully validated in the field, it may be used by medical emergency professionals to identify LVOS in the prehospital setting enabling rapid triage of patients. © 2016

  12. Reducing Opioid Prescribing Rates in Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Guarisco, Joseph; Salup, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Pain management is one of the most common reasons patients visit the emergency department. Understanding the contributions of emergency medicine-and specifically Ochsner Health System's emergency providers-to the opioid crisis is important. Benchmark prescribing data indicated that Ochsner Health System emergency medicine providers' opioid prescription rates were significantly higher than the national average in emergency medicine. Data relevant to visit and opioid prescription counts were extracted from the organization's electronic health record system. Opioid prescription rates were calculated for each provider. A data transparency project was initiated in which provider opioid prescription rates were unblinded and distributed among the provider group. Opioid prescription rates declined in aggregate for the emergency services from 22% to 14% during the 1-year project timeline. Some physicians demonstrated a 70% reduction in prescription rates. Importantly, patient satisfaction scores were not negatively impacted by declining opioid prescription rates. Provider performance transparency using unblinded and transparent data analytics can efficiently and significantly alter provider practice.

  13. Emergency department discharge prescription interventions by emergency medicine pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Cesarz, Joseph L; Steffenhagen, Aaron L; Svenson, James; Hamedani, Azita G

    2013-02-01

    We determine the rate and details of interventions associated with emergency medicine pharmacist review of discharge prescriptions for patients discharged from the emergency department (ED). Additionally, we evaluate care providers' satisfaction with such services provided by emergency medicine pharmacists. This was a prospective observational study in the ED of an academic medical center that serves both adult and pediatric patients. Details of emergency medicine pharmacist interventions on discharge prescriptions were compiled with a standardized form. Interventions were categorized as error prevention or optimization of therapy. The staff of the ED was surveyed related to the influence and satisfaction of this new emergency medicine pharmacist-provided service. The 674 discharge prescriptions reviewed by emergency medicine pharmacists during the study period included 602 (89.3%) for adult patients and 72 (10.7%) for pediatric patients. Emergency medicine pharmacists intervened on 68 prescriptions, resulting in an intervention rate of 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.0% to 12.7%). The intervention rate was 8.5% (95% CI 6.4% to 11.1%) for adult prescriptions and 23.6% for pediatric prescriptions (95% CI 14.7% to 35.3%) (difference 15.1%; 95% CI 5.1% to 25.2%). There were a similar number of interventions categorized as error prevention and optimization of medication therapy, 37 (54%) and 31 (46%), respectively. More than 95% of survey respondents believed that the new pharmacist services improved patient safety, optimized medication regimens, and improved patient satisfaction. Emergency medicine pharmacist review of discharge prescriptions for discharged ED patients has the potential to significantly improve patient care associated with suboptimal prescriptions and is highly valued by ED care providers. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  14. A Multidisciplinary Clerkship in Emergency Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Marshall, Carter L.

    1979-01-01

    At the New Jersey Medical School, an obligatory, multidisciplinary, fourth-year emergency medicine clerkship requires ambulance duty, emergency room rotation, medical specialty lectures, and a cardiac life support providers course. Particular problems associated with multidisciplinary courses are discussed. (Author/JMD)

  15. Human Factors and Simulation in Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Emily M; Wong, Ambrose H; Ackerman, Jeremy; Sande, Margaret K; Lei, Charles; Kobayashi, Leo; Cassara, Michael; Cooper, Dylan D; Perry, Kimberly; Lewandowski, William E; Scerbo, Mark W

    2018-02-01

    This consensus group from the 2017 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference "Catalyzing System Change through Health Care Simulation: Systems, Competency, and Outcomes" held in Orlando, Florida, on May 16, 2017, focused on the use of human factors (HF) and simulation in the field of emergency medicine (EM). The HF discipline is often underutilized within EM but has significant potential in improving the interface between technologies and individuals in the field. The discussion explored the domain of HF, its benefits in medicine, how simulation can be a catalyst for HF work in EM, and how EM can collaborate with HF professionals to effect change. Implementing HF in EM through health care simulation will require a demonstration of clinical and safety outcomes, advocacy to stakeholders and administrators, and establishment of structured collaborations between HF professionals and EM, such as in this breakout group. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  16. [Adverse drug reaction reporting in emergency medicine].

    PubMed

    Milojevic, Kolia; Chassagnol, Isabelle; Brion, Nathalie; Cléro, Joël; Degrèze, Nathalie; Lambert, Yves

    2004-01-01

    A regional survey was performed between June and September 2002, to evaluate knowledge and attitudes of emergency physicians regarding adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting in a French district. 100 questionnaires completed by physicians working in emergency departments and/or mobile intensive care units were analysed. The frequency of ADRs encountered by emergency practitioners was estimated at > or = 0.73 per year and per physician. The ADR notification rate in emergency medicine was estimated at < or = 6%. A minority of physicians were responsible for the majority of ADR reporting. Sixty-four percent of emergency physicians underestimated the conditions required for ADR notification: 28% thought that certain causality was an absolute necessary condition for notification, while 37% considered that notification was required only for ADRs that were both severe and unexpected. Interventions focused on advertising ADR reporting procedures could help to improve the notification rate in emergency medicine.

  17. Development and evaluation of educational materials for pre-hospital and emergency department personnel on the care of patients with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    McGonigle, John J; Migyanka, Joann M; Glor-Scheib, Susan J; Cramer, Ryan; Fratangeli, Jeffrey J; Hegde, Gajanan G; Shang, Jennifer; Venkat, Arvind

    2014-05-01

    With the rising prevalence of patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there has been an increase in the acute presentation of these individuals to the general health care system. Emergency medical services and emergency department personnel commonly address the health care needs of patients with ASD at times of crisis. Unfortunately, there is little education provided to front-line emergency medical technicians, paramedics and emergency nurses on the characteristics of ASD and how these characteristics can create challenges for individuals with ASD and their health care providers in the pre-hospital and emergency department settings. This paper describes the development of educational materials on ASD and the results of training of emergency medical services and emergency department personnel.

  18. Prehospital pain management in children with traumatic injuries.

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Anna; Skotnicka-Klonowicz, Grażyna

    2015-05-01

    Damage that arises as a result of injuries is one of the most common causes of children presenting to hospital emergency departments. The aim of the study was to assess the implementation of recommendations for prehospital pain management in injured children provided by various health care centers. A total of 7146 children aged 0 to 18 years because of injury were admitted to the Department of Paediatric Emergency Medicine in the Maria Konopnicka Memorial University Teaching Hospital No. 4 in Lodz within the period of 12 months. From this group, 1493 children received prehospital emergency care from various health care centers. Health care centers provided prehospital aid to 21% of all children with injuries. Boys (60.3%) and children older than 5 years (80%) predominated among pediatric trauma cases. Prehospital emergency aid was most frequently administered to children by emergency medical services personnel (42.7%) and a primary health care physician (28.1%). Injuries of head (42.1%), neck (1.1%), chest (1.7%), abdomen (2.5%), upper (32.2%), and lower (19.9%) limbs as well as burns (5.3%) were diagnosed in pediatric patients. Indications for prehospital analgesia were found in 489 of 1493 patients (32.7%). Analgesia was administered to 159 children (32%), pain medication was not given to 223 children (46%), and in 107 cases (22%), there was a lack of information on that subject. Despite the training of medical staff, provision of analgesia for children with burns and traumatic injuries of the osteoarticular system is inadequate.

  19. Approach to Reptile Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Long, Simon Y

    2016-05-01

    This article summarizes the physiology and anatomy of reptiles, highlighting points relevant for emergency room veterinarians. Other systems, such as the endocrine and immune systems, have not been covered. The many other aspects of reptile species variation are too numerous to be covered. This article provides an overview but encourages clinicians to seek additional species-specific information to better medically diagnose and treat their reptile patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Interpreter services in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yu-Feng; Alagappan, Kumar; Rella, Joseph; Bentley, Suzanne; Soto-Greene, Marie; Martin, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    Emergency physicians are routinely confronted with problems associated with language barriers. It is important for emergency health care providers and the health system to strive for cultural competency when communicating with members of an increasingly diverse society. Possible solutions that can be implemented include appropriate staffing, use of new technology, and efforts to develop new kinds of ties to the community served. Linguistically specific solutions include professional interpretation, telephone interpretation, the use of multilingual staff members, the use of ad hoc interpreters, and, more recently, the use of mobile computer technology at the bedside. Each of these methods carries a specific set of advantages and disadvantages. Although professionally trained medical interpreters offer improved communication, improved patient satisfaction, and overall cost savings, they are often underutilized due to their perceived inefficiency and the inconclusive results of their effect on patient care outcomes. Ultimately, the best solution for each emergency department will vary depending on the population served and available resources. Access to the multiple interpretation options outlined above and solid support and commitment from hospital institutions are necessary to provide proper and culturally competent care for patients. Appropriate communications inclusive of interpreter services are essential for culturally and linguistically competent provider/health systems and overall improved patient care and satisfaction. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Emergency medicine as a specialty in Asia.

    PubMed

    Pek, Jen Heng; Lim, Swee Han; Ho, Hiu Fai; Ramakrishnan, T V; Jamaluddin, Sabariah Faizah; Mesa-Gaerlan, Faith Joan C; Tiru, Mohan; Hwang, Sung Oh; Choi, Wai-Mau; Kanchanasut, Somchai; Khruekarnchana, Pairoj; Avsarogullari, Levent; Shimazu, Takeshi; Hori, Shingo

    2016-04-01

    We aim to examine the similarities and differences in areas of EM development, workload, workforce, and capabilities and support in the Asia region. Emerging challenges faced by our EM community are also discussed. The National Societies for Emergency Medicine of Hong Kong, India, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Turkey participated in the joint Japanese Association of Acute Medicine (JAAM) and Asian Conference of Emergency Medicine (ACEM) Special Symposium held in October 2013 at Tokyo, Japan. The findings are reviewed in this paper. Emergency medicine (EM) has over the years evolved into a distinct and recognized medical discipline requiring a unique set of cognitive, administrative and technical skills for managing all types of patients with acute illness or injury. EM has contributed to healthcare by providing effective, safe, efficient and cost-effective patient care. Integrated systems have developed to allow continuity of emergency care from the community into emergency departments. Structured training curriculum for undergraduates, and specialty training programs for postgraduates are in place to equip trainees with the knowledge and skills required for the unique practice of EM. The practice of EM still varies among the Asian countries. However, as a region, we strive to continue in our efforts to develop the specialty and improve the delivery of EM.

  2. Emergency medicine as a specialty in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Hiu Fai; Ramakrishnan, T. V.; Jamaluddin, Sabariah Faizah; Mesa‐Gaerlan, Faith Joan C.; Tiru, Mohan; Hwang, Sung Oh; Choi, Wai‐Mau; Kanchanasut, Somchai; Khruekarnchana, Pairoj; Avsarogullari, Levent; Shimazu, Takeshi; Hori, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    Aim We aim to examine the similarities and differences in areas of EM development, workload, workforce, and capabilities and support in the Asia region. Emerging challenges faced by our EM community are also discussed. Methods The National Societies for Emergency Medicine of Hong Kong, India, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Turkey participated in the joint Japanese Association of Acute Medicine (JAAM) and Asian Conference of Emergency Medicine (ACEM) Special Symposium held in October 2013 at Tokyo, Japan. The findings are reviewed in this paper. Results Emergency medicine (EM) has over the years evolved into a distinct and recognized medical discipline requiring a unique set of cognitive, administrative and technical skills for managing all types of patients with acute illness or injury. EM has contributed to healthcare by providing effective, safe, efficient and cost‐effective patient care. Integrated systems have developed to allow continuity of emergency care from the community into emergency departments. Structured training curriculum for undergraduates, and specialty training programs for postgraduates are in place to equip trainees with the knowledge and skills required for the unique practice of EM. Conclusion The practice of EM still varies among the Asian countries. However, as a region, we strive to continue in our efforts to develop the specialty and improve the delivery of EM. PMID:29123755

  3. Emergency Medicine Gender-specific Education.

    PubMed

    Ashurst, John V; McGregor, Alyson J; Safdar, Basmah; Weaver, Kevin R; Quinn, Shawn M; Rosenau, Alex M; Goyke, Terrence E; Roth, Kevin R; Greenberg, Marna R

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference has taken the first step in identifying gender-specific care as an area of importance to both emergency medicine (EM) and research. To improve patient care, we need to address educational gaps in this area concurrent with research gaps. In this article, the authors highlight the need for sex- and gender-specific education in EM and propose guidelines for medical student, resident, and faculty education. Specific examples of incorporating this content into grand rounds, simulation, bedside teaching, and journal club sessions are reviewed. Future challenges and strategies to fill the gaps in the current education model are also described. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  4. An evaluation of the professional, social and demographic profile and quality of life of physicians working at the Prehospital Emergency Medical System (SAMU) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tallo, Fernando Sabia; Campos Vieira Abib, Simone de; Baitello, André Luciano; Lopes, Renato Delascio

    2014-09-01

    To describe the profile of physicians working at the Prehospital Emergency Medical System (SAMU) in Brazil and to evaluate their quality of life. Both a semi-structured questionnaire with 57 questions and the SF-36 questionnaire were sent to research departments within SAMU in the Brazilian state capitals, the Federal District and inland towns in Brazil. Of a total of 902 physicians, including 644 (71.4%) males, 533 (59.1%) were between 30 and 45 years of age and 562 (62.4%) worked in a state capital. Regarding education level, 45.1% had graduated less than five years before and only 43% were specialists recognized by the Brazilian Medical Association. Regarding training, 95% did not report any specific training for their work at SAMU. The main weaknesses identified were psychiatric care and surgical emergencies in 57.2 and 42.9% of cases, respectively; traumatic pediatric emergencies, 48.9%; and medical emergencies, 42.9%. As for procedure-related skills, the physicians reported difficulties in pediatric advanced support (62.4%), airway surgical access (45.6%), pericardiocentesis (64.4%) and thoracentesis (29.9%). Difficulties in using an artificial ventilator (43.3%) and in transcutaneous pacing (42.2%) were also reported. Higher percentages of young physicians, aged 25-30 years (26.7 vs 19.0%; p<0.01), worked exclusively in prehospital care (18.0 vs 7.7%; p<0.001), with workloads >48 h per week (12.8 vs 8.6%; p<0.001), and were non-specialists with the shortest length of service (<1 year) at SAMU (30.1 vs 18.2%; p<0.001) who were hired without having to pass public service exams (i.e., for a temporary job) (61.8 vs 46.2%; p<0.001). Regarding quality of life, the pain domain yielded the worst result among physicians at SAMU. The doctors in this sample were young and within a few years of graduation, and they had no specific training in prehospital emergencies. Deficiencies were mostly found in pediatrics and psychiatry, with specific deficiencies in the handling

  5. An open, interoperable, and scalable prehospital information technology network architecture.

    PubMed

    Landman, Adam B; Rokos, Ivan C; Burns, Kevin; Van Gelder, Carin M; Fisher, Roger M; Dunford, James V; Cone, David C; Bogucki, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    Some of the most intractable challenges in prehospital medicine include response time optimization, inefficiencies at the emergency medical services (EMS)-emergency department (ED) interface, and the ability to correlate field interventions with patient outcomes. Information technology (IT) can address these and other concerns by ensuring that system and patient information is received when and where it is needed, is fully integrated with prior and subsequent patient information, and is securely archived. Some EMS agencies have begun adopting information technologies, such as wireless transmission of 12-lead electrocardiograms, but few agencies have developed a comprehensive plan for management of their prehospital information and integration with other electronic medical records. This perspective article highlights the challenges and limitations of integrating IT elements without a strategic plan, and proposes an open, interoperable, and scalable prehospital information technology (PHIT) architecture. The two core components of this PHIT architecture are 1) routers with broadband network connectivity to share data between ambulance devices and EMS system information services and 2) an electronic patient care report to organize and archive all electronic prehospital data. To successfully implement this comprehensive PHIT architecture, data and technology requirements must be based on best available evidence, and the system must adhere to health data standards as well as privacy and security regulations. Recent federal legislation prioritizing health information technology may position federal agencies to help design and fund PHIT architectures.

  6. Mass-casualty terrorist bombings in Istanbul, Turkey, November 2003: report of the events and the prehospital emergency response.

    PubMed

    Rodoplu, Ulkümen; Arnold, Jeffrey L; Tokyay, Rifat; Ersoy, Gurkan; Cetiner, Serkan; Yücel, Tayfun

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the two mass-casualty, terrorist attacks that occurred in Istanbul, Turkey in November 2003, and the resulting pre-hospital emergency response. A complex, retrospective, descriptive study was performed, using open source reports, interviews, direct measurements of street distances, and hospital records from the American Hospital (AH) and Taksim Education and Research State Hospital (TERSH) in Istanbul. On 15 November, improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in trucks were detonated outside the Neve Shalom and Beth Israel Synagogues, killing 30 persons and injuring an estimated additional 300. Victims were maldistributed to 16 medical facilities. For example, AH, a private hospital located six km from both synagogues, received 69 injured survivors, of which 86% had secondary blast injuries and 13% were admitted to the hospital. The TERSH, a government hospital located 1 km from both synagogues, received 48 injured survivors. On 20 November, IEDs in trucks were detonated outside the Hong Kong Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC) headquarters and the British Consulate (BC), killing 33 and injuring an estimated additional 450. Victims were maldistributed to 16 medical facilities. For example, TERSH, located 18 km from the HSBC site and 2 km from the the BC received 184 injured survivors, of which 93% had secondary blast injuries and 15% were hospitalized. The AH, located 9 km from the HSBC site and 6 km from the BC, received 16 victims. The twin suicide truck bombings on 15 and 20 November 2003 were the two largest terrorist attacks in modern Turkish history, collectively killing 63 persons and injuring an estimated 750 others. The vast majority of victims had secondary blast injuries, which did not require hospitalization. Factors associated with the maldistribution of casualties to medical facilities appeared to include the distance from each bombing site, the type of medical facility, and the personal preference of injured survivors.

  7. An evaluation of pre-hospital emergency medical systems for suspected ST-elevation myocardial infarction in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Engelman, Glenn H; Carry, Patrick M; Kubes, Kyle M; Gleason, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) benefit from rapid cardiac reperfusion therapy. Emergency medical service (EMS) agencies can improve patient outcomes by calling STEMI alerts to the receiving facility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of pre-hospital activation systems for suspected ST-elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) throughout Colorado. A cross sectional, survey design was utilized to collect all data from EMS agencies in Colorado. A univariable logistic regression model was used to identify factors predictive of an agency reporting that they utilize a STEMI activation protocol. 84.5% [95% CI: 78.3 to 90.7%] of agencies included indicate that they utilize a STEMI activation protocol. Based on the logistic regression analysis, the number of EMT employees was significantly associated with whether or not an agency indicates that they utilize a STEMI activation protocol. For every 10% increase in the number of EMTs employed by an EMS agency, there was a 3.0 [95% CI: 1.5 to 6.0, p = 0.0012] fold increase in the odds of the agency indicating they utilize a STEMI activation protocol. Our study provides evidence that larger agencies are more likely to utilize a STEMI activation protocol. In areas without a STEMI system of care, improvements in smaller agencies that cover more ground (with longer transport times) should be the focus for protocol implementation. Based on the current prevalence of such training, competency based training in reading ST-elevations on ECG should be considered by EMS agencies.

  8. The emergence of family medicine in Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Hardison, Charles; Fonken, Paul; Chew, Tom; Smith, Barton

    2007-10-01

    In post-Soviet Central Asia, Kyrgyzstan has emerged as the leader in family medicine reform. This paper examines the factors that have allowed family medicine to become the foundation of primary care and the rationale for retraining specialists in primary care. Critical elements of successful family medicine reform have included national policy, international cooperation, training programs, support structures, and quality measures. The national policy has contributed to an environment that has allowed many international organizations to participate in the process of reforming the health care system. The 9-year training process was a momentous nationwide development task that was supported by various structures, organizations, and events and included the implementation of quality measures. Various reports, studies, and evaluations support the positive impact family medicine has had on patient satisfaction, physician attitude, and scope of practice. Further, one study indicates improved health outcomes in terms of decreased years of potential life lost. The national policy of reform that is in favor of family medicine, and international donor agencies-supported training, produced the following results: a group of family medicine teachers, 98% (2,691) of the country's primary care doctors retrained in family medicine, and there were 372 family medicine resident graduates. To ensure quality, objective structured clinical exams were implemented in all levels of training. It will take many more years to fully establish family medicine in the medical culture of Kyrgyzstan and reap its full benefits, but already it is contributing toward improvements in the quality of patient care.

  9. Essential medicines for emergency care in Africa.

    PubMed

    Broccoli, Morgan C; Pigoga, Jennifer L; Nyirenda, Mulinda; Wallis, Lee; Calvello Hynes, Emilie J

    2018-04-07

    Essential medicines lists (EMLs) are efficient means to ensure access to safe and effective medications. The WHO has led this initiative, generating a biannual EML since 1977. Nearly all countries have implemented national EMLs based on the WHO EML. Although EMLs have given careful consideration to many public health priorities, they have yet to comprehensively address the importance of medicines for treating acute illness and injury. We undertook a multistep consensus process to establish an EML for emergency care in Africa. After a review of existing literature and international EMLs, we generated a candidate list for emergency care. This list was reviewed by expert clinicians who ranked the medicines for overall inclusion and strength of recommendation. These medications and recommendations were then evaluated by an expert group. Medications that reached consensus in both the online survey and expert review were included in a draft emergency care EML, which underwent a final inperson consensus process. The final emergency care EML included 213 medicines, 25 of which are not in the 2017 WHO EML, but were deemed essential for clinical practice by regional emergency providers. The final EML has associated recommendations of desirable or essential and is subdivided by facility level. Thirty-nine medicines were recommended for basic facilities, an additional 96 for intermediate facilities (eg, district hospitals) and an additional 78 for advanced facilities (eg, tertiary centres). The 25 novel medications not currently on the WHO EML should be considered by planners when making rational formularies for developing emergency care systems. It is our hope that these resource-stratified lists will allow for easier implementation and will be a useful tool for practical expansion of emergency care delivery in Africa. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  10. Episodes of care: is emergency medicine ready?

    PubMed

    Wiler, Jennifer L; Beck, Dennis; Asplin, Brent R; Granovsky, Michael; Moorhead, John; Pilgrim, Randy; Schuur, Jeremiah D

    2012-05-01

    Optimizing resource use, eliminating waste, aligning provider incentives, reducing overall costs, and coordinating the delivery of quality care while improving outcomes have been major themes of health care reform initiatives. Recent legislation contains several provisions designed to move away from the current fee-for-service payment mechanism toward a model that reimburses providers for caring for a population of patients over time while shifting more financial risk to providers. In this article, we review current approaches to episode of care development and reimbursement. We describe the challenges of incorporating emergency medicine into the episode of care approach and the uncertain influence this delivery model will have on emergency medicine care, including quality outcomes. We discuss the limitations of the episode of care payment model for emergency services and advocate retention of the current fee-for-service payment model, as well as identify research gaps that, if addressed, could be used to inform future policy decisions of emergency medicine health policy leaders. We then describe a meaningful role for emergency medicine in an episode of care setting. Copyright © 2011. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  11. Modelling optimal location for pre-hospital helicopter emergency medical services.

    PubMed

    Schuurman, Nadine; Bell, Nathaniel J; L'Heureux, Randy; Hameed, Syed M

    2009-05-09

    Increasing the range and scope of early activation/auto launch helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) may alleviate unnecessary injury mortality that disproportionately affects rural populations. To date, attempts to develop a quantitative framework for the optimal location of HEMS facilities have been absent. Our analysis used five years of critical care data from tertiary health care facilities, spatial data on origin of transport and accurate road travel time catchments for tertiary centres. A location optimization model was developed to identify where the expansion of HEMS would cover the greatest population among those currently underserved. The protocol was developed using geographic information systems (GIS) to measure populations, distances and accessibility to services. Our model determined Royal Inland Hospital (RIH) was the optimal site for an expanded HEMS - based on denominator population, distance to services and historical usage patterns. GIS based protocols for location of emergency medical resources can provide supportive evidence for allocation decisions - especially when resources are limited. In this study, we were able to demonstrate conclusively that a logical choice exists for location of additional HEMS. This protocol could be extended to location analysis for other emergency and health services.

  12. Ventilation-associated pneumonia after intubation in the prehospital or the emergency unit.

    PubMed

    Decelle, Lydie; Thys, Frédéric; Zech, Francis; Verschuren, Franck

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and the risk factors of ventilation-associated pneumonia (VAP) for out-of-hospital or in the emergency department intubated patients. This was a retrospective descriptive study. All intubated adults subsequently admitted to the ICU over 1-year period were included. Among 75 patients, 15 patients developed VAP (20%; 95% CI 12-31%). A multivariate analysis revealed three variables independently associated with VAP: cardiorespiratory arrest as the reason of intubation (P=0.001), out-of-hospital as the location of intubation (P=0.011), and clinical macroaspiration as clinical characteristic at the time of intubation (P=0.024). Death rate was 17% and was not significantly higher for patients with VAP (P=0.9; 95% CI 0.32-4.95%). Emergency care workers should be aware of the potential 20% occurrence of VAP when they intubate and ventilate a patient. Preventive strategies, which have been proven effective in ICUs, should be implemented in the emergency setting.

  13. Comparative analysis of three prehospital emergency medical services organizations in India and Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sriram, V; Gururaj, G; Razzak, J A; Naseer, R; Hyder, A A

    2016-08-01

    Strengthened emergency medical services (EMS) are urgently required in South Asia to reduce needless death and disability. Several EMS models have been introduced in India and Pakistan, and research on these models can facilitate improvements to EMS in the region. Our objective was to conduct a cross-case comparative analysis of three EMS organizations in India and Pakistan - GVK EMRI, Aman Foundation and Rescue 1122 - in order to draw out similarities and differences in their models. Case study methodology was used to systematically explore the organizational models of GVK EMRI (Karnataka, India), Aman Foundation (Karachi, Pakistan), and Rescue 1122 (Punjab, Pakistan). Qualitative methods - interviews, document review and non-participant observation - were utilized, and using a process of constant comparison, data were analysed across cases according to the WHO health system 'building blocks'. Emergent themes under each health system 'building block' of service delivery, health workforce, medical products and technology, health information systems, leadership and governance, and financing were described. Cross-cutting issues not applicable to any single building block were further identified. This cross-case comparison, the first of its kind in low- and middle-income countries, highlights key innovations and lessons, and areas of further research across EMS organizations in India, Pakistan and other resource-poor settings. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prehospital Indicators for Disaster Preparedness and Response: New York City Emergency Medical Services in Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Silas W; Braun, James; Portelli, Ian; Malik, Sidrah; Asaeda, Glenn; Lancet, Elizabeth; Wang, Binhuan; Hu, Ming; Lee, David C; Prezant, David J; Goldfrank, Lewis R

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate emergency medical services (EMS) data as disaster metrics and to assess stress in surrounding hospitals and a municipal network after the closure of Bellevue Hospital during Hurricane Sandy in 2012. We retrospectively reviewed EMS activity and call types within New York City's 911 computer-assisted dispatch database from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2013. We evaluated EMS ambulance transports to individual hospitals during Bellevue's closure and incremental recovery from urgent care capacity, to freestanding emergency department (ED) capability, freestanding ED with 911-receiving designation, and return of inpatient services. A total of 2,877,087 patient transports were available for analysis; a total of 707,593 involved Manhattan hospitals. The 911 ambulance transports disproportionately increased at the 3 closest hospitals by 63.6%, 60.7%, and 37.2%. When Bellevue closed, transports to specific hospitals increased by 45% or more for the following call types: blunt traumatic injury, drugs and alcohol, cardiac conditions, difficulty breathing, "pedestrian struck," unconsciousness, altered mental status, and emotionally disturbed persons. EMS data identified hospitals with disproportionately increased patient loads after Hurricane Sandy. Loss of Bellevue, a public, safety net medical center, produced statistically significant increases in specific types of medical and trauma transports at surrounding hospitals. Focused redeployment of human, economic, and social capital across hospital systems may be required to expedite regional health care systems recovery. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:333-343).

  15. Evaluation of Emergency Medicine Residents by Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tintinalli, Judith E.

    1989-01-01

    Emergency medicine residents at William Beaumont Hospital are evaluated quarterly by the nursing staff. The nurses discuss each resident and reach consensus on each evaluation item and copies are given to each resident. Although the residents' attitudes have not been favorable, overall their behavioral interactions have improved markedly.…

  16. Under-represented minorities in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Landry, Alden M; Stevens, Jessica; Kelly, Sean P; Sanchez, Leon D; Fisher, Jonathan

    2013-07-01

    According to the Association of American Medical Colleges and the Institute of Medicine, promoting diversity in the health care workforce is a national priority. The under-representation of minorities in health care contributes significantly to the problem of health disparities currently facing racial and ethnic minority groups in the United States (US). Evidence shows that improved diversity among medical providers contributes to higher satisfaction for minority patients and better educational experiences for trainees. Our aim was to describe the racial and ethnic composition of medical students, Emergency Medicine residents, and practicing Emergency Medicine Physicians as compared with other specialties and the US population. A cross-sectional analysis of the most recent data available from the Association of American Medical Colleges and the US Census were used to determine the racial and ethnic distribution of the US population, medical students, residents, and practicing physicians. The Association of American Medical Colleges' definition of under-represented minorities (URMs) for the years studied included individuals of black, Latino, and Native-American race and ethnicity. Proportions with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. χ(2) analysis was used to compare groups. URMs comprised 30% of the total US population, yet only 6% of all practicing physicians and 9% of Emergency Physicians self-identified as URMs. By comparison, 15% of medical students, 17% of all residents, and 14% of Emergency Medicine residents were URMs (p < 0.0001). Emergency Medicine, like other specialties, lacks the racial and ethnic diversity seen in the US population. Efforts to improve diversity at the resident level are limited by the number of URM students in medical school, and should include steps aimed at addressing this issue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology in Pre-Hospital Emergency Care Professionals Assaulted by Patients and/or Relatives: Importance of Severity and Experience of the Aggression.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, M Mar; Bernaldo-de-Quirós, Mónica; Piccini, Ana T; Cerdeira, Jose C

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to violence from patients or relatives causes problems in emergency departments. To assess the development of posttraumatic symptoms in pre-hospital emergency care professionals assaulted by patients and/or relatives, it may be crucial to establish preventive measures at different levels. This study examined 358 pre-hospital emergency care professionals assaulted by patients and/or relatives. The aims of the present study were (a) to assess the presence of posttraumatic symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and (b) identify compliance diagnoses for PTSD depending on the experience of aggression (presence of fear, helplessness, or horror during the aggression), the perceived severity of aggression, and socio-demographic variables (gender, age, profession, employment status, and work experience). The results show that the experience of aggression with fear, helplessness, or horror is associated with the presence of posttraumatic symptoms related to re-experiencing but is not related to avoidance and emotional numbing and arousal. Furthermore, the perception of aggression as severe was associated with the presence of symptoms related to re-experiencing. These results are presented and discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Parental Decisions regarding pre-hospital therapy and costing of the Emergency Department Visit.

    PubMed

    McGovern, M; Kernan, R; O'Neill, M B

    2017-02-10

    Paediatric patients represent a large percentage of Emergency Department (ED) visits and there is often a perception that the acuity of these presentations is low. The decision-making process that results in parents attending the ED is poorly understood. We designed a cross-sectional cohort study to explore the reasons for attendance, the treatment initiated at home and to assess parental perception of the economic cost of attendance. Data was collected on 200 patients using a survey administered to parents in ED with a follow-up phone call 4-6 weeks later. Our results suggest that attendances are often prompted by parental anxiety rather than clinical deterioration and that prior ED usage is common among those presenting for assessment. Many parents had attempted community therapy with 128/200 patients (64%) having been referred by a healthcare professional and medical therapy at home having been employed by 114/200 (57%) parents before attendance. Parental knowledge of the safety of over-the-counter medications was variable the economic cost of an ED visit was poorly understood by participants. The results of our study suggest that parental desire for control over worrisome symptoms drives much of their management strategy prior to hospital attendance. Strategies in the ED may need to focus more on managing parental expectations than on managing the illness itself and management strategies employed should focus not only on medical therapy of the child's illness but on educating and empowering the parent.

  19. Benchmarking Prehospital and Emergency Department Care for Argentine Children with Traumatic Brain Injury: For the South American Guideline Adherence Group

    PubMed Central

    Vavilala, Monica S.; Lujan, Silvia B.; Qiu, Qian; Petroni, Gustavo J.; Ballarini, Nicolás M.; Guadagnoli, Nahuel; Depetris, María Alejandra; Faguaga, Gabriela A.; Baggio, Gloria M.; Busso, Leonardo O.; García, Mirta E.; González Carrillo, Osvaldo R.; Medici, Paula L.; Sáenz, Silvia S.; Vanella, Elida E.; Fabio, Anthony; Bell, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is little information on the type of early care provided to children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in low middle income countries. We benchmarked early prehospital [PH] and emergency department [ED] pediatric TBI care in Argentina. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data from patients previously enrolled in a prospective seven center study of children with TBI. Eligible participants were patients 0–18 years, and had diagnosis of TBI (admission Glasgow Coma scale score [GCS] < 13 or with GCS 14–15 and abnormal head CT scan within 48 hours of admission, and head AIS > 0). Outcomes were transport type, transport time, PH and ED adherence to best practice, and discharge Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category Scale (PCPC) and Pediatric Overall Performance category Scale (POPC). Results Of the 366 children, mean age was 8.7 (5.0) years, 58% were male, 90% had isolated TBI and 45.4% were transported by private vehicle. 50 (34.7%) of the 144 children with severe TBI (39.3% of all TBI patients) were transported by private vehicle. Most (267; 73%) patients received initial TBI care at an index hospital prior to study center admission, including children with severe (81.9%) TBI. Transport times were shorter for those patients who were directly transported by ambulance to study center than for the whole cohort (1.4 vs.5.5 hours). Ambulance blood pressure data were recorded in 30.9%. ED guideline adherence rate was higher than PH guideline adherence rate (84.8% vs. 26.4%). For patients directly transferred from scene to study trauma centers, longer transport time was associated with worse discharge outcome (PCPC aOR 1.10 [1.04, 1.18] and (POPC aOR 1.10 [1.04, 1.18]). There was no relationship between PH or ED TBI guideline adherence rate and discharge POPC and PCPC. Conclusion This study benchmarks early pediatric TBI care in Argentina and shows that many critically injured children with TBI do not receive timely or best practice PH care, that

  20. Sports medicine and the accident and emergency medicine specialist.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, L; McNally, O; MacAuley, D; O'Neill, S

    2002-05-01

    Sport and exercise related injuries are responsible for about 5% of the workload in the accident and emergency (A&E) department, yet training in sports medicine is not a compulsory part of the curriculum for Higher Specialist Training. To determine how A&E medicine consultants and specialist trainees view their role and skill requirements in relation to sports medicine. A modified Delphi study, consisting of two rounds of a postal questionnaire. Participants were invited to rate the importance of statements relating to the role and training of the A&E specialist in relation to sports injuries (six statements) and the need for knowledge and understanding of defined skills of importance in sports medicine (16 statements). VALUE OF RESEARCH: This provides a consensus of opinion on issues in sport and exercise medicine that have educational implications for A&E specialists, and should be considered in the curriculum for Higher Specialist Training. There is also the potential for improving the health care provision of A&E departments, to the exercising and sporting population.

  1. Health care disparities in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Cone, David C; Richardson, Lynne D; Todd, Knox H; Betancourt, Joseph R; Lowe, Robert A

    2003-11-01

    The Institute of Medicine's landmark report, "Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care," documents the pervasiveness of racial and ethnic disparities in the U.S. health care delivery system, and provides several recommendations to address them. It is clear from research data, such as those demonstrating racial and ethnic disparities in emergency department (ED) pain management, that emergency medicine (EM) is not immune to this problem. The IOM authors describe two strategies that can reduce disparities in EM. First, workforce diversity is likely to result in a community of emergency physicians who are better prepared to understand, learn from, and collaborate with persons from other racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds, whether these be patients, fellow clinicians, or the larger medical and scientific community. Given the ethical and practical advantages of a more diverse EM workforce, continued and expanded initiatives to increase diversity within EM should be undertaken. Second, the specialty's educational programs should produce emergency physicians with the skills and knowledge needed to serve an increasingly diverse population. This cultural competence should include an awareness of existing racial and ethnic health disparities, recognition of the risks of stereotyping and biased treatment, and knowledge of the incidence and prevalence of health conditions among diverse populations. Culturally competent emergency care providers also possess the skills to identify and manage racial and ethnic differences in health values, beliefs, and behaviors with the ultimate goal of delivering quality health services to all patients cared for in EDs.

  2. Specialist training of Emergency Medicine in Finland.

    PubMed

    Naskali, Jarno; Lehtonen, Jarmo; Palomäki, Ari

    Emergency Medicine with a six-year specialist training became a main specialty in Finland in the beginning of 2013. Specialist training has developed very quickly over just a few years. In the frontline clinics, the clinical results have already reached high international quality. When developing a new specialty, not only active research and high-quality training but also good co-operation with other specialties are of utmost importance.

  3. Human factors and safety in emergency medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, H. G.; Helmreich, R. L.; Scheidegger, D.

    1994-01-01

    A model based on an input process and outcome conceptualisation is suggested to address safety-relevant factors in emergency medicine. As shown in other dynamic and demanding environments, human factors play a decisive role in attaining high quality service. Attitudes held by health-care providers, organisational shells and work-cultural parameters determine communication, conflict resolution and workload distribution within and between teams. These factors should be taken into account to improve outcomes such as operational integrity, job satisfaction and morale.

  4. Helicopter Evacuation Following a Rural Trauma: An Emergency Medicine Simulation Scenario Using Innovative Simulation Technology

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Desmond; Harty, Chris; Ravalia, Mohamed; Renouf, Tia; Alani, Sabrina; Brown, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of simulation as a teaching tool for medical professionals working in rural and remote contexts is apparent when low-frequency, high-risk situations are considered. Simulation training has been shown to enhance learning and improve patient outcomes in urban settings. However, there are few simulation scenarios designed to teach rural trauma management during complex medical transportation. In this technical report, we present a scenario using a medevac helicopter (Replica of Sikorsky S-92 designed by Virtual Marine Technology, St. John's, NL) at a rural community. This case can be used for training primary care physicians who are working in a rural or remote setting, or as an innovative addition to emergency medicine and pre-hospital care training programs. PMID:27081585

  5. Does the presence of an emergency physician influence pre-hospital time, pre-hospital interventions and the mortality of severely injured patients? A matched-pair analysis based on the trauma registry of the German Trauma Society (TraumaRegister DGU®).

    PubMed

    Bieler, Dan; Franke, Axel; Lefering, Rolf; Hentsch, Sebastian; Willms, Arnulf; Kulla, Martin; Kollig, Erwin

    2017-01-01

    The role of emergency physicians in the pre-hospital management of severely injured patients remains controversial. In Germany and Austria, an emergency physician is present at the scene of an emergency situation or is called to such a scene in order to provide pre-hospital care to severely injured patients in approximately 95% of all cases. By contrast, in the United States and the United Kingdom, paramedics, i.e. non-physician teams, usually provide care to an injured person both at the scene of an incident and en route to an appropriate hospital. We investigated whether physician or non-physician care offers more benefits and what type of on-site care improves outcome. In a matched-pair analysis using data from the trauma registry of the German Trauma Society, we retrospectively (2002-2011) analysed the pre-hospital management of severely injured patients (ISS ≥16) by physician and non-physician teams. Matching criteria were age, overall injury severity, the presence of relevant injuries to the head, chest, abdomen or extremities, the cause of trauma, the level of consciousness, and the presence of shock. Each of the two groups, i.e. patients who were attended by an emergency physician and those who received non-physician care, consisted of 1235 subjects. There was no significant difference between the two groups in pre-hospital time (61.1 [SD 28.9] minutes for the physician group and 61.9 [SD 30.9] minutes for non-physician group). Significant differences were found in the number of pre-hospital procedures such as fluid administration, analgosedation and intubation. There was a highly significant difference (p<0.001) in the number of patients who received no intervention at all applying to 348 patients (28.2%) treated by non-physician teams and to only 31 patients (2.5%) in the physician-treated group. By contrast, there was no significant difference in mortality within the first 24h and in mortality during hospitalisation. This retrospective analysis does

  6. Quality of analgesia in physician-operated telemedical prehospital emergency care is comparable to physician-based prehospital care - a retrospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lenssen, Niklas; Krockauer, Andreas; Beckers, Stefan K; Rossaint, Rolf; Hirsch, Frederik; Brokmann, Jörg C; Bergrath, Sebastian

    2017-05-08

    Acute pain is a common reason for summoning emergency medical services (EMS). Yet in several countries the law restricts opioid-based analgesia administration to physicians. Telemedical support of paramedics is a novel approach to enable timely treatment under the guidance of a physician. In this retrospective observational study, conducted in the EMS of Aachen, Germany, the analgesic quality and occurrence of adverse events were compared between telemedically-supported paramedics (July-December, 2014) and a historical control group (conventional on-scene EMS physicians; January-March, 2014). pain (initial numerical rating scale (NRS) ≥5) and/or performed analgesia. Telemedically-assisted analgesia was performed in 149 patients; conventional analgesia in 199 control cases. Teleconsultation vs. Initial NRS scores were 8.0 ± 1.5 and 8.1 ± 1.7. Complete NRS documentation was carried out in 140/149 vs. 130/199 cases, p < 0.0001. NRS scores were reduced by 4.94 ± 2.01 and 4.84 ± 2.28 (p = 0.5379), leading to mean NRS scores at emergency room arrival of 3.1 ± 1.7 vs. 3.3 ± 1.9 (p = 0.5229). No severe adverse events occurred in either group. Clinically relevant pain reduction was achieved in both groups. Thus, the concept of remote physician-based telemedically-delegated analgesia by paramedics is effective compared to analgesia by on-scene EMS physicians and safe.

  7. Nonstandard Advance Directives in Emergency Medicine: What Should We Do?

    PubMed

    Iserson, Kenneth V

    2018-07-01

    Critically ill or injured emergency department or prehospital patients who lack decision-making capacity sometimes present with a non-standard advance directive, such as a "Do Not Resuscitate" tattoo or medallion. Emergency clinicians must immediately address the question of whether to withhold treatment based on what may or may not be a valid patient directive. Advance directives have been standardized for a good reason. Emergency department or prehospital healthcare providers must be able to immediately interpret and act on them without needing a legal interpretation. When faced with non-standard directives, physicians can follow them, ignore them, or simply use them as an additional piece of information about the individual's wishes for some situations at one point in his or her life. Absent the patient's input or that of aknowledgeable surrogate, both the patient's initial reasons for their non-standard directive and his or her present wishes concerning resuscitation cannot be independently known. Therefore, healthcare providers must initiate treatment while they buy time, attempt to return the patient to lucidity, and search for probative information regarding their current wishes concerning medical treatment. Without such additional information, the moral weight will always favor initiating treatment, since withholding treatment is often irreversible and any treatment instituted can later be withdrawn. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Longitudinal Emergency Medical Services Track in Emergency Medicine Residency.

    PubMed

    Adams, Daniel; Bischof, Jason; Larrimore, Ashley; Krebs, William; King, Andrew

    2017-03-30

    Emergency medicine residency programs offer Emergency Medical Services (EMS) curricula to address Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones. While some programs offer advanced clinical tracks in EMS, no standard curriculum exists. We sought to establish a well-defined EMS curriculum to allow interested residents to develop advanced clinical skills and scholarship within this subspecialty. Core EMS fellowship trained faculty were recruited to help develop the curriculum. Building on ACGME graduation requirements and milestones, important elements of EMS fellowship training were incorporated into the curriculum to develop the final document. The final curriculum focuses on scholarly activities relating to the four core areas of EMS identified by The American Board of Emergency Medicine and serves as an intermediary between ACGME graduation requirements for education in EMS and fellowship level training. Standardization of the EMS scholarly track can provide residents with the potential to obtain competency beyond ACGME requirements and prepare them for success in fellowship training and/or leadership within EMS on graduation.

  9. A Longitudinal Emergency Medical Services Track in Emergency Medicine Residency

    PubMed Central

    Bischof, Jason; Larrimore, Ashley; Krebs, William; King, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Emergency medicine residency programs offer Emergency Medical Services (EMS) curricula to address Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones. While some programs offer advanced clinical tracks in EMS, no standard curriculum exists. We sought to establish a well-defined EMS curriculum to allow interested residents to develop advanced clinical skills and scholarship within this subspecialty. Core EMS fellowship trained faculty were recruited to help develop the curriculum. Building on ACGME graduation requirements and milestones, important elements of EMS fellowship training were incorporated into the curriculum to develop the final document. The final curriculum focuses on scholarly activities relating to the four core areas of EMS identified by The American Board of Emergency Medicine and serves as an intermediary between ACGME graduation requirements for education in EMS and fellowship level training. Standardization of the EMS scholarly track can provide residents with the potential to obtain competency beyond ACGME requirements and prepare them for success in fellowship training and/or leadership within EMS on graduation. PMID:28465874

  10. State of emergency medicine in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Arbelaez, Christian; Patiño, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Colombia is an upper-middle-income country with a population of 45 million people and one of the best national healthcare and medical education systems in South America. However, its widely diverse and difficult terrains hinder healthcare delivery to rural areas, creating disparities in healthcare access and outcomes between the urban and rural settings. Currently, emergency medical care is overwhelmingly provided by general practitioners without residency training, who obtain specialty consultations based on the medical/surgical condition identified. A few emergency medicine (EM) residency programs have sprouted over the last two decades in renowned academic institutions in the largest cities, producing high-quality EM specialists. With the establishment of EM as a specialty in 2005 and increasing recognition of the specialty, there has been an increasing demand for EM specialists in cities, which is only slowly being met by the current residencies. The critical challenges for EM in Colombia are both, establishing itself as a well-recognized specialty - by increasing academic production and reaching a critical mass of and unity among EM specialists - and providing the highest quality and safest emergency care to the people of Colombia - by improving capacity both in emergency departments and in the regional and national emergency response systems. Historically, the establishment of EM as a strongly organized specialty in other countries has spanned decades (e.g., the United States), and Colombia has been making significant progress in a similar trajectory.

  11. State of emergency medicine in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Spain has universal public health care coverage. Emergency care provisions are offered to patients in different modalities and levels according to the characteristics of the medical complaint: at primary care centers (PCC), in an extrahospital setting by emergency medical services (EMS) and at hospital emergency departments (ED). We have more than 3,000 PCCs, which are run by family doctors (general practitioners) and pediatricians. On average, there is 1 PCC for every 15,000 to 20,000 inhabitants, and every family doctor is in charge of 1,500 to 2,000 citizens, although less populated zones tend to have lower ratios. Doctors spend part of their duty time in providing emergency care to their own patients. While not fully devoted to emergency medicine (EM) practice, they do manage minor emergencies. However, Spanish EMSs contribute hugely to guarantee population coverage in all situations. These EMS are run by EM technicians (EMT), nurses and doctors, who usually work exclusively in the emergency arena. EDs dealt with more than 25 million consultations in 2008, which implies, on average, that one out of two Spaniards visited an ED during this time. They are usually equipped with a wide range of diagnostic tools, most including ultrasonography and computerized tomography scans. The academic and training background of doctors working in the ED varies: nearly half lack any structured specialty residence training, but many have done specific master or postgraduate studies within the EM field. The demand for emergency care has grown at an annual rate of over 4% during the last decade. This percentage, which was greater than the 2% population increase during the same period, has outpaced the growth in ED capacity. Therefore, Spanish EDs become overcrowded when the system exerts minimal stress. Despite the high EM caseload and the potential severity of the conditions, training in EM is still unregulated in Spain. However, in April 2009 the Spanish Minister of Health

  12. Customizing anaphylaxis guidelines for emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Richard; Farrar, Judith Rosen; Brenner, Barry E; Lewis, Lawrence; Silverman, Robert A; Emerman, Charles; Hays, Daniel P; Russell, W Scott; Schmitz, Natalie; Miller, Judi; Singer, Ethan; Camargo, Carlos A; Wood, Joseph

    2013-08-01

    Most episodes of anaphylaxis are managed in emergency medical settings, where the cardinal signs and symptoms often differ from those observed in the allergy clinic. Data suggest that low recognition of anaphylaxis in the emergency setting may relate to inaccurate coding and lack of a standard, practical definition. Develop a simple, consistent definition of anaphylaxis for emergency medicine providers, supported by clinically relevant consensus statements. Definitions of anaphylaxis and criteria for diagnosis from current anaphylaxis guidelines were reviewed with regard to their utilization in emergency medical settings. The agreed-upon working definition is: Anaphylaxis is a serious reaction causing a combination of characteristic findings, and which is rapid in onset and may cause death. It is usually due to an allergic reaction but can be non-allergic. The definition is supported by Consensus Statements, each with referenced discussion. For a positive outcome, quick diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis are critical. However, even in the emergency setting, the patient may not present with life-threatening symptoms. Because mild initial symptoms can quickly progress to a severe, even fatal, reaction, the first-line treatment for any anaphylaxis episode--regardless of severity--is intramuscular injection of epinephrine into the anterolateral thigh; delaying its administration increases the potential for morbidity and mortality. When a reaction appears as "possible anaphylaxis," it is generally better to err on the side of caution and administer epinephrine. We believe that this working definition and the supporting Consensus Statements are a first step to better management of anaphylaxis in the emergency medical setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of general practitioners in the pre hospital setting, as experienced by emergency medicine technicians: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Together with the ambulances staffed with emergency medical technicians (EMTs), general practitioners (GPs) on call are the primary resources for handling emergencies outside hospitals in Norway. The benefit of the GP accompanying the ambulance to pre-hospital calls is a matter of controversy in Norway. The purpose of the present study was to gain better insight into the EMT’s experiences with the role of the GPs in the care for critically ill patients in the pre-hospital setting. Methods We conducted four focus group interviews with EMTs at four different ambulance stations in Norway. Three of the stations were located at least 2 hours driving distance from the nearest hospital. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using systematic text condensation. Results The EMTs described increasing confidence in emergency medicine during the last few years. However, they felt the need for GP participation in the ambulance when responding to a critically ill patient. The presence of GPs made the EMTs feel more confident, especially in unclear and difficult cases that did not fit into EMT guidelines. The main contributions of the GPs were described as diagnosis and decision-making. Bringing the physician to the patient shortened transportation time to the hospital and important medication could be started earlier. Several examples of sub-optimal treatment in the absence of the GP were given. The EMTs described discomfort with GPs not responding to the calls. They also experienced GPs responding to calls that did not function in the pre-hospital emergency setting. The EMTs reported a need for professional requirements for GPs taking part in out-of-hours work and mandatory interdisciplinary training on a regular basis. Conclusions EMTs want GPs to be present in challenging pre-hospital emergency settings. The presence of GPs is perceived as improving patient care. However, professional requirements are needed for GPs taking part in out-of-hours work, and

  14. Current status of establishing a venous line in CPA patients by Emergency Life-Saving Technicians in the prehospital setting in Japan and a proposal for intraosseous infusion.

    PubMed

    Isayama, Kenji; Nakatani, Toshio; Tsuda, Masanobu; Hirakawa, Akihiko

    2012-01-09

    It is important to have a venous line in cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) patients as an emergency treatment measure in prehospital settings, but establishment of a peripheral venous line is difficult in such patients. This study aimed to investigate the current status of intravenous infusion (IVI) in CPA patients by Emergency Life-Saving Technicians (ELSTs) in Japan. We also considered alternative measures in case IVI was difficult or impossible. We investigated a nationwide database between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2008. From a total of 431,968 CPA cases, we calculated the IVI success rate and related parameters.The Bone Injection Gun (BIG) and simulator legs (adult, pediatric, and infant) were used by 100 ELSTs selected for the study to measure the time required and the success rate for intraosseous infusion (IOI). The number of CPA patients, IVI, adrenaline administration, and the IVI success rate in adult CPA patients increased every year. However, the IVI success rate in pediatric CPA patients did not increase. Although adrenaline administration elevated the ROSC rate, there was no improvement in the 1-month survival rate. The time required for IOI with BIG was not different among the leg models. The success rates of IOI with BIG were 93%, 94%, and 84% (p < 0.05 vs. adult and pediatric) in adult, pediatric, and infant models, respectively. The rate of success of IVI in adult CPA patients has been increased yearly in Japan. However, as establishing a peripheral venous line in pediatric patients (1-7 years old) by ELSTs is extremely difficult in prehospital settings, there was no increase in the IVI success rate in such patients. As the study findings indicated IOI with BIG was easy and rapid, it may be necessary to consider IOI with BIG as an alternative option in case IVI is difficult or impossible in adult and pediatric patients.

  15. Cultural Competency Training in Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, Oren J; Dubosh, Nicole M; Rosen, Carlo L; Landry, Alden M

    2017-09-01

    The Emergency Department is widely regarded as the epicenter of medical care for diverse and largely disparate types of patients. Physicians must be aware of the cultural diversity of their patient population to appropriately address their medical needs. A better understanding of residency preparedness in cultural competency can lead to better training opportunities and patient care. The objective of this study was to assess residency and faculty exposure to formal cultural competency programs and assess future needs for diversity education. A short survey was sent to all 168 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education program directors through the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors listserv. The survey included drop-down options in addition to open-ended input. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to analyze data. The response rate was 43.5% (73/168). Of the 68.5% (50/73) of residency programs that include cultural competency education, 90% (45/50) utilized structured didactics. Of these programs, 86.0% (43/50) included race and ethnicity education, whereas only 40.0% (20/50) included education on patients with limited English proficiency. Resident comfort with cultural competency was unmeasured by most programs (83.6%: 61/73). Of all respondents, 93.2% (68/73) were interested in a universal open-source cultural competency curriculum. The majority of the programs in our sample have formal resident didactics on cultural competency. Some faculty members also receive cultural competency training. There are gaps, however, in types of cultural competency training, and many programs have expressed interest in a universal open-source tool to improve cultural competency for Emergency Medicine residents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Organisation of emergency medicine in France].

    PubMed

    Braun, Françis

    2015-01-01

    The French emergency medicine infrastructure (structures de médecine d'urgence) ensures patients care from the very location of the distress to the appropriate hospital department: medical care in the field, by hospital clinical teams (the services mobiles d'urgence et de réanimation [SMUR]), is a key characteristic of our medical emergency response system. Response to medical distress revolves around information about not only the location and characteristics of the medical need, but also the availability of adapted hospital services. Gathering and transmitting this information is the prerogative of the service d'aide médicale d'urgence (SAMU) and its telephone dispatch center (Centre 15). For patients coming directly to the hospital, the emergency room (ER), a former underfunded and neglected hospital service, has become a key point of access. The ER is now responsible, after providing immediate first line care, to guide the patient through the care system. As such they are equipped with short term hospitalization units designed to enable up to 24h patient observation before orientation. This ensemble, networked at the level of a health territory, ensures the quality, safety, and efficacy that the population is entitled to demand.

  17. Emergency medicine: an operations management view.

    PubMed

    Soremekun, Olan A; Terwiesch, Christian; Pines, Jesse M

    2011-12-01

    Operations management (OM) is the science of understanding and improving business processes. For the emergency department (ED), OM principles can be used to reduce and alleviate the effects of crowding. A fundamental principle of OM is the waiting time formula, which has clear implications in the ED given that waiting time is fundamental to patient-centered emergency care. The waiting time formula consists of the activity time (how long it takes to complete a process), the utilization rate (the proportion of time a particular resource such a staff is working), and two measures of variation: the variation in patient interarrival times and the variation in patient processing times. Understanding the waiting time formula is important because it presents the fundamental parameters that can be managed to reduce waiting times and length of stay. An additional useful OM principle that is applicable to the ED is the efficient frontier. The efficient frontier compares the performance of EDs with respect to two dimensions: responsiveness (i.e., 1/wait time) and utilization rates. Some EDs may be "on the frontier," maximizing their responsiveness at their given utilization rates. However, most EDs likely have opportunities to move toward the frontier. Increasing capacity is a movement along the frontier and to truly move toward the frontier (i.e., improving responsiveness at a fixed capacity), we articulate three possible options: eliminating waste, reducing variability, or increasing flexibility. When conceptualizing ED crowding interventions, these are the major strategies to consider. © 2011 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  18. Association of Prehospital Mode of Transport With Mortality in Penetrating Trauma: A Trauma System-Level Assessment of Private Vehicle Transportation vs Ground Emergency Medical Services.

    PubMed

    Wandling, Michael W; Nathens, Avery B; Shapiro, Michael B; Haut, Elliott R

    2018-02-01

    Time to definitive care following injury is important to the outcomes of trauma patients. Prehospital trauma care is provided based on policies developed by individual trauma systems and is an important component of the care of injured patients. Given a paucity of systems-level trauma research, considerable variability exists in prehospital care policies across trauma systems, potentially affecting patient outcomes. To evaluate whether private vehicle prehospital transport confers a survival advantage vs ground emergency medical services (EMS) transport following penetrating injuries in urban trauma systems. Retrospective cohort study of data included in the National Trauma Data Bank from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012, comprising 298 level 1 and level 2 trauma centers that contribute data to the National Trauma Data Bank that are located within the 100 most populous metropolitan areas in the United States. Of 2 329 446 patients assessed for eligibility, 103 029 were included in this study. All patients were 16 years or older, had a gunshot wound or stab wound, and were transported by ground EMS or private vehicle. In-hospital mortality. Of the 2 329 446 records assessed for eligibility, 103 029 individuals at 298 urban level 1 and level 2 trauma centers were included in the analysis. The study population was predominantly male (87.6%), with a mean age of 32.3 years. Among those included, 47.9% were black, 26.3% were white, and 18.4% were Hispanic. Following risk adjustment, individuals with penetrating injuries transported by private vehicle were less likely to die than patients transported by ground EMS (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% CI, 0.31-0.47). This association remained statistically significant on stratified analysis of the gunshot wound (OR,  0.45; 95% CI, 0.36-0.56) and stab wound (OR,  0.32; 95% CI, 0.20-0.52) subgroups. Private vehicle transport is associated with a significantly lower likelihood of death when compared with

  19. [Storing succinylcholine in prehospital settings following the recommendations of the French National Agency for the safety of medicines].

    PubMed

    Lefort, H; Mendibil, A; Margerin, S; Cuquel, A-C; Jost, D; Tazarourte, K; Domanski, L; Tourtier, J-P

    2014-06-01

    The French National Pharmaceuticals Agency (ANSM) has recommanded in July 2012 not to break the cold chain before using succinylcholine (Celocurine®). to understand the pre-clinical evolution of the conservation modes of this curare. Descriptive study before (year 2011) and after (year 2012). Online survey to French Samu/Smur. SMUR location, conservation method at clinical base, in the mobile unit (UMH) and at the patient. Principal decision criteria: evolution of the conservation modes before and after the recommendation (qualitatives variables compared with a Fisher test). Out of 101 SAMU/SMUR, 62 answered. Conservation modes of succinylcholine vials were significantly different (P<0.001). Proper conservation was observed in 26 % of the cases before and 43 % after. Mobile units (UMH) equipped with a fridge increased from one out of two to 77 %. The lack of conservation modes passive or active on UMH went from 31 % to 3.4 % with isotherms bags with ice when a fridge was not available. The destruction of capsules at current temperature in a 24-hour period increased: 22 % before, 47 % after (P=0.04). After recommendations from ANSM, conservation modes and destruction of succinylcholine in a prehospital environment were significantly impacted. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Regenerative medicine: the emergence of an industry

    PubMed Central

    Nerem, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last quarter of a century there has been an emergence of a tissue engineering industry, one that has now evolved into the broader area of regenerative medicine. There have been ‘ups and downs’ in this industry; however, it now appears to be on a track that may be described as ‘back to the future’. The latest data indicate that for 2007 the private sector activity in the world for this industry is approaching $2.5 billion, with 167 companies/business units and more than 6000 employee full time equivalents. Although small compared with the medical device and also the pharmaceutical industries, these numbers are not insignificant. Thus, there is the indication that this industry, and the related technology, may still achieve its potential and address the needs of millions of patients worldwide, in particular those with needs that currently are unmet. PMID:20843840

  1. Situational awareness and information flow in prehospital emergency medical care from the perspective of paramedic field supervisors: a scenario-based study.

    PubMed

    Norri-Sederholm, Teija; Paakkonen, Heikki; Kurola, Jouni; Saranto, Kaija

    2015-01-16

    In prehospital emergency medical services, one of the key factors in the successful delivery of appropriate care is the efficient management and supervision of the area's emergency medical services units. Paramedic field supervisors have an important role in this task. One of the key factors in the daily work of paramedic field supervisors is ensuring that they have enough of the right type of information when co-operating with other authorities and making decisions. However, a gap in information sharing still exists especially due to information overload. The aim of this study was to find out what type of critical information paramedic field supervisors need during multi-authority missions in order to manage their emergency medical services area successfully. The study also investigated both the flow of information, and interactions with the paramedic field supervisors and the differences that occur depending on the incident type. Ten paramedic field supervisors from four Finnish rescue departments participated in the study in January-March 2012. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews based on three progressive real-life scenarios and a questionnaire. Data were analysed using deductive content analysis. Data management and analysis were performed using Atlas.ti 7 software. Five critical information categories were formulated: Incident data, Mission status, Area status, Safety at work, and Tactics. Each category's importance varied depending on the incident and on whether it was about information needed or information delivered by the paramedic field supervisors. The main communication equipment used to receive information was the authority radio network (TETRA). However, when delivering information, mobile phones and TETRA were of equal importance. Paramedic field supervisors needed more information relating to area status. Paramedic field supervisors communicate actively with EMS units and other authorities such as Emergency Medical Dispatch

  2. The business of emergency medicine: a nonclinical curriculum proposal for emergency medicine residency programs.

    PubMed

    Falvo, Thomas; McKniff, Sueanne; Smolin, Gregory; Vega, David; Amsterdam, James T

    2009-09-01

    Over the course of their postgraduate medical education, physicians are expected not only to acquire an extensive knowledge of clinical medicine and sound procedural skills, but also to develop competence in their other professional roles as communicator, collaborator, mediator, manager, teacher, and patient advocate. Although the need for physicians to develop stronger service delivery skills is well recognized, residency programs may underemphasize formal training in nonclinical proficiencies. As a result, graduates can begin their professional careers with an incomplete understanding of the operation of health care systems and how to utilize system resources in the manner best suited to their patients' needs. This article proposes the content, educational strategy, and needs assessment for an academic program entitled The Business of Emergency Medicine (BOEM). Developed as an adjunct to the (predominantly) clinical content of traditional emergency medicine (EM) training programs, BOEM is designed to enhance the existing academic curricula with additional learning opportunities by which EM residents can acquire a fundamental understanding of the nonclinical skills of their specialty. (c) 2009 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  3. Blog and Podcast Watch: Pediatric Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Zaver, Fareen; Hansen, Michael; Leibner, Evan; Little, Andrew; Lin, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    By critically appraising open access, educational blogs and podcasts in emergency medicine (EM) using an objective scoring instrument, this installment of the ALiEM (Academic Life in Emergency Medicine) Blog and Podcast Watch series curated and scored relevant posts in the specific areas of pediatric EM. The Approved Instructional Resources - Professional (AIR-Pro) series is a continuously building curriculum covering a new subject area every two months. For each area, six EM chief residents identify 3-5 advanced clinical questions. Using FOAMsearch.net to search blogs and podcasts, relevant posts are scored by eight reviewers from the AIR-Pro Board, which is comprised of EM faculty and chief residents at various institutions. The scoring instrument contains five measurement outcomes based on 7-point Likert scales: recency, accuracy, educational utility, evidence based, and references. The AIR-Pro label is awarded to posts with a score of ≥26 (out of 35) points. An "Honorable Mention" label is awarded if Board members collectively felt that the posts were valuable and the scores were > 20. We included a total of 41 blog posts and podcasts. Key educational pearls from the 10 high quality AIR-Pro posts and four Honorable Mentions are summarized. The WestJEM ALiEM Blog and Podcast Watch series is based on the AIR and AIR-Pro series, which attempts to identify high quality educational content on open-access blogs and podcasts. Until more objective quality indicators are developed for learners and educators, this series provides an expert-based, crowdsourced approach towards critically appraising educational social media content for EM clinicians.

  4. Blog and Podcast Watch: Pediatric Emergency Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zaver, Fareen; Hansen, Michael; Leibner, Evan; Little, Andrew; Lin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction By critically appraising open access, educational blogs and podcasts in emergency medicine (EM) using an objective scoring instrument, this installment of the ALiEM (Academic Life in Emergency Medicine) Blog and Podcast Watch series curated and scored relevant posts in the specific areas of pediatric EM. Methods The Approved Instructional Resources – Professional (AIR-Pro) series is a continuously building curriculum covering a new subject area every two months. For each area, six EM chief residents identify 3–5 advanced clinical questions. Using FOAMsearch.net to search blogs and podcasts, relevant posts are scored by eight reviewers from the AIR-Pro Board, which is comprised of EM faculty and chief residents at various institutions. The scoring instrument contains five measurement outcomes based on 7-point Likert scales: recency, accuracy, educational utility, evidence based, and references. The AIR-Pro label is awarded to posts with a score of ≥26 (out of 35) points. An “Honorable Mention” label is awarded if Board members collectively felt that the posts were valuable and the scores were > 20. Results We included a total of 41 blog posts and podcasts. Key educational pearls from the 10 high quality AIR-Pro posts and four Honorable Mentions are summarized. Conclusion The WestJEM ALiEM Blog and Podcast Watch series is based on the AIR and AIR-Pro series, which attempts to identify high quality educational content on open-access blogs and podcasts. Until more objective quality indicators are developed for learners and educators, this series provides an expert-based, crowdsourced approach towards critically appraising educational social media content for EM clinicians. PMID:27625713

  5. The Field Assessment Stroke Triage for Emergency Destination (FAST-ED): a Simple and Accurate Pre-Hospital Scale to Detect Large Vessel Occlusion Strokes

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Fabricio O.; Silva, Gisele S.; Furie, Karen L.; Frankel, Michael R.; Lev, Michael H.; Camargo, Érica CS; Haussen, Diogo C.; Singhal, Aneesh B.; Koroshetz, Walter J.; Smith, Wade S.; Nogueira, Raul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Patients with large vessel occlusion strokes (LVOS) may be better served by direct transfer to endovascular capable centers avoiding hazardous delays between primary and comprehensive stroke centers. However, accurate stroke field triage remains challenging. We aimed to develop a simple field scale to identify LVOS. Methods The FAST-ED scale was based on items of the NIHSS with higher predictive value for LVOS and tested in the STOPStroke cohort, in which patients underwent CT angiography within the first 24 hours of stroke onset. LVOS were defined by total occlusions involving the intracranial-ICA, MCA-M1, MCA-2, or basilar arteries. Patients with partial, bi-hemispheric, and/or anterior + posterior circulation occlusions were excluded. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of FAST-ED were compared with the NIHSS, Rapid Arterial oCclusion Evaluation (RACE) scale and Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Severity Scale (CPSSS). Results LVO was detected in 240 of the 727 qualifying patients (33%). FAST-ED had comparable accuracy to predict LVO to the NIHSS and higher accuracy than RACE and CPSS (area under the ROC curve: FAST-ED=0.81 as reference; NIHSS=0.80, p=0.28; RACE=0.77, p=0.02; and CPSS=0.75, p=0.002). A FAST-ED ≥4 had sensitivity of 0.60, specificity 0.89, PPV 0.72, and NPV 0.82 versus RACE ≥5 of 0.55, 0.87, 0.68, 0.79 and CPSS ≥2 of 0.56, 0.85, 0.65, 0.78, respectively. Conclusions FAST-ED is a simple scale that if successfully validated in the field may be used by medical emergency professionals to identify LVOS in the pre-hospital setting enabling rapid triage of patients. PMID:27364531

  6. Public Health Education for Emergency Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    Betz, Marian E.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Gutman, Deborah; Tibbles, Carrie D.; Joyce, Nina; Lipton, Robert; Schweigler, Lisa; Fisher, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) has an important role in public health, but the ideal approach for teaching public health to EM residents is unclear. As part of the national regional public health–medicine education centers-graduate medical education (RPHMEC-GM) initiative from the CDC and the American Association of Medical Colleges, three EM programs received funding to create public health curricula for EM residents. Curricula approaches varied by residency. One program used a modular, integrative approach to combine public health and EM clinical topics during usual residency didactics, one partnered with local public health organizations to provide real-world experiences for residents, and one drew on existing national as well as departmental resources to seamlessly integrate more public health–oriented educational activities within the existing residency curriculum. The modular and integrative approaches appeared to have a positive impact on resident attitudes toward public health, and a majority of EM residents at that program believed public health training is important. Reliance on pre-existing community partnerships facilitated development of public health rotations for residents. External funding for these efforts was critical to their success, given the time and financial restraints on residency programs. The optimal approach for public health education for EM residents has not been defined. PMID:21961671

  7. Attrition from emergency medicine clinical practice in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ginde, Adit A; Sullivan, Ashley F; Camargo, Carlos A

    2010-08-01

    We estimate the annual attrition from emergency medicine clinical practice. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the American Medical Association's 2008 Physician Masterfile, which includes data on all physicians who have ever obtained a medical license in at least 1 US state. We restricted the analysis to physicians who completed emergency medicine residency training or who obtained emergency medicine board certification. We defined attrition as not being active in emergency medicine clinical practice. Attrition was reported as cumulative and annualized rates, with stratification by years since training graduation. Death rates were estimated from life tables for the US population. Of the 30,864 emergency medicine-trained or emergency medicine board-certified physicians, 26,826 (87%) remain active in emergency medicine clinical practice. Overall, type of attrition was 45% to non-emergency medicine clinical practice, 22% retired, 14% administration, and 10% research/teaching. Immediate attrition (<2 years since training graduation) was 6.5%. The cumulative attrition rates from 2 to 15 years postgraduation were stable (5% to 9%) and thereafter were progressively higher, with 18% having left emergency medicine clinical practice at 20 years postgraduation and 25% at 30 years postgraduation. Annualized attrition rates were highest for the first 5 years postgraduation and after 40 years postgraduation; between 5 and 40 years, the rates remained low (<1%). The overall annual attrition rate from emergency medicine clinical practice, including estimated death rate, was approximately 1.7%. Despite the high stress and demands of emergency medicine, overall attrition remains low and compares favorably with that of other medical specialties. These data have positive implications for the emergency physician workforce and are important for accurate estimation of and planning for emergency physician workforce needs. 2009 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by

  8. Faculty Mentoring Practices in Academic Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Welch, Julie; Sawtelle, Stacy; Cheng, David; Perkins, Tony; Ownbey, Misha; MacNeill, Emily; Hockberger, Robert; Rusyniak, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Mentoring is considered a fundamental component of career success and satisfaction in academic medicine. However, there is no national standard for faculty mentoring in academic emergency medicine (EM) and a paucity of literature on the subject. The objective was to conduct a descriptive study of faculty mentoring programs and practices in academic departments of EM. An electronic survey instrument was sent to 135 department chairs of EM in the United States. The survey queried faculty demographics, mentoring practices, structure, training, expectations, and outcome measures. Chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to compare metrics of mentoring effectiveness (i.e., number of publications and National Institutes of Health [NIH] funding) across mentoring variables of interest. Thirty-nine of 135 departments completed the survey, with a heterogeneous mix of faculty classifications. While only 43.6% of departments had formal mentoring programs, many augmented faculty mentoring with project or skills-based mentoring (66.7%), peer mentoring (53.8%), and mentoring committees (18%). Although the majority of departments expected faculty to participate in mentoring relationships, only half offered some form of mentoring training. The mean number of faculty publications per department per year was 52.8, and 11 departments fell within the top 35 NIH-funded EM departments. There was an association between higher levels of perceived mentoring success and both higher NIH funding (p = 0.022) and higher departmental publications rates (p = 0.022). In addition, higher NIH funding was associated with mentoring relationships that were assigned (80%), self-identified (20%), or mixed (22%; p = 0.026). Our findings help to characterize the variability of faculty mentoring in EM, identify opportunities for improvement, and underscore the need to learn from other successful mentoring programs. This study can serve as a basis to share mentoring practices and stimulate

  9. Delivering bad news in emergency care medicine.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Douglas W

    2017-01-01

    Forecasting is a strategy for delivering bad news and is compared to two other strategies, stalling and being blunt. Forecasting provides some warning that bad news is forthcoming without keeping the recipient in a state of indefinite suspense (stalling) or conveying the news abruptly (being blunt). Forecasting appears to be more effective than stalling or being blunt in helping a recipient to "realize" the bad news because it involves the deliverer and recipient in a particular social relation. The deliverer of bad news initiates the telling by giving an advance indication of the bad news to come; this allows the recipient to calculate the news in advance of its final presentation, when the deliverer confirms what the recipient has been led to anticipate. Thus, realization of bad news emerges from intimate collaboration, whereas stalling and being blunt require recipients to apprehend the news in a social vacuum. Exacerbating disruption to recipients' everyday world, stalling and being blunt increase the probability of misapprehension (denying, blaming, taking the situation as a joke, etc.) and thereby inhibit rather than facilitate realization. Particular attention is paid to the "perspective display sequence", a particular forecasting strategy that enables both confirming the recipient's perspective and using that perspective to affirm the clinical news. An example from acute or emergency medicine is examined at the close of the paper.

  10. Recommendations from the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) Taskforce on women in academic emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Gloria J; Abbuhl, Stephanie B; Clem, Kathleen J

    2008-08-01

    The Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) convened a taskforce to study issues pertaining to women in academic emergency medicine (EM). The charge to the Taskforce was to "Create a document for the SAEM Board of Directors that defines and describes the unique recruitment, retention, and advancement needs for women in academic emergency medicine." To this end, the Taskforce and authors reviewed the literature to highlight key data points in understanding this issue and made recommendations for individuals at four levels of leadership and accountability: leadership of national EM organizations, medical school deans, department chairs, and individual women faculty members. The broad range of individuals targeted for recommendations reflects the interdependent and shared responsibility required to address changes in the culture of academic EM. The following method was used to determine the recommendations: 1) Taskforce members discussed career barriers and potential solutions that could improve the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women in academic EM; 2) the authors reviewed recommendations in the literature by national consensus groups and experts in the field to validate the recommendations of Taskforce members and the authors; and 3) final recommendations were sent to all Taskforce members to obtain and incorporate additional comments and ensure a consensus. This article contains those recommendations and cites the relevant literature addressing this topic.

  11. Emergency Medicine Resident Perceptions of Medical Professionalism.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Joshua; Gatewood, Medley O; Ilgen, Jonathan S; Schaninger, Caitlin; Strote, Jared

    2016-05-01

    Medical professionalism is a core competency for emergency medicine (EM) trainees; but defining professionalism remains challenging, leading to difficulties creating objectives and performing assessment. Because professionalism is dynamic, culture-specific, and often taught by modeling, an exploration of trainees' perceptions can highlight their educational baseline and elucidate the importance they place on general conventional professionalism domains. To this end, our objective was to assess the relative value EM residents place on traditional components of professionalism. We performed a cross-sectional, multi-institutional survey of incoming and graduating EM residents at four programs. The survey was developed using the American Board of Internal Medicine's "Project Professionalism" and the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education definition of professionalism competency. We identified 27 attributes within seven domains: clinical excellence, humanism, accountability, altruism, duty and service, honor and integrity, and respect for others. Residents were asked to rate each attribute on a 10-point scale. We analyzed data to assess variance across attributes as well as differences between residents at different training levels or different institutions. Of the 114 residents eligible, 100 (88%) completed the survey. The relative value assigned to different professional attributes varied considerably, with those in the altruism domain valued significantly lower and those in the "respect for others" and "honor and integrity" valued significantly higher (p<0.001). Significant differences were found between interns and seniors for five attributes primarily in the "duty and service" domain (p<0.05). Among different residencies, significant differences were found with attributes within the "altruism" and "duty and service" domains (p<0.05). Residents perceive differences in the relative importance of traditionally defined professional attributes and this may

  12. Ketamine for the Acute Management of Excited Delirium and Agitation in the Prehospital Setting.

    PubMed

    Linder, Lauren M; Ross, Clint A; Weant, Kyle A

    2018-01-01

    Traditional first-line therapy in the prehospital setting for the acutely agitated patient includes an antipsychotic in combination with a benzodiazepine. Recently, interest has grown regarding the use of ketamine in the prehospital setting as an attempt to overcome the limitations of the traditional medications and provide a more safe and effective therapy. This review provides an overview of the pharmacology of ketamine, evaluates the literature regarding ketamine use for prehospital agitation, and proposes an algorithm that may be used within the prehospital setting. A literature review was conducted to identify articles utilizing ketamine in the prehospital setting. The review was limited to English-language articles identified in Embase (1988-June 2017) and the U.S. National Library of Medicine (1970-June 2017). References of all pertinent articles were also reviewed. Ten articles were identified including 418 patients receiving ketamine for agitation. The most commonly utilized route for administration was intramuscular (IM), with five of the seven IM administration studies using a ketamine dose of 5 mg/kg. Ketamine administered in this fashion was efficacious to achieve proper sedation during transport and did not require repeat dosing. Three studies applied a ketamine protocol to outline dosing and the management of ketamine adverse events. The most common adverse events identified were respiratory-related events and hypersalivation. Ketamine has a role for agitation management in the prehospital setting; however, emergency personnel education and ketamine protocols should be utilized to aid in safe and effective pharmacotherapy and provide guidance on the management of adverse events. Future prospective comparative studies, with protocolized standard ketamine regimens, are needed to further delineate the role of ketamine in agitation management and identify accurate adverse event incidence rates. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  13. [Level of completion of the prehospital care and transfer record as a quality indicator in an emergency medical service].

    PubMed

    Ballestros Peña, Sendoa; Lorrio Palomino, Sergio; Ariz Zubiaur, Mónica

    2012-11-01

    BASICS: A Prehospital Care and Transfer Recording (PCTR) is an out-of-hospital medical recording. This paper was made to assess and compare the level of fulfillment of the basic parameters of the PCTR developed by the Life Support Units with nurses (Life Support Units with Nurse, LSUwN and without nurses (Basic Life Support Units, BLSU) from SAMUR Bilbao in 2010. A descriptive, retrospective and comparative study was performed by analysing a randomized sample of 660 PCTR (precision 3%), aiming to check the fulfillment of the basic data. 98.33% of total recordings were readable. In overall, fulfillment rate was 90.31% (CI 89.24- 97.3 71%) of all basic parameters for LSUwN PCTR and 84.81% (CI 83.56 to 86%) for BLSU. 34.1% of PCTR were completely and correctly fulfilled. The LSUwN scored significantly better (p < 0.000). There were recording failures in "date and time", "address" and "physical examination". There were differences between the recording of clinical and administrative information (88.64% vs 86.72%, p = 0.02). In order to consider a parameter has optimal, it has to reach 100% of fulfillment. If it doesn't, and its score reaches no more than 80%, it should be reviewed. In this case, the results would be considered acceptable, but the administrative items of BLSU records, and allergies in both units should be strengthened. LSUwN has obtained better scores. The need of recording clinical information must be instilled as evidence of quality care.

  14. Teaching emergency medicine with workshops improved medical student satisfaction in emergency medicine education.

    PubMed

    Sricharoen, Pungkava; Yuksen, Chaiyaporn; Sittichanbuncha, Yuwares; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2015-01-01

    There are different teaching methods; such as traditional lectures, bedside teaching, and workshops for clinical medical clerkships. Each method has advantages and disadvantages in different situations. Emergency Medicine (EM) focuses on emergency medical conditions and deals with several emergency procedures. This study aimed to compare traditional teaching methods with teaching methods involving workshops in the EM setting for medical students. Fifth year medical students (academic year of 2010) at Ramathibodi Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand participated in the study. Half of students received traditional teaching, including lectures and bedside teaching, while the other half received traditional teaching plus three workshops, namely, airway workshop, trauma workshop, and emergency medical services workshop. Student evaluations at the end of the clerkship were recorded. The evaluation form included overall satisfaction, satisfaction in overall teaching methods, and satisfaction in each teaching method. During the academic year 2010, there were 189 students who attended the EM rotation. Of those, 77 students (40.74%) were in the traditional EM curriculum, while 112 students were in the new EM curriculum. The average satisfaction score in teaching method of the new EM curriculum group was higher than the traditional EM curriculum group (4.54 versus 4.07, P-value <0.001). The top three highest average satisfaction scores in the new EM curriculum group were trauma workshop, bedside teaching, and emergency medical services workshop. The mean (standard deviation) satisfaction scores of those three teaching methods were 4.70 (0.50), 4.63 (0.58), and 4.60 (0.55), respectively. Teaching EM with workshops improved student satisfaction in EM education for medical students.

  15. Quantifying Burnout among Emergency Medicine Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, William; Raj, Jeffrey Pradeep; Narayan, Girish; Ghiya, Murtuza; Murty, Shakuntala; Joseph, Bobby

    2017-01-01

    Background: Burnout is a syndrome explained as serious emotional depletion with poor adaptation at work due to prolonged occupational stress. It has three principal components namely emotional exhaustion(EE), depersonalization(DP) and diminished feelings of personal accomplishment(PA). Thus, we aimed at measuring the degree of burnout in doctors and nurses working in emergency medicine department (EMD) of 4 select tertiary care teaching hospitals in South India. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted among EMD professionals using a 30-item standardized pilot tested questionnaire as well as the Maslach burnout inventory. Univariate and Multivariate analyses were conducted using binary logistic regression models to identify predictors of burnout. Results: Total number of professionals interviewed were 105 of which 71.5% were women and 51.4% were doctors. Majority (78.1%) belonged to the age group 20-30 years. Prevalence of moderate to severe burnout in the 3 principal components EE, DP and PA were 64.8%, 71.4% and 73.3% respectively. After multivariate analysis, the risk factors [adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for DP included facing more criticism [3.57(1.25,10.19)], disturbed sleep [6.44(1.45,28.49)] and being short tempered [3.14(1.09,9.09)]. While there were no statistically significant risk factors for EE, being affected by mortality [2.35(1.12,3.94)] and fear of medication errors [3.61(1.26, 10.37)] appeared to be significant predictors of PA. Conclusion: Degree of burn out among doctors and nurses is moderately high in all of the three principal components and some of the predictors identified were criticism, disturbed sleep, short tempered nature, fear of committing errors and witnessing death in EMD. PMID:29097859

  16. Identifying inaccuracies on emergency medicine residency applications

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Eric D; Shockley, Lee; Kass, Lawrence; Howes, David; Tupesis, Janis P; Weaver, Christopher; Sayan, Osman R; Hogan, Victoria; Begue, Jason; Vrocher, Diamond; Frazer, Jackie; Evans, Timothy; Hern, Gene; Riviello, Ralph; Rivera, Antonio; Kinoshita, Keith; Ferguson, Edward

    2005-01-01

    Background Previous trials have showed a 10–30% rate of inaccuracies on applications to individual residency programs. No studies have attempted to corroborate this on a national level. Attempts by residency programs to diminish the frequency of inaccuracies on applications have not been reported. We seek to clarify the national incidence of inaccuracies on applications to emergency medicine residency programs. Methods This is a multi-center, single-blinded, randomized, cohort study of all applicants from LCME accredited schools to involved EM residency programs. Applications were randomly selected to investigate claims of AOA election, advanced degrees and publications. Errors were reported to applicants' deans and the NRMP. Results Nine residencies reviewed 493 applications (28.6% of all applicants who applied to any EM program). 56 applications (11.4%, 95%CI 8.6–14.2%) contained at least one error. Excluding "benign" errors, 9.8% (95% CI 7.2–12.4%), contained at least one error. 41% (95% CI 35.0–47.0%) of all publications contained an error. All AOA membership claims were verified, but 13.7% (95%CI 4.4–23.1%) of claimed advanced degrees were inaccurate. Inter-rater reliability of evaluations was good. Investigators were reluctant to notify applicants' dean's offices and the NRMP. Conclusion This is the largest study to date of accuracy on application for residency and the first such multi-centered trial. High rates of incorrect data were found on applications. This data will serve as a baseline for future years of the project, with emphasis on reporting inaccuracies and warning applicants of the project's goals. PMID:16105178

  17. Quantifying Burnout among Emergency Medicine Professionals.

    PubMed

    Wilson, William; Raj, Jeffrey Pradeep; Narayan, Girish; Ghiya, Murtuza; Murty, Shakuntala; Joseph, Bobby

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome explained as serious emotional depletion with poor adaptation at work due to prolonged occupational stress. It has three principal components namely emotional exhaustion(EE), depersonalization(DP) and diminished feelings of personal accomplishment(PA). Thus, we aimed at measuring the degree of burnout in doctors and nurses working in emergency medicine department (EMD) of 4 select tertiary care teaching hospitals in South India. A cross sectional survey was conducted among EMD professionals using a 30-item standardized pilot tested questionnaire as well as the Maslach burnout inventory. Univariate and Multivariate analyses were conducted using binary logistic regression models to identify predictors of burnout. Total number of professionals interviewed were 105 of which 71.5% were women and 51.4% were doctors. Majority (78.1%) belonged to the age group 20-30 years. Prevalence of moderate to severe burnout in the 3 principal components EE, DP and PA were 64.8%, 71.4% and 73.3% respectively. After multivariate analysis, the risk factors [adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for DP included facing more criticism [3.57(1.25,10.19)], disturbed sleep [6.44(1.45,28.49)] and being short tempered [3.14(1.09,9.09)]. While there were no statistically significant risk factors for EE, being affected by mortality [2.35(1.12,3.94)] and fear of medication errors [3.61(1.26, 10.37)] appeared to be significant predictors of PA. Degree of burn out among doctors and nurses is moderately high in all of the three principal components and some of the predictors identified were criticism, disturbed sleep, short tempered nature, fear of committing errors and witnessing death in EMD.

  18. Efficacy of Prehospital Analgesia with Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block for Femoral Bone Fractures: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hards, Marcus; Brewer, Andrew; Bessant, Gareth; Lahiri, Sumitra

    2018-06-01

    IntroductionFemoral fractures are painful injuries frequently encountered by prehospital practitioners. Systemic opioids are commonly used to manage the pain after a femoral fracture; however, regional techniques for providing analgesia may provide superior targeted pain relief and reduce opioid requirements. Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block (FICB) has been described as inexpensive and does not require special skills or equipment to perform, giving it the potential to be a suitable prehospital intervention.ProblemThe purpose of this systematic review is to summarize published evidence on the prehospital use of FICB in patients of any age suffering femoral fractures; in particular, to investigate the effects of a prehospital FICB on pain scores and patient satisfaction, and to assess the feasibility and safety of a prehospital FICB, including the success rates, any delays to scene time, and any documented adverse effects. A literature search of MEDLINE/PubMED, Embase, OVID, Scopus, the Cochrane Database, and Web of Science was conducted from January 1, 1989 through February 1, 2017. In addition, reference lists of review articles were reviewed and the contents pages of the British Journal of Anaesthesia (The Royal College of Anaesthetists [London, UK]; The College of Anaesthetists of Ireland [Dublin, Ireland]; and The Hong Kong College of Anaesthesiologists [Aberdeen, Hong Kong]) 2016 along with the journal Prehospital Emergency Care (National Association of Emergency Medical Service Physicians [Overland Park, Kansas USA]; National Association of State Emergency Medical Service Officials [Falls Church, Virginia USA]; National Association of Emergency Medical Service Educators [Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania USA]; and the National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians [Clinton, Mississippi USA]) 2016 were hand searched. Each study was evaluated for its quality and its validity and was assigned a level of evidence according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence

  19. Burnout among female emergency medicine physicians: A nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Soltanifar, Atefeh; Pishbin, Elham; Attaran Mashhadi, Negin; Najaf Najafi, Mona; Siahtir, Maryam

    2018-02-13

    The challenging and stressful nature of emergency medicine place the practitioners of this young branch of medicine at risk of burnout. In Iran, the number of women choosing the specialty of emergency medicine has been increasing in recent years. No studies have focused on burnout among female emergency medicine physicians. We conducted this study to evaluate the level of burnout in female emergency medicine physicians in Iran. In this cross-sectional study, all Iranian female emergency medicine physicians with more than 2 years of work experience as specialists, received a questionnaire containing 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory scales and 7-item Cassidy social support scale, as well as questions about workload and career satisfaction. In total, 77 questionnaires were analysed (response rate: 75%; median age: 36 years, median for work experience = 3 years). A total of 34% of participants were academic faculties. The level of burnout in three subscales of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and perceived low personal accomplishment was moderate to high in 84.5, 48.1 and 80.5% of participants respectively. A total of 94.8% of female emergency medicine physicians perceived their workload to be moderate to high and only 1.3% of them had high job satisfaction. Alarming high rate of burnout and job dissatisfaction among female emergency medicine physicians in our study requires careful attention. Further investigations are suggested to identify the contributory factors to burnout and the probability of some gender disparities in this field. © 2018 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  20. Annals of Emergency Medicine Journal Club. Global Emergency Medicine Journal Club: Social media responses to the November 2013 Annals of Emergency Medicine Journal Club.

    PubMed

    Radecki, Ryan P; Rezaie, Salim R; Lin, Michelle

    2014-04-01

    The Annals November 2013 Journal Club issue marked one of the first collaborations with Academic Life in Emergency Medicine, a medical education blog, in an effort to promote a worldwide, transparent, online effort to perform critical appraisals of journal articles. The Global Emergency Medicine Journal Club was hosted on the blog for 1 week during November 18 to 24, 2013, with comments moderated on the blog and on Twitter. This summary article compiles the discussion and insights. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of interprofessional education - Self-reported professional competence among prehospital emergency care nursing students on the point of graduation - A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Castrèn, M; Mäkinen, M; Nilsson, J; Lindström, V

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional collaboration (IPC) during the educational program had an impact on prehospital emergency care nurses' (PECN) self-reported competence towards the end of the study program. A cross-sectional study using the Nurse Professional Competence (NPC) Scale was conducted. A comparison was made between PECN students from Finland who experienced IPE and IPC in the clinical setting, and PECN students from Sweden with no IPE and a low level of IPC. Forty-one students participated (Finnish n=19, Swedish n=22). The self-reported competence was higher among the Swedish students. A statistically significant difference was found in one competence area; legislation in nursing and safety planning (p<0.01). The Finnish students scored significantly higher on items related to interprofessional teamwork. Both the Swedish and Finnish students' self-reported professional competence was relatively low according to the NPC Scale. Increasing IPC and IPE in combination with offering a higher academic degree may be an option when developing the ambulance service and the study program for PECNs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stroke management in northern Lombardy: organization of an emergency-urgency network and development of a connection between prehospital and in-hospital settings.

    PubMed

    Vidale, Simone; Verrengia, Elena; Gerardi, Francesca; Arnaboldi, Marco; Bezzi, Giacomo; Bono, Giorgio; Guidotti, Mario; Grampa, Giampiero; Perrone, Patrizia; Zarcone, Davide; Zoli, Alberto; Beghi, Ettore; Agostoni, Elio; Porazzi, Daniele; Landriscina, Mario

    2012-08-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of disability in adulthood, and the principal aim of care in cerebrovascular disease is the reduction of this negative outcome and mortality. Several studies demonstrated the efficacy of thrombolytic therapy in ischemic stroke, but up to 80% of cases could not be treated because the diagnostic workup exceeds the time limit. In this article, we described the design of a study conducted in the northern Lombardy, within the district of Sondrio, Lecco, Como, and Varese. The awaited results of this study are reduction of avoidable delay, organization of an operative stroke emergency network, and identification of highly specialized structures. The study schedules education and data registration with implementation and training of acute stroke management algorithms. The use of standardized protocols during prehospital and in-hospital phase can optimize acute stroke pathways. The results of this study could contribute to the assessment of an effective and homogeneous health system to manage acute stroke. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  3. Multiple triangulation and collaborative research using qualitative methods to explore decision making in pre-hospital emergency care.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Maxine; O'Hara, Rachel; Hirst, Enid; Weyman, Andrew; Turner, Janette; Mason, Suzanne; Quinn, Tom; Shewan, Jane; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2017-01-24

    Paramedics make important and increasingly complex decisions at scene about patient care. Patient safety implications of influences on decision making in the pre-hospital setting were previously under-researched. Cutting edge perspectives advocate exploring the whole system rather than individual influences on patient safety. Ethnography (the study of people and cultures) has been acknowledged as a suitable method for identifying health care issues as they occur within the natural context. In this paper we compare multiple methods used in a multi-site, qualitative study that aimed to identify system influences on decision making. The study was conducted in three NHS Ambulance Trusts in England and involved researchers from each Trust working alongside academic researchers. Exploratory interviews with key informants e.g. managers (n = 16) and document review provided contextual information. Between October 2012 and July 2013 researchers observed 34 paramedic shifts and ten paramedics provided additional accounts via audio-recorded 'digital diaries' (155 events). Three staff focus groups (total n = 21) and three service user focus groups (total n = 23) explored a range of experiences and perceptions. Data collection and analysis was carried out by academic and ambulance service researchers as well as service users. Workshops were held at each site to elicit feedback on the findings and facilitate prioritisation of issues identified. The use of a multi-method qualitative approach allowed cross-validation of important issues for ambulance service staff and service users. A key factor in successful implementation of the study was establishing good working relationships with academic and ambulance service teams. Enrolling at least one research lead at each site facilitated the recruitment process as well as study progress. Active involvement with the study allowed ambulance service researchers and service users to gain a better understanding of the research

  4. Pre-hospital electrocardiogram triage with tele-cardiology support is associated with shorter time-to-balloon and higher rates of timely reperfusion even in rural areas: data from the Bari- Barletta/Andria/Trani public emergency medical service 118 registry on primary angioplasty in ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Di Pietro, Gaetano; Aquilino, Ambrogio; Bruno, Angela I; Dellegrottaglie, Giulia; Di Giuseppe, Giuseppe; Lopriore, Claudio; De Gennaro, Luisa; Lanzone, Saverio; Caldarola, Pasquale; Antonelli, Gianfranco; Di Biase, Matteo

    2014-09-01

    We report the preliminary data from a regional registry on ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated with primary angioplasty in Apulia, Italy; the region is covered by a single public health-care service, a single public emergency medical service (EMS), and a single tele-medicine service provider. Two hundred and ninety-seven consecutive patients with STEMI transferred by regional free public EMS 1-1-8 for primary-PCI were enrolled in the study; 123 underwent pre-hospital electrocardiograms (ECGs) triage by tele-cardiology support and directly referred for primary-PCI, those remaining were just transferred by 1-1-8 ambulances for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (diagnosis not based on tele-medicine ECG; already hospitalised patients, emergency-room without tele-medicine support). Time from first ECG diagnostic for STEMI to balloon was recorded; a time-to-balloon <1 h was considered as optimal and patients as timely treated. Mean time-to-balloon with pre-hospital triage and tele-cardiology ECG was significantly shorter (0:41 ± 0:17 vs 1:34 ± 1:11 h, p<0.001, -0:53 h, -56%) and rates of patients timely treated higher (85% vs 35%, p<0.001, +141%), both in patients from the 'inner' zone closer to PCI catheterisation laboratories (0:34 ± 0:13 vs 0:54 ± 0:30 h, p<0.001; 96% vs 77%, p<0.01, +30%) and in the 'outer' zone (0:52 ± 0:17 vs 1:41 ± 1:14 h, p<0.001; 69% vs 29%, p<0.001, +138%). Results remained significant even after multivariable analysis (odds ratio for time-to-balloon 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-0.80, p<0.001; 1.39, 95% CI 1.25-1.55, p<0.001, for timely primary-PCI). Pre-hospital triage with tele-cardiology ECG in an EMS registry from an area with more than one and a half million inhabitants was associated with shorter time-to-balloon and higher rates of timely treated patients, even in 'rural' areas. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  5. Commercial filming of prehospital patient care

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, P D; Henning, J D

    2007-01-01

    Commercial filming of patients in the hospital and now the prehospital environment is becoming increasingly common. Television programmes that focus on medical emergencies with real footage of events remain highly successful and can make compelling viewing for both medical professionals and the general public alike. Recently several commentators have questioned the ethical aspects of filming in hospital emergency departments, and noted the lack of available evidence. This article reviews commercial filming and its impact in the prehospital environment and examines the ethical implications and current guidance in this unique setting. PMID:18029523

  6. Commercial filming of prehospital patient care.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, P D; Henning, J D

    2007-12-01

    Commercial filming of patients in the hospital and now the prehospital environment is becoming increasingly common. Television programmes that focus on medical emergencies with real footage of events remain highly successful and can make compelling viewing for both medical professionals and the general public alike. Recently several commentators have questioned the ethical aspects of filming in hospital emergency departments, and noted the lack of available evidence. This article reviews commercial filming and its impact in the prehospital environment and examines the ethical implications and current guidance in this unique setting.

  7. Pediatric Abdominal Pain: An Emergency Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeremiah; Fox, Sean M

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal pain is a common complaint that leads to pediatric patients seeking emergency care. The emergency care provider has the arduous task of determining which child likely has a benign cause and not missing the devastating condition that needs emergent attention. This article reviews common benign causes of abdominal pain as well as some of the cannot-miss emergent causes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Progression of emergency medicine resident productivity.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Daniel F; Silvestri, Salvatore; Sun, Joanne Y; Papa, Linda

    2007-09-01

    To evaluate the progression in productivity of emergency medicine (EM) residents by postgraduate year, as measured by hourly work in relative value units (RVUs). This retrospective study was conducted at an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited EM residency with a postgraduate year (PGY) 1-2-3 configuration. A query of an electronic billing database composed of more than 230,000 visits from academic years July 2003 to December 2006, representing at least four classes at each PGY level, was conducted. The main outcome was change in productivity in RVUs generated per hour, compared by resident PGY level. This measure encompasses not only volume of patients seen but also patient acuity in terms of evaluation and management services and procedures provided and supported by documentation adequate for coding. Descriptive statistics and Tukey's test were used for data analysis. Over the three-year study period, 70 EM residents were assessed at various levels of training. Productivity, as measured by mean RVUs generated per hour, was 2.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.20 to 2.82) for PGY-1 residents, 3.51 (95% CI = 3.12 to 3.90) for PGY-2 residents, and 3.61 (95% CI = 3.41 to 3.80) for PGY-3 residents (p < 0.001). Patient acuity (RVUs generated per patient) increased 5%-8% with each PGY progression: 3.05 (95% CI = 2.96 to 3.13) for PGY-1, 3.20 (95% CI = 3.09 to 3.31) for PGY-2, and 3.46 (95% CI = 3.42 to 3.50) for PGY-3 (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant increase in productivity (p < 0.001) and acuity (p = 0.03) from PGY-1 to PGY-2, with acuity also increasing between PGY-2 and PGY-3 (p < 0.001). Hourly work productivity and acuity increased with experience within this ACGME-accredited EM residency. The progression in workload and acuity by PGY is measurable and commensurate with the graduated level of responsibility desired in an EM program.

  9. International recommendations for outpatient palliative care and prehospital palliative emergencies – a prospective questionnaire-based investigation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the international recommendations and current practices for the treatment and prevention of palliative emergencies. The primary goal of the study was to gather information from experts on their nationally practised concepts. Methods One hundred and fifty self-report surveys were distributed by email to selected leading experts (palliative and emergency medical care) in Europe, North and South America, Africa, Asia, and Australia. An expert in this context was defined as an author of an article that was ranked by three reviewers as relevant to outpatient palliative and emergency medical . Results The total response rate was 61% (n = 92 experts). Survey responses were obtained from 35 different countries. The following standards in the treatment of palliative emergencies were recommended: (1) early integration of “Palliative Care Teams” (PCTs) and basic outpatient palliative care systems, (2) end-of-life discussions, (3) defined emergency medical documents, drug boxes, and “Do not attempt resuscitation” orders and (4) emergency medical training (physicians and paramedics). Conclusions This study detected structurally and nationally differences in outpatient palliative care regarding the treatment of palliative emergencies. Accordingly, these differences should be discussed and adapted to the respective specifications of individual single countries. A single established outpatient palliative emergency medical care concept may be the basis for an overall out-of-hospital palliative care system. PMID:23432905

  10. Effect evaluation of a heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients' temperatures in prehospital emergency care - an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Aléx, Jonas; Karlsson, Stig; Björnstig, Ulf; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2015-01-01

    Background The ambulance milieu does not offer good thermal comfort to patients during the cold Swedish winters. Patients' exposure to cold temperatures combined with a cold ambulance mattress seems to be the major factor leading to an overall sensation of discomfort. There is little research on the effect of active heat delivered from underneath in ambulance care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an electrically heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients' temperatures in the prehospital emergency care. Methods A quantitative intervention study on ambulance care was conducted in the north of Sweden. The ambulance used for the intervention group (n=30) was equipped with an electrically heated mattress on the regular ambulance stretcher whereas for the control group (n=30) no active heat was provided on the stretcher. Outcome variables were measured as thermal comfort on the Cold Discomfort Scale (CDS), subjective comments on cold experiences, and finger, ear and air temperatures. Results Thermal comfort, measured by CDS, improved during the ambulance transport to the emergency department in the intervention group (p=0.001) but decreased in the control group (p=0.014). A significant higher proportion (57%) of the control group rated the stretcher as cold to lie down compared to the intervention group (3%, p<0.001). At arrival, finger, ear and compartment air temperature showed no statistical significant difference between groups. Mean transport time was approximately 15 minutes. Conclusions The use of active heat from underneath increases the patients' thermal comfort and may prevent the negative consequences of cold stress.

  11. Effect evaluation of a heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients' temperatures in prehospital emergency care--an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Aléx, Jonas; Karlsson, Stig; Björnstig, Ulf; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2015-01-01

    The ambulance milieu does not offer good thermal comfort to patients during the cold Swedish winters. Patients' exposure to cold temperatures combined with a cold ambulance mattress seems to be the major factor leading to an overall sensation of discomfort. There is little research on the effect of active heat delivered from underneath in ambulance care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an electrically heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients' temperatures in the prehospital emergency care. A quantitative intervention study on ambulance care was conducted in the north of Sweden. The ambulance used for the intervention group (n=30) was equipped with an electrically heated mattress on the regular ambulance stretcher whereas for the control group (n=30) no active heat was provided on the stretcher. Outcome variables were measured as thermal comfort on the Cold Discomfort Scale (CDS), subjective comments on cold experiences, and finger, ear and air temperatures. Thermal comfort, measured by CDS, improved during the ambulance transport to the emergency department in the intervention group (p=0.001) but decreased in the control group (p=0.014). A significant higher proportion (57%) of the control group rated the stretcher as cold to lie down compared to the intervention group (3%, p<0.001). At arrival, finger, ear and compartment air temperature showed no statistical significant difference between groups. Mean transport time was approximately 15 minutes. The use of active heat from underneath increases the patients' thermal comfort and may prevent the negative consequences of cold stress.

  12. Effect evaluation of a heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients’ temperatures in prehospital emergency care – an intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Aléx, Jonas; Karlsson, Stig; Björnstig, Ulf; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2015-01-01

    Background The ambulance milieu does not offer good thermal comfort to patients during the cold Swedish winters. Patients’ exposure to cold temperatures combined with a cold ambulance mattress seems to be the major factor leading to an overall sensation of discomfort. There is little research on the effect of active heat delivered from underneath in ambulance care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an electrically heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients’ temperatures in the prehospital emergency care. Methods A quantitative intervention study on ambulance care was conducted in the north of Sweden. The ambulance used for the intervention group (n=30) was equipped with an electrically heated mattress on the regular ambulance stretcher whereas for the control group (n=30) no active heat was provided on the stretcher. Outcome variables were measured as thermal comfort on the Cold Discomfort Scale (CDS), subjective comments on cold experiences, and finger, ear and air temperatures. Results Thermal comfort, measured by CDS, improved during the ambulance transport to the emergency department in the intervention group (p=0.001) but decreased in the control group (p=0.014). A significant higher proportion (57%) of the control group rated the stretcher as cold to lie down compared to the intervention group (3%, p<0.001). At arrival, finger, ear and compartment air temperature showed no statistical significant difference between groups. Mean transport time was approximately 15 minutes. Conclusions The use of active heat from underneath increases the patients’ thermal comfort and may prevent the negative consequences of cold stress. PMID:26374468

  13. Retrospective evaluation of prehospital triage, presentation, interventions and outcome in paediatric drowning managed by a physician staffed helicopter emergency medical service.

    PubMed

    Garner, Alan A; Barker, Claire L; Weatherall, Andrew D

    2015-11-06

    Drowning patients may benefit from the advanced airway management capabilities that can be provided by physician staffed helicopter emergency medical services. The aim of this study is to describe paediatric drowning patients treated by such a service examining tasking systems, initial physiology at the incident scene, survival and neurological outcome. Retrospective analysis of paediatric drowning victims over a 5- year period. Case identification system, patient age, site of drowning, presence or absence of cardiac output, first Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and interventions were collected from prehospital notes, and survival and neurological outcomes from hospital and rehabilitation notes. The P-HEMS direct case identification system operating in parallel with a central control system identified all severe drowning cases but 3 of 7 cases (43%) were missed when the central control system operated in isolation. All severe drowning cases (22) identified for P-HEMS response were intubated and transported directly to a paediatric specialist centre. Intubation required adjuvant anaesthesia in 10 (45%) cases. All children with GCS greater than eight on arrival of the P-HEMS survived neurologically intact. Seven of eight children with a GCS between four and seven survived without neurological impairment and all children with a GCS greater than three survived. Four of twelve asystolic children survived including one child who at 18 months post drowning is neurologically normal. All children who survived had return of spontaneous circulation prior to arrival in the emergency department. P-HEMS played a significant role in the management of severe paediatric drowning in this case series. Requirement for P-HEMS only interventions were high and all identified cases were transferred directly to a paediatric specialist centre. Discontinuation of the P-HEMS direct case identication system that operated during the majority of the study period resulted in deterioration in

  14. Choosing Wisely in Emergency Medicine: A National Survey of Emergency Medicine Academic Chairs and Division Chiefs.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Brandon C; Baren, Jill M; Shea, Judy A; Merchant, Raina M

    2015-12-01

    The Choosing Wisely campaign was launched in 2011 to promote stewardship of medical resources by encouraging patients and physicians to speak with each other regarding the appropriateness of common tests and procedures. Medical societies including the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) have developed lists of potentially low-value practices for their members to address with patients. No research has described the awareness or attitudes of emergency physicians (EPs) regarding the Choosing Wisely campaign. The study objective was to assess these beliefs among leaders of academic departments of emergency medicine (EM). This was a Web-based survey of emergency department (ED) chairs and division chiefs at institutions with allopathic EM residency programs. The survey examined awareness of Choosing Wisely, anticipated effects of the program, and discussions of Choosing Wisely with patients and professional colleagues. Participants also identified factors they associated with the use of potentially low-value services in the ED. Questions and answer scales were refined using iterative pilot testing with EPs and health services researchers. Seventy-eight percent (105/134) of invited participants responded to the survey. Eighty percent of respondents were aware of Choosing Wisely. A majority of participants anticipate the program will decrease costs of care (72% of respondents) and use of ED diagnostic imaging (69%) but will have no effect on EP salaries (94%) or medical-legal risks (65%). Only 45% of chairs have ever addressed Choosing Wisely with patients, in contrast to 88 and 82% who have discussed it with faculty and residents, respectively. Consultant-requested tests were identified by 97% of residents as a potential contributor to low-value services in the ED. A substantial majority of academic EM leaders in our study were aware of Choosing Wisely, but only slightly more than half could recall any ACEP recommendations for the program. Respondents

  15. Ethics curriculum for emergency medicine graduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Marco, Catherine A; Lu, Dave W; Stettner, Edward; Sokolove, Peter E; Ufberg, Jacob W; Noeller, Thomas P

    2011-05-01

    Ethics education is an essential component of graduate medical education in emergency medicine. A sound understanding of principles of bioethics and a rational approach to ethical decision-making are imperative. This article addresses ethics curriculum content, educational approaches, educational resources, and resident feedback and evaluation. Ethics curriculum content should include elements suggested by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, and the Model of the Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine. Essential ethics content includes ethical principles, the physician-patient relationship, patient autonomy, clinical issues, end-of-life decisions, justice, education in emergency medicine, research ethics, and professionalism. The appropriate curriculum in ethics education in emergency medicine should include some of the content and educational approaches outlined in this article, although the optimal methods for meeting these educational goals may vary by institution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lack of emergency medical services documentation is associated with poor patient outcomes: a validation of audit filters for prehospital trauma care.

    PubMed

    Laudermilch, Dann J; Schiff, Melissa A; Nathens, Avery B; Rosengart, Matthew R

    2010-02-01

    Our previous Delphi study identified several audit filters considered sensitive to deviations in prehospital trauma care and potentially useful in conducting performance improvement, a process currently recommended by the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma. This study validates 2 of those proposed audit filters. We studied 4,744 trauma patients using the electronic records of the Central Region Trauma registry and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) patient logs for the period January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2004. We studied whether requests by on-scene Basic Life Support (BLS) for Advanced Life Support (ALS) assistance or failure by EMS personnel to record basic patient physiology at the scene was associated with increased in-hospital mortality. We performed multivariate analyses, including a propensity score quintile approach, adjusting for differences in case mix and clustering by hospital. Overall mortality was 6.1%. A total of 28.2% (n = 1,337) of EMS records were missing patient scene physiologic data. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients missing 1 or more measures of patient physiology at the scene had increased risk of death (adjusted odds ratio = 2.15; 95% CI, 1.13 to 4.10). In 17.4% (n = 402) of cases BLS requested ALS assistance. Patients for whom BLS requested ALS had a similar risk of death as patients for whom ALS was initially dispatched (odds ratio = 1.04; 95% CI, 0.51 to 2.15). Failure of EMS to document basic measures of scene physiology is associated with increased mortality. This deviation in care can serve as a sensitive audit filter for performance improvement. The need by BLS for ALS assistance was not associated with increased mortality.

  17. Involving older people in a multi-centre randomised trial of a complex intervention in pre-hospital emergency care: implementation of a collaborative model.

    PubMed

    Koniotou, Marina; Evans, Bridie Angela; Chatters, Robin; Fothergill, Rachael; Garnsworthy, Christopher; Gaze, Sarah; Halter, Mary; Mason, Suzanne; Peconi, Julie; Porter, Alison; Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Toghill, Alun; Snooks, Helen

    2015-07-10

    Health services research is expected to involve service users as active partners in the research process, but few examples report how this has been achieved in practice in trials. We implemented a model to involve service users in a multi-centre randomised controlled trial in pre-hospital emergency care. We used the generic Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) from our Clinical Trials Unit (CTU) as the basis for creating a model to fit the context and population of the SAFER 2 trial. In our model, we planned to involve service users at all stages in the trial through decision-making forums at 3 levels: 1) strategic; 2) site (e.g. Wales; London; East Midlands); 3) local. We linked with charities and community groups to recruit people with experience of our study population. We collected notes of meetings alongside other documentary evidence such as attendance records and study documentation to track how we implemented our model. We involved service users at strategic, site and local level. We also added additional strategic level forums (Task and Finish Groups and Writing Days) where we included service users. Service user involvement varied in frequency and type across meetings, research stages and locations but stabilised and increased as the trial progressed. Involving service users in the SAFER 2 trial showed how it is feasible and achievable for patients, carers and potential patients sharing the demographic characteristics of our study population to collaborate in a multi-centre trial at the level which suited their health, location, skills and expertise. A standard model of involvement can be tailored by adopting a flexible approach to take account of the context and complexities of a multi-site trial. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN60481756. Registered: 13 March 2009.

  18. Military Medical Revolution: Prehospital Combat Casualty Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    with the administration of prehospital blood is the option to administer the antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid .28 Airway Protection A skill common...application of tranexamic acid in trauma emergency resuscitation (MATTERs) study. Arch Surg. 2012;147:113 119. 29. Morrison JJ, Mellor A, Midwinter M

  19. Emergency medicine and the airline passenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, S. R.; Nicogossian, A.; Margulies, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Problems related to immediate medical care in case of in-flight emergencies are discussed with reference to such critical types of medical emergencies as obstructed airway, cardiac dysfunction, trauma, hemorrhage, hypoxia, and pain. It is shown that training flight attendants to deal with in-flight medical emergencies and to use first-aid support equipment and essential and useful drugs may later help with stabilization of a victim and allow continuing the flight to the scheduled destination without the need for a diverted landing. Among the steps suggested in order to upgrade inflight welfare and safety of passengers are the development of an advisory circular by the FAA covering standardized training for flight attendants, regulatory action requiring upgrading of the present rudimentary first-aid kit, and the enactment of Good Samaritan legislation by the U.S. Government.

  20. Intranasal medications in pediatric emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Del Pizzo, Jeannine; Callahan, James M

    2014-07-01

    Intranasal medication administration in the emergency care of children has been reported for at least 20 years and is gaining popularity because of ease of administration, rapid onset of action, and relatively little pain to the patient. The ability to avoid a needle stick is often attractive to practitioners, in addition to children and their parents. In time-critical situations for which emergent administration of medication is needed, the intranasal route may be associated with more rapid medication administration. This article reviews the use of intranasal medications in the emergency care of children. Particular attention will be paid to anatomy and its impact on drug delivery, pharmacodynamics, medications currently administered by this route, delivery devices available, tips for use, and future directions.

  1. Emergency Medicine and the Underage Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Martin, David E.

    1994-01-01

    Most high school and some collegiate athletes are legal minors. In civil matters, the law treats minors (usually individuals under the age of 18 years) uniquely. Limitations exist on a minor's ability to enter into contracts, make determinations regarding medical care, and bear responsibility for personal actions. Medical professionals are often unclear on matters relating to the provision of medical care to minors. The purpose of this discourse is to present selected legal issues in the context of two fictional case studies. Case 1 presents issues regarding the definition of emergency medical conditions and the related emergency medical doctrine. Case 2 provides an example of an acute medical concern which fails to fall under emergency medical classification but rather provides a context for discussing the mature minor doctrine. Both cases are analyzed in light of these doctrines in addition to other pertinent legal considerations. PMID:16558280

  2. [Calls due to suicidal behaviour made to the prehospital, emergency department in Málaga: characteristics and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Hernández, M; Castro-Zamudio, S; Guzmán Parra, J; Martínez-García, A I; Guillén-Benítez, C; Moreno-Küstner, B

    2017-12-29

    Suicidal behaviour (fatal and non-fatal) has become a serious public health problem in many countries. The aim of the study was to describe the differential characteristics of emergency calls due to suicidal behaviour made to the Emergency Coordinating Centre (CCUE) in the province of Málaga, in comparison with calls due to physical or psychiatric problems. Retrospective observational study of the calls recorded in the database of the Public Company for Emergency Health during one year. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out including age, gender and the following variables related with the demand: hours of the day, type of day (working days or bank holidays), months of the year and trimesters, number of resources mobilized and types of resolution. The analyses were carried out on 163,331 calls, of which 1,380 calls were due to suicidal behaviour (0.8%), 9,951 for psychiatric reasons (6.1%) and 152,000 for physical reasons (93%). The emergency calls for suicidal behaviour were mainly made by females, between 31-60 years, in the evening and at night, and required transfer to hospital and more than one mobilized resource. Calls due to completed suicide were more frequently made by older men. Calls due to suicidal tendencies predominated over those due to attempted or threatened suicide during the first trimester of the year, while the opposite was the case during the third trimester. The results indicated differential characteristics of suicide calls that are potentially relevant for prevention in spite of the limitations of the present study.

  3. Evaluation of pre-hospital administration of adrenaline (epinephrine) by emergency medical services for patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest in Japan: controlled propensity matched retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tomio, Jun; Takahashi, Hideto; Ichikawa, Masao; Nishida, Masamichi; Morimura, Naoto; Sakamoto, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of pre-hospital adrenaline (epinephrine) administered by emergency medical services to patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest. Design Controlled propensity matched retrospective cohort study, in which pairs of patients with or without (control) adrenaline were created with a sequential risk set matching based on time dependent propensity score. Setting Japan’s nationwide registry database of patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest registered between January 2007 and December 2010. Participants Among patients aged 15-94 with out of hospital cardiac arrest witnessed by a bystander, we created 1990 pairs of patients with and without adrenaline with an initial rhythm of ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT) and 9058 pairs among those with non-VF/VT. Main outcome measures Overall and neurologically intact survival at one month or at discharge, whichever was earlier. Results After propensity matching, pre-hospital administration of adrenaline by emergency medical services was associated with a higher proportion of overall survival (17.0% v 13.4%; unadjusted odds ratio 1.34, 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 1.60) but not with neurologically intact survival (6.6% v 6.6%; 1.01, 0.78 to 1.30) among those with VF/VT; and higher proportions of overall survival (4.0% v 2.4%; odds ratio 1.72, 1.45 to 2.04) and neurologically intact survival (0.7% v 0.4%; 1.57, 1.04 to 2.37) among those with non-VF/VT. Conclusions Pre-hospital administration of adrenaline by emergency medical services improves the long term outcome in patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest, although the absolute increase of neurologically intact survival was minimal. PMID:24326886

  4. Evaluation of pre-hospital administration of adrenaline (epinephrine) by emergency medical services for patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest in Japan: controlled propensity matched retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Shinji; Tomio, Jun; Takahashi, Hideto; Ichikawa, Masao; Nishida, Masamichi; Morimura, Naoto; Sakamoto, Tetsuya

    2013-12-10

    To evaluate the effectiveness of pre-hospital adrenaline (epinephrine) administered by emergency medical services to patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest. Controlled propensity matched retrospective cohort study, in which pairs of patients with or without (control) adrenaline were created with a sequential risk set matching based on time dependent propensity score. Japan's nationwide registry database of patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest registered between January 2007 and December 2010. Among patients aged 15-94 with out of hospital cardiac arrest witnessed by a bystander, we created 1990 pairs of patients with and without adrenaline with an initial rhythm of ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT) and 9058 pairs among those with non-VF/VT. Overall and neurologically intact survival at one month or at discharge, whichever was earlier. After propensity matching, pre-hospital administration of adrenaline by emergency medical services was associated with a higher proportion of overall survival (17.0% v 13.4%; unadjusted odds ratio 1.34, 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 1.60) but not with neurologically intact survival (6.6% v 6.6%; 1.01, 0.78 to 1.30) among those with VF/VT; and higher proportions of overall survival (4.0% v 2.4%; odds ratio 1.72, 1.45 to 2.04) and neurologically intact survival (0.7% v 0.4%; 1.57, 1.04 to 2.37) among those with non-VF/VT. Pre-hospital administration of adrenaline by emergency medical services improves the long term outcome in patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest, although the absolute increase of neurologically intact survival was minimal.

  5. [Position paper of the German Society for Medical Intensive Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine (DGIIN) on medical intensive care medicine].

    PubMed

    Riessen, R; Janssens, U; Buerke, M; Kluge, S

    2016-05-01

    In this paper the German Society for Medical Intensive Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine (DGIIN) provides statements regarding the importance and advancement of Medical Intensive Care Medicine within the structures of Internal Medicine in Germany. Of pivotal importance are the training of medical intensivists, the cooperation with intensivists from other disciplines and the collaboration with emergency departments. In order to fulfil the various and challenging tasks in patient care, training, research and medical education competently and on an international level, more intensivists in leading positions especially in academic institutions are essential.

  6. Political issues in emergency medicine: The United States.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, James; McNamara, Robert; Schafermeyer, Robert W; Hamilton, Glenn C

    2004-06-01

    The format of the paper is to allow three authors to discuss what they believe are the most significant political issues facing emergency medicine (EM) in their country or region. Each author writes independently and does not see any other contributing author's work, therefore potential overlap of subject matter is inevitable. However, we were soliciting their individual opinions about the serious issues confronting us today, rather than a consensus. An additional author, well familiar with the topics being discussed, wrote the Commentary from an overview perspective on the writings of the other authors. This supplemental opinion was offered as a method for enhanced cohesiveness in describing the political situations impacting the specialty of emergency medicine. The three authors for the United States are James Hoekstra, Professor and Chair, Wake Forest University Health Sciences; Robert McNamara, Professor and Chair, Temple University School of Medicine, and Robert Schafermeyer, Associate Chair, Department of Emergency Medicine, North Carolina School of Medicine. Between them, they represent more than 50 years experience in clinical and academic emergency medicine. They write from a personal perspective. Their views are their own, and do not represent any organization(s) with which they may have or had affiliations.

  7. ECG interpretation skills of South African Emergency Medicine residents

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Lee; Maritz, David

    2010-01-01

    Background The use and interpretation of electrocardiograms (ECGs) are widely accepted as an essential core skill in Emergency Medicine. It is imperative that emergency physicians are expert in ECG interpretation when they exit their training programme. Aim It is unknown whether South African Emergency Medicine trainees are getting the necessary skills in ECG interpretation during the training programme. Currently there are no clear criteria to assess emergency physicians’ competency in ECG interpretation in South Africa. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study of Emergency Medicine residents and recently qualified emergency physicians was conducted between August 2008 and February 2009 using a focused questionnaire. Results At the time of the study, there were 55 eligible trainees in South Africa. A total of 55 assessments were distributed; 50 were returned (91%) and 49 were fully completed (89%). In this study, we found the overall average score of ECG interpretation was 46.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 41.5–51.2%]. The junior group had an overall average of 42.2% (95% CI 36.9–47.5%), whereas the senior group managed 52.5% (95% CI 43.4–61.5%). Conclusion In this prospective cross-sectional study of Emergency Medicine residents and recently qualified emergency physicians, we found that there was improvement in the interpretation of ECGs with increased seniority. There exists, however, a low level of accuracy for many of the critical ECG diagnoses. The average score of 46.4% obtained in this study is lower than the scores obtained by other international studies from countries where Emergency Medicine is a well-established speciality. PMID:21373298

  8. [Spanish doctoral theses in emergency medicine (1978-2013)].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Guerrero, Inés María

    2015-01-01

    To quantitatively analyze the production of Spanish doctoral theses in emergency medicine. Quantitative synthesis of productivity indicators for 214 doctoral theses in emergency medicine found in the database (TESEO) for Spanish universities from 1978 to 2013. We processed the data in 3 ways as follows: compilation of descriptive statistics, regression analysis (correlation coefficients of determination), and modeling of linear trend (time-series analysis). Most of the thesis supervisors (84.1%) only oversaw a single project. No major supervisor of 10 or more theses was identified. Analysis of cosupervision indicated there were 1.6 supervisors per thesis. The theses were defended in 67 departments (both general and specialist departments) because no emergency medicine departments had been established. The most productive universities were 2 large ones (Universitat de Barcelona and Universidad Complutense de Madrid) and 3 medium-sized ones (Universidad de Granada, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, and Universidad de La Laguna). Productivity over time analyzed as the trend for 2-year periods in the time-series was expressed as a polynomial function with a correlation coefficient of determination of R2 = 0.80. Spanish doctoral research in emergency medicine has grown markedly. Work has been done in various university departments in different disciplines and specialties. The findings confirm that emergency medicine is a disciplinary field.

  9. Can emergency medicine research benefit from adaptive design clinical trials?

    PubMed

    Flight, Laura; Julious, Steven A; Goodacre, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Adaptive design clinical trials use preplanned interim analyses to determine whether studies should be stopped or modified before recruitment is complete. Emergency medicine trials are well suited to these designs as many have a short time to primary outcome relative to the length of recruitment. We hypothesised that the majority of published emergency medicine trials have the potential to use a simple adaptive trial design. We reviewed clinical trials published in three emergency medicine journals between January 2003 and December 2013. We determined the proportion that used an adaptive design as well as the proportion that could have used a simple adaptive design based on the time to primary outcome and length of recruitment. Only 19 of 188 trials included in the review were considered to have used an adaptive trial design. A total of 154/165 trials that were fixed in design had the potential to use an adaptive design. Currently, there seems to be limited uptake in the use of adaptive trial designs in emergency medicine despite their potential benefits to save time and resources. Failing to take advantage of adaptive designs could be costly to patients and research. It is recommended that where practical and logistical considerations allow, adaptive designs should be used for all emergency medicine clinical trials. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. The use of nuclear medicine techniques in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    McGlone, B; Balan, K

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear medicine techniques have received little attention in the practice of emergency medicine, yet radionuclide imaging can provide valuable and unique information in the management of acutely ill patients. In this review, emphasis is placed on the role of these techniques in patients with bone injuries, non-traumatic bone pain and in those with pleuritic chest pain. New developments such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in myocardial infarction are outlined and older techniques such as scrotal scintigraphy are reviewed. Radionuclide techniques are discussed in a clinical context and in relation to alternative imaging modalities or strategies that may be available to the emergency medicine physician. Aspects of a 24 hour nuclear medicine service are considered. PMID:11696487

  11. Emergency medicine and psychiatry agreement on diagnosis and disposition of emergency department patients with behavioral emergencies.

    PubMed

    Douglass, Amy M; Luo, John; Baraff, Larry J

    2011-04-01

    The objective was to determine the level of agreement between emergency physicians (EPs) and consulting psychiatrists in their diagnosis and disposition of emergency department (ED) patients with behavioral emergencies. The authors conducted a prospective study at a university teaching hospital ED with an annual census of approximately 45,000 patients. During study hours, each time a psychiatric consultation was requested, the emergency medicine (EM) and consulting psychiatry residents were asked to fill out similar short questionnaires concerning their diagnoses and disposition decisions after they consulted with their attending physicians. EM and psychiatry residents were blinded to the other's assessment of the patient. Residents were asked about their evaluation of patients regarding: 1) psychiatric assessments, 2) if the patients presented a danger to themselves or others or were gravely disabled, and 3) the need for emergency psychiatric hospitalization. A total of 408 resident physician pairs were enrolled in the study. Patients ranged in age from 5 to 92 years, with a median age of 31 years; 50% were female. The most common psychiatric assessments, as evaluated by either EPs, consulting psychiatrists, or both, were mood disorder (66%), suicidality (57%), drug/alcohol abuse (26%), and psychosis (25%). Seventy-three percent were admitted for acute psychiatric hospitalization. Agreement between EPs and psychiatrists was 67% for presence of mood disorder, 82% for suicidality, 82% for drug/alcohol abuse, 85% for psychosis, and 85% for grave disability. There was 67% agreement regarding patient eligibility for involuntary psychiatric hold. EPs felt confident enough to make disposition decisions 87% of the time; for these patients there was 76% agreement with consulting psychiatrists about the final disposition decision. The 67% agreement between EPs and consulting psychiatrists regarding need for involuntary hold, and 76% agreement regarding final disposition

  12. [Prehospital cardiac resuscitation in Queretaro, Mexico. Report of 3 cases. Importance of an integral emergency medical care system].

    PubMed

    Fraga-Sastrías, Juan Manuel; Aguilera-Campos, Andrea; Barinagarrementería-Aldatz, Fernando; Ortíz-Mondragón, Claudio; Asensio-Lafuente, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    In Mexico, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a health problem that represents 33,000 to 150,000 or more deaths per year. The few existent reports show mortality as high as 100% in contrast to some international reports that show higher survival rates. In Queretaro, during the last 5 years there were no successful resuscitation cases. However, in 2012 some patients were reported to have return of spontaneous circulation. We report in this article 3 cases with return of spontaneous circulation and pulse at arrival to the hospital. Two of the patients were discharged alive, one of them with poor cerebral performance category. Community cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation and better emergency medical system response times, are related with survival. This poorly explored health problem in Queretaro could be increased with quality and good public education, bystander assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation, police involvement in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation, public access defibrillation programs and measurement of indicators and feedback for better results. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimal training for emergency needle thoracostomy placement by prehospital personnel: didactic teaching versus a cadaver-based training program.

    PubMed

    Grabo, Daniel; Inaba, Kenji; Hammer, Peter; Karamanos, Efstathios; Skiada, Dimitra; Martin, Matthew; Sullivan, Maura; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2014-09-01

    Tension pneumothorax can rapidly progress to cardiac arrest and death if not promptly recognized and appropriately treated. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional didactic slide-based lectures (SBLs) as compared with fresh tissue cadaver-based training (CBT) for placement of needle thoracostomy (NT). Forty randomly selected US Navy corpsmen were recruited to participate from incoming classes of the Navy Trauma Training Center at the LAC + USC Medical Center and were then randomized to one of two NT teaching methods. The following outcomes were compared between the two study arms: (1) time required to perform the procedure, (2) correct placement of the needle, and (3) magnitude of deviation from the correct position. During the study period, a total of 40 corpsmen were enrolled, 20 randomized to SBL and 20 to CBT arms. When outcomes were analyzed, time required to NT placement was not different between the two arms. Examination of the location of needle placement revealed marked differences between the two study groups. Only a minority of the SBL group (35%) placed the NT correctly in the second intercostal space. In comparison, the majority of corpsmen assigned to the CBT group demonstrated accurate placement in the second intercostal space (75%). In a CBT module, US Navy corpsmen were better trained to place NT accurately than their traditional didactic SBL counterparts. Further studies are indicated to identify the optimal components of effective simulation training for NT and other emergent interventions.

  14. [Prevalence of processes and pathologies dealt with by the pre-hospital emergency medical services in Spain].

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Andrés; Burusco, S; Senosiáin, M V

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out by contacting 26 Medical Emergency Services (MES), through survey, with final data obtained from 22. Population covered: 42,538,730. Total number of calls: 7,656,768, with 711,228 interventions. Number of operational forces: intensive care units (mobile-ICUs): 329, rapid intervention vehicles (RIV) 20, health ambulances 39 and medical helicopters 39 (4 of them 24 hour: Canary Islands and Castile-La Mancha) and 3 airplanes. mobile-ICUs: 94.3%, medical helicopters: 1.4% and health ambulances: 4.3%. Number of A&E doctors/day: 388, nursing personnel 427. Pathologies dealt with, grouped according to ICE-9-MC: V-psychiatry group: 3.7%, VI-neurological group: 2.7%, VII-cardiovascular group: 9.3%, VIII-respiratory group: 3.2%, XVII-lesions poisonings group: 23.1%, IX-digestive group: 1.3%, X-XI-genital-urinary and gynaecology-obstetrics groups: 1.4%, XVI-group of other ill-defined pathologies: 40.1%. Specifically studied groups (from the MESs that provided them) were: thoracic pain- dyspnea: 3.7%, ictus/acute cerebrovascular accident: 0.9%, alteration in consciousness: 7.7%, syncope-blackout: 2.5%, self-inflicted lesions: 2,654 (0.4%). Total of pathological and syndrome groups: 59.9% and total of other ill-defined pathologies: 40.1%. Of the pathologies considered to be of greater relevance in A&E: acute coronary syndrome: 3.1%, arrhythmias: 3.2%, cardiac arrest: 1.7%, respiratory stoppage: 0.16%, total traumatisms: 34.9%, traumatisms: 1.16%, cranio-encephalic traumatism: 1.77%, intoxications: 5.1%, agressions: 6.9%, burns: 0.26%.

  15. Homeopathic treatment in emergency medicine: a case series.

    PubMed

    Oberbaum, M; Schreiber, R; Rosenthal, C; Itzchaki, M

    2003-01-01

    Following a multiple-casualty construction disaster in Israel, members of The Center of Integrated Complementary Medicine joined in the emergency activity of the Shaare Zedek Medical Center. They administered homeopathic treatment to injured patients to supplement conventional orthopaedic treatment. This was to our knowledge the first time that complementary medicine had been used officially in conjunction with conventional medicine in an emergency situation. Our objective is to report and summarize the rationale, procedures and outcome of the complementary medicine intervention. Fifteen orthopaedic patients were included. They were treated by homeopathy in two phases starting 24 h post-trauma. All patients initially received Arnica montana 200CH in a single dose. Anxiety was treated with Aconite 200CH in nine patients, Opium 200CH in three, Ignatia 200CH in two and Arsenicum album 200CH in one according to type of anxiety. One day later, most patients reported a lessening of pain, 58% felt improvement, 89% had reduced anxiety, and overall, 61% felt that homeopathic treatment was helpful. In the second phase, 48 h post-trauma, specific complaints were addressed with classical homeopathy. At discharge patients rated the homeopathic treatment successful in 67% of the specific complaints. Several issues relating to the use of homeopathy in emergency medicine and its relation to conventional treatment are discussed. These include compliance, the conduct of rounds, shortage of time and staff, and the procurement of medicines.

  16. Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Statement on Plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Asher, Shellie L; Iserson, Kenneth V; Merck, Lisa H

    2017-10-01

    The integrity of the research enterprise is of the utmost importance for the advancement of safe and effective medical practice for patients and for maintaining the public trust in health care. Academic societies and editors of journals are key participants in guarding scientific integrity. Avoiding and preventing plagiarism helps to preserve the scientific integrity of professional presentations and publications. The Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) Ethics Committee discusses current issues in scientific publishing integrity and provides a guideline to avoid plagiarism in SAEM presentations and publications. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  17. Prehospital digital photography and automated image transmission in an emergency medical service - an ancillary retrospective analysis of a prospective controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bergrath, Sebastian; Rossaint, Rolf; Lenssen, Niklas; Fitzner, Christina; Skorning, Max

    2013-01-16

    Still picture transmission was performed using a telemedicine system in an Emergency Medical Service (EMS) during a prospective, controlled trial. In this ancillary, retrospective study the quality and content of the transmitted pictures and the possible influences of this application on prehospital time requirements were investigated. A digital camera was used with a telemedicine system enabling encrypted audio and data transmission between an ambulance and a remotely located physician. By default, images were compressed (jpeg, 640 x 480 pixels). On occasion, this compression was deactivated (3648 x 2736 pixels). Two independent investigators assessed all transmitted pictures according to predefined criteria. In cases of different ratings, a third investigator had final decision competence. Patient characteristics and time intervals were extracted from the EMS protocol sheets and dispatch centre reports. Overall 314 pictures (mean 2.77 ± 2.42 pictures/mission) were transmitted during 113 missions (group 1). Pictures were not taken for 151 missions (group 2). Regarding picture quality, the content of 240 (76.4%) pictures was clearly identifiable; 45 (14.3%) pictures were considered "limited quality" and 29 (9.2%) pictures were deemed "not useful" due to not/hardly identifiable content. For pictures with file compression (n = 84 missions) and without (n = 17 missions), the content was clearly identifiable in 74% and 97% of the pictures, respectively (p = 0.003). Medical reports (n = 98, 32.8%), medication lists (n = 49, 16.4%) and 12-lead ECGs (n = 28, 9.4%) were most frequently photographed. The patient characteristics of group 1 vs. 2 were as follows: median age - 72.5 vs. 56.5 years, p = 0.001; frequency of acute coronary syndrome - 24/113 vs. 15/151, p = 0.014. The NACA scores and gender distribution were comparable. Median on-scene times were longer with picture transmission (26 vs. 22 min, p = 0.011), but ambulance

  18. Imaging appropriateness in an academic emergency medicine program.

    PubMed

    Dolatabadi, Ali Arhami; Shojaee, Majid; Kariman, Hamid; Shahrami, Ali; Abolmaali, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    As radiologic assessment is a key part in evaluating patients visited in emergency department, this survey was conducted to measure emergency medicine residents' competency in choosing appropriate diagnostic imaging in different clinical scenarios. All emergency medicine residents enrolled in an academic emergency medicine discipline in the three medical universities of Tehran, Iran were recruited. A questionnaire was designed consisting of 10 clinically common scenarios selected from the American College of Radiology appropriateness criteria. Each resident completed the survey separately with answers only given after all residents participated. 196 residents completed the survey (95% of all residents). The results were stratified by post-graduate year and university. The average number of correct answers was 6.2. First, second and third year residents scored the average of 6.1, 5.8 and 6.5, respectively (P=0.04). The average score of residents from different universities did not differ significantly. According to the low average score, it is recommended that attentive educational perfections are needed to help residents order more appropriate diagnostic images, which may also be helpful for other healthcare providers. However, it seems that our emergency medicine academic curriculum is relatively efficient to enhance residents' skills in choosing proper imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute coronary syndromes: is there a place for a real pre-hospital treatment for patients "en route" to the coronary intensive care unit?

    PubMed

    Assez, Nathalie; Smith, Grégoire; Adriansen, Christophe; Aboukais, Wissam; Wiel, Eric; Goldstein, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Acute initial management of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is based on a precise clinical and electrocardiographic diagnosis. Initial risk stratification in the pre-hospital phase is the key step. The last step, adequate patient routing, is decided based on emergency level and reperfusion strategies, considered right from the pre-hospital phase. The management of a patient with an ACS requires close collaboration between emergency physicians and cardiologists, according to simplified protocols for easier access to catheterisation. The next challenges for the pre-hospital management of ACS are based on: - precise knowledge of new antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs by the emergency physicians, in order to adjust their prescriptions to the patient profile; - developing co-operation between hospitals, according to regional specificities (geographic considerations and distribution of PCI centres) in order to reduce access time to catheterisation rooms; - organising the healthcare network, where the SAMU has an essential role in coordinating the different medical actors; - regular analysis of the evolution of our professional practices, considering, e.g., the guidelines of the "HAS" (French official healthcare guidelines institute);- integrating pre-hospital medicine in health prevention programmes; - improving our understanding of the population's presentations of coronary artery disease, in order to encourage the patients and their families to call the EMS as soon as possible. The challenge of the emergency physician is to adapt the strategies to the patient's needs.

  20. An Emergency Medicine Research Priority Setting Partnership to establish the top 10 research priorities in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jason; Keating, Liza; Flowerdew, Lynsey; O'Brien, Rachel; McIntyre, Sam; Morley, Richard; Carley, Simon

    2017-07-01

    Defining research priorities in a specialty as broad as emergency medicine is a significant challenge. In order to fund and complete the most important research projects, it is imperative that we identify topics that are important to all clinicians, society and to our patients. We have undertaken a priority setting partnership to establish the most important questions facing emergency medicine. The top 10 questions reached through a consensus process are discussed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Essentials of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Fellowship: Part 1: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Zaveri, Pavan P; Hsu, Deborah; Mittiga, Matthew R; Wolff, Margaret; Reynolds, Stacy; Kim, In; Allen, Coburn; McAneney, Constance M; Kou, Maybelle

    2016-05-01

    This article is the first in a 7-part series (Table 1) that aims to comprehensively describe the current state and future directions of pediatric emergency medicine fellowship training from the essential requirements to considerations for successfully administering and managing a program to the careers that may be anticipated on program completion. This overview article provides a framework for the series.

  2. An eMERGE Clinical Center at Partners Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Smoller, Jordan W.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Green, Robert C.; Kathiresan, Sekar; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Talkowski, Michael E.; Murphy, Shawn N.; Weiss, Scott T.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of electronic medical records (EMRs) and genomic research has become a major component of efforts to advance personalized and precision medicine. The Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) network, initiated in 2007, is an NIH-funded consortium devoted to genomic discovery and implementation research by leveraging biorepositories linked to EMRs. In its most recent phase, eMERGE III, the network is focused on facilitating implementation of genomic medicine by detecting and disclosing rare pathogenic variants in clinically relevant genes. Partners Personalized Medicine (PPM) is a center dedicated to translating personalized medicine into clinical practice within Partners HealthCare. One component of the PPM is the Partners Healthcare Biobank, a biorepository comprising broadly consented DNA samples linked to the Partners longitudinal EMR. In 2015, PPM joined the eMERGE Phase III network. Here we describe the elements of the eMERGE clinical center at PPM, including plans for genomic discovery using EMR phenotypes, evaluation of rare variant penetrance and pleiotropy, and a novel randomized trial of the impact of returning genetic results to patients and clinicians. PMID:26805891

  3. An eMERGE Clinical Center at Partners Personalized Medicine.

    PubMed

    Smoller, Jordan W; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Green, Robert C; Kathiresan, Sekar; MacArthur, Daniel G; Talkowski, Michael E; Murphy, Shawn N; Weiss, Scott T

    2016-01-20

    The integration of electronic medical records (EMRs) and genomic research has become a major component of efforts to advance personalized and precision medicine. The Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) network, initiated in 2007, is an NIH-funded consortium devoted to genomic discovery and implementation research by leveraging biorepositories linked to EMRs. In its most recent phase, eMERGE III, the network is focused on facilitating implementation of genomic medicine by detecting and disclosing rare pathogenic variants in clinically relevant genes. Partners Personalized Medicine (PPM) is a center dedicated to translating personalized medicine into clinical practice within Partners HealthCare. One component of the PPM is the Partners Healthcare Biobank, a biorepository comprising broadly consented DNA samples linked to the Partners longitudinal EMR. In 2015, PPM joined the eMERGE Phase III network. Here we describe the elements of the eMERGE clinical center at PPM, including plans for genomic discovery using EMR phenotypes, evaluation of rare variant penetrance and pleiotropy, and a novel randomized trial of the impact of returning genetic results to patients and clinicians.

  4. Development and Prospective Federal State-Wide Evaluation of a Device for Height-Based Dose Recommendations in Prehospital Pediatric Emergencies: A Simple Tool to Prevent Most Severe Drug Errors.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Jost; Roth, Bernhard; Engelhardt, Thomas; Lechleuthner, Alex; Laschat, Michael; Hadamitzky, Christoph; Wappler, Frank; Hellmich, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Drug dosing errors pose a particular threat to children in prehospital emergency care. With the Pediatric emergency ruler (PaedER), we developed a simple height-based dose recommendation system and evaluated its effectiveness in a pre-post interventional trial as the Ethics Committee disapproved randomization due to the expected positive effect of the PaedER on outcome. Pre-interventional data were retrospectively retrieved from the electronic records and medical protocols of the Cologne Emergency Medical Service over a two-year period prior to the introduction of the PaedER. Post-interventional data were collected prospectively over a six-year period in a federal state-wide open trial. The administered doses of either intravenous or intraosseous fentanyl, midazolam, ketamine or epinephrine were recorded. Primary outcome measure was the number and severity of drug dose deviation from recommended dose (DRD) based on the patient's weight. Fifty-nine pre-interventional and 91 post-interventional prehospital drug administrations in children were analyzed. The rate of DRD > 300% overall medications were 22.0% in the pre- and 2.2% in the post-interventional group (p < 0.001). All administrations of epinephrine occurred excessive (DRD > 300%) in pre-interventional and none in post-interventional patients (p < 0.001). The use of the PaedER resulted in a 90% reduction of medication errors (95% CI: 57% to 98%; p < 0.001) and prevented all potentially life-threatening errors associated with epinephrine administration. There is an urgent need to increase the safety of emergency drug dosing in children during emergencies. A simple height-based system can support health care providers and helps to avoid life-threatening medication errors.

  5. Assessing Team Leadership in Emergency Medicine: The Milestones and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Rosenman, Elizabeth D.; Branzetti, Jeremy B.; Fernandez, Rosemarie

    2016-01-01

    Background Team leadership is a critical skill for emergency medicine physicians that directly affects team performance and the quality of patient care. There exists a robust body of team science research supporting team leadership conceptual models and behavioral skill sets. However, to date, this work has not been widely incorporated into health care team leadership education. Objective This narrative review has 3 aims: (1) to synthesize the team science literature and to translate important concepts and models to health care team leadership; (2) to describe how team leadership is currently represented in the health care literature and in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestones for emergency medicine; and (3) to propose a novel, evidence-based framework for the assessment of team leadership in emergency medicine. Methods We conducted a narrative review of the team science and health care literature. We summarized our findings and identified a list of team leadership behaviors that were then used to create a framework for team leadership assessment. Results Current health care team leadership measurement tools do not incorporate evidence-based models of leadership concepts from other established domains. The emergency medicine milestones include several team leadership behaviors as part of a larger resident evaluation program. However, they do not offer a comprehensive or cohesive representation of the team leadership construct. Conclusions Despite the importance of team leadership to patient care, there is no standardized approach to team leadership assessment in emergency medicine. Based on the results of our review, we propose a novel team leadership assessment framework that is supported by the team science literature. PMID:27413434

  6. Assessing Team Leadership in Emergency Medicine: The Milestones and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, Elizabeth D; Branzetti, Jeremy B; Fernandez, Rosemarie

    2016-07-01

    Team leadership is a critical skill for emergency medicine physicians that directly affects team performance and the quality of patient care. There exists a robust body of team science research supporting team leadership conceptual models and behavioral skill sets. However, to date, this work has not been widely incorporated into health care team leadership education. This narrative review has 3 aims: (1) to synthesize the team science literature and to translate important concepts and models to health care team leadership; (2) to describe how team leadership is currently represented in the health care literature and in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestones for emergency medicine; and (3) to propose a novel, evidence-based framework for the assessment of team leadership in emergency medicine. We conducted a narrative review of the team science and health care literature. We summarized our findings and identified a list of team leadership behaviors that were then used to create a framework for team leadership assessment. Current health care team leadership measurement tools do not incorporate evidence-based models of leadership concepts from other established domains. The emergency medicine milestones include several team leadership behaviors as part of a larger resident evaluation program. However, they do not offer a comprehensive or cohesive representation of the team leadership construct. Despite the importance of team leadership to patient care, there is no standardized approach to team leadership assessment in emergency medicine. Based on the results of our review, we propose a novel team leadership assessment framework that is supported by the team science literature.

  7. [Interdisciplinary consensus statement on alternative airway management with supraglottic airway devices in pediatric emergency medicine: Laryngeal mask is state of the art].

    PubMed

    Keil, J; Jung, P; Schiele, A; Urban, B; Parsch, A; Matsche, B; Eich, C; Becke, K; Landsleitner, B; Russo, S G; Bernhard, M; Nicolai, T; Hoffmann, F

    2016-01-01

    Airway management with supraglottic airway devices (SGA) in life-threatening emergencies involving children is becoming increasingly more important. The laryngeal mask (LM) and the laryngeal tube (LT) are devices commonly used for this purpose. This article presents a literature review and consensus statement by various societies on the use of SGA in pediatric emergency medicine. Literature search in the database PubMed and classification of studies according to the criteria of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine levels of evidence. The evidence for successful application of the various types of LM is significantly higher than for LT application. Reports of smaller series of successful applications of LT are currently limited to selected research groups and centers. Insufficient evidence currently exists for the successful application of the LT especially for children below 10 kg body weight and, therefore, its routine use cannot currently be recommended. SGAs used for emergencies should have a possibility for gastric drainage. Considering the scientific data and the large clinical experience with the LM in medical routine and emergency situations in children, currently only the LM can be recommended for alternative (i.e. non-intubation) airway management in children. If alternative airway management is part of a local emergency strategy, the LM should be provided in all pediatric sizes (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4 and 5) for prehospital and in-hospital emergency use and all users should be regularly trained in its application.

  8. Systematic Molecular Phenotyping: A Path Toward Precision Emergency Medicine?

    PubMed

    Limkakeng, Alexander T; Monte, Andrew A; Kabrhel, Christopher; Puskarich, Michael; Heitsch, Laura; Tsalik, Ephraim L; Shapiro, Nathan I

    2016-10-01

    Precision medicine is an emerging approach to disease treatment and prevention that considers variability in patient genes, environment, and lifestyle. However, little has been written about how such research impacts emergency care. Recent advances in analytical techniques have made it possible to characterize patients in a more comprehensive and sophisticated fashion at the molecular level, promising highly individualized diagnosis and treatment. Among these techniques are various systematic molecular phenotyping analyses (e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics). Although a number of emergency physicians use such techniques in their research, widespread discussion of these approaches has been lacking in the emergency care literature and many emergency physicians may be unfamiliar with them. In this article, we briefly review the underpinnings of such studies, note how they already impact acute care, discuss areas in which they might soon be applied, and identify challenges in translation to the emergency department (ED). While such techniques hold much promise, it is unclear whether the obstacles to translating their findings to the ED will be overcome in the near future. Such obstacles include validation, cost, turnaround time, user interface, decision support, standardization, and adoption by end-users. © 2016 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  9. The Society for Academic Emergency Medicine and Association of Academic Chairs in Emergency Medicine 2009-2010 emergency medicine faculty salary and benefits survey.

    PubMed

    Watts, Susan H; Promes, Susan B; Hockberger, Robert

    2012-07-01

    he objective was to report the results of a survey conducted jointly by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) and the Association of Academic Chairs in Emergency Medicine (AACEM) of faculty salaries, benefits, work hours, and department demographics for institutions sponsoring residency programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Residency Review Committee for Emergency Medicine (RRC-EM). Data represent information collected for the 2009-2010 academic year through an electronic survey developed by SAEM and AACEM and distributed by the Office for Survey Research at the University of Michigan to all emergency department (ED) chairs and chiefs at institutions sponsoring accredited residency programs. Information was collected regarding faculty salaries and benefits; clinical and nonclinical work hours; sources of department income and department expenses; and selected demographic information regarding faculty, EDs, and hospitals. Salary data were sorted by program geographic region and faculty characteristics such as training and board certification, academic rank, department title, and sex. Demographic data were analyzed with regard to numerous criteria, including ED staffing levels, patient volumes and length of stay, income sources, salary incentive components, research funding, and specific type and value of fringe benefits offered. Data were compared with previous SAEM studies and the most recent faculty salary survey conducted by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). Ninety-four of 155 programs (61%) responded, yielding salary data on 1,644 faculty, of whom 1,515 (92%) worked full-time. The mean salary for all faculty nationwide was $237,884, with the mean ranging from $232,819 to $246,853 depending on geographic region. The mean salary for first-year faculty nationwide was $204,833. Benefits had an estimated mean value of $48,915 for all faculty, with the mean ranging from $37,813 to $55

  10. Core Content for Wilderness Medicine Training: Development of a Wilderness Medicine Track Within an Emergency Medicine Residency.

    PubMed

    Schrading, Walter A; Battaglioli, Nicole; Drew, Jonathan; McClure, Sarah Frances

    2018-03-01

    Wilderness medicine training has become increasingly popular among medical professionals with numerous educational opportunities nationwide. Curricula for fellowship programs and for medical student education have previously been developed and published, but a specific curriculum for wilderness medicine education during emergency medicine (EM) residency has not. The objective of this study is to create a longitudinal wilderness medicine curriculum that can be incorporated into an EM residency program. Interest-specific tracks are becoming increasingly common in EM training. We chose this model to develop our curriculum specific to wilderness medicine. Outlined in the article is a 3-year longitudinal course of study that includes a core didactic curriculum and a plan for graduated level of responsibility. The core content is specifically related to the required EM core content for residency training with additions specific to wilderness medicine for the residents who pursue the track. The wilderness medicine curriculum would give residencies a framework that can be used to foster learning for residents interested in wilderness medicine. It would enhance the coverage of wilderness and environmental core content education for all EM residents in the program. It would provide wilderness-specific education and experience for interested residents, allowing them to align their residency program requirements through a focused area of study and enhancing their curriculum vitae at graduation. Finally, given the popularity of wilderness medicine, the presence of a wilderness medicine track may improve recruitment for the residency program. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Technology-enhanced simulation in emergency medicine: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ilgen, Jonathan S; Sherbino, Jonathan; Cook, David A

    2013-02-01

    Technology-enhanced simulation is used frequently in emergency medicine (EM) training programs. Evidence for its effectiveness, however, remains unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of technology-enhanced simulation for training in EM and identify instructional design features associated with improved outcomes by conducting a systematic review. The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, PsychINFO, Scopus, key journals, and previous review bibliographies through May 2011. Original research articles in any language were selected if they compared simulation to no intervention or another educational activity for the purposes of training EM health professionals (including student and practicing physicians, midlevel providers, nurses, and prehospital providers). Reviewers evaluated study quality and abstracted information on learners, instructional design (curricular integration, feedback, repetitive practice, mastery learning), and outcomes. From a collection of 10,903 articles, 85 eligible studies enrolling 6,099 EM learners were identified. Of these, 56 studies compared simulation to no intervention, 12 compared simulation with another form of instruction, and 19 compared two forms of simulation. Effect sizes were pooled using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity among these studies was large (I(2) ≥ 50%). Among studies comparing simulation to no intervention, pooled effect sizes were large (range = 1.13 to 1.48) for knowledge, time, and skills and small to moderate for behaviors with patients (0.62) and patient effects (0.43; all p < 0.02 except patient effects p = 0.12). Among comparisons between simulation and other forms of instruction, the pooled effect sizes were small (≤ 0.33) for knowledge, time, and process skills (all p > 0.1). Qualitative comparisons of different simulation curricula are limited, although feedback, mastery learning, and higher fidelity were associated with improved learning

  12. Global Emergency Medicine: A review of the literature from 2017.

    PubMed

    Becker, Torben K; Trehan, Indi; Hayward, Alison Schroth; Hexom, Braden J; Kivlehan, Sean M; Lunney, Kevin M; Modi, Payal; Osei-Ampofo, Maxwell; Pousson, Amelia; Cho, Daniel K; Levine, Adam C

    2018-05-23

    The Global Emergency Medicine Literature Review (GEMLR) conducts an annual search of peer-reviewed and gray literature relevant to global emergency medicine (EM) to identify, review, and disseminate the most important new research in this field to a global audience of academics and clinical practitioners. This year, 17,722 articles written in three languages were identified by our electronic search. These articles were distributed among 20 reviewers for initial screening based on their relevance to the field of global EM. Another two reviewers searched the gray literature, yielding an additional 11 articles. All articles that were deemed appropriate by at least one reviewer and approved by their editor underwent formal scoring of overall quality and importance. Two independent reviewers scored all articles. A total of 848 articles met our inclusion criteria and underwent full review. 63% were categorized as emergency care in resource-limited settings, 23% as disaster and humanitarian response, and 14% as emergency medicine development. 21 articles received scores of 18.5 or higher out of a maximum score 20 and were selected for formal summary and critique. Inter-rater reliability testing between reviewers revealed a Cohen's Kappa of 0.344. In 2017, the total number of articles identified by our search continued to increase. Studies and reviews with a focus on infectious diseases, pediatrics, and trauma represented the majority of top-scoring articles. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Global emergency medicine journal club: social media responses to the January 2014 online emergency medicine journal club on subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chan, Teresa M; Rosenberg, Hans; Lin, Michelle

    2014-07-01

    From January 20 to 24, 2014, Annals continued a successful collaboration with an academic Web site, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM), to host another Global Emergency Medicine Journal Club session featuring the 2013 Journal of the American Medical Association article "Clinical Decision Rules to Rule Out Subarachnoid Hemorrhage for Acute Headache" by Perry et al. This online journal club used the power of rapid Twitter conversations, a live videocast with the authors, and more detailed discussions hosted on the ALiEM Web site's comment section. There were more than 1,431 individuals from 501 cities in 59 countries who viewed the blog post. During this 5-day event, 28 comments (average word count 153 words) and 206 tweets were made. This summary article details the community discussion, shared insights, and analytic data generated during this novel, multiplatform approach. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. American Board of Emergency Medicine Report on Residency and Fellowship Training Information (2017-2018).

    PubMed

    Nelson, Lewis S; Keim, Samuel M; Baren, Jill M; Beeson, Michael S; Carius, Michael L; Chudnofsky, Carl R; Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Goyal, Deepi G; Kowalenko, Terry; Marco, Catherine A; Muelleman, Robert L; Johnston, Mary M; Joldersma, Kevin B

    2018-05-01

    The American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) gathers extensive background information on emergency medicine-sponsored residency and fellowship programs, as well as the residents and fellows training in those programs. We present the 2018 annual report on the status of US emergency medicine training programs. Copyright © 2018 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Global Emergency Medicine: A Review of the Literature From 2016.

    PubMed

    Becker, Torben K; Hansoti, Bhakti; Bartels, Susan; Hayward, Alison Schroth; Hexom, Braden J; Lunney, Kevin M; Marsh, Regan H; Osei-Ampofo, Maxwell; Trehan, Indi; Chang, Julia; Levine, Adam C

    2017-09-01

    The Global Emergency Medicine Literature Review (GEMLR) conducts an annual search of peer-reviewed and gray literature relevant to global emergency medicine (EM) to identify, review, and disseminate the most important new research in this field to a global audience of academics and clinical practitioners. This year 13,890 articles written in four languages were identified by our search. These articles were distributed among 20 reviewers for initial screening based on their relevance to the field of global EM. An additional two reviewers searched the gray literature. All articles that were deemed appropriate by at least one reviewer and approved by their editor underwent formal scoring of overall quality and importance. Two independent reviewers scored all articles. A total of 716 articles met our inclusion criteria and underwent full review. Fifty-nine percent were categorized as emergency care in resource-limited settings, 17% as EM development, and 24% as disaster and humanitarian response. Nineteen articles received scores of 18.5 or higher out of a maximum score of 20 and were selected for formal summary and critique. Inter-rater reliability testing between reviewers revealed Cohen's kappa of 0.441. In 2016, the total number of articles identified by our search continued to increase. The proportion of articles in each of the three categories remained stable. Studies and reviews with a focus on infectious diseases, pediatrics, and the use of ultrasound in resource-limited settings represented the majority of articles selected for final review. © 2017 The Authors. Academic Emergency Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM).

  16. Case study and case-based research in emergency nursing and care: Theoretical foundations and practical application in paramedic pre-hospital clinical judgment and decision-making of patients with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Shaban, Ramon Z; Considine, Julie; Fry, Margaret; Curtis, Kate

    2017-02-01

    Generating knowledge through quality research is fundamental to the advancement of professional practice in emergency nursing and care. There are multiple paradigms, designs and methods available to researchers to respond to challenges in clinical practice. Systematic reviews, randomised control trials and other forms of experimental research are deemed the gold standard of evidence, but there are comparatively few such trials in emergency care. In some instances it is not possible or appropriate to undertake experimental research. When exploring new or emerging problems where there is limited evidence available, non-experimental methods are required and appropriate. This paper provides the theoretical foundations and an exemplar of the use of case study and case-based research to explore a new and emerging problem in the context of emergency care. It examines pre-hospital clinical judgement and decision-making of mental illness by paramedics. Using an exemplar the paper explores the theoretical foundations and conceptual frameworks of case study, it explains how cases are defined and the role researcher in this form of inquiry, it details important principles and the procedures for data gathering and analysis, and it demonstrates techniques to enhance trustworthiness and credibility of the research. Moreover, it provides theoretically and practical insights into using case study in emergency care. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [The efficiency of emergency therapy in patients with head-brain, multiple injury. Quality assurance in emergency medicine].

    PubMed

    Schüttler, J; Schmitz, B; Bartsch, A C; Fischer, M

    1995-12-01

    For cardio-pulmonary resuscitation there are standardized treatment concepts, but there have been few prospective investigations examining the efficacy of prehospital advanced trauma life support and its effect on the outcome in patients with severe head injury and multiple trauma treated within the German emergency system. The results of this study underline the importance of intensive prehospital treatment and highlight some problems that should be taken into account in future in the training of emergency physicians. METHODS. A total of 179 patients with cerebral trauma were investigated. Data obtained included demographic and logistic data of the patients and the emergency physicians, diagnoses and treatment at the scene of the accident and state of the patient on admission in each case. Having divided the patients into three groups by severity of the trauma, we distinguished between sufficient and insufficient treatment and assessed infusion therapy, ventilatory support, positioning and immobilization, and analgesic and sedative therapy. For statistical analysis of the data we used chi 2-test and Fisher's exact test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS. There were 102 patients who had sustained a cerebral trauma without other life-threatening lesions (score 1), 40 with multiple trauma (score 2) and 37 with multiple trauma (score 3). On average 2.4 IV lines were established and the patients received 1186 +/- 765 cc of crystalloid in addition to 801 +/- 411 cc of colloid fluids. In all groups, patients who received adequate infusion therapy had a better outcome; even in the group with score 1 significantly fewer had a fatal outcome. In all, 167 (93%) patients had endotracheal tubes placed, and in 150 cases (84%) ventilatory therapy was considered sufficient. The proportion of score 1 patients with sufficient ventilatory support who had a fatal outcome was significantly lower than that in the group with insufficient treatment. In patients with multiple

  18. Point-of-care ultrasonography by pediatric emergency medicine physicians.

    PubMed

    Marin, Jennifer R; Lewiss, Resa E

    2015-04-01

    Emergency physicians have used point-of-care ultrasonography since the 1990 s. Pediatric emergency medicine physicians have more recently adopted this technology. Point-of-care ultrasonography is used for various scenarios, particularly the evaluation of soft tissue infections or blunt abdominal trauma and procedural guidance. To date, there are no published statements from national organizations specifically for pediatric emergency physicians describing the incorporation of point-of-care ultrasonography into their practice. This document outlines how pediatric emergency departments may establish a formal point-of-care ultrasonography program. This task includes appointing leaders with expertise in point-of-care ultrasonography, effectively training and credentialing physicians in the department, and providing ongoing quality assurance reviews. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Refining the Enrolment Process in Emergency Medicine Research.

    PubMed

    Sahan, Kate M; Channon, Keith M; Choudhury, Robin P; Kharbanda, Rajesh K; Lee, Regent; Sheehan, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Research in the emergency setting involving patients with acute clinical conditions is needed if there are to be advances in diagnosis and treatment. But research in these areas poses ethical and practical challenges. One of these is the general inability to obtain informed consent due to the patient's lack of mental capacity and insufficient time to contact legal representatives. Regulatory frameworks which allow this research to proceed with a consent 'waiver', provided patients lack mental capacity, miss important ethical subtleties. One of these is the varying nature of mental capacity among emergency medicine patients. Not only is their capacity variable and often unclear, but some patients are also likely to be able to engage with the researcher and the context to varying degrees. In this paper we describe the key elements of a novel enrolment process for emergency medicine research that refines the consent waiver and fully engages with the ethical rationale for consent and, in this context, its waiver. The process is verbal but independently documented during the 'emergent' stages of the research. It provides appropriate engagement with the patient, is context-sensitive and better addresses ethical subtleties. In line with regulation, full written consent for on-going participation in the research is obtained once the emergency is passed.

  20. Toward a definition of teamwork in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Rosemarie; Kozlowski, Steve W J; Shapiro, Marc J; Salas, Eduardo

    2008-11-01

    The patient safety literature from the past decade emphasizes the importance of teamwork skills and human factors in preventing medical errors. Simulation has been used within aviation, the military, and now health care domains to effectively teach and assess teamwork skills. However, attempts to expand and generalize research and training principles have been limited due to a lack of a well-defined, well-researched taxonomy. As part of the 2008 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference on "The Science of Simulation in Healthcare," a subset of the group expertise and group assessment breakout sections identified evidence-based recommendations for an emergency medicine (EM) team taxonomy and performance model. This material was disseminated within the morning session and was discussed both during breakout sessions and via online messaging. Below we present a well-defined, well-described taxonomy that will help guide design, implementation, and assessment of simulation-based team training programs.

  1. Diagnostic value of prehospital ECG in acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Bobinger, Tobias; Kallmünzer, Bernd; Kopp, Markus; Kurka, Natalia; Arnold, Martin; Heider, Stefan; Schwab, Stefan; Köhrmann, Martin

    2017-05-16

    To investigate the diagnostic yield of prehospital ECG monitoring provided by emergency medical services in the case of suspected stroke. Consecutive patients with acute stroke admitted to our tertiary stroke center via emergency medical services and with available prehospital ECG were prospectively included during a 12-month study period. We assessed prehospital ECG recordings and compared the results to regular 12-lead ECG on admission and after continuous ECG monitoring at the stroke unit. Overall, 259 patients with prehospital ECG recording were included in the study (90.3% ischemic stroke, 9.7% intracerebral hemorrhage). Atrial fibrillation (AF) was detected in 25.1% of patients, second-degree or greater atrioventricular block in 5.4%, significant ST-segment elevation in 5.0%, and ventricular ectopy in 9.7%. In 18 patients, a diagnosis of new-onset AF with direct clinical consequences for the evaluation and secondary prevention of stroke was established by the prehospital recordings. In 2 patients, the AF episodes were limited to the prehospital period and were not detected by ECG on admission or during subsequent monitoring at the stroke unit. Of 126 patients (48.6%) with relevant abnormalities in the prehospital ECG, 16.7% received medical antiarrhythmic therapy during transport to the hospital, and 6.4% were transferred to a cardiology unit within the first 24 hours in the hospital. In a selected cohort of patients with stroke, the in-field recordings of the ECG detected a relevant rate of cardiac arrhythmia. The results can add to the in-hospital evaluation and should be considered in prehospital care of acute stroke. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Intern underperformance is detected more frequently in emergency medicine rotations.

    PubMed

    Aram, Narelle; Brazil, Victoria; Davin, Lorna; Greenslade, Jaimi

    2013-02-01

    To determine the frequency and nature of intern underperformance as documented on in-training assessment forms. A retrospective review of intern assessment forms from a 2 year period (2009-2010) was conducted at a tertiary referral hospital in Brisbane, Queensland. The frequency of interns assessed as 'requiring substantial assistance' and/or 'requires further development' on mid- or end-of-term assessment forms was determined. Forms were analysed by the clinical rotation, time of year and domain(s) of clinical practice in which underperformance was documented. During 2009 and 2010 the overall documented incidence of intern underperformance was 2.4% (95% CI 1.5-3.9%). Clinical rotation in emergency medicine detected significantly more underperformance compared with other rotations (P < 0.01). Interns predominantly had difficulty with 'clinical judgment and decision-making skills', 'time management skills' and 'teamwork and colleagues' (62.5%, 55% and 32.5% of underperforming assessments, respectively). Time of the year did not affect frequency of underperformance. A proportion of 13.4% (95% CI 9.2-19.0%) of interns working at the institution over the study period received at least one assessment in which underperformance was documented. Seventy-six per cent of those interns who had underperformance identified by mid-term assessment successfully completed the term following remediation. The prevalence of underperformance among interns is low, although higher than previously suggested. Emergency medicine detects relatively more interns in difficulty than other rotations. © 2012 The Authors. EMA © 2012 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  3. Interprofessional education of medical students and paramedics in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Hallikainen, J; Väisänen, O; Rosenberg, P H; Silfvast, T; Niemi-Murola, L

    2007-03-01

    Emergency medicine is team work from the field to the hospital and therefore it is also important for physicians to understand the work of paramedics, and vice versa. Interprofessional emergency medicine education for medical and paramedic students in Helsinki was started in 2001. It consisted of a 15 European credit transfer system (ECTS) credits programme combining 22 students in 2001. In 2005, the number of students had increased to 25. The programme consisted of three parts: acute illness in childhood and adults (AI), advanced life support (ALS) and trauma life support (TLS). In this paper, we describe the concept of interprofessional education of medical students and paramedics in emergency medicine. After finishing the programmes in 2001 and in 2005, the students' opinions regarding the education were collected using a standardized questionnaire. There were good ratings for the courses in AI (2001 vs. 2005, whole group; 4.3 +/- 0.7 vs. 4.2 +/- 0.4, P = 0.44) ALS (4.7 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.4 +/- 0.5, P = 0.06) and TLS (3.9 +/- 0.7 vs. 4.4 +/- 0.5, P = 0.01) in both years. Most of the medical students considered that this kind of co-education should be arranged for all medical students (2001 vs. 2005; 4.8 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.4 +/- 0.5, P = 0.02) and should be obligatory (3.5 +/- 1.5 vs. 3.1 +/- 1.3, P = 0.35). Co-education was well received and determined by the students as an effective way of improving their knowledge of emergency medicine and medical skills. The programme was rated as very useful and it should be included in the educational curriculum of both student groups.

  4. Sports prehospital-immediate care and spinal injury: not a car crash in sight.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jonathan R; Carlin, Brian

    2012-12-01

    The prehospital management of serious injury is a key skill required of pitch-side medical staff. Previously, specific training in sports prehospital-immediate care was lacking or not of a comparable standard to other aspects of emergency care. Many principles have been drawn from general prehospital care or in-hospital training courses. This article discusses sports prehospital-immediate care as a niche of general prehospital care, using spinal injury management as an illustration of the major differences. It highlights the need to develop the sport-specific prehospital evidence base, rather than relying exclusively on considerations relevant to prolonged immobilisation of multiply injured casualties from motor vehicle accidents, falls from height or burns.

  5. Highlights in emergency medicine medical education research: 2008.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Susan E; Coates, Wendy C; Khun, Gloria J; Fisher, Jonathan; Shayne, Philip; Lin, Michelle

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight medical education research studies published in 2008 that were methodologically superior and whose outcomes were pertinent to teaching and education in emergency medicine. Through a PubMed search of the English language literature in 2008, 30 medical education research studies were independently identified as hypothesis-testing investigations and measurements of educational interventions. Six reviewers independently rated and scored all articles based on eight anchors, four of which related to methodologic criteria. Articles were ranked according to their total rating score. A ranking agreement among the reviewers of 83% was established a priori as a minimum for highlighting articles in this review. Five medical education research studies met the a priori criteria for inclusion and are reviewed and summarized here. Four of these employed experimental or quasi-experimental methodology. Although technology was not a component of the structured literature search employed to identify the candidate articles for this review, 14 of the articles identified, including four of the five highlighted articles, employed or studied technology as a focus of the educational research. Overall, 36% of the reviewed studies were supported by funding; three of the highlighted articles were funded studies. This review highlights quality medical education research studies published in 2008, with outcomes of relevance to teaching and education in emergency medicine. It focuses on research methodology, notes current trends in the use of technology for learning in emergency medicine, and suggests future avenues for continued rigorous study in education.

  6. Diversity in emergency medicine education: expanding the horizon.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Steven H; Moreno-Walton, Lisa; Ezenkwele, Ugo A; Heron, Sheryl L

    2011-10-01

    An emergency medicine (EM)-based curriculum on diversity, inclusion, and cultural competency can also serve as a mechanism to introduce topics on health care disparities. Although the objectives of such curricula and the potential benefits to EM trainees are apparent, there are relatively few resources available for EM program directors to use to develop these specialized curricula. The object of this article is to 1) broadly discuss the current state of curricula of diversity, inclusion, and cultural competency in EM training programs; 2) identify tools and disseminate strategies to embed issues of disparities in health care in the creation of the curriculum; and 3) provide resources for program directors to develop their own curricula. A group of EM program directors with an interest in cultural competency distributed a preworkshop survey through the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) e-mail list to EM program directors to assess the current state of diversity and cultural competency training in EM programs. Approximately 50 members attended a workshop during the 2011 CORD Academic Assembly as part of the Best Practices track, where the results of the survey were disseminated and discussed. In addition to the objectives listed above, the presenters reviewed the literature regarding the rationale for a cultural competency curriculum and its relationship to addressing health care disparities, the relationship to unconscious physician bias, and the Tool for Assessing Cultural Competence Training (TACCT) model for curriculum development. © 2011 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  7. Affective temperament and executive functions in emergency medicine professionals.

    PubMed

    Jaracz, Marcin; Paciorek, Przemysław; Buciński, Adam; Borkowska, Alina

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that choice of profession is related to differences in affective temperament, which is probably due to various predispositions needed to efficiently perform particular professions. The aim of the present study was to assess affective temperament and executive functions in a sample of emergency medicine professionals. 75 emergency medicine professionals were enrolled in the study. Affective temperament was assessed by means of TEMPS-A. Executive functions were assessed by means of Trail Making Test and Stroop Color Word Interference Test. Subjects showed significantly higher rates of hyperthymic, compared to depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments. The principal component analysis revealed that hyperthymic temperament contributes to a different factor, than the remaining ones. Higher rates of depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments were related to poorer performance in Trail Making Test, whereas hyperthymic temperament had the opposite effect. Due to the size of the sample, results of the present study may have lacked power to show all the relationships between tested variables. Hyperthymic temperament promotes efficient performance of complex tasks under time pressure. Depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments have the opposite effect. This makes hyperthymic temperament a desirable trait in emergency medicine professionals, performing complex medical tasks under extreme conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 2015 Pediatric Research Priorities in Prehospital Care.

    PubMed

    Browne, Lorin R; Shah, Manish I; Studnek, Jonathan R; Farrell, Brittany M; Mattrisch, Linda M; Reynolds, Stacy; Ostermayer, Daniel G; Brousseau, David C; Lerner, E Brooke

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric prehospital research has been limited, but work in this area is starting to increase particularly with the growth of pediatric-specific research endeavors. Given the increased interest in pediatric prehospital research, there is a need to identify specific research priorities that incorporate the perspective of prehospital providers and other emergency medical services (EMS) stakeholders. To develop a list of specific research priorities that is relevant, specific, and important to the practice of pediatric prehospital care. Three independent committees of EMS providers and researchers were recruited. Each committee developed a list of research topics. These topics were collated and used to initiate a modified Delphi process for developing consensus on a list of research priorities. Participants were the committee members. Topics approved by 80% were retained as research priorities. Topics that were rejected by more than 50% were eliminated. The remaining topics were modified and included on subsequent surveys. Each survey allowed respondents to add additional topics. The surveys were continued until all topics were either successfully retained or rejected and no new topics were suggested. Fifty topics were identified by the three independent committees. These topics were included on the initial electronic survey. There were 5 subsequent surveys. At the completion of the final survey a total of 29 research priorities were identified. These research priorities covered the following study areas: airway management, asthma, cardiac arrest, pain, patient-family interaction, resource utilization, seizure, sepsis, spinal immobilization, toxicology, trauma, training and competency, and vascular access. The research priorities were very specific. For example, under airway the priorities were: "identify the optimal device for effectively managing the airway in the prehospital setting" and "identify the optimal airway management device for specific disease processes

  9. Systematic Molecular Phenotyping: A Path Towards Precision Emergency Medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Limkakeng, Alexander T.; Monte, Andrew; Kabrhel, Christopher; Puskarich, Michael; Heitsch, Laura; Tsalik, Ephraim L.; Shapiro, Nathan I.

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine is an emerging approach to disease treatment and prevention that considers variability in patient genes, environment, and lifestyle. However, little has been written about how such research impacts emergency care. Recent advances in analytical techniques have made it possible to characterize patients in a more comprehensive and sophisticated fashion at the molecular level, promising highly individualized diagnosis and treatment. Among these techniques are various systematic molecular phenotyping analyses (e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics). Although a number of emergency physicians use such techniques in their research, widespread discussion of these approaches has been lacking in the emergency care literature and many emergency physicians may be unfamiliar with them. In this article, we briefly review the underpinnings of such studies, note how they already impact acute care, discuss areas in which they might soon be applied, and identify challenges in translation to the emergency department. While such techniques hold much promise, it is unclear whether the obstacles to translating their findings to the emergency department will be overcome in the near future. Such obstacles include validation, cost, turnaround time, user interface, decision support, standardization, and adoption by end users. PMID:27288269

  10. Clinical Mimics: An Emergency Medicine Focused Review of Anxiety Mimics: Journal of Emergency Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-12-09

    acutely agitated or moderately anxious patient, therapies that possess quick onset of action are the most useful. Benzodiazepines are the recommended...lorazepam 0.50mg or diazepam and midazolam in 1-2 mg increments.7 These medications should be used for acute treatment in the ED, with few pills provided...http://www.epilepsy.com/ learn/types-epilepsy- syndromes /temporal-lobe-epilepsy 13. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Myasthenia Gravis. Available from: http

  11. Obstetric training in Emergency Medicine: a needs assessment.

    PubMed

    Janicki, Adam James; MacKuen, Courteney; Hauspurg, Alisse; Cohn, Jamieson

    2016-01-01

    Identification and management of obstetric emergencies is essential in emergency medicine (EM), but exposure to pregnant patients during EM residency training is frequently limited. To date, there is little data describing effective ways to teach residents this material. Current guidelines require completion of 2 weeks of obstetrics or 10 vaginal deliveries, but it is unclear whether this instills competency. We created a 15-item survey evaluating resident confidence and knowledge related to obstetric emergencies. To assess confidence, we asked residents about their exposure and comfort level regarding obstetric emergencies and eight common presentations and procedures. We assessed knowledge via multiple-choice questions addressing common obstetric presentations, pelvic ultrasound image, and cardiotocography interpretation. The survey was distributed to residency programs utilizing the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) listserv. The survey was completed by 212 residents, representing 55 of 204 (27%) programs belonging to CORD and 11.2% of 1,896 eligible residents. Fifty-six percent felt they had adequate exposure to obstetric emergencies. The overall comfort level was 2.99 (1-5 scale) and comfort levels of specific presentations and procedures ranged from 2.58 to 3.97; all increased moderately with postgraduate year (PGY) level. Mean overall percentage of items answered correctly on the multiple-choice questions was 58% with no statistical difference by PGY level. Performance on individual questions did not differ by PGY level. The identification and management of obstetric emergencies is the cornerstone of EM. We found preliminary evidence of a concerning lack of resident comfort regarding obstetric conditions and knowledge deficits on core obstetrics topics. EM residents may benefit from educational interventions to increase exposure to these topics.

  12. Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing in Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Yun, Brian J; Prabhakar, Anand M; Warsh, Jonathan; Kaplan, Robert; Brennan, John; Dempsey, Kyle E; Raja, Ali S

    2016-06-01

    Value in emergency medicine is determined by both patient-important outcomes and the costs associated with achieving them. However, measuring true costs is challenging. Without an understanding of costs, emergency department (ED) leaders will be unable to determine which interventions might improve value for their patients. Although ongoing research may determine which outcomes are meaningful, an accurate costing system is also needed. This article reviews current costing mechanisms in the ED and their pitfalls. It then describes how time-driven activity-based costing may be superior to these current costing systems. Time-driven activity-based costing, in addition to being a more accurate costing system, can be used for process improvements in the ED. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Global emergency medicine: a review of the literature from 2014.

    PubMed

    Becker, Torben K; Bartels, Susan; Hansoti, Bhakti; Jacquet, Gabrielle A; Lunney, Kevin; Marsh, Regan; Osei-Ampofo, Maxwell; Lam, Christopher; Levine, Adam C

    2015-08-01

    The Global Emergency Medicine Literature Review (GEMLR) conducts an annual search of peer-reviewed and gray literature relevant to global emergency medicine (EM) to identify, review, and disseminate the most important new research in this field to a worldwide audience of academics and clinical practitioners. This year 6,376 articles written in six languages were identified by our search. These articles were distributed among 20 reviewers for initial screening based on their relevance to the field of global EM. An additional two reviewers searched the gray literature. A total of 477 articles were deemed appropriate by at least one reviewer and approved by the editor for formal scoring of overall quality and importance. Of the 477 articles that met our predetermined inclusion criteria, 63% were categorized as emergency care in resource-limited settings, 13% as EM development, and 23% as disaster and humanitarian response. Twenty-five articles received scores of 17.5 or higher and were selected for formal summary and critique. Inter-rater reliability for two reviewers using our scoring system was good, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.657 (95% confidence interval = 0.589 to 0.713). Studies and reviews focusing on infectious diseases, trauma, and the diagnosis and treatment of diseases common in resource-limited settings represented the majority of articles selected for final review. In 2014, there were fewer total articles, but a slightly higher absolute number of articles screening in for formal scoring, when compared to the 2013 review. The number of EM development articles decreased, while the number of disaster and humanitarian response articles increased. As in prior years, the majority of articles focused on infectious diseases and trauma. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  14. Global Emergency Medicine: A Review of the Literature From 2015.

    PubMed

    Becker, Torben K; Hansoti, Bhakti; Bartels, Susan; Bisanzo, Mark; Jacquet, Gabrielle A; Lunney, Kevin; Marsh, Regan; Osei-Ampofo, Maxwell; Trehan, Indi; Lam, Christopher; Levine, Adam C

    2016-10-01

    The Global Emergency Medicine Literature Review (GEMLR) conducts an annual search of peer-reviewed and gray literature relevant to global emergency medicine (EM) to identify, review, and disseminate the most important new research in this field to a global audience of academics and clinical practitioners. This year 12,435 articles written in six languages were identified by our search. These articles were distributed among 20 reviewers for initial screening based on their relevance to the field of global EM. An additional two reviewers searched the gray literature. A total of 723 articles were deemed appropriate by at least one reviewer and approved by their editor for formal scoring of overall quality and importance. Two independent reviewers scored all articles. A total of 723 articles met our predetermined inclusion criteria and underwent full review. Sixty percent were categorized as emergency care in resource-limited settings (ECRLS), 17% as EM development (EMD), and 23% as disaster and humanitarian response (DHR). Twenty-four articles received scores of 18.5 or higher out of a maximum score 20 and were selected for formal summary and critique. Inter-rater reliability between reviewers gave an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.71 (95% confidence interval = 0.66 to 0.75). Studies and reviews with a focus on infectious diseases, trauma, and the diagnosis and treatment of diseases common in resource-limited settings represented the majority of articles selected for final review. In 2015, there were almost twice as many articles found by our search compared to the 2014 review. The number of EMD articles increased, while the number ECRLS articles decreased. The number of DHR articles remained stable. As in prior years, the majority of articles focused on infectious diseases. © 2016 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  15. Current and emerging applications of 3D printing in medicine.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Chya-Yan; Guvendiren, Murat

    2017-06-07

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing enables the production of anatomically matched and patient-specific devices and constructs with high tunability and complexity. It also allows on-demand fabrication with high productivity in a cost-effective manner. As a result, 3D printing has become a leading manufacturing technique in healthcare and medicine for a wide range of applications including dentistry, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, engineered tissue models, medical devices, anatomical models and drug formulation. Today, 3D printing is widely adopted by the healthcare industry and academia. It provides commercially available medical products and a platform for emerging research areas including tissue and organ printing. In this review, our goal is to discuss the current and emerging applications of 3D printing in medicine. A brief summary on additive manufacturing technologies and available printable materials is also given. The technological and regulatory barriers that are slowing down the full implementation of 3D printing in the medical field are also discussed.

  16. Prehospital care in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lo, C B; Lai, K K; Mak, K P

    2000-09-01

    A quick and efficient prehospital emergency response depends on immediate ambulance dispatch, patient assessment, triage, and transport to hospital. During 1999, the Ambulance Command of the Hong Kong Fire Services Department responded to 484,923 calls, which corresponds to 1329 calls each day. Cooperation between the Fire Services Department and the Hospital Authority exists at the levels of professional training of emergency medical personnel, quality assurance, and a coordinated disaster response. In response to the incident at the Hong Kong International Airport in the summer of 1999, when an aircraft overturned during landing, the pre-set quota system was implemented to send patients to designated accident and emergency departments. Furthermore, the 'first crew at the scene' model has been adopted, whereby the command is established and triage process started by the first ambulance crew members to reach the scene. The development of emergency protocols should be accompanied by good field-to-hospital and interhospital communication, the upgrading of decision-making skills, a good monitoring and auditing structure, and commitment to training and skills maintenance.

  17. Management of pediatric patients with concussion by emergency medicine physicians.

    PubMed

    Kinnaman, Karen A; Mannix, Rebekah C; Comstock, R Dawn; Meehan, William P

    2014-07-01

    Despite an increase in concussion diagnoses among pediatric patients, little is known about the management of pediatric patients with concussion in emergency departments (EDs). The objective of this study was to assess strategies used by emergency medicine physicians when treating pediatric patients with concussions. A 17-item questionnaire was e-mailed to members of the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Emergency Medicine. Two serial e-mails were distributed at 2-week intervals to nonresponders. The survey included multiple-choice and free-text questions that were created by the team of investigators on the basis of prior surveys of family practitioners and physical trainers. We collected demographic information and specific information regarding the use of medications, neuropsychological testing, neuroimaging, return-to-play decision making, and use of published guidelines. Simple descriptive statistics were used. Two hundred sixty-five (29%) physicians completed the questionnaire, of which 52% had been an attending physician for more than 10 years. Ninety-nine percent of the respondents reported managing concussions, with the majority (76%) seeing more than 24 patients with concussion per year. Most clinicians (81%) reported using a published guideline in their management of concussions. The symptoms most likely to prompt head imaging in the ED included a focal neurological deficit (92%), altered mental status (82%), and intractable vomiting (80%). Most (91%) respondents reported using medications to manage the symptoms of patients with concussion, mainly acetaminophen (78%) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (77%), whereas 54% of the respondents used ondansetron and 7% of the respondents used narcotics. More than half (56%) of the respondents referred patients with concussion for neuropsychological testing from the ED. Of those, nearly half (49%) of the respondents refer their patients to a sports concussion clinic, whereas 5% of the

  18. Clinical governance in pre-hospital care.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson-Steel, I; Edwards, S; Gough, M

    2001-01-01

    This article seeks to discover and recognize the importance of clinical governance within a new and emerging quality National Health Service (NHS) system. It evaluates the present state of prehospital care and recommends how change, via clinical governance, can ensure a paradigm shift from its currently fragmented state to a seamless ongoing patient care episode. Furthermore, it identifies the drivers of a quality revolution, examines the monitoring and supervision of quality care, and evaluates the role of evidence-based practice. A frank and open view of immediate care doctors is presented, with recommendations to improve the quality of skill delivery and reduce the disparity that exists. Finally, it reviews the current problems with pre-hospital care and projects a future course for quality and patient care excellence. PMID:11383428

  19. Post‐war development of emergency medicine in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    O'Hanlon, K P

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To (1) investigate emergency medical care priorities in Kosovo, (2) assess Kosovo's post‐war development of emergency medical services and (3) identify expectations. Methods An instrument with seven open‐ended questions, approved by the institutional review board, was designed for in‐person interviews (preferred) or written survey. The survey was administered in October 2003 at the Kosovo University Clinical Center, Pristina, Kosovo, and one regional hospital. Targeted participants were emergency care providers, clinical consultants and health policy consultants. Surveys were conducted by interview with simultaneous interpretation by a native Albanian speaker, an orthopaedic surgeon or in written Albanian form. The responses were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. Results 13 respondents participated in the study: 10 gave interviews and 3 provided written response; 7 were emergency care providers, 4 were emergency care consultants and 2 were health policy consultants. Emergency care priorities were defined as trauma, cardiac disease and suicide. Most respondents believed that emergency medicine as a specialised field was a post‐war development. The international community was credited with the provision of infrastructure, supplies and training. Most respondents denied any harm from international assistance. However, some respondents described instances of inappropriate international investment. Ongoing needs are training of providers and equipping of facilities and vehicles. Improved hospital management, political administration and international involvement are thought to be necessary for continued development. Conclusions Survey respondents agreed on priorities in emergency care, credited the international community with development to date, and identified administrative structures and international training support as the keys to ongoing development. PMID:17183036

  20. A Systems Medicine Approach: Translating Emerging Science into Individualized Wellness

    PubMed Central

    Bland, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    In today's aging society, more people are living with lifestyle-related noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Numerous opinion-leader organizations recommend lifestyle medicine as the first-line approach in NCD prevention and treatment. However, there is a strong need for a personalized approach as “one-size-fits-all” public health recommendations have been insufficient in addressing the interindividual differences in the diverse populations. Advancement in systems biology and the “omics” technologies has allowed comprehensive analysis of how complex biological systems are impacted upon external perturbations (e.g., nutrition and exercise), and therefore is gradually pushing personalized lifestyle medicine toward reality. Clinicians and healthcare practitioners have a unique opportunity in advocating lifestyle medicine because patients see them as a reliable source of advice. However, there are still numerous technical and logistic challenges to overcome before personal “big data” can be translated into actionable and clinically relevant solutions. Clinicians are also facing various issues prior to bringing personalized lifestyle medicine to their practice. Nevertheless, emerging ground-breaking research projects have given us a glimpse of how systems thinking and computational methods may lead to personalized health advice. It is important that all stakeholders work together to create the needed paradigm shift in healthcare before the rising epidemic of NCDs overwhelm the society, the economy, and the dated health system. PMID:29164177

  1. A student emergency medicine clerkship that uses new information technologies.

    PubMed

    Shesser, R; Smith, M; Kline, P; Turbiak, T; Rosenthal, R; Walls, R; Chen, H

    1985-01-01

    The effective teaching of clinical emergency medicine to medical students requires efficiency in the management of both student and faculty time. Presented is a course outline that makes use of the following elements to structure and augment clinical time in the emergency department (ED): Videotape to present a 19.7-hour series of faculty-produced lectures covering a "core" emergency medicine curriculum. A microcomputer to facilitate staggered scheduling of clinical time. A microcomputer test generation program that permits a secretary to formulate, administer, and grade a different final exam with each rotation. Computer-assisted recordkeeping for faculty evaluation of a student's clinical performance. Once established, this program can be administered with fewer than five faculty hours per month assisted by a part-time (25% full-time equivalent) clerical coordinator. The total cost for the instructional program is $86.37 per student using the new technologies, and $144.15 per student when presenting the same program using traditional teaching techniques. The use of new technologies in student teaching will therefore result in significant savings.

  2. The emergence of trust in clinics of alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Inge Kryger; Hansen, Vibeke Holm; Grünenberg, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Demands for alternative medicine have increased since the 1970s in nations in which western scientific evidence has become the basis for health care. This paradox has been the impetus to examine how trust emerges in clinics of alternative medicine. Alternative practitioners are self-regulated and the clients pay out of their own pockets to attend non-authorised treatments with very limited scientific evidence of their effects. Trust is a key issue in this context. However, only a few studies have dealt with the ways in which alternative practitioners win their clients' trust. Drawing on three qualitative studies and informing the empirical findings with a sociological concept of trust, this article provides new empirical insights on how trust emerges in Danish clinics of acupuncture, reflexology and homeopathy. The analysis demonstrates how trust is situational and emerges through both clients' susceptibility and practitioners' individual skill development and strategies, as well as from objects, place and space. Trust is developed on relational and bodily as well as material grounds. It is argued that the dynamics and elements of trust identified do not only minimalise uncertainties but sometimes convert these uncertainties into productive new ways for clients to address their ailments, life circumstances and perspectives. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  3. Paramedic attitudes regarding prehospital analgesia.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Brooks; Cone, David C; Meyer, Emily M; Larkin, Gregory L

    2013-01-01

    Although pain is a major reason why patients summon emergency medical services (EMS), prehospital medical providers administer analgesic agents at inappropriately low rates. One possible reason is the role of EMS provider attitudes. This study was conducted to elicit attitudes that may act as impediments or deterrents to administering analgesia in the prehospital environment. A qualitative methodology was employed. We recruited experienced paramedics, with at least one year of full-time fieldwork, from a variety of agencies in New England. We sought to include a balance of rural and urban as well as both private and hospital-based agencies. Participants at each site were selected through purposive sampling. A semistructured discussion guide was designed to elicit the paramedics' past experiences with administering analgesia, as well as reflections on their role in the care of patients in pain. Both interviews and focus groups were conducted. These sessions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were topic-analyzed and iteratively coded by two independent investigators utilizing the constant comparative method of Glaser and Strauss' Grounded Theory; coding ambiguities were resolved by consensus. Through a series of conceptual mapping and iterative code refinement, themes and domains were generated. Fifteen paramedics from five EMS agencies in three New England states were recruited. Major themes were: 1) a reluctance to administer opioids to patients without significant objective signs (e.g., deformity, hypertension); 2) a preoccupation with potential malingering; 3) ambivalence about the degree of pain control to target or to expect (e.g., aiming to "take the edge off"); 4) a fear of masking diagnostic symptoms; and 5) an aversion to aggressive dosing of opioids (e.g., initial doses of morphine did not exceed 5 mg). A number of potentially modifiable attitudinal barriers to appropriate pain management were revealed.

  4. Prehospital neurological deterioration in stroke.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Sabreena J; Sucharew, Heidi; Alwell, Kathleen; Moomaw, Charles J; Woo, Daniel; Adeoye, Opeolu; Flaherty, Matthew L; Ferioli, Simona; McMullan, Jason; Mackey, Jason; De Los Rios La Rosa, Felipe; Martini, Sharyl; Kissela, Brett M; Kleindorfer, Dawn O

    2018-04-27

    Patients with stroke can experience neurological deterioration in the prehospital setting. We evaluated patients with stroke to determine factors associated with prehospital neurological deterioration (PND). Among the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky region (population ~1.3 million), we screened all 15 local hospitals' admissions from 2010 for acute stroke and included patients aged ≥20. The GCS was compared between emergency medical services (EMS) arrival and hospital arrival, with decrease ≥2 points considered PND. Data obtained retrospectively included demographics, medical history and medication use, stroke subtype (eg, ischaemic stroke (IS), intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH)) and IS subtype (eg, small vessel, large vessel, cardioembolic), seizure at onset, time intervals between symptom onset, EMS arrival and hospital arrival, EMS level of training, and blood pressure and serum glucose on EMS arrival. Of 2708 total patients who had a stroke, 1092 patients (median (IQR) age 74 (61-83) years; 56% women; 21% black) were analysed. PND occurred in 129 cases (12%), including 9% of IS, 24% of ICH and 16% of SAH. In multivariable analysis, black race, atrial fibrillation, haemorrhagic subtype and ALS level of transport were associated with PND. Haemorrhage and atrial fibrillation is associated with PND in stroke, and further investigation is needed to establish whether PND can be predicted. Further studies are also needed to assess whether preferential transport of patients with deterioration to hospitals equipped with higher levels of care is beneficial, identify why race is associated with deterioration and to test therapies targeting PND. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Burnout and Associated Factors among Iranian Emergency Medicine Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    JALILI, Mohammad; SADEGHIPOUR ROODSARI, Gholamreza; BASSIR NIA, Anahita

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Emergency physicians are at risk of burnout, which can affect their mental health, as well as patient care. We assessed burnout level among Iranian emergency physicians and investigated demographic, work-related factors and stressors associated with higher burnout. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we surveyed all 188 emergency medicine residents and practitioners in Iran. We measured burnout using 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory assessing emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment, also demographic factors, work related factors and sources of stress in emergency department using anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive analysis, univariate analysis to evaluate association with higher score of burnout, and multivariate logistic regression analysis to predict high burnout in 3 subscales was performed. Results Totally, 165 questionnaires were filled (response rate: 88%; mean age: 33.6 years, 91% male). Mean burnout scores were 22.94 for emotional exhaustion (95% CI=20.78-25.01; moderate), 9.3 for depersonalization (95% CI=8.24-10.36; moderate to high), and 31.47 for personal accomplishment (95% CI=29.87-33.07; moderate to high). Frequent reported sources of stress were shortage of equipment, problem with work physical environment, and relationship with other services. All 19 sources of stress were associated with higher score of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; while twelve out of 19 were significantly associated with lower level of personal accomplishment. In logistic regression model, the significant predictors for high emotional exhaustion were work overload, feeling of insecurity for future career and difficulties to balance professional and private life. Conclusion Burnout is high among Iranian emergency medicine practitioners and some interventions can be proposed to reduce stress. PMID:26060665

  6. Burnout and Associated Factors among Iranian Emergency Medicine Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Jalili, Mohammad; Sadeghipour Roodsari, Gholamreza; Bassir Nia, Anahita

    2013-09-01

    Emergency physicians are at risk of burnout, which can affect their mental health, as well as patient care. We assessed burnout level among Iranian emergency physicians and investigated demographic, work-related factors and stressors associated with higher burnout. In a cross-sectional study, we surveyed all 188 emergency medicine residents and practitioners in Iran. We measured burnout using 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory assessing emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment, also demographic factors, work related factors and sources of stress in emergency department using anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive analysis, univariate analysis to evaluate association with higher score of burnout, and multivariate logistic regression analysis to predict high burnout in 3 subscales was performed. Totally, 165 questionnaires were filled (response rate: 88%; mean age: 33.6 years, 91% male). Mean burnout scores were 22.94 for emotional exhaustion (95% CI=20.78-25.01; moderate), 9.3 for depersonalization (95% CI=8.24-10.36; moderate to high), and 31.47 for personal accomplishment (95% CI=29.87-33.07; moderate to high). Frequent reported sources of stress were shortage of equipment, problem with work physical environment, and relationship with other services. All 19 sources of stress were associated with higher score of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; while twelve out of 19 were significantly associated with lower level of personal accomplishment. In logistic regression model, the significant predictors for high emotional exhaustion were work overload, feeling of insecurity for future career and difficulties to balance professional and private life. Burnout is high among Iranian emergency medicine practitioners and some interventions can be proposed to reduce stress.

  7. Well-Being among Emergency Medicine Resident Physicians: Results from the ABEM Longitudinal Study of Emergency Medicine Residents.

    PubMed

    Perina, Debra G; Marco, Catherine A; Smith-Coggins, Rebecca; Kowalenko, Terry; Johnston, Mary M; Harvey, Anne

    2018-05-11

    The Longitudinal Study of Emergency Medicine Residents (LSEMR) conducted by the American Board of Emergency Medicine queries a randomized cohort of emergency medicine (EM) residents. It is designed to identify residents' perceptions of their training, sources of stress, well-being level, and career choice satisfaction over time. This study utilizes LSEMR to identify resident well-being levels, career satisfaction, factors producing stress, and whether a specific cohort is more stressed than the overall respondent group. Data from five longitudinal cohorts were analyzed using descriptive statistics to assess stressors, career satisfaction, and self-reported resident well-being. Participants' answers were reported on a 5-point Likert scale. There were 766 residents who completed the survey in five cohorts. Respondents were 30 years old (median 29), male (66%), and predominantly White (79%). The most frequently encountered problems included "time devoted to documentation and bureaucratic issues," "knowing enough," and "crowding in the emergency department." In contrast, the least frequently reported problems included "gender discrimination," "EMS support," "minority discrimination," and "other residents." Respondents thought being an EM resident was fun and would select EM again. Less than 20% indicated they had seriously considered transferring to another EM program. Resident reports of health concerns changed over time, with fewer residents reporting they were exceptionally healthy in 2016. Residents are, overall, happy with their career choice. However, concern was expressed regarding continued well-being in training. Sources of stress in training are identified. Strategies should be developed to decrease identified stressors and increase well-being among EM residents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Auckland regional emergency medicine trainee mentoring uptake survey.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Gordon Michael Mike; Lawrey, Emma; Jones, Peter

    2017-10-01

    The primary objective of this study is to quantify how many Auckland region emergency medicine (EM) trainees would like a formal mentoring programme. The secondary objectives were to quantify how many Auckland region EM trainees would like to participate in a formal mentoring programme; to determine trainees' current understanding of mentoring; how trainees prefer mentors to be allocated; why trainees may want a mentor; what mentees perceive would be good qualities in a mentor; and trainees' prior experience with mentoring. Online survey of EM trainees in the Auckland region in June 2015. Of 61 potential respondents, 40 (65.6%) respondents replied to the survey. Of the 40, 38 (95%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 82.6-99.5) respondents indicated they would like some form of mentoring system, and of the 38, 25 (65.8%; 95% CI 49.8-78.9) preferred this to be formal. Of the 38, 19 (50%; 95% CI 34.9-65.2) currently wanted assistance obtaining a mentor. Of the 40, 30 (75%; 95% CI 59.6-86.0) are not currently in any form of mentoring relationship. Respondents believed that mentors would be most beneficial in critical incidents, career development and with work/life balance. The attributes participants considered most important in a mentor were respecting confidentiality, being honest and the ability to provide constructive feedback. Many EM trainees in Auckland want a formal mentoring system and would like a mentor. Appropriate mentor-mentee matching through a formalised voluntary system, with adequate mentor training, may enable the Auckland region to develop a suitable mentoring programme for EM trainees. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  9. Low sensitivity of qSOFA, SIRS criteria and sepsis definition to identify infected patients at risk of complication in the prehospital setting and at the emergency department triage.

    PubMed

    Tusgul, Selin; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Yersin, Bertrand; Calandra, Thierry; Dami, Fabrice

    2017-11-03

    Sepsis is defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a host response to infection. The quick SOFA (qSOFA) score has been recently proposed as a new bedside clinical score to identify patients with suspected infection at risk of complication (intensive care unit (ICU) admission, in-hospital mortality). The aim of this study was to measure the sensitivity of the qSOFA score, SIRS criteria and sepsis definitions to identify the most serious sepsis cases in the prehospital setting and at the emergency department (ED) triage. We performed a retrospective study of all patients transported by emergency medical services (EMS) to the Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV) over twelve months. All patients with a suspected or proven infection after the ED workup were included. We retrospectively analysed the sensitivity of the qSOFA score (≥2 criteria), SIRS criteria (≥2 clinical criteria) and sepsis definition (SIRS criteria + one sign of organ dysfunction or hypoperfusion) in the pre-hospital setting and at the ED triage as predictors of ICU admission, ICU stay of ≥3 days and early (i.e. 48 h) mortality. No direct comparison between the three tools was attempted. Among 11,411 patients transported to the University hospital, 886 (7.8%) were included. In the pre-hospital setting, the sensitivity of qSOFA reached 36.3% for ICU admission, 17.4% for ICU stay of three days or more and 68.0% for 48 h mortality. The sensitivity of SIRS criteria reached 68.8% for ICU admission, 74.6% for ICU stay of three days or more and 64.0% for 48 h mortality. The sensitivity of sepsis definition did not reach 60% for any outcome. At ED triage, the sensitivity of qSOFA reached 31.2% for ICU admission, 30.5% for ICU stay of ≥3 days and 60.0% for mortality at 48 h. The sensitivity of SIRS criteria reached 58.8% for ICU admission, 57.6% for ICU stay of ≥3 days 80.0% for mortality at 48 h. The sensitivity of sepsis definition reached 60.0% for 48 h mortality. Incidence

  10. Essentials of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Fellowship: Part 6: Program Administration.

    PubMed

    Kim, In K; Zuckerbraun, Noel; Kou, Maybelle; Vu, Tien; Levasseur, Kelly; Yen, Kenneth; Chapman, Jennifer; Doughty, Cara; McAneney, Constance; Zaveri, Pavan; Hsu, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    This article is the sixth in a 7-part series that aims to comprehensively describe the current state and future directions of pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) fellowship training from the essential requirements to considerations for successfully administering and managing a program to the careers that may be anticipated upon program completion. This article provides a broad overview of administering and supervising a PEM fellowship program. It explores 3 topics: the principles of program administration, committee management, and recommendations for minimum time allocated for PEM fellowship program directors to administer their programs.

  11. Emergency Medicine: On the Frontlines of Medical Education Transformation.

    PubMed

    Holmboe, Eric S

    2015-11-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) has always been on the frontlines of healthcare in the United States. I experienced this reality first hand as a young general medical officer assigned to an emergency department (ED) in a small naval hospital in the 1980s. For decades the ED has been the only site where patients could not be legally denied care. Despite increased insurance coverage for millions of Americans as a result of the Affordable Care Act, ED directors report an increase in patient volumes in a recent survey.1 EDs care for patients from across the socioeconomic spectrum suffering from a wide range of clinical conditions. As a result, the ED is still one of few components of the American healthcare system where social justice is enacted on a regular basis. Constant turbulence in the healthcare system, major changes in healthcare delivery, technological advances and shifting demographic trends necessitate that EM constantly adapt and evolve as a discipline in this complex environment.

  12. Outcome following physician supervised prehospital resuscitation: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Søren; Krüger, Andreas J; Zwisler, Stine T; Brøchner, Anne C

    2015-01-01

    Background Prehospital care provided by specially trained, physician-based emergency services (P-EMS) is an integrated part of the emergency medical systems in many developed countries. To what extent P-EMS increases survival and favourable outcomes is still unclear. The aim of the study was thus to investigate ambulance runs initially assigned ‘life-saving missions’ with emphasis on long-term outcome in patients treated by the Mobile Emergency Care Unit (MECU) in Odense, Denmark Methods All MECU runs are registered in a database by the attending physician, stating, among other parameters, the treatment given, outcome of the treatment and the patient's diagnosis. Over a period of 80 months from May 1 2006 to December 31 2012, all missions in which the outcome of the treatment was registered as ‘life saving’ were scrutinised. Initial outcome, level of competence of the caretaker and diagnosis of each patient were manually established in each case in a combined audit of the prehospital database, the discharge summary of the MECU and the medical records from the hospital. Outcome parameters were final outcome, the aetiology of the life-threatening condition and the level of competences necessary to treat the patient. Results Of 25 647 patients treated by the MECU, 701 (2.7%) received prehospital ‘life saving treatment’. In 596 (2.3%) patients this treatment exceeded the competences of the attending emergency medical technician or paramedic. Of these patients, 225 (0.9%) were ultimately discharged to their own home. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that anaesthesiologist administrated prehospital therapy increases the level of treatment modalities leading to an increased survival in relation to a prehospital system consisting of emergency medical technicians and paramedics alone and thus supports the concept of applying specialists in anaesthesiology in the prehospital setting especially when treating patients with cardiac arrest, patients in

  13. [Current emergency medicine for neurological disorders in children].

    PubMed

    Osamura, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the number of pediatric outpatients consulting our hospital during non-practice hours increased by 218.1% of that in 1996. The number of pediatric inpatients during non-practice hours in 2006 increased by 71.3% of that in 1996. In 2006, the number of patients who were admitted with neurological disorders in children during non-practice hours increased to 213.3% of that in 1996. The proportion of these pediatric patients among those who were admitted during non-practice hours was 16.6% in our hospital, suggesting the importance of neurological disorders in pediatric emergency medicine. More than 60% of inpatients with neurological disorders in children were 3 years old or younger. The most common neurological symptoms observed at admission included convulsion (81.6%) and disturbance of consciousness (8.5%). The disorders were mainly febrile seizure (41.4%) and epilepsy (29.0%). Most patients with severe disorders requiring emergency medicine, such as head bruise, acute encephalitis/encephalopathy, purulent meningitis, and head trauma, were admitted during non-practice hours. The prognoses of most neurological disorders in children were favorable. However, patients with sequelae (especially, hypoxic encephalopathy, acute encephalitis/encephalopathy) showed an unfavorable neurological prognosis. Early rehabilitation during admission was useful as a support method for their families. In the future, a comprehensive rehabilitation program for children with acquired brain injury should be established and laws to promote home care must be passed.

  14. Nanotechnology in reproductive medicine: emerging applications of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Barkalina, Natalia; Charalambous, Charis; Jones, Celine; Coward, Kevin

    2014-07-01

    In the last decade, nanotechnology has been extensively introduced for biomedical applications, including bio-detection, drug delivery and diagnostic imaging, particularly in the field of cancer diagnostics and treatment. However, there is a growing trend towards the expansion of nanobiotechnological tools in a number of non-cancer applications. In this review, we discuss the emerging uses of nanotechnology in reproductive medicine and reproductive biology. For the first time, we summarise the available evidence regarding the use of nanomaterials as experimental tools for the detection and treatment of malignant and benign reproductive conditions. We also present an overview of potential applications for nanomaterials in reproductive biology, discuss the benefits and concerns associated with their use in a highly delicate system of reproductive tissues and gametes, and address the feasibility of this innovative and potentially controversial approach in the clinical setting and for investigative research into the mechanisms underlying reproductive diseases. This unique review paper focuses on the emerging use of nanotechnology in reproductive medicine and reproductive biology, highlighting the role of nanomaterials in the detection and treatment of various reproductive conditions, keeping in mind the benefits and potential concerns associated with nanomaterial use in the delicate system of reproductive tissue and gametes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Information technology model for evaluating emergency medicine teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorbach, James; Ryan, James

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes work in progress to develop an Information Technology (IT) model and supporting information system for the evaluation of clinical teaching in the Emergency Medicine (EM) Department of North Shore University Hospital. In the academic hospital setting student physicians, i.e. residents, and faculty function daily in their dual roles as teachers and students respectively, and as health care providers. Databases exist that are used to evaluate both groups in either academic or clinical performance, but rarely has this information been integrated to analyze the relationship between academic performance and the ability to care for patients. The goal of the IT model is to improve the quality of teaching of EM physicians by enabling the development of integrable metrics for faculty and resident evaluation. The IT model will include (1) methods for tracking residents in order to develop experimental databases; (2) methods to integrate lecture evaluation, clinical performance, resident evaluation, and quality assurance databases; and (3) a patient flow system to monitor patient rooms and the waiting area in the Emergency Medicine Department, to record and display status of medical orders, and to collect data for analyses.

  16. The 2015 Academic College of Emergency Experts in India's INDO-US Joint Working Group White Paper on Establishing an Academic Department and Training Pediatric Emergency Medicine Specialists in India

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Prashant; Batra, Prerna; Shah, Binita R; Saha, Abhijeet; Galwankar, Sagar; Aggrawal, Praveen; Hassoun, Ameer; Batra, Bipin; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Kalra, Om Prakash; Shah, Dheeraj

    2015-01-01

    The concept of pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) is virtually nonexistent in India. Suboptimally, organized prehospital services substantially hinder the evaluation, management, and subsequent transport of the acutely ill and/or injured child to an appropriate facility. Furthermore, the management of the ill child at the hospital level is often provided by overburdened providers who, by virtue of their training, lack experience in the skills required to effectively manage pediatric emergencies. Finally, the care of the traumatized child often requires the involvement of providers trained in different specialities, which further impedes timely access to appropriate care. The recent recognition of Doctor of Medicine (MD) in Emergency Medicine (EM) as an approved discipline of study as per the Indian Medical Council Act provides an unprecedented opportunity to introduce PEM as a formal academic program in India. PEM has to be developed as a 3-year superspeciality course (in PEM) after completion of MD/Diplomate of National Board (DNB) Pediatrics or MD/DNB in EM. The National Board of Examinations (NBE) that accredits and administers postgraduate and postdoctoral programs in India also needs to develop an academic program – DNB in PEM. The goals of such a program would be to impart theoretical knowledge, training in the appropriate skills and procedures, development of communication and counseling techniques, and research. In this paper, the Joint Working Group of the Academic College of Emergency Experts in India (JWG-ACEE-India) gives its recommendations for starting 3-year DM/DNB in PEM, including the curriculum, infrastructure, staffing, and training in India. This is an attempt to provide an uniform framework and a set of guiding principles to start PEM as a structured superspeciality to enhance emergency care for Indian children. PMID:26807394

  17. Emergency medicine in the developing world: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Hodkinson, Peter W; Wallis, Lee A

    2010-07-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) as a specialty has developed rapidly in the western world, but remains largely immature in developing nations. There is an urgent need for emergency services, but no clear guidelines are available on the priorities for establishing EM in the developing world. This study seeks to establish consensus on key areas of EM development in developing world settings, with respect to scope of EM, staffing needs, training requirements, and research priorities. A three-round Delphi study was conducted via e-mail. A panel was convened of 50 EM specialists or equivalent, with experience in or interest in EM in the developing world. In the first round, panelists provided free-text statements on scope, staffing, training, and research priorities for EM in the developing world. A five-point Likert scale was used to rate agreement with the statements in Rounds 2 and 3. Consensus statements are presented as a series of synopsis statements for each of the four major themes. A total of 168 of 208 statements (81%) had reached consensus at the end of the study. Key areas in which consensus was reached included EM being a specialist-driven service, with substantial role for nonphysicians. International training courses should be adapted to local needs. EM research in developing countries should be clinically driven and focus on local issues of importance. The scope and function of EM and relationships with other specialties are defined. Unambiguous principles are laid out for the development of the specialty in developing world environments. The next step required in this process is translation into practical guidelines for the development of EM in developing world settings where they may be used to drive policy, protocols, and research. 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

  18. Prosthetic hip dislocations: is relocation in the emergency department by emergency medicine staff better?

    PubMed

    Lawrey, Emma; Jones, Peter; Mitchell, Robin

    2012-04-01

    Prosthetic hip dislocation is common. This study compares prosthetic hip relocations attempted within the ED by emergency doctors and those under orthopaedic care in the ED or operating theatre (OT). Retrospective cohort study of patients presenting to Auckland City Hospital Adult Emergency Department with prosthetic hip dislocations between 1 January 2003 and 14 April 2008. Primary outcomes were proportion of successful relocation attempts and length of hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were: time to relocation, complications, post-procedural advice, representation rate and long-term outcomes for first-time dislocations. There were 410 eligible presentations during the study period. Emergency medicine (EM) was successful in 254/323 attempts (79%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 74-83). Orthopaedics were successful in 25/35 reductions in the ED (71%, 95% CI 55-84) and 49/51 OT attempts (96%, 95% CI 86-100), P = 0.004 for location OT versus ED. Median times to discharge were 8.8 h for EM, 28.3 h for orthopaedics in the ED and 81 h for orthopaedics in the OT, P < 0.001 for EM versus orthopaedics. Mechanical complications of procedures and early redislocations were infrequent. Complication of sedation were more often seen in OT compared to ED (23/47 [49%, 95% CI 35-63]vs 37/318 [12%, 95% CI 9-16]). There was no difference between EM and orthopaedics in the proportion of hips successfully relocated or complications in the ED; however, EM patients were discharged much sooner, with important resource implications. Procedures carried out in the OT were more successful than in the ED but resulted in prolonged hospital stays and were associated with more complications. © 2012 The Authors. EMA © 2012 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  19. Multidimensional attitudes of emergency medicine residents toward older adults.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Teresita M; Chan, Shu B; Hansoti, Bhakti

    2014-07-01

    The demands of our rapidly expanding older population strain many emergency departments (EDs), and older patients experience disproportionately high adverse health outcomes. Trainee attitude is key in improving care for older adults. There is negligible knowledge of baseline emergency medicine (EM) resident attitudes regarding elder patients. Awareness of baseline attitudes can serve to better structure training for improved care of older adults. The objective of the study is to identify baseline EM resident attitudes toward older adults using a validated attitude scale and multidimensional analysis. Six EM residencies participated in a voluntary anonymous survey delivered in summer and fall 2009. We used factor analysis using the principal components method and Varimax rotation, to analyze attitude interdependence, translating the 21 survey questions into 6 independent dimensions. We adapted this survey from a validated instrument by the addition of 7 EM-specific questions to measures attitudes relevant to emergency care of elders and the training of EM residents in the geriatric competencies. Scoring was performed on a 5-point Likert scale. We compared factor scores using student t and ANOVA. 173 EM residents participated showing an overall positive attitude toward older adults, with a factor score of 3.79 (3.0 being a neutral score). Attitudes trended to more negative in successive post-graduate year (PGY) levels. EM residents demonstrate an overall positive attitude towards the care of older adults. We noted a longitudinal hardening of attitude in social values, which are more negative in successive PGY-year levels.

  20. Emergency medicine clerkship encounter and procedure logging using handheld computers.

    PubMed

    Penciner, Rick; Siddiqui, Sanam; Lee, Shirley

    2007-08-01

    Tracking medical student clinical encounters is now an accreditation requirement of medical schools. The use of handheld computers for electronic logging is emerging as a strategy to achieve this. To evaluate the technical feasibility and student satisfaction of a novel electronic logging and feedback program using handheld computers in the emergency department. This was a survey study of fourth-year medical student satisfaction with the use of their handheld computers for electronic logging of patient encounters and procedures. The authors also included an analysis of this technology. Forty-six students participated in this pilot project, logging a total of 2,930 encounters. Students used the logs an average of 7.6 shifts per rotation, logging an average of 8.3 patients per shift. Twenty-nine students (63%) responded to the survey. Students generally found it easy to complete each encounter (69%) and easy to synchronize their handheld computer with the central server (83%). However, half the students (49%) never viewed the feedback Web site and most (79%) never reviewed their logs with their preceptors. Overall, only 17% found the logging program beneficial as a learning tool. Electronic logging by medical students during their emergency medicine clerkship has many potential benefits as a method to document clinical encounters and procedures performed. However, this study demonstrated poor compliance and dissatisfaction with the process. In order for electronic logging using handheld computers to be a beneficial educational tool for both learners and educators, obstacles to effective implementation need to be addressed.

  1. Characteristics of Emergency Medicine Residency Programs in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Patiño, Andrés; Alcalde, Victor; Gutierrez, Camilo; Romero, Mauricio Garcia; Carrillo, Atilio Moreno; Vargas, Luis E.; Vallejo, Carlos E.; Zarama, Virginia; Mora Rodriguez, José L.; Bustos, Yury; Granada, Juliana; Aguiar, Leonar G.; Menéndez, Salvador; Cohen, Jorge I.; Saavedra, Miguel A.; Rodriguez, Juan M.; Roldan, Tatiana; Arbelaez, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Emergency medicine (EM) is in different stages of development around the world. Colombia has made significant strides in EM development in the last two decades and recognized it as a medical specialty in 2005. The country now has seven EM residency programs: three in the capital city of Bogotá, two in Medellin, one in Manizales, and one in Cali. The seven residency programs are in different stages of maturity, with the oldest founded 20 years ago and two founded in the last two years. The objective of this study was to characterize these seven residency programs. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with faculty and residents from all the existing programs in 2013–2016. Topics included program characteristics and curricula. Results Colombian EM residencies are three-year programs, with the exception of one four-year program. Programs accept 3–10 applicants yearly. Only one program has free tuition and the rest charge tuition. The number of EM faculty ranges from 2–15. EM rotation requirements range from 11–33% of total clinical time. One program does not have a pediatric rotation. The other programs require 1–2 months of pediatrics or pediatric EM. Critical care requirements range from 4–7 months. Other common rotations include anesthesia, general surgery, internal medicine, obstetrics, gynecology, orthopedics, ophthalmology, radiology, toxicology, psychiatry, neurology, cardiology, pulmonology, and trauma. All programs offer 4–6 hours of protected didactic time each week. Some programs require Advanced Cardiac Life Support, Pediatric Advanced Life Support and Advanced Trauma Life Support, with some programs providing these trainings in-house or subsidizing the cost. Most programs require one research project for graduation. Resident evaluations consist of written tests and oral exams several times per year. Point-of-care ultrasound training is provided in four of the seven programs. Conclusion As emergency medicine continues

  2. Characteristics of Emergency Medicine Residency Programs in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Andrés; Alcalde, Victor; Gutierrez, Camilo; Romero, Mauricio Garcia; Carrillo, Atilio Moreno; Vargas, Luis E; Vallejo, Carlos E; Zarama, Virginia; Mora Rodriguez, José L; Bustos, Yury; Granada, Juliana; Aguiar, Leonar G; Menéndez, Salvador; Cohen, Jorge I; Saavedra, Miguel A; Rodriguez, Juan M; Roldan, Tatiana; Arbelaez, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) is in different stages of development around the world. Colombia has made significant strides in EM development in the last two decades and recognized it as a medical specialty in 2005. The country now has seven EM residency programs: three in the capital city of Bogotá, two in Medellin, one in Manizales, and one in Cali. The seven residency programs are in different stages of maturity, with the oldest founded 20 years ago and two founded in the last two years. The objective of this study was to characterize these seven residency programs. We conducted semi-structured interviews with faculty and residents from all the existing programs in 2013-2016. Topics included program characteristics and curricula. Colombian EM residencies are three-year programs, with the exception of one four-year program. Programs accept 3-10 applicants yearly. Only one program has free tuition and the rest charge tuition. The number of EM faculty ranges from 2-15. EM rotation requirements range from 11-33% of total clinical time. One program does not have a pediatric rotation. The other programs require 1-2 months of pediatrics or pediatric EM. Critical care requirements range from 4-7 months. Other common rotations include anesthesia, general surgery, internal medicine, obstetrics, gynecology, orthopedics, ophthalmology, radiology, toxicology, psychiatry, neurology, cardiology, pulmonology, and trauma. All programs offer 4-6 hours of protected didactic time each week. Some programs require Advanced Cardiac Life Support, Pediatric Advanced Life Support and Advanced Trauma Life Support, with some programs providing these trainings in-house or subsidizing the cost. Most programs require one research project for graduation. Resident evaluations consist of written tests and oral exams several times per year. Point-of-care ultrasound training is provided in four of the seven programs. As emergency medicine continues to develop in Colombia, more residency programs are

  3. Imaging of prehospital stroke therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Michelle P; Sanossian, Nerses; Liebeskind, David S

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant quality improvement efforts to streamline in-hospital acute stroke care in the conventional model, there remain inherent layers of treatment delays, which could be eliminated with prehospital diagnostics and therapeutics administered in a mobile stroke unit. Early diagnosis using Telestroke and neuroimaging while in the ambulance may enable targeted routing to hospitals with specialized care, which will likely improve patient outcomes. Key clinical trials in Telestroke, mobile stroke units with prehospital neuroimaging capability, prehospital ultrasound and co-administration of various classes of neuroprotectives, antiplatelets and antithrombin agents with intravenous thrombolysis are discussed in this article. PMID:26308602

  4. The British Columbia Emergency Medicine Network: A Paradigm Shift in a Provincial System of Emergency Care.

    PubMed

    Abu-Laban, Riyad B; Drebit, Sharla; Lindstrom, Ronald R; Archibald, Chantel; Eggers, Kim; Ho, Kendall; Khazei, Afshin; Lund, Adam; MacKinnon, Carolyn; Markham, Ray; Marsden, Julian; Martin, Ed; Christenson, Jim

    2018-01-04

    As generalists, emergency practitioners face challenges in providing state-of-the-art care owing to the broad spectrum of practice and the rapid rate of new knowledge generation. Networks have become increasingly prevalent in health care, and it was in this backdrop, and the resulting opportunity to advance evidence-informed emergency care in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC), that a new "Emergency Medicine Network" (EM Network) was launched in 2017. The EM Network consists of four programs, each led by a physician with expertise and a track record in the domain: (1) Clinical Resources; (2) Innovation; (3) Continuing Professional Development; and (4) Real-time Support. This paper provides an overview of the EM Network, including its background, purpose, programs, anticipated evolution, and impact on the BC health care system.

  5. The British Columbia Emergency Medicine Network: A Paradigm Shift in a Provincial System of Emergency Care

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Laban, Riyad B; Lindstrom, Ronald R; Archibald, Chantel; Eggers, Kim; Ho, Kendall; Khazei, Afshin; Lund, Adam; MacKinnon, Carolyn; Markham, Ray; Marsden, Julian; Martin, Ed; Christenson, Jim

    2018-01-01

    As generalists, emergency practitioners face challenges in providing state-of-the-art care owing to the broad spectrum of practice and the rapid rate of new knowledge generation. Networks have become increasingly prevalent in health care, and it was in this backdrop, and the resulting opportunity to advance evidence-informed emergency care in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC), that a new “Emergency Medicine Network” (EM Network) was launched in 2017. The EM Network consists of four programs, each led by a physician with expertise and a track record in the domain: (1) Clinical Resources; (2) Innovation; (3) Continuing Professional Development; and (4) Real-time Support. This paper provides an overview of the EM Network, including its background, purpose, programs, anticipated evolution, and impact on the BC health care system. PMID:29531875

  6. Academic Emergency Medicine Physicians' Knowledge of Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Susan R; Strout, Tania D; Schneider, Jeffrey I; Mitchell, Patricia M; Smith, Jessica; Lutfy-Clayton, Lucienne; Marcolini, Evie G; Aydin, Ani; Seigel, Todd A; Richards, Jeremy B

    2016-05-01

    Although emergency physicians frequently intubate patients, management of mechanical ventilation has not been emphasized in emergency medicine (EM) education or clinical practice. The objective of this study was to quantify EM attendings' education, experience, and knowledge regarding mechanical ventilation in the emergency department. We developed a survey of academic EM attendings' educational experiences with ventilators and a knowledge assessment tool with nine clinical questions. EM attendings at key teaching hospitals for seven EM residency training programs in the northeastern United States were invited to participate in this survey study. We performed correlation and regression analyses to evaluate the relationship between attendings' scores on the assessment instrument and their training, education, and comfort with ventilation. Of 394 EM attendings surveyed, 211 responded (53.6%). Of respondents, 74.5% reported receiving three or fewer hours of ventilation-related education from EM sources over the past year and 98 (46%) reported receiving between 0-1 hour of education. The overall correct response rate for the assessment tool was 73.4%, with a standard deviation of 19.9. The factors associated with a higher score were completion of an EM residency, prior emphasis on mechanical ventilation during one's own residency, working in a setting where an emergency physician bears primary responsibility for ventilator management, and level of comfort with managing ventilated patients. Physicians' comfort was associated with the frequency of ventilator changes and EM management of ventilation, as well as hours of education. EM attendings report caring for mechanically ventilated patients frequently, but most receive fewer than three educational hours a year on mechanical ventilation, and nearly half receive 0-1 hour. Physicians' performance on an assessment tool for mechanical ventilation is most strongly correlated with their self-reported comfort with mechanical

  7. Education Scholarship and its Impact on Emergency Medicine Education.

    PubMed

    Sherbino, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) education is becoming increasingly challenging as a result of changes to North American medical education and the growing complexity of EM practice. Education scholarship (ES) provides a process to develop solutions to these challenges. ES includes both research and innovation. ES is informed by theory, principles and best practices, is peer reviewed, and is disseminated and archived for others to use. Digital technologies have improved the discovery of work that informs ES, broadened the scope and timing of peer review, and provided new platforms for the dissemination and archiving of innovations. This editorial reviews key steps in raising an education innovation to the level of scholarship. It also discusses important areas for EM education scholars to address, which include the following: the delivery of competency-based medical education programs, the impact of social media on learning, and the redesign of continuing professional development.

  8. Education Scholarship and its Impact on Emergency Medicine Education

    PubMed Central

    Sherbino, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) education is becoming increasingly challenging as a result of changes to North American medical education and the growing complexity of EM practice. Education scholarship (ES) provides a process to develop solutions to these challenges. ES includes both research and innovation. ES is informed by theory, principles and best practices, is peer reviewed, and is disseminated and archived for others to use. Digital technologies have improved the discovery of work that informs ES, broadened the scope and timing of peer review, and provided new platforms for the dissemination and archiving of innovations. This editorial reviews key steps in raising an education innovation to the level of scholarship. It also discusses important areas for EM education scholars to address, which include the following: the delivery of competency-based medical education programs, the impact of social media on learning, and the redesign of continuing professional development. PMID:26594270

  9. Emergency medicine leadership in industry-sponsored clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Newgard, Craig D; Kim, Sunghye; Camargo, Carlos A

    2003-02-01

    To identify and characterize emergency medicine (EM) researchers who, since 1990, have served on a steering committee (SC) or as overall principal investigator (PI) of an industry-sponsored, multicenter clinical trial involving a pharmaceutical or device. North American EM research directors (RDs) and other prominent EM investigators (for those hospitals without a RD) were identified from eight sources, including the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine RD Interest Group and the Multicenter Airway Research Collaboration (MARC) database. The identified investigators were sent a screening survey requesting information regarding industry-sponsored clinical research at their site. The individual EM investigators identified by this screening survey were then interviewed by telephone (validation survey) to further explore their leadership experience in industry-sponsored clinical trials. Of 153 identified RDs and prominent EM researchers, 138 responded to the screening survey (90% response rate). Eighty-five EM investigators reportedly had served on a SC or as overall PI for an industry-sponsored clinical trial. Of these 85 North American EM investigators, 77 were available for a structured telephone interview (91% response rate). Although 41 (53%) of the investigators confirmed their leadership role, 36 (47%) had not served in either role. Among the 41 confirmed investigators, 19 (25%) had served as a SC member, 10 (13%) had served as overall PI, and 12 (16%) had experience in both roles. Individual responses provided suggestions for pursuing such leadership positions. These data suggest the opportunity to expand EM leadership in industry-sponsored clinical trials and demonstrate the need for validation of reports obtained by a departmental research contact. The suggestions from EM researchers who have attained these leadership roles may provide strategies for investigators interested in pursuing these positions.

  10. Effect of Commuter Time on Emergency Medicine Residents.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Christopher; Borenstein, Marc

    2018-01-12

    Background The impact of resident work hours on resident well-being and patient safety has long been a controversial issue. Objectives What has not been considered in resident work hour limitations is whether resident commuting time has any impact on a resident's total work hours or well-being. Methods A self-administered electronic survey was distributed to emergency medicine residents in 2016. Results The survey response was 8% (569/6828). Commuter time was 30 minutes or less in 70%. Two residents reported a commuter time of 76 to 90 minutes and one resident had a commuter time of 91 to 105 minutes. None reported commuter times greater than 105 minutes. Of most concern was that 29.3% of the residents reported falling asleep while driving their car home from work. We found 12% of respondents reporting being involved in a car collision while commuting. For residents with commute times greater than one hour, 66% reported they had fallen asleep while driving. When asked their opinion on the effect of commute time, those with commute times greater than one hour (75% of residents) responded that it was detrimental. Conclusions While the majority of emergency medicine residents in this survey have commuter times of 30 minutes or less, there is a small population of residents with commuter times of 76 to 105 minutes. At times, residents whose commute is up to 105 minutes each way could be traveling a total of more than 3.5 hours for each round trip. Given that these residents often work 12-hour shifts, these extended commuter times may be having detrimental effects on their health and well-being.

  11. Effect of Commuter Time on Emergency Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    Borenstein, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Background The impact of resident work hours on resident well-being and patient safety has long been a controversial issue. Objectives What has not been considered in resident work hour limitations is whether resident commuting time has any impact on a resident's total work hours or well-being. Methods A self-administered electronic survey was distributed to emergency medicine residents in 2016. Results The survey response was 8% (569/6828). Commuter time was 30 minutes or less in 70%. Two residents reported a commuter time of 76 to 90 minutes and one resident had a commuter time of 91 to 105 minutes. None reported commuter times greater than 105 minutes. Of most concern was that 29.3% of the residents reported falling asleep while driving their car home from work. We found 12% of respondents reporting being involved in a car collision while commuting. For residents with commute times greater than one hour, 66% reported they had fallen asleep while driving. When asked their opinion on the effect of commute time, those with commute times greater than one hour (75% of residents) responded that it was detrimental. Conclusions While the majority of emergency medicine residents in this survey have commuter times of 30 minutes or less, there is a small population of residents with commuter times of 76 to 105 minutes. At times, residents whose commute is up to 105 minutes each way could be traveling a total of more than 3.5 hours for each round trip. Given that these residents often work 12-hour shifts, these extended commuter times may be having detrimental effects on their health and well-being. PMID:29545979

  12. A Survey of Emergency Medicine Residents' Use of Educational Podcasts.

    PubMed

    Riddell, Jeff; Swaminathan, Anand; Lee, Monica; Mohamed, Abdiwahab; Rogers, Rob; Rezaie, Salim R

    2017-02-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) educational podcasts have become increasingly popular. Residents spend a greater percentage of their time listening to podcasts than they do using other educational materials. Despite this popularity, research into podcasting in the EM context is sparse. We aimed to determine EM residents' consumption habits, optimal podcast preferences, and motivation for listening to EM podcasts. We created a survey and emailed it to EM residents at all levels of training at 12 residencies across the United States from September 2015 to June 2016. In addition to demographics, the 20-question voluntary survey asked questions exploring three domains: habits, attention, and motivation. We used descriptive statistics to analyze results. Of the 605 residents invited to participate, 356 (n= 60.3%) completed the survey. The vast majority listen to podcasts at least once a month (88.8%). Two podcasts were the most popular by a wide margin, with 77.8% and 62.1% regularly listening to Emergency Medicine: Reviews and Perspectives ( EM:RAP ) and the EMCrit Podcast , respectively; 84.6% reported the ideal length of a podcast was less than 30 minutes. Residents reported their motivation to listen to EM podcasts was to "Keep up with current literature" (88.5%) and "Learn EM core content" (70.2%). Of those responding, 72.2% said podcasts change their clinical practice either "somewhat" or "very much." The results of this survey study suggest most residents listen to podcasts at least once a month, prefer podcasts less than 30 minutes in length, have several motivations for choosing podcasts, and report that podcasts change their clinical practice.

  13. A Survey of Emergency Medicine Residents’ Use of Educational Podcasts

    PubMed Central

    Riddell, Jeff; Swaminathan, Anand; Lee, Monica; Mohamed, Abdiwahab; Rogers, Rob; Rezaie, Salim R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Emergency medicine (EM) educational podcasts have become increasingly popular. Residents spend a greater percentage of their time listening to podcasts than they do using other educational materials. Despite this popularity, research into podcasting in the EM context is sparse. We aimed to determine EM residents’ consumption habits, optimal podcast preferences, and motivation for listening to EM podcasts. Methods We created a survey and emailed it to EM residents at all levels of training at 12 residencies across the United States from September 2015 to June 2016. In addition to demographics, the 20-question voluntary survey asked questions exploring three domains: habits, attention, and motivation. We used descriptive statistics to analyze results. Results Of the 605 residents invited to participate, 356 (n= 60.3%) completed the survey. The vast majority listen to podcasts at least once a month (88.8%). Two podcasts were the most popular by a wide margin, with 77.8% and 62.1% regularly listening to Emergency Medicine: Reviews and Perspectives (EM:RAP) and the EMCrit Podcast, respectively; 84.6% reported the ideal length of a podcast was less than 30 minutes. Residents reported their motivation to listen to EM podcasts was to “Keep up with current literature” (88.5%) and “Learn EM core content” (70.2%). Of those responding, 72.2% said podcasts change their clinical practice either “somewhat” or “very much.” Conclusion The results of this survey study suggest most residents listen to podcasts at least once a month, prefer podcasts less than 30 minutes in length, have several motivations for choosing podcasts, and report that podcasts change their clinical practice. PMID:28210357

  14. Virtual alternative to the oral examination for emergency medicine residents.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Jillian; Kman, Nicholas; Danforth, Douglas; Bahner, David P; Khandelwal, Sorabh; Martin, Daniel R; Nagel, Rollin; Verbeck, Nicole; Way, David P; Nelson, Richard

    2015-03-01

    The oral examination is a traditional method for assessing the developing physician's medical knowledge, clinical reasoning and interpersonal skills. The typical oral examination is a face-to-face encounter in which examiners quiz examinees on how they would confront a patient case. The advantage of the oral exam is that the examiner can adapt questions to the examinee's response. The disadvantage is the potential for examiner bias and intimidation. Computer-based virtual simulation technology has been widely used in the gaming industry. We wondered whether virtual simulation could serve as a practical format for delivery of an oral examination. For this project, we compared the attitudes and performance of emergency medicine (EM) residents who took our traditional oral exam to those who took the exam using virtual simulation. EM residents (n=35) were randomized to a traditional oral examination format (n=17) or a simulated virtual examination format (n=18) conducted within an immersive learning environment, Second Life (SL). Proctors scored residents using the American Board of Emergency Medicine oral examination assessment instruments, which included execution of critical actions and ratings on eight competency categories (1-8 scale). Study participants were also surveyed about their oral examination experience. We observed no differences between virtual and traditional groups on critical action scores or scores on eight competency categories. However, we noted moderate effect sizes favoring the Second Life group on the clinical competence score. Examinees from both groups thought that their assessment was realistic, fair, objective, and efficient. Examinees from the virtual group reported a preference for the virtual format and felt that the format was less intimidating. The virtual simulated oral examination was shown to be a feasible alternative to the traditional oral examination format for assessing EM residents. Virtual environments for oral examinations

  15. Virtual Alternative to the Oral Examination for Emergency Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Jillian; Kman, Nicholas; Danforth, Douglas; Bahner, David P.; Khandelwal, Sorabh; Martin, Daniel R.; Nagel, Rollin; Verbeck, Nicole; Way, David P.; Nelson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The oral examination is a traditional method for assessing the developing physician’s medical knowledge, clinical reasoning and interpersonal skills. The typical oral examination is a face-to-face encounter in which examiners quiz examinees on how they would confront a patient case. The advantage of the oral exam is that the examiner can adapt questions to the examinee’s response. The disadvantage is the potential for examiner bias and intimidation. Computer-based virtual simulation technology has been widely used in the gaming industry. We wondered whether virtual simulation could serve as a practical format for delivery of an oral examination. For this project, we compared the attitudes and performance of emergency medicine (EM) residents who took our traditional oral exam to those who took the exam using virtual simulation. Methods EM residents (n=35) were randomized to a traditional oral examination format (n=17) or a simulated virtual examination format (n=18) conducted within an immersive learning environment, Second Life (SL). Proctors scored residents using the American Board of Emergency Medicine oral examination assessment instruments, which included execution of critical actions and ratings on eight competency categories (1–8 scale). Study participants were also surveyed about their oral examination experience. Results We observed no differences between virtual and traditional groups on critical action scores or scores on eight competency categories. However, we noted moderate effect sizes favoring the Second Life group on the clinical competence score. Examinees from both groups thought that their assessment was realistic, fair, objective, and efficient. Examinees from the virtual group reported a preference for the virtual format and felt that the format was less intimidating. Conclusion The virtual simulated oral examination was shown to be a feasible alternative to the traditional oral examination format for assessing EM residents

  16. Increasing Patient Safety Event Reporting in an Emergency Medicine Residency.

    PubMed

    Steen, Sven; Jaeger, Cassie; Price, Lindsay; Griffen, David

    2017-01-01

    Patient safety event reporting is an important component for fostering a culture of safety. Our tertiary care hospital utilizes a computerized patient safety event reporting system that has been historically underutilized by residents and faculty, despite encouragement of its use. The objective of this quality project was to increase patient safety event reporting within our Emergency Medicine residency program. Knowledge of event reporting was evaluated with a survey. Eighteen residents and five faculty participated in a formal educational session on event reporting followed by feedback every two months on events reported and actions taken. The educational session included description of which events to report and the logistics of accessing the reporting system. Participants received a survey after the educational intervention to assess resident familiarity and comfort with using the system. The total number of events reported was obtained before and after the educational session. After the educational session, residents reported being more confident in knowing what to report as a patient safety event, knowing how to report events, how to access the reporting tool, and how to enter a patient safety event. In the 14 months preceding the educational session, an average of 0.4 events were reported per month from the residency. In the nine months following the educational session, an average of 3.7 events were reported per month by the residency. In addition, the reported events resulted in meaningful actions taken by the hospital to improve patient safety, which were shared with the residents. Improvement efforts including an educational session, feedback to the residency of events reported, and communication of improvements resulting from reported events successfully increased the frequency of safety event reporting in an Emergency Medicine residency.

  17. Modafinil and zolpidem use by emergency medicine residents.

    PubMed

    McBeth, Brian D; McNamara, Robert M; Ankel, Felix K; Mason, Emily J; Ling, Louis J; Flottemesch, Thomas J; Asplin, Brent R

    2009-12-01

    The objective was to assess the prevalence and patterns of modafinil and zolpidem use among emergency medicine (EM) residents and describe side effects resulting from use. A voluntary, anonymous survey was distributed in February 2006 to EM residents nationally in the context of the national American Board of Emergency Medicine in-training examination. Data regarding frequency and timing of modafinil and zolpidem use were collected, as well as demographic information, reasons for use, side effects, and perceived dependence. A total of 133 of 134 residency programs distributed the surveys (99%). The response rate was 56% of the total number of EM residents who took the in-training examination (2,397/4,281). Past modafinil use was reported by 2.4% (57/2,372) of EM residents, with 66.7% (38/57) of those using modafinil having initiated their use during residency. Past zolpidem use was reported by 21.8% (516/2,367) of EM residents, with 15.3% (362/2,367) reporting use in the past year and 9.3% (221/2,367) in the past month. A total of 324 of 516 (62.8%) of zolpidem users initiated use during residency. Side effects were commonly reported by modafinil users (31.0%)-most frequent were palpitations, insomnia, agitation, and restlessness. Zolpidem users reported side effects (22.6%) including drowsiness, dizziness, headache, hallucinations, depression/mood lability, and amnesia. Zolpidem use is common among EM residents, with most users initiating use during residency. Modafinil use is relatively uncommon, although most residents using have also initiated use during residency. Side effects are commonly reported for both of these agents, and long-term safety remains unclear.

  18. Complementary and alternative medicine use among paediatric emergency department patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David McDonald; Dhir, Reetika; Craig, Simon S; Lammers, Thalia; Gardiner, Kaya; Hunter, Kirrily; Joffe, Paul; Krieser, David; Babl, Franz E

    2015-09-01

    To determine the period prevalence and nature of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among paediatric emergency department (ED) patients and the perceptions of CAM among the CAM administrators. A survey was undertaken in four Victorian EDs (January to September 2013). A convenience sample of parents/carers accompanying paediatric patients completed a self-administered questionnaire. The main outcome measures were CAM use and perceptions of CAM. The parents/carers of 883 patients participated. Three hundred eighty-eight (43.9%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 40.6-47.3) and 53 (6.0%, 95% CI 4.6-7.8) patients had taken a CAM within the previous 12 months and on the day of presentation, respectively. There were no gender differences between CAM users and non-users (P = 0.83). The use of CAM was significantly more common among older patients (P < 0.001), those with European ethnicity (P = 0.046) and among those with chronic disease (P < 0.01). Fish oil, garlic, chamomile and acidophilus were the most commonly used CAM. Only 4.4% of CAM use was reported to the ED doctor. There were reports of potentially dangerous CAM use (St John's wort, ginseng). Parents/carers who had administered CAM were more likely to report that CAMs are safe, drug free and could prevent illness (P < 0.01). In addition, a number of this group reported that CAMs are more effective than prescription medicines and safe when taken with prescription medicines. CAM use is common among paediatric ED patients although rarely reported to the ED doctor. Parents/carers who administer CAM have differing perceptions of CAM safety from those who do not. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  19. Emergence of occupational medicine in Victorian times1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    Lee, W. R. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 118-124. Emergence of occupational medicine in Victorian times. The events surrounding the establishment and development of legislation to protect the health of people at work in Victorian times are already well documented. This paper deals with some other aspects of the development of occupational medicine. Medical opinions at the time did not always see the misuse of child labour as due simply to avaricious mill owners, but in part due to the parents and in part to the workmen subcontractors. The establishment of the certifying surgeons is briefly reviewed and their coming together to form an association in 1868 may be related to questions about the need for medical certificates of age which were being requested by the many factory owners brought under factory legislation for the first time in 1864 and 1867. The plight of injured workmen and their dependents was early recognized, although it was late in the Victorian era before any statutory provision was made for them. The idea of linking compensation with preventive measures came to the fore in 1845 when some Manchester doctors, later supported by Edwin Chadwick, examined the workings at the Woodhead railway tunnel across the Pennines. When compensation legislation was passed some half a century later the idea was lost, and to this day compensation for and prevention of industrial injury and disease remain separated. The change of industrial diseases from a medical curiosity to a problem requiring State intervention is traced over the latter part of the Victorian era. The whole piecemeal pattern illustrating the precept that `social problems come first, social philosophy after' has persisted until the far-reaching changes in health and safety legislation of the present day. PMID:4267346

  20. Emerging paradigms in medicine: implications for the future of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Lake, James

    2007-01-01

    The causes of mental illness remain obscure in spite of rapid progress in the neurosciences. This is due in part to the fact that contemporary biomedical psychiatry rests on philosophically and scientifically ambiguous ground. In Western medicine paradigms, theories from physics, chemistry, and biology form the basis of an explanatory model of illness, including mental illness. Symptoms are conceptualized as subjective descriptions of effects caused by factors characterized in empirical terms. Conventional biomedicine asserts that all causes of illness, and by extension, mechanisms of action underlying legitimate treatment approaches, rest on biological processes that can be described in the reductionist language of Western science. However, in contemporary Western psychiatry, there is no single adequate explanatory model of the causes of mental illness. What remains are competing psychodynamic, genetic, endocrinologic, and neurobiological models of symptom formation reflecting disparate ideological positions and diverse clinical training backgrounds of mental health professionals. There is no unifying theory in psychiatry because no single explanatory model has been confirmed as more valid than any other. I hypothesize in this article that the synthesis of ideas and clinical approaches from Western biomedicine and non-Western systems of medicine based on understandings of human consciousness, the neurosciences, complexity theory, and quantum field theory, will lead to rapid evolution of conventional Western biomedical psychiatry toward truly integrative mental healthcare. The result will be the emergence of an integrative mental healthcare model that will more adequately address the disparate causes, conditions, and meanings of symptoms combining multimodal approaches from Western biomedicine and non-Western systems of medicine.

  1. Addressing prehospital patient safety using the science of injury prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Zachary F; Hargarten, Stephen; Vernick, Jon

    2008-01-01

    There is inadequate information about the scope and character of adverse events in prehospital care. However, there is ample evidence to suggest that prehospital patient safety hazards are often unique and underrecognized. We first summarize what is currently understood about prehospital patient safety and identify the specific aspects of emergency medical services (EMS) care that may make conventional approaches to the evaluation and improvement of patient safety more difficult. Next we introduce the concept of using injury prevention and control science to analyze prehospital adverse events and to help develop EMS patient safety solutions. Injury prevention and control is a proven public health approach for the study and reduction of both intentional and unintentional injuries. It includes the use of a Haddon phase-factor matrix to identify possible interventions, especially environmental modifications that provide automatic protection. We demonstrate how this method can be used as a complementary approach in efforts to prevent injuries caused by prehospital adverse medical events.

  2. Improvement in Care and Outcomes for Emergency Medical Service-Transported Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) With and Without Prehospital Cardiac Arrest: A Mission: Lifeline STEMI Accelerator Study.

    PubMed

    Kragholm, Kristian; Lu, Di; Chiswell, Karen; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Roettig, Mayme L; Roe, Matthew; Jollis, James; Granger, Christopher B

    2017-10-11

    Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) may benefit from direct transport to a percutaneous cardiac intervention (PCI) hospital but have previously been less likely to bypass local non-PCI hospitals to go to a PCI center. We reported time trends in emergency medical service transport and care of patients with STEMI with and without OHCA included from 171 PCI-capable hospitals in 16 US regions with participation in the Mission: Lifeline STEMI Accelerator program between July 1, 2012, and March 31, 2014. Time trends by quarter were assessed using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for hospital clustering. Of 13 189 emergency medical service-transported patients, 88.7% (N=11 703; 10.5% OHCA) were taken directly to PCI hospitals. Among 1486 transfer-in patients, 21.7% had OHCA. Direct transport to a PCI center for OHCA increased from 74.7% (July 1, 2012) to 83.6% (March 31, 2014) (odds ratio per quarter, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.14), versus 89.0% to 91.0% for patients without OHCA (odds ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.07; interaction P =0.23). The proportion with prehospital ECGs increased for patients taken directly to PCI centers (53.9%-61.9% for those with OHCA versus 73.9%-81.9% for those without OHCA; interaction P =0.12). Of 997 patients with OHCA taken directly to PCI hospitals and treated with primary PCI, first medical contact-to-device times within the guideline-recommended goal of ≤90 minutes were met for 34.5% on July 1, 2012, versus 41.8% on March 31, 2014 (51.6% and 56.1%, respectively, for 9352 counterparts without OHCA; interaction P =0.72). Direct transport to PCI hospitals increased for patients with STEMI with and without OHCA during the 2012 to 2014 Mission: Lifeline STEMI Accelerator program. Proportions with prehospital ECGs and timely reperfusion increased for patients taken directly to PCI hospitals. © 2017 The Authors

  3. Workplace Violence and Harassment Against Emergency Medicine Residents.

    PubMed

    Schnapp, Benjamin H; Slovis, Benjamin H; Shah, Anar D; Fant, Abra L; Gisondi, Michael A; Shah, Kaushal H; Lech, Christie A

    2016-09-01

    Several studies have shown that workplace violence in the emergency department (ED) is common. Residents may be among the most vulnerable staff, as they have the least experience with these volatile encounters. The goal for this study was to quantify and describe acts of violence against emergency medicine (EM) residents by patients and visitors and to identify perceived barriers to safety. This cross-sectional survey study queried EM residents at multiple New York City hospitals. The primary outcome was the incidence of violence experienced by residents while working in the ED. The secondary outcomes were the subtypes of violence experienced by residents, as well as the perceived barriers to safety while at work. A majority of residents (66%, 78/119) reported experiencing at least one act of physical violence during an ED shift. Nearly all residents (97%, 115/119) experienced verbal harassment, 78% (93/119) had experienced verbal threats, and 52% (62/119) reported sexual harassment. Almost a quarter of residents felt safe "Occasionally," "Seldom" or "Never" while at work. Patient-based factors most commonly cited as contributory to violence included substance use and psychiatric disease. Self-reported violence against EM residents appears to be a significant problem. Incidence of violence and patient risk factors are similar to what has been found previously for other ED staff. Understanding the prevalence of workplace violence as well as the related systems, environmental, and patient-based factors is essential for future prevention efforts.

  4. Career Development Awards in Emergency Medicine: Resources and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Mumma, Bryn E; Chang, Anna Marie; Kea, Bory; Ranney, Megan L

    2017-07-01

    In the United States, emergency medicine (EM) researchers hold proportionately fewer federal career development awards than researchers in other specialties. Others hypothesize that this deficit may partly be attributed to lack of mentors, departmental resources, and qualified applicants. Our objectives were to examine the association between departmental and institutional resources and career development awards and to describe the barriers to conducting research and btaining grants in EM. We conducted an online, cross-sectional survey study of vice chairs for research and research directors at academic emergency departments in the United States in January and February 2016. Participants provided quantitative information regarding their department's demographics, available research resources, number of funded independent investigators, and number of career development awards. They were also asked about the perceived adequacy of departmental and institutional resources and perceived barriers to research and grant success. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariable linear regression, as appropriate. Of 178 eligible participants, 103 (58%) completed the survey. Most departments reported some infrastructure for research and grant submission, including research coordinator(s) (n = 75/99; 76%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 66%-84%), research associates (69/99; 70%, 95% CI = 60%-79%), and administrative/secretarial research support (79/101; 78%, 95% CI = 69%-86%). The majority of departments (56/103; 49%, 95% CI = 44%-64%) had no R01-funded researchers, and only 15 (15%, 95% CI = 8%-23%) had three or more R01-funded researchers. The most frequently reported challenge to junior faculty applying for grants was low motivation for applying (62/103; 60%, 95% CI = 50%-70%), followed closely by insufficient mentorship (50/103; 49%, 95% CI = 39%-59%) and discouragement from low funding rates (50/103; 49%, 95% CI = 39%-59%). In the multivariable

  5. [Organizational forms of emergency medicine in international comparison].

    PubMed

    Lipp, M

    1993-09-01

    The tasks of preclinical emergency medicine systems (PEMS) are to stabilize and maintain the vital functions and to guarantee qualified transport to the hospital. Worldwide, different structures exist as a result of historical developments. Legal regulations for PEMS have been introduced in most of the industrialized countries since 1960. More and more aspects have been subject to detailed regulations. PEMS are provided either by state-owned or by state-controlled (private) organisations. In most of the "underdeveloped" countries legal regulations do not exist and PEMS is often provided by social workers, by the army or by volunteers. In most countries, PEMS are financed by the state with a charge on the patient. In a few states PEMS are totally financed by the public health structure. Modern PEMS are controlled from dispatch centres which receive emergency calls (mostly by telephone) and send the appropriate rescue unit. In most states the staff of dispatch centres are paramedics; in some countries and in some urban areas physicians control the dispatch centre. In PEMS without physicians on the scene, an information exchange between the scene and the hospital can be observed frequently, in contrast to systems with physicians on the scene. Worldwide, ground-based PEMS are preferred, but in most countries an additional air rescue system has been established. The quality and quantity of the technical equipment of the ground-based PEMS differ widely: nationwide regulations exist, however, in the USA and Germany. Generally, there are two main concepts concerning the personnel structure: PEMS are either physician based or not. Requirements for emergency physicians differ greatly: in some countries no formal requirements exist, in others extensive practical and theoretical training is required.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Identifying Nonprovider Factors Affecting Pediatric Emergency Medicine Provider Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Fareed; Breslin, Kristen; Mullan, Paul C; Tillett, Zachary; Chamberlain, James M

    2017-10-31

    The aim of this study was to create a multivariable model of standardized relative value units per hour by adjusting for nonprovider factors that influence efficiency. We obtained productivity data based on billing records measured in emergency relative value units for (1) both evaluation and management of visits and (2) procedures for 16 pediatric emergency medicine providers with more than 750 hours worked per year. Eligible shifts were in an urban, academic pediatric emergency department (ED) with 2 sites: a tertiary care main campus and a satellite community site. We used multivariable linear regression to adjust for the impact of shift and pediatric ED characteristics on individual-provider efficiency and then removed variables from the model with minimal effect on productivity. There were 2998 eligible shifts for the 16 providers during a 3-year period. The resulting model included 4 variables when looking at both ED sites combined. These variables include the following: (1) number of procedures billed by provider, (2) season of the year, (3) shift start time, and (4) day of week. Results were improved when we separately modeled each ED location. A 3-variable model using procedures billed by provider, shift start time, and season explained 23% of the variation in provider efficiency at the academic ED site. A 3-variable model using procedures billed by provider, patient arrivals per hour, and shift start time explained 45% of the variation in provider efficiency at the satellite ED site. Several nonprovider factors affect provider efficiency. These factors should be considered when designing productivity-based incentives.

  7. Multidimensional Attitudes of Emergency Medicine Residents Toward Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Teresita M.; Chan, Shu B.; Hansoti, Bhakti

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The demands of our rapidly expanding older population strain many emergency departments (EDs), and older patients experience disproportionately high adverse health outcomes. Trainee attitude is key in improving care for older adults. There is negligible knowledge of baseline emergency medicine (EM) resident attitudes regarding elder patients. Awareness of baseline attitudes can serve to better structure training for improved care of older adults. The objective of the study is to identify baseline EM resident attitudes toward older adults using a validated attitude scale and multidimensional analysis. Methods Six EM residencies participated in a voluntary anonymous survey delivered in summer and fall 2009. We used factor analysis using the principal components method and Varimax rotation, to analyze attitude interdependence, translating the 21 survey questions into 6 independent dimensions. We adapted this survey from a validated instrument by the addition of 7 EM-specific questions to measures attitudes relevant to emergency care of elders and the training of EM residents in the geriatric competencies. Scoring was performed on a 5-point Likert scale. We compared factor scores using student t and ANOVA. Results 173 EM residents participated showing an overall positive attitude toward older adults, with a factor score of 3.79 (3.0 being a neutral score). Attitudes trended to more negative in successive post-graduate year (PGY) levels. Conclusion EM residents demonstrate an overall positive attitude towards the care of older adults. We noted a longitudinal hardening of attitude in social values, which are more negative in successive PGY-year levels. PMID:25035760

  8. Global emergency medicine journal club: social media responses to the march 2014 annals of emergency medicine journal club on targeted temperature management.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Brent; Rolston, Daniel; Lin, Michelle

    2014-08-01

    In March 2014, Annals of Emergency Medicine continued a successful collaboration with an academic Web site, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM), to host another Global Emergency Medicine Journal Club session featuring the 2013 New England Journal of Medicine article "Targeted Temperature Management at 33°C (91.4°F) Versus 36°C (96.8°F) After Cardiac Arrest" by Nielsen et al. This online journal club used Twitter conversations, a live videocast with the authors, and detailed discussions on the ALiEM Web site's comment section. This summary article details the community discussion, shared insights, and analytic data generated using this novel, multiplatform approach. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Emergency ultrasound usage among recent emergency medicine residency graduates of a convenience sample of 14 residencies.

    PubMed

    Dean, Anthony J; Breyer, Michael J; Ku, Bon S; Mills, Angela M; Pines, Jesse M

    2010-02-01

    Emergency Medicine (EM) residency graduates are trained to perform Emergency Medicine bedside ultrasound (EMBU). However, the degree to which they use this skill in their practice after graduation is unknown. We sought to test the amount and type of usage of EMBU among recent residency graduates, and how usage and barriers vary among various types of EM practice settings. Graduates from 14 EM residency programs in 2003-2005 were surveyed on their current practice setting and use of EMBU. There were 252 (73%) graduates who completed the survey. Of the 73% of respondents reporting access to EMBU, 98% had used it within the past 3 months. Access to EMBU was higher in academic (97%) vs. community teaching (79%) vs. community non-teaching settings (62%) (p < 0.001), and in Emergency Departments (EDs) where yearly census exceeded 60,000 visits (87% vs. 65%, p < 0.001). Physicians in academic settings reported "high use" of EMBU more frequently than those in community settings for most modalities. FAST (focused assessment by sonography in trauma) was the most common high-use application and the most useful in practice. The greatest impediment to EMBU use was "not enough time" (61%). Ultrasound usage among recent EM residency graduates is significantly higher in teaching than in community settings and in high-volume EDs. Its use is more widespread than in previous reports in all types of practice. There is a wide range of utilization of ultrasound in the various applications in emergency practice, with the evaluation of trauma being the most common. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The association between money and opinion in academic emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Birkhahn, Robert H; Blomkalns, Andra; Klausner, Howard; Nowak, Richard; Raja, Ali S; Summers, Richard; Weber, Jim E; Briggs, William M; Arkun, Alp; Diercks, Deborah

    2010-05-01

    Financial conflicts of interest have come under increasing scrutiny in medicine, but their impact has not been quantified. Our objective was to use the results of a national survey of academic emergency medicine (EM) faculty to determine if an association between money and personal opinion exists. We conducted a web-based survey of EM faculty. Opinion questions were analyzed with regard to whether the respondent had either 1) received research grant money or 2) received money from industry as a speaker, consultant, or advisor. Responses were unweighted, and tests of differences in proportions were made using Chi-squared tests, with p<0.05 set for significance. We received responses from 430 members; 98 (23%) received research grants from industry, while 145 (34%) reported fee-for-service money. Respondents with research money were more likely to be comfortable accepting gifts (40% vs. 29%) and acting as paid consultants (50% vs. 37%). They had a more favorable attitude with regard to societal interactions with industry and felt that industry-sponsored lectures could be fair and unbiased (52% vs. 29%). Faculty with fee-for-service money mirrored those with research money. They were also more likely to believe that industry-sponsored research produces fair and unbiased results (61% vs. 45%) and less likely to believe that honoraria biased speakers (49% vs. 69%). Accepting money for either service or research identified a distinct population defined by their opinions. Faculty engaged in industry-sponsored research benefitted socially (collaborations), academically (publications), and financially from the relationship.

  11. Abstract to publication ratio for papers presented at scientific meetings: how does emergency medicine compare?

    PubMed

    Walby, A; Kelly, A M; Georgakas, C

    2001-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine the publication rate of abstracts presented by Australasian emergency physicians at major emergency medicine meetings and to identify the site of publication of papers. All free paper abstracts presented (oral and poster) by Australasian emergency physicians and trainees at five Australasian College for Emergency Medicine/Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine and International Conference on Emergency Medicine meetings between 1995 and 1998 were identified retrospectively from conference programmes. In order to determine whether or not the abstract had been published, the PubMed database (http://www4.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed/) was searched using the presenter's name and key words from the abstract. In addition, a hand search of the non-abstracted journal Emergency Medicine was conducted. Of the 207 free paper abstracts identified, 73 (35%) had been published as full articles. Papers were published in a variety of journals; however, Emergency Medicine accounted for almost half the published papers. The mean time between presentation and publication was 12.6 months (median 11 months). The abstract to publication rate for papers presented by Australasian emergency physicians and trainees at Australasian College for Emergency Medicine/Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine and International Conference on Emergency Medicine meetings is 35%, which is lower than that reported by some other established specialities, but comparable to rates reported for US-based national and international emergency medicine meetings. Future research should look at barriers to the publication of findings and ways to assist the publication process.

  12. Regionalization and emergency care: the institute of medicine reports and a federal government update.

    PubMed

    Carr, Brendan G; Asplin, Brent R

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference on regionalization in emergency care began with an update on the Institute of Medicine (IOM) reports on the Future of Emergency Care. This was followed by two presentations from federal officials, focusing on regionalization from the perspective of the White House National Security Staff and the Emergency Care Coordination Center. This article summarizes the content of these presentations. It should be noted that this summary is the perspective of the authors and does not represent the official policy of the U.S. government. 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  13. The Effect of Emergency Department Overcrowding on Efficiency of Emergency Medicine Residents' Education.

    PubMed

    Sabzghabaei, Anita; Shojaee, Majid; Alimohammadi, Hossein; Derakhshanfar, Hojjat; Kashani, Parvin; Nassiriabrishamchi, Shohreh

    2015-01-01

    Creating a calm and stress-free environment affects education significantly. The effects of the emergency department overcrowding (EDO) on the training of emergency medicine residents (EMR) is a highly debated subject. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of EDO on efficiency of EMR's education. In this cross-sectional study, the effects of overcrowding on EMR's education in the resuscitation room and acute care unit. Data collection was done using a questionnaire, which was filled out by the second year EMRs. The crowding level was calculated based on the national emergency department overcrowding scale (NEDOCS). The relationship between the two studied variables was evaluated using independent sample t-test and SPSS 21 statistical software. 130 questionnaires were filled out during 61 shifts. 47 (77.05%) shifts were overcrowded. The attend's ability to teach was not affected by overcrowding in the resuscitation room (p=0.008). The similar results were seen regarding the attend's training ability in the acute care unit. It seems that the emergency department overcrowding has no effect on the quality of education to the EMRs.

  14. Emergency medicine resident education in palliative care: a needs assessment.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Sangeeta; Pound, Amy; Rella, Joseph G; Compton, Scott

    2012-05-01

    Hospice and Palliative Medicine is a newly designated subspecialty of Emergency Medicine (EM). As yet, no well defined palliative care (PC) models for education or training exist. A needs assessment is the first step towards developing a curriculum. To characterize emergency physicians' (EP) perceived educational and formal training needs for PC related skills. All EM residents and faculty of one academic facility were asked to complete an anonymous needs-assessment survey. Participants were asked to rank statements related to attitudes about PC and rate their formal training and knowledge in 10 aspects of PC using a 5-point Likert-scale. EPs also ranked 4 learning modalities in order of preference and 12 PC educational topics in order of perceived importance in an EM curriculum. Ninety-three percent (42/45) of eligible participants completed the survey (28 residents, 14 faculty). Respondents agreed/strongly agreed that PC skills are an important competence for EM (88%, 37/42) and that they would "like to have more training/education in PC" (79%, 33/42). Respondents also disagreed/strongly disagreed with the statement that "PC consult is called when no more can be done for the patient" (90%, 38/42). Important PC topics identified were pain management, discussing code status, and management of dyspnea and other symptoms in terminal illness. Bedside teaching was listed as the preferred learning modality. EM residents reported minimal training in pain management (46%, 13/28), managing hospice patients (54%, 15/28), withdrawal/withholding life support (54%, 15/28), and managing the imminently dying (43%, 12/28). There was no consistent, significant improvement reported in any domain as training and experience progressed from PGY (postgraduate year) 1 to PGY 4 to attending physician. EPs view PC skills as important for EM practice and report that they are not yet adequately educated and trained in providing PC. Domains of particular interest and targeted areas for PC

  15. Contextual information influences diagnosis accuracy and decision making in simulated emergency medicine emergencies.

    PubMed

    McRobert, Allistair Paul; Causer, Joe; Vassiliadis, John; Watterson, Leonie; Kwan, James; Williams, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    It is well documented that adaptations in cognitive processes with increasing skill levels support decision making in multiple domains. We examined skill-based differences in cognitive processes in emergency medicine physicians, and whether performance was significantly influenced by the removal of contextual information related to a patient's medical history. Skilled (n=9) and less skilled (n=9) emergency medicine physicians responded to high-fidelity simulated scenarios under high- and low-context information conditions. Skilled physicians demonstrated higher diagnostic accuracy irrespective of condition, and were less affected by the removal of context-specific information compared with less skilled physicians. The skilled physicians generated more options, and selected better quality options during diagnostic reasoning compared with less skilled counterparts. These cognitive processes were active irrespective of the level of context-specific information presented, although high-context information enhanced understanding of the patients' symptoms resulting in higher diagnostic accuracy. Our findings have implications for scenario design and the manipulation of contextual information during simulation training.

  16. Emergency Medicine Resident Physicians’ Perceptions of Electronic Documentation and Workflow

    PubMed Central

    Neri, P.M.; Redden, L.; Poole, S.; Pozner, C.N.; Horsky, J.; Raja, A.S.; Poon, E.; Schiff, G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective To understand emergency department (ED) physicians’ use of electronic documentation in order to identify usability and workflow considerations for the design of future ED information system (EDIS) physician documentation modules. Methods We invited emergency medicine resident physicians to participate in a mixed methods study using task analysis and qualitative interviews. Participants completed a simulated, standardized patient encounter in a medical simulation center while documenting in the test environment of a currently used EDIS. We recorded the time on task, type and sequence of tasks performed by the participants (including tasks performed in parallel). We then conducted semi-structured interviews with each participant. We analyzed these qualitative data using the constant comparative method to generate themes. Results Eight resident physicians participated. The simulation session averaged 17 minutes and participants spent 11 minutes on average on tasks that included electronic documentation. Participants performed tasks in parallel, such as history taking and electronic documentation. Five of the 8 participants performed a similar workflow sequence during the first part of the session while the remaining three used different workflows. Three themes characterize electronic documentation: (1) physicians report that location and timing of documentation varies based on patient acuity and workload, (2) physicians report a need for features that support improved efficiency; and (3) physicians like viewing available patient data but struggle with integration of the EDIS with other information sources. Conclusion We confirmed that physicians spend much of their time on documentation (65%) during an ED patient visit. Further, we found that resident physicians did not all use the same workflow and approach even when presented with an identical standardized patient scenario. Future EHR design should consider these varied workflows while trying to

  17. Workplace Violence and Harassment Against Emergency Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    Schnapp, Benjamin H.; Slovis, Benjamin H.; Shah, Anar D.; Fant, Abra L.; Gisondi, Michael A.; Shah, Kaushal H.; Lech, Christie A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have shown that workplace violence in the emergency department (ED) is common. Residents may be among the most vulnerable staff, as they have the least experience with these volatile encounters. The goal for this study was to quantify and describe acts of violence against emergency medicine (EM) residents by patients and visitors and to identify perceived barriers to safety. Methods This cross-sectional survey study queried EM residents at multiple New York City hospitals. The primary outcome was the incidence of violence experienced by residents while working in the ED. The secondary outcomes were the subtypes of violence experienced by residents, as well as the perceived barriers to safety while at work. Results A majority of residents (66%, 78/119) reported experiencing at least one act of physical violence during an ED shift. Nearly all residents (97%, 115/119) experienced verbal harassment, 78% (93/119) had experienced verbal threats, and 52% (62/119) reported sexual harassment. Almost a quarter of residents felt safe “Occasionally,” “Seldom” or “Never” while at work. Patient-based factors most commonly cited as contributory to violence included substance use and psychiatric disease. Conclusion Self-reported violence against EM residents appears to be a significant problem. Incidence of violence and patient risk factors are similar to what has been found previously for other ED staff. Understanding the prevalence of workplace violence as well as the related systems, environmental, and patient-based factors is essential for future prevention efforts. PMID:27625721

  18. Emergency medicine in the general practice internship in Finnmark county.

    PubMed

    Hunnålvatn, Kaja Hansen; Ivan, Daniela; Wisborg, Torben

    2017-12-12

    It is preferred that duty doctors in municipal health services participate in call-outs in emergency situations. The frequency of participation has previously been shown to vary. We wanted to examine the newly qualified doctors’ expectations and experiences – both before and after the general practice internship – of emergency medicine and ambulance call-outs. All 23 of the interns who were to undertake their general practice internship in Finnmark county in the period 2015–16 answered a questionnaire and participated in a focus group interview before the start of the internship. Twenty-one of the interns participated in the focus group interview after completing the internship. Each doctor took part in two interviews. We analysed the transcripts from the focus group interviews using the grounded theory method. The responses from the questionnaire before the general practice internship showed that the interns felt they needed more training in intravenous cannulation and in teamwork. Their expectations in connection with the challenges of call-outs are best characterised by the core category ‘Can I do anything useful?’ from the focus groups before the internship. After the internship, however, the core category ‘It all went well in the end’, was the best fit. Due to short transport times and their knowledge of certain patients, some of the doctors chose not to take part in call-outs. During the general practice internship, the interns were initially anxious about whether they might be superfluous in call-outs, but eventually found their footing in the call-out role. The study shows that there is a need for more practice in certain practical procedures, and that doctors’ non-technical skills need to be improved. This can be done through training in team leader roles before the general practice internship.

  19. A Needs Assessment for a Longitudinal Emergency Medicine Intern Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Shappell, Eric; Ahn, James

    2017-01-01

    A key task of emergency medicine (EM) training programs is to develop a consistent knowledge of core content in recruits with heterogeneous training backgrounds. The traditional model for delivering core content is lecture-based weekly conference; however, a growing body of literature finds this format less effective and less appealing than alternatives. We sought to address this challenge by conducting a needs assessment for a longitudinal intern curriculum for millennial learners. We surveyed all residents from the six EM programs in the greater Chicago area regarding the concept, format, and scope of a longitudinal intern curriculum. We received 153 responses from the 300 residents surveyed (51% response rate). The majority of respondents (80%; 82% of interns) agreed or strongly agreed that a dedicated intern curriculum would add value to residency education. The most positively rated teaching method was simulation sessions (91% positive responses), followed by dedicated weekly conference time (75% positive responses) and dedicated asynchronous resources (71% positive responses). Less than half of respondents (47%; 26% of interns) supported use of textbook readings in the curriculum. There is strong learner interest in a longitudinal intern curriculum. This needs assessment can serve to inform the development of a universal intern curriculum targeting the millennial generation.

  20. A Needs Assessment for a Longitudinal Emergency Medicine Intern Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Shappell, Eric; Ahn, James

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A key task of emergency medicine (EM) training programs is to develop a consistent knowledge of core content in recruits with heterogeneous training backgrounds. The traditional model for delivering core content is lecture-based weekly conference; however, a growing body of literature finds this format less effective and less appealing than alternatives. We sought to address this challenge by conducting a needs assessment for a longitudinal intern curriculum for millennial learners. Methods We surveyed all residents from the six EM programs in the greater Chicago area regarding the concept, format, and scope of a longitudinal intern curriculum. Results We received 153 responses from the 300 residents surveyed (51% response rate). The majority of respondents (80%; 82% of interns) agreed or strongly agreed that a dedicated intern curriculum would add value to residency education. The most positively rated teaching method was simulation sessions (91% positive responses), followed by dedicated weekly conference time (75% positive responses) and dedicated asynchronous resources (71% positive responses). Less than half of respondents (47%; 26% of interns) supported use of textbook readings in the curriculum. Conclusion There is strong learner interest in a longitudinal intern curriculum. This needs assessment can serve to inform the development of a universal intern curriculum targeting the millennial generation. PMID:28116005

  1. Performance criteria for emergency medicine residents: a job analysis.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Danielle; Dagnone, Jeffrey Damon

    2008-11-01

    A major role of admission interviews is to assess a candidate's suitability for a residency program. Structured interviews have greater reliability and validity than do unstructured ones. The development of content for a structured interview is typically based on the dimensions of performance that are perceived as important to succeed in a particular line of work. A formal job analysis is normally conducted to determine these dimensions. The dimensions essential to succeed as an emergency medicine (EM) resident have not yet been studied. We aimed to analyze the work of EM residents to determine these essential dimensions. The "critical incident technique" was used to generate scenarios of poor and excellent resident performance. Two reviewers independently read each scenario and labelled the performance dimensions that were reflected in each. All labels assigned to a particular scenario were pooled and reviewed again until a consensus was reached. Five faculty members (25% of our total faculty) comprised the subject experts. Fifty-one incidents were generated and 50 different labels were applied. Eleven dimensions of performance applied to at least 5 incidents. "Professionalism" was the most valued performance dimension, represented in 56% of the incidents, followed by "self-confidence" (22%), "experience" (20%) and "knowledge" (20%). "Professionalism," "self-confidence," "experience" and "knowledge" were identified as the performance dimensions essential to succeed as an EM resident based on our formal job analysis using the critical incident technique. Performing a formal job analysis may assist training program directors with developing admission interviews.

  2. Perceptions of Unprofessional Social Media Behavior Among Emergency Medicine Physicians.

    PubMed

    Soares, William; Shenvi, Christina; Waller, Nikki; Johnson, Reuben; Hodgson, Carol S

    2017-02-01

    Use of social media (SM) by physicians has exposed issues of privacy and professionalism. While guidelines have been created for SM use, details regarding specific SM behaviors that could lead to disciplinary action presently do not exist. To compare State Medical Board (SMB) directors' perceptions of investigation for specific SM behaviors with those of emergency medicine (EM) physicians. A multicenter anonymous survey was administered to physicians at 3 academic EM residency programs. Surveys consisted of case vignettes, asking, "If the SMB were informed of the content, how likely would they be to initiate an investigation, possibly leading to disciplinary action?" (1, very unlikely, to 4, very likely). Results were compared to published probabilities using exact binomial testing. Of 205 eligible physicians, 119 (58%) completed the survey. Compared to SMB directors, EM physicians indicated similar probabilities of investigation for themes involving identifying patient images, inappropriate communication, and discriminatory speech. Participants indicated lower probabilities of investigation for themes including derogatory speech (32%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 24-41 versus 46%, P  < .05); alcohol intoxication (41%, 95% CI 32-51 versus 73%, P  < .05); and holding alcohol without intoxication (7%, 95% CI 3-13 versus 40%, P  < .05). There were no significant associations with position, hospital site, years since medical school, or prior SM professionalism training. Physicians reported a lower likelihood of investigation for themes that intersect with social identity, compared to SMB directors, particularly for images of alcohol and derogatory speech.

  3. Are there too few women presenting at emergency medicine conferences?

    PubMed

    Carley, Simon; Carden, Richard; Riley, Rebecca; May, Natalie; Hruska, Katrin; Beardsell, Iain; Johnston, Michelle; Body, Richard

    2016-10-01

    There is a perception that women are under-represented as speakers at emergency medicine (EM) conferences. We aimed to evaluate the ratio of male to female speakers and the proportion of presenting time by gender at major international EM conferences. Conference programmes of the major English-speaking EM conferences occurring from 2014 to 2015 were obtained. The number of presentations, the gender of the speaker and the duration of each presentation were recorded. We analysed eight major EM conferences. These included 2382 presentations, of which 29.9% (range 22.5%-40.9%) were given by women. In total, 56 104 min of presentations were analysed, of which 27.6% (range 21%-36.7%) were delivered by women. On average, presentations by women were 95 s shorter than presentations by men (23 vs 21 min 25 s). Male speakers exceed female speakers at major EM conferences. The reasons for this imbalance are likely complex and multifactorial and may reflect the gender imbalance within the specialty. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Pre-hospital burn mission as a unique experience: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Froutan, Razieh; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Fallahi, Masoud; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Norouzi, Kian

    2014-12-01

    A thorough understanding of experiences related to pre-hospital emergency care of burns is a prerequisite of skill promotion for medical personnel. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the experiences of pre-hospital emergency personnel during burn accidents. The present qualitative study was performed using a content analysis method. In total, 18 Iranian emergency care personnel participated in the study. A purposeful sampling method was applied until reaching data saturation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and field observations. Afterwards, the gathered data were analyzed through face content analysis. By analyzing 498 primary codes, four main categories; the nature of burn care, tension at the accident scene, gradual job 'burnout', and insufficient information, were extracted from the experiences of pre-hospital emergency personnel during burn care. These categories each included several sub-categories, which were classified according to their significant characteristics. This study showed that different factors affect the quality of pre-hospital clinical services for burns. Authorities and health system administrators should consider the physical and psychological health of their staff, and assign policies to improve the quality of pre-hospital medical care. According to the present results, it is recommended that the process of pre-hospital emergency care for burns be investigated further. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Management of Pneumothorax in Emergency Medicine Departments: Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ince, Abdulkadir; Ozucelik, Dogac Niyazi; Avci, Akkan; Nizam, Ozgur; Dogan, Halil; Topal, Mehmet Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pneumothorax is common and life-threatening clinical condition which may require emergency treatment in Emergency Medicine Departments. Objectives: We aimed to reveal the epidemiological analysis of the patients admitted to the Emergency Department with pneumothorax. Material and Methods: This case-control and multi-center study was conducted in the patients treated with the diagnosis of pneumothorax between 01.01.2010-31.12.2010. Patient data were collected from hospital automation system. According to the etiology of the pneumothorax, study groups were arranged like spontaneous pneumothorax and traumatic pneumothorax. Results: 82.2% (n = 106) of patients were male and 17.8% (n = 23) of patients were female and mean age were 31.3 ± 20,2 (Minimum: 1, Maximum: 87). 68.2% (n = 88) of patients were spontaneous pneumothorax (61.36%, n=79 were primary spontaneous pneumothorax) and 31.8% (n = 41) of patients were traumatic pneumothorax (21.95% were iatrogenic pneumothorax). Main complaint is shortness of breath (52.3%, n=67) and 38% (n=49) of patients were smokers. Posteroanterior (PA) Chest X-Ray has been enough for 64.3% (n = 83) of the patients' diagnosis. Tube thoracostomy is applied to 84.5% (n = 109) of patients and surgery is applied to 9.3% (n = 12) of patients and 6.2% (n = 8) of patients were discharged with conservative treatment. Spontaneous pneumothorax showed statistically significant high recurrence compared with traumatic pneumothorax (P = 0.007). 4.65% of (n = 6) patients died. The average age of those who died (9.3 ± 19.9), statistically were significantly lower the mean age of living patients (32.4 ± 19.7) (t test, P = 0,006). 83.33% of the patients who died were neonatals and in the 0-1 years age group, and five of these patients were secondary spontaneous pneumothorax, and one of these patients were iatrogenic pneumothorax due to mechanical ventilation. Conclusions: Pneumothorax in adults can be treated by tube thoracostomy or

  6. Increasing emergency medicine residents' confidence in disaster management: use of an emergency department simulator and an expedited curriculum.

    PubMed

    Franc, Jeffrey Michael; Nichols, Darren; Dong, Sandy L

    2012-02-01

    Disaster Medicine is an increasingly important part of medicine. Emergency Medicine residency programs have very high curriculum commitments, and adding Disaster Medicine training to this busy schedule can be difficult. Development of a short Disaster Medicine curriculum that is effective and enjoyable for the participants may be a valuable addition to Emergency Medicine residency training. A simulation-based curriculum was developed. The curriculum included four group exercises in which the participants developed a disaster plan for a simulated hospital. This was followed by a disaster simulation using the Disastermed.Ca Emergency Disaster Simulator computer software Version 3.5.2 (Disastermed.Ca, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada) and the disaster plan developed by the participants. Progress was assessed by a pre- and post-test, resident evaluations, faculty evaluation of Command and Control, and markers obtained from the Disastermed.Ca software. Twenty-five residents agreed to partake in the training curriculum. Seventeen completed the simulation. There was no statistically significant difference in pre- and post-test scores. Residents indicated that they felt the curriculum had been useful, and judged it to be preferable to a didactic curriculum. In addition, the residents' confidence in their ability to manage a disaster increased on both a personal and and a departmental level. A simulation-based model of Disaster Medicine training, requiring approximately eight hours of classroom time, was judged by Emergency Medicine residents to be a valuable component of their medical training, and increased their confidence in personal and departmental disaster management capabilities.

  7. The Research Component in the Development of Emergency Medicine as a Specialty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwar, Rebecca A. H.; Wagner, David K.

    1977-01-01

    An example of a methodology for programmatic research development in emergency medicine is identified through the establishment of a nonclinical health services research position, which contributes to building a body of knowledge specific to emergency medicine and creating a sense of professional identity among graduate trainees. (Author/LBH)

  8. Psychiatry and Emergency Medicine: Medical Student and Physician Attitudes toward Homeless Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Ann; Roman, Brenda; Borges, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore changes in medical students' attitudes toward homeless persons during the Psychiatry and Emergency Medicine clerkships. Simultaneously, this study explored attitudes toward homeless persons held by Psychiatry and Emergency Medicine residents and faculty in an attempt to uncover the "hidden…

  9. Development and Evaluation of Educational Materials for Pre-Hospital and Emergency Department Personnel on the Care of Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGonigle, John J.; Migyanka, Joann M.; Glor-Scheib, Susan J.; Cramer, Ryan; Fratangeli, Jeffrey J.; Hegde, Gajanan G.; Shang, Jennifer; Venkat, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    With the rising prevalence of patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there has been an increase in the acute presentation of these individuals to the general health care system. Emergency medical services and emergency department personnel commonly address the health care needs of patients with ASD at times of crisis. Unfortunately, there…

  10. The role of emergency physicians in the institutionalization of emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    van Schothorst, Jannine; van den Brand, Crispijn L; Gaakeer, Menno I; Wallenburg, Iris

    2017-08-01

    Emergency medicine is a fast-growing medical profession. Nevertheless, the clinical activities emergency physicians (EPs) carry out and the responsibilities they have differ considerably between hospitals. This article addresses the question how the role of EPs is shaped and institutionalized in the everyday context of acute care in hospitals. A cross-case ethnographic study was conducted, comprising observations, document analysis, and in-depth interviews in three emergency departments in the Netherlands. Drawing on the theoretical concept of institutional work, we show that managers, already established medical specialties, and EPs all conduct institutional work to enhance private interests, which both restricts and enlarges EPs' work domain. These actions are strategic and intentional, as well as unintentional and part of EPs' everyday work in acute care delivery. It is in this very process that tasks and responsibilities are redistributed and the role of the EP is shaped. In contemporary literature it is often argued that the role and status of EPs should be enhanced by strengthening regulation and improving training programs. This article shows that attention should also be paid to the more subtle everyday processes of role development.

  11. Road Traffic Injury in Lagos, Nigeria: Assessing Prehospital Care.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Nasiru A; Ajani, Abdul Wahab O; Mustafa, Ibrahim A; Balogun, Rufai A; Oludara, Mobolaji A; Idowu, Olufemi E; Solagberu, Babatunde A

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Injuries are the third most important cause of overall deaths globally with one-quarter resulting from road traffic crashes. Majority of these deaths occur before arrival in the hospital and can be reduced with prompt and efficient prehospital care. The aim of this study was to highlight the burden of road traffic injury (RTI) in Lagos, Nigeria and assess the effectiveness of prehospital care, especially the role of Lagos State Ambulance Service (LASAMBUS) in providing initial care and transportation of the injured to the hospital. A three-year, retrospective review of road traffic injured patients seen at the Surgical Emergency Room (SER) of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Ikeja, Nigeria, from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014 was conducted. Parameters extracted from the Institution Trauma Registry included bio-data, date and time of injury, date and time of arrival in SER, host status, type of vehicle involved, and region(s) injured. Information on how patients came to the hospital and outcome in SER also were recorded. Results were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS; IBM Corporation; Armonk, New York USA) version 16. A total of 23,537 patients were seen during the study period. Among them, 16,024 (68.1%) had trauma. Road traffic crashes were responsible in 5,629 (35.0%) of trauma cases. Passengers constituted 42.0% of the injured, followed by pedestrians (34.0%). Four wheelers were the most frequent vehicle type involved (54.0%), followed by motor cycles (30.0%). Regions mainly affected were head and neck (40.0%) and lower limb (29.0%). Less than one-quarter (24.0%) presented to the emergency room within an hour, while one-third arrived between one and six hours following injury. Relatives brought 55.4%, followed by bystanders (21.4%). Only 2.3% had formal prehospital care and were brought to the hospital by LASAMBUS. They also had significantly shorter arrival time. One hundred and nine patients

  12. Child abuse training and knowledge: a national survey of emergency medicine, family medicine, and pediatric residents and program directors.

    PubMed

    Starling, Suzanne P; Heisler, Kurt W; Paulson, James F; Youmans, Eren

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, comfort, and training related to the medical management of child abuse among pediatrics, emergency medicine, and family medicine residents. Surveys were administered to program directors and third-year residents at 67 residency programs. The resident survey included a 24-item quiz to assess knowledge regarding the medical management of physical and sexual child abuse. Sites were solicited from members of a network of child abuse physicians practicing at institutions with residency programs. Analyzable surveys were received from 53 program directors and 462 residents. Compared with emergency medicine and family medicine programs, pediatric programs were significantly larger and more likely to have a medical provider specializing in child abuse pediatrics, have faculty primarily responsible for child abuse training, use a written curriculum for child abuse training, and offer an elective rotation in child abuse. Exposure to child abuse training and abused patients was highest for pediatric residents and lowest for family medicine residents. Comfort with managing child abuse cases was lowest among family medicine residents. On the knowledge quiz, pediatric residents significantly outperformed emergency medicine and family medicine residents. Residents with high knowledge scores were significantly more likely to come from larger programs and programs that had a center, provider, or interdisciplinary team that specialized in child abuse pediatrics; had a physician on faculty responsible for child abuse training; used a written curriculum for child abuse training; and had a required rotation in child abuse pediatrics. By analyzing the relationship between program characteristics and residents' child abuse knowledge, we found that pediatric programs provide far more training and resources for child abuse education than emergency medicine and family medicine programs. As leaders, pediatricians must

  13. Pre-hospital treatment of STEMI patients. A scientific statement of the Working Group Acute Cardiac Care of the European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Tubaro, M; Danchin, N; Goldstein, P; Filippatos, G; Hasin, Y; Heras, M; Jansky, P; Norekval, T M; Swahn, E; Thygesen, K; Vrints, C; Zahger, D; Arntz, H R; Bellou, A; De La Coussaye, J E; De Luca, L; Huber, K; Lambert, Y; Lettino, M; Lindahl, B; McLean, S; Nibbe, L; Peacock, W F; Price, S; Quinn, T; Spaulding, C; Tatu-Chitoiu, G; Van De Werf, F

    2011-06-01

    In ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) the pre-hospital phase is the most critical, as the administration of the most appropriate treatment in a timely manner is instrumental for mortality reduction. STEMI systems of care based on networks of medical institutions connected by an efficient emergency medical service are pivotal. The first steps are devoted to minimize the patient's delay in seeking care, rapidly dispatch a properly staffed and equipped ambulance to make the diagnosis on scene, deliver initial drug therapy and transport the patient to the most appropriate (not necessarily the closest) cardiac facility. Primary PCI is the treatment of choice, but thrombolysis followed by coronary angiography and possibly PCI is a valid alternative, according to patient's baseline risk, time from symptoms onset and primary PCI-related delay. Paramedics and nurses have an important role in pre-hospital STEMI care and their empowerment is essential to increase the effectiveness of the system. Strong cooperation between cardiologists and emergency medicine doctors is mandatory for optimal pre-hospital STEMI care. Scientific societies have an important role in guideline implementation as well as in developing quality indicators and performance measures; health care professionals must overcome existing barriers to optimal care together with political and administrative decision makers.

  14. Acute cyanide poisoning in prehospital care: new challenges, new tools for intervention.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Tee

    2006-01-01

    Effective management of cyanide poisoning from chemical terrorism, inhalation of fire smoke, and other causes constitutes a critical challenge for the prehospital care provider. The ability to meet the challenge of managing cyanide poisoning in the prehospital setting may be enhanced by the availability of the cyanide antidote hydroxocobalamin, currently under development for potential introduction in the United States. This paper discusses the causes, recognition, and management of acute cyanide poisoning in the prehospital setting with emphasis on the emerging profile of hydroxocobalamin, an antidote that may have a risk:benefit ratio suitable for empiric, out-of-hospital treatment of the range of causes of cyanide poisoning. If introduced in the U.S., hydroxocobalamin may enhance the role of the U.S. prehospital responder in providing emergency care in a cyanide incident.

  15. The Biology of Emergency Medicine: what have 30 years meant for Rosen's original concepts?

    PubMed

    Zink, Brian J

    2011-03-01

    In 1979 Peter Rosen, MD, a leading academic figure in the developing field of emergency medicine (EM), wrote an article, "The Biology of Emergency Medicine," in response to criticism from other specialties and medical leaders that there was no unique biology of EM that would qualify it as a legitimate medical specialty. This essay received much attention at the time and served as rallying cry for emergency physicians (EPs) who were trying to find their places in the house of medicine and especially in medical schools and academic teaching hospitals. Thirty years later, the opposition that prompted many of Rosen's strongly worded impressions and observations on the biology of EM, clinical emergency department (ED) practice, education, and research has largely faded. Many of Rosen's predictions on the eventual success of EM have come true. However, core issues that existed then continue to present challenges for academic EM and clinical emergency practice. © 2011 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  16. Impact of an emergency medicine pharmacist on antibiotic dosing adjustment.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Kyle M; Weiss, Steven J; Rankin, Shannon; Ernst, Amy; Sarangarm, Preeyaporn

    2016-06-01

    Overall medication-related errors in the emergency department (ED) are 13.5 times more likely to occur in the absence of an emergency medicine pharmacist (EMP). Although the effectiveness of pharmacist-driven renal dosing adjustment has been studied in the intensive care unit, data are lacking in the ED setting. The aim of our study was to evaluate the appropriateness of antibiotic dosing when an EMP is physically present in the ED compared to when absent. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients treated in a level I trauma center with 75 adult and 12 pediatric beds and an annual census of 90000 patients. The study period was from March 1 to September 30, 2014. An EMP was physically present in the ED from 11:00 to 01:30 and absent from 01:31 to 10:59. Male and female patients 18years and older were considered for inclusion if cefazolin, cefepime, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, or vancomycin was ordered. The primary outcome was the composite rate of correct antibiotic dose and frequency. Statistics included a multivariable logistic regression using age, sex, presence of EMP, and creatinine clearance as independent predictors of correct antibiotic use. A total 210 cases were randomly chosen for evaluation, half during times when EMPs were present and half when they were absent. There were 130 males (62%) with an overall mean age of 54±18years. Overall, 178 (85%) of 210 of the antibiotic orders were appropriate, with 95% appropriate when an EMP was present compared to 74% when an EMP was absent (odds ratio, 6.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.5-18.8). In a logistic regression model, antibiotic appropriateness was independently associated with the presence of the EMP and creatinine clearance. Antibiotics that require renal and/or weight dosing adjustment are 6.5 times more likely to be appropriate in the ED when an EMP is present. Prevalence of antibiotic dosing error is related to both the presence of EMPs and the degree of renal impairment. Copyright

  17. Injuries to emergency medicine residents on EMS rotations.

    PubMed

    Cone, D C; McNamara, R M

    1998-01-01

    To study the incidence and nature of injuries sustained by emergency medicine (EM) residents during EMS rotations, and steps taken at EM residency programs to increase resident safety during field activities. An eight-question survey form was mailed to all 114 U.S. EM residency directors, with a second mailing to nonresponders eight weeks after the initial mailing. A total of 105 surveys were returned (92%). Six surveys were from new programs whose residents have not yet rotated on EMS. These were excluded from further analysis, leaving 99 programs. Of these, 91 (92%) reported no injuries. One EM resident died in a helicopter crash in 1985. Seven other injury events were reported: 1) facial lacerations, rib fractures, and a shoulder injury in an ambulance accident; 2) an open finger fracture (crushed by a backboard); 3) contusions and a concussion when an ambulance was struck by a fire engine; 4) a groin pull sustained while entering a helicopter; 5) bilateral metatarsal fractures in a fall; 6) rib fractures, a pneumothorax, and a concussion in an ambulance accident; and 7) "minor injuries" sustained in a crash while responding to a scene in a program-owned response vehicle. Actions taken at residency programs to reduce the risk of injury include the use of ballistic vests (four programs), requiring helmets on flights (five programs), and changing flight experience from mandatory to optional (two programs). Ten programs (10%) reported using ground scene safety lectures, and nine programs (15% of those offering flights) reported various types of flight safety instruction. Sixty-nine programs (70%) reported no formal field safety training or other active steps to increase resident safety on EMS rotations. Injuries sustained by EM residents during EMS rotations are uncommon but nontrivial, with several serious injuries and one fatality reported. The majority of EM residency programs have no formal safety training programs for EMS rotations.

  18. The multiple mini-interview for emergency medicine resident selection.

    PubMed

    Hopson, Laura R; Burkhardt, John C; Stansfield, R Brent; Vohra, Taher; Turner-Lawrence, Danielle; Losman, Eve D

    2014-04-01

    The Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) uses multiple, short-structured contacts to evaluate communication and professionalism. It predicts medical school success better than the traditional interview and application. Its acceptability and utility in emergency medicine (EM) residency selection are unknown. We theorized that participants would judge the MMI equal to a traditional unstructured interview and it would provide new information for candidate assessment. Seventy-one interns from 3 programs in the first month of training completed an eight-station MMI focused on EM topics. Pre- and post-surveys assessed reactions. MMI scores were compared with application data. EM grades correlated with MMI performance (F[1, 66] = 4.18; p < 0.05) with honors students having higher scores. Higher third-year clerkship grades were associated with higher MMI performance, although this was not statistically significant. MMI performance did not correlate with match desirability and did not predict most other components of an application. There was a correlation between lower MMI scores and lower global ranking on the Standardized Letter of Recommendation. Participants preferred a traditional interview (mean difference = 1.36; p < 0.01). A mixed format (traditional interview and MMI) was preferred over a MMI alone (mean difference = 1.1; p < 0.01). MMI performance did not significantly correlate with preference for the MMI. Although the MMI alone was viewed less favorably than a traditional interview, participants were receptive to a mixed-methods interview. The MMI does correlate with performance on the EM clerkship and therefore can measure important abilities for EM success. Future work will determine whether MMI performance predicts residency performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Emergency medicine resident well-being: stress and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Hoonpongsimanont, W; Murphy, M; Kim, C H; Nasir, D; Compton, S

    2014-01-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) residents are exposed to many work-related stressors, which affect them both physically and emotionally. It is unknown, however, how EM residents perceive the effect of these stressors on their well-being and how often they use unhealthy coping mechanisms to manage stress. To evaluate EM residents' perceptions of stressors related to their overall well-being and the prevalence of various coping mechanisms. An online survey instrument was developed to gauge resident stress, satisfaction with current lifestyle, stress coping mechanisms and demographics. A stratified random sample of EM residents from three postgraduate years (PGY-I, PGY-II and PGY-III) was obtained. Descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare residents across PGY level. There were 120 potential participants in each of the three PGYs. The overall response rate was 30% (109) with mean age of 30 and 61% were male. On a 0-4 scale (0 = completely dissatisfied), respondents in PGY-I reported significantly less satisfaction with lifestyle than those in PGY-II and III (mean rating: 1.29, 1.66 and 1.70, respectively; P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in mean ratings between PGYs on each of the other stress categories: work relationships (1.37), work environment (1.10) and response to patients (1.08). Residents reported exercise (94%), hobbies (89%) and use of alcohol (71%) as coping methods. Residents reported low satisfaction with current lifestyle. This dissatisfaction was unrelated to perceived work-related stress. Some undesirable coping methods were prevalent, suggesting that training programs could focus on promotion of healthy group activities.

  20. Exploring Scholarship and the Emergency Medicine Educator: A Workforce Study.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Jaime; Coates, Wendy C; Clarke, Samuel; Runde, Daniel P; Fowlkes, Emilie; Kurth, Jacqueline; Yarris, Lalena M

    2017-01-01

    Recent literature calls for initiatives to improve the quality of education studies and support faculty in approaching educational problems in a scholarly manner. Understanding the emergency medicine (EM) educator workforce is a crucial precursor to developing policies to support educators and promote education scholarship in EM. This study aims to illuminate the current workforce model for the academic EM educator. Program leadership at EM training programs completed an online survey consisting of multiple choice, completion, and free-response type items. We calculated and reported descriptive statistics. 112 programs participated. Mean number of core faculty/program: 16.02 ± 7.83 [14.53-17.5]. Mean number of faculty full-time equivalents (FTEs)/program dedicated to education is 6.92 ± 4.92 [5.87-7.98], including (mean FTE): Vice chair for education (0.25); director of medical education (0.13); education fellowship director (0.2); residency program director (0.83); associate residency director (0.94); assistant residency director (1.1); medical student clerkship director (0.8); assistant/associate clerkship director (0.28); simulation fellowship director (0.11); simulation director (0.42); director of faculty development (0.13). Mean number of FTEs/program for education administrative support is 2.34 ± 1.1 [2.13-2.61]. Determination of clinical hours varied; 38.75% of programs had personnel with education research expertise. Education faculty represent about 43% of the core faculty workforce. Many programs do not have the full spectrum of education leadership roles and educational faculty divide their time among multiple important academic roles. Clinical requirements vary. Many departments lack personnel with expertise in education research. This information may inform interventions to promote education scholarship.

  1. Simulation in Canadian postgraduate emergency medicine training - a national survey.

    PubMed

    Russell, Evan; Hall, Andrew Koch; Hagel, Carly; Petrosoniak, Andrew; Dagnone, Jeffrey Damon; Howes, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Simulation-based education (SBE) is an important training strategy in emergency medicine (EM) postgraduate programs. This study sought to characterize the use of simulation in FRCPC-EM residency programs across Canada. A national survey was administered to residents and knowledgeable program representatives (PRs) at all Canadian FRCPC-EM programs. Survey question themes included simulation program characteristics, the frequency of resident participation, the location and administration of SBE, institutional barriers, interprofessional involvement, content, assessment strategies, and attitudes about SBE. Resident and PR response rates were 63% (203/321) and 100% (16/16), respectively. Residents reported a median of 20 (range 0-150) hours of annual simulation training, with 52% of residents indicating that the time dedicated to simulation training met their needs. PRs reported the frequency of SBE sessions ranging from weekly to every 6 months, with 15 (94%) programs having an established simulation curriculum. Two (13%) of the programs used simulation for resident assessment, although 15 (94%) of PRs indicated that they would be comfortable with simulation-based assessment. The most common PR-identified barriers to administering simulation were a lack of protected faculty time (75%) and a lack of faculty experience with simulation (56%). Interprofessional involvement in simulation was strongly valued by both residents and PRs. SBE is frequently used by Canadian FRCPC-EM residency programs. However, there exists considerable variability in the structure, frequency, and timing of simulation-based activities. As programs transition to competency-based medical education, national organizations and collaborations should consider the variability in how SBE is administered.

  2. Predictors of a Top Performer During Emergency Medicine Residency.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rahul; Takenaka, Katrin; Levine, Brian; Goyal, Nikhil; Garg, Manish; Visconti, Annette; Oyama, Leslie; Castillo, Edward; Broder, Joshua; Omron, Rodney; Hayden, Stephen

    2015-10-01

    Emergency Medicine (EM) residency program directors and faculty spend significant time and effort creating a residency rank list. To date, however, there have been few studies to assist program directors in determining which pre-residency variables best predict performance during EM residency. To evaluate which pre-residency variables best correlated with an applicant's performance during residency. This was a retrospective multicenter sample of all residents in the three most recent graduating classes from nine participating EM residency programs. The outcome measure of top residency performance was defined as placement in the top third of a resident's graduating class based on performance on the final semi-annual evaluation. A total of 277 residents from nine institutions were evaluated. Eight of the predictors analyzed had a significant correlation with the outcome of resident performance. Applicants' grade during home and away EM rotations, designation as Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA), U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 score, interview scores, "global rating" and "competitiveness" on nonprogram leadership standardized letter of recommendation (SLOR), and having five or more publications or presentations showed a significant association with residency performance. We identified several predictors of top performers in EM residency: an honors grade for an EM rotation, USMLE Step 1 score, AOA designation, interview score, high SLOR rankings from nonprogram leadership, and completion of five or more presentations and publications. EM program directors may consider utilizing these variables during the match process to choose applicants who have the highest chance of top performance during residency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC): Patient/Family-Informed Research Priorities for Pediatric Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Bialy, Liza; Plint, Amy C; Freedman, Stephen B; Johnson, David W; Curran, Janet A; Stang, Antonia S

    2018-06-06

    A growing body of literature supports patient and public involvement in the design, prioritization and dissemination of research and evidence based medicine. The objectives of this project were to engage patients and families in developing a prioritized list of research topics for Pediatric Emergency Medicine (PEM) and to compare results with prior research prioritization initiatives in the ED (emergency department) setting. We utilized a systematic process to combine administrative data on frequency of patient presentations to the ED with multiple stakeholder input including an initial stakeholder survey followed by a modified Delphi consensus methodology consisting of two web-based surveys and a face-to-face meeting. The prioritization process resulted in a ranked list of 15 research priorities. The top five priorities were mental health presentations, pain and sedation, practice tools, quality of care delivery and resource utilization. Mental health, pain and sedation, clinical prediction rules, respiratory illnesses /wheeze, patient safety/medication error and sepsis were identified as shared priorities with prior initiatives. Topics identified in our process that were not identified in prior work included resource utilization, ED communication, antibiotic stewardship and patient/family adherence with recommendations. This work identifies key priorities for research in PEM. Comparing our results with prior initiatives in the ED setting identified shared research priorities and opportunities for collaboration among PEM research networks. This work in particular makes an important contribution to the existing literature by including the patient/family perspective missing from prior work. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Occurrence of hypothermia in a prehospital setting, southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kornfält, Jonas; Johansson, Anders

    2010-04-01

    Severe accidental hypothermia mainly affects victims of outdoor accidents. However, hypothermia can also occur in non-traumatized indoor patients. The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence of hypothermia obtained at the scene of the rescue in patients classified as priority 1 cases during two three-month periods in southern Sweden. This prospective, clinical cohort study was performed in a prehospital setting, southern Sweden. Ninety-four patients were included during two three-month periods. According to where the patients were found they were split into two groups, outdoor or indoor and then separated into three categories; general medicine-, trauma- and intoxicated patients. The environment temperature was measured on arrival according to the location where the rescue occurred and core temperatures (tympanic membrane) of patients were measured in connection with the monitoring in the ambulance before departure and at the time of arrival to the emergency room at the hospital. This study demonstrated that the only group that shows body core temperature below 36 degrees C, was the outdoor intoxication-group during the winter-period (35.7+/-1.3 degrees C). We conclude that intoxicated patients are at higher risk for hypothermia than minor trauma patients. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Utilisation of prehospital intravenous access.

    PubMed

    Bester, B H; Sobuwa, Simpiwe

    2014-07-22

    To describe the use of intravenous (IV) therapy in the South African (SA) prehopsital setting, and to determine the proportion of prehopsital cannulations considered unnecessary when graded against the South African Triage Score (SATS) chart. The study was conducted in the prehospital emergency medical care setting in the Western Cape Province, SA. Using a descriptive research design, we looked at the report forms of patients treated and transported by personnel currently employed in the public sector, serving the urban and rural areas stipulated by the municipal boundaries. All medical and trauma cases in which establishment of IV access was documented for the month of April 2013 were included. Interhospital transfers, unsuccessful attempts at IV access and intraosseous cannulation were excluded. When graded against the SATS, prophylactic IV access was not justified in 42.3% of the total number of cases (N=149) in which it was established, and therefore added no direct benefit to the continuum of patient care. It is worth noting that 18.8% (n=39) of the IV lines were utilised for fluid administration, as opposed to 9.2% (n=19) for the administration of IV medications. In view of the paucity of studies indicating a direct benefit of out-of-hospital IV intervention, the practice of precautionary, protocol-driven prophylactic establishment of IV access should be evaluated. Current data suggest that in the absence of scientific evidence, IV access should only be initiated when it will benefit the patient immediately, and precautionary IV access, especially in non-injured patients, should be re-evaluated.

  6. An Environmental Scan of Academic Emergency Medicine at the 17 Canadian Medical Schools: Why Does this Matter to Emergency Physicians?

    PubMed

    Stiell, Ian G; Artz, Jennifer D; Lang, Eddy S; Sherbino, Jonathan; Morrison, Laurie J; Christenson, James; Perry, Jeffrey J; Topping, Claude; Woods, Robert; Green, Robert S; Lim, Rodrick; Magee, Kirk; Foote, John; Meckler, Garth; Mensour, Mark; Field, Simon; Chung, Brian; Kuuskne, Martin; Ducharme, James; Klein, Vera; McEwen, Jill

    2017-01-01

    We sought to conduct a major objective of the CAEP Academic Section, an environmental scan of the academic emergency medicine programs across the 17 Canadian medical schools. We developed an 84-question questionnaire, which was distributed to academic heads. The responses were validated by phone by the lead author to ensure that the questions were answered completely and consistently. Details of pediatric emergency medicine units were excluded from the scan. At eight of 17 universities, emergency medicine has full departmental status and at two it has no official academic status. Canadian academic emergency medicine is practiced at 46 major teaching hospitals and 13 specialized pediatric hospitals. Another 69 Canadian hospital EDs regularly take clinical clerks and emergency medicine residents. There are 31 full professors of emergency medicine in Canada. Teaching programs are strong with clerkships offered at 16/17 universities, CCFP(EM) programs at 17/17, and RCPSC residency programs at 14/17. Fourteen sites have at least one physician with a Master's degree in education. There are 55 clinical researchers with salary support at 13 universities. Sixteen sites have published peer-reviewed papers in the past five years, ranging from four to 235 per site. Annual budgets range from $200,000 to $5,900,000. This comprehensive review of academic activities in emergency medicine across Canada identifies areas of strengths as well as opportunities for improvement. CAEP and the Academic Section hope we can ultimately improve ED patient care by sharing best academic practices and becoming better teachers, educators, and researchers.

  7. How alternative payment models in emergency medicine can benefit physicians, payers, and patients.

    PubMed

    Harish, Nir J; Miller, Harold D; Pines, Jesse M; Zane, Richard D; Wiler, Jennifer L

    2017-06-01

    While there has been considerable effort devoted to developing alternative payment models (APMs) for primary care physicians and for episodes of care beginning with inpatient admissions, there has been relatively little attention by payers to developing APMs for specialty ambulatory care, and no efforts to develop APMs that explicitly focus on emergency care. In order to ensure that emergency care is appropriately integrated and valued in future payment models, emergency physicians (EPs) must engage with the stakeholders within the broader health care system. In this article, we describe a framework for the development of APMs for emergency medicine and present four examples of APMs that may be applicable in emergency medicine. A better understanding of how APMs can work in emergency medicine will help EPs develop new APMs that improve the cost and quality of care, and leverage the value that emergency care brings to the system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Disaster Education: A Survey Study to Analyze Disaster Medicine Training in Emergency Medicine Residency Programs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Ritu R; Cattamanchi, Srihari; Alqahtani, Abdulrahman; Aljohani, Majed; Keim, Mark; Ciottone, Gregory R

    2017-08-01

    The increase in natural and man-made disasters occurring worldwide places Emergency Medicine (EM) physicians at the forefront of responding to these crises. Despite the growing interest in Disaster Medicine, it is unclear if resident training has been able to include these educational goals. Hypothesis This study surveys EM residencies in the United States to assess the level of education in Disaster Medicine, to identify competencies least and most addressed, and to highlight effective educational models already in place. The authors distributed an online survey of multiple-choice and free-response questions to EM residency Program Directors in the United States between February 7 and September 24, 2014. Questions assessed residency background and details on specific Disaster Medicine competencies addressed during training. Out of 183 programs, 75 (41%) responded to the survey and completed all required questions. Almost all programs reported having some level of Disaster Medicine training in their residency. The most common Disaster Medicine educational competencies taught were patient triage and decontamination. The least commonly taught competencies were volunteer management, working with response teams, and special needs populations. The most commonly identified methods to teach Disaster Medicine were drills and lectures/seminars. There are a variety of educational tools used to teach Disaster Medicine in EM residencies today, with a larger focus on the use of lectures and hospital drills. There is no indication of a uniform educational approach across all residencies. The results of this survey demonstrate an opportunity for the creation of a standardized model for resident education in Disaster Medicine. Sarin RR , Cattamanchi S , Alqahtani A , Aljohani M , Keim M , Ciottone GR . Disaster education: a survey study to analyze disaster medicine training in emergency medicine residency programs in the United States. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):368-373.

  9. Prehospital Naloxone Administration as a Public Health Surveillance Tool: A Retrospective Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Heather A; Clemency, Brian M; Snyder, Ryan; Consiglio, Joseph D; May, Paul R; Moscati, Ronald M

    2015-08-01

    Abuse or unintended overdose (OD) of opiates and heroin may result in prehospital and emergency department (ED) care. Prehospital naloxone use has been suggested as a surrogate marker of community opiate ODs. The study objective was to verify externally whether prehospital naloxone use is a surrogate marker of community opiate ODs by comparing Emergency Medical Services (EMS) naloxone administration records to an independent database of ED visits for opiate and heroin ODs in the same community. A retrospective chart review of prehospital and ED data from July 2009 through June 2013 was conducted. Prehospital naloxone administration data obtained from the electronic medical records (EMRs) of a large private EMS provider serving a metropolitan area were considered a surrogate marker for suspected opiate OD. Comparison data were obtained from the regional trauma/psychiatric ED that receives the majority of the OD patients. The ED maintains a de-identified database of narcotic-related visits for surveillance of narcotic use in the metropolitan area. The ED database was queried for ODs associated with opiates or heroin. Cross-correlation analysis was used to test if prehospital naloxone administration was independent of ED visits for opiate/heroin ODs. Naloxone was administered during 1,812 prehospital patient encounters, and 1,294 ED visits for opiate/heroin ODs were identified. The distribution of patients in the prehospital and ED datasets did not differ by gender, but it did differ by race and age. The frequency of naloxone administration by prehospital providers varied directly with the frequency of ED visits for opiate/heroin ODs. A monthly increase of two ED visits for opiate-related ODs was associated with an increase in one prehospital naloxone administration (cross-correlation coefficient [CCF]=0.44; P=.0021). A monthly increase of 100 ED visits for heroin-related ODs was associated with an increase in 94 prehospital naloxone administrations (CCF=0.46; P=.0012

  10. Nonemergency Medicine-Trained Physician Coverage in Rural Emergency Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lars E.; Dodoo, Martey; Bennett, Kevin J.; Bazemore, Andrew; Phillips, Robert L., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Rural areas have fewer physicians compared to urban areas, and rural emergency departments often rely on community or contracted providers for staffing. The emergency department workforce is composed of a variety of physician specialties and clinicians. Purpose: To determine the distribution of emergency department clinicians and the…

  11. An assessment of emotional intelligence in emergency medicine resident physicians

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Kathryn; Shah, Anuj; London, Kory Scott; Chandra, Shruti; Naples, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To define the emotional intelligence (EI) profile of emergency medicine (EM) residents, and identify resident EI strengths and weaknesses. Methods First-, second-, and third-year residents (post-graduate years [PGY] 1, 2, and 3, respectively) of Thomas Jefferson University Hospital’s EM Program completed the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i 2.0), a validated instrument offered by Multi-Health Systems. Reported scores included total mean EI, 5 composite scores, and 15 subscales of EI. Scores are reported as means with 95% CIs. The unpaired, two-sample t-test was used to evaluate differences in means. Results Thirty-five residents completed the assessment (response rate 97.2%). Scores were normed to the general population (mean 100, SD 15). Total mean EI for the cohort was 103 (95%CI,100-108). EI was higher in female (107) than male (101) residents. PGY-2s demonstrated the lowest mean EI (95) versus PGY-1s (104) and PGY-3s (110). The difference in PGY-3 EI (110; 95%CI,103-116) and PGY-1 EI (95, 95%CI,87-104) was statistically significant (unpaired t-test, p<0.01). Highest composite scores were in interpersonal skills (107; 95%CI,100-108) and stress management (105; 95%CI,101-109). Subscale cohort strengths included self-actualization (107); empathy (107); interpersonal relationships (106); impulse control (106); and stress tolerance (106). Lowest subscale score was in assertiveness (98). Self-regard (89), assertiveness (88), and independence (90) were areas in which PGY-2s attained relatively lower scores (unpaired t-test, p<0.05) compared to their peers and the general population. PGY-3’s scored highest in nearly all subscales. Conclusions The EQ-i offers insight into training that may assist in developing EM residents, specifically in self-regard, assertiveness, and self-expression. Further study is required to ascertain if patterns in level of training are idiosyncratic or relate to the natural maturation of residents.   PMID:29286282

  12. Oslo government district bombing and Utøya island shooting July 22, 2011: The immediate prehospital emergency medical service response

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background On July 22, 2011, a single perpetrator killed 77 people in a car bomb attack and a shooting spree incident in Norway. This article describes the emergency medical service (EMS) response elicited by the two incidents. Methods A retrospective and observational study was conducted based on data from the EMS systems involved and the public domain. The study was approved by the Data Protection Official and was defined as a quality improvement project. Results We describe the timeline and logistics of the EMS response, focusing on alarm, dispatch, initial response, triage and evacuation. The scenes in the Oslo government district and at Utøya island are described separately. Conclusions Many EMS units were activated and effectively used despite the occurrence of two geographically separate incidents within a short time frame. Important lessons were learned regarding triage and evacuation, patient flow and communication, the use of and need for emergency equipment and the coordination of helicopter EMS. PMID:22280935

  13. Personal experience in pediatric emergency medicine training in Canada and China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gang-Xi; Luo, Yi-Ming; Cheng, Adam; Yang, Shu-Yu; Wang, Jian-She; Goldman, Ran-D

    2012-10-01

    Currently, pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) as practiced in many developed countries is different from ours in China. Chinese pediatric emergency medicine is just children's internal medicine and does not include general surgery, ear-nose-throat, etc. If children have an emergency condition that require specialized treatments they need to go to different departments. However in Canada, the pediatric emergency physicians will first treat the patients whatever the condition, then, if it is a complicated sub specialty problem, they will consult the specialist or let the patient see the specialist later. In addition, resuscitation is done in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in China, but it is done in the emergency room in Canada. This article compares the differences in the pediatric emergency systems in Canada and China and also introduces the international standard system of pediatric triage.

  14. The emergence and potential impact of medicine 2.0 in the healthcare industry.

    PubMed

    Stump, Terra; Zilch, Sarah; Coustasse, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Medicine 2.0 has emerged within healthcare information technology to enable more defined relationships among providers and patients. Physicians, hospitals, and patients are using Medicine 2.0 through social networking to maintain their foothold in the evolution of medical technologies. The authors' purpose was to determine potential improvements that Medicine 2.0 has on communication and collaboration of healthcare information. Research has shown that Medicine 2.0 has integrated into the healthcare industry and is enabling an increase in communication in healthcare matters. The provider-patient relationship is improving through the use of Medicine 2.0 and has positively impacted society so far.

  15. AAGBI: Safer pre-hospital anaesthesia 2017: Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Lockey, D J; Crewdson, K; Davies, G; Jenkins, B; Klein, J; Laird, C; Mahoney, P F; Nolan, J; Pountney, A; Shinde, S; Tighe, S; Russell, M Q; Price, J; Wright, C

    2017-03-01

    Pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia with oral tracheal intubation is the technique of choice for trauma patients who cannot maintain their airway or achieve adequate ventilation. It should be carried out as soon as safely possible, and performed to the same standards as in-hospital emergency anaesthesia. It should only be conducted within organisations with comprehensive clinical governance arrangements. Techniques should be straightforward, reproducible, as simple as possible and supported by the use of checklists. Monitoring and equipment should meet in-hospital anaesthesia standards. Practitioners need to be competent in the provision of in-hospital emergency anaesthesia and have supervised pre-hospital experience before carrying out pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia. Training programmes allowing the safe delivery of pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia by non-physicians do not currently exist in the UK. Where pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia skills are not available, oxygenation and ventilation should be maintained with the use of second-generation supraglottic airways in patients without airway reflexes, or basic airway manoeuvres and basic airway adjuncts in patients with intact airway reflexes. © 2017 The Authors. Anaesthesia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. An environmental scan of academic pediatric emergency medicine at Canadian medical schools: Identifying variability across Canada.

    PubMed

    Artz, Jennifer D; Meckler, Garth; Argintaru, Niran; Lim, Roderick; Stiell, Ian G

    2018-01-28

    To complement our environmental scan of academic emergency medicine departments, we conducted a similar environmental scan of the academic pediatric emergency medicine programs offered by the Canadian medical schools. We developed an 88-question form, which was distributed to pediatric academic leaders at each medical school. The responses were validated via email to ensure that the questions were answered completely and consistently. Fourteen of the 17 Canadian medical schools have some type of pediatric emergency medicine academic program. None of the pediatric emergency medicine units have full departmental status, while nine are divisions, two are sections, and three have no status. Canadian academic pediatric emergency medicine is practised at 13 major teaching hospitals and one specialized pediatric emergency department. There are 394 pediatric emergency medicine faculty members, including 13 full professors and 64 associate professors. Eight sites regularly take pediatric undergraduate clinical clerks, and all 14 provide resident education. Fellowship training is offered at 10 sites, with five offering advanced pediatric emergency medicine fellowship training. Half of the sites have at least one physician with a Master's degree in education, totalling 18 faculty members across Canada. There are 31 clinical researchers with salary support at nine universities. Eleven sites have published peer-reviewed papers (n=423) in the past five years, ranging from two to 102 per site. Annual academic budgets range from $10,000 to $2,607,515. This comprehensive review of academic activities in pediatric emergency medicine across Canada identifies the variability across the country, including the recognition of sites above and below the national average, which may prompt change at individual sites. Sharing these academic practices may inspire sites to provide more support to teachers, educators, and researchers.

  17. Effect of a brief emergency medicine education course on emergency department work intensity of family physicians.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt, Samuel; Schultz, Susan E; Leaver, Chad; Stukel, Thérèse A; Schull, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Recently, many Canadian emergency departments (EDs) have struggled with physician staffing shortages. In 2006, the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care funded a brief "emergency medicine primer" (EMP) course for family physicians to upgrade or refresh skills, with the goal of increasing their ED work intensity. We sought to determine the effect of the EMP on the ED work intensity of family physicians. A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted of the ED work of 239 family physicians in the 2 years before and after a minimum of 6 months and up to 2 years from completing an EMP course in 2006 to 2008 compared to non-EMP physicians. ED work intensity was defined as the number of ED shifts per month and the number of ED patients seen per month. We conducted two analyses: a before and after comparison of all EMP physicians and a matched cohort analysis matching each EMP physician to four non-EMP physicians on sex, year of medical school graduation, rurality, and pre-EMP ED work intensity. Postcourse, EMP physicians worked 0.5 more ED shifts per month (13% increase, p  =  0.027). Compared to their matched controls, EMP physicians worked 0.7 more shifts per month (13% increase, p  =  0.0032) and saw 15 more patients per month (17% increase, p  =  0.0008) compared to matched non-EMP physicians. The greatest increases were among EMP physicians who were younger, were urban, had previous ED experience, or worked in a high-volume ED. The effect of the EMP course was negligible for physicians with no previous ED experience or working in rural areas. The EMP course is associated with modest increases in ED work intensity among some family physicians, in particular younger physicians in urban areas. No increase was seen among physicians without previous ED experience or working in rural areas.

  18. A Consensus-Driven Agenda for Emergency Medicine Firearm Injury Prevention Research.

    PubMed

    Ranney, Megan L; Fletcher, Jonathan; Alter, Harrison; Barsotti, Christopher; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Betz, Marian E; Carter, Patrick M; Cerdá, Magdalena; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Crane, Peter; Fahimi, Jahan; Miller, Matthew J; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Vogel, Jody A; Wintemute, Garen J; Waseem, Muhammad; Shah, Manish N

    2017-02-01

    To identify critical emergency medicine-focused firearm injury research questions and develop an evidence-based research agenda. National content experts were recruited to a technical advisory group for the American College of Emergency Physicians Research Committee. Nominal group technique was used to identify research questions by consensus. The technical advisory group decided to focus on 5 widely accepted categorizations of firearm injury. Subgroups conducted literature reviews on each topic and developed preliminary lists of emergency medicine-relevant research questions. In-person meetings and conference calls were held to iteratively refine the extensive list of research questions, following nominal group technique guidelines. Feedback from external stakeholders was reviewed and integrated. Fifty-nine final emergency medicine-relevant research questions were identified, including questions that cut across all firearm injury topics and questions specific to self-directed violence (suicide and attempted suicide), intimate partner violence, peer (nonpartner) violence, mass violence, and unintentional ("accidental") injury. Some questions could be addressed through research conducted in emergency departments; others would require work in other settings. The technical advisory group identified key emergency medicine-relevant firearm injury research questions. Emergency medicine-specific data are limited for most of these questions. Funders and researchers should consider increasing their attention to firearm injury prevention and control, particularly to the questions identified here and in other recently developed research agendas. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of emergency medicine as academic and distinct clinical discipline in Bosnia & Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Salihefendic, Nizama; Zildzic, Muharem; Masic, Izet; Hadziahmetovic, Zoran; Vasic, Dusko

    2011-01-01

    Emergency medicine is a new academic discipline, as well as a recent independent clinical specialization with the specific principles of practice, education and research. It is also a very important segment of the overall health care and health system. Emergency medicine as a distinct specialty was introduced in the U.S. in 1970. Ten years later and relatively quickly emergency medicine was introduced in the health system in Bosnia and Herzegovina as a specialty with a special education program for specialist and a final exam. Compare the development of emergency medicine in Bosnia and Herzegovina with the trends of development of this discipline in the world as a specialization and an academic discipline. Identify specific problems and possible solutions and learn lessons from other countries. Reviewed are the literature data on the development of emergency medicine in the world, programs of undergraduate and postgraduate teaching, the organizational scheme of emergency centers and residency. This is then compared with data of the current status of emergency medicine as an academic discipline and a recognized specialization, in Bosnia and Herzegovina. There are substantial differences in the development of emergency medicine in the United States, European Union and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Although Bosnia and Herzegovina relatively early recognized specialty of emergency medicine in academia, it failed to mach the academic progress with the practical implementation. A&E departments in the Community Health Centers failed to meet the desired objectives even though they were led by specialists in emergency medicine. The main reason being the lack of space and equipment as well as staff needed to meet set standards of good clinical practice, education and research. Furthermore the Curriculum of undergraduate education and specialization does not match modern concept of educational programs that meet the principles set out in emergency medicine and learning through

  20. Rate of patient workups by non-emergency medicine residents in an academic emergency department.

    PubMed

    Stone, C K; Stapczynski, J S; Thomas, S H; Koury, S I

    1996-02-01

    To quantify the number of patients seen per hour by non-emergency medicine (non-EM) residents in a university hospital ED. This retrospective observational study was performed in a university hospital ED and level I trauma center. The facility had no EM residency, but was staffed with 24-hour EM faculty coverage. A computerized tracking system was searched for the number of patients seen by each of 93 non-EM residents for 12 nonconsecutive months. The ED schedule for each month was used to calculate the number of hours worked by each resident. From these figures, the number of patients seen per hour by each resident was calculated. The postgraduate years of training of the residents were as follows: 78 (84%) were PGY1, ten (11%) were PGY2, and five (5%) were PGY3. All the residents combined saw a mean 0.95 +/- 0.20 patients/hour, with a range from 0.58 to 1.75 patients/hour. There was no significant difference between the numbers of patients seen when compared by specialty using the Tukey-Kramer test (alpha = 0.05). The rate at which non-EM residents work up patients is consistent with previously reported rates for EM residents.

  1. Psychiatry and emergency medicine: medical student and physician attitudes toward homeless persons.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Ann; Roman, Brenda; Borges, Nicole

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore changes in medical students' attitudes toward homeless persons during the Psychiatry and Emergency Medicine clerkships. Simultaneously, this study explored attitudes toward homeless persons held by Psychiatry and Emergency Medicine residents and faculty in an attempt to uncover the "hidden curriculum" in medical education, in which values are communicated from teacher to student outside of the formal instruction. A group of 79 students on Psychiatry and 66 on Emergency Medicine clerkships were surveyed at the beginning and end of their rotation regarding their attitudes toward homeless persons by use of the Health Professionals' Attitudes Toward the Homeless Inventory (HPATHI). The HPATHI was also administered to 31 Psychiatry residents and faculty and 41 Emergency Medicine residents and faculty one time during the course of this study. For Psychiatry clerks, t-tests showed significant differences pre- and post-clerkship experiences on 2 of the 23 items on the HPATHI. No statistically significant differences were noted for the Emergency Medicine students. An analysis of variance revealed statistically significant differences on 7 out of the 23 survey questions for residents and faculty in Psychiatry, as compared with those in Emergency Medicine. Results suggest that medical students showed small differences in their attitudes toward homeless people following clerkships in Psychiatry but not in Emergency Medicine. Regarding resident and faculty results, significant differences between specialties were noted, with Psychiatry residents and faculty exhibiting more favorable attitudes toward homeless persons than residents and faculty in Emergency Medicine. Given that medical student competencies should be addressing the broader social issues of homelessness, medical schools need to first understand the attitudes of medical students to such issues, and then develop curricula to overcome inaccurate or stigmatizing beliefs.

  2. Essentials of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Fellowship: Part 4: Beyond Clinical Education.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Margaret; Carney, Michele; Eldridge, Charles; Zaveri, Pavan; Kou, Maybelle

    2016-08-01

    This article is the third in a 7-part series that aims to comprehensively describe the current state and future directions of pediatric emergency medicine fellowship training from the essential requirements to considerations for successfully administering and managing a program to the careers that may be anticipated upon program completion. This article focuses on the skills beyond clinical training required of pediatric emergency medicine physicians including teaching, leadership, teamwork, and communication.

  3. External validation of a prehospital risk score for critical illness.

    PubMed

    Kievlan, Daniel R; Martin-Gill, Christian; Kahn, Jeremy M; Callaway, Clifton W; Yealy, Donald M; Angus, Derek C; Seymour, Christopher W

    2016-08-11

    Identification of critically ill patients during prehospital care could facilitate early treatment and aid in the regionalization of critical care. Tools to consistently identify those in the field with or at higher risk of developing critical illness do not exist. We sought to validate a prehospital critical illness risk score that uses objective clinical variables in a contemporary cohort of geographically and temporally distinct prehospital encounters. We linked prehospital encounters at 21 emergency medical services (EMS) agencies to inpatient electronic health records at nine hospitals in southwestern Pennsylvania from 2010 to 2012. The primary outcome was critical illness during hospitalization, defined as an intensive care unit stay with delivery of organ support (mechanical ventilation or vasopressor use). We calculated the prehospital risk score using demographics and first vital signs from eligible EMS encounters, and we tested the association between score variables and critical illness using multivariable logistic regression. Discrimination was assessed using the AUROC curve, and calibration was determined by plotting observed versus expected events across score values. Operating characteristics were calculated at score thresholds. Among 42,550 nontrauma, non-cardiac arrest adult EMS patients, 1926 (4.5 %) developed critical illness during hospitalization. We observed moderate discrimination of the prehospital critical illness risk score (AUROC 0.73, 95 % CI 0.72-0.74) and adequate calibration based on observed versus expected plots. At a score threshold of 2, sensitivity was 0.63 (95 % CI 0.61-0.75), specificity was 0.73 (95 % CI 0.72-0.73), negative predictive value was 0.98 (95 % CI 0.98-0.98), and positive predictive value was 0.10 (95 % CI 0.09-0.10). The risk score performance was greater with alternative definitions of critical illness, including in-hospital mortality (AUROC 0.77, 95 % CI 0.7 -0.78). In an external validation cohort, a

  4. Is the current level of training in the use of equipment for prehospital radio communication sufficient? A cross-sectional study among prehospital physicians in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Physicians working in prehospital care are expected to handle radio communication both within their own sector as well as with other divisions of the National Emergency Services. To date, no study has been conducted on the level of training received by physicians in the use of the equipment provided or on the level of competency acquired by physicians. Methods In order to investigate the self-assessed skill level acquired in the use of the TETRA (TErrestrial Trunked RAdio) authority radio for communication in a prehospital setting, a cross-sectional study was conducted by questionnaire circulated to all 454 physicians working in the Danish Emergency Medical Services. Results A lack of training was found among physicians working in prehospital care in Denmark in relation to the proper use of essential communication equipment. Prior to starting their first shift in a prehospital setting 38% of physicians reported having received no training in the use of the equipment, while 80% of physicians reported having received one1 hour of training or less. Among the majority of physicians their current level of training was sufficient for their everyday needs for prehospital communication but for 28% of physicians their current level of training was insufficient as they were unable to handle communication at this level. Conclusion As the first study in its field, this study investigated the training received in the use of essential communication equipment among physicians working in prehospital care in Denmark. The study found that competency does not appear to have been prioritised as highly as other technical skills needed to function in these settings. For the majority of physicians their current level of training was sufficient for everyday use but for a substantial minority further training is required, especially if the redundancy of the prehospital system is to be preserved. PMID:28667210

  5. Insurance Exchange Marketplace: Implications for Emergency Medicine Practice

    PubMed Central

    Rankey, David S.

    2012-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 requires states to establish healthcare insurance exchanges by 2014 to facilitate the purchase of qualified health plans. States are required to establish exchanges for small businesses and individuals. A federally operated exchange will be established, and states failing to participate in any other exchanges will be mandated to join the federal exchange. Policymakers and health economists believe that exchanges will improve healthcare at lower cost by promoting competition among insurers and by reducing burdensome transaction costs. Consumers will no longer be isolated from monthly insurance premium costs. Exchanges will increase the number of patients insured with more cost-conscious managed care and high-deductible plans. These insurance plan models have historically undervalued emergency medical services, while also underinsuring patients and limiting their healthcare system access to the emergency department. This paradoxically increases demand for emergency services while decreasing supply. The continual devaluation of emergency medical services by insurance payers will result in inadequate distribution of resources to emergency care, resulting in further emergency department closures, increases in emergency department crowding, and the demise of acute care services provided to families and communities. PMID:22900107

  6. Law Enforcement and Emergency Medicine: An Ethical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Baker, Eileen F; Moskop, John C; Geiderman, Joel M; Iserson, Kenneth V; Marco, Catherine A; Derse, Arthur R

    2016-11-01

    Emergency physicians frequently interact with law enforcement officers and patients in their custody. As always, the emergency physician's primary professional responsibility is to promote patient welfare, and his or her first duty is to the patient. Emergency physicians should treat criminals, suspects, and prisoners with the same respect and attention they afford other patients while ensuring the safety of staff, visitors, and other patients. Respect for patient privacy and protection of confidentiality are of paramount importance to the patient-physician relationship. Simultaneously, emergency physicians should attempt to accommodate law enforcement personnel in a professional manner, enlisting their aid when necessary. Often this relates to the emergency physician's socially imposed duties, governed by state laws, to report infectious diseases, suspicion of abuse or neglect, and threats of harm. It is the emergency physician's duty to maintain patient confidentiality while complying with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulations and state law. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. State of emergency medicine in Rwanda 2015: an innovative trainee and trainer model.

    PubMed

    Mbanjumucyo, Gabin; DeVos, Elizabeth; Pulfrey, Simon; Epino, Henry M

    2015-01-01

    The 1994 Rwandan war and genocide left more than 1 million people dead; millions displaced; and the country's economic, social, and health infrastructure destroyed. Despite remaining one of the poorest countries in the world, Rwanda has made remarkable gains in health, social, and economic development over the last 20 years, but modern emergency care has been slow to progress. Rwanda has recently established the Human Resources for Health program to rapidly build capacity in multiple sectors of its healthcare delivery system, including emergency medicine. This project involves multiple medical and surgical residencies, nursing programs, allied health professional trainings, and hospital administrative support. A real strength of the program is that trainers work with international faculty at Rwanda's referral hospital, but also as emergency medicine specialty trainers when returning to their respective district hospitals. Rwanda's first emergency medicine trainees are playing a unique and important role in the implementation of emergency care systems and education in the country's district hospitals. While there has been early vital progress in building emergency medicine's foundations in Rwanda, there remains much work to be done. This will be accomplished with careful planning and strong commitment from the country's healthcare and emergency medicine leaders.

  8. An Early Warning Scoring System to Identify Septic Patients in the Prehospital Setting: The PRESEP Score.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Ole; Schwarzkopf, Daniel; Stumme, Christoph; Stacke, Angelika; Hartog, Christiane S; Hohenstein, Christian; Kabisch, Björn; Reichel, Jens; Reinhart, Konrad; Winning, Johannes

    2015-07-01

    .83), PPV (0.45 and 0.51), and NPV (0.91 and 0.89). The Robson screening tool had a higher sensitivity and NPV (0.95 and 0.97), but its specificity and PPV were lower (0.43 and 0.32). The PRESEP score could be a valuable tool for identifying septic patients in the prehospital setting in the case of suspected infection. It should be prospectively validated. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  9. Understanding the prehospital physician controversy. Step 2: analysis of on-scene treatment by ambulance nurses and helicopter emergency medical service physicians.

    PubMed

    van Schuppen, Hans; Bierens, Joost

    2015-12-01

    In our previous study, we identified the similarities and differences in competencies of ambulance nurses and helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) physicians in the Netherlands. This ensuing study aims to quantify the frequency with which the additional therapeutic competencies of the HEMS physician are utilized and to determine whether this is the main reason for usefulness as perceived by ambulance nurses and HEMS physicians. A prospective observational study was carried out over a 2-month period, with one HEMS station covering six ambulance regions. Provider registration was recorded, supplemented by interviews of ambulance nurses and HEMS physicians. Competencies were categorized depending on whether the competency was specific for the nurse or physician, mutual or mutual with a qualitative difference. A total of 225 HEMS dispatches resulted in 117 cases with HEMS on-scene in the study region and 78 patients were included. In 35 (45%) patients, the HEMS physician provided additional treatment: in 19 (24%) patients, a physician-specific therapeutic competency, in nine (12%) patients, a mutual competency with a qualitative difference and in seven (9%) patients, both categories. The presence of the HEMS physician was considered more useful by both ambulance nurses (89 vs. 60%) and HEMS physicians (97 vs. 81%) when additional treatment was provided by the HEMS physician. HEMS physicians provide additional treatment in 45% of patients. The additional treatment increases the perceived usefulness of the HEMS physician. The presence of the HEMS physician was also considered useful when the physician did not provide any additional treatment, possibly because of diagnostic competence and clinical decision-making.

  10. Feasibility of blind aortic catheter placement in the prehospital environment to guide resuscitation in cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Manning, James E

    2013-08-01

    Aortic catheter-based resuscitation therapies are emerging with laboratory investigations showing benefit in models of trauma-related noncompressible torso hemorrhage and nontraumatic cardiac arrest. For these investigational aortic catheter-based therapies to reach their greatest potential clinical benefit, the ability to initiate them in the prehospital setting will be important. Feasibility of prehospital aortic catheterization without imaging capability supports this potential and is described in this report. A physician prehospital response system was created in cooperation with the local emergency medical services system to provide invasive hemodynamic monitoring during cardiac arrest. Physicians were dispatched to all known or suspected prehospital cardiac arrests covered by the emergency medical services system. Physicians responded with a specialized vascular catheterization pack and a monitor with invasive pressure monitoring capability. The physicians performed blind thoracic aortic and central venous catheterizations in cardiac arrest patients in the prehospital setting to measure coronary perfusion pressure, to optimize closed-chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation technique, and to administer intra-aortic epinephrine. During a 2-year period, 22 medical cardiac arrest patients underwent prehospital invasive hemodynamic monitoring to guide resuscitation. Most patients had both aortic and central venous catheters inserted. The combination of intra-aortic epinephrine and adjustments in closed-chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation technique resulted in improved coronary perfusion pressure. Return of spontaneous circulation with survival to hospital admission was achieved in 50% (11 of 22) of these patients. This report demonstrates the feasibility of successful blind aortic and central venous catheterizations in the prehospital environment and supports the potential feasibility of other emerging aortic catheter-based resuscitation therapies.

  11. Better data, better planning: the College of Emergency Medicine sentinel sites project.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Chris; Mann, Clifford; Tempest, Michelle

    2014-11-01

    This article describes the College of Emergency Medicine's initial attempt to gather high quality data from its own 'sentinel sites' rather than relying on more comprehensive national data of dubious quality. Such information is essential to inform and guide the planning of urgent and emergency care services in the future.

  12. The feasibility, acceptability and preliminary testing of a novel, low-tech intervention to improve pre-hospital data recording for pre-alert and handover to the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, David; Maxwell, Douglas; Craigie, Alan

    2018-06-25

    Poor communication during patient handover is recognised internationally as a root cause of a significant proportion of preventable deaths. Data used in handover is not always easily recorded using ambulance based tablets, particularly in time-critical cases. Paramedics have therefore developed pragmatic workarounds (writing on gloves or scrap paper) to record these data. However, such practices can conflict with policy, data recorded can be variable, easily lost and negatively impact on handover quality. This study aimed to measure the feasibility and acceptability of a novel, low tech intervention, designed to support clinical information recording and delivery during pre-alert and handover within the pre-hospital and ED setting. A simple pre and post-test design was used with a historical control. Eligible participants included all ambulance clinicians based at one large city Ambulance Station (n = 69) and all nursing and physician staff (n = 99) based in a city Emergency Department. Twenty five (36%) ambulance clinicians responded to the follow-up survey. Most felt both the pre-alert and handover components of the card were either 'useful-very useful' (n = 23 (92%); and n = 18 (72%) respectively. Nineteen (76%) used the card to record clinical information and almost all (n = 23 (92%) felt it 'useful' to 'very useful' in supporting pre-alert. Similarly, 65% (n = 16) stated they 'often' or 'always' used the card to support handover. For pre-alert information there were improvements in the provision of 8/11 (72.7%) clinical variables. ​ Results from the post-test survey measuring ED staff (n = 37) perceptions of handover demonstrated small (p < 0.05) improvements in handover in 3/5 domains measured. This novel low-tech intervention was highly acceptable to ambulance clinician participants, improving their data recording and information exchange processes. However, further well conducted studies are required to test the impact of

  13. FOAMSearch.net: A custom search engine for emergency medicine and critical care.

    PubMed

    Raine, Todd; Thoma, Brent; Chan, Teresa M; Lin, Michelle

    2015-08-01

    The number of online resources read by and pertinent to clinicians has increased dramatically. However, most healthcare professionals still use mainstream search engines as their primary port of entry to the resources on the Internet. These search engines use algorithms that do not make it easy to find clinician-oriented resources. FOAMSearch, a custom search engine (CSE), was developed to find relevant, high-quality online resources for emergency medicine and critical care (EMCC) clinicians. Using Google™ algorithms, it searches a vetted list of >300 blogs, podcasts, wikis, knowledge translation tools, clinical decision support tools and medical journals. Utilisation has increased progressively to >3000 users/month since its launch in 2011. Further study of the role of CSEs to find medical resources is needed, and it might be possible to develop similar CSEs for other areas of medicine. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  14. An Emerging Role for Polystores in Precision Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Begoli, Edmon; Christian, J. Blair; Gadepally, Vijay

    Medical data is organically heterogeneous, and it usually varies significantly in both size and composition. Yet, this data is also a key for the recent and promising field of precision medicine, which focuses on identifying and tailoring appropriate medical treatments for the needs of the individual patients, based on their specific conditions, their medical history, lifestyle, genetic, and other individual factors. As we, and a database community at large, recognize that a “one size does not fit all” solution is required to work with such data, we present in this paper our observations based on our experiences, and the applicationsmore » in the field of precision medicine. Finally, we make the case for the use of polystore architecture; how it applies for precision medicine; we discuss the reference architecture; describe some of its critical components (array database); and discuss the specific types of analysis that directly benefit from this database architecture, and the ways it serves the data.« less

  15. Hypothermia in a Rural Setting: An Emergency Medicine Simulation Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Jong, Robert; Heroux, Aron; Dubrowski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Patients presenting with hypothermia in a rural emergency department can be quite challenging to manage without significant mortality and morbidity. Standard medical school curricula do not fully prepare trainees for the unique aspects of practice in northern rural and remote communities. Training opportunities on site may provide a solution to this lack of experience. However, these communities often have limited simulation-based resources and expertise for conducting and developing simulation scenarios. In this technical report, we outline a hypothermia simulation that utilizes only basic resources and is, thus, practical for rural and remote facilities. The aim of this report is to better equip trainees, clinicians, and emergency department staff who may encounter such a scenario in their practice. While the simulation is specifically designed for medical students, resident doctors, and emergency department staff, it could also be applicable in other low-resource settings, such as military bases, search and rescue stations, and arctic travel and tourism infirmaries. PMID:29511605

  16. [The department of interdisciplinary emergency medicine: organization, structure and process optimization].

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Michael; Pietsch, Christian; Gries, André

    2009-06-01

    The essential tasks of a department of interdisciplinary emergency medicine are the initial triage and assessment of vital function as well as the subsequent organization und initiation of emergency treatment. A previously defined set of diagnostic and therapeutic measures is carried out before the patient is allocated to an in-hospital clinical service and is admitted to a ward. Moreover, diagnosis and treatment for outpatients are performed. "Time" is a critical factor to be considered for all organizational and structural aspects of a department of interdisciplinary emergency medicine.

  17. Systematic Analysis of Theses in the Field of Emergency Medicine in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cevik, Erdem; Karakus Yilmaz, Banu; Acar, Yahya Ayhan; Dokur, Mehmet

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the theses in the field of emergency medicine in Turkey and to determine whether they were published as a scientific paper. This is a retrospective observational study. Theses in the field of emergency medicine between 1998 and 2013 were browsed from the internet database of National Thesis Center (Council of Higher Education). Study type, both if it was in the field of emergency, or if it was published and the journal's scope of published studies were assessed and recorded in the study chart. 579 theses were included in the study. 27.1% of them were published and 14.9% of them were published in SCI/SCI-E journals. Advisors of theses were emergency medicine specialists in 67.6% of theses and 493 (85.1%) of them were in the field of emergency medicine. 77.4% of theses were observational and 20.9% were experimental study. Most of the experimental studies (72.7%, n=88) were animal studies. It was concluded that very few theses in the field of emergency medicine were published in journals that were indexed in SCI/SCI-E.

  18. Growing pains: status of emergency medicine in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Gaitan, M; Mendez, W; Sirker, N E; Green, G B

    1998-03-01

    Nicaragua is one of the poorest nations in the Western Hemisphere. The health of the population suffers as a result of poor nutrition, epidemic diseases, natural and manmade disasters, sporadic violence, urban industrial growth, and inadequate government funding for even basic medical equipment and supplies. Within this environment, emergency services development has been recognized as an important and cost-effective public health intervention. In recent years, government and nongovernmental agencies working together have had a dramatic positive impact on the quality of emergency care provided.

  19. The identification of criteria to evaluate prehospital trauma care using the Delphi technique.

    PubMed

    Rosengart, Matthew R; Nathens, Avery B; Schiff, Melissa A

    2007-03-01

    Current trauma system performance improvement emphasizes hospital- and patient-based outcome measures such as mortality and morbidity, with little focus upon the processes of prehospital trauma care. Little data exist to suggest which prehospital criteria should serve as potential filters. This study identifies the most important filters for auditing prehospital trauma care using a Delphi technique to achieve consensus of expert opinion. Experts in trauma care from the United States (n = 81) were asked to generate filters of potential utility in monitoring the prehospital aspect of the trauma system, and were then required to rank these questions in order of importance to identify those of greatest importance. Twenty-eight filters ranking in the highest tertile are proposed. The majority (54%) pertains to aspects of emergency medical services, which comprise 7 of the top 10 (70%) filters. Triage filters follow in priority ranking, comprising 29% of the final list. Filters concerning interfacility transfers and transportation ranked lowest. This study identifies audit filters representing the most important aspects of prehospital trauma care that merit continued evaluation and monitoring. A subsequent trial addressing the utility of these filters could potentially enhance the sensitivity of identifying deviations in prehospital care, standardize the performance improvement process, and translate into an improvement in patient care and outcome.

  20. No longer waiting for an accident to happen: Simulation in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Stefanie; Sullivan, Christine; McCullough, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The practice of emergency medicine (EM) requires proficient and expert skills in multiple high risk procedures. The emergency physician in-training needs a safe and realistic environment in which to practice and perfect the skills necessary to care for patients ranging from the critically ill to the patient with difficult intravenous access. Undergraduate medical, education overall has a need for training that enables students to develop the knowledge, skills and attitudes to practice in a variety of specialties. This article provides an overview of simulation in a three-year emergency medicine residency at Truman Medical Center, in a required final year clerkship for all medical students at the University of Missouri-Kansas City, and discusses national trends for the use of simulation in emergency medicine.

  1. Just allocation and team loyalty: a new virtue ethic for emergency medicine

    PubMed Central

    Girod, J; Beckman, A

    2005-01-01

    When traditional virtue ethics is applied to clinical medicine, it often claims as its goal the good of the individual patient, and focuses on the dyadic relationship between one physician and one patient. An alternative model of virtue ethics, more appropriate to the practice of emergency medicine, will be outlined by this paper. This alternative model is based on the assumption that the appropriate goal of the practice of emergency medicine is a team approach to the medical wellbeing of individual patients, constrained by the wellbeing of the patient population served by a particular emergency department. By defining boundaries and using the key virtues of justice and team loyalty, this model fits emergency practice well and gives care givers the conceptual clarity to apply this model to various conflicts both within the department and with those outside the department. PMID:16199595

  2. [Psychiatric Emergencies in the Preclinical Emergency Medicine Service in Ulm, Germany in 2000 and 2010, and Practical Consequences].

    PubMed

    Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos; Gahr, Maximilian; Schütz, Stefan; Lang, Dirk; Pajonk, Frank Gerald Bernhard; Connemann, Bernhard J; Muth, Claus-Martin; Freudenmann, Roland W

    2017-07-01

    Background  Psychiatric emergencies (PE) in preclinical emergency medical services are about 5 - 10 % of all emergencies and represent often a source of difficulties in handling for the non-psychiatric professional helpers that deal with them. Studies informing about quantitative and qualitative changes of PEs in preclinical emergency medicine in Germany are scarce. Methods  Therefore, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of PE in a preclinical emergency medical service based on the protocols of the emergency ambulance of the Section for Emergency Medicine at the University Hospital Ulm comparing the years 2000 and 2010. Results  We observed a significant increase of PEs from 8.8 % in the year 2000 (n = 285, from a total of n = 3227) to 10.3 % in 2010 (n = 454, from a total of n = 4425). In both years intoxications were the most common PE [2000: n = 116 (44.4 %); 2010: n = 171 (37.7 %)], followed by suicide-related behavior [2000: n = 59 (22.6 %); 2010: n = 78 (17.2 %)] and acute anxiety disorders [2000: n = 37 (13 %); 2010: n = 105 (23.1 %)]. The mentioned three conditions accounted for about 80 % of all PE. Most frequently PE occurred at the weekend and with the highest density in the evening and at night (18 - 24 h) in both years. Patients with PE were predominantly men, but the rate of women causing PE increased between 2000 and 2010. Discussion/Conclusion  This study provides preliminary data on current trends in PEs in preclinical emergency medicine in Germany and has implications for improving the medical care provided. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. A lack of anaesthetic clinical attachments for emergency medicine advanced trainees in New Zealand: perceptions of directors of emergency medicine training.

    PubMed

    Browne, Alexander

    2015-08-07

    Anaesthetic skills are a core competency for emergency physicians. Anecdotally, there are limited anaesthetic attachments specifically available for Emergency Medicine Advanced Trainees (ATs). This study had several aims: Firstly, to quantify anaesthetic terms set aside for ATs; secondly, to gauge the opinions of Directors of Emergency Medicine Training (DEMTs) regarding the importance and difficulty in securing and maintaining anaesthetic training terms for ATs in their institutions; thirdly, to outline strategies that DEMTs used to get or maintain these posts and their opinions about what institutions should do to provide anaesthetic training for ATs. An online qualitative survey was emailed to all DEMTs of hospitals accredited for vocational ED training within New Zealand. Registered Medical Officer (RMO) units at accredited hospitals were asked to provide numbers of anaesthetic places available specifically for ATs. Annually there are 15 anaesthetic training posts set aside for 145 ATs. Most DEMTs thought that an anaesthetic term was important for progression of vocational training, and a majority thought that term availability was a significant barrier to progression of training. A number of DEMTs felt that procuring and maintaining anaesthetic posts was difficult, some citing a lack of collegiality from anaesthetic departments. Some DEMTs and ATs used novel approaches to procure anaesthetic attachments. Anaesthetic skills are an essential component of emergency medicine vocational training. It is in the best interests of hospitals to provide anaesthetic training positions for ATs. There are few training positions currently available.

  4. Prehospital trauma care systems: potential role toward reducing morbidities and mortalities from road traffic injuries in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeloye, Davies

    2012-12-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) and attendant fatalities on Nigerian roads have been on an increasing trend over the past three decades. Mortality from RTIs in Nigeria is estimated to be 162 deaths/100,000 population. This study aims to compare and identify best prehospital trauma care practices in Nigeria and some other African countries where prehospital services operate. A review of secondary data, grey literature, and pertinent published articles using a conceptual framework to assess: (1) policies; (2) structures; (3) first responders; (4) communication facilities; (5) transport and ambulance facilities, and (6) roadside emergency trauma units. There is no national prehospital trauma care system (PTCS) in Nigeria. The lack of a national emergency health policy is a factor in this absence. The Nigerian Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC) mainly has been responsible for prehospital services. South Africa, Zambia, Kenya, and Ghana have improved prehospital services in Africa. Commercial drivers, laypersons, military, police, a centrally controlled communication network, and government ambulance services are feasible delivery models that can be incorporated into the Nigerian prehospital system. Prehospital trauma services have been useful in reducing morbidities and mortalities from traffic injuries, and appropriate implementation of this study's recommendations may reduce this burden in Nigeria.

  5. PUPTH Prehospital Air Medical Plasma (PAMP) Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for...projects. Scott Gunn, MD, is an Associate Professor of CCM and Emergency Medicine and Director , Combined Emergency Medicine/Internal Medicine/CCM...Residency Program. Dr. Gunn is also Director of the CCM Clinical Trials Program. As such, he is experienced in the design and monitoring of clinical trials

  6. [Resident physicians' opinions of their emergency medicine training in Catalan hospitals].

    PubMed

    Coll-Vinent, Blanca; Carreño, Ana; Morales, Xavier; Cerón, Ariana; Gutiérrez, Edith Cristina; Surís, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    To know the opinion of medical residents in hospitals in Catalonia about the need for and usefulness of the training they receive in the emergency department. We sent an electronic questionnaire to all residents in Catalonia, through their cooperating supervisors. The questionnaire contained items to collect information on sociodemographic variables and attitudes toward emergency medicine. Items related to training covered the residents' assessment of the need for a rotation in the emergency department and the knowledge and skills acquired during the rotation (case history writing, relations with patients' relatives, teamwork, decision-making, identifying and managing critical patients, acquisition of diagnostic and therapeutic techniques). We compiled descriptive statistics and compared the results for residents from different specialties. Questionnaires were sent to 1431 residents in 21 hospitals and other training facilities. Responses were received from 427 (29.8%). Mean (SD) scores expressed on a scale of 1 to 10 were high for both the need for training in emergency medicine (8.9 [1.7]) and knowledge acquired during the rotation (8.2 [1.9]). The residents reported that they had acquired more knowledge in the areas of decision-making and management of critical patients. Family medicine residents expressed greater interest in choosing the specialty of emergency medicine (33.7% vs 6.1% for other residents, P<.001), and their opinion of the need for training in emergency medicine was also higher than other residents' (9.2 [1.5] vs 8.7 [1.8], P=.006). Medical residents in Catalonia believe that a rotation in the emergency department provides necessary and useful training. Family medicine residents are the ones who value emergency training most highly.

  7. Publication rate of abstracts presented at the emergency medicine congresses held by the European Society for Emergency Medicine (EUSEM) in 2011 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Kalkan, Asim; Kose, Ozkan; Bilir, Ozlem; Ersunan, Gokhan; Ozel, Deniz; Guler, Ferhat

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the publication rate of the abstracts presented at the 6th Mediterranean Emergency Medicine Congress, 2011 and the 7th European Congress on Emergency Medicine, 2012. All abstracts, both posters and oral presentations, from the international emergency medicine congresses held by the European Society for Emergency Medicine (EUSEM) in 2011 and 2012 were identified. To establish whether these abstracts were subsequently published in peer-reviewed medical journals, the names of all the authors and the title of the abstracts were searched for in the databases of Clinical Key/Elsevier, EBSCO Discovery Service, MD Consult, Science Direct, Scopus, EMBASE, Medscape, Google Scholar and local ULAKBIM. The year of publication, consistency of author names and titles, the type of study, the journals in which papers were published and countries from which reports were submitted were all recorded. A total of 1721 abstracts were examined; 626 from 2011 (307 oral presentations and 319 posters) and 1095 from 2012 (154 oral presentations and 941 posters). Of all abstracts in 2011, 172 (27.5%) and of all abstracts in 2012, 265 (24.2%) were subsequently published as full-text reports in peer-reviewed journals. Of the 172 papers published in 2011, 152 (88.4%) were accepted by Science Citation Index (SCI) and/or SCI Expanded (SCI-E) journals and 155 (58.5%) of 265 papers were accepted by SCI and/or SCI-E journals in 2012 (p=0.0001). The publication rate of abstracts submitted to international emergency medicine congresses held by EUSEM over those 2 years was low compared with that of abstracts presented in other emergency medicine congresses. Presenters should be encouraged to send their studies to peer-reviewed journals. During the selection process by the scientific panel, constructive critics should be notified to the presenters instead of simply accepting or rejecting the studies that submitted to the congress, which may increase the

  8. Emergency medicine as a growing career in Iran: an Internet-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Farahmand, Shervin; Karimialavijeh, Ehsan; Vahedi, Hojjat Sheikh Mottahar; Jahanshir, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Iran, few studies have evaluated emergency medicine as a career option. In the present study, we aimed to find out how Iranian emergency-medicine specialists view their specialty as a career. METHODS: Following a qualitative study, a Likert-scale questionnaire was developed. Iranian emergency physician specialists who had at least two years’ job experience were contacted via email. A uniform link to a Web-based survey and a cover letter that explained the survey were sent to the recipients. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc analysis to determine the differences between demographic subgroups. RESULTS: A total of 109 eligible responses were received, a response rate of 72.63%. Of the responders, 57.8% were 30–40 years of age, 86.2% were male, 86.2% were single, 84.4% were faculty members and 90.8% had fewer than 10 years’ job experience. The main problems occurring during the career of Iranian emergency physicians were: insufficient income, inadequate recognition of the specialty by the community, inadequate union support, insecurity in the emergency wards, overcrowding, job stresses and night shifts. Despite insufficiency of income, Iranian emergency physicians (EPs) did not care about the financial benefits of patient care. Academic activity had positive effects on the perspectives of Iranian emergency physicians regarding their careers. CONCLUSION: Iranian emergency physicians and leaders in emergency medicine should struggle to improve the present situation, aiming at an ideal state. PMID:27547279

  9. Experience of implementing a National pre-hospital Code Red bleeding protocol in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Reed, Matthew J; Glover, Alison; Byrne, Lauren; Donald, Michael; McMahon, Niall; Hughes, Neil; Littlewood, Nicola K; Garrett, Justin; Innes, Catherine; McGarvey, Margaret; Hazra, Eleanor; Rawlinson, P Sam M

    2017-01-01

    The Scottish Transfusion and Laboratory Support in Trauma Group (TLSTG) have introduced a unified National pre-hospital Code Red protocol. This paper reports the results of a study aiming to establish whether current pre-hospital Code Red activation criteria for trauma patients successfully predict need for in hospital transfusion or haemorrhagic death, the current admission coagulation profile and Concentrated Red Cell (CRC): Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) ratio being used, and whether use of the protocol leads to increased blood component discards? Prospective cohort study. Clinical and transfusion leads for each of Scotland's pre-hospital services and their receiving hospitals agreed to enter data into the study for all trauma patients for whom a pre-hospital Code Red was activated. Outcome data collected included survival 24h after Code Red activation, survival to hospital discharge, death in the Emergency Department and death in hospital. Between June 1st 2013 and October 31st 2015 there were 53 pre-hospital Code Red activations. Median Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 24 (IQR 14-37) and mortality 38%. 16 patients received pre-hospital blood. The pre-hospital Code Red protocol was sensitive for predicting transfusion or haemorrhagic death (89%). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the pre-hospital SBP <90mmHg component were 63%, 33%, 86% and 12%. 19% had an admission prothrombin time >14s and 27% had a fibrinogen <1.5g/L. CRC: FFP ratios did not drop to below 2:1 until 150min after arrival in the ED. 16 red cell units, 33 FFP and 6 platelets were discarded. This was not significantly increased compared to historical data. A National pre-hospital Code Red protocol is sensitive for predicting transfusion requirement in bleeding trauma patients and does not lead to increased blood component discards. A significant number of patients are coagulopathic and there is a need to improve CRC: FFP ratios and time to transfusion support

  10. Emerging genomic technologies and the concept of personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Glinskii, Victoria G; Glinsky, Gennadi V

    2008-08-01

    With the completion of the Human Genome Project in May 2006, genetic testing for every American is rapidly becoming a reality. As the advanced technology fuels the path towards personalized medicine, genetic nondiscrimination legislation follows closely behind. It seems that the 2007 Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) will finally pass through both chambers of Congress and will be signed by the President, but questions remain. On May 1, 2008, the House passed GINA by a vote of 414 to 1. Why is this the year that genetic nondiscrimination legislation could finally become the reality? Is this the beginning of a new relationship between science and policy, where policy is finally catching up? We examine the answers to these questions through a look at the history of genetic nondiscrimination legislation and where it stands today, including arguments for and against the bill. We conclude by discussing how we can achieve a future of safe personalized medicine for the populous, which would require continuous productive interactions between policymakers and scientists.

  11. Prehospital thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction: the Belgian eminase prehospital study (BEPS). BEPS Collaborative Group.

    PubMed

    1991-09-01

    Interest in early thrombolysis has prompted a study on the feasibility and time course of prehospital thrombolysis in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in six centres in Belgium. Patients with clinically suspected AMI and with typical ECG changes presenting within 4 h after onset of pain were treated with 30 units of Anisoylated Plasminogen Streptokinase Activator Complex (APSAC, eminase) intravenously by a mobile intensive care unit (MICU). Sixty-two patients were included in the study and an AMI was confirmed in 60. The mean time (+/- 1 SD) from onset of pain to injection of APSAC was 95 +/- 47 min and the mean estimated time gain, calculated as the time difference between the arrival of the MICU at home and the arrival of the MICU at the emergency department, was 50 +/- 17 min. In the prehospital period four patients developed ventricular fibrillation and one cardiogenic shock. During hospital stay severe complications were observed in four patients. Two events were fatal, one diffuse haemorrhage and one septal rupture; two events were non fatal, one feasible and that an estimated time gain of 50 min can be obtained. Potential risks and benefits remain to be demonstrated in a large controlled clinical trial.

  12. Prehospital care for multiple trauma patients in Germany.

    PubMed

    Maegele, Marc

    2015-01-01

    For the German speaking countries, Tscherne's definition of "polytrauma" which represents an injury of at least two body regions with one or a combination being life-threatening is still valid. The timely and adequate management including quick referral of the trauma patient into a designated trauma center may limit secondary injury and may thus improve outcomes already during the prehospital phase of care. The professional treatment of multiple injured trauma patients begins at the scene in the context of a well structured prehospital emergency medical system. The "Primary Survey" is performed by the emergency physician at the scene according to the Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS)-concept. The overall aim is to rapidly assess and treat life-threatening conditions even in the absence of patient history and diagnosis ("treat-first-what-kills-first"). If no immediate treatment is necessary, a "Secondary Sur- vey" follows with careful and structured body examination and detailed assessment of the trauma mechanism. Massive and life-threatening states of hemorrhage should be addressed immediately even disregarding the ABCDE-scheme. Critical trauma patients should be referred without any delay ("work and go")toTR-DGU® certified trauma centers of the local trauma networks. Due to the difficult pre- hospital environment the number of quality studies in the field is low and, as consequence, the level of evidence for most recommendations is also low. Much information has been obtained from different care systems and the interchangeability of results is limited. The present article provides a synopsis of rec- ommendations for early prehospital care for the severely injured based upon the 2011 updated multi- disciplinary S3-Guideline "Polytrauma/Schwerstverletzten Behandlung", the most recently updated European Trauma guideline and the current PHTLS-algorithms including grades of recommendation whenever possible.

  13. Policy perspectives on the emerging pathways of personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    Remarkable advances in the fundamental knowledge about the biological basis of disease and technical advances in methods to assess genomic information have led the health care system to the threshold of personalized medicine. It is now feasible to consider strategic application of genomic information to guide patient management by being predictive, preemptive, and preventive, and enabling patient participation in medical decisions. Early evidence of this transition has some hallmarks of disruptive innovation to existing health care practices. Presented here is an examination of the changes underway to enable this new concept in health care in the United States, to improve precision and quality of care through innovations aimed at individualized approaches to medical decision making. A broad range of public policy positions will need to be considered for the health care delivery enterprise to accommodate the promise of this new science and technology for the benefit of patients. PMID:20135895

  14. New glossary of terms used in regenerative medicine: standardization continues to emerge as regenerative medicine matures.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Ben; Harris, Neil

    2009-07-01

    Regenerative medicine is an evolving, cross-disciplinary, international field that, as a result, uses terms that are either not widely understood, or may have a number of different meanings. Many stakeholders have identified this lack of clarity as a potential barrier to effective communication within the field. To address this, BSI British Standards, supported by the UK Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills (DIUS), was commissioned to develop guidance on the definitions of terms used within regenerative medicine. The resulting document aims to provide clear consensus terminology to improve communication and facilitate a common understanding for a broad range of potential users.

  15. On the night shift: advanced nurse practice in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    Advanced nurse practitioners in the author's emergency department (ED) work autonomously and as part of a team to assess, diagnose and treat patients with unexplained and undiagnosed illnesses and injuries over a 24-hour cycle of care. The complexity of the role in EDs is often not fully understood, and expectations can vary between trusts and between different clinical areas within trusts. This article describes one night shift in the author's ED to explain the complexity of advanced nurse practitioners' roles in this environment. The article focuses on autonomous decision-making skills and the use of advanced clinical skills in the context of evidence-based practice.

  16. Something for pain: Responsible opioid use in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Strayer, Reuben J; Motov, Sergey M; Nelson, Lewis S

    2017-02-01

    The United States is currently experiencing a public health crisis of opioid addiction, which has its genesis in an industry marketing effort that successfully encouraged clinicians to prescribe opioids liberally, and asserted the safety of prescribing opioids for chronic non-cancer pain, despite a preponderance of evidence demonstrating the risks of dependence and misuse. The resulting rise in opioid use has pushed drug overdose deaths in front of motor vehicle collisions to become the leading cause of accidental death in the country. Emergency providers frequently treat patients for complications of opioid abuse, and also manage patients with acute and chronic pain, for which opioids are routinely prescribed. Emergency providers are therefore well positioned to both prevent new cases of opioid misuse and initiate appropriate treatment of existing opioid addicts. In opioid-naive patients, this is accomplished by a careful consideration of the likelihood of benefit and harm of an opioid prescription for acute pain. If opioids are prescribed, the chance of harm is reduced by matching the number of pills prescribed to the expected duration of pain and selecting an opioid preparation with low abuse liability. Patients who present to acute care with exacerbations of chronic pain or painful conditions associated with opioid misuse are best managed by treating symptoms with opioid alternatives and encouraging treatment for opioid addiction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Developing technical expertise in emergency medicine--the role of simulation in procedural skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ernest E; Quinones, Joshua; Fitch, Michael T; Dooley-Hash, Suzanne; Griswold-Theodorson, Sharon; Medzon, Ron; Korley, Frederick; Laack, Torrey; Robinett, Adam; Clay, Lamont

    2008-11-01

    Developing technical expertise in medical procedures is an integral component of emergency medicine (EM) practice and training. This article is the work of an expert panel composed of members from the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) Interest Group, the SAEM Technology in Medical Education Committee, and opinions derived from the May 2008 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference, "The Science of Simulation in Healthcare." The writing group reviewed the simulation literature on procedures germane to EM training, virtual reality training, and instructional learning theory as it pertains to skill acquisition and procedural skills decay. The authors discuss the role of simulation in teaching technical expertise, identify training conditions that lead to effective learning, and provide recommendations for future foci of research.

  18. A suggested core content for education scholarship fellowships in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Yarris, Lalena M; Coates, Wendy C; Lin, Michelle; Lind, Karen; Jordan, Jaime; Clarke, Sam; Guth, Todd A; Santen, Sally A; Hamstra, Stanley J

    2012-12-01

    A working group at the 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference on education research in emergency medicine (EM) convened to develop a curriculum for dedicated postgraduate fellowships in EM education scholarship. This fellowship is intended to create future education scholars, equipped with the skills to thrive in academic careers. This proceedings article reports on the consensus of a breakout session subgroup tasked with defining a common core content for education scholarship fellowships. The authors propose that the core content of an EM education scholarship fellowship can be categorized in four distinct areas: career development, theories of learning and teaching methods, education research methods, and educational program administration. This core content can be incorporated into curricula for education scholarship fellowships in EM or other fields and can also be adapted for use in general medical education fellowships. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  19. The impact of short prehospital times on trauma center performance benchmarking: An ecologic study.

    PubMed

    Byrne, James P; Mann, N Clay; Hoeft, Christopher J; Buick, Jason; Karanicolas, Paul; Rizoli, Sandro; Hunt, John P; Nathens, Avery B

    2016-04-01

    Emergency medical service (EMS) prehospital times vary between regions, yet the impact of local prehospital times on trauma center (TC) performance is unknown. To inform external benchmarking efforts, we explored the impact of EMS prehospital times on the risk-adjusted rate of emergency department (ED) death and overall hospital mortality at urban TCs across the United States. We used a novel ecologic study design, linking EMS data from the National EMS Information System to TCs participating in the American College of Surgeons' Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) by destination zip code. This approach provided EMS times for populations of injured patients transported to TQIP centers. We defined the exposure of interest as the 90th percentile total prehospital time (PHT) for each TC. TCs were then stratified by PHT quartile. Analyses were limited to adult patients with severe blunt or penetrating trauma, transported directly by land to urban TQIP centers. Random-intercept multilevel modeling was used to evaluate the risk-adjusted relationship between PHT quartile and the outcomes of ED death and overall hospital mortality. During the study period, 119,740 patients met inclusion criteria at 113 TCs. ED death occurred in 1% of patients, and overall mortality was 7.2%. Across all centers, the median PHT was 61 minutes (interquartile range, 53-71 minutes). After risk adjustment, TCs in regions with the shortest quartile of PHTs (<53 minutes) had significantly greater odds of ED death compared with those with the longest PHTs (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-2.78). However, there was no association between PHT and overall TC mortality. At urban TCs, local EMS prehospital times are a significant predictor of ED death. However, no relationship exists between prehospital time and overall TC risk-adjusted mortality. Therefore, there is no evidence for the inclusion of EMS prehospital time in external benchmarking analyses.

  20. China's research status in emergency medicine: a 15-year survey of literature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiwei; Jiang, Ting; Li, Chunyu; Chen, Jun; Cao, Kejiang; Qi, Lian-wen; Li, Ping; Zhu, Wei; Zhu, Baoli; Chen, Yan

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the research status of emergency medicine in China through literature search of international emergency medicine journals and retrospectively compare the outputs of emergency medicine articles of the 3 major regions of China-Mainland (ML), Taiwan (TW), and Hong Kong (HK). Emergency medicine journals were selected category from Science Citation Index Expand. Articles from the ML, TW, and HK were retrieved from PubMed database. The total number of articles, publication types, research contents, impact factors (IF), and articles published in each journal were conducted for quantity and quality comparisons. A total of 1760 articles from 19 emergency medicine journals were searched, of which 395 were from ML, 1210 from TW, and 155 from HK. Accumulated IF of articles from TW (2451.109) was much higher than that of ML (851.832) and HK (328.579), whereas the average IF of articles from TW (2.02) was the lowest. The number of case reports was the highest, which was, 69 from ML, 637 from TW, and 25 from HK, respectively. Although emergency medicine was involved with multiple organs and multiple systems, the reports of trauma accounted for 25% of the research contents. The total number of articles from both China and the rest of the world increased significantly from 2000 to 2014, especially ML. The total number of articles from TW was still much more than that of ML and HK, whereas the quality of articles from TW was not as good as ML and HK. Case report had the highest share of publication types, whereas the proportions of meta-analysis and observational study were the lowest. As for research contents, the proportion of trauma was still the highest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Emergence of medicine for mass gatherings: lessons from the Hajj.

    PubMed

    Memish, Ziad A; Stephens, Gwen M; Steffen, Robert; Ahmed, Qanta A

    2012-01-01

    Although definitions of mass gatherings (MG) vary greatly, they consist of large numbers of people attending an event at a specific site for a finite time. Examples of MGs include World Youth Day, the summer and winter Olympics, rock concerts, and political rallies. Some of the largest MGs are spiritual in nature. Among all MGs, the public health issues, associated with the Hajj (an annual pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia) is clearly the best reported-probably because of its international or even intercontinental implications in terms of the spread of infectious disease. Hajj routinely attracts 2·5 million Muslims for worship. WHO's global health initiatives have converged with Saudi Arabia's efforts to ensure the wellbeing of pilgrims, contain infectious diseases, and reinforce global health security through the management of the Hajj. Both initiatives emphasise the importance of MG health policies guided by sound evidence and based on experience and the timeliness of calls for a new academic science-based specialty of MG medicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Variation in Emergency Department vs Internal Medicine Excess Charges in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Park, Angela; Bai, Ge; Joo, Sarah; Hutfless, Susan M.; Mehta, Ambar; Anderson, Gerard F.; Makary, Martin A.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Uninsured and insured but out-of-network emergency department (ED) patients are often billed hospital chargemaster prices, which exceed amounts typically paid by insurers. Objective To examine the variation in excess charges for services provided by emergency medicine and internal medicine physicians. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective analysis was conducted of professional fee payment claims made by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services for all services provided to Medicare Part B fee-for-service beneficiaries in calendar year 2013. Data analysis was conducted from January 1 to July 31, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures Markup ratios for ED and internal medicine professional services, defined as the charges submitted by the hospital divided by the Medicare allowable amount. Results Our analysis included 12 337 emergency medicine physicians from 2707 hospitals and 57 607 internal medicine physicians from 3669 hospitals in all 50 states. Services provided by emergency medicine physicians had an overall markup ratio of 4.4 (340% excess charges), which was greater than the markup ratio of 2.1 (110% excess charges) for all services performed by internal medicine physicians. Markup ratios for all ED services ranged by hospital from 1.0 to 12.6 (median, 4.2; interquartile range [IQR], 3.3-5.8); markup ratios for all internal medicine services ranged by hospital from 1.0 to 14.1 (median, 2.0; IQR, 1.7-2.5). The median markup ratio by hospital for ED evaluation and management procedure codes varied between 4.0 and 5.0. Among the most common ED services, laceration repair had the highest median markup ratio (7.0); emergency medicine physician review of a head computed tomographic scan had the greatest interhospital variation (range, 1.6-27.7). Across hospitals, markups in the ED were often substantially higher than those in the internal medicine department for the same services. Higher ED markup ratios were associated with hospital for

  3. Variation in Emergency Department vs Internal Medicine Excess Charges in the United States.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tim; Park, Angela; Bai, Ge; Joo, Sarah; Hutfless, Susan M; Mehta, Ambar; Anderson, Gerard F; Makary, Martin A

    2017-08-01

    Uninsured and insured but out-of-network emergency department (ED) patients are often billed hospital chargemaster prices, which exceed amounts typically paid by insurers. To examine the variation in excess charges for services provided by emergency medicine and internal medicine physicians. Retrospective analysis was conducted of professional fee payment claims made by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services for all services provided to Medicare Part B fee-for-service beneficiaries in calendar year 2013. Data analysis was conducted from January 1 to July 31, 2016. Markup ratios for ED and internal medicine professional services, defined as the charges submitted by the hospital divided by the Medicare allowable amount. Our analysis included 12 337 emergency medicine physicians from 2707 hospitals and 57 607 internal medicine physicians from 3669 hospitals in all 50 states. Services provided by emergency medicine physicians had an overall markup ratio of 4.4 (340% excess charges), which was greater than the markup ratio of 2.1 (110% excess charges) for all services performed by internal medicine physicians. Markup ratios for all ED services ranged by hospital from 1.0 to 12.6 (median, 4.2; interquartile range [IQR], 3.3-5.8); markup ratios for all internal medicine services ranged by hospital from 1.0 to 14.1 (median, 2.0; IQR, 1.7-2.5). The median markup ratio by hospital for ED evaluation and management procedure codes varied between 4.0 and 5.0. Among the most common ED services, laceration repair had the highest median markup ratio (7.0); emergency medicine physician review of a head computed tomographic scan had the greatest interhospital variation (range, 1.6-27.7). Across hospitals, markups in the ED were often substantially higher than those in the internal medicine department for the same services. Higher ED markup ratios were associated with hospital for-profit ownership (median, 5.7; IQR, 4.0-7.1), a greater percentage of uninsured patients seen

  4. Development of pediatric emergency medicine at Addis Ababa University/Tikuranbessa Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Muluwork; Bacha, Tigist; Butteris, Sabrina; Teshome, Getachew; Ross, Joshua; Hagen, Scott; Svenson, Jim; Busse, Heidi; Tefera, Girma

    2014-07-01

    In the world emergencies occur everywhere, and each day they consume ressources regardless of whether there are systems capable of achieving good outcomes. Low-income countries suffer the most highest rates of every category of injury--from traffic and the highest rates of acute complications of communicable diseases including tuberculosis, malaria and HIV. To describe the development of pediatrics emergency medicine at Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital A twinning partnership model was used in developing a pediatric emergency medicine training program helps in development of pediatrics emergency system. Strengthening the capacity of Addis Ababa University (AAU), Tikur Anbessa Hospital (TASH) to provide pediatric emergency medical services through improved organization of the pediatrics emergency department and strengthening of continuing education opportunities for faculty and staff capacity building by this improving quality of care in pediatrics patients in the country. The Addis Ababa University, University of Wiscosin and People to People partners intend to continue working together to strengthening and developing effetive systems to deliver quality pediatrics emergency medicine care troughout all regions of Ethiopia.

  5. Essentials of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Fellowship Part 7: Careers in PEM.

    PubMed

    Allen, Coburn H; Anders, Jennifer; Ishimine, Paul; Roskind, Cindy; Shook, Joan

    2016-11-01

    This article is the last in a 7-part series that aims to comprehensively describe the current state and future directions of pediatric emergency medicine fellowship training from the essential requirements to considerations for successfully administering and managing a program to the careers that may be anticipated on program completion. This article focuses on the many career paths as educators, researchers, advocates, innovators, consultants, administrators, and leaders available to pediatric emergency medicine physicians, in both clinical and nonclinical realms, and how fellows and junior faculty can enrich and prolong their careers through diversification.

  6. Point-of-Care Ultrasonography in Emergency and Critical Care Medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Leon; Malek, Tony

    To stabilize critically ill patients, emergency and critical care medicine providers often require rapid diagnosis and intervention. The demand for a safe, timely diagnostic device, alongside technological innovation, led to the advent of point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS). POCUS allows the provider to gain invaluable clinical information with a high level of accuracy, leading to better clinical decision-making and improvements in patient safety. We have outlined the history of POCUS adaptation in emergency and critical care medicine and various clinical applications of POCUS described in literature.

  7. A User’s Guide to the ALiEM Emergency Medicine Match Advice Web Series

    PubMed Central

    Gisondi, Michael A.; Fant, Abra; Shakeri, Nahzinine; Schnapp, Benjamin H.; Lin, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    ALiEM EM Match Advice is a web series hosted on the Academic Life in Emergency Medicine website. The intended audience includes senior medical students seeking a residency in emergency medicine (EM) and the faculty members who advise them. Each episode features a panel of three EM program directors who discuss a critical step in the residency application process. This article serves as a user’s guide to the series, including a timeline for viewing each episode, brief summaries of the panel discussions, and reflection questions for discussion between students and their faculty advisors. PMID:28611891

  8. A User's Guide to the ALiEM Emergency Medicine Match Advice Web Series.

    PubMed

    Gisondi, Michael A; Fant, Abra; Shakeri, Nahzinine; Schnapp, Benjamin H; Lin, Michelle

    2017-06-01

    ALiEM EM Match Advice is a web series hosted on the Academic Life in Emergency Medicine website. The intended audience includes senior medical students seeking a residency in emergency medicine (EM) and the faculty members who advise them. Each episode features a panel of three EM program directors who discuss a critical step in the residency application process. This article serves as a user's guide to the series, including a timeline for viewing each episode, brief summaries of the panel discussions, and reflection questions for discussion between students and their faculty advisors.

  9. Effect of Educational Debt on Emergency Medicine Residents: A Qualitative Study Using Individual Interviews.

    PubMed

    Young, Timothy P; Brown, Madison M; Reibling, Ellen T; Ghassemzadeh, Sassan; Gordon, Dawn M; Phan, Tammy H; Thomas, Tamara L; Brown, Lance

    2016-10-01

    In 2001, less than 20% of emergency medicine residents had more than $150,000 of educational debt. Our emergency medicine residents anecdotally reported much larger debt loads. Surveys have reported that debt affects career and life choices. Qualitative approaches are well suited to explore how and why such complex phenomena occur. We aim to gain a better understanding of how our emergency medicine residents experience debt. We conducted individual semistructured interviews with emergency medicine residents. We collected self-reported data related to educational debt and asked open-ended questions about debt influence on career choices, personal life, future plans, and financial decisions. We undertook a structured thematic analysis using a qualitative approach based in the grounded theory method. Median educational debt was $212,000. Six themes emerged from our analysis: (1) debt influenced career and life decisions by altering priorities; (2) residents experienced debt as a persistent source of background stress and felt powerless to change it; (3) residents made use of various techniques to negotiate debt in order to focus on day-to-day work; (4) personal debt philosophy, based on individual values and obtained from family, shaped how debt affected each individual; (5) debt had a normative effect and was acculturated in residency; and (6) residents reported a wide range of financial knowledge, but recognized its importance to career success. Our emergency medicine residents' debt experience is complex and involves multiple dimensions. Given our current understanding, simple solutions are unlikely to be effective in adequately addressing this issue. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cost-effectiveness Analysis Appraisal and Application: An Emergency Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    April, Michael D; Murray, Brian P

    2017-06-01

    Cost-effectiveness is an important goal for emergency care delivery. The many diagnostic, treatment, and disposition decisions made in the emergency department (ED) have a significant impact upon healthcare resource utilization. Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is an analytic tool to optimize these resource allocation decisions through the systematic comparison of costs and effects of alternative healthcare decisions. Yet few emergency medicine leaders and policymakers have any formal training in CEA methodology. This paper provides an introduction to the interpretation and use of CEA with a focus on application to emergency medicine problems and settings. It applies a previously published CEA to the hypothetical case of a patient presenting to the ED with chest pain who requires risk stratification. This paper uses a widely cited checklist to appraise the CEA. This checklist serves as a vehicle for presenting basic CEA terminology and concepts. General topics of focus include measurement of costs and outcomes, incremental analysis, and sensitivity analysis. Integrated throughout the paper are recommendations for good CEA practice with emphasis on the guidelines published by the U.S. Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Unique challenges for emergency medicine CEAs discussed include the projection of long-term outcomes from emergent interventions, costing ED services, and applying study results to diverse patient populations across various ED settings. The discussion also includes an overview of the limitations inherent in applying CEA results to clinical practice to include the lack of incorporation of noncost considerations in CEA (e.g., ethics). After reading this article, emergency medicine leaders and researchers will have an enhanced understanding of the basics of CEA critical appraisal and application. The paper concludes with an overview of economic evaluation resources for readers interested in conducting ED-based economic evaluation

  11. Trends in National Emergency Medicine Conference Didactic Lectures Over a 6-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Michael; Riddell, Jeff; Njie, Abdoulie

    2017-01-01

    National conference didactic lectures have traditionally featured hour-long lecture-based presentations. However, there is evidence that longer lectures can lead to both decreased attention and retention of information. The authors sought to identify trends in lecture duration, lecture types, and number of speakers at four national emergency medicine (EM) conferences over a 6-year period. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of the length, number of speakers, and format of didactic lectures at four different national EM conferences over 6 years. The authors abstracted data from the national academic assemblies for the four largest not-for-profit EM organizations in the United States: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. There was a significant yearly decrease in the mean lecture lengths for three of the four conferences. There was an increase in the percentage of rapid fire sessions over the preceding 2 years with a corresponding decrease in the percentage of general educational sessions. There was no significant difference in the mean number of speakers per lecture. An analysis of 4210 didactic lecture sessions from the annual meetings of four national EM organizations over a 6-year period showed significant decreases in mean lecture length. These findings can help to guide EM continuing medical education conference planning and research.

  12. Social media in the emergency medicine residency curriculum: social media responses to the residents' persp